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Sample records for international black pod

  1. Efficacy of screening methods used in breeding for black pod ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The disease affects the pods, beans, flower cushions, leaves, stems and roots. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of resistance screening methods used in breeding black pod disease resistance in cocoa. The resistance of cocoa leaves and pods to Phytophthora palmivora was investigated in twenty five ...

  2. efficacy of screening methods used in breeding for black pod

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    inoculation necessitates waiting until a tree bears pods before its level of resistance to black pod infection can be determined. These methods, therefore, do not offer a quick means of breeding for resistance. Consequently, tests at the seedling stage that provide information about pod resistance are earnestly needed to save ...

  3. QTL mapping for resistance to frosty pod and black pod diseases in an f1 population of Theobroma cacao L

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) is a native crop of the Americas; however severe losses due to frosty pod (FP) [Moniliophthora roreri (Cif. and Par.)], and black pod (BP) [Phytophthora palmivora (Butl.) Butl.] have reduced cacao in the Americas to only 13.0% of world production. Agronomic practices to co...

  4. Mutation breeding against black pod (Phytophthora pod rot) disease of cacao (Theobroma cacao)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Opeke, L.K.

    1977-01-01

    Black pod rot disease, caused by Phytophthora palmivora, is an important disease of cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) in Nigeria and other cacao producing countries of West Africa and Latin America. A naturally occurring source of genetic resistance to the disease has not been found. This paper completes the report, the first part of which was published in Induced Mutations in Vegetatively Propagated Plants, IAEA, Vienna (1973). The survivors of the irradiated seedlings reported on in this publication were transplanted to the field along with their controls. When the Phytophthora pod disease season began in 1973, all experimental plants along with the controls were sprayed with active and freshly prepared dense sporangial suspension of P. palmivora. Observations on Phytophthora infection were recorded at two-weekly intervals for three months. Results were pooled for each set of experimental plants, after having confirmed that no marked difference appeared among individual plants of each group. Contrary to the observations recorded at the nursery stage, all experimental plants that showed no infection indicated disease infection levels normally characteristic of the F 3 Amazon cultivar of Cacao in Nigeria. Although the nursery and the field data are difficult to reconcile and interpret, it is suggested that probably temporary disease tolerance/resistance, which some irradiated plants showed at the nursery (seedling) stage, was lost as the plants matured, thus suggesting different resistance factor systems for juvenile and mature cacao trees. (author)

  5. Effect of climate variables on cocoa black pod incidence in Sabah using ARIMAX model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling Sheng Chang, Albert; Ramba, Haya; Mohd. Jaaffar, Ahmad Kamil; Kim Phin, Chong; Chong Mun, Ho

    2016-06-01

    Cocoa black pod disease is one of the major diseases affecting the cocoa production in Malaysia and also around the world. Studies have shown that the climate variables have influenced the cocoa black pod disease incidence and it is important to quantify the black pod disease variation due to the effect of climate variables. Application of time series analysis especially auto-regressive moving average (ARIMA) model has been widely used in economics study and can be used to quantify the effect of climate variables on black pod incidence to forecast the right time to control the incidence. However, ARIMA model does not capture some turning points in cocoa black pod incidence. In order to improve forecasting performance, other explanatory variables such as climate variables should be included into ARIMA model as ARIMAX model. Therefore, this paper is to study the effect of climate variables on the cocoa black pod disease incidence using ARIMAX model. The findings of the study showed ARIMAX model using MA(1) and relative humidity at lag 7 days, RHt - 7 gave better R square value compared to ARIMA model using MA(1) which could be used to forecast the black pod incidence to assist the farmers determine timely application of fungicide spraying and culture practices to control the black pod incidence.

  6. Toward The identification Of candidate genes involved in black pod disease resistance in Theobroma cacao L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increasing yield, quality and disease resistance are important objectives for cacao breeding programs. Some of the diseases, such as black pod rot (Phytophtora spp), frosty pod (Moniliophthora roreri) and witches’ broom (M. perniciosa), produce significant losses in all or in some of the various pro...

  7. Black pod: diverse pathogens with a global impact on cocoa yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guest, David

    2007-12-01

    ABSTRACT Pathogens of the Straminipile genus Phytophthora cause significant disease losses to global cocoa production. P. megakarya causes significant pod rot and losses due to canker in West Africa, whereas P. capsici and P. citrophthora cause pod rots in Central and South America. The global and highly damaging P. palmivora attacks all parts of the cocoa tree at all stages of the growing cycle. This pathogen causes 20 to 30% pod losses through black pod rot, and kills up to 10% of trees annually through stem cankers. P. palmivora has a complex disease cycle involving several sources of primary inoculum and several modes of dissemination of secondary inoculum. This results in explosive epidemics during favorable environmental conditions. The spread of regional pathogens must be prevented by effective quarantine barriers. Resistance to all these Phytophthora species is typically low in commercial cocoa genotypes. Disease losses can be reduced through integrated management practices that include pruning and shade management, leaf mulching, regular and complete harvesting, sanitation and pod case disposal, appropriate fertilizer application and targeted fungicide use. Packaging these options to improve uptake by smallholders presents a major challenge for the industry.

  8. Phytophthora megakarya and P. palmivora, closely related causal agents of cacao black pod induce similar reactions when infecting pods of a susceptible cacao genotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phytophthora megakarya (Pmeg) and Phytophthora palmivora (Ppal) cause black pod rot of Theobroma cacao. Of these two clade 4 species; Pmeg is more virulent and is displacing Ppal on cacao in many cacao production areas in Africa. To understand the advantages Pmeg has over Ppal, we compared symptom...

  9. Equilibrium and kinetic studies of Remazol Black B dye sorption by cocoa pod husk waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan Ton Siang; Mohd Azmier Ahmad

    2010-01-01

    Preparation of the activated carbons from cocoa pod husk (CPH) waste by physical activation was carried out for the removal of Remazol Black B (RBB) reactive dye from aqueous solutions. The effects of various process parameters i.e., temperature, initial RBB concentration and contact time on the adsorption capacity of activated carbon were investigated in batch system. Langmuir isotherm showed better fit than Freundlich and Temkin isotherms. The kinetic model for RBB adsorption follows pseudo-first-order kinetics. (author)

  10. PCR-based identification of cacao black pod causal agents and identification of biological factors possibly contributing to Phytophthora megakarya's field dominance in West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Among the Phytophthora species that cause black pod of cacao, P. megakarya is the most virulent, posing a serious threat to cacao production in Africa. Correct identification of the species causing the black pod and understanding the virulence factors involved are important for developing sustainabl...

  11. Biological control of Black Pod Disease and Seedling Blight of cacao caused by Phytophthora Species using Trichoderma from Aceh Sumatra

    Science.gov (United States)

    The cocoa tree, Theobroma cacao L., suffers large yield losses in Aceh Indonesia to the disease black pod rot, caused by Phytophthora spp. Despite having the largest area under cacao production in Sumatra, farmers in the Aceh region have low overall production because of losses to insect pests and b...

  12. Phytophthora megakarya and P. palmivora, Causal Agents of Black Pod Rot, Induce Similar Plant Defense Responses Late during Infection of Susceptible Cacao Pods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Shahin S.; Shao, Jonathan; Lary, David J.; Strem, Mary D.; Meinhardt, Lyndel W.; Bailey, Bryan A.

    2017-01-01

    Phytophthora megakarya (Pmeg) and Phytophthora palmivora (Ppal) cause black pod rot of Theobroma cacao L. (cacao). Of these two clade 4 species, Pmeg is more virulent and is displacing Ppal in many cacao production areas in Africa. Symptoms and species specific sporangia production were compared when the two species were co-inoculated onto pod pieces in staggered 24 h time intervals. Pmeg sporangia were predominantly recovered from pod pieces with unwounded surfaces even when inoculated 24 h after Ppal. On wounded surfaces, sporangia of Ppal were predominantly recovered if the two species were simultaneously applied or Ppal was applied first but not if Pmeg was applied first. Pmeg demonstrated an advantage over Ppal when infecting un-wounded surfaces while Ppal had the advantage when infecting wounded surfaces. RNA-Seq was carried out on RNA isolated from control and Pmeg and Ppal infected pod pieces 3 days post inoculation to assess their abilities to alter/suppress cacao defense. Expression of 4,482 and 5,264 cacao genes was altered after Pmeg and Ppal infection, respectively, with most genes responding to both species. Neural network self-organizing map analyses separated the cacao RNA-Seq gene expression profiles into 24 classes, 6 of which were largely induced in response to infection. Using KEGG analysis, subsets of genes composing interrelated pathways leading to phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, ethylene and jasmonic acid biosynthesis and action, plant defense signal transduction, and endocytosis showed induction in response to infection. A large subset of genes encoding putative Pr-proteins also showed differential expression in response to infection. A subset of 36 cacao genes was used to validate the RNA-Seq expression data and compare infection induced gene expression patterns in leaves and wounded and unwounded pod husks. Expression patterns between RNA-Seq and RT-qPCR were generally reproducible. The level and timing of altered gene expression was

  13. Internal structure of black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cvetic, Mirjam

    2013-01-01

    Full text: We review recent progress that sheds light on the internal structure of general black holes. We first summarize properties of general multi-charged rotating black holes both in four and five dimensions. We show that the asymptotic boundary conditions of these general asymptotically flat black holes can be modified such that a conformal symmetry emerges. These subtracted geometries preserve the thermodynamic properties of the original black holes and are of the Lifshitz type, thus describing 'a black hole in the asymptotically conical box'. Recent efforts employ solution generating techniques to construct interpolating geometries between the original black hole and their subtracted geometries. Upon lift to one dimension higher, these geometries lift to AdS 3 times a sphere, and thus provide a microscopic interpretation of the black hole entropy in terms of dual two-dimensional conformal field theory. (author)

  14. Isolation and identification of mycoparasitic isolates of Trichoderma asperellum with potential for suppression of black pod disease of cacao in Cameroon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alternative measures to chemical fungicides are needed to control Phytophthora megakarya, the main causal agent of black pod diseasein Central and West Africa. Precolonized plate and detached cacao pod assays were used to screen fungal isolates for mycoparasitismon P. megakarya. Of over 200 isolates...

  15. Tree spatial structure, host composition and resource availability influence mirid density or black pod prevalence in cacao agroforests in Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gidoin, Cynthia; Babin, Régis; Bagny Beilhe, Leïla; Cilas, Christian; ten Hoopen, Gerben Martijn; Bieng, Marie Ange Ngo

    2014-01-01

    Combining crop plants with other plant species in agro-ecosystems is one way to enhance ecological pest and disease regulation mechanisms. Resource availability and microclimatic variation mechanisms affect processes related to pest and pathogen life cycles. These mechanisms are supported both by empirical research and by epidemiological models, yet their relative importance in a real complex agro-ecosystem is still not known. Our aim was thus to assess the independent effects and the relative importance of different variables related to resource availability and microclimatic variation that explain pest and disease occurrence at the plot scale in real complex agro-ecosystems. The study was conducted in cacao (Theobroma cacao) agroforests in Cameroon, where cocoa production is mainly impacted by the mirid bug, Sahlbergella singularis, and black pod disease, caused by Phytophthora megakarya. Vegetation composition and spatial structure, resource availability and pest and disease occurrence were characterized in 20 real agroforest plots. Hierarchical partitioning was used to identify the causal variables that explain mirid density and black pod prevalence. The results of this study show that cacao agroforests can be differentiated on the basis of vegetation composition and spatial structure. This original approach revealed that mirid density decreased when a minimum number of randomly distributed forest trees were present compared with the aggregated distribution of forest trees, or when forest tree density was low. Moreover, a decrease in mirid density was also related to decreased availability of sensitive tissue, independently of the effect of forest tree structure. Contrary to expectations, black pod prevalence decreased with increasing cacao tree abundance. By revealing the effects of vegetation composition and spatial structure on mirids and black pod, this study opens new perspectives for the joint agro-ecological management of cacao pests and diseases at the

  16. Phytophthora megakarya and P. palmivora, closely related causal agents of cacao black pod rot, underwent increases in genome sizes and gene numbers by different mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phytophthora megakarya (Pmeg) and P. palmivora (Ppal) are closely related species causing black pod rot of cacao. While Ppal is a cosmopolitan plant pathogen, cacao is the only known host of importance for Pmeg. Pmeg is more virulent on cacao than Ppal. Therefore, we have sequenced both the Pmeg and...

  17. Population dynamics of epiphytic mycoparasites of the genera Clonostachys and Fusarium for the biocontrol of black pod (Phytophthora palmivora) and moniliasis (Moniliophthora roreri) on cocoa (Theobroma cacao).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoopen, G Martijn ten; Rees, Robert; Aisa, Philo; Stirrup, Tim; Krauss, Ulrike

    2003-05-01

    Mycoparasites collected from aerial parts of the cocoa plant (Theobroma cacao) have shown great promise in the control of black pod, caused by Phytophthora palmivora, and moniliasis, caused by Moniliophthora roreri. However, the ecology of epiphytic mycoparasites is still poorly understood although it has a direct bearing on applied biocontrol practices, ranging from the identification and isolation of promising biocontrol candidates to formulation needs and required application frequency. One objective of this study was to determine the natural abundance of mycoparasites on cocoa flowers and pods in relation to crop development stage and cultivar. For this purpose, native mycoparasites were detected on cocoa flowers and pods using the precolonised plate baiting technique. Furthermore, the survival of an applied Clonostachys rosea isolate on cocoa pods on shaded and non-shaded trees was compared as well as the recolonisation patterns of surface-sterilised pods by native mycoparasites under these conditions. Clonostachys spp. were the most commonly isolated native mycoparasites, followed by Fusarium spp. No differences in the occurrence of native, epiphytic mycoparasites were observed between the three main cocoa cultivars, 'Criollo', 'Forastero' and 'Trinitario', nor between clones within these groups. Thus, a single biocontrol inoculum can be suitable for application to cultivar mixtures of cocoa commonly grown together in a field. Different susceptibility classes of segregating F1 populations of hybrids with resistance against M. roreri and P. palmivora supported similar population levels and taxonomic assemblages of mycoparasites. Therefore, we reject the hypothesis that these antagonists mediate resistance. Mycoparasite abundance and genetic disease resistance to black pod and moniliasis are independent phenomena and should lead to additive effects if employed simultaneously in an integrated disease management programme. The survival of applied C. rosea was not

  18. The side effect of Paecilomyces fumosoroseusapplication on the black ant, Dolichoderus thoracicus, the predator of Helopeltis antoniiand cocoa pod borer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endang Sulistyowai

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Paecilomyces fumosoroseuswas known as one of the effective biological agents of cocoa pod borer and Helopeltis antonii. To find out the side effect of application of P. fumosoroseuson black ant, Dolichoderus thoracicus, a series of observations were carried out at the Laboratory of Pest and Diseases Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute (ICCRI and in a cocoa plantation of Glenmore, Banyuwangi district, since June until October, 2004. Laboratory research used four concentrations of P. fumosoroseusnamely 105, 106, 107 and 108 spores/ml, while in the field used concentration 2, 4, 6, 8 g dry spores/ml. Each trial as compared with spraying of carbamate and synthetic pyrethroid insecticides as control and untreated This research was designed by randomized block design and four replications. The results showed that in the laboratory, direct spraying suspension of P. fumosoroseuskilled black ant between 20—39% which infected fungi about 2.5—12.5%. The relationship between log of spores concentration of P. fumosoroseus and probit of ant mortality followed the regression equation Y = 3.653 + 0.097 X with LC 50 was 8 x 10 13 spore/ml. The period needed to kill a half of ant population at the laboratory (LT 50 at concentration 107 spores/ml followed the regression equation Y = 1.851 + 1.522 X, with LT50 is 12,01 days. The effect of pyrethroid and carbamate insecticide on ants mortality were 91.25% and 98.75% respectively. In the field, the effect of P. fumosoroseusspray on black ant population was very low, with the percentage of ant mortality at cocoa leaf nest were 0.25–0.46% and at cocoa leaf nest in plastic bag were 0.06–0.21%, while carbamate and pyrethroid synthetic effect were 37.35% and 52.37% at cocoa leaf nest, and 19.15% and 46.67% at cocoa leaf nest in plastic bags. Key words : Cocoa, capsid, Helopeltis antonii, biological control, biological agents, Paecilomyces fumosoroseus, Dolichoderus tharacicus.

  19. Quantum Entropy of Black Hole with Internal Global Monopole

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Yi-Wen; YANG Shu-Zheng; LIU Wen-Biao

    2005-01-01

    Using the generalized uncertainty relation, the new equation of state density is obtained, and then the entropy of black hole with an internal global monopole is discussed. The divergence that appears in black hole entropy calculation through original brick-wall model is overcome. The result of the direct proportion between black hole entropy and its event horizon area is drawn and given. The result shows that the black hole entropy must be the entropy of quantum state near the event horizon.

  20. Oviposition Decision of the Weevil Exapion ulicis on Ulex europaeus Depends on External and Internal Pod Cues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Sébastien Pierre

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Understanding mechanisms underlying insects’ host choice and plant susceptibility is important to the study of plant-insect interactions in general, and in the context of plant invasions. This study investigates the oviposition and feeding choices of the specialist weevil Exapion ulicis on the invasive plant species Ulex europaeus, gorse. To do so, we studied the oviposition and feeding preferences of the weevil in choice experiments, using pods and flowers, respectively, from gorses grown in a common garden. The plants used came from regions with different infestation histories: Brittany and Scotland belong to the native range, where the weevil is present, while Reunion and New Zealand belong to the invasive range, where the weevil was not initially introduced with gorse. Results of these experiments suggest that the oviposition choice of E. ulicis females is driven by cues located at the surface of pods and inside them, including pod size and pod seed content. Feeding-choice experiments showed a different pattern of preference compared to oviposition. Taken together with previous studies, our results reveal that E. ulicis uses several traits to choose its host, including whole-plant traits, flower traits and pod traits.

  1. Phytophthora megakarya and Phytophthora palmivora, Closely Related Causal Agents of Cacao Black Pod Rot, Underwent Increases in Genome Sizes and Gene Numbers by Different Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Shahin S.; Shao, Jonathan; Lary, David J.; Kronmiller, Brent A.; Shen, Danyu; Strem, Mary D.; Amoako-Attah, Ishmael; Akrofi, Andrew Yaw; Begoude, B.A. Didier; ten Hoopen, G. Martijn; Coulibaly, Klotioloma; Kebe, Boubacar Ismaël; Melnick, Rachel L.; Guiltinan, Mark J.; Tyler, Brett M.; Meinhardt, Lyndel W.

    2017-01-01

    Phytophthora megakarya (Pmeg) and Phytophthora palmivora (Ppal) are closely related species causing cacao black pod rot. Although Ppal is a cosmopolitan pathogen, cacao is the only known host of economic importance for Pmeg. Pmeg is more virulent on cacao than Ppal. We sequenced and compared the Pmeg and Ppal genomes and identified virulence-related putative gene models (PGeneM) that may be responsible for their differences in host specificities and virulence. Pmeg and Ppal have estimated genome sizes of 126.88 and 151.23 Mb and PGeneM numbers of 42,036 and 44,327, respectively. The evolutionary histories of Pmeg and Ppal appear quite different. Postspeciation, Ppal underwent whole-genome duplication whereas Pmeg has undergone selective increases in PGeneM numbers, likely through accelerated transposable element-driven duplications. Many PGeneMs in both species failed to match transcripts and may represent pseudogenes or cryptic genetic reservoirs. Pmeg appears to have amplified specific gene families, some of which are virulence-related. Analysis of mycelium, zoospore, and in planta transcriptome expression profiles using neural network self-organizing map analysis generated 24 multivariate and nonlinear self-organizing map classes. Many members of the RxLR, necrosis-inducing phytophthora protein, and pectinase genes families were specifically induced in planta. Pmeg displays a diverse virulence-related gene complement similar in size to and potentially of greater diversity than Ppal but it remains likely that the specific functions of the genes determine each species’ unique characteristics as pathogens. PMID:28186564

  2. The Black Sea one decade after the Bucharest Convention an overview of the international activities in the Black Sea region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goektepe, G.

    2002-01-01

    The catastrophic degradation of the Black Sea in a period of four decade has been the major concern of the Black Sea countries and international communities since Bucharest Convention signed in 1992. The Black Sea Region has became a challenging international arena for political scientific and socio-economic activities. Intensive international programmes and establishment of governmental and Non Governmental Organizational structures of the 1990s including Black Sea Economic Cooperation (BSEC), Black Sea Environmental Programme(BSEP), Environmental Programme for the Danube River Basin, Marine Environmental Assessment of the Black Sea Region Technical Cooperation Programme by the IAEA and establishment of the Black Sea Commission Permanent Secretariat are some of the major international efforts of the past decade that emphasizes the multi-nationality and large dimension of the Black Sea environmental management issues. The environmental degradation of the Black Sea is briefly reviewed based on the BSEP reports and data available for land based pollution sources. The environmental risk of marine vessel accidents are indicated and environmental safety concern is emphasized under the current conditions of intense energy transportation projects in the Black Sea and Caspian regions. The international policy actions, co-operation issues and scientific programmes of the past decade are overviewed with emphasis on the international achievements. Concluding remarks include the vital importance of continuation of the international commitments and sharing the political, scientific and socio-economic responsibility on the transboundary environmental pollution, rehabilitation and the safety issues of the Black Sea

  3. Application of Genome Wide Association and Genomic Prediction for Improvement of Cacao Productivity and Resistance to Black and Frosty Pod Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Alberto Romero Navarro

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Chocolate is a highly valued and palatable confectionery product. Chocolate is primarily made from the processed seeds of the tree species Theobroma cacao. Cacao cultivation is highly relevant for small-holder farmers throughout the tropics, yet its productivity remains limited by low yields and widespread pathogens. A panel of 148 improved cacao clones was assembled based on productivity and disease resistance, and phenotypic single-tree replicated clonal evaluation was performed for 8 years. Using high-density markers, the diversity of clones was expressed relative to 10 known ancestral cacao populations, and significant effects of ancestry were observed in productivity and disease resistance. Genome-wide association (GWA was performed, and six markers were significantly associated with frosty pod disease resistance. In addition, genomic selection was performed, and consistent with the observed extensive linkage disequilibrium, high predictive ability was observed at low marker densities for all traits. Finally, quantitative trait locus mapping and differential expression analysis of two cultivars with contrasting disease phenotypes were performed to identify genes underlying frosty pod disease resistance, identifying a significant quantitative trait locus and 35 differentially expressed genes using two independent differential expression analyses. These results indicate that in breeding populations of heterozygous and recently admixed individuals, mapping approaches can be used for low complexity traits like pod color cacao, or in other species single gene disease resistance, however genomic selection for quantitative traits remains highly effective relative to mapping. Our results can help guide the breeding process for sustainable improved cacao productivity.

  4. Internalized racism and mental health among African-Americans, US-born Caribbean Blacks, and foreign-born Caribbean Blacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouzon, Dawne M; McLean, Jamila S

    2017-02-01

    The tripartite model of racism includes personally mediated racism, institutionalized racism, and the less-oft studied internalized racism. Internalized racism - or negative beliefs about one's racial group - results from cultural racism that is endemic in American society. In this project, we studied whether these negative stereotypes are associated with mental health among African-Americans and Caribbean Blacks. Using secondary data from the National Survey of American Life, we investigated the association between internalized racism and mental health (measured by depressive symptoms and serious psychological distress (SPD)) among these two groups. We also explored whether ethnicity/nativity and mastery moderate the association between internalized racism and mental health among African-Americans and Caribbean Blacks. Internalized racism was positively associated with depressive symptoms and SPD among all Black subgroups. However, internalized racism was a weaker predictor of SPD among foreign-born Caribbean Blacks than US-born Caribbean Blacks and US-born African-Americans. Additionally, higher mastery was protective against distress associated with internalized racism. Internalized racism is an important yet understudied determinant of mental health among Blacks. Future studies should take into account additional heterogeneity within the Black population (e.g. African-born individuals) and other potential protective mechanisms in addition to mastery (e.g. self-esteem and racial identity).

  5. to Cocoa Pod Borer Infestation in Central Sulawesi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agung Wahyu Soesilo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Black pod rot disease (BPRD which is caused by Phytophthora palmivora is one of the main diseases of cocoa cultivations particularly in plantations with wet climate. Black pod rot can develop rapidly under high humidity environments, particularly during rainy seasons. This disease can cause loss of harvest of up to 46.63% in East Java. The various control efforts attempted so far have not resulted in significant improvements. Urea, in addition to functioning as fertilizer, can also produce the ammonia gas which is believed to be able to suppress black pod rot. This research aims to determine the effectiveness of black pod rot control using the combination of lime and urea. This research was conducted from June to September 2013. The materials used in test included sterile soil, black pod rot infected cocoa, urea, and agricultural lime. Observation results showed that ammonia could form from urea. Lime can increase the speed of the formation. The ammonia gas forming from 0.06% urea and 0.3% lime can control the P. palmivora fungus inside the soil. Key words: Pod rot, P. palmivora, urea, lime, ammonia

  6. Management of high blood pressure in Blacks: an update of the International Society on Hypertension in Blacks consensus statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flack, John M; Sica, Domenic A; Bakris, George; Brown, Angela L; Ferdinand, Keith C; Grimm, Richard H; Hall, W Dallas; Jones, Wendell E; Kountz, David S; Lea, Janice P; Nasser, Samar; Nesbitt, Shawna D; Saunders, Elijah; Scisney-Matlock, Margaret; Jamerson, Kenneth A

    2010-11-01

    Since the first International Society on Hypertension in Blacks consensus statement on the "Management of High Blood Pressure in African American" in 2003, data from additional clinical trials have become available. We reviewed hypertension and cardiovascular disease prevention and treatment guidelines, pharmacological hypertension clinical end point trials, and blood pressure-lowering trials in blacks. Selected trials without significant black representation were considered. In this update, blacks with hypertension are divided into 2 risk strata, primary prevention, where elevated blood pressure without target organ damage, preclinical cardiovascular disease, or overt cardiovascular disease for whom blood pressure consistently secondary prevention, where elevated blood pressure with target organ damage, preclinical cardiovascular disease, and/or a history of cardiovascular disease, for whom blood pressure consistently blood pressure is ≤10 mm Hg above target levels, monotherapy with a diuretic or calcium channel blocker is preferred. When blood pressure is >15/10 mm Hg above target, 2-drug therapy is recommended, with either a calcium channel blocker plus a renin-angiotensin system blocker or, alternatively, in edematous and/or volume-overload states, with a thiazide diuretic plus a renin-angiotensin system blocker. Effective multidrug therapeutic combinations through 4 drugs are described. Comprehensive lifestyle modifications should be initiated in blacks when blood pressure is ≥115/75 mm Hg. The updated International Society on Hypertension in Blacks consensus statement on hypertension management in blacks lowers the minimum target blood pressure level for the lowest-risk blacks, emphasizes effective multidrug regimens, and de-emphasizes monotherapy.

  7. A review of the Phytophthora pod rot disease situation in Ghana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The presence of Phytophthora megakarya, which until 1985 was unknown in Ghana, has changed the status of black pod disease of cocoa in the country. Hitherto, only Phytophthora palmivora was known to be present. This paper reviews the Phytophthora pod disease situation, the origin, distribution, incidence and ...

  8. iPod og bobler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram, Nina

    2010-01-01

    Artiklen undersøger iPod- og mp3-lytning som en æstetiserende handling ved at sammenligne en såkaldt 'iPod-vandring' med den performative byvandring Here Whilst We Walk. Den sammenlignende analyse fungerer som platform for en videre diskussion og undersøgelse af den særlige lytteoplevelse, som de...

  9. (Sw) DC (Leguminosae) pods

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    International Pharmaceutical Abstract, Chemical Abstracts, Embase, Index Copernicus, EBSCO, African ... Since the discovery of terpenes, more than 150 years ago ... anticancer drug discovery. .... (Agricultural Research Service/USDA) [17].

  10. ‘This is the Age of Woman’: Black Feminism and Black Internationalism in the Works of Una Marson, 1928-1938

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imaobong D. Umoren

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Una Marson (1905-1965 was an Afro-Jamaican intellectual who in the 1930s became an internationally famous feminist, Pan-Africanist, poet, playwright, journalist and social activist. Between 1932 and 1936 Marson lived in London and became involved in the burgeoning Pan-African movement and a number of British and international women’s and feminist organisations. In 1936, she briefly returned to Jamaica amidst the nationalist movements of the time before journeying back to Britain in 1938, where she remained until 1946. This article builds on and differs from previous scholarship on Marson through its exploration of the changes that took place in her black feminist ideas relating to race, gender and class between 1928 and 1938, and how these influenced her intellectual view concerning black internationalism. This article puts two arguments forward. First, Marson’s engagement with Pan-Africanism and her experiences of racism and sexism in London changed her vision of black feminism. Second, this change contributed to her bringing black feminism into the male-dominated sphere of black internationalism. Thus, it calls for more recognition of Una Marson both as a black feminist and a black internationalist

  11. The first law of black hole mechanics for fields with internal gauge freedom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prabhu, Kartik

    2017-01-01

    We derive the first law of black hole mechanics for physical theories based on a local, covariant and gauge-invariant Lagrangian where the dynamical fields transform non-trivially under the action of some internal gauge transformations. The theories of interest include General Relativity formulated in terms of tetrads, Einstein–Yang–Mills theory and Einstein–Dirac theory. Since the dynamical fields of these theories have some internal gauge freedom, we argue that there is no natural group action of diffeomorphisms of spacetime on such dynamical fields. In general, such fields cannot even be represented as smooth, globally well-defined tensor fields on spacetime. Consequently the derivation of the first law by Iyer and Wald cannot be used directly. Nevertheless, we show how such theories can be formulated on a principal bundle and that there is a natural action of automorphisms of the bundle on the fields. These bundle automorphisms encode both spacetime diffeomorphisms and internal gauge transformations. Using this reformulation we define the Noether charge associated to an infinitesimal automorphism and the corresponding notion of stationarity and axisymmetry of the dynamical fields. We first show that we can define certain potentials and charges at the horizon of a black hole so that the potentials are constant on the bifurcate Killing horizon, giving a generalised zeroth law for bifurcate Killing horizons. We further identify the gravitational potential and perturbed charge as the temperature and perturbed entropy of the black hole which gives an explicit formula for the perturbed entropy analogous to the Wald entropy formula. We then obtain a general first law of black hole mechanics for such theories. The first law relates the perturbed Hamiltonians at spatial infinity and the horizon, and the horizon contributions take the form of a ‘potential times perturbed charge’ term. We also comment on the ambiguities in defining a prescription for the total

  12. Observer POD for radiographic testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanzler, Daniel; Mueller, Christina; Bertovic, Marija [Bundesanstalt fuer Materialforschung und -pruefung (BAM), Berlin (Germany); Pitkaenen, Jorma [Posiva Oy, Eurajoki (Finland)

    2013-07-01

    The radiographic testing is an important non-destructive testing method, especially in industrial areas where people could be injured in case of failing of a component. There it is a mighty method to find volumetric defects. As bigger the penetrated length of the defect in the component is, as bigger is the radiographic contrast. The detectability of volumetric defects in its turn is not only depending on the contrast but also on the noise, the defect area and its shape. The currently applied POD approach uses mostly only the contrast and the noise as detection threshold. This does not reflect accurately the results of evaluations by human observers. A new approach is introduced, using the widely applied POD evaluation and additionally a detection threshold depending on the area of the defect. The presentation shows the process of calculating the POD curves with simulated data by the modeling software aRTist and with artificial reference data. This approach was developed within a joint project with the company POSIVA, which is constructing a final depository for high active nuclear fuels in Finland. Radiographic testing is one of the NDT-methods they use to test the electron beam welds of the copper canisters. The copper canisters will be used in the depository as a corrosion barrier within the waste management concept. (Published as a poster session.)

  13. Romania – an International Actor in the Context of the Extensive Region of the Black Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Iftode

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In the globalized world of the 21st century, the international relations are presented as a mandatory element for maintaining the balance of world power and peace. Although the international actors, such as states or international organizations, are trying to establish as many relationships as possible of various kinds (economic, political, military through diplomacy, all over the world, at macro level, the international actors should first achieve a harmony or a general state of good understanding at the micro level, i.e. in a certain geographic region to which they belong. Romania, as an actor of international relations, has as own purpose, and also imposed upon accession to the European Union, maintaining the diplomatic relations in the region of Central-Eastern Europe, both with its neighbors and with the states in the proximity of the Black Sea region. The article aims at outlining better the role that they have, in the geopolitical context, the countries from the extensive region of the Black Sea, in the consolidation of economic and political cooperation relationships, which would lead to stability in the region.

  14. ISAL experiment documentation of vertical tail and OMS pods

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    Investigation of Space Transportation System (STS) Atmospheric Luminosities (ISAL) experiment documentation includes vertical tail and orbital maneuvering system (OMS) pods with surface glow against the blackness of space. This glowing scene was provided by a long duration exposure with a 35mm camera aimed toward the tail of the Earth-orbiting Challenger, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 099. OV-099 was maneuvered to a 120-nautical-mile altitude and flown with open payload bay (PLB) in the velocity vector for the conducting of a test titled, 'Evaluation of Oxygen Interaction with Materials (EOIM)'. Atomic oxygen within the low orbital environment is known to be extremely reactive when in contact with solid surfaces. In the darkened area between the camera and the glowing OMS pods and vertical stabilizer are two trays of test materials.

  15. Control of Cocoa Pod Borer and Phytophthora Pod Rot Using Degradable Plastic Pod Sleeves and a Nematode, Steinernema Carpocapsae

    OpenAIRE

    Rosmana, Ade; Shepard, Merle; Hebbar, Prakash; Mustari, Anita

    2010-01-01

    Cocoa pod borer (CPB; Conopomorpha cramerella) and Phytophthora pod rot (PPR; Phytophthora palmivora) are serious pest and disease on cocoa plantations in Indonesia. Both pest and disease have been controlled with limited success using cultural practices such as pruning, frequent harvesting, sanitation, plastic sleeving, and chemical pesticides. An experiment was conducted on cocoa plantings in Pinrang Regency, South Sulawesi during the wet season of 2008/09 to test the effect of pod sleeving...

  16. Relative deprivation and internal migration in the United States: A comparison of black and white men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flippen, Chenoa

    2013-01-01

    While the link between geographic and social mobility has long been a cornerstone of sociological approaches to migration, recent research has cast doubt on the economic returns to internal U.S. migration. Moreover, important racial disparities in migration patterns remain poorly understood. Drawing on data from the 2000 census, I reappraise the link between migration and social mobility by taking relative deprivation into consideration. I examine the association between migration, disaggregated by region of origin and destination, and absolute and relative earnings and occupational prestige, separately by race. Findings lend new insight into the theoretical and stratification implications of growing racial disparities in migration patterns; while both blacks and whites who move north-south generally average lower absolute incomes than their stationary northern peers, they enjoy significantly higher relative social position. Moreover, the relative “gains” to migration are substantially larger for blacks than whites. The opposite patterns obtain for south-north migration. PMID:24391221

  17. Molecular Characterization of Resistant Accessions of Cocoa (Theobroma cocoa L.) to Phytophthora Pod Rot Selected on-Farm in Côte-d’Ivoire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocoa is (Theobroma cacao L.) is a significant agricultural commodity in Côted’Ivoire which ranks 1st in the world cocoa export. Phytophthora pod rot (Ppr)also call Black pod is the most widespread disease of cocoa. Lost due to this disease depends on the species of the pathogen and vary globally fr...

  18. The mediating role of internalized racism in the relationship between racist experiences and anxiety symptoms in a Black American sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Jessica R; West, Lindsey M; Martinez, Jennifer; Roemer, Lizabeth

    2016-07-01

    The current study explores the potential mediating role of internalized racism in the relationship between racist experiences and anxiety symptomology in a Black American sample. One hundred and 73 Black American participants, between 18 and 62 years of age, completed a questionnaire packet containing measures of anxious arousal and stress symptoms, internalized racism, and experiences of racist events. Results indicated that internalized racism mediated the relationship between past-year frequency of racist events and anxious arousal as well as past-year frequency of racist events and stress symptoms. Internalized racism may be 1 mechanism that underlies the relationship between racism and anxious symptomology for Black Americans. These preliminary findings suggest that internalized racism may be an avenue through which clinicians can target the anxiety elicited by racist experiences. The clinical implications of these findings and future research directions are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. iPod the missing manual

    CERN Document Server

    Biersdorfer, J D

    2008-01-01

    With the tiny Shuffle, the Nano, the Classic, or the Touch, Apple's gotten the world hooked on portable music, pictures, videos -- and the iPod. One thing they haven't delivered is an easy guide for getting the most from this sleek entertainment center. iPod: The Missing Manual, 7th Edition gives you a no-nonsense view of the latest iPod line, with crystal-clear explanations, easy-to-follow color graphics, and guidance on the most useful things your iPod can do.

  20. The Spaces between Us: A Queer?Intersectional Analysis of the Narratives of Black Gay International Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubain, Bryan S.

    2017-01-01

    The experiences of international students along the lines of race and ethnicity, sexuality, gender, and nationality are virtually unknown. This study utilizes experience-centered narrative inquiry to explore the experiences of Black gay international students, and how they are racialized and sexualized in American higher education. Using a Queer…

  1. Assessment of molecular contamination in mask pod

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foray, Jean Marie; Dejaune, Patrice; Sergent, Pierre; Gough, Stuart; Cheung, D.; Davenet, Magali; Favre, Arnaud; Rude, C.; Trautmann, T.; Tissier, Michel; Fontaine, H.; Veillerot, M.; Avary, K.; Hollein, I.; Lerit, R.

    2008-04-01

    Context/ study Motivation: Contamination and especially Airbone Molecular Contamination (AMC) is a critical issue for mask material flow with a severe and fairly unpredictable risk of induced contamination and damages especially for 193 nm lithography. It is therefore essential to measure, to understand and then try to reduce AMC in mask environment. Mask material flow was studied in a global approach by a pool of European partners, especially within the frame of European MEDEA+ project, so called "MUSCLE". This paper deals with results and assessment of mask pod environment in term of molecular contamination in a first step, then in a second step preliminary studies to reduce mask pod influence and contamination due to material out gassing. Approach and techniques: A specific assessment of environmental / molecular contamination along the supply chain was performed by all partners. After previous work presented at EMLC 07, further studies were performed on real time contamination measurement pod at different sites locations (including Mask manufacturing site, blank manufacturing sites, IC fab). Studies were linked to the main critical issues: cleaning, storage, handling, materials and processes. Contamination measurement campaigns were carried out along the mask supply chain using specific Adixen analyzer in order to monitor in real time organic contaminants (ppb level) in mask pods. Key results would be presented: VOC, AMC and humidity level on different kinds of mask carriers, impact of basic cleaning on pod outgassing measurement (VOC, NH3), and process influence on pod contamination... In a second step, preliminary specific pod conditioning studies for better pod environment were performed based on Adixen vacuum process. Process influence had been experimentally measured in term of molecular outgassing from mask pods. Different AMC experimental characterization methods had been carried out leading to results on a wide range of organic and inorganic

  2. iPod The Missing Manual

    CERN Document Server

    Biersdorfer, J D

    2010-01-01

    With iPod and iTunes, Apple's gotten the world hooked on portable music, pictures, and videos. One thing they haven't delivered, though, is an easy guide for getting the most from your sleek little entertainment center. Enter iPod: The Missing Manual, 5th Edition-a book as breathtaking and satisfying as its subject. Our latest edition thoroughly covers the redesigned iPod Nanos, the video iPod, the tiny Shuffle and the overhauled iTunes 7. Each custom-designed page sports easy-to-follow color graphics, crystal-clear explanations, and guidance on the most useful things your iPod can do. Topic

  3. Results of investigations with an 0.015-scale model (49-0) of the Rockwell International space shuttle vehicle 140A/B configuration with modified OMS pods and elevons in the AEDC VKF tunnel B (0A79)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esparza, V.; Lindsay, A. I.

    1975-01-01

    Aerodynamic data obtained from wind tunnel tests of an 0.015-scale space shuttle vehicle Orbiter model of a 140A/B configuration with modified orbital manuevering system pods and elevons are documented. Force data was obtained at various control surface settings and Reynolds numbers in the angle of attack range of 15 deg to 45 deg and at angles of sideslip of -5 deg to +5 deg. Control surface variables included elevon, rudder, speed brake, and body flap configurations.

  4. Sexual Identity and HIV Status Influence the Relationship Between Internalized Stigma and Psychological Distress in Black Gay and Bisexual Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boone, Melissa R.; Cook, Stephanie H.; Wilson, Patrick A.

    2016-01-01

    Experiences of internalized homophobia and HIV stigma in young Black gay and bisexual men (GBM) may lead to psychological distress, but levels of distress may be dependent upon their sexual identity or HIV status. In this study, we set out to explore the associations between psychological distress, sexual identity, and HIV status in young Black GBM. Participants were 228 young Black GBM who reported on their psychological distress, their HIV status, and their sexual identity. Results indicated that internalized homophobia was significantly related to psychological distress for gay men, but not for bisexual men. HIV stigma was related to psychological stress for HIV-positive men, but not for HIV-negative men. Results indicate a need for more nuanced examinations of the role of identity in the health and well-being of men who have sex with men. PMID:27017893

  5. Sexual identity and HIV status influence the relationship between internalized stigma and psychological distress in black gay and bisexual men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boone, Melissa R; Cook, Stephanie H; Wilson, Patrick A

    2016-01-01

    Experiences of internalized homophobia and HIV stigma in young Black gay and bisexual men (GBM) may lead to psychological distress, but levels of distress may be dependent upon their sexual identity or HIV status. In this study, we set out to explore the associations between psychological distress, sexual identity, and HIV status in young Black GBM. Participants were 228 young Black GBM who reported on their psychological distress, their HIV status, and their sexual identity. Results indicated that internalized homophobia was significantly related to psychological distress for gay men, but not for bisexual men. HIV stigma was related to psychological stress for HIV-positive men, but not for HIV-negative men. Results indicate a need for more nuanced examinations of the role of identity in the health and well-being of men who have sex with men.

  6. Fabrication criteria applicable to Carem pods production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bianchi, D R; Azzinari, D; Gongora, P; Sabio Calvete, M; Ilarri, M; Perazzo, M; Duarte, J; Duarte, A; Rojas, J; Fleitas, G; Szieber, W C; Vizcaino, P

    2012-01-01

    In relation CAREM 25 project, PPFAE, CNEA, has been fabricated pods for fuel rods for that reactor. They were used the same fuel rods that to be irradiate and evaluate their behavior with that the same Uranium pellets. The scope of the agreement signed between the authorities of the CNEA and Institutt for Energiteknikk (IFE) in Norway, it contemplated irradiated fuel rods type CAREM fabricated from these fuel pods in the OECD Halden Reactor Project (HRP, venture led by IFE and integrate more than 16 countries). The work contemplates the production of two experimental item fuel pods. From the second item fuel pods will be used in the fuel rods. In this paper we analyze the sequences used; the results obtained and the general conditions for the development of the final process to be applied in the production phase for a reactor CAREM 25 (author)

  7. Take control of your iPod

    CERN Document Server

    Sande, Steve

    2009-01-01

    Learn a dozen ways to do more with an iPod than just listen to music! Written by gadget-wizard Steve Sande, this 136-page book helps you advance to the next level of iPod mastery. You'll learn basics like charging an iPod and moving music over to it, but most of the book looks at all the other stuff you can do with an iPod: track calendar items and contacts, keep to-do lists, exercise, read ebooks and RSS feeds, listen to podcasts and audiobooks, watch video, view subway maps, back up your hard drive, and much more! (Click Front Matter, just below, to see the complete topic list.) The book

  8. The Impact of Religious Faith and Internalized Homonegativity on Resiliency for Black Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Emerging Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Ja'Nina J.; Longmire-Avital, Buffie

    2013-01-01

    Religious faith has been instrumental in fostering positive mental health outcomes for historically disenfranchised populations, such as Black Americans. However, the religious institutional devaluing of same-sex behavior and identity fuels internalized homonegativity (i.e., negative thoughts regarding one's same-sex sexual behavior) for…

  9. Stochastic Wake Modelling Based on POD Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Bastine

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work, large eddy simulation data is analysed to investigate a new stochastic modeling approach for the wake of a wind turbine. The data is generated by the large eddy simulation (LES model PALM combined with an actuator disk with rotation representing the turbine. After applying a proper orthogonal decomposition (POD, three different stochastic models for the weighting coefficients of the POD modes are deduced resulting in three different wake models. Their performance is investigated mainly on the basis of aeroelastic simulations of a wind turbine in the wake. Three different load cases and their statistical characteristics are compared for the original LES, truncated PODs and the stochastic wake models including different numbers of POD modes. It is shown that approximately six POD modes are enough to capture the load dynamics on large temporal scales. Modeling the weighting coefficients as independent stochastic processes leads to similar load characteristics as in the case of the truncated POD. To complete this simplified wake description, we show evidence that the small-scale dynamics can be captured by adding to our model a homogeneous turbulent field. In this way, we present a procedure to derive stochastic wake models from costly computational fluid dynamics (CFD calculations or elaborated experimental investigations. These numerically efficient models provide the added value of possible long-term studies. Depending on the aspects of interest, different minimalized models may be obtained.

  10. Black and White Parents' Willingness to Seek Help for Children's Internalizing and Externalizing Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurston, Idia B; Hardin, Robin; Decker, Kristina; Arnold, Trisha; Howell, Kathryn H; Phares, Vicky

    2018-01-01

    Understanding social and environmental factors that contribute to parental help-seeking intentions is an important step in addressing service underutilization for children in need of treatment. This study examined factors that contribute to parents' intentions to seek formal and informal help for child psychopathology (anxiety and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder [ADHD]). A total of 251 parents (N = 128 mothers, N = 123 fathers; 49% Black, 51% White) read 3 vignettes describing children with anxiety, ADHD, and no diagnosis. Measures of problem recognition, perceived barriers, and formal (pediatricians, psychologists, teachers) and informal (religious leaders, family/friends, self-help) help seeking were completed. Four separate hierarchical logistic regression models were used to examine parental help-seeking likelihood from formal and informal sources for internalizing and externalizing symptoms. Predictors were socioeconomic status, parent race, age, and sex, parent problem recognition (via study vignettes), and perceived barriers to mental health service utilization. Mothers were more likely than fathers to seek help from pediatricians, psychologists, teachers, and religious leaders for child anxiety and pediatricians, religious leaders, and self-help resources for child ADHD. Black parents were more likely to seek help from religious leaders and White parents were more likely to use self-help resources. Problem recognition was associated with greater intentions to seek help from almost all formal and informal sources (except from friends/family). Understanding factors that contribute to parental help seeking for child psychopathology is critical for increasing service utilization and reducing the negative effects of mental health problems. This study highlights the importance of decreasing help-seeking barriers and increasing problem recognition to improve health equity. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Enhanced solar energy absorption by internally-mixed black carbon in snow grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. G. Flanner

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Here we explore light absorption by snowpack containing black carbon (BC particles residing within ice grains. Basic considerations of particle volumes and BC/snow mass concentrations show that there are generally 0.05–109 BC particles for each ice grain. This suggests that internal BC is likely distributed as multiple inclusions within ice grains, and thus the dynamic effective medium approximation (DEMA (Chýlek and Srivastava, 1983 is a more appropriate optical representation for BC/ice composites than coated-sphere or standard mixing approximations. DEMA calculations show that the 460 nm absorption cross-section of BC/ice composites, normalized to the mass of BC, is typically enhanced by factors of 1.8–2.1 relative to interstitial BC. BC effective radius is the dominant cause of variation in this enhancement, compared with ice grain size and BC volume fraction. We apply two atmospheric aerosol models that simulate interstitial and within-hydrometeor BC lifecycles. Although only ~2% of the atmospheric BC burden is cloud-borne, 71–83% of the BC deposited to global snow and sea-ice surfaces occurs within hydrometeors. Key processes responsible for within-snow BC deposition are development of hydrophilic coatings on BC, activation of liquid droplets, and subsequent snow formation through riming or ice nucleation by other species and aggregation/accretion of ice particles. Applying deposition fields from these aerosol models in offline snow and sea-ice simulations, we calculate that 32–73% of BC in global surface snow resides within ice grains. This fraction is smaller than the within-hydrometeor deposition fraction because meltwater flux preferentially removes internal BC, while sublimation and freezing within snowpack expose internal BC. Incorporating the DEMA into a global climate model, we simulate increases in BC/snow radiative forcing of 43–86%, relative to scenarios that apply external optical properties to all BC. We

  12. Enhanced Solar Energy Absorption by Internally-mixed Black Carbon in Snow Grains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flanner, M. G.; Liu, Xiaohong; Zhou, Cheng; Penner, Joyce E.; Jiao, C.

    2012-05-30

    Here we explore light absorption by snowpack containing black carbon (BC) particles residing within ice grains. Basic considerations of particle volumes and BC/snow mass concentrations show that there are generally 0:05-109 BC particles for each ice grain. This suggests that internal BC is likely distributed as multiple inclusions within ice grains, and thus the dynamic effective medium approximation (DEMA) (Chylek and Srivastava, 1983) is a more appropriate optical representation for BC/ice composites than coated-sphere or standard mixing approximations. DEMA calculations show that the 460 nm absorption cross-section of BC/ice composites, normalized to the mass of BC, is typically enhanced by factors of 1.8-2.1 relative to interstitial BC. BC effective radius is the dominant cause of variation in this enhancement, compared with ice grain size and BC volume fraction. We apply two atmospheric aerosol models that simulate interstitial and within-hydrometeor BC lifecycles. Although only {approx}2% of the atmospheric BC burden is cloud-borne, 71-83% of the BC deposited to global snow and sea-ice surfaces occurs within hydrometeors. Key processes responsible for within-snow BC deposition are development of hydrophilic coatings on BC, activation of liquid droplets, and subsequent snow formation through riming or ice nucleation by other species and aggregation/accretion of ice particles. Applying deposition fields from these aerosol models in offline snow and sea-ice simulations, we calculate that 32-73% of BC in global surface snow resides within ice grains. This fraction is smaller than the within-hydrometeor deposition fraction because meltwater flux preferentially removes internal BC, while sublimation and freezing within snowpack expose internal BC. Incorporating the DEMA into a global climate model, we simulate increases in BC/snow radiative forcing of 43-86%, relative to scenarios that apply external optical properties to all BC. We show that snow metamorphism

  13. Analysis of internal structure changes in black human hair keratin fibers resulting from bleaching treatments using Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzuhara, Akio

    2013-09-01

    In order to investigate in detail the internal structure changes in virgin black human hair keratin fibers resulting from bleaching treatments, the structure of cross-sections at various depths of black human hair, which had been impossible due to high melanin grande content, was directly analyzed using Raman spectroscopy. The gauche-gauche-gauche (GGG) content of the sbnd SSsbnd groups existing from the cuticle region to the center of cortex region of the virgin black human hair remarkably decreased, while the gauche-gauche-trans and trans-gauche-trans contents were not changed by performing the excessive bleaching treatment. In particular, it was found that not only the β-sheet and/or random coil content, but also the α-helix content existing throughout the cortex region of virgin black human hair decreased. In addition, the transmission electron microscope observation shows that the proteins in the cell membrane complex, the cuticle and cortex of the virgin black human hair were remarkably eluted by performing the excessive bleaching treatment. From these experiments, the author concluded that the sbnd SSsbnd groups, which have a GGG conformation were decomposed and finally converted to cysteic acid, and the α-helix structure of some of the proteins existing in the keratin was changed to the random coil structure, or eluted from the cortex region, thereby leading to the reduction in the protein density of the virgin human hair after the excessive bleaching treatment.

  14. Geometry and Mechanics of Chiral Pod Opening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharon, Eran; Armon, Shahaf; Efrati, Efi; Kupferman, Raz

    2012-02-01

    We study the geometry and mechanics that drive the opening of Bauhinia seeds pods. The pod valve wall consists of two fibrous layers oriented at ± 45^o with respect to the pod axis. Upon drying, each of the layers shrinks uniaxially, perpendicularly to the fibers orientation. This active deformation turn the valve into an incompatible sheet with reference saddle-like curvature tensor and a flat (Euclidean) reference metric. These two intrinsic properties are incompatible. The shape is, therefore, selected by a stretching-bending competition. Strips cut from the valve tissue and from synthetic model material adopt various helical configurations. We provide analytical expressions for these configurations in the bending and stretching dominated regimes. Surface measurements show the transition from minimal surfaces (narrow limit) to cylindrical ones (wide limit). Finally, we show how plants use these mechanical principles using different tissue architectures.

  15. iPod The Missing Manual

    CERN Document Server

    Biersdorfer, J D

    2011-01-01

    Apple's iPod still has the world hooked on portable music, pictures, videos, movies, and more, but one thing it doesn't have is a manual that helps you can get the most out this amazing device. That's where this book comes in. Get the complete scoop on the latest line of iPods and the latest version of iTunes with the guide that outshines them all-iPod: The Missing Manual. The 10th edition is as useful, satisfying, and reliable as its subject. Teeming with high-quality color graphics, each page helps you accomplish a specific task-everything from managing your media and installing and browsi

  16. Analysis of Wave Velocity Patterns in Black Cherry Trees and its Effect on Internal Decay Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guanghui Li; Xiping Wang; Jan Wiedenbeck; Robert J. Ross

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we examined stress wave velocity patterns in the cross sections of black cherry trees, developed analytical models of stress wave velocity in sound healthy trees, and then tested the effectiveness of the models as a tool for tree decay diagnosis. Acoustic tomography data of the tree cross sections were collected from 12 black cherry trees at a production...

  17. The greening of black gold. Towards international environmental alignment in the petroleum industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van de Wateringen, S.L.

    2005-06-24

    , optimisation of effort) and examines the drivers underlying the alignment. The nature of the study is both descriptive as well as exploratory: descriptive in that it explores first and late movers' behaviour of European and U.S. multinational companies in the petroleum industry in the period 1990-2002, and explorative in its effort to shed light on formulated propositions. The exploratory character of the study results from the novelty of the subject and the relative novelty of the discipline. In its methodology, the study employs two distinct empirical formats. An extensive study of a large sample of companies, covering the majority of petroleum MNCs in the Fortune Global Top 250, provides the basis of the study; it includes European, Asian, and US petroleum MNCs. A multiple case study format of European companies was added to deepen the insights. The relevance of the study is of both a theoretical and a practical nature. The study aims to contribute to the environmental management and international business literature by means of its exploration of the 'black box' identified in the literature review (Chapter 2): the dynamics of and relationship between environmental strategy and structure. Adjusting the prescriptive nature and original focus of the strategic alignment model to examine the process of alignment and overall management of environmental issues means moving the model to a new frontier. The examination of the petroleum industry sheds light on sector developments over a longer period of time. In a practical sense, this may perhaps show managers what opportunities are available to influence their companies' order of alignment as a result of insights given into the influencing factors of this process. Finally, the study aims, in general, to contribute to greater transparency of the state of this industry which has received so much public attention.

  18. Process design and economic analysis of a hypothetical bioethanol production plant using carob pod as feedstock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Segado, S; Lozano, L J; de Los Ríos, A P; Hernández-Fernández, F J; Godínez, C; Juan, D

    2012-01-01

    A process for the production of ethanol from carob (Ceratonia siliqua) pods was designed and an economic analysis was carried out for a hypothetical plant. The plant was assumed to perform an aqueous extraction of sugars from the pods followed by fermentation and distillation to produce ethanol. The total fixed capital investment for a base case process with a capacity to transform 68,000 t/year carob pod was calculated as 39.61 millon euros (€) with a minimum bioethanol production cost of 0.51 €/L and an internal rate of return of 7%. The plant was found to be profitable at carob pod prices lower than 0.188 €/kg. An increase in the transformation capacity of the plant from 33,880 to 135,450 t/year was calculated to result in an increase in the internal rate of return from 5.50% to 13.61%. The obtained results show that carob pod is a promising alternative source for bioethanol production. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Internalized stigma and HIV status disclosure among HIV-positive black men who have sex with men

    OpenAIRE

    Overstreet, Nicole M.; Earnshaw, Valerie A.; Kalichman, Seth C.; Quinn, Diane M.

    2012-01-01

    Black men who have sex with men (BMSM) are severely affected by the HIV epidemic, yet research on the relationship between HIV stigma and status disclosure is relatively limited among this population. Within this epidemic, internalized HIV stigma, the extent to which people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) endorse the negative beliefs associated with HIV as true of themselves, can negatively shape interpersonal outcomes and have important implications for psychological and physical health. In a s...

  20. Frosty pod of cacao: a disease with a limited geographic range but unlimited potential for damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips-Mora, W; Wilkinson, M J

    2007-12-01

    ABSTRACT Moniliophthora roreri, the cause of frosty pod rot (FP), is a specialized fungal pathogen (family Marasmiaceae) that invades only actively growing pods of cacao, Theobroma cacao, and related species of Theobroma and Herrania. FP damages pods and the commercially important seeds that some of these species produce. M. roreri was confined to northwestern South America until the 1950s. Its appearance in Panama in 1956 signaled a change in its geographic distribution. Now, it is found in 11 countries in tropical America. The fungus is currently in an active dispersal phase, possibly due to an increase in human-mediated spread. FP is more destructive than black pod (Phytophthora spp.) and more dangerous and difficult to control than witches' broom, caused by Moniliophthora (Crinipellis) perniciosa. The aggressiveness of M. roreri, its capacity to survive different environmental conditions, its rapid natural dispersal, its propensity for man-mediated dispersal, and the susceptibility of most commercial cacao genotypes, all indicate that FP presents a substantial threat to cacao cultivation worldwide.

  1. Multiple scattering of light by water cloud droplets with external and internal mixing of black carbon aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Hai-Hua; Sun Xian-Ming

    2012-01-01

    The mixture of water cloud droplets with black carbon impurities is modeled by external and internal mixing models. The internal mixing model is modeled with a two-layered sphere (water cloud droplets containing black carbon (BC) inclusions), and the single scattering and absorption characteristics are calculated at the visible wavelength of 0.55 μm by using the Lorenz—Mie theory. The external mixing model is developed assuming that the same amount of BC particles are mixed with the water droplets externally. The multiple scattering characteristics are computed by using the Monte Carlo method. The results show that when the size of the BC aerosol is small, the reflection intensity of the internal mixing model is bigger than that of the external mixing model. However, if the size of the BC aerosol is big, the absorption of the internal mixing model will be larger than that of the external mixing model. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  2. Internal/external locus of control, self-esteem, and parental verbal interaction of at-risk black male adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enger, J M; Howerton, D L; Cobbs, C R

    1994-06-01

    We investigated the relationship between three factors--internal/external locus of control, self-esteem, and parental verbal interaction--for at-risk Black male adolescents in the United States. Forty-two male students in Grades 6, 7, and 8 who had been identified by their teachers as being at risk completed the Locus of Control Scale for Children (Nowicki & Strickland, 1973), the Self-Esteem Inventory (Coopersmith, 1967), and the Verbal Interaction Questionnaire (Blake, 1991). A moderate positive relationship found between self-esteem and parental verbal interaction was consistent with a previous finding for White high school students. A moderate negative relationship found between locus of control and self-esteem differed from a previous finding of no significant relationship for Black elementary children. A weak, yet significant, negative relationship was found between locus of control and parental verbal interaction.

  3. Copernicus POD Service: Ready for Sentinel-3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, H.; Fernández, J.; Escobar, D.; Féménias, P.; Flohrer, C.; Otten, M.

    2015-12-01

    The Copernicus POD Service is part of the Copernicus PDGS Ground Segment of the Sentinel missions. A GMV-led consortium is operating the Copernicus POD Service being in charge of generating precise orbital products and auxiliary data files for their use as part of the processing chains of the respective Sentinel PDGS. The Sentinel-1, -2 & -3 missions have different but very demanding requirements in terms of orbital accuracy and timeliness. Orbital products in Near Real Time (latency: 30 min), Short Time Critical (1.5 days) and Non-time Critical (20-30 days) are required. The accuracy requirements are very challenging, targeting 5 cm in 3D for Sentinel-1 and 2-3 cm in radial direction for Sentinel-3. Sentinel-3A carries, in addition to a GPS receiver a laser retro reflector and a DORIS receiver. On the one hand, the three different techniques GPS, SLR and DORIS make POD more complex but, on the other hand, it is very helpful to have independent techniques available for validation of the orbit results. The successful POD processing for Sentinel-1A is a good preparation for Sentinel-3A due to the similar demanding orbit accuracy requirements. The Copernicus POD Service is ready for Sentinel-3A and the service will process GPS and SLR data routinely and has the capacity to process DORIS in NTC and reprocessing campaigns. The three independent orbit determination techniques on Sentinel-3 offer big potential for scientific exploitation. Carrying all three techniques together makes the satellite, e.g., very useful for combining all the techniques on observation level as it could only be done for Jason-2 until now. The Sentinel POD Quality Working Group strongly supporting the CPOD Service delivers additional orbit solutions to validate the CPOD results independently. The recommendations from this body guarantee that the CPOD Service is updated following state-of-the-art algorithms, models and conventions. The QWG also focuses on the scientific exploitation of the

  4. Pod Characteristics of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L. related to rocoa pod borer resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agung Wahyu Susilo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The characteristics of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L. pod related to cocoa pod borer resistance (CPB had been identified in a series of study. The objective of this research is to evaluate the characteristics of cocoa pod using more diverse of genetic background to obtain selection criteria. Genetic materials for this studywere 25 cocoa clones planted in Central Sulawesi for resistance evaluation. Field evaluation of the resistance were assessed by using variable of the percentage of unextractable beans, number of larvae entry and exit holes by which the clones were grouped into 5 groups of resistance. A laboratory works were carried out to assess pod characteristics based on the number of trichomes, granules of tannin and thickness the lignified-tissue of sclerotic layer using micro-technique method at the different level of pod maturity (3.0; 3.5; 4.0 months. Correlation between groups of those variables was analyzed using canonical correlation. The result performed a positive association between the thickness of sclerotic layer at the secondary furrow with the number of entry holes and the number of entry holes through sclerotic layer. The thickness performed a higher value of the coefficient in association with the variables of canonical for pod characteristics 0.59; 0.55; 0.43 and the variables of canonical correlation for CPB resistance 0.54; 0.51; 0.39 that would presenting the characteristics of pod related to CPB resistance in 3.0, 3.5 and 4.0 months of pod maturity. Lignification at sclerotic layer was considered as genotypic expressions due to the thickness at the secondary furrow at 3.0, 3.5 and 4.0 months of pod maturity performed high value of broad-sense heritability i.e. 0.75, 0.89 and 0.92 respectively. A qualitative assessment of the lignification clearly differentiated the resistant clones of ARDACIAR 10 with the susceptible clones of ICCRI 04, KW 516, and KW 564.

  5. Impact of Grain Shape and Multiple Black Carbon Internal Mixing on Snow Albedo: Parameterization and Radiative Effect Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Cenlin; Liou, Kuo-Nan; Takano, Yoshi; Yang, Ping; Qi, Ling; Chen, Fei

    2018-01-01

    We quantify the effects of grain shape and multiple black carbon (BC)-snow internal mixing on snow albedo by explicitly resolving shape and mixing structures. Nonspherical snow grains tend to have higher albedos than spheres with the same effective sizes, while the albedo difference due to shape effects increases with grain size, with up to 0.013 and 0.055 for effective radii of 1,000 μm at visible and near-infrared bands, respectively. BC-snow internal mixing reduces snow albedo at wavelengths external mixing, internal mixing enhances snow albedo reduction by a factor of 1.2-2.0 at visible wavelengths depending on BC concentration and snow shape. The opposite effects on albedo reductions due to snow grain nonsphericity and BC-snow internal mixing point toward a careful investigation of these two factors simultaneously in climate modeling. We further develop parameterizations for snow albedo and its reduction by accounting for grain shape and BC-snow internal/external mixing. Combining the parameterizations with BC-in-snow measurements in China, North America, and the Arctic, we estimate that nonspherical snow grains reduce BC-induced albedo radiative effects by up to 50% compared with spherical grains. Moreover, BC-snow internal mixing enhances the albedo effects by up to 30% (130%) for spherical (nonspherical) grains relative to external mixing. The overall uncertainty induced by snow shape and BC-snow mixing state is about 21-32%.

  6. The BlackBerry Project: The Hidden World of Adolescents’ Text Messaging and Relations With Internalizing Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, Marion K.; Ehrenreich, Samuel E.; More, David; Solis, Jerome S.; Brinkley, Dawn Y.

    2013-01-01

    In this naturalistic study of adolescents’ text messaging, participants (N = 172, 81 girls, age 14) were given BlackBerry devices configured to save their text messages to a secure archive for coding. Two, 2-day transcripts collected four months apart within the same academic year were microcoded for content. Results showed that most text message utterances were positive or neutral, and that adolescents sent text messages primarily to peers and to romantic partners. Only a few sex differences emerged. Frequency of text messages containing negative talk positively predicted overall internalizing symptoms and anxious depression. Text messaging about sex was positively associated with overall internalizing and somatic complaints for girls, but not for boys. PMID:25750494

  7. S-7OA-9 Black Hawk Helicopter: Internal Panel Cracking Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    research into helicopter usage monitoring and is involved with a sub-committee of TTCP HTP 8 looking at issues related to helicopter usage monitoring. He is...Repair Manual . It was subsequently discovered that a majority of the ESSS struts in service had the same damage and this raised an airworthiness issue...Black Hawk Structural Repair Manual , Royal Australian Air Force Publication, DI(AF) AAP7210.015-3,12 May 1994. 15. Fraser, R.C., A One-Pass Method For

  8. Internalized stigma and HIV status disclosure among HIV-positive black men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overstreet, Nicole M; Earnshaw, Valerie A; Kalichman, Seth C; Quinn, Diane M

    2013-01-01

    Black men who have sex with men (BMSM) are severely affected by the HIV epidemic, yet research on the relationship between HIV stigma and status disclosure is relatively limited among this population. Within this epidemic, internalized HIV stigma, the extent to which people living with HIV/AIDS endorse the negative beliefs associated with HIV as true of themselves, can negatively shape interpersonal outcomes and have important implications for psychological and physical health. In a sample of HIV-positive BMSM (N=156), the current study examined the effect of internalized stigma on HIV status disclosure to sexual partners, which can inform sexual decision-making in serodiscordant couples, and HIV status disclosure to family members, which can be beneficial in minimizing the psychological distress associated with HIV. Results revealed that greater internalized stigma was associated with less HIV status disclosure to participants' last sexual partner and to family members. Findings from this study provide evidence that internalized negative beliefs about one's HIV status are linked to adverse interpersonal consequences. Implications of these findings are discussed with regard to prevention and intervention efforts to reduce HIV stigmatization.

  9. Rapid Production Ramp-up for International Collaborative Supply Network in Electronics Goods Industry (X-Box, PS II, I-Pod, Etc) A Review of Existing Practices, Issues, and Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Ning

    2006-01-01

    The fierce competition of international consumer electronics market has brought more pressures on the manufacturing section especially in the context of globalization. The global producers have to find effective solution to cope with the challenges such as shorter and shorter product life, less and less customer loyalty and resources limitation. The fact that rapid production ramp up and supply network collaboration could benefit their performance has been recognized by many business giants s...

  10. Detection of Cocoa Pod Borer Infestation Using Sex Pheromone Trap and its Control by Pod Wrapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dian Rahmawati

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Cocoa pod borer (CPB, Conopomorpha cramerella Snellen (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae is a major pest of cocoa. Detection of the pest infestation using sex pheromone traps in the early growth and development of cocoa pods is important for an early warning system programme. In order to prevent the pest infestation the young pods were wrapped with plastic bags. A research to study the CPB incidence was conducted at cocoa plantations in Banjarharjo and Banjaroya villages, District of Kalibawang; Hargotirto and Hargowilis villages, District of Kokap; and Pagerharjo village, District of Samigaluh, Yogyakarta. The experiments design used RCBD with four treatments (sex pheromone trap, combination of sex pheromone trap and pod wrapping, pod wrapping, and control and five replications. As many as 6 units/ha pheromone traps were installed with a distance of 40 m in between. Results showed that one month prior to the trap installation in the experimental plots there were ripen cocoa pods as many as 9-13%, which were mostly infested by CPB. During the time period of introducting research on August to Desember 2016 there was not rambutan fruits as the CPB host, hence the CPB resource was from infested cocoa pods. The CPB moth trapped as many as 0−7 (1.13 ± 0.14 moths/6 traps/12 observations. The seed damage due to CPB larvae in the pheromone trap treatments (23.98% was relatively similar with the control (20.25%. Seed damage rate in combination treatment of pheromone trap and pod wrapping (0.59% was relatively the same with the pod wrapping (0.20%. The pheromone trap was more usefull for monitoring tool rather than for control, meanwhile pod wrapping was an effective control measure of CPB.   Intisari Penggerek Buah Kakao (PBK, Conopomorpha cramerella Snellen (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae merupakan salah satu hama utama kakao. Deteksi serangan hama PBK dengan perangkap feromon seks pada awal pertumbuhan dan perkembangan buah kakao penting dilakukan sebagai

  11. On black holes in multidimensional theory with Ricci-flat internal spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Fadeev, S. B.; Ivashchuk, V. D.; Melnikov, V. N.

    2010-01-01

    A generalization of the Tangherlini solution for the case of n internal Ricci-flat spaces is obtained. It is shown that in the (2+d)-dimensional section a horizon exists only in the trivial case when the internal-space factors are constant. The p-adic analog of the solution is also considered.

  12. NASA DOE POD NDE Capabilities Data Book

    Science.gov (United States)

    Generazio, Edward R.

    2015-01-01

    This data book contains the Directed Design of Experiments for Validating Probability of Detection (POD) Capability of NDE Systems (DOEPOD) analyses of the nondestructive inspection data presented in the NTIAC, Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) Capabilities Data Book, 3rd ed., NTIAC DB-97-02. DOEPOD is designed as a decision support system to validate inspection system, personnel, and protocol demonstrating 0.90 POD with 95% confidence at critical flaw sizes, a90/95. The test methodology used in DOEPOD is based on the field of statistical sequential analysis founded by Abraham Wald. Sequential analysis is a method of statistical inference whose characteristic feature is that the number of observations required by the procedure is not determined in advance of the experiment. The decision to terminate the experiment depends, at each stage, on the results of the observations previously made. A merit of the sequential method, as applied to testing statistical hypotheses, is that test procedures can be constructed which require, on average, a substantially smaller number of observations than equally reliable test procedures based on a predetermined number of observations.

  13. Numerical modelling of the internal mixing by coagulation of black carbon particles in aircraft exhaust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohlsson, S.; Stroem, J. [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Meteorology

    1997-12-31

    When exhaust gases from an aircraft engine mix with ambient air the humidity may reach water saturation and water droplets will form on the available cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). It is still not resolved if the CCN, on which the cloud droplets form, are mainly particles present in the ambient air or particles emitted by the aircraft. It the exhaust from a jet engine the particles are believed to consist mainly of black carbon (BC) and sulfate. The aim is to study, with the help of a numerical model, how a two-component aerosol (i.e. BC and sulfate) in an exhaust trail may be transformed in terms of hygroscopicity by coagulation mixing and how this may depend on the sulfur content in the fuel. (R.P.) 15 refs.

  14. Numerical modelling of the internal mixing by coagulation of black carbon particles in aircraft exhaust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohlsson, S; Stroem, J [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Meteorology

    1998-12-31

    When exhaust gases from an aircraft engine mix with ambient air the humidity may reach water saturation and water droplets will form on the available cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). It is still not resolved if the CCN, on which the cloud droplets form, are mainly particles present in the ambient air or particles emitted by the aircraft. It the exhaust from a jet engine the particles are believed to consist mainly of black carbon (BC) and sulfate. The aim is to study, with the help of a numerical model, how a two-component aerosol (i.e. BC and sulfate) in an exhaust trail may be transformed in terms of hygroscopicity by coagulation mixing and how this may depend on the sulfur content in the fuel. (R.P.) 15 refs.

  15. The Black Studies Boondoggle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Richard A.

    1970-01-01

    Indicates tendencies dangerous to the basic purpose of Black Studies, and identifies four external challeges--imperialism, paternalism, nihilism, and materialism. An internal challenge is considered to be the use of European and Establishment constructs to analyze black reality. (DM)

  16. Recovery of carbonates and hydroxides from cocoa pod ash ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ashes of cocoa pods contain alkali which is traditionally leached out and used to produce 'alata' soap. Ghana's Institute of Industrial Research has tested a pilot plant that produces liquid soap from cocoa pod ash, waste lime (Ca(OH)2), and palm kernel oil by initially converting the potassium carbonate in the leachate to ...

  17. Developing the Inundu fast-jet electronics test and evaluation pod

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jamison, Kevin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available modifications. The pod’s radio-frequency (RF) antenna is pointed towards the target despite aircraft manoeuvres using a gimbal. To steer the gimbal, the pod incorporates a combined satellite navigation and inertial navigation system (INS) that, coupled... the ECU operational environment. The performance of the ECU can be evaluated and verified at this level. To verify the pod’s performance in flight, its compatibility with the Hawker Hunter aircraft and to measure the internal environment...

  18. EKSTRAKSI SELULOSA DARI POD HUSK KAKAO MENGGUNAKAN SODIUM HIDROKSIDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gatot Siswo Hutomo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available EKSTRAKSI SELULOSA DARI POD HUSK KAKAO MENGGUNAKAN SODIUMHIDROKSIDA Cellulose Extraction from Cacao Pod Husk Using Sodium Hydroxide Gatot Siswo Hutomo, Djagal Wiseso Marseno, Sri Anggrahini, Supriyanto ABSTRAK Pod husk kakao banyak mengandung komponen kimia seperti pektin, lignin, hemiselulosa dan selulosa serta beberapakomponen yang lain yaitu caffein dan theobromine. Khusus selulosa dapat dilakukan modiÞ kasi sebagai turunanselulosa yang mempunyai banyak fungsi serta dapat diaplikasikan untuk pangan. Penelitian ekstraksi selulosa dari podhusk kakao telah dilakukan. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk memperoleh konsentrasi sodium hidroksida sebagaibahan untuk ekstraksi selulosa dari pod husk kakao. Selulosa pada pod husk kakao terikat sangat kuat dengan lignin,sodium hidroksida akan memutus dengan baik ikatan antara selulosa dengan lignin. Bleaching pada selulosa jugadilakukan dengan menggunakan sodium hipoklorida 3% dan sodium bisulÞ t 3% untuk meningkatkan lightness. SpektraFT-IR dan X-ray juga dilakukan untuk pendeteksian pada selulosa hasil ekstraksi. Hasil ekstraksi selulosa dari pod huskkakao menggunakan sodiumhidroksida 12% menghasilkan rendemen sekitar 26,09% (db dengan kristalinitas 27,14%,kadar abu 6,56% (db, WHC 5,87 g/g dan OHC 2,74 g/g. Dapat disimpulkan bahwa sodium hidroksida 12% adalahkonsentrasi yang paling baik untuk mengekstraksi selulosa dari pod husk kakao.Kata kunci: Selulosa, pod husk, kakao, ekstraksi ABSTRACT Cacao pod husk contains some compounds like pectin, lignin, hemicelluloses and cellulose, and other compounds suchas caffeine and theobromine. Especially for cellulose should be modiÞ ed as derivates which it have multi functionsin food application. Extraction cellulose from pod husk cacao was investigated. The aim of the research was to Þ ndthe concentration of sodium hydroxide for cellulose extraction from pod husk cacao. Bleaching for cellulose werecarried out twice using sodium hypochlorite 3% (oxydator and

  19. Hormones and Pod Development in Oilseed Rape (Brassica napus) 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bouille, Pierre; Sotta, Bruno; Miginiac, Emile; Merrien, André

    1989-01-01

    The endogenous levels of several plant growth substances (indole acetic acid, IAA; abscisic acid, ABA; zeatin, Z; zeatin riboside, [9R]Z; isopentenyladenine, iP; and isopentenyladenosine, [9R]iP were measured during pod development of field grown oilseed Rape (Brassica napus L. var oleifera cv Bienvenu) with high performance liquid chromatography and immunoenzymic (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, ELISA) techniques. Results show that pod development is characterized by high levels of Z and [9R]Z in 3 day old fruits and of IAA on the fourth day. During pod maturation, initially a significant increase of IAA and cytokinins was observed, followed by a progressive rise of ABA levels and a concomitant decline of IAA and cytokinin (except iP) levels. The relationship between hormone levels and development, especially pod number, seed number per pod, and seed weight determination, will be discussed. PMID:16666891

  20. InstrumentationPod (IPOD) User Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, Robert F. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-06-12

    This document describes the Instrumentation Pod (IPOD) and its operation and use. The IPOD is a low-power detector system comprising a 3He tube with preamp for neutron detection, a microcontroller-based data acquisition system, a GPS receiver for locationdetermination and time-synchronization, and power filtering and protection. The IPOD is intended to be bolted to the top of Dual-Use Casks stored at Baikal-1 in Kazakhstan in order to maintain continuity of knowledge of the materials stored within the cask. The data acquisition system receives pulses from the neutron-detection preamp, combines this information with other sensor data, and stores the result on two SD cards that are part of the data acquisition system. Firmware in the data acquisition system controls collection and storing of the data and enables configuration of the acquisition parameters.

  1. Opening the black box: internal capital markets and managerial power in conglomerates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glaser, M.; Lopez-de-Silanes, F.; Sautner, Z.

    2010-01-01

    How do firms allocate capital internally across units? Do more powerful and better connected managers inside a conglomerate get larger capital allocations? To answer these questions, we put together a unique five-year business-unit panel data set on planned and actual capital allocations inside a

  2. The iPod Revolution: An Exploratory Case Study of the Implementation of an iPod Touch Pilot Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanfield, Staci A.

    2013-01-01

    This exploratory case study was designed to investigate the implementation of an iPod touch pilot program in sixth grade science classrooms at an intermediate school in Southeast Texas. More specifically, this study explored the benefits and challenges associated with the utilization of iPod touch devices for students, teachers, and their campus…

  3. THE EFFECT OF BUSINESS FIRMS’ INTERNATIONAL ACTIVITIES ON THE FIRM PERFORMANCE: A CENTRAL BLACK SEA REGION CASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erkut ALTINDAG

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effect of business firms carrying on business in Central Black Sea Region of Turkey on the performance of these firms. Especially how it affected SMEs (Small and Medium Sized Enterprises was analyzed. When particularly considering the effects of business that have SME quality on economy of Turkey, such kind of researches are noticed to have a basis in recent years. The research depended upon the data obtained from enterprises through original qualified questionnaire. The questionnaire question forms were scaled benefiting from the studies in the literature based upon international activities and business performance measurement. For all variables, the scales in the literature were taken and included into research questionnaire. The questionnaires were performed to SMEs and large-scale enterprises. In the research factor analysis, correlation and regression analysis were included as analysis methods. According to the obtained results, it was determined that international activities had a positive effect on the performance of enterprises. The results were interpreted, and various suggestions were offered to academicians, and administrators.

  4. Fruit Pod Extracts as a Source of Nutraceuticals and Pharmaceuticals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azrina Azlan

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Fruit pods contain various beneficial compounds that have biological activities and can be used as a source of pharmaceutical and nutraceutical products. Although pods or pericarps are usually discarded when consuming the edible parts of fruits, they contain some compounds that exhibit biological activities after extraction. Most fruit pods included in this review contain polyphenolic components that can promote antioxidant effects on human health. Additionally, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antifungal and chemopreventive effects are associated with these fruit pod extracts. Besides polyphenolics, other compounds such as xanthones, carotenoids and saponins also exhibit health effects and can be potential sources of nutraceutical and pharmaceutical components. In this review, information on fruit pods or pericarp of Garcinia mangostana, Ceratonia siliqua, Moringa oleifera, Acacia nilotica, Sapindus rarak and Prosopis cineraria is presented and discussed with regard to their biological activity of the major compounds existing in them. The fruit pods of other ethno- botanical plants have also been reviewed. It can be concluded that although fruit pods are considered as being of no practical use and are often being thrown away, they nevertheless contain compounds that might be useful sources of nutraceutical and other pharmaceutical components.

  5. Natural and Experimental Poisoning of Cattle by Enterolobium contortisiliquum Pods (Fabaceae Mimosoideae in Central-Western Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio de Souza Mendonça

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Enterolobium contortisiliquum pods are commonly identified as being the cause of abortions and photosensitivity in cattle. This paper describes the clinical and pathological aspects of a natural outbreak of hepatogenous photosensitization by the pods of E. contortisiliquum in Brazil and the results of experimental poisoning in three bovines. The history of natural poisoning was obtained at the site of the outbreak. Clinical examinations were carried out and hepatic enzymes were analyzed. A post-mortem examination was carried out at the outbreak location on a cow that had died. Several samples were collected from the animal's internal organs to carry out histopathological examinations. E. contortisiliquum pods were given to cows in order to reproduce the disease. The natural poisonings were characterized by photosensitization and aborted young. Enterolobium photosensitization was not experimentally reproduced, but the animals fell sick and recovered after 52 days.

  6. The Canadian space program from Black Brant to the International Space Station

    CERN Document Server

    Godefroy, Andrew B

    2017-01-01

    Canada’s space efforts from its origins towards the end of the Second World War through to its participation in the ISS today are revealed in full in this complete and carefully researched history. Employing recently declassified archives and many never previously used sources, author Andrew B. Godefroy explains the history of the program through its policy and many fascinating projects. He assesses its effectiveness as a major partner in both US and international space programs, examines its current national priorities and capabilities, and outlines the country’s plans for the future. Despite being the third nation to launch a satellite into space after the Soviet Union and the United States; being a major partner in the US space shuttle program with the iconic Canadarm; being an international leader in the development of space robotics; and acting as one of the five major partners in the ISS, the Canadian Space Program remains one of the least well-known national efforts of the space age. This book atte...

  7. Moniliophthora roreri, causal agent of cacao frosty pod rot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Bryan A; Evans, Harry C; Phillips-Mora, Wilbert; Ali, Shahin S; Meinhardt, Lyndel W

    2017-12-01

    Taxonomy: Moniliophthora roreri (Cif.) H.C. Evans et al. ; Phylum Basidiomycota; Class Agaricomycetes; Order Agaricales; Family Marasmiaceae; Genus Moniliophthora. Biology: Moniliophthora roreri attacks Theobroma and Herrania species causing frosty pod rot. Theobroma cacao (cacao) is the host of major economic concern. Moniliophthora roreri is a hemibiotroph with a long biotrophic phase (45-90 days). Spore masses, of apparent asexual origin, are produced on the pod surface after initiation of the necrotrophic phase. Spores are spread by wind, rain and human activity. Symptoms of the biotrophic phase can include necrotic flecks and, in some cases, pod malformation, but pods otherwise remain asymptomatic. Relationship to Moniliophthora perniciosa: Moniliophthora roreri and Moniliophthora perniciosa, causal agent of witches' broom disease of cacao, are closely related. Their genomes are similar, including many of the genes they carry which are considered to be important in the disease process. Moniliophthora perniciosa, also a hemibiotroph, has a typical basidiomycete lifestyle and morphology, forming clamp connections and producing mushrooms. Basidiospores infect meristematic tissues including flower cushions, stem tips and pods. Moniliophthora roreri does not form clamp connections or mushrooms and infects pods only. Both pathogens are limited to the Western Hemisphere and are a threat to cacao production around the world. Agronomic importance: Disease losses caused by frosty pod rot can reach 90% and result in field abandonment. Moniliophthora roreri remains in the invasive phase in the Western Hemisphere, not having reached Brazil, some islands within the Caribbean and a few specific regions within otherwise invaded countries. The disease can be managed by a combination of cultural (for example, maintenance of tree height and removal of infected pods) and chemical methods. These methods benefit from regional application, but can be cost prohibitive. Breeding for

  8. Reticle inspection equipment productivity increase using SEMI specification for reticle and pod management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Ron; Downey, Jack; Wood, Jeffrey; Lin, Yen-Hung; Bugata, Bharathi; Fan, Dongsheng; Hess, Carl; Wylie, Mark

    2016-10-01

    In this work, the SEMI specification for reticle and pod management (E109) with internal reticle library support has been integrated for the first time on KLA-Tencor's TeronTM and TeraScanTM reticle inspection tools. Manufacturing Execution System scheduling reticle jobs and Automated Material Handling System scheduling to transfer pods simultaneously have also been integrated and tested. GLOBALFOUNDRIES collaboratively worked with KLA-Tencor to successfully implement these capabilities. Both library and non-library scenarios have been demonstrated for comparison in a real production environment resulting in productivity increase of approximately 29% by making use of the library. Reticle re-qualification test cases were used for the comparison in this work.

  9. Effects of internal mixing and aggregate morphology on optical properties of black carbon using a discrete dipole approximation model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. V. Scarnato

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available According to recent studies, internal mixing of black carbon (BC with other aerosol materials in the atmosphere alters its aggregate shape, absorption of solar radiation, and radiative forcing. These mixing state effects are not yet fully understood. In this study, we characterize the morphology and mixing state of bare BC and BC internally mixed with sodium chloride (NaCl using electron microscopy and examine the sensitivity of optical properties to BC mixing state and aggregate morphology using a discrete dipole approximation model (DDSCAT. DDSCAT is flexible in simulating the geometry and refractive index of particle aggregates. DDSCAT predicts a higher mass absorption coefficient (MAC, lower single scattering albedo (SSA, and higher absorption Angstrom exponent (AAE for bare BC aggregates that are lacy rather than compact. Predicted values of SSA at 550 nm range between 0.16 and 0.27 for lacy and compact aggregates, respectively, in agreement with reported experimental values of 0.25 ± 0.05. The variation in absorption with wavelength does not adhere precisely to a power law relationship over the 200 to 1000 nm range. Consequently, AAE values depend on the wavelength region over which they are computed. The MAC of BC (averaged over the 200–1000 nm range is amplified when internally mixed with NaCl (100–300 nm in radius by factors ranging from 1.0 for lacy BC aggregates partially immersed in NaCl to 2.2 for compact BC aggregates fully immersed in NaCl. The SSA of BC internally mixed with NaCl is higher than for bare BC and increases with the embedding in the NaCl. Internally mixed BC SSA values decrease in the 200–400 nm wavelength range, a feature also common to the optical properties of dust and organics. Linear polarization features are also predicted in DDSCAT and are dependent on particle size and morphology. This study shows that DDSCAT predicts complex morphology and mixing state dependent aerosol optical properties that have

  10. Inertial Forces from Earthquakes on a Hyperloop Pod

    OpenAIRE

    Heaton, Thomas H.

    2017-01-01

    High‐speed transit (1300  km/hr) using pods traveling in evacuated tubes has been proposed. This Short Note addresses how earthquake ground shaking is changed when it is experienced by a high‐speed pod that is confined to a track. In particular, earthquake motions can cause lateral deformations of the tube that cause centripetal forces in the pod. I discuss the nature of these forces for the cases of (1) a tube that crosses a fault offset, (2) a tube that is deformed by traveling waves in the...

  11. Black to Black

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langkjær, Michael Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Pop musicians performing in black stage costume take advantage of cultural traditions relating to matters black. Stylistically, black is a paradoxical color: although a symbol of melancholy, pessimism, and renunciation, black also expresses minimalist modernity and signifies exclusivity (as is hi...

  12. Associations Between Internalized Homophobia and Sexual Risk Behaviors Among Young Black Men Who Have Sex With Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, Richard A; Salazar, Laura F; Mena, Leandro; Geter, Angelica

    2016-10-01

    To assess internalized homophobia (IH) and its relationship to sexual risk behaviors and prevalence of sexually transmitted infection (STIs) in a clinic-based sample of young black men who have sex with men (YBMSM). Six hundred YBMSM completed a self-interview and provided specimens for testing. A 7-item scale assessed IH, and 19 sexual risk behaviors were assessed. In adjusted models, compared with men with less IH, those with greater IH were more likely to report: any condomless anal receptive sex (P = 0.01) and sex with women (P < 0.001). Alternatively, men with greater IH were less likely to: discuss acquired immune deficiency syndrome prevention with sex partners (P = 0.009), disclose their same sex sexual behavior to providers (P = 0.01), be tested for human immunodeficiency virus in the past 12 months (P = 0.04), report condomless oral sex (P = 0.049), and test RPR positive (P = 0.01). With some exceptions, IH among YBMSM attending STI clinics may influence their sexual risk behaviors; however, STI prevalence was not associated with this construct.

  13. Identification of black-box linear models : the case of thermal periodic contact of exhaust valves in internal combustion engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shojaeefard, M.H.; Fazelpour, M. [Iran Univ. of Science and Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Automotive Engineering; Goudarzi, K. [Iran Univ. of Science and Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2009-07-01

    In internal combustion engines, hot exhaust gases that pass through the exhaust valve lead to high temperatures in the exhaust valve and the valve seat. Heat must be transferred from the exhaust valve to valve seat as they come in contact with each other during the opening and closing cycle in order to avoid damaging the exhaust valve. The heat transfer rate from the valve to valve seat is a function of many factors, including the thermal contact conductance (TCC) between the valve and valve seat. The objective of this study was to experimentally calculate the TCC for six different frequencies in the quasi-steady-state condition and also to obtain a transfer function to estimate the exhaust valve temperature by using black-box models of system identification. Periodic contact was taken into consideration in the study. The paper presented the experimental setup including the loading system, heat and cooling system, temperature measurement system, specimens properties, and data acquisition system. The paper also described the test procedure and experimental results. System identification was also described. It was concluded that the TCC decreased as the frequency of contact increased. The temperature transfer function was calculated by using the system identification method and having the temperatures at both sides of the contact surface. By knowing the temperature of one rod, the temperature of the other rod was estimated with high accuracy. 16 refs., 4 tabs., 7 figs.

  14. Geometry and Mechanics in the Opening of Chiral Seed Pods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armon, Shahaf; Efrati, Efi; Kupferman, Raz; Sharon, Eran

    2011-09-01

    We studied the mechanical process of seed pods opening in Bauhinia variegate and found a chirality-creating mechanism, which turns an initially flat pod valve into a helix. We studied configurations of strips cut from pod valve tissue and from composite elastic materials that mimic its structure. The experiments reveal various helical configurations with sharp morphological transitions between them. Using the mathematical framework of “incompatible elasticity,” we modeled the pod as a thin strip with a flat intrinsic metric and a saddle-like intrinsic curvature. Our theoretical analysis quantitatively predicts all observed configurations, thus linking the pod’s microscopic structure and macroscopic conformation. We suggest that this type of incompatible strip is likely to play a role in the self-assembly of chiral macromolecules and could be used for the engineering of synthetic self-shaping devices.

  15. Taking Your iPod touch to the Max

    CERN Document Server

    Sadun, Erica

    2010-01-01

    Unleash your iPhone and take it to the limit using secret tips and techniques from gadget hacker Erica Sadun. Fast and fun to read, Taking Your iPod touch 4 to the Max is fully updated to show you how get the most out of Apple's new OS 4. You'll find all the best undocumented tricks as well as the most efficient and enjoyable introduction to the iPhone available. Starting with an introduction to iPod touch 4 basics, you'll quickly move on to discover the iPod touch's hidden potential, like how to connect to a TV, get contract-free VOIP, and hack OS 4 so it will run apps on your iPod touch. Fro

  16. Glow phenomenon surrounding the vertical stabilizer and OMS pods

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    This 35mm frame, photographed as the Space Shuttle Columbia was orbiting Earth during a 'night' pass, documents the glow phenomenon surrounding the vertical stabilizer and the Orbital Maneuvering System (OMS) pods of the spacecraft.

  17. Theseus Nose and Pod Cones Being Unloaded

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    Crew members are seen here unloading the nose and pod cones of the Theseus prototype research aircraft at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, in May of 1996. The Theseus aircraft, built and operated by Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation, Manassas, Virginia, was a unique aircraft flown at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, under a cooperative agreement between NASA and Aurora. Dryden hosted the Theseus program, providing hangar space and range safety for flight testing. Aurora Flight Sciences was responsible for the actual flight testing, vehicle flight safety, and operation of the aircraft. The Theseus remotely piloted aircraft flew its maiden flight on May 24, 1996, at Dryden. During its sixth flight on November 12, 1996, Theseus experienced an in-flight structural failure that resulted in the loss of the aircraft. As of the beginning of the year 2000, Aurora had not rebuilt the aircraft. Theseus was built for NASA under an innovative, $4.9 million fixed-price contract by Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation and its partners, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia, and Fairmont State College, Fairmont, West Virginia. The twin-engine, unpiloted vehicle had a 140-foot wingspan, and was constructed largely of composite materials. Powered by two 80-horsepower, turbocharged piston engines that drove twin 9-foot-diameter propellers, Theseus was designed to fly autonomously at high altitudes, with takeoff and landing under the active control of a ground-based pilot in a ground control station 'cockpit.' With the potential ability to carry 700 pounds of science instruments to altitudes above 60,000 feet for durations of greater than 24 hours, Theseus was intended to support research in areas such as stratospheric ozone depletion and the atmospheric effects of future high-speed civil transport aircraft engines. Instruments carried aboard Theseus also would be able to validate satellite-based global environmental

  18. Effect of forage supplementation and alkali treatment of cocoa pod on the utilization of cocoa pod based diets by ruminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, O.B.

    1987-01-01

    Two treatment methods - forage supplementation and chemical treatment - both potentially capable of improving cocoa pod utilization by ruminants were evaluated. Forage supplementation, using Gliricidia sepium of cattle fed a 50% cocoa pod diet yielded no positive results. Consumption of Gliricidia was poor and equalled only 0.2 kg/head/d. Feed intake (4.6 versus 4.8 kg dry matter (DM)/d), growth rate (0.37 versus 0.40 kg/d) and feed/gain (12.7 versus 12.0) for control and test cattle were similar (P>0.05). Chemical treatment using cocoa pod ash solutions (PAS) - a caustic material - was more successful. Rumen digestibility (as determined by the nylon bag technique) of cocoa pods treated with PAS, equivalent in alkalinity to 2 (P 2 ), 4 (P 4 ), 6 (P 6 ) and 8% (P 8 ) NaOH, was linearly improved (P 0.05). Dry matter, ADF and NDF degradabilities increased (P 6 and 55, 46 and 42%, respectively, for P 8 treated samples. Dry matter digestibilities of cocoa pod based diets also increased (P 8 treated) in sheep and to 60% in goats. Nevertheless, treatment with P 8 solutions reduced (P 0.75 in sheep and from 48 to 42 g DM/kg W 0.75 in goats. Feed intake, however, was normal for diets containing P 6 treated cocoa pods (67 and 61 g DM/kg W 0.75 ) for sheep and goats, respectively. Cocoa pod ash for treating cocoa pods should therefore not be stronger than the P 6 level which corresponds in alkalinity to 6% NaOH. (author)

  19. Shade tree spatial structure and pod production explain frosty pod rot intensity in cacao agroforests, Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gidoin, Cynthia; Avelino, Jacques; Deheuvels, Olivier; Cilas, Christian; Bieng, Marie Ange Ngo

    2014-03-01

    Vegetation composition and plant spatial structure affect disease intensity through resource and microclimatic variation effects. The aim of this study was to evaluate the independent effect and relative importance of host composition and plant spatial structure variables in explaining disease intensity at the plot scale. For that purpose, frosty pod rot intensity, a disease caused by Moniliophthora roreri on cacao pods, was monitored in 36 cacao agroforests in Costa Rica in order to assess the vegetation composition and spatial structure variables conducive to the disease. Hierarchical partitioning was used to identify the most causal factors. Firstly, pod production, cacao tree density and shade tree spatial structure had significant independent effects on disease intensity. In our case study, the amount of susceptible tissue was the most relevant host composition variable for explaining disease intensity by resource dilution. Indeed, cacao tree density probably affected disease intensity more by the creation of self-shading rather than by host dilution. Lastly, only regularly distributed forest trees, and not aggregated or randomly distributed forest trees, reduced disease intensity in comparison to plots with a low forest tree density. A regular spatial structure is probably crucial to the creation of moderate and uniform shade as recommended for frosty pod rot management. As pod production is an important service expected from these agroforests, shade tree spatial structure may be a lever for integrated management of frosty pod rot in cacao agroforests.

  20. Resistance of Advanced Soybean Lines to Pod Borrer (Etiella zinckenella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heru Kuswantoro

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The increasing and stabilizing of soybean product in Indonesia face many limitations. One of the limiting factors is pod borrer (Etiella zinckenella Treitschke infestation that is able to cause yield loss up to 80%. Objective of the research was to find out some advanced soybean lines that resistant to pod borrer. Design was randomized complete block with three replications. Soybean lines were grown gradualy to ensure the simultanously flowering. The plants were caged at 35 days after planting (DAT and infested with the imago of E. zinckenella at 56 DAT. Results showed that different soybean lines affected imago population, eggs population, larvae population, infected pods and infected seeds. Some genotypes were consistantly resistant to E. zinckenella. The resistance of those genotypes were non preference resistance based on eggs population, larvae population, infected pod and infected seeds. This study discovered nine soybean lines that is resistant to E. zinckenella, so that it can be beneficial for improving soybean resistance to this pest through releasing as a new resistant pod borer variety after tested further in potential yield and genetic x environment interaction trials. In addition, there were three varieties and two germplasm accessions that can be used as gene sources for improving the resistance of the varieties. The three varieties are able to be cultivated directly in field to decrease the E. zinckenella occurrence. 

  1. Model Adaptation in Parametric Space for POD-Galerkin Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Haotian; Wei, Mingjun

    2017-11-01

    The development of low-order POD-Galerkin models is largely motivated by the expectation to use the model developed with a set of parameters at their native values to predict the dynamic behaviors of the same system under different parametric values, in other words, a successful model adaptation in parametric space. However, most of time, even small deviation of parameters from their original value may lead to large deviation or unstable results. It has been shown that adding more information (e.g. a steady state, mean value of a different unsteady state, or an entire different set of POD modes) may improve the prediction of flow with other parametric states. For a simple case of the flow passing a fixed cylinder, an orthogonal mean mode at a different Reynolds number may stabilize the POD-Galerkin model when Reynolds number is changed. For a more complicated case of the flow passing an oscillatory cylinder, a global POD-Galerkin model is first applied to handle the moving boundaries, then more information (e.g. more POD modes) is required to predicate the flow under different oscillatory frequencies. Supported by ARL.

  2. Development of POD from in-service NDI data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsyth, David S.; Fahr, Abbas; Leemans, Dirk V.; McRae, Ken I.

    2000-05-01

    The economic drive towards using aircraft beyond their initial design life has created a great interest in damage-tolerance (DT) based maintenance. The DT approach relies on routine nondestructive inspections (NDI), and requires that the NDI performance to be quantified in terms probability of detection (POD) to determine the safe inspection intervals. The most common approach for determining NDI POD is to perform inspections on representative components or specimens simulating the actual parts. This approach is practical but can be very expensive. A more economical approach may be to use actual field inspection data to obtain POD. This approach is particularly attractive for airframe inspection techniques, since most airframe structures cannot be easily simulated. There are a number of difficulties with this approach: Firstly, there is usually a very limited amount of field data. This may require special statistical treatment. Secondly, crack growth data must exist to allow the estimation of flaw sizes at the inspection sites at inspection times before the flaws were found. These factors and others affect the confidence in the calculated POD, and must be quantified before POD data of this type can be used. In this work, data from full scale fatigue tests were analyzed, and methods of overcoming the problems of small sample sizes and crack growth data requirements were investigated.

  3. Integrated Automatic Test System for Airborne Optoelectronic Pods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Z M; Ding, M J; Wang, L

    2006-01-01

    Based on the introduction of the construction and basic principle of the airborne optoelectronic pod, in accordance with the performance standards of the pod, the total solution scheme of the automatic test system used for testing the combination property is proposed in this paper. The main structure, hardware and software design of the system based on the virtual instruments technology are also discussed in detail. The result of the true run proves the practicality, efficiency, high accuracy and other characteristics of the computer aided testing system based on virtual instruments

  4. The effect of peanut pod on performance, small intestine pH and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Esnart Mukumbo

    2018-02-05

    Feb 5, 2018 ... insoluble fibre on the growth performance of broilers in this study were probably a result of ... The nitrogen-corrected true metabolisable energy of the peanut pod sample was ... peanut pod sample used in the experiment.

  5. SWJ:39-42 Inheritance of Pod Colour in Cowpea INHERITANCE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. Ahmed

    two additional pod pigmentation genes; one conditions green pods ... Hybridization experiments were conducted in the screen house to study the pattern of inheritance of ... to breeders because its understanding could lead to the development.

  6. Development of kairomone based control programs for cocoa pod borer

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cocoa Pod Borer moth presents a unique opportunity to develop host volatile attractants for control strategies for the following reasons. First, knowing what volatiles are critical for host finding by females will allow for development of mass trapping and/or attract and kill strategies to cont...

  7. Biotechnology for cocoa pod borer resistance in cocoa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chaidamsari, T.

    2005-01-01

    The cocoa tree ( Theobroma cacao L.) produces the beans that are the source of cacao, the basis for chocolate production, and an important commodity crop in South America, West Africa, and Southeast Asia.Cocoa Pod

  8. identification of common bean genotypes with dual leaf and pod ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    2018-02-08

    Feb 8, 2018 ... IDENTIFICATION OF COMMON BEAN GENOTYPES WITH DUAL LEAF AND. POD RESISTANCE TO COMMON BACTERIAL BLIGHT DISEASE IN UGANDA. B.M.E. ALLADASSI, S.T. NKALUBO1, C. MUKANKUSI2, H.N. KAYAGA, P. GIBSON, R. EDEMA,. C.A. URREA3, J.D. KELLY4 and P.R. RUBAIHAYO.

  9. Bean Pod Mottle Virus (BPMV) (Genus Comovirus ): A Limiting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The reactions of twenty soybean varieties to infection with Bean Pod Mottle Virus (BPMV) (Genus Comovirus) disease were studied for 2 consecutive years in the Department of Crop Science University of Nigeria, Nsukka Farm (Latitude 060 25N; Longitude 070 24N; attitude 447.26 m above sea level). Factorial arrangement ...

  10. A DSP Based POD Implementation for High Speed Multimedia Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Nian Zhang

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available In the cable network services, the audio/video entertainment contents should be protected from unauthorized copying, intercepting, and tampering. Point-of-deployment (POD security module, proposed by OpenCableTM, allows viewers to receive secure cable services such as premium subscription channels, impulse pay-per-view, video-on-demand as well as other interactive services. In this paper, we present a digital signal processor (DSP (TMS320C6211 based POD implementation for the real-time applications which include elliptic curve digital signature algorithm (ECDSA, elliptic curve Diffie Hellman (ECDH key exchange, elliptic curve key derivation function (ECKDF, cellular automata (CA cryptography, communication processes between POD and Host, and Host authentication. In order to get different security levels and different rates of encryption/decryption, a CA based symmetric key cryptography algorithm is used whose encryption/decryption rate can be up to 75 Mbps. The experiment results indicate that the DSP based POD implementation provides high speed and flexibility, and satisfies the requirements of real-time video data transmission.

  11. STS-39: OMS Pod Thruster Removal/Replace

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    Shown is the removal and replacement of the Discovery's orbital maneuvering systems (OMS) pod thruster. The OMS engine will be used to propel Discovery north, off of its previous orbital groundtrack, without changing the spacecraft's altitude. A burn with this lateral effect is known as "out-of-plane."

  12. Influence of the position of detached cocoa pod inoculated with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was conducted at the Cocoa Research Institute of Ghana (CRIG) to determine if there were any interactions between Phytophthora infection at the distal, proximal and mid-region positions of cocoa pods. The number and size of lesions in nine different cocoa clones were counted and measured at the three ...

  13. Effect of Pleurotus ostreatus fermentation on cocoa pod husk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cocoa pod husk (CPH) is a major agro-industrial residue in Ghana with a potential value as a low-cost unconventional feedstuff for livestock. However, its effective use is limited by poor nutrient composition, mainly due to its high lignocellulose or fibre and also low protein levels. White–rot fungi such as Pleurotus species ...

  14. Podagogy: The iPod as a Learning Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Crispin; Pymm, John M.

    2009-01-01

    With the growing influence of social media on contemporary society, educators have to adapt to new ways of engaging students in the learning process. The use of iPod technologies, as part of this new breed of social media and associated gadgetry, offers fresh opportunities to enhance the student learning experience. As part of a research project…

  15. Effects of Prosopis laevigata pods on growth performance, ruminal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    UASLP

    2016-10-27

    Oct 27, 2016 ... (P. juliflora), pods replacing forages at 30% of total diet did not affect growth ... The processing of diets was manual. ... Blood samples were centrifuged (3400 g x 15 min) and serum was stored at −20◦ .... improvements in the rumen fermentative process commonly induce increments of microbial N synthesis.

  16. Management of Podrot, Oil Content, and Pod Weight of Benniseed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... yield at the highest plant population of 250,000 plants/ha in the 1st and 2nd seasons. However, yield were highest at combination of 60kg/ha and 250,000 plants/ha in all the seasons investigated. Keywords: Management , Podrot, Oil content, Pod Weight, Benniseed, Ultisols Discovery and Innovation Vol. 19 (3) 2007: pp.

  17. Australian black coal statistics 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    This second edition of Australian black coal statistics replaces the Joint Coal Board's publication 'Black coal in Australia'. It includes an expanded international coal trade supplement. Sections cover resources of black coal, coal supply and demand, coal production, employment and productivity of mines, export data, coal consumption and a directory of producers.

  18. Experimental investigation of stresses and deformations of the model of a pod-boiler-prestressed concrete pressure vessel. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoever, R.

    1973-01-01

    Investigations of elastic models are suitable to obtain independent values for stress states and deformations of thickwalled pressure vessels to check computer programs for three-dimensional elastic calculations. An elastic model of epoxy resin was constructed with the geometry of the pod boiler pressure vessel of the Hartlepool nuclear power station. With this model strains and deformations were measured for internal pressure. The stress states in the neighbourhood of the large vertical openings for the boiler pods and the horizontal gas ducts and at the junction of cylinder and plates were of special interest. Therefore most of the gauges were concentrated in these regions. A considerable number of strain gauges were embedded in the wall. The construction of the model is described in part one and results of the measurements are presented and discussed in part two of this report. (orig.) [de

  19. Black rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emparan, Roberto; Reall, Harvey S

    2006-01-01

    A black ring is a five-dimensional black hole with an event horizon of topology S 1 x S 2 . We provide an introduction to the description of black rings in general relativity and string theory. Novel aspects of the presentation include a new approach to constructing black ring coordinates and a critical review of black ring microscopics. (topical review)

  20. ArduiPod Box: a low-cost and open-source Skinner box using an iPod Touch and an Arduino microcontroller.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineño, Oskar

    2014-03-01

    This article introduces the ArduiPod Box, an open-source device built using two main components (i.e., an iPod Touch and an Arduino microcontroller), developed as a low-cost alternative to the standard operant conditioning chamber, or "Skinner box." Because of its affordability, the ArduiPod Box provides an opportunity for educational institutions with small budgets seeking to set up animal laboratories for research and instructional purposes. A pilot experiment is also presented, which shows that the ArduiPod Box, in spite of its extraordinary simplicity, can be effectively used to study animal learning and behavior.

  1. Astrophysical black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Gorini, Vittorio; Moschella, Ugo; Treves, Aldo; Colpi, Monica

    2016-01-01

    Based on graduate school lectures in contemporary relativity and gravitational physics, this book gives a complete and unified picture of the present status of theoretical and observational properties of astrophysical black holes. The chapters are written by internationally recognized specialists. They cover general theoretical aspects of black hole astrophysics, the theory of accretion and ejection of gas and jets, stellar-sized black holes observed in the Milky Way, the formation and evolution of supermassive black holes in galactic centers and quasars as well as their influence on the dynamics in galactic nuclei. The final chapter addresses analytical relativity of black holes supporting theoretical understanding of the coalescence of black holes as well as being of great relevance in identifying gravitational wave signals. With its introductory chapters the book is aimed at advanced graduate and post-graduate students, but it will also be useful for specialists.

  2. Physiological Mechanisms behind Differences in Pod Shattering Resistance in Rapeseed (Brassica napus L. Varieties.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Kuai

    Full Text Available Pod shattering resistance index (SRI is a key factor affecting the mechanical harvesting of rapeseed. Research on the differences in pod shattering resistance levels of various rapeseed varieties can provide a theoretical basis for varietal breeding and application in mechanical harvesting. The indicators on pod shattering resistance including pod morphology and wall components were evaluated on eight hybrids and open pollinators, respectively, during 2012-2014. The results showed the following: (1 From the current study, SRI varied greatly with variety, and conventional varieties had stronger resistance than hybrid according to the physiological indexes. and (2 Under the experimental conditions, the SRI was linearly related to pod wall weight and the water content in pod walls, and the goodness-of-fit measurements for the regression model of the SRI based on pod wall weight and water content were 0.584** and 0.377*, respectively, reaching the significant level. This illustrated that pod wall weight and the water content in pod walls determined the SRI. (3 Compared with the relative contents of biochemical components in pod walls, the contents of particular biochemical components in pod walls had closer correlations with SRI. Among the biochemical components, the hemicellulose content was the decisive factor for the SRI.

  3. Proteome analysis of pod and seed development in the model legume Lotus japonicus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nautrup-Pedersen, G.; Dam, S.; Laursen, B. S.

    2010-01-01

    Legume pods serve important functions during seed development and are themselves sources of food and feed. Compared to seeds, the metabolism and development of pods are not well-defined. The present characterization of pods from the model legume Lotus japonicus, together with the detailed analyses...... of the pod and seed proteomes in five developmental stages, paves the way for comparative pathway analysis and provides new metabolic information. Proteins were analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and tandem-mass spectrometry. These analyses lead to the identification of 604 pod proteins and 965...... and photosynthesis. Proteins detected only in pods included three enzymes participating in the urea cycle and four in nitrogen and amino group metabolism, highlighting the importance of nitrogen metabolism during pod development. Additionally, five legume seed proteins previously unassigned in the glutamate...

  4. Assessment of the solubility of thorium and uranium from black sand of Camargue in both simulated lung and gut fluids for dose calculation after internal exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frelon, S.; Chazel, V.; Tourlonias, E.; Paquet, F. [IRSN/ DRPH/ SRBE, LRTOX, BP 166, 26702 Pierrelatte Cedex (France); Blanchardon, E. [IRSN/ DRPH/ SDI, LEDI, BP 17, 92262 Fontenay Aux Roses Cedex (France); Bouisset, P. [IRSN/ DEI/ STEME, LMRE, Bois des rames, 91400 Orsay (France); Pourcelot, L. [IRSN/ DEI/ SESURE, LERCM, BP3, 13 115 St Paul lez Durance Cedex (France)

    2006-07-01

    In the south of France, some beaches of Camargue present a high rate of natural radioactivity due to thorium and uranium from zircon and apatite heavy minerals present in the so-called black sand. These radionuclides may lead to internal exposure consecutive to inhalation or ingestion of this sand. The accurate assessment of radiological risk after internal exposure of public frequenting these beaches requires some information on the human bioavailability of U and Th from the sand. Both routes of intake were studied in this work and the consecutive dose delivered was calculated under two different scenarios for each type of exposure. As far as inhalation is concerned, the first important conclusion is that the inhalable fraction, i.e. particles with aerodynamic diameters below 50 {mu}m, was tiny (0.002%) in this sample of sand. Moreover in vitro assays of solubility were performed for this fraction and showed that U and Th as well as their progeny presented moderate solubility. Then effective doses under several scenarios were calculated and seem to demonstrate a very poor risk of exposure after inhalation. Indeed, a dose of 1 mSv would be received by a babies after inhalation of about 40 Kg of sand, that is impossible, whereas a more realistic scenario of chronic exposure only reached 31 {mu} Sv. In case of ingestion, the solubility of Th and U in the gastrointestinal fluids was found to be very low with a maximum solubility of 0.5% of the initial mass of radioelement in the sample of sand. Then the worst hypothesis studied yields an effective dose of 0.018 mSv./(g-swallowed sand) that is roughly 50 times less than the legal annual dose limit for members of the public. as a conclusion, the possible internal dose after exposure by inhalation or ingestion of black sand of Camargue seems to be very low under the conditions of this study. (N.C.)

  5. Assessment of the solubility of thorium and uranium from black sand of Camargue in both simulated lung and gut fluids for dose calculation after internal exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frelon, S.; Chazel, V.; Tourlonias, E.; Paquet, F.; Blanchardon, E.; Bouisset, P.; Pourcelot, L.

    2006-01-01

    In the south of France, some beaches of Camargue present a high rate of natural radioactivity due to thorium and uranium from zircon and apatite heavy minerals present in the so-called black sand. These radionuclides may lead to internal exposure consecutive to inhalation or ingestion of this sand. The accurate assessment of radiological risk after internal exposure of public frequenting these beaches requires some information on the human bioavailability of U and Th from the sand. Both routes of intake were studied in this work and the consecutive dose delivered was calculated under two different scenarios for each type of exposure. As far as inhalation is concerned, the first important conclusion is that the inhalable fraction, i.e. particles with aerodynamic diameters below 50 μm, was tiny (0.002%) in this sample of sand. Moreover in vitro assays of solubility were performed for this fraction and showed that U and Th as well as their progeny presented moderate solubility. Then effective doses under several scenarios were calculated and seem to demonstrate a very poor risk of exposure after inhalation. Indeed, a dose of 1 mSv would be received by a babies after inhalation of about 40 Kg of sand, that is impossible, whereas a more realistic scenario of chronic exposure only reached 31 μ Sv. In case of ingestion, the solubility of Th and U in the gastrointestinal fluids was found to be very low with a maximum solubility of 0.5% of the initial mass of radioelement in the sample of sand. Then the worst hypothesis studied yields an effective dose of 0.018 mSv./(g-swallowed sand) that is roughly 50 times less than the legal annual dose limit for members of the public. as a conclusion, the possible internal dose after exposure by inhalation or ingestion of black sand of Camargue seems to be very low under the conditions of this study. (N.C.)

  6. Airborne Multisensor Pod System (AMPS) data management overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiberg, J.D.; Blough, D.K.; Daugherty, W.R.; Hucks, J.A.; Gerhardstein, L.H.; Meitzler, W.D.; Melton, R.B.; Shoemaker, S.V.

    1994-09-01

    An overview of the Data Management Plan for the Airborne Multisensor Pod System (AMPS) pro-grain is provided in this document. The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has been assigned the responsibility of data management for the program, which includes defining procedures for data management and data quality assessment. Data management is defined as the process of planning, acquiring, organizing, qualifying and disseminating data. The AMPS program was established by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Arms Control and Non-Proliferation (DOE/AN) and is integrated into the overall DOE AN-10.1 technology development program. Sensors used for collecting the data were developed under the on-site inspection, effluence analysis, and standoff sensor program, the AMPS program interacts with other technology programs of DOE/NN-20. This research will be conducted by both government and private industry. AMPS is a research and development program, and it is not intended for operational deployment, although the sensors and techniques developed could be used in follow-on operational systems. For a complete description of the AMPS program, see {open_quotes}Airborne Multisensor Pod System (AMPS) Program Plan{close_quotes}. The primary purpose of the AMPS is to collect high-quality multisensor data to be used in data fusion research to reduce interpretation problems associated with data overload and to derive better information than can be derived from any single sensor. To collect the data for the program, three wing-mounted pods containing instruments with sensors for collecting data will be flight certified on a U.S. Navy RP-3A aircraft. Secondary objectives of the AMPS program are sensor development and technology demonstration. Pod system integrators and instrument developers will be interested in the performance of their deployed sensors and their supporting data acquisition equipment.

  7. Biotechnology for cocoa pod borer resistance in cocoa

    OpenAIRE

    Chaidamsari, T.

    2005-01-01

    The cocoa tree ( Theobroma cacao L.) produces the beans that are the source of cacao, the basis for chocolate production, and an important commodity crop in South America, West Africa, and Southeast Asia.Cocoa Pod Borer (CPB,( Conopomorpha cramerella)has been the single most important limiting factor for cacao production in Southeast Asia.So far, there has been no single cost effective and environmentally safe way to control this pest.This thesis describes the first steps in a biotechnologica...

  8. Fast Multiscale Reservoir Simulations using POD-DEIM Model Reduction

    KAUST Repository

    Ghasemi, Mohammadreza

    2015-02-23

    In this paper, we present a global-local model reduction for fast multiscale reservoir simulations in highly heterogeneous porous media with applications to optimization and history matching. Our proposed approach identifies a low dimensional structure of the solution space. We introduce an auxiliary variable (the velocity field) in our model reduction that allows achieving a high degree of model reduction. The latter is due to the fact that the velocity field is conservative for any low-order reduced model in our framework. Because a typical global model reduction based on POD is a Galerkin finite element method, and thus it can not guarantee local mass conservation. This can be observed in numerical simulations that use finite volume based approaches. Discrete Empirical Interpolation Method (DEIM) is used to approximate the nonlinear functions of fine-grid functions in Newton iterations. This approach allows achieving the computational cost that is independent of the fine grid dimension. POD snapshots are inexpensively computed using local model reduction techniques based on Generalized Multiscale Finite Element Method (GMsFEM) which provides (1) a hierarchical approximation of snapshot vectors (2) adaptive computations by using coarse grids (3) inexpensive global POD operations in a small dimensional spaces on a coarse grid. By balancing the errors of the global and local reduced-order models, our new methodology can provide an error bound in simulations. Our numerical results, utilizing a two-phase immiscible flow, show a substantial speed-up and we compare our results to the standard POD-DEIM in finite volume setup.

  9. Black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feast, M.W.

    1981-01-01

    This article deals with two questions, namely whether it is possible for black holes to exist, and if the answer is yes, whether we have found any yet. In deciding whether black holes can exist or not the central role in the shaping of our universe played by the forse of gravity is discussed, and in deciding whether we are likely to find black holes in the universe the author looks at the way stars evolve, as well as white dwarfs and neutron stars. He also discusses the problem how to detect a black hole, possible black holes, a southern black hole, massive black holes, as well as why black holes are studied

  10. Jason-1 and Jason-2 POD Using GPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melachroinos, Stavros; Lemoine, Frank G.; Zelensky, Nikita P.; Rowlands, David D.; Luthcke, Scott B.; Beckley, Brian D.

    2012-01-01

    The Jason-2 satellite, launched in June 2008, is the latest follow-on to the successful Jason-1 altimetry satellite mission launched in December 7, 2001. Both, Jason-2 and Jason-1 are equipped with a GPS dual-frequency receiver, a laser retroreflector array, and a DORIS receiver for precise orbit determination (POD). A series of dynamic and reduced-dynamic Jason-2 orbits computed at NASA GSFC, based on GPS-only data and the std0905 standards, have been completed till cy74through cycle 74 using the IGS05 framework. These orbits, now publicly available, have been shown to agree radially at 1 cm RMS with the GSFC std0905 SLR/DORIS orbits and in comparison with orbits produced by JPL, ESA and CNES. In this paper, we describe the implementation of the IGS08 and repro1 framework for the Jason-2 and Jason-1 GPS POD processing with the NASA GSFC GEODYN software. . In our updated GPS POD, ambiguity fixing and updated time variable and static gravity fields. We also evaluate the implementation of non-tidal and degree-1 loading displacement as forward modeling to the tracking stations. Reduced-dynamic versus dynamic orbit differences are used to characterize the remaining force model errors and TRF instability. In particular, we assess their consistency radially and the stability of the altimeter satellite reference frame in the North/South direction as a proxy to assess the consistency of the reference frame.

  11. Numerical study of hub taper angle on podded propeller performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Islam, M.F.; Veitch, B.; Bose, N.; Liu, P.

    2005-01-01

    Presently, the majority of podded propulsion systems are of the pulling type, because this type provides better hydrodynamic efficiency than the pushing type. There are several possible explanations for the better overall performance of a puller type podded propulsor. One is related to the difference in hub shape. Puller and pusher propellers have opposite hub taper angles, hence different hub and blade root shape. These differences cause changes in the flow condition and possibly influence the overall performance. The current study focuses on the variation in performance of pusher and puller propellers with the same blade sections, but different hub taper angles. A hyperboloidal low order source doublet steady/unsteady time domain panel method code was modified and used to evaluate effects of hub taper angle on the open water propulsive performance of some fixed pitch screw propellers used in podded propulsion systems. The modified code was first validated against measurements of two model propellers in terms of average propulsive performance and good agreement was found. Major findings include significant effects of hub taper angle on propulsive performance of tapered hub propellers and noticeable effects of hub taper angle on sectional pressure distributions of tapered hub propeller blades. (author)

  12. POD Model Reconstruction for Gray-Box Fault Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Han; Zak, Michail

    2007-01-01

    Proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) is the mathematical basis of a method of constructing low-order mathematical models for the "gray-box" fault-detection algorithm that is a component of a diagnostic system known as beacon-based exception analysis for multi-missions (BEAM). POD has been successfully applied in reducing computational complexity by generating simple models that can be used for control and simulation for complex systems such as fluid flows. In the present application to BEAM, POD brings the same benefits to automated diagnosis. BEAM is a method of real-time or offline, automated diagnosis of a complex dynamic system.The gray-box approach makes it possible to utilize incomplete or approximate knowledge of the dynamics of the system that one seeks to diagnose. In the gray-box approach, a deterministic model of the system is used to filter a time series of system sensor data to remove the deterministic components of the time series from further examination. What is left after the filtering operation is a time series of residual quantities that represent the unknown (or at least unmodeled) aspects of the behavior of the system. Stochastic modeling techniques are then applied to the residual time series. The procedure for detecting abnormal behavior of the system then becomes one of looking for statistical differences between the residual time series and the predictions of the stochastic model.

  13. Physiological traits of endornavirus-infected and endornavirus-free common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) cv Black Turtle Soup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khankhum, S; Valverde, R A

    2018-04-01

    This study evaluated the physiological traits of eight lines of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) cv. Black Turtle Soup, four of which were double-infected with Phaseolus vulgaris endornavirus 1 and Phaseolus vulgaris endornavirus 2, and four of which were endornavirus-free. Plants from all eight lines were morphologically similar and did not show statistically significant differences in plant height, wet weight, number of days to flowering and pod formation, pods per plant, pod thickness, seed size, number of seeds per pod, and anthocyanin content. However, the endornavirus-infected lines had faster seed germination, longer radicle, lower chlorophyll content, higher carotene content, longer pods, and higher weight of 100 seeds, all of which were statistically significant. The endornaviruses were not associated with visible pathogenic effects.

  14. Heavy metal content and element analysis of infant formula and milk powder samples purchased on the Tanzanian market: International branded versus black market products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sager, M; McCulloch, C R; Schoder, D

    2018-07-30

    Milk powder is a food for malnourished African children and for healthy infants of women with HIV/AIDS. High demand and low purchasing power has resulted in a huge informal, black market in Sub-Saharan Africa. Forty-three milk powder batches were analyzed for 43 chemical elements using ICP-MS One sample (2.3%) was contaminated at a lead concentration of 240 µg/kg dry weight exceeding the European threshold (130 µg/kg dry weight). Macroelement contents revealed a trend decreasing in concentration through skimmed, full cream products to infant formulae. Concentration ranges by dry weight differed in respect of uncertainty intervals of  ±10%. Median Ca, K and P concentrations declined from 11.14 g/kg to 3.21 g/kg, 14.11 g/kg to 4.95 g/kg and 9.12 g/kg to 2.75 g/kg dry mass, respectively. Milk powder samples obtained from the Tanzanian black market were comparable in respect of nutritional and chemical content to international branded full cream products. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Changes in abscisic acid translocation during pod development and senescence in soybeans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nooden, L.D.; Obermayer, W.R.

    1981-01-01

    The patterns of abscisic acid circulation between the leaves and the pods change during pod development and monocarpic senescence in soybeans. 14 C-ABA injected into the seed cavity of the most advanced pod moves to less advanced pods and mostly to pods at the same node, but very little travels to the leaves. More of the injected ABA is translocated during early and mid podfill compared with late podfill. This corresponds with the timing of the repressive effect of the more advanced pods on the less advanced pods. 14 C-ABA applied to a small portion of a leaf surface is taken up into that leaf and translocated mainly to the nearest pods but also to the pod cluster below. During late podfill, however, a substantial amount also moves to the pod cluster above. In early podfill, most of the leaf-applied ABA goes to the carpels, while later most travels to the seeds. On a g fresh weight basis, the levels of 14 C-ABA in the seed coats are particularly high, but the embryo axes also contain high levels. Substantial amounts of the 14 C-ABA are converted to a form resembling the glucoside, but relatively little is otherwise metabolized, except in the carpels. (author)

  16. Changes in abscisic acid translocation during pod development and senescence in soybeans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nooden, L.D.; Obermayer, W.R. (Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor (USA))

    1981-01-01

    The patterns of abscisic acid circulation between the leaves and the pods change during pod development and monocarpic senescence in soybeans. /sup 14/C-ABA injected into the seed cavity of the most advanced pod moves to less advanced pods and mostly to pods at the same node, but very little travels to the leaves. More of the injected ABA is translocated during early and mid podfill compared with late podfill. This corresponds with the timing of the repressive effect of the more advanced pods on the less advanced pods. /sup 14/C-ABA applied to a small portion of a leaf surface is taken up into that leaf and translocated mainly to the nearest pods but also to the pod cluster below. During late podfill, however, a substantial amount also moves to the pod cluster above. In early podfill, most of the leaf-applied ABA goes to the carpels, while later most travels to the seeds. On a g fresh weight basis, the levels of /sup 14/C-ABA in the seed coats are particularly high, but the embryo axes also contain high levels. Substantial amounts of the /sup 14/C-ABA are converted to a form resembling the glucoside, but relatively little is otherwise metabolized, except in the carpels.

  17. ThPOD3, a truncated polypeptide from Tamarix hispida, conferred drought tolerance in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiao-Hong; Jiang, Jing; Wang, Bai-Chen; Li, Hui-Yu; Wang, Yu-Cheng; Yang, Chuan-Ping; Liu, Gui-Feng

    2010-03-01

    The ThPOD1 gene encodes a peroxidase and was isolated from a Tamarix hispida NaCl-stress root cDNA library. We found that ThPOD1 expression could be induced by abiotic stresses such as cold, salt, drought and exogenous abscisic acid. These findings suggested that ThPOD1 might be involved in the plant response to environmental stresses and ABA treatment. To elucidate the function of this gene, recombinant plasmids expressing full-length ThPOD1 as well as ThPOD2 (aa 41-337), and ThPOD3 (aa 73-337) truncated polypeptides were constructed. SDS-PAGE and Western blot analyses of the fusion proteins revealed that the molecular weights of ThPOD1, ThPOD2 and ThPOD3 were approximately 57, approximately 50 and approximately 47 kDa, respectively. Stress assays of E. coli treated with the recombinant plasmids indicated that ThPOD3 could improve resistance to drought stress. This finding could potentially be used to improve plant tolerance to drought stress via gene transfer.

  18. Black Alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Thomas D.; Wright, Roosevelt

    1988-01-01

    Examines some aspects of the problem of alcoholism among Blacks, asserting that Black alcoholism can best be considered in an ecological, environmental, sociocultural, and public health context. Notes need for further research on alcoholism among Blacks and for action to reduce the problem of Black alcoholism. (NB)

  19. Black holes

    OpenAIRE

    Brügmann, B.; Ghez, A. M.; Greiner, J.

    2001-01-01

    Recent progress in black hole research is illustrated by three examples. We discuss the observational challenges that were met to show that a supermassive black hole exists at the center of our galaxy. Stellar-size black holes have been studied in x-ray binaries and microquasars. Finally, numerical simulations have become possible for the merger of black hole binaries.

  20. Costs, benefits, and international financing related to the water sector in the Danube and Black Sea region in the perspective of WFD implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paleari, S.

    2006-01-01

    Further to constitute a challenge far many EU15 countries, the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD) is going to represent the main reference for the process of approximation of water legislation of accession countries, as well as water policy and legislation of many third countries of Eastern Europe and Central Asia. In this work we focus on expected investment costs, estimated benefits, and external financing programmes for water policies and WFD implementation in an extensive geographical area, the Black Sea region, which includes the Danube Basin (that is the second largest European water basin after the Volga Basin) and covers industrial and agricultural areas of 22 countries. As we are primarily interested in the economic aspects of water policies and the WFD implementation in the above geographical area, we will develop a joint analysis of: (a) the available estimates on the size of investments in the water sector required to approximate the provisions and/or (depending on single countries) the principles of WFD; (b) the available estimates on the expected benefits from implementing EU water legislation and the WFD; (c) the flows of international assistance and financial resources available during the next few years for investing in water-sector infrastructures and management in the countries of the Black Sea region. The approximation of EU water legislation and the implementation of the WFD will entail huge investment costs by accession countries during the next decades and water is expected be the most significant area of investment within the environmental sector in the majority of these countries. The attempts to estimate economic and environmental benefits indicate that the same process of compliance with EU legislation and the WFD will produce significant benefits for the economy and the environment of these countries. During the last part of the I990s, however, the trends of actual expenses in environmental and water infrastructures in the countries of

  1. Ikon. iPod er kongen over mp3. Hvad er hemmeligheden?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dickson, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    iPod er blevet ikonet for det 21. århundrede. Men iPod var hverken den første mp3-afspiller eller den første veldesignede af slagsen. Før iPod så dagens lys var Bang & Olufsen på banen med sin næsten lige så lækre BeoSound2.......iPod er blevet ikonet for det 21. århundrede. Men iPod var hverken den første mp3-afspiller eller den første veldesignede af slagsen. Før iPod så dagens lys var Bang & Olufsen på banen med sin næsten lige så lækre BeoSound2....

  2. Non-destructive analysis of rape plant pod by neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makino-Nakanishi, Tomoko; Inanaga, Shinobu; Kobayashi, Hisao.

    1991-01-01

    Since the ripening process of the rape plant pod has not been studied well, non-destructive analysis of the pod has been carried out by neutron radiography. From the water distribution in the pod, the formation of pod parenchyma as well as vascular system were clearly observed. During the ripening process of the pod water content and weight of the seed were measured. It was found that at the early stage of the ripening process the water content of the seed became maximum and began to decrease, whereas the weight of each seed was gradually increased throughout the ripening process. Neutron radiography, which shows the water content of the pod, will give the clue to the decrease of the water content of the seed from the middle of the ripening process. (author)

  3. BiPOD Arthroscopic Acromioclavicular Repair Restores Bidirectional Stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Beer, Joe; Schaer, Michael; Latendresse, Kim; Raniga, Sumit; Moor, Beat K; Zumstein, Matthias A

    2017-01-01

    Stabilizing the acromioclavicular joint in the vertical and horizontal planes is challenging, and most current techniques do not reliably achieve this goal. The BiPOD repair is an arthroscopically assisted procedure performed with image intensifier guidance that reconstructs the coracoclavicular ligaments as well as the acromioclavicular ligaments to achieve bidirectional stability. Repair is achieved with a combination of 2-mm FiberTape (Arthrex, Naples, Florida) and 20-mm Poly-Tape (Neoligaments, Leeds, England) to achieve rigid repair, prevent bone abrasion, and promote tissue ingrowth. This study is a prospective review of the first 6 patients treated for high-grade acute acromioclavicular injury with the BiPOD technique. The study included 6 men who were 21 to 36 years old (mean, 27 years). At 6-month follow-up, complications were recorded and radiographic analysis was used to determine the coracoclavicular distance for vertical reduction and the amount of acromioclavicular translation on the Alexander axillary view was used to determine horizontal reduction. One patient had a superficial infection over the tape knot. The difference in coracoclavicular distance between the operated side and the uninvolved side was 9±2 mm preoperatively and 0.3±2 mm at 6-month follow-up. On Alexander axillary view, all 6 patients showed stable reduction, which is defined as a clavicle that is in line with the acromion. The findings show that BiPOD acromioclavicular reconstruction restores bidirectional stability of the acromioclavicular joint at 6 months. [Orthopedics. 2017; 40(1):e35-e43.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  4. Writing consumer identities through the iPod

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kampf, Constance Elizabeth

    How do web 2.0 and mobile technologies affect the available means for interaction between consumers and corporations? What are the implications for communicating corporate social responsibility? Gee (1996:6) states that “When we write or read, speak or listen, we coordinate and are coordinated...... the potential and implications of mobile technologies for the communication of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). The Good Guide iPod application is a mini third party database of product rankings in terms of social responsibility towards consumer health, environmental impact and social effects...

  5. iPod tours: a new approach to induction

    OpenAIRE

    Mawson, M.

    2007-01-01

    This article is based on a presentation given at a conference organized by cpd 25 in April 2007; “The Library in the Interactive Environment: Practical use of technology to improve the student experience”. It describes the development and creation of an iPod induction tour for the Main Library at Sheffield University, with input from students. It also discusses the use and evaluation of the tour, and concludes by describing how the Library is using the experience to consider other technologie...

  6. POD as tool for comparison of PIV and LES data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Knud Erik; Cavar, Dalibor; Pedersen, Jakob Martin

    2007-01-01

    Both Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) and Large Eddy Simulation (LES) provides instantaneous velocity fields which can contain dynamical flow structures that occur systematically. Turbulent flows also contain random flow structures, and therefore there is a need for tools that can identify the sy...... on the crossflow velocity and pipe diameter is 2400 and the jet to crossflow velocity ratio is R = 3.3. The POD is able to identify two dynamic flow structures: jet shear-layer vortices and wake vortices. A good agreement for the dynamical content is found between PIV and LES....

  7. Sieving Effect of Sorting Machine with Vibration Table Type on Cacao Pod Based Compost

    OpenAIRE

    Soekarno, Siswoyo; Suharyanto, Edy; Arif, Ahmad Hudi

    2009-01-01

    Cacao pod is the biggest part (70% of weight) of Cacao, which was not optimaly utilized.Cacao podis one of organic material that can be functioned as an organic fertilizer, such as compost. When utilizedwith right proportion, organic fertilizer is safe for plants and not degrades the soil composition. Compostingprocess is one of utilization form of Cacao pod. The size reduction of cacao pod in the organic fertilizerprocess would help to accelerate the composting process. Smaller particle size...

  8. On the POD based reduced order modeling of high Reynolds flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behzad, Fariduddin; Helenbrook, Brian; Ahmadi, Goodarz

    2012-11-01

    Reduced-order modeling (ROM) of a high Reynolds fluid flow using the proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) was studied. Particular attention was given to incompressible, unsteady flow over a two-dimensional NACA0015 airfoil. The Reynolds number is 105 and the angle of attacked of the airfoil is 12°. For DNS solution, hp-finite element method is employed to drive flow samples from which the POD modes are extracted. Particular attention is paid on two issues. First, the stability of POD-ROM resimulation of the turbulent flow is studied. High Reynolds flow contains a lot of fluctuating modes. So, to reach a certain amount of error, more POD modes are needed and the effect of truncation of POD modes is more important. Second, the role of convergence rate on the results of POD. Due to complexity of the flow, convergence of the governing equations is more difficult and the influences of weak convergence appear in the results of POD-ROM. For each issue, the capability of the POD-ROM is assessed in terms of predictions quality of times upon which the POD model was derived. The results are compared with DNS solution and the accuracy and efficiency of different cases are evaluated.

  9. Effects of light quality on pod elongation in soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Seiya; Ario, Nobuyuki; Nakagawa, Andressa Camila Seiko; Tomita, Yuki; Murayama, Naoki; Taniguchi, Takatoshi; Hamaoka, Norimitsu; Iwaya-Inoue, Mari; Ishibashi, Yushi

    2017-06-03

    Soybean pods are located at the nodes, where they are in the shadow, whereas cowpea pods are located outside of the leaves and are exposed to sunlight. To compare the effects of light quality on pod growth in soybean and cowpea, we measured the length of pods treated with white, blue, red or far-red light. In both species, pods elongated faster during the dark period than during the light period in all light treatments except red light treatment in cowpea. Red light significantly suppressed pod elongation in soybean during the dark and light periods. On the other hand, the elongation of cowpea pods treated with red light markedly promoted during the light period. These results suggested that the difference in the pod set sites between soybean and cowpea might account for the difference in their red light responses for pod growth.

  10. Jurema preta (Mimosa tenuiflora pods in the diet of lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maiza Araújo Cordão

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Evaluated partial substitution of commonly used concentrate mixture by jurema preta (Mimosa tenuiflora pods (JPP in the diet of Santa Inês lambs of according to a randomized complete block design with three treatments (0, 10 and 20% concentrate substitution, in a 40:60 concentrate: roughage fodder diet and six replications, using 18 non-castrated Santa Inês male lambs with initial body weight of 20.28±1.18 kg. Analyzed variables were apparent coefficients of digestibility and/or daily donsumption of dry matter (CDDM and CDM, organic matter (CDOM and COM, neutral detergent fiber (CDNDF and CNDF, acid detergent fiber (CDADF and CADF, crude protein (CDCP and CCP, crude energy (CDCE only, ether extract (CDEE and CEE, total carbohydrates (CDTCH and CTCH, non fibrous carbohydrates (CDNFC and CNFC, metabolizable energy (CME and water (IH2O, mean daily body weight gain (MDBWG and food conversion (FC. There were no effects (P>0.05 of JPP on digestibility, except for the quadratic effect (P0.05, consumption of CP, NDF, ADF and EE increased linearly, while CNFC decreased linearly. Jurema preta pods can be included in the diet of lambs and may contribute to the sustainability of the sheep activity in the semiarid region of northeast Brazil.

  11. Algorithm for Stabilizing a POD-Based Dynamical System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalb, Virginia L.

    2010-01-01

    This algorithm provides a new way to improve the accuracy and asymptotic behavior of a low-dimensional system based on the proper orthogonal decomposition (POD). Given a data set representing the evolution of a system of partial differential equations (PDEs), such as the Navier-Stokes equations for incompressible flow, one may obtain a low-dimensional model in the form of ordinary differential equations (ODEs) that should model the dynamics of the flow. Temporal sampling of the direct numerical simulation of the PDEs produces a spatial time series. The POD extracts the temporal and spatial eigenfunctions of this data set. Truncated to retain only the most energetic modes followed by Galerkin projection of these modes onto the PDEs obtains a dynamical system of ordinary differential equations for the time-dependent behavior of the flow. In practice, the steps leading to this system of ODEs entail numerically computing first-order derivatives of the mean data field and the eigenfunctions, and the computation of many inner products. This is far from a perfect process, and often results in the lack of long-term stability of the system and incorrect asymptotic behavior of the model. This algorithm describes a new stabilization method that utilizes the temporal eigenfunctions to derive correction terms for the coefficients of the dynamical system to significantly reduce these errors.

  12. Application of rape pod sealants to reduce adverse environmental impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauša, Laimis; Steponavičius, Dainius; Jotautienė, Eglė; Kemzūraitė, Aurelija; Zaleckas, Ernestas

    2018-04-01

    Rape (Brassica napus L.) is a major global oilseed crop characterized by its high potential as an alimentary oil and in biodiesel production. The two most popular pod sealants (PS) used to reduce rape pod shattering are products in the pinolene range (di-1-p-menthene) and latex polymer products. Reports on the effective preservation of seed yield by these products are fairly contradictory. With this in mind, an experimental PS (PS4) that contained the active agents acrylic and trisiloxane was developed. Comparative experimental trials of the developed PS4 and three other PS (PS1, PS2 and PS3) containing active agents that are generally used for sealant production were conducted. The studies showed that the static and dynamic surface tension of PS4 was the lowest at the same concentration (2.0 g kg -1 ), consequently demonstrating the lowest spray drift. The chemical substances from PS had not penetrated the rape seeds in any of the PSs. The results indicate that treatment with PS4 exerts a beneficial effect in reducing rape seed yield loss (68-104 kg ha -1 in 2014 and 194-305 kg ha -1 in 2015) compared to other investigated PS. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. POD- Mapping and analysis of hydroturbine exit flow dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjeldsen, Morten; Finstad, Pal Henrik

    2012-11-01

    Pairwise radial dynamic measurements of the swirling draft tube flow have been made at the 25 MW Svorka power plant in Surnadal operating at 48% load at 6 radial and 7 angular positions. The data is analyzed with traditional methods as well as with POD. The measurements were made in the turbine draft tube/exit flow in an axial measurement plane about 1200mm downstream the turbine runner. The draft tube diameter in the measurement plane is about 1300mm. The flow rate during measurements was close to 5.8m3/s. Two probes were used; both of length Le=700 mm and made of stainless steel with an outer diameter of Do=20 mm and inner diameter Di=4mm. At the end of each probe a full bridge cylindrical KULITE xcl152, 0-3.5, was mounted. 90 seconds samples at 10 kS/s were taken. The POD analysis largely follows that of Tutkun et al. (see e.g. AIAA J., 45,5,2008). The analysis shows that 26% of the pressure pulsation energy can be addressed to azimuthal mode 1. The work has been supported by Energy Norway.

  14. Application of a Pod Exercise to University Education Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen Dietz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper offers a novel method and subsequent partnership to engage and teach university students. Prior to 11 September 2001 or 9/11, much of the public safety readiness responsibility was limited to a few government officials. Today, public safety is much more widely managed. For this effort, we developed a strategic partnership between state and local government and Purdue University that provides an improved environment for learning and for public health and safety. By using an exercise deployment Strategic National Stockpile (SNS in a Point of Distribution (POD exercise, our efforts with partnering between state and local government and the university provide benefits and opportunities to each. Simultaneously, we tested a full scale POD mass prophylaxis response to an anthrax attack through teaching and training university students who also gain valuable internship-like experience. The ongoing relationship between government and the university's student talent can benefit all in developing paths for future research and data analysis expected of academia and of improving public safety and responsiveness of government.

  15. POD and PPP with multi-frequency processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roldán, Pedro; Navarro, Pedro; Rodríguez, Daniel; Rodríguez, Irma

    2017-04-01

    Precise Orbit Determination (POD) and Precise Point Positioning (PPP) are methods for estimating the orbits and clocks of GNSS satellites and the precise positions and clocks of user receivers. These methods are traditionally based on processing the ionosphere-free combination. With this combination, the delay introduced in the signal when passing through the ionosphere is removed, taking advantage of the dependency of this delay with the square of the frequency. It is also possible to process the individual frequencies, but in this case it is needed to properly model the ionospheric delay. This modelling is usually very challenging, as the electron content in the ionosphere experiences important temporal and spatial variations. These two options define the two main kinds of processing: the dual-frequency ionosphere-free processing, typically used in the POD and in certain applications of PPP, and the single-frequency processing with estimation or modelisation of the ionosphere, mostly used in the PPP processing. In magicGNSS, a software tool developed by GMV for POD and PPP, a hybrid approach has been implemented. This approach combines observations from any number of individual frequencies and any number of ionosphere-free combinations of these frequencies. In such a way, the observations of ionosphere-free combination allow a better estimation of positions and orbits, while the inclusion of observations from individual frequencies allows to estimate the ionospheric delay and to reduce the noise of the solution. It is also possible to include other kind of combinations, such as geometry-free combination, instead of processing individual frequencies. The joint processing of all the frequencies for all the constellations requires both the estimation or modelisation of ionospheric delay and the estimation of inter-frequency biases. The ionospheric delay can be estimated from the single-frequency or dual-frequency geometry-free observations, but it is also possible

  16. Black Tea

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... mental alertness as well as learning, memory, and information processing skills. It is also used for treating headache; ... of carbamazepine. Since black tea contains caffeine, in theory taking black tea with carbamazepine might decrease the ...

  17. Black Holes

    OpenAIRE

    Townsend, P. K.

    1997-01-01

    This paper is concerned with several not-quantum aspects of black holes, with emphasis on theoretical and mathematical issues related to numerical modeling of black hole space-times. Part of the material has a review character, but some new results or proposals are also presented. We review the experimental evidence for existence of black holes. We propose a definition of black hole region for any theory governed by a symmetric hyperbolic system of equations. Our definition reproduces the usu...

  18. Black Holes

    OpenAIRE

    Horowitz, Gary T.; Teukolsky, Saul A.

    1998-01-01

    Black holes are among the most intriguing objects in modern physics. Their influence ranges from powering quasars and other active galactic nuclei, to providing key insights into quantum gravity. We review the observational evidence for black holes, and briefly discuss some of their properties. We also describe some recent developments involving cosmic censorship and the statistical origin of black hole entropy.

  19. iPod: un mundo sonoro personalizado para sus consumidores iPod: a Personalized Sound World for its Consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Bull

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Por primera vez desde el nacimiento de la cultura industrializada, más de la mitad de la población es capaz de personalizar cualquier parte de su entorno gracias a un reproductor de MP3 o a través de un teléfono móvil. El consumo de sonidos mediados tecnológicamente durante los siglos XX y XXI representa una forma cada vez más importante de «estar-en-el-mundo»; el «yo» reclama un territorio sonoro móvil a través de una especie de «compuerta sensorial» que le permite filtrar los sonidos que no le interesan y crear el paisaje sonoro que más le satisface. El placer sin límites que supone crear un mundo sonoro móvil de carácter privado plantea, para la teoría urbana y cultural, un conjunto de problemas teóricos que tienen que ver con la relación con los espacios en los que nos movemos, la naturaleza y el significado del espacio público y privado, el potencial de la estetización de lo urbano, y la incomunicación de la ciudad. También cuestiona el conocimiento de las tecnologías que se usan para mediatizar gran parte de la experiencia cotidiana. En este artículo se analiza el uso del iPod como soporte tecnológico para los consumidores. Se basa en las respuestas de más de un millar de usuarios entre 2004-05. Plantea que el uso del iPod puede ser interpretado positivamente si se considera como una forma de toxicidad placentera en la que bajo el mundo «totalmente mediatizado» de los usuarios subyace un anhelo de experiencia no mediatizada –de acceso directo al mundo y a las emociones de cada uno.For the first time in industrialised culture, over fifty percent of the population possesses the ability to privatise whatever environment they might be in through the use of a dedicated MP3 player or through a mobile phone with MP3 capabilities. The consumption of technologically mediated sound in the 20th and 21st centuries represents an increasingly significant mode of ‘being-in-theworld’ in which the ‘self’ claims a

  20. Parameterizing Coefficients of a POD-Based Dynamical System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalb, Virginia L.

    2010-01-01

    A method of parameterizing the coefficients of a dynamical system based of a proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) representing the flow dynamics of a viscous fluid has been introduced. (A brief description of POD is presented in the immediately preceding article.) The present parameterization method is intended to enable construction of the dynamical system to accurately represent the temporal evolution of the flow dynamics over a range of Reynolds numbers. The need for this or a similar method arises as follows: A procedure that includes direct numerical simulation followed by POD, followed by Galerkin projection to a dynamical system has been proven to enable representation of flow dynamics by a low-dimensional model at the Reynolds number of the simulation. However, a more difficult task is to obtain models that are valid over a range of Reynolds numbers. Extrapolation of low-dimensional models by use of straightforward Reynolds-number-based parameter continuation has proven to be inadequate for successful prediction of flows. A key part of the problem of constructing a dynamical system to accurately represent the temporal evolution of the flow dynamics over a range of Reynolds numbers is the problem of understanding and providing for the variation of the coefficients of the dynamical system with the Reynolds number. Prior methods do not enable capture of temporal dynamics over ranges of Reynolds numbers in low-dimensional models, and are not even satisfactory when large numbers of modes are used. The basic idea of the present method is to solve the problem through a suitable parameterization of the coefficients of the dynamical system. The parameterization computations involve utilization of the transfer of kinetic energy between modes as a function of Reynolds number. The thus-parameterized dynamical system accurately predicts the flow dynamics and is applicable to a range of flow problems in the dynamical regime around the Hopf bifurcation. Parameter

  1. Antioxidant potential of hydrolyzed polyphenolic extracts from tara (Caesalpinia spinosa) pods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chambi, F.; Chirinos, R.; Pedreschi Plasencia, R.P.; et al.,

    2013-01-01

    The antioxidant potential of tara pod extracts rich in gallotannins submitted to chemical hydrolysis was evaluated. The increase in the release of gallic acid from the tara pod extracts during the hydrolysis process reached a maximum ratio of free gallic acid/total phenolics of 94.1% at 20 h, at

  2. PoD: dynamically create and use remote PROOF clusters. A thin client concept.

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2012-01-01

    PoD’s newly developed “pod-remote” command made it possible for users to utilize a thin client concept. In order to create dynamic PROOF clusters, users are now able to select a remote computer, even behind a firewall, to control a PoD server on...

  3. SWJ:39-42 Inheritance of Pod Colour in Cowpea INHERITANCE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. Ahmed

    Mustapha & Singh (2008) SWJ:39-42. Inheritance of Pod Colour in Cowpea. INHERITANCE OF POD COLOUR IN. COWPEA (Vigna unguiculata (L.) WALP). * MUSTAPHA, Y1. & SINGH, B. B2. 1 Department of Biological Sciences. Bayero University, Kano Nigeria. 2 Department of Genetics and Plant breeding,. G.B. Pant ...

  4. Exercising with an iPod, Friend, or Neither: Which Is Better for Psychological Benefits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plante, Thomas G.; Gustafson, Carissa; Brecht, Carrie; Imberi, Jenny; Sanchez, Jacqueline

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine the role of music and social contact on exercise benefits. Methods: Two hundred twenty-nine (n229) students were randomly assigned to one of 6 conditions: biking alone with iPod or friend in a laboratory, walking alone with iPod or friend outdoors, or biking or walking alone in control conditions. All participants completed…

  5. Evaluation of Kola-Pod Husk Meal in Broiler Finisher Diets ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigeria is the world's largest producer of kola nut. The pod husk, which constitutes over 50% of the kola fruit, has been a farm waste to date. Its crude protein content which is similar to that of maize suggests that it is possible to partially replace maize with pod husk meal (KPHM) in broiler finisher diets. In this study, KPHM ...

  6. A comparison of Probability Of Detection (POD) data determined using different statistical methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahr, A.; Forsyth, D.; Bullock, M.

    1993-12-01

    Different statistical methods have been suggested for determining probability of detection (POD) data for nondestructive inspection (NDI) techniques. A comparative assessment of various methods of determining POD was conducted using results of three NDI methods obtained by inspecting actual aircraft engine compressor disks which contained service induced cracks. The study found that the POD and 95 percent confidence curves as a function of crack size as well as the 90/95 percent crack length vary depending on the statistical method used and the type of data. The distribution function as well as the parameter estimation procedure used for determining POD and the confidence bound must be included when referencing information such as the 90/95 percent crack length. The POD curves and confidence bounds determined using the range interval method are very dependent on information that is not from the inspection data. The maximum likelihood estimators (MLE) method does not require such information and the POD results are more reasonable. The log-logistic function appears to model POD of hit/miss data relatively well and is easy to implement. The log-normal distribution using MLE provides more realistic POD results and is the preferred method. Although it is more complicated and slower to calculate, it can be implemented on a common spreadsheet program.

  7. Teaching Adults with Moderate Intellectual Disability ATM Use via the "iPod"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Renee; Collins, Belva; Knight, Victoria; Kleinert, Harold

    2013-01-01

    Money management can increase independence and access to communities for individuals with disabilities. Although research on computer-based instruction for teaching banking skills to students with intellectual disability is established, the use of portable electronic devices (e.g., iPod) has not been evaluated. iPods may be an effective, portable,…

  8. Glow experiment documentation of OMS/RCS pods and vertical stabilizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    Glow experiment documentation of orbital maneuvering system (OMS) reaction control system (RCS) pods and vertical stabilizer shows chemo-luminescent effect resulting from atomic oxygen impacting the spacecraft and building to the point that the atomic oxygen atoms combine to form molecules of oxygen. Image intensifier on NIKON 35mm camera was used to record glow on vertical tail and OMS pods.

  9. NDE reliability and probability of detection (POD) evolution and paradigm shift

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Surendra [NDE Engineering, Materials and Process Engineering, Honeywell Aerospace, Phoenix, AZ 85034 (United States)

    2014-02-18

    The subject of NDE Reliability and POD has gone through multiple phases since its humble beginning in the late 1960s. This was followed by several programs including the important one nicknamed “Have Cracks – Will Travel” or in short “Have Cracks” by Lockheed Georgia Company for US Air Force during 1974–1978. This and other studies ultimately led to a series of developments in the field of reliability and POD starting from the introduction of fracture mechanics and Damaged Tolerant Design (DTD) to statistical framework by Bernes and Hovey in 1981 for POD estimation to MIL-STD HDBK 1823 (1999) and 1823A (2009). During the last decade, various groups and researchers have further studied the reliability and POD using Model Assisted POD (MAPOD), Simulation Assisted POD (SAPOD), and applying Bayesian Statistics. All and each of these developments had one objective, i.e., improving accuracy of life prediction in components that to a large extent depends on the reliability and capability of NDE methods. Therefore, it is essential to have a reliable detection and sizing of large flaws in components. Currently, POD is used for studying reliability and capability of NDE methods, though POD data offers no absolute truth regarding NDE reliability, i.e., system capability, effects of flaw morphology, and quantifying the human factors. Furthermore, reliability and POD have been reported alike in meaning but POD is not NDE reliability. POD is a subset of the reliability that consists of six phases: 1) samples selection using DOE, 2) NDE equipment setup and calibration, 3) System Measurement Evaluation (SME) including Gage Repeatability and Reproducibility (Gage R and R) and Analysis Of Variance (ANOVA), 4) NDE system capability and electronic and physical saturation, 5) acquiring and fitting data to a model, and data analysis, and 6) POD estimation. This paper provides an overview of all major POD milestones for the last several decades and discuss rationale for using

  10. Effect of urea treatment of cocoa pod on rumen fermentation characteristics in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anggraeni, A. S.; Herdian, H.; Sakti, A. A.; Sofyan, A.; Ekaningrum, M.

    2017-12-01

    Indonesia is a third largest country in the world for cocoa production. A cocoa pod could be utilized as alternative feeds due to their sufficient quantity and availability throughout the year. On the other hand, low nutritional quality such as highly fibrous materials and low protein content usually characterized in agricultural and plantation by-products as it appears on cocoa pod. Ammoniation treatment using urea improve the nutritional quality of feedstuff. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of ammoniation treatments on a cocoa pod on in vitro feed fermentation and gas production on ruminal fluid. KA treatment gave highest gas production than other treatment. Total gas production during 48 hours of the cocoa pod was significantly affected by treatments (Pcocoa pod.

  11. Biology and harmfulness of Brassica pod midge (Dasineura brassicae Winn. in winter oilseed rape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Draga Graora

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The Brassica pod midge (Dasineura brassicae Winn. is an important pest in oilseed rape (Brasica napus L.. It develops two generations per year and overwinters in the larval stage in cocoons in soil. Immigration of the first generation adults lasted from the beginning of April until the end of May. Larvae developed in pods from mid-April to mid-June, causing pod deformation and cracking, which resulted in premature falling out of seeds and yield reduction. Pod damage amounted to 11.6%. The emergence of the second generation adults was detected at the end of May and in the first ten days of June. D. brassicae was found to lay eggs in healthy pods and no correlation was found with the cabbage seed weevil, Ceutorhynchus assimilis Paykull.

  12. Prosopis pod production - comparison of North American, South American, Hawaiian, and African germplasm in young plantations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felker, P.; Clark, P.R.; Osborn, J.F.; Cannell, G.H.

    Prosopis pod production was compared in 3 field trials in southern California, i.e., a typical orchard planting, an irrigation trial, and a heat/drought stress trial. Thirteen species representing North American, South American, Hawaiian, and African germplasm were evaluated. Hawaiian and African accessions were eliminated from the irrigation trial by a minus 5/sup 0/C temperature. The most productive pod producers were P. velutina accessions from southern Arizona. In the fifth season, 5 trees of the most productive accession, i.e. P. velutina 32 had a mean pod production of 7.2 kg/tree with a range of 3.2-12.2 kg/tree. P. chilensis and P. alba trees of the same age were much larger but had less pod production. Pod production estimates of 3000-4000 kg/ha were obtained in the dry irrigation treatment by P. velutina 20 which received 370 mm rainfall in the year preceding harvest.

  13. Black holes with halos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monten, Ruben; Toldo, Chiara

    2018-02-01

    We present new AdS4 black hole solutions in N =2 gauged supergravity coupled to vector and hypermultiplets. We focus on a particular consistent truncation of M-theory on the homogeneous Sasaki–Einstein seven-manifold M 111, characterized by the presence of one Betti vector multiplet. We numerically construct static and spherically symmetric black holes with electric and magnetic charges, corresponding to M2 and M5 branes wrapping non-contractible cycles of the internal manifold. The novel feature characterizing these nonzero temperature configurations is the presence of a massive vector field halo. Moreover, we verify the first law of black hole mechanics and we study the thermodynamics in the canonical ensemble. We analyze the behavior of the massive vector field condensate across the small-large black hole phase transition and we interpret the process in the dual field theory.

  14. Replacement/Refurbishment of JSC/NASA POD Specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castner, Willard L.

    2010-01-01

    The NASA Special NDE certification process requires demonstration of NDE capability by test per NASA-STD-5009. This test is performed with fatigue cracked specimens containing very small cracks. The certification test results are usually based on binomial statistics and must meet a 90/95 Probability of Detection (POD). The assumption is that fatigue cracks are tightly closed, difficult to detect, and inspectors and processes passing such a test are well qualified for inspecting NASA fracture critical hardware. The JSC NDE laboratory has what may be the largest inventory that exists of such fatigue cracked NDE demonstration specimens. These specimens were produced by the hundreds in the late 1980s and early 1990s. None have been produced since that time and the condition and usability of the specimens are questionable.

  15. A zonal Galerkin-free POD model for incompressible flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, Michel; Ferrero, Andrea; Iollo, Angelo; Lombardi, Edoardo; Scardigli, Angela; Telib, Haysam

    2018-01-01

    A domain decomposition method which couples a high and a low-fidelity model is proposed to reduce the computational cost of a flow simulation. This approach requires to solve the high-fidelity model in a small portion of the computational domain while the external field is described by a Galerkin-free Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD) model. We propose an error indicator to determine the extent of the interior domain and to perform an optimal coupling between the two models. This zonal approach can be used to study multi-body configurations or to perform detailed local analyses in the framework of shape optimisation problems. The efficiency of the method to perform predictive low-cost simulations is investigated for an unsteady flow and for an aerodynamic shape optimisation problem.

  16. A numerical study of scale effects on performance of a tractor type podded propeller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choi Jung-Kyu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the scale effect on the performance of the podded propeller of tractor type is investigated. Turbulent flow computations are carried out for Reynolds numbers increasing progressively from model scale to full scale using the CFD analysis. The result of the flow calculation for model scale Reynolds numbers agrees well with that of the experiment of a large cavitation tunnel. The existing numerical analysis indicates that the performance of the podded propeller blades is mainly influenced by the advance coefficient and relatively little by the Reynolds number. However, the drag of pod housing with propeller in operation is different from that of pod housing without propeller due to the acceleration and swirl of propeller slipstream which is altered by propeller loading as well as the pressure recovery and friction according to Reynolds number, which suggests that the pod housing drag under the condition of propeller in operation is the key factor of the scale effect on the performance between model and full scale podded propellers. The so called ‘drag ratio’, which is the ratio of pod housing drag to total thrust of podded propeller, increases as the advance coefficient increases due to accelerated flow in the slipstream of the podded propeller. However, the increasing rate of the drag ratio reduces continuously as the Reynolds number increases from model to full scale progressively. The contribution of hydrodynamic forces, which acts on the parts composed of the pod housing with propeller operating in various loading conditions, to the thrust and the torque of the total propeller unit are presented for a range of Reynolds numbers from model to full scales.

  17. Improving Nutritional Quality of Cocoa Pod ( through Chemical and Biological Treatments for Ruminant Feeding: and Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika B. Laconi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Cocoa pod is among the by-products of cocoa (Theobroma cacao plantations. The aim of this study was to apply a number of treatments in order to improve nutritional quality of cocoa pod for feeding of ruminants. Cocoa pod was subjected to different treatments, i.e. C (cocoa pod without any treatment or control, CAm (cocoa pod+1.5% urea, CMo (cocoa pod+3% molasses, CRu (cocoa pod+3% rumen content and CPh (cocoa pod+3% molasses+Phanerochaete chrysosporium inoculum. Analysis of proximate and Van Soest’s fiber fraction were performed on the respective treatments. The pods were then subjected to an in vitro digestibility evaluation by incubation in rumen fluid-buffer medium, employing a randomized complete block design (n = 3 replicates. Further, an in vivo evaluation of the pods (35% inclusion level in total mixed ration was conducted by feeding to young Holstein steers (average body weight of 145±3.6 kg with a 5×5 latin square design arrangement (n = 5 replicates. Each experimental period lasted for 30 d; the first 20 d was for feed adaptation, the next 3 d was for sampling of rumen liquid, and the last 7 d was for measurements of digestibility and N balance. Results revealed that lignin content was reduced significantly when cocoa pod was treated with urea, molasses, rumen content or P. chrysosporium (pCAm>CRu>CMo. Among all treatments, CAm and CPh treatments significantly improved the in vitro dry matter and organic matter digestibility (p<0.05 of cocoa pod. Average daily gain of steers receiving CAm or CPh treatment was significantly higher than that of control (p<0.01 with an increase of 105% and 92%, respectively. Such higher daily gain was concomitant with higher N retention and proportion of N retention to N intake in CAm and CPh treatments than those of control (p<0.05. It can be concluded from this study that treatment with either urea or P. chrysosporium is effective in improving the nutritive value of cocoa pod.

  18. A Comprehensive Phenotypic Investigation of the "Pod-Shattering Syndrome" in Common Bean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murgia, Maria L; Attene, Giovanna; Rodriguez, Monica; Bitocchi, Elena; Bellucci, Elisa; Fois, Davide; Nanni, Laura; Gioia, Tania; Albani, Diego M; Papa, Roberto; Rau, Domenico

    2017-01-01

    Seed shattering in crops is a key domestication trait due to its relevance for seed dispersal, yield, and fundamental questions in evolution (e.g., convergent evolution). Here, we focused on pod shattering in common bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.), the most important legume crop for human consuption in the world. With this main aim, we developed a methodological pipeline that comprises a thorough characterization under field conditions, including also the chemical composition and histological analysis of the pod valves. The pipeline was developed based on the assumption that the shattering trait itself can be treated in principle as a "syndrome" (i.e., a set of correlated different traits) at the pod level. We characterized a population of 267 introgression lines that were developed ad-hoc to study shattering in common bean. Three main objectives were sought: (1) to dissect the shattering trait into its "components," of level (percentage of shattering pods per plant) and mode (percentage of pods with twisting or non-twisting valves); (2) to test whether shattering is associated to the chemical composition and/or the histological characteristics of the pod valves; and (3) to test the associations between shattering and other plant traits. We can conclude the following: Very high shattering levels can be achieved in different modes; shattering resistance is mainly a qualitative trait; and high shattering levels is correlated with high carbon and lignin contents of the pod valves and with specific histological charaterstics of the ventral sheath and the inner fibrous layer of the pod wall. Our data also suggest that shattering comes with a "cost," as it is associated with low pod size, low seed weight per pod, high pod weight, and low seed to pod-valves ratio; indeed, it can be more exaustively described as a syndrome at the pod level. Our work suggests that the valve chemical composition (i.e., carbon and lignin content) can be used for a high troughput phenotyping

  19. Statistical Hair on Black Holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strominger, A.

    1996-01-01

    The Bekenstein-Hawking entropy for certain BPS-saturated black holes in string theory has recently been derived by counting internal black hole microstates at weak coupling. We argue that the black hole microstate can be measured by interference experiments even in the strong coupling region where there is clearly an event horizon. Extracting information which is naively behind the event horizon is possible due to the existence of statistical quantum hair carried by the black hole. This quantum hair arises from the arbitrarily large number of discrete gauge symmetries present in string theory. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  20. Black Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Khristin Brown

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The migration of blacks in North America through slavery became united.  The population of blacks past downs a tradition of artist through art to native born citizens. The art tradition involved telling stories to each generation in black families. The black culture elevated by tradition created hope to determine their personal freedom to escape from poverty of enslavement and to establish a way of life through tradition. A way of personal freedoms was through getting a good education that lead to a better foundation and a better way of life.

  1. On a framework for generating PoD curves assisted by numerical simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subair, S. Mohamed, E-mail: prajagopal@iitm.ac.in; Agrawal, Shweta, E-mail: prajagopal@iitm.ac.in; Balasubramaniam, Krishnan, E-mail: prajagopal@iitm.ac.in; Rajagopal, Prabhu, E-mail: prajagopal@iitm.ac.in [Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Chennai, T.N. (India); Kumar, Anish; Rao, Purnachandra B.; Tamanna, Jayakumar [Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Metallurgy and Materials Group, Kalpakkam, T.N. (India)

    2015-03-31

    The Probability of Detection (PoD) curve method has emerged as an important tool for the assessment of the performance of NDE techniques, a topic of particular interest to the nuclear industry where inspection qualification is very important. The conventional experimental means of generating PoD curves though, can be expensive, requiring large data sets (covering defects and test conditions), and equipment and operator time. Several methods of achieving faster estimates for PoD curves using physics-based modelling have been developed to address this problem. Numerical modelling techniques are also attractive, especially given the ever-increasing computational power available to scientists today. Here we develop procedures for obtaining PoD curves, assisted by numerical simulation and based on Bayesian statistics. Numerical simulations are performed using Finite Element analysis for factors that are assumed to be independent, random and normally distributed. PoD curves so generated are compared with experiments on austenitic stainless steel (SS) plates with artificially created notches. We examine issues affecting the PoD curve generation process including codes, standards, distribution of defect parameters and the choice of the noise threshold. We also study the assumption of normal distribution for signal response parameters and consider strategies for dealing with data that may be more complex or sparse to justify this. These topics are addressed and illustrated through the example case of generation of PoD curves for pulse-echo ultrasonic inspection of vertical surface-breaking cracks in SS plates.

  2. Nutrient Digestibility and Metabolizable Energy Content of Mucuna pruriens Whole Pods Fed to Growing Pelibuey Lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loyra-Tzab, Enrique; Sarmiento-Franco, Luis Armando; Sandoval-Castro, Carlos Alfredo; Santos-Ricalde, Ronald Herve

    2013-07-01

    The nutrient digestibility, nitrogen balance and in vivo metabolizable energy supply of Mucuna pruriens whole pods fed to growing Pelibuey lambs was investigated. Eight Pelibuey sheep housed in metabolic crates were fed increasing levels of Mucuna pruriens pods: 0 (control), 100 (Mucuna100), 200 (Mucuna200) and 300 (Mucuna300) g/kg dry matter. A quadratic (pMucuna100 and Mucuna200 treatments. Increasing M. pruriens in the diets had no effect (p>0.05) on DM and GE apparent digestibility (pmucuna pod level. This effect was accompanied by a quadratic effect (pMucuna100 and Mucuna200 treatments. Urine-N excretion, GE retention and dietary estimated nutrient supply (metabolizable protein and metabolizable energy) were not affected (p>0.05). DM, N and GE apparent digestibility coefficient of M. pruriens whole pods obtained through multiple regression equations were 0.692, 0.457, 0.654 respectively. In vivo DE and ME content of mucuna whole pod were estimated in 11.0 and 9.7 MJ/kg DM. It was concluded that whole pods from M. pruriens did not affect nutrient utilization when included in an mixed diet up to 200 g/kg DM. This is the first in vivo estimation of mucuna whole pod ME value for ruminants.

  3. Contribution of pod borer pests to soybean crop production (case in Pondidaha, Konawe District, Southeast Sulawesi)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahayu, M.; Bande, LOS; Hasan, A.; Yuswana, A.; Rinambo, F.

    2018-02-01

    Soybean (Glycine max L.) is one of the most important crops which production continues to be improved in all areas of soybean cultivation centers in an effort to maintain the availability of soybean foods, including Southeast Sulawesi. The purpose of this study was to analyze the contribution of pod borer pests to soybean crop production. Methods of direct observation were made on observed variables, including species and population of pest pod borer, intensity, and crop production. The result that found four types of pod borer pests are Nezara viridula, Riptortus linearis, Etiella zinckenella, and Leptocorisa acuta, each with a different population and contribution to the intensity of pod damage. The result of path analysis showed that directly population of N. viridula (61.14) and E. zinckenella (66.44) gave positive contribution in increasing pod damage, by 0.332 and 0.502 respectively, while the negative contribution was shown by population of R. linearis and L. acuta. Damage of the pod causes increased production of low soybean is only about 0.202, therefore required appropriate control techniques to control pod borer pests populations in soybean crops.

  4. POD evaluation using simulation: A phased array UT case on a complex geometry part

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominguez, Nicolas; Reverdy, Frederic; Jenson, Frederic

    2014-02-01

    The use of Probability of Detection (POD) for NDT performances demonstration is a key link in products lifecycle management. The POD approach is to apply the given NDT procedure on a series of known flaws to estimate the probability to detect with respect to the flaw size. A POD is relevant if and only if NDT operations are carried out within the range of variability authorized by the procedure. Such experimental campaigns require collection of large enough datasets to cover the range of variability with sufficient occurrences to build a reliable POD statistics, leading to expensive costs to get POD curves. In the last decade research activities have been led in the USA with the MAPOD group and later in Europe with the SISTAE and PICASSO projects based on the idea to use models and simulation tools to feed POD estimations. This paper proposes an example of application of POD using simulation on the inspection procedure of a complex -full 3D- geometry part using phased arrays ultrasonic testing. It illustrates the methodology and the associated tools developed in the CIVA software. The paper finally provides elements of further progress in the domain.

  5. FaPOD27 functions in the metabolism of polyphenols in strawberry fruit (Fragaria sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su-Ying eYeh

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa is one of the most preferred fresh fruit worldwide, accumulates numerous flavonoids but has limited shelf life due to excessive tissue softening caused by cell wall degradation. Since lignin is one of the polymers that strengthen plant cell walls and might contribute to some extent to fruit firmness monolignol biosynthesis was studied in strawberry fruit. Cinnamoyl-CoA reductase (CCR, cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD, and a peroxidase (POD27 gene were strongly expressed in red, ripe fruit whereas a second POD gene was primarily expressed in green, immature fruit. Moreover, FaPOD27 transcripts were strongly and constitutively induced in fruits exposed to Agrobacterium infection. Gene expression levels and enzymatic activities of FaCCR and FaCAD were efficiently suppressed through RNAi in FaCCR- and FaCAD-silenced strawberries. Besides, significantly elevated FaPOD transcript levels were detected after agroinfiltration of pBI-FaPOD constructs in fruits. At the same time, levels of G-monomers were considerably reduced in FaCCR-silenced fruits whereas the proportion of both G- and S-monomers decisively decreased in FaCAD-silenced and pBI-FaPOD fruits. Development, firmness, and lignin level of the treated fruits were similar to pBI-intron control fruits, presumably attributed to increased expression levels of FaPOD27 upon agroinfiltration. Additionally, enhanced firmness, accompanied with elevated lignin levels, was revealed in chalcone synthase-deficient fruits (CHS-, independent of down- or up-regulation of individual and combined FaCCR, FaCAD, and FaPOD genes by agroinfiltration, when compared to CHS-/pBI-intron control fruits. These approaches provide further insight into the genetic control of flavonoid and lignin synthesis in strawberries. The results suggest that FaPOD27 is a key gene for lignin biosynthesis in strawberry fruit and thus to improving the firmness of strawberries.

  6. RESISTANCE OF SOME GROUNDNUT CULTIVARS TO SOYBEAN POD BORER, ETIELLA ZINCKENELLA TREIT. (LEPIDOPTERA: PYRALIDAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwinardi Apriyanto, Edi Gunawan, dan Tri Sunardi .

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Resistance of some groundnut cultivars to soybean pod borer, Etiella zinckenella Treit. (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae.  Five groundnut cultivars: Badak, Panther, Sima, Gajah, and Simpai, were grown in field in June-August, 2006 to determine their resistance/susceptibility to Etiella zinckenella Treit.  Two local cultivars (big and small seeds were included as comparison (controls. All cultivars were grown in experimental plots arranged in a randomized complete block design (RCBD, replicated three times. The incidence of soybean pod borer and damaged pods were observed at 9, 11, 13 weeks after sowing (WAS at 10 sample plants taken randomly from each plot. All cultivars were harvested at 13 WAS. Number of damaged pods was counted and percentages per plant were calculated. Larvae observed inside pod or in the soil were counted and collected. The seed yield per plant and weight of 100 seeds from 100 sample plants taken randomly at harvest were weighted to nearest gram at 10% water content. Pod toughness (hardness was measured with penetrometer. Resistance level of each cultivar was determined based on cultivar’s means and overall mean and standard deviation of the percentages of damaged pods. Data were analyzed with analysis of variance (ANOVA and means were separated with DMRT. The result revealed that mean percentages of damaged pod differed significantly between cultivars. Seed yield of cultivar Panther, Sima and Badak were significantly higher than those of the other two and local cultivars. Cultivar Panther was categorized as resistant, cultivar Sima and Badak as moderately resistant, while the others as susceptible. The relative resistance of groundnut cultivar seems, at least in part, to correlate with the structural hardness of pod.

  7. Probability of Detection (POD) as a statistical model for the validation of qualitative methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehling, Paul; LaBudde, Robert A; Brunelle, Sharon L; Nelson, Maria T

    2011-01-01

    A statistical model is presented for use in validation of qualitative methods. This model, termed Probability of Detection (POD), harmonizes the statistical concepts and parameters between quantitative and qualitative method validation. POD characterizes method response with respect to concentration as a continuous variable. The POD model provides a tool for graphical representation of response curves for qualitative methods. In addition, the model allows comparisons between candidate and reference methods, and provides calculations of repeatability, reproducibility, and laboratory effects from collaborative study data. Single laboratory study and collaborative study examples are given.

  8. Sony vs. Apple - iPod launching, a case study of leadership and innovation

    OpenAIRE

    Camelia Cojocaru; Silviu Cojocaru

    2014-01-01

    In 1979, Sony launched a portable Walkman range. For nearly a quarter of century, the Sony Walkman was the undisputed market leader and Sony was considered a top innovative company. Then, in 2001, Apple decided to launch the iPod, a new portable player. About 80% of the iPod technical components (e.g. memory, storage media) were produced by various companies within the Sony group. In 2004, iPod sales overtake Sony Walkman globally and become the new market leader in portable players. How was ...

  9. Cocoa Clone Resistant to Phytophthora Palmivora Pod Borer (CPB) in South Sulawesi

    OpenAIRE

    Sartika Dewi, Vien

    2017-01-01

    Helopeltis sp. is one of the main pest in cacao plants. Helopeltis sp. Able to decreasing the production of cacao about 50-60%. This research aims to understand the development of Helopeltis sp. investation in five types of clone cocoa. Collected data have done every week for six weeks in five types of clone cocoa which are clone GBT, clone M01, clone 45, clone s2 and clone BB. Every clone chosen 15 pod sampeles fruit with different size of pod following 5-10cm, 11-13cm and ripe pod which use...

  10. Sensor Pods: Multi-Resolution Surveys from a Light Aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conor Cahalane

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Airborne remote sensing, whether performed from conventional aerial survey platforms such as light aircraft or the more recent Remotely Piloted Airborne Systems (RPAS has the ability to compliment mapping generated using earth-orbiting satellites, particularly for areas that may experience prolonged cloud cover. Traditional aerial platforms are costly but capture spectral resolution imagery over large areas. RPAS are relatively low-cost, and provide very-high resolution imagery but this is limited to small areas. We believe that we are the first group to retrofit these new, low-cost, lightweight sensors in a traditional aircraft. Unlike RPAS surveys which have a limited payload, this is the first time that a method has been designed to operate four distinct RPAS sensors simultaneously—hyperspectral, thermal, hyper, RGB, video. This means that imagery covering a broad range of the spectrum captured during a single survey, through different imaging capture techniques (frame, pushbroom, video can be applied to investigate different multiple aspects of the surrounding environment such as, soil moisture, vegetation vitality, topography or drainage, etc. In this paper, we present the initial results validating our innovative hybrid system adapting dedicated RPAS sensors for a light aircraft sensor pod, thereby providing the benefits of both methodologies. Simultaneous image capture with a Nikon D800E SLR and a series of dedicated RPAS sensors, including a FLIR thermal imager, a four-band multispectral camera and a 100-band hyperspectral imager was enabled by integration in a single sensor pod operating from a Cessna c172. However, to enable accurate sensor fusion for image analysis, each sensor must first be combined in a common vehicle coordinate system and a method for triggering, time-stamping and calculating the position/pose of each sensor at the time of image capture devised. Initial tests were carried out over agricultural regions with

  11. Engine Power Turbine and Propulsion Pod Arrangement Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robuck, Mark; Zhang, Yiyi

    2014-01-01

    A study has been conducted for NASA Glenn Research Center under contract NNC10BA05B, Task NNC11TA80T to identify beneficial arrangements of the turboshaft engine, transmissions and related systems within the propulsion pod nacelle of NASA's Large Civil Tilt-Rotor 2nd iteration (LCTR2) vehicle. Propulsion pod layouts were used to investigate potential advantages, disadvantages, as well as constraints of various arrangements assuming front or aft shafted engines. Results from previous NASA LCTR2 propulsion system studies and tasks performed by Boeing under NASA contracts are used as the basis for this study. This configuration consists of two Fixed Geometry Variable Speed Power Turbine Engines and related drive and rotor systems (per nacelle) arranged in tilting nacelles near the wing tip. Entry-into-service (EIS) 2035 technology is assumed for both the engine and drive systems. The variable speed rotor system changes from 100 percent speed for hover to 54 percent speed for cruise by the means of a two speed gearbox concept developed under previous NASA contracts. Propulsion and drive system configurations that resulted in minimum vehicle gross weight were identified in previous work and used here. Results reported in this study illustrate that a forward shafted engine has a slight weight benefit over an aft shafted engine for the LCTR2 vehicle. Although the aft shafted engines provide a more controlled and centered CG (between hover and cruise), the length of the long rotor shaft and complicated engine exhaust arrangement outweighed the potential benefits. A Multi-Disciplinary Analysis and Optimization (MDAO) approach for transmission sizing was also explored for this study. This tool offers quick analysis of gear loads, bearing lives, efficiencies, etc., through use of commercially available RomaxDESIGNER software. The goal was to create quick methods to explore various concept models. The output results from RomaxDESIGNER have been successfully linked to Boeing

  12. parvifolia (Mart. ex Tul. L. P. Queiroz Pod Preparations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. C. Freitas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Libidibia ferrea has been used in folk medicine throughout Brazil, and this study evaluated the biological activities of crude extract (CE as well as a partially purified fraction (F80 obtained from its pods. Results from the MTT assay revealed that only F80 inhibited NCI-H292 cell growth; however, neither CE nor F80 reduced HEp-2 cell growth or sarcoma 180 tumor weight with the in vivo assay. Acute oral toxicity of the extract and fraction was evaluated following the steps of Guideline 423, using female mice; LD50 for both preparations was determined as 2,500 mg/kg body weight. CE and F80 promoted a reduction of the leukocyte number and nitrite level in inflammatory exudates when the anti-inflammatory assay (carrageenan-induced peritonitis was performed. CE and F80 inhibited writhing regarding antinociceptive activity (acetic acid-induced writhing response in mice. In conclusion, CE and F80 have no significant cytotoxic or antitumor activities in cell lines showing low toxicity and no action against tumors in vivo. Both preparations revealed anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities, corroborating the pharmacological basis of L. ferrea for ethnomedical use.

  13. Airborne Multisensor Pod System, Arms control and nonproliferation technologies: Second quarter 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonzo, G M; Sanford, N M [eds.

    1995-01-01

    This issue focuses on the Airborne Multisensor Pod System (AMPS) which is a collaboration of many of the DOE national laboratories to provide a scientific environment to research multiple sensors and the new information that can be derived from them. The bulk of the research has been directed at nonproliferation applications, but it has also proven useful in environmental monitoring and assessment, and land/water management. The contents of this issue are: using AMPS technology to detect proliferation and monitor resources; combining multisensor data to monitor facilities and natural resources; planning a AMPS mission; SAR pod produces images day or night, rain or shine; MSI pod combines data from multiple sensors; ESI pod will analyze emissions and effluents; and accessing AMPS information on the Internet.

  14. POD applied to stereo PIV data of the far turbulent axisymmetric jet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wänström, Maja; George, William K.; Meyer, Knud Erik

    positions of 60, 70 and 100 diameters using stereoscopic PIV. In addition to the standard PIV processing, a novel application of the snapshot POD was used to filter the data in preparation for the classical POD analysis. The two-point Reynolds stress tensor was reconstructed from the dominant snapshot POD......An experiment was performed to evaluate spatial resolution requirements for multiple and single component POD applications to cross-sections of the far axisymmetic jet. The jet of Gamard et al. was used at an exit Reynolds number of 20,000. Three-component velocity data were obtained at downstream......-modes, and the convex hull of this data set was extended using symmetry conditions. The results are believed to be relevant to not only understanding previous experiments with hot-wires, but also DNS and LES....

  15. An iPod treatment of amblyopia: an updated binocular approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Robert F; Thompson, B; Black, J M; Machara, G; Zhang, P; Bobier, W R; Cooperstock, J

    2012-02-15

    We describe the successful translation of computerized and space-consuming laboratory equipment for the treatment of suppression to a small handheld iPod device (Apple iPod; Apple Inc., Cupertino, California). A portable and easily obtainable Apple iPod display, using current video technology offers an ideal solution for the clinical treatment of suppression. The following is a description of the iPod device and illustrates how a video game has been adapted to provide the appropriate stimulation to implement our recent antisuppression treatment protocol. One to 2 hours per day of video game playing under controlled conditions for 1 to 3 weeks can improve acuity and restore binocular function, including stereopsis in adults, well beyond the age at which traditional patching is used. This handheld platform provides a convenient and effective platform for implementing the newly proposed binocular treatment of amblyopia in the clinic, home, or elsewhere. American Optometric Association.

  16. Survey of college students on iPod use and hearing health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danhauer, Jeffrey L; Johnson, Carole E; Byrd, Anne; DeGood, Laura; Meuel, Caitlin; Pecile, Angela; Koch, Lindsey L

    2009-01-01

    The popularity of personal listening devices (PLDs) including iPods has increased dramatically over the past decade. PLDs allow users to listen to music uninterrupted for prolonged periods and at levels that may pose a risk for hearing loss in some listeners, particularly those using earbud earphones that fail to attenuate high ambient noise levels and necessitate increasing volume for acoustic enjoyment. Earlier studies have documented PLD use by teenagers and adults, but omitted college students, which represent a large segment of individuals who use these devices. This study surveyed college students' knowledge about, experiences with, attitudes toward, and practices and preferences for hearing health and use of iPods and/or other PLDs. The study was designed to help determine the need, content, and preferred format for educational outreach campaigns regarding safe iPod use to college students. An 83-item questionnaire was designed and used to survey college students' knowledge about, experiences with, attitudes toward, and practices/preferences for hearing health and PLD use. The questionnaire assessed Demographics and Knowledge of Hearing Health, iPod Users' Practices and Preferences, Attitudes toward iPod Use, and Reasons for iPod Use. Generally, most college students were knowledgeable about hearing health but could use information about signs of and how to prevent hearing loss. Two-thirds of these students used iPods, but not at levels or for durations that should pose excessive risks for hearing loss when listening in quiet environments. However, most iPod users could be at risk for hearing loss given a combination of common practices. Most of these college students should not be at great risk of hearing loss from their iPods when used conscientiously. Some concern is warranted for a small segment of these students who seemed to be most at risk because they listened to their iPods at high volume levels for long durations using earbuds, and reported that

  17. Molecular Diversity Analysis and Genetic Mapping of Pod Shatter Resistance Loci in Brassica carinata L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosy Raman

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Seed lost due to easy pod dehiscence at maturity (pod shatter is a major problem in several members of Brassicaceae family. We investigated the level of pod shatter resistance in Ethiopian mustard (Brassica carinata and identified quantitative trait loci (QTL for targeted introgression of this trait in Ethiopian mustard and its close relatives of the genus Brassica. A set of 83 accessions of B. carinata, collected from the Australian Grains Genebank, was evaluated for pod shatter resistance based on pod rupture energy (RE. In comparison to B. napus (RE = 2.16 mJ, B. carinata accessions had higher RE values (2.53 to 20.82 mJ. A genetic linkage map of an F2 population from two contrasting B. carinata selections, BC73526 (shatter resistant with high RE and BC73524 (shatter prone with low RE comprising 300 individuals, was constructed using a set of 6,464 high quality DArTseq markers and subsequently used for QTL analysis. Genetic analysis of the F2 and F2:3 derived lines revealed five statistically significant QTL (LOD ≥ 3 that are linked with pod shatter resistance on chromosomes B1, B3, B8, and C5. Herein, we report for the first time, identification of genetic loci associated with pod shatter resistance in B. carinata. These characterized accessions would be useful in Brassica breeding programs for introgression of pod shatter resistance alleles in to elite breeding lines. Molecular markers would assist marker-assisted selection for tracing the introgression of resistant alleles. Our results suggest that the value of the germplasm collections can be harnessed through genetic and genomics tools.

  18. STS-26 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, OMS pod leak repair at KSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    At the Kennedy Space Center (KSC), Rockwell manufacturing engineering specialist Claude Willis (left) and Rockwell manufacturing supervisor George Gallagher begin installation of a 'clamshell' device in the left orbital maneuvering system (OMS) pod reaction control system (RCS) of Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103. Gallagher performed the OMS pod nitric acid oxidizer leak repair operation using the two newly cut access ports in the Orbiter's aft bulkhead.

  19. Dynamic changes in pod and fungal physiology associated with the shift from biotrophy to necrotrophy during the infection of Theobroma cacao by Moniliophthora roreri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Where it occurs in South and Central America, M. roreri (Mr) causes a destructive pod disease (frosty pod rot) on Theobroma cacao (cacao). Hand pollinated cacao pods were inoculated with Mr spores in the field and assessed for disease symptoms over a 90 day period. On average, pods showed symptoms o...

  20. Effect of cocoa pod husk filler loading on tensile properties of cocoa pod husk/polylactic acid green biocomposite films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanyang, M. L.; Sapuan, S. M.; Haron, M.

    2017-10-01

    Over the years, cocoa-pod husk (CPH) generation significantly increased due to the growing global demand of chocolate products, since cocoa bean is the main ingredient for chocolate production. Proper utilization of CPH as natural filler for reinforcement of polymer composites provides economic advantages as well as environmental solutions for CPH waste disposal problems. In this study, CPH filled PLA composite films were developed using solution casting method. The effect of CPH loading on the tensile properties of CPH/PLA composite films were investigated. The obtained results manifested that increasing CPH loading from 0% to 10 % significantly increased tensile strength of CPH/PLA composite. However, further addition of CPH loading up to 15 % decreased the tensile strength of film samples. As CPH loading increased from 0% to 15%, tensile modulus of CPH/PLA composite films also increased from 1.5MPa to 10.4MPa, whereas their elongation at break reduced from 190% to 90%. These findings points out CPH as a potential natural filler for reinforcing thermoplastic polymer composites.

  1. TreePOD: Sensitivity-Aware Selection of Pareto-Optimal Decision Trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhlbacher, Thomas; Linhardt, Lorenz; Moller, Torsten; Piringer, Harald

    2018-01-01

    Balancing accuracy gains with other objectives such as interpretability is a key challenge when building decision trees. However, this process is difficult to automate because it involves know-how about the domain as well as the purpose of the model. This paper presents TreePOD, a new approach for sensitivity-aware model selection along trade-offs. TreePOD is based on exploring a large set of candidate trees generated by sampling the parameters of tree construction algorithms. Based on this set, visualizations of quantitative and qualitative tree aspects provide a comprehensive overview of possible tree characteristics. Along trade-offs between two objectives, TreePOD provides efficient selection guidance by focusing on Pareto-optimal tree candidates. TreePOD also conveys the sensitivities of tree characteristics on variations of selected parameters by extending the tree generation process with a full-factorial sampling. We demonstrate how TreePOD supports a variety of tasks involved in decision tree selection and describe its integration in a holistic workflow for building and selecting decision trees. For evaluation, we illustrate a case study for predicting critical power grid states, and we report qualitative feedback from domain experts in the energy sector. This feedback suggests that TreePOD enables users with and without statistical background a confident and efficient identification of suitable decision trees.

  2. Nutrient Digestibility and Metabolizable Energy Content of Whole Pods Fed to Growing Pelibuey Lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Loyra-Tzab

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The nutrient digestibility, nitrogen balance and in vivo metabolizable energy supply of Mucuna pruriens whole pods fed to growing Pelibuey lambs was investigated. Eight Pelibuey sheep housed in metabolic crates were fed increasing levels of Mucuna pruriens pods: 0 (control, 100 (Mucuna100, 200 (Mucuna200 and 300 (Mucuna300 g/kg dry matter. A quadratic (p0.05 on DM and GE apparent digestibility (p0.05. DM, N and GE apparent digestibility coefficient of M. pruriens whole pods obtained through multiple regression equations were 0.692, 0.457, 0.654 respectively. In vivo DE and ME content of mucuna whole pod were estimated in 11.0 and 9.7 MJ/kg DM. It was concluded that whole pods from M. pruriens did not affect nutrient utilization when included in an mixed diet up to 200 g/kg DM. This is the first in vivo estimation of mucuna whole pod ME value for ruminants.

  3. Prosopis pod production: comparison of North American, South American, Hawaiin, and African germplasm in young plantations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felker, P.; Clark, P.R.; Osborn, J.F.; Cannell, G.H.

    Prosopis pod production was compared in 3 field trials in southern California, i.e., a typical orchard planting, an irrigation trial, and a heat/drought stress trial. Thirteen species representing North American, South American, Hawaiian, and African germplasm were evaluated. Hawaiian and African accessions were eliminated from the irrigation trial by a minus 5/sup 0/C temperature. The most productive pod producers were P. velutina accessions from southern Arizona. In the fifth season, 5 trees of the most productive accession, i.e., P. velutina 32 had a mean pod production of 7.2 kg/tree with a range of 3.2-12.2 kg/tree. P. chilensis and P. alba trees of the same age were much larger but had less pod production. Trees in the driest irrigation treatment had the greatest pod production. Pod production estimates of 3000-4000 kg/ha were obtained in the dry irrigation treatment by P. velutina 20 which received 370 mm rainfall in the year preceding harvest. 32 references, 1 figure, 6 tables.

  4. Proximate Composition, Extraction, and Purification of Theobromine from Cacao Pod Husk (Theobroma Cacao L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Tang Nguyen

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to determine the proximate composition of cacao pod husk as well as the optimal conditions for extraction and purification of theobromine from cacao pod husk. The results indicated that cacao pod husk had high contents of moisture and carbohydrate (87.06% and 11.03% by fresh weight, respectively, but low contents of crude protein, crude lipid, and ash (0.31%, 0.12%, and 1.48% by fresh weight, respectively. The optimal conditions for extraction of theobromine from cacao pod husk were of 70% ethanol, with an extraction time of 90 min, and 1 as the number of extractions. A concentration of 10% by volume of 10% lead acetate solution was the best selection for purification of the crude extracts containing theobromine from cacao pod husk. Under these optimal conditions, theobromine content obtained from cacao pod husk was 6.79 mg/100 g dry weight. The finding from this study is a valuable contribution for obtaining theobromine from an abundant, inexpensive, renewable, and sustainable source for potential application in the nutraceutical, medical, and pharmaceutical industries.

  5. NILAI CERNA DAN BIODEGRADASI THEOBROMIN POD KAKAO DENGAN PERLAKUAN FERMENTASI MENGGUNAKAN INOKULUM MULTI MIKROBIA (Digestibility Value and Theobromine Biodegradation of Cocoa Pod with Treatment of Fermentation Using Multi Microbial Inoculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suci Wulandari

    2014-07-01

    SBP terhadap nilai cerna serat dan biodegradasi theobromin. Pod kakao difermentasi dalam kondisi anaerob pada suhu ruang. Kadar inokulum yang ditambahkan adalah 0; 0,05; dan 0,1 %. Selama fermentasi dilakukan pengambilan sampel pada hari ke-0, 3, dan 6 untuk mengetahui pertumbuhan bakteri selama fermentasi pod kakao, perubahan pH, perubahan nilai cerna, dan degradasi theobromin selama fermentasi, kemudian dilanjutkan dengan isolasi bakteri untuk mengetahui karakteristik isolat bakteri dari pod kakao terfermentasi dengan cara isolat yang diperoleh diuji kemampuannya dalam menghasilkan enzim selulase (CMC-ase dan β-glukoseidase dan kemampuannya dalam mendegradasi theobromin. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa selama fermentasi pod kakao terjadi kenaikan populasi bakteri asam laktat dan bakteri total, penurunan pH, kenaikan nilai cerna serat, dan penurunan kandungan theobromin dalam pod kakao. Perubahan parameter tersebut lebih nyata terjadi pada pod kakao yang difermentasi dengan kadar air 40% dan diinokulasi dengan SBP® dosis 0,05% dengan lama fermentasi 6 hari. Penurunan theobromin pada pod kakao fermentasi terbesar mencapai 17,02%. Kenaikan nilai cerna serat dan penurunan kandungan theobromin selama fermentasi pod kakao oleh inokulan SBP dikonfirmasi dengan karakteristik isolat-isolat bakteri yang diperoleh dari pod kakao yang terfermentasi. Ada 8 isolat bakteri yang mampu menghasilkan enzim CMC-ase dan β-glukosidase dengan tingkat produksi yang berbeda-beda. Beberapa isolat bakteri juga mampu menurunkan kandungan theobromin dalam kultur cair sampai sebesar 27,07%. Kata kunci: Pod kakao, theobromin, nilai cerna serat, selulase

  6. Notes on Phase Transition of Nonsingular Black Hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Meng-Sen; Zhao Ren

    2015-01-01

    On the belief that a black hole is a thermodynamic system, we study the phase transition of nonsingular black holes. If the black hole entropy takes the form of the Bekenstein—Hawking area law, the black hole mass M is no longer the internal energy of the black hole thermodynamic system. Using the thermodynamic quantities, we calculate the heat capacity, thermodynamic curvature and free energy. It is shown that there will be a larger black hole/smaller black hole phase transition for the nonsingular black hole. At the critical point, the second-order phase transition appears. (paper)

  7. Comparing and improving proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) to reduce the complexity of groundwater models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosses, Moritz; Nowak, Wolfgang; Wöhling, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    Physically-based modeling is a wide-spread tool in understanding and management of natural systems. With the high complexity of many such models and the huge amount of model runs necessary for parameter estimation and uncertainty analysis, overall run times can be prohibitively long even on modern computer systems. An encouraging strategy to tackle this problem are model reduction methods. In this contribution, we compare different proper orthogonal decomposition (POD, Siade et al. (2010)) methods and their potential applications to groundwater models. The POD method performs a singular value decomposition on system states as simulated by the complex (e.g., PDE-based) groundwater model taken at several time-steps, so-called snapshots. The singular vectors with the highest information content resulting from this decomposition are then used as a basis for projection of the system of model equations onto a subspace of much lower dimensionality than the original complex model, thereby greatly reducing complexity and accelerating run times. In its original form, this method is only applicable to linear problems. Many real-world groundwater models are non-linear, tough. These non-linearities are introduced either through model structure (unconfined aquifers) or boundary conditions (certain Cauchy boundaries, like rivers with variable connection to the groundwater table). To date, applications of POD focused on groundwater models simulating pumping tests in confined aquifers with constant head boundaries. In contrast, POD model reduction either greatly looses accuracy or does not significantly reduce model run time if the above-mentioned non-linearities are introduced. We have also found that variable Dirichlet boundaries are problematic for POD model reduction. An extension to the POD method, called POD-DEIM, has been developed for non-linear groundwater models by Stanko et al. (2016). This method uses spatial interpolation points to build the equation system in the

  8. Mesquite pod meal in diets for lactating goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taiala Cristina de Jesus Pereira

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects inclusion of 0%, 33.3%, 66.7% and 100% natural matter (NM of mesquite pod meal (MPM, in substitution of corn, on the intake, digestibility and feeding behavior of lactating Saanen goats. The forage:concentrate ratio in the diet was 40:60, using elephant grass silage as a forage source. Eight adult lactating goats with about 60 days in milk and weighting 50 kg were divided into two 4 × 4 latin squares and four 17-day experimental periods. Dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP and total digestible nutrient (TDN intakes were not influenced by MPM levels. Ether extract (0.51; 0.34; 0.36; 0.20 kg/day and non-fiber carbohydrate (NFC (0.54; 0.53; 0.49; 0.36 kg/day intakes showed a linear effect with increased MPM. Organic matter (OM and NDF intakes presented a quadratic behavior. The maximum OM intake was estimated with the replacement of 40.5%. The maximum estimated intakes for NDF were 0.665 kg/day and 14.8 g/kg body weight, with a replacement close to 60%. Nutrient digestibility coefficients and TDN levels (655.0 g/kg were not affected, except for NFC. The time spent eating, ruminating and idle was not influenced by the addition of MPM. The feeding rate of DM had a linear decrease which reflected the intake restriction. Corn replacement with MPM should not exceed 40.5%, although its total replacement does not interfere with the intake of DM, CP and TDN on the apparent digestibility of nutrients and most ingestive behavior parameters.

  9. Black hole final state conspiracies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McInnes, Brett

    2009-01-01

    The principle that unitarity must be preserved in all processes, no matter how exotic, has led to deep insights into boundary conditions in cosmology and black hole theory. In the case of black hole evaporation, Horowitz and Maldacena were led to propose that unitarity preservation can be understood in terms of a restriction imposed on the wave function at the singularity. Gottesman and Preskill showed that this natural idea only works if one postulates the presence of 'conspiracies' between systems just inside the event horizon and states at much later times, near the singularity. We argue that some AdS black holes have unusual internal thermodynamics, and that this may permit the required 'conspiracies' if real black holes are described by some kind of sum over all AdS black holes having the same entropy

  10. Search for Internal Cancers in Mice Tattooed with Inks of High Contents of Potential Carcinogens: A One-Year Autopsy Study of Red and Black Tattoo Inks Banned in the Market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepehri, Mitra; Lerche, Catharina M; Hutton Carlsen, Katrina; Serup, Jørgen

    2017-01-01

    Tattoo ink stock products often contain potential carcinogens, which on large-scale population exposure may be clinically relevant. The aim of this autopsy study in mice was to screen major organs for clinical and subclinical cancers. Mice were tattooed on their backs. In total, 48 mice were included and divided into 4 groups; 11 mice tattooed black, 10 tattooed red, and 5 mice serving as untreated controls. A group of 22 mice with black tattoos and exposed to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) were also studied. The black and red inks were both stock products banned on the Danish market due to the measured contents of potential carcinogens; benzo(a)pyrene and 2-anisidine, respectively. The mice were housed for 1 year after tattooing, and autopsy study on internal organs was performed. Tissue samples were systematically taken from major organs for screening of subclinical changes, not detected by visual examination. Any observed deviation from normal structure was subject to biopsy and light microscopy. All mice survived the 1-year observation period. Autopsy revealed no macroscopic signs of cancer. Microscopic search of internal organs showed no subclinical or clinical cancer. Despite extensive tattoos with 2 banned inks, the long-term observation in mice showed no internal cancers nor was the combination of carcinogen and UVR associated with cancer. Lack of observed malignancy might be explained by the fact that tattooing is only a single dose exposure. Registered data on carcinogens relies on repeated or chronic exposures. The study does not support the hypothesis that tattooing causes cancer. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. International

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    This rubric reports on 10 short notes about international economical facts about nuclear power: Electricite de France (EdF) and its assistance and management contracts with Eastern Europe countries (Poland, Hungary, Bulgaria); Transnuclear Inc. company (a 100% Cogema daughter company) acquired the US Vectra Technologies company; the construction of the Khumo nuclear power plant in Northern Korea plays in favour of the reconciliation between Northern and Southern Korea; the delivery of two VVER 1000 Russian reactors to China; the enforcement of the cooperation agreement between Euratom and Argentina; Japan requested for the financing of a Russian fast breeder reactor; Russia has planned to sell a floating barge-type nuclear power plant to Indonesia; the control of the Swedish reactor vessels of Sydkraft AB company committed to Tractebel (Belgium); the renewal of the nuclear cooperation agreement between Swiss and USA; the call for bids from the Turkish TEAS electric power company for the building of the Akkuyu nuclear power plant answered by three candidates: Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL), Westinghouse (US) and the French-German NPI company. (J.S.)

  12. Dynamic PROOF clusters with PoD: architecture and user experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manafov, Anar

    2011-12-01

    PROOF on Demand (PoD) is a tool-set, which sets up a PROOF cluster on any resource management system. PoD is a user oriented product with an easy to use GUI and a command-line interface. It is fully automated. No administrative privileges or special knowledge is required to use it. PoD utilizes a plug-in system, to use different job submission front-ends. The current PoD distribution is shipped with LSF, Torque (PBS), Grid Engine, Condor, gLite, and SSH plug-ins. The product is to be extended. We therefore plan to implement a plug-in for AliEn Grid as well. Recently developed algorithms made it possible to efficiently maintain two types of connections: packet-forwarding and native PROOF connections. This helps to properly handle most kinds of workers, with and without firewalls. PoD maintains the PROOF environment automatically and, for example, prevents resource misusage in case when workers idle for too long. As PoD matures as a product and provides more plug-ins, it's used as a standard for setting up dynamic PROOF clusters in many different institutions. The GSI Analysis Facility (GSIAF) is in production since 2007. The static PROOF cluster has been phased out end of 2009. GSIAF is now completely based on PoD. Users create private dynamic PROOF clusters on the general purpose batch farm. This provides an easier resource sharing between interactive local batch and Grid usage. The main user communities are FAIR and ALICE.

  13. The Crisis in Black and Black.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, Earl Ofari

    These essays explore why the historic conflict between blacks and whites in the United States has become a crisis that divides many African Americans. The changing racial dynamic is not marked by conflicts. between the black middle class and the poor, black men and women, the black intellectual elite and rappers, black politicians and the urban…

  14. Phenotypic diversity and evaluation of fresh pods of cowpea landraces from Southern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazaridi, Efstathia; Ntatsi, Georgia; Fernández, Juan A; Karapanos, Ioannis; Carnide, Valdemar; Savvas, Dimitrios; Bebeli, Penelope J

    2017-10-01

    Cowpea fresh pods are consumed as green vegetables in many countries in Southern Europe. Among cowpea cultivated material, a relatively large number of landraces can be found, maintaining species genetic diversity. To assess the value of these landraces in breeding programs, the characterization and estimation of diversity levels is therefore required. In the present study, an estimation of the diversity and evaluation of cowpea landraces originating from Portugal, Spain and Greece, in terms of their fresh pod traits, was performed, aiming to assist with the problem of low cowpea production in Southern Europe. A notable mean total phenotypic diversity (H T = 0.57) was observed in the whole collection. The Spanish cv. - gr. unguiculata collection exhibited the highest value of total phenotypic diversity (0.56). Landraces did not differ significantly from each other regarding the three countries of origin. Landraces such as Cp4906, Vg60 and BGE038478 presenting higher values of some traits studied could contribute to the breeding of new cowpea varieties for fresh pod production. Positive correlations were observed, indicating the feasibility of breeding for preferable traits regarding fresh pod consumption. The present study has revealed a wide diversity among and within cowpea landraces that could enhance fresh pod production in South European countries. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Modeling the X-ray Process, and X-ray Flaw Size Parameter for POD Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshti, Ajay M.

    2014-01-01

    Nondestructive evaluation (NDE) method reliability can be determined by a statistical flaw detection study called probability of detection (POD) study. In many instances, the NDE flaw detectability is given as a flaw size such as crack length. The flaw is either a crack or behaving like a crack in terms of affecting the structural integrity of the material. An alternate approach is to use a more complex flaw size parameter. The X-ray flaw size parameter, given here, takes into account many setup and geometric factors. The flaw size parameter relates to X-ray image contrast and is intended to have a monotonic correlation with the POD. Some factors such as set-up parameters, including X-ray energy, exposure, detector sensitivity, and material type that are not accounted for in the flaw size parameter may be accounted for in the technique calibration and controlled to meet certain quality requirements. The proposed flaw size parameter and the computer application described here give an alternate approach to conduct the POD studies. Results of the POD study can be applied to reliably detect small flaws through better assessment of effect of interaction between various geometric parameters on the flaw detectability. Moreover, a contrast simulation algorithm for a simple part-source-detector geometry using calibration data is also provided for the POD estimation.

  16. Carob pod as a feedstock for the production of bioethanol in Mediterranean areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, S.; Lozano, L.J.; Godinez, C.; Juan, D.; Perez, A.; Hernandez, F.J. [Technical University of Cartagena, Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, C/Dr. Fleming S/N, Campus Muralla del Mar, 30202 Cartagena (Spain)

    2010-11-15

    There is a growing interest worldwide to find out new and cheap carbohydrate sources for production of bioethanol. In this context, carob pod (Ceratonia siliqua) is proposed as an economical source for bioethanol production, especially, in arid regions. The carob tree is an evergreen shrub native to the Mediterranean region, cultivated for its edible seed pods and it is currently being reemphasised as an alternative in dryland areas, because no carbon-enriched lands are necessary. In this work, the global process of ethanol production from carob pod was studied. In a first stage, aqueous extraction of sugars from the pod was conducted, achieving very high yields (>99%) in a short period of time. The process was followed by acid or alkaline hydrolysis of washed pod at different operating conditions, the best results (R = 38.20%) being reached with sulphuric acid (2% v/v) at 90 C, using a L/S (liquid/solid) ratio of 7.5 and shaking at 700 rpm for 420 min. After that, fermentation of hydrolysates were tested at 30 C, 125 rpm, 200 g/L of sugars and 15 g/L of yeast with three different kinds of yeasts. In these conditions a maximum of 95 g/L of ethanol was obtained after 24 h. Finally, the distillation and dehydration of water-bioethanol mixtures was analyzed using the chemical process simulation software CHEMCAD with the aim of estimate the energy requirements of the process. (author)

  17. EFFECT OF FERMENTED CACAO POD SUPPLEMENTATION ON SHEEP RUMEN MICROBIAL FERMENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Wulandari

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to improve beneficial value of cacao pod as sheep feedingredients comprising up to 50% total feed. This research was conducted in two stages. Stage 1 wascacao pod fermentation. Completely randomized design with 3x3 factorial patterns was used in thisstage, in which factor I was microbial inoculum dosage of 0%, 0.05% and 0.1% and factor II wasincubation period of 0, 3 and 6 days. Result demonstrated that six-day fermentation with 0.05%microbial inoculum could lower cacao NDF, ADF and theobromine. The optimum inoculum dosage andfermentation time from stage 1 was applied to stage 2. Stage 2 was rumen microbial fermentation test.This research administrated 3x3 of latin square design. In period I sheep were fed with CF0 (nonfermentedcomplete feed, in period II sheep were given CF 1 (complete feed containing fermentedcacao pod and in period III sheep were given CF2 (fermented complete feed based cacao pod. Resultdemonstrated that pH value of sheep microbial liquid in treatment of CF0, CF1 and CF2 was in normalpH range and did not affect volatile fatty acids (VFA and ammonia. In conclusion, supplementing up to 50% of feed with complete feed containing fermented or non-fermented cacao pod did not affect theprocess of rumen microbial fermentation.

  18. Effect of pods' position on the protein content in soybean grains at low latitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Victor Gomes Sales

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Soybean grains have a high protein content, which can vary depending on various factors, as the pods' position throughout the plant. In this sense, aiming to study the effect of pods' position on the main stem of the plant for grades of soybean proteins, It has been accomplished in the years 2010 and 2011, a trial with ten soybean cultivars in the experimental area of the Federal University of Tocantins in Palmas. The experimental area was randomized blocks with 30 treatments and three replications. Treatments were arranged in one a split plot, being allocated in Ten cultivars plots (BRS Valuable, P98Y51, P98Y70, P99R03, M8527RR, M8925RR, M9144RR, M8867RR, and TMG103RR, and the sub plots In the pods' position on the plant (upper third, intermediate, and basal third. According to the results, we can conclude that there is variability among the pods' position. The grains located in the median and apical plant showed a trend of higher protein content. Cultivar P98Y70 showed the highest protein value. In the sampling grain for protein quantitation, it is recommended to use grains of pods located at the same position of the plant.

  19. Allergic contact dermatitis caused by isobornyl acrylate in OmniPod, an innovative tubeless insulin pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raison-Peyron, Nadia; Mowitz, Martin; Bonardel, Nathalie; Aerts, Olivier; Bruze, Magnus

    2018-04-10

    The frequency of allergic contact dermatitis caused by (meth)acrylates is increasing worldwide, and isobornyl acrylate (IBOA) has been identified as a culprit sensitizer in FreeStyle Libre, a medical device used by diabetic patients. To report on 4 patients sensitized to IBOA contained in OmniPod, a new, tubeless insulin pump, and to describe the clinical and chemical analytical work-up. Four patients with eczematous skin eruptions after using OmniPod, including 2 with previous adverse skin reactions to FreeStyle Libre, were patch tested with a baseline series and additional (meth)acrylates, including IBOA in several concentrations and/or vehicles. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used to identify the presence of IBOA in OmniPod. All patients were shown to be sensitized to IBOA. GC-MS identified IBOA in OmniPod, with the highest concentrations being found in the unit itself and not in the adhesive patch. The OmniPod tubeless insulin pump is another source of IBOA, and its use may lead to primary sensitization to this acrylate, or may provoke elicitation of allergic contact dermatitis in previously sensitized patients. Our cases highlight the need to obtain satisfactory cooperation from pharmaceutical companies involved in the manufacture of these widely used medical devices. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Germination success under different treatments and pod sowing depths in six legume species present in olive groves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siles, S.; García-Zafra, A.; Torres, J.A.; García-Fuentes, A.; Ruiz-Valenzuela, L.

    2017-07-01

    This study analysed the germination success of pods of six annual native legumes species: Astragalus hamosus, Medicago minima, Medicago orbicularis, Medicago polymorpha, Medicago rigidula and Scorpiurus muricatus. The use of these species has been proposed as a means of generating and improving herbaceous cover in olive groves. Germination success was studied in terms of the variability in the number of seeds germinated per pod after 18 months at two different sowing depths, on the surface (S) and buried 10 mm (B). Pods were subject to five different pre-germination treatments: chemical scarification, consisting of immersion in sulphuric acid for 15 min (S{sub 1}5) and 20 min (S{sub 2}0), immersion in water for 48 h (W{sub 4}8), pod precooled to -18ºC for one month (P{sub 1}8º) and untreated pods (Con). The results showed that the effectiveness of the different treatments and sowing depths depended on the species, and that there were no problems of ‘sibling-competition’ in any of the treatments or at any of the sowing depths. Species with larger, non-spiralled pods, such as A. hamosus or S. muricatus, or with very loosely spiralled pods such as M. orbicularis, had greater germination rates when buried, mainly in the case of untreated pods and pods that were immersed in sulphuric acid for 20 minutes.

  1. POD NUMBER AND PHOTOSYNTHESIS AS PHYSIOLOGICAL SELECTION CRITERIA IN SOYBEAN (Glycine max L. Merrill BREEDING FOR HIGH YIELD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Sitompul

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Field studies were conducted in two years using 638 F2 and 1185 F3 lines of selected 16 F1 and 15 F2 parent lines (³80 pods plant-1 to evaluate pod number and CO2 exchange rate (CER as selection criteria. Pod and seed number, and seed weight of individual lines were observed during harvesting time, and CER of randomly selected 32 F2 and 30 F3 lines was measured at initial seed filling stage. The selection of F2 lines based on pod number to generate F3 lines increased the average of seed yield by 39%, and pod number by 77% in F3 lines compared with F2 lines. A close relationships was found between seed weight and pod or seed number per plant. Net CER responded sensitively to a reduction of light in a short-term and showed 78% of F2 lines and all F3 lines with maximum CER (Pmax³20 mmolCO2.m-2.s-1. The ratio of pod number per plant and Pmax varied between lines and were used to group lines resulting in close relationships between Pmax and pod number. It is concluded that the use of pod number and CER (Pmax as selection criteria offers an alternative approach in soybean breeding for high yield.

  2. Germination success under different treatments and pod sowing depths in six legume species present in olive groves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siles, S.; García-Zafra, A.; Torres, J.A.; García-Fuentes, A.; Ruiz-Valenzuela, L.

    2017-01-01

    This study analysed the germination success of pods of six annual native legumes species: Astragalus hamosus, Medicago minima, Medicago orbicularis, Medicago polymorpha, Medicago rigidula and Scorpiurus muricatus. The use of these species has been proposed as a means of generating and improving herbaceous cover in olive groves. Germination success was studied in terms of the variability in the number of seeds germinated per pod after 18 months at two different sowing depths, on the surface (S) and buried 10 mm (B). Pods were subject to five different pre-germination treatments: chemical scarification, consisting of immersion in sulphuric acid for 15 min (S 1 5) and 20 min (S 2 0), immersion in water for 48 h (W 4 8), pod precooled to -18ºC for one month (P 1 8º) and untreated pods (Con). The results showed that the effectiveness of the different treatments and sowing depths depended on the species, and that there were no problems of ‘sibling-competition’ in any of the treatments or at any of the sowing depths. Species with larger, non-spiralled pods, such as A. hamosus or S. muricatus, or with very loosely spiralled pods such as M. orbicularis, had greater germination rates when buried, mainly in the case of untreated pods and pods that were immersed in sulphuric acid for 20 minutes.

  3. FM POD: an evidence-based blended teaching skills program for rural preceptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delver, Hilary; Jackson, Wesley; Lee, Sonya; Palacios, Mone

    2014-05-01

    The University of Calgary's Rural Integrated Community Clerkship anchors final-year medical student education in 9 months of family medicine. The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate the Family Medicine Preceptor Online Development (FM POD) program, designed to meet the faculty development needs of rural preceptors facing challenges of geographical distribution and time constraints. The theoretically based program used a blended learning approach, beginning with a face-to-face workshop to strengthen participants' social presence during online interactions to follow. Asynchronous narrated presentations supplied foundational knowledge prior to facilitated synchronous web conferences, where participants shared experiences and co-constructed new knowledge. The program was evaluated using mixed methods, including surveys and focus group discussion. Evaluation tools generated data with high internal consistency reliability; focus group information substantiated and enriched the quantitative survey data. Participants enjoyed collaborating with colleagues and rated their learning experiences highly, reporting meaningful and statistically significant increases in mean comfort with all the precepting skills taught: giving effective feedback, using questions to teach, teaching communications skills, helping learners in difficulty, and making teaching time-efficient. All effect sizes were large. Increased comfort with distance learning technologies was a positive consequence. Results support the applicability of principles of social constructivism, experiential learning, and reflective learning in these participants. The program was highly rated and effectively increased participants' comfort with teaching skills, offering practical off-the-peg modular faculty development in basic teaching skills for distributed faculty. Participants appreciated the flexible delivery format, which course developers found readily adaptable for additional topics.

  4. Nonsingular black hole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chamseddine, Ali H. [American University of Beirut, Physics Department, Beirut (Lebanon); I.H.E.S., Bures-sur-Yvette (France); Mukhanov, Viatcheslav [Niels Bohr Institute, Niels Bohr International Academy, Copenhagen (Denmark); Ludwig-Maximilians University, Theoretical Physics, Munich (Germany); MPI for Physics, Munich (Germany)

    2017-03-15

    We consider the Schwarzschild black hole and show how, in a theory with limiting curvature, the physical singularity ''inside it'' is removed. The resulting spacetime is geodesically complete. The internal structure of this nonsingular black hole is analogous to Russian nesting dolls. Namely, after falling into the black hole of radius r{sub g}, an observer, instead of being destroyed at the singularity, gets for a short time into the region with limiting curvature. After that he re-emerges in the near horizon region of a spacetime described by the Schwarzschild metric of a gravitational radius proportional to r{sub g}{sup 1/3}. In the next cycle, after passing the limiting curvature, the observer finds himself within a black hole of even smaller radius proportional to r{sub g}{sup 1/9}, and so on. Finally after a few cycles he will end up in the spacetime where he remains forever at limiting curvature. (orig.)

  5. POD-Galerkin Model for Incompressible Single-Phase Flow in Porous Media

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Yi

    2017-01-25

    Fast prediction modeling via proper orthogonal decomposition method combined with Galerkin projection is applied to incompressible single-phase fluid flow in porous media. Cases for different configurations of porous media, boundary conditions and problem scales are designed to examine the fidelity and robustness of the model. High precision (relative deviation 1.0 x 10(-4)% similar to 2.3 x 10(-1)%) and large acceleration (speed-up 880 similar to 98454 times) of POD model are found in these cases. Moreover, the computational time of POD model is quite insensitive to the complexity of problems. These results indicate POD model is especially suitable for large-scale complex problems in engineering.

  6. Structure analysis of turbulent liquid phase by POD and LSE techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munir, S., E-mail: shahzad-munir@comsats.edu.pk; Muthuvalu, M. S.; Siddiqui, M. I. [Department of Fundamental and Applied Science, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar, 31750 Tronoh, Perak Darul Ridzuan (Malaysia); Heikal, M. R., E-mail: morgan.heikal@petronas.com.my; Aziz, A. Rashid A., E-mail: morgan.heikal@petronas.com.my [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar, 31750 Tronoh, Perak Darul Ridzuan (Malaysia)

    2014-10-24

    In this paper, vortical structures and turbulence characteristics of liquid phase in both single liquid phase and two-phase slug flow in pipes were studied. Two dimensional velocity vector fields of liquid phase were obtained by Particle image velocimetry (PIV). Two cases were considered one single phase liquid flow at 80 l/m and second slug flow by introducing gas at 60 l/m while keeping liquid flow rate same. Proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) and Linear stochastic estimation techniques were used for the extraction of coherent structures and analysis of turbulence in liquid phase for both cases. POD has successfully revealed large energy containing structures. The time dependent POD spatial mode coefficients oscillate with high frequency for high mode numbers. The energy distribution of spatial modes was also achieved. LSE has pointed out the coherent structured for both cases and the reconstructed velocity fields are in well agreement with the instantaneous velocity fields.

  7. Structure analysis of turbulent liquid phase by POD and LSE techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munir, S.; Muthuvalu, M. S.; Siddiqui, M. I.; Heikal, M. R.; Aziz, A. Rashid A.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, vortical structures and turbulence characteristics of liquid phase in both single liquid phase and two-phase slug flow in pipes were studied. Two dimensional velocity vector fields of liquid phase were obtained by Particle image velocimetry (PIV). Two cases were considered one single phase liquid flow at 80 l/m and second slug flow by introducing gas at 60 l/m while keeping liquid flow rate same. Proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) and Linear stochastic estimation techniques were used for the extraction of coherent structures and analysis of turbulence in liquid phase for both cases. POD has successfully revealed large energy containing structures. The time dependent POD spatial mode coefficients oscillate with high frequency for high mode numbers. The energy distribution of spatial modes was also achieved. LSE has pointed out the coherent structured for both cases and the reconstructed velocity fields are in well agreement with the instantaneous velocity fields

  8. Historical Post Office Directory Parser (POD Parser Software From the AddressingHistory Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Osborne

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The POD Parser is Python software for parsing the OCR’d (optical character recognised text of digitised historical Scottish Post Office Directories (PODs to produce a consistent structured format for the data and for geocoding each address. The software was developed as part of the AddressingHistory project which sought to combine digitised historic directories with digitised and georeferenced historic maps.  The software has potential for reuse in multiple research contexts where historical post office directory data is relevant, and is therefore particularly of use in historical research into social, economic or demographic trends. The POD Parser is currently designed for use with Scottish directories but is extensible, perhaps with some adaptation, to use with other similarly formatted materials such as the English Trade Directories.

  9. Sony vs. Apple - iPod launching, a case study of leadership and innovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camelia Cojocaru

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In 1979, Sony launched a portable Walkman range. For nearly a quarter of century, the Sony Walkman was the undisputed market leader and Sony was considered a top innovative company. Then, in 2001, Apple decided to launch the iPod, a new portable player. About 80% of the iPod technical components (e.g. memory, storage media were produced by various companies within the Sony group. In 2004, iPod sales overtake Sony Walkman globally and become the new market leader in portable players. How was this possible? Theoretically, Sony held all conditions for launching the new generation of portable players, but instead, a new company – Apple – completely changed the market.

  10. The molluscicidal activity of seed pods of Swartzia madagascariensis on Marisa cornuarietis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lwambo, N J; Moyo, H G

    1991-10-01

    The molluscicidal potency of ground seed pods of Swartzia madagascariensis was tested in the laboratory against Marisa cornuarietis, a well known competitor and/or predator of pulmonate intermediate hosts of schistosomiasis. Results showed that a minimum concentration of 1.6g ground pods/1 was required to cause 100% mortality in M. cornuarietis. This concentration was by far over and above what is required (ie, 100 mg ground pods/1) to kill 10% of the pulmonate hosts of schistosomiasis. It seems that the application of S. madagascariensis at a concentration inimical to pulmonates (ie, 100 mg ground ponds/1 or slightly higher) in habitats where M. cornuarietis is introduced may not adversely affected to competitor snail population. Hence, the prospect of using S. madagascariensis in conjunction with M. cornuarietis against pulmonate snail hosts is conceived and tentatively recommended.

  11. POD Analysis of Flow Behind a Four-wing Vortex Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinali, Mahdi; Wilkins, Stephen; Hall, Joseph

    2015-11-01

    Wing-tip vortices that persist long after the passage of large aircraft are of major concern to aircraft controllers and are responsible for considerable delays between aircraft take-off times. Understanding these vortices is extremely important, with the ultimate goal to reduce or eliminate delays altogether. Simple theoretical models of vortices can be studied experimentally using a four-wing vortex generator. The cross-stream planes are measured with a two-component Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) system, and the resulting vector fields were analyzed with a Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD) via the method of snapshots. POD analysis will be employed both before and after removing vortex core meandering to investigate the meandering effect on POD modes for a better understanding of it.

  12. Counseling Blacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vontress, Clemmont E.

    1970-01-01

    Blacks have developed unique environmental perceptions, values, and attitudes, making it difficult for counselors to establish and maintain positive rapport. This article examines attitudinal ingredients posited by Carl Rogers for relevance to this problem, and suggests in-service training to help counselors and other professionals relate…

  13. Black Willow

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. M. Krinard

    1980-01-01

    Black willow and other species of Salix together comprise a majority of the stocking. Cottonwood is the chief associate, particularly in the early stages, but green ash, sycamore, pecan, persimmon, waterlocust, American elm, baldcypress, red maple, sugarberry, box-elder, and in some areas, silver maple are invaders preceding the next successional stage.

  14. Black Psyllium

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... by mouth for up to 6 weeks reduces blood sugar in people with type 2 diabetes. Cancer. Diarrhea. Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Other conditions. ... with the dose. Diabetes: Black psyllium can lower blood sugar levels ... with type 2 diabetes by slowing down absorption of carbohydrates. Monitor blood ...

  15. iPod touch-assisted instrumentation of the spine: a technical report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jost, Gregory F; Bisson, Erica F; Schmidt, Meic H

    2013-12-01

    Instrumentation of the spine depends on choosing the correct insertion angles to implant screws. Although modern image guidance facilitates precise instrumentation of the spine, the equipment is costly and availability is limited. Although most surgeons use lateral fluoroscopy to guide instrumentation in the sagittal plane, the lateromedial angulation is often chosen by estimation. To overcome the associated uncertainty, iPod touch-based applications for measuring angles can be used to assist with screw implantation. To evaluate the use of the iPod touch to adjust instruments to the optimal axial insertion angle for placement of pedicle screws in the lumbar spine. Twenty lumbar pedicle screws in 5 consecutive patients were implanted using the iPod touch. The lateromedial angulation was measured on preoperative images and reproduced in the operative field with the iPod touch. The instruments to implant the screws were aligned with the side of the iPod for screw insertion. Actual screw angles were remeasured on postoperative imaging. We collected demographic, clinical, and operative data for each patient. In 16 of 20 screws, the accuracy of implantation was within 3 degrees of the ideal trajectory. The 4 screws with an angle mismatch of 7 to 13 degrees were all implanted at the caudal end of the exposure, where maintaining the planned angulation was impeded by strong muscles pushing medially. iPod touch-assisted instrumentation of the spine is a very simple technique, which, in combination with a lateral fluoroscopy, may guide placement of pedicle screws in the lumbar spine.

  16. Genomic regions, cellular components and gene regulatory basis underlying pod length variations in cowpea (V. unguiculata L. Walp).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Pei; Wu, Xinyi; Muñoz-Amatriaín, María; Wang, Baogen; Wu, Xiaohua; Hu, Yaowen; Huynh, Bao-Lam; Close, Timothy J; Roberts, Philip A; Zhou, Wen; Lu, Zhongfu; Li, Guojing

    2017-05-01

    Cowpea (V. unguiculata L. Walp) is a climate resilient legume crop important for food security. Cultivated cowpea (V. unguiculata L) generally comprises the bushy, short-podded grain cowpea dominant in Africa and the climbing, long-podded vegetable cowpea popular in Asia. How selection has contributed to the diversification of the two types of cowpea remains largely unknown. In the current study, a novel genotyping assay for over 50 000 SNPs was employed to delineate genomic regions governing pod length. Major, minor and epistatic QTLs were identified through QTL mapping. Seventy-two SNPs associated with pod length were detected by genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Population stratification analysis revealed subdivision among a cowpea germplasm collection consisting of 299 accessions, which is consistent with pod length groups. Genomic scan for selective signals suggested that domestication of vegetable cowpea was accompanied by selection of multiple traits including pod length, while the further improvement process was featured by selection of pod length primarily. Pod growth kinetics assay demonstrated that more durable cell proliferation rather than cell elongation or enlargement was the main reason for longer pods. Transcriptomic analysis suggested the involvement of sugar, gibberellin and nutritional signalling in regulation of pod length. This study establishes the basis for map-based cloning of pod length genes in cowpea and for marker-assisted selection of this trait in breeding programmes. © 2016 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Assessment of Closed Point-of-Dispensing (POD) Preparedness in St. Louis County, Missouri, 2012-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebmann, Terri; Anthony, John; Loux, Travis M; Mulroy, Julia; Sitzes, Rikki

    Little is known about closed point-of-dispensing (POD) site preparedness-especially how these entities progress in their preparedness efforts over time. The purpose of this study was to assess the preparedness of a closed POD network. Between 2012 and 2016, 30% to 50% of POD entities in the St. Louis County region were assessed each year, for a total of 138 site evaluations from 62 entities. The assessment tool included 41 components of closed POD preparedness, each scored either 0 = not met or 1 = met. POD preparedness scores could range from 0 to 41. Chi-square tests were conducted to compare the percentage of entities that had each preparedness indicator. A multilevel linear model with a random intercept for each agency was used to model longitudinal changes in closed POD preparedness. POD preparedness scores were higher in 2016 than in 2012 (31.5 vs. 26.5, t = 14.3, p trend in preparedness, and, on average, entities met only 65.4% of the preparedness indicators. Only a third of entities reported hosting a POD exercise at least once every 2 years (32.3%, n = 20). From the multilevel regression, determinants of better POD preparedness include having been assessed more often, employing a business continuity expert, and not being a long-term care agency. Closed POD entities should continue to work toward better preparedness, to better ensure successful deployment. Findings from this study indicate that more frequent assessments likely enhance preparedness at closed POD entities.

  18. Black hole astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blandford, R.D.; Thorne, K.S.

    1979-01-01

    Following an introductory section, the subject is discussed under the headings: on the character of research in black hole astrophysics; isolated holes produced by collapse of normal stars; black holes in binary systems; black holes in globular clusters; black holes in quasars and active galactic nuclei; primordial black holes; concluding remarks on the present state of research in black hole astrophysics. (U.K.)

  19. M-learning education trends are popular in Students through iPod

    OpenAIRE

    Mr. Jamal Mohammad Aqib; Mr. Mohammad Asim

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines popularity of i-pod mobile phones which has been increased in the whole world especially in Saudi Arabia. Most of the students are dependent on mobile phone and I-pod is too much popularin new generation. In my preliminary research we found students were more willing to come to school, did more homework and used their iPod’s more than laptops or desktop computers. Students expect a learning environment that accommodates a mobile lifestyle, integrates today’s digital tools,...

  20. Open-Source Conceptual Sizing Models for the Hyperloop Passenger Pod

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Jeffrey C.; Gray, Justin S.; Jones, Scott M.; Berton, Jeffrey J.

    2015-01-01

    Hyperloop is a new mode of transportation proposed as an alternative to California's high speed rail project, with the intended benefits of higher performance at lower overall costs. It consists of a passenger pod traveling through a tube under a light vacuum and suspended on air bearings. The pod travels up to transonic speeds resulting in a 35 minute travel time between the intended route from Los Angeles and San Francisco. Of the two variants outlined, the smaller system includes a 1.1 meter tall passenger capsule traveling through a 2.2 meter tube at 700 miles per hour. The passenger pod features water-based heat exchangers as well as an on-board compression system that reduces the aerodynamic drag as it moves through the tube. Although the original proposal looks very promising, it assumes that tube and pod dimensions are independently sizable without fully acknowledging the constraints of the compressor system on the pod geometry. This work focuses on the aerodynamic and thermodynamic interactions between the two largest systems; the tube and the pod. Using open-source toolsets, a new sizing method is developed based on one-dimensional thermodynamic relationships that accounts for the strong interactions between these sub-systems. These additional considerations require a tube nearly twice the size originally considered and limit the maximum pod travel speed to about 620 miles per hour. Although the results indicate that Hyperloop will need to be larger and slightly slower than originally intended, the estimated travel time only increases by approximately five minutes, so the overall performance is not dramatically affected. In addition, the proposed on-board heat exchanger is not an ideal solution to achieve reasonable equilibrium air temperatures within the tube. Removal of this subsystem represents a potential reduction in weight, energy requirements and complexity of the pod. In light of these finding, the core concept still remains a compelling

  1. Analytic-graphic testing of deformities at the waterworks Pod Bukovcom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeèný Miloš

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents some geodetic measurement results in a frame of deformity survey of the bulk dam at the waterworks Pod Bukovcom nearby Košice. Periodic geodetic position and levelling measurement are realized on the dam since 1999. Testing statistics are applied into the deformity survey. Geodetic data obtained from individual measurements in the geodetic network on the bulk dam at the waterworks Pod Bukovcom are adjusted using Gauss-Markov model. Accuracy analysis by means of using relative and confidence ellipses is complemented to geodetic measurements.

  2. Observability of Quantum State of Black Hole

    CERN Document Server

    David, J R; Mandal, G; Wadia, S R; David, Justin R.; Dhar, Avinash; Mandal, Gautam; Wadia, Spenta R.

    1997-01-01

    We analyze terms subleading to Rutherford in the $S$-matrix between black hole and probes of successively high energies. We show that by an appropriate choice of the probe one can read off the quantum state of the black hole from the S-matrix, staying asymptotically far from the BH all the time. We interpret the scattering experiment as scattering off classical stringy backgrounds which explicitly depend on the internal quantum numbers of the black hole.

  3. Black powder in gas pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherik, Abdelmounam [Saudi Aramco, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia)

    2009-07-01

    Despite its common occurrence in the gas industry, black powder is a problem that is not well understood across the industry, in terms of its chemical and physical properties, source, formation, prevention or management of its impacts. In order to prevent or effectively manage the impacts of black powder, it is essential to have knowledge of its chemical and physical properties, formation mechanisms and sources. The present paper is divided into three parts. The first part of this paper is a synopsis of published literature. The second part reviews the recent laboratory and field work conducted at Saudi Aramco Research and Development Center to determine the compositions, properties, sources and formation mechanisms of black powder in gas transmission systems. Microhardness, nano-indentation, X-ray Diffraction (XRD), X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) techniques were used to analyze a large number of black powder samples collected from the field. Our findings showed that black powder is generated inside pipelines due to internal corrosion and that the composition of black powder is dependent on the composition of transported gas. The final part presents a summary and brief discussion of various black powder management methods. (author)

  4. Ecology of the cocoa pod borer, Conopomorpha cramerella (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae), a major pest for the cocoa industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conopomorpha cramerella, the cocoa pod borer (CPB), has been known to damage cocoa pods for more than 100 years, but information on the ecology of this species is scant in the scientific literature. That which does exist is scattered in obscure local journals, not readily accessible, and often unve...

  5. 78 FR 25623 - Importation of Fresh Beans, Shelled or in Pods, From Jordan Into the Continental United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-02

    .... APHIS-2012-0042] RIN 0579-AD69 Importation of Fresh Beans, Shelled or in Pods, From Jordan Into the... commercial shipments of fresh beans, shelled or in pods (French, green, snap, and string), from Jordan into the continental United States. As a condition of entry, the beans would have to be produced in...

  6. 78 FR 69285 - Importation of Fresh Beans, Shelled or in Pods, From Jordan Into the Continental United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-19

    .... APHIS-2012-0042] RIN 0579-AD69 Importation of Fresh Beans, Shelled or in Pods, From Jordan Into the... shipments of fresh beans, shelled or in pods (French, green, snap, and string), from Jordan into the continental United States. As a condition of entry, the beans must be produced in accordance with a systems...

  7. Teaching Students with Developmental Disabilities to Operate an iPod Touch[R] to Listen to Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagohara, Debora M.; Sigafoos, Jeff; Achmadi, Donna; van der Meer, Larah; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Lancioni, Giulio E.

    2011-01-01

    We evaluated an intervention procedure for teaching three students with developmental disabilities to independently operate a portable multimedia device (i.e., an iPod Touch[R]) to listen to music. The intervention procedure included the use of video modeling, which was presented on the same iPod Touch[R] that the students were taught to operate…

  8. Pod Mildew on Soybeans Can Mitigate the Damage to the Seed Arising from Field Mold at Harvest Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiang; Deng, Juncai; Zhang, Ke; Wu, Haijun; Yang, Caiqiong; Zhang, Xiaowen; Du, Junbo; Shu, Kai; Yang, Wenyu

    2016-12-07

    Seedpods are the outermost barrier of legume plants encountered by pests and pathogens, but research on this tissue, especially regarding their chemical constituents, is limited. In the present study, a mildew-index-model-based cluster analysis was used to evaluate and identify groups of soybean genotypes with different organ-specific resistance against field mold. The constituents of soybean pods, including proteins, carbohydrates, fatty acids, and isoflavones, were analyzed. Linear regression and correlation analyses were also conducted between these main pod constituents and the organ-specific mildew indexes of seed (MIS) and pod (MIP). With increases in the contents of infection constituents, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fatty acids, the MIP increased and the MIS decreased. The MIS decreased with increases in the contents of glycitein (GLE)-type isoflavonoids, which act as antibiotic constituents. Although the infection constituents in the soybean pods caused pod mildew, they also helped mitigate the corresponding seed mildew to a certain extent.

  9. Genetic control of the angular leaf spot reaction in common bean leaves and pods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerônimo Constantino Borel

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Information about genetic control of plant reaction to pathogens is essential in plant breeding programs focusing resistance. This study aimed to obtain information about genetic control of the angular leaf spot reaction in leaves and pods from common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. line ESAL 686. This line was crossed with cultivars Jalo EEP 558 (resistant, Cornell 49-242 (resistant and Carioca MG (susceptible. Generations F1, F2 and backcrosses (BC11 and BC21 were obtained. In the dry season (2009, parents and respective populations were evaluated for angular leaf spot reaction under field conditions. Disease severity was evaluated on leaves and pods using diagrammatic scales. Severity scores were obtained and mean and variance genetic components were estimated for both. Segregation of F2 generation was analyzed for some crosses. Different genes control angular leaf spot reaction in leaves and pods. Mean and variance components showed predominance of additive effects. Heritability was high, however, was greater on pods than on leaves which indicated that leaf reaction is more influenced by the environment.

  10. Alkylating efficiency of sodium azide on pod yield, nut size and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mutation has been utilised to improve growth and yield of many food crops, but only little effort has been made to ascertain the nutritional advantages in such improved crops. The present study evaluates the alkylating efficiency of sodium azide of different concentrations on pod yield, nut size and nutritional composition of ...

  11. Effects of iPod Touch™ Technology as Communication Devices on Peer Social Interactions across Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancil, G. Richmond; Lorah, Elizabeth R.; Whitby, Peggy Schaefer

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the use of the iPod Touch™ as a Speech Generated Device (SGD) for Functional Communication Training (FCT). The evaluation of the effects on problem behavior, the effects on generalization and maintenance of the acquired communication repertoire, and the social initiations of peers between the new SGD (iPod…

  12. From the iPod to the Smartphone: Navigating the Spaces of the City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Bull

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The Apple iPod and before that the Sony Walkman are inherently technologies of sonic control; the placing of headphones around the ears permits a dramatic reorganization of the user’s soundworld, in effect empowering the ears of the user. Technology thus transforms the power of the senses.

  13. From the iPod to the Smartphone: Navigating the Spaces of the City

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Bull

    2013-01-01

    The Apple iPod and before that the Sony Walkman are inherently technologies of sonic control; the placing of headphones around the ears permits a dramatic reorganization of the user’s soundworld, in effect empowering the ears of the user. Technology thus transforms the power of the senses.

  14. Spectrophotometric versus NIR-MIR assessments of cowpea pods for discriminating the impact of freezing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Nelson; Domínguez-Perles, Raúl; Ramos, Ana; Rosa, Eduardo As; Barros, Ana Irna

    2017-10-01

    Freezing represents an important storage method for vegetal foodstuffs, such as cowpea pods, and thus the impact of this process on the chemical composition of these matrices arises as a prominent issue. In this sense, the phytochemical contents in frozen cowpea pods (i.e. at 6 and 9 months) have been compared with fresh cowpea pods material, with the samples being concomitantly assessed by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), both mid-infrared (MIR) and near infrared (NIR), aiming to evaluate the potential of these techniques as a rapid tool for the traceability of these matrices. A decrease in phytochemical contents during freezing was observed, allowing the classification of samples according to the freezing period based on such variations. Also, MIR and NIR allowed discrimination of samples: the use of the first derivative demonstrated a better performance for this purpose, whereas the use of the normalized spectra gave the best correlations between the spectra and specific contents. In both cases, NIR displayed the best performance. Freezing of cowpea pods leads to a decrease of phytochemical contents, which can be monitored by FTIR spectroscopy, both within the MIR and NIR ranges, whereas the use of this technique, in tandem with chemometrics, constitutes a suitable methodology for the traceability of these matrices. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Characterization of Sugar Concentration Among Edible Podded Accessions in the USDA Phaseolus vulgaris Germplasm Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective is to gain knowledge regarding variation in sugar and flavor content among a sample of dry bean and green pod-type accessions from the USDA Phaseolus Germplasm Core Collection, Pullman, WA. The results could be used to market product quality and offer unique opportunities to expand ma...

  16. Examining iPod Use by Texas Agricultural Science and Technology Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphrey, Theresa Pesl; Miller, Kimberly A.; Roberts, T. Grady

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish baseline data regarding the adoption of iPods and similar technologies by agricultural science and technology teachers. The population consisted of all agricultural science and technology teachers in Texas. A sample of 310 was randomly drawn from the population. Study findings reveal that while…

  17. Electronic Interactions between "Pea" and "Pod" : The Case of Oligothiophenes Encapsulated in Carbon Nanotubes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gao, Jia; Blondeau, Pascal; Salice, Patrizio; Menna, Enzo; Bartova, Barbora; Hebert, Cecile; Leschner, Jens; Kaiser, Ute; Milko, Matus; Ambrosch-Draxl, Claudia; Loi, Maria Antonietta

    2011-01-01

    One of the most challenging strategies to achieve tunable nanophotonic devices is to build robust nanohybrids with variable emission in the visible spectral range, while keeping the merits of pristine single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs). This goal is realized by filling SWNTs ("pods") with a

  18. Short term effect of aqueous extracts of root, pod, and stem of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MICHAEL HORSFALL

    Telfairia occidentalis root, pod and stem aqueous extracts on rats. ... drug (Eseyin et al., 2007). Telfairia ... have a regenerative effect on the destroyed testicular ... histology induced by quinine therapy (Nwangwa et .... hepatic cell and increase in serum level of ALP has ..... Screening and Acute Toxicity Evaluation of. Telfairia ...

  19. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis of pod related traits in different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-09-26

    Sep 26, 2011 ... assistant breeding selection. Key words: Soybean, pod traits, QTL, different environments. INTRODUCTION. Yield related traits in soybean are generally controlled by multiple genes and environmental dependent (Kwon and. Torrie, 1964). Epigenetics of genes controlling these traits also affect the yield.

  20. Cuts of dairy-origin cattle fed mesquite pod meal in replacement of corn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina de Paula Almeida

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out in order to assess commercial front and rear cuts of dairy-origin cattle fed mesquite pod meal. Twenty-five non-castrated male bovines (Holstein-Zebu, distributed according to a completely randomized design, with five animals per treatment, were used. The feed contained about 121.2 and 544.98 g kg-1 of crude protein and total digestible nutrients, respectively, and was composed of tifton grass hay, cornmeal, soybean meal, mesquite pod meal and mineral salt. The right half carcass of each animal was separated between the 5th and 6th ribs, in front and rear quarters, from which commercial cuts were obtained. There was no effect (p > 0.05 as to the replacement of corn for mesquite pod meal on the weights and yields of front cuts (shoulder, brisket, chuck, hump and flanks and rear cuts (tenderloin, shank, knuckle, thin flank, flat, eye round, rump tail, top side, cap of rump, rump, cut of rump, striploin, cap of cube roll. Mesquite pod meal can substitute cornmeal in 100% in the concentrate without changes in weight and yield of the commercial front and rear cuts of male bovines of dairy origin.

  1. Utilization of Mucuna pruriens whole pods to feed lactating hair ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peniche-Gonzalez, Irina Nadieska; Sarmiento-Franco, Luis Armando; Santos-Ricalde, Ronald Herve

    2018-03-27

    Twenty nine Pelibuey × Katahdin hair ewes rearing single lamb were used during 42 days of lactation to evaluate the effect of including the Mucuna pruriens whole pods in the diets of lactating ewes on milk production and offspring performance. Animals were distributed at random into three experimental diets: a control diet without Mucuna (M0), and two more diets with the inclusion of 13 (M13) and 26% (M26), of milled pods of Mucuna pruriens, respectively. Dry matter intake, was not significantly different (P > 0.05) among diets. Milk yield (P > 0.05) was 734, 786, and 694 g/day for diets M0, M13, and M26, respectively. Milk fat (P > 0.05), milk protein (P > 0.05), and milk lactose (P > 0.05) did not differ between treatments. Lambs had similar daily weight gain (P > 0.05) among diets (180, 174, and 171 g/day for diets M0, M13, and M26, respectively). Diets with Mucuna whole pods were 5.6 and 12.9% more profitable (M13 and M26, respectively) than control diet. Under the conditions of this work, Mucuna pruriens whole pods can be included up to 26% in the diets of lactating crossbred hair ewes without negatively affecting their productive performance during the first 6 weeks of lactation.

  2. POD evaluation for joint angles from inertial and optical motion capturing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Kai; Kobayashi, Futoshi; Nakamoto, Hiroyuki; Kojima, Fumio

    2016-01-01

    It has been recognized that advances in preventive maintenance can improve the sustainment of systems, facilities, and infrastructure. Robot technologies have also received attention for maintenance applications. In order to operate delicate tasks, multi-fingered robot hands have been proposed in cases where human capability is deficient. This paper deals with motion capturing systems for controlling the hand/arm robot remotely. Several types of motion capturing systems have been developed so far. However, it is difficult for individual motion capturing systems to measure precise joint angles of a human arm. Therefore, in this paper, we integrate the inertial motion capturing system with the optical motion capturing system to capture a human arm posture. By evaluating the reliability of each motion capturing system, the integration is carried out. The probability of detection (POD) is applied to evaluate and compare the reliability of datasets measured by each motion capturing system. POD is one of the widely used statistical techniques to determine reliability. We apply the â analysis to determine the POD(a) function from the data set. Based on the POD evaluation, two motion capturing systems are integrated. (author)

  3. Multiple gait parameters derived from iPod accelerometry predict age-related gait changes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kosse, Nienke; Vuillerme, Nicolas; Hortobagyi, Tibor; Lamoth, Claude

    Introduction Normative data of how natural aging affects gait can serve as a frame of reference for changes in gait dynamics due to pathologies. Therefore, the present study aims (1) to identify gait variables sensitive to age-related changes in gait over the adult life span using the iPod and (2)

  4. First report of frosty pod rot caused by Moniliophthora roreri on cacao in Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frosty pod rot (FPR) is a devastating cacao disease caused by the basidiomycete Moniliophthora roreri (Aime and Phillips-Mora, 2005). The disease is confined to 13 countries in Central and South America and constitutes a permanent threat for cacao cultivation worldwide. In July 2012, FPR was detect...

  5. Failure to use routine prevention of disability (POD assessment resulting In permanent disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Zoulba

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Disability is one of problems in leprosy or Morbus Hansen (MH, which can cause the patient loose his autonomy and may affect his social relationship with family and community. Disability occurs due to neurological inflammation that can manifest as silent neuritis (which develops without any pain. Silent neuritis can be recognized early with a routine prevention of disability (POD assessment. A 19-year-old male patient was referred from a District General Hospital with a history of numbness and stiffness of his 4th and 5th fingers of his left hand since 1 month before admittance. The patient was refered by Community Health Center (CHC or PUSKESMAS after a one year treatment and RFT. During his treatment at the CHC, no assessment of peripheral nerve or POD had ever been performed. The POD assessment at our hospital demonstrated sensory deficit at some points of assessment on both palms and reduced muscle strength of the first and 5th fingers in both hands. Nerve conduction velocity (NCV performed at the outpatient of Neurology Department, showed multiple mononeuropathy MH with irreversible damage. Nerve damage is still considered reversible when it occurs less than 6 months. In this case, the silent neuritis was not detected early and there was delayed treatment; as showed by NCV which revealed a manifestation of irreversible nerve damage. Routine POD assessment may detect the condition and appropriate treatment may overcome the nerve damage.

  6. The effects of Psychotropic drugs On Developing brain (ePOD) study : methods and design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bottelier, Marco A; Schouw, Marieke L J; Klomp, Anne; Tamminga, Hyke G H; Schrantee, Anouk G M; Bouziane, Cheima; de Ruiter, Michiel B; Boer, Frits; Ruhé, Henricus G; Denys, D.; Rijsman, Roselyne; Lindauer, Ramon J L; Reitsma, Hans B; Geurts, Hilde M; Reneman, Liesbeth

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Animal studies have shown that methylphenidate (MPH) and fluoxetine (FLX) have different effects on dopaminergic and serotonergic system in the developing brain compared to the developed brain. The effects of Psychotropic drugs On the Developing brain (ePOD) study is a combination of

  7. The effects of psychotropic drugs on developing brain (ePOD) study: methods and design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bottelier, M.A.; Schouw, M.L.J.; Klomp, A.; Tamminga, G.H.; Schrantee, A.G.M.; Bouziane, C.; de Ruiter, M.B.; Boer, F.; Ruhé, H.G.; Denys, D.; Rijsman, R.; Lindauer, R.J.L.; Reitsma, H.B.; Geurts, H.M.; Reneman, L.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Animal studies have shown that methylphenidate (MPH) and fluoxetine (FLX) have different effects on dopaminergic and serotonergic system in the developing brain compared to the developed brain. The effects of Psychotropic drugs On the Developing brain (ePOD) study is a combination of

  8. The effects of Psychotropic drugs On Developing brain (ePOD) study : methods and design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bottelier, Marco A.; Schouw, Marieke L. J.; Klomp, Anne; Tamminga, Hyke G. H.; Schrantee, Anouk G. M.; Bouziane, Cheima; de Ruiter, Michiel B.; Boer, Frits; Ruhe, Henricus G.; Denys, Damiaan; Rijsman, Roselyne; Lindauer, Ramon J. L.; Reitsma, Hans B.; Geurts, Hilde M.; Reneman, Liesbeth

    2014-01-01

    Background: Animal studies have shown that methylphenidate (MPH) and fluoxetine (FLX) have different effects on dopaminergic and serotonergic system in the developing brain compared to the developed brain. The effects of Psychotropic drugs On the Developing brain (ePOD) study is a combination of

  9. The effects of Psychotropic drugs On Developing brain (ePOD) study: methods and design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bottelier, Marco A.; Schouw, Marieke L. J.; Klomp, Anne; Tamminga, Hyke G. H.; Schrantee, Anouk G. M.; Bouziane, Cheima; de Ruiter, Michiel B.; Boer, Frits; Ruhé, Henricus G.; Denys, Damiaan; Rijsman, Roselyne; Lindauer, Ramon J. L.; Reitsma, Hans B.; Geurts, Hilde M.; Reneman, Liesbeth

    2014-01-01

    Animal studies have shown that methylphenidate (MPH) and fluoxetine (FLX) have different effects on dopaminergic and serotonergic system in the developing brain compared to the developed brain. The effects of Psychotropic drugs On the Developing brain (ePOD) study is a combination of different

  10. Simulation assisted pod of a phased array ultrasonic inspection in manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominguez, N.; Feuillard, V.; Jenson, F.; Willaume, P.

    2012-05-01

    The concept of Probability of Detection (POD) is generally used to quantitatively assess performances and reliability of NDT operations for in-service operations related to damage tolerant designs. Application of the POD approach as a metric for manufacturing NDT assessment would also be relevant but the very expensive cost of such campaigns generally prevents us from doing so. However the increase in NDT simulation capability and maturity opens the field for POD demonstrations for manufacturing NDT with the help of simulation. This paper presents the example of an automated phased array ultrasonic testing procedure of Electron Beam Welding on rotative parts, as part of the PICASSO European project. POD is calculated by using the uncertainty propagation approach in CIVA. The peculiarity of uncertainties in automated NDT compared to in-service manual operations is discussed and raises questions on appropriate statistics to be used for this kind of data. Alternative estimation techniques like Box-Cox transform or quantile regression are proposed and evaluated.

  11. Integrating the iPod Touch in K-12 Education: Visions and Vices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banister, Savilla

    2010-01-01

    Advocates of ubiquitous computing have long been documenting classroom benefits of one-to-one ratios of students to handheld or laptop computers. The recent sophisticated capabilities of the iPod Touch, iPhone, and iPad have encouraged further speculation on exactly how K-12 teaching and learning might be energized by such devices. This paper…

  12. Effect of Moringa oleifera (Lam.) pods as feed additive on egg ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sohail Ahmad

    2017-10-06

    Oct 6, 2017 ... of these active ingredients is inhibition of pathogenic microbes and endotoxins in the gut and enhanced pancreatic activity .... The supernatant was removed and dried in a water bath. When the .... fed with different levels of Moringa oleifera pod meal ..... Effect of boiling and storage on beta-carotene content.

  13. The potential of legume pods as supplements to low quality roughages

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The potential of legume pods as supplements to low quality roughages. A.T. Ngwa, I.V. Nsahlai, M.L.K. Bonsi. Abstract. (South African J of Animal Science, 2000, 30, Supplement 1: 107-108). Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  14. Glow experiment documentation of OMS/RCS pod and vertical stabilizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    Glow experiment documentation of one of the orbital maneuvering system (OMS) reaction control system (RCS) pods and a portion of the vertical stabilizer shows chemoluminescent effectresulting from atomic oxygen impacting the spacecraft and building to the point that the atomic oxygen atoms combine to form molecules of oxygen. The Image Intensifier on NIKON 35mm camera was used to record the glow.

  15. Functional vegetable guar (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba L. Taub.) accessions for improving flavonoid concentrations in immature pods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dry guar (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba L. Taub) seed are primarily used to extract galactomannan gum for oil fracking, however the immature pods are used as a vegetable in India and sold in ethnic grocery stores in the Atlanta, GA area. Twenty-two guar genotypes were grown in the field at Griffin, GA, US...

  16. Relative efficacy of cocoa pod husk-based compost on growth and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of cocoa pod husk-based compost on growth and nutrient uptake of cocoa seedlings was compared with conventional NPK 15-15-15 fertilizer at the nursery in a randomized complete block design experiment. Poly bags were filled with either top soil or compost alone, and also with mixtures of top soil, compost ...

  17. Invitro Antibacterial Activity of the Prosopis Juliflora Seed Pods on Some Common Pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajbakhsh, Saeed; Barmak, Alireza; Vakhshiteh, Faezeh; Gharibi, Marzieh

    2015-08-01

    Prosopis juliflora is probably the most widespread species of genus Prosopis and it is a good source of compounds that have been shown to be pharmacologically active. This plant has been used as a traditional treatment for several diseases. To investigate the in-vitro antibacterial activity of the P. juliflora seed pods from Bushehr, South West of Iran. In the present study, the antibacterial activity of P. juliflora seed pods extract was tested against Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the extract was determined for each test microorganism. P. juliflora seed pods extract exhibited antibacterial activity against all four test organisms. The MIC of the extract was 0.312 mg/ml and 0.078 mg/ml for S. aureus and S. epidermidis, respectively and 1.25 mg/ml for both E.coli and P.aeruginosa. P. juliflora seed pods from Bushehr, South West of Iran could be an appropriate source of antibacterial compounds that makes it a promising candidate for further studies.

  18. Efficient and accurate stereotactic radiotherapy using flattening filter free beams and HexaPOD robotic tables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten; Hansen, C. R.; Brink, C.

    2016-01-01

    Flattening filter free (FFF) high dose rate beam technique was introduced for brain stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) and lung Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy (SBRT). Furthermore, a HexaPOD treatment table was introduced for the brain SRS to enable correction of rotational setup errors. 19 filter fl...

  19. Combining Ability of Pod Yield and Related Traits of Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L. under Salinity Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Abul Kalam Azad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was performed using 6×6 F1 diallel population without reciprocals to assess the mode of inheritance of pod yield and related traits in groundnut with imposed salinity stress. Heterosis was found for pod number and yield. Data on general and specific combining ability (gca and sca indicated additive and nonadditive gene actions. The gca: sca ratios were much less than unity suggesting predominant role of nonadditive gene effects. Cultivars “Binachinabadam-2” and “Dacca-1” and mutant M6/25/64-82 had the highest, second highest, and third highest pod number, as well as gca values, respectively. These two cultivars and another mutant M6/15/70-19 also had the highest, second highest, and third highest pod yield, as well as gca values, respectively. Therefore, “Dacca-1”, “Binachinabadam-2”, M6/25/64-82, and M6/15/70-19 could be used as source of salinity tolerance. Cross combinations showing high sca effects arising from parents with high and low gca values for any trait indicate the influence of nonadditive genes on their expression. Parents of these crosses can be used for biparental mating or reciprocal recurrent selection for developing high yielding varieties. Crosses with high sca effects having both parents with good gca effects could be exploited by pedigree breeding to get transgressive segregants.

  20. Digestion and ruminal fermentation of cocoa pod silage based ration enriched by gliricidia and calliandra leaves on goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puastuti W

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In term of availability, cacao pod is potential for ruminant feed. According to its nutrients content, cacao pod can be used as feed fiber source. Protein sources materials must be added when cacao pod was ensilaged due to low protein content of this material. The aim of this study was to investigate digestibility value and end products of rumen fermentation of goat fed grass or cacao pod based ration. Randomized block design and 20 heads of lambs (16.95±2.36 kg to evaluated 5 type of rations: R (50% grass + 50% concentrate; S (50% cacao pod silage + 50% concentrate; SG (50% cacao pod-gliricidia silage + 50% concentrate; SK (50% cacao pod-calliandra silage + 50% concentrate dan SC (50% cacao pod-mixture of gliricidia-calliandra silage + 50% concentrate. Feeding trial was conducted for over 15 weeks. Measurements were taken on feed digestibility and rumen-fermentation end-products after 3 weeks of treatments. Results shows that nutrients digestibility was different significantly among the groups of treatments (P<0.05. Digestibillity of organic matter, NDF and energy of R ration was those of higher significantly (P<0.05 than those of other groups. N-ammonia of rumen from goat feed R ration was higher (P<0.05 than other groups. Total VFA and each component were different among the groups (P<0.05, however the value was similar among the groups of cacao pod silage rations. It is concluded that cacao pod silaged based rations enriched by Gliricidia and Calliandra leaves did not produce similar digestibility value and end products of rumen fermentation with grass based ration.

  1. Explicit treatment for Dirichlet, Neumann and Cauchy boundary conditions in POD-based reduction of groundwater models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosses, Moritz; Nowak, Wolfgang; Wöhling, Thomas

    2018-05-01

    In recent years, proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) has become a popular model reduction method in the field of groundwater modeling. It is used to mitigate the problem of long run times that are often associated with physically-based modeling of natural systems, especially for parameter estimation and uncertainty analysis. POD-based techniques reproduce groundwater head fields sufficiently accurate for a variety of applications. However, no study has investigated how POD techniques affect the accuracy of different boundary conditions found in groundwater models. We show that the current treatment of boundary conditions in POD causes inaccuracies for these boundaries in the reduced models. We provide an improved method that splits the POD projection space into a subspace orthogonal to the boundary conditions and a separate subspace that enforces the boundary conditions. To test the method for Dirichlet, Neumann and Cauchy boundary conditions, four simple transient 1D-groundwater models, as well as a more complex 3D model, are set up and reduced both by standard POD and POD with the new extension. We show that, in contrast to standard POD, the new method satisfies both Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions. It can also be applied to Cauchy boundaries, where the flux error of standard POD is reduced by its head-independent contribution. The extension essentially shifts the focus of the projection towards the boundary conditions. Therefore, we see a slight trade-off between errors at model boundaries and overall accuracy of the reduced model. The proposed POD extension is recommended where exact treatment of boundary conditions is required.

  2. POD-1/Tcf21 overexpression reduces endogenous SF-1 and StAR expression in rat adrenal cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. França

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available During gonad and adrenal development, the POD-1/capsulin/TCF21transcription factor negatively regulates SF-1/NR5A1expression, with higher SF-1 levels being associated with increased adrenal cell proliferation and tumorigenesis. In adrenocortical tumor cells, POD-1 binds to the SF-1 E-box promoter region, decreasing SF-1 expression. However, the modulation of SF-1 expression by POD-1 has not previously been described in normal adrenal cells. Here, we analyzed the basal expression of Pod-1 and Sf-1 in primary cultures of glomerulosa (G and fasciculata/reticularis (F/R cells isolated from male Sprague-Dawley rats, and investigated whether POD-1 overexpression modulates the expression of endogenous Sf-1 and its target genes in these cells. POD-1 overexpression, following the transfection of pCMVMycPod-1, significantly decreased the endogenous levels of Sf-1 mRNA and protein in F/R cells, but not in G cells, and also decreased the expression of the SF-1 target StAR in F/R cells. In G cells overexpressing POD-1, no modulation of the expression of SF-1 targets, StAR and CYP11B2, was observed. Our data showing that G and F/R cells respond differently to ectopic POD-1 expression emphasize the functional differences between the outer and inner zones of the adrenal cortex, and support the hypothesis that SF-1 is regulated by POD-1/Tcf21 in normal adrenocortical cells lacking the alterations in cellular physiology found in tumor cells.

  3. Nutritive composition of soybean by-products and nutrient digestibility of soybean pod husk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sompong Sruamsiri

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Soybean by-products (soybean germ, soybean milk residue, soybean hull, soybean pod husk and soybean stem were subjected to proximate analysis, and in vitro digestibility of DM (IVDMD, ADF (IVADFD and NDF (IVNDFD were determined after digesting the by-products in buffered rumen fluid for 24 or 48 h in 2 ANKOMII Daisy Incubators using Completely Randomised Design. Four native cattle (body weight 210 + 13.5 kg were used to determine nutrient digestibility of soybean pod husk. They were randomly assigned by Cross-over Design to receive two roughage sources, i.e. guinea grass and guinea grass + soybean pod husk (60:40 DM basis, in two experimental periods. Guinea grass was harvested on the 35th day after the first cut of the year and used as green forage. Total collection method was used to determine the digestibility coefficients and digestibility by difference was used to calculate nutrient digestibility of soybean pod husk.The nutritive composition showed that soybean germ was highest in CP content (42.27% of DM and EE content (5.07% of DM but lowest in NDF and ADF content (20.09 and 21.53% of DM respectively. The average CP content of soybean straw, soybean stem and soybean pod husk was low (4.91, 4.67 and 5.04% respectively, while ADF content was high (42.76, 38.01 and 42.08% respectively. In vitro digestibility of DM (IVDMD, ADF (IVADFD and NDF (IVNDFD showed that all of them, except soybean stem, can be used as cattle feed, e.g. as supplemented feed or admixture in concentrate feed. Digestibility coefficients of guinea grass were higher in CP, CF and EE when compared to the other groups. The apparent digestibility of CP and CF were highly different (P0.05. The digestibility of nutrients (DM, OM, CP, CF, NFE, NDF and ADF of soybean pod husk were 53.81 + 4.3, 59.69 + 4.6, 42.38 + 3.8, 30.71 + 3.2, 50.74 + 4.3, 75.26 + 4.0, 45.78 + 3.7 and 30.53 + 4.2 % respectively. Soybean pod husk was higher in total digestible nutrients (TDN (51.87 + 3.3 vs

  4. Comparative study on the performance of Pod type waterjet by experiment and computation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moon-Chan Kim

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available A comparative study between a computation and an experiment has been conducted to predict the performance of a Pod type waterjet for an amphibious wheeled vehicle. The Pod type waterjet has been chosen on the basis of the required specific speed of more than 2500. As the Pod type waterjet is an extreme type of axial flow type waterjet, theoretical as well as experimental works about Pod type waterjets are very rare. The main purpose of the present study is to validate and compare to the experimental results of the Pod type waterjet with the developed CFD in-house code based on the RANS equations. The developed code has been validated by comparing with the experimental results of the well-known turbine problem. The validation also extended to the flush type waterjet where the pressures along the duct surface and also velocities at nozzle area have been compared with experimental results. The Pod type waterjet has been designed and the performance of the designed waterjet system including duct, impeller and stator was analyzed by the previously mentioned in-house CFD Code. The pressure distributions and limiting streamlines on the blade surfaces were computed to confirm the performance of the designed waterjets. In addition, the torque and momentum were computed to find the entire efficiency and these were compared with the model test results. Measurements were taken of the flow rate at the nozzle exit, static pressure at the various sections along the duct and also the nozzle, revolution of the impeller, torque, thrust and towing forces at various advance speeds for the prediction of performance as well as for comparison with the computations. Based on these measurements, the performance was analyzed according to the ITTC96 standard analysis method. The full-scale effective and the delivered power of the wheeled vehicle were estimated for the prediction of the service speed. This paper emphasizes the confirmation of the ITTC96 analysis method and

  5. Effect of feeding Acacia nilotica pod meal on hematobiochemical profile and fecal egg count in goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitendra Kumar Paswan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was conducted to observe the effect of feeding Acacia nilotica pod meal on hematobiochemical profile and gastrointestinal parasitic load in growing goats. Materials and Methods: To experiment was conducted for a period of 3-month on 24 male goats (3½ month old, average body weight [BW] 6.50±1.50 kg, distributed into four groups of six animals each. The experimental animals were fed graded level of A. nilotica pod meal (0%, 10%, 20% and 30% mixed in concentrate mixture equivalent to tannin concentration of 0%, 1.91%, 3.82% and 5.73% in the total mixed ration I, II, III and IV, respectively, but ad libitum measured quantity of green sorghum fodder (Sorghum bicolor feeding. The blood samples were collected from experimental goats during the feeding experiment for the examination of different hematological indices and serum biochemical profile to know the overall health status of animals and standard method was followed to analyze the samples. Fecal sample was collected directly from the anus of goats by inserting middle finger and kept the samples in labeled polythene bag. Further fresh sample was processed and examined by McMaster Technique for eggs per gram and oocysts per gram. It gives accurate information regarding severity of infection. Results: The feeding of babul pod meal did not address significant changes about the hematological parameters among various treatment groups. The lymphocyte count was significantly higher (p=0.07 in T3 group as compared to control and increase with increase in level of babul pod meal in the diet. Blood urea nitrogen (BUN level was 4.86 and 6.59% lower in T1 and T2 group as compared to control and inversely proportional with level of supplement in ration. The decrease in BUN reflected good dietary protein metabolism happened in animals supplemented with babul pod meal. Serum creatinine level was significantly lower (p<0.01 in T2 group as compared to control. The creatinine level was 20

  6. Reliability of BOD POD Measurements Remains High After a Short-Duration Low-Carbohydrate Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Beau Kjerulf; Edsall, Kathleen M; Greer, Anna E

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of the current study was to determine whether expected changes in body weight via a 3-day low-carbohydrate (LC) diet will disrupt the reliability of air displacement plethysmography measurements via BOD POD. Twenty-four subjects recorded their typical diets for 3 days before BOD POD and 7-site skinfold analyses. Subjects were matched for lean body mass and divided into low-CHO (LC) and control (CON) groups. The LC group was given instruction intended to prevent more than 50 grams/day of carbohydrate consumption for 3 consecutive days, and the CON group replicated their previously recorded diet. Body composition measurements were repeated after dietary intervention. Test-retest reliability measures were significant (p fat percentage in both the LC and the CON groups (rs = .993 and .965, respectively). Likewise, skinfold analysis for body fat percentage reliability was high in both groups (rs = .996 and .997, respectively). There were significant differences between 1st and 2nd BOD POD measurements for body mass (72.9 ± 13.3 vs. 72.1 ± 13.0 kg [M ± SD]) and body volume (69.0 ± 12.7-68.1 ± 12.2 L) in the LC group (p .05) in BOD POD-determined body fat percentage, lean body mass, or fat mass between the 1st and 2nd trial in either group. Body composition measures via BOD POD and 7-site skinfolds remain reliable after 3 days of an LC diet despite significant decreases in body mass.

  7. Particle accelerators inside spinning black holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lake, Kayll

    2010-05-28

    On the basis of the Kerr metric as a model for a spinning black hole accreting test particles from rest at infinity, I show that the center-of-mass energy for a pair of colliding particles is generically divergent at the inner horizon. This shows not only that classical black holes are internally unstable, but also that Planck-scale physics is a characteristic feature within black holes at scales much larger that the Planck length. The novel feature of the divergence discussed here is that the phenomenon is present only for black holes with rotation, and in this sense it is distinct from the well-known Cauchy horizon instability.

  8. Council of Europe Black Sea Area Project: International Cooperation for the Development of Activities Related to Donation and Transplantation of Organs in the Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arredondo, E; López-Fraga, M; Chatzixiros, E; Senemaud, B; Brezovsky, P; Carella, C; Ballesté, C; Aydin Mehmet, A; Tomadze, G; Codreanu, I; Sarkissian, A A; Simeonova, M; Nikonenko, A; Zota, V; Gómez, M P; Manyalich, M; Bolotinha, C; Franca, A; Costa, A N; Ott, M-O; Buchheit, K-H

    2018-03-01

    In 2011, the European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines & Healthcare of the Council of Europe launched a 3-year collaborative project to address the organ shortage and improve access to transplant health services in Council of Europe member states in the Black Sea area (Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bulgaria, Georgia, Moldova, Romania, Turkey, Ukraine, and the Russian Federation) through the development of safe and ethical donation and transplantation programs. Support the development of donation and transplantation programs through close interstate cooperation between national health organizations and relevant stakeholders. Several work packages (WP) were established: WP1, project coordination (European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines & Healthcare); WP2, development and implementation of an effective legislative and financial framework (Czech Republic and France); WP3, establishment of National Transplant Authorities (Italy and Portugal); and WP4, clinical practices (DTI Foundation). Data collection, surveys, and expert visits allowed for the collection of first-hand information from each participant country at national, regional, and hospital levels. Data analysis showed the positive impact of the project represented by a tendency to increase the total donation rates (per million people) in the participant countries (2011 vs 2013): Azerbaijan, +7.3; Armenia, -0.7; Georgia, +3.3; Bulgaria, +0.9; Moldova, +2.5; Ukraine:, +0.8; Romania, +2.3; and Turkey, +2.7. Increases in total donation rates are the result of a number of initiatives in the Black Sea area, including the stepwise implementation of legislative, organizational and institutional country-specific recommendations tailored by the CoE, efforts of the respective Ministries of Health in each country and synergism with other European projects in the region. These countries should invest further in implementing the recommendations that emerged from this project to improve their organ donation

  9. Traditional Chinese medicine and sports drug testing: identification of natural steroid administration in doping control urine samples resulting from musk (pod) extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thevis, Mario; Schänzer, Wilhelm; Geyer, Hans; Thieme, Detlef; Grosse, Joachim; Rautenberg, Claudia; Flenker, Ulrich; Beuck, Simon; Thomas, Andreas; Holland, Ruben; Dvorak, Jiri

    2013-01-01

    The administration of musk extract, that is, ingredients obtained by extraction of the liquid secreted from the preputial gland or resulting grains of the male musk deer (eg, Moschus moschiferus), has been recommended in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) applications and was listed in the Japanese pharmacopoeia for various indications requiring cardiovascular stimulation, anti-inflammatory medication or androgenic hormone therapy. Numerous steroidal components including cholesterol, 5α-androstane-3,17-dione, 5β-androstane-3,17-dione, androsterone, etiocholanolone, epiandrosterone, 3β-hydroxy-androst-5-en-17-one, androst-4-ene-3,17-dione and the corresponding urea adduct 3α-ureido-androst-4-en-17-one were characterised as natural ingredients of musk over several decades, implicating an issue concerning doping controls if used for the treatment of elite athletes. In the present study, the impact of musk extract administration on sports drug testing results of five females competing in an international sporting event is reported. In the course of routine doping controls, adverse analytical findings concerning the athletes' steroid profile, corroborated by isotope-ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) data, were obtained. The athletes' medical advisors admitted the prescription of TCM-based musk pod preparations and provided musk pod samples for comparison purposes to clarify the antidoping rule violation. Steroid profiles, IRMS results, literature data and a musk sample obtained from a living musk deer of a local zoo conclusively demonstrated the use of musk pod extracts in all cases which, however, represented a doping offence as prohibited anabolic-androgenic steroids were administered.

  10. Contemporary Black Theatre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Pearl

    The distinguishable black theatre in America, mirroring a distinguishable black experience, is an artistic product which demands audience involvement. Both the Afro-American oral tradition and the art of gesture are integral aspects of black theatre. In addition, the tragedy found black theatre is not tragedy in the classic sense, as blacks feel…

  11. A 20 MW podded ship underwater electromagnetic signature - the alternative electric field; Signature electromagnetique sous-marine d'un paquebot de 20 MW a pods - le champ electrique alternatif

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucas, B.; Henocq, H.; Rannou, C. [Delegation Generale pour l' Armement, DET/GESMA, 75 - Paris (France); Albert, Th.; Harpin, D. [ALSTOM Marine (France); Bourguet, S.; Guerin, P. [Institut de Recherche en Electrotechnique et Electronique de Nantes Atlantique, 44 (France)

    2006-03-15

    Today, electric podded propulsion is used for many ships, cruise liners and Navy vessels.This propulsion uses high currents in extremely low frequencies (ELFE); currents flow through electrical network, equipment and pods. These alternative currents could generate important underwater electromagnetic field. GESMA has to quantify the level of this field and its impact on the signature of this kind of ship. Then, GESMA carried out electromagnetic measurements using a multi-sensors underwater and autonomous facility named AMI. It was placed on the route of a 20 MW podded ship, at one hundred meters depth from the surface. Especially, AMI observed an alternative radiated electric field... (authors)

  12. Effect of Tara (Caesalpinia spinosa Pod Powder on the Oxidation and Colour Stability of Pork Meat Batter During Chilled Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Skowyra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The eff ect of dried pods of Caesalpinia spinosa, known as tara, on pH, cooking loss, lipid oxidation, colour stability and texture of model meat systems stored at 4 °C for 21 days was investigated. Tara pod powder showing a potential antioxidant activity was added at 0.02, 0.04 and 0.08 % (by mass directly to the pork batt er and compared with a synthetic antioxidant, butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA and control (no added antioxidants. The addition of tara pod powder at 0.02 % was as effective as BHA (0.02 % in retarding lipid oxidation in pork products during storage. Results showed that redness increased after the addition of tara pod powder. Specifically, 0.02 % of tara pod powder was effective in keeping the red colour of meat batter stored under illumination at 4 °C for 48 h. Hardness of pork products was the lowest in samples manufactured with tara pod powder compared with control. Results highlight the potential of using tara pod powder as natural functional ingredient in the development of pork products with enhanced quality and shelf life.

  13. Assessment of Drying Characteristics and Texture in Relation with Micromorphological Traits of Carob (Ceratonia silliqua L. Pods and Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Benković

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Carob tree (Ceratonia siliqua L. is a perennial leguminous evergreen tree native to the coastal regions of the Mediterranean basin and is considered to be an important component of vegetation for economic and environmental reasons. Two constituents of the pod, pulp and seeds, can be used as feed or in food production. In this study, drying characteristics, texture and microstructure of carob pods were studied. Three different carob samples were prepared: whole carob pod, carob pod parts and carob seed. The drying experiments and the modelling showed that carob seeds had the highest drying rate, followed by pod parts and the whole, intact carob fruit. Texture studies showed that the maximum compression force depended on the area of the carob fruit on which compression tests were performed. The seeds showed the highest compression force, followed by the stem zone, the tip and the centre of the fruit. Differences in drying behaviour and texture of carob pods can successfully be interpreted by the micromorphology of the carob pods and seeds. Determining the drying rate, maximum compressive force and micromorphological traits is of great importance for further carob processing (e.g. milling, sieving, carob bean gum production or usage in food or feed products.

  14. Black widow spider

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002858.htm Black widow spider To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The black widow spider (Latrodectus) has a shiny black body with a ...

  15. Pod systems: an equivariant ordinary differential equation approach to dynamical systems on a spatial domain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elmhirst, Toby; Stewart, Ian; Doebeli, Michael

    2008-01-01

    We present a class of systems of ordinary differential equations (ODEs), which we call 'pod systems', that offers a new perspective on dynamical systems defined on a spatial domain. Such systems are typically studied as partial differential equations, but pod systems bring the analytic techniques of ODE theory to bear on the problems, and are thus able to study behaviours and bifurcations that are not easily accessible to the standard methods. In particular, pod systems are specifically designed to study spatial dynamical systems that exhibit multi-modal solutions. A pod system is essentially a linear combination of parametrized functions in which the coefficients and parameters are variables whose dynamics are specified by a system of ODEs. That is, pod systems are concerned with the dynamics of functions of the form Ψ(s, t) = y 1 (t) φ(s; x 1 (t)) + ··· + y N (t) φ(s; x N (t)), where s in R n is the spatial variable and φ: R n × R d → R. The parameters x i in R d and coefficients y i in R are dynamic variables which evolve according to some system of ODEs, x-dot i = G i (x, y) and y-dot i = H i (x, y), for i = 1, ..., N. The dynamics of Ψ in function space can then be studied through the dynamics of the x and y in finite dimensions. A vital feature of pod systems is that the ODEs that specify the dynamics of the x and y variables are not arbitrary; restrictions on G i and H i are required to guarantee that the dynamics of Ψ in function space are well defined (that is, that trajectories are unique). One important restriction is symmetry in the ODEs which arises because Ψ is invariant under permutations of the indices of the (x i , y i ) pairs. However, this is not the whole story, and the primary goal of this paper is to determine the necessary structure of the ODEs explicitly to guarantee that the dynamics of Ψ are well defined

  16. Black Urine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahim Vakili

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A 2-year-old boy was born at term of healthy, non-consanguineous Iranian parents. His mother attended in the clinic with the history of sometimes discoloration of diapers after passing urine. She noticed that first at the age of one month with intensified in recent months. His Physical examination and growth parameters were normal. His mother denied taking any medication (sorbitol, nitrofurantoin, metronidazole, methocarbamol, sena and methyldopa (5. Qualitative urine examination showed dark black discoloration. By this history, alkaptonuria was the most clinical suspicious. A 24-hour-urine sample was collected and sent for quantitative measurements. The urine sample was highly positive for homogentisic acid and negative for porphyrin metabolites.

  17. COEVOLUTION BETWEEN SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLES AND BULGES IS NOT VIA INTERNAL FEEDBACK REGULATION BUT BY RATIONED GAS SUPPLY DUE TO ANGULAR MOMENTUM DISTRIBUTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cen, Renyue, E-mail: cen@astro.princeton.edu [Princeton University Observatory, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)

    2015-05-20

    We reason that without physical fine-tuning, neither the supermassive black holes (SMBHs) nor the stellar bulges can self-regulate or inter-regulate by driving away already fallen cold gas to produce the observed correlation between them. We suggest an alternative scenario where the observed mass ratios of the SMBHs to bulges reflect the angular momentum distribution of infallen gas such that the mass reaching the stable accretion disk is a small fraction of that reaching the bulge region, averaged over the cosmological timescales. We test this scenario using high-resolution, large-scale cosmological hydrodynamic simulations, without active galactic nucleus (AGN) feedback, assuming the angular momentum distribution of gas landing in the bulge region yields a Mestel disk that is supported by independent simulations resolving the Bondi radii of SMBHs. A mass ratio of 0.1%–0.3% between the very low angular momentum gas that free falls to the subparsec region to accrete to the SMBH and the overall star formation rate is found. This ratio is found to increase with increasing redshift to within a factor of ∼2, suggesting that the SMBH-to-bulge ratio is nearly redshift independent, with a modest increase with redshift, which is a testable prediction. Furthermore, the duty cycle of AGNs with high Eddington ratios is expected to increase significantly with redshift. Finally, while SMBHs and bulges are found to coevolve on ∼30–150 Myr timescales or longer, there is indication that on still smaller timescales, the SMBH accretion and star formation may be less correlated.

  18. Pod-Car Concept 2030 : Interior design for an autonomous car

    OpenAIRE

    Oikarinen, Ilja

    2017-01-01

    My graduation project is a concept which is located to near future, 2030. It addresses a solution for mega cities and problems that they have, such as high renting and living costs caused by overpopulation. The Pod hotel concept uses already existing solutions like smart living and space solutions and Capsule hotels seen in Japan, combined with an autonomous vehicle. The graduation project has been done within the cooperation of Covestro. Covestro is a german company, which produces and d...

  19. Phenolic composition, antioxidant, anti-wrinkles and tyrosinase inhibitory activities of cocoa pod extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karim, Azila Abdul; Azlan, Azrina; Ismail, Amin; Hashim, Puziah; Abd Gani, Siti Salwa; Zainudin, Badrul Hisyam; Abdullah, Nur Azilah

    2014-10-07

    Cocoa pod is an outer part of cocoa fruits being discarded during cocoa bean processing. Authors found out that data on its usage in literature as cosmetic materials was not recorded in vast. In this study, cocoa pod extract was investigated for its potential as a cosmetic ingredient. Cocoa pod extract (CPE) composition was accomplished using UHPLC. The antioxidant capacity were measured using scavenging assay of 1,2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), β-carotene bleaching assay (BCB) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP). Inhibiting effect on skin degradation enzymes was carried out using elastase and collagenase assays. The skin whitening effect of CPE was determined based on mushroom tyrosinase assay and sun screening effect (UV-absorbance at 200-400 nm wavelength). LC-MS/MS data showed the presence of carboxylic acid, phenolic acid, fatty acid, flavonoids (flavonol and flavones), stilbenoids and terpenoids in CPE. Results for antioxidant activity exhibited that CPE possessed good antioxidant activity, based on the mechanism of the assays compared with ascorbic acid (AA) and standardized pine bark extract (PBE); DPPH: AA > CPE > PBE; FRAP: PBE > CPE > AA; and BCB: BHT > CPE > PBE. Cocoa pod extract showed better action against elastase and collagenase enzymes in comparison with PBE and AA. Higher inhibition towards tyrosinase enzyme was exhibited by CPE than kojic acid and AA, although lower than PBE. CPE induced proliferation when tested on human fibroblast cell at low concentration. CPE also exhibited a potential as UVB sunscreen despite its low performance as a UVA sunscreen agent. Therefore, the CPE has high potential as a cosmetic ingredient due to its anti-wrinkle, skin whitening, and sunscreen effects.

  20. The Princeton Protein Orthology Database (P-POD): a comparative genomics analysis tool for biologists.

    OpenAIRE

    Sven Heinicke; Michael S Livstone; Charles Lu; Rose Oughtred; Fan Kang; Samuel V Angiuoli; Owen White; David Botstein; Kara Dolinski

    2007-01-01

    Many biological databases that provide comparative genomics information and tools are now available on the internet. While certainly quite useful, to our knowledge none of the existing databases combine results from multiple comparative genomics methods with manually curated information from the literature. Here we describe the Princeton Protein Orthology Database (P-POD, http://ortholog.princeton.edu), a user-friendly database system that allows users to find and visualize the phylogenetic r...

  1. Dietary fibre concentrate from Chilean algarrobo (Prosopis chilensis (Mol.) Stuntz) pods: purification and characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estévez, Ana María; Figuerola, Fernando; Bernuy, Enrique; Sáenz, Carmen

    2014-12-01

    Prosopis species are generally fast-growing, drought-resistant, nitrogen-fixing trees or shrubs. Fruits of Prosopis spp are indehiscent pods, where pericarp is formed by the epicarp, light brown in colour, and fibrous nature; the mesocarp known as pulp, which is rich in sugars; and the endocarp. The aim of this work was to obtain a fibre concentrate from the pods of Prosopis chilensis Mol. (Stuntz) and to determine the chemical, physical, and technological properties of the pod flour (PF) and of a fibre concentrate or pod purified flour (PPF). Acetone, ethanol, and water at different conditions of time and temperature were used in the purification process. PF showed 53.7 g/100 g of total sugar content, 4.2 g/100 g of reducing sugar content, 41.8 g/100 g of total dietary fibre, 35.8 g/100 g of insoluble fibre, and 6.0 g/100 g of soluble fibre content. The PPF has a total sugar content of 3.8 g/100 g, reducing sugar content of 2.2 g/100 g, total dietary fibre content of 80.8 g/100 g, insoluble fibre content of 75.1 g/100 g, and soluble fibre content of 5.7 g/100 g. The scanning electron microscopy analysis showed the existence of voids in the structure of PPF flour, which reveals the efficiency of the purification process with a high decrease in the total sugar content. © The Author(s) 2013 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  2. Sieving Effect of Sorting Machine with Vibration Table Type on Cacao Pod Based Compost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siswoyo Soekarno

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Cacao pod is the biggest part (70% of weight of Cacao, which was not optimaly utilized.Cacao podis one of organic material that can be functioned as an organic fertilizer, such as compost. When utilizedwith right proportion, organic fertilizer is safe for plants and not degrades the soil composition. Compostingprocess is one of utilization form of Cacao pod. The size reduction of cacao pod in the organic fertilizerprocess would help to accelerate the composting process. Smaller particle size would faster interacting withenvironment, so the composting process would be well accelerated if compared to the material with biggersize. Chopping machine of Cacao pod is used to cut the biomass to be small particle in order to be able tobe utilized as some important necessity, i.e. fertilizer or farm animals feed. However, Varies compost sizewas one of the problems faced in the composting process. Therefore, the sorting process was needed tobe done after chopping process, so the compost size became uniform and fulfill the user demand. Thisresearch was aimed at knowing the slope effect of sorting machine and rotation speed (RPM. The methodused in analyzing the results of this research was comparing the treatment factors, which are shown withhistogram. As the super small size of compost recommended for applying in the fertilizing process, so theoptimum treatment combination for having high mass fraction of SS compost grade was achieved at 12oslope of sieve table and 1400 RPM motor rotation speed. As bigger the particle densities of the compostsize as smaller the compost porosity. Mass loss was very low at all treatment combination with the valuearound 0.43-1.33%, so the sieving efficiency can be said very high.

  3. View of the starboard OMS pod of the STS-6 Challenger

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    This view centers on the starboard orbital maneuvering system (OMS) pod of the shuttle Challenger during its STS-6 mission. Two pieces of thermal protection system tile appear to have loosened. The view also shows one of the cargo bay television cameras, part of the extravehicular activity (EVA) slide wire system, three handrails and other features on the aft bulkhead. Part of the airborne support equipment (ASE) is in the lower right foreground.

  4. Columbia: The first five flights entry heating data series. Volume 2: The OMS Pod

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, S. D.

    1983-01-01

    Entry heating flight data and wind tunnel data on the OMS Pod are presented for the first five flights of the Space Shuttle Orbiter. The heating rate data are presented in terms of normalized film heat transfer coefficients as a function of angle-of-attack, Mach number, and normal shock Reynolds number. The surface heating rates and temperatures were obtained via the JSC NONLIN/INVERSE computer program. Time history plots of the surface heating rates and temperatures are also presented.

  5. Some blood indices in finisher broiler chickens fed cocoa pod husk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The dietary effects of pre-treated cocoa pod husk (CPH) on some blood indices of 21-day old COBB-500 finisher broiler chicks were evaluated in a 35-day experiment with a completely randomized design. The birds were allotted to seven treatments (diets) having 0-g kg-1, 100- g kg-1, 200-g kg-1 and 300-g kg-1 of either ...

  6. The iPod binocular home-based treatment for amblyopia in adults: efficacy and compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Robert F; Babu, Raiju Jacob; Clavagnier, Simon; Black, Joanna; Bobier, William; Thompson, Benjamin

    2014-09-01

    Occlusion therapy for amblyopia is predicated on the idea that amblyopia is primarily a disorder of monocular vision; however, there is growing evidence that patients with amblyopia have a structurally intact binocular visual system that is rendered functionally monocular due to suppression. Furthermore, we have found that a dichoptic treatment intervention designed to directly target suppression can result in clinically significant improvement in both binocular and monocular visual function in adult patients with amblyopia. The fact that monocular improvement occurs in the absence of any fellow eye occlusion suggests that amblyopia is, in part, due to chronic suppression. Previously the treatment has been administered as a psychophysical task and more recently as a video game that can be played on video goggles or an iPod device equipped with a lenticular screen. The aim of this case-series study of 14 amblyopes (six strabismics, six anisometropes and two mixed) ages 13 to 50 years was to investigate: 1. whether the portable video game treatment is suitable for at-home use and 2. whether an anaglyphic version of the iPod-based video game, which is more convenient for at-home use, has comparable effects to the lenticular version. The dichoptic video game treatment was conducted at home and visual functions assessed before and after treatment. We found that at-home use for 10 to 30 hours restored simultaneous binocular perception in 13 of 14 cases along with significant improvements in acuity (0.11 ± 0.08 logMAR) and stereopsis (0.6 ± 0.5 log units). Furthermore, the anaglyph and lenticular platforms were equally effective. In addition, the iPod devices were able to record a complete and accurate picture of treatment compliance. The home-based dichoptic iPod approach represents a viable treatment for adults with amblyopia. © 2014 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Optometry © 2014 Optometrists Association Australia.

  7. Erratic Black Hole Regulates Itself

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    't entirely understand, the other one gets the upper hand." GRS 1915+105 Chandra X-ray Image of GRS 1915+105 The latest Chandra results also show that the wind and the jet carry about the same amount of matter away from the black hole. This is evidence that the black hole is somehow regulating its accretion rate, which may be related to the toggling between mass expulsion via either a jet or a wind from the accretion disk. Self-regulation is a common topic when discussing supermassive black holes, but this is the first clear evidence for it in stellar-mass black holes. "It is exciting that we may be on the track of explaining two mysteries at the same time: how black hole jets can be shut down and also how black holes regulate their growth," said co-author Julia Lee, assistant professor in the Astronomy department at the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics. "Maybe black holes can regulate themselves better than the financial markets!" Although micro-quasars and quasars differ in mass by factors of millions, they should show a similarity in behavior when their very different physical scales are taken into account. People Who Read This Also Read... Chandra Data Reveal Rapidly Whirling Black Holes Jet Power and Black Hole Assortment Revealed in New Chandra Image Celebrate the International Year of Astronomy Ghost Remains After Black Hole Eruption "If quasars and micro-quasars behave very differently, then we have a big problem to figure out why, because gravity treats them the same," said Neilsen. "So, our result is actually very reassuring, because it's one more link between these different types of black holes." The timescale for changes in behavior of a black hole should vary in proportion to the mass. For example, an hour-long timescale for changes in GRS 1915 would correspond to about 10,000 years for a supermassive black hole that weighs a billion times the mass of the Sun. "We cannot hope to explore at this level of detail in any single supermassive black hole

  8. Acceleration of Gas Flow Simulations in Dual-Continuum Porous Media Based on the Mass-Conservation POD Method

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Yi

    2017-09-12

    Reduced-order modeling approaches for gas flow in dual-porosity dual-permeability porous media are studied based on the proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) method combined with Galerkin projection. The typical modeling approach for non-porous-medium liquid flow problems is not appropriate for this compressible gas flow in a dual-continuum porous media. The reason is that non-zero mass transfer for the dual-continuum system can be generated artificially via the typical POD projection, violating the mass-conservation nature and causing the failure of the POD modeling. A new POD modeling approach is proposed considering the mass conservation of the whole matrix fracture system. Computation can be accelerated as much as 720 times with high precision (reconstruction errors as slow as 7.69 × 10−4%~3.87% for the matrix and 8.27 × 10−4%~2.84% for the fracture).

  9. Influence of radiation damage repair inhibitor on superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD) in different sensitive crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Daojun; Xu Dengyi; Wan Zhaoliang; He Shoulin

    1997-01-01

    The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD) were affected remarkably by 60 Co γ-ray irradiation and radiation damage repair inhibitor (Caf, EDTA). SOD, CAT and POD activities showed the similar change pattern in both soybean (sensitive to radiation) and Brassica napus L. (resistant to radiation) seedlings in all treatments. After reaching the maximum value, SOD activity decreased with the increase of doses. CAT activity had the same change pattern as that of SOD in soybean, while with Brassica napus L., CAT activity remained relatively steady from 300 Gy to 1000 Gy. And POD activity increased with the increase of doses. Compared with H 2 O-treatments, CaF, EDAT post-treatments obviously enhanced SOD, CAT and POD activities. With all the treatments, the three enzyme activities were higher in Brassica napus L. than those in soybean seedlings

  10. Effects of acute and 2-hour postphysical activity on the estimation of body fat made by the bod pod.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrop, Bradley J; Woodruff, Sarah J

    2015-06-01

    The Bod Pod has been found to be reliable/valid against several criterion methods, including hydrostatic weighing and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, and under different conditions, such as clothing, dehydrated states, and body temperature changes. However, questions remain regarding the effects of an acute bout of exercise. Therefore, the purpose was to determine the effects of an acute bout of exercise on the estimations made by the Bod Pod. Participants (15 men and 22 women) were of age 18-27 years and were currently exercising. Baseline Bod Pod measures were completed followed by a 30-minute cycling trial at 75% of maximum heart rate. Bod Pod measures were taken immediately after exercise and 2 hours after exercise. Differences between men and women were found at baseline between height (p temperature (p temperature (p estimate of %BF, and continues to affect the prediction 2 hours after exercise in women.

  11. Acceleration of Gas Flow Simulations in Dual-Continuum Porous Media Based on the Mass-Conservation POD Method

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Yi; Sun, Shuyu; Yu, Bo

    2017-01-01

    Reduced-order modeling approaches for gas flow in dual-porosity dual-permeability porous media are studied based on the proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) method combined with Galerkin projection. The typical modeling approach for non-porous-medium liquid flow problems is not appropriate for this compressible gas flow in a dual-continuum porous media. The reason is that non-zero mass transfer for the dual-continuum system can be generated artificially via the typical POD projection, violating the mass-conservation nature and causing the failure of the POD modeling. A new POD modeling approach is proposed considering the mass conservation of the whole matrix fracture system. Computation can be accelerated as much as 720 times with high precision (reconstruction errors as slow as 7.69 × 10−4%~3.87% for the matrix and 8.27 × 10−4%~2.84% for the fracture).

  12. Poster - 11: Radiation barrier thickness calculations for the GammaPod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    La Russa, Daniel; Vandervoort, Eric; Wilkins, David

    2016-01-01

    A consortium of radiotherapy centers in North America is in the process of evaluating a novel new 60 Co teletherapy device, called the GammaPod™ (Xcision Medical Systems, Columbia Maryland), designed specifically for breast SBRT. The GammaPod consists of 36 collimated 60 Co sources with a total activity of 4320 Ci. The sources are housed in a hemispherical source carrier that rotates during treatment to produce a cylindrically symmetric cone of primary beam spanning 16° – 54° degrees from the horizontal. This unique beam geometry presents challenges when designing or evaluating room shielding for the purposes of meeting regulatory requirements, and for ensuring the safety of staff and the public in surrounding areas. Conventional methods for calculating radiation barrier thicknesses have been adapted so that barrier transmission factors for the GammaPod can be determined from a few relevant distances and characteristics of the primary beam. Simple formalisms have been determined for estimating shielding requirements for primary radiation (with a rotating and non-rotating source carrier), patient-scattered radiation, and leakage radiation. When making worst case assumptions, it was found that conventional barrier thicknesses associated with linac treatment suites are sufficient for shielding all sources of radiation from the GammaPod.

  13. The Intracellular Localization of the Vanillin Biosynthetic Machinery in Pods of Vanilla planifolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallage, Nethaji J; Jørgensen, Kirsten; Janfelt, Christian; Nielsen, Agnieszka J Z; Naake, Thomas; Dunski, Eryk; Dalsten, Lene; Grisoni, Michel; Møller, Birger Lindberg

    2018-02-01

    Vanillin is the most important flavor compound in the vanilla pod. Vanilla planifolia vanillin synthase (VpVAN) catalyzes the conversion of ferulic acid and ferulic acid glucoside into vanillin and vanillin glucoside, respectively. Desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry imaging (DESI-MSI) of vanilla pod sections demonstrates that vanillin glucoside is preferentially localized within the mesocarp and placental laminae whereas vanillin is preferentially localized within the mesocarp. VpVAN is present as the mature form (25 kDa) but, depending on the tissue and isolation procedure, small amounts of the immature unprocessed form (40 kDa) and putative oligomers (50, 75 and 100 kDa) may be observed by immunoblotting using an antibody specific to the C-terminal sequence of VpVAN. The VpVAN protein is localized within chloroplasts and re-differentiated chloroplasts termed phenyloplasts, as monitored during the process of pod development. Isolated chloroplasts were shown to convert [14C]phenylalanine and [14C]cinnamic acid into [14C]vanillin glucoside, indicating that the entire vanillin de novo biosynthetic machinery converting phenylalanine to vanillin glucoside is present in the chloroplast.

  14. Development of 1 MW-class HTS motor for podded ship propulsion system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umemoto, K; Aizawa, K; Yokoyama, M; Yoshikawa, K [Kawasaki Heavy Industries LTD., 673-8666, Hyogo (Japan); Kimura, Y; Izumi, M [Tokyo University of Marine Science Technology, 135-8533, Tokyo (Japan); Ohashi, K; Numano, M [National Maritime Research Institute, 181-0004, Tokyo (Japan); Okumura, K; Yamaguchi, M; Gocho, Y; Kosuge, E, E-mail: umemoto@ati.khi.co.j [Japan Super-conductivity Organization Co. LTD., 135-8533, Tokyo (Japan)

    2010-06-01

    To reduce fuel consumption and lead to a major reduction of pollution from NOx, SOx and CO{sub 2}, the electric ship propulsion system is one of the most prospective substitutes for conventional ship propulsion systems. In order to spread it, innovative technologies for the improvement of the power transmission are required. The high temperature superconducting technology has the possibility for a drastic reduction of power transmission loss. Recently, electric podded propulsions have become popular for large cruise vessels, icebreakers and chemical tankers because of the flexibility of the equipment arrangement and the stern hull design, and better maneuverability in harbour, etc. In this paper, a 1 MW-class High temperature superconducting (HTS) motor with high efficiency, smaller size and simple structure, which is designed and manufactured for podded propulsion, is reported. For the case of a coastal ship driven by the optimized podded propulsion in which the 1MW HTS motor is equipped, the reductions of fluid dynamic resistance and power transmission losses are demonstrated. The present research and development has been supported by the New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO).

  15. Preliminary phytochemical and elemental analysis of aqueous and fractionated pod extracts of Acacia nilotica (Thorn mimosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Shaibu Auwal

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Acacia nilotica (Thorn mimosa is used locally for various medicinal purposes by traditionalists and herbalists in northeastern Nigeria. Plants products have been used since ancient times in the management of various conditions. The bark of A. nilotica has been reported to be used traditionally to manage diabetes, dysentery, leprosy, ulcers, cancers, tumor of the eye, ear and testicles, induration of liver and spleen and also in treatment of various condylomas. The objective of this study is to determine the phytochemical and elemental constituents of the extracts of A. nilotica pods. Flame emission and atomic absorption spectrometry were also used to determine the presence or absence of micro- and macro-elements in the extracts. Phytochemical analysis of the aqueous, ethyl acetate and N-butanol fractionated portions of the pod extracts of A. nilotica revealed the presence of tannins, saponins, flavonoids, carbohydrate, whereas carbohydrates and tannins were the only constituent in the residue portion. Anthraquinones, alkaloids, terpene and steroids were not present in the extracts. The elemental screening revealed the presence of iron, potassium, manganese, zinc, calcium, phosphorous, magnesium, sodium, cadmium and copper. Lead, arsenic and molybdenum were not detected in the pod.

  16. Poster - 11: Radiation barrier thickness calculations for the GammaPod

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    La Russa, Daniel; Vandervoort, Eric; Wilkins, David [Radiation Medicine Program, The Ottawa Hospital (Canada)

    2016-08-15

    A consortium of radiotherapy centers in North America is in the process of evaluating a novel new {sup 60}Co teletherapy device, called the GammaPod™ (Xcision Medical Systems, Columbia Maryland), designed specifically for breast SBRT. The GammaPod consists of 36 collimated {sup 60}Co sources with a total activity of 4320 Ci. The sources are housed in a hemispherical source carrier that rotates during treatment to produce a cylindrically symmetric cone of primary beam spanning 16° – 54° degrees from the horizontal. This unique beam geometry presents challenges when designing or evaluating room shielding for the purposes of meeting regulatory requirements, and for ensuring the safety of staff and the public in surrounding areas. Conventional methods for calculating radiation barrier thicknesses have been adapted so that barrier transmission factors for the GammaPod can be determined from a few relevant distances and characteristics of the primary beam. Simple formalisms have been determined for estimating shielding requirements for primary radiation (with a rotating and non-rotating source carrier), patient-scattered radiation, and leakage radiation. When making worst case assumptions, it was found that conventional barrier thicknesses associated with linac treatment suites are sufficient for shielding all sources of radiation from the GammaPod.

  17. Experimental POD measurement using ultrasonic phased arrays for incorporating nondestructive testes in probabilistic failure analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurz, Jochen H.; Dobmann, Gerd; Juengert, Anne; Dugan, Sandra; Roos, Eberhard

    2011-01-01

    In nuclear facilities, nondestructive tests are carried out during construction and during inspections. The type and extent of the tests are specified in the KTA rules. All tests must be qualified. In the past, the qualifications were made by extensive performance demonstrations of the test teams and equipment, which were judged by experts. This provided primarily pragmatic information on fault detection performance. In the USA, qualification of EPRI test teams also includes testing of test pieces with hidden (unknown) defects, of which a certain percentage must be detected. There is still a lack of information on the probability of detection (POD), in the form of POD curves, of specific defects in given test situations, using specifically selected testing techniques. Quantification of POD and the integration of relevant data in the probabilistic evaluation chain is one of the key goals of a research project whose first results are presented here. The concept of the project and first results of ultrasonic tests are presented. Defect distributions in the test pieces, experiment planning, and test specifications are gone into more closely. One of the most important goals is the specification of the residual uncertainty of components failure on the basis of the investigations. An outlook is presented for this.

  18. Qualitative Phytochemical Analysis and Microbial Inhibitory Activities of Pacific Rain Tree (Samanea saman (Jacq. Merr. Pods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Kennard S. Jacob

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Crop diseases and human health are always at stake and the emerging problem on the use of synthetic anti-pathogens and medicine is one of the most difficult to combat. The first step towards determining such capabilities among plants is to determine their phytochemicals. Methods: Eight preliminary phytochemical tests was done on Samanea saman which includes, test for alkaloids saponins, flavonoids, tannins, glycosides, steroids, terpenoids and resins. Powdered pods were subjected to ethanol and aqueous extraction. Extracts were also tested for its antifungal and anti-microbial properties against Fusarium oxysporum, E. coli and S. aureus, respectively. Results: Out of the eight phytochemical tests done, seven (7 were found to be present both on the ethanol and aqueous extracts namely, alkaloids, saponins, tannins, glycosides, steroids, terpenoids and resins. However, flavonoids is absent. The statistical results exhibited that there is a significant difference on the inhibitory effects against in-vitro bioassay of Fusarium oxysporum which is known to cause crop wilts and the two bacterial pathogens E. coli and S. aureus. Conclusions: The presence of such phytochemicals in Samanea saman pods revealed that it can be a basis of new, natural and non-synthetic treatments. This finding suggests that its pods can be used as antibacterial and antifungal source.

  19. Control of a HexaPOD treatment couch for robot-assisted radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermann, Christian; Ma, Lei; Wilbert, Jürgen; Baier, Kurt; Schilling, Klaus

    2012-10-01

    Moving tumors, for example in the vicinity of the lungs, pose a challenging problem in radiotherapy, as healthy tissue should not be irradiated. Apart from gating approaches, one standard method is to irradiate the complete volume within which a tumor moves plus a safety margin containing a considerable volume of healthy tissue. This work deals with a system for tumor motion compensation using the HexaPOD® robotic treatment couch (Medical Intelligence GmbH, Schwabmünchen, Germany). The HexaPOD, carrying the patient during treatment, is instructed to perform translational movements such that the tumor motion, from the beams-eye view of the linear accelerator, is eliminated. The dynamics of the HexaPOD are characterized by time delays, saturations, and other non-linearities that make the design of control a challenging task. The focus of this work lies on two control methods for the HexaPOD that can be used for reference tracking. The first method uses a model predictive controller based on a model gained through system identification methods, and the second method uses a position control scheme useful for reference tracking. We compared the tracking performance of both methods in various experiments with real hardware using ideal reference trajectories, prerecorded patient trajectories, and human volunteers whose breathing motion was compensated by the system.

  20. Nutrient utilization and rumen metabolism in sheep fed Prosopis juliflora pods and Cenchrus grass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, Om Hari; Sahoo, Artabandhu

    2013-01-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of replacement of Prosopis juliflora pods (PJP) in the concentrate mixture fed to sheep along with Cenchrus grass (CG). Twenty four adult Malpura rams (3-5 years, 45.4 ± 4.26 kg) were randomly divided into three equal groups on the basis of age and live weight (LW). Mature green Prosopis juliflora pods were collected, dried and ground to replace concentrate mixture at 0 (G1), 30% (G2) or 40% (G3). Cenchrus grass was offered ad libitum whereas the concentrate mixture was fed at the rate of 1% LW. Nutrient digestibility did not differ among the groups while N balance data showed reduced utilization in G3. However, the animals in G1, G2 and G3 maintained LW and their nutritional profile indicated surplus of energy and protein with comparable feed value of all the three diets. Rumen pH decreased and volatile fatty acids increased (P Prosopis juliflora pods can replace concentrate mixture up to 40% in sheep feeding without any adverse effect on nutrient intake and utilization as well as rumen fermentation characteristics.

  1. A comparison of tissue preparation methods for protein extraction of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L. pod

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ascensión Martínez-Márquez

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Cocoa, Theobroma cacao L. is one of the main tropical industrial crops. Cocoa has a very high level of interfering substances, such as polysaccharides and phenolic compounds that could prevent the isolation of suitable protein. Efficient methods of protein extraction are a priority to successfully apply proteomic analyses. We compared and evaluated two methods (A and B of tissue preparation for total protein extract by phenol/SDS extraction protocol. The difference in the application of the two methods was that extensively washed dry powder of pod tissue were made in Method A, whereas that crude extract were prepared Method B. Extracted proteins were examined using one-dimensional electrophoresis (1-D. Results show that each extraction method isolated a unique subset of cocoa pod proteome. Principal component analysis showed little variation in the data obtained using Method A, while that in Methods B showed no low reproducibility, thus demonstrating that Method A is a reliable for preparing cocoa pod proteins. The protocol is expected to be applicable to other recalcitrant plant tissues and to be of interest to laboratories involved in plant proteomics analyses. A combination of extraction approaches is recommended for increasing proteome coverage when using gel-based isolation techniques.

  2. Fish Pectoral Fin Hydrodynamics; Part III: Low Dimensional Models via POD Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozkurttas, M.; Madden, P.

    2005-11-01

    The highly complex kinematics of the pectoral fin and the resulting hydrodynamics does not lend itself easily to analysis based on simple notions of pitching/heaving/paddling kinematics or lift/drag based propulsive mechanisms. A more inventive approach is needed to dissect the fin gait and gain insight into the hydrodynamic performance of the pectoral fin. The focus of the current work is on the hydrodynamics of the pectoral fin of a bluegill sunfish in steady forward motion. The 3D, time-dependent fin kinematics is obtained via a stereo-videographic technique. We employ proper orthogonal decomposition to extract the essential features of the fin gait and then use CFD to examine the hydrodynamics of simplified gaits synthesized from the POD modes. The POD spectrum shows that the first two, three and five POD modes capture 55%, 67%, and 80% of the motion respectively. The first three modes are in particular highly distinct: Mode-1 is a ``cupping'' motion where the fin cups forward as it is abducted; Mode-2 is an ``expansion'' motion where the fin expands to present a larger area during adduction and finally Mode-3 involves a ``spanwise flick'' of the dorsal edge of the fin. Numerical simulation of flow past fin gaits synthesized from these modes lead to insights into the mechanisms of thrust production; these are discussed in detail.

  3. Effect of fiber loading on mechanical and morphological properties of cocoa pod husk fibers reinforced thermoplastic polyurethane composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Shekeil, Y.A.; Sapuan, S.M.; Algrafi, M.W.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Increase in fiber loading increased tensile strength and modulus of the composites. • Tensile strain was decreasing with increase in fiber loading. • Flexural strength and modulus increased with increase in fiber content. • Impact strength was deteriorated with increasing fiber loading. • Morphology observations shown a good adhesion between fibers and matrix. - Abstract: In this study, cocoa (Theobroma cacao) pod husk (CPH) fiber reinforced thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) was prepared by melt compounding method using Haake Polydrive R600 internal mixer. The composites were prepared with different fiber loading: 20%, 30% and 40% (by weight), with the optimum processing parameters: 190 °C, 11 min, and 40 rpm for temperature, time and speed, respectively. Five samples were cut from the composite sheet. Mean value was taken for each composite according to ASTM standards. Effect of fiber loading on mechanical (i.e. tensile, flexural properties and impact strength) and morphological properties was studied. TPU/CPH composites showed increase in tensile strength and modulus with increase in fiber loading, while tensile strain was decreasing with increase in fiber loading. The composite also showed increase in flexural strength and modulus with increase in fiber content. Impact strength was deteriorated with increase in fiber loading. Morphology observations using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) showed fiber/matrix good adhesion

  4. 26 CFR 1.501(c)(21)-1 - Black lung trusts-certain terms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Black lung trusts-certain terms. 1.501(c)(21)-1...) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Exempt Organizations § 1.501(c)(21)-1 Black lung trusts... insurer or guarantor of the liabilities of another. (c) Black Lung Acts. The term Black Lung Acts includes...

  5. Seasonal and pod-specific differences in core use areas by resident killer whales in the Northern Gulf of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Daniel W.; Matkin, Craig O.; Andrews, Russel D.; Atkinson, Shannon

    2018-01-01

    The resident killer whale is a genetically and behaviorally distinct ecotype of killer whale (Orcinus orca) found in the North Pacific that feeds primarily on Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp .). Details regarding core use areas have been inferred by boat surveys, but are subject to effort bias and weather limitations. To investigate core use areas, 37 satellite tags were deployed from 2006 to 2014 on resident killer whales representing 12 pods in the Northern Gulf of Alaska, and transmissions were received during the months of June to January. Core use areas were identified through utilization distributions using a biased Brownian Bridge movement model. Distinct differences in these core use areas were revealed, and were highly specific to season and pod. In June, July, and August, the waters of Hinchinbrook Entrance and west of Kayak Island were primary areas used, mainly by 3 separate pods. These same pods shifted their focus to Montague Strait in August, September, and October. Port Gravina was a focal area for 2 other pods in June, July, and August, but this was not the case in later months. These pods were responsible for seven of eight documented trips into the deeper fjords of Prince William Sound, yet these fjords were not a focus for most groups of killer whales. The seasonal differences in core use may be a response to the seasonal returns of salmon, though details on specific migration routes and timing for the salmon are limited. We found strong seasonal and pod-specific shifts in patterns between core use areas. Future research should investigate pod differences in diet composition and relationships between core area use and bathymetry.

  6. Who profits from innovation in global value chains? A study of the iPod and notebook PCs

    OpenAIRE

    Jason Dedrick; Kenneth L. Kraemer; Greg Linden

    2010-01-01

    This article analyzes the distribution of financial value from innovation in the global supply chains of iPods and notebook computers. We find that Apple has captured a great deal of value from the innovation embodied in the iPod, while notebook makers capture a more modest share of the value from PC innovation. In order to understand these differences, we employ concepts from theories of innovation and industrial organization, finding significant roles for industry evolution, complementary a...

  7. Association mapping for #Phytophthora# pod rot resistance in a cacao (#Theobroma cacao# L.) population grown in farmers' field

    OpenAIRE

    Efombagn, Mousseni Ives Bruno; Sounigo, Olivier; Courtois, Brigitte; Fouet, Olivier; Jeanneau, Mélanie; Lemainque, Arnaud; Pavek, Sylvana; Lanaud, Claire

    2016-01-01

    Phytophthora pod rot (PPR) caused by the specie Phytophthora megakarya is an important disease of cacao tree. Association mapping identified markers linked to PPR resistance in a cacao population of 260 trees planted under high disease pressure in a single plantation in a farmer's field. These cacao trees were derived from both selfing and full-sib progenies. The resistance traits were assessed through field observations of the natural pod attacks of the disease on the trunk (PRTnk) or the ca...

  8. Performance of A Horizontal Cylinder Type Rotary Dryer for Drying Process ofOrganic Compost from Solid Waste Cocoa Pod

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukrisno Widyotomo

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Cocoa pod husk is the bigest component of cocoa pod, about 70% of total ht of mature pod, and to potentially used as organic compost source. Poten tial solid waste of cocoa pod husk from a cocoa processing centre is about 15— 22 m3/ha/year. A cocoa plantation needs about 20—30 ton/ha/year of organic matters. One of important steps in compos processing technology of cocoa pod solid waste is drying process. Organic compost with 20% moisture content is more easy in handling, application, storage and distribution. Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute has designed and tested a horizontal cylinder type rotary dryer for drying process of organic compos from solid waste cocoa pod with kerosene burner as energy sources. The objective of this research is to study performance of a horizontal cylinder type rotary dryer using kerosene burner as energy source for drying process of organic compost from solid waste cocoa pod. The material used was solid waste cocoa pod with 70—75% moisture content (wet basis, 70% size particle larger than 4.76 mm, and 30% size particle less than 4.76 mm, 690—695 kg/m3 bulk density. Drying process temperatures treatment were 60OC, 80OC, and 100OC, and cylinder rotary speed treatments were 7 rpm, 10 rpm, dan 16 rpm. The results showed that dryer had capacity about 102—150 kg/h depend on drying temperature and cylinder rotary speed. Optimum operation condition at 100OC drying temperature, and 10 rpm cylinder rotary speed with drying time to reach final moisture content of 20% was 1,6 h, capacity 136,14 kg/ h, bulk density 410 kg/m3, porocity 45,15%, kerosene consumption as energy source was 2,57 l/h, and drying efficiency 68,34%. Key words : cocoa, drying, rotary dryer, compost, waste

  9. Contribution of time-activity pattern and microenvironment to black carbon (BC) inhalation exposure and potential internal dose among elementary school children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Hyeran; Park, Donguk

    2017-09-01

    The aims of this study were to quantify the contributions of activities or microenvironments (MEs) to daily total exposure to and potential dose of black carbon (BC). Daily BC exposures (24-h) were monitored using a micro-aethalometer micoAeth AE51 with forty school-aged children living in an urban area in Korea from August 2015 to January 2016. The children's time-activity patterns and the MEs they visited were investigated by means of a time-activity diary (TAD) and follow-up interviews with the children and their parents. Potential inhaled dose was estimated by multiplying the airborne BC concentrations (μg/m3) we monitored for the time the children spent in a particular ME by the inhalation rate (IR, m3/h) for the time-activity performed. The contribution of activities and MEs to overall daily exposure to and potential dose of BC was quantified. Overall mean daily potential dose was equal to 24.1 ± 10.6 μg/day (range: 6.6-46.3 μg/day). The largest contribution to BC exposure and potential dose (51.9% and 41.7% respectively) occurred in the home thanks to the large amount of time spent there. Transportation was where children received the most intense exposure to (14.8%) and potential dose (20.2%) of BC, while it accounted for 7.6% of daily time. School on weekdays during the semester was responsible for 20.3% of exposure and 22.5% of potential dose. Contribution to BC exposure and potential dose was altered by several time-activity parameters, such as type of day (weekdays vs. weekends; school days vs. holidays), season, and gender. Traveling by motor vehicle and subway showed more elevated exposure or potential dose intensity on weekdays or school days, probably influenced by the increased surrounding traffic volumes on these days compared to on weekends or holidays. This study may be used to prioritize targets for minimizing children's exposure to BC and to indicate outcomes of BC control strategies.

  10. Black Silicon Solar Cells with Black Ribbons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Rasmus Schmidt; Tang, Peter Torben; Mizushima, Io

    2016-01-01

    We present the combination of mask-less reactive ion etch (RIE) texturing and blackened interconnecting ribbons as a method for obtaining all-black solar panels, while using conventional, front-contacted solar cells. Black silicon made by mask-less reactive ion etching has total, average...... in the range 15.7-16.3%. The KOH-textured reference cell had an efficiency of 17.9%. The combination of black Si and black interconnecting ribbons may result in aesthetic, all-black panels based on conventional, front-contacted silicon solar cells....... reflectance below 0.5% across a 156x156 mm2 silicon (Si) wafer. Black interconnecting ribbons were realized by oxidizing copper resulting in reflectance below 3% in the visible wavelength range. Screen-printed Si solar cells were realized on 156x156 mm2 black Si substrates with resulting efficiencies...

  11. Black holes. Chapter 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penrose, R.

    1980-01-01

    Conditions for the formation of a black hole are considered, and the properties of black holes. The possibility of Cygnus X-1 as a black hole is discussed. Einstein's theory of general relativity in relation to the formation of black holes is discussed. (U.K.)

  12. Search for black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherepashchuk, Anatolii M

    2003-01-01

    Methods and results of searching for stellar mass black holes in binary systems and for supermassive black holes in galactic nuclei of different types are described. As of now (June 2002), a total of 100 black hole candidates are known. All the necessary conditions Einstein's General Relativity imposes on the observational properties of black holes are satisfied for candidate objects available, thus further assuring the existence of black holes in the Universe. Prospects for obtaining sufficient criteria for reliably distinguishing candidate black holes from real black holes are discussed. (reviews of topical problems)

  13. Phases of Kaluza-Klein Black Holes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harmark, Troels; Obers, N. A.

    2005-01-01

    We review the latest progress in understanding the phase structure of static and neutral Kaluza-Klein black holes, i.e. static and neutral solutions of pure gravity with an event horizon that asymptote to a d-dimensional Minkowski-space times a circle. We start by reviewing the (mu,n) phase diagram...... and the split-up of the phase structure into solutions with an internal SO(d-1) symmetry and solutions with Kaluza-Klein bubbles. We then discuss the uniform black string, non-uniform black string and localized black hole phases, and how those three phases are connected, involving issues such as classical...... instability and horizon-topology changing transitions. Finally, we review the bubble-black hole sequences, their place in the phase structure and interesting aspects such as the continuously infinite non-uniqueness of solutions for a given mass and relative tension....

  14. Improving Nutritional Quality of Cocoa Pod (Theobroma cacao) through Chemical and Biological Treatments for Ruminant Feeding: In vitro and In vivo Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laconi, Erika B; Jayanegara, Anuraga

    2015-03-01

    Cocoa pod is among the by-products of cocoa (Theobroma cacao) plantations. The aim of this study was to apply a number of treatments in order to improve nutritional quality of cocoa pod for feeding of ruminants. Cocoa pod was subjected to different treatments, i.e. C (cocoa pod without any treatment or control), CAm (cocoa pod+1.5% urea), CMo (cocoa pod+3% molasses), CRu (cocoa pod+3% rumen content) and CPh (cocoa pod+3% molasses+Phanerochaete chrysosporium inoculum). Analysis of proximate and Van Soest's fiber fraction were performed on the respective treatments. The pods were then subjected to an in vitro digestibility evaluation by incubation in rumen fluid-buffer medium, employing a randomized complete block design (n = 3 replicates). Further, an in vivo evaluation of the pods (35% inclusion level in total mixed ration) was conducted by feeding to young Holstein steers (average body weight of 145±3.6 kg) with a 5×5 latin square design arrangement (n = 5 replicates). Each experimental period lasted for 30 d; the first 20 d was for feed adaptation, the next 3 d was for sampling of rumen liquid, and the last 7 d was for measurements of digestibility and N balance. Results revealed that lignin content was reduced significantly when cocoa pod was treated with urea, molasses, rumen content or P. chrysosporium (pCAm>CRu>CMo. Among all treatments, CAm and CPh treatments significantly improved the in vitro dry matter and organic matter digestibility (pcocoa pod. Average daily gain of steers receiving CAm or CPh treatment was significantly higher than that of control (pcocoa pod.

  15. Examining African self-consciousness and Black racial identity as predictors of Black men's psychological well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierre, Martin R; Mahalik, James R

    2005-02-01

    This study investigated African self-consciousness and Black racial identity as predictors of psychological distress and self-esteem for Black men. One hundred thirty Black men from a college and community sample completed the African Self-Consciousness Scale, the Racial Identity Attitude Scale-B, the Symptom Checklist 90-Revised, and the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory. Canonical correlation analysis found 2 significant roots with the 1st root indicating that Black men whose attitudes reflected Preencounter and Immersion racial identity attitudes and who do not resist against anti-African/Black forces reported greater psychological distress and less esteem. Results from the 2nd root suggested that Black men whose attitudes reflect greater Internalization racial identity attitudes, greater resistance to anti-African/Black forces, and less identification with Blacks reported greater self-esteem. ((c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Aerial medical evacuation of health workers with suspected Ebola virus disease in Guinea Conakry-interest of a negative pressure isolation pod-a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dindart, Jean-Michel; Peyrouset, Olivier; Palich, Romain; Bing, Abdoul; Kojan, Richard; Barbe, Solenne; Harouna, Souley; Blackwell, Nikki

    2017-03-11

    We report 4 cases of Health Workers (HW) suspected of having contracted Ebola Virus Disease (EVD), transported from the Alliance for International Medical Action (ALIMA) Ebola Treatment Centre (ETC) in N'Zerekore, Guinea to the Treatment Centre for Carers run by the medical corps of the French army in Conakry, the capital of Guinea, which was established on 17 January 2015 and closed on 7 July 2015. In total more than 500 HWs have died from EVD since the epidemic began. This mortality has had significant effects on the ability of local services to respond appropriately to the disaster. The HWs were transported by air in the "Human Stretcher Transit Isolator-Total Containment (Oxford) Limited" (HSTI-TCOL) negative pressure isolation pod. Medical evacuation of patients with suspected, potentially fatal, infectious diseases is feasible with the use of a light isolator for patients without critical dysfunctions.

  17. Australian black coal statistics 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    This third edition of Australian black coal statistics covers anthracite, bituminous and subbituminous coals. It includes maps and figures on resources and coal fields and statistics (mainly based on the calendar year 1991) on coal demand and supply, production, employment and productivity in Australian coal mines, exports, prices and ports, and domestic consumption. A listing of coal producers by state is included. A final section presents key statistics on international world trade in 1991. 54 tabs.

  18. Working with young black people.

    OpenAIRE

    Sallah, Momodou; Howson, Carlton

    2007-01-01

    This is an important collection, integrating research with messages for practitioners in an area where there has as yet been insufficient material published. This book also formed the focal point for a major international conference in the Summer of 2006. As well as jointly editing the publication, the author contributed a chapter to it. Bringing together this work's different dimensions and perspectives, this book seeks to challenge both the accepted status quo of Black young people s neg...

  19. A Dancing Black Hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoemaker, Deirdre; Smith, Kenneth; Schnetter, Erik; Fiske, David; Laguna, Pablo; Pullin, Jorge

    2002-04-01

    Recently, stationary black holes have been successfully simulated for up to times of approximately 600-1000M, where M is the mass of the black hole. Considering that the expected burst of gravitational radiation from a binary black hole merger would last approximately 200-500M, black hole codes are approaching the point where simulations of mergers may be feasible. We will present two types of simulations of single black holes obtained with a code based on the Baumgarte-Shapiro-Shibata-Nakamura formulation of the Einstein evolution equations. One type of simulations addresses the stability properties of stationary black hole evolutions. The second type of simulations demonstrates the ability of our code to move a black hole through the computational domain. This is accomplished by shifting the stationary black hole solution to a coordinate system in which the location of the black hole is time dependent.

  20. Thermal BEC Black Holes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Casadio

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We review some features of Bose–Einstein condensate (BEC models of black holes obtained by means of the horizon wave function formalism. We consider the Klein–Gordon equation for a toy graviton field coupled to a static matter current in a spherically-symmetric setup. The classical field reproduces the Newtonian potential generated by the matter source, while the corresponding quantum state is given by a coherent superposition of scalar modes with a continuous occupation number. An attractive self-interaction is needed for bound states to form, the case in which one finds that (approximately one mode is allowed, and the system of N bosons can be self-confined in a volume of the size of the Schwarzschild radius. The horizon wave function formalism is then used to show that the radius of such a system corresponds to a proper horizon. The uncertainty in the size of the horizon is related to the typical energy of Hawking modes: it decreases with the increasing of the black hole mass (larger number of gravitons, resulting in agreement with the semiclassical calculations and which does not hold for a single very massive particle. The spectrum of these systems has two components: a discrete ground state of energy m (the bosons forming the black hole and a continuous spectrum with energy ω > m (representing the Hawking radiation and modeled with a Planckian distribution at the expected Hawking temperature. Assuming the main effect of the internal scatterings is the Hawking radiation, the N-particle state can be collectively described by a single-particle wave-function given by a superposition of a total ground state with energy M = Nm and Entropy 2015, 17 6894 a Planckian distribution for E > M at the same Hawking temperature. This can be used to compute the partition function and to find the usual area law for the entropy, with a logarithmic correction related to the Hawking component. The backreaction of modes with ω > m is also shown to reduce

  1. Powieść historyczna pod czujnym okiem cenzora – analiza tekstów

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thibault Deleixhe

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The historic novel under the vigilance of the censor – analysis of texts This article focuses on the relation that Jacek Bochenski’s historical novel entitled The poet Naso published in 1969 presents towards the concept of censorship. In the article the author aims at proving that the understanding of censorship by Bochenski is similar to the observations of the Hungarian essayist Mikos Haraszti. Tracking the allegoric references scattered through the novel, the author of the article reconstructs Bochenski’s reflection about this internalized censorship and checks its convergence with Haraszti’s remarks. From this exercise emerges a definition of the role of the artist that seems to be inherited from the romantic period: an artist as a person that subordinates himself unconditionally to art, and not to the temporal power. The author of the article then interrogates the respect which Bochenski has been showing to his definition in his literary work. It appears that the writer has been prone to make bigger concessions in order to soften the reception of his book by the censors than he advises his writing colleagues. However, the literary strategies deployed by Bochenski operate on two levels: creating an overall ambiguity about the guilt of its main protagonist, they tend to soften its reception by the censorship; while at the same time, rendering this overall atmosphere of ambiguity, they give a literary form to the spectral character of the guilt of the artist, who – as in Ovidius’ case – is permanently accountable for what he has not yet done in the building of communism.   Powieść historyczna pod czujnym okiem cenzora – analiza tekstów Artykuł poświęcony jest  powieści historycznej Jacka Bocheńskiego pt. Nazo poeta z roku 1969 i jego rozumieniu pojęcia cenzury uwewnętrznionej. Autor artkułu udowadnia, że ujęcie problemu cenzury przez Bocheńskiego jest zbliżone do konstatacji węgierskiego eseisty Mikl

  2. The effect of high hydrostatic pressure on black truffle (tuber melanosporum) flavour compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verret, C; Ballestra, P; Cruz, C; Moueffak, A H E; Pardon, P; Largeteau, A

    2008-01-01

    The effects of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP), at 4 0 C or -18 0 C, on black truffle flavour compounds, alteration enzymes (lipoxigenase (LOX), peroxidase (POD) and polyphenoloxidase (PPO)) and microbiological qualities were evaluated. The choosen analytes for this study are six alcohols, three aldehydes, one ketone and on sulfur component. The highest flavour stability was observed when samples were pressurized at 300 MPa / 4 0 C / 10 min. All the treatments induced a drastic decrease of LOX activity and a slight decrease of POD activity. On the other hand, the PPO was not inactivated by pressurization at sub-zero (200 MPa / -18 0 C / 10 min) and was strongly increased after the 300 MPa / 4 0 C / 10 min treatment. Pressurization at 300 and 550 MPa lead to an almost complete Pseudomonas fluorescens reduction (6 and 6.5 log destruction, respectively) whereas pressurization at -18 0 C (200MPa) allowed to obtain only 3 log reduction

  3. How to handle station black outs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reisch, Frigyes

    1986-01-01

    Station black out is defined as the loss of ail high voltage alternating current at a nuclear power site. An international study was made to survey the practices in the different countries. The best way to handle station black out is to avoid it therefore briefly the normal off site and emergency on site power supplies are discussed. The ways in use to enhance nuclear power plants using Boiling Water Reactors or Pressurized Water Reactors to cope with a station black out are discussed in some detail. (author)

  4. How to handle station black outs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reisch, Frigyes [Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, S-10252 Stockholm (Sweden)

    1986-02-15

    Station black out is defined as the loss of ail high voltage alternating current at a nuclear power site. An international study was made to survey the practices in the different countries. The best way to handle station black out is to avoid it therefore briefly the normal off site and emergency on site power supplies are discussed. The ways in use to enhance nuclear power plants using Boiling Water Reactors or Pressurized Water Reactors to cope with a station black out are discussed in some detail. (author)

  5. Response of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) to terminal drought: leaf stomatal conductance, pod abscisic acid concentration, and seed set.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Jiayin; Turner, Neil C; Khan, Tanveer; Du, Yan-Lei; Xiong, Jun-Lan; Colmer, Timothy D; Devilla, Rosangela; Stefanova, Katia; Siddique, Kadambot H M

    2017-04-01

    Flower and pod production and seed set of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) are sensitive to drought stress. A 2-fold range in seed yield was found among a large number of chickpea genotypes grown at three dryland field sites in south-western Australia. Leaf water potential, photosynthetic characteristics, and reproductive development of two chickpea genotypes with contrasting yields in the field were compared when subjected to terminal drought in 106kg containers of soil in a glasshouse. The terminal drought imposed from early podding reduced biomass, reproductive growth, harvest index, and seed yield of both genotypes. Terminal drought at least doubled the percentage of flower abortion, pod abscission, and number of empty pods. Pollen viability and germination decreased when the fraction of transpirable soil water (FTSW) decreased below 0.18 (82% of the plant-available soil water had been transpired); however, at least one pollen tube in each flower reached the ovary. The young pods which developed from flowers produced when the FTSW was 0.50 had viable embryos, but contained higher abscisic acid (ABA) concentrations than those of the well-watered plants; all pods ultimately aborted in the drought treatment. Cessation of seed set at the same soil water content at which stomata began to close and ABA increased strongly suggested a role for ABA signalling in the failure to set seed either directly through abscission of developing pods or seeds or indirectly through the reduction of photosynthesis and assimilate supply to the seeds. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  6. Navy POD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navy Personnel Command (NPC) Navy SAPR Navy EEO Inclusion And Diversity Navy Standard Integrated Operations Security (OPSEC) Navy Trademarks Military One Source USA.gov U.S. Office of Special Counsel Social Inclusion And Diversity Navy Standard Integrated Personnel System (NSIPS) My Navy Portal Board of

  7. The Copernicus POD Service and beyond: Scientific exploitation of the orbit-related data and products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Heike; Fernández, Jaime; Fernández, Carlos; Féménias, Pierre

    2017-04-01

    The Copernicus POD (Precise Orbit Determination) Service is part of the Copernicus Processing Data Ground Segment (PDGS) of the Sentinel-1, -2 and -3 missions. A GMV-led consortium is operating the Copernicus POD Service being in charge of generating precise orbital products and auxiliary data files for their use as part of the processing chains of the respective Sentinel PDGS. The orbital products are available through the dedicated Copernicus data hub. The Copernicus POD Service is supported by the Copernicus POD Quality Working Group (QWG) for the validation of the orbit product accuracy. The QWG is delivering independent orbit solutions for the satellites. The cross-comparison of all these orbit solutions is essential to monitor and to improve the orbit accuracy because for Sentinel-1 and -2 this is the only possibility to externally assess the quality of the orbits. Each of the Sentinel-1, -2, and -3 satellites carries dual-frequency GPS receivers delivering the necessary measurements for the precise orbit determination of the satellites. The Sentinel-3 satellites are additionally equipped with a DORIS (Doppler Orbitography and Radiopositioning Integrated by Satellite) receiver and a Laser Retro Reflector for Satellite Laser Ranging. These two additional observation techniques allow for independent validation of the GPS-derived orbit determination results and for studying biases between the different techniques. The scientific exploitation of the orbit determination and the corresponding input data is manifold. Sophisticated satellite macro models improve the modelling of the non-gravitational forces acting on the satellite. On the other hand, comparisons to orbits based on pure empirical modelling of the non-gravitational forces help to sort out deficiencies in the satellite geometry information. The dual-frequency GPS data delivered by the satellites can give valuable input for ionospheric studies important for Space Weather research. So-called kinematic

  8. Gamma-Ray-Initiated Graft Copolymerization on the Surface of Nylon Fibers and in the Inner Layers of Cellulosic Fibers; Amorcage par rayons gamma de la formation de copolymeres greffes a la surface de fibres de nylon et dans les couches internes de fibres cellulosiques; Sopolimerizatsionnoe narashchivanie na poverkhnosti nejlonovogo volokna i vo vnutrennikh sloyakh tsellyuloznykh volokon pod dejstviem gamma-izluchenij; Copolimerizacion por injerto radioinducida en la superficie de fibras de nylon y en las capas internas de fibras celulosicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okamura, S; Iwasaki, T; Kobayashi, Y; Hayashi, K

    1960-07-15

    injerto cuando la irradiacion se efectua con dosis especificas del orden de los 10{sup 5} roentgens/hora . (author) [Russian] V rezul'tate oblucheniya nejlonovogo volokna v azotnoj srede sozdaetsya poperechnaya svyaz', togda kak pri obluchenii v vozdushnoj srede proiskhodit reaktsiya, vedushchaya k umen'sheniyu velichiny molekul. Proiskhodyashchie pod vliyaniem oblucheniya izmeneniya byli izucheny posredstvom izmereniya vyazkosti volokna, obluchennogo v rastvorakh sernoj kisloty. Prochnost' na rastyazhenie byla izuchena takzhe v vozdushnoj srede. Pri obluchenii v azotnoj srede pogruzhennogo v vodnyj rastvor akrilamida nejlonovogo volokna narashchivanie imeet mesto lish' na poverkhnosti. Esli zhe predvaritel'noe obluchenie proizvodilos' v vozdushnoj srede, to narashchivanie proiskhodit i vo vnutrennikh sloyakh volokna. Stepen' narashchivaniya tsellyuloznykh volokon pri pomoshchi stirola iz metanolovogo rastvora znachitel'no povyshaetsya, esli voloknu dat' nabukhnut' v 5-10 protsentnom rastvore formamida v metanole. Bylo izucheno vliyanie kontsentratsii formamida i stirola v rastvorakh metanola, prichem bylo ustanovleno, chto maksimal'noe narashchivanie proiskhodit v 5-protsentnom rastvore formamida i 70-protsentnoj kontsentratsii stirola. Pri moshchnosti dozy priblizitel'no v 10{sup 5} r/chas ustanovleno, chto skorost' narashchivaniya opredelyaetsya diffuziej. (author)

  9. Characterization of peanut phytochromes and their possible regulating roles in early peanut pod development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Zhang

    Full Text Available Arachis hypogaea L. geocarpy is a unique feature different from other legume plants. Flowering and fertilization occur above ground, while the following processes of pod formation and development proceed in the soil. The zygote divides only few times to develop into pre-embryo and then further embryo developmental process stops when the gynoecium is exposed to light condition or normal day/night period. In this study, eight phytochrome genes were identified in two wild peanuts (four in Arachis duranensis and four in Arachis ipaensis. Using RACE and homologous cloning, the full CDS of AhphyA, AhphyA-like, AhphyB and AhphyE were acquired in cultivated peanut. Protein structure analysis showed that the conservative coding domains of phytochromes from a number of other plant species were found in these proteins. The C-terminal of AhphyA, AhphyA-like and AhphyB could interact with phytochrome-interacting factor 3 in vitro. The expression patterns of these genes in various tissues were analyzed by qRT-PCR, and significant differences were observed. Interestingly, the expression levels of AhphyA-like changed significantly during gynophore growth and early pod development. Furthermore, protein accumulation patterns of AhphyA and AhphyB in gynophore were different during early pod development stages in that AhphyA and AhphyB proteins were not detected in S1 and S2 gynophores, while significant accumulation of AhphyA and AhphyB were detected in S3 gynophore. These results provided evidence that phytochromes mediated light signal transduction may play key roles in peanut geocarpy development.

  10. Hydrologic Process Parameterization of Electrical Resistivity Imaging of Solute Plumes Using POD McMC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awatey, M. T.; Irving, J.; Oware, E. K.

    2016-12-01

    Markov chain Monte Carlo (McMC) inversion frameworks are becoming increasingly popular in geophysics due to their ability to recover multiple equally plausible geologic features that honor the limited noisy measurements. Standard McMC methods, however, become computationally intractable with increasing dimensionality of the problem, for example, when working with spatially distributed geophysical parameter fields. We present a McMC approach based on a sparse proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) model parameterization that implicitly incorporates the physics of the underlying process. First, we generate training images (TIs) via Monte Carlo simulations of the target process constrained to a conceptual model. We then apply POD to construct basis vectors from the TIs. A small number of basis vectors can represent most of the variability in the TIs, leading to dimensionality reduction. A projection of the starting model into the reduced basis space generates the starting POD coefficients. At each iteration, only coefficients within a specified sampling window are resimulated assuming a Gaussian prior. The sampling window grows at a specified rate as the number of iteration progresses starting from the coefficients corresponding to the highest ranked basis to those of the least informative basis. We found this gradual increment in the sampling window to be more stable compared to resampling all the coefficients right from the first iteration. We demonstrate the performance of the algorithm with both synthetic and lab-scale electrical resistivity imaging of saline tracer experiments, employing the same set of basis vectors for all inversions. We consider two scenarios of unimodal and bimodal plumes. The unimodal plume is consistent with the hypothesis underlying the generation of the TIs whereas bimodality in plume morphology was not theorized. We show that uncertainty quantification using McMC can proceed in the reduced dimensionality space while accounting for the

  11. Computationally efficient simulation of unsteady aerodynamics using POD on the fly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno-Ramos, Ruben [Gulfstream Aerospace Corporation, Savannah, GA 31408 (United States); Vega, José M; Varas, Fernando, E-mail: ruben.morenoramos@altran.com [E.T.S.I. Aeronáutica y del Espacio, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, E-28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2016-12-15

    Modern industrial aircraft design requires a large amount of sufficiently accurate aerodynamic and aeroelastic simulations. Current computational fluid dynamics (CFD) solvers with aeroelastic capabilities, such as the NASA URANS unstructured solver FUN3D, require very large computational resources. Since a very large amount of simulation is necessary, the CFD cost is just unaffordable in an industrial production environment and must be significantly reduced. Thus, a more inexpensive, yet sufficiently precise solver is strongly needed. An opportunity to approach this goal could follow some recent results (Terragni and Vega 2014 SIAM J. Appl. Dyn. Syst. 13 330–65; Rapun et al 2015 Int. J. Numer. Meth. Eng. 104 844–68) on an adaptive reduced order model  that combines ‘on the fly’ a standard numerical solver (to compute some representative snapshots), proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) (to extract modes from the snapshots), Galerkin projection (onto the set of POD modes), and several additional ingredients such as projecting the equations using a limited amount of points and fairly generic mode libraries. When applied to the complex Ginzburg–Landau equation, the method produces acceleration factors (comparing with standard numerical solvers) of the order of 20 and 300 in one and two space dimensions, respectively. Unfortunately, the extension of the method to unsteady, compressible flows around deformable geometries requires new approaches to deal with deformable meshes, high-Reynolds numbers, and compressibility. A first step in this direction is presented considering the unsteady compressible, two-dimensional flow around an oscillating airfoil using a CFD solver in a rigidly moving mesh. POD on the Fly gives results whose accuracy is comparable to that of the CFD solver used to compute the snapshots. (paper)

  12. Low-dimensional analysis, using POD, for two mixing layer-wake interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braud, Caroline; Heitz, Dominique; Arroyo, Georges; Perret, Laurent; Delville, Joeel; Bonnet, Jean-Paul

    2004-01-01

    The mixing layer-wake interaction is studied experimentally in the framework of two flow configurations. For the first one, the initial conditions of the mixing layer are modified by using a thick trailing edge, a wake effect is therefore superimposed to the mixing layer from its beginning (blunt trailing edge). In the second flow configuration, a canonical mixing layer is perturbed in its asymptotic region by the wake of a cylinder arranged perpendicular to the plane of the mixing layer. These interactions are analyzed mainly by using two-point velocity correlations and the proper orthogonal decomposition (POD). These two flow configurations differ by the degree of complexity they involve: the former is mainly 2D while the latter is highly 3D. The blunt trailing edge configuration is analyzed by using rakes of hot wire probes. This flow configuration is found to be considerably different when compared to a conventional mixing layer. It appears in particular that the scale of the large structures depends only on the trailing edge thickness and does not grow in its downstream evolution. A criterion, based on POD, is proposed in order to separate wake-mixing layer dominant areas of the downstream evolution of the flow. The complex 3D dynamical behaviour resulting from the interaction between the canonical plane mixing layer and the wake of a cylinder is investigated using data arising from particle image velocimetry measurements. An analysis of the velocity correlations shows different length scales in the regions dominated by wake like structures and shear layer type structures. In order to characterize the particular organization in the plane of symmetry, a POD-Galerkin projection of the Navier-Stokes equations is performed in this plane. This leads to a low-dimensional dynamical system that allows the analysis of the relationship between the dominant frequencies to be performed. A reconstruction of the dominant periodic motion suspected from previous studies is

  13. Evaluation of sowing patterns and weed control on mung bean (Vigna radiate L. Wilczek - black cumin (Nigella sativa L. intercropping system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    parviz Rezvani Moghadam

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to study different arrangements and weed controls effects on mung bean (Vigna radiate L. Wilczek – black cumin (Nigella sativa L. intercropping an experiment was conducted at the Research Station of Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran, during growing season 2005 – 2006. Sixteen treatments comprising combinations of eight sowing patterns [A1: Sole black cumin, A2: Sole mung bean, A3: 3 rows black cumin– 2 rows mung bean, A4: 3 rows black cumin – 2 rows mung bean, A5: 2 rows black cumin – 1 rows mung bean, A6: 1 row black cumin – 2 rows mung bean, A7: 3 rows black cumin – 3 rows mung bean (Striped, A8: 1 row black cumin – 1 row mung bean (alternative rows] and two weed controls [V1: unweeded, V2: completely hand weeding] were arranged in a factorial experiment based on randomized complete block design with three replications. Results showed that in intercropping systems leaf area index (LAI of mung bean reduced but in the case of black cumin increased. Mung bean total dry matter in intercropping system did not differ comparing with sole crop but total dry matter in black cumin increased. All yield components in both crops affected by sowing patterns and weed control treatments. Number of branches/plant, number of pods or follicules/plant and number of seed/pods or follicules increased in A8, A4, A5 and A3 sowing patterns in mung bean and A3, A5 and A7 sowing patterns in black cumin compared with other arrangements. By increasing mung bean ratio in rows, the number of weed species, weed density, dry weight of weeds and abundance of weed species decreased. In unweeded treatment, number of branches/plant, number of pods or follicules/plant and number of seed/pods or follicules decreased in both crops. Land equivalent ratio (LER was more than 1.00 in all sowing patterns.

  14. Biological Activities of Libidibia (Caesalpinia) ferrea var. parvifolia (Mart. ex Tul.) L. P. Queiroz Pod Preparations

    OpenAIRE

    Freitas, A. C. C.; Ximenes, N. C. A.; Aguiar, J. S.; Nascimento, S. C.; Lins, T. U. L.; Magalhães, L. R.; Coelho, L. C. B. B.; Carneiro-da-Cunha, M. G.; Gonçalves-Silva, T.; Correia, M. T. S.

    2012-01-01

    Libidibia ferrea has been used in folk medicine throughout Brazil, and this study evaluated the biological activities of crude extract (CE) as well as a partially purified fraction (F80) obtained from its pods. Results from the MTT assay revealed that only F80 inhibited NCI-H292 cell growth; however, neither CE nor F80 reduced HEp-2 cell growth or sarcoma 180 tumor weight with the in vivo assay. Acute oral toxicity of the extract and fraction was evaluated following the steps of Guideline 423...

  15. PIPE ROOF APPLICATION ON THE "JAVOROVA KOSA" AND "POD VUGLES" TUNNELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavle Jureta

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The modes of pipe roof technology implementation in order to stabilize the excavations on the "Javorova Kosa" and "Pod Vugles" Tunnels are described in the paper. Both tunnels are specific regarding their geological structure and geo-technical characteristics of the rock mass in which the excavations were performed as well as regarding the mutual distance of 50 m measured alongside the highway axis. The multiphase New Austrian Tunneling Method (NATM was used for the excavations in weak rock/soil (the paper is published in Croatian.

  16. Effectiveness of Sex Pheromone in Controlling Cocoa Pod Borer, Conopomorpha cramerella (Snell.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endang Sulistyowati

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Cocoa pod borer (CPB, Conopomorpha cramerella  nell. is a dangerous pest of cocoa which seriously reduce cocoa production mainly in Southeast Asia and Pasific. Prevention of CPB attack can be done by pod sleeving to prevent CPBs lay eggs on pod, or reduction of source of CPB infestation by using pheromone or kairomone as attractant in an insect trap. A preliminary research using sex pheromone has been conducted at endemic cocoa area infested by CPB in East Java. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of sex pheromonesin controlling CPB. Trial was arranged by randomized completely block design in four treatments and four blocks as replication. Four densities trap/ha (0, 4, 8, and 12 traps/ha were used as a treatments. Sex pheromone trap consisted of synthetic pheromone (lure and sticky liner was hanged on 0.5 m above the cocoa canopy. The results showed that the number of CPB captured during four months was significantly decreased. The number of CPB captured per trap during the first two months in the treatment of 0, 4, 8 and 12 traps/ha were 0, 6.5, 4.72, and 5.58 CPBs, respectively. Four months after treatment, the number of CPB captured in the respective treatments was reduced to 0, 0.25, 0.6, and 0.96 CPBs. Estimate calculation on yield loss due to CPB attack showed that before treatment the yield loss ranged 37.4—45.6%, however six months after treatment, the yield loss in treatment plots decreased to 9.4—21%, whereas on control 38.47%. Use of sex pheromones to attract CPB at a density of 4 traps/ha reduced yield losses due to CPB damage by 67.7%. The significant correlation betweenthe number of CPB captured with the damage intensity followed regression equation of Y = - 0,00044X + 0,32059. Use of sex pheromone for monitoring or masstrapping of CPB, as a component in IPM of CPB is promising, due to its nature for specific target, environmentally friendly, effectiveness, and economic values

  17. Consistent Practices for the Probability of Detection (POD) of Fracture Critical Metallic Components Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughitt, Brian; Generazio, Edward (Principal Investigator); Nichols, Charles; Myers, Mika (Principal Investigator); Spencer, Floyd (Principal Investigator); Waller, Jess (Principal Investigator); Wladyka, Jordan (Principal Investigator); Aldrin, John; Burke, Eric; Cerecerez, Laura; hide

    2016-01-01

    NASA-STD-5009 requires that successful flaw detection by NDE methods be statistically qualified for use on fracture critical metallic components, but does not standardize practices. This task works towards standardizing calculations and record retention with a web-based tool, the NNWG POD Standards Library or NPSL. Test methods will also be standardized with an appropriately flexible appendix to -5009 identifying best practices. Additionally, this appendix will describe how specimens used to qualify NDE systems will be cataloged, stored and protected from corrosion, damage, or loss.

  18. PLB, vertical tail, OMS pods above Earth with moon in distant background

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    Payload bay (PLB) equipment, payloads, and experiments include remote manipulator system (RMS) stowed on port side sill longeron, Development Flight Instrument (DFI) pallet with High Capacity Heat Pipe Experiment, Special Philatelic Covers in two large storage (mail) boxes, Evaluation of Oxygen Interaction with Materials (EOIM) experiment trays, and Advanced Flexible Reusable Surface Insulation (AFRSI) blanket in foreground and Payload Flight Test Article (PFTA) behind DFI pallet. Vertical tail with orbital maneuvering system (OMS) pods at base points to Earth's cloud-covered surface with gibbous moon in distance.

  19. Identification of dominant structures and their flow dynamics in the turbulent two-phase flow using POD technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munir, Shahzad; Siddiqui, Muhammad Israr; Heikal, Morgan; Aziz, Abdul Rashid Abdul [Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bander Seri Iskandar (Malaysia); Sercey, Guillaume de [University of Brighton, Brighton (United Kingdom)

    2015-11-15

    The Proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) method has seen increasingly used in the last two decades and has a lot of applications for the comparison of experimental and numerically simulated data. The POD technique is often used to extract information about coherent structures dominating the flow. The two-dimensional and two-component instantaneous velocity fields of both liquid and gas phases of a slug flow were obtained by Particle image velocimetry (PIV) combined with Laser induced fluorescence (LIF). POD was applied to the velocity fields of both phases separately to identify the coherent flow structures. We focused on POD eigenmodes and their corresponding energy contents of both liquid and gas phases. The sum of first few eigenmodes that contain maximum turbulent kinetic energy of the flow represents the coherent structures. In the case of liquid phase the first eigenmode contained 42% of the total energy, while in the gas phase the decaying energy distribution was flat. The POD results showed that the coefficient of mode 1 for the liquid phase oscillated between positive and negative values and had the highest amplitude. For the visualization of coherent motion different linear combinations of eigenmodes for liquid and gas phases were used. The phenomena of turbulent bursting events associated with Q2 events (low momentum fluid moving away from the wall) and Q4 events (high momentum flow moving towards the wall) were also discussed to assess its contribution in turbulence production.

  20. Black hole critical phenomena without black holes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    large values of Ф, black holes do form and for small values the scalar field ... on the near side of the ridge ultimately evolve to form black holes while those configu- ... The inset shows a bird's eye view looking down on the saddle point.

  1. Black hole hair removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, Nabamita; Mandal, Ipsita; Sen, Ashoke

    2009-01-01

    Macroscopic entropy of an extremal black hole is expected to be determined completely by its near horizon geometry. Thus two black holes with identical near horizon geometries should have identical macroscopic entropy, and the expected equality between macroscopic and microscopic entropies will then imply that they have identical degeneracies of microstates. An apparent counterexample is provided by the 4D-5D lift relating BMPV black hole to a four dimensional black hole. The two black holes have identical near horizon geometries but different microscopic spectrum. We suggest that this discrepancy can be accounted for by black hole hair - degrees of freedom living outside the horizon and contributing to the degeneracies. We identify these degrees of freedom for both the four and the five dimensional black holes and show that after their contributions are removed from the microscopic degeneracies of the respective systems, the result for the four and five dimensional black holes match exactly.

  2. Noncommutative black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-DomInguez, J C [Instituto de Fisica de la Universidad de Guanajuato PO Box E-143, 37150 Leoen Gto. (Mexico); Obregon, O [Instituto de Fisica de la Universidad de Guanajuato PO Box E-143, 37150 Leoen Gto. (Mexico); RamIrez, C [Facultad de Ciencias FIsico Matematicas, Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, PO Box 1364, 72000 Puebla (Mexico); Sabido, M [Instituto de Fisica de la Universidad de Guanajuato PO Box E-143, 37150 Leoen Gto. (Mexico)

    2007-11-15

    We study noncommutative black holes, by using a diffeomorphism between the Schwarzschild black hole and the Kantowski-Sachs cosmological model, which is generalized to noncommutative minisuperspace. Through the use of the Feynman-Hibbs procedure we are able to study the thermodynamics of the black hole, in particular, we calculate Hawking's temperature and entropy for the 'noncommutative' Schwarzschild black hole.

  3. Black holes without firewalls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larjo, Klaus; Lowe, David A.; Thorlacius, Larus

    2013-05-01

    The postulates of black hole complementarity do not imply a firewall for infalling observers at a black hole horizon. The dynamics of the stretched horizon, that scrambles and reemits information, determines whether infalling observers experience anything out of the ordinary when entering a large black hole. In particular, there is no firewall if the stretched horizon degrees of freedom retain information for a time of the order of the black hole scrambling time.

  4. Black holes are hot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibbons, G.

    1976-01-01

    Recent work, which has been investigating the use of the concept of entropy with respect to gravitating systems, black holes and the universe as a whole, is discussed. The resulting theory of black holes assigns a finite temperature to them -about 10 -7 K for ordinary black holes of stellar mass -which is in complete agreement with thermodynamical concepts. It is also shown that black holes must continuously emit particles just like ordinary bodies which have a certain temperature. (U.K.)

  5. Monopole Black Hole Skyrmions

    OpenAIRE

    Moss, Ian G; Shiiki, N; Winstanley, E

    2000-01-01

    Charged black hole solutions with pion hair are discussed. These can be\\ud used to study monopole black hole catalysis of proton decay.\\ud There also exist\\ud multi-black hole skyrmion solutions with BPS monopole behaviour.

  6. What is black hole?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. What is black hole? Possible end phase of a star: A star is a massive, luminous ball of plasma having continuous nuclear burning. Star exhausts nuclear fuel →. White Dwarf, Neutron Star, Black Hole. Black hole's gravitational field is so powerful that even ...

  7. Genocide and Black Ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinnette, Calvin H.

    1972-01-01

    Contends that the survival of black people is in serious jeopardy as is evidenced in contemporary discussions on the worldwide plight of black people, and that an exhaustive study of the problem in its many dimensions is seriously lacking; the moral and ethical issues of genocide require examination from a black perspective. (JW)

  8. PROOF on the Cloud for ALICE using PoD and OpenNebula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berzano, D; Bagnasco, S; Brunetti, R; Lusso, S

    2012-01-01

    In order to optimize the use and management of computing centres, their conversion to cloud facilities is becoming increasingly popular. In a medium to large cloud facility, many different virtual clusters may concur for the same resources: unused resources can be freed either by turning off idle virtual machines, or by lowering resources assigned to a virtual machine at runtime. PROOF, a ROOT-based parallel and interactive analysis framework, is officially endorsed in the computing model of the ALICE experiment as complementary to the Grid, and it has become very popular over the last three years. The locality of PROOF-based analysis facilities forces system administrators to scavenge resources, yet the chaotic nature of user analysis tasks deems them unstable and inconstantly used, making PROOF a typical use-case for HPC cloud computing. Currently, PoD dynamically and easily provides a PROOF-enabled cluster by submitting agents to a job scheduler. Unfortunately, a Tier-2 does not comfortably share the same queue between interactive and batch jobs, due to the very large average time to completion of the latter: an elastic cloud approach would enable interactive virtual machines to temporarily subtract resources to the batch ones, without a noticeable impact on them. In this work we describe our setup of a dynamic PROOF-based cloud analysis facility based on PoD and OpenNebula, orchestrated by a simple and lightweight control daemon that makes virtualization transparent for the user.

  9. Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome: Is It Time to Rename PCOS to HA-PODS?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadilkar, Suvarna Satish

    2016-04-01

    The term polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) came into existence 80 years ago. Pathophysiology of PCOS remains ill understood despite extensive research in this field. It is now accepted that the manifestations of PCOS are not confined to the reproductive dysfunction, and there are endocrine-metabolic implications to PCOS with several consequences to female health. PCOS is a misnomer as ovaries do not contain epithelial cysts, but they are actually antral follicles. Moreover, the name PCOS neither reflects the hyperandrogenism which is essential for diagnosis nor the metabolic derangements. While various authors have expressed the need for change of the name, a suitable new option has not yet been established. This review aims to analyse the current understanding of pathophysiology of PCOS and addresses to the controversies associated with its diagnosis and nomenclature. The name "Hyperandrogenic Persistent Ovulatory Dysfunction Syndrome or HA-PODS" is proposed here to overcome diagnostic pitfalls of previous nomenclature. This new name will help formulate appropriate treatment and promote consistency in research as well. Further categorizations of HA-PODS are also discussed in the article.

  10. Localised burst reconstruction from space-time PODs in a turbulent channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Gutierrez, Adrian; Jimenez, Javier

    2017-11-01

    The traditional proper orthogonal decomposition of the turbulent velocity fluctuations in a channel is extended to time under the assumption that the attractor is statistically stationary and can be treated as periodic for long-enough times. The objective is to extract space- and time-localised eddies that optimally represent the kinetic energy (and two-event correlation) of the flow. Using time-resolved data of a small-box simulation at Reτ = 1880 , minimal for y / h 0.25 , PODs are computed from the two-point spectral-density tensor Φ(kx ,kz , y ,y' , ω) . They are Fourier components in x, z and time, and depend on y and on the temporal frequency ω, or, equivalently, on the convection velocity c = ω /kx . Although the latter depends on y, a spatially and temporally localised `burst' can be synthesised by adding a range of PODs with specific phases. The results are localised bursts that are amplified and tilted, in a time-periodic version of Orr-like behaviour. Funded by the ERC COTURB project.

  11. Automated recognition and tracking of aerosol threat plumes with an IR camera pod

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauth, Ryan; Powell, Christopher; Gruber, Thomas; Clapp, Dan

    2012-06-01

    Protection of fixed sites from chemical, biological, or radiological aerosol plume attacks depends on early warning so that there is time to take mitigating actions. Early warning requires continuous, autonomous, and rapid coverage of large surrounding areas; however, this must be done at an affordable cost. Once a potential threat plume is detected though, a different type of sensor (e.g., a more expensive, slower sensor) may be cued for identification purposes, but the problem is to quickly identify all of the potential threats around the fixed site of interest. To address this problem of low cost, persistent, wide area surveillance, an IR camera pod and multi-image stitching and processing algorithms have been developed for automatic recognition and tracking of aerosol plumes. A rugged, modular, static pod design, which accommodates as many as four micro-bolometer IR cameras for 45deg to 180deg of azimuth coverage, is presented. Various OpenCV1 based image-processing algorithms, including stitching of multiple adjacent FOVs, recognition of aerosol plume objects, and the tracking of aerosol plumes, are presented using process block diagrams and sample field test results, including chemical and biological simulant plumes. Methods for dealing with the background removal, brightness equalization between images, and focus quality for optimal plume tracking are also discussed.

  12. Mesquite pod meal in sheep diet: intake, apparent digestibility of nutrients and nitrogen balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edileusa de Jesus do Santos

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Eight Santa Ines sheep were assigned to two 4 x 4 Latin squares, to evaluate the effects of replacing elephant grass silage with different levels of mesquite pod meal (MDM (15, 30 and 45% DM on intake, apparent digestibility of dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM, crude protein (CP, ether extract (EE, acid detergent fiber (ADF, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, total carbohydrates (TC and non-fiber carbohydrates (NFC and the nitrogen balance. There was a linear increase (p < 0.05 in the intake of DM, OM, CP, ADF, NDF, NFC and TC according to the addition of MPM to the diet. The digestibility of DM, OM and CP increased (p < 0.05 with the addition of MDM. We observed a positive linear effect (p < 0.05 for the nitrogen intake. The addition of mesquite pod meal up to 45% increased the intake of DM, NDF, ADF, CP, OM, NFC and TC but reduced the digestibility of EE and NDF. MPM at 30 and 45% propitiated a positive nitrogen balance.

  13. Potential use of chicken egg shells and cacao pod husk as catalyst for biodiesel production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andherson, T.; Rachmat, D.; Risanti, Doty D.

    2018-04-01

    Chicken eggshells and cacao pod husk are known as waste materials that can be used to produce catalyst of CaO and K2CO3, respectively. Waste cooking oil (WCO) is an alternative raw material to produce economical and cheaper biodiesel. WCO first undergoes a pre-treatment process that aims to remove free fatty acid (FFA). Biodiesel was produced by transesterification between triglyceride and alcohol with the presence of a catalyst. To obtain the catalyst, eggshell was calcined in a furnace at temperatures of 600 °C, 700 °C, 800 °C, and 900 °C for 6 hours. On the other hand, K2CO3 catalyst synthesis was carried out by carbonization cacao pod husk at temperature of 650°C and subsequently extracted using aquadest solvent. Catalysts were then characterized by XRD and FTIR. The biodiesel synthesis in this research was conducted at 65°C with molar ratio of 1: 6 WCO to methanol, reaction time for 1 and 2 hours, for K2CO3 and CaO, respectively. The optimum condition for the reaction using CaO was obtained for CaO that carbonized at 900°C. It produced 81.43% conversion of biodiesel. On the other hand, reaction using K2CO3 could reach a higher conversion of 85%. From the results it was clear that the biodiesel fuel production was within the recommended SNI 7182: 2015 standard.

  14. MODE OF INHERITANCE OF POD SPININESS IN OKRA (Abelmoschus esculentus (L. Moench

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adil Hassan Ahmed Abdelmageed

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The mode of inheritance of spininess in okra was investigated. Two okra cultivars, namely ‘Khartoumia spiny’ and the Indian cultivar ‘Pusa Sawani’ were used in this study. The two parents were self pollinated for three successive generations to fix the character under study. Crosses were made between ‘Khartoumia spiny’ and ‘Pusa Sawani’, and reciprocal F1’s, F2’s and all possible backcrosses were derived from the initial crosses. No reciprocal differences were found between F1 and F2 generation for pod spininess. Segregation in the crosses between the local cultivar ‘Khartoumia spiny’ and the Indian cultivar ‘Pusa Sawani’ indicated that the presence of spines on pods was controlled by single gene, with incomplete dominance.

  15. A reduced order aerothermodynamic modeling framework for hypersonic vehicles based on surrogate and POD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Xin

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Aerothermoelasticity is one of the key technologies for hypersonic vehicles. Accurate and efficient computation of the aerothermodynamics is one of the primary challenges for hypersonic aerothermoelastic analysis. Aimed at solving the shortcomings of engineering calculation, computation fluid dynamics (CFD and experimental investigation, a reduced order modeling (ROM framework for aerothermodynamics based on CFD predictions using an enhanced algorithm of fast maximin Latin hypercube design is developed. Both proper orthogonal decomposition (POD and surrogate are considered and compared to construct ROMs. Two surrogate approaches named Kriging and optimized radial basis function (ORBF are utilized to construct ROMs. Furthermore, an enhanced algorithm of fast maximin Latin hypercube design is proposed, which proves to be helpful to improve the precisions of ROMs. Test results for the three-dimensional aerothermodynamic over a hypersonic surface indicate that: the ROMs precision based on Kriging is better than that by ORBF, ROMs based on Kriging are marginally more accurate than ROMs based on POD-Kriging. In a word, the ROM framework for hypersonic aerothermodynamics has good precision and efficiency.

  16. Potency and Utilization of Cocoa Pod Husk as an Alternative Feed for Ruminants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wisri Puastuti

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Cocoa pod husk (CPH is potential as an alternative source of feed for ruminants due to its quantity and quality. The availability of CPH in Indonesia during the harvest season is abundant and able to feed around 635,305 animal unit (AU per year. Cocoa pod husk as a feedstuff which contains crude protein between 6.80-13.78%; NDF 55.30-73.90% and ADF 38.31-58.98% is a source of fiber and can replace grass. However, CPH also contains antinutritional compounds such as lignin, tannin and theobromine. In order to optimize the use of CPH as feed, treatments are needed to improve the nutritive value and digestibility, to reduce negative effects and to extend shelf life. Processing methods can be conducted physically, chemically and microbiologically. Processing can improve the nutritional value of CPH especially the protein content. Feeding livestock using processed CPH showed better weight gain than that of unprocessed CPH. Besides, the attempt to utilize CPH as feed can overcome the shortage of forage, especially during dry season and increase ruminant productivity around the area of cocoa plantations.

  17. Black holes in binary stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijers, R.A.M.J.

    1996-01-01

    Introduction Distinguishing neutron stars and black holes Optical companions and dynamical masses X-ray signatures of the nature of a compact object Structure and evolution of black-hole binaries High-mass black-hole binaries Low-mass black-hole binaries Low-mass black holes Formation of black holes

  18. Reverse Kinematic Analysis and Uncertainty Analysis of the Space Shuttle AFT Propulsion System (APS) POD Lifting Fixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brink, Jeffrey S.

    2005-01-01

    The space shuttle Aft Propulsion System (APS) pod requires precision alignment to be installed onto the orbiter deck. The Ground Support Equipment (GSE) used to perform this task cannot be manipulated along a single Cartesian axis without causing motion along the other Cartesian axes. As a result, manipulations required to achieve a desired motion are not intuitive. My study calculated the joint angles required to align the APS pod, using reverse kinematic analysis techniques. Knowledge of these joint angles will allow the ground support team to align the APS pod more safely and efficiently. An uncertainty analysis was also performed to estimate the accuracy associated with this approach and to determine whether any inexpensive modifications can be made to further improve accuracy.

  19. Data in support of proteome analysis of gynophores and early swelling pods of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Xia

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Different from most of other plants, peanut (Arachis hypogaea L. is a typical geocarpic species which flowering and forming pegs (gynophores above the ground. Pegs penetrate into soil for embryo and pod development. To investigate the molecular mechanism of geocarpy feature of peanut, the proteome profiles of aerial grown gynophores (S1, subterranean unswollen gynophores (S2, and gynophores that had just started to swell into pods (S3 were analyzed by combining 1 DE with nano LC–MS/MS approaches. The proteomic data provided valuable information for understanding pod development of peanut. The data described here can be found in the PRIDE Archive using the reference number PXD002579-81. A more comprehensive analysis of this data may be obtained from the article in BMC Plant Biology (Zhao et al., 2015 [1].

  20. Neuronal vacuolation of the trigeminal nuclei in goats caused by ingestion of Prosopis juliflora pods (mesquite beans).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabosa, I M; Souza, J C; Graça, D L; Barbosa-Filho, J M; Almeida, R N; Riet-Correa, F

    2000-06-01

    Three groups of 6 goats each were fed a ration containing 30, 60, or 90%, on a dry matter base, of Prosopis juliflora pods. A control group of 4 goats ingested only the basic ration. Two hundred and ten days after the start of the experiment 3 goats that ingested 60% pods in and 4 that ingested 90% had mandibular tremors, mainly during chewing. All animals were killed after 270 d of ingestion. No gross lesions were observed. Histologic lesions were characterized by fine vacuolation of the pericaryon of neurons from the trigeminal nuclei. Occasionally neurons of the oculomotor nuclei were also affected. Wallerian degeneration was occasionally observed in the mandibular and trigeminal nerves. Denervation atrophy of the masseter, temporal, hypoglossus, genioglossus, styloglossus, medial pterygoid and lateral pterygoid muscles was seen. The clinical signs from feeding the P juliflora pods were caused by a selective toxicity to neurons of some cranial nerve nuclei.

  1. Black hole levitron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arsiwalla, Xerxes D.; Verlinde, Erik P.

    2010-01-01

    We study the problem of spatially stabilizing four dimensional extremal black holes in background electric/magnetic fields. Whilst looking for stationary stable solutions describing black holes placed in external fields we find that taking a continuum limit of Denef et al.'s multicenter supersymmetric black hole solutions provides a supergravity description of such backgrounds within which a black hole can be trapped within a confined volume. This construction is realized by solving for a levitating black hole over a magnetic dipole base. We comment on how such a construction is akin to a mechanical levitron.

  2. Three new species of Horismenus Walker (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) associated with seed pods of Pithecellobium dulce (Fabaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikart, Tiago G; Costa, Valmir A; Hansson, Christer; Zanuncio, José C; Serrão, José E

    2015-08-04

    Horismenus abnormicaulis sp. nov., H. patensis sp. nov. and H. zuleidae sp. nov. (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), all authored by Pikart, Costa & Hansson, are described from material obtained from seed pods of Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth. (Fabaceae) collected in Northeastern Brazil. The seed pods were infested with larvae of Coleoptera (Chrysomelidae (Bruchinae) and Curculionidae). The associations of the Horismenus species and the beetle larvae have not been established. Morphological similarities between these new species and previously described species with host known suggest that H. patensis and H. zuleidae are primary parasitoids of Bruchinae, whereas H. abnormicaulis may act as a hyperparasitoid on other Horismenus species. The three species are compared with similar species of Horismenus.

  3. Marketingový plán fitness centra Expreska Jiřího z Poděbrad

    OpenAIRE

    Štěchová, Kristýna

    2016-01-01

    Title: The marketing plan of fitness center Expreska Jiřího z Poděbrad. Objectives: The main aim of the dimploma thesis is to construct a marketing plan for fitness center Expreska Jiřího z Poděbrad for the year 2017. The proposed marketing strategy, including the implementation plan will be directed to achieve marketing and business goals of the organization. Methods: For analysis of the microenvironment is used Porter matrix. Analysis of macroenvironment is done with the help of PEST analys...

  4. Low frequency magnetic emissions and resulting induced voltages in a pacemaker by iPod portable music players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bassen Howard

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently, malfunctioning of a cardiac pacemaker electromagnetic, caused by electromagnetic interference (EMI by fields emitted by personal portable music players was highly publicized around the world. A clinical study of one patient was performed and two types of interference were observed when the clinicians placed a pacemaker programming head and an iPod were placed adjacent to the patient's implanted pacemaker. The authors concluded that "Warning labels may be needed to avoid close contact between pacemakers and iPods". We performed an in-vitro study to evaluate these claims of EMI and present our findings of no-effects" in this paper. Methods We performed in-vitro evaluations of the low frequency magnetic field emissions from various models of the Apple Inc. iPod music player. We measured magnetic field emissions with a 3-coil sensor (diameter of 3.5 cm placed within 1 cm of the surface of the player. Highly localized fields were observed (only existing in a one square cm area. We also measured the voltages induced inside an 'instrumented-can' pacemaker with two standard unipolar leads. Each iPod was placed in the air, 2.7 cm above the pacemaker case. The pacemaker case and leads were placed in a saline filled torso simulator per pacemaker electromagnetic compatibility standard ANSI/AAMI PC69:2000. Voltages inside the can were measured. Results Emissions were strongest (≈ 0.2 μT pp near a few localized points on the cases of the two iPods with hard drives. Emissions consisted of 100 kHz sinusoidal signal with lower frequency (20 msec wide pulsed amplitude modulation. Voltages induced in the iPods were below the noise level of our instruments (0.5 mV pp in the 0 – 1 kHz band or 2 mV pp in the 0 – 5 MHz bandwidth. Conclusion Our measurements of the magnitude and the spatial distribution of low frequency magnetic flux density emissions by 4 different models of iPod portable music players. Levels of less than 0.2

  5. Middleweight black holes found at last

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clery, Daniel

    2018-06-01

    How did giant black holes grow so big? Astronomers have long had evidence of baby black holes with masses of no more than tens of suns, and of million- or billion-solar-mass behemoths lurking at the centers of galaxies. But middle-size ones, weighing thousands or tens of thousands of suns, seemed to be missing. Their absence forced theorists to propose that supermassive black holes didn't grow gradually by slowly consuming matter, but somehow emerged as ready-made giants. Now, astronomers appear to have located some missing middleweights. An international team has scoured an archive of galaxy spectra and found more than 300 small galaxies that have the signature of intermediate mass black holes in their cores, opening new questions for theorists.

  6. A review of flavor, aroma and color enhancement in gluten free and conventional pastries, waffles and dairy desserts with mesquite pod mesocarp flour (abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesquite is a nitrogen fixing tree whose pods were a major food for indigenous desert peoples. The main mesquite flour of commerce is milled from the pod mesocarp (without seeds) and contains 45% sucrose, 25% dietary fiber, 8 % protein, and 2 % fat. The limiting amino acids are methionine and cystei...

  7. "What Exactly Is a Black?": Interrogating the Reality of Race in Jean Genet's The Blacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debby Thompson

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available On the dedication page of The Blacks , Genet writes "One evening an actor asked me to write a play for an all-black cast. But what exactly is a black? First of all, what's his color?" Prefiguring major issues and paradoxes of African American cultural studies today, The Blacks insists on the very real ways in which the black/white racial binary, like the very concept of race itself, is lived and socially enforced, and at the same time argues that the binary is ultimately a fiction, made real through performative reification. Genet's "clown show," ambiguously reversing the blackface minstrelsy tradition, dramatizes how racial identity can become internalized and naturalized through cultural myths of interracial rape and colonialist narratives of a "heart of darkness," an imaginary site from which "black essence" arises. These racist performance traditions and narratives are so powerful and resilient that attempts to protest them become subtle and unwitting ways of re-creating them. The Blacks' parody of the minstrel tradition to interrogate all racial identity is so permanently suspended in a dialectic of both reinforcing the black/white binary and invalidating it, that the play's strategies present vital paradigms for the study of other and diverse interrogations of racial ontologies.

  8. Primary black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novikov, I.; Polnarev, A.

    1981-01-01

    Proves are searched for of the formation of the so-called primary black holes at the very origin of the universe. The black holes would weigh less than 10 13 kg. The formation of a primary black hole is conditional on strong fluctuations of the gravitational field corresponding roughly to a half of the fluctuation maximally permissible by the general relativity theory. Only big fluctuations of the gravitational field can overcome the forces of the hot gas pressure and compress the originally expanding matter into a black hole. Low-mass black holes have a temperature exceeding that of the black holes formed from stars. A quantum process of particle formation, the so-called evaporation takes place in the strong gravitational field of a black hole. The lower the mass of the black hole, the shorter the evaporation time. The analyses of processes taking place during the evaporation of low-mass primary black holes show that only a very small proportion of the total mass of the matter in the universe could turn into primary black holes. (M.D.)

  9. Utilization of cocoa pod husk waste as potential adsorbents for Remazol Brilliant Violet 5R removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan Tong Siang; Mohd Azmier Ahmad

    2010-01-01

    Removal of Remazol Brilliant Violet 5R (RBV5R) dye from aqueous solution by adsorption onto activated carbon produced from cocoa pod husk (CPH) waste was investigated. Adsorption isotherms were derived at 30 degree Celsius on the basis of batch analysis. Isotherm data were treated according to Langmuir and Freundlich models. Kinetics of adsorption was followed by in situ UV-spectroscopy and the data were treated according to pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order models. The fits of experimental data to these equations were examined. It was found that the adsorption process by RVB5R dye onto activated carbon (AC) follows the Freundlich and pseudo-first-order model. (author)

  10. Using H∞ to design robust POD controllers for wind power plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehmedalic, Jasmin; Knüppel, Thyge; Østergaard, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    Large wind power plants (WPPs) can help to improve small signal stability by increasing the damping of electromechanical modes of oscillation. This can be done by adding a power system oscillation damping (POD) controller to the wind power plants, similar to power system stabilizer (PSS......) controllers on conventional generation. Here two different design methods are evaluated for their suitability in producing a robust power system oscillation damping controller for wind power plants with full-load converter wind turbine generators (WTGs). Controllers are designed using classic PSS design and H......∞ methods and the designed controllers evaluated on both performance and robustness. It is found that the choice of control signal has a large influence on the robustness of the controllers, and the best performance and robustness is found when the converter active power command is used as control signal...

  11. In Vitro Antidiabetic Effects and Antioxidant Potential of Cassia nemophila Pods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gauhar Rehman

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The antidiabetic and antioxidant potential of ethanolic extract of Cassia nemophila pod (EECNP was evaluated by three in vitro assays, including yeast glucose uptake assay, glucose adsorption assay, and DPPH radical scavenging activity. The result revealed that the extracts have enhanced the uptake of glucose through the plasma membrane of yeast cells. A linear increase in glucose uptake by yeast cells was noticed with gradual increase in the concentration of the test samples. Moreover, the adsorption capacity of the EECNP was directly proportional to the molar concentration of glucose. Also, the DPPH radical scavenging capacity of the extract was increased to a maximum value of 43.3% at 80 μg/ml, which was then decreased to 41.9% at 100 μg/ml. From the results, it was concluded that EECNP possess good antidiabetic and antioxidant properties as shown by in vitro assays.

  12. EpiPOD : community vaccination and dispensing model user's guide.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berry, M.; Samsa, M.; Walsh, D.; Decision and Information Sciences

    2009-01-09

    EpiPOD is a modeling system that enables local, regional, and county health departments to evaluate and refine their plans for mass distribution of antiviral and antibiotic medications and vaccines. An intuitive interface requires users to input as few or as many plan specifics as are available in order to simulate a mass treatment campaign. Behind the input interface, a system dynamics model simulates pharmaceutical supply logistics, hospital and first-responder personnel treatment, population arrival dynamics and treatment, and disease spread. When the simulation is complete, users have estimates of the number of illnesses in the population at large, the number of ill persons seeking treatment, and queuing and delays within the mass treatment system--all metrics by which the plan can be judged.

  13. A Powder Delivery System (PoDS) for Mars in situ Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryson, C.; Blake, D.; Saha, C.; Sarrazin, P.

    2004-12-01

    Many instruments proposed for in situ Mars science investigations work best with fine-grained samples of rocks or soils. Such instruments include the mineral analyzer CheMin [1] and any instrument that requires samples having high surface areas (e.g., mass spectrometers, organic analyzers, etc). The Powder Delivery System (PoDS) is designed to deliver powders of selected grain sizes from a sample acquisition device such as an arm-deployed robotic driller or corer to an instrument suite located on the body of a rover/lander. PoDS is capable of size-selective sampling of crushed rocks, soil or drill powder for delivery to instruments that require specific grain sizes (e.g. 5-50 mg of less than150 micron powder for CheMin). Sample material is transported as an aerosol of particles and gas by vacuum advection. In the laboratory a venturi pump driven by compressed air provides the impulse. On Mars, the ambient atmosphere is a source of CO2 that can be captured and compressed by adsorption pumping during diurnal temperature cycling [2]. The lower atmospheric pressure on the surface of Mars (7 torr) will affect fundamental parameters of gas-particle interaction such as Reynolds, Stocks and Knudsen numbers [3]. However, calculations show that the PoDS will operate under both Martian and terrestrial atmospheric conditions. Cyclone separators with appropriate particle size selection ranges remove particles from the aerosol stream. The vortex flow inside the cyclone causes grains larger than a specific size to be collected, while smaller grains remain entrained in the gas. Cyclones are very efficient inertial and centrifugal particle separators with cut sizes (d50) as low as 4 microns. Depending on the particle size ranges desired, a series of cyclones with descending cut sizes may be used, the simplest case being a single cyclone for particle deposition without mass separation. Transmission / membrane filters of appropriate pore sizes may also be used to collect powder from

  14. DOW-PR DOlphin and Whale Pods Routing Protocol for Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks (UWSNs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadud, Zahid; Ullah, Khadem; Hussain, Sajjad; Yang, Xiaodong; Qazi, Abdul Baseer

    2018-05-12

    Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks (UWSNs) have intrinsic challenges that include long propagation delays, high mobility of sensor nodes due to water currents, Doppler spread, delay variance, multipath, attenuation and geometric spreading. The existing Weighting Depth and Forwarding Area Division Depth Based Routing (WDFAD-DBR) protocol considers the weighting depth of the two hops in order to select the next Potential Forwarding Node (PFN). To improve the performance of WDFAD-DBR, we propose DOlphin and Whale Pod Routing protocol (DOW-PR). In this scheme, we divide the transmission range into a number of transmission power levels and at the same time select the next PFNs from forwarding and suppressed zones. In contrast to WDFAD-DBR, our scheme not only considers the packet upward advancement, but also takes into account the number of suppressed nodes and number of PFNs at the first and second hops. Consequently, reasonable energy reduction is observed while receiving and transmitting packets. Moreover, our scheme also considers the hops count of the PFNs from the sink. In the absence of PFNs, the proposed scheme will select the node from the suppressed region for broadcasting and thus ensures minimum loss of data. Besides this, we also propose another routing scheme (whale pod) in which multiple sinks are placed at water surface, but one sink is embedded inside the water and is physically connected with the surface sink through high bandwidth connection. Simulation results show that the proposed scheme has high Packet Delivery Ratio (PDR), low energy tax, reduced Accumulated Propagation Distance (APD) and increased the network lifetime.

  15. Identification of Large-Scale Structure Fluctuations in IC Engines using POD-Based Conditional Averaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buhl Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cycle-to-Cycle Variations (CCV in IC engines is a well-known phenomenon and the definition and quantification is well-established for global quantities such as the mean pressure. On the other hand, the definition of CCV for local quantities, e.g. the velocity or the mixture distribution, is less straightforward. This paper proposes a new method to identify and calculate cyclic variations of the flow field in IC engines emphasizing the different contributions from large-scale energetic (coherent structures, identified by a combination of Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD and conditional averaging, and small-scale fluctuations. Suitable subsets required for the conditional averaging are derived from combinations of the the POD coefficients of the second and third mode. Within each subset, the velocity is averaged and these averages are compared to the ensemble-averaged velocity field, which is based on all cycles. The resulting difference of the subset-average and the global-average is identified as a cyclic fluctuation of the coherent structures. Then, within each subset, remaining fluctuations are obtained from the difference between the instantaneous fields and the corresponding subset average. The proposed methodology is tested for two data sets obtained from scale resolving engine simulations. For the first test case, the numerical database consists of 208 independent samples of a simplified engine geometry. For the second case, 120 cycles for the well-established Transparent Combustion Chamber (TCC benchmark engine are considered. For both applications, the suitability of the method to identify the two contributions to CCV is discussed and the results are directly linked to the observed flow field structures.

  16. SACCHARIFICATION ENZYMATIC APPLIED TO THE FRESH PEA POD VARIETY PISUM SATIVUM L. FOR OBTAIN REDUCING SUGAR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simón Andrés González González

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the process of enzymatic saccharification applied to the fresh pea pod variety Santa Isabel, a content rich vegetable material lignocellulose, which can be exploited to obtain sugars. For effects of the research they thought about to apply nine treatments keeping in mind: the solvent type (deionized water and sulfuric acid, the enzyme type (Novozymes® and Alkozym®, the so much dilution relationship of the solvent like of the enzyme, one also kept in mind the use or not of autoclave like part of the treatment applied to the samples. The qualitative and quantitative determination of the sugars was carried out for liquid chromatography of high resolution (HPLC using a team LC-2010 AHT Shimadzu®, with a detector of refraction index RID-10A Shimadzu® and a column Shodex SC1011, using deionized water as the phase mobile. Similarly it was a chemical characterization of the pea pods certain percentage of moisture, protein, fiber, fat and ash. It also performed analysis of Lignin, holocellulose, cellulose and hemicellulose. The Statistical analysis for the content of sugars was performed by analysis of variance and comparison of means by Tukey test, in order to find the best treatment; Finding that treatment 8, the works best for obtaining glucose and fructose, but considering not to use sulfuric acid, the best treatment would be 4; which applies to all three sugars identified and quantified (sucrose, glucose and fructose. For data obtained from the analysis of lignin, holocellulose, cellulose and hemicellulose was applied to analysis of variance to establish whether the samples subjected to hydrolysis treatments show a significant difference in content of lignocellulosic material

  17. Effects of alkaloid extracts of mesquite pod on the products of in vitro rumen fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jesus Pereira, Taiala Cristina; Pereira, Mara Lúcia Albuquerque; Moreira, Jeruzia Vitória; Azevêdo, José Augusto Gomes; Batista, Ronan; de Paula, Vanderlúcia Fonseca; Oliveira, Brena Santos; de Jesus Dos Santos, Edileusa

    2017-02-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of alkaloid extracts of Prosopis juliflora (Sw.) D.C. pods obtained by two extraction methods as compared with sodium monensin on the gas production kinetic, mitigation of methane, and rumen fermentation products using wheat bran or Tifton 85 hay as substrates, by the semi-automatic in vitro gas production technique. A completely randomized design was adopted, and two natural additives were tested made from mesquite pod (alkaloid extract I and alkaloid extract II) at three levels (3.9, 7.9, and 12 μg), sodium monensin 5 μM (positive control), and no inclusion of additives (negative control). The volume of gases produced by the degradation of the fibrous fraction of wheat bran was influenced by the concentration of the extract I added to the medium, and the amounts of 7.9 and 12 μg were equal to monensin at the lowest value. The degradation rate of the fibrous carbohydrates with additive extract I at 12 μg was lower in relation to monensin. When Tifton 85 hay was utilized, alkaloid extract I provided a shorter colonization time as compared with monensin at the added amounts of 7.9 and 12 μg and higher production of gases from the fibrous fraction but without interfering with the total volume of gases produced during 96 h of fermentation of carbohydrates. In the periods of 12 and 24 h of incubation, utilizing alkaloid extract I, the mean values of methane production with wheat bran and Tifton 85 hay were lower than monensin (p < 0.05) when the respective amounts of 7.9 and 12 μg were added. Alkaloid extract I has similar potential to sodium in reducing production of total gases, methane, and the acetate/propionate ratio.

  18. Microsatellite Primers for Parkia biglobosa (Fabaceae: Mimosoideae) Reveal that a Single Plant Sires All Seeds Per Pod

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Kristin Marie; Kjær, Erik Dahl; Ouédraogo, Moussa

    2014-01-01

    Premise of the study: Microsatellite primers were developed for an indigenous fruit tree, Parkia biglobosa, as a tool to study reproductive biology and population structure. Here we use the primers to determine the number of fathers per pod.  Methods and Results: Microsatellite loci were enriched...

  19. Agricultural Science and Technology Teachers' Perceptions of iPod and Mp3 Technology Integration into Curricular and Cocurricular Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphrey, Theresa Pesl; Miller, Kimberly A.; Roberts, T. Grady

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe agricultural science and technology teachers' reaction to iPod and mp3 technology use and potential use in both curricular and cocurricular activities. A total of 112 unique respondents provided written responses to open-ended questions. Study findings reveal that agricultural science and technology…

  20. Teaching Functional Use of an iPod-Based Speech-Generating Device to Individuals with Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meer, Larah; Kagohara, Debora; Achmadi, Donna; Green, Vanessa A.; Herrington, Christina; Sigafoos, Jeff; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Lancioni, Giulio E.; Lang, Russell; Rispoli, Mandy

    2011-01-01

    Anecdotal reports suggest that individuals with developmental disabilities who lack speech may be enabled to communicate through the use of a new iPod-based communication device. However, there appear to be limited empirical data demonstrating successful use of this new device by such individuals. This study was designed to provide empirical…

  1. Teaching Advanced Operation of an iPod-Based Speech-Generating Device to Two Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achmadi, Donna; Kagohara, Debora M.; van der Meer, Larah; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Lancioni, Giulio E.; Sutherland, Dean; Lang, Russell; Marschik, Peter B.; Green, Vanessa A.; Sigafoos, Jeff

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated a program for teaching two adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) to perform more advanced operations on an iPod-based speech-generating device (SGD). The effects of the teaching program were evaluated in a multiprobe multiple baseline across participants design that included two intervention phases. The first intervention…

  2. Evaluation of the metabolizable energy value for growing lambs of the Mucuna pruriens seed and the whole pod.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Galván, Adan; Belmar-Casso, Roberto; Sarmiento-Franco, Luis; Sandoval-Castro, Carlos Alfredo

    2012-04-01

    Whole pod and seeds of velvet bean (Mucuna pruriens) were included in diets for growing sheep used to validate previously estimated ME values of 9.7 MJ and 12.6 MJ for whole pod and seed respectively. Twenty-four lambs, 15 females and nine males of 18.7 ± 2.4 kg average weight, were allocated in three treatments using a completely randomized block design with eight replicates per treatment. Each group was given a diet with a ratio of 60% of Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum) and 40% of a supplement with the addition of 0%, 50% whole pod or 66% of M. pruriens seeds, for TI, TII and TIII respectively. Diets were formulated to meet the requirements for 100-g daily live weight gain (LWG). The total dry matter intake (836 g a(-1) d(-1), forage + supplement), LWG (90 g a(-1) d(-1)) and feed conversion (9.66 kg DM/kg LWG) of lambs from TIII were lower (P 0.05) between TI and TII in the three evaluated variables. The ME values of whole pod and seeds of M. pruriens used in this work were validated. It was concluded that M. pruriens can be included as a component in diets for growing sheep, as a partial replacement of conventional feedstuffs.

  3. Transcriptome Analysis of Calcium- and Hormone-Related Gene Expressions during Different Stages of Peanut Pod Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Meng, Jingjing; Yang, Sha; Guo, Feng; Zhang, Jialei; Geng, Yun; Cui, Li; Wan, Shubo; Li, Xinguo

    2017-01-01

    Peanut is one of the calciphilous plants. Calcium serves as a ubiquitous central hub in a large number of signaling pathways. In the field, free calcium ion (Ca2+)-deficient soil can result in unfilled pods. Four pod stages were analyzed to determine the relationship between Ca2+ excretion and pod development. Peanut shells showed Ca2+ excretion at all four stages; however, both the embryo of Stage 4 (S4) and the red skin of Stage 3 (S3) showed Ca2+ absorbance. These results showed that embryo and red skin of peanut need Ca2+ during development. In order to survey the relationship among calcium, hormone and seed development from gene perspective, we further analyzed the seed transcriptome at Stage 2 (S2), S3, and S4. About 70 million high quality clean reads were generated, which were assembled into 58,147 unigenes. By comparing these three stages, total 4,457 differentially expressed genes were identified. In these genes, 53 Ca2+ related genes, 40 auxin related genes, 15 gibberellin genes, 20 ethylene related genes, 2 abscisic acid related genes, and 7 cytokinin related genes were identified. Additionally, a part of them were validated by qRT-PCR. Most of their expressions changed during the pod development. Since some reports showed that Ca2+ signal transduction pathway is involved in hormone regulation pathway, these results implied that peanut seed development might be regulated by the collaboration of Ca2+ signal transduction pathway and hormone regulation pathway. PMID:28769950

  4. Transcriptome Analysis of Calcium- and Hormone-Related Gene Expressions during Different Stages of Peanut Pod Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Li

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Peanut is one of the calciphilous plants. Calcium serves as a ubiquitous central hub in a large number of signaling pathways. In the field, free calcium ion (Ca2+-deficient soil can result in unfilled pods. Four pod stages were analyzed to determine the relationship between Ca2+ excretion and pod development. Peanut shells showed Ca2+ excretion at all four stages; however, both the embryo of Stage 4 (S4 and the red skin of Stage 3 (S3 showed Ca2+ absorbance. These results showed that embryo and red skin of peanut need Ca2+ during development. In order to survey the relationship among calcium, hormone and seed development from gene perspective, we further analyzed the seed transcriptome at Stage 2 (S2, S3, and S4. About 70 million high quality clean reads were generated, which were assembled into 58,147 unigenes. By comparing these three stages, total 4,457 differentially expressed genes were identified. In these genes, 53 Ca2+ related genes, 40 auxin related genes, 15 gibberellin genes, 20 ethylene related genes, 2 abscisic acid related genes, and 7 cytokinin related genes were identified. Additionally, a part of them were validated by qRT-PCR. Most of their expressions changed during the pod development. Since some reports showed that Ca2+ signal transduction pathway is involved in hormone regulation pathway, these results implied that peanut seed development might be regulated by the collaboration of Ca2+ signal transduction pathway and hormone regulation pathway.

  5. The complete mitochondrial genome of Anoplocnemis curvipes F. (Coreinea, Coreidae, Heteroptera), a pest of fresh cowpea pods

    Science.gov (United States)

    The complete 16,345-bp mitochondrial genome of the agriculturally-destructive pod sucking pest, the giant coreid bug, Anoplocnemis curvipes (Hemiptera: Coreidae), was assembled from paired end next generation sequencing reads. The A. curvipes mitochondrial genome consists of 13 protein coding genes...

  6. The spatial genetic differentiation of the legume pod borer, Maruca vitrata F. (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) populations in West Africa

    KAUST Repository

    Agunbiade, Tolulope A.; Coates, Brad Steven; Kim, Kyungseok; Forgacs, D.; Margam, Venu; Murdock, Larry L.; Ba, Malick N.; Binso-Dabiré , Clé mentine L.; Baoua, Ibrahim B.; Ishiyaku, Mohammad F.; Tamò , Manuele; Pittendrigh, Barry Robert

    2012-01-01

    The legume pod borer, Maruca vitrata, is an endemic insect pest that causes significant yield loss to the cowpea crop in West Africa. The application of population genetic tools is important in the management of insect pests but such data on M

  7. The influence of formulation on Trichoderma biological activity and frosty pod rot disease management in Theobroma cacao

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frosty pod rot (FPR), caused by Moniliophthora roreri is responsible for significant losses in Theobroma cacao. Due to the limited options for FPR management, biological control methods using Trichoderma are being studied. Combinations of three formulations and two Trichoderma isolates were studied ...

  8. A flavanone: 6, 7-dihydroxy-3, 5-dimethy I-4, methoxyflavone from the pods of acacia nilotica var astringens (sunt)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, A. A.; Abdel Karim, M.; Abdalla, A. A.

    2009-01-01

    A flavanone 6,7-dihydroxy-3, 5-dimethyl-4-methoxyflavone was isolated from the alcoholic extractives of the pods of acacia nilotica var astringens and structure was deduced on the basis of its IR, UV, NMR and mass spectra.(Author)

  9. 14 CFR 25.1182 - Nacelle areas behind firewalls, and engine pod attaching structures containing flammable fluid...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nacelle areas behind firewalls, and engine...: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Powerplant Fire Protection § 25.1182 Nacelle areas behind firewalls... immediately behind the firewall, and each portion of any engine pod attaching structure containing flammable...

  10. STS-46 Atlantis', OV-104's, vertical tail and OMS pods lit up by RCS jet firing

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    STS-46 Atlantis', Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104's, vertical tail and orbital maneuvering system (OMS) pods are highlighted by the glow of the reaction control system (RCS) jet firings. OV-104 was at an altitude of 128 nautical miles. The remote manipulator system (RMS) arm is partially visible stowed along the port side sill longeron.

  11. Radioprotective effect of Tamarindus indica pod extract in Swiss albino mice exposed to whole body electron beam radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nandini, S.; Suchetha Kumari, N.; Ganesh Sanjeev; D'sa, Prima

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the radioprotective effect of Tamarindus indica pod extract against radiation induced damage.The effect of 100 mg of hydroalcoholic extract of Tamarindus indica pod was studied in Swiss albino mice exposed to 6 Gy whole body electron beam radiation. Treatment of mice with extract for 15 days before irradiation reduced the symptoms of radiation sickness when compared with the untreated irradiated group. The irradiated animals showed an elevation in lipid peroxidation and reduction in glutathione, total antioxidants and antioxidant enzymes such as glutathione peroxidase and catalase activities. Radiation induced mice has shown micronucleus in the bone marrow cells. Treatment of mice with Tamarindus indica pod extract before irradiation caused a significant reduction in lipid peroxidation followed by significant elevation in reduced glutathione, total antioxidants, glutathione peroxidase and catalase activity. It also showed a reduction in the micronucleus formation in bone marrow cells. Results indicate that the radioprotective activity of Tamarindus indica pod extract may be due to free radical scavenging attributed as a result of increased antioxidant level in mice. (author)

  12. Excluding black hole firewalls with extreme cosmic censorship

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Page, Don N., E-mail: profdonpage@gmail.com [Department of Physics, 4-183 CCIS, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2E1 (Canada)

    2014-06-01

    The AMPS argument for black hole firewalls seems to arise not only from the assumption of local effective field theory outside the stretched horizon but also from an overcounting of internal black hole states that include states that are singular in the past. Here I propose to exclude such singular states by Extreme Cosmic Censorship (the conjectured principle that the universe is entirely nonsingular, except for transient singularities inside black and/or white holes). I argue that the remaining set of nonsingular realistic states do not have firewalls but yet preserve information in Hawking radiation from black holes that form from nonsingular initial states.

  13. Excluding black hole firewalls with extreme cosmic censorship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Page, Don N.

    2014-01-01

    The AMPS argument for black hole firewalls seems to arise not only from the assumption of local effective field theory outside the stretched horizon but also from an overcounting of internal black hole states that include states that are singular in the past. Here I propose to exclude such singular states by Extreme Cosmic Censorship (the conjectured principle that the universe is entirely nonsingular, except for transient singularities inside black and/or white holes). I argue that the remaining set of nonsingular realistic states do not have firewalls but yet preserve information in Hawking radiation from black holes that form from nonsingular initial states

  14. The irreversible thermodynamics of black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Candelas, P.; Sciama, D.W.

    1978-01-01

    The action of quantum fluctuations of the gravitational field may be regarded as the origin of the dissipative processes associated with Hawking radiation. In this picture the black hole possesses internal coherence by virtue of the localization of its mass. The cumulative effect of the quantum fluctuations in the geometry is that this coherence is corrupted and the mass is sapped away. (author)

  15. Black branes as piezoelectrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armas, Jay; Gath, Jakob; Obers, Niels A

    2012-12-14

    We find a realization of linear electroelasticity theory in gravitational physics by uncovering a new response coefficient of charged black branes, exhibiting their piezoelectric behavior. Taking charged dilatonic black strings as an example and using the blackfold approach we measure their elastic and piezolectric moduli. We also use our results to draw predictions about the equilibrium condition of charged dilatonic black rings in dimensions higher than six.

  16. Accreting Black Holes

    OpenAIRE

    Begelman, Mitchell C.

    2014-01-01

    I outline the theory of accretion onto black holes, and its application to observed phenomena such as X-ray binaries, active galactic nuclei, tidal disruption events, and gamma-ray bursts. The dynamics as well as radiative signatures of black hole accretion depend on interactions between the relatively simple black-hole spacetime and complex radiation, plasma and magnetohydrodynamical processes in the surrounding gas. I will show how transient accretion processes could provide clues to these ...

  17. Nonextremal stringy black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, K.

    1997-01-01

    We construct a four-dimensional BPS saturated heterotic string solution from the Taub-NUT solution. It is a nonextremal black hole solution since its Euler number is nonzero. We evaluate its black hole entropy semiclassically. We discuss the relation between the black hole entropy and the degeneracy of string states. The entropy of our string solution can be understood as the microscopic entropy which counts the elementary string states without any complications. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  18. Naked black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horowitz, G.T.; Ross, S.F.

    1997-01-01

    It is shown that there are large static black holes for which all curvature invariants are small near the event horizon, yet any object which falls in experiences enormous tidal forces outside the horizon. These black holes are charged and near extremality, and exist in a wide class of theories including string theory. The implications for cosmic censorship and the black hole information puzzle are discussed. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  19. 26 CFR 53.4951-1 - Black lung trusts-taxes on self-dealing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Black lung trusts-taxes on self-dealing. 53... (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES (CONTINUED) FOUNDATION AND SIMILAR EXCISE TAXES Black Lung Benefit Trust Excise Taxes § 53.4951-1 Black lung trusts—taxes on self-dealing. (a) In general. Section 4951...

  20. 26 CFR 53.4952-1 - Black lung trusts-taxes on taxable expenditures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Black lung trusts-taxes on taxable expenditures... (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES (CONTINUED) FOUNDATION AND SIMILAR EXCISE TAXES Black Lung Benefit Trust Excise Taxes § 53.4952-1 Black lung trusts—taxes on taxable expenditures. (a) In general. Section...

  1. The Black Family as Educator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Joan

    The black family is the primary socializing agent of the black child and, thus, the primary educator. The culture of blacks in America, in which the child is steeped, is unique, complex and rich-the result of a convergence and fusion of African, American, and European influences. In its education of the black child, the black family must deal,…

  2. Black holes in binary stellar systems and galactic nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherepashchuk, A. M.

    2014-04-01

    In the last 40 years, following pioneering papers by Ya B Zeldovich and E E Salpeter, in which a powerful energy release from nonspherical accretion of matter onto a black hole (BH) was predicted, many observational studies of black holes in the Universe have been carried out. To date, the masses of several dozen stellar-mass black holes (M_BH = (4{-}20) M_\\odot) in X-ray binary systems and of several hundred supermassive black holes (M_BH = (10^{6}{-}10^{10}) M_\\odot) in galactic nuclei have been measured. The estimated radii of these massive and compact objects do not exceed several gravitational radii. For about ten stellar-mass black holes and several dozen supermassive black holes, the values of the dimensionless angular momentum a_* have been estimated, which, in agreement with theoretical predictions, do not exceed the limiting value a_* = 0.998. A new field of astrophysics, so-called black hole demography, which studies the birth and growth of black holes and their evolutionary connection to other objects in the Universe, namely stars, galaxies, etc., is rapidly developing. In addition to supermassive black holes, massive stellar clusters are observed in galactic nuclei, and their evolution is distinct from that of supermassive black holes. The evolutionary relations between supermassive black holes in galactic centers and spheroidal stellar components (bulges) of galaxies, as well as dark-matter galactic haloes are brought out. The launch into Earth's orbit of the space radio interferometer RadioAstron opened up the real possibility of finally proving that numerous discovered massive and highly compact objects with properties very similar to those of black holes make up real black holes in the sense of Albert Einstein's General Relativity. Similar proofs of the existence of black holes in the Universe can be obtained by intercontinental radio interferometry at short wavelengths \\lambda \\lesssim 1 mm (the international program, Event Horizon Telescope).

  3. Black hole chemistry: thermodynamics with Lambda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubizňák, David; Mann, Robert B; Teo, Mae

    2017-01-01

    We review recent developments on the thermodynamics of black holes in extended phase space, where the cosmological constant is interpreted as thermodynamic pressure and treated as a thermodynamic variable in its own right. In this approach, the mass of the black hole is no longer regarded as internal energy, rather it is identified with the chemical enthalpy. This leads to an extended dictionary for black hole thermodynamic quantities; in particular a notion of thermodynamic volume emerges for a given black hole spacetime. This volume is conjectured to satisfy the reverse isoperimetric inequality—an inequality imposing a bound on the amount of entropy black hole can carry for a fixed thermodynamic volume. New thermodynamic phase transitions naturally emerge from these identifications. Namely, we show that black holes can be understood from the viewpoint of chemistry, in terms of concepts such as Van der Waals fluids, reentrant phase transitions, and triple points. We also review the recent attempts at extending the AdS/CFT dictionary in this setting, discuss the connections with horizon thermodynamics, applications to Lifshitz spacetimes, and outline possible future directions in this field. (topical review)

  4. Black holes as mirrors: quantum information in random subsystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayden, Patrick; Preskill, John

    2007-01-01

    We study information retrieval from evaporating black holes, assuming that the internal dynamics of a black hole is unitary and rapidly mixing, and assuming that the retriever has unlimited control over the emitted Hawking radiation. If the evaporation of the black hole has already proceeded past the ''half-way'' point, where half of the initial entropy has been radiated away, then additional quantum information deposited in the black hole is revealed in the Hawking radiation very rapidly. Information deposited prior to the half-way point remains concealed until the half-way point, and then emerges quickly. These conclusions hold because typical local quantum circuits are efficient encoders for quantum error-correcting codes that nearly achieve the capacity of the quantum erasure channel. Our estimate of a black hole's information retention time, based on speculative dynamical assumptions, is just barely compatible with the black hole complementarity hypothesis

  5. Black holes and structure in an oscillating universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saslaw, W.C.

    1991-01-01

    If black holes exist in the contracting phase of a closed universe, they will give rise to a pressure and entropy catastrophe. First, the black holes absorb all the radiation; then their apparent horizons merge, and coalesce with the cosmological apparent horizon. All external observers become internal observers. It is possible that the internal metric of some of the merging black holes will be contracting, and others expanding. I suggest here that the resulting violent inhomogeneities can lead to a re-expansion in a significant portion of the universe. Global re-expansion, prompted by the merging of black holes, may thus begin in a semi-classical rather than fully quantum gravitational era, at densities greater than those at which nucleosynthesis occurs. Surviving black holes and inhomogeneities could initiate the formation of structures such as galaxies in the 'new' universe. The behaviour of such an oscillating universe would differ in detail from cycle to cycle. (author)

  6. Universality of black hole quantum computing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dvali, Gia [Muenchen Univ. (Germany). Arnold Sommerfeld Center for Theoretical Physics; Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); New York Univ., NY (United States). Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics; Gomez, Cesar [Muenchen Univ. (Germany). Arnold Sommerfeld Center for Theoretical Physics; Univ. Autonoma de Madrid (Spain). Inst. de Fisica Teorica UAM-CSIC; Luest, Dieter [Muenchen Univ. (Germany). Arnold Sommerfeld Center for Theoretical Physics; Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); Omar, Yasser [Instituto de Telecomunicacoes (Portugal). Physics of Information and Quantum Technologies Group; Lisboa Univ. (Portugal). Inst. Superior Tecnico; Richter, Benedikt [Muenchen Univ. (Germany). Arnold Sommerfeld Center for Theoretical Physics; Instituto de Telecomunicacoes (Portugal). Physics of Information and Quantum Technologies Group; Lisboa Univ. (Portugal). Inst. Superior Tecnico

    2017-01-15

    By analyzing the key properties of black holes from the point of view of quantum information, we derive a model-independent picture of black hole quantum computing. It has been noticed that this picture exhibits striking similarities with quantum critical condensates, allowing the use of a common language to describe quantum computing in both systems. We analyze such quantum computing by allowing coupling to external modes, under the condition that the external influence must be soft-enough in order not to offset the basic properties of the system. We derive model-independent bounds on some crucial time-scales, such as the times of gate operation, decoherence, maximal entanglement and total scrambling. We show that for black hole type quantum computers all these time-scales are of the order of the black hole half-life time. Furthermore, we construct explicitly a set of Hamiltonians that generates a universal set of quantum gates for the black hole type computer. We find that the gates work at maximal energy efficiency. Furthermore, we establish a fundamental bound on the complexity of quantum circuits encoded on these systems, and characterize the unitary operations that are implementable. It becomes apparent that the computational power is very limited due to the fact that the black hole life-time is of the same order of the gate operation time. As a consequence, it is impossible to retrieve its information, within the life-time of a black hole, by externally coupling to the black hole qubits. However, we show that, in principle, coupling to some of the internal degrees of freedom allows acquiring knowledge about the micro-state. Still, due to the trivial complexity of operations that can be performed, there is no time advantage over the collection of Hawking radiation and subsequent decoding. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  7. Cowpea fresh pods - a new legume for the market: assessment of their quality and dietary characteristics of 37 cowpea accessions grown in southern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karapanos, Ioannis; Papandreou, Anastasia; Skouloudi, Marianna; Makrogianni, Despoina; Fernández, Juan A; Rosa, Eduardo; Ntatsi, Georgia; Bebeli, Penelope J; Savvas, Dimitrios

    2017-10-01

    Cowpea is traditionally cultivated in some regions of southern Europe for its dried seeds; however, there is a scarcity of information on the quality and dietary characteristics of fresh pods, which are occasionally used in folk diets. This paper aims at covering this gap in knowledge, thereby contributing to the dissemination of fresh cowpea pods as a novel product for the market. The quality and dietary characteristics of pods from 37 accessions (Vigna unguiculata ssp. unguiculata and ssp. sesquipedalis) grown in southern Europe were assessed in an attempt to provide information on pod quality and nutritional properties and to identify relationships between quality traits and accession origin. Pods from the sesquipedalis accessions were heavier and larger, and reached commercial maturity 2 days later, than those from the unguiculata accessions. There were also large differences in the quality and dietary characteristics of the accessions. The pods of most accessions were rich in proteins, chlorophylls, carotenoids and phenolics, and showed high antioxidant activity and low concentrations of nitrates and raffinose-family oligosaccharides. Cluster analysis based on quality, dietary or antinutritional traits did not reveal any apparent grouping among the accessions. All the quality characteristics were independent of accession origin and subspecies. Most of the accessions produced fresh pods of good quality and high dietary value, suitable for introduction in the market and/or for use as valuable genetic material for the development of new improved varieties. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. PENGARUH SUPLEMENTASI RAGI TAPE DAN ENZIM KOMPLEKS DALAM RANSUM YANG MENGANDUNG POD KAKAO TERHADAP PENAMPILAN ITIK BALI UMUR 2-8 MINGGU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IDA BAGUS GAGA PARTAMA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh suplementasi enzim kompleks dan ragi tape dalam ransumyang mengandung pod kakao terhadap penampilan itik bali jantan umur 2-8 minggu, dilakukan di Denpasar,Bali. Rancangan yang dipergunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah rancangan acak lengkap (RAL dengan empatmacam perlakuan dan enam kali ulangan. Tiap ulangan menggunakan 5 ekor itik Bali jantan umur 2 minggu denganberat badan homogen (243±8,05 g. Ke empat perlakuan yang dicobakan, yaitu itik yang diberi ransum basaltanpa penggunaan pod kakao sebagai kontrol (A, ransum dengan 15% tepung pod kakao (B, ransum dengan 15%pod kakao+0,20% ragi tape (C, dan ransum dengan 15% pod kakao+0,20% enzim kompleks (D. Ransum yangdiberikan selama periode penelitian (umur 2-8 minggu disusun dengan kandungan protein kasar 16% dan energitermetabolis 2900 kkal/kg. Ransum dan air minum diberikan ad libitum. Variabel yang diamati adalah: konsumsiransum, air minum, berat badan akhir, pertambahan berat badan, dan feed conversion ratio (FCR. Hasil penelitianmenunjukkan bahwa penggunaan 15% pod kakao (B dalam ransum secara nyata (P0,05 dengankontrol (A. Dari hasil penelitian ini dapat disimpulkan bahwa penggunaan 15% pod kakao dalam ransum itik Balijantan umur 2-8 minggu belum dapat direkomendasikan, dan baru dapat direkomendasikan apabila disuplementasidengan 0,20% ragi tape atau enzim kompleks.

  9. Black hole Berry phase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, J.; Papadodimas, K.; Verlinde, E.

    2009-01-01

    Supersymmetric black holes are characterized by a large number of degenerate ground states. We argue that these black holes, like other quantum mechanical systems with such a degeneracy, are subject to a phenomenon which is called the geometric or Berry’s phase: under adiabatic variations of the

  10. Black holes are warm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravndal, F.

    1978-01-01

    Applying Einstein's theory of gravitation to black holes and their interactions with their surroundings leads to the conclusion that the sum of the surface areas of several black holes can never become less. This is shown to be analogous to entropy in thermodynamics, and the term entropy is also thus applied to black holes. Continuing, expressions are found for the temperature of a black hole and its luminosity. Thermal radiation is shown to lead to explosion of the black hole. Numerical examples are discussed involving the temperature, the mass, the luminosity and the lifetime of black mini-holes. It is pointed out that no explosions corresponding to the prediction have been observed. It is also shown that the principle of conservation of leptons and baryons is broken by hot black holes, but that this need not be a problem. The related concept of instantons is cited. It is thought that understanding of thermal radiation from black holes may be important for the development of a quantified gravitation theory. (JIW)

  11. on black ironbark (Eucalyptus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (Apis meOifera) on black ironbark. (Eucalyptus sideroxylon). B. Buys. Plant Protection Research Institute, Private Bag X5017,. Stellenbosch, 7600 Republic of South Africa. Received May /984; accepted 28 November /986. Black ironbark trees secrete nectar during the night. Argentine ants collected 42% of the nectar before ...

  12. Black holes matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, Helge Stjernholm

    2016-01-01

    Review essay, Marcia Bartusiak, Black Hole: How an Idea Abandoned by Newtonians, Hated by Einstein, and Gambled On by Hawking Became Loved (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2015).......Review essay, Marcia Bartusiak, Black Hole: How an Idea Abandoned by Newtonians, Hated by Einstein, and Gambled On by Hawking Became Loved (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2015)....

  13. Quantum black holes

    OpenAIRE

    Hooft, G. 't

    1987-01-01

    This article is divided into three parts. First, a systematic derivation of the Hawking radiation is given in three different ways. The information loss problem is then discussed in great detail. The last part contains a concise discussion of black hole thermodynamics. This article was published as chapter $6$ of the IOP book "Lectures on General Relativity, Cosmology and Quantum Black Holes" (July $2017$).

  14. Protecting Black Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Monique W.

    2016-01-01

    Statistics show that black girls in U.S. K-12 public schools are overrepresented among students who face disciplinary approaches (such as suspensions) that exclude or even criminalize them. Morris explains how black girls face conditions that make them vulnerable to a phenomenon she calls "school to confinement pathways"--conditions like…

  15. Black hole levitron

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arsiwalla, X.D.; Verlinde, E.P.

    2010-01-01

    We study the problem of spatially stabilizing four dimensional extremal black holes in background electric/magnetic fields. Whilst looking for stationary stable solutions describing black holes placed in external fields we find that taking a continuum limit of Denef et al.’s multicenter

  16. The Black Woman's Burden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Dianne

    2012-01-01

    Not even the first lady of the most powerful nation in the world is immune to stereotypes that have plagued Black women since first setting foot on American soil. Stereotypes of being the "angry Black woman" and curiosity about differences in appearance still persist from the academy to 1600 Pennsylvania Ave. As African-American women rise in…

  17. Black Boycott: Gainsville, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Arthur O.

    1975-01-01

    A case study of the events precipitating a black student boycott in 1969 in Gainesville, Flordia, when school board manuevering to avoid school integration led to the threatened closing of Lincoln High School, a reputable black community school. Also described are the subsequent transformations of Lincoln into a vocational-technical school and…

  18. Surprise: Dwarf Galaxy Harbors Supermassive Black Hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    The surprising discovery of a supermassive black hole in a small nearby galaxy has given astronomers a tantalizing look at how black holes and galaxies may have grown in the early history of the Universe. Finding a black hole a million times more massive than the Sun in a star-forming dwarf galaxy is a strong indication that supermassive black holes formed before the buildup of galaxies, the astronomers said. The galaxy, called Henize 2-10, 30 million light-years from Earth, has been studied for years, and is forming stars very rapidly. Irregularly shaped and about 3,000 light-years across (compared to 100,000 for our own Milky Way), it resembles what scientists think were some of the first galaxies to form in the early Universe. "This galaxy gives us important clues about a very early phase of galaxy evolution that has not been observed before," said Amy Reines, a Ph.D. candidate at the University of Virginia. Supermassive black holes lie at the cores of all "full-sized" galaxies. In the nearby Universe, there is a direct relationship -- a constant ratio -- between the masses of the black holes and that of the central "bulges" of the galaxies, leading them to conclude that the black holes and bulges affected each others' growth. Two years ago, an international team of astronomers found that black holes in young galaxies in the early Universe were more massive than this ratio would indicate. This, they said, was strong evidence that black holes developed before their surrounding galaxies. "Now, we have found a dwarf galaxy with no bulge at all, yet it has a supermassive black hole. This greatly strengthens the case for the black holes developing first, before the galaxy's bulge is formed," Reines said. Reines, along with Gregory Sivakoff and Kelsey Johnson of the University of Virginia and the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO), and Crystal Brogan of the NRAO, observed Henize 2-10 with the National Science Foundation's Very Large Array radio telescope and

  19. Lifshitz topological black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mann, R.B.

    2009-01-01

    I find a class of black hole solutions to a (3+1) dimensional theory gravity coupled to abelian gauge fields with negative cosmological constant that has been proposed as the dual theory to a Lifshitz theory describing critical phenomena in (2+1) dimensions. These black holes are all asymptotic to a Lifshitz fixed point geometry and depend on a single parameter that determines both their area (or size) and their charge. Most of the solutions are obtained numerically, but an exact solution is also obtained for a particular value of this parameter. The thermodynamic behaviour of large black holes is almost the same regardless of genus, but differs considerably for small black holes. Screening behaviour is exhibited in the dual theory for any genus, but the critical length at which it sets in is genus-dependent for small black holes.

  20. Legitimizing Blacks in Philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jameliah Shorter-Bourhanou

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In its efforts toward improving diversity, the discipline of philosophy has tended to focus on increasing the number of black philosophers. One crucial issue that has received less attention is the extent to which black philosophers are delegitimized in the discipline because their philosophical contributions challenge the status quo. A systematic problem that bars black philosophers from equal and full participation, this delegitimization precludes the emergence of genuine diversity and reveals the importance of interrogating broader attitudes toward black philosophical contributions. In this essay, I argue for radical systematic changes to disciplinary hallmarks of professionalization such as pedagogy, mentoring, publishing, and hiring practices with the aim of legitimizing black philosophers and their contributions.

  1. The importance of nodule CO2 fixation for the efficiency of symbiotic nitrogen fixation in pea at vegetative growth and during pod formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischinger, Stephanie Anastasia; Schulze, Joachim

    2010-05-01

    Nodule CO2 fixation is of pivotal importance for N2 fixation. The process provides malate for bacteroids and oxaloacetate for nitrogen assimilation. The hypothesis of the present paper was that grain legume nodules would adapt to higher plant N demand and more restricted carbon availability at pod formation through increased nodule CO2 fixation and a more efficient N2 fixation. Growth, N2 fixation, and nodule composition during vegetative growth and at pod formation were studied in pea plants (Pisum sativum L.). In parallel experiments, 15N2 and 13CO2 uptake, as well as nodule hydrogen and CO2 release, was measured. Plants at pod formation showed higher growth rates and N2 fixation per plant when compared with vegetative growth. The specific activity of active nodules was about 25% higher at pod formation. The higher nodule activity was accompanied by higher amino acid concentration in nodules and xylem sap with a higher share of asparagine. Nodule 13CO2 fixation was increased at pod formation, both per plant and per 15N2 fixed unit. However, malate concentration in nodules was only 40% of that during vegetative growth and succinate was no longer detectable. The data indicate that increased N2 fixation at pod formation is connected with strongly increased nodule CO2 fixation. While the sugar concentration in nodules at pod formation was not altered, the concentration of organic acids, namely malate and succinate, was significantly lower. It is concluded that strategies to improve the capability of nodules to fix CO2 and form organic acids might prolong intensive N2 fixation into the later stages of pod formation and pod filling in grain legumes.

  2. Studies on black stain root disease in ponderosa pine. pp. 236-240. M. Garbelotto & P. Gonthier (Editors). Proceedings 12th International Conference on Root and Butt Rots of Forest Trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. J. Otrosina; J. T. Kliejunas; S. S. Sung; S. Smith; D. R. Cluck

    2008-01-01

    Black stain root disease of ponderosa pine, caused by Lepfographium wageneri var. ponderosum (Harrington & Cobb) Harrington & Cobb, is increasing on many eastside pine stands in northeastern California. The disease is spread from tree to tree via root contacts and grafts but new infections are likely vectored by root...

  3. The rice fields around the estuaries of the Tejo and Sado are a critical stopover area for the globally near-threatened Black-tailed Godwit Limosa l. limosa : Site description, international importance and conservation proposals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lourenço, Pedro M.; Groen, Niko; Hooijmeijer, Jos C.E.W.; Piersma, Theunis

    2010-01-01

    Rice fields are a globally important habitat for waterbirds. Portugal is one of the main rice producers in Europe, but little is known about how these rizicultures are used by the avifauna. The continental Black-tailed Godwit Limosa l. limosa is likely the most important avian population using

  4. Shoot water relations of mature black spruce families displaying a genotype × environment interaction in growth rate. III. Diurnal patterns as influenced by vapor pressure deficit and internal water status

    Science.gov (United States)

    John E. Major; Kurt H. Johnsen

    2001-01-01

    Pressure­volume curves were constructed and shoot water potentials measured for +20-year-old black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill.) BSP) trees from four full-sib families growing on a moist site and a dry site at the Petawawa Research Forest, Ontario, to determine whether differences in diurnal water relations traits were related to productivity. To...

  5. Monitoring effects of offshore windfarms on harbour porpoises using PODs (porpoise detectors)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teilmann, J.; Damsgaard Henriksen, O.; Carstensen, Jacob; Skov, H.

    2002-02-01

    The areas designated for offshore windfarms in Denmark, are all known habitats for harbour porpoises. It is possible that some of the activities involved in erection and operation of offshore windfarms will have a negative impact on the harbour porpoises in and around the windfarms. The most significant sources of these effects are thought to be the physical presence and the noise from ships and construction work as well as temporary and even permanent loss of suitable habitats near the windfarms. The noise from existing offshore windturbines has been measured and a detection distance of 20 m was calculated in the EIA study regarding the Roedsand windfarm. In order to study possible effects from the erection and operation of windfarms on harbour porpoises a number of studies were suggested as part of the EIA background study on harbour porpoises. Among these suggestions was the use of acoustic dataloggers (PODs). The POD is recording click sounds of short duration. It is programmable and can be set to specifically record the echolocation signals that harbour porpoises uses for orientation and foraging. This method will potentially give data on harbour porpoise activity in a specific area on a diurnal and year-round basis. The construction work will take place over several months and since there is no available information on the seasonal sensitivity of porpoises to disturbance, the data necessary to detect and evaluate the effect of the windfarm would need to cover all seasons. No other method is feasible to provide data on the presence of harbour porpoises year round in a particular area. However, this method has its limitations in that only porpoises echolocating are recorded. No data exists on the seasonal, diurnal and area specific use of echolocation but since echolocation is believed to be the primary sense for porpoises we expect that porpoises used their echolocation most of the time and that it is correlated to the density of porpoises. However, the actual

  6. Monitoring effects of offshore windfarms on harbour porpoises using PODs (porpoise detectors)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teilmann, J.; Damsgaard Henriksen, O. [National Environmental Res. Inst., Dept. of Arctic Enviroment, Roskilde (Denmark); Carstensen, Jacob [National Environmental Res. Lab., Dept. of Marine Ecology, Roskilde (Denmark); Skov, H. [Ornis Consult A/S, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2002-02-15

    The areas designated for offshore windfarms in Denmark, are all known habitats for harbour porpoises. It is possible that some of the activities involved in erection and operation of offshore windfarms will have a negative impact on the harbour porpoises in and around the windfarms. The most significant sources of these effects are thought to be the physical presence and the noise from ships and construction work as well as temporary and even permanent loss of suitable habitats near the windfarms. The noise from existing offshore windturbines has been measured and a detection distance of 20 m was calculated in the EIA study regarding the Roedsand windfarm. In order to study possible effects from the erection and operation of windfarms on harbour porpoises a number of studies were suggested as part of the EIA background study on harbour porpoises. Among these suggestions was the use of acoustic dataloggers (PODs). The POD is recording click sounds of short duration. It is programmable and can be set to specifically record the echolocation signals that harbour porpoises uses for orientation and foraging. This method will potentially give data on harbour porpoise activity in a specific area on a diurnal and year-round basis. The construction work will take place over several months and since there is no available information on the seasonal sensitivity of porpoises to disturbance, the data necessary to detect and evaluate the effect of the windfarm would need to cover all seasons. No other method is feasible to provide data on the presence of harbour porpoises year round in a particular area. However, this method has its limitations in that only porpoises echolocating are recorded. No data exists on the seasonal, diurnal and area specific use of echolocation but since echolocation is believed to be the primary sense for porpoises we expect that porpoises used their echolocation most of the time and that it is correlated to the density of porpoises. However, the actual

  7. Combining of different data pools for calculating a reliable POD for real defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanzler, Daniel; Müller, Christina; Pitkänen, Jorma

    2015-03-01

    Real defects are essential for the evaluation of the reliability of non destructive testing (NDT) methods, especially in relation to the integrity of components. But in most of the cases the amount of available real defects is not sufficient to evaluate the system. Model-assisted and transfer functions are one way to handle that challenge. This study is focused on a combination of different data pools to create a sufficient amount of data for the reliability estimation. A widespread approach for calculating the Probability of Detection (POD) was used on a radiographic testing (RT) method. The highest contrast to noise ratio (CNR) of each indication is usually selected as the signal in the "â vs. a" (signal-response) approach for RT. By combining real and artificial defects (flat bottom holes, side drill holes, flat bottom squares, notches, etc) in RT the highest signals are close to each other, but the process of creating and evaluating real defects is much more complex. The solution is seen in the combination of real and artificial data using a weighted least square approach. The weights for real or artificial data were based on the importance, the value and the different detection behavior of the different data. For comparison, the alternative combination through the Bayesian Updating was also applied. As verification, a data pool with a large amount of real data was available. In an advanced approach for evaluating the digital RT data, the size of the indication (perpendicular to the X-ray beam) was introduced as additional information. The signal now consists of the CNR and the area of the indication. The detectability is changing depending on the area of the indication, a fact that was ignored in the previous POD calculations for RT. This points out that a weighted least square approach to pool the data might no longer be adequate. The Bayesian Updating of the estimated parameters of the relationship between the signal field (the area of the indication) and

  8. Combining of different data pools for calculating a reliable POD for real defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanzler, Daniel; Müller, Christina; Pitkänen, Jorma

    2015-01-01

    Real defects are essential for the evaluation of the reliability of non destructive testing (NDT) methods, especially in relation to the integrity of components. But in most of the cases the amount of available real defects is not sufficient to evaluate the system. Model-assisted and transfer functions are one way to handle that challenge. This study is focused on a combination of different data pools to create a sufficient amount of data for the reliability estimation. A widespread approach for calculating the Probability of Detection (POD) was used on a radiographic testing (RT) method. The highest contrast to noise ratio (CNR) of each indication is usually selected as the signal in the 'â vs. a' (signal-response) approach for RT. By combining real and artificial defects (flat bottom holes, side drill holes, flat bottom squares, notches, etc) in RT the highest signals are close to each other, but the process of creating and evaluating real defects is much more complex. The solution is seen in the combination of real and artificial data using a weighted least square approach. The weights for real or artificial data were based on the importance, the value and the different detection behavior of the different data. For comparison, the alternative combination through the Bayesian Updating was also applied. As verification, a data pool with a large amount of real data was available. In an advanced approach for evaluating the digital RT data, the size of the indication (perpendicular to the X-ray beam) was introduced as additional information. The signal now consists of the CNR and the area of the indication. The detectability is changing depending on the area of the indication, a fact that was ignored in the previous POD calculations for RT. This points out that a weighted least square approach to pool the data might no longer be adequate. The Bayesian Updating of the estimated parameters of the relationship between the signal field (the area of the

  9. A Hybrid Optimization Framework with POD-based Order Reduction and Design-Space Evolution Scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoman, Satyajit S.

    The main objective of this research is to develop an innovative multi-fidelity multi-disciplinary design, analysis and optimization suite that integrates certain solution generation codes and newly developed innovative tools to improve the overall optimization process. The research performed herein is divided into two parts: (1) the development of an MDAO framework by integration of variable fidelity physics-based computational codes, and (2) enhancements to such a framework by incorporating innovative features extending its robustness. The first part of this dissertation describes the development of a conceptual Multi-Fidelity Multi-Strategy and Multi-Disciplinary Design Optimization Environment (M3 DOE), in context of aircraft wing optimization. M 3 DOE provides the user a capability to optimize configurations with a choice of (i) the level of fidelity desired, (ii) the use of a single-step or multi-step optimization strategy, and (iii) combination of a series of structural and aerodynamic analyses. The modularity of M3 DOE allows it to be a part of other inclusive optimization frameworks. The M 3 DOE is demonstrated within the context of shape and sizing optimization of the wing of a Generic Business Jet aircraft. Two different optimization objectives, viz. dry weight minimization, and cruise range maximization are studied by conducting one low-fidelity and two high-fidelity optimization runs to demonstrate the application scope of M3 DOE. The second part of this dissertation describes the development of an innovative hybrid optimization framework that extends the robustness of M 3 DOE by employing a proper orthogonal decomposition-based design-space order reduction scheme combined with the evolutionary algorithm technique. The POD method of extracting dominant modes from an ensemble of candidate configurations is used for the design-space order reduction. The snapshot of candidate population is updated iteratively using evolutionary algorithm technique of

  10. On The Black Sea Surozhian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caraivan, Glicherie; Corneliu, Cerchia

    2016-04-01

    stratotypes", show ages between 27390 - 42120 y BP. Our AMS C14 data on Surozhian mollusk indicate ages between 47359 - 53690 cal. y BP. We argue that "Surozhian" is likely the classic "Karangatian" defined by Nevesskaia that does not correspond to the Riss-Wurm, but to the Middle Wurm instead. The generally accepted "Karangatian", placed in the Riss-Wurm interval is much older. Similarly, the Surozhian (transgressive) cannot be Tarhankutian (regressive). References Caraivan, G., 2010. Studiul sedimentologic al depozitelor de plajǎ si de selful intern al M\\varii Negre între Portița si Tuzla. [Sedimentological Study of Beach and Inner Shelf Romanian Black Sea Deposits]. Ex Ponto, Constanta. (In Romanian) Caraivan, G., Fulga, C., Opreanu, P., 2012. Upper Quaternary evolution of the Mamaia Lake area (Romanian Black Sea shore). Quaternary International 261: 14-20. Caraivan, G., Opreanu, P., Voinea, V., Pojar, I., Sava, T., Giosan, L. „Holocene landscape changes and human communities' migration in the western part of the Black Sea (Mamaia Lake area)", In: IGCP 610 Proceedings of the Third Plenary Conference, Astrakhan, Russia, 22-30 September 2015. Giosan L.et al, 2012. Early Anthropogenic Transformation of the Danube-Black Sea System. Sci Rep. 2012; 2:582 Nevesskaia, L.A. 1965. Pozdrecetverticinîe dvustvorcestîe molluski Cernogo Moria, ih sistematica i ekologhia, Trudî Pal. Inst., 105, Moskva. Shcherbakov, F.A., Koreneva, E.V., and Zabelina, E.K., 1977. Stratigrafiia pozdnechetvertichnykh otlozhenii Chernogo moria [Stratigraphy of the Late Quaternary deposits in the Black Sea]. In Pozdnechetvertichnaia istoriia i sedimentogenez okrainikh i vnutrennikh morei [Late-Quaternary History and Sedimentogenesis in Marginal and Inland Seas]. Nauka, Moscow, pp. 46-51. Yanko-Hombach, V.V., 2007. Controversy over Noah's Flood in the Black Sea: Geological and foraminiferal evidence from the shelf. In Yanko-Hombach, V., Gilbert, A.S., Panin, N., and Dolukanov, P.M. (eds.), [The Black

  11. ULTRAMASSIVE BLACK HOLE COALESCENCE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Fazeel Mahmood; Holley-Bockelmann, Kelly; Berczik, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Although supermassive black holes (SMBHs) correlate well with their host galaxies, there is an emerging view that outliers exist. Henize 2-10, NGC 4889, and NGC 1277 are examples of SMBHs at least an order of magnitude more massive than their host galaxy suggests. The dynamical effects of such ultramassive central black holes is unclear. Here, we perform direct N-body simulations of mergers of galactic nuclei where one black hole is ultramassive to study the evolution of the remnant and the black hole dynamics in this extreme regime. We find that the merger remnant is axisymmetric near the center, while near the large SMBH influence radius, the galaxy is triaxial. The SMBH separation shrinks rapidly due to dynamical friction, and quickly forms a binary black hole; if we scale our model to the most massive estimate for the NGC 1277 black hole, for example, the timescale for the SMBH separation to shrink from nearly a kiloparsec to less than a parsec is roughly 10 Myr. By the time the SMBHs form a hard binary, gravitational wave emission dominates, and the black holes coalesce in a mere few Myr. Curiously, these extremely massive binaries appear to nearly bypass the three-body scattering evolutionary phase. Our study suggests that in this extreme case, SMBH coalescence is governed by dynamical friction followed nearly directly by gravitational wave emission, resulting in a rapid and efficient SMBH coalescence timescale. We discuss the implications for gravitational wave event rates and hypervelocity star production

  12. On the Charter Question: Black Marxism and Black Nationalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Mark; Hussain, Khuram

    2015-01-01

    This article brings two black intellectual traditions to bear on the question of charter schools: black Marxism and black nationalism. The authors examine the theoretical and rhetorical devices used to talk about charters schools by focusing on how notions of "black liberation" are deployed by the charter movement, and to what end. The…

  13. "Black Like Me": Reframing Blackness for Decolonial Politics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dei, George J. Sefa

    2018-01-01

    From a particular vantage point, as an African-born scholar with a politics to affirm my Black subjectivity and Indigeneity in a diasporic context, my article engages a (re)theorization of Blackness for decolonial politics. Building on existing works of how Black scholars, themselves, have theorized Blackness, and recognizing the fluid,…

  14. Bounded excursion stable gravastars and black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, P [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Avenida Litoranea, s/n, Boa Viagem 24210-340, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Miguelote, A Y; Chan, R [Coordenacao de Astronomia e Astrofisica, Observatorio Nacional, Rua General Jose Cristino, 77, Sao Cristovao 20921-400, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Da Silva, M F; Wang, Anzhong [Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Instituto de Fisica, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Rua Sao Francisco Xavier 524, Maracana 20550-900, Rio de Janeiro-RJ (Brazil); Santos, N O, E-mail: pedrosennarocha@gmail.com, E-mail: yasuda@on.br, E-mail: chan@on.br, E-mail: mfasnic@gmail.com, E-mail: N.O.Santos@qmul.ac.uk, E-mail: anzhong_wang@baylor.edu [LERMA/CNRS-FRE 2460, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, ERGA, Boite 142, 4 Place Jussieu, 75005 Paris Cedex 05 (France)

    2008-06-15

    Dynamical models of prototype gravastars were constructed in order to study their stability. The models are the Visser-Wiltshire three-layer gravastars, in which an infinitely thin spherical shell of stiff fluid divides the whole spacetime into two regions, where the internal region is de Sitter, and the external one is Schwarzschild. It is found that in some cases the models represent the 'bounded excursion' stable gravastars, where the thin shell is oscillating between two finite radii, while in other cases they collapse until the formation of black holes occurs. In the phase space, the region for the 'bounded excursion' gravastars is very small in comparison to that of black holes, but not empty. Therefore, although the possibility of the existence of gravastars cannot be excluded from such dynamical models, our results indicate that, even if gravastars do indeed exist, that does not exclude the possibility of the existence of black holes.

  15. Comparative metabolomics in vanilla pod and vanilla bean revealing the biosynthesis of vanillin during the curing process of vanilla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Fenglin; Chen, Yonggan; Hong, Yinghua; Fang, Yiming; Tan, Lehe

    2017-12-01

    High-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) was used for comprehensive metabolomic fingerprinting of vanilla fruits prepared from the curing process. In this study, the metabolic changes of vanilla pods and vanilla beans were characterized using MS-based metabolomics to elucidate the biosynthesis of vanillin. The vanilla pods were significantly different from vanilla beans. Seven pathways of vanillin biosynthesis were constructed, namely, glucovanillin, glucose, cresol, capsaicin, vanillyl alcohol, tyrosine, and phenylalanine pathways. Investigations demonstrated that glucose, cresol, capsaicin, and vanillyl alcohol pathway were detected in a wide range of distribution in microbial metabolism. Thus, microorganisms might have participated in vanillin biosynthesis during vanilla curing. Furthermore, the ion strength of glucovanillin was stable, which indicated that glucovanillin only participated in the vanillin biosynthesis during the curing of vanilla.

  16. Driving error and anxiety related to iPod mp3 player use in a simulated driving experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Ashley R; Carden, Randy L

    2009-08-01

    Driver distraction due to cellular phone usage has repeatedly been shown to increase the risk of vehicular accidents; however, the literature regarding the use of other personal electronic devices while driving is relatively sparse. It was hypothesized that the usage of an mp3 player would result in an increase in not only driving error while operating a driving simulator, but driver anxiety scores as well. It was also hypothesized that anxiety scores would be positively related to driving errors when using an mp3 player. 32 participants drove through a set course in a driving simulator twice, once with and once without an iPod mp3 player, with the order counterbalanced. Number of driving errors per course, such as leaving the road, impacts with stationary objects, loss of vehicular control, etc., and anxiety were significantly higher when an iPod was in use. Anxiety scores were unrelated to number of driving errors.

  17. Mesquite pod meal in elephant grass silages - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v35i3.12506

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otávio Rodrigues Machado Neto

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the chemical composition and in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD of elephant grass silages at different growth stages (70, 90 and 110 days, with the addition (0, 5, 10 and 15%, on a fresh matter basis of mesquite pod meal. A completely randomized design (CRD was used in a factorial arrangement with four replications. PVC pipes 100 mm in diameter were used as experimental silos. After 30 days of ensilage, samples were taken from the open silos to determine chemical composition and IVDMD. The inclusion of mesquite pod meal (MPM increased (p 0.01 was detected between MPM concentrations and elephant grass cutting age for DM, CP and NDF contents in the silages. A decrease (p  

  18. Proteome analysis during pod, zygotic and somatic embryo maturation of Theobroma cacao.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemenak, Nicolas; Kaiser, Edward; Maximova, Siela N; Laremore, Tatiana; Guiltinan, Mark J

    2015-05-15

    Two dimensional electrophoresis and nano-LC-MS were performed in order to identify alterations in protein abundance that correlate with maturation of cacao zygotic and somatic embryos. The cacao pod proteome was also characterized during development. The recently published cacao genome sequence was used to create a predicted proteolytic fragment database. Several hundred protein spots were resolved on each tissue analysis, of which 72 variable spots were subjected to MS analysis, resulting in 49 identifications. The identified proteins represent an array of functional categories, including seed storage, stress response, photosynthesis and translation factors. The seed storage protein was strongly accumulated in cacao zygotic embryos compared to their somatic counterpart. However, sucrose treatment (60 g L(-1)) allows up-regulation of storage protein in SE. A high similarity in the profiles of acidic proteins was observed in mature zygotic and somatic embryos. Differential expression in both tissues was observed in proteins having high pI. Several proteins were detected exclusively in fruit tissues, including a chitinase and a 14-3-3 protein. We also identified a novel cacao protein related to known mabinlin type sweet storage proteins. Moreover, the specific presence of thaumatin-like protein, another sweet protein, was also detected in fruit tissue. We discuss our observed correlations between protein expression profiles, developmental stage and stress responses. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. Utilization of Cacao Pod Husk Silage as Cattle Ration Mixture at Taluditi, Pohuwatu Regency, Gorontalo Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidayat, M.; Pratama, H. Y.; Martono, E.

    2018-02-01

    Cacao plantation produces cacao pod husks (CPHs) by-products during the harvest period. This research aimed to make benefits the CPH, preserved with silage technology as cattle ration mixture, investigate the adequacy of nutrient for the cattle after treated with addition of CPH silage, and investigate the quota of cattle treated with CPH silage addition. The research design was conducted by giving extension and field observation that was carried out at Taluditi on July to August 2015 during the activity of Student Community Service (KKN PPM UGM Unit Gorontalo 02). The secondary data was gathered from the Department of Agriculture and Plantation Pohuwatu Regency, and also supporting references. The number of respondents in each location was about 30 - 40 people. The research results showed that the silage preservation technology can be well received by the farmers. There was improvement of cattle ration nutrient supplemented with CPH compared to that of ration nutrient which was usually be used by the farmers or standard ration nutrient. The research also resulted in fresh CPH production 2,625.741 tons/year, CPH silage production 2,140.549 tons/year and load capacity + 575 heads/day weight 250-300 kg.

  20. Biological Activities of Libidibia (Caesalpinia) ferrea var. parvifolia (Mart. ex Tul.) L. P. Queiroz Pod Preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, A C C; Ximenes, N C A; Aguiar, J S; Nascimento, S C; Lins, T U L; Magalhães, L R; Coelho, L C B B; Carneiro-da-Cunha, M G; Gonçalves-Silva, T; Correia, M T S

    2012-01-01

    Libidibia ferrea has been used in folk medicine throughout Brazil, and this study evaluated the biological activities of crude extract (CE) as well as a partially purified fraction (F80) obtained from its pods. Results from the MTT assay revealed that only F80 inhibited NCI-H292 cell growth; however, neither CE nor F80 reduced HEp-2 cell growth or sarcoma 180 tumor weight with the in vivo assay. Acute oral toxicity of the extract and fraction was evaluated following the steps of Guideline 423, using female mice; LD(50) for both preparations was determined as 2,500 mg/kg body weight. CE and F80 promoted a reduction of the leukocyte number and nitrite level in inflammatory exudates when the anti-inflammatory assay (carrageenan-induced peritonitis) was performed. CE and F80 inhibited writhing regarding antinociceptive activity (acetic acid-induced writhing response in mice). In conclusion, CE and F80 have no significant cytotoxic or antitumor activities in cell lines showing low toxicity and no action against tumors in vivo. Both preparations revealed anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities, corroborating the pharmacological basis of L. ferrea for ethnomedical use.

  1. The maize milkweed pod1 mutant reveals a mechanism to modify organ morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Robyn; Candela, Héctor; Hake, Sarah; Foster, Toshi

    2010-07-01

    Plant lateral organs, such as leaves, have three primary axes of growth-proximal-distal, medial--lateral and adaxial-abaxial (dorsal-ventral). Although most leaves are planar, modified leaf forms, such as the bikeeled grass prophyll, can be found in nature. A detailed examination of normal prophyll development indicates that polarity is established differently in the keels than in other parts of the prophyll. Analysis of the maize HD-ZIPIII gene rolled leaf1 (rld1) suggests that altered expression patterns are responsible for keel outgrowth. Recessive mutations in the maize (Zea mays) KANADI (KAN) gene milkweed pod1 (mwp1), which promotes abaxial cell identity, strongly affect development of the prophyll and silks (fused carpels). The prophyll is reduced to two unfused midribs and the silks are narrow and misshapen. Our data indicate that the prophyll and other fused organs are particularly sensitive to disruptions in adaxial-abaxial polarity. In addition, lateral and proximal-distal growth of most lateral organs is reduced in the mwp1-R mutant, supporting a role for the adaxial-abaxial boundary in promoting growth along both axes. We propose that the adaxial-abaxial patterning mechanism has been co-opted during evolution to generate diverse organ morphologies. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Book Review: Mac OS X, iPod, and iPhone Forensic Analysis DVD Toolkit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary Kessler

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Varsalone, J. (Tech. Ed., Kubasiak, R.R., Morrissey, S., et al. (2009. Mac OS X, iPod, and iPhone Forensic Analysis DVD Toolkit. Burlington, MA: Syngress. 551 + xix pages, ISBN: 978-1-59749-297-3, US$59.95.Reviewed by Gary C. Kessler (gary.kessler@champlain.eduAt last! A quality book about computer forensics for Apple products! Alas, I get ahead of myself.Apple's hold on the personal computer marketplace started dwindling on August 12, 1981, the day that the IBM PC was introduced. As an Apple ][+ bigot myself, I refused to touch a PC for some years. But I was also a command line bigot, so when the first Macintosh was introduced in 1983 and hermetically sealed the operating system from users, I did not go out and buy one. In fact, like many of my era, I did eventually end up on the PC side which, ironically, let me do many of the things that my trusty Apple ][+ had in earlier times -- write code, play with the hardware, and, indeed, get to a command line. And, of course, tons of application developers flocked to the PC because of its open architecture.(see PDF for full review

  3. Comparative genetic analysis of trichome-less and normal pod genotypes of Mucuna pruriens (Fabaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhawan, S S; Rai, G K; Darokar, M P; Lal, R K; Misra, H O; Khanuja, S P S

    2011-09-15

    Velvet bean (Mucuna pruriens) seeds contain the catecholic amino acid L-DoPA (L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine), which is a neurotransmitter precursor and used for the treatment of Parkinson's disease and mental disorders. The great demand for L-DoPA is largely met by the pharmaceutical industry through extraction of the compound from wild populations of this plant; commercial exploitation of this compound is hampered because of its limited availability. The trichomes present on the pods can cause severe itching, blisters and dermatitis, discouraging cultivation. We screened genetic stocks of velvet bean for the trichome-less trait, along with high seed yield and L-DoPA content. The highest yielding trichome-less elite strain was selected and indentified on the basis of a PCR-based DNA fingerprinting method (RAPD), using deca-nucleotide primers. A genetic similarity index matrix was obtained through multivariant analysis using Nei and Li's coefficient. The similarity coefficients were used to generate a tree for cluster analysis using the UPGMA method. Analysis of amplification spectra of 408 bands obtained with 56 primers allowed us to distinguish a trichome-less elite strain of M. pruriens.

  4. A new Cre driver mouse line, Tcf21/Pod1-Cre, targets metanephric mesenchyme.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiro Maezawa

    Full Text Available Conditional gene targeting in mice has provided great insight into the role of gene function in kidney development and disease. Although a number of Cre-driver mouse strains already exist for the kidney, development of additional strains with unique expression patterns is needed. Here we report the generation and validation of a Tcf21/Pod1-Cre driver strain that expresses Cre recombinase throughout the condensing and stromal mesenchyme of developing kidneys and in their derivatives including epithelial components of the nephron and interstitial cells. To test the efficiency of this line, we crossed it to mice transgenic for either loss or gain of function β-catenin conditional alleles. Mice with deletion of β-catenin from Tcf21-expressing cells are born with hypoplastic kidneys, hydroureters and hydronephrosis. By contrast, Tcf21-Cre driven gain of function for β-catenin in mice results in fused midline kidneys and hypoplastic kidneys. Finally, we report the first renal mesenchymal deletion of Patched1 (Ptch1, the receptor for sonic hedgehog (Shh, which results in renal cysts demonstrating a functional role of Shh signaling pathway in renal cystogensis. In summary, we report the generation and validation of a new Cre driver strain that provides robust excision in metanephric mesenchyme.

  5. Teaching Newton's Laws with the iPod Touch in Conceptual Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Angela M.

    2011-04-01

    One of the greatest challenges in teaching physics is helping students achieve a conceptual understanding of Newton's laws. I find that students fresh from middle school can sometimes recite the laws verbatim ("An object in motion stays in motion…" and "For every action…"), but they rarely demonstrate a working knowledge of how to apply them to observable phenomena. As a firm believer in inquiry-based teaching methods, I like to develop activities where students can experiment and construct understandings based on relevant personal experiences. Consequently, I am always looking for exciting new technologies that can readily demonstrate how physics affects everyday things. In a conceptual physics class designed for ninth-graders, I created a structured activity where students applied Newton's laws to a series of free applications downloaded on iPod Touches. The laws had been introduced during the prior class session with textual descriptions and graphical representations. The course is offered as part of the Enlace Latino Collegiate Society, a weekend enrichment program for middle and high school students in the Bronx. The majority of students had limited or no prior exposure to physics concepts, and many attended high schools where physics was not offered at all.

  6. A Wing Pod-based Millimeter Wave Cloud Radar on HIAPER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivekanandan, Jothiram; Tsai, Peisang; Ellis, Scott; Loew, Eric; Lee, Wen-Chau; Emmett, Joanthan

    2014-05-01

    One of the attractive features of a millimeter wave radar system is its ability to detect micron-sized particles that constitute clouds with lower than 0.1 g m-3 liquid or ice water content. Scanning or vertically-pointing ground-based millimeter wavelength radars are used to study stratocumulus (Vali et al. 1998; Kollias and Albrecht 2000) and fair-weather cumulus (Kollias et al. 2001). Airborne millimeter wavelength radars have been used for atmospheric remote sensing since the early 1990s (Pazmany et al. 1995). Airborne millimeter wavelength radar systems, such as the University of Wyoming King Air Cloud Radar (WCR) and the NASA ER-2 Cloud Radar System (CRS), have added mobility to observe clouds in remote regions and over oceans. Scientific requirements of millimeter wavelength radar are mainly driven by climate and cloud initiation studies. Survey results from the cloud radar user community indicated a common preference for a narrow beam W-band radar with polarimetric and Doppler capabilities for airborne remote sensing of clouds. For detecting small amounts of liquid and ice, it is desired to have -30 dBZ sensitivity at a 10 km range. Additional desired capabilities included a second wavelength and/or dual-Doppler winds. Modern radar technology offers various options (e.g., dual-polarization and dual-wavelength). Even though a basic fixed beam Doppler radar system with a sensitivity of -30 dBZ at 10 km is capable of satisfying cloud detection requirements, the above-mentioned additional options, namely dual-wavelength, and dual-polarization, significantly extend the measurement capabilities to further reduce any uncertainty in radar-based retrievals of cloud properties. This paper describes a novel, airborne pod-based millimeter wave radar, preliminary radar measurements and corresponding derived scientific products. Since some of the primary engineering requirements of this millimeter wave radar are that it should be deployable on an airborne platform

  7. Studies on the sterilization of soybean pod borer using nuclear irradiation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Junling; Zhao Xiaoli

    1994-01-01

    A systematic study of soybean pod borer control by using the sterile technology of the nuclear irradiation was carried out. By changing the photo-period, the diapause was broken and the highest percentage of emergence was obtained with 18 hours illumination per day. The duration of diapause was reduced from 10 months to about 1 month and it took 40∼42 days to reproduce one generation. The suitable prescription of the artificial diet was selected. When the larvae were fed with soybean sprouts, the high survival rate was achieved with normal development. The suitable treatment period and irradiation dose were discussed. The irradiation treatment conducted two days before adult emergence with the irradiation dose of 120 Gy would give the best results, which showed that the emerged adult was normal, whereas the eggs laid were not able to be hatched. When releasing the adults emerged from the treated pupae into screen in the soybean field, the control effect of 88.1%∼99.0% was obtained, and the rate of seed-boring reduced from 10.1% to 0.1%∼1.3%. In the soybean field, its control effect was 86.56%

  8. Pervasive Monitoring—An Intelligent Sensor Pod Approach for Standardised Measurement Infrastructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Lippautz

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Geo-sensor networks have traditionally been built up in closed monolithic systems, thus limiting trans-domain usage of real-time measurements. This paper presents the technical infrastructure of a standardised embedded sensing device, which has been developed in the course of the Live Geography approach. The sensor pod implements data provision standards of the Sensor Web Enablement initiative, including an event-based alerting mechanism and location-aware Complex Event Processing functionality for detection of threshold transgression and quality assurance. The goal of this research is that the resultant highly flexible sensing architecture will bring sensor network applications one step further towards the realisation of the vision of a “digital skin for planet earth”. The developed infrastructure can potentially have far-reaching impacts on sensor-based monitoring systems through the deployment of ubiquitous and fine-grained sensor networks. This in turn allows for the straight-forward use of live sensor data in existing spatial decision support systems to enable better-informed decision-making.

  9. Response surface methodology optimization of nickel (II) removal using pigeon pea pod bio sorbent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aravind, J.; Lenin, C.; Nancyflavia, C.; Rashika, P.; Saravanan, S.

    2015-01-01

    Pod of pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan), a cellulose rich agricultural residue, was investigated for its nickel binding efficiency. The influence of key physicochemical parameters such as contact time, initial metal ion concentration, adsorbent dosage and p H on nickel (II) removal was studied. The equilibrium time was found to be 45 min. The optimum Ni (II) removal was obtained at an initial metal ion concentration of 80 mg/l, p H of 9.0 and an adsorbent dose of 400 mg/100 ml. A search for optimal combination of key variables was studied by response surface methodology for maximum removal of nickel. The experiment encompassing 17 runs was established with the aid of Box–Behnken design. Owing to the reasonable agreement between predicted and adjusted R2 value (0.9714), the corresponding quadratic model gives the most appropriate relationship between the variables and response. The optimal point obtained was located in the valid region and the optimum adsorption parameters were predicted as an initial Ni (II) concentration of 60 mg/l, p H value of 9.0 and contact time of 75 min. Under these adsorption conditions, a maximum removal of 96.54 % of initial metal concentration was demonstrated.

  10. Characterization of the Inlet Port Flow under Steady-State Conditions Using PIV and POD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed El-Adawy

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The current study demonstrates an experimental investigation of the tumble flow structures using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV under steady-state conditions considering the central vertical tumble plane. The experiments were carried out on a four-valve, pent-roof Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI engine head at different valve lifts and with a pressure difference of 150 mmH2O across the intake valves. Furthermore, the Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD analytical technique was applied to PIV-measured velocity vector maps to characterize the flow structures at various valve lifts, and hence the different rig tumble values. The results show that at low valve lifts (1 to 5 mm, 48.9 to 46.6% of the flow energy is concentrated in the large (mode 1 eddies with only 8.4 to 11.46% in mode 2 and 7.2 to 7.5 in mode 3. At high valve lifts, it can be clearly seen that some of the energy in the large eddies of mode 1 is transferred to the smaller flow structures of modes 2 and 3. This can be clearly seen at valve lift 10 mm where the values of the flow energy were 40.6%, 17.3%, and 8.0% for modes 1, 2, and 3, respectively.

  11. Structure analysis of bubble driven flow by time-resolved PIV and POD techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyun Dong; Yi, Seung Jae; Kim, Jong Wook; Kim, Kyung Chun

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, the recirculation flow motion and turbulence characteristics of liquid flow driven by air bubble stream in a rectangular water tank are studied. The time-resolved Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) technique is adopted for the quantitative visualization and analysis. 532nm Diode CW laser is used for illumination and orange fluorescent (λex = 540nm, λem = 584nm) particle images are acquired by a 1280X1024 high-speed camera. To obtain clean particle images, 545nm long pass optical filter and an image intensifier are employed and the flow rate of compressed air is 3/min at 0.5MPa. The recirculation and mixing flow field is further investigated by timeresolved Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD) analysis technique. It is observed that the large scale recirculation resulting from the interaction between rising bubble stream and side wall is the most dominant flow structure and there are small scale vortical structures moving along with the large scale recirculation flow. It is also verified that the sum of 20 modes of velocity field has about 67.4% of total turbulent energy

  12. Bruchid egg induced transcript dynamics in developing seeds of black gram (Vigna mungo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indrani K Baruah

    Full Text Available Black gram (Vigna mungo seeds are a rich source of digestible proteins, however, during storage these seeds are severely damaged by bruchids (Callosobruchus spp., reducing seed quality and yield losses. Most of the cultivated genotypes of black gram are susceptible to bruchids, however, few tolerant genotypes have also been identified but the mechanism of tolerance is poorly understood. We employed Suppression Subtractive Hybridization (SSH to identify specifically, but rarely expressed bruchid egg induced genes in black gram. In this study, Suppression Subtractive Hybridization (SSH library was constructed to study the genes involved in defense response in black gram against bruchid infestation. An EST library of 277 clones was obtained for further analyses. Based on CAP3 assembly, 134 unigenes were computationally annotated using Blast2GOPRO software. In all, 20 defense related genes were subject to quantitative PCR analysis (qPCR out of which 12 genes showed up-regulation in developing seeds of the pods oviposited by bruchids. Few major defense genes like defensin, pathogenesis related protein (PR, lipoxygenase (LOX showed high expression levels in the oviposited population when compared with the non-oviposited plants. This is the first report on defense related gene transcript dynamics during the bruchid-black gram interaction using SSH library. This library would be useful to clone defense related gene(s such as defensin as represented in our library for crop improvement.

  13. MULTILATERAL COOPERATION IN THE BLACK SEA REGION IN THE ENERGY FIELD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Vyacheslavovich Ishin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article the state of international cooperation is analysed in the field of energy in Black Sea besseyne. Problems and prospects of development of power communications, their influence, are examined on the level of international stability.

  14. Black holes new horizons

    CERN Document Server

    Hayward, Sean Alan

    2013-01-01

    Black holes, once just fascinating theoretical predictions of how gravity warps space-time according to Einstein's theory, are now generally accepted as astrophysical realities, formed by post-supernova collapse, or as supermassive black holes mysteriously found at the cores of most galaxies, powering active galactic nuclei, the most powerful objects in the universe. Theoretical understanding has progressed in recent decades with a wider realization that local concepts should characterize black holes, rather than the global concepts found in textbooks. In particular, notions such as trapping h

  15. Effect of Ovule Position within the Pod on the Probability of Seed Production in Bauhinia ungulata (Fabaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    MENA-ALÍ, JORGE I.; ROCHA, OSCAR J.

    2004-01-01

    • Background and Aims It has been claimed that ovules linearly ordered within a fruit differ in their probabilities of reaching maturity. This was investigated by studying the effect the position of an ovule within the pod has on seed abortion and seed production in Bauhinia ungulata. • Methods Fruits collected during the dry seasons of 1999, 2000 and 2001 were opened, and the number, position and status of each ovule within the fruit were recorded. A GLM model was used to assess the effects of population, tree identity and ovule position within the pod on ovule fertilization, seed abortion, seed damage and seed maturation in two populations of B. ungulata. • Key Results Nearly 30 % of the ovules were not fertilized in 1999; this percentage dropped to 5 % the following two years. Seed abortion (50 %) and seed damage (15 %) were the same every year during the study period. Only 15 % of the initial ovules developed into mature seeds in 1999; this value increased to 35 % in 2000 and 2001. However, seed survivorship was dependent on the position of the ovule within the pod; non-fertilized and early aborted ovules were found more often near the basal end of the ovary. The frequency of seed damage was not affected by position. Mature seeds were found mainly in the stylar half of fruits, where ovules are likely to be fertilized by fast pollen tubes. • Conclusions The pattern of seed production in B. ungulata is non-random but is dependent upon the position of the ovule within the pod. The results suggest that the seeds produced within a fruit might differ in their vigour. PMID:15596452

  16. Topical Delivery of Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate and Emtricitabine from Pod-Intravaginal Rings Protects Macaques from Multiple SHIV Exposures

    OpenAIRE

    Srinivasan, Priya; Moss, John A.; Gunawardana, Manjula; Churchman, Scott A.; Yang, Flora; Dinh, Chuong T.; Mitchell, James M.; Zhang, Jining; Fanter, Rob; Miller, Christine S.; Butkyavichene, Irina; McNicholl, Janet M.; Smith, Thomas J.; Baum, Marc M.; Smith, James M.

    2016-01-01

    Topical preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) against HIV has been marginally successful in recent clinical trials with low adherence rates being a primary factor for failure. Controlled, sustained release of antiretroviral (ARV) drugs may help overcome these low adherence rates if the product is protective for extended periods of time. The oral combination of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) and emtricitabine (FTC) is currently the only FDA-approved ARV drug for HIV PrEP. A novel pod-intravagina...

  17. The Economic Effect of a Daily Supplementation of carob pods (Ceratonia siliqua L., on Rumen Fermentation and Lactating Goats Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman A. Hassan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study was performed to investigate the effect of a daily supplementation of carob pods (Ceratonia siliqua L., on rumen fermentation and milk production of goats. Thirty two lactating does (weight ranged from 33�35 kg, aged 2-4 years old and from 2nd to 3th lactation season were randomly allocated into four similar groups (8 animals each. The animals were fed with isocaloric and isonitrogenous diets. Carob pods was daily supplemented at the rate of 0, 25, 50 or 100g /h/d. The lactating trial was extended for 75 days where goats were fed individually and fresh water was available at all time. Rumen fermentation parameters were monitored on three fistulated adult does. Results indicated that volatile fatty acids concentration, rumen volume, microbial protein synthesis and total bacteria counts were highest (P<0.05 with C50 group compared with other groups. While, ammonia-N concentration and protozoa count were lower (P<0.05 with C100 group compared with other groups. Milk production, protein and fat percentage were better (P<0.05 for C50 and C25 groups than those of C100 group. Supplementation of Carob pods at 50 g caused a marked (P<0.05 increase in the enzymatic antioxidant activity (SOD, CAT, GPx, and GSH but had a significant decrease (P<0.05 in TBARS compared to control group. Thus, it could be concluded that daily supplement of 50 g carob pods could be reasonable amount for goats performance without any adverse effect.

  18. In vitro antioxidant and antimalarial activities of leaves, pods and bark extracts of Acacia nilotica (L.) Del.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadiq, Muhammad Bilal; Tharaphan, Pattamon; Chotivanich, Kesinee; Tarning, Joel; Anal, Anil Kumar

    2017-07-18

    The emergence of drug resistant malaria is threatening our ability to treat and control malaria in the Southeast Asian region. There is an urgent need to develop novel and chemically diverse antimalarial drugs. This study aimed at evaluating the antimalarial and antioxidant potentials of Acacia nilotica plant extracts. The antioxidant activities of leaves, pods and bark extracts were determined by standard antioxidant assays; reducing power capacity, % lipid peroxidation inhibition and ferric reducing antioxidant power assay. The antimalarial activities of plant extracts against Plasmodium falciparum parasites were determined by the 48 h schizont maturation inhibition assay. Further confirmation of schizonticide activity of extracts was made by extending the incubation period up to 96 h after removing the plant extract residues from parasites culture. Inhibition assays were analyzed by dose-response modelling. In all antioxidant assays, leaves of A. nilotica showed higher antioxidant activity than pods and bark. Antimalarial IC 50 values of leaves, pods and bark extracts were 1.29, 4.16 and 4.28 μg/ml respectively, in the 48 h maturation assay. The IC 50 values determined for leaves, pods and bark extracts were 3.72, 5.41 and 5.32 μg/ml respectively, after 96 h of incubation. All extracts inhibited the development of mature schizont, indicating schizonticide activity against P. falciparum. A. nilotica extracts showed promising antimalarial and antioxidant effects. However, further investigation is needed to isolate and identify the active components responsible for the antimalarial and antioxidant effects.

  19. A stabilized MFE reduced-order extrapolation model based on POD for the 2D unsteady conduction-convection problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Xia

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this study, we devote ourselves to establishing a stabilized mixed finite element (MFE reduced-order extrapolation (SMFEROE model holding seldom unknowns for the two-dimensional (2D unsteady conduction-convection problem via the proper orthogonal decomposition (POD technique, analyzing the existence and uniqueness and the stability as well as the convergence of the SMFEROE solutions and validating the correctness and dependability of the SMFEROE model by means of numerical simulations.

  20. A stabilized MFE reduced-order extrapolation model based on POD for the 2D unsteady conduction-convection problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Hong; Luo, Zhendong

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we devote ourselves to establishing a stabilized mixed finite element (MFE) reduced-order extrapolation (SMFEROE) model holding seldom unknowns for the two-dimensional (2D) unsteady conduction-convection problem via the proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) technique, analyzing the existence and uniqueness and the stability as well as the convergence of the SMFEROE solutions and validating the correctness and dependability of the SMFEROE model by means of numerical simulations.

  1. Antibacterial Activity of the Alkaloid-Enriched Extract from Prosopis juliflora Pods and Its Influence on in Vitro Ruminal Digestion

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Edilene dos; Pereira, Mara; Silva, Camilla da; Souza-Neta, Lourdes; Geris, Regina; Martins, Dirceu; Santana, Antônio; Barbosa, Luiz; Silva, Herymá; Freitas, Giovana; Figueiredo, Mauro; Oliveira, Fernando de; Batista, Ronan

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the in vitro antimicrobial activity of alkaloid-enriched extracts from Prosopis juliflora (Fabaceae) pods in order to evaluate them as feed additives for ruminants. As only the basic chloroformic extract (BCE), whose main constituents were juliprosopine (juliflorine), prosoflorine and juliprosine, showed Gram-positive antibacterial activity against Micrococcus luteus (MIC = 25 μg/mL), Staphylococcus aureus (MIC = 50 μg/mL) and Streptococcus mutans (MIC ...

  2. Production of ethanol from mesquite [Prosopis juliflora (SW) D.C.] pods mash by Zymomonas mobilis in submerged fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Celiane Gomes Maia da [Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco (UFRPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Domesticas; Andrade, Samara Alvachian Cardoso; Schuler, Alexandre Ricardo Pereira [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica; Souza, Evandro Leite de [Universidade Federal da Paraiba (UFPB), Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil). Dept. de Nutricao; Stamford, Tania Lucia Montenegro [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Nutricao], E-mail: tlmstamford@yahoo.com.br

    2011-01-15

    Mesquite [Prosopis juliflora (SW) D.C.], a perennial tropical plant commonly found in Brazilian semi-arid region, is a viable raw material for fermentative processes because of its low cost and production of pods with high content of hydrolyzable sugars which generate many compounds, including ethanol. This study aimed to evaluate the use of mesquite pods as substrate for ethanol production by Z. mobilis UFPEDA- 205 in a submerged fermentation. The fermentation was assessed for rate of substrate yield to ethanol, rate of ethanol production and efficiency of fermentation. The very close theoretical (170 g L{sup -1}) and experimental (165 g L{sup -1}) maximum ethanol yields were achieved at 36 h of fermentation. The highest counts of Z. mobilis UFEPEDA-205 (both close to 6 Log cfu mL{sup -1}) were also noted at 36 h. Highest rates of substrate yield to ethanol (0.44 g ethanol g glucose{sup -1}), of ethanol production (4.69 g L{sup -1} h{sup -1}) and of efficiency of fermentation (86.81%) were found after 30 h. These findings suggest mesquite pods as an interesting substrate for ethanol production using submerged fermentation by Z. mobilis. (author)

  3. Evaluation and optimization of ethanol production from carob pod extract by Zymomonas mobilis using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaheed, Hossein; Shojaosadati, Seyed Abbas; Galip, Hasan

    2011-01-01

    In this research, ethanol production from carob pod extract (extract) using Zymomonas mobilis with medium optimized by Plackett-Burman (P-B) and response surface methodologies (RSM) was studied. Z. mobilis was recognized as useful for ethanol production from carob pod extract. The effects of initial concentrations of sugar, peptone, and yeast extract as well as agitation rate (rpm), pH, and culture time in nonhydrolyzed carob pod extract were investigated. Significantly affecting variables (P = 0.05) in the model obtained from RSM studies were: weights of bacterial inoculum, initial sugar, peptone, and yeast extract. Acid hydrolysis was useful to complete conversion of sugars to glucose and fructose. Nonhydrolyzed extract showed higher ethanol yield and residual sugar compared with hydrolyzed extract. Ethanol produced (g g(-1) initial sugar, as the response) was not significantly different (P = 0.05) when Z. mobilis performance was compared in hydrolyzed and nonhydrolyzed extract. The maximum ethanol of 0.34 ± 0.02 g g(-1) initial sugar was obtained at 30°C, initial pH 5.2, and 80 rpm, using concentrations (g per 50 mL culture media) of: inoculum bacterial dry weight, 0.017; initial sugar, 5.78; peptone, 0.43; yeast extract, 0.43; and culture time of 36 h.

  4. Cacao pod husks as a source of low-methoxyl, highly acetylated pectins able to gel in acidic media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vriesmann, Lúcia Cristina; de Oliveira Petkowicz, Carmen Lúcia

    2017-08-01

    Cacao pod husks, the main by-product from cocoa production, have been investigated for pectin isolation. In the present study, the rheological properties of two low-methoxyl (LM) pectins isolated from cacao pod husks using different extraction conditions were evaluated. One pectin was obtained from optimized conditions employing aqueous nitric acid as an extractant, and the other one was extracted with boiling water. Pectin gels (0.99% galacturonic acid equivalent, w/w) were prepared at pH 2.5-3.0 in the presence of 60% sucrose (w/w) and subjected to rheological analysis. Dynamic oscillatory experiments at 25°C indicated that better gels were obtained at the lowest pH (2.5). Steady shear measurements revealed a shear-thinning behavior. The apparent viscosities of the samples increased as pH decreased. Gelation with calcium ions was not observed for either of the highly acetylated LM pectins analyzed. The rheological analysis results showed that despite their high acetyl content, LM pectins extracted by different methods from cacao pod husks were able to form gels at low pH under reduced water activity, suggesting a possible application in acidic products. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. LES of turbulent jet in cross flow: Part 2 – POD analysis and identification of coherent structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cavar, Dalibor; Meyer, Knud Erik

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents results of a Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD) investigation of the LES based numerical simulation of the jet-in-crossflow (JICF) flowfield with Reynolds number based on the cross flow velocity and jet diameter Re=2400 and the velocity ratio of R=3.3. LES results are valida......The paper presents results of a Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD) investigation of the LES based numerical simulation of the jet-in-crossflow (JICF) flowfield with Reynolds number based on the cross flow velocity and jet diameter Re=2400 and the velocity ratio of R=3.3. LES results...... results are directly compared and found to be in close agreement with results of a Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) based planar (2D) snapshot POD analysis by Meyer et al. (JFM 583, p. 199–227, 2007), indicating that LES is able to predict the same large scale flow dynamics as that captured by PIV. Some...... for the creation of wake vortices and that the wake vortex originates from the hanging vortex, but grows quickly by “sucking up” the wall boundary layer fluid and vorticity....

  6. Profiling of phenolic compounds and antioxidant properties of European varieties and cultivars of Vicia faba L. pods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente, Inês M; Maia, Margarida R G; Malushi, Nertila; Oliveira, Hugo M; Papa, Lumturi; Rodrigues, José A; Fonseca, António J M; Cabrita, Ana R J

    2018-08-01

    Vicia faba L. pods are a by-product generated from the industrial processing of beans for human and animal consumption. As phenolic compounds may play important roles in health, the present work envisaged the phenolic characterization of seven European varieties and cultivars of V. faba (major and minor) pods and the assessment of their antioxidant activity. The V. faba methanolic extracts were characterized by HPLC-DAD-MS/MS for identification of polyphenolic compounds. The total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of the extracts were evaluated by colorimetric methods (Folin-Ciocalteu, DPPH scavenging capacity assay, and FRAP assay). Main compounds identified by HPLC-DAD-MS/MS were derivatives of caffeic acid, coumaric acid and kaempferol. The broad bean Jögeva variety presented the highest content of free and esterified phenolics (26.3 and 26.7 mg 100 g -1 dry weight, respectively), followed by the horse bean varieties Bauska and Lielplatones. These results were corroborated by the analysis of total phenolic content, DPPH scavenging capacity and FRAP. This study confirmed the rich phenolic content of V. faba pods suggesting to be an interesting novel source for animal nutrition, promoting product quality and consumers' health. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Uptake of soil-, foliar-and pod-applied nitrogen and phosphorus by rape (Brassica napus L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Qinzheng; Xi Haifu; Lang Xianhua

    1992-01-01

    Uptake of soil-applied and foliar-and pod applied N, P by rape was studied by using 32 P and 15 N labelled fertilizer under pot culture condition. Application of phosphorus fertilizer to purplish clayey paddy soil which was poor in available P had influence on utilization of basal-dressed NH 4 HCO 3 by rape and subsequently on its growth and seed yield. Utilization rate of applied N in whole plant and seeds were 3.66 and 5.13 fold respectively as compared with control when 187.5 kg/ha of superphosphate were applied and increased with increasing application of superphosphate (187.5-562.5 kg/ha). Application of P fertilizer not only increased uptake of N but also promoted transportation of N from vegetative organs to seeds. Rape plant uptook 69.09% of foliar-and pod-applied N in form of 2% solution of urea after flowering and transported the N to seeds in greater proportion than that of soil-applied N. In the same period, 60% of foliar- and pod-applied P in form of 0.2% KH 2 PO 4 was absorbed by rape plant, most of which was in leaves. Uptake of N and P by rape increased 17.89% and 27.78% respectively when urea and phosphate was applied together compared with using urea and phosphate alone. Uptake of basal-dressed P by rape plant was 6% at early growing stage

  8. POD analysis of the instability mode of a low-speed streak in a laminar boundary layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Si-Chao; Pan, Chong; Wang, Jin-Jun; Rinoshika, Akira

    2017-12-01

    The instability of one single low-speed streak in a zero-pressure-gradient laminar boundary layer is investigated experimentally via both hydrogen bubble visualization and planar particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurement. A single low-speed streak is generated and destabilized by the wake of an interference wire positioned normal to the wall and in the upstream. The downstream development of the streak includes secondary instability and self-reproduction process, which leads to the generation of two additional streaks appearing on either side of the primary one. A proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) analysis of PIV measured velocity field is used to identify the components of the streak instability in the POD mode space: for a sinuous/varicose type of POD mode, its basis functions present anti-symmetric/symmetric distributions about the streak centerline in the streamwise component, and the symmetry condition reverses in the spanwise component. It is further shown that sinuous mode dominates the turbulent kinematic energy (TKE) through the whole streak evolution process, the TKE content first increases along the streamwise direction to a saturation value and then decays slowly. In contrast, varicose mode exhibits a sustained growth of the TKE content, suggesting an increasing competition of varicose instability against sinuous instability.

  9. Microwave-Assisted Simultaneous Extraction of Luteolin and Apigenin from Tree Peony Pod and Evaluation of Its Antioxidant Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongzheng Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An efficient microwave-assisted extraction (MAE technique was employed in simultaneous extraction of luteolin and apigenin from tree peony pod. The MAE procedure was optimized using response surface methodology (RSM and compared with other conventional extraction techniques of macerate extraction (ME and heat reflux extraction (HRE. The optimal conditions of MAE were as follows: employing 70% ethanol volume fraction as solvent, soaking time of 4 h, liquid-solid ratio of 10 (mL/g, microwave irradiation power of 265 W, microwave irradiation time of 9.6 min, and 3 extraction cycles. Under the optimal conditions, 151 μg/g luteolin and 104 μg/g apigenin were extracted from the tree peony pod. Compared with ME and HRE, MAE gave the highest extraction efficiency. The antioxidant activities of the extracts obtained by MAE, ME, and HRE were evaluated using a 2,2-di(4-tert-octylphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH free radical-scavenging assay, a ferric reducing antioxidant power assay (FRAP, and a reducing power assay. Meanwhile, the structural changes of the unprocessed and processed tree peony pod samples were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy.

  10. DYEING SILK FABRICS WITH STINK BEAN POD (PARKIA SPECIOSA HASSK. NATURAL DYE IN THE COLOR FASTNESS AND UV PROTECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. MASAE

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes natural dye extracted from stink bean pod (Parkia speciosa Hassk. which was dyed on the silk fabric. The mordants as aluminum potassium sulfate, iron chloride, sodium hydroxide and mud were used to dye fabric using three different dyeing methods: pre-mordanting, meta-mordanting and post-mordanting. The color fastness to washing, water, perspiration, light and crocking of the dyed samples was determined according to AATCC test methods. In this study the UV-protection properties on silk fabrics were investigated. The chemical functional groups of the dyes were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR. The results revealed that the dyeing silk fabrics with stink beans pod were fair to good fastness to washing and crocking and very poor to poor light fastness with the exception of samples mordanted with iron chloride. The water and perspiration fastness ratings were fair to good. Silk fabrics mordanted with iron chloride and dyed with stink bean usually showed good UV-protection levels even if undyed. These extracts gave polyphenolic, betalain dye and chlorophyll content. Therefore, it was suggested that stink bean pod has the potential in producing functional dyes that could be imparted into the silk dyeing natural colorant system.

  11. Understanding the Black Aesthetic Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Marvin V.

    1988-01-01

    Discussing the importance of the Black aesthetic experience, Curtis examines Black cultural heritage and participatory style, the spiritual, and the creation and recreation of Black music. Advocating multicultural music education in teacher training, he suggests that Black music be studied for its value and contribution to society. Lists five ways…

  12. New Directions for Black Women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuigan, Dorothy, Ed.

    1978-01-01

    This collection of papers deals with various aspects of the black female experience in America. "The Black Woman in Transition" discusses the effects of sexism and racism on black women with particular reference to employment and education; it is noted that black women, in comparison with other groups in society, suffer a proportionately higher…

  13. Black Writers' Views of America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hairston, Loyle

    1979-01-01

    This article argues that the stagnation, pessimism, and self-pity evident in recent Black writing results in part from the alienation of Black writers from the mainstream of Black life, and in part from the illusions that they share with other Blacks who have embraced the American value system. (Author/EB)

  14. Black lung: the social production of disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, B E

    1981-01-01

    The black lung movement that erupted in West Virginia in 1968 was not simply a struggle for recognition of an occupational disease; it grew into a bitter controversy over who would control the definition of that disease. This article examines the historical background and medical politics of that controversy, arguing that black lung was socially produced and defined on several different levels. As a medical construct, the changing definitions of this disease can be traced to major shifts in the political economy of the coal industry. As an occupational disease, the history of black lung is internally related to the history of the workplace in which it is produced. As the object of a mass movement, black lung acquired a political definition that grew out of the collective experience of miners and their families. The definition of disease with which black lung activists challenged the medical establishment has historical roots and justification; their experience suggests that other health advocates may need to redefine the diseases they hope to eradicate.

  15. Tuberculosis in Blacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are reported in blacks received training to enhance skills for engaging communities, develop strategies, and sustain partnerships for reducing TB rates. Other CDC activities include a study to identify the socio-cultural, racial, and health ...

  16. Introducing the Black Hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffini, Remo; Wheeler, John A.

    1971-01-01

    discusses the cosmology theory of a black hole, a region where an object loses its identity, but mass, charge, and momentum are conserved. Include are three possible formation processes, theorized properties, and three way they might eventually be detected. (DS)

  17. Colliding black hole solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, Mainuddin

    2005-01-01

    A new solution of Einstein equation in general relativity is found. This solution solves an outstanding problem of thermodynamics and black hole physics. Also this work appears to conclude the interpretation of NUT spacetime. (author)

  18. Black Sea aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hacisalihoglu, G.; Eliyakut, F.; Anwari, M.A.; Ataman, O.Y.; Balkas, T.I.; Tuncel, G.; Olmez, I.

    1991-01-01

    Shipboard, high volume air particulate samples were collected from the Black Sea atmosphere and analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis, atomic absorption spectrophotometry and ion chromatography for about 40 elements and ions. Concentrations of elements in the eastern and western parts of the Black Sea are different at the 95% confidence level, with lower concentrations in the eastern Black Sea. Back-trajectories and concentrations of elements in trajectory groups show that Europe accounts for more than 70% of the anthropogenic elements in the atmosphere. The average sulfate concentration was 7 μg/m 3 , which is comparable with rural sulfate levels in western Europe. Fluxes of elements from the atmosphere to the Black Sea are in good agreement with the results of similar flux calculations for other regions

  19. Black Teenage Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loretta I. Winters

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the relative importance of race and socioeconomic status (SES in determining whether Black and White teenagers report having ever been pregnant. Data gathered from 1999 to 2006 by the National Center for Health Statistics of the Center for Disease Control and Prevention included 1,580 Black and White females aged 15 to 19 years. Results supported the effects of race and SES, with SES having the stronger effect. However, the effects of race and SES differ when controlling for the state of the economy. No difference between Blacks and Whites was found during better economic times. During 2003-2004, the period of greatest economic stress, race was determined to be the only predictor of teenage pregnancy. In particular, during 2005-2006, the reduction in pregnancy rates for Black minors (15-17 fell below those for White minors within their respective SES categories. Policy implications are discussed in light of these findings.

  20. Black-hole thermodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bekenstein, J.D.

    1980-01-01

    Including black holes in the scheme of thermodynamics has disclosed a deep-seated connection between gravitation, heat and the quantum that may lead us to a synthesis of the corresponding branches of physics