WorldWideScience

Sample records for international borders

  1. Internal Border Controls in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Carsten Willemoes; Sørensen, Karsten Engsig

    2012-01-01

    Recent events, involving inter alia France and Denmark, have stimulated renewed interest in the introduction of different forms of border controls at the internal borders within the European Union. These border control measures are aimed at checking either persons or goods or both. Against...... the background of these events, this article analyses the existing rules regulating controls of persons and goods, and explores how these rules may or may not stand in the way of introducing border controls at the European Union’s internal borders. These events have resulted in a call for reforms of the current...

  2. Border Security: Barriers Along the U.S. International Border

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-16

    1980). 120 Mexican Government Press Release, “Crecimiento con Calidad: El Presidente Vicente Fox encabezará la cena de gala de la XI Cumbre Anual...and Roads at Various Project Areas Located in California, Arizona, New Mexico , and Texas...Diego Border Primary Fence The USBP’s San Diego sector extends along the first 66 miles from the Pacific Ocean of the international border with Mexico

  3. International taxation and cross-border banking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huizinga, H.P.; Voget, J.; Wagner, W.B.

    This paper examines empirically how international taxation affects the volume and pricing of cross-border banking activities for a sample of banks in 38 countries over the 1998�2008 period. International double taxation of foreign-source bank income is found to reduce banking-sector FDI.

  4. Border effects without borders: What divides Japan's internal trade?

    OpenAIRE

    Wrona, Jens

    2015-01-01

    Over the last 20 years the trade literature repeatedly documented the trade-reducing effects of inter- and intra-national borders. Thereby, the puzzling size and persistence of observed border effects from the beginning raised doubts on the role of underlying political borders. However, when observed border effects are not caused by political trade barriers, why should their spatial dimension then inevitably coincide with the geography of present or past political borders? This paper identifi...

  5. International Taxation and Cross-Border Banking

    OpenAIRE

    Huizinga, H.P.; Voget, J.; Wagner, W.B.

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines empirically how international taxation affects the volume and pricing of cross-border banking activities for a sample of banks in 38 countries over the 1998-2008 - period. Home country corporate income taxation of foreign-source bank income is found to reduce banking-sector FDI. Furthermore, such taxation is almost fully passed on into higher interest margins charged abroad. These results imply that international double taxation distorts the activities of international ban...

  6. International Taxation and Cross-Border Banking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huizinga, H.P.; Voget, J.; Wagner, W.B.

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines empirically how international taxation affects the volume and pricing of cross-border banking activities for a sample of banks in 38 countries over the 1998-2008 - period. Home country corporate income taxation of foreign-source bank income is found to reduce banking-sector FDI.

  7. International Border Management Systems (IBMS) Program : visions and strategies.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDaniel, Michael; Mohagheghi, Amir Hossein

    2011-02-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), International Border Management Systems (IBMS) Program is working to establish a long-term border security strategy with United States Central Command (CENTCOM). Efforts are being made to synthesize border security capabilities and technologies maintained at the Laboratories, and coordinate with subject matter expertise from both the New Mexico and California offices. The vision for SNL is to provide science and technology support for international projects and engagements on border security.

  8. Border Security: Barriers Along the U.S. International Border

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-10-30

    Congressional Research Service ˜ The Library of Congress CRS Report for Congress Received through the CRS Web Order Code RL33659 Border Security...Presidencia,” May 12, 2005. Translation by CRS. Available at [http://www.presidencia.gob.mx/actividades/crecimiento/?contenido=18195& pagina =31]. Last

  9. Introduction : Borders, Informality, International Trade and Customs

    OpenAIRE

    Cantens, Thomas; Ireland, Robert; Raballand, Gael

    2015-01-01

    Trading goods is an original human activity that precedes borders (Renfrew, 1969). With the rise of nation-states with demarcated political boundaries, trade that crosses borders became regulated by government institutions such as Customs, with tariffs, quotas, or outright prohibitions. While borders are perhaps not quite “the dead, the fixed, the undialectical, the immobile” (Foucault, 1970, p. 70), they are a formal structure that places less flexibility on trade activities. Focusing on inf...

  10. A model for international border management systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duggan, Ruth Ann

    2008-09-01

    To effectively manage the security or control of its borders, a country must understand its border management activities as a system. Using its systems engineering and security foundations as a Department of Energy National Security Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratories has developed such an approach to modeling and analyzing border management systems. This paper describes the basic model and its elements developed under Laboratory Directed Research and Development project 08-684.

  11. Contributions for studies’ epistemology regarding international borders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eusebio Medina García

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose an interpretative model to be used from an interdisciplinary perspective when undertaking international border studies. Inspired by the theory of social dynamic fields (Sztompka, 1995, this model is articulated in four basic dimensions: ideational, normative, materialist and agentive. The model is both dynamic and interactive; it presupposes the existence of multiple and complex relationships among the four field dimensions, as well as a certain degree of autonomy in each one. The model is also governed by two fundamental vectors: space and time. The spatial dimension refers to the physical and material base, as well as the territorial, and to other aspects such as the psychological apprehension of space and of imaginary space. It its temporal, or historical, dimension, we consider the model to be in constant evolution, on an oneness basis, to the extent that it can be studied as a social fact. We stress the need to construct an eclectic methodology in order to reach a balanced conjunction among various aspects: the tangible and intangible, quantitative and qualitative, interpretive and comprehensive singular and shared, functional and rational-critical.

  12. The asymmetry of tourist images for the international cross border ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The asymmetry of tourist images for the international cross border three- ... of images promotion strategy, which is called “positioning” in Marketing. ... Keywords: tourism, tourist brand, Chita region, Mongolia, tourist and recreational activities ...

  13. Rethinking Borders in Japan: Internal, Cultural, and Geopolitical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingyu Oh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Christopher Bondy. Voice, Silence, and Self: Negotiations of Buraku Identity in Contemporary Japan. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Asia Center, 2015. 184 pp. $40 (cloth. Koichi Iwabuchi. Resilient Borders and Cultural Diversity. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2015. 137 pp. $75 (cloth/e-book. Akihiro Iwashita. Japan’s Border Issues: Pitfalls and Prospects. New York: Routledge, 2016. 144 pp. $160 (cloth. The books reviewed here address three different borders in present-day Japanese society: internal, cultural, and geopolitical. It is rare for three different authors to concurrently publish monographs on Japanese borders from three different angles. This may be a sign of increasing consciousness within Japan on the issues of diversity, multiethnicity, old and new forms of discrimination, and continuing border conflicts with neighboring countries...

  14. The resurgence of cultural borders in international finance during the financial crisis: Evidence from Eurozone cross-border depositing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleimeier, S.; Sander, H.; Heuchemer, S.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate that cultural borders in international finance resurge during financial crises. To investigate the role of cultural borders during both tranquil and crisis periods, we employ a unique data set that focuses on Eurozone cross-border depositing in a gravity-model

  15. International Entrepreneurship: Value Creation Across National Borders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.J.A. Hessels (Jolanda)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThis book investigates antecedents and outcomes of international entrepreneurship. International entrepreneurship as a field of research involves both research into entrepreneurship in multiple countries (cross-country comparisons of the nature and extent of entrepreneurial activity) and

  16. Who’s Who at the Border? A rights-based approach to identifying human trafficking at international borders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marika McAdam

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available International borders are widely touted as bastions in the fight against trafficking in persons. This article acknowledges the important role border officials play in preventing human trafficking, but calls for expectations to be tempered by deference to the conceptual complexity of cross-border trafficking and the migration processes involved. The fact that many trafficked victims begin their journeys as irregular or smuggled migrants highlights the challenge posed to border officials in identifying trafficked persons among the people they encounter. Indicators of trafficking generally relate to the exploitation phase, leaving border officials with little guidance as to how persons vulnerable to trafficking can be accurately identified before any exploitation has occurred. Ultimately, this paper advocates a pragmatic rights-based approach in designating anti-trafficking functions to border officials. A rights-based approach to border control acknowledges the core work of border officials as being to uphold border integrity, while ensuring that their performance of this role does not jeopardise the rights of those they intercept nor result in missed opportunities for specialists to identify trafficked persons and other vulnerable people among them.

  17. ITRAP - an international pilot study on border monitoring systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, P.; Duftschmid, K.E.

    1999-01-01

    The paper describes the design and preliminary results of an extended pilot study of commercially available monitoring systems for the detection of nuclear and other radioactive materials at borders. The study consists of a laboratory test phase and field tests at the Austrian/Hungarian border and the Vienna airport, each for a duration of one year. The results will be used to derive realistic performance requirements for border control systems in view of optimized technical and economic conditions as well as to propose an 'investigation level'. The ITRAP study consists of three phases. In the first phase equipment currently available on the market is subjected to laboratory testing at the Austrian Research Centres Seibersdorf. The instrument categories include hand-held, portable, and fixed-installed equipment. The test criteria defined as minimum requirements have been established together with the manufacturers. The laboratory tests started in May 1998 and will last until end of this year. During the second phase, the field study, equipment passing the laboratory tests will be installed at a major Austrian-Hungarian border crossing (Nickelsdorf) for monitoring of cars, trucks and trains, as well as at the Vienna airport for pedestrians, luggage and cargo. In this phase the results gained from the lab tests about the 'fitness for use' will be verified in practice, in close co-operation with the law enforcement officers at the borders. Also training issues and questions of maintenance and support shall be evaluated. In the third phase, realistic specifications and performance requirements shall be derived with the help of international experts and selected specialists from the users and manufacturers. The results of the field study will focus not only on the technical aspects of monitoring equipment (e.g. detection threshold and rate of false alarms) but also on the operational (e.g. ease of use, reliability, training requirements, field support) and economic

  18. International Issues, High-Stakes Testing, and Border Pedagogy: Social Studies at Border High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cashman, Timothy G.; McDermott, Benjamin R.

    2013-01-01

    A recently constructed border wall stands within walking distance of Border High School (BHS) and was created to impede the flow of people, goods, fauna, and contraband from Mexico into the United States (U.S.). The reality, however, is that this geopolitical border is fluid, allowing connections between sociopolitical zones. The researchers…

  19. The Enemy at the Gates: International Borders, Migration and Human Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pia Oberoi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This article considers contemporary border management regimes from a human rights perspective. It demonstrates how a preoccupation with border controls and enforcement has led to serious concerns for the safety and protection of migrants. As border zones have expanded, border crossing has become a more stigmatized and dangerous activity, and even as globalization has given rise to easier and faster international travel, for some, such movement has been outlawed and stigmatized. Measures to strengthen and “secure” borders have paradoxically made migrants, particularly irregular and vulnerable migrants, more at risk of violence and exploitation by non-State and State actors. Migration governance regimes at international borders are thus increasingly located within security and enforcement frameworks that pay little attention to the principles and standards of international human rights law. The paper argues that a human rights-based approach to such regimes is urgently needed, in order to address a growing human rights crisis at international borders.

  20. Measuring cross-border travel times for freight : Otay Mesa international border crossing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    Cross border movement of people and goods is a vital part of the North American economy. Accurate real-time data on travel times along the US-Mexico border can help generate a range of tangible benefits covering improved operations and security, lowe...

  1. Application of uti possidetis juris principle in the process of determination of international borders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tubić Bojan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Uti possidetis juris principle was basic rule in determining international borders in the period of decolonization. It was applied in Latin America and Africa, but also at the end of 20th century in the processes of dissolution of USSR, SFRY and Czechoslovakia. Uti possidetis juris principle is based on the presumption that former colonial administrative borders kept stability and territorial integrity. It was undoubtedly connected with the right of self-determination. It keeps the existing borders by preventing secession, but in that way it does not solve the problem of badly determined and disputed borders. The unclear foundations on which the borders were determined can be a source of chaos and indisputes, which was shown n some cases before the International Court of Justice. The dominant theory is that uti possidetis juris principle should be applied with certain limitations, in the period after decolonization as a basis for preserving the territorial integrity of postcolonial states.

  2. Conjoining international marketing and relationship marketing: Exploring consumers' cross-border service relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijssen, E.J.; van Herk, H.

    2009-01-01

    Research on international marketing constructs, such as consumer ethnocentrism and country-of-origin effects, typically focuses on consumers' initial evaluations of foreign products but ignores consumers' emerging cross-border exchange relationships with foreign service providers. The influence of

  3. Conjoining international marketing and relationship marketing : exploring consumers' cross-border service relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijssen, E.J.; Herk, van H.

    2009-01-01

    Research on international marketing constructs, such as consumer ethnocentrism and country-of-origin effects, typically focuses on consumers' initial evaluations of foreign products but ignores consumers' emerging cross-border exchange relationships with foreign service providers. The influence of

  4. Women Moving Within Borders: Gender and Internal Migration ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Internal migration is an inherent part of the processes of development and structural transformation in any region. In Africa, while the focus is often on international migration, internal migration is far more significant for development in terms of the numbers of people moving and their poverty reduction potential and well-being ...

  5. Development of roads in the area of the international border crossing Vrtojba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alojzij Juvanec

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The Republic of Slovenia is part of the European Union. With the abolishment of borders (free flow of goods also the traffic functions in the areas of international border crossings between member countries are changing. Among such border crossings is also the international border crossing (IBC between the Republic of Italy and the Republic of Slovenia in Vrtojba. The bordering communities of Šempeter-Vrtojba and Gorizia (Italy are therefore already preparing a development plan related to the use of space to ensure traffic access to the wider area of this border crossing ,when the “Schengen border” is abolished (free flow of people. Especially important is adequate design of roads that should allow this space to be uniformly and equally included into the road systems of both neighbouring countries. Owing to this change, the existing “communal” road, which today leads to the border crossing, will attain the status of the expressway Ljubljana–Venice via Gorizia, which means that high travelling speeds and changed regime of connecting roads can be expected. The existing arrangement has too many individual connections, and there is the possibility of turning or even parking (in Italy. The paper presents solutions or proposals for a systematic rearrangement of the present road through the IBC to the motorway and the principle of connecting the road networks of both neighbouring communities to it. Presented are also proposals how to rearrange or complete the existing local road networks and the railway infrastructure (arrangement of an intermodal terminal, and the traffic regime on roads to achieve as efficient use of space as possible at the present IBC Vrtojba with the least possible burden to the space.

  6. Rush to the border? Market liberalization and urban- and rural-origin internal migration in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarreal, Andrés; Hamilton, Erin R

    2012-09-01

    In this study we examine the social and economic factors driving internal migration flows in Mexico. We pay particular attention to the effect that economic liberalization has had in encouraging migration to border cities. Our analysis of the origin and destination of migrants is carried out at a finer level of geographical detail than ever before. Microdata files from the 2000 population census allow us to distinguish urban- and rural-origin migrants to the largest 115 cities and metropolitan areas in the country. Our results indicate that economic liberalization, measured by the level of foreign investment and employment in the maquiladora export industry, strongly influences migrants' choice of destinations. However, economic liberalization fails to fully account for the attraction of the border, as do the higher emigration rates to the United States from border cities. Our analysis also reveals that migrants to the border region and to cities with high levels of foreign investment are younger, less educated and more likely to be men than migrants to other parts of Mexico. Rural migrants are significantly more likely to move to the border and to cities with high levels of foreign investment than urban migrants. The results of our study have important implication for other countries opening their economies to foreign investment and international trade. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Who bears the burden of international taxation? Evidence from cross-border M&As

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huizinga, H.P.; Voget, J.; Wagner, W.B.

    2012-01-01

    Cross-border M&As can trigger additional taxation of the target's income in the form of non-resident dividend withholding taxes and acquirer-country corporate income taxation. This paper finds that this additional international taxation is fully capitalized into lower takeover premiums. In contrast,

  8. Postglobal Teacher Preparation: Border Thinking along the Global South through International Cross-Cultural Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahatzad, Jubin; Sasser, Hannah L.; Phillion, JoAnn; Karimi, Nastaran; Deng, Yuwen; Akiyama, Reiko; Sharma, Suniti

    2013-01-01

    Preservice teachers' international cross-cultural experiences can provide opportunities for the exploration of epistemic frontiers. In this article we suggest that postglobal teacher preparation take a critically reflective approach that engages preservice teachers in border thinking, which allows for other ways of knowing while studying abroad.…

  9. Cross-Border Partnerships in Higher Education: Strategies and Issues. International Studies in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Robin, Ed.; Chapman, David, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    "Cross-border Partnerships in Higher Education" looks beyond student and faculty exchanges to examine the myriad ways international colleges and universities work together as institutions. These partnerships have involved the creation of branch campuses, joint research and technology initiatives, collaboration in strengthening…

  10. Beyond the Borders: Principles of International Public Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowther, Connie

    1994-01-01

    Advice on international public relations for colleges and universities includes focusing efforts on one country or region at a time; researching the market and media outlets; involving faculty and administrators; using the local language; careful budgeting; providing photographs and copy; focusing story ideas; considering politics; and considering…

  11. Crossing Cultures and Borders in International Online Distance Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadykova, Gulnara; Dautermann, Jennie

    2009-01-01

    The growing demand for higher education worldwide, along with global expansion of telecommunication technologies, give online distance education a potential world-wide reach for institutions in many countries. Given the persistent international digital divide and the potential for the host institutions and languages to be those of wealthy,…

  12. Intelligent transportation systems at international borders : a cross-cutting study : facilitating trade and enhancing transportation safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-04-01

    The International Border Clearance (IBC) program was initiated under the provisions of the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act (ISTEA) of 1991. The program was originally conceived as a means to test the feasibility of utilizing Intellig...

  13. Airport Casualties: Non-Admission and Return Risks at Times of Internalized/Externalized Border Controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maybritt Jill Alpes

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes what can happen to forced returnees upon arrival in their country of nationality. Subjective configurations of state agents in the Global South have created return risks, which in turn transform subjectivities of post-colonial citizens. The article contributes to this Special Issue by tracing repercussions of the externalization and internalization of border controls. In the case of Cameroon, these connections have resulted in the criminalization of emigration. Aspiring migrants are prosecuted if their departure projects fail to respect the entry requirements of countries in the Global North. The article is based on research conducted in Douala, Cameroon, in the form of discussions with control agents at the international airport, investigations at a prison, a review of related case law, police registers and interviews with Cameroonians returnees (November 2013–January 2014. Border controls and connected anti-fraud programs suppress family-based forms of solidarity and allow only for subjectivities rooted in state-managed forms of national identity. The article illustrates how efforts to combat fraud fuel corruption in returnees’ social networks, whereby, instead of receiving remittances, families in emigration countries have to mobilize financial resources in order to liberate returnees from police stations or prison complexes. Migration related detention of nationals in the Global South highlights the growing significance of exit controls in migration management.

  14. The Right to Self-Defence in International Law as a Justification for Crossing Borders: The Turkey-PKK Case within the Borders of Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebaz Khdir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available International law grants states an inherent right to self-defence. States can exercise this right whenever they face armed attack. However, any country wishing to exercise its right to self-defence must fully consider all the restrictions on this right. The right to self-defence can permit the use of force within the borders of the victim state or on the territory of another state from where the attack is carried out. Accordingly, states may respond to any attack by the armed forces of another state or irregular armed groups that use the territory of other states for their attacks. Turkey is a country with a huge population of Kurdish inhabitants. The Kurds possess distinct origins, history, language, culture and a historical link to their land. Thus, they qualify as a people. For much of their history they have peacefully sought to assert their rights; however, Turkey denied those rights to the extent that the formation of the PKK in 1978 became amove of last resort. When the PKK started demanding Kurdish right to self-determination, Turkey launched military operations against it in self-defence. During the 1980s and 1990s, the PKK established camps in Iraq. On several occasions it withdrew its forces there as part of peace negotiations with the Turkish government. Turkey crossed the Iraqi borders and attacked the camps as part of a state policy to fight the PKK outside its borders. The PKK subsequently handed over the camps to other groups, which never posed any military threat to Turkey, but Turkish forces continued to cross the border into Iraq. This article examines the right of Turkey to use force within the borders of Iraq under the justification of self-defence.

  15. Washington state--British Columbia international mobility and trade corridor (IMTC) : ITS-CVO border crossing deployment, evaluation draft report : executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-10-01

    The Washington state-British Columbia international mobility and trade corridor (IMTC) ITS-CVO Border Crossing Deployment is allowing for the completion of a bi-national freight border crossing ITS system at the border, and is a follow-on effort t...

  16. The International Diversification of Banks and the Value of their Cross-Border M&A Advice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, A.; Ongena, S.; van der Poel, M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the effects of international diversification of banks on the value of their M&A advice. We study bidder returns to 1,253 cross-border M&A announcements. We find that acquirers engaging a more internationally diversified financial advisor generate lower excess returns.

  17. Potential of border tax adjustments to deter free riding in international climate agreements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burcu Irfanoglu, Zeynep; Sesmero, Juan P.; Golub, Alla

    2015-02-01

    The objective of this study is to conduct assessment of the hypothesis that trade sanctions in the form of border tax adjustments (BTAs) used by the United States against China, constitute a viable enforcement mechanism to sustain compliance with a range of emissions taxes in the context of agreements to curb global emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs). The performance of BTAs is then compared with those of punitive tariffs on the basis of the range of emission taxes that can be successfully enforced by their implementation. Results show that BTAs are a viable enforcement mechanism for international GHG mitigation agreements. However the maximum level of carbon tax that can be enforced varies dramatically with (1) the marginal damage of pollution perceived by Chinese authorities, and (2) the legal limitations that GATT rules may impose on BTAs. Finally, while BTAs seem a promising enforcement mechanism in the context of climate agreements, punitive tariffs seem to be capable of supporting a much stricter environmental target.

  18. Working for Change across International Borders: The Association of Headmistresses and Education for International Citizenship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Joyce

    2007-01-01

    This article contributes to the retrieval of the "lost history" of interwar internationalism that is increasingly receiving attention from historians of education. It traces the involvement of the English Association of Headmistresses (AHM) in a range of organizations that networked women educationists with women's organizations, with…

  19. ITRAP - International laboratory and field test site exercise for radiation detection instruments and monitoring systems at border crossings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, P.; Schmitzer, C.; Duftschmid, K.E.; Arlt, R.

    2001-01-01

    Illicit trafficking in nuclear materials has become more and more a problem, due to the circulation of a high number of radioactive sources and the big amount of nuclear material. The IAEA database counts at present more than 300 verified cases. The endangering cased thereby ranges from possible health defect for the publication to terrorists activities and production of nuclear weapons. In addition to the primary criminal reasons the illegal disposal of radioactive sources as salvage, scrap and others show a further problem, which has lead to severe accidents and lethal effects in the past (e.g. Goiana, Mexico). Some countries have already under taken countermeasures (e.g. Monitoring at the Finnish-Russian and German- Polish border, border monitoring in Italy). The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has reacted on this actual problem by setting up a new program to fight against nuclear criminality and has suggested a pilot study for the practical test of border monitoring systems. Co-ordinated by the Federal Ministry of Economy and Labour the Austrian Government financed the pilot study ITRAP (Illicit Trafficking Radiation Detection Assessment Program) carried out by the Austrian Research Centers Seibersdorf (ARCS). Aim of the study was to work out the technical requirements and the practicability of an useful monitoring system at border crossings. The results of the study will be offered by the IAEA to the member states as international recommendations for border monitoring systems

  20. Influenza A H5N1 immigration is filtered out at some international borders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert G Wallace

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Geographic spread of highly pathogenic influenza A H5N1, the bird flu strain, appears a necessary condition for accelerating the evolution of a related human-to-human infection. As H5N1 spreads the virus diversifies in response to the variety of socioecological environments encountered, increasing the chance a human infection emerges. Genetic phylogenies have for the most part provided only qualitative evidence that localities differ in H5N1 diversity. For the first time H5N1 variation is quantified across geographic space.We constructed a statistical phylogeography of 481 H5N1 hemagglutinin genetic sequences from samples collected across 28 Eurasian and African localities through 2006. The MigraPhyla protocol showed southern China was a source of multiple H5N1 strains. Nested clade analysis indicated H5N1 was widely dispersed across southern China by both limited dispersal and long distance colonization. The UniFrac metric, a measure of shared phylogenetic history, grouped H5N1 from Indonesia, Japan, Thailand and Vietnam with those from southeastern Chinese provinces engaged in intensive international trade. Finally, H5N1's accumulative phylogenetic diversity was greatest in southern China and declined beyond. The gradient was interrupted by areas of greater and lesser phylogenetic dispersion, indicating H5N1 migration was restricted at some geopolitical borders. Thailand and Vietnam, just south of China, showed significant phylogenetic clustering, suggesting newly invasive H5N1 strains have been repeatedly filtered out at their northern borders even as both countries suffered recurring outbreaks of endemic strains. In contrast, Japan, while successful in controlling outbreaks, has been subjected to multiple introductions of the virus.The analysis demonstrates phylogenies can provide local health officials with more than hypotheses about relatedness. Pathogen dispersal, the functional relationships among disease ecologies across localities, and

  1. 76 FR 66872 - International Services Surveys: Amendments to the BE-150, Quarterly Survey of Cross-Border Credit...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-28

    ... Economic Analysis (BEA), U.S. Department of Commerce, would conduct the survey under the International... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Bureau of Economic Analysis 15 CFR Part 801 [Docket No. 110817508-1529-01...-Border Credit, Debit, and Charge Card Transactions AGENCY: Bureau of Economic Analysis, Commerce. ACTION...

  2. Border installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenaerts, Koen

    1988-01-01

    Border installations cover all nuclear plants located near the border with a neighbouring state. However, the actual distance depends on the context. The distance can vary considerably. Also the prohibition on siting near a heavily populated area also defines the actual distance variably. The distance criteria may be modified by other factors of topography, prevailing climate and so on. Various examples which illustrate the problems are given. For example, the Creys-Melville nuclear power plant is 80km from Geneva and the Cattonam installation is 12km from the French border with Luxembourg and Germany. The Cattenom case is explained and the legal position within the European Institutions is discussed. The French licensing procedures for nuclear power stations are described with special reference to the Cattenom power plant. Border installations are discussed in the context of European Community Law and Public International Law. (U.K.)

  3. Border Crossings, US-Mexico Border, 2010, NAVTEQ

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — NAVTEQ Border Crossings for Region 9. The Border Crossing layer contains all international border crossings for all motorway crossings, as well as other important...

  4. Border Crossing Points, US-Mexico Border, 2015, NAVTEQ

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — NAVTEQ Border Crossings for the United States. The Border Crossing layer contains all international border crossings for all motorway crossings, as well as other...

  5. Participatory Imaging Mapping of Cultural Heritage Across Internal Borders Stolac, Bosnia and Herzegovina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadzic, L.; Dzino-Suta, A.; Eppich, R.; Vezic, A.; Izkara Martinez, J. L.

    2015-08-01

    During the war in Bosnia and Herzegovina (1992-1995) cultural heritage was explicitly targeted and the state of destruction was extensive to both sacral and secular monuments. Two decades after the end of hostilities the perception of the historic environment is still defined from the angles of national, religious or ethnic belonging. Enabling recognition, reconciliation, tolerance and respect within the community of Stolac, Bosnia & Herzegovina through a better understanding and sharing of cultural heritage was the focus of this project. Stolac is representative of the problems in the region and stands out for its particularly sharp divisions. Until recently there was segregation with local schools and their curriculum was divided with cultural heritage generally not addressed. How can this small community engage with heritage and develop a dialogue that encourages tolerance, respect and as a base for development? How does one understand, then document areas significance to the community? Finally, how can technology assist? The focus of this paper is to relate the experiences and findings of a project that incorporated participatory imaging mapping and the use of technology to bridge between the internal borders of this small community. It will outline a methodology, experiences of the participants and results from their exercises in order to assist other communities facing similar issues.

  6. Potential of border tax adjustments to deter free riding in international climate agreements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irfanoglu, Zeynep Burcu; Golub, Alla; Sesmero, Juan P

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study is to conduct assessment of the hypothesis that trade sanctions in the form of border tax adjustments (BTAs) used by the United States against China, constitute a viable enforcement mechanism to sustain compliance with a range of emissions taxes in the context of agreements to curb global emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs). The performance of BTAs is then compared with those of punitive tariffs on the basis of the range of emission taxes that can be successfully enforced by their implementation. Results show that BTAs are a viable enforcement mechanism for international GHG mitigation agreements. However the maximum level of carbon tax that can be enforced varies dramatically with (1) the marginal damage of pollution perceived by Chinese authorities, and (2) the legal limitations that GATT rules may impose on BTAs. Finally, while BTAs seem a promising enforcement mechanism in the context of climate agreements, punitive tariffs seem to be capable of supporting a much stricter environmental target. (letter)

  7. The Internal Frontier: How Art at Once Problematizes Borders and Draws us Closer to Them

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasia Ozga

    2017-11-01

    In the artworks, migration is transformed from an isolated act to a shared human experience. The images, at once precise and indeterminate, maintain the dual symbolism of the border as barrier and as springboard, simultaneously inhibiting and enabling interactions between individuals and select geographic locations. Just as migrants lead us to re-evaluate our physical and mental borders, critical cultural production can contest the impact and staying power of borders by underscoring how establishing and overriding boundaries enable us to claim and reclaim who we are.

  8. Commercial border crossing and wait time measurement at the Pharr-Reynosa International Bridge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    The objective of the research described in this report is to install and implement radio frequency : identification (RFID) technology to measure border crossing time and travel delay for : commercial trucks crossing from Mexico into Texas at the Phar...

  9. The Effect of Cross-Border E-Commerce on China’s International Trade: An Empirical Study Based on Transaction Cost Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Wang (Avery. W), Yu; Wang, Yi; Lee, Soo Hee

    2017-01-01

    Reducing transaction costs by means of policy intervention could generate comparative advantages and contribute to the growth of international trade. Chinese government agencies have introduced a number of policies in support of rapidly growing cross-border e-commerce to promote China’s international trade. However, the previous literature has not empirically verified the precise effect of these policies on the growth of international trade while focusing on the impact of cross-border e-comme...

  10. Cross-border teleradiology-Experience from two international teleradiology projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, Peeter; Sepper, Ruth; Pohjonen, Hanna

    2010-01-01

    Teleradiology aims to even radiologists' workload, ensure on-call services, reduce waiting lists, consult other specialists and cut costs. Cross-border teleradiology widens this scope beyond the country borders. However, the new service should not reduce the quality of radiology. Quality and trust are key factors in establishment of teleradiology. Additionally there are organizational, technical, legal, security and linguistic issues influencing the service. Herein, we have used experiences from two partially European Union funded telemedicine projects to evaluate factors affecting cross-border teleradiology. Clinical partners from Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Lithuania and the Netherlands went through 649 radiology test cases in two different teleradiology projects to build trust and agree about the report structure. Technical set-up was established using secure Internet data transfer, streaming technology, integration of workflows and creating structured reporting tool to overcome language barriers. The biggest barrier to overcome in cross-border teleradiology was the language issue. Establishment of the service was technically and semantically successful but limited to knee and hip X-ray examinations only because the structured reporting tool did not cover any other anatomical regions yet. Special attention has to be paid to clinical quality and trust between partners in cross-border teleradiology. Our experience shows that it is achievable. Legal, security and financial aspects are not covered in this paper because today they differ country by country. There is however an European Union level harmonization process started to enable cross-border eHealth in general.

  11. Cross-border teleradiology-Experience from two international teleradiology projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, Peeter [Institute of Clinical Medicine, Tallinn University of Technology, East Tallinn Central Hospital, Paernu mnt 104, 11312 Tallinn (Estonia)], E-mail: Peeter.Ross@itk.ee; Sepper, Ruth [Institute of Clinical Medicine, Tallinn University of Technology, Akadeemia tee 15, 12618 Tallinn (Estonia)], E-mail: Ruth.Sepper@gmail.com; Pohjonen, Hanna [Institute of Clinical Medicine, Tallinn University of Technology, Akadeemia tee 15, 12618 Tallinn (Estonia)], E-mail: Hanna.Pohjonen@rosalieco.fi

    2010-01-15

    Teleradiology aims to even radiologists' workload, ensure on-call services, reduce waiting lists, consult other specialists and cut costs. Cross-border teleradiology widens this scope beyond the country borders. However, the new service should not reduce the quality of radiology. Quality and trust are key factors in establishment of teleradiology. Additionally there are organizational, technical, legal, security and linguistic issues influencing the service. Herein, we have used experiences from two partially European Union funded telemedicine projects to evaluate factors affecting cross-border teleradiology. Clinical partners from Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Lithuania and the Netherlands went through 649 radiology test cases in two different teleradiology projects to build trust and agree about the report structure. Technical set-up was established using secure Internet data transfer, streaming technology, integration of workflows and creating structured reporting tool to overcome language barriers. The biggest barrier to overcome in cross-border teleradiology was the language issue. Establishment of the service was technically and semantically successful but limited to knee and hip X-ray examinations only because the structured reporting tool did not cover any other anatomical regions yet. Special attention has to be paid to clinical quality and trust between partners in cross-border teleradiology. Our experience shows that it is achievable. Legal, security and financial aspects are not covered in this paper because today they differ country by country. There is however an European Union level harmonization process started to enable cross-border eHealth in general.

  12. Cross-border data exchange - a case study on international collaboration gone wrong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanko-Hombach, Valentina

    2016-04-01

    The subject of ethics in science has become a hot topic recently (Gleick, 2011). As publication pressure on researchers increases and use of the internet allows faster turn-around, the quality of the peer review process has suffered. This presentation describes one case of scientific ethics violation in which the editors of a high-ranking scientific journal improperly permitted publication of a paper that was based upon unethical acquisition of data and failed to acknowledge scientific collaboration and exchange of intellectual property. We will present "Case description" and "Ethical issues" with a hope that our experience draws attention to important ethical issues in international collaborative research, and prevents such misconduct in the future. Since international research involves cooperation and coordination among many people in different disciplines and institutions across national borders, ethical standards should promote values that are essential to integrity and collaborative work, including trust, accountability, mutual respect, and fairness. One lesson to be learned is not to engage in collaboration without a written agreement stating clearly who is responsible for what and how the results of collaborative research are to be shared. This is especially important in cases of international collaborations, particularly those involving smaller or developing nations who often do not have the high-tech facilities of developed nations. There is also need to establish clear regulations regarding co-authorship on papers in which intellectual property and significant financial investment was made to allow the research to proceed. As such, a system of ethics to guide the practice of science from data collection to publication and beyond is timely and much needed to protect the integrity of scientific collaboration. It will keep science moving forward by validating research findings and confirming or raising questions about results. References Benos, D. J., Fabres

  13. Fronteras 1976. San Diego/Tijuana--The International Border in Community Relations: Gateway or Barrier?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skagen, Kiki, Ed.

    Nine papers comprise the proceedings from the conference on cultural interdependence between the border regions of San Diego, California, and Tijuana, Mexico. The papers discuss the following: (1) insurgence of the Southwest's Spanish-speaking minority since 1960; (2) opportunities for cooperation between the United States and Mexican governments;…

  14. International cross-border migration in the South-East Baltic: factors, structure, consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yemelyanova Larisa

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of an integrated research encompassing both the study of migration processes in the South-East Baltic (volume, structure, directions and the analysis of factors affecting migration mobility of the population as well as the assessment of migration influence on the socioeconomic development of three border territories.

  15. Federal Administrative Court, judgement of December 17, 1986 (nuclear power station at international border)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    In its decision of December 17, 1986, the Federal Administrative Court accepted the right of action of Dutch borderers against an atomic licence for a German nuclear power plant. The necessary involvement according to sec. 42 Paragraph 2 of the Administrative Court Procedure Act results from the violation of the third party protection provision in sec. 7 Atomic Energy Act. (WG) [de

  16. Cross-Border Patent Disputes: Unified Patent Court or International Commercial Arbitration?

    OpenAIRE

    Alba Betancourt, Ana

    2016-01-01

    Currently, the enforcement of a patent that is registered in several countries involves the risk of getting different and conflicting decisions from the national courts. In 2013, 25 European countries entered in an agreement that aims to homogenise the patent system by creating the European patent with unitary effect and a Unified Patent Court (UPC). This article focuses on the UPC, which aims to have a single court proceeding for cross-border patent conflicts. Does the UPC system represent a...

  17. Carbon-related border tax adjustment: mitigating climate change or restricting international trade?

    OpenAIRE

    Kaufmann, Christine; Weber, Rolf H

    2011-01-01

    Border tax adjustments in the form of carbon taxes on products from countries with lax environmental production standards or in the form of a required participation in an emissions allowances' trading system have become a heavily debated issue under WTO law. Such an adjustment might be permissible if energy taxes as indirect taxes are applied on inputs during the production process. Compliance with the Most Favoured Nation principle has less practical importance than the not-yet settled liken...

  18. Cross-Border Patent Disputes: Unified Patent Court or International Commercial Arbitration?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Alba Betancourt

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the enforcement of a patent that is registered in several countries involves the risk of getting different and conflicting decisions from the national courts. In 2013, 25 European countries entered in an agreement that aims to homogenise the patent system by creating the European patent with unitary effect and a Unified Patent Court (UPC. This article focuses on the UPC, which aims to have a single court proceeding for cross-border patent conflicts. Does the UPC system represent an advantage compared to the current litigation system? The paper argues that it does and explores what it considers to be the two main advantages of a UPC over the current system of cross-border litigation of patents: the ability to drag several conflicts to a single procedure and the neutrality of the decision makers. These advantages are consequently compared to the characteristics of arbitration. Then, an explanation is provided with regards to how the UPC system is going to work in terms of jurisdiction, preliminary injunctions, the choice of law and enforcement of decisions, comparing those same procedural aspects to arbitration. The article finds that arbitration involves many of the same advantages (as compared to the UPC and that the procedural issues studied in both means are, so too, similar. Therefore, arbitration represents a viable alternative to the UPC when it comes to reducing the risks in solving cross-border patent conflicts.

  19. The Effect of Cross-Border E-Commerce on China’s International Trade: An Empirical Study Based on Transaction Cost Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Wang (Avery. W

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Reducing transaction costs by means of policy intervention could generate comparative advantages and contribute to the growth of international trade. Chinese government agencies have introduced a number of policies in support of rapidly growing cross-border e-commerce to promote China’s international trade. However, the previous literature has not empirically verified the precise effect of these policies on the growth of international trade while focusing on the impact of cross-border e-commerce on trade distance and consumer welfare. To address this gap, this paper investigates the impact of cross-border e-commerce on international trade in the context of China, mainly from the perspective of transaction cost economics in conjunction with the traditional comparative advantage model by analyzing information cost, negotiation cost, transportation cost, tariffs and middlemen cost separately. Firstly, the new theoretical model suggests that cross-border e-commerce may have a positive role in promoting international trade only when the negative impact caused by tariff cost and transportation cost is offset. Secondly, our result shows that cross-border e-commerce has a positive effect on the growth of China’s international trade in each year. However, the positive effect does not show incremental growth over time, possibly as a result of the weak implementation of favorable policies in trade, in addition to global trade shrinking.

  20. Transcarpathia - Ukrainian border region at the edge of the EU. Internal and external representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, P.

    2013-11-01

    Starting from 1918, multiethnic Transcarpathia changed after centuries of being an integrated part of Hungary frequently its political affiliation and is since 2004 a Ukrainian border region to the European Union. Three of the four European Union neighbour countries belong since 21.12.2007 to the Schengen zone (Poland, Slovakia, Hungary), only the southern neighbour Romania is for the time being not yet a Schengen country. After a phase of relatively open borders and relatively intensive neighbourhood relations in the first transformation years, by the Schengen regime the situation for Transcarpathia changed again. The current situation, possibly still to be intensified by the Schengen entry of Romania, is likely to persist for some time. What does this mean for Transcarpathia as well as for the wider region in the northeast of the Pannonian basin? Which factors are determining the development in Transcarpathia? Which position maintains Transcarpathia within the Ukraine, how does it look at Kiev and how is it looked at by Kiev and the cis-Carpathian areas of the Ukraine? The paper deals under these aspects with economic development in Transcarpathia, the interest of foreign investors in the region, its role in the continental transportation network, the identity of the Slavonic population majority and regionalism, also with the position of the large Hungarian minority in the region and its relation to the motherland. The paper is based on a larger research project completed and published already in 2004 (Peter Jordan, Mladen Klemenčić: Transcarpathia - Bridgehead or Periphery?), but adopts also the results of a later diploma work of a student of the author (Berenike Ecker) as well as results of more recent research by the author himself. It is found that shaping by Hungarian history, borderland location and multiethnic structure can be defined as the essential components of Transcarpathian identity. Its economic potentials and perspectives rest mainly in richness

  1. International Taxation and the Direction and Volume of Cross-Border M&As

    OpenAIRE

    Huizinga, Harry; Voget, Johannes

    2006-01-01

    In an international merger or acquisition, the national residences of the acquirer and the target determine to what extent the newly created multinational firm is subject to international double taxation. This paper presents evidence that the parent-subsidiary structure of newly created multinational firms reflects the prospect of international double taxation. The number of acquiring firms at the national level similarly reflects international double taxation. The evidence suggests that tax ...

  2. Building an International Financial Services Firm: How to design and execute cross-border strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Markus Venzin

    2009-01-01

    A new era of global banking and insurance is emerging, with leading banks eager to serve international markets. This book explores the issues that arise for banks in their strategic choices as they move into these new international markets. Building an International Financial Services Firm challenges conventional assumptions from the international management literature on topics such as the limits of globalization, the importance of cultural and institutional distance, the nature of economies...

  3. Molecular inference of sources and spreading patterns of Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasites in internally displaced persons settlements in Myanmar-China border area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Eugenia; Zhou, Guofa; Oo, Winny; Lee, Ming-Chieh; Baum, Elisabeth; Felgner, Philip L; Yang, Zhaoqing; Cui, Liwang; Yan, Guiyun

    2015-07-01

    In Myanmar, civil unrest and establishment of internally displaced persons (IDP) settlement along the Myanmar-China border have impacted malaria transmission. The growing IDP populations raise deep concerns about health impact on local communities. Microsatellite markers were used to examine the source and spreading patterns of Plasmodium falciparum between IDP settlement and surrounding villages in Myanmar along the China border. Genotypic structure of P. falciparum was compared over the past three years from the same area and the demographic history was inferred to determine the source of recent infections. In addition, we examined if border migration is a factor of P. falciparum infections in China by determining gene flow patterns across borders. Compared to local community, the IDP samples showed a reduced and consistently lower genetic diversity over the past three years. A strong signature of genetic bottleneck was detected in the IDP samples. P. falciparum infections from the border regions in China were genetically similar to Myanmar and parasite gene flow was not constrained by geographical distance. Reduced genetic diversity of P. falciparum suggested intense malaria control within the IDP settlement. Human movement was a key factor to the spread of malaria both locally in Myanmar and across the international border. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Sharing similarities and discussing differences : How Utrecht’s international journalism students cross cultural borders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Els Diekerhof

    2011-01-01

    The Utrecht School of Journalism has a long tradition in international higher education. The School’s European Culture & European Journalism (ED&EJ) programme is an example of a pedagogical practice in higher education where advanced students learn how to perform in an international context.

  5. The International Certification of Addiction Medicine: Validating Clinical Knowledge across Borders

    Science.gov (United States)

    el-Guebaly, Nady; Violato, Claudio

    2011-01-01

    The experience of the International Society of Addiction Medicine in setting up the first international certification of clinical knowledge is reported. The steps followed and the results of a psychometric analysis of the tests from the first 65 candidates are reported. Lessons learned in the first 5 years and challenges for the future are…

  6. International Taxation and the Direction and Volme of Cross-Border M&As

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huizinga, H.P.; Voget, J.

    2006-01-01

    In an international merger or acquisition, the national residences of the acquirer and the target determine to what extent the newly created multinational firm is subject to international double taxation. This paper presents evidence that the parent-subsidiary structure of newly created

  7. Border installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenaerts, K.

    1988-01-01

    This chapter highlights the legal problems raised by the concept of a border installation. Using the Cattenom nuclear power plant as an example, the author describes the different stages of the legal conflict raised by construction of the plant and analyses the relationship between French administrative law and some provisions of the Euratom Treaty. Based on the Treaty, the Community institutions have adopted directives to strengthen inter-State co-operation and consultation between neighbouring countries. He observes that these principles of co-operation, consultation and vigilance already exist in public international law; however, international case law has not yet made it possible to establish the strict liability of the constructing state in case of a nuclear accident (NEA) [fr

  8. Illela border market: origin and contributions to trans-border ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Illela border market: origin and contributions to trans-border relations between Nigeria and Niger republic. ... cordial relations between her and her immediate neighbours and thus stem the scourge of smuggling and other trans-border crimes which have negatively affected the Nigerian economy and her international image.

  9. Blended Learning Crossing Borders, Creating an Online Platform for a Joint International Course

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Esther van der Stappen

    2015-01-01

    Presented at the Essence International Conference, Alcoi – Sept 22 2015. The link refers to a youtube video recording of the presentation. This presentation describes a project for online and blended learning.

  10. International Taxation and FDI Strategies: Evidence From US Cross-Border Acquisitions

    OpenAIRE

    Nils Herger; Christos Kotsogiannis; Steve McCorriston

    2011-01-01

    While there is a well-established body of empirical research documenting the negative effect of taxation on foreign direct investment (FDI), there is scant evidence on the extent to which international tax considerations (double taxation, international tax relief stipulated in bilateral tax treaties and the effect of withholding taxes) affect the role of taxation for FDI, and how tax issues differ according to the investment strategies—‘horizontal’ and ‘vertical’—pursued by %multinational fir...

  11. Cross-border Intra-group Hybrid Finance and International Taxation

    OpenAIRE

    Eberhartinger, Eva; Pummerer, Erich; Göritzer, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    In intra-group finance hybrid instruments allow for tailor-made form of finance. Hence hybrid finance is often used for international tax planning in multinational groups. Due to a lack of international tax harmonization or tax coordination qualification conflict can arise. A specific hybrid instrument is classified as debt in one country, and as equity in the other country. This may lead to double taxation. In the reverse case, double non-taxation can arise. Against this legal background one...

  12. Mexico into the globalization: Nuevo Leon, the safe border for international trade program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barragan, J.

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The presentation of this research paper in the 10th annual Conference of the Western Hemispheric Development in the University of Texas A&M in Laredo Texas, (April 23-25, 2005 brought a great opportunity to reflect the efforts of a region in the north of Mexico for the world’s peace and security inside the International trade with the gowth factors important for any and all nations. In this investigation the combined efforts of USA and Mexico are shown to protect the International Trade against the acts of terrorism and smuggling of illegal drugs which constantly try to infiltrate their illicit activities, delivering a great damage to companies that carry out activities of international trade. Relevant conclusions are presented at the end of the paper.

  13. Back to the UK Future: Trends in Internationalism and Cross-Border Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olcott, Don

    2009-01-01

    Globalisation is transforming the international marketplace and accelerating unprecedented socio-economic, cultural, social, political and educational change across the globe. This global transformation has served as a catalyst for increasing deliberation, dialogue and consensus among government, business and higher education to create, attract…

  14. Legitimacy in Cross-Border Higher Education: Identifying Stakeholders of International Branch Campuses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrugia, Christine A.; Lane, Jason E.

    2013-01-01

    When colleges and universities set up outposts such as international branch campuses (IBCs) in foreign countries, the literature suggests that the success of that outpost can be tied to its ability to build its own legitimacy. This article investigates the process of legitimacy building by IBCs through identifying who IBCs view as their salient…

  15. Coastal watershed management across an international border in the Tijuana River watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Linda

    2005-05-01

    The paper develops and applies a game theoretic model of upstream and downstream countries to examine cooperative and noncooperative strategies of a common watershed. The application to the Tijuana River watershed shared by the United States and Mexico provides quantification of the strategies for internalizing water quality externalities to upstream and downstream originating from sedimentation. Results show that different transfer payments, such as the Chander/Tulkens cost sharing rule and the Shapley value, imply the size of the existing transfer from downstream to upstream could increase the amount currently allocated.

  16. The missing link in an international framework for carbon pricing: border adjustment with taxes or allowances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikael Skou

    2017-01-01

    was created at the initiative of the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund. Over the past five years the share of global CO2 emissions subject to carbon pricing via either taxes or allowances have tripled, from four to twelve per cent. In anticipation of a widening gap between countries the scope...... allow for such adjustment under its exemption mechanisms and when all other options have been exhausted. As a highly sensitive measure, not only the complex technical and legal questions deserve attention, but also how to make the best diplomacy of it within the arsenal of climate change mitigation...

  17. Nurses without borders: the history of nursing as U.S. international history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Julia F

    2011-01-01

    During World War I and its aftermath, thousands of U.S. nurses put their domestic careers on hold to work overseas. Many volunteered in the wake of war and disaster. Others worked as instructors in nursing schools and as the staff of fledgling public health agencies. This article charts the international travels of four especially mobile nurses, whose globetrotting careers took them to Europe, Asia, and the Caribbean. These women aspired to tackle world health issues, motivated by the conviction that the spread of U.S. professional nursing ideas stood to modernize the world. This article tells these nurses' stories and analyzes their ideologies of development and progress. In so doing, it demonstrates that professional women, working outside state channels, played a principal role in expanding U.S. influence in the world. Moreover, it makes the case for the centrality of nursing history to the history of U.S. foreign relations.

  18. Islet Transplantation without Borders Enabling islet transplantation in Greece with international collaboration and innovative technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papas, Klearchos K; Karatzas, Theodore; Berney, Thierry; Minor, Thomas; Pappas, Paris; Pattou, François; Shaw, James; Toso, Christian; Schuurman, Henk-Jan

    2012-01-01

    Recently, initiatives have been undertaken to establish an islet transplantation program in Athens, Greece. A major hurtle is the high cost associated with the establishment and maintenance of a clinical-grade islet manufacturing center. A collaboration was established with the University Hospitals of Geneva, Switzerland, to enable remote islet cell manufacturing with an established and validated fully operational team. However, remote islet manufacturing requires shipment of the pancreas from the procurement to the islet manufacturing site (in this case from anywhere in Greece to Geneva) and then shipment of the islets from the manufacturing site to the transplant site (from Geneva to Athens). To address challenges related to cold ischemia time of the pancreas and shipment time of islets, a collaboration was initiated with the University of Arizona, Tucson, USA. An international workshop was held in Athens, December 2011, to mark the start of this collaborative project. Experts in the field presented in three main sessions: [1] Islet transplantation: state-of-the-art, and the “network approach”; [2] Technical aspects of clinical islet transplantation and outcomes; and [3] Islet manufacturing – from the donated pancreas to the islet product. This manuscript presents a summary of the workshop. PMID:23330863

  19. Welcome to the Largest International Fair of the Balkans: The Borderli-ness of Kara Boaz Fair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Antova

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The location of this study is the border area of the North – West Bulgaria at Bulgarian – Serbian border, near the town of Belogradchik. As a result of several times redrawing of nation state borders between Serbia (Yugoslavia and Bulgaria during 20th century the borderland population, named Torlatsi had been separated. The Kada Boaz Fair creates a safe space and time for meeting of the separated families and friends, living at the both sides of the border. Very significant point is that the place of the Kada Boaz Fair is widely exploited of all local and governmental authorities from both sides since 2000 as a place to re-construct economic and social relations. The aim of the paper is to discuss which are the factors influencing the real openness and the making borders pervious. The paper explores the border crossing of Bulgarian and Serbian population, living at both sides of national borders on an everyday level, while trying to explain its notions in different periods of time (Socialist past, Yugo-embargo, EU accession of Bulgaria. The presentation answers the question how people use the political situations and politicians so that they could benefit from certain circumstances on their everyday level of life.

  20. International perception of lung sounds: a comparison of classification across some European borders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aviles-Solis, Juan Carlos; Vanbelle, Sophie; Halvorsen, Peder A; Francis, Nick; Cals, Jochen W L; Andreeva, Elena A; Marques, Alda; Piirilä, Päivi; Pasterkamp, Hans; Melbye, Hasse

    2017-01-01

    Lung auscultation is helpful in the diagnosis of lung and heart diseases; however, the diagnostic value of lung sounds may be questioned due to interobserver variation. This situation may also impair clinical research in this area to generate evidence-based knowledge about the role that chest auscultation has in a modern clinical setting. The recording and visual display of lung sounds is a method that is both repeatable and feasible to use in large samples, and the aim of this study was to evaluate interobserver agreement using this method. With a microphone in a stethoscope tube, we collected digital recordings of lung sounds from six sites on the chest surface in 20 subjects aged 40 years or older with and without lung and heart diseases. A total of 120 recordings and their spectrograms were independently classified by 28 observers from seven different countries. We employed absolute agreement and kappa coefficients to explore interobserver agreement in classifying crackles and wheezes within and between subgroups of four observers. When evaluating agreement on crackles (inspiratory or expiratory) in each subgroup, observers agreed on between 65% and 87% of the cases. Conger's kappa ranged from 0.20 to 0.58 and four out of seven groups reached a kappa of ≥0.49. In the classification of wheezes, we observed a probability of agreement between 69% and 99.6% and kappa values from 0.09 to 0.97. Four out of seven groups reached a kappa ≥0.62. The kappa values we observed in our study ranged widely but, when addressing its limitations, we find the method of recording and presenting lung sounds with spectrograms sufficient for both clinic and research. Standardisation of terminology across countries would improve international communication on lung auscultation findings.

  1. Border markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this issue of Articulo – Journal of Urban Research is to examine the characteristics of border markets in a comparative perspective. In this introductory paper, I first discuss what makes African border markets different from other markets, and examine several factors that explain...... their unequal economic development: the presence of a trade community, the combination of trading and productive activities, and the relative porosity of borders. In a second part, I examine how border markets on the U.S.-Mexico border must simultaneously guarantee the security of the state while favoring...... regional trade. The last part of the paper argues that more policy attention should be paid to border markets which, despite being at the margin of states, are a vital component of their economy. Fifty years after most West African states became independent and just as NAFTA turns 20, it is high time...

  2. International workshop: islet transplantation without borders enabling islet transplantation in Greece with international collaboration and innovative technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papas, Klearchos K; Karatzas, Theodore; Berney, Thierry; Minor, Thomas; Pappas, Paris; Pattou, François; Shaw, James; Toso, Christian; Schuurman, Henk-Jan

    2013-01-01

    Recently, initiatives have been undertaken to establish an islet transplantation program in Athens, Greece. A major hurdle is the high cost associated with the establishment and maintenance of a clinical-grade islet manufacturing center. A collaboration was established with the University Hospitals of Geneva, Switzerland, to enable remote islet cell manufacturing with an established and validated fully operational team. However, remote islet manufacturing requires shipment of the pancreas from the procurement to the islet manufacturing site (in this case from anywhere in Greece to Geneva) and then shipment of the islets from the manufacturing site to the transplant site (from Geneva to Athens). To address challenges related to cold ischemia time of the pancreas and shipment time of islets, a collaboration was initiated with the University of Arizona, Tucson, USA. An international workshop was held in Athens, December 2011, to mark the start of this collaborative project. Experts in the field presented in three main sessions: (i) islet transplantation: state-of-the-art and the "network approach"; (ii) technical aspects of clinical islet transplantation and outcomes; and (iii) islet manufacturing - from the donated pancreas to the islet product. This manuscript presents a summary of the workshop. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  3. International challenges without borders: a descriptive study of family physicians' educational needs in the field of diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Posel Peter

    2011-05-01

    complications, lifestyle changes, team integration, bureaucracy and third-party payers. The issues reported were not restricted to the physicians' knowledge, but also related to their skills, attitudes, behaviours and context. Conclusions This study revealed challenges faced by GPs/FPs when caring for patients with diabetes, which were similar across international and health system borders. Common issues might be addressed more efficiently through international educational designs, adapted to each country's healthcare system, helping develop and maintain physicians' competencies.

  4. Metrics for border management systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duggan, Ruth Ann

    2009-07-01

    There are as many unique and disparate manifestations of border systems as there are borders to protect. Border Security is a highly complex system analysis problem with global, regional, national, sector, and border element dimensions for land, water, and air domains. The complexity increases with the multiple, and sometimes conflicting, missions for regulating the flow of people and goods across borders, while securing them for national security. These systems include frontier border surveillance, immigration management and customs functions that must operate in a variety of weather, terrain, operational conditions, cultural constraints, and geopolitical contexts. As part of a Laboratory Directed Research and Development Project 08-684 (Year 1), the team developed a reference framework to decompose this complex system into international/regional, national, and border elements levels covering customs, immigration, and border policing functions. This generalized architecture is relevant to both domestic and international borders. As part of year two of this project (09-1204), the team determined relevant relative measures to better understand border management performance. This paper describes those relative metrics and how they can be used to improve border management systems.

  5. Native American lithic procurement along the international border in the boot heel region of southwestern New Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. E. Zeigler

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Multidisciplinary field projects can be very useful to a more fundamental understanding of the world around us, though these projects are not as common as they should be. In particular, the combination of archeology and geology combines our understanding of human behavior and human use of the landscape with an intimate knowledge of geologic processes and the materials available for human use in order to gain a broader understanding of human-Earth interaction. Here we present data from a cross-disciplinary project that uses a common dataset, archeological artifacts, to explore the anthropological and geologic implications of useage patterns. Archeological excavations and surveys conducted by the Office of Contract Archeology in 2007 along the route of the proposed international border fence reveal patterns of use of geologic materials by Archaic, Formative and Protohistoric Native Americans in the Boot Heel of southwestern New Mexico. Thousands of artifacts were recorded in multiple sites from Guadalupe Pass in the southern Peloncillo Mountains to the Carrizalillo Hills west of Columbus. We identified the lithologies of artifacts, ranging from projectile points to groundstones, and then constructed material movement maps based on either known procurement sites ("quarries" or outcrops identified as the closest source to a given site for each lithology. Not unexpectedly, the majority of the rock types utilized by native peoples are local siliceous volcanic materials. However, several artifacts constructed from obsidian were transported into the region from northern Mexico and eastern Arizona, indicating long-distance travel and/or trade routes. We also examine useage pattern difference between Archaic, Formative and Protohistoric sites. Additionally, a dramatic change in distribution of sources for geologic materials occurs between one pre-Spanish site and one post-Spanish site that are adjacent to one another.

  6. Relationships of outdoor and indoor ultrafine particles at residences downwind of a major international border crossing in Buffalo, NY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAuley, T R; Fisher, R; Zhou, X; Jaques, P A; Ferro, A R

    2010-08-01

    During winter 2006, indoor and outdoor ultrafine particle (UFP) size distribution measurements for particles with diameters from 5.6 to 165 nm were taken at five homes in a neighborhood directly adjacent to the Peace Bridge Complex (PBC), a major international border crossing connecting Buffalo, New York to Fort Erie, Ontario. Monitoring with 1-s time resolution was conducted for several hours at each home. Participants were instructed to keep all external windows and doors closed and to refrain from cooking, smoking, or other activity that may result in elevating the indoor UFP number concentration. Although the construction and age for the homes were similar, indoor-to-outdoor comparisons indicate that particle infiltration rates varied substantially. Overall, particle concentrations indoors were lower and less variable than particle concentrations outdoors, with average indoor-outdoor ratios ranging from 0.1 to 0.5 (mean 0.34) for particles between 5.6 and 165 nm in diameter. With no indoor sources, the average indoor-outdoor ratios were lowest (0.2) for 20-nm particles, higher (0.3) for particles <10 nm, and highest (0.5) for particles 70-165 nm. This study provides insight into the penetration of UFP into homes and the resulting change in particle size distributions as particles move indoors near a major diesel traffic source. Although people spend most of their time in their homes, exposure estimates for epidemiological studies are generally determined using ambient concentrations. The findings of this study will contribute to improved size-resolved UFP exposure estimates for near roadway exposure assessments and epidemiological studies.

  7. Hepatitis A in Hispanic children who live along the United States-Mexico border: the role of international travel and food-borne exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberg, Michelle; Hopkins, Jackie; Farrington, Leigh; Gresham, Louise; Ginsberg, Michele; Bell, Beth P

    2004-07-01

    Hispanic children who live along the United States-Mexico border historically have had among the highest hepatitis A rates in the United States, but risk factors have not been well characterized. The objective of this study was to examine risk factors associated with acute hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection in Hispanic children who live along the United States-Mexico border in San Diego County, California. In this case-control study, hepatitis A cases among Hispanic children who were younger than 18 years reported from June 1998 through August 2000 were matched by age group and exposure period to Hispanic children who were susceptible to HAV infection. Participants and their families were interviewed about demographic information and potential sources of HAV infection, including attending child care, food and waterborne exposures, cross-border and other international travel, and travel-related activities. Participants included 132 children with hepatitis A and 354 control subjects. The median age of study participants was 7 years (range: 1-17). Sixty-seven percent of case-patients traveled outside the United States during the incubation period, compared with 25% of the children without hepatitis A (odds ratio [OR]: 6.3; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.0-9.7); all children, except 1, had traveled to Mexico. In multivariate analysis, hepatitis A was associated with having eaten food from a taco stand or street food vendor (adjusted OR: 17.0; 95% CI: 4.1-71.1) and having eaten salad/lettuce (adjusted OR: 5.2; 95% CI: 1.3-20.1) during travel. Hepatitis A among Hispanic children who live in an urban area of the United States-Mexico border is associated with cross-border travel to Mexico and food-borne exposures during travel. Travelers to areas where hepatitis A is endemic should receive hepatitis A vaccine before travel.

  8. Global Connections to Global Partnerships: Navigating the Changing Landscape of Internationalism and Cross-Border Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olcott, Don, Jr.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide continuing higher education leaders with a comprehensive overview of the major considerations for doing business in the global market. Included is an analysis of the driving forces in global higher education and current trends in cross-border programs and a brief review of activities that may be part of a…

  9. The impact of Border policy effect on cross-border ethnic areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bie, Q. L.; Zhou, S. Y.; Li, C. S.

    2013-11-01

    Boundary effect analysis is related to border policy making in the cross-border ethnic area. The border effect literatures show that geographic boundaries have obvious impacts on economic, social and cultural relations in both sides of a nation border. Particularly in cross-border ethnic areas, each ethnic group has strong internal spatial structure relevance, and the boundary effect is more obvious. However, most of China's border areas are cross-border ethnic areas, each of border issues is unique. Under this perspective, we analyze the border effects of various boundaries can provide basis for formulating border management policies. For small scale of cross-border ethnic minority areas, how to formulate the boundary management policy is a good question to explore. This paper is demonstrated by a study of the impact of border management policies in Dehong Dai and Jingpo Autonomous Prefecture in Yunnan Province at the border area to Burma. The comparative method is used to analysis the border management policies in past 50 decades for the border area of Yunnan Province .This research aims to define trends within border policy and its influences to national security. This paper also examines Wendy Brown's liberal theory of border management policy. We found that it is not suitable for Sino-Burma border area. The conclusion is that the changes or instability of international economic and political situation has more influence to this cross-border ethnic area, and only innovative policy will be effective in cross-border ethnic area. So the border management policies should reflect the change of international context.

  10. BORDERS AS AN INTERDISCPLINARY PROBLEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duško Vrban

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the concepts of space and territoriality in law and politics seen through reflexion on borders, which are understood primarily as forms of identification and the basis for nation-building. While in the classical antiquity, borders were seen as exclusionary defensive structures, in modern international law in the 18th and 19th centuries, they became spaces for the delimitation of states sovereign territories. The author attempts to enligthen the symbolic significance of borders in modern European history, which have been connected with imperial designs, nationalist discourses and political imaginaries. Border rhetoric often emphasised territorial inclusions and exclusions relied to the concepts such as sovereignty, security and natural living space (“natural borders”. The concept of borders is also related to the understanding of the division of Earth’s surface into areas defined as regions. Regions may construct and transcend natural and political borders. Although, borders have been through world history sites of conflict, they also build ways of interconnections between locals and neighbours. The struggle over cultural and political domination and attempts to integrate and assimilate border populations were mostly reflected into deliberate linguistic policies relating to the language of administration and the public sphere. After the Second world war, the perception of borders have changed and the new understanding of borders have prevailed, based upon the idea of cooperation and the recognition of local traditions and minority rights. The principle of uti possidetis iuris was applied in order to prevent redrawing of the borders of new states and to maintain the territorial stability of the regions. But the recent migration crisis and security concerns in Europe and America have re-actualised the perception of state borders as defensive structures. Moreover, introduction of new technologies, such as ICT and the

  11. From Borders to Margins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parker, Noel

    2009-01-01

    of entities that are ever open to identity shifts.  The concept of the margin possesses a much wider reach than borders, and focuses continual attention on the meetings and interactions between a range of indeterminate entities whose interactions may determine both themselves and the types of entity...... upon Deleuze's philosophy to set out an ontology in which the continual reformulation of entities in play in ‘post-international' society can be grasped.  This entails a strategic shift from speaking about the ‘borders' between sovereign states to referring instead to the ‘margins' between a plethora...

  12. Recent trends in cross-border banking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Haas, Ralph; van Horen, Neeltje; Beck, Thorsten; Casu, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    This chapter identifies a number of recent trends in European cross-border banking. The authors first distinguish between two main modes of international banking: cross-border versus multinational banking. Cross-border banking occurs when a bank in country A lends directly to a borrower in country

  13. Implementing the First Cross-border Professional Development Online Course through International E-mentoring: Reflections and Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buddhini Gayathri Jayatilleke

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This research paper discusses the accomplishments, issues, and challenges experienced by Open University of Sri Lanka (OUSL academics when offering the first cross-border professional development online course to train online tutors and mentors. The course was delivered exclusively online and facilitated by OUSL academics and e-mentors from the USA. The course was comprised of 30 participants: 9 from Pakistan, 10 from Mauritius and 11 from Sri Lanka. This qualitative study is based on reflections of both faculty and participants. Data were collected using reflections and informal anecdotal records of the three OUSL academics and self-reflection instruments (pre, mid and final administered to participants, and reflective journal entries made by participants. Participants’ views were triangulated with the reflections of the OUSL academics to validate the results. While there were many accomplishments in the design and delivery of the course, the findings revealed that there were many challenges in implementing the course: pedagogical, organizational and technological aspects in particular. The paper provides recommendations to address such challenges when offering cross-border online courses in the future.

  14. Stress State of Elastic Thick-Walled Ring With Self-Balanced Pressures Distributed on Its Internal and External Borders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kravchuk Aleksandr Stepanovich

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available For the first time with the help of the theory of analytic functions and Kolosov-Muskhelishvili formulas the problem of the two-dimensional theory of elasticity for a thickwalled ring with the uneven pressures, acting on its borders, was solved. The pressure on the inner and outer boundaries is represented by Fourier series. The authors represent the two complex functions which solve boundary problem in the form of Laurent series. The logarithmic terms in these series are absent because the boundary problem has the self-balancing loads on each boundary of ring. The coefficients in the Laurent series are calculated by the boundary conditions. Firstly, the equations were obtained in the general form. But the hypothesis about even distributions of pressures at borders of ring was used for constructing an example. It leads to the fact that all coefficients of analytic functions represented in Laurent series have to be only real. As a solving example, the representation of pressures in equivalent hypotrochoids was used. The application of the computer algebra system Mathematica greatly simplifies the calculation of the distribution of stresses and displacements in ring. It does not require manual formal separation of real and imaginary parts in terms of Kolosov-Muskhelishvili to display the distribution of the physical parameters. It separates them only for calculated numbers with the help of built-in functions.

  15. Study on methodologies for establishing a system for cross-border tariffication in the internal electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glavitsch, H.

    2001-01-01

    This reports for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a study made by a working group on the costs and the billing of electrical power transfer across national borders in Europe. On the basis of present-day concepts and operating conditions, new methodologies were developed that were oriented towards the responsible parties, that were non-discriminating and that were based on physical energy flow. The results obtained with prototype calculation programs using test data are discussed and a cost-model that was intensively discussed in the working group is introduced. The software was developed far enough as to be able to perform simulations using a real-life set of data from the European grid. Together with the grid regulator in Belgium, a concept paper was developed that presents the targets and principal procedures involved in the new methodology developed in the project

  16. UNESCO Without Borders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) was established in 1945 with twin aims: to rebuild various institutions of the world destroyed by war, and to promote international understanding and peaceful cooperation among nations. Based on empirical and historical...... research and with a particular focus on history teaching, international understanding and peace, UNESCO Without Borders offers a new research trajectory for understanding the roles played by UNESCO and other international organizations, as well as the effects of globalization on education. With fifteen...

  17. Stretching the Border

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horstmann, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, I hope to add a complementary perspective to James Scott’s recent work on avoidance strategies of subaltern mountain people by focusing on what I call the refugee public. The educated Karen elite uses the space of exile in the Thai borderland to reconstitute resources and to re-ent......-based organizations succeed to stretch the border by establishing a firm presence that is supported by the international humanitarian economy in the refugee camps in Northwestern Thailand....

  18. Methodology for the selection of routes for international cross-border line projects involving multiple objectives and decision-makers in the analyses of restrictions and environmental possibilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angel S, Enrique; Cadena, Luis Fernando

    2005-01-01

    A scheme was developed and applied to select the optimum environmental route for international cross-border line projects, in a decision making context involving multiple objectives and multiple decision-makers, the project studied was the electricity interconnection for central America (SIEPAC) for which a prospective assessment was carried out regarding the restrictions and possibilities in the light of the Colombian environmental dimensions management model. The methodology proposed followed these stages: Definition and approval of the structure of environmental restriction and criticality variables, sectorization and selection of complex sections, definition of decision-makers for multi-objective analysis; design and application of consultation tool; definition and modeling of options applying SIG; sensitivity analysis of alternative routes and project's environment management. Different options were identified for insertion and permanence of the project according to the criteria of various interest groups and actors consulted: environmental authorities, electricity companies, scientific community and civil society

  19. Border poetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liv Lundberg

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The language of poetry is a language of inquiry, not the language of a genre. Poetry has the capacity of entering those zones known as borderlands, where you meet strange things and foreign people. In this poetic world view, the border is not an edge along the fringe of lands, societies and experiences, but rather their very middle – and their in-between. The structures of language are social structures in which meanings and intentions are already in place, always fighting for power and dominance, with rhetorical figures and more violent weapons.

  20. Influence of peer support on HIV/STI prevention and safety amongst international migrant sex workers: A qualitative study at the Mexico-Guatemala border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Febres-Cordero, Belen; Brouwer, Kimberly C; Rocha-Jimenez, Teresita; Fernandez-Casanueva, Carmen; Morales-Miranda, Sonia; Goldenberg, Shira M

    2018-01-01

    Migrant women engaged in precarious employment, such as sex work, frequently face pronounced social isolation alongside other barriers to health and human rights. Although peer support has been identified as a critical HIV and violence prevention intervention for sex workers, little is known about access to peer support or its role in shaping health and social outcomes for migrant sex workers. This article analyses the role of peer support in shaping vulnerability and resilience related to HIV/STI prevention and violence among international migrant sex workers at the Mexico-Guatemala border. This qualitative study is based on 31 semi-structured interviews conducted with international migrant sex workers in the Mexico-Guatemala border communities of Tapachula, Mexico and Tecún Umán and Quetzaltenango, Guatemala. Peer support was found to be critical for reducing social isolation; improving access to HIV/STI knowledge, prevention and resources; and mitigating workplace violence, particularly at the initial stages of migration and sex work. Peer support was especially critical for countering social isolation, and peers represented a valuable source of HIV/STI prevention knowledge and resources (e.g., condoms), as well as essential safety supports in the workplace. However, challenges to accessing peer support were noted, including difficulties establishing long-lasting relationships and other forms of social participation due to frequent mobility, as well as tensions among peers within some work environments. Variations in access to peer support related to country of work, work environment, sex work and migration stage, and sex work experience were also identified. Results indicate that peer-led and community empowerment interventions represent a promising strategy for promoting the health, safety and human rights of migrant sex workers. Tailored community empowerment interventions addressing the unique migration-related contexts and challenges faced by migrant sex

  1. 77 FR 10958 - International Services Surveys: BE-150, Quarterly Survey of Cross-Border Credit, Debit, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-24

    ... Emond, Chief, Special Surveys Branch, Balance of Payments Division (BE-50), Bureau of Economic Analysis... the International Investment and Trade in Services Survey Act, 22 U.S.C. 3101- [[Page 10959

  2. A new methodology for establishing a system for cross-border transmission tariffication in the internal electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glavitsch, H.; Andersson, G.

    2001-01-01

    Several organisations are working on a scheme for cross-border tariffication as the so-called Florence forum indicates. So far, a provisional concept created by ETSO (European Transmission System Operators) evolved which is oriented towards covering costs but is not quite cost-reflective and does not produce economic signals for the market players. In the present project a flow-oriented model and a corresponding methodology have been developed which derive compensations within super nodes standing for aggregated networks of the countries along transit and domestic paths. Specific fees are derived from overall network costs but may be applied in a flexible way to represent the realistic usage of the horizontal network for transits and domestic supply. Charging of costs can be oriented towards consumers or generators. A combination of shares of costs originally determined for consumers and generators is also possible. In such a way the model is flexible to fulfill the requirements of regulators, operators and the European Commission. Measured flow data of the UCTE network have been provided to check the concept in various directions, i.e. based on different parameters such as uniform and individual postage stamps, compensations for transits only and more elaborate networks of super nodes. The concept is also able to cope with circular flows within the real UCTE network. The methodology is suited for an application in a decentralised fashion as the transmission system operator needs to communicate with its neighboring operator only, i.e. there is no need for a centralised clearing office. (author)

  3. Cross-border innovation cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjaltadóttir, Rannveig Edda; Makkonen, Teemu; Sørensen, Nils Karl

    2017-01-01

    Finding a suitable partner is paramount for the success of innovation cooperation. Thus, this paper sets out to analyse the determinants of cross-border innovation cooperation in Denmark by focusing on partner selection. The aim of the article is to investigate determinants of partner selection...... by taking the location of the partners into account. In particular, the discussion is tied to the notion of varying knowledge bases firms utilize in their innovation creation processes. Firm level data from the 2010 Community Innovation Survey in Denmark was utilized to analyse cross-border innovation...... of innovativeness increase the likelihood of cross-border innovation cooperation. Accordingly, geographical proximity to international borders is found to have a significant, positive effect on selecting partners within the European Union. The multivariate probit model shows that the decision of choosing a domestic...

  4. The dynamics of fauna and population of birds in agricultural landscapes on the border of Kazan International Airport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bespalov, A. F.; Belyaev, A. N.

    2018-01-01

    The dynamics of fauna and population of birds from agricultural lands near Kazan International Airport has been studied for one year. A total of 60 bird species have been registered, of which 26 species must be considered as highly dangerous to flying aircraft. With regard to seasonal activity, the nesting period (April - June) is the most hazardous, since it is characterized by maximum species richness and total population density of birds, as well as their high species diversity. Furthermore, a serious danger is posed by the period of postnesting nomadic movements and the onset of migrations (July - September) when the species diversity turns out to be the highest and the total population density begins to decrease. It has been recommended based on the obtained results that the current crops should be replaced by cultivars that will be less attractive to birds. In spring and autumn, certain bird hazing and frightening measures must be taken on a more regular basis.

  5. Border Encounters: American Cultural Politics and the U.S.-Mexico Border

    OpenAIRE

    Reimer, Jennifer Andrea

    2011-01-01

    AbstractBorder Encounters: American Cultural Politics and the U.S.-Mexico BorderbyJennifer Andrea ReimerDoctor of Philosophy in Ethnic StudiesUniversity of California, BerkeleyProfessor José David Saldívar, Co-ChairProfessor Laura E. Pérez, Co-ChairBorder Encounters: American Cultural Politics and the U.S.-Mexico Border is a transnational, interdisciplinary cultural study of the contemporary U.S.-Mexico border that argues for the critical role of the international border in the racial past, p...

  6. Breaking Borders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bondebjerg, Ib; Redvall, Eva Novrup

    2015-01-01

    In Denmark, the Sunday night dramas of the public service broadcaster DR are somewhat of a national ritual. Until recently, Danes thought these series to be only for the Danes, but since 2002 they have also found international acclaim and distribution. The Killing and Borgen are the most recent e...... vision’ and ‘double storytelling’ as guidelines for creating quality drama. Moreover, the chapter focuses on audience patterns for the series and aspects of their international distribution and reception....

  7. The Borders of EU Competences with Regard to the International Regulation of Intellectual Property Rights: Constructing a Dam to Resist a River Bursting Its Banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yole Tanghe

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In view of the recent negotiations on the highly anticipated Free Trade Agreements to which the EU shall be party ('e.g.' CETA and TTIP, assessing the extent to which the EU can regulate intellectual property rights in its external relations seems relevant. Two recent cases of the Court of Justice of the EU have reversed its landmark decision in Opinion 1/94, in which intellectual property regulation was almost entirely excluded from the EU’s exclusive competence in trade matters. Firstly, in the 'Daiichi Sankyo' case, the Court elaborated upon the EU’s explicit external competence in the field of intellectual property. This explicit competence is provided for by Article 207 TFEU on the common commercial policy, which allows the EU to conclude agreements concerning the ‘commercial aspects of intellectual property’. In the 'Broadcasting Rights' case, the Court founded its decision on the EU’s implied competence to conclude international agreements, as provided for by Article 3(2 TFEU. Considering the outcome of these two judgments, the Court seems to grant the EU a wide scope of action with regard to intellectual property rights. As a consequence, questions arise with regard to the post-Lisbon era role that is left for the Member States in the field of intellectual property. Therefore, the aim of this article is to outline the scope of the EU’s exclusivity in IP matters and to highlight the borders.

  8. Geospatial relationships of air pollution and acute asthma events across the Detroit-Windsor international border: study design and preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemke, Lawrence D; Lamerato, Lois E; Xu, Xiaohong; Booza, Jason C; Reiners, John J; Raymond Iii, Delbert M; Villeneuve, Paul J; Lavigne, Eric; Larkin, Dana; Krouse, Helene J

    2014-07-01

    The Geospatial Determinants of Health Outcomes Consortium (GeoDHOC) study investigated ambient air quality across the international border between Detroit, Michigan, USA and Windsor, Ontario, Canada and its association with acute asthma events in 5- to 89-year-old residents of these cities. NO2, SO2, and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were measured at 100 sites, and particulate matter (PM) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) at 50 sites during two 2-week sampling periods in 2008 and 2009. Acute asthma event rates across neighborhoods in each city were calculated using emergency room visits and hospitalizations and standardized to the overall age and gender distribution of the population in the two cities combined. Results demonstrate that intra-urban air quality variations are related to adverse respiratory events in both cities. Annual 2008 asthma rates exhibited statistically significant positive correlations with total VOCs and total benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene (BTEX) at 5-digit zip code scale spatial resolution in Detroit. In Windsor, NO2, VOCs, and PM10 concentrations correlated positively with 2008 asthma rates at a similar 3-digit postal forward sortation area scale. The study is limited by its coarse temporal resolution (comparing relatively short term air quality measurements to annual asthma health data) and interpretation of findings is complicated by contrasts in population demographics and health-care delivery systems in Detroit and Windsor.

  9. Revitalising Borders: Memory, Mobility and Materiality in a Latvian-Russian Border Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aija Lulle

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I investigate how an international border is 'revitalised' in political discourses as opposed to lived experiences. Based on narratives I have collected from border dwellers on both sides of the current border between Latvia and Rus-sia and placing them into a broader context of current border debates, I analyse how geographical and social mobility is remembered from Soviet times and reworked in current contexts. I argue that while politically the border is revitalised through aban-doning and forgetting the Soviet past and through the idea of constant threats in the future, locally it is revitalised through giving a life to the abandoned: memories of 'vigorous times' in life-courses and material things. People who dwell at the border did not move themselves: the international border moved several times in one cen-tury leaving border dwellers' memories and significant places on the 'other' side. I focus on how these borders were crossed in the past, how they are (not crossed now, and the social meanings assigned to these circumstances. In the current con-text I follow diverse paths of reasoning that describe how the uneven flow of goods and people through the Latvian-Russian border shapes the power dynamic against which the people living in the border area used to reconstruct imaginaries of 'Soviet times' versus 'Europe' and 'vigorous times' versus decline.

  10. Border detection in complex networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Travencolo, Bruno A N; Viana, Matheus Palhares; Costa, Luciano da Fontoura

    2009-01-01

    One important issue implied by the finite nature of real-world networks regards the identification of their more external (border) and internal nodes. The present work proposes a formal and objective definition of these properties, founded on the recently introduced concept of node diversity. It is shown that this feature does not exhibit any relevant correlation with several well-established complex networks measurements. A methodology for the identification of the borders of complex networks is described and illustrated with respect to theoretical (geographical and knitted networks) as well as real-world networks (urban and word association networks), yielding interesting results and insights in both cases.

  11. Atmospheric Science Without Borders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panday, Arnico; Praveen, Ps; Adhikary, Bhupesh; Bhave, Prakash; Surapipith, Vanisa; Pradhan, Bidya; Karki, Anita; Ghimire, Shreta; Thapa, Alpha; Shrestha, Sujan

    2016-04-01

    The Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGP) in northern South Asia are among the most polluted and most densely populated places in the world, and they are upwind of vulnerable ecosystems in the Himalaya mountains. They are also fragmented across 5 countries between which movement of people, data, instruments and scientific understanding have been very limited. ICIMOD's Atmosphere Initiative has for the past three years been working on filling data gaps in the region, while facilitating collaborations across borders. It has established several atmospheric observatories at low and mid elevations in Bhutan and Nepal that provide new data on the inflow of pollutants from the IGP towards the mountains, as well as quantify the effects of local emissions on air quality in mountain cities. EGU will be the first international conference where these data will be presented. ICIMOD is in the process of setting up data servers through which data from the region will be shared with scientists and the general public across borders. Meanwhile, to promote cross-border collaboration among scientists in the region, while addressing an atmospheric phenomenon that affects the lives of the several hundred million people, ICIMOD' Atmosphere Initiative has been coordinating an interdisciplinary multi-year study of persistent winter fog over the Indo-Gangetic Plains, with participation by researchers from Pakistan, India, China, Nepal, Bhutan and Bangladesh. Using a combination of in-situ measurements and sample collection, remote sensing, modeling and community based research, the researchers are studying how changing moisture availability and air pollution have led to increases in fog frequency and duration, as well as the fog's impacts on local communities and energy demand that may affect air pollution emissions. Preliminary results of the Winter 2015-2016 field campaign will be shown.

  12. Border information flow architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-04-01

    This brochure describes the Border Information Flow Architecture (BIFA). The Transportation Border Working Group, a bi-national group that works to enhance coordination and planning between the United States and Canada, identified collaboration on th...

  13. The Border Multiple

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    of European borders by looking at border practices in the light of the mobility turn, and thus as dynamic, multiple, diverse and best expressed in everyday experiences of people living at and with borders, rather than focusing on static territorial divisions between states and regions at geopolitical level...

  14. Reception in Chile of the United Nations Commission on International Trade Law Model Law on Cross-Border Insolvency: Brief analysis of the center of main interests of the debtor as a new connecting factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy Daniel Levy Morchio

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyze the United Nations Commission on International Trade Law (UNCITRAL Model Law on Cross-border Insolvency and its incorporation into national law by means of the entry into force of the new Law of Insolvency and Re-entrepreneurship, paying special attention to the concept of center of main interests of the debtor, as a new factor of connection between jurisdictions. For this, we will begin with the situation of cross-border insolvency in Chile prior to the new law, will analyze the origin, structure and objectives of the model law and the way in which was introduced in Chile, to finally study the concept of center of main interests of the debtor.

  15. Does knowledge have borders?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tange, Hanne

    International education is often promoted through discourses of openness, cross-cultural relationship-building and global understanding. But how inclusive is the kind of knowledge offered in the so-called “global” learning environments? The paper explores possible limits to knowledge production a...... and represented within their course and academic discipline. We will present in the paper the preliminary findings of our research, pointing to some of the visible and invisible borders that one finds within the field of global education....... system embedded in a specific national and institutional environment, and from this research follows that certain frames of reference, or contexts, are taken for granted by local staff and students. With internationalization, however, comes a change in the make-up of the student cohort, including...

  16. The Border Multiple

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Addressing and conceptualizing the changing character of borders in contemporary Europe, this book examines developments occurring in the light of European integration processes and an on-going tightening of Europe's external borders. Moreover, the book suggests new ways of investigating the nature...... of European borders by looking at border practices in the light of the mobility turn, and thus as dynamic, multiple, diverse and best expressed in everyday experiences of people living at and with borders, rather than focusing on static territorial divisions between states and regions at geopolitical level...

  17. Cross-border acquisition abandonment and completion : The effect of institutional differences and organizational learning in the international business service industry, 1981-2001

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dikova, Desislava; Sahib, Padma Rao; van Witteloostuijn, Arjen

    2010-01-01

    Based on the concepts of North's (1990) political economy of national institutions and economic behavior, we investigate how formal and informal institutional features influence the likelihood that a cross-border acquisition deal will be completed, as well as the time taken for its completion after

  18. Borders as barriers to tourism: tourists experiences at the Beitbridge Border Post (Zimbabwean side

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Getrude Kwanisai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available International borders greatly influence tourism development. In 2012 and 2013, a decline in tourists to Zimbabwe from South Africa was partially attributed to tourist border facilitation issues. It is against this background that this study sought to establish the nature of challenges faced by tourists when using the Beitbridge border post (Zimbabwean side. Questionnaire responses were thematically analysed and the study concluded that border administrative management related issues are a major barrier to tourism. Key among the study's recommendations is that the depressed tourists' border experiences obtaining at Beitbridge border post among other constraints have to be addressed as a matter of urgency. This will enhance Zimbabwe's accessibility, tourist satisfaction and the image of the country as a destination. The paper further identifies several destination managerial implications and future research priorities.

  19. Research on International Logistics Operation Mode under the Environment of Cross-border E-business%跨境电商环境下国际物流模式研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庞燕

    2015-01-01

    Cross-border e-business,a new way of global trade,has been developed rapidly in recent years. The continuous development of cross-border e-business has brought a huge demand for international logistics,and the adaptability of the operation mode of international logistics has become a bottleneck in the development of cross-border e-business. Under the environment of cross-border e-business,the international logistics mode is divided into export model and import mode. The export mode is mainly divided into such five categories as Post Express (China),International Express,overseas positions (border positions),cross-border logistics line and domestic express delivery of international services;the import logistics mode is mainly divided into such two categories as direct mail mode and transport mode. All the modes are adapted to different situations and have their advantages. But there are also many problems,such as long shipping time,packet loss rate,high operation and maintenance costs,limited range of receipt,limited coverage of overseas markets and so on,which can be solved by taking the following measures of building an international logistics service capacity evaluation system,improving the control capabilities of international logistics on the cost,lifting the intelligent monitoring and coordination capacity,strengthening response capacity of the international supply chain,and differentiating logistics service capacity.%跨境电商的迅猛发展,给国际物流业带来了机遇和挑战,同时,国际物流运作模式的适应性也成为跨境电商运营的瓶颈。目前,服务于跨境电商运作的国际物流出口模式包括邮政快递(中国)、国际快递、海外仓(边境仓)、跨境专线物流和国内快递的国际化服务,国际物流进口模式包括直邮模式和转运模式。不同模式分别适应于不同的情况,具有各自的优势,但是又都存在着运输时间长、丢包率高、运输成本高

  20. Cross-border entrepreneurship in a global world

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emontspool, Julie; Servais, Per

    2017-01-01

    This paper shows that international entrepreneurship and immigrant entrepreneurship increasingly intersect in a global world. Both research streams address cross-border entrepreneurial activity in parallel to each other. International entrepreneurship focuses on outgoing entrepreneurial activity......, while immigrant entrepreneurship mainly considers incoming entrepreneurial activity. This paper critically discusses such a dichotomy, highlighting how differentiating immigrant entrepreneurs and international entrepreneurs perpetuates orientalist assumptions about cross-border business activity....... Focusing on a entrepreneurship as behaviour, the paper proposes an alternative perspective to cross-border entrepreneurship, discussing cross-border opportunity identification and exploitation between an entrepreneur’s country of residence and a foreign country. This perspective provides a number...

  1. Mapping and assessing the environmental impacts of border tactical infrastructure in the Sky Island Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caroline Patrick-Birdwell; Sergio Avila-Villegas; Jenny Neeley; Louise Misztal

    2013-01-01

    In this project we mapped the different types of border barriers, identified impacts of border infrastructure on public and private lands and conducted spatial analyses within the approximately 200 miles of international border in the Sky Island region. The Sky Island region, bisected by the U.S.-Mexico border, is critically important for its biodiversity and...

  2. Firemen without borders

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    Fire knows no borders and neither should the tools for fighting it. It was with this aim in mind that delegates from 14 different countries came to CERN at the beginning of April to take part in the twentieth of a series of twice-yearly international conferences organised by the Federation of European Union Fire Officer Associations (FEU). This latest conference allowed participants to keep abreast of new developments with a view to improving the safety techniques used in their own countries. The first in the series was held in Tampere, Finland, in 1994. The FEU network's objective is to harmonise safety policies and modernise the fire-fighting programme. In particular, it aims to develop an international system for testing hotels' fire alarm systems and to improve language learning in all countries' fire-fighting services. "We want authorities throughout Europe to be aware of the importance of a good joint fire-prevention policy in order to avoid catastrophes such as the fire that destroyed Madrid's Winds...

  3. The California Border Health Collaborative: A Strategy for Leading the Border to Better Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Edwards Matthews III

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available There are hundreds of departments and organizations working on border health issues in the California/Baja California border region trying to protect and improve health without a collaborative structure that integrates jurisdictions and organizations. As a result, there is a need to effectively improve the health in the border region by coordinating these organizations to work together and benefit from each other’s best practices. The newly developed California Border Health Collaborative (CBHC can provide the leadership and collaborative culture to positively improve the health of the border region. This article aims to describe the development process of this collaborative to include key ingredients to success, the roles of mulit-level jurisdictions, and policy implications.This article describes the methods used to develop key aspects of collaborative leadership, strategic alignment and a common vision toward the building of this collective impact approach to border health. In addition, we describe the role of key local County (County of San Diego Live Well San Diego initiative, State, (California Department of Public Health- Office of Binational Border Health, Federal (US-Mexico Border Health Commission’s Leaders across Borders, Academia (e.g., University of California San Diego and San Diego State University and non-profit entities (e.g., Project Concern International, San Ysidro Health Center in forming the BHCC. Evaluating the consortium development process included a literature review of similar processes, a review of internal documents and an analysis of developmental events. To this point the CBHC has built a strong, cohesive collaborative on the U.S. side of the border. It is sharing and leveraging local expertise to address many border health issues. Even more importantly, the BHCC has reached a key stage in which it can effectively engage its Baja California, Mexico counterparts in a manner that will prove extremely powerful

  4. Strengthening border control and management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatzis, I.

    2008-01-01

    The world has experienced monumental changes in recent years. Globalization has brought many benefits. Business and commerce have increased and, as a result, brought us cheaper, more accessible goods from all regions of the world. We have access to relatively cheap and certainly much easier travel. We now live in a world of instant communications with mobile phones, laptops and 'BlackBerries'. However, there is a downside to globalization - transnationally organized crime and the reality of terrorism have grown. As more people cross borders, it is harder to detect criminals and terrorists. In the European Union, the internal borders of the now 27 member States have been dismantled. Effective international measures to counter organized crime and terrorist groups are of crucial importance. It is important to think globally and to act locally. The paper looks at some of the crime challenges and provides insight into the role and work of the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) in drugs and crime control. It focuses on border control initiatives conducted by the UNODC. (author)

  5. Straddling the border

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eilenberg, Michael

    2011-01-01

    border between the Indonesian province of West Kalimantan and the Malaysian state of Sarawak on the island of Borneo. Based on local narratives, the aim of this paper is to unravel the little known history of how the Iban segment of the border population in West Kalimantan became entangled in the highly...

  6. The Border Pedagogy Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazanjian, Christopher John

    2011-01-01

    Border pedagogy is a multicultural educational approach utilized in multicultural settings to help students understand their histories and experiences and how it affects their identities and cultures. The approach seeks to produce intellectuals that transcend physical and metaphysical boundaries. The goal of border pedagogy is to remove cultural…

  7. Business, brokers and borders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther, Olivier

    Using social network analysis, this paper studies the structure of trade networks that developed across West African borders. The first part aims to understand the centralization of cross-border trade networks. In a business environment where transaction costs are extremely high, we find...... developed with foreign partners from a different origin, religion or culture. In the second part, we study the spatial structure of trade networks and the influence of national borders on the development of social ties. The paper shows that the spatial form of trade networks is constrained by the historical...... origin of the traders engaged in cross-border activities. In those markets where trade is recent and where most of the traders are not native of the region, national borders are likely to exert a greater influence than in those regions where trade has pre-colonial roots....

  8. Why Border Enforcement Backfired.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, Douglas S; Durand, Jorge; Pren, Karen A

    2016-03-01

    In this article we undertake a systematic analysis of why border enforcement backfired as a strategy of immigration control in the United States. We argue theoretically that border enforcement emerged as a policy response to a moral panic about the perceived threat of Latino immigration to the United States propounded by self-interested bureaucrats, politicians, and pundits who sought to mobilize political and material resources for their own benefit. The end result was a self-perpetuating cycle of rising enforcement and increased apprehensions that resulted in the militarization of the border in a way that was disconnected from the actual size of the undocumented flow. Using an instrumental variable approach, we show how border militarization affected the behavior of unauthorized migrants and border outcomes to transform undocumented Mexican migration from a circular flow of male workers going to three states into an eleven-million person population of settled families living in 50 states.

  9. Changing European borders: from separation to interface? An introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jen Nelles

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this special issue is to address the evolution of European borders from a comparative perspective. This collection of papers spans a wide variety of topics in the realm of borderland studies. Although each engages with a single empirical or theoretical case collectively they identify nuances relevant to the theoretical elaboration of borders, and particularly contribute to the field of sub-national cross-border cooperation. In the course of its analysis each paper contributes to a broader understanding of the definition of cross-border regions; identifies a set of barriers to cooperation in these contexts; explores the role of identities on cooperation and of the role of borders in constructing those identities; and reflects on the socio-political meanings and uses of these international boundaries. This introduction discusses theoretical significance of these contributions to major debates in the study of borders and border regions.

  10. Cross-border reprogenetic services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couture, V; Drouin, R; Tan, S-L; Moutquin, J-M; Bouffard, C

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to synthesize the current knowledge on the international movement of patients and biopsied embryo cells for pre-implantation genetic diagnosis and its different applications. Thus far, few attempts have been made to identify the specific nature of this phenomenon called 'cross-border reprogenetic services'. There is scattered evidence, both empirical and speculative, suggesting that these services raise major issues in terms of service provision, risks for patients and the children-to-come, the legal liabilities of physicians, as well as social justice. To compile this evidence, this review uses the narrative overview protocol combined with thematic analysis. Five major themes have emerged from the literature at the conjunction of cross-border treatments and reprogenetics: 'scope', 'scale', 'motivations', 'concerns', and 'governance'. Similar themes have already been observed in the case of other medical tourism activities, but this review highlights their singularity with reprogenetic services. It emphasizes the diagnostic and autologous feature of reprogenetics, the constant risk of misdiagnosis, the restriction on certain tests for medically controversial conditions, and the uncertain accessibility of genetic counseling in cross-border settings. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Border Crossing Entry Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS) Border Crossing/Entry Data provides summary statistics for inbound crossings at the U.S.-Canadian and the U.S.-Mexican...

  12. Border of spacetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harada, Tomohiro; Nakao, Ken-ichi

    2004-01-01

    It is still uncertain whether the cosmic censorship conjecture is true or not. To get a new insight into this issue, we propose the concept of the border of spacetime as a generalization of the spacetime singularity and discuss its visibility. The visible border, corresponding to the naked singularity, is not only relevant to mathematical completeness of general relativity but also a window into new physics in strongly curved spacetimes, which is in principle observable

  13. Cross-border insolvencies as a global economic problem | Stander ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As a result of the continuing expansion of international trade and investment, there has been an increase in the occurrence of cross-border insolvencies. National insolvency laws have not kept pace with the trend, and there is a need to develop an efficient and fair system for the administration of cross-border insolvencies.

  14. Legal aspects of cross-border teleradiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pattynama, Peter M.T.

    2010-01-01

    The growth of cross-border teleradiology has created legal challenges that are insufficiently addressed by nation health laws. New legislation is currently under development at the European level. This article will look at the details of the existing and proposed legislation and the still unsettled issues and will discuss the implications for international teleradiology.

  15. Hmong Across Borders or Borders Across Hmong? Social and Political Influences Upon Hmong People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasit Leepreecha

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Hmong are a transnational ethnic people, because of their dispersal from China into Southeast Asia in the early 19th century and from Southeast Asia to Western countries from 1975 onward. However, even within the context of Southeast Asia and southern China, the Hmong are a transnational ethnic group, due to state boundaries and the enforcement of international laws.Scholars speak as though the Hmong population has crossed political and legal borders by their movement across state boundaries and international borders. However, I argue that it is the political, social, and legal borders that have cut across the Hmong people and subjected them to be citizens of different modern nation-states. Even in the present time, these borders still, and continuously, play important roles that cross and divide the Hmong people into distinctive subgroups and fragments. In this article, I will start by describing the generally understood situation of Hmong being across national borders, and then will explain my argument that borders are across the Hmong.

  16. Externalization and Border-induced Displacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemberg-Pedersen, Martin

    seeking children in Denmark is assessed as a form of liberal nationalism. Several problematic features with this system are discussed, such as the lacking Danish implementation of the Convention of the Rights of the Child, and the use of cultural generalizations in case evaluations. Chapter four conducts...... and the international banking sector all have overlapping interests in privatized border control. Chapter five identifies the multiple flows, technological, personnel, funds and data, maintaining Europe’s border infrastructure, As migrants are circulated between detention camps and countries, dumped in deserts...

  17. Border installations: the experience of Wackersdorf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heller, K.

    1988-01-01

    Following the decision of the Government of the Federal Republic of Germany to construct a fuel reprocessing plant (in the wider context of organising radioactive waste disposal) at Wackersdorf, 130 km from the Austrian border, actions were brought against the German constructor before Austrian and German courts. The author describes the mechanisms governing administrative procedures in both countries and their connection with public international law. He analyses the legal argumentations developed before the different courts as well as the debate on the concept of territoriality and border installations (NEA) [fr

  18. Meteors Without Borders: a global campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heenatigala, T.

    2012-01-01

    "Meteors Without Borders" is a global project, organized by Astronomers Without Borders and launched during the Global Astronomy Month in 2010 for the Lyrid meteor shower. The project focused on encouraging amateur astronomy groups to hold public outreach events for major meteor showers, conduct meteor-related classroom activities, photography, poetry and art work. It also uses social-media platforms to connect groups around the world to share their observations and photography, live during the events. At the International Meteor Conference 2011, the progress of the project was presented along with an extended invitation for collaborations for further improvements of the project.

  19. Border region studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makkonen, Teemu; Williams, Allan

    2016-01-01

    The contemporary conditions of academic capitalism exert pressures on researchers to avoid ‘peripheral’ journals and ‘unfashionable’ topics. Here an attempt is made to shed light onto the structure of one such ‘offbeat’ field, namely ‘border region studies’, by discussing its geographical...... distribution, key themes, significance and impact. The review suggests that border region studies can be considered a significant and important ‘branch’ of regional studies, which accounts for a small but increasing proportion of regional studies research particularly in Europe and North America. Four main...

  20. BTFS: The Border Trade Facilitation System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, L.R.

    1999-03-18

    The author demonstrates the Border Trade Facilitation System (BTFS), an agent-based bilingual e-commerce system built to expedite the regulation, control, and execution of commercial trans-border shipments during the delivery phase. The system was built to serve maquila industries at the US/Mexican border. The BTFS uses foundation technology developed here at Sandia Laboratories' Advanced Information Systems Lab (AISL), including a distributed object substrate, a general-purpose agent development framework, dynamically generated agent-human interaction via the World-Wide Web, and a collaborative agent architecture. This technology is also the substrate for the Multi-Agent Simulation Management System (MASMAS) proposed for demonstration at this conference. The BTFS executes authenticated transactions among agents performing open trading over the Internet. With the BTFS in place, one could conduct secure international transactions from any site with an Internet connection and a web browser. The BTFS is currently being evaluated for commercialization.

  1. Situational crime prevention and cross-border crime

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleemans, Edward R.; Soudijn, Melvin R J; Weenink, Anton W.

    2013-01-01

    This chapter explores the consequences of cross-border crime for situational crime prevention. Many types of organised crime involve international smuggling activities – such as drug trafficking, money laundering, smuggling illegal immigrants, and other transnational illegal activities. Based on

  2. Information Analysis Methodology for Border Security Deployment Prioritization and Post Deployment Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Booker, Paul M.; Maple, Scott A.

    2010-01-01

    Due to international commerce, cross-border conflicts, and corruption, a holistic, information driven, approach to border security is required to best understand how resources should be applied to affect sustainable improvements in border security. The ability to transport goods and people by land, sea, and air across international borders with relative ease for legitimate commercial purposes creates a challenging environment to detect illicit smuggling activities that destabilize national level border security. Smuggling activities operated for profit or smuggling operations driven by cross border conflicts where militant or terrorist organizations facilitate the transport of materials and or extremists to advance a cause add complexity to smuggling interdiction efforts. Border security efforts are further hampered when corruption thwarts interdiction efforts or reduces the effectiveness of technology deployed to enhance border security. These issues necessitate the implementation of a holistic approach to border security that leverages all available data. Large amounts of information found in hundreds of thousands of documents can be compiled to assess national or regional borders to identify variables that influence border security. Location data associated with border topics of interest may be extracted and plotted to better characterize the current border security environment for a given country or region. This baseline assessment enables further analysis, but also documents the initial state of border security that can be used to evaluate progress after border security improvements are made. Then, border security threats are prioritized via a systems analysis approach. Mitigation factors to address risks can be developed and evaluated against inhibiting factor such as corruption. This holistic approach to border security helps address the dynamic smuggling interdiction environment where illicit activities divert to a new location that provides less resistance

  3. Divided we fall... or rise? Tajikistan–Kyrgyzstan border dilemma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Matveeva

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The Kyrgyzstan–Tajikistan border remains one of the last undefined frontiers in the Commonwealth of Independent States, where the governments are reluctant to act against the wishes of their border communities and force delimitation solutions that may cause social protests. Uncertainty of territorial arrangements persists; however, the era of commonality and interdependence may be at its end due to the establishment of a border as a means of spatial control. Border drawing reflects the divergent development trajectories of the new states, seeking to break out of an interdependence pattern. Borderlands’ interactions become more conflictual. Generation change and a loss of common language work to widen the inter-communal gap. Ethnicity and identity factors grew in significance as association with the nation-states increased, and a border expresses a symbol of nationhood in this paradigm. Crucially, a border justifies a security regime, reinforced by international assistance policies, to project power over the territory. Actions of security structures cause grievances but also signify a protective arm of the state, a role that the border communities appreciate, themselves acting as a collective border guard and projecting their fears of encroachment onto the borders. The expansion of the Eurasian Economic Union became a new factor that could have served to alleviate the pressure to divide territory and assets, but this could work only if two countries joined it at the same period. With this option unavailable, a territorial impasse has been reached.

  4. Nuclear risk behind the border?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varjoranta, T.

    1995-01-01

    The condition of nuclear wastes and facilities in Russia and in the Baltic countries arouses concern in Finland. Russia has two large nuclear power plants, nuclear weapons, over 300 nuclear submarine reactors and more than ten icebreaker reactors in close proximity to Finland's eastern border. The Lithuanian Ingalina nuclear power plant is also situated close to Finland. Following the Chernobyl accident, considerable improvements have been made to the technology and safety culture of Russian nuclear power plants, for instance, through international support programmes. The unstable social climate in Russia is, however, slowing progress down. Yet it is certain that no accident in the power plants near Finland's borders would cause immediate health risks in Finland, or would threaten the health of large numbers of people in the long term, either. Russia has not always taken proper care of its nuclear waste. In particular, spent fuel from nuclear submarines stored in Northern Russia causes problems. Russians have disposed of some waste by dumping ship reactors, with their fuel, into the Arctic Ocean. Some nuclear-powered submarines have sunk with all their crew. Russia has also conducted many nuclear tests in the vicinity of Finland. (orig.)

  5. Border Crossing/Entry Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The dataset is known as “Border Crossing/Entry Data.” The Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS) Border Crossing/Entry Data provides summary statistics to the...

  6. Canada and Mexico Border Crossings

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Border Crossing Ports are points of entry for land modes along the U.S. - Canadian and U.S.- Mexcian borders. The ports of entry are located in 15 states along the...

  7. Business, brokers and borders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to show how a formal approach to networks can make a significant contribution to the study of cross-border trade in West Africa. Building on the formal tools and theories developed by Social Network Analysis, we examine the network organization of 136 large traders...... in two border regions between Niger, Nigeria, and Benin. In a business environment where transaction costs are extremely high, we find that decentralized networks are well adapted to the various uncertainties induced by long-distance trade. We also find that long-distance trade relies both on the trust...... and cooperation shared among local traders, and on the distant ties developed with foreign partners from a different origin, religion or culture. Studying the spatial structure of trade networks, we find that in those markets where trade is recent and where most of the traders are not native of the region...

  8. Border cell release

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mravec, Jozef

    2017-01-01

    Plant border cells are specialised cells derived from the root cap with roles in the biomechanics of root growth and in forming a barrier against pathogens. The mechanism of highly localised cell separation which is essential for their release to the environment is little understood. Here I present...... in situ analysis of Brachypodium distachyon, a model organism for grasses which possess type II primary cell walls poor in pectin content. Results suggest similarity in spatial dynamics of pectic homogalacturonan during dicot and monocot border cell release. Integration of observations from different...... species leads to the hypothesis that this process most likely does not involve degradation of cell wall material but rather employs unique cell wall structural and compositional means enabling both the rigidity of the root cap as well as detachability of given cells on its surface....

  9. La readmisión de extranjeros en situación irregular entre Estados miembros: consecuencias empírico-jurídicas de la gestión policial de las fronteras internas | The Readmission of Irregular Foreigner Within European Member States: Socio-Legal Consequences of a Police Management of The Internal Borders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iker Barbero González

    2017-12-01

    constructed with a very particular structure: as a border, with cabins for police men. In addition, the data of border readmission between these two states, under an agreement signed in 2002, is something to look at with special attention: 6.000 people deportaed along the Northen border. 70% of the people detained in the French Detention Centre of Hendaia in 2015 were caught at the border. This case study of the Spanish-French border will put some light in a disregarded topic and object: the internal borders. Regulation in these areas is diverse. Many exceptions and specificities apply, parallel or alternatively to the ordinary immigration rules, as a matter of exception of the Law. Considering all this we need to rethink the imaginary of a borderless Europe stated by the Schengen agreement. Following Balibar in “What is a border?” (2005 the controls multiplied all along the territory as a kaleidoscopic vision. The EU internal borders never disappeared but mutated into a police managed modelo of internal borders.

  10. Cross-Border Tourism and its Significance for Tourism Destinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman LIVANDOVSCHI

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This article is concerned with cross-border tourism. It enhances the importance of cross-border cooperation in tourism. Cross-border cooperation is a form of international cooperation, along with interregional, transitional and trans-frontier cooperation. Cross-border regions often share the same historical and cultural traditions and attractive natural landscapes, such is the case of the Republic of Moldova and Romania. In both cases, cross-border regions can benefit from cooperation – cooperation can help create greater diversity and differentiation of the range of tourism and environmental products; create economies of scale and make promotion more effective, and can help better address specific problems or issues for tourism development.

  11. [The Swiss border veterinary service in the 20th century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schluep, J

    2018-01-01

    The first animal disease act of Switzerland was released in 1872. Its revision in 1886 brought the basis for establishing a border veterinary inspection service. This service was first reporting to the federal Ministry of Agriculture; after 1914, the newly created Federal Veterinary Office became responsible for it. The border checks were first limited to live biungulate animals and horses; later on they were extended to meat and meat products and finally to venison and fishery products. At the beginning, part-time veterinarians with own practice were engaged. As the traffic increased, full time border veterinary inspectors joined the team; these were mainly active at the most important border posts (like Basel, St. Margrethen, Buchs, Chiasso, Geneva, more recently the international airports). The border veterinary inspection service, including the relevant instruction of the personnel, was (and is) financed with weight depending fees which included until 1966 a fee intended for financing the efforts to control livestocks epidemics.

  12. Over the border - the problems of uncontrolled radioactive materials crossing national borders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duftschmid, K.E. E-mail: k.duftschmid@aon.at

    2002-03-01

    Cross-border movement of radioactive materials and contaminated items, in particular metallurgical scrap, has become a problem of increasing importance. Radioactive sources out of regulatory control, now often called 'orphan sources', have frequently caused serious, even deadly, radiation exposures and widespread contamination. The United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission reported over 2300 incidents of radioactive materials found in recycled metal scrap and more than 50 accidental smeltings of radioactive sources. A further potentially serious problem is illicit trafficking in nuclear and other radioactive materials. In 1995 the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) started a programme to combat illicit trafficking in nuclear and other radioactive materials, which includes an international database on incidents of illicit trafficking, receiving reports from some 80 member states. For the period 1993-2000 the IAEA database includes 345 confirmed incidents. While from 1994-1996 the frequency declined significantly, this trend has been reversed since 1997, largely due to radioactive sources rather than nuclear material. This paper compares monitoring techniques for radioactive materials in scrap applied at steel plants and scrap yards with monitoring at borders, a completely different situation. It discusses the results of the 'Illicit Trafficking Radiation Detection Assessment Program', a large international pilot study, conducted in cooperation between the IAEA, the Austrian Government and the Austrian Research Centre Seibersdorf. The aim of this exercise was to derive realistic and internationally agreed requirements for border monitoring instrumentation. Finally the present extent of border monitoring installations is discussed. (author)

  13. Transboundary data management for nuclear plants near national borders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narrog, J.; Obrecht, R.

    1998-01-01

    Transboundary data management was decided in the EU in case of incidents and accidents. The information is sent by codified messages in accordance with the Convention Information Structure (CIS). Within the international collaboration regarding nuclear installations near national borders, fixed telephone and tele-copy connections are used. In addition to that an online data exchange between France and Germany is being installed. This facilitates and accelerates ascertaining the radiological situation for both partners across the national borders. (author)

  14. Leishmaniasis: sickness without borders | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2017-01-10

    Jan 10, 2017 ... Leishmaniasis, also known as black fever, is a parasitic disease ... stray dogs and heaps of garbage, the family lives in a wealthy neighbourhood of ... does not breed in stagnant water but in organic matter left on the ground.

  15. Cross border relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi; Sriram, Sujata

    2010-01-01

    in which they were born. These movements also imply human relationships across the borders in different contexts with various cultural, psychological consequences. Relationships of members of migrant groups with each other, and also with the host community have important implications on the health and well......-being of not just the migrant population, but also the host communities. These relationships represent the microcosm of societal and cultural integration and cohesion at the broader levels. Studies of how and how well migrants, especially youth handle migration indicate transformations in paradigms as both...... acculturative stress and developmental possibilities are realities experienced in the search of new worlds and new opportunities. The symposia will include such changes from Denmark, India, UK and the USA, covering theoretical, methodological issues including the ethical aspects. Themes involved in crossing...

  16. Border mythology: Turner and modernity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge E. Brenna B.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Modernity has been creating spaces, new boundaries and borders, as metaphysical, mythological and symbolic marks of physical and imaginary territories. Modern space and its borders are metaphors, boundaries that are created, walls that rise to identify with some and categorize others. In this short paper we want to approach the problem of the transformation of the idea of border (geographical, cultural, symbolic, etc., for a reflection on the transformations of that civilized obsession called border. The border has always been a reference in facing the identities, names, symbols, different imaginary: it is more confrontational line between two otherness. From the previous framework, we reflect on Turnerian mythology, as we believe that behind the creation of the imagination of the northern border is the mythical vision of the American frontier as ideological canon that explains and confirms the presence of the white race in a border re–made in the image and likeness of the “American Dream”. Frederick Turner’s reflection on the role of the frontier in American history is not only the study of the importance of progress towards the West but –even more so, is the analysis of meaning that had the American frontier as a historical process that ended in 1893, as Turner said, but rather extended into the twentieth century and continues to constantly shaping the process of territorialization of the border.

  17. Border trees of complex networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villas Boas, Paulino R; Rodrigues, Francisco A; Travieso, Gonzalo; Fontoura Costa, Luciano da

    2008-01-01

    The comprehensive characterization of the structure of complex networks is essential to understand the dynamical processes which guide their evolution. The discovery of the scale-free distribution and the small-world properties of real networks were fundamental to stimulate more realistic models and to understand important dynamical processes related to network growth. However, the properties of the network borders (nodes with degree equal to 1), one of its most fragile parts, remained little investigated and understood. The border nodes may be involved in the evolution of structures such as geographical networks. Here we analyze the border trees of complex networks, which are defined as the subgraphs without cycles connected to the remainder of the network (containing cycles) and terminating into border nodes. In addition to describing an algorithm for identification of such tree subgraphs, we also consider how their topological properties can be quantified in terms of their depth and number of leaves. We investigate the properties of border trees for several theoretical models as well as real-world networks. Among the obtained results, we found that more than half of the nodes of some real-world networks belong to the border trees. A power-law with cut-off was observed for the distribution of the depth and number of leaves of the border trees. An analysis of the local role of the nodes in the border trees was also performed

  18. Shaping the Victim: Borders, security, and human trafficking in Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Campbell

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Borders are productive sites where knowledge is gathered and migrant populations are formed. The knowledge gathered from victims of trafficking reinforces a victim narrative that represents a perceived threat to society by highlighting violence, criminality, coercion, and naivety. Using Albania as a case in point, the article looks at trafficked people and the narratives of victimhood that surround them. In the case of trafficked people, the border projected out towards other states produces a discursively defined victim of trafficking. When projected back within the national territory, the border essentially produces a criminalised sex worker. To argue this point, the article discusses the role victims of trafficking play in the EU and looks at how international norms espoused by the OSCE and IOM have prepped the Albanian border for EU ascension and created the means for governable populations within Albania.

  19. Smuggling and cross border shopping of tobacco in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joossens, L; Raw, M

    1995-05-27

    Governments have recently become concerned about cross border shopping and smuggling because it can decrease tax revenue. The tobacco industry predicted that, with the removal of border controls in the European Union, price differences between neighbouring countries would lead to a diversion of tobacco trade, legally and illegally, to countries with cheaper cigarettes. According to them this diversion would be through increased cross border shopping for personal consumption or through increased smuggling of cheap cigarettes from countries with low tax to countries with high tax, where cigarettes are more expensive. These arguments have been used to urge governments not to increase tax on tobacco products. The evidence suggests, however, that cross border shopping is not yet a problem in Europe and that smuggling is not of cheap cigarettes to expensive countries. Instead, more expensive "international" brands are smuggled into northern Europe and sold illegally on the streets of the cheaper countries of southern Europe.

  20. Structure of the human vitreoretinal border region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heegaard, Steffen

    1994-01-01

    Øjenpatologi, vitreoretinal border region, inner limiting membrane, retina, topographical variation, human......Øjenpatologi, vitreoretinal border region, inner limiting membrane, retina, topographical variation, human...

  1. three intelligence methodologies for border defence and border

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Of these there are three intelligence methodologies applicable to this article – trends ..... globalisation associated with open and artificial borders and ever increasing costs of weapon ..... the technological development of mass tourist transport.

  2. Securing the Borders: Creation of the Border Patrol Auxiliary

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-05-05

    DATES COVERED 00-00-2007 to 00-00-2007 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Securing the Borders: Creation of the Border Patrol Auxillary 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER...Substantial work experience which demonstrates an ability to (1) take charge, make sound decisions , and maintain composure in stressful situations; (2...applicable laws, court decisions , and law enforcement procedures; and 4. Develop and maintain contact with the network of informants. ¾ To qualify at

  3. Australia and the International Insolvency Paradigm

    OpenAIRE

    McCormack, G; Hargovan, A

    2015-01-01

    Australia’s response to international insolvency is the Cross-Border Insolvency Act 2008 (Cth), which implements the UNCITRAL Model Law on CrossBorder Insolvency. The Act is designed to facilitate international trade and investment by improving the administration of cross-border insolvency cases, including the recovery of assets located overseas. However, the Act is not a comprehensive international insolvency statute. Apart from the ubiquitous and overarching common law and the Cross-Border ...

  4. Crossing borders via mental bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keil, Dirk

    The project studies cross-border regional integration in Europe drawing on the example of the emerging Danish-German Femern Belt Region. It focuses on cross-border networking within public administration as part of regional integra- tion. My central question is how national-cultural differences...... influence coopera- tion, coordination and collaboration in administrative cross-border networks. In this connection the project asks after the perception of regional integration seen from the different national backgrounds. The research concentrates on the group of decision makers within the field of public...... administration, and in specific on the attempt to initiate and promote cross-border regional integration via the building of mental bridges between Danish and German parts of the Femern Belt Region. Here one of the first projects aiming primarily at building mental bridges in the Femern Belt Region...

  5. Firemen without borders

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    20 delegates from 14 different countries came to CERN at the beginning of April to take part in the twentieth of a series of twice-yearly international conferences organised by the Federation of European Union Fire Officer Associations (FEU)

  6. Liouville gravity on bordered surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaskolski, Z.

    1991-11-01

    The functional quantization of the Liouville gravity on bordered surfaces in the conformal gauge is developed. It was shown that the geometrical interpretation of the Polyakov path integral as a sum over bordered surfaces uniquely determines the boundary conditions for the fields involved. The gravitational scaling dimensions of boundary and bulk operators and the critical exponents are derived. In particular, the boundary Hausdorff dimension is calculated. (author). 21 refs

  7. State borders in ETRS89 coordinates – reality or fiction ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Poláček

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Common unique ETRS89 coordinates of the state boundaries are crucial for cross-border data harmonization for international projects. In the frame of European Location Framework (ELF project Czech Office for Surveying, Mapping and Cadastre (ČÚZK cooperates with Poland on egde-matching on the state border. During the preliminary phase of the project was some difficulty identified. If the state boundary is measured and administered in the national coordinate system, the accuracy of the transformation into the ETRS89 is influenced by discrepancies of the local trigonometric network, which results in two slightly different state boundaries. Final solution for Europe – international treaties on the state borders based on the ETRS89 coordinates – is necessary, but it will take years.

  8. Avocados Crossing Borders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas; Bjørn-Andersen, Niels; Vatrapu, Ravi

    2014-01-01

    findings indicate that the implementation of a common integrated information infrastructure could significantly contribute to reducing costs especially by speeding up processes, by providing transparency in the flow and reducing the lead time for international trade of fruit and vegetables. Further...... Union. The methodology of the paper is a revelatory case study of a particular trade lane from Kenya to The Netherlands. Drawing on Activity Theory Framework and theories on Information Infrastructures, we provide an analysis of the complex inter-organizational systems and infrastructures involved...... in the selected case of international trade, identify critical issues in information flows, and propose ideas for design principles for a new information infrastructures for international trade. Our analysis shows that the existing infrastructure can be described as very fragmented and grossly ineffective. Our...

  9. Avocados Crossing Borders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas; Vatrapu, Ravi; Bjørn-Andersen, Niels

    2018-01-01

    This paper investigates the case of shipments of containers with avocados from farmers in Africa to grocery store shelves in the European Union. We find 3 predominant challenges to containerized shipping that effectively become trade barriers: international trade cost, lead time uncertainty......, and security risks. We use activity theory to describe, understand, and analyze the shipping activity in the international trade ecosystem with focus on physical objects and their related information. We find that the shipment becomes problematic and can be characterized as a runaway object...... in the heterogeneous and multiple organizational setting of international trade. Our analysis of shipping reveals (1) inefficient collaboration across loosely coupled activity systems and (2) fragmented information infrastructures. We propose the solution of Shipping Information Pipeline, a shared information...

  10. Cross-border merger & acquisition activity and revealed comparative advantage in manufacturing industries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brakman, Steven; Garretsen, Harry; van Marrewijk, Charles; van Witteloostuijn, Arjen

    2013-01-01

    We estimate an important implication of oligopolistic international trade modeling for the predicted pattern of cross-border mergers and acquisitions (M&As). Our core argument is that cross-border M&As are, among other factors, driven by cross-country differences in comparative advantage. We find

  11. Cross-Border Labor Organizing in the Garment and Automobile Industries: The Phillips Van-Heusen and Ford Cuautitlan Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralph Armbruster

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The globalization of the world economy has created new opportunities for cross-border labor organizing. In this paper I examine two case studies of cross -border labor organizing. One case involves Phillips Van-Hernen (PVH workers in Guatemala City, and the other Ford automobile workers in Cuautitlan, Mexico. The PVH case illustrates the potential for cross-border labor organizing in the highly mobile garment industry. The PVH workers' union and their cross-border allies adopted a "strategic cross-border organizing model" that included consumer and trade pressure, an active international trade secretariat, and several other strategies, to achieve an amazing victory. However, the Ford Cuautitlan case demonstrates that corporatist state-labor relations and internal union conflicts have limited cross-border organizing in the automobile industry. These two case studies and their different outcomes have many important lessons for academics and activists interested in cross-border labor organizing.

  12. Trade transport and environment linkages at the U.S.-Mexico border: which policies matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Linda; Das, Monica

    2011-03-01

    We apply a fixed-effects model to examine the impact of trade and environmental policies on air quality at ports along the U.S.-Mexico border. We control for other factors influencing air quality, such as air quality of cities near the border, volume of traffic flows and congestion. Results show the air quality improved after 2004, when the diesel engine policy was applied. We see mixed results for the trade policy, whose implementation time varies across ports along the international border. Controlling for air quality in cities near the border is essential for assessing the policy contributions to air quality. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Learning without Borders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Sue

    2013-01-01

    In 2010, State College Area School District (SCASD) in Pennsylvania, USA, agreed to help develop a virtual international classroom exchange called the Schoolwires Greenleaf program. The program's project-based curriculum paired U.S. students with Chinese learners to collaborate, foster global citizenship, and prepare students for the digital work…

  14. African Border Disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    from a nationally-oriented militia group, to an internationally networked organization. The third part of the book explores how violent extremist organizations conceptualize state boundaries and territory and, reciprocally, how do the civil society and the state respond to the rise of transnational...

  15. Infectious disease morbidity in the US region bordering Mexico, 1990-1998.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, T J; Bryan, R T

    2000-11-01

    The United States and Mexico share an international boundary approximately 3000 km long. This border separates 2 nations with great differences in health status. The objective of this study was to assess morbidity due to infectious diseases in the US region bordering Mexico. The incidence between 1990 and 1998 of 22 nationally notifiable infectious diseases was compared between border and nonborder regions. Disease rates, reflected as rate ratios, were higher in the border region for botulism, brucellosis, diphtheria, hepatitis A, measles, mumps, rabies, rubella, salmonellosis, and shigellosis than in either of 2 nonborder comparison regions. These data indicate that incidence rates for a variety of infectious diseases of public health importance are significantly higher in the United States along the Mexican border than in nonborder regions. These results suggest that an inadequate public health infrastructure may contribute to excess morbidity due to infectious diseases in the border region.

  16. Business across borders between Colombia and Venezuela: from trade to social conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jhon Antuny Pabón León

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Border relations in the «living borders» have been an object of study due to the conditions under which the economy of the borders is developed. Investigations carried out between North Santander and Táchira State border are analyzed, comparing them with the principles of the German (the state-nation and French (the border area Schools. Studies of the Chamber of Commerce of Cúcuta are analyzed and discussed. It is concluded that the economy of North Santander is affected more by political and ideological positions than by international trade. Governments continue to ignore the reality of two peoples who share a border region, as it is exposed by the principles of the French School.

  17. Radiation safety without borders initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dibblee, Martha; Dickson, Howard; Krieger, Ken; Lopez, Jose; Waite, David; Weaver, Ken

    2008-01-01

    The Radiation Safety Without Borders (RSWB) initiative provides peer support to radiation safety professionals in developing countries, which bolsters the country's infrastructure and may lead the way for IRPA Associate membership. The Health Physics Society (HPS) recognizes that many nations do not possess the infrastructure to adequately control and beneficially use ionizing radiation. In a substantial number of countries, organized radiation protection programs are minimal. The RSWB initiative relies on HPS volunteers to assist their counterparts in developing countries with emerging health physics and radiation safety programs, but whose resources are limited, to provide tools that promote and support infrastructure and help these professionals help themselves. RSWB experience to date has shown that by providing refurbished instruments, promoting visits to a HPS venue, or visiting a country just to look provide valuable technical and social infrastructure experiences often missing in the developing nation's cadre of radiation safety professionals. HPS/RSWB with the assistance of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) pairs chapters with a country, with the expectation that the country's professional radiation safety personnel will form a foreign HPS chapter, and the country eventually will become an IRPA Associate. Although still in its formative stage, RSWB nonetheless has gotten valuable information in spite of the small number of missions. The RSWB initiative continues to have significant beneficial impacts, including: Improving the radiation safety infrastructure of the countries that participate; Assisting those countries without professional radiation safety societies to form one; Strengthening the humanitarian efforts of the United States; Enhancing Homeland Security efforts through improved control of radioactive material internationally. Developing countries, including those in Latin America, underwritten by IAEA, may take advantage of resources

  18. Global Liquidity and Drivers of Cross-Border Bank Flows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cerutti, E.; Claessens, S.; Ratnovski, L.

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides a definition of global liquidity consistent with its meaning as the "ease of financing" in international financial markets. Using a longer time series and broader sample of countries than in previous studies, it identifies global factors driving cross-border bank flows, alongside

  19. beyond the border war: new perspectives on southern africa's late ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hennie

    Price: R 265.00 (SA): R273.00 ; Euros: 34.00 ; (R578.00 through Kalahari.net) ... they viewed as necessary cross-border-, deep penetration and/or pre-emptive .... transgressions with long term consequences which will evoke international law.

  20. Airline loyalty (programs) across borders : A geographic discontinuity approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Gerben; Behrens, Christiaan; van Ommeren, Jos

    2018-01-01

    We analyze brand loyalty advantages of national airlines in their domestic countries using geocoded data from a major international frequent flier program. We employ a geographic discontinuity design that estimates discontinuities in program activity at the national borders of the program's

  1. The borders that divide, the borders that unite: (Re)interpreting Garo Processes of identification in India and Bangladesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bal, E.W.; Claquin-Chambugong, T.

    2014-01-01

    The people known as Garos, from the Garo Hills and adjacent (lowland) areas in India and Bangladesh, have never constituted one unified and self-defined in-group, although British colonial rule indeed produced a feeble notion of an imagined Garo community. Hence, the international border of 1947

  2. Cross-border transitions : Navigating conflict and political change through community education practices in Myanmar and the Thai border

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maber, E.J.T.

    2016-01-01

    Political oscillations in Myanmar and Thailand, between militarisation and democratic reform, have prompted a rapid renegotiation of the alignments, goals and priorities of non-state education providers, both international and community-based, along the two countries’ border. This paper explores the

  3. Cross-Border Transitions: Navigating Conflict and Political Change through Community Education Practices in Myanmar and the Thai Border

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maber, Elizabeth J. T.

    2016-01-01

    Political oscillations in Myanmar and Thailand, between militarisation and democratic reform, have prompted a rapid renegotiation of the alignments, goals and priorities of non-state education providers, both international and community-based, along the two countries' border. This paper explores the responses to shifts in political environment…

  4. Physicists without borders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeandron, Michelle

    2008-06-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), which has its headquarters in Vienna, Austria, is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) that seeks to promote the safe, secure and peaceful use of nuclear technology. It has three main areas of expertise. It is the world's nuclear inspectorate, sending inspectors to more than 140 UN member states, from Brazil to Japan, to verify that nuclear technology is not being used for military purposes. The IAEA also helps countries to improve their nuclear safety procedures and to prepare for emergencies. Finally, it serves as a focal point for the world's development of nuclear science and technology across all fields.

  5. The 'border within': inhabiting the border in Trieste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bialasiewicz, L.; Minca, C.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we look to the Italian border city of Trieste-at various points in its past, a cosmopolitan port, Austria's urbs europeissima, but also a battleground for competing understandings of territoriality, identity, and belonging and a paragon of the violent application of an ethnoterritorial

  6. Conception of integrator in cross-border E-commerce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arkadiusz Kawa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background:  E-commerce is one of the most dynamic and important sectors of the economy. The latest trend in this market is cross-border trade. It is based on selling products to customers who are located in other countries. However, it is connected to several problems, such as a high cost and long time of delivery, language barriers, different legal and tax conditionings, etc. Methods: The studies were conducted on the basis of the authors' experience in the field of e-commerce. The issue of cross-border commerce was mainly analysed with the use of reports of the European Commission. The aim of the article is to propose a conception of an integrator of cross-border e-commerce, which will make it possible, among other things, to solve logistic problems. Results: The article presents an authorial conception of an integrator in cross-border e-commerce. Its main task is to integrate the whole supply chain. Thanks to the economies of scale, obtained as a result of consolidation of parcels from many e-shops, the integrator is able to achieve lower delivery costs in international transport, make returns of goods more effective and serve customers from different countries better. Conclusions: The conception of an integrator in cross-border commerce proposed in the article may increase competitiveness of micro and small e-enterprises, especially in the international arena. Moreover, applying this conception may contribute to a rise in the attractiveness of cross-border commerce, which, as result of a greater sale level, would contribute to an increase in the total e-commerce.

  7. Peculiarities of general atmospheric circulation above Kazakhstan and trans-bordering transfer of polluted substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turulina, G.K.; Muradov, M.A.; Sal'nikov, V.G.; Bogacev, V.P.

    1997-01-01

    Essential information is gathered for analysis and typification of atmospheric processes observed above Kazakhstan during studied period (1964-1986). Peculiarities of atmospheric processes and trans-bordering transfer of polluted substances above Kazakhstan territory are researched. Received data indicate on actuality of the problem for Republic of Kazakhstan and necessity of signing of the International Convention on trans-bordering pollution with purpose of integration in fulfillment of International Program of observation and assessment of spreading of air pollutants in Europe. (author)

  8. Price transmission in the Swiss wheat market: does sophisticated border protection make the difference?

    OpenAIRE

    Esposti, Roberto; Listorti, Giulia

    2014-01-01

    This study deals with horizontal wheat price transmission from the international markets to the domestic Swiss market. The analysis takes into account trade policies implemented at the borders that might shelter the domestic market from international markets fluctuations, as well as the presence of explosive behavior in some of the price series. Furthermore, the Swiss case is peculiar due to the presence of different border policies for wheat according to its domestic use, food or feed. The p...

  9. First Philosophy in the Border Zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viggo Rossvaer

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article will be devoted to such problems as a idea of subsidiarity, a cosmopolitan right and a visitor figure in context and interpretation of ancient and modern philosophy. The article deals with the concept of subsidiarity which is taken as a point of departure for the discipline of borderology, an academic study with Kantian roots. Borderology, according to the principle of subsidiarity, can present as a new field of investigation which invites philosophers and social scientists to replace a “top down” with a “bottom up” procedure. The figure of the visitor is close linked with the experience of subsidiarity which means the freedom and initiative below the level of State. In Immanuel Kant’s strategy for perpetual peace, the figure of the visitor launches a critique of a tendency to self-aggrandizement, characteristic of the modern State and thereby a defense of the political independence of local border regions. The visitor also invites us to see, think and work to liberate our own subjectivity from false voices of sovereignty. Kant articulates the offer of the visitor by bringing in the term Verkehr. Using Kant scholar Otfried Höffe,s methodology we show how idea of subsidiarity is overlooked in international political theory, explain some constitutive principles of borderology, from which is more important is the methodological principle of an intercultural discourse and presents borderology as an anti-Huntingtonian model for border studies.

  10. Border Crossing/Entry Data - Boarder Crossing

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Border Crossing/Entry Data provides summary statistics for incoming crossings at the U.S.-Canadian and the U.S.-Mexican border at the port level. Data are available...

  11. Structure of the animal vitreoretinal border region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heegaard, Steffen

    1994-01-01

    Øjenpatologi, vitreoretinal border region, inner limiting membrane of the retina, animals, ultrastructure, comparative anatomy......Øjenpatologi, vitreoretinal border region, inner limiting membrane of the retina, animals, ultrastructure, comparative anatomy...

  12. Developing a simulation for border safeguarding

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Rooyen, S

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Border safeguarding is the defence of territorial integrity and sovereignty, and this is a joint responsibility of the military and the police. Military doctrine for conventional warfare is not sufficient for Border Safeguarding operations due...

  13. Introduction: Borders in Translation and Intercultural Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Evans

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The introduction to this special issue discusses the notion of border and its position in current scholarship in translation studies and intercultural communication. It then analyses ways in which borders can be useful for thinking, focusing particularly on Walter Mignolo’s notion of “border thinking”. It reviews how borders are viewed in both translation studies and intercultural communication and offers some possible directions for future research before introducing the papers in this special issue.

  14. Briefing : the Eritrean-Ethiopian border dispute

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbink, G.J.

    1998-01-01

    On 6 May 1998, a violent conflict erupted in the Ethiopian-Eritrean border area. This article contends that this border crisis is neither unexpected nor the result of a real border dispute. Rather, it is due to three factors: the particular history and relationship of the two insurgent movements

  15. European Banks Straddling Borders: Risky or Rewarding?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Duijm (Patty); D. Schoenmaker (Dirk)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractTheory suggests that cross-border banking is beneficial as long as there is a non-perfect correlation across country-specific risks. Using a unique hand-collected dataset with cross-border loans for the 61 largest European banks, we find that cross-border banking in general decreases

  16. Cross-Border Exposures and Financial Contagion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Degryse, H.A.; Elahi, M.A.; Penas, M.F.

    2009-01-01

    Integrated financial markets provide opportunities for expansion and improved risk sharing, but also pose threats of contagion risk through cross-border exposures. This paper examines cross-border contagion risk over the period 1999-2006. To that purpose we use aggregate cross-border exposures of

  17. Old Borders and New Bordering Capabilities: Cities as Frontier Zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saskia Sassen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The global city is a new frontier zone. Deregulation, privatization, and new fiscal and monetary policies create the formal instruments to construct their equivalent of the old military “fort”. The city is also a strategic frontier zone for those who lack power, and allows the making of informal politics. At the same time the border is a mix of regimes, marked by protections and opportunities for corporations and high-level professionals, and implies confinement, capture and detention for migrants. The essay discusses the transformation of the city in a frontier zone and analyses the separation between the capabilities entailed by territoriality and the geographic territory tout court. The analysis focuses on the effects of neoliberal policies that, far from making this a borderless world, have actually multiplied the bordered spaces that allow firms and markets to move across conventional borders. Cities are therefore one of the key sites where new neoliberal norms are made and where new identities emerge.

  18. Borders in Nigeria’s Relations with Cameroun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omolara Akinyemi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Border incidences are sources of irritants in the relationships between Nigeria and Cameroun. Examples are not far-fetched from Bakassi Peninsula imbroglio leading to hostile relationship between the two countries, and subsequent ruling of Bakassi Peninsula to Cameroun by the International Court of Justice in 2002. Indeed, this also led to the revival of the Joint Cameroun-Nigeria Border Commission entrusted with the task of demarcation of the Land and Maritime boundaries between the two countries, as mandated by the 2002 judgment. However, the demarcation exercise has caused confusion and anxiety with the inhabitants of the Cross River State, Nigeria, resulting in the inability of the team to locate pillar 133A, thereby erecting a new pillar. This exercise is lacking in proper consideration of the effects on the people in the demarcation of the land boundary. Thus, the paper finds out that the demarcationof the Land boundary which the International Court of Justice perceived as the antidote to the border skirmishes between Nigeria and Cameroun is likely to generate to another border conflicts between the two countries. This is so because, the erecting of new pillars will lead to another claim of some parts of Nigeria to Cameroun. Hence, the demarcation of Land boundary if not properly checked may be an outcome of future skirmishes and chaos.

  19. Globalization and Cross-Border Labor Organizing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralph Armbruster

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The globalization of the world economy has opened up new possibilities for cross-border labor organizing. In fact, several U.S. unions are working together with unions from Mexico, Honduras, Guatemala, the Dominican Republic, Japan, South Korea, and many European nations. For example, over the last several years, UNITE (Union of Needletrades, Industrial, and Textile Employees, the AFL-CIO, and the international garment workers trade secretariat have worked directly with maquiladora workers in Honduras and the Dominican Republic. These efforts led to the formation of several labor unions and the first contracts ever negotiated in the maquiladoras in the Dominican Republic. In addition, labor rights and solidarity organizations, like the Campaign for Labor Rights, Witness for Peace, and the US/Guatemala Labor Education Project (US/GLEP, along with many other groups, have also played key roles in the formation of maquiladora unions in Nicaragua and Guatemala.

  20. European Enlargement Across Rounds and Beyond Borders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enlargement has been an almost constant part of European integration history – going from an improvised exercise to the EU’s most developed foreign policy tool. However, neither the longevity nor the complexity of enlargement has been properly historicised. European Enlargement across Rounds...... and Beyond Borders offers three interdisciplinary, innovative, and indeed radical, new ways of understanding and analysing EC/EU enlargements: first, tracing Longue Durée developments; second, investigating enlargement Beyond the Road to Membership; and third, exploring the Entangled Exchanges and synergies...... scholars, should engage with it. This publication will be of key interest to scholars and students of modern European history and politics, the European integration process, EU studies, and more broadly multilateral international institutions, history, law and the social sciences....

  1. Requirements for cross-border spatial planning technologies in the European context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Susanne

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This communication paper investigates requirements for cross-border spatial planning technologies. We refer to European cross-border regions, which are located in the European Baltic Sea Region. We hypothesize that there is no efficient cross-border spatial planning without engagement from various stakeholders, supported by novel spatial planning technologies. This study presents the results from a survey that identifies the requirements for spatial planning technologies adequate for cross - border regions. On the basis of this survey, carried out within the INTECRE project partners coming from the Baltic Sea Region, the study provides general recommendations about cross - border spatial planning technologies. Addressed in the survey are the following central issues: definition of the scope of such technologies, the data base and international planning data provision, features and properties of planning technologies, and stakeholder involvement. The research findings are transferable to wider European and extra- European contexts.

  2. Taiwan's Travel and Border Health Measures in Response to Zika.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Li-Li; Tsai, Yu-Hui; Lee, Wang-Ping; Liao, Szu-Tsai; Wu, Li-Gin; Wu, Yi-Chun

    Zika virus has recently emerged as a worldwide public health concern. Travel and border health measures stand as one of the main strategies and frontline defenses in responding to international epidemics. As of October 31, 2016, Taiwan has reported 13 imported cases, 5 of which were detected through routine entry screening and active monitoring at international airports. This article shares Taiwan's disease surveillance activities at designated points of entry and travel and border health measures in response to Zika. The Taiwan government collaborates with its tourism industry to disseminate information about precautionary measures and encourages tour guides to report suspected individuals or events to activate early response measures. Taiwan also engages in vector control activities at points of entry, including targeting aircraft from countries where vector-borne diseases are endemic, implementing mosquito sweep measures, and collecting vector surveillance data. In future emerging and reemerging disease events, entry surveillance at designated points of entry may enable early detection of diseases of international origin and more rapid activation of public health preparedness activities and international collaboration. Taiwan will continue to maximize border and travel health measures in compliance with IHR (2005) requirements, which rely on continued risk assessment, practical implementation activities, and engagement with all stakeholders.

  3. Taiwan's Travel and Border Health Measures in Response to Zika

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Li-Li; Tsai, Yu-Hui; Lee, Wang-Ping; Liao, Szu-Tsai; Wu, Li-Gin

    2017-01-01

    Zika virus has recently emerged as a worldwide public health concern. Travel and border health measures stand as one of the main strategies and frontline defenses in responding to international epidemics. As of October 31, 2016, Taiwan has reported 13 imported cases, 5 of which were detected through routine entry screening and active monitoring at international airports. This article shares Taiwan's disease surveillance activities at designated points of entry and travel and border health measures in response to Zika. The Taiwan government collaborates with its tourism industry to disseminate information about precautionary measures and encourages tour guides to report suspected individuals or events to activate early response measures. Taiwan also engages in vector control activities at points of entry, including targeting aircraft from countries where vector-borne diseases are endemic, implementing mosquito sweep measures, and collecting vector surveillance data. In future emerging and reemerging disease events, entry surveillance at designated points of entry may enable early detection of diseases of international origin and more rapid activation of public health preparedness activities and international collaboration. Taiwan will continue to maximize border and travel health measures in compliance with IHR (2005) requirements, which rely on continued risk assessment, practical implementation activities, and engagement with all stakeholders. PMID:28418744

  4. "The perfect business": human trafficking and Lao-Thai cross-border migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molland, Sverre

    2010-01-01

    Over the past few years some governments and development organizations have increasingly articulated cross-border mobility as "trafficking in persons". The notion of a market where traffickers prey on the "supply" of migrants that flows across international borders to meet the "demand" for labour has become a central trope among anti-trafficking development organizations. This article problematizes such economism by drawing attention to the oscillating cross-border migration of Lao sex workers within a border zone between Laos and Thailand. It illuminates the incongruity between the recruitment of women into the sex industry along the Lao-Thai border and the market models that are employed by the anti-trafficking sector. It discusses the ways in which these cross-border markets are conceived in a context where aid programming is taking on an increasingly important role in the politics of borders. The author concludes that allusions to ideal forms of knowledge (in the guise of classic economic theory) and an emphasis on borders become necessary for anti-trafficking programmes in order to make their object of intervention legible as well as providing post-hoc rationalizations for their continuing operation.

  5. [The health of migrants at the Greece-Macedonia border].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moutamalle, Raphaël

    2016-01-01

    At the border between Greece and Macedonia, a transit camp for refugees is turning into a permanent camp. The management of the health emergency is assured by international teams from several humanitarian organisations, including the French Red Cross. The organisation of the care team, the cultural differences and the lack of resources are just some of the factors to be considered. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Managing State Border in the Context of Migration Crisis in Europe: Lithuanian Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelija Pūraitė

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper has been the achievement of the level of scientific knowledge on the subject of research in terms of establishment and analysis of economic effectiveness of state border governance in Lithuania in the context of increasing migration in European Union. The objective also has been to suggest the possible measures for improvement of state border management bearing in mind the migration perspectives. There is an unexpressed demand on migration (especially immigration as an economic and social phenomenon to have some positive impact on the economy of target country. It’s nevertheless true, that from political point of view the migration trends are usually being associated with the economic, social, security challenges in target countries. European Union countries which are the external borders of EU face with even more specific obstacles – the effective management of borders and necessity to bare costs of controlling migration flows. Therefore the effective use of economic and financial measures managing state borders is of the utmost importance reaching common goals of public security, stability, respect for European values and rule of law. The paper contains results of the analysis of international, regional and national legal acts and the secondary analysis of statistical data of European Union agencies and international organizations. The financial data of operational activities of Lithuanian State Border Guard Service is analysed, aiming to reveal the correlation between the effective management of state border control and financial support of the state and EU institutions.

  7. Feasibility Analysis of Developing Cross-border Network Education in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Jun

    In the era of economic globalization, strengthen of international cooperation on network education is a general trend. Although China has not made commitments about the market access and national treatment of cross-border supply in Schedule of Specific Commitments on Services, the basic conditions of network education development in China have been met. The Chinese government should formulate strategies for the development of cross-border network education and take relevant measures to implement them. In the near future, the carrying out of cross-border network education in China will become an irreversible trend, and will possess broad prospect with the advance of globalization of Chinese education.

  8. THE UTILITY OF THE BARTER AGREEMENT IN INTERNATIONAL COMMERCIAL TRADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OANA RĂVAŞ

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper tries to explain how barter, as an economic institution, can help deal with the problem of contract enforcement across national borders in international trade and within borders in transition economies.

  9. Detection of radioactive materials at borders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-08-01

    of Understanding (MOU) (1998) to promote co-operation at the international level in order to improve the control of radioactive materials. At the time of the drafting of this report, a similar MOU between the IAEA and the International Criminal Police Organization (INTERPOL) is pending. There are a number of measures that must be undertaken by States to combat the illicit trafficking and inadvertent movements of radioactive materials. These measures are, generally, shared between the regulatory and law enforcement agencies as part of a State's national arrangements. One of these measures id the subject of this TECDOC, namely detection of radioactive materials at borders. While effective detection involves many components of regulatory and law enforcement strategies, the major focus of this publication is on radiation detection and in particular, the instrumentation necessary for such purposes. Its intent is to assist Member State organizations in effectively detecting radioactive materials crossing their borders, whether importations, exportations, or shipments in transit. The purpose of this publication is to provide guidance for Member States for use by customs, police or other law enforcement bodies on the radiation monitoring of vehicles, people and commodities at border crossing facilities as a countermeasure to illicit trafficking and also to find inadvertent movement of radioactive materials. Such monitoring may be one component of efforts towards finding radioactive materials that have been lost from control and which may enter a Member State

  10. Detection of radioactive materials at borders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-09-01

    of Understanding (MOU) (1998) to promote co-operation at the international level in order to improve the control of radioactive materials. At the time of the drafting of this report, a similar MOU between the IAEA and the International Criminal Police Organization (INTERPOL) is pending. There are a number of measures that must be undertaken by States to combat the illicit trafficking and inadvertent movements of radioactive materials. These measures are, generally, shared between the regulatory and law enforcement agencies as part of a State's national arrangements. One of these measures id the subject of this TECDOC, namely detection of radioactive materials at borders. While effective detection involves many components of regulatory and law enforcement strategies, the major focus of this publication is on radiation detection and in particular, the instrumentation necessary for such purposes. Its intent is to assist Member State organizations in effectively detecting radioactive materials crossing their borders, whether importations, exportations, or shipments in transit. The purpose of this publication is to provide guidance for Member States for use by customs, police or other law enforcement bodies on the radiation monitoring of vehicles, people and commodities at border crossing facilities as a countermeasure to illicit trafficking and also to find inadvertent movement of radioactive materials. Such monitoring may be one component of efforts towards finding radioactive materials that have been lost from control and which may enter a Member State

  11. Detection of radioactive materials at borders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-05-01

    of Understanding (MOU) (1998) to promote co-operation at the international level in order to improve the control of radioactive materials. At the time of the drafting of this report, a similar MOU between the IAEA and the International Criminal Police Organization (INTERPOL) is pending. There are a number of measures that must be undertaken by States to combat the illicit trafficking and inadvertent movements of radioactive materials. These measures are, generally, shared between the regulatory and law enforcement agencies as part of a State's national arrangements. One of these measures id the subject of this TECDOC, namely detection of radioactive materials at borders. While effective detection involves many components of regulatory and law enforcement strategies, the major focus of this publication is on radiation detection and in particular, the instrumentation necessary for such purposes. Its intent is to assist Member State organizations in effectively detecting radioactive materials crossing their borders, whether importations, exportations, or shipments in transit. The purpose of this publication is to provide guidance for Member States for use by customs, police or other law enforcement bodies on the radiation monitoring of vehicles, people and commodities at border crossing facilities as a countermeasure to illicit trafficking and also to find inadvertent movement of radioactive materials. Such monitoring may be one component of efforts towards finding radioactive materials that have been lost from control and which may enter a Member State

  12. Survey research on whether taxes affect decisions of Slovak managers on cross-border financial restructuring operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Kubicová

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper main question is whether decisions of Slovak companies about cross-border financial restructuring are affected by taxes. Using a questionnaire survey we investigated the opinions of Slovak companies’ managers on the selected tax provisions related to cross-border transactions. The aim was to determine whether taxes represent a major obstacle for cross-border financial restructuring. We have extracted the factors by means of exploratory factor analysis, then we have verified the differences in the identified factors between the companies of different size and level of indebtedness, and by employing logistic regression we have investigated the dependence between performing cross-border restructuring and the identified tax factors. We concluded that Slovak companies perform cross-border restructurings that are currently also tax-motivated. The intended changes of tax provisions that facilitate international tax planning will have adverse impact on motivation to perform cross-border financial restructuring operations by Slovak companies.

  13. Network communities within and across borders

    OpenAIRE

    Cerina, Federica; Chessa, Alessandro; Pammolli, Fabio; Riccaboni, Massimo

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the impact of borders on the topology of spatially embedded networks. Indeed territorial subdivisions and geographical borders significantly hamper the geographical span of networks thus playing a key role in the formation of network communities. This is especially important in scientific and technological policy-making, highlighting the interplay between pressure for the internationalization to lead towards a global innovation system and the administrative borders imposed by t...

  14. Aymara paradiplomacy: Empowerment in the border

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Aranda Bustamante

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the border paradiplomacy used by more than 50 municipalities from Bolivia, Chile and Peru, named “Aymaras without Borders Strategic Alliance”. In spite of the differentiated historical construction of national identities, according to a literature review, it could be argued that there is an unprecedented border relation between these three countries. Furthermore, it is possible to conclude that this non-violent strategy has been successful in the last 15 years.

  15. Competitive implications of cross-border banking

    OpenAIRE

    Claessens, Stijn

    2006-01-01

    This paper reviews the recent literature on cross-border banking, with a focus on policy implications. Cross-border banking has increased sharply in recent decades, particularly in the form of entry, and has affected the development of financial systems, access to financial services, and stability. Reviewing the empirical literature, the author finds much, although not uniform, evidence that cross-border banking supports the development of an efficient and stable financial system that offers ...

  16. Illicit economies and social order: the border area of Peru, Brazil and Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Noam López; Diego Tuesta

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, the border shared by Peru, Colombia and Brazil has become an enclave of drug production and trafficking for the international markets. It is a territory whose control is disputed by non-state actors and where state security forces suffer from severe material and transport limitations. This paper takes an ethnographic approach to explain the limitations of border security and the institutional challenges of controlling drug and wood trafficking in this context. It places the i...

  17. Phenotypic covariance at species' borders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caley, M Julian; Cripps, Edward; Game, Edward T

    2013-05-28

    Understanding the evolution of species limits is important in ecology, evolution, and conservation biology. Despite its likely importance in the evolution of these limits, little is known about phenotypic covariance in geographically marginal populations, and the degree to which it constrains, or facilitates, responses to selection. We investigated phenotypic covariance in morphological traits at species' borders by comparing phenotypic covariance matrices (P), including the degree of shared structure, the distribution of strengths of pair-wise correlations between traits, the degree of morphological integration of traits, and the ranks of matricies, between central and marginal populations of three species-pairs of coral reef fishes. Greater structural differences in P were observed between populations close to range margins and conspecific populations toward range centres, than between pairs of conspecific populations that were both more centrally located within their ranges. Approximately 80% of all pair-wise trait correlations within populations were greater in the north, but these differences were unrelated to the position of the sampled population with respect to the geographic range of the species. Neither the degree of morphological integration, nor ranks of P, indicated greater evolutionary constraint at range edges. Characteristics of P observed here provide no support for constraint contributing to the formation of these species' borders, but may instead reflect structural change in P caused by selection or drift, and their potential to evolve in the future.

  18. Border Crossing/Entry Data - Border Crossing/Entry Data Time Series tool

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The dataset is known as “Border Crossing/Entry Data.” The Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS) Border Crossing/Entry Data provides summary statistics to the...

  19. Study on the Flexibility in Cross-Border Water Resources Cooperation Governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zongrui; Wang, Teng; Zhou, Li

    2018-02-01

    Flexible strategy is very important to cross-border cooperation in international rivers water resources, which may be employed to reconcile contradictions and ease conflicts. Flexible characters of cross-border cooperation in international rivers water resources could be analyzed and revealed, using flexible strategic management framework, by taking international cooperation protocols related to water from Transboundary Freshwater Disputes Database (TFDD) as samples from the number of cooperation issues, the amount of management layers and regulator agencies in cooperation organization and the categories of income (cost) distribution (allocation) mode. The research demonstrates that there are some flexible features of cross-border cooperation in international rivers water resources: Riparian countries would select relative diversification strategies related to water, tend to construct a flexible cooperation organization featured with moderate hierarchies from vertical perspective and simplified administrations from horizontal perspective, and adopt selective inducement modes to respect ‘joint and several liability’.

  20. Cross-Border Flows of People, Technology Diffusion and Aggregate Productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Carl-Johan Lars; Andersen, Thomas Barnebeck

    A number of empirical studies have investigated the hypothesis that cross-border flows of goods (international trade) and capital (FDI) lead to international technology diffusion. The contribution of the present paper consists in examining an as yet neglected vehicle for technology diffusion: cro......-border flows of people. We find that increasing the intensity of international travel, for the purpose of business and otherwise, by 1% increases the level of aggregate total factor productivity and GDP per worker by roughly 0.2%....

  1. The Intersectionality of Border Pedagogy and Latino/a Youth: Enacting Border Pedagogy in Multiple Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Pablo C.; Ross, Lydia; Jimenez-Silva, Margarita

    2016-01-01

    In this one-year qualitative study, the authors examined how border pedagogy is enacted by two Latino/a high school teachers in a border community in Southern California. Through classroom observations, the authors documented powerful student discussions that named complex borders (Giroux, 1992) that existed in their daily lives. We drew from…

  2. Disentangling value creation mechanism in cross-border acquisitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Daojuan; Sørensen, Olav Jull; Moini, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the value creation mechanism in cross-border acquisitions ( CBAs ) by employing a structural equation modeling technique and surveying 103 CBAs performed by Nordic firms. The results reveal that resource possession, resource picking, and resource utilization are three impo...... in this study, is an important step forward in merger and acquisition (M&A) research. Moreover, numerous research findings offer tactical implications for international acquirers.......This study investigates the value creation mechanism in cross-border acquisitions ( CBAs ) by employing a structural equation modeling technique and surveying 103 CBAs performed by Nordic firms. The results reveal that resource possession, resource picking, and resource utilization are three...... important strategic dimensions for realizing synergy and creating value in CBAs . Furthermore, mediation analysis shows that the two acquisition-based dynamic capabilities—value identification and resource reconfiguration—act as important mediators in how the joining firms’ resource base impacts acquisition...

  3. Population growth, accessibility spillovers and persistent borders: Historical growth in West-European municipalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs-Crisioni, Chris; Koomen, Eric

    2017-06-01

    Lack of cross-border transport supply has repeatedly been blamed for the fact that national borders limit spatial interaction and, consequently, the growth of border regions. This study applies an accessibility approach to investigate for most municipalities in ten countries in mainland West Europe if foreign transport supply is lagging behind, and if population growth in these municipalities has been affected by the limits that national borders have imposed on market access. To do so, data describing historical population changes and road networks between 1961 and 2011 have been used. The results show that in the study area, cross-border transport accessibility was not at a disadvantage in 1961 and has since then grown even more than domestic accessibility. However, municipal population growth has depended almost exclusively on domestic market access. Processes of economic international integration in the study area are found to coincide with the growth of cross-border accessibility, but do not have a clear coincidence with the effects of cross-border accessibility on population growth.

  4. Infectious Disease Border Issues Conference: Meeting Synopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-03

    methicillin - resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Operation MECACAR 1998 was highlighted as a successful example of cross-border coordination...training courses, no joint public health investigation teams) and illegal animal transportation across borders were identified as some of the existing...Work (2007), including fostering global partnerships; strengthening public health security in travel and transport ; improving the WHO global alert

  5. Sprouting of dormant buds on border trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    G.R., Jr. Trimble; H. Clay Smith; H. Clay Smith

    1970-01-01

    As part of an evaluation of silvicultura1 systems used in managing Appalachian hardwoods, we are studying degrade of border trees surrounding harvest-cut openings made in the patch cutting and group selection systems. One facet of this research dealt with determining what portion of visually evident dormant buds on border tree boles sprouted when the openings were cut...

  6. Green Belt Europe - borders separate, nature unites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uwe Friedel

    2015-01-01

    During the period of the Cold War between 1945 and 1989, a "Green Belt" of valuable pristine landscapes developed along the border line between Eastern and Western Europe, the intensively fortified and guarded so called Iron Curtain. Due to the remoteness of the border areas, a high number of national parks and other large conservation areas can be found...

  7. Cross-border temporary agency work : Social sustainability of a business model (too often) based on regulatory arbitrage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houwerzijl, Mijke; Rombouts, Bas

    Presentation held at the European Regional Congress of the International Society for Labour and Social Security Law (ISLSSL) on Temporary Agency Work in the context of cross-border movement & service provision within the EU.

  8. International

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    This rubric reports on 10 short notes about international economical facts about nuclear power: Electricite de France (EdF) and its assistance and management contracts with Eastern Europe countries (Poland, Hungary, Bulgaria); Transnuclear Inc. company (a 100% Cogema daughter company) acquired the US Vectra Technologies company; the construction of the Khumo nuclear power plant in Northern Korea plays in favour of the reconciliation between Northern and Southern Korea; the delivery of two VVER 1000 Russian reactors to China; the enforcement of the cooperation agreement between Euratom and Argentina; Japan requested for the financing of a Russian fast breeder reactor; Russia has planned to sell a floating barge-type nuclear power plant to Indonesia; the control of the Swedish reactor vessels of Sydkraft AB company committed to Tractebel (Belgium); the renewal of the nuclear cooperation agreement between Swiss and USA; the call for bids from the Turkish TEAS electric power company for the building of the Akkuyu nuclear power plant answered by three candidates: Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL), Westinghouse (US) and the French-German NPI company. (J.S.)

  9. Interpretation and qualification of short-term employment in cross-border situation at Article 15(2)OECD MC

    OpenAIRE

    Asllani, Shkumbin

    2017-01-01

    The free movement of people and capital has enabled individuals and businesses to engage in cross-border transactions. Global economy and the competitiveness between international groups have acknowledged the necessity for a dynamic human workforce and openness of the labour market for mobility of workers within affiliated companies and different multinational enterprises. Cross-border short-term employment[1] has been crucial part of modern development of the international business.[2]  Mobi...

  10. Why Sociology Is Silent Concerning Borders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.E. Nikolov

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Border in sociological sense means a barrier that separates social groups, strata, their values, and the difference between ways of life between particular social groups. Such groups may be separated by many dividing lines, or borders: social/living conditions, opportunities/prospects, legal rights/customs, viewpoints, and so on. Sometimes mobility does not permit other than individual, or small-group, crossing of these borders. It seems really strange why border topic is almost completely absent from the sociology. It is so pertinent to the fate and shaping of various social groups, depending from the location of the border. We think of a boundary whenever we think of an entity demarcated from its surroundings. Events, too, have boundaries – temporal ones: their beginning, climax, final. All our lives are bounded in the continuum between our births and our deaths. A philosopher would imply also that even imaginary, abstract entities, such as concepts or layouts, have boundaries of their own. One may say that condition for all this boundary/border talk is coherent, and whether it reproduces the world around us’ structure, or the organizing activity of our intellect, are matters of deep philosophical controversy. Borders are difficult to disappear totally even within the European Union, providing some obstacles to the freedom of movement to those left still outside the Schengen agreement.

  11. Border tax adjustments for additional costs engendered by internal and EU environmental protection measures. Implementation options and WTO admissibility; Grenzsteuerausgleich fuer Mehrkosten infolge nationaler/europaeischer Umweltschutzinstrumente. Gestaltungsmoeglichkeiten und WTO-rechtliche Zulaessigkeit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilbert, Jacqueline; Berg, Holger (comps.)

    2008-04-15

    At the end of the year 2006, France proposed the introduction of a 'climatic tariff' into the discussion of the international climatic protection. The 'climatic tariff' shall adjust extra costs, which result from the domestic production by means of environmental protection instruments and to which the import goods are not exposed, with import/export compensatory payments in the form of import duties and/or taxes on import goods. The introduction of an import/export compensatory payment system aims to load imported goods equivalent to domestic products in order to adjust competitive disadvantages. In the contribution under consideration the authors report on possibilities and problems of design for an import/export tax compensatory. The authors examine the validity of the measures of import/export compensation from legal view the World Trade Organization (Geneva, Switzerland) based on the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade.

  12. Languaging the Borders of Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Kramsch

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Emerging from a discomfort with the blind spots encountered within and across theorizations of language and space in the field of human geography, in this article, we argue for “making space” for conceptualizations that speak from and through the everyday territories of migrants in Europe today. Inspired by a range of writers thinking postcolonially and multi/trans-lingually, the authors draw on their own embodied migrant experience to argue for re-envisioning Europe’s borders through multiple languaging practices. “Languaging”, in this view, takes linguistic practices in a migrant context as an inherently prosthetic activity, whereby any dominant, national host language is inevitably subject to the subterranean rumblings of all the languages a migrant brings with her on her global journeys. Conceived as being saturated with prosthetic “absence(s”, migrant languaging practices rework cultural geography’s bounded, inward-looking, and security-fixated understanding of the language/territory nexus, the better to open a vital space for re-envisioning language’s everyday territories as sites for translational solidarity and becoming.

  13. Borders, boundaries and desirable wishes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Pinciaroli

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available “Borders, boundaries and desirable wishes” is the title of the residential workshop offered to a group of young adults (aged 18-25 of the Centro di Salute Mentale (Mental Health Center of the DSM Basaglia of ASL TO2 in Turin. The idea of the workshop, the definition of the objectives and the topics, which are clearly expressed in the title, come from the work of the team dedicated to group psychotherapies, which has been offering group psychodrama sessions to young adults of this age since 2008. In the delicate move to the adult age, these young adults are lost and stuck in static realities where it is not possible to open up to the dimension of desire nor to the transforming encounter with the Other, since they didn’t have the experience of boundaries and lack. These two elements are necessary to acquire the ability to make projects for oneself. During the workshop the following instruments were used: group, psychodrama and art therapy. The group, as a paternal function, ensured the presence of safe boundaries enabling individuals to experiment; psychodrama and art therapy enabled the bodies to experience encounters and transformations, using doing as a metaphor for the movement against the inhibition of doing and as a way to show oneself to the Other and be able to see the Other. 

  14. Cross-border shopping and tourism destination marketing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makkonen, Teemu

    2016-01-01

    This article addresses the economic impact that cross-border shopping has on the local tourism industry and the ways that cross-border shopping is taken advantage of in tourism destination marketing. Southern Jutland–situated in Denmark just north of the German border, where border shops situated......-border shopping into tourism destination marketing strategies. The results have wider relevance for other border regions.......This article addresses the economic impact that cross-border shopping has on the local tourism industry and the ways that cross-border shopping is taken advantage of in tourism destination marketing. Southern Jutland–situated in Denmark just north of the German border, where border shops situated...... just south of the same border enable Danes to capitalize on the lower value added tax levels in Germany–is utilized as an illustrative case example. The data was collected by analysing the relevant tourism destination marketing material and via interviews with local destination marketing organizations...

  15. The Migrant Border Crossing Study: A methodological overview of research along the Sonora-Arizona border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Daniel E; Slack, Jeremy; Beyerlein, Kraig; Vandervoet, Prescott; Klingman, Kristin; Molina, Paola; Manning, Shiras; Burham, Melissa; Walzak, Kylie; Valencia, Kristen; Gamboa, Lorenzo

    2017-07-01

    Increased border enforcement efforts have redistributed unauthorized Mexican migration to the United States (US) away from traditional points of crossing, such as San Diego and El Paso, and into more remote areas along the US-Mexico border, including southern Arizona. Yet relatively little quantitative scholarly work exists examining Mexican migrants' crossing, apprehension, and repatriation experiences in southern Arizona. We contend that if scholars truly want to understand the experiences of unauthorized migrants in transit, such migrants should be interviewed either at the border after being removed from the US, or during their trajectories across the border, or both. This paper provides a methodological overview of the Migrant Border Crossing Study (MBCS), a unique data source on Mexican migrants who attempted an unauthorized crossing along the Sonora-Arizona border, were apprehended, and repatriated to Nogales, Sonora in 2007-09. We also discuss substantive and theoretical contributions of the MBCS.

  16. Conservative Libertarianism and the Ethics of Borders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Camacho Beltran

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Many conservatives endorse a defence of closed borders grounded in basic liberal rights such as the basic right of association. Some conservatives also endorse libertarian principles of legitimacy. It is not clear though that this sort of defence of closed borders is somehow coherent with these libertarian ideals. I argue that conservative libertarians of this kind must reject this defence of closed borders because either it collapses into a form of statism incoherent with libertarian principles of legitimacy, or into an ideal precept without appeal regarding reality in the here and now that could only be applied to changing the very nature of the societies we know. As a result, at least conservative libertarians need to find a different source of justification for closed borders.

  17. Abuses at Europe’s borders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duncan Breen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Refugees and migrants have been regularly subjected to widespread rights violations by officials at some European borders. The EU needs to allow more legal avenues for people seeking protection to reach Europe safely.

  18. Measuring cross-border regional STI integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makkonen, T

    2016-07-01

    Earlier quantitative studies on cross-border regional integration processes have commonly neglected science, technology and innovation (STI) indicators: even the most notable example of a composite indicator approach to measuring cross-border regional integration, i.e. the Oresund index, lacks a sub-category for STI. Consequently, by ignoring cross-border innovation and knowledge flows, the Oresund integration index fails to take into account one of the most important drivers of economic growth in cross-border regions. Therefore, a new composite STI indicator (sub-category) was introduced to strengthen the Oresund integration index. This was compiled from patent, publication and collaborative R&D project data. The findings show that this index performs reasonably well in depicting STI integration, while at the same time remaining simple and straightforward enough to be adopted in other crossborder regions. (Author)

  19. Nuclear security at Zimbabwe’s borders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlstrom, Danielle

    2016-01-01

    Enhancing detection capabilities at the Victoria Falls border crossing provides confidence to people visiting Zimbabwe that measures are in place to prevent disruption caused by radioactive materials and helps to protect the local environment.

  20. INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL REPORTING STANDARDS AND ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PUBLICATIONS1

    across borders led many economies to adopt the. International ... Keywords: Reporting Standards, Value, Relevance, Earnings, Management ..... nal of Applied Economics and Business Re- search ... accounting in emerging markets: Evidence.

  1. Development of international transport in transboundary regions

    OpenAIRE

    Прокудін, Георгій; Чупайленко, Олексій

    2015-01-01

    Formation of an international cross-border transport and logistics infrastructure meets international standards, increased productivity, transport and innovation activity of enterprises in the cluster, and provide for accelerated socio - economic development of the regions.

  2. A typology of cross-border patient mobility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glinos, Irene A; Baeten, Rita; Helble, Matthias; Maarse, Hans

    2010-11-01

    Based on systematic observation and analysis of available evidence, we propose a typology of cross-border patient mobility (rather than the so-called 'medical tourism') defined as the movement of a patient travelling to another country to seek planned health care. The typology is constructed around two dimensions based on the questions 'why do patients go abroad for planned health care?' and 'how is care abroad paid for?' Four types of patient motivations and two funding types have been identified. Combined in a matrix, they make eight possible scenarios of patient mobility each illustrated with international examples. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Trans-European transport network and cross-border governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guasco, Clement Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    for coordinating knowledge, efforts and solutions across several national systems. In order to understand this governance setting, one needs to understand the specific quality of transnational governance in the EU, which is neither purely international nor federally integrated. The transport corridor between Malmö......This article looks at the implementation of trans-European transport corridors in the EU and the influence it has on governance within EU member-states. It considers the implementation of such a scheme in the context of cross-border cooperation and discusses the system of governance necessary...

  4. The role of spectroscopy versus detection for border security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kouzes, R.T.; Ely, J.H.

    2008-01-01

    Countries around the world are deploying radiation portal monitor systems to interdict the illicit shipment of radioactive material crossing international borders. Because of their high efficiency for gamma-ray detection, most deployed systems are based on plastic scintillators and are non-spectroscopic in capability. Spectroscopic portal monitor systems are undergoing engineering development for near term deployment. The ability to identify the detected radionuclides may allow improved operational handling of radiation alarms, particularly those from the normal commerce of naturally occurring radioactive material. The goal for improved systems is to increase the sensitivity to threats while reducing the operational impact of nuisance alarms. (author)

  5. International Specialization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kleindienst, Ingo; Geisler Asmussen, Christian; Hutzschenreuter, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Whether and how international diversification and cross-border arbitrage affects firm performance remains one of the major unresolved research questions in the strategy and international business literatures. We propose that knowing how much a firm has internationally diversified tells us very...... little about performance implications, if we do not know, and do not ask, how the firm has diversified. Therefore, building on the two broad arguments of operating flexibility and location-specific commitment, we develop a theoretical framework that focuses on the extent to which a firm's international...... arbitrage strategy is characterized by specialization versus replication and argue that these different strategies may have differential impact on profitability and risk reduction. Developing a sophisticated measure of international specialization and using a unique panel data set of 92 German MNEs to test...

  6. Acting in Isolation: Safeguarding and anti-trafficking officers' evidence and intelligence practices at the border

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer K. Lynch

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Internationally, the border has been presented as a site of unique opportunity for the identification and protection of victims of human trafficking. In the UK, the establishment of specialist safeguarding and anti-trafficking (SAT units within the border force has raised questions about the challenges for border force officers (BFOs of balancing the enforcement of strict immigration rules with the protection of victims under anti-trafficking legislation. In this paper we draw on data collected from a study of anti-trafficking initiatives at Heathrow airport to consider a particular area of BFO frustration with SAT work: the collection and use of evidence and intelligence to support investigation and pursuit of potential SAT cases at the border. Our findings focus on the use of intelligence and data to inform initiatives and develop a comprehensive understanding of the trafficking problem; and the scope of BFO powers of evidence-collection on the frontline. The experience of BFOs points to a team often working in isolation as they attempt to traverse gaps in data collection and limits to their powers to gather evidence in pursuit of their duty to identify victims of trafficking at the UK border. We conclude by making proposals for how the border force and central government could improve evidence and intelligence practices in ways that translate into both more coherent anti-trafficking policy and better identification and support for victims.

  7. Food security in a world without borders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Haen, Hartwig; Thompson, Brian

    2003-01-01

    is through community nutrition programmes that encourage the full participation and co-operation of the entire community, maximise the utilisation of local resources, grasp the benefits of new technologies for productivity gains, involve multiple sectors and engage strong political commitment. The international community will be judged by its treatment of its most vulnerable members. The international community has repeatedly declared that it is dedicated to the eradication of poverty. Eliminating hunger and malnutrition is a vital first step. The political will to fight hunger and a firm commitment to invest in agriculture' and rural development are critical elements in any effort to achieve sustainable alleviation of hunger and poverty. This meeting and the WFS:FYL provide the additional impetus to meet the challenge of achieving food and nutritional security in a world without borders and free from hunger and malnutrition.

  8. The development of cross-border economic relations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Houtum, H.J.

    1998-01-01

    This dissertation investigates the influence of a state border on the development of cross-border economic relations in the European Union. The focus is on the frequency, number, and success of cross-border relations between firms in the border regions of the Netherlands and Belgium. The study fills

  9. Cross border environmental issues arising from the former Soviet Union nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, B.R.; Dooley, J.J.; Bradley, D.J.

    1998-02-01

    Radioactive contamination from sites in the Former Soviet Union (FSU) threaten bordering states via transport through marine environments. Japan, North Korea, South Korea, Germany, Sweden, Norway, and Finland share waterways or border common bodies of water with the FSU. Cross-border contamination resulting from past and in some cases current radioactive waste practices FSU nuclear wastes could under the right circumstances destabilize military, economic, or other relationships between the FSU and these border nations. The United States has an ongoing obligation to assist many of these border nations in times of need. This analysis was sponsored by the Office of Policy and International Affairs, Office of Materials-Asset Management and National Security Policy Analysis. The Center for Environmental Security was tasked to identify cross-border and other policy issues from an extensive body of technical materials dealing with nuclear materials management in the Former Soviet Union compiled over time by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The analysis focused on cross-border impacts but also provides insights into policy analysis based on this existing technical work. The efficiencies and results realized by this study indicate that this analytical methodology has merit for additional policy studies. There are three elements comprising the problem of understanding cross border transport. The amount of FSU nuclear waste that has been disposed of in ways that did not, or probably will not contain the waste is the first element. The past and probable future entry of these wastes into groundwater and surface waters, thence to seas is the second. Finally, adverse effects on human health and welfare from ingesting contaminated sea products, and from damaged fisheries and food production activities is the third

  10. HIV Transmission Networks in the San Diego-Tijuana Border Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Sanjay R; Wertheim, Joel O; Brouwer, Kimberly C; Wagner, Karla D; Chaillon, Antoine; Strathdee, Steffanie; Patterson, Thomas L; Rangel, Maria G; Vargas, Mlenka; Murrell, Ben; Garfein, Richard; Little, Susan J; Smith, Davey M

    2015-10-01

    HIV sequence data can be used to reconstruct local transmission networks. Along international borders, like the San Diego-Tijuana region, understanding the dynamics of HIV transmission across reported risks, racial/ethnic groups, and geography can help direct effective prevention efforts on both sides of the border. We gathered sociodemographic, geographic, clinical, and viral sequence data from HIV infected individuals participating in ten studies in the San Diego-Tijuana border region. Phylogenetic and network analysis was performed to infer putative relationships between HIV sequences. Correlates of identified clusters were evaluated and spatiotemporal relationships were explored using Bayesian phylogeographic analysis. After quality filtering, 843 HIV sequences with associated demographic data and 263 background sequences from the region were analyzed, and 138 clusters were inferred (2-23 individuals). Overall, the rate of clustering did not differ by ethnicity, residence, or sex, but bisexuals were less likely to cluster than heterosexuals or men who have sex with men (p = 0.043), and individuals identifying as white (p ≤ 0.01) were more likely to cluster than other races. Clustering individuals were also 3.5 years younger than non-clustering individuals (p Tijuana epidemics were phylogenetically compartmentalized, five clusters contained individuals residing on both sides of the border. This study sampled ~ 7% of HIV infected individuals in the border region, and although the sampled networks on each side of the border were largely separate, there was evidence of persistent bidirectional cross-border transmissions that linked risk groups, thus highlighting the importance of the border region as a "melting pot" of risk groups. NIH, VA, and Pendleton Foundation.

  11. An Institutional Approach to Bordering in Islands: The Canary Islands on the African-European Migration Routes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Godenau

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Islands play a significant role in international irregular maritime migration. Frequently they are part of maritime interstitial spaces between states, and their location, combined with institutional membership, makes them part of international migration routes and subject to border management strategies. In this paper borders are analysed as social institutions used for regulating relative permeability through rules of entry and exit for persons, goods and capital. Borders institutionalize territoriality and are politically implemented by states. They are selective, also in migration, and irregular border transit is not always indicative of an inability to control. The Canary Islands are used as an illustrative example of how border management at the southern edge of the European Union has evolved towards more coercive deterrence and tighter surveillance. The Canary Islands experienced irregular maritime immigration from the west African coasts during the first decade of the 21st century and most of these migrants intended to use the islands as transit space towards the European continent. Increasing surveillance in countries of origin, enforcement of border controls and stricter return policies were used to stop flows. The so-called “cayuco crisis” in 2006 induced institutional change in border management and forced the active involvement of the EU through FRONTEX.

  12. Decision Model for U.S.- Mexico Border Security Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    missions that the I&A focuses on is, “border security, including narcotics smuggling, alien and human smuggling, and money laundering ...and money assigned to border security investments. 14. SUBJECT TERMS Department of Homeland Security (DHS), border security, U.S.–Mexico border...and money assigned to border security investments. vi THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK vii TABLE OF CONTENTS I. INTRODUCTION

  13. Organizing cross-border fire brigade response in the Dutch-German border region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boersma, F.K.; Engelman, E.

    2012-01-01

    This article addresses the opportunities and problems with cross-border collaboration between the Dutch and German fire brigades. The following are the main problems: 1) no uniformity in concluding and using the cross-border agreements for emergency assistance, 2) the language problem, 3) the

  14. Regional Joint Border Commands: A Pathway to Improving Collaboration and Effectiveness for Border Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    Police xii SBI Secure Border Initiative SES Senior Executive Service SSP Secretaria de Seguridad Publica TSA Transportation Security...also been involvement from the Mexican law enforcement agency, Secretaria de Seguridad Publica (SSP) on the southwest border (CBP, 2009; ICE, 2009, p. 5

  15. Determinants of Cross-border Venture Capital Investments in Emerging and Developed Economies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hain, Daniel; Johan, Sofia A.; Wang, Daojuan

    2016-01-01

    VCs, indicating the effects of intra-industry networks needing further analysis. Using China as a model, we provide a novel multidimensional framework to explain cross-border investments in innovative ventures across developed and emerging economies. By analyzing a unique international dataset, we...... is more relevant for investments in emerging economies, and relational trust is more relevant for investments in developed economies....

  16. Foreign trained dentist working in the Netherlands: motives and movements in cross-border behaviour.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Batenburg, R.; Lee, I. van der; Heiligers, P.

    2012-01-01

    Context: The past decade globalization of markets and the development of free trade agreements have driven cross-border movements and international mobility of health professionals. Dentist seems to be one of the professions that are specifically willing and capable to work in different countries.

  17. Cross-Border Higher Education: Global and Local Tensions within Competition and Economic Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Taya L.; Lane, Jason E.

    2014-01-01

    In this chapter, the authors explore various types of cross-border higher education, considering equity and quality issues within these developments. With a particular focus on international branch campuses, the authors discuss the ways in which global competition for knowledge and economic development interact with tensions at the local level.

  18. The Great Cross-Border Bank Deleveraging: Supply Constraints and Intra-Group Frictions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cerutti, E.; Claessens, S.

    2014-01-01

    International banks greatly reduced their direct cross-border and local affiliates’ lending as the global financial crisis strained balance sheets, lowered borrower demand, and changed government policies. Using bilateral, lender-borrower countrydata and controlling for credit demand, we show that

  19. Reconsidering Privatization in Cross-Border Engagements: The Sometimes Public Nature of Private Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Jason E.; Kinser, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    Privatization trends in higher education have typically been analyzed from the perspective of the institution and its relationship with the sponsoring state. The recent phenomenon of international cross-border higher education, however, represents a more complicated picture of privatization. Geographic separation from the sponsoring state is an…

  20. Inter-Cultural Competence and Cross-Border Inter-firm Learning Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuada, John

    2006-01-01

    Studies in cross-cultural management and cross-border interfirm relations have been among the dominant research themes in international business management during the last three decades. There are significant commonalities in the foundational thoughts underlying these studies and there have been ...

  1. National wildlife refuge management on the United States/Mexico border

    Science.gov (United States)

    William R. Radke

    2013-01-01

    Many conservation strategies have been developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service in cooperation with others to protect habitat and enhance the recovery of fish and wildlife populations in the San Bernardino Valley, which straddles Arizona, United States, and Sonora, Mexico. Habitats along this international border have been impacted by illegal activities,...

  2. Cross-Border Higher Education in China: How the Field of Research Has Developed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Yunyun; Te, Alice Y. C.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the research was to investigate how the field of cross-border Chinese higher education has developed from 1990 to 2015. Ninety-five articles in international journals and 470 articles in national journals were collected and analyzed in terms of authorship pattern, thematic clusters, and research methods. Results show that cross-border…

  3. Asserting National Sovereignty in Cyberspace: The Case for Internet Border Inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-06-01

    Influencing Foreign Policy. in Internet and International Systems: Information Technology and American Foreign Policy Decisionmaking Workshop. 1999...track or stop him from crossing the border on the Internet and stealing computer information or engaging in other malicious activity inside computers ...replaced US Customs Service CD Compact Disk, medium used for digital information like music and Computer programs CERN Conseil Europeen pour la

  4. 1/35 CROSS-BORDER INSOLVENCY LAW IN EUROPE: PRESENT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Tanya du Plessis

    well known theories of private international law for dealing with cross-border ..... to display activities and the fact that he still has several debts towards the filing .... open insolvency proceedings was lodged, or, in this case, by taking account of .... Recommendations in this contribution are presented with the intention of.

  5. Cross-Border Insolvency Law in Europe: Present Status and Future ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In May 2007 the European countries celebrated the first lustrum of the EU Insolvency Regulation (1346/2000). This article describes where Europe stands with its model which is based on well known theories of private international law for dealing with cross-border insolvencies. The EU Insolvency Regulation provides for a ...

  6. Will carbon motivated border tax adjustments function as a threat?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Aijun; Zhang Aizhen

    2012-01-01

    Due to large incremental carbon emissions, China might become an important target country of CBTA (carbon motivated border tax adjustments). To levy CBTA could reduce China’s emissions. Meanwhile, China’s emissions reduction could also be achieved by China’s climate policies (termed as CBTA-emissions-equivalent policies). This paper contributes to the discussion on CBTA by comparing the potential regional effects of CBTA and CBTA-emissions-equivalent policies. The main findings are as follows: (1) CBTA and CBTA-emissions-equivalent policies would result in relocations of outputs across regions and countries, affect the structure of economy and contribute to world’s emissions reduction. (2) There would be significant differences in the regional effects between CBTA and CBTA-emissions-equivalent policies. (3) Compared to carbon tax, CBTA would be a costly and inefficient policy instrument to reduce emissions, but could function as an effective coercion strategy. (4) These policies would result in competitiveness issue and rebound effects, wherein different countries would be affected differently. China is a large economy and energy consumer with high openness to international trade. Looking ahead, the Chinese government should consider the potential interactions between China and other economies when designing tax reforms. - Highlights: ►We compare regional effects of CBTA (carbon motivated border tax adjustments) and CBTA-emissions-equivalent policies. ► We explore the interactions between China and other economies. ► We investigate the potential international externalities and their effects across countries.

  7. CROSS-BORDER COLLABORATION IN ENTREPRENEURIAL EDUCATION IN UNIVERSITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela DIACONU

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The entrepreneurship, as an integral part of education, is now widely accepted worldwide. Entrepreneurial education is considered today as a holistic and inclusive process and not just a component of education in business. The activity of developing the entrepreneurial spirit organized on new principles must be seen by the universities as the foundation of successful fulfillment of university’s mission in contributing to social and economic development. This paper's main purpose is to identify a number of solutions on how they can ensure through cross-border cooperation the development of entrepreneurial skills within the universities through learning experiences contexts. In this regard, the paper proposes a model of entrepreneurial project which takes the form of simulated enterprise developed by the University of Pitesti, and a number of solutions for this project to be developed and implemented through cross-border cooperation, in accordance with the strategies and principles promoted by European Commission and European Parliament, which stresses the importance of developing through international cooperation of innovative methods that go beyond the traditional frame in which, currently, are formed the competencies and the educational process is performed. Thus, the proposed model can be expanded and implemented "in the mirror" and internationally by building partnerships between countries, universities and economic agents from those countries with real benefits for all parties involved through valuing the national specificities.

  8. Small Border Traffic and Cross-Border Tourism Between Poland and the Kaliningrad Oblast of the Russian Federation

    OpenAIRE

    Anisiewicz Renata; Palmowski Tadeusz

    2014-01-01

    Polish and Russian cross-border cooperation is governed by lawful agreements. The enlargement of the Schengen Area had a significant impact on Kaliningrad Oblast relations and cross-border cooperation with its neighbours. The introduction of visas between Poland and Russia hindered and restricted local border trade which had for years been the only measure mitigating social and economic problems of the cross-border regions. Nevertheless, border traffic between Poland and Kaliningrad grew stea...

  9. Network communities within and across borders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerina, Federica; Chessa, Alessandro; Pammolli, Fabio; Riccaboni, Massimo

    2014-04-01

    We investigate the impact of borders on the topology of spatially embedded networks. Indeed territorial subdivisions and geographical borders significantly hamper the geographical span of networks thus playing a key role in the formation of network communities. This is especially important in scientific and technological policy-making, highlighting the interplay between pressure for the internationalization to lead towards a global innovation system and the administrative borders imposed by the national and regional institutions. In this study we introduce an outreach index to quantify the impact of borders on the community structure and apply it to the case of the European and US patent co-inventors networks. We find that (a) the US connectivity decays as a power of distance, whereas we observe a faster exponential decay for Europe; (b) European network communities essentially correspond to nations and contiguous regions while US communities span multiple states across the whole country without any characteristic geographic scale. We confirm our findings by means of a set of simulations aimed at exploring the relationship between different patterns of cross-border community structures and the outreach index.

  10. Cross-border regional innovation system integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makkonen, Teemu; Weidenfeld, Adi; Williams, Allan

    2017-01-01

    The importance of inter-regional cooperation and innovation are widely accepted in the development rhetoric of the European Union. The highlighted importance of both themes in the context of borderlands has recently led to the coining of a new concept, cross-border regional innovation system...... of cross-border cooperation in a regional innovation system setting. The framework was further tested with illustrative empirical cases that demonstrate its feasibility........ However, little attention has been given to the empirical analysis of the concept. This paper suggests a framework for empirically validating the concept by examining the levels of integration between cross-border regions. The outcome is a proposed framework can be operationalized by measurable indicators...

  11. International Technology Diffusion of Joint and Cross-border Patents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); M.J. McAleer (Michael); J-T. Tang (Ju-Ting)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractWith the advent of globalization, economic and financial interactions among countries have become widespread. Given technological advancements, the factors of production can no longer be considered to be just labor and capital. In the pursuit of economic growth, every country has

  12. International Technology Diffusion of Joint and Cross-border Patents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); M.J. McAleer (Michael); J-T. Tang (Ju-Ting)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ With the advent of globalization, economic and financial interactions among countries have become widespread. Given technological advancements, the factors of production can no longer be considered to be just labor and capital. In the pursuit of economic growth, every

  13. International Technology Diffusion of Joint and Cross-border Patents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); M.J. McAleer (Michael); J-T. Tang (Ju-Ting)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ With the advent of globalization, economic and financial interactions among countries have become widespread. Given technological advancements, the factors of production can no longer be considered to be just labor and capital. In the pursuit of economic growth,

  14. The nexus between cross-border migration and international trade ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Economic Review. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 5, No 3 (2017) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  15. The nexus between cross-border migration and international trade ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper attempted to unlock the conundrum of migration-trade relationship in Tanzania, using the country's migrant stock (diaspora) in the parts of the world. It also aimed to investigate how this effect, if at all exist, differs between developing and developed countries. The augmented gravity model of trade has been ...

  16. Building better borders in Latin America | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-10-21

    Oct 21, 2016 ... This article is part of an ongoing series of stories about innovative projects in the ... India Labour and Employment Report 2014: Workers in the era of globalization ... Promoting financial inclusion among Latin American youth.

  17. FURGY – Cross-border Networking with Focus on Renewable Energies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerstlberger, Wolfgang; Siegl, Michael; Vedder, Jan-Frederik

    FURGY (Future Renewable Energies) which is a project supported by European INTERREG IV A funds shall establish a joint center of competence in the regions north and south of the German-Danish border for renewable resources and energy efficiency, helping to build a sustainable energy cluster status...... on international level. The project started in late 2009 with a runtime of 3 years. The FURGY project pursues the goal to strengthen this existing location advantage by a vital cross-border network. In the sector of renewable energy surveys, interdisciplinary networks and active information policies shall optimize...

  18. Mission impossible or border security – Practical and effective infection control on air ambulances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kuhn*

    2013-12-01

    These principles have been applied to our air ambulance system based from Lanseria International Airport. By combining preventative and control measures, there has been no breach in our infection control strategies, as evidenced by no growth noted on specific and random swabs even when more and more ”super bugs” are being identified in hospital. As an air ambulance service flying patients from various African countries, we have the responsibility to conduct our own ”Border Security” to keep our hospitals, patients, aircraft and crews clean and safe. In this presentation we will share our ”Border Security” principles and experiences with the audience.

  19. DIRECT TUNNELLING AND MOSFET BORDER TRAPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Drach

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The border traps, in particular slow border traps, are being investigated in metal-oxide-semiconductor structures, utilizing n-channel MOSFET as a test sample. The industrial process technology of test samples manufacturing is described. The automated experimental setup is discussed, the implementation of the experimental setup had made it possible to complete the entire set of measurements. The schematic diagram of automated experimental setup is shown. The charging time characteristic of the ID-VG shift reveals that the charging process is a direct tunnelling process and highly bias dependent.

  20. Cross-border regional innovation systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makkonen, Teemu; Rohde, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    . This paper discusses the reasons behind this mismatch which means that the concept still rests upon and draws policy suggestions based on a thin evidence base. Directions for further research are pointed out by underlining the need for holistic empirical validations of the concept together with the need......The concept of cross-border regional innovation systems (CBRIS) surfaced in the literature on economic geography through discourses that highlighted the need of broadening innovation systems to cross-border contexts. Since these early discussions, the theoretical backgrounds of CBRIS have been...

  1. Dimeric assembly of enterocyte brush border enzymes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, E M

    1994-01-01

    The noncovalent, dimeric assembly of small intestinal brush border enzymes was studied by sedimentation analysis in density gradients of extracts of pulse-labeled pig jejunal mucosal explants. Like aminopeptidase N (EC 3.4.11.2), sucrase-isomaltase (EC 3.2.1.48-10), aminopeptidase A (EC 3...... appearance of the liposome-reconstituted enzyme [Norén et al. (1986) J. Biol. Chem. 261, 12306-12309], showing only the inner, membrane-anchored domains of the monomers to be in close contact with one another while the outer domains are far apart. In contrast to the other brush border enzymes studied...

  2. Health at the borders: Bayesian multilevel analysis of women's malnutrition determinants in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delbiso, Tefera Darge; Rodriguez-Llanes, Jose Manuel; Altare, Chiara; Masquelier, Bruno; Guha-Sapir, Debarati

    2016-01-01

    Women's malnutrition, particularly undernutrition, remains an important public health challenge in Ethiopia. Although various studies examined the levels and determinants of women's nutritional status, the influence of living close to an international border on women's nutrition has not been investigated. Yet, Ethiopian borders are regularly affected by conflict and refugee flows, which might ultimately impact health. To investigate the impact of living close to borders in the nutritional status of women in Ethiopia, while considering other important covariates. Our analysis was based on the body mass index (BMI) of 6,334 adult women aged 20-49 years, obtained from the 2011 Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey (EDHS). A Bayesian multilevel multinomial logistic regression analysis was used to capture the clustered structure of the data and the possible correlation that may exist within and between clusters. After controlling for potential confounders, women living close to borders (i.e. ≤100 km) in Ethiopia were 59% more likely to be underweight (posterior odds ratio [OR]=1.59; 95% credible interval [CrI]: 1.32-1.90) than their counterparts living far from the borders. This result was robust to different choices of border delineation (i.e. ≤50, ≤75, ≤125, and ≤150 km). Women from poor families, those who have no access to improved toilets, reside in lowland areas, and are Muslim, were independently associated with underweight. In contrast, more wealth, higher education, older age, access to improved toilets, being married, and living in urban or lowlands were independently associated with overweight. The problem of undernutrition among women in Ethiopia is most worrisome in the border areas. Targeted interventions to improve nutritional status in these areas, such as improved access to sanitation, economic and livelihood support, are recommended.

  3. Illicit economies and social order: the border area of Peru, Brazil and Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noam López

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the border shared by Peru, Colombia and Brazil has become an enclave of drug production and trafficking for the international markets. It is a territory whose control is disputed by non-state actors and where state security forces suffer from severe material and transport limitations. This paper takes an ethnographic approach to explain the limitations of border security and the institutional challenges of controlling drug and wood trafficking in this context. It places the ideas of reproduction and social change at the centre of the discussion on drugs and borders, as key ways of thinking about the dynamics of growing and processing coca-derived drugs in the global South.

  4. Growing families in a shrinking world: legal and ethical challenges in cross-border surrogacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crockin, Susan L

    2013-12-01

    Crossing national borders to have children is a rapidly growing phenomenon, fuelled by restrictions on access and technologies in some countries and for some patients, by high costs in others, and all generating a burgeoning multibillion dollar international industry. Cross-border gestational surrogacy is one form of family building that challenges legal, policy and ethical norms between countries and puts both intended parents and gestational surrogates at risk, and can leave the offspring of these arrangements vulnerable in a variety of ways, including parent-child, immigration and citizenship status. The widely varying political, religious and legal views amongst countries make line drawing and rule making challenging. This article reviews recent court decisions about and explores the legal dimensions of cross-border surrogacy. Copyright © 2013 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Alsace knocks down energetic borders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2010-01-01

    The author proposes an overview of the energy production, consumption and policy in Alsace. The most part (95 per cent) of the production comes from nuclear and hydraulic power stations. He indicates the quantities of oil, gas and electricity consumed by this region, the share of housing, industry, transports and agriculture in energy consumption. He outlines the close international relationships with Germany and Switzerland, in the middle of electricity or gas networks. On the side of renewable energies, the author comments the high potential of wood. He evokes the development of heat networks and the commitment of the region for the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, for the development of the use of biomass and solar energy, and for the development of low energy consumption buildings

  6. Felicitas Pauss - Physics without borders

    CERN Document Server

    2009-01-01

    With the goal of turning CERN into a truly global laboratory, the Director-General has appointed Felcitas Pauss to the newly created position of Co-ordinator for External Relations. In this interview with the Bulletin she explains how external relations will shape the future of CERN. "At CERN there is already an excellent atmosphere of international collaboration, of working together beyond political boundaries," says Felicitas Pauss, the newly appointed Co-ordinator for External Relations. "This is indeed a remarkable feature of scientific collaborations." When it was founded over 50 years ago CERN had the seemingly impossible task of stitching together a united European particle physics community from countries torn apart by the Second World War. Today this goal of collaboration is just as important, not only within Europe but worldwide. "The particle physics landscape has really changed over the past years," Pauss points out. "As...

  7. Patient’s Cross-border Mobility Directive: Application, Performance and Perceptions Two Years after Transposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riedel Rafał

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to analyse the directive on the application of patients’ rights in cross-border healthcare. Two years after the transposition, it is time for first evaluations of its application, performance and perception. The analysis consists of three major elements: reconstruction of the legal scope and subject matter of the new legislation, conclusions of the evaluative reports monitoring its implementation and performance as well as the public opinion polls revealing the EU citizens’ perception of its details. These three components combined together deliver a picture of the state of play about the pan-European cross-border patients’ mobility. The bottomline conclusions negatively verify the supposition present in some earlier literature on patients’ cross-border mobility that the directive has a transformative potential leading towards the creation of truly competitive pan-European medical market. After two years of its operation, there is still no increased patients’ mobility across EU internal borders observed. As regards the speculations for the future, there are only some weak symptoms identified and they may result in intensified cross-border mobility for healthcare.

  8. Characterization of emissions sources in the California-Mexico Border Region during Cal-Mex 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavala, M. A.; Lei, W.; Li, G.; Bei, N.; Barrera, H.; Tejeda, D.; Molina, L. T.; Cal-Mex 2010 Emissions Team

    2010-12-01

    The California-Mexico border region provides an opportunity to evaluate the characteristics of the emission processes in rapidly expanding urban areas where intensive international trade and commerce activities occur. Intense anthropogenic activities, biomass burning, as well as biological and geological sources significantly contribute to high concentration levels of particulate matter (PM), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), nitrogen oxides (NOx), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), air toxics, and ozone observed in the California-US Baja California-Mexico border region. The continued efforts by Mexico and US for improving and updating the emissions inventories in the sister cities of San Diego-Tijuana and Calexico-Mexicali has helped to understand the emission processes in the border region. In addition, the recent Cal-Mex 2010 field campaign included a series of measurements aimed at characterizing the emissions from major sources in the California-Mexico border region. In this work we will present our analyzes of the data obtained during Cal-Mex 2010 for the characterization of the emission sources and their use for the evaluation of the recent emissions inventories for the Mexican cities of Tijuana and Mexicali. The developed emissions inventories will be implemented in concurrent air quality modeling efforts for understanding the physical and chemical transformations of air pollutants in the California-Mexico border region and their impacts.

  9. Elements for regulating surrogacy arrangements with cross-border effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bordaš Bernadet

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerous cases of international surrogacy arrangements and their legal effects in different national legal frameworks have caused a need to weigh the possibility and necessity of regulating the issue on international level. The Hague Conference on Private International Law has been since 2011 involved in preliminary research activities of the issue, on the basis of which it will submit a final report in 2014 on the state of play and on the need to start drafting an international instrument. During the past three years two preliminary reports and four questionnaires have been submitted. Questionnaire 1 have been sent to the member states of the Conference and to other interested countries to collect data on crucial issues of surrogacy and its legal regulation in national legislations. Serbian law de lege lata prohibits surrogacy arrangements, but the 2011 Draft Civil Code introduces it to the domestic legal system as a tool of biomedically assisted fertilization. The present paper suggests that the regulation of surrogacy must also include surrogacy arrangements with cross-border effects for the sake of comprehensiveness of the future legal act on the issue. For this purpose, the paper indicates - based on the preliminary research conducted by the Hague Conference on Private International Law - those elements that should be included in future legislation of Serbia.

  10. Antecedents of Cross-Border Acquisition Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Daojuan; Moini, Hamid; Kuada, John Ernest

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates the impacts of main implementation activities on the success of cross-border acquisitions (CBAs), using survey data from a sample of 103 CBAs conducted by the companies in Nordic countries. The results of OLS regression analysis indicate that due diligence, integration...

  11. Implementation Issues of Cross-border Acquisitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Daojuan; Moini, Hamid; Kuada, John

    This study investigates the impacts of main implementation activities on the success of cross-border acquisitions (CBAs) using the survey data from a sample of 103 CBAs conducted by the companies in Scandinavia. The results of regression analysis indicate that due diligence, integration extent...

  12. Border Lakes land-cover classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marvin Bauer; Brian Loeffelholz; Doug. Shinneman

    2009-01-01

    This document contains metadata and description of land-cover classification of approximately 5.1 million acres of land bordering Minnesota, U.S.A. and Ontario, Canada. The classification focused on the separation and identification of specific forest-cover types. Some separation of the nonforest classes also was performed. The classification was derived from multi-...

  13. Stress Resilience among Border Mexican American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinn, Bobby; Vincent, Vern; Dugas, Donna

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify factors distinguishing Mexican American women living near the U.S.-Mexican border who are resilient to the experience of stress from those who are not. The study sample consisted of 418 participants ranging in age from 20 to 61 years. Data were gathered through a self-report survey instrument composed of…

  14. Border Disease Virus among Chamois, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosell, Rosa; Cabezón, Oscar; Mentaberre, Gregorio; Casas, Encarna; Velarde, Roser; Lavín, Santiago

    2009-01-01

    Approximately 3,000 Pyrenean chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica pyrenaica) died in northeastern Spain during 2005–2007. Border disease virus infection was identified by reverse transcription–PCR and sequencing analysis. These results implicate this virus as the primary cause of death, similar to findings in the previous epizootic in 2001. PMID:19239761

  15. Cross-border Mergers and Acquisitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Daojuan

    This paper focuses on three topics in cross-border mergers and acquisitions (CBM&As) field: motivations for CBM&As, valuation techniques and CBM&A performance (assessment and the determinants). By taking an overview of what have been found so far in academic field and investigating...

  16. Cross-border flow of health information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Iorio, Concetta Tania; Carinci, Fabrizio; Brillante, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    The EUBIROD project aims to perform a cross-border flow of diabetes information across 19 European countries using the BIRO information system, which embeds privacy principles and data protection mechanisms in its architecture (privacy by design). A specific task of EUBIROD was to investigate...

  17. Border Protection and National Security of Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-09-01

    simple acts, such as a cartographer labeling an island “Turkish” instead of “ Greek ,” have triggered the mobilization of armed forces on both sides as...been replaced with marble columns that are guaranteed to last for a century. Parts of the state borders in some directions have been negotiated and

  18. Crossing Pedagogical Borders in the Yucatan Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willhauck, Susan

    2009-01-01

    A challenging intercultural teaching experience provided an opportunity for engaging embodied pedagogies that facilitated border crossings of language, age, gender, and experience. Influenced by the work of Augusto Boal, the author describes how improvisation, role-play, music, and drawing led seminary students in Mexico into sacred time and space…

  19. THE LESSONS OF THE BORDER WAR

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Willem Scholtz

    At the time of writing, the Border War has been over for 24 years. Some of .... artillery together with other support troops were learnt.5 ..... Beforehand they were as excited as naïve children before a picnic; ..... and a tank squadron (which was later augmented with a second squadron). ..... They are distanced so far from reality.

  20. Sensory neuropathy in two Border collie puppies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeersch, K; Van Ham, L; Braund, K G; Bhatti, S; Tshamala, M; Chiers, K; Schrauwen, E

    2005-06-01

    A peripheral sensory neuropathy was diagnosed in two Border collie puppies. Neurological, electrophysiological and histopathological examinations suggested a purely sensory neuropathy with mainly distal involvement. Urinary incontinence was observed in one of the puppies and histological examination of the vagus nerve revealed degenerative changes. An inherited disorder was suspected.

  1. Economic analysis of the cross-border coordination of operation in the European power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janssen, Tanguy

    2014-01-01

    The electricity high voltage transmission networks are interconnected over most of the continents but this is not the case of the power system organizations. Indeed, as described with the concept of integrated power system, the organization over these large networks is divided by several kinds of internal borders. In this context, the research object, the cross-border coordination of operation, is a set of coordination arrangements over internal borders between differing regulatory, technical and market designs. These arrangements can include for instance the famous market couplings, some cost-sharing agreements or common security assessments among several other solutions. The existence and improvement of the cross-border coordination of operation can be beneficial to the whole integrated power system. This statement is verified in the European case as in 2012 where several regional and continental coordination arrangements are successfully implemented.In order to benefit from the European experience and contribute to support the European improvement process, this thesis investigates the cross-border coordination of operation in the European case with four angles of study. First, a modular framework is built to describe the existing solutions and the implementation choices from a regulatory point of view. Second, the thesis analyses the tools available to assess the impact of an evolution of the cross-border coordination. Third, the role of the European Union (EU) is described as critical both for the existing arrangements and to support the improvement process. The last angle of study focuses on two dimensions of the economic modes of coordination between transmission system operators. (author)

  2. INFORMAL SECTOR CITY TOURISM: CROSS-BORDER SHOPPERS IN JOHANNESBURG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian M. ROGERSON

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Informality is a distinguishing trait of economic life across much of the global South. In terms of the tourism sector several researchers examine the informal sector of leisure tourism. In this article the aim is to focus upon business tourism and more specifically the segment of informal sector business tourism. The growth of informal sector business tourism is particularly important in sub-Saharan Africa. An analysis is undertaken of recent research on South Africa’s major city of Johanesburg where the importance of informal sector business tourism is demonstrated. The results show Johannesburg is the focus for transnational entrepreneurship in the form of the growth of cross-border shopping. The organisation of this manifestation of informal business tourism, the nature of its participants and business challenges form the focus of discussion. It is argued that despite many benefits that flow to the city of Johannesburg from informal sector of business tourism the local state has yet to fully acknowledge the multiple positive impacts of these international visitors upon the urban economy and plan to accommodate the needs of cross-border shoppers.

  3. Bauhäusler on the Franco-Spanish Border

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Martínez de Guereñu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the travels of Bauhaus masters and instructors and on the transport of Bauhaus products to Spain in 1929, when the Franco-Spanish border was still culturally permeable. Ludwig Mies van der Rohe and Marcel Breuer introduced their tubular-steel furniture in the Spanish market. Mies and Lilly Reich designed the interiors of all German industrial sections at the Barcelona International Exposition, where the Bauhaus sent objects from its carpentry, metal, and weaving workshops. Josef and Anni Albers traveled to see the exhibition and then went to meet Vassily Kandinsky and Paul Klee, who spent over a month on holiday in the Côte Basque. Albers captured their trip in photo collages, Kandinsky registered his impressions in snapshots, while Klee wrote abundant correspondence and produced drawings. Focusing on the itineraries the Bauhäusler followed, along with the means by which they expressed their travel impressions, this article reveals the effect of travel in their later design attitudes and work. Significant cultural transfers between Germany and Spain took place in a critical moment of European history, suggesting that further developments of these learning experiences might have materialized later on both sides of the border, possibly even reaching across the Atlantic.

  4. Border Security: The Role of the U.S. Border Patrol

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nunez-Neto, Blas

    2005-01-01

    .... Today, the USBP's primary mission is to detect and prevent the entry of terrorists, weapons of mass destruction, and illegal aliens into the country, and to interdict drug smugglers and other criminals along the border...

  5. Border Security: Immigration Issues in the 108th Congress

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Seghetti, Lisa M

    2004-01-01

    .... Prior to the terrorist attacks, the priorities for border security policy were beginning to shift from immigration-related issues to issues related to facilitating legitimate cross-border commerce...

  6. Border Security -- One Step Toward Resolving the Conflict in Iraq

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bennett, Mark S

    2005-01-01

    .... It will do this by proving that border security is a key component to suppressing the Iraqi insurgency and that border security operations have been hindered by a lack of interagency coordination...

  7. Crossing borders: The Case of ethnic Dagestani in Georgia

    OpenAIRE

    Meurmishvili, Giorgi

    2014-01-01

    According to William Zartman Borders run across land but through people. On maps they appear as fine one-dimensional lines, whereas on the ground they have many dimensions. Borders are boundaries in depth, space around a line, place where state meets society" (Zartman 2010:16). It is impossible to understand borders, without peripheral relations between the states and societies they contain. Itself borders are zones in which people create special relationship with other people. ...

  8. Criminal offences in trans-border territories. Drug trade in the Province of Tamarugal, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Corder Tapia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This research addresses the drug trade in Tamarugal Province for the years 2003 to 2010, through an analysis of crime statistics from the police (Chilean Carabineros and Police Investigations Unit, and penal system institutions (National Prison Service and the Office of the Prosecutor. The analysis of the drug trade situates the drug trafficking issue in the international context of globalization and in a border area emergency that does not necessarily correspond to the traditional definition of the nation state. The research proposes to situate this issue of criminal offence in the context of the international legal order, focusing on the specific characteristics of the Tarapacá region and its condition as a trans border territory. It also proposes to situate this issue in a regional context, as well as in terms of the efforts of the international order to control illegal trafficking of drugs.

  9. The role of ethnicity and travel on Hepatitis A vaccination coverage and disease incidence in Arizona at the United States–Mexico Border

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Kacey C; Erhart, Laura M

    2014-01-01

    Background: Hepatitis A (HAV) incidence has decreased in the United States, yet regional disparities persist. The role of international travel has become increasingly important in HAV transmission. We compared the relative burden of HAV in border and non-border regions in Arizona and examined the role of travel in sustaining HAV transmission. Methods: HAV vaccination coverage was calculated by age and region, using Arizona State Immunization Information System data. Incidence, demographics, and risk factors of cases reported through Arizona’s infectious disease surveillance system between 2006 and 2011 were analyzed. Results: Hepatitis A incidence was higher in the border region of Arizona. Compared with the rest of Arizona, one-dose coverage in children <15 years was lower in the border region until 2008. Second dose coverage was lower in the border region, particularly among Spanish speakers. International travel among cases was generally high; however, in the border region cases were more likely to visit Mexico or South/Central America (94% vs. 80%, P value = 0.01) and be Hispanic (68% vs. 42%, P value = 0.0003). Conclusions: Rates of HAV continue to be higher in the Arizona border region; the risk appears particularly high among Hispanics with recent travel in the Americas. Border surveillance should be emphasized, along with vaccination of all travelers, to continue to decrease and control HAV. PMID:24603091

  10. 8 CFR 1212.6 - Border crossing identification cards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... combined B-1/B-2 visitor visa and non-biometric border crossing identification card or (a similar stamp in... non-biometric border crossing identification card (or similar stamp in a passport), issued by the DOS... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Border crossing identification cards. 1212...

  11. 76 FR 65207 - U.S. Customs and Border Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Notice of Cancellation of Customs Broker Licenses AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, U.S. Department of Homeland Security.... 1641) and the U.S. Customs and Border Protection regulations (19 CFR 111.51), the following Customs...

  12. 76 FR 50883 - U.S. Customs and Border Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY 19... of Liquidation AGENCY: Customs and Border Protection, Department of Homeland Security; Department of... Regulations (``CFR'') pertaining to the method by which U.S. Customs and Border Protection (``CBP'') issues...

  13. 78 FR 35044 - U.S. Customs and Border Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-11

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities: Visa Waiver Program Carrier Agreement (CBP Form I-775) AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection... information collection: 1651-0110. SUMMARY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) of the Department of...

  14. 77 FR 59206 - U.S. Customs and Border Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities: Foreign Assembler's Declaration AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP), Department of... written comments to U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Attn: Tracey Denning, Regulations and Rulings...

  15. Picking and Choosing the ‘Sovereign’Border

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parker, Noel; Adler-Nissen, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    We argue that the continued persistence of borders is an effect of their constitutive role for the many dimensions of a social particular. States cannot choose to have a border; but they can and do make choices amongst the materials available on the various planes of inscription for bordering. Fo...

  16. IDentity, crude data and narrative at the border

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møhl, Perle

    Based on ethnographic fieldwork among border control agents at a Schengen border point, the paper explores the linkages and dissociations between human and computer intelligence work in the daily operation of border control where voyagers are profiled, their IDs verified and their intentions scru...

  17. Gender, Cross-border Migrant Workers and Citizenship : Case Study ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... of the Burmese-Thai border; final technical report. Documents. Border industrialization and labour mobility : a case of Burmese migrant workers in border area factories. Rapports. Round Table Discussion on Past and Current Research on Migrant Workers in Thailand, Miracle Grand Convention Hotel, 17 January 2007 ...

  18. U.S. Border Patrol Fiscal Year Statistics Southwest border sector deaths - FY 1998 through FY 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Southwest Border Sectors include: Del Rio, El Centro, El Paso, Laredo, Rio Grande Valley, San Diego, Tucson, Yuma Southwest Border Deaths By Fiscal Year (Oct. 1st...

  19. Patterns of HIV prevalence among injecting drug users in the cross-border area of Lang Son Province, Vietnam, and Ning Ming County, Guangxi Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoang Tran V

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To assess patterns of injecting drug use and HIV prevalence among injecting drug users (IDUs in an international border area along a major heroin trans-shipment route. Methods Cross-sectional surveys of IDUs in 5 sites in Lang Son Province, Vietnam (n = 348 and 3 sites in Ning Ming County, Guangxi Province, China (n = 308. Respondents were recruited through peer referral ("snowball" methods in both countries, and also from officially recorded lists of IDUs in Vietnam. A risk behavior questionnaire was administered and HIV counseling and testing conducted. Results Participants in both countries were largely male, in their 20s, and unmarried. A majority of subjects in both countries were members of ethnic minority groups. There were strong geographic gradients for length of drug injecting and for HIV seroprevalence. Both mean years injecting and HIV seroprevalence declined from the Vietnamese site farthest from the border to the Chinese site farthest from the border. 10.6% of participants in China and 24.5% of participants in Vietnam reported crossing the international border in the 6 months prior to interview. Crossing the border by IDUs was associated with (1 distance from the border, (2 being a member of an ethnic minority group, and (3 being HIV seropositive among Chinese participants. Conclusion Reducing the international spread of HIV among IDUs will require programs at the global, regional, national, and "local cross border" levels. At the local cross border level, the programs should be coordinated on both sides of the border and on a sufficient scale that IDUs will be able to readily obtain clean injection equipment on the other side of the border as well as in their country of residence.

  20. Surrogacy with cross-border effects: Reality and law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bordaš Bernadet

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes a topic which is highly ranked in law reviews throughout the world, due to the fact that gestational surrogate motherhood as a fact of life is subjected to very different legal regulation worldwide. Taking advantage of the lack of an international legal framework in this domain and the permissive national regulations of some states, persons who want to become parents of a child who is genetically related to them, use the services of surrogate mothers abroad. The legal parenthood the commissioning persons acquire in the country where the surrogate mother gives birth to the child, and the connected legal status of the child, however, is called into question, because the effects of the international surrogacy are submitted to the rules of private international law of the local state whose nationals the commissioning persons are and / or where they have their residence. The problems are shown through three selected cases of comparative judicial and administrative practices, illustrating the practical difficulties, and speaking in favor of initiatives for drawing up international legal framework for gestational surrogacy with cross-border effects.

  1. What about equal treatment of foreign borderers in German environmental procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oppermann, T.; Kilian, M.

    1981-01-01

    Until now, basic regulations concerning the participation of borderers in environmental procedures have only be laid down in draft papers, proposals and expert recommendations of the United Nations, the Council of Europe and the European Communities. Binding obligations to let them participate according to international law have not been in force to date, and so has none on a supranational level either. German administrative authorities must take the interests of the neighbouring border population into account in making decisions relevant to the environment, which might affect a foreign territory. This obligation results from Art. 15 of the Basic Law ('prointernational law constitution') and the general customary law relating to international law communicated thereby. In view of a lacking standard of customary law, a right to participate in environmental proceedings which can be legally enforced will not follow from this national obligation for the individual foreign borderer. It is true that a 'prointernational law' interpretation of standards governing German administrative law is possible from a legal point of view. According to their nature, the standards of the individual environmental laws protecting neighbours are strictly oriented towards domestic application. In case of future participation of foreign borderers to be regulated by contracts, special importance will have to be attached to the principle of reciprocity because of the existing ban on the discrimination of natives. (orig./HSCH) [de

  2. MIGRATION POLICIES AND STATE CONTROL IN ARGENTINA: EXPERIENCES OF VULNERABLE BOLIVIAN WOMEN WHO CROSS THE BORDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Pizarro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the way in which migration policies impact in the trajectories of Bolivian women who live and work in the outskirts of the main cities of Argentina. It focuses on three cases representative of the experiences of women laborers who, coming from the poorest rural areas of Bolivia, crossed the international border when Argentine migration policy was very restrictive. It shows that symbolic and socio-economic borders keep on excluding them, as well as other labor migrants, within the Argentine territory even when the current Migration Law enacted in 2004 is more inclusive, since it grants human and social rights to the migrants. It highlights the way in which particular state control mechanisms operate nowadays both at the international border and within the Argentine territory, and analyses the difficulties that these women experience due to their positions of class, ethnic, gender, nationality and migratory status. It remarks that despite the changes in the immigration policy of Argentina, state policies keep on controlling labor migrations in accordance with the paradigm of the governance of migration. It also analyses the strategies that these women develop in order to sort out state control policies. Therefore, it considers that they are active agents even though they still have feelings of fear and trauma associated with the crossing of borders.

  3. People’s Health Service Preference at the State Borders [A Policy Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turniani Laksmiarti

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Indonesian has 497 District consisting of 399 districts and 98 cities, some districts are adjacent to other countries with relatively short travel time and easily, so presumably there are 12.000 Indonesian citizens who went to Malaysia each year and the data of National Health Care Group international Business Development -Singapore claimed 50 percent of international patients seeking treatment in Singapore is a citizen of Indonesia. This study aims to describe of the state border regions, in particular aspects of health regulations. Methods:Operational research with cross sectional design, in which data are collected in the same time (the same fiscal year. The research was conducted in 2012 in Sanggau and Batam District. The unit of analysis is the health workers and communities in the border region. Results: People in the border region who have the financial capability prefer to have treatment in the neighboring countries because of the resources (personnel, health equipment in the border areas health facilities are still inadequate and the referral access to the capital city could not be reached by the people compared to neighboring countries’ hospitals. Recommendations:The government and local governments improve preventive programs and health promotion, improve the health facilities so that there will be no lost of foreign exchange from the health sector towards the neighboring countries.

  4. Beyond Borders (2003, or the human side of medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Maria Rabelo Annes

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Beyond Borders (2003 reflects on the human side of people and the wish to help those most in need, special emphasis being placed on the medical profession. It also reflects the main outcomes of armed conflicts on the health of the populations affected by the strife and the difficulties encountered by those interested in helping out. The frequent denouncements (such as that made in the film have not changed the penury of refugees and internally displaced persons, who remain with no definitive solution to their problems, despite the efforts of many, such that it is crucial to attack the root causes themselves instead of trying to minimise the horrific consequences generated by armed conflicts.

  5. The Nature and Functions of European Political Borders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jernej Zupančič

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The political border limits a state’s territory and symbolizes the extent of a state’s power and ownership. Borders give integrity to the inner state territory which they enclose (the role of establishing national integrity and at the same time form an outer boundary segregating the state territory from the surrounding politicial entities (the segregation role. European borders are old and reflect the political history of an old continent. The last major border changes happened after World War II. Over the centuries borders were merely lines separating one territory from another. Such borders were understood as »frontiers«. Forming an effective barrier against enemies was the overriding function of borders. Many borders were fortified and further enhanced by means of various defensive systems. In the second half of the 20th century the character of political borders changed. They became a contact area between countries, nations and cultures. Contemporary European borders reflect the colourful history of an old continent. They are predominantely functional markers: they represent the political and juridical delimitation of territories, they mark economic barriers and show their defensive nature and reveal the extent of cultural contact. As a result of European integration processes, the nature of political borders has changed: instead of division, their integration role is brought to the fore. A united Europe is nevertheless still not a borderless Europe! The borders within the »Schengen-area« have retained their political and administrative functions, it is just that the customs and security checks at the borders have been removed. During the period of European integration, borderlines were stabilized in accordance with the 1974 Helsinki Agreement. But despite this we can still observe ongoing changes to state borders, particularly in areas of conflict such as the Balkan peninsula. It seems after all that the process of demarcation

  6. Opportunities for Cross-Border Entrepreneurship Development in a Cluster Model Exemplified by the Polish–Czech Border Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Kurowska-Pysz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The subject of the paper is the analysis and evaluation of cross-border entrepreneurship development opportunities on the basis of cross-border cooperation, which has gradually evolved from consisting of bilateral partnerships to a networking model or even a cluster. The study conducted at the Polish–Czech border area indicates that, in terms of the development of cross-border cooperation, the economic sphere is lagging far behind social activities such as culture, education and tourism. At the same time, Polish and Czech enterprises are not sufficiently mobilized to develop cross-border entrepreneurship, although a number of support instruments in this regard have been proposed. Sustainable development of the border should take into account both social and economic aspects. An important research problem therefore becomes determining the possibility of boosting the development of cross-border entrepreneurship on the basis of the existing forms of cross-border cooperation, including cooperation in the social sphere. The aim of this paper is to define the conditions and opportunities for the development of cluster cooperation in the area of cross-border entrepreneurship. The author has attempted to resolve whether the intensity of cross-border cooperation can be a factor which mobilizes companies to develop their cross-border entrepreneurship and whether cross-border entrepreneurship can be further developed within the cluster model.

  7. Cross-border cooperation potential in fostering redevelopment of degraded border areas - a case study approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandre Castanho, Rui; Ramírez, Beatriz; Loures, Luis; Fernández-Pozo, Luis; Cabezas, José

    2017-04-01

    Border interactions have reached unprecedented levels in recent decades, not only due to their potential for territorial integration but also considering their role in supranational processes, such as landscape reclamation, infrastructure development and land use planning on European territory. In this scenario, successful examples related to the redevelopment of degraded areas have been showing positive impacts at several levels, such as the social, economic, environmental and aesthetic ones which have ultimately related this process, positively, to sustainability issues. However, concerning to border areas, and due to their inherent legislative and bureaucratic conflicts, the intervention in these areas is more complex. Still, and taking into account previously developed projects and strategies of cross-border cooperation (CBC) in European territory it is possible to identified that the definition of common master plans and common objectives are critical issues to achieve the desired territorial success. Additionally, recent studies have put forward some noteworthy ideas highlighting that it is possible to establish a positive correlation between CBC processes and an increasing redevelopment of degraded border areas, with special focus on the reclamation of derelict landscapes fostering soil reuse and redevelopment. The present research, throughout case study analysis at the Mediterranean level - considering case studies from Portugal, Spain, Monaco and Italy - which presents specific data on border landscape redevelopment, enables us to conclude that CBC processes have a positive influence on the potential redevelopment of degraded border areas, considering not only urban but also rural land. Furthermore, this paper presents data obtained through a public participation process which highlights that these areas present a greater potential for landscape reclamation, fostering resource sustainability and sustainable growth. Keywords: Spatial planning; Land

  8. DEVELOPMENT OF CROSS-BORDER AREAS. STUDY CASES REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela\tȘLUSARCIUC

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to review study cases found in the scientific literature concerning the development of cross- border areas in European Union and its neighbourhood. The introductory part of the paper is drawing few considerations about the cross-border areas. Further we identified in the specific literature relevant study cases that provide lessons learned, tools and models that can contribute to the development of the cross-border areas. The last part of the paper is focusing on an inquiry about how this lessons, learned, tools and models may be adapted in case of cross-border areas along the Romanian border with the EU Eastern Neighbourhood.

  9. Measuring cross-border regional integration with composite indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makkonen, Teemu

    2016-01-01

    Earlier quantitative studies on cross-border regional integration processes have commonly neglected science, technology and innovation (STI) indicators: even the most notable example of a composite indicator approach to measuring cross-border regional integration, i.e. the Oresund index, lacks...... a sub-category for STI. Consequently, by ignoring cross-border innovation and knowledge flows, the Oresund integration index fails to take into account one of the most important drivers of economic growth in cross-border regions. Therefore, a new composite STI indicator (sub-category) was introduced......-border regions....

  10. Astronomers Without Borders: A Global Astronomy Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, M.

    2011-10-01

    Astronomers Without Borders (AWB) brings together astronomy enthusiasts of all types - amateur astronomers, educators, professionals and "armchair" astronomers for a variety of online and physicalworld programs. The AWB web site provides social networking and a base for online programs that engage people worldwide in astronomy activities that transcend geopolitical and cultural borders. There is universal interest in astronomy, which has been present in all cultures throughout recorded history. Astronomy is also among the most accessible of sciences with the natural laboratory of the sky being available to people worldwide. There are few other interests for which people widely separated geographically can engage in activities involving the same objects. AWB builds on those advantages to bring people together. AWB also provides a platform where projects can reach a global audience. AWB also provides unique opportunities for multidisciplinary collaboration in EPO programs. Several programs including The World at Night, Global Astronomy Month and others will be described along with lessons learned.

  11. Centronuclear myopathy in a Border collie dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eminaga, S; Cherubini, G B; Shelton, G D

    2012-10-01

    A two-year old, male entire Border collie was presented with a one-year history of exercise-induced collapsing on the pelvic limbs. Physical examination revealed generalised muscle atrophy. Neurological examination supported a generalised neuromuscular disorder. Electromyography revealed spontaneous electrical activity in almost all muscles. Unfixed and formaldehyde-fixed biopsy samples were collected from the triceps brachii, longissimus and vastus lateralis muscles. Histopathological, histochemical and ultrastructural examinations of biopsy specimens were consistent with either centronuclear or myotubular myopathy. The dog clinically improved with supportive treatment with L-carnitine, co-enzyme Q10 and vitamin B compound. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of centronuclear/myotubular myopathy in a Border collie. © 2012 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  12. Borders and Borderlands in the Americas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    both licit and illicit networks. Traditional territorial security concerns declined in the Americas following the end of the Cold War, and NAFTA in...deepen economic ties and liberalize regimes, privileging development over security.12 Similarly, trade, fostered through NAFTA , has shaped and affected...FOR FURTHER RESEARCH States determine what a “problem” at the border is through their constitutions , legal regimes, and policies. This means that

  13. Cross border M and A environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, M.B.

    1998-01-01

    An overview of the Canada-U.S. cross-border merger and acquisition environment and exchangeable share structure within the petroleum industry is provided. Recent U.S. acquisitions in Canada, Canadian investment conditions, indexed price analysis from January 1, 1997 to October 16, 1998, and a variety of other share price/cash flow statistics relevant to mergers and acquisitions are examined. tabs., figs

  14. Vocal and Tangible Interaction Crossing Borders

    OpenAIRE

    Andersson, Anders-Petter; Cappelen, Birgitta

    2013-01-01

    Our voice and body are important parts of our self-expression and self-experience for all of us. They are also essential for our way to communicate and build relations cross borders such as abilities, ages, locations and backgrounds. Voice, body and tangibility gradually become more important for ICT, due to increased development of tangible interaction and mobile communication. The voice and tangible interaction therefore also become more important for the Universal Design field. In this pap...

  15. Culture as a Moving Symbolic Border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simão, Lívia Mathias

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this paper is to propose the notion of culture as a symbolic moving border. Departing from both, Boesch's (1991) concept of culture as a symbolic field of action, and Herbst's (1995) co-genetic logic, I will discuss the dynamics of self-other relationships in terms of their potentiality as sources of movement in culture. A brief analysis of an empirical material is given in illustrative character of the ideas here exposed.

  16. Of States and Borders on the Internet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shklovski, Irina; Struthers, David

    2010-01-01

    their activity on the Internet as happening within or outside the space of the state to which they felt allegiance and belonging. National borders are demarcated on the Internet through naming via ccTLDs and can result in individual expressions of various types of nationalism online. We find that cc......TLDs are not just symbolic markers but have real meaning and their importance increases in locations where notions of statehood are in flux....

  17. Type 2 diabetes mortality at Mexican borders

    OpenAIRE

    Manzanares Rivera, José Luis

    2017-01-01

    Abstract:Objective: To analyze type II diabetes mortality rates geographic distribution and evolution in time across both Mexican border regions during the period 1998-2013.Methods: The work is based on exploratory and inferential data analysis conducted using death reports from the national health information system. The analysis considers social determinants of health as a theoretical paradigm and includes microdata on consumption patterns at household level for the US-Mexico and Mexico- Gu...

  18. Ceroid-lipofuscinosis in border collie dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, R M; Farrow, B R

    1988-01-01

    Five Border Collie dogs with ceroid-lipofuscinosis developed progressive neurological disease between 18 and 22 months of age. These dogs had behavioural abnormalities, gait and visual deficits and became progressively demented. All dogs examined had common ancestors. Light microscopic examination of tissues demonstrated extensive accumulation of granular, sudan black-staining autofluorescent material in the cytoplasm of neurones, retinal ganglion cells and some visceral cells. At ultrastructural examination inclusions of variable morphology were observed.

  19. The structure of borders in a small world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiemann, Christian; Theis, Fabian; Grady, Daniel; Brune, Rafael; Brockmann, Dirk

    2010-11-18

    Territorial subdivisions and geographic borders are essential for understanding phenomena in sociology, political science, history, and economics. They influence the interregional flow of information and cross-border trade and affect the diffusion of innovation and technology. However, it is unclear if existing administrative subdivisions that typically evolved decades ago still reflect the most plausible organizational structure of today. The complexity of modern human communication, the ease of long-distance movement, and increased interaction across political borders complicate the operational definition and assessment of geographic borders that optimally reflect the multi-scale nature of today's human connectivity patterns. What border structures emerge directly from the interplay of scales in human interactions is an open question. Based on a massive proxy dataset, we analyze a multi-scale human mobility network and compute effective geographic borders inherent to human mobility patterns in the United States. We propose two computational techniques for extracting these borders and for quantifying their strength. We find that effective borders only partially overlap with existing administrative borders, and show that some of the strongest mobility borders exist in unexpected regions. We show that the observed structures cannot be generated by gravity models for human traffic. Finally, we introduce the concept of link significance that clarifies the observed structure of effective borders. Our approach represents a novel type of quantitative, comparative analysis framework for spatially embedded multi-scale interaction networks in general and may yield important insight into a multitude of spatiotemporal phenomena generated by human activity.

  20. Small Border Traffic and Cross-Border Tourism Between Poland and the Kaliningrad Oblast of the Russian Federation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anisiewicz Renata

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Polish and Russian cross-border cooperation is governed by lawful agreements. The enlargement of the Schengen Area had a significant impact on Kaliningrad Oblast relations and cross-border cooperation with its neighbours. The introduction of visas between Poland and Russia hindered and restricted local border trade which had for years been the only measure mitigating social and economic problems of the cross-border regions. Nevertheless, border traffic between Poland and Kaliningrad grew steadily, to exceed four million in 2012.

  1. Regulating the helping hand: improving legal preparedness for cross-border disaster medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, David

    2010-01-01

    Medical care is a highly regulated field in nearly every country. Therefore, it is not surprising that legal issues regularly arise in cross-border disaster operations that have with the potential to profoundly impact the effectiveness of international assistance. Little attention has been paid to preparing for and addressing these kinds of issues. This paper will report on research by the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC) on International Disaster Response Law, and discuss new developments in the international legal framework for addressing these issues. For seven years, the IFRC has studied legal issues in cross-border disaster assistance. Its activities have included several dozen case studies, a global survey of governments and humanitarian stakeholders, and a series of meetings and high-level conferences. The IFRC has found a consistent set of regulatory problems in major disaster relief operations related to the entry and regulation of international relief. These include some issues specific to the health field, such as the regulation of drug donations and the recognition of foreign medical qualifications. To address the gaps in domestic and international regulatory structures, the IFRC spearheaded the development of new international guidelines. The legal risks for international health providers in disaster settings are real and should be better integrated into program planning. Governments must become more proactive in ensuring that legal frameworks are flexible enough to mitigate these problems.

  2. The Theoretical Prerequisites for the Emergence of Interactive Marketing in the System of Management of Cross-Border Economic Cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gegedosh Kristian V.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article attempts to characterize the basic theoretical aspects of marketing in cross-border cooperation. It has been found that, in the current context of the IT sector development, it is of substantial relevance to apply the benefits of online marketing together with integrating it into the international regional cross-border economic relations. The author’s own conception of the use of interactive marketing to further improve interaction of the entities of neighbouring countries in various areas of cross-border cooperation (CBC has been proposed. A layout of web site interface of the interactive cross-border business center has been developed on the example of the euroregional formation of member countries in the Interregional Association «Carpathian Euroregion». One of the main challenges to the development of the CBC today is the lack of a well-functioning mechanism of interaction of «local authorities – regional development agencies – business structures». However, after building a model for development of a cross-border economy based on interactive marketing principles, the border areas on both sides will be able to better develop the regional economy and, consequently, the social well-being of the territory as a whole.

  3. A Himalayan Border Trilogy: The Political Economies of Transport Infrastructure and Disaster Relief between China and Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galen Murton

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This photo essay illustrates and contrasts the infrastructure and operations of three international border posts between China and Nepal. Located at Zhangmu-Kodari, Kyirong-Rasuwa, and Likse-Neychung borders, these posts function as the only motorable China-Nepal border crossings and represent half of the six official, open borders recognized by Kathmandu and Beijing. In addition to China’s new position as Nepal’s number-one source of foreign direct investment, bilateral trade, humanitarian aid, and tourism traffic between the two countries continue to expand annually. As infrastructure development facilitates new political-economic dynamics between China and Nepal, these three border posts are becoming increasingly potent symbols of ongoing evolutions in Sino-Nepal relations. Because each crossing is also located at Nepal’s border with the Tibet Autonomous Region, each site exhibits a complex politics of identity, citizenship, and mobility with respect to the movement and control of local traders, Tibetan exiles, the Nepali Army, and the Chinese State Police, among other actors.

  4. Border Malaria Associated with Multidrug Resistance on Thailand-Myanmar and Thailand-Cambodia Borders: Transmission Dynamic, Vulnerability, and Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhumiratana, Adisak; Intarapuk, Apiradee; Sorosjinda-Nunthawarasilp, Prapa; Maneekan, Pannamas; Koyadun, Surachart

    2013-01-01

    This systematic review elaborates the concepts and impacts of border malaria, particularly on the emergence and spread of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax multidrug resistance (MDR) malaria on Thailand-Myanmar and Thailand-Cambodia borders. Border malaria encompasses any complex epidemiological settings of forest-related and forest fringe-related malaria, both regularly occurring in certain transmission areas and manifesting a trend of increased incidence in transmission prone areas along these borders, as the result of interconnections of human settlements and movement activities, cross-border population migrations, ecological changes, vector population dynamics, and multidrug resistance. For regional and global perspectives, this review analyzes and synthesizes the rationales pertaining to transmission dynamics and the vulnerabilities of border malaria that constrain surveillance and control of the world's most MDR falciparum and vivax malaria on these chaotic borders. PMID:23865048

  5. Border Malaria Associated with Multidrug Resistance on Thailand-Myanmar and Thailand-Cambodia Borders: Transmission Dynamic, Vulnerability, and Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adisak Bhumiratana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This systematic review elaborates the concepts and impacts of border malaria, particularly on the emergence and spread of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax multidrug resistance (MDR malaria on Thailand-Myanmar and Thailand-Cambodia borders. Border malaria encompasses any complex epidemiological settings of forest-related and forest fringe-related malaria, both regularly occurring in certain transmission areas and manifesting a trend of increased incidence in transmission prone areas along these borders, as the result of interconnections of human settlements and movement activities, cross-border population migrations, ecological changes, vector population dynamics, and multidrug resistance. For regional and global perspectives, this review analyzes and synthesizes the rationales pertaining to transmission dynamics and the vulnerabilities of border malaria that constrain surveillance and control of the world’s most MDR falciparum and vivax malaria on these chaotic borders.

  6. Cross-border policy effects on alcohol outcomes: drinking without thinking on the u.s.-Mexico border?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Britain A; Caetano, Raul; Vaeth, Patrice

    2014-11-01

    Rates of alcohol-related outcomes are sensitive to policy differences in politically distinct, adjacent territories. Factors that shape these cross-border effects, particularly when the policy differences are longstanding, remain poorly understood. We compared the ability of 2 classes of variables with theoretical relevance to the U.S.-Mexico border context-bar attendance and alcohol-related social-cognitive variables-to explain elevated drinking on the U.S. side of the border relative to other areas of the United States. Data were collected from multistage cluster samples of adult Mexican Americans on and off the U.S.-Mexico border (current drinker N = 1,351). Structural equation models were used to test drinking context (frequency of bar attendance) and 6 different social-cognitive variables (including alcohol-related attitudes, norms, motives, and beliefs) as mediators of border effects on a composite drinking index. The border effect on drinking varied by age (with younger adults showing a stronger effect), consistent with previous findings and known risk factors in the region. Contrary to theoretical expectations, 6 different social-cognitive variables-despite relating strongly with drinking-were comparable in border and nonborder areas (within and across age) and played no role in elevated drinking on the border. Conversely, elevated drinking among border youth was mediated by bar attendance. This mediated moderation effect held after adjusting for potential sociodemographic and neighborhood-level confounders. Increased drinking among U.S.-Mexico border youth is explained by patterns of bar attendance, but not by more permissive alcohol-related social-cognitive variables in border areas: Border youth attend bars and drink more than their nonborder counterparts, despite having comparable alcohol-related beliefs, attitudes, norms, and motives for use. Alcohol's heightened availability and visibility on both sides of the border may create opportunities for

  7. Detection of contaminated metallurgical scrap at borders: a proposal for an 'investigation level'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duftschmid, K.E.

    1999-01-01

    refractory wear in blast furnaces with 60 Co sources mounted at different depth in the linings. After meltdown the resulting activity concentration is typically around several hundred Bq/kg, which is well below the Exemption Level according to the International Basic Safety Standards (BSS) of 10 kBq/kg. Such rejects are not only costly, but may seriously impede the free movement of goods. Several unnecessary alarms per day at a border would render the monitoring system useless in practice. Furthermore there is an economic restriction for the costs of border monitoring systems, in view of the very large number of units required to effectively cover a country. In contrast to the situation at steel plants, where every significant radioactive contamination of scrap should be detected to avoid meltdown of a source, the procedure at borders has to be based on a compromise. Derived from results obtained within a large scale pilot study on border monitoring systems (ITRAP), reported in a separate paper of this workshop, it is planned to propose, within the above mentioned Safety Guide, a recommended 'investigation level' at borders, i.e. a measured radiation level above which a scrap transport should be stopped and closely investigated, as a dose rate near the vehicle in the range of 0.3 μSv/h. This value, which is approximately equivalent to three times natural background, is supported by the fact that additional quality assurance measurements will generally be carried out by the industry. It is intended to eventually obtain international agreement between the Member States on this procedure. (author)

  8. 78 FR 8550 - Relocation of Regulations and Rulings, Office of International Trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-06

    ... Rulings, Office of International Trade AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of Homeland... International Trade, of the U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) is relocating its office from the U.S. Mint... correspondence directed to the Regulations and Rulings, Office of International Trade, including mailed comments...

  9. Borders as membranes :metaphors and models for improved policy in border regions.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malczynski, Leonard A.; Passell, Howard David; Forster, Craig B. (University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT); Cockerill, Kristan (Cockerill Consulting, Boone, NC)

    2005-10-01

    Political borders are controversial and contested spaces. In an attempt to better understand movement along and through political borders, this project applied the metaphor of a membrane to look at how people, ideas, and things ''move'' through a border. More specifically, the research team employed this metaphor in a system dynamics framework to construct a computer model to assess legal and illegal migration on the US-Mexico border. Employing a metaphor can be helpful, as it was in this project, to gain different perspectives on a complex system. In addition to the metaphor, the multidisciplinary team utilized an array of methods to gather data including traditional literature searches, an experts workshop, a focus group, interviews, and culling expertise from the individuals on the research team. Results from the qualitative efforts revealed strong social as well as economic drivers that motivate individuals to cross the border legally. Based on the information gathered, the team concluded that legal migration dynamics were of a scope we did not want to consider hence, available demographic models sufficiently capture migration at the local level. Results from both the quantitative and qualitative data searches were used to modify a 1977 border model to demonstrate the dynamic nature of illegal migration. Model runs reveal that current US-policies based on neo-classic economic theory have proven ineffective in curbing illegal migration, and that proposed enforcement policies are also likely to be ineffective. We suggest, based on model results, that improvement in economic conditions within Mexico may have the biggest impact on illegal migration to the U.S. The modeling also supports the views expressed in the current literature suggesting that demographic and economic changes within Mexico are likely to slow illegal migration by 2060 with no special interventions made by either government.

  10. Smart border initiative: a Franco-German cross-border energy optimisation project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    Integrated and optimised local energy systems will play a key role in achieving the energy transition objectives set by France and Germany, in line with the Energy Union's goals, and contribute to ensuring a secure, affordable and climate-friendly energy supply in the EU. In order to capitalise on the French and German expertise and experiences in developing such systems and to continue strengthening the cross-border cooperation towards a fully integrated European energy market, both Governments have decided to launch a common initiative to identify and structure a cross-border energy optimisation project. Tilia and Dena have undertaken this mission to jointly develop the Smart Border Initiative (SBI). The SBI will, on the one hand, connect policies designed by France and Germany in order to support their cities and territories in their energy transition strategies and European market integration. It is currently a paradox that, though more balanced and resilient energy systems build up, bottom-up, at the local level, borders remain an obstacle to this local integration, in spite of the numerous complementarities observed in cross-border regions, and of their specific needs, in terms of smart mobility for example. The SBI project aims at enabling European neighbouring regions separated by a border to jointly build up optimised local energy systems, and jointly develop their local economies following an integrated, sustainable and low-carbon model. On the other hand, this showcase project will initiate a new stage in the EU electricity market integration, by completing high voltage interconnections with local, low voltage integration at DSO level, opening new optimisation possibilities in managing the electricity balance, and enabling DSOs to jointly overcome some of the current challenges, notably the increased share of renewable energy (RE) and ensuring Europe's security of supply

  11. The manufacture of transit. Border control, urban trends and migrant trajectories in Nouadhibou (Mauritania)

    OpenAIRE

    Streiff-Fénart , Jocelyne

    2012-01-01

    International audience; This chapter examines different forms of migrant integration in Nouadhibou, Mauritania. In this town, the activities developed by transit migrants have been integrated in the local economic network, which is largely articulated around the activities of waves of earlier migrants that have been instilled with a renewed dynamism by newcomers. Since the implementation of border surveillance measures in 2006, transit migration has been identified as the target of specific (...

  12. Study on Mode of Laos-China Cross-Border Collaboration Strategy Facing Symbiosis Relation

    OpenAIRE

    Thiravong , Sisavath; Xu , Jingrong; Jing , Qin

    2015-01-01

    International audience; Laos is a country with abundant natural resources, low labor costs and land rents, which has natural geo-economic relationship with China, and gradually became one of the important destinations of Chinese enterprises’ foreign direct investment. Meanwhile, China has become the largest overseas investment country in Laos. Based on the symbiotic relationship between Laos and China, this paper studies the dynamics of Laos-China cross-border cooperation from three aspects, ...

  13. The Great Cross-Border Bank Deleveraging; Supply Constraints and Intra-Group Frictions

    OpenAIRE

    Eugenio M Cerutti; Stijn Claessens

    2014-01-01

    International banks greatly reduced their direct cross-border and local affiliates’ lending as the global financial crisis strained balance sheets, lowered borrower demand, and changed government policies. Using bilateral, lender-borrower countrydata and controlling for credit demand, we show that reductions largely varied in line with markets’ prior assessments of banks’ vulnerabilities, with banks’ financial statement variables and lender-borrower country characteristics playing minor roles...

  14. Bordering Binarities and Cognitive Cartography: What on Earth Does Literature Have to do with Border Transactions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruben Moi

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Although literature and poetry have numerous borders of their own,these are rarely assumed to have any significance for the world out-side the text itself. A number of reasons for this distinctive division certainly stem from the literary field itself. This paper intends to indicate the exclusivist stance of some theories of literature, and the inclucivist of others, before exploring the possibilities of bridging between borders in text and territory by reference to the life and literature of Oscar Wilde and a performative and imaginative analysis of Paul Muldoon's epigrammatic poem The Plot.

  15. Robust simultaneous detection of coronary borders in complex images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonka, M.; Winniford, M.D.; Collins, S.M.

    1995-01-01

    Visual estimation of coronary obstruction severity from angiograms suffers from poor inter- and intraobserver reproducibility and is often inaccurate. In spite of the widely recognized limitations of visual analysis, automated methods have not found widespread clinical use, in part because they too frequently fail to accurately identify vessel borders. The authors have developed a robust method for simultaneous detection of left and right coronary borders that is suitable for analysis of complex images with poor contrast, nearby or overlapping structures, or branching vessels. The reliability of the simultaneous border detection method and that of their previously reported conventional border detection method were tested in 130 complex images, selected because conventional automated border detection might be expected to fail. Conventional analysis failed to yield acceptable borders in 65/130 or 50% of images. Simultaneous border detection was much more robust (p < .001) and failed in only 15/130 or 12% of complex images. Simultaneous border detection identified stenosis diameters that correlated significantly better with observer-derived stenosis diameters than did diameters obtained with conventional border detection (p < 0.001). Simultaneous detection of left and right coronary borders is highly robust and has substantial promise for enhancing the utility of quantitative coronary angiography in the clinical setting

  16. Reformulation of controlled-release oxycodone and pharmacy dispensing patterns near the US-Canada border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Tara; Paterson, J Michael; Juurlink, David N; Dhalla, Irfan A; Mamdani, Muhammad M

    2012-01-01

    In August 2010, a tamper-resistant formulation of controlled-release oxycodone (OxyContin-OP) was introduced in the United States but not in Canada. Our objective was to determine whether introduction of OxyContin-OP in the United States influenced prescription volumes for the original controlled-release oxycodone formulation (OxyContin) at Canadian pharmacies near the international border. We conducted a population-based, serial, cross-sectional study of prescriptions dispensed from pharmacies in the 3 cities with the highest volume of US-Canada border crossings in Ontario: Niagara Falls, Windsor and Sarnia. We analyzed data on all outpatient prescriptions for OxyContin dispensed by Canadian pharmacies near each border crossing between 2010 Apr. 1 and 2012 Feb. 29. We calculated and compared monthly prescription rates, adjusted per 1000 population and stratified by tablet strength. The number of tablets dispensed near 4 border crossings in the 3 Canadian cities remained stable over the study period. However, the rate of dispensing at pharmacies near the Detroit-Windsor Tunnel increased roughly 4-fold between August 2010 and February 2011, from 505 to 1969 tablets per 1000 population. By April 2011, following warnings to prescribers and pharmacies regarding drug-seeking behaviour, the dispensing rate declined to 1683 tablets per 1000 population in this area. By November 2011, the rate had returned to levels observed in early 2010. Our analyses suggest that 242 075 excess OxyContin tablets were dispensed near the Detroit-Windsor Tunnel between August 2010 and October 2011. Prescribing of the original formulation of controlled-release oxycodone rose substantially near a major international border crossing following the introduction of a tamper-resistant formulation in the United States. It is possible that the restriction of this finding to the area surrounding the Detroit-Windsor Tunnel reflects specific characteristics of this border crossing, including its high

  17. Reinforcing electricity network cross border capacity: utility evaluation of a commercial interconnection between Belgium and Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinko, Raytchev

    2004-01-01

    The emergence of a common European electricity market means that more exchange of electrical power between countries will be needed. Basically, there are two ways to accelerate the international trade in electricity: 1) improve the current methods of allocation of existing cross border capacity and 2) reinforce the network by building new capacity. The present paper deals only with the latter topic which is not well explored by the economic literature. The first section underlines the importance of encouraging the construction of a new cross border capacity. Then, using a concrete example - the possible construction of an interconnection line between Belgium and Germany - we discuss some questions concerning the installation of a new cross border capacity. We propose a new identification method for positioning of the interconnection line based on the examination of the energy balance of adjacent regions (section 2). The macro-economic analysis (section 3) and the revision of the institutions involved in the decision process (section 4) show that the three regions located at the German-Belgian border - the Rhineland-Palatinat, the Rhineland-of-North-Westphalia from the German side and Wallonia from the Belgian side-should be interested in building and operating the new electricity tie-line. (authors)

  18. Spanning National Borders: Split Lives of Croatian Migrant Families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasna Čapo Žmegač

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Using the ethnographic approach, the article describes three modalities of family arrangements practiced by Croatian migrants in Germany over the past thirty years. In all three, family members were divided between two localities in physical space, which were situated in different states – Croatia or Bosnia-Herzegovina and Germany: in one case only the father was a migrant while his wife and children stayed in the native country; in another the couple left for Germany leaving the child in Croatia; in the third the couple lived with some of their children in Germany while other children were living in Croatia. Some of these families were dispersed across international borders during the entire life and migration course (thirty years or more, while some experienced shorter or longer periods of separation followed by reunion of all or some family members, who crossed borders in one or another direction. It follows from this presentation that, rather than being a temporary phase aimed at reintegration of the family at a higher economic level, bilocality, viewed from a diachronic perspective, is a more or less continuous family arrangement and a way of life of migrant families. The question remains open as to whether transnational families are units in which emotional ties and closeness between its members are maintained. The data might point in this direction but might also lead to a hypothesis that, precisely because it is dispersed across long distances, the family needs to construct its unity (emotional if not physical and therefore narratively presents itself as integrated and reconfigured.

  19. Nuclear Security in Action at Malaysian Borders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlstrom Danielle

    2013-01-01

    ''For Malaysia, trade has to be a transparent'', explained Raja Adnan, the Director General of the Malaysian Atomic Energy Licensing Board (AELB). ''Goods are imported and exported, not just between two countries, but are in transit between several countries. Nuclear security measures help to guarantee open trade and makes sure that everyone is trading responsibly,'' emphasized Adnan. Officials from AELB prepare for a joint Indonesian-Malaysian exercise in effective border control by reviewing their national standard operating procedures (SOPs) on nuclear security, which were developed in close coordination with the IAEA

  20. Comparative balance of border regulations in four neighboring Caribbean countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Cristina Mantilla Valbuena

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This article seeks to investigate whether there is a potential for border integration among four adjoining Caribbean countries: Colombia, Nicaragua, Panama and Costa Rica. The discussion is part of the “cross-border” concept and the integration of subnational entities in two or more nation states, with particular emphasis on the role played by the societies that inhabit border regions. A comparative analysis model is used to assess border regulations in each country’s various territorial levels based on relevant legal elements, autonomous processes and decentralization. The article concludes that the more modern each country’s border regulations and constitutional, political and administrative reforms are, the greater the likelihood of cross-border integration. Colombia and Nicaragua have the highest potential for integrating their borders, whereas Panama and Costa Rica have the lowest potential.

  1. The Public Good, the Market, and Academic Capitalism: U.S. Cross-Border Higher Education in Panama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoto, Lisette

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, U.S. colleges and universities have begun to extend their international presence through different models of cross-border higher education. This research explores three models of U.S. higher education in Panama City, Panama: a branch campus, a franchise model and merger/acquisition models. Using a qualitative approach, this study…

  2. Non-Formal Education as a Factor in Civilizational Development of Educational Space Subject in the Cross-Border Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugarova, Dulma T.; Starostina, Svetlana E.; Namsarayev, Sergey D.; Dagbaeva, Nina Zh.; Malanov, Innokentiy A.

    2016-01-01

    The research is aimed at determining the organizational and pedagogical conditions of nonformal education implementation as a factor in civilizational development of subjects, joint international projects performers, in the educational space of the cross-border region. New integration projects forming the need for effective models implementation…

  3. Quasi-Periodicity and Border-Collision Bifurcations in a DC-DC Converter with Pulsewidth Modulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhusubalaliyev, Zh. T.; Soukhoterin, E.A.; Mosekilde, Erik

    2003-01-01

    border-collision bifurcations (BCB) on a two-dimensional torus. The arrangement of the resonance domains within the parameter plane is related to the Farey series, and their internal structure is described. It is shown that transitions to chaos mainly occur through finite sequences of BCB. Some other...

  4. The Influence and Implications of Chinese Culture in the Decision to Undertake Cross-Border Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodycott, Peter; Lai, Ada

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about how a family in the Peoples Republic of China (PRC) makes decisions on cross-border study. International marketers and managers in higher education turn to research based on Chinese student preferences. However, such research ignores cultural traditions steeped in Confucian ideals of family and the subsequent roles and…

  5. Temporary reintroduction of border controls at French borders inside the Schengen Area

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    The French authorities have informed CERN that, in view of the upcoming COP21 Paris Climate Conference, France will exceptionally reintroduce controls at its borders with Schengen states for one month from 13 November to 13 December 2015. All border posts and crossing points between France and Switzerland will be affected by this measure.   Members of the personnel are therefore reminded that, when crossing borders within the Schengen Area*, they must carry: either, in the case of citizens of European Economic Area (EEA) countries and Switzerland, an official identity document (identity card or passport); or, in the case of non-EEA and non-Swiss citizens, an identity document together with a Schengen visa if they are subject to this obligation, or an identity document together with a residence permit issued by a Schengen state** if they have one.   The French authorities will make every effort to limit the impact of this measure on cross-border traffic, and wish to thank the members of th...

  6. Sustainable Planning of Cross-Border Cooperation: A Strategy for Alliances in Border Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Kurowska-Pysz

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, cooperation among nations has become a critical issue towards sustainable development of neighbor cities in border areas. In this regard, sustainable common planning approaches and policies are an increasing reality, particularly in European territories. Considering the significant amount of cross-border cooperation (CBC projects and strategies within Europe, it is crucial to promote research approaches that are able to identify the most positive approaches towards the establishment of alliances in border territories, serving as pivotal methodologies for achieving success. Contextually, the present study considered direct and indirect research methods and tools, literature reviews, data collection, computer-assisted telephone interviewing (CATI and computer-assisted web interview (CAWI, all applied over two European border cities: Cieszyn (Poland and Cesky Tesin (Czech Republic. These methods enabled the assembly of perspectives of local authorities, public and private institutions, non-governmental organizations, and entrepreneurs from the cities under study. Through the analysis of the collected data, five conditions have been identified for the success of strategic alliances in CBC projects: (i well defining the alliance goals; (ii ensuring participation in the alliance of various groups of stakeholders; (iii involvement of both partners with extensive experience in CBC; (iv ensuring the coherence of the key objective; and (v guaranteeing the alliance benefits both sides. These conditions might effectively contribute to achieve more successful outputs in CBC projects, highlighting the relevance of previously developed strategies on the definition of future approaches.

  7. 78 FR 64260 - U.S. Department of State Advisory Committee on Private International Law (ACPIL): Public Meeting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-28

    ... International Law (ACPIL): Public Meeting on Cross-Border Insolvency The Office of the Assistant Legal Adviser... potential future work related to cross-border insolvency issues under consideration in the United Nations... has developed a number of instruments related to cross- border insolvency law, including the UNCITRAL...

  8. Beneficial Insect Borders Provide Northern Bobwhite Brood Habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorman, Christopher E.; Plush, Charles J.; Orr, David B.; Reberg-Horton, Chris

    2013-01-01

    Strips of fallow vegetation along cropland borders are an effective strategy for providing brood habitat for declining populations of upland game birds (Order: Galliformes), including northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus), but fallow borders lack nectar-producing vegetation needed to sustain many beneficial insect populations (e.g., crop pest predators, parasitoids, and pollinator species). Planted borders that contain mixes of prairie flowers and grasses are designed to harbor more diverse arthropod communities, but the relative value of these borders as brood habitat is unknown. We used groups of six human-imprinted northern bobwhite chicks as a bioassay for comparing four different border treatments (planted native grass and prairie flowers, planted prairie flowers only, fallow vegetation, or mowed vegetation) as northern bobwhite brood habitat from June-August 2009 and 2010. All field border treatments were established around nine organic crop fields. Groups of chicks were led through borders for 30-min foraging trials and immediately euthanized, and eaten arthropods in crops and gizzards were measured to calculate a foraging rate for each border treatment. We estimated arthropod prey availability within each border treatment using a modified blower-vac to sample arthropods at the vegetation strata where chicks foraged. Foraging rate did not differ among border treatments in 2009 or 2010. Total arthropod prey densities calculated from blower-vac samples did not differ among border treatments in 2009 or 2010. Our results showed plant communities established to attract beneficial insects should maximize the biodiversity potential of field border establishment by providing habitat for beneficial insects and young upland game birds. PMID:24376759

  9. Structural changes in cross-border liabilities: A multidimensional approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Tanya; Spelta, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    We study the international interbank market through a geometric analysis of empirical data. The geometric analysis of the time series of cross-country liabilities shows that the systematic information of the interbank international market is contained in a space of small dimension. Geometric spaces of financial relations across countries are developed, for which the space volume, multivariate skewness and multivariate kurtosis are computed. The behavior of these coefficients reveals an important modification acting in the financial linkages since 1997 and allows us to relate the shape of the geometric space that emerges in recent years to the globally turbulent period that has characterized financial systems since the late 1990s. Here we show that, besides a persistent decrease in the volume of the geometric space since 1997, the observation of a generalized increase in the values of the multivariate skewness and kurtosis sheds some light on the behavior of cross-border interdependencies during periods of financial crises. This was found to occur in such a systematic fashion, that these coefficients may be used as a proxy for systemic risk.

  10. "Crossing Borders" ja valmimislootuses Eesti Muusika- ja Teatriakadeemia / Malle Maltis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Maltis, Malle, 1977-

    2010-01-01

    19. - 29. augustini EMTAs toimunud rahvusvahelisest suvekursusest "Crossing Borders in Interpretation of Classical Music and Jazz". Kooli välissuhete prorektor sellest projektist ja muusikaakadeemia juurdeehitusest

  11. Multi-TSO cross border balancing mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Llorens, Maria Luisa; Moreno, Laura; Fuente, Jose Ignacio de la; Junco, Paula; Arenillas, Jorge [Red Electrica de Espana (REE) S.A.U., Madrid (Spain). Operation Markets Dept.; Pereira, Pedro [REN - Servicos, S.A., Lisbon (Portugal). Gabinete Mercado e Liquidacoes; Chabanne, Colas [RTE Reseau de Transport d' Electricite, Paris (France). Markets Dept.; Apoyan, Lalake; Barbieri, Galileo [RTE Reseau de Transport d' Electricite, Paris (France). Cross-Border Market Design

    2012-07-01

    The balancing market integration has been highlighted as a necessary step to reach the European Union goal for the development of an effective, competitive single market for electricity across Europe. In this paper it is described the work done by RTE, REE and REN regarding the design of a non-discriminatory, efficient and reliable multi-TSO Cross Border Balancing Mechanism at regional level, extendible to other control areas. The implementation of this multi-TSO Cross Border Balancing Mechanism will aim at increasing the operational security, enhancing the Liquidity and Competition of balancing markets, facilitating the integration of energy produced by Renewable Energy Sources while optimizing the use of Interconnection capacities. With this mechanism, the three TSOs will be able to exchange to each other balancing energy through the available interconnection capacities after the last intraday market sessions. This mechanism will be based on a common IT platform where TSOs will share their available surplus of reserves and communicate their balancing needs. The available interconnection capacities will be taken into account in an automatic and centralized way. Two main options are investigated regarding the allocation method: on the one hand, the first come first served approach (FCFS), on the other hand, the ''social welfare'' optimization approach. (orig.)

  12. Berlin: Emergency shelters and contemporary border struggles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žiga Podgornik-Jakil

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Researching the developments of present political economy must necessarily include investigating the tools of contemporary border regime. These are used for surveillance and control of populations in order to create new divisions of labour and enable extraction of rent by using peoples’ bodies. The article focuses on emergency shelters in Berlin, that is, on their function and ways in which the asylum seekers accommodated there spontaneously struggle against them. The research was done as a militant and cooperative work of the network Lager Mobilisation Network in Berlin’s district Wedding, which builds connections with people housed in the sports halls in the mentioned district. The author underlines that exhausting the aslyum seekers psychically is one of the strategies for filtering the ‘unwanted’ from the ‘wanted’, that is the ones that are interesting for the labour market. At the same time, the restriction of movement and limited access to civil rights confine asylum seekers in emergency shelters run by private companies, which seek profits on their account. Far from claiming that non-profit companies have a ‘better’ shelter administration, since the boundaries between them and profit-oriented companies are often blurred, the author rather speaks of new forms of anticolonial struggles by the people living inside. He understands these struggles as the struggles against the contemporary border regime in Germany and the EU and as a potential for building an inclusive society.

  13. Spectrum of critical illness in undocumented border crossers. The Arizona-Mexico border experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Candy; Hsu, Wendy; Carr, Gordon E

    2015-03-01

    Approximately 150-250 migrants die each year while attempting to cross the border from Mexico to the Southwest United States. Many border crossers survive the journey, but some develop life-threatening medical complications. Such complications have been subject to little formal analysis. We sought to determine the causes of critical illness in this population and to analyze the hospital course and outcomes of these patients. We retrospectively identified border crossers admitted to the intensive care units (ICUs) of two major teaching hospitals in southern Arizona. We recorded admitting diagnoses, severity of illness, length of stay, resource use, discharge diagnoses, and mortality. Our investigation identified 55 admissions to adult ICUs between January 1, 2010 and December 31, 2012. The median age of patients was 27 years. The median hospital length of stay was 7 days, with a median ICU length of stay of 3 days. The median temperature on arrival to the emergency department was 36.8°C. The most common admission diagnoses included trauma (40), rhabdomyolysis (27), acute liver injury (25), dehydration (24), acute kidney injury (19), and encephalopathy (17). Thirteen patients presented with respiratory failure, six patients with severe sepsis, and two with septic shock. A total of 19 patients required ventilator support during their hospital stay, and 30 required at least one surgical intervention. One patient required renal replacement therapy. The median Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score was 6. All but one patient survived to discharge from the hospital. Border crossers are a unique population of young individuals exposed to high temperatures and extreme conditions. Our review of border crosser admissions showed that most patients demonstrated signs of dehydration and leukocytosis, despite a normal median temperature. The median ICU stay was short, despite a high number of patients requiring ventilator support and surgical intervention. Only

  14. Effect of the US-Mexico border region in cardiovascular mortality: ecological time trend analysis of Mexican border and non-border municipalities from 1998 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anaya, Gabriel; Al-Delaimy, Wael K

    2017-05-06

    An array of risk factors has been associated with cardiovascular diseases, and developing nations are becoming disproportionately affected by such diseases. Cardiovascular diseases have been reported to be highly prevalent in the Mexican population, but local mortality data is poor. The Mexican side of the US-Mexico border has a culture that is closely related to a developed nation and therefore may share the same risk factors of cardiovascular diseases. We wanted to explore if there was higher cardiovascular mortality in the border region of Mexico compared to the rest of the nation. We conducted a population based cross-sectional time series analysis to estimate the effects of education, insurance and municipal size in Mexican border (n = 38) and non-border municipalities (n = 2360) and its association with cardiovascular age-adjusted mortality rates between the years 1998-2012. We used a mixed effect linear model with random effect estimation and repeated measurements to compare the main outcome variable (mortality rate), the covariates (education, insurance and population size) and the geographic delimiter (border/non-border). Mortality due to cardiovascular disease was consistently higher in the municipalities along the US-Mexico border, showing a difference of 78 · 5 (95% CI 58 · 7-98 · 3, p Insurance coverage showed an increase in cardiovascular mortality of 3 · 6 (95% CI 3 · 1-4 · 0, p Mexico border region is disproportionately affected by cardiovascular disease mortality as compared to the non-border region of Mexico. This was not explained by education, population density, or insurance coverage. Proximity to the US culture and related diet and habits can be explanations of the increasing mortality trend.

  15. ITRAP results: detection of radioactive material at the borders to combat Illicit trafficking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, P.; Schmitzer, C.; Mueck, K.; Duftschmid, K.E.; Arlt, R.

    2001-01-01

    The paper describes the results of the extended pilot study ITRAP (Illicit trafficking radiation assessment program) of commercially available monitoring systems for the detection of nuclear and other radioactive materials at border crossings. ITRAP was carried out from the Austrian research center Seibersdorf (ARCS) for the Austrian Government, coordinated by the Ministry of Economic Affairs and Labour. In co-operation with the international atomic energy agency (IAEA) the program was also supported by the word customs organisation (WCO), the international criminal police organization (INTERPOL) and the Hungarian Government. The ITRAP study consists of a laboratory test phase and field tests at the Austrian/Hungarian border Nickelsdorf and the Vienna airport, each for a duration of one year. The results will be used to derive realistic performance requirements for border control systems in view of optimised technical and economic conditions. First results of the ITRAP study were given at the IAEA Conference On the Safety of Radiation Sources and the Security of Radioactive Materials, Dijon, France, in September 1998 [1]. (orig.)

  16. PERFORMANCE IN CROSS-BORDER MERGERS AND ACQUISITIONS: AN EMPIRICAL ANALYSIS OF THE BRAZILIAN CASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Bruscato Bortoluzzo

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to investigate whether the cross-border acquisitions made by Brazilian companies over the past 15 years have improved their financial performance. Drawing on institutional, sociocultural, and organizational learning theories, this study develops and empirically tests several hypotheses on the determinants of M&A performance. The results demonstrate that the cross-border acquisition moves by Brazilian companies actually improve their financial performance. Financial performance tends to be positive when the cultural distance between the countries of the acquiring and acquired companies is low to medium and when the institutional context of the acquired company is a developed one. We also found an inverted-U shape relationship between acquiring companies’ previous international M&A experience and the performance of a new cross-border operation. These findings suggest that research on international M&As should include acquirers’ M&A experience as well as the institutional characteristics of their target countries.

  17. What we do | Page 115 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Security Governance on Ecuador's Northern Border. The northern border of Ecuador has been prone to conflict over the past several years. ... Partners in Health (PIH), an international nongovernmental organization, has demonstrated the effectiveness of its open source electronic medical record system (OpenMRS) in eight ...

  18. Inverting the Telescope on Borders that Matter: Conversations in Café Europa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Dorte Jagetic; Kramsch, Olivier Thomas; Sandberg, Marie

    2017-01-01

    and questions the often taken for granted relationships between borders, borderers and the bordered. While each chapter concentrates on a different (but overlapping) border issue or perspective, they are united through their focus on the level of everyday bordering practices and experiences, as well...

  19. Research on refugees and immigrants social integration in Yunnan Border Area: An empirical analysis on the multivariable linear regression model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Nai

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A great number of immigration populations resident permanently in Yunnan Border Area of China. To some extent, these people belong to refugees or immigrants in accordance with International Rules, which significantly features the social diversity of this area. However, this kind of social diversity always impairs the social order. Therefore, there will be a positive influence to the local society governance by a research on local immigration integration. This essay hereby attempts to acquire the data of the living situation of these border area immigration and refugees. The analysis of the social integration of refugees and immigration in Yunnan border area in China will be deployed through the modeling of multivariable linear regression based on these data in order to propose some more achievable resolutions.

  20. Project GeoPower: Basic subsurface information for the utilization of geothermal energy in the Danish-German border region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirsch, Reinhard; Balling, Niels; Fuchs, Sven

    and require reliable cross-border management and planning tools. In the framework of the Interreg4a GeoPower project, fundamental geological and geophysical information of importance for the planning of geothermal energy utilization in the Danish-German border region was compiled and analyzed. A 3D geological......Information on both hydraulic and thermal conditions of the subsurface is fundamental for the planning and use of hydrothermal energy. This is paramount in particular for densely populated international border regions, where different subsurface applications may introduce conflicts of use...... on potential geothermal reservoirs, and a new 3D structural geological model was developed. The interpretation of petrophysical data (core data and well logs) allows to evaluate the hydraulic and thermal rock properties of geothermal formations and to develop a parameterized 3D thermal conductive subsurface...

  1. Unaccompanied Children at the United States Border, a Human Rights Crisis that can be Addressed with Policy Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ataiants, Janna; Cohen, Chari; Riley, Amy Henderson; Tellez Lieberman, Jamile; Reidy, Mary Clare; Chilton, Mariana

    2017-04-08

    In recent years, unaccompanied minors have been journeying to the United States (U.S.)-Mexico border in great numbers in order to escape violence, poverty and exploitation in their home countries. Yet, unaccompanied children attempting to cross the United States border face treatment at the hands of government representatives which violates their inherent rights as children. The result is a human rights crisis that has severe health consequences for the children. Their rights as children are clearly delineated in various, international human rights documents which merit increased understanding of and recognition by the U.S. government. This paper calls for the improvement of policies and procedures for addressing the rights of unaccompanied immigrant children; it provides specific, rights-based recommendations which work together to safeguard the rights of the child at the U.S. southwestern border.

  2. U.S./Mexico Border environmental study toxics release inventory data, 1988--1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Brien, R.F.; LoPresti, C.A.

    1996-02-01

    This is a report on industrial toxic chemical releases and transfers based on information reported to the Toxics Release Inventory (TRI), a database maintained by the USEPA. This document discusses patterns of toxic chemical releases to the atmosphere, to water, to the land, and to underground injection; and transfers of toxic chemicals to Publicly Owned Treatment Works (POTW), and for disposal, treatment and other off-site transfers during the TRI reporting years 1988--1992. Geographic coverage is limited to the US side of the ``Border Area``, the geographic area situated within 100 km of the US/Mexico international boundary. A primary purpose of this study is to provide background information that can be used in the future development of potential ``indicator variables`` for tracking environmental and public health status in the Border Area in conjunction with the implementation of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA).

  3. Geo-Located Tweets. Enhancing Mobility Maps and Capturing Cross-Border Movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanford, Justine I; Huang, Zhuojie; Savelyev, Alexander; MacEachren, Alan M

    2015-01-01

    Capturing human movement patterns across political borders is difficult and this difficulty highlights the need to investigate alternative data streams. With the advent of smart phones and the ability to attach accurate coordinates to Twitter messages, users leave a geographic digital footprint of their movement when posting tweets. In this study we analyzed 10 months of geo-located tweets for Kenya and were able to capture movement of people at different temporal (daily to periodic) and spatial (local, national to international) scales. We were also able to capture both long and short distances travelled, highlighting regional connections and cross-border movement between Kenya and the surrounding countries. The findings from this study has broad implications for studying movement patterns and mapping inter/intra-region movement dynamics.

  4. Cross border semantic interoperability for clinical research: the EHR4CR semantic resources and services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Christel; Ouagne, David; Sadou, Eric; Forsberg, Kerstin; Gilchrist, Mark Mc; Zapletal, Eric; Paris, Nicolas; Hussain, Sajjad; Jaulent, Marie-Christine; MD, Dipka Kalra

    2016-01-01

    With the development of platforms enabling the use of routinely collected clinical data in the context of international clinical research, scalable solutions for cross border semantic interoperability need to be developed. Within the context of the IMI EHR4CR project, we first defined the requirements and evaluation criteria of the EHR4CR semantic interoperability platform and then developed the semantic resources and supportive services and tooling to assist hospital sites in standardizing their data for allowing the execution of the project use cases. The experience gained from the evaluation of the EHR4CR platform accessing to semantically equivalent data elements across 11 European participating EHR systems from 5 countries demonstrated how far the mediation model and mapping efforts met the expected requirements of the project. Developers of semantic interoperability platforms are beginning to address a core set of requirements in order to reach the goal of developing cross border semantic integration of data. PMID:27570649

  5. Geo-Located Tweets. Enhancing Mobility Maps and Capturing Cross-Border Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanford, Justine I.; Huang, Zhuojie; Savelyev, Alexander; MacEachren, Alan M.

    2015-01-01

    Capturing human movement patterns across political borders is difficult and this difficulty highlights the need to investigate alternative data streams. With the advent of smart phones and the ability to attach accurate coordinates to Twitter messages, users leave a geographic digital footprint of their movement when posting tweets. In this study we analyzed 10 months of geo-located tweets for Kenya and were able to capture movement of people at different temporal (daily to periodic) and spatial (local, national to international) scales. We were also able to capture both long and short distances travelled, highlighting regional connections and cross-border movement between Kenya and the surrounding countries. The findings from this study has broad implications for studying movement patterns and mapping inter/intra-region movement dynamics. PMID:26086772

  6. Geo-Located Tweets. Enhancing Mobility Maps and Capturing Cross-Border Movement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justine I Blanford

    Full Text Available Capturing human movement patterns across political borders is difficult and this difficulty highlights the need to investigate alternative data streams. With the advent of smart phones and the ability to attach accurate coordinates to Twitter messages, users leave a geographic digital footprint of their movement when posting tweets. In this study we analyzed 10 months of geo-located tweets for Kenya and were able to capture movement of people at different temporal (daily to periodic and spatial (local, national to international scales. We were also able to capture both long and short distances travelled, highlighting regional connections and cross-border movement between Kenya and the surrounding countries. The findings from this study has broad implications for studying movement patterns and mapping inter/intra-region movement dynamics.

  7. Frontiers, territoriality and tensions in bordering spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Eugenia Comerci

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The expansión of the agricultural frontier in the Argentine pampas implied a re-valuation of "bordering" spaces, which were considered "marginal" by capital. This paper aims at interpreting the socio-territorial impact -from both a material and a symbolic level- being caused by the expansión of the productive, business-profile [agricultural and oil] frontier in the center-west of the province of La Pampa. With the interpretative approach provided by qualitative methodologies, we intend to analyze -in a case study- how these frontier expansión processes altered and re-defined the social arena between the years 2000 and 2010, the social construction of the space and the power relations in Chos Malal

  8. [Crossing borders. The motivation of extreme sportsmen].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opaschowski, H W

    2005-08-01

    In his article "Crossing borders -- the motivation of extreme sportsmen" the author gets systematically to the bottom of the question of why extreme sportsmen voluntarily take risks and endanger themselves. Within the scope of a representative sampling 217 extreme sportsmen -- from the fields of mountain biking, trekking and free climbing, canoyning, river rafting and deep sea diving, paragliding, parachuting, bungee jumping and survival training -- give information about their personal motives. What fascinates them? The attraction of risk? The search for sensation? Or the drop out of everyday life? And what comes afterwards? Does in the end the whole life become an extreme sport? Fact is: they live extremely, because they want to move beyond well-trodden paths. To escape the boredom of everyday life they are searching for the kick, the thrill, the no-limit experience. It's about calculated risk between altitude flight and deep sea adventure.

  9. Nuclear Plants in the Vicinity of Borders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wertz, Elmar.

    1979-01-01

    The siting of nuclear power plants in border areas is decided according to 'national criteria' which are governed by the cost/benefit principle, i.e. a comparison between investment and profit; human values are taken into consideration by transforming them into financial values according to the 'quantification' procedure. However ecology cannot be quantified as it is linked to the great complexity of the natural system. To harmonize technical criteria and ecological requirements, the jurist suggests a legal system of indemnity which takes into account both damage which has already occurred and the degree of probability of its occurrence. Thus a new criterion would be introduced in the decision-making process on plant siting: compensation costs for the national population and for the neighbouring countries would then be a factor in cost/benefit calculations. (NEA) [fr

  10. Cross border mobility of nurse educators: Case studies from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of the study was to raise awareness on cross border mobility of nurse educators and draw on Foucault's analysis to conceptualise the means by which cross border migration of nurse educators could be revisited. A case study design of seven nurse educators who had migrated and came back to their countries ...

  11. The Lessons of the Border War | Scholtz | Scientia Militaria: South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A quarter of a century after the end of the Border War, the SANDF's institutional memory of the conflict is slowly fading. And yet there are several ... about war as well. Key words: Border War, SADF, SANDF, combined arms, reserve force, Operation Savannah, Operation Moduler, mobile warfare doctrine, military education ...

  12. 75 FR 70937 - U.S. Customs and Border Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Accreditation and Approval of... Protection, Department of Homeland Security. ACTION: Notice of accreditation and approval of Robinson... Border Protection to conduct the specific test or gauger service requested. Alternatively, inquires...

  13. 77 FR 38076 - U.S. Customs and Border Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Accreditation and Approval of... Protection, Department of Homeland Security. ACTION: Notice of accreditation and approval of SGS North... and Border Protection to conduct the specific test or gauger service requested. Alternatively...

  14. The Refugee Crisis, Non-Citizens, Border Politics and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerrard, Jessica

    2017-01-01

    In the midst of the most serious refugee crisis since WWII, nation states are buttressing their borders. This paper explores the border politics of the nation state in response to the refugee crisis. Drawing on the work of Susan Sontag, Judith Butler and Imogen Tyler it considers the ways in which the imagery of the pain and suffering of Others is…

  15. Geology of the border region between Coahuila and Zacatecas, Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vloten, van Roger

    1954-01-01

    The border region between Coahuila and Zacatecas is part of the mountainous country south of Parras in northeastern Mexico. It includes a thickness of about 2,600 meters of Jurassic and Cretaceous rocks that were deposited along the northern border of the Mexican geosyncline along the southern

  16. On the assessment of cross-border regions' development potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilchak Mikhail

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This article sets out to assess the potential of cross-border region development on the basis of theoretical and methodological materials. The study examines the Kaliningrad region and Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship. The article is focused on the modelling of interindustry balance and export/import functions of border territories.

  17. 15 CFR 30.17 - Customs and Border Protection regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Customs and Border Protection regulations. 30.17 Section 30.17 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade... Requirements § 30.17 Customs and Border Protection regulations. Refer to the DHS's CBP regulations, 19 CFR 192...

  18. Permeability of Czech-Polish Border Using by Selected Criteria

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kolejka, Jaromír; Zyszkowska, K.; Batelková, Kateřina; Ciok, S.; Dolzblasz, K.; Kirchner, Karel; Krejčí, Tomáš; Raczyk, A.; Spaller, W.; Zapletalová, Jana

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 1 (2015), s. 51-65 ISSN 1842-5135 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : natural barrier * cross border co-operation * population pressure * border segments * Poland and Czech Republic Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography http://technicalgeography.org/pdf/1_2015/06_kolejka.pdf

  19. Cross-Border Banking in Europe : What's Next?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allen, F.; Beck, T.H.L.; Carletti, E.; Lane, P.; Schoenmaker, D.; Wagner, W.B.

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the role of banks in cross-border finance has become an urgent priority. Cross-border banks have played a central role in the dynamics of the global crisis of 2007-2009. First, European banks had a surprisingly large exposure to the US securitised asset markets, which arose to a

  20. Cross border reproductive care in six European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Mouzon, J; Pennings, G; Ferraretti, A P

    2010-01-01

    The quantity and the reasons for seeking cross border reproductive care are unknown. The present article provides a picture of this activity in six selected European countries receiving patients.......The quantity and the reasons for seeking cross border reproductive care are unknown. The present article provides a picture of this activity in six selected European countries receiving patients....

  1. Cross-Border Brides: Vietnamese Wives, Chinese Husbands in a Border-Area Fishing Village

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyễn Thị Phương Châm

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article traces the lives of a group of Vietnamese women driven by poverty and loss of marriageability to cross the border into China to marry men from the fishing village of Wanwei. Wanwei’s location, only 25 kilometers from the border with Vietnam, enables these women to make fairly regular trips back to their native villages to visit their birth families. Yet, despite the fact that they now live in a designated Jing (ethnic Vietnamese village, where a significant proportion of the population shares their ethnicity, their illegal residential status and recent arrival excludes them from the community of villagers who claim descent from Vietnamese immigrants in the sixteenth century. Despite the hardships these women face as a result of continuing poverty, lack of emotional intimacy in their marriages, and marginal social status, few see themselves as victims of human trafficking. Instead, most take pride in their agency and achievements.

  2. The Role of Cross-border Mergers and Acquisitions in Foreign Direct Investment: Evidence from the Chinese Stock Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Hua An

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In this treatise, we provide empirical evidence based on stock and operating performance measures to show how cross-border mergers and acquisitions (M&As are different from domestic transactions from the perspective of foreign acquirers. We analyze the shareholder wealth effect from 663 domestic and international M&As announced by Chinese corporations between 1994 and 2006. We have uncovered some differences between national and cross-border M&As. We find that foreign acquirers experience significantly higher stock and operating performance than transactions carried out only by domestic firms. Higher target gains for cross-border transactions are consistent with the acquirer's ability to correctly value or capture synergies in cross-border takeovers. We also examine the source of wealth gains in Chinese targets of foreign acquirers. We find that the exchange rate and taxes are more important in justifying the target premium in foreign takeovers than in domestic takeovers. Taken together, our results suggest that the realization of synergy is the main motive behind foreign takeovers. We also analyze the role of corporate governance in cross-border M&As. Consistent with our hypothesis, the dummy for B shares or H shares is positively related with the takeover premium, indicating that strong corporate governance standards influence the valuation process in transition economies.

  3. Cross-border drug injection relationships among injection drug users in Tijuana, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Karla D.; Pollini, Robin A.; Patterson, Thomas L.; Lozada, Remedios; Ojeda, Victoria D.; Brouwer, Kimberly C.; Vera, Alicia; Volkmann, Tyson A.; Strathdee, Steffanie A.

    2010-01-01

    Background International borders are unique social and environmental contexts characterized by high levels of mobility. Among drug users, mobility increases risk for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in part through its effects on the social environment. However, the social dynamics of drug users living in border regions are understudied. Methods 1056 injection drug users (IDUs) residing in Tijuana, Mexico were recruited using respondent-driven sampling (RDS) from 2006 to 2007, and underwent surveys and testing for HIV, syphilis, and tuberculosis (TB). Using logistic regression on baseline data, we identified correlates of having ever injected drugs with someone from the US. Results Almost half (48%) reported ever injecting drugs with someone from the US. In RDS-adjusted logistic regression, factors independently associated with having ever injected with someone from the US included: having greater than middle school education (Adjusted Odds Ratio [AOR] 2.91; 95% Confidence Interval [C.I.] 1.52, 5.91), speaking English (AOR 3.24, 95% C.I. 1.96, 5.36), age (AOR 1.10 per year; 95% C.I. 1.07, 1.14), age at initiation of injection drug use (AOR 0.90 per year; 95% C.I. 0.86, 0.94), homelessness (AOR 2.61; 95% C.I. 1.27, 5.39), and having ever been incarcerated (AOR 11.82; 95% C.I., 5.22, 26.77). No associations with HIV, syphilis, TB, drug use, or injection risk behavior were detected. Conclusion Findings suggest that IDU networks in Mexico and the US may transcend international borders, with implications for cross-border transmission of infectious disease. Binational programs and policies need to consider the structure and geographic distribution of drug using networks. PMID:20889270

  4. Parhelic-like circle from light scattering in Plateau borders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tufaile, A., E-mail: tufaile@usp.br; Tufaile, A.P.B.

    2015-03-06

    We are reporting a new simple optical element to generate halos. We have observed interesting patterns of light scattering in Plateau borders in foams. In analogy to the atmospheric phenomena known as parhelic circle, sun dogs, and sun pillars, we have named the features of the patterns observed as parlaseric circle, laser dogs, and laser pillars. The triangular symmetry of the Plateau borders is analogous to the hexagonal symmetry of ice crystals which produce these atmospheric phenomena. Working with one Plateau border at a time, we have observed wave optics phenomena that are not perceived in the atmospheric phenomena, such as diffraction and interference. - Highlights: • We obtained halo formation from light scattering in a Plateau border using an experiment. • We explained halo formation using geometrical theory of diffraction. • An optical element based on a Plateau border is proposed. • We compared some aspects of the parhelic circle with the parlaseric circle.

  5. Does smoke cross the border? Cigarette tax avoidance in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Lakhdar, Christian; Vaillant, Nicolas Gérard; Wolff, François-Charles

    2016-12-01

    This paper examines the impact on cigarette sales of the successive increases in cigarette prices in France from 2002 to 2004. Since the price differential between France and neighboring countries increased over the period in question, cross-border purchases became more financially attractive for smokers living near borders. Results from difference-in-differences estimates indicate that the decrease in cigarette sales observed in French border departments was around 20 % higher from 2004 to 2007 compared to non-border departments. The loss of fiscal revenue due to cross-border shopping since the tax increase amounts to 2 billion euros over the period 2002-2007. Our findings highlight the need for improved coordination of policies aimed at reducing tobacco consumption across European Union countries.

  6. Fast and slow border traps in MOS devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleetwood, D.M.

    1996-01-01

    Convergent lines of evidence are reviewed which show that near-interfacial oxide traps (border traps) that exchange charge with the Si can strongly affect the performance, radiation response, and long-term reliability of MOS devices. Observable effects of border traps include capacitance-voltage (C-V) hysteresis, enhanced l/f noise, compensation of trapped holes, and increased thermally stimulated current in MOS capacitors. Effects of faster (switching times between ∼10 -6 s and ∼1 s) and slower (switching times greater than ∼1 s) border traps have been resolved via a dual-transistor technique. In conjunction with studies of MOS electrical response, electron paramagnetic resonance and spin dependent recombination studies suggest that E' defects (trivalent Si centers in SiO 2 associated with O vacancies) can function as border traps in MOS devices exposed to ionizing radiation or high-field stress. Hydrogen-related centers may also be border traps

  7. File: International bilateral relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feltin, Ch.; Rabouhams, J.; Bravo, X.; Rousseau, M.; Le Breton, S.; Saint Raymond, Ph.; Brigaud, O.; Pertuis, V.; McNair, J.; Sayers, M.R.; Bye, R.; Scherrer, J.

    1998-01-01

    Since its creation in 1973, the Authority of Safety was assigned missions in the international field with following objectives: to develop information exchanges with its foreign counterpart, to make know and to explain the French approach and practice; to give to concerned countries the useful information on french nuclear facilities situated near the border; This file shows with some examples, how bilateral relations allow to fill up these objectives and how the French Authority got the foreign experience. (N.C.)

  8. Transboundary Groundwater Along the Canadian-American Border

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, A.

    2009-05-01

    Canada does not have obvious problems as a consequence of the intensive use of surface water or groundwater. Canada mostly struggles to keep the quality of its waters, in the highest standards, and to overcome the knowledge gaps of its groundwater resources. In assessing water resources, it has become obvious that both surface and groundwater resources are equally important. Because of this shift, Canada is interested in transboundary groundwater issues, both between provinces and internationally. There is no competition in Canada for groundwater resources between provinces or internationally. When an aquifer extends beneath the border of two jurisdictions, conflict may arise when one jurisdiction depletes groundwater resources that affect the quantity and quality of water available to the other jurisdiction. The most important cases of transboundary aquifers within Canada are located in the Prairie Provinces, but no competition has been reported. The equitable and "reasonable" use of shared waters is the most essential principle considered when negotiating a groundwater apportionment method. Other factors considered are: the priority use, the sustainable yield of the aquifer, and the joint apportionment of surface water and groundwater Over 20 million Canadians live in watersheds that cross the Canada-US border (over 17 million of them in the Great Lakes-St Lawrence watershed), and are therefore affected by American policies, or else affect American water quality. The International Joint Commission is one well-developed and valuable mechanism for coordinating policies between Canada and the United States. Other mechanisms include provisions under the North American Free Trade Agreement, supported by its environmental commission, which attempt to ensure that the Agreement's policies are consistent with environmental protection and conservation as well as strengthening the development and enforcement of environmental laws and regulations. Policies affecting

  9. School Social Workers in Texas: A Comparative Demographic Analysis of the Texas-Mexico Border and Non-Border Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garza, Cecilia; Landeck, Michael

    2007-01-01

    This study examines the role of school social workers as potential agents of change in the educational system, with a special focus on their major demographic characteristics in Texas and along the Mexico border region. The border region of the state has chronic poverty and limited educational attainment levels and demonstrates a need for…

  10. Symmetry or asymmetry? Cross-border openness of service providers in Polish-Czech and Polish-German border towns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dołzbłasz Sylwia

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The symmetry and/or asymmetry in terms of cross-border openness of service providers is examined in this article, for the cases of two border twin towns: Cieszyn/Český Těšín at the Polish-Czech border, and Gubin/Guben at the Polish-German border. To assess the level of openness of firms towards clients from the other side of the border, four trans-border categories were examined: neighbour’s language visible at store location; business offers in the language of the neighbour; the possibilities of payment in the neighbour’s currency; and the staff’s knowledge of the language. This enabled a comparison of both parts of the particular twin towns in relation to the character of cross-border openness, as well as an assessment of their symmetry/asymmetry. Comparisons of Gubin/Guben and Cieszyn/Český Těšín with respect to the analysed features were also carried out. The analysis shows significant variation in the level of cross-border openness towards clients from neighbouring countries. Whereas in the Polish-Czech town a relative symmetry was observed, in the Polish-German case, significant asymmetry was noted.

  11. Experiences in Regional Cross Border Co-operation in River Management. Comparing Three Cases at the Dutch–German Border

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiering, M.A.; Verwijmeren, J.A.; Lulofs, K.; Feld, C.

    2010-01-01

    Cross border co-operation is increasingly viewed as an obvious and logical consequence of an integrated perspective on river management. Consequently, we would expect an increase of cross border co-operation and collaboration in EU member states, through joint planning, co-management or

  12. The Humanitarian Drone and the Borders: Unveiling the Rationales Underlying the Deployment of Drones in Border Surveillance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marin, Luisa; Custers, Bart

    2016-01-01

    In these days economic and political pressures push for the deployment of drones’ technology in civil and commercial domains. This chapter focuses in particular on the deployment of drones in the context of border surveillance. Border surveillance is a shared competence between the European Union,

  13. Cooperative Monitoring Center Occasional Paper/7: A Generic Model for Cooperative Border Security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Netzer, Colonel Gideon

    1999-03-01

    This paper presents a generic model for dealing with security problems along borders between countries. It presents descriptions and characteristics of various borders and identifies the threats to border security, while emphasizing cooperative monitoring solutions.

  14. Challenge theme 7: Information support for management of border security and environmental protection: Chapter 9 in United States-Mexican Borderlands: Facing tomorrow's challenges through USGS science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parcher, Jean W.; Page, William R.

    2013-01-01

    Historically, international borders were located far from the major political and economic capitals of their countries and rarely received adequate planning or infrastructure development. Today, as a result of global economics and increased movement of goods between nations, border regions play a much greater role in commerce, tourism, and transportation. For example, Mexico is the second largest destination for United States exports (Woodrow Wilson Center Mexico Institute, 2009). The rapid population and economic growth along the United States–Mexican border, undocumented human border crossings, and the unique natural diversity of resources in the Borderlands present challenges for border security and environmental protection. Assessing risks and implementing sustainable growth policies to protect the environment and quality of life greatly increase in complexity when the issues cross an international border, where social services, environmental regulations, lifestyles, and cultural beliefs are unique for each country. Shared airsheds, water and biological resources, national security issues, and disaster management needs require an integrated binational approach to assess risks and develop binational management strategies.

  15. Planning Curriculum in International Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durtka, Sharon; Dye, Alex; Freund, Judy; Harris, Jay; Kline, Julie; LeBreck, Carol; Reimbold, Rebecca; Tabachnick, Robert; Tantala, Renee; Wagler, Mark

    International education begins at home, in the very communities and environments most familiar to students. A student does not need to travel outside U.S. borders to meet the peoples or understand the issues of the global village. This planning guide shows how curriculum in all subject areas encompasses global challenges, global cultures, and…

  16. Dirty pretty language: translation and the borders of English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alida Payson

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the politics of English, and translation into Englishness, in the film Dirty Pretty Things (Frears. With a celebrated multilingual cast, some of whom did not speak much English, the film nevertheless unfolds in English as it follows migrant characters living illegally and on the margins in London. We take up the filmic representation of migrants in the “compromised, impure and internally divided” border spaces of Britain (Gibson 694 as one of translation into the imagined nation (Anderson. Dirty Pretty Things might seem in its style to be a kind of multicultural “foreignized translation” which reflects a heteropoetics of difference (Venuti; instead, we argue that Dirty Pretty Things, through its performance of the labour of learning and speaking English, strong accents, and cultural allusions, is a kind of domesticated translation (Venuti that homogenises cultural difference into a literary, mythological English and Englishness. Prompted by new moral panics over immigration and recent UK policies that heap further requirements on migrants to speak English in order to belong to “One Nation Britain” (Cameron, we argue that the film offers insights into how the politics of British national belonging continue to be defined by conformity to a type of deserving subject, one who labours to learn English and to translate herself into narrow, recognizably English cultural forms. By attending to the subtleties of language in the film, we trace the pressure on migrants to translate themselves into the linguistic and mythological moulds of their new host society.

  17. Socioeconomic and country variations in cross-border cigarette purchasing as tobacco tax avoidance strategy. Findings from the ITC Europe Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagelhout, Gera E; van den Putte, Bas; Allwright, Shane; Mons, Ute; McNeill, Ann; Guignard, Romain; Beck, François; Siahpush, Mohammad; Joossens, Luk; Fong, Geoffrey T; de Vries, Hein; Willemsen, Marc C

    2014-03-01

    Legal tobacco tax avoidance strategies such as cross-border cigarette purchasing may attenuate the impact of tax increases on tobacco consumption. Little is known about socioeconomic and country variations in cross-border purchasing. To describe socioeconomic and country variations in cross-border cigarette purchasing in six European countries. Cross-sectional data from adult smokers (n=7873) from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Surveys in France (2006/2007), Germany (2007), Ireland (2006), The Netherlands (2008), Scotland (2006) and the rest of the UK (2007/2008) were used. Respondents were asked whether they had bought cigarettes outside their country in the last 6 months and how often. In French and German provinces/states bordering countries with lower cigarette prices, 24% and 13% of smokers, respectively, reported purchasing cigarettes frequently outside their country. In non-border regions of France and Germany, and in Ireland, Scotland, the rest of the UK and The Netherlands, frequent purchasing of cigarettes outside the country was reported by 2-7% of smokers. Smokers with higher levels of education or income, younger smokers, daily smokers, heavier smokers and smokers not planning to quit smoking were more likely to purchase cigarettes outside their country. Cross-border cigarette purchasing is more common in European regions bordering countries with lower cigarette prices and is more often reported by smokers with higher education and income. Increasing taxes in countries with lower cigarette prices, and reducing the number of cigarettes that can be legally imported across borders could help to avoid cross-border purchasing.

  18. Socioeconomic and country variations in cross-border cigarette purchasing as tobacco tax avoidance strategy. Findings from the ITC Europe Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagelhout, Gera E.; van den Putte, Bas; Allwright, Shane; Mons, Ute; McNeill, Ann; Guignard, Romain; Beck, François; Siahpush, Mohammad; Joossens, Luk; Fong, Geoffrey T.; de Vries, Hein; Willemsen, Marc C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Legal tobacco tax avoidance strategies such as cross-border cigarette purchasing may attenuate the impact of tax increases on tobacco consumption. Little is known about socioeconomic and country variations in cross-border purchasing. Objective To describe socioeconomic and country variations in cross-border cigarette purchasing in six European countries. Methods Cross-sectional data from adult smokers (n = 7,873) from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Surveys in France (2006/7), Germany (2007), Ireland (2006), the Netherlands (2008), Scotland (2006), and the rest of the United Kingdom (2007/8) were used. Respondents were asked whether they had bought cigarettes outside their country in the last six months and how often. Findings In French and German provinces/states bordering countries with lower cigarette prices, 24% and 13% of smokers respectively reported purchasing cigarettes frequently outside their country. In non-border regions of France and Germany and in Ireland, Scotland, the rest of the United Kingdom, and the Netherlands, frequent purchasing of cigarettes outside the country was reported by 2% to 7% of smokers. Smokers with higher levels of education or income, younger smokers, daily smokers, heavier smokers, and smokers not planning to quit smoking were more likely to purchase cigarettes outside their country. Conclusion Cross-border cigarette purchasing is more common in European regions bordering countries with lower cigarette prices and is more often reported by smokers with higher education and income. Increasing taxes in countries with lower cigarette prices and reducing the number of cigarettes that can be legally imported across borders could help to avoid cross-border purchasing. PMID:23644287

  19. Mexico and U.S. Border

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This data is from Digital International Boundaries Database (DIBDB). The DIBDB is NGA's official boundaries database and contains boundaries that have been approved...

  20. Environmental exposure of road borders to zinc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blok, J. [Royal Haskoning, P.O. Box 151, 6500 Ad Nijmegen (Netherlands)]. E-mail: Han.Blok@royalhaskoning.com

    2005-09-15

    The emissions of zinc along roads originating from tyre wear, corrosion of safety fence and other traffic-related sources have been quantified and validated by measured long-term loads in road run-off and airborne solids (drift) for 29 published case studies. The distribution pattern over the road border at various distances from the edge of the paved surface is assessed on the basis of 38 published case studies with measured concentrations in soil. For the impact assessment, the road border is differentiated into a zone that is part of the 'technosphere' and the 'target zone' beyond that technosphere that can be considered as part of the receiving environment. The 'technosphere' of the road includes the central reservation, the hard and the soft shoulder or, if one or both shoulders are not present, the so-called obstacle 'free zone' that is defined by road engineers. Pollution within the technosphere may require appropriate management of solid disposal and isolation from groundwater to prevent further distribution of pollutants to the environment. In the target zone along regional roads, the zinc load is about 4 mg/m{sup 2} year and this is of the same order of magnitude as that of atmospheric deposition in areas beyond the influence of roads (background). In the target zone along highways, the zinc load is increased in comparison to the background deposition. The average load of about 38 mg/m{sup 2} year is similar to that in fertilised agricultural land. Because most of the emitted zinc stays in the technosphere, the total amount entering this target zone along highways is limited. From the 140 tons of zinc per year that is released from tyre wear in The Netherlands, 64 tons is emitted in the urban area, 6.5 tons reaches to the target zones of all roads and only 1.1 tons of zinc will enter the target zone along highways. This amount will be further decreased by the application of porous asphalt in the near future. The

  1. An open mind to closed borders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallet, Ulrike; Lefeber, Bob

    2017-04-01

    One aspect of "Science in tomorrow's classroom" is teaching geography students the basic skills and knowledge to play an active role in society as citizens. Topics that frame the development of good citizenship are wide-ranged and include climate change, migration and integration as well as democracy and identity. Often these kinds of topics do not allow for right or wrong answers or classroom lectures; it is more important to encourage students to find and discuss arguments with which to underpin their opinion. In this way, civic education is very suitable for active learning. Active learning is described as a method of learning in which students are actively involved in the learning process through (group) discussion, experiments or games. By doing so, students are stimulated to engage in higher-order thinking tasks such as analysis, synthesis, and evaluation, which are inherent to becoming responsible, reflective and critical citizens as well as (future) scientists. It has also been shown that the use of active learning methods significantly increased the number of meaningful geographical relationships that students give in tests (Karkdijk, 2012). I, therefore, propose to use active learning to approach civic education in the classroom. Specifically, I used a "mystery" to engage students in active learning on the highly polarizing subject of migration. A mystery (Leat, 1990) is a didactic method that uses short bits of information to solve an intriguing question. A current polarizing subject in society and in the classroom is the migration from Northern Africa and the Middle East to Europe and the increasing number of terrorist attacks by individuals who have radicalised before, during or after their journey over the Mediterranean. In class, students were asked to solve this migration mystery: "Could the terrorist attack in Berlin have been stopped by closing the borders of the Mediterranean countries to migrants?" In order to solve this mystery and to find an

  2. Environmental exposure of road borders to zinc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blok, J.

    2005-01-01

    The emissions of zinc along roads originating from tyre wear, corrosion of safety fence and other traffic-related sources have been quantified and validated by measured long-term loads in road run-off and airborne solids (drift) for 29 published case studies. The distribution pattern over the road border at various distances from the edge of the paved surface is assessed on the basis of 38 published case studies with measured concentrations in soil. For the impact assessment, the road border is differentiated into a zone that is part of the 'technosphere' and the 'target zone' beyond that technosphere that can be considered as part of the receiving environment. The 'technosphere' of the road includes the central reservation, the hard and the soft shoulder or, if one or both shoulders are not present, the so-called obstacle 'free zone' that is defined by road engineers. Pollution within the technosphere may require appropriate management of solid disposal and isolation from groundwater to prevent further distribution of pollutants to the environment. In the target zone along regional roads, the zinc load is about 4 mg/m 2 year and this is of the same order of magnitude as that of atmospheric deposition in areas beyond the influence of roads (background). In the target zone along highways, the zinc load is increased in comparison to the background deposition. The average load of about 38 mg/m 2 year is similar to that in fertilised agricultural land. Because most of the emitted zinc stays in the technosphere, the total amount entering this target zone along highways is limited. From the 140 tons of zinc per year that is released from tyre wear in The Netherlands, 64 tons is emitted in the urban area, 6.5 tons reaches to the target zones of all roads and only 1.1 tons of zinc will enter the target zone along highways. This amount will be further decreased by the application of porous asphalt in the near future. The emission from safety fence corrosion does not enter

  3. Conserved gene regulatory module specifies lateral neural borders across bilaterians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongbin; Zhao, Di; Horie, Takeo; Chen, Geng; Bao, Hongcun; Chen, Siyu; Liu, Weihong; Horie, Ryoko; Liang, Tao; Dong, Biyu; Feng, Qianqian; Tao, Qinghua; Liu, Xiao

    2017-08-01

    The lateral neural plate border (NPB), the neural part of the vertebrate neural border, is composed of central nervous system (CNS) progenitors and peripheral nervous system (PNS) progenitors. In invertebrates, PNS progenitors are also juxtaposed to the lateral boundary of the CNS. Whether there are conserved molecular mechanisms determining vertebrate and invertebrate lateral neural borders remains unclear. Using single-cell-resolution gene-expression profiling and genetic analysis, we present evidence that orthologs of the NPB specification module specify the invertebrate lateral neural border, which is composed of CNS and PNS progenitors. First, like in vertebrates, the conserved neuroectoderm lateral border specifier Msx/vab-15 specifies lateral neuroblasts in Caenorhabditis elegans Second, orthologs of the vertebrate NPB specification module ( Msx/vab-15 , Pax3/7/pax-3 , and Zic/ref-2 ) are significantly enriched in worm lateral neuroblasts. In addition, like in other bilaterians, the expression domain of Msx/vab-15 is more lateral than those of Pax3/7/pax-3 and Zic/ref- 2 in C. elegans Third, we show that Msx/vab-15 regulates the development of mechanosensory neurons derived from lateral neural progenitors in multiple invertebrate species, including C. elegans , Drosophila melanogaster , and Ciona intestinalis We also identify a novel lateral neural border specifier, ZNF703/tlp-1 , which functions synergistically with Msx/vab- 15 in both C. elegans and Xenopus laevis These data suggest a common origin of the molecular mechanism specifying lateral neural borders across bilaterians.

  4. The Cosmopolitanization of the EU’s Borders?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damian Spruce

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available For centuries the political geography of Europe has been based around borders of its nation states. The ability of the nation state to control its territory has been essential to the practices of war and diplomacy, the legitimacy of governments, immigration policies and trade. But processes of globalization and EU integration have transformed the borders of the European nation state. While globalization theorists tend to posit an opening up of borders to global flows of capital, information and people, the changed nature of the border is itself often left unexamined and is assumed to have simply disappeared. But scholars and activists are now arguing that, rather than fading away, borders are proliferating in the globalized world and their functions spreading into many different areas of society. This article examines the transformation of the ‘classical’ border of the nation-state into its recent forms, using the work of theorists such as Balibar, Mezzadra, Rigo and Walters. It then examines how these theories have been applied in recent literature, and in particular Chris Rumford’s analysis of the European Neighbourhood policy and his argument that this represents a ‘cosmopolitanisation’ of European borders.

  5. A flow-based methodology for the calculation of TSO to TSO compensations for cross-border flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glavitsch, H.; Andersson, G.; Lekane, Th.; Marien, A.; Mees, E.; Naef, U.

    2004-01-01

    In the context of the development of the European internal electricity market, several methods for the tarification of cross-border flows have been proposed. This paper presents a flow-based method for the calculation of TSO to TSO compensations for cross-border flows. The basic principle of this approach is the allocation of the costs of cross-border flows to the TSOs who are responsible for these flows. This method is cost reflective, non-transaction based and compatible with domestic tariffs. It can be applied when limited data are available. Each internal transmission network is then modelled as an aggregated node, called 'supernode', and the European network is synthesized by a graph of supernodes and arcs, each arc representing all cross-border lines between two adjacent countries. When detailed data are available, the proposed methodology is also applicable to all the nodes and lines of the transmission network. Costs associated with flows transiting through supernodes or network elements are forwarded through the network in a way reflecting how the flows make use of the network. The costs can be charged either towards loads and exports or towards generations and imports. Combination of the two charging directions can also be considered. (author)

  6. Market Intergration and Border Effects in Eastern Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Bruno Versailles

    2012-01-01

    This paper studies border efects in Eastern Africa by exploiting a consumer price data set covering 4 out of 5 EAC member states, 39 cities and 24 goods over the period 2004-2008. The Law-of-One-Price (LOP) is tested by running level regressions on relative prices with city-pairs the unit of observation. Unsurprisingly, distance plays an important role in explaining relative price movements, both within and between countries. The border efect as measured by the coef?cient on a border dummy is...

  7. Border Collision Route to Quasiperiodicity: Numerical Investigation and Experimental Confirmation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhusubaliyev, Zhanybai; Mosekilde, Erik; Maity, S.

    2006-01-01

    Numerical studies of higher-dimensional piecewise-smooth systems have recently shown how a torus can arise from a periodic cycle through a special type of border-collision bifurcation. The present article investigates this new route to quasiperiodicity in the two-dimensional piecewise-linear normal...... form map. We have obtained the chart of the dynamical modes for this map and showed that border-collision bifurcations can lead to the birth of a stable closed invariant curve associated with quasiperiodic or periodic dynamics. In the parameter regions leading to the existence of an invariant closed...... to quasiperiodicity through a border-collision bifurcation. ©2006 American Institute of Physics...

  8. Social and cultural influences among Mexican border entrepreneurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz Bretones, Francisco; Cappello, Héctor M; Garcia, Pedro A

    2009-06-01

    Social and cultural conditions (including U.S. border and inland influence, role models within the family, and educational background) which affect locus of control and achievement motivation among Mexican entrepreneurs were explored among 64 selected entrepreneurs in two Mexican towns, one on the Mexico-U.S. border, the other located inland. Analyses showed that the border subsample scored higher on External locus of control; however, in both subsamples the father was an important element in the locus of control variable and the entrepreneur status. No statistically significant mean difference was noted for achievement motivation. Practical applications and limitations are discussed.

  9. CHANGING BORDERS, RETHINKING SOVEREIGNTY: TOWARDS A RIGHT TO MIGRATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maribel Casas-Cortes

    Full Text Available Abstract The intervention of European Union border authorities in countries of Africa, Asia and Eastern Europe has shown how the European state “border” has been displaced from its national moorings and externalized across the territories of neighboring states. Our research examines the outsourcing of the southern European Union border, focusing on the case of Spain and its relationship with Morocco and countries of Western Africa. In this paper we describe the development and implementation of this strategy of migration management, signaling implications of border externalization from the point of geopolitics and legality, including a suggestive call to reclaim the legal tradition of the Right to Migrate.

  10. Satisfaction in border tourism: An analysis with structural equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Antonio Jimber del Río

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Border tourism is the temporary displacement of people to the dividing line between two countries contiguous areas. This activity promotes the economic development of these geographical regions. The aim of this research is to analyze visitors from the Dominican Republic and Haiti border. We propose the results of an empirical study with structural equations that show correlations between the attitude factor towards the border tourism, the value factors perceived by the tourist, satisfaction and loyalty of the visitor in the destination place.

  11. Identifying and characterizing transboundary aquifers along the Mexico-US border: An initial assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Rosario; Lopez, Victoria; Eckstein, Gabriel

    2016-04-01

    The transboundary nature of water dividing Mexico and the United States (U.S.) transforms the entire border region into an instrument of cooperation, a source of conflict, a national security issue, and an environmental concern. Reasonable data collection and research analysis have been conducted for surface waters by joint governmental institutions and non-governmental bodies. However, with the exception of the U.S. Transboundary Assessment Act Program (TAAP) (focusing on the Hueco Bolson, Mesilla Bolson, San Pedro and Santa Cruz aquifers), there is no comparable research, institutional development, or assessment of transboundary groundwater issues on the frontier. Moreover, data collection and methodologies vary between the two countries, there is no broadly accepted definition of the transboundary nature of an aquifer, and available legal and policy frameworks are constrained by non-hydrological considerations. Hence, there is a conceptual and institutional void regarding transboundary groundwater resources between Mexico and the U.S. The purpose of this paper is to bridge this void and characterize transboundary aquifers on the Mexico-US border. It reviews existing international frameworks for identifying hydrological and social criteria that characterize an aquifer as transboundary. It then assesses data from both countries to propose where and which aquifers could be considered transboundary. Finally, the paper proposes an agenda for assessing Mexico-US transboundary aquifers as a means for improving groundwater management in the border region.

  12. Measures to detect and control radioactive contaminated metallurgical scrap at border checkpoints in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smagala, G.

    1999-01-01

    The issue of radioactive contaminated metallurgical scrap has never received a high priority in Poland and in the international community. Since the dissolution of the former Soviet Union a higher attention has been given to the problem. Poland which is located between the West and East Europe has the obligation to develop and implement an effective prevention and detection system. The reasons to increase national control and detection system at the border checkpoints in Poland are to avoid the following risks: post Chernobyl contamination transports of commodities; transport of contaminated metal scrap; transfer of radioactive waste for their disposal or utilization; high risk of becoming a transit country of illicit trafficking of nuclear materials and radioactive sources. In order to avoid the above-mentioned risks, Poland initiated in 1990, a deployment of the portable radiation devices at the border checkpoints and, as of 1998, the number of installed instruments exceeded a hundred. This paper presents Poland's activities to detect contaminated scrap at its border checkpoints. (author)

  13. Unsettled borders and memories: a “local” indigenous perspective on contemporary globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Watson

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a case study of decolonial counter-memory in contemporary indigenous artist Alan Michelson's 2009 Third Bank of the River. Installed inside the lobby of the tri-national border station between the Akwesasne Mohawk Nation, Canada, and the United States—the most legally disputed territory in North America—Michelson's artwork recovers the seventeenth-century Two Row wampum belt as model for reforming relationships at the border. This wampum belt memorializes a commitment between the Haudenosaunee and European settlers to co-exist in balanced interdependence and remains a key touchstone in indigenous political philosophy and activism. Interpreted in the post-9/11 build-up of state power at the disputed border zone, Third Bank proposes a model of international dialogue and nation-to-nation diplomacy that contrasts with the ongoing conditions of settler colonialism. It thus stands out as an important indigenous perspective on the widespread interest in memory in global contemporary art, in which artists are recovering a new viewpoint on contemporaneity through the reconceptualization of historical pasts.

  14. Structure and headship of northern border homes in the last decade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunice D. Vargas Valle

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to describe the trends in household structure and female headship on the northern border of Mexico between 2000 and 2010, as well as the changes in their demographic profiles. There were three relevant trends: the increase in single person households, the slight decrease in extended households and the rise in female headship. These trends indicate the intersection of complex structural and conjunctural processes. On the one hand, population aging is an ongoing process, and the cultural processes linked to the value of individual autonomy versus familial altruism continue advancing as seen by the rise in men living alone and women heading households. On the other hand, conjunctural processes such as the economic crises and the recent migratory and security policies of the United States have influenced the reduction of internal immigration to the border and the increase of return migration from this country, which in turn have contributed to modifying the composition of border households.

  15. Multilatinas and Value Creation from Cross-Border Acquisitions: An Event Study Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Roberto Feldmann

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The central proposition of this paper is to assess the performance of cross-border acquisitions made by Multilatinas. Applying the event study method to a sample of 607 announcements of acquisitions during the period 1989-2011 by 182 Multilatinas from Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, Peru and Venezuela, we conclude that: (a on average, these announcements have a neutral impact on the short-term returns to acquiring companies’ shareholders; (b cross-sectional analysis reveals that relative size of the deals have anegative and significant effect on investors’ reactions and; (c unlike the institutional distance between home and host countries, cultural distance matters, since it has a negative and significant effect on the perceptions that investors have regarding the expected economic impact of acquirers’ cross-border merger and acquisition(M&A decisions. Inasmuch as the market rationality assumption that underlies the event study method has been questioned, future research lines are proposed in order to search for alternative long-term performance constructs concerning M&A processes in general that can: (a shed light on the reality of value creation (and destruction from cross-border acquisitions made by Multilatinas; and (b contribute to strategy, international business and M&A theories and practice.

  16. Review of depopulation of the border villages in the context of national security risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukmirović Jovanka A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available According to internationally comparable statistical indicators, Serbia is among the countries with the highest development disparities (regional and local, both among Balkan neighbors and European scale. Large differences in development occur during the second half of the last century, a period culminating in the failed socio-economic transition of the millennium. Devastation and depopulation are causal phenomena, the population rapidly leaving impoverished areas and gravitate to the larger centers. Conditionally speaking, the more developed cities continue to develop while poor towns and villages are still poor. Proverb says, 'Whose sheep, that and the mountains. ' Emptying the territory highly correlated with an increase in surface area of agricultural land uncultivated, thus permanently extinguished agriculture as the main activity and main source of income in rural areas. Emptying the territory is the biggest development problem in Serbia, but also represents one of the biggest national security risks. Increasingly, the question whether Serbia will in the future be able to keep the territory in which he remains without population and whether the threshold bezbednostnog risk isšražnjene administration of the territory in the border areas. This paper presents a statistical description of census data in 1971, 1981, 1991, 2002 and 2011 as well as the analysis of demographic trends in border settlements for the considered period. The paper also proposed a set of measures and recommendations for overcoming depopulation, in accordance with available resources and the natural limits of border settlements.

  17. Learning from Cross-Border Reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millbank, Jenni; Karpin, Isabel; Stuhmcke, Anita

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Drawing upon the preliminary findings of an Australian empirical project on cross-border reproduction (CBR), this article argues that regulators and policymakers could learn from the experiences of those who travel overseas in order to access fertility treatment and surrogacy. It makes four principal observations. First, the distinction between so-called ‘altruistic’ and ‘commercial’ gamete donation and surrogacy is increasingly unsustainable and is not experienced as meaningful by many participants in CBR. Secondly, the status of the law in CBR is profoundly equivocal; for participants it is often there and not there at the same time. Thirdly, self-sourced information, from the internet and more specifically social media such as Facebook, is now the principal source of information and peer support for reproductive travellers. Fourthly, and relatedly, domestic reproductive services providers are often sidestepped. If one of the goals of regulation is to minimise the risk of harm to participants, it is not clear that it is currently achieving this aim, and this article argues that any reforms will only work if they are more responsive to the reality of CBR. PMID:28073821

  18. Learning from Cross-Border Reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Emily; Millbank, Jenni; Karpin, Isabel; Stuhmcke, Anita

    2017-02-01

    Drawing upon the preliminary findings of an Australian empirical project on cross-border reproduction (CBR), this article argues that regulators and policymakers could learn from the experiences of those who travel overseas in order to access fertility treatment and surrogacy. It makes four principal observations. First, the distinction between so-called 'altruistic' and 'commercial' gamete donation and surrogacy is increasingly unsustainable and is not experienced as meaningful by many participants in CBR. Secondly, the status of the law in CBR is profoundly equivocal; for participants it is often there and not there at the same time. Thirdly, self-sourced information, from the internet and more specifically social media such as Facebook, is now the principal source of information and peer support for reproductive travellers. Fourthly, and relatedly, domestic reproductive services providers are often sidestepped. If one of the goals of regulation is to minimise the risk of harm to participants, it is not clear that it is currently achieving this aim, and this article argues that any reforms will only work if they are more responsive to the reality of CBR. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  19. Extrahepatic biliary atresia in a border collie.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, C; Rothuizen, J; van Sluijs, F J; Hazewinkel, H A; van den Ingh, T S

    2000-01-01

    Progressive lameness and leg pain were the predominant clinical signs in a 17-week-old male border collie presented for examination. On clinical investigation, extrahepatic cholestasis in association with rickets due to inadequate vitamin D resorption was diagnosed. The dog was treated parenterally with vitamin D and a cholecystoduodenostomy was performed. At 25 days postsurgery the lameness had resolved and bone structure was radiographically normal. However, at six weeks postsurgery, the dog's condition deteriorated rapidly and euthanasia was finally performed at eight weeks postsurgery. At postmortem examination, Toxocara canis nematodes were found to have invaded the biliary system via the anastomosis between the gallbladder and duodenum, causing biliary and hepatic toxocariasis. The cause of the primary extrahepatic cholestasis was atresia of the common bile duct at the hepatic end. The liver tissue showed microscopic lesions of chronic extrahepatic cholestasis as well as acute inflammation associated with the nematode invasion. There was no postmortem evidence of bone lesions. Extrahepatic biliary atresia is extremely rare in animals and has not been described before in dogs. In contrast, it represents the most common cause of congenital cholestasis in children, occurring in approximately one per 10,000 to 15,000 live births.

  20. 47 CFR 27.57 - International coordination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Technical Standards § 27.57 International coordination. (a) WCS operations in the border areas shall be subject to coordination with those countries and provide protection to non-U.S... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false International coordination. 27.57 Section 27.57...

  1. International trade with electric power

    OpenAIRE

    Årdal, Frode

    2009-01-01

    In 2003 the European Commission introduced the Directive 2003/54/EC and Regulation 1228/2003/EC which increased the focus on the liberalization of the European electricity market. The international electricity trade has increased and created new challenges related to cross-border transmission and compensation mechanisms. The focus of the report has been to discuss the development of the electricity market in Europe, and the status of international exchange. The report also discusses the con...

  2. Addressing competitiveness and leakage concerns in climate policy: An analysis of border adjustment measures in the US and the EU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asselt, Harro van; Brewer, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    The implementation of climate policies in the US and EU in light of uncertainties about future international climate policy has shifted attention to two interrelated concerns, namely competitiveness and carbon leakage. Although various policy measures are available to address these concerns, there has been much discussion about one such measure in particular: the use of offsetting measures at the border. This article compares policy discussions in the US and the EU on how to address competitiveness and carbon leakage concerns, with a focus on the role of import-related border adjustment measures. It analyses the kinds of measures that so far have been put forward with a view to addressing competitiveness and carbon leakage; compares the approaches to the problems in the US and the EU; and provides a preliminary discussion of international cooperation on border adjustment measures. It concludes that two kinds of cooperation are needed between the EU and the US - not only cooperation through formal international negotiations, but also cooperation through international learning processes, in which the EU and the US learn from each other about design and implementation issues as they develop their respective cap-and-trade systems.

  3. Health and Borders across Time and Cultures: Introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Carrillo Garcia

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This special issue of Portal brings together papers examining the intersection of health and borders. In this analysis health is understood not only as the absence of illness, but also as knowledge, as a right, and as the pursuit of identity and self-transformation. Similarly, borders here are used as both physical and mental constructs. The special issue represent a multidisciplinary effort that looks at health from a social science perspective through historical, socio-economic, and cultural approaches. It is also concerned with the health inequities across and within national borders, due to economic imperatives, changing technologies and environments. The articles in this special issue explore lessons learned and new ways of understanding health across time and borders, with specific reference to the cases of India, Australia, Hong Kong and China, Pakistan, and Thailand.

  4. Regional trade and border markets between Niger, Benin and Nigeria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther, Olivier; Tenikué, Michel; Kuepié, Mathias

    The objective of this methodological paper is to identify a number of products or sectors whose trade is relevant for border regions in West Africa. Focusing on Niger, Benin and Nigeria, we start with contextualising the importance of border markets by quantifying the changes in the relative values...... and volumes of imports and exports passing through border posts. In a second step, we determine which are the products most commonly found among the imports and exports of the border posts. The study shows that seven products are recognised as being heavily imported, subject to significant trade from large...... traders, and considered as re-export products: building materials, cereals and flour, textile, used clothing, used vehicles, cigarettes and oil....

  5. Borders in Education and Living- a Case of Trench Warfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hviid, Pernille

    2016-03-01

    In this paper the notion of border will be examined in a cultural life course perspective. I will investigate borders as psycho-cultural constructions created to enable and control meaning-making in the intersection between subjects engagements and concerns and collectively constructed and guiding meanings. An empirical analysis of one boy's life course in and between home, school and a Leisure Time Activity Center in the years 1st to 3rd grade demonstrates a systemic construction of borders involving him, his teachers and his parents and renders the boy to choose between becoming an engaged pupil or a dedicated son. As such, the analysis can illuminate processes of school - home interactions that work opposite of what is intended and become detrimental to children's life. In a cultural life course perspective borders show how life is maintained as meaningful and not only guide the present living but also serve as directional guides into the future.

  6. Status of mangroves along the countries bordering the Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Untawale, A.G.; Wafar, S.; Jagtap, T.G.

    Distribution of mangroves in the countries bordering the Arabian Sea, including Gulf of Oman, Persian Gulf, Gulf of Aden and Red Sea, is reviewed and their present status is discussed. The estimated area of mangrove vegetation is 1140 sq. km...

  7. Dose distributions of pendulum fields in the field border plane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schrader, R.

    1986-01-01

    Calculations (program SIDOS-U2) and LiF measurements taken in a cylindric water phantom are used to investigate the isodose distributions of different pendulum irradiation methods (Co-60) in a plane which is parallel to the central ray plane and crosses the field borders at the depth of the axis. The dose values compared to the maximum values of the central ray plane are completely different for each pendulum method. In case of monoaxial pendulum methods around small angles, the maximum dose value found in the border plane is less than 50% of the dose in the central ray plane. The relative maximum of the border plane moves to tissues laying in a greater depth. In case of bi-axial methods, the maximum value of the border plane can be much more than 50% of the maximum dose measured in the central ray plane. (orig.) [de

  8. Galectin-4 and small intestinal brush border enzymes form clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, E M; van Deurs, B

    1997-01-01

    that galectin-4 is indeed an intestinal brush border protein; we also localized galectin-4 throughout the cell, mainly associated with membraneous structures, including small vesicles, and to the rootlets of microvillar actin filaments. This was confirmed by subcellular fractionation, showing about half...... by a nonclassical pathway, and the brush border enzymes represent a novel class of natural ligands for a member of the galectin family. Newly synthesized galectin-4 is rapidly "trapped" by association with intracellular structures prior to its apical secretion, but once externalized, association with brush border......Detergent-insoluble complexes prepared from pig small intestine are highly enriched in several transmembrane brush border enzymes including aminopeptidase N and sucrase-isomaltase, indicating that they reside in a glycolipid-rich environment in vivo. In the present work galectin-4, an animal lectin...

  9. Time to Put the Military on the Border

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Deforge, Robert D

    2006-01-01

    .... It is well documented that the U.S. Border Patrol is undermanned, under-equipped, and under-trained to deal with the increasing numbers of illegal immigrants, escalating violent gang activity, and in the increasing incidents...

  10. Integrated control of the South African border environment

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Taute, BJE

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available flights enter our airspace. To control/coordinate the border environment effectively requires a vast range of information sources, reconnaissance and surveillance sensors, a communications infrastructure and a hub where information can be collected...

  11. Border Security and Military Support: Legal Authorizations and Restrictions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vina, Stephen R

    2006-01-01

    .... Reported escalations in criminal activity and illegal immigration, however, have prompted some law makers to reevaluate the extent and type of military support that occurs in the Mexico-United States border region...

  12. Geopolitics in the Forest: A Border of Wilderness

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Grygar, Jakub

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 14, 1/2 (2016), s. 5-23 ISSN 1212-4923 Institutional support: RVO:68378076 Keywords : borders * Białowieża Forest * identity * Europeanization * environmental movement Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  13. Isolated medial meniscal tear in a Border Collie.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridge, P A

    2006-01-01

    A three-year-old, female Border Collie was successfully treated for an isolated, torn, medial meniscus by arthroscopic meniscal tear resection. The dog returned to agility competition without recurrence of lameness.

  14. The financial implications of certain types of cross-border pollution: The polluter-pays principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montmayeul, J.P.

    2001-01-01

    Favorable Paris Convention regulations: absolute liability, exclusive liability, channeling of liability to the operator in case of nuclear damage, financial security, limited maximum liability, single legal forum, ten-year time limit. Difficulties of application for certain types of cross-border pollution not covered by the Paris Convention: so-called orphan sources (stolen, lost, or abandoned sealed sources or confiscated contaminated metallurgical scrap). Benefits of the polluter-pays principle: identification of the polluter, identification of the holder of the polluted materials, responsible parties held accountable, financial reparations. Analysis of the polluter-pays principle already recognized in numerous international texts on environmental law. (author)

  15. Border dimension of Chilean foreign policies: Immobility and urgency of new dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Ovando Santana

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The following article draws the priorities of border public policy that define the Chilean foreign policy. Through a theoretical framework from the rational–reflective approach of International Relations, we argue that despite of the increasing openness, internationalization of the country, and the emergence of new actors and subnational initiatives; the views and options between the actors of this new area and the definitions of foreign policy not always match. We propose the need to establish mechanisms that settle the positions among regional social–political actors, intermediate agencies and the central level.

  16. Foreign currency-related translation complexities in cross-border healthcare applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Anand; Rodrigues, Jean M

    2009-01-01

    International cross-border private hospital chains need to apply the standards for foreign currency translation in order to consolidate the balance sheet and income statements. This not only exposes such chains to exchange rate fluctuations in different ways, but also creates added requirements for enterprise-level IT systems especially when they produce parameters which are used to measure the financial and operational performance of the foreign subsidiary or the parent hospital. Such systems would need to come to terms with the complexities involved in such currency-related translations in order to provide the correct data for performance benchmarking.

  17. The Structure of Borders in a Small World

    OpenAIRE

    Thiemann, Christian; Theis, Fabian; Grady, Daniel; Brune, Rafael; Brockmann, Dirk

    2010-01-01

    Territorial subdivisions and geographic borders are essential for understanding phenomena in sociology, political science, history, and economics. They influence the interregional flow of information and cross-border trade and affect the diffusion of innovation and technology. However, it is unclear if existing administrative subdivisions that typically evolved decades ago still reflect the most plausible organizational structure of today. The complexity of modern human communication, the eas...

  18. The SPS was the second cross-border accelerator

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    In the Golden Jubilee article in the issue 25/2004 (14 June) we should have written that the SPS was the first big cross-border accelerator. In fact, the SPS was not the first cross-border accelerator: that title goes to the PS Booster which became operational in 1972. The PS Booster passes beams to the PS and to the ISOLDE facility. We are sorry for the mistake and thank our vigilant readers.

  19. Border Biofuels Limited - maintaining a sense of balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seed, J.M.

    1994-01-01

    A brief description is given of a renewable energy initiative to grow wood fuel in the Scottish and English border region. The aim is to develop a new rural industry based on wood fuel feeding a power plant in a central location in the Borders area. The financial arrangements to grow short rotation coppice are outlined as are the environmental impacts and energy balance. (UK)

  20. Using automatic identification system technology to improve maritime border security

    OpenAIRE

    Lindstrom, Tedric R.

    2014-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Our coastal waters are the United States’ most open and vulnerable borders. This vast maritime domain harbors critical threats from terrorism, criminal activities, and natural disasters. Maritime borders pose significant security challenges, as nefarious entities have used small boats to conduct illegal activities for years, and they continue to do so today. Illegal drugs, money, weapons, and migrants flow both directions across our ma...

  1.   Border Carbon Adjustments, the UNFCCC and WTO Rules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Laura

    2010-01-01

      My presentation on Trade and Climate Change concludes that border carbon adjustments can be consistent with both the climate change and WTO rules - depending of course on their design - but that they are not necessarily attractive. ......  My presentation on Trade and Climate Change concludes that border carbon adjustments can be consistent with both the climate change and WTO rules - depending of course on their design - but that they are not necessarily attractive. ...

  2. Liability according to civil law regarding border-crossing nuclear damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baer, Caroline

    1987-12-01

    The problem of the liability in border-crossing damage caused by a nuclear-reactor accident is divided into two different areas: the liability according to international law of the state, and liability according to civil right of the licensee of a nuclear power plant. In this study attention is paid to the question of the liability according to civil right: is it possible that an aggrieved obtains compensation for damage? This is investigated on the basis of three standard questions of international private law: which judge is qualified, which law is to be applied, and is acknowledgement and execution of foreign sentences possible? First a historical survey is given of international agreements and national legislations regarding third-party liability. (author). 112 refs

  3. Abortion checks at German-Dutch border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von Baross, J

    1991-05-01

    The commentary on West German abortion law, particularly in illegal abortion in the Netherlands, finds the law restrictive and in violation of the dignity and rights of women. The Max-Planck Institute in 1990 published a study that found that a main point of prosecution between 1976 and 1986, as reported by Der Spiegal, was in border crossings from the Netherlands. It is estimated that 10,000 annually have abortions abroad, and 6,000 to 7,000 in the Netherlands. The procedure was for an official to stop a young person and query about drugs; later the woman would admit to an abortion, and be forced into a medical examination. The German Penal Code Section 218 stipulates abortion only for certain reasons testified to by a doctor other than the one performing the abortion. Counseling on available social assistance must be completed 3 days prior to the abortion. Many counseling offices are church related and opposed to abortions. Many doctors refuse legally to certify, and access to abortion is limited. The required hospital stay is 3-4 nights with no day care facilities. Penal Code Section 5 No. 9 allows prosecution for uncounseled illegal abortion. Abortion law reform is anticipated by the end of 1992 in the Bundestag due to the Treaty or the Unification of Germany. The Treaty states that the rights of the unborn child must be protected and that pregnant women relieve their distress in a way compatible with the Constitution, but improved over legal regulations from either West or East Germany, which permits abortion on request within 12 weeks of conception without counseling. It is hoped that the law will be liberalized and Penal Code Section 5 No. 9 will be abolished.

  4. The Treaty of Lisbon and the European Border Control Regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne Takle

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The question raised in the article is how the new provisions of the Lisbon Treaty and the Stockholm programme concerning the EU’s asylum and migration policy might consolidate existing trends within the European border control regime. The regime is defined by a combination of three features: (i a harmonisation of categories among the EU/Schengen member states, (ii a growing use of new technology in networked databases and (iii an increasing sorting of individuals based on security concerns. Although none of these features is new, the combination gives a new impetus to the European border control regime. The article concludes that the Lisbon Treaty and the Stockholm programme consolidate and strengthen existing trends. This implies that policies on border control, asylum, immigration, judicial cooperation and police cooperation are consolidated in a broader approach to border control, and that there is a strengthening of EU foreign policy within the European border control regime. The boundaries between previously dispersed policy areas are blurred. The combination of different aspects of security and various levels of authority requires coordination of policies with substantially different goals, and goes beyond mere border control.

  5. A soft kinetic data structure for lesion border detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kockara, Sinan; Mete, Mutlu; Yip, Vincent; Lee, Brendan; Aydin, Kemal

    2010-06-15

    The medical imaging and image processing techniques, ranging from microscopic to macroscopic, has become one of the main components of diagnostic procedures to assist dermatologists in their medical decision-making processes. Computer-aided segmentation and border detection on dermoscopic images is one of the core components of diagnostic procedures and therapeutic interventions for skin cancer. Automated assessment tools for dermoscopic images have become an important research field mainly because of inter- and intra-observer variations in human interpretations. In this study, a novel approach-graph spanner-for automatic border detection in dermoscopic images is proposed. In this approach, a proximity graph representation of dermoscopic images in order to detect regions and borders in skin lesion is presented. Graph spanner approach is examined on a set of 100 dermoscopic images whose manually drawn borders by a dermatologist are used as the ground truth. Error rates, false positives and false negatives along with true positives and true negatives are quantified by digitally comparing results with manually determined borders from a dermatologist. The results show that the highest precision and recall rates obtained to determine lesion boundaries are 100%. However, accuracy of assessment averages out at 97.72% and borders errors' mean is 2.28% for whole dataset.

  6. 78 FR 35103 - Extension of Border Zone in the State of New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-12

    ..., established in 1953, was intended to promote the economic stability of the border region by allowing for freer... having to obtain a Form I-94. Although the border zone was intended to promote the economic stability of... maintain security of the border while increasing economic activity in New Mexico's border region and...

  7. BANKING ON MULTINATIONALS: THE DETERMINANTS OF CROSS-BORDER CREDITS TO CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE, 1990-2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roksolana Zapotichna

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Taking into account the rising dependence of Central and Eastern Europe on multinational banks’ credits, the main purpose of the article is to identify and examine the determinants of cross-border credits through a methodology based on “push” and “pull” factors. The author presents the results of a regression analysis on the determinants of cross-border credits provided by multinational banks from EU-15 to Central and Eastern Europe over the period of 1990-2015 by using the statistical data compiled and published by the Bank for International Settlements. The obtained results suggest that global as well as home and host country level determinants influence cross-border credits but to a different extent. According to our results, higher stability and predictability of global economic environment contribute to higher cross-border credit growth. The results of the host country determinants analysis indicate that more effective and profitable economies receive more credits from multinational banks. We also find that multinational banks provide more credits to countries with small markets, low inflation rate, high external debt burden, high capital account deficit, fixed exchange rate regime, and developed institutional environment. Regarding home level determinants, we find the existence of a negative correlation between home country economic cycle and the amount of cross-border credits received by the host country, which can be explained by low economic growth in continental Europe over the period under consideration that stimulated European banks to expand lending on foreign markets with higher profit opportunities. Thus, cross-border credits appear to have been countercyclical to growth in home countries and procyclical to growth in host countries. Finally, it is found that host country level determinants play the most important role in explaining changes in cross-border credits on host countries in Central and Eastern Europe during

  8. Effect of the US-Mexico border region in cardiovascular mortality: ecological time trend analysis of Mexican border and non-border municipalities from 1998 to 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Anaya

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An array of risk factors has been associated with cardiovascular diseases, and developing nations are becoming disproportionately affected by such diseases. Cardiovascular diseases have been reported to be highly prevalent in the Mexican population, but local mortality data is poor. The Mexican side of the US-Mexico border has a culture that is closely related to a developed nation and therefore may share the same risk factors of cardiovascular diseases. We wanted to explore if there was higher cardiovascular mortality in the border region of Mexico compared to the rest of the nation. Methods We conducted a population based cross-sectional time series analysis to estimate the effects of education, insurance and municipal size in Mexican border (n = 38 and non-border municipalities (n = 2360 and its association with cardiovascular age-adjusted mortality rates between the years 1998–2012. We used a mixed effect linear model with random effect estimation and repeated measurements to compare the main outcome variable (mortality rate, the covariates (education, insurance and population size and the geographic delimiter (border/non-border. Results Mortality due to cardiovascular disease was consistently higher in the municipalities along the US-Mexico border, showing a difference of 78 · 5 (95% CI 58 · 7-98 · 3, p < 0 · 001 more cardiovascular deaths after adjusting for covariates. Larger municipal size and higher education levels showed a reduction in cardiovascular mortality of 12 · 6 (95% CI 11 · 4-13 · 8, p < 0 · 001 deaths and 8 · 6 (95% CI 5 · 5-11 · 8, p < 0 · 001 deaths respectively. Insurance coverage showed an increase in cardiovascular mortality of 3 · 6 (95% CI 3 · 1-4 · 0, p < 0 · 001 deaths per decile point increase. There was an increase in cardiovascular mortality of 0 · 3 (95% CI −0 · 001-0 · 6

  9. Border carbon adjustments: Addressing emissions embodied in trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Marco; Barrett, John

    2016-01-01

    Approximately one fourth of global emissions are embodied in international trade and a significant portion flows from non-carbon-priced to carbon-priced economies. Border carbon adjustments (BCAs) figure prominently as instruments to address concerns arising from unilateral climate policy. Estimating the volume of emissions that could be potentially taxed under a BCA scheme has received little attention until now. This paper examines how a number of issues involved in the implementation of BCAs can affect their ability to cover emissions embodied in trade and thus address carbon leakage. These issues range from ensuring compliance with trade provisions and assumptions on the carbon intensity of imports, to determining which countries are included and whether intermediate and final demand are considered. Here we show that the volume of CO_2 captured by a scheme that involved all Annex B countries could be significantly reduced due to these issues, particularly by trade provisions, such as the principle of ‘best available technology’ (BAT). As a consequence, the tariff burdens faced by non-Annex B parties could dwindle considerably. These findings have important policy implications, as they question the effectiveness and practicalities of BCAs to reduce carbon leakage and alleviate competitiveness concerns, adding further arguments against their implementation. - Highlights: •We estimate the volume of emissions that could be potentially taxed by BCAs. •We study the effects of trade provisions and country and sectoral coverage on BCAs. •Trade provisions can significantly reduce the scope and effectiveness of BCAs. •Best available technology and exclusion of electricity reduce tariffs considerably. •BCAs are not optimal policy tools to address carbon leakage concerns.

  10. 77 FR 31682 - U.S. Department of State Advisory Committee on Private International Law (ACPIL)-Online Dispute...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-29

    ... and business to consumer cross-border electronic commerce disputes. The Working Group is in the process of developing generic ODR procedural rules for resolution of cross-border electronic commerce... International Law (ACPIL)--Online Dispute Resolution (ODR) Study Group The Office of Private International Law...

  11. Pathogenic landscape of transboundary zoonotic diseases in the Mexico-US border along the Rio Grande

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Dolores Esteve-Gasent

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Transboundary zoonotic diseases, several of which are vector borne, can maintain a dynamic focus, and have pathogens circulating in geographic regions encircling multiple geopolitical boundaries. Global change is intensifying transboundary problems including the spatial variation of the risk and incidence of zoonotic diseases. The complexity of these challenges can be greater in areas where rivers delineate international boundaries and encompass transitions between ecozones. The Rio Grande serves as a natural border between the US State of Texas and the Mexican States of Chihuahua, Coahuila, Nuevo León, and Tamaulipas. Not only millions of people live in this transboundary region but also a substantial movement of goods and people pass through it everyday. Moreover, it occurs over a region that functions as a corridor for animal migrations, and thus links the Neotropic and Nearctic biogeographic zones, with the latter being a known foci of zoonotic diseases. However, the pathogenic landscape of important zoonotic diseases in the south Texas-Mexico transboundary region remains to be fully understood. An international perspective on the interplay between disease systems, ecosystem processes, land use, and human behaviors is applied here to analyze landscape and spatial features of Venezuelan equine encephalitis, Hantavirus disease, Lyme Borreliosis, Leptospirosis, Bartonellosis, Chagas disease, human Babesiosis, and Leishmaniasis. Surveillance systems following the One Health approach with a regional perspective will help identifying opportunities to mitigate the health burden of those diseases on human and animal populations. It is proposed that the Mexico-US border, along the Rio Grande region be viewed as a continuum landscape where zoonotic pathogens circulate regardless of national borders.

  12. Pathogenic Landscape of Transboundary Zoonotic Diseases in the Mexico–US Border Along the Rio Grande

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteve-Gassent, Maria Dolores; Pérez de León, Adalberto A.; Romero-Salas, Dora; Feria-Arroyo, Teresa P.; Patino, Ramiro; Castro-Arellano, Ivan; Gordillo-Pérez, Guadalupe; Auclair, Allan; Goolsby, John; Rodriguez-Vivas, Roger Ivan; Estrada-Franco, Jose Guillermo

    2014-01-01

    Transboundary zoonotic diseases, several of which are vector borne, can maintain a dynamic focus and have pathogens circulating in geographic regions encircling multiple geopolitical boundaries. Global change is intensifying transboundary problems, including the spatial variation of the risk and incidence of zoonotic diseases. The complexity of these challenges can be greater in areas where rivers delineate international boundaries and encompass transitions between ecozones. The Rio Grande serves as a natural border between the US State of Texas and the Mexican States of Chihuahua, Coahuila, Nuevo León, and Tamaulipas. Not only do millions of people live in this transboundary region, but also a substantial amount of goods and people pass through it everyday. Moreover, it occurs over a region that functions as a corridor for animal migrations, and thus links the Neotropic and Nearctic biogeographic zones, with the latter being a known foci of zoonotic diseases. However, the pathogenic landscape of important zoonotic diseases in the south Texas–Mexico transboundary region remains to be fully understood. An international perspective on the interplay between disease systems, ecosystem processes, land use, and human behaviors is applied here to analyze landscape and spatial features of Venezuelan equine encephalitis, Hantavirus disease, Lyme Borreliosis, Leptospirosis, Bartonellosis, Chagas disease, human Babesiosis, and Leishmaniasis. Surveillance systems following the One Health approach with a regional perspective will help identifying opportunities to mitigate the health burden of those diseases on human and animal populations. It is proposed that the Mexico–US border along the Rio Grande region be viewed as a continuum landscape where zoonotic pathogens circulate regardless of national borders. PMID:25453027

  13. A neural model of border-ownership from kinetic occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layton, Oliver W; Yazdanbakhsh, Arash

    2015-01-01

    Camouflaged animals that have very similar textures to their surroundings are difficult to detect when stationary. However, when an animal moves, humans readily see a figure at a different depth than the background. How do humans perceive a figure breaking camouflage, even though the texture of the figure and its background may be statistically identical in luminance? We present a model that demonstrates how the primate visual system performs figure-ground segregation in extreme cases of breaking camouflage based on motion alone. Border-ownership signals develop as an emergent property in model V2 units whose receptive fields are nearby kinetically defined borders that separate the figure and background. Model simulations support border-ownership as a general mechanism by which the visual system performs figure-ground segregation, despite whether figure-ground boundaries are defined by luminance or motion contrast. The gradient of motion- and luminance-related border-ownership signals explains the perceived depth ordering of the foreground and background surfaces. Our model predicts that V2 neurons, which are sensitive to kinetic edges, are selective to border-ownership (magnocellular B cells). A distinct population of model V2 neurons is selective to border-ownership in figures defined by luminance contrast (parvocellular B cells). B cells in model V2 receive feedback from neurons in V4 and MT with larger receptive fields to bias border-ownership signals toward the figure. We predict that neurons in V4 and MT sensitive to kinetically defined figures play a crucial role in determining whether the foreground surface accretes, deletes, or produces a shearing motion with respect to the background. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Sources and transport of black carbon at the California-Mexico border

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shores, Christopher A.; Klapmeyer, Michael E.; Quadros, Marina E.; Marr, Linsey C.

    2013-05-01

    At international border areas that suffer from poor air quality, assessment of pollutant sources and transport across the border is important for designing effective air quality management strategies. As part of the Cal-Mex 2010 field campaign at the US-Mexico border in San Diego and Tijuana, we measured black carbon (BC) concentrations at three locations in Mexico and one in the United States. The measurements were intended to support the following objectives: to characterize the spatial and temporal variability in BC, to estimate the BC emission inventory, to identify potential source areas of BC emissions, and to assess the cross-border transport of BC. Concentrations at Parque Morelos, the campaign's supersite, averaged 2.2 μg m-3 and reached a maximum value of 55.9 μg m-3 (1-min average). Sharp, regularly occurring peaks around midnight were suggestive of clandestine industrial activity. BC concentrations were more than two times higher, on average, in Tijuana compared to San Diego. BC and carbon monoxide (CO) were strongly correlated at the three sites in Mexico. The ΔBC/ΔCO ratio of 5.6 ± 0.5 μg m-3 ppm-1 in Tijuana, or 4.7 ± 0.5 μg m-3 ppm-1 when adjusted for seasonal temperature effects to represent an annual average, was comparable to that in other urban areas. Tijuana's emissions of BC were estimated to be 230-890 metric tons per year, 6-23% of those estimated for San Diego. Large uncertainties in this estimate stem mainly from uncertainties in the CO emission inventory, and the lower end of the estimate is more likely to be accurate. Patterns in concentrations and winds suggest that BC in Tijuana was usually of local origin. Under typical summertime conditions such as those observed during the study, transport from Tijuana into the US was common, crossing the border in a northeasterly direction, sometimes as far east as Imperial County at the eastern edge of California.

  15. Chemistry without Borders: Careers, Research, and Entrepreneurship

    Science.gov (United States)

    This book is based on two symposia of the American Chemical Society (ACS): 1) “The Transnational Practice of Chemistry and Allied Sciences and Engineering: Study, Research and Careers without Borders” held at the Spring National Meeting in Denver in March 2015, and 2) “International Entrepreneurship...

  16. Nuclear plants near borders - legal aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rauschning, D.

    1990-01-01

    In public international law there are no rules prohibiting the construction or operation of nuclear plants, or regulating their siting. Emanations of nuclear plants - conventional or radioactive - are regarded as pollutants. Transfrontier pollution has to be prevented and controlled according to the rules of customary international law, which have developed on the basis of the Trail Smelter Award of 1941 and which are restated in the Montreal Rules of International Law Applicable to Transfrontier Pollution 1982 of the ILA. The neighbouring state has a right to obtain all reasonable information concerning the prospective siting of plants and has to be consulted in certain respects. These procedural duties are substantiated in bilateral agreements setting up mixed commissions. In the European Communities members are obliged to report any planned emanation of radioactive substances which might pollute the environment of another member to the EC Commission. Strict liability for any damage caused by a nuclear installation is stipulated in special conventions. As far as these conventions are not applicable, the general rules on state responsibility and on civil liability apply. States are not obliged under International Law to allow residents of neighbouring states to participate in administrative or judicial proceedings concerning the licensing. In practice, however, foreigners challenging the issue of a licence have the same standing as the citizens of the licensing state. (author)

  17. "Responsibility in Mobility": International Students and Social Responsibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Ly Thi; Vu, Thao Thi Phuong

    2017-01-01

    Enhancing the educational experience and social connectedness for international students is the responsibility of different involved parties among whom international students themselves and host institutions play a key role. However, the question of how the condition of cross-border mobility has shaped and re-shaped international students'…

  18. 78 FR 3015 - Privacy Act of 1974; U.S. Customs and Border Protection; DHS/CBP-004-Intellectual Property Rights...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-15

    ... Search Systems, System of Records AGENCY: Department of Homeland Security, Privacy Office. ACTION: Notice... and Border Protection, Mint Annex, 799 9th Street NW., Washington, DC 20229-1177. For privacy issues... Property Rights Internal Search (IPRiS) system. IPRS provides a web-based search engine for the public to...

  19. 22 CFR 127.4 - Authority of U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement and U.S. Customs and Border Protection...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Authority of U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement and U.S. Customs and Border Protection officers. 127.4 Section 127.4 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS VIOLATIONS AND PENALTIES § 127.4 Authority of U.S...

  20. Mutual Trust and Cross-Border Enforcement of Judgments in Civil Matters in the EU: Does the Step-by-Step Approach Work?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zilinsky, M.

    2017-01-01

    Mutual trust is one of the cornerstones of cooperation in the field of European Union private international law. Based on this principle the rules on the cross-border recognition and enforcement of judgments in the European Union are still subject to simplification. The step-by-step approach of the

  1. Public health and terrorism preparedness: cross-border issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Debra; Leitheiser, Aggie; Atchison, Christopher; Larson, Susan; Homzik, Cassandra

    2005-01-01

    On December 15, 2003, the Centers for Public Health Preparedness at the University of Minnesota and the University of Iowa convened the "Public Health and Terrorism Preparedness: Cross-Border Issues Roundtable." The purpose of the roundtable was to gather public health professionals and government agency representatives at the state, provincial, and local levels to identify unmet cross-border emergency preparedness and response needs and develop strategies for addressing these needs. Representatives from six state and local public health departments and three provincial governments were invited to identify cross-border needs and issues using a nominal group process. The result of the roundtable was identification of the needs considered most important and most doable across all the focus groups. The need to collaborate on and exchange plans and protocols among agencies was identified as most important and most doable across all groups. Development of contact protocols and creation and maintenance of a contact database was also considered important and doable for a majority of groups. Other needs ranked important across the majority of groups included specific isolation and quarantine protocols for multi-state responses; a system for rapid and secure exchange of information; specific protocols for sharing human resources across borders, including emergency credentials for physicians and health care workers; and a specific protocol to coordinate Strategic National Stockpile mechanisms across border communities.

  2. Art and cartography as a critique of borders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo Ribeiro, Daniel

    2018-05-01

    This study focuses on the relationship between art and cartography. The main objective is to analyze how contemporary art uses maps to criticize borders. Inspired by the arguments raised by the Critical Cartography against the false neutrality of maps, we emphasize the potential of artworks to communicate different insights about how we experience and live the contemporary space. In that sense, art plays an important role not only to discuss the articulation of power and knowledge in cartography, but also to propose other categories of thought. Considering that borders are one of the most relevant visual elements on a map, we propose the following question: how the intersection between art and cartography can improve the critical thinking about borders? By questioning borders, art underlines that physical world is characterized by liminal spaces, not by absolute or strict separations. We briefly analyzed some examples of artworks that deal with political issues regarding this topic. Our findings suggest that art could reveal the impact of imposing borders in a space, whose arbitrary delimitation reflects power relations.

  3. Being thought from beyond our borders: Towards ethical global citizenship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johann-Albrecht Meylahn

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This article is a response to the challenge of global citizenship in an age of global crisis. Citizenship has to do with where one feels �at home�, namely the space that gifts identity and life. What kind of narrative is necessary to transform global space into a home from where we can go beyond our borders to embrace the other in multidisciplinary research or interfaith praxis? The different models for multidisciplinary research are made possible by the idea that research seeks that which is beyond its borders. This search could be a common space where the different traditions can accommodate one another, but it is not a home. The dominant discourse of this common space is to seek commonality and identities across borders while being aware of but ignoring differences � identity at the expense of differences. A home founded on identity at the expense of difference will always exclude. Theology can either be interpreted as thinking beyond the borders toward the Divine, or the Divine thinking us. The Exodus, the Incarnation and the Cross are all narratives of the Other crossing borders, liberating from boundaries, deconstructing the laws and norms that exclude. The religious traditions of these sacred narratives have something to offer, namely: to be thought by the Other, to receive life and (alien identity from the Other, the gift of a home which is continuously deconstructed by the home still to come, therefore always open for the Other.

  4. The role of immigration age on alcohol and drug use among border and non-border Mexican Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reingle, Jennifer M; Caetano, Raul; Mills, Britain A; Vaeth, Patrice A C

    2014-07-01

    To determine the age of immigration at which the marked increase in risk for alcohol- and drug-use problems in adulthood is observed among Mexican American adults residing in 2 distinct contexts: the U.S.-Mexico border, and cities not proximal to the border. We used 2 samples of Mexican American adults: specifically, 1,307 who resided along the U.S.-Mexico border, and 1,288 non-border adults who were interviewed as a part of the 2006 Hispanic Americans Baseline Alcohol Survey study. Survey logistic and Poisson regression methods were used to examine how immigration age during adolescence is related to alcohol- and drug-use behavior in adulthood. We found that participants who immigrate to the United States prior to age 14 have qualitatively different alcohol- and drug-related outcomes compared to those who immigrate later in life. Adults who immigrated at younger ages have alcohol- and drug-use patterns similar to those who were U.S.-born. Adults who immigrated at young ages and reside distal from the U.S.-Mexico border are at greater risk for alcohol and drug use than those who live in border contexts. Immigration from Mexico to the U.S. before age 14 results in alcohol- and drug-related behavior that mirrors the behavior of U.S.-born residents, and the alcohol- and drug-use effects were more pronounced among adults who did not reside proximal to the U.S.-Mexico border. Copyright © 2014 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  5. Assessing international trade in healthcare services

    OpenAIRE

    Herman, Lior

    2009-01-01

    Growing evidence indicates that international trade in healthcare services is growing. Nevertheless, a major literature gap exists with regard to the nature of international healthcare trade and its extent. Taking a comprehensive approach, this research examines the magnitude, directions, patterns of specialisation, growth and other aspects related to international trade in healthcare services. Within this framework, trade is analysed with regard to cross border trade, consumption of healthca...

  6. Tracing of border trap behavior by noise analysis in microelectronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharshar, K.A.A.; Shaalan, A.A.M.; Gomaa, E.I.

    2008-01-01

    The present state of art of this work is to study the electrical defects of the silicon- silicon dioxide interface created by gamma rays (Co 60 ) in submicron MOS devices used in telecommunication systems. We focus our investigation on a particular class of trapped charge located near the interface characterized as the border traps. The expected physical location and chemical structure of the traps were discussed. The low frequency 1/f noise measurement is used in the estimation of border trap densities before and after irradiation; the results are reported for n-MOS transistor exposed to doses (0.3, 0.5, 1 and 10 Mrad). The border trap population in the irradiated samples increased from 7.6*10 10 up to 1.03*10 11 eV -1 Cm -2

  7. Border-ownership-dependent tilt aftereffect in incomplete figures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugihara, Tadashi; Tsuji, Yoshihisa; Sakai, Ko

    2007-01-01

    A recent physiological finding of neural coding for border ownership (BO) that defines the direction of a figure with respect to the border has provided a possible basis for figure-ground segregation. To explore the underlying neural mechanisms of BO, we investigated stimulus configurations that activate BO circuitry through psychophysical investigation of the BO-dependent tilt aftereffect (BO-TAE). Specifically, we examined robustness of the border ownership signal by determining whether the BO-TAE is observed when gestalt factors are broken. The results showed significant BO-TAEs even when a global shape was not explicitly given due to the ambiguity of the contour, suggesting a contour-independent mechanism for BO coding.

  8. Forecasting the electricity consumption of the Mexican border states maquiladoras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores, C.E.; Phelan, P.E. [Arizona State Univ., Dept. of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Tempe, AZ (United States); Mou, J.-I. [Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Co., Operation Planning Div., Hsin-Chu (Taiwan); Bryan, H. [Arizona State Univ., School of Architecture, Tempe, AZ (United States)

    2004-07-01

    The consumption of electricity by maquiladora industries in the Mexican border states is an important driver for determining future powerplant needs in that area. An industrial electricity forecasting model is developed for the border states' maquiladoras, and the outputs are compared with a reference forecasting model developed for the US industrial sector, for which considerably more data are available. This model enables the prediction of the effect of implementing various energy efficiency measures in the industrial sector. As an illustration, here the impact of implementing energy-efficient lighting and motors in the Mexican border states' maquiladoras was determined to be substantial. Without such energy efficiency measures, electricity consumption for these industries is predicted to rise by 64% from 2001 to 2010, but if these measures are implemented on a gradual basis over the same time period, electricity consumption is forecast to rise by only 36%. (Author)

  9. MATRIX FOR COOPERATION IN THE CROSS-BORDER AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela ȘLUSARCIUC

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The crossborder areas have no constitutional competences, therefore most of the times they are not part of the decision making process in the agreements in cross-border relationships. Although the states are the ones to decide the policies and the agreements based on their own legal rules, considering the shape of the new European Union, they should more and more accept the conditionality of a regional overstate structure linked only to some geographical parts of the countries. The present paper proposes a theoretical and intuitive frame for assessing the cross-border areas based on the factors that are influencing it, starting from a listing of them, secondly grouping them in separating and uniting, then finding the significant differences. The matrix of factors can be used for conflict resolution or for development of cross-border areas as long as it shows the points that will be a potential obstacle or a source for cooperation.

  10. Displaced Borders: The Written Traumatic Borderline between Pskov Province and Chechnya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mari Ristolainen

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the narrative construction of borders through an analysis of "non-professional writing" produced by the residents of Pskov. It discusses the construction of national borders and the symbolic meanings invested in them, with the empirical focus being placed on the symbolic Russian-Chechen border. The theoretical essence is the realization that due to the constructive and narrative na-tures of border production, the creation of a national borderline does not necessarily pre-suppose that the two sides share a geographical border. The article also addresses questions of traumatic memory and links border production with the concept of cultural trauma. By asking where Russia's borders currently located, this article provides an example of the cultural construction and symbolic displacement of the "national border", and a representation of how the national b/ordering processes differ when viewed from both "bottom up" and "top-down" perspectives in the contemporary Russian Federation.

  11. Factors Associated with Depression Among Mexican Americans Living in U.S.-Mexico Border and Non-Border Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaeth, Patrice A C; Caetano, Raul; Mills, Britain A

    2016-08-01

    Factors associated with CES-D depression among Mexican Americans living on and off the U.S.-Mexico border are examined. Data are from two studies of Mexican American adults. The Border Survey conducted face-to-face interviews in urban U.S.-Mexico border counties of California, Arizona, New Mexico, and Texas (N = 1307). The non-border HABLAS survey conducted face-to-face interviews in Houston, Los Angeles, New York, Philadelphia, and Miami (N = 1288). Both surveys used a multistage cluster sample design with response rates of 67 and 76 %, respectively. The multivariate analysis showed that border residence and higher perceived neighborhood collective efficacy were protective for depression among men. Among men, lower education, unemployment, increased weekly drinking, and poor health status were associated with depression. Among women, alcohol-related problems and poorer health status were also associated with depression. Further examinations of how neighborhood perceptions vary by gender and how these perceptions influence the likelihood of depression are warranted.

  12. El Paso Electric Company Diablo Substation to the US-Mexico border 115kV transmission line project. Final Environmental Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-04-01

    This Environmental Assessment documents the analysis of alternative corridors for development and operation of a proposed 115 kilovolt transmission line using private lands and transporting power to the US-Mexico international border. The project will require (1) an amendment to El Paso Electric Company`s existing export authorization to transfer power across this border, and (2) a Presidential Permit for construction of the transmission line. The project would be located in Dona Ana county in southern New Mexico, approximately five miles west of El Paso, Texas. The alternative corridors, specific locations within those corridors, and structure types are identified and analyzed in the environmental studies.

  13. Development of Strategic International Industry Links to Promote Undergraduate Vocational Training and Postgraduate Research Programmes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abanteriba, Sylvester

    2006-01-01

    After centuries of protectionism in international trade, the course is inexorably set for trade amongst nations without borders. More and more countries are joining the World Trade Organization and companies are repositioning themselves for the conduct of their activities in an environment free from physical borders and national legislative…

  14. Fuel tourism in border regions: The case of Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banfi, S.; Filippini, M.; Universita della Svizzera italiana, Lugano; Hunt, L.C.

    2005-01-01

    This paper explores the issue of 'fuel tourism' in Switzerland. For the period 1985-1997, a panel data model for the border regions of Switzerland, (Italy, France, and Germany) is estimated. The results show a significant impact of the gasoline price differential on demand, suggesting that a decrease of 10% in the Swiss gasoline price leads to an increase in demand in the border areas of nearly 17.5%. It is shown that fuel tourism accounted for about 9% of overall gasoline sales in the three regions during the period 1985-1997 and that the recently proposed Swiss CO 2 -tax might, given current conditions, eliminate net fuel tourism. (author)

  15. Cross-border mergers and acquisitions and European integration

    OpenAIRE

    Coeurdacier, Nicolas; de Santis, Roberto A.; Aviat, Antonin

    2009-01-01

    Cross-border mergers and acquisitions activities (M&As) sharply increased over the last two decades, partly as a result of financial liberalization policies, government policies and regional agreements. In this paper, we identify some of the main forces driving M&As, using a unique database on bilateral cross-border M&As at the sectoral level (in manufacturing and services) over the period 1985-2004. The key empirical findings are: (1) EMU helped the restructuring of capital within the same s...

  16. Border collisions inside the stability domain of a fixed point

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avrutin, Viktor; Zhusubaliyev, Zhanybai T.; Mosekilde, Erik

    2016-01-01

    a complicated interior structure formed by boundaries defined by persistence border collisions. We describe a simple approach that is based on symbolic dynamics and makes it possible to detect such boundaries numerically. Using this approach we describe several regions in the parameter space leading......Recent studies on a power electronic DC/AC converter (inverter) have demonstrated that such systems may undergo a transition from regular dynamics (associated with a globally attracting fixed point of a suitable stroboscopic map) to chaos through an irregular sequence of border-collision events...

  17. Surface reconstruction, figure-ground modulation, and border-ownership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeurissen, Danique; Self, Matthew W; Roelfsema, Pieter R

    2013-01-01

    The Differentiation-Integration for Surface Completion (DISC) model aims to explain the reconstruction of visual surfaces. We find the model a valuable contribution to our understanding of figure-ground organization. We point out that, next to border-ownership, neurons in visual cortex code whether surface elements belong to a figure or the background and that this is influenced by attention. We furthermore suggest that there must be strong links between object recognition and figure-ground assignment in order to resolve the status of interior contours. Incorporation of these factors in neurocomputational models will further improve our understanding of surface reconstruction, figure-ground organization, and border-ownership.

  18. Brujeria and the U.S.-Mexico Border Outlaw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Conover

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the death metal band Brujeria, their use of both traditional and contemporary outlaw imagery, and their connection to the narcocorrido, in order to examine the tenacity of the outlaw paradigm as an expression of resistance by subordinate groups in situations of social inequality. It deals with the contemporary figure of the outlaw in connection to the U.S.-Mexico border region, as influenced by outlaw traditions in the area, and as an expression of specific contemporary historical circumstances of that region, including Mexican economic crisis, globalization, and border conflicts surrounding immigration, drug trafficking, and labor.

  19. A Philosophical vs. a Psychological Perspective on Borders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klempe, Sven Hroar

    2016-03-01

    This paper questions to what extent borders are to be understood from a philosophical or a psychological perspective. This is done by investigating the distinction between philosophy and psychology that comes up as a result of Immanuel Kant's investigation of the pure reason. Ontology is found as a demarcation criterion between the two fields in the sense that it is of crucial importance in philosophy, but not of certain interest from a psychological point of view. An investigation of three assumptions in the perspective of affective loading follows this up, which confirms the efficiency of borders in psychological meaning production.

  20. Accountings of Selecting Sperm on the (ethical) border

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willum Adrian, Stine

    During the past years, Denmark has become a destination for fertility travellers, in need for donated sperm. Today, treatment is possible no matter of marital status or sexuality. Furthermore, users of sperm donation can choose between anonymous and non-anonymous sperm, with either basic...... will analyze how women and their partners crossing the Danish border accounts for their donor choice, and their practices of choosing. I will be exploring the question: How are women and their partners accounting for choosing a sperm donor, crossing the (ethical) border to Denmark? The use of the term...