WorldWideScience

Sample records for international animal agriculture

  1. Teaching international animal agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukefahr, S D

    1999-11-01

    Students who major in animal science at U.S. institutions are generally exposed to a curriculum that emphasizes commercial, large-scale production of the few traditional food animals: cattle, poultry, sheep, and swine. Globally, most farmers live in lesser-developed countries under limited-resource conditions of land, feed supplies, equipment, and capital. The promotion of commercial animal production enterprises may not be appropriate for such farms because it can subject farmers to considerable economic risk. Rather, use of limited numbers of large livestock, locally adapted breeds, or smaller livestock (e.g., ducks, goats, guinea pigs, and rabbits) may be more appropriate under subsistence, integrated farming systems. In this global context, a course in international animal agriculture has been taught for 15 yr to undergraduate and graduate students. The course consists of a review of traditional and potential livestock species well suited for impoverished families on small farms and methods to implement sustainable livestock projects, including feasibility, design, implementation, monitoring, and evaluation stages. To enhance student understanding, global food issues and challenges are illustrated with case studies. A term paper is also assigned for which students choose three suitable livestock species or local breeds that would be complementary on a small crop farm (< 5 ha). Daily dietary requirements of protein and energy per family member are calculated. Itemized enterprise budgets and production tables are prepared. Early in the course, the general consensus of students was that people who are malnourished and live in poverty have low personal ambition and motivation, and that their problems should be amenable to solution by application of American technology and expertise. The course modifies such attitudes and enhances a student's critical thinking and problem-solving abilities and communication skills. Course evaluations indicated that students believed

  2. Why Animal Agriculture is Unsustainable

    OpenAIRE

    Heppner, Janae

    2017-01-01

    Animal agriculture causes many unsustainable, destructive problems to individuals, the environment, and the economy. The amount of destruction that animal agriculture does to the planet, to environments and to species is devastating as animal agriculture is the root problem for the worlds increasing temperatures, species extinction, deforestation, and water quality. These issues should come to light when the University of California, Merced talks about its 2020 Project; however, these problem...

  3. Greenhouse Gases and Animal Agriculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, J. (ed.) [Department of Animal Science, Obihiro University of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, Obihiro, Hokkaido (Japan); Young, B.A. (ed.) [The University of Queensland, Gatton, Queensland 4343 (Australia)

    2002-07-01

    Reports from interdisciplinary areas including microbiology, biochemistry, animal nutrition, agricultural engineering and economics are integrated in this proceedings. The major theme of this book is environmental preservation by controlling release of undesirable greenhouse gases to realize the sustainable development of animal agriculture. Technology exists for the effective collection of methane generated from anaerobic fermentation of animal effluent and its use as a biomass energy source. Fossil fuel consumption can be reduced and there can be increased use of locally available energy sources. In addition, promoting environmentally-conscious agriculture which does not rely on the chemical fertilizer can be realized by effective use of animal manure and compost products.

  4. International trade of animal feed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Jingmeng; Liu, Qian; Hou, Yong; Qin, Wei; Lesschen, Jan Peter; Zhang, Fusuo; Oenema, Oene

    2018-01-01

    International trade of food and feed has facilitated the specialization and agglomeration of agricultural production systems in many countries. Confined animals in specialized production systems are increasingly supplied with soybean and maize, imported from other countries. This has increased

  5. Nuclear techniques in animal agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, B.A.

    1981-01-01

    Nuclear technology plays an integral part in research to improve the health and productivity of animals. The use of radioisotopes and ionizing radiations in animal agriculture is briefly reviewed. The radioimmunoassay techniques give the opportunity of measuring and following precisely hormonal patterns in animals over the reproductive cycle. Simply by analysing a sample of blood, milk, or other body fluid, minute hormone concentrations can be assayed and the reproductive status of the animal assessed. The radioimmunoassay procedure uses antigens which are isotopically labelled, usually with 125 I, and antibodies specifically developed for each hormone. The onset of sexual maturity, of oestrus, or the influence of environmental, nutritional or other factors on the reproductive state of an animal can be studied. An example of the use of the radioimmunoassay technique is illustrated in the coordinated research program of the IAEA which focuses on improving domestic buffalo production. Nuclear techniques, particularly the use of stable and radioactive tracers are providing important insights into the functioning of the digestive system of ruminants, its qualitative dynamics and metabolism. For assessing the products of the rumen, particularly volatile fatty acids which become an energy source, and microbial proteins which become a protein source for the animal, materials labelled with 14 C, 3 H, 35 S, 15 N and 32 P are used. As an illustrative example, the results of one study of nitrogen metabolism, microbial protein and rumen bypass protein synthesis in cattle are shown

  6. Animals & Livestock | National Agricultural Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    News Contact Us Search  Log inRegister Home Home Animals & Livestock NEWT: National Extension fisher occupancy of small, 1 km^2^ grid cells of forest habitat. Animals and Livestock html Data from consisting of IL-12Rβ1 and IL-23R, and activates the JAK/STAT signaling pathways. Animals and Livestock html

  7. Agricultural Animal Pest Control. Bulletin 767.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Maxcy P., Jr.

    Included in this training manual are descriptions and pictures of the following agricultural animal pests: mosquitoes, stable flies, horse flies and deer or yellow flies, house flies, horn flies, wound-infesting larvae, lice, mites, ticks, and bots and grubs. Information is given on the life-cycle and breeding habits of the pests. Methods of…

  8. Agricultural Animal Pest Control. Manual 90.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missouri Univ., Columbia. Agricultural Experiment Station.

    This training manual provides information needed to meet the minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides in the agricultural animal pest control category. The text discusses pesticide hazards, application techniques, and pests of livestock such as mosquitoes, flies, grubs and lice. (CS)

  9. DAMAGE BY GAME ANIMALS IN AGRICULTURAL CROPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Sporek

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the recent years the damage caused by the game animals to the agricultural crops has increased considerably. An immediate cause of this situation is an expanding population of big game, especially wild boar. This increase is primarily due to the changes in agrocenoses, dominated by large area maize cropping. The crop damage is compensated by hunting associations leasing the specific areas. The aim of this paper was to present the costs of the compensation incurred by the lease-holders of the hunting grounds. A cause - effect relationship between greater game damage and increased harvest of the game animals was demonstrated. The analysis was based on the data provided in the Statistical Yearbooks of the Central Statistical Office for 2000-2013. The study also indicated a problem of a decline in roe deer population, caused by more intense harvest resulting from farmer compensation claims.

  10. Animal Research International: Advanced Search

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... Animal Research International: Advanced Search ... containing either term; e.g., education OR research; Use parentheses to create more complex queries; e.g., ... Journal of Biomedical Research, African Journal of Biotechnology, African Journal of Chemical Education ...

  11. Animal Research International: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Focus and Scope. Animal Research International is an online Journal inaugurated in University of Nigeria to meet the growing need for an indigenous and authoritative organ for the dissemination of the results of scientific research into the fauna of Africa and the world at large. Concise contributions on investigations on ...

  12. Effects of Amendment of Agricultural Bye Products with Animal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of Amendment of Agricultural Bye Products with Animal Manures on Soil ... Discovery and Innovation ... Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ... into the effectiveness of locally available agricultural by-products as source of nutrient.

  13. The ethics of international animal law

    OpenAIRE

    Kivinen, Tero

    2014-01-01

    This thesis analyzes international animal law, understood broadly as any international legal regulation pertaining to animals. The purpose of the thesis is to explain the moral implications of this branch of international law: how the law perceives the animal and how it believes animals ought to be treated. It attempts to do so by contrasting the law with moral philosophy pertaining to the status and treatment of animals as well as the core characteristics of the branch of animal law found in...

  14. International Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal Homepage Image. The International Journal of Agricultureand Rural Development (IJARD) is an International Journal designed to provide ... Forestry and Wildlife resources, Soil Science, Agricultural Engineering and Food Processing.

  15. Re-thinking the ethics of intensification for animal agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandøe, Peter

    2008-01-01

    In a recent essay published in the prestigious series of readings in ethics issued by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations David Fraser discusses the relationship between animal welfare and modern, intensive animal production. His main view is that it is possible to uphold...... a decent level of animal welfare within intensive animal production and that the best way to promote animal welfare is to reform rather than reject intensive animal production....

  16. Agricultural transformations | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-12-13

    Dec 13, 2010 ... Farmers from developing countries are challenged by these ... the improvement of agricultural practices and human health with the ... in Cayambe consumed more water than one urban hectare in Quito, Ecuador's capital.

  17. Energy from agricultural animal wastes. Rev. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-12-01

    This technology status report discusses the production of animal wastes in the UK, and the environmental problems caused by direct use of the waste as fertilisers or disposal by landfilling. The effects of the moisture content of the waste on the choice of technology is examined, and the use of anaerobic digestion for wetter wastes to produce biogas and combustion of dryer wastes to produce heat, power and phosphate- and potash-rich ash are discussed. Market opportunities, and the economics and environmental impacts of both technologies are investigated

  18. Alternatives to Antibiotics in Animal Agriculture: An Ecoimmunological View

    OpenAIRE

    Sang, Yongming; Blecha, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Ecological immunology (or ecoimmunology) is a new discipline in animal health and immunology that extends immunologists’ views into a natural context where animals and humans have co-evolved. Antibiotic resistance and tolerance (ART) in bacteria are manifested in antibiosis-surviving subsets of resisters and persisters. ART has emerged though natural evolutionary consequences enriched by human nosocomial and agricultural practices, in particular, wide use of antibiotics that overwhelms other ...

  19. Importance of Animals in Agricultural Sustainability and Food Security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Lawrence P; Wulster-Radcliffe, Meghan C; Aaron, Debra K; Davis, Teresa A

    2015-07-01

    A conservative projection shows the world's population growing by 32% (to 9.5 billion) by 2050 and 53% (to 11 billion) by 2100 compared with its current level of 7.2 billion. Because most arable land worldwide is already in use, and water and energy also are limiting, increased production of food will require a substantial increase in efficiency. In this article, we highlight the importance of animals to achieving food security in terms of their valuable contributions to agricultural sustainability, especially in developing countries, and the high nutritional value of animal products in the diet. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  20. International Journal of Applied Agriculture and Apiculture Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The journal publishes current and emerging issues in the following areas: Animal science, crop science, weed science, biological science, food science, Biotechnology in agriculture and apiculture, agricultural extension, agricultural economics, soil science, agricultural technology and aquaculture. It aims to promote the ...

  1. Global warming: Climate scenarios and international agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Downing, T.E.; Parry, M.L.

    1991-01-01

    The potential impacts of climatic change on international agriculture are summarized, drawing on results from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change impacts working group. The four different climate change scenarios used for investigating impacts: historical studies, artificial scenarios, analogues, and general circulation models, are briefly reviewed. Climate change will affect agriculture in three ways: direct effects of increased carbon dioxide concentration, effects of altered weather patterns, and secondary effects on social and economic situations. The effect of increased carbon dioxide concentration is uncertain, but potentially will enhance plant growth and water use efficiency. The sensitivity of grain maize to incremental changes in annual temperature is described, with the suitable zone expanding from the middle of Europe to southern Scandinavia. Potential damage from insect pests may increase under warmer climates, with northerly movement of insect breeding grounds. Temperature increases are likely to lengthen the growing season where temperature is a limiting factor, especially at higher lattitudes in the Northern Hemisphere. Higher temperatures, shorter periods of grain filling, and reduced winter chilling will reduce potential yields in current core grain-growing areas, and changing moisture regimes will shift agricultural patterns. The horn of Africa and parts of western Africa are likely to suffer enhanced food supply vulnerability. 16 refs., 4 figs

  2. Internal control in non - agricultural cooperatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda García Castro

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The process of formation of non-agricultural cooperatives in Cuba, has been a step forward for the Cuban economy, provide primary care represents economic sustainability for the country. A necessary tool for achieving quality in the provision of services and products, it represents the audit process. In this sense the present work was aimed in the Council of the Provincial Administration, in order to strengthen the functioning of non-agricultural cooperatives. Theoretical and empirical methods, techniques, surveys and interviews with leaders and workers, aimed to assess the knowledge, applications for the creation of cooperatives, processing, approval, establishment and operation, based on guidelines established in internal control were applied; and descriptive statistics for processing information, which identified the important work that developed the organization, which was able to promote the operation of non-agricultural cooperatives, as well as the tools necessary for the production of income and consequently improve the quality of services. The diagnosis made it possible to identify the point in the process, so disruption to the operation. Undoubtedly, every experiment needs time to mature and gain experience, besides confirming Waste Disposal workers cooperatives and agencies to jump-start this process. Improvement measures were implemented in order to increase the economic efficiency of each process, in response to various guidelines of Economic and Social Policy of the Party and the Revolution, adopted at the Sixth Party Congress and Conference Objectives.

  3. Countermeasures for reduction of radioactive contamination of farm animals and animal products in agricultural ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poeschl, M.

    2006-01-01

    Contamination of food products reaching the consumer may be a serious problem following radioactive contamination deposited in the agricultural environment. A wide variety of measures is available to reduce or prevent the transfer of radionuclides through the food-chain and hence reduce the radiation dose to the consumer. This paper reviews both literature sources and practice of applying agricultural countermeasures: Interventions at the soil-plant step, at the plant-animal step, and at the foodstuff-man step. In practice, the most effective countermeasures which can be used to reduce radionuclide contamination of animals in agricultural ecosystems will be obtained by a combination of both management changes and the use of chemical binders to prevent gut absorption. Social, economic, and practical considerations of the countermeasures such as availability, technical feasibility, acceptability and side-effects need to be also taken into account. (authors)

  4. Review of Russian language studies on radionuclide behaviour in agricultural animals: part 1. Gut absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fesenko, S; Isamov, N; Howard, B J; Voigt, G; Beresford, N A; Sanzharova, N

    2007-01-01

    An extensive programme of experiments was conducted in the former USSR on transfer of radionuclides to a wide range of different agricultural animals. Only a few of these studies were made available in the English language literature or taken into account in international reviews of gastrointestinal uptake. The paper gives extended information on Russian research on radionuclide absorption in the gut of farm animals performed in controlled field and laboratory experiments from the 1960s to the current time. The data presented in the paper, together with English language values, will be used to provide recommended values of absorption specifically for farm animals within the revision of the IAEA Handbook of Parameter Values IAEA [International Atomic Energy Agency, 1994. Handbook of Parameter Values for the Prediction of Radionuclide Transfer in Temperate Environments, IAEA technical reports series No. 364. International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna].

  5. Review of Russian language studies on radionuclide behaviour in agricultural animals: part 1. Gut absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fesenko, S.; Isamov, N.; Howard, B.J.; Voigt, G.; Beresford, N.A.; Sanzharova, N.

    2007-01-01

    An extensive programme of experiments was conducted in the former USSR on transfer of radionuclides to a wide range of different agricultural animals. Only a few of these studies were made available in the English language literature or taken into account in international reviews of gastrointestinal uptake. The paper gives extended information on Russian research on radionuclide absorption in the gut of farm animals performed in controlled field and laboratory experiments from the 1960s to the current time. The data presented in the paper, together with English language values, will be used to provide recommended values of absorption specifically for farm animals within the revision of the IAEA Handbook of Parameter Values IAEA [International Atomic Energy Agency, 1994. Handbook of Parameter Values for the Prediction of Radionuclide Transfer in Temperate Environments, IAEA technical reports series No. 364. International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna

  6. Mitigation of Nitrogen Emissions from Animal Agriculture in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oenema, O.

    2011-12-01

    More than 70% of the utilized agricultural area (187 Mha) in the 27 Member States of the European Union (EU-27) is used for animal production. In addition, a considerable amount of animal feed is imported. Dairy and beef cattle, pigs, and poultry are the dominant animal species. Total livestock density is highest in the Netherlands, Belgium, Ireland, Denmark and some regions in France, Germany and Italy. The mean nitrogen (N) retention in animal products in EU-27 in 2005 was 20% for milk, 8% for beef, 25% for pork, 38% for poultry and 28% for egg production. This indicates that dairy cows excreted on average 80% of the N intake, beef cattle 92%, pigs 75%, poultry 62% and layers 72%. There was a large variation in N retention between countries. Animal manures and nitrogen (N) fertilizers are main sources of N emissions. In 2005, mean N excretion by animals ranged from less than 25 kg per ha per year in Bulgaria to nearly 250 kg per ha in The Netherlands. On average 25% of the total amount of N excreted was lost as ammonia (NH3) to the atmosphere, though with a considerable variation between countries. About 10% was lost as NH3-N from housing systems, 9% from manure application to land, 4% from manure storage and treatment facilities, and 3% from grazing. Nitrogen leaching was in the same order of magnitude. Animal production also had a considerable share in the total emissions of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere (range 5-25%). Especially dairy cattle and beef cattle contribute to the emissions of methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) to the atmosphere. Considerable efforts are being made to decrease N emissions from agriculture in EU-27. Good agricultural practices and mandatory emission mitigation measures are enforced through EU environmental policies, including Nitrates Directive, National Emissions Ceiling Directive, and Water Framework Directive. Some countries have succeeded to decrease the NH3 emissions to air and N leaching losses to groundwater and

  7. Countermeasures for reduction of radioactive contamination of farm animals and animal products in agricultural ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poeschl, M.

    2006-01-01

    A wide variety of measures is available to reduce or prevent the transfer of radionuclides through the food-chain and hence reduce the radiation dose to the consumer. In this mini-review, both literature sources and the practice of applying agricultural countermeasures are summarized very shortly: Interventions at the soil-plant step, at the plant-animal step, and at the foodstuff-man step. (authors)

  8. Ethical, social, environmental and economic issues in animal agriculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kesavan, P C; Swaminathan, M S [Research Foundation, Third Cross Street, Taramani Institutional Area, Chennai - 600 113 (India); net, mssrfed@vsnl

    2003-07-01

    Livestock are vital to sustainable agriculture in most developing countries. In Asia, in general, the integration of livestock, fish and crops has proved to be a sustainable system through centuries of experience. Traditional use of dung for manuring the fields and bullocks for ploughing is the 'biodynamic farming', which has special significance in dry land agriculture comprising about 65 percent of India's cropped area. Gene-based technologies will be useful for developing special draught breeds of cattle so that their valuable source of energy remains available especially to the small and marginal farmers. Further, the livestock in the developing countries form an essential part of an integrated agricultural system and, therefore, development strategies for gene-based applications should consider the total production system (i.e., breeding fodder and forage crops, animal and crop disease and pest management etc). The gene-technologies of relevance to the developing countries are (i) rumen molecular techniques for reducing methane production and for increasing protein and energy supply; ruminant food stuffs currently used in India and a few other developing countries are fibrous, low in nitrogen, and contain anti-nutritive factors, (ii) improving animal productivity in developing countries by manipulation of nutrition in utero to alter gene expression of key metabolic hormones and enzymes for a long period after birth in cattle, (iii) genetic resistance to Helminthes in sheep, and (iv) molecular methods of diagnosis, molecular epidemiology and treatment of swine fever. Although not gene-based, artificial insemination (AI) for genetic improvement of dairy cattle and buffalo, and embryo-transfer (ET) for rapid multiplication of elite cattle are also relevant. Cloning (of the 'Dolly' - the sheep kind) will be useful to revive the rare and endangered animal species such as one-horned rhinoceros, swamp deer, wild buffalo and dugongs in India, for restoring

  9. Ethical, social, environmental and economic issues in animal agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kesavan, P.C.; Swaminathan, M.S.

    2005-01-01

    Livestock are vital to subsistence farming and sustainable livelihood in most developing countries. Of India's population of one billion people, more than 70 percent live in the rural areas. India also has more than 30 percent of the world's bovine population. This has resulted in not only egalitarian ownership of cattle, but also in an almost inseparable cultural and symbiotic relationship between rural families and their farm animals, particularly large ruminants. It is against this scenario that the ethical, social and environmental issues of gene-based technologies need to be carefully evaluated. The use of transgenic cows with modified milk composition or for any other purpose has little economic benefit in a system of 'production by masses', as typifies India and a few other developing countries, compared with 'mass production' systems in developed countries. Rather, the use of rDNA technology for developing drought-resistant fodder and forage crops is likely to bring immediate relief to most regions. Cattle, particularly in India, have poor quality feeds and this results in poor nutrition, with production of large amounts of methane. Irnmunocastration -through biotechnological means would also be advantageous. Developing countries like India need sustainable livelihood security, and, in this regard, gene-based technologies in animal agriculture seem more to raise ethical, social and environmental concerns, rather than being likely to transform 'subsistence farming' into vibrant agribusiness. Ethical issues concerning animal welfare, rights and integrity are also discussed, in addition to social, environmental and economic issues. (author)

  10. Energy Supply- Production of Fuel from Agricultural and Animal Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabriel Miller

    2009-03-25

    The Society for Energy and Environmental Research (SEER) was funded in March 2004 by the Department of Energy, under grant DE-FG-36-04GO14268, to produce a study, and oversee construction and implementation, for the thermo-chemical production of fuel from agricultural and animal waste. The grant focuses on the Changing World Technologies (CWT) of West Hempstead, NY, thermal conversion process (TCP), which converts animal residues and industrial food processing biproducts into fuels, and as an additional product, fertilizers. A commercial plant was designed and built by CWT, partially using grant funds, in Carthage, Missouri, to process animal residues from a nearby turkey processing plant. The DOE sponsored program consisted of four tasks. These were: Task 1 Optimization of the CWT Plant in Carthage - This task focused on advancing and optimizing the process plant operated by CWT that converts organic waste to fuel and energy. Task 2 Characterize and Validate Fuels Produced by CWT - This task focused on testing of bio-derived hydrocarbon fuels from the Carthage plant in power generating equipment to determine the regulatory compliance of emissions and overall performance of the fuel. Task 3 Characterize Mixed Waste Streams - This task focused on studies performed at Princeton University to better characterize mixed waste incoming streams from animal and vegetable residues. Task 4 Fundamental Research in Waste Processing Technologies - This task focused on studies performed at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) on the chemical reformation reaction of agricultural biomass compounds in a hydrothermal medium. Many of the challenges to optimize, improve and perfect the technology, equipment and processes in order to provide an economically viable means of creating sustainable energy were identified in the DOE Stage Gate Review, whose summary report was issued on July 30, 2004. This summary report appears herein as Appendix 1, and the findings of the report

  11. Green House Gas Control and Agricultural Biomass for Sustainable Animal Agriculture in Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Takahashi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Important green house gases (GHG attributed to animal agriculture are methane (CH4 and nitrous oxide (N2O, though carbon dioxide (CO2 contributes almost half of total greenhouse effect. Rumen CH4 production in an enteric fermentation can be accounted as the biggest anthropogenic source. Some of prebiotics and probiotics have been innovated to mitigate rumen CH4 emission. The possible use of agricultural biomass consisted of non-edible parts of crop plants such as cellulose and hemi cellulose and animal wastes was proposed as a renewable energy and nitrogen sources. The ammonia stripping from digested slurry of animal manure in biogas plant applied three options of nitrogen recycling to mitigate nitrous oxide emission. In the first option of the ammonia stripping, the effect of ammonolysis on feed value of cellulose biomass was evaluated on digestibility, energy metabolism and protein utilization. Saccharification of the NH3 treated cellulose biomass was confirmed in strictly anaerobic incubation with rumen cellulolytic bacteria, Ruminoccous flavefaciens, to produce bio-ethanol as the second option of ammonia stripping. In an attempt of NH3 fuel cell, the reformed hydrogen from the NH3 stripped from 20 liter of digested slurry in thermophilic biogas plant could generate 0.12 W electricity with proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEM as the third option.

  12. Agriculture and Food Security | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    1MB). Funding. The Agriculture and Food Security program funds research primarily through competitive calls. Announcements and details on eligibility and thematic focus for funding opportunities will be posted on IDRC's funding page.

  13. Th biodistribution in internal contamination of animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciubotariu, M.; Danis, A.; Dumitrescu, G.; Cucu, M.

    1999-01-01

    Fissionable elements (U,Th) internal contamination have been studied using the fission track method as analysis method of the U and/or Th contaminant elements and Wistar-London breed rats as experiment animals. Different ways to obtain internal contaminations have been investigated: ingestion, inhalation, absorption by skin and through wounds. After the U internal contamination study was carried out, in this stage the Th internal contamination by ingestion is in progress. Using the identical aliquot parts of a solution calibrated in Th, corresponding to an Annual Limit Intake, three Wistar-London breed rats were contaminated. They were kept in normal life conditions and under permanent medical surveillance up to their sacrification. The animals were sacrificed at different time intervals after their contamination: 2 days, 7 days and 14 days, respectively. After the sacrification, their vital organs were sampled, weighed, calcined, re-weighed and finally analysed by track detection using the fission track micro-mappings technique. Also, their evacuations were sampled every 24 hours weighed, calcined and analysed in the same way as the vital organs. The Th fission track micro-mappings technique was used in the following conditions: - mica-muscovite as track detector pre-etched for fossil tracks 18 h in HF-40 per cent at room temperature; - the neutron irradiations were performed in the nuclear reactor VVR-S Bucharest at the neutron fluences of 3.10 15 - 2.10 16 fast neutrons/c m 2 ; - the visualization of the Th induced fission tracks were obtained by chemical etching in HF-40 per cent, 3 h at room temperature; - the Th track micro-mappings obtained in track detectors were studied by optical microscopy using a stereo microscope WILD M7S for ensemble study (X6-X31) and a binocular ZEISS JENA microscope for qualitative and quantitative studies (X150). The biological reference materials calibrated in Th were prepared in our laboratory using the calcined organs and the

  14. URBAN AGRICULTURE DIVERSITY IN BRITAIN: BUILDING RESILIENCE THROUGH INTERNATIONAL EXPERIENCES

    OpenAIRE

    Gerrard , Ailbhe

    2010-01-01

    N° ISBN - 978-2-7380-1284-5; International audience; Diversity of urban agriculture (UA) in Britain could reduce food security impacts if a crisis occured in industrial food production systems. Industrial agriculture (IA) both causes and suffers from a lack of resilience: environmental, financial and structural. In Britain, the allotment system, previously an important form of UA, now grossly insufficient to replace the output of industrial agriculture, particularly in London. With these poin...

  15. Nuclear techniques in food and agriculture. 1980-1994. International Atomic Energy Agency publications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-04-01

    The catalogue lists all publications of the International Atomic Energy Agency dealing with Food And Agriculture during the period 1980-1994. The major subjects covered include: food irradiation, insect and pest control, mutation plant breeding, plant biotechnology, soil fertility and irrigation, agrochemicals animal production and health

  16. On the Th internal contamination of animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciubotariu, M.; Danis, A.; Dumitrescu, G.

    2000-01-01

    Fissionable elements (U,Th) internal contamination have been studied using the fission track method as analysis method of the U and/or Th contaminant elements and Wistar-London breed rats as experiment animals. In our previous studies on the Th internal contamination, we investigated the Th biodistribution and retention in all the vital organs of the contaminated rats. In this stage, we continued this study with the Th elimination investigation through urine and excrements. The identical aliquot parts of a solution calibrated in Th, corresponding to an Annual Limit Intake, three Wistar-London breed rats were contaminated. They were kept in normal life conditions and under permanent medical surveillance up to their sacrifice. The animals were sacrificed at different time intervals after their contamination: RAT 1 = 2 days, RAT 2 = 7 days and RAT 3 = 14 days, respectively. After the sacrifice, their vital organs were sampled, weighed, calcined, re-weighed and finally analysed by track detection using the fission track micro-mappings technique. The evacuations were sampled every 24 hours: urine, on the filter paper, and all excrements balls. The samples were weighed before and after calcination and analysed in the same way as the vital organs. The Th fission track micro-mappings technique was used in the following conditions: - mica-muscovite as track detector pre-etched for fossil tracks 18 h in HF-40 per cent at room temperature; - the neutron irradiations were performed in the nuclear reactor WWR-S Bucharest at the neutron fluences of 3·10 15 - 2·10 16 fast neutrons/cm 2 ; - the visualization of the Th induced fission tracks was obtained by chemical etching in HF-40 %, 3 h at room temperature; - the Th track micromappings obtained in track detectors were studied by optical microscopy using a stereo microscope WILD M7S for ensemble study (X6-X31) and a binocular Zeiss JENA microscope for qualitative and quantitative studies (X150). The investigation of the Th

  17. Animal Agriculture in a Changing Climate Online Course: An Effective Tool for Creating Extension Competency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitefield, Elizabeth; Schmidt, David; Witt-Swanson, Lindsay; Smith, David; Pronto, Jennifer; Knox, Pam; Powers, Crystal

    2016-01-01

    There is a need to create competency among Extension professionals on the topic of climate change adaptation and mitigation in animal agriculture. The Animal Agriculture in a Changing Climate online course provides an easily accessible, user-friendly, free, and interactive experience for learning science-based information on a national and…

  18. Identifying Best Practices for Engaging Faculty in International Agricultural Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexa J. Lamm

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Universities are being called upon to internationalize curriculum as the need for a globally competent workforce increases. Without globally-competent faculty, international integration within higher education cannot occur. Literature indicates that participation in short-term international agricultural education experiences is important to increasing agricultural faculty members’ cultural awareness. However, the best way to design and implement such experiences for faculty is uncharted. The purpose of the study was to identify best practices for facilitating a short-term international education experience for faculty in the agricultural and life sciences that encouraged learning, discussion, and reflection leading faculty to further integrate international perspectives in their agricultural courses in the U.S. Through a qualitative research design, reflective observations and statements from a planning team conducting short-term international agricultural education experience in Ecuador were used to provide a thick, rich description of the successes/challenges faced while designing and implementing the experience. The results provided a list of best practices future planning team members can use to emphasize learning before, during, and after a short-term international agricultural education experience for faculty.

  19. The Costs of Using Draft Animals for Sustainable Agricultural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    technology is more suitable both socially and economically viable Jor Jarmers with tradition in animal ... India, IndoneSia, Nepal, North. Africa and most of ..... The economics of animal power in KOinadugu district, Siera Leone: A case study of the work oxen introduction and credit programme. Animal power in farming system ...

  20. BIG DATA ANALYTICS AND PRECISION ANIMAL AGRICULTURE SYMPOSIUM: Machine learning and data mining advance predictive big data analysis in precision animal agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morota, Gota; Ventura, Ricardo V; Silva, Fabyano F; Koyama, Masanori; Fernando, Samodha C

    2018-04-14

    Precision animal agriculture is poised to rise to prominence in the livestock enterprise in the domains of management, production, welfare, sustainability, health surveillance, and environmental footprint. Considerable progress has been made in the use of tools to routinely monitor and collect information from animals and farms in a less laborious manner than before. These efforts have enabled the animal sciences to embark on information technology-driven discoveries to improve animal agriculture. However, the growing amount and complexity of data generated by fully automated, high-throughput data recording or phenotyping platforms, including digital images, sensor and sound data, unmanned systems, and information obtained from real-time noninvasive computer vision, pose challenges to the successful implementation of precision animal agriculture. The emerging fields of machine learning and data mining are expected to be instrumental in helping meet the daunting challenges facing global agriculture. Yet, their impact and potential in "big data" analysis have not been adequately appreciated in the animal science community, where this recognition has remained only fragmentary. To address such knowledge gaps, this article outlines a framework for machine learning and data mining and offers a glimpse into how they can be applied to solve pressing problems in animal sciences.

  1. International Conference on Information Technology and Agricultural Engineering (ICITAE 2011)

    CERN Document Server

    Sambath, Sabo; Information Technology and Agricultural Engineering

    2012-01-01

    This volume comprises the papers from 2011 International Conference on Information Technology and Agricultural Engineering (ICITAE 2011).  2011 International Conference on Information Technology and Agricultural Engineering (ICITAE 2011) has been held in Sanya, China, December 1-2, 2011. All the papers have been peer reviewed by the selected experts. These papers represent the latest development in the field of materials manufacturing technology, spanning from the fundamentals to new technologies and applications. Specially, these papers cover the topics of Information Technology and Agricultural Engineering. This book provides a greatly valuable reference for researchers in the field of Information Technology and Agricultural Engineering who wish to further understand the underlying mechanisms and create innovative and practical techniques, systems and processes. It should also be particularly useful for engineers in information technology and agriculture who are responsible for the efficient and effective ...

  2. Dynamics of cytogenetic indexes of agriculture animals dwelling on the Semipalatinsk test site territory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukusheva, M.K.; Sejsebaev, A.T.; Karabalin, B.K.; Tusupbaev, V.I.; Zhapbasov, R.Zh.

    2001-01-01

    Aim of the work is analysis of genetic processes taking place in the agricultural animal populations exposed to constant radiation due to increased radiation background in their dwelling places. By the cytogenetic methods the sheep, cattle and horses were examined. It was revealed cytogenetic effect manifested in form of a high genome genetic instability level for studied animals. It is suggested, that the effect is caused with low chronic ionizing radiation doses exposure on the agricultural animals somatic cells

  3. International standards: the World Organisation for Animal Health Terrestrial Animal Health Code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiermann, A B

    2015-04-01

    This paper provides a description of the international standards contained in the TerrestrialAnimal Health Code of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) that relate to the prevention and control of vector-borne diseases. It identifies the rights and obligations of OIE Member Countries regarding the notification of animal disease occurrences, as well as the recommendations to be followed for a safe and efficient international trade of animals and their products.

  4. The Costs of Using Draft Animals for Sustainable Agricultural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The area with tradition in cattle keeping has advantage of low cost by 39% less as compared to area with little tradition. It was concluded that animal traction technology is more suitable both socially and economically viable for farmers with tradition in animal keeping. Other technologies such as the use of single axle tractors ...

  5. Growth and development symposium: Fetal programming in animal agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetal programming is the ability to improve animal production and well-being by altering the maternal environment and holds enormous challenges and great opportunities for researchers and the animal industry. A symposium was held to provide an overview of current knowledge of fetal programming in re...

  6. Urban Animal Agriculture: Consumer Perspective Of Rabbit Meat In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Traditionally, agricultural research has focused on production issues even though demand issues should usefully complement production research. Focusing on demand issues will help to improve decision-making in production and marketing activities. With all the merits of rabbit meat, the study revealed that a large ...

  7. A commentary on domestic animals as dual-purpose models that benefit agricultural and biomedical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireland, J J; Roberts, R M; Palmer, G H; Bauman, D E; Bazer, F W

    2008-10-01

    Research on domestic animals (cattle, swine, sheep, goats, poultry, horses, and aquatic species) at land grant institutions is integral to improving the global competitiveness of US animal agriculture and to resolving complex animal and human diseases. However, dwindling federal and state budgets, years of stagnant funding from USDA for the Competitive State Research, Education, and Extension Service National Research Initiative (CSREES-NRI) Competitive Grants Program, significant reductions in farm animal species and in numbers at land grant institutions, and declining enrollment for graduate studies in animal science are diminishing the resources necessary to conduct research on domestic species. Consequently, recruitment of scientists who use such models to conduct research relevant to animal agriculture and biomedicine at land grant institutions is in jeopardy. Concerned stakeholders have addressed this critical problem by conducting workshops, holding a series of meetings with USDA and National Institutes of Health (NIH) officials, and developing a white paper to propose solutions to obstacles impeding the use of domestic species as dual-purpose animal models for high-priority problems common to agriculture and biomedicine. In addition to shortfalls in research support and human resources, overwhelming use of mouse models in biomedicine, lack of advocacy from university administrators, long-standing cultural barriers between agriculture and human medicine, inadequate grantsmanship by animal scientists, and a scarcity of key reagents and resources are major roadblocks to progress. Solutions will require a large financial enhancement of USDA's Competitive Grants Program, educational programs geared toward explaining how research using agricultural animals benefits both animal agriculture and human health, and the development of a new mind-set in land grant institutions that fosters greater cooperation among basic and applied researchers. Recruitment of

  8. TECHNOLOGICAL IMPERATIVE IMPACT OF GLOBALIZATION ON INTERNATIONAL AGRICULTURAL ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. Кozlova

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The article highlights the factors influencing agricultural production towards global market. The study consists basic fundamental imperatives of globalization on the agricultural sector in international economic relations. The article analyzes the strategic priorities of the international agricultural sector, which includes financial and credit support, legal aspects, processes and integration of organizational structures. Technological imperatives require a large structural and institutional turn in the Ukrainian economy on the basis of current trends in the global economy, scientific and technical potential. There is a growing importance of organizing and conducting international level in the field of technological forecasting. This type of prediction is considered as backbone component in strategic forecasting and economic development programming.

  9. Radioresistance of immunized animals in internal irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kal'nitskij, S.A.; Ponomareva, T.V.; Shubik, V.M.

    1981-01-01

    The influence of an immunization with bacterial vaccines and antimeasles-gamma-globulin on the radioresistance of raceless white mice was studied. In the vaccinated animals a higher survival rate and duration of life, a better general condition and a better curve of weight and stronger physical stamina were stated compared to the merely irradiated mice. The higher radioresistance is ascribed to the stimulation of cellular and humoral factors of the unspecific protection against infection, to the repair of the lymphoid tissue of the immunized animals and to the decrease in autosensibilization. (author)

  10. The role of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) to facilitate the international trade in animals and animal products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brückner, G K

    2009-03-01

    The international trade in animals and animal products has become a sensitive issue for both developed and developing countries by posing an important risk for the international spread of animal and human pathogens whilst at the same time being an essential activity to ensure world-wide food security and food safety. The OIE has since its founding in 1924, applied a democratic and transparent decision-making process to continuously develop and review international standards for animal health and zoonoses to facilitate trade in animals and animal products. The role of the OIE is also mandated by the World Trade Organization (WTO) as international reference point for standards related to animal health. In support of its overall objective of promoting animal health world-wide, the OIE has also launched several other initiatives such as the improvement of the governance of veterinary services within its member countries and territories and to enhance the availability of diagnostic and scientific expertise on a more even global geographical distribution. Several trade facilitating concepts such as country, zonal and compartment freedom from disease as well the trade in disease free commodities has been introduced to enhance the trade in animals and animal products for all its members including those from developing and transitional countries who are still in the process of enhancing to full compliance with international sanitary standards.

  11. Animal Science importance and purpose in Agriculture Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delgado-Callisaya Pedro Ángel1

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ciencia Animal o Zootecnia es la ciencia que trata de la producción, transformación y comercio eficiente de animales de interés humano, en el cual se toma en cuenta criterios éticos, de sostenibilidad y equidad. La ciencia animal tiene diversas denominaciones a nivel internacional, las cuales reflejan la estructura curricular y el énfasis en la formación profesional en cada país o grupo de países como: Zootecnia en Latinoamérica (Centroamérica. Brasil, Colombia, Argentina, Perú y Bolivia. Animal Science (Ciencia animal en Norteamérica (Estados Unidos y Canadá, Australia, Asia y Reino Unido. La producción animal está basada en cuatro pilares fundamentales: la nutrición y alimentación animal, la genética y mejoramiento animal, la infraestructura adecuada y la salud animal (Buxadé 1995a. La transformación de productos y subproductos de origen animal es hasta la fecha una necesidad vital, pues sin estos insumos ningún conglomerado humano hubiera podido subsistir, porque nos proveen alimentos de alto valor biológico y nutritivo, otros dan productos para el abrigo, para el trabajo e incluso para el esparcimiento. El comercio eficiente de animales de interés humano siempre tuvo, tiene y tendrá una finalidad utilitaria, En todos los casos, su explotación mueve capitales y suministra innumerables fuente de trabajo al hombre. Las ciencias animales consideran las leyes de herencia, ecología y alimentación, influencia del medio ambiente, procesos de multiplicación, la utilización de la fisiología de la nutrición y alimentación en función de una mejor y más económica producción (Besse 1986, Buxadé 1995a.. Además del mejor criterio de utilización de los productos y subproductos utilizando la más adecuada tecnología de procesamiento de alimentos obtenidos de los animales para obtener el precio más adecuado en el mercado. Asimismo, Sean cuales fueren las técnicas de la producción animal, existen una serie de factores

  12. Animal-based agriculture, phosphorus management and water quality in Brazil: options for the future

    OpenAIRE

    Shigaki Francirose; Sharpley Andrew; Prochnow Luís Ignácio

    2006-01-01

    Eutrophication has become a major threat to water quality in the U.S., Europe, and Australasia. In most cases, freshwater eutrophication is accelerated by increased inputs of phosphorus (P), of which agricultural runoff is now a major contributor, due to intensification of crop and animal production systems since the early 1990s'. Once little information is available on the impacts of Brazilian agriculture in water quality, recent changes in crop and animal production systems in Brazil were e...

  13. Modelling animal waste pathogen transport from agricultural land to streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandey, Pramod K; Soupir, Michelle L; Ikenberry, Charles

    2014-01-01

    The transport of animal waste pathogens from crop land to streams can potentially elevate pathogen levels in stream water. Applying animal manure into crop land as fertilizers is a common practice in developing as well as in developed countries. Manure application into the crop land, however, can cause potential human health. To control pathogen levels in ambient water bodies such as streams, improving our understanding of pathogen transport at farm scale as well as at watershed scale is required. To understand the impacts of crop land receiving animal waste as fertilizers on stream's pathogen levels, here we investigate pathogen indicator transport at watershed scale. We exploited watershed scale hydrological model to estimate the transport of pathogens from the crop land to streams. Pathogen indicator levels (i.e., E. coli levels) in the stream water were predicted. With certain assumptions, model results are reasonable. This study can be used as guidelines for developing the models for calculating the impacts of crop land's animal manure on stream water

  14. Animal Agriculture as Panacea for Increased Protein Intake in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The world's population is expected to increase from 6 billion to more than 7.5 billion by 2020. This burgeoning population may require a doubling of animal protein and a corresponding doubling of feed grains demand. Nigeria is currently the most populous black nation in the world with the threat of nutritional deficiency ...

  15. Rare Earth Elements in Agriculture with Emphasis on Animal Husbandry

    OpenAIRE

    Redling, Kerstin

    2006-01-01

    Calculations performed in consideration of a continuously increasing world population have revealed that animal production needs to be enhanced worldwide by at least 2 % each year so as to provide sufficient feed. Yet, effective growth promoting agents, in terms of in-feed antibiotics, have been completely banned throughout Europe due to the possible development and spread of multiresistance in bacteria. New efficient, safe and inexpensive feed additives are therefore needed in order to maintai...

  16. Exploring the international policy dimension of sustainability in Dutch agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, F.M.; Leneman, H.; Groeneveld, R.A.

    2007-01-01

    The report offers an overview of experiences in France and the United Kingdom as regards efforts to promote sustainability in agriculture. It also identifies international policy constraints on national efforts to promote sustainability. In addition, it explores opportunities for and threats to the

  17. Can Integration of Agriculture With International Trade Increase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Human activity is greatly constituted by transactions and exchange that can impoverish primary producers while unfairly making others rich in an inequitable manner. Integration of agriculture into international trade is always thought and assumed to bring greater income benefit to farmers, but is this really the case, ...

  18. Fuel gas production from animal and agricultural residues and biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wise, D. L; Wentworth, R. L

    1978-05-30

    Progress was reported by all contractors. Topics presented include: solid waste to methane gas; pipeline fuel gas from an environmental cattle feed lot; heat treatment of organics for increasing anaerobic biodegradability; promoting faster anaerobic digestion; permselective membrane control of algae and wood digesters for increased production and chemicals recovery; anaerobic fermentation of agricultural residues; pilot plant demonstration of an anaerobic, fixed-film bioreactor for wastewater treatment; enhancement of methane production in the anaerobic diegestion of sewage; evaluation of agitation concepts for biogasification of sewage sludge; operation of a 50,000 gallon anaerobic digester; biological conversion of biomass to methane; dirt feedlot residue experiments; anaerobic fermentation of livestock and crop residues; current research on methanogenesis in Europe; and summary of EPA programs in digestion technology. (DC)

  19. The Role of Animals in Eco-functional Intensification of Organic Agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaarst, Mette

    2015-01-01

    Eco-functional intensification is understood as building synergies in multi-functional and resilient agricultural systems in harmony with their surrounding environment and human systems, to the benefit of diversified production of food and beyond, as in, for example, ecosystem services. Integration...... of animals into eco-functionally intensified agricultural systems to enhance agricultural, ecological and social systems, can contribute to driving a future sustainable development of organic agricultural and food systems. This approach may respond to challenges of an increasing industrialization...... to respond to current challenges in constantly changing environments, e.g., climate change. A necessary driver in transition towards more eco-functionally intensified agricultural and food systems is a governance system which protect the actors without a voice, e.g., ecosystems, pollinators, animals...

  20. 25 CFR 166.901 - How will the BIA select an agriculture intern?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How will the BIA select an agriculture intern? 166.901... PERMITS Agriculture Education, Education Assistance, Recruitment, and Training § 166.901 How will the BIA select an agriculture intern? (a) The purpose of the agriculture intern program is to ensure the future...

  1. International Survey on agriculture-climate change policy instruments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernagut, M.; Priem, M.; Sorgeloos, L.

    2011-09-15

    The title study provides an international overview of agriculture-climate change policy instruments for the reduction of methane and nitrous oxide emissions. The aim of this study is to clarify how national and/or international agriculture-climate-policies could or should be instrumented during the coming three to five years to achieve significant emission reductions of methane and nitrous oxide in the Dutch agricultural sector by 2020. The study includes an international survey, a quick-scan inventory of useful and inspiring examples of policy and reduction measures to reduce non CO2 greenhouse gases. ERM used an approach consisting out of three phases. In the first phase countries were selected on the basis of emissions and Kyoto protocol targets. In the second phase policy measures of these countries were listed, based on publicly available national and international sources. In a third phase a sub-set of this selection was analyzed in-depth through communications with local focal points and additional review of policy documents, to enhance the understanding of context, impact and results of each of these policies and measures.

  2. Motives of consumers following a vegan diet and their attitudes towards animal agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Meike; Busch, Claudia; Rödiger, Manika; Hamm, Ulrich

    2016-10-01

    The number of consumers following a vegan diet has notably increased in many industrialised countries and it is likely that their influence on the food sector will continue to grow. The aim of the present study was to identify different segments of consumers according to their motivation for following a vegan diet. Another objective was to analyse the attitudes of these consumers towards animal agriculture. The main focus was to determine whether all consumers following a vegan diet oppose animal agriculture in general or if some of these consumers accept certain forms of animal agriculture. The 2014 study, conducted at seven vegan supermarkets in Germany, was based on face-to-face interviews with 329 consumers following a vegan diet. The open question on consumer motivations for adopting a vegan diet revealed three main motives: Animal-related motives (mentioned by 89.7% of the respondents), motives related to personal well-being and/or health (69.3%), and environment-related motives (46.8%). The two-step cluster analysis identified five consumer segments with different motivations for following a vegan diet. The vast majority of respondents (81.8%) mentioned more than one motive. We conclude that making a dichotomous segmentation into ethical versus self-oriented consumers, as previous authors have done, disregards the fact that many consumers following a vegan diet are driven by more than one motive. The consumer segments had significantly different attitudes towards animal agriculture. We identified consumers following a vegan diet (about one third of the sample) who might be open to forms of animal agriculture guaranteeing animal welfare standards going beyond current practices. The present study has interesting implications for the food sector and the agricultural sector. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. For the sake of production. How agricultural colleges shape students' view on animal welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Jesper; Sandøe, Peter; Anneberg, Inger

    2016-01-01

    that there are only minor differences between the groups in the way good animal welfare is justified as both groups mainly view good animal welfare as a means of obtaining profitable production. In contrast, views which justify good animal welfare on the basis of the animals’ wellbeing or their right to have......The aim of this paper is to document and discuss the way future farmers’ views on animal welfare are formed and shaped during their studies at agricultural colleges. The paper is based on qualitative interviews with first year students and more advanced students in Denmark. It is shown...

  4. Representative sampling of animal feed and mixtures in the Danish agricultural sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lars; Esbensen, Kim Harry

    2005-01-01

    Sampling of grain, animal feeds (solid & liquid) including important mineral mixtures in the Danish agricultural sector is subject to an ongoing investigation with the objective of improving existing (sub-optimal) sampling procedures. Results from the first 6 months are presented here; the projec...

  5. Apply Pesticides Correctly, A Guide for Commercial Applicators: Agricultural Pest Control -- Animal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wamsley, Mary Ann, Ed.; Vermeire, Donna M., Ed.

    This guide contains basic information to meet specific standards for pesticide applicators. The text is concerned with the common pests of agricultural animals such as flies, ticks, bots, lice and mites. Methods for controlling these pests and appropriate pesticides are discussed. (CS)

  6. Establishment approval in international trade of animal products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rau, M.L.; Ge, L.; Valeeva, N.I.; Wagenberg, van C.P.A.

    2012-01-01

    This report provides an overview of different approaches of establishment approval as well as its implementation and organisation in international agrifood trade. The focus is on animal products as establishment approval is particularly used for exporting these products. Based on trade data, 8

  7. Performance and management of draught animals in agriculture in sub-Saharan Africa: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, R A; Vall, E

    1998-10-01

    Use of animal power generally enables farmers in sub-Saharan Africa to increase agricultural production and improve the quality of life. Effective use of working animals depends on an understanding of the capabilities of the animals for work, their husbandry requirements and the factors which can influence their performance. These issues are reviewed in this paper in the context of the use of animal power in agriculture in sub-Saharan Africa. The type of animal used for work determines power available to the farmer. The performance of donkeys, horses and cattle have been compared in work tests. Equids are more suited to rapid low draught activities where their faster speed can be used to advantage. At higher draught forces, where speed is less important, the additional weight and power of cattle are an advantage. Use of heart rate recovery after work gives a reasonable indication of fatigue and fitness of equids, when test conditions are standardized. Although feed requirements for work are generally low, feed quality can be so poor that animals are unable to eat enough to meet energy needs for work, and so lose weight during the work season. However, improvements in work performance are not always seen following supplementary feeding in the dry season and the economics need to be considered in each case. Food availability, diseases and heat stress, the major constraints to performance of draught cattle and donkeys working in sub-Saharan Africa, are discussed.

  8. Modifications in agricultural and animal breeding current operations to reduce the contamination of food chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maubert, Henry; Renard, Philippe

    1997-01-01

    After a nuclear accident it is compulsory to reduce as much as possible the population exposure to radioactive aerosols deposed upon soils and different surfaces. The radio-agronomic countermeasures are protection directives applicable to the agricultural system and agro-alimentary chain which enable to implement this commandment. Their intrinsic and cumulated efficiency, the conditions and preoccupations of implementation are now better recognized especially now by their large scale application after the Chernobyl accident. As modifications in the current agricultural operation two procedures are mentioned: the rehabilitation techniques and the utilization of adjuvants. Concerning modifications in the current animal breeding methodology in the specific conditions of animal production and restricted pasturage there are discussed methods of diminishing the metabolic transfer to milk and meat and removing radioactivity by proper and simpler agro-alimentary processing and culinary preparations

  9. Humane Society International's global campaign to end animal testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidle, Troy

    2013-12-01

    The Research & Toxicology Department of Humane Society International (HSI) operates a multifaceted and science-driven global programme aimed at ending the use of animals in toxicity testing and research. The key strategic objectives include: a) ending cosmetics animal testing worldwide, via the multinational Be Cruelty-Free campaign; b) achieving near-term reductions in animal testing requirements through revision of product sector regulations; and c) advancing humane science by exposing failing animal models of human disease and shifting science funding toward human biology-based research and testing tools fit for the 21st century. HSI was instrumental in ensuring the implementation of the March 2013 European sales ban for newly animal-tested cosmetics, in achieving the June 2013 cosmetics animal testing ban in India as well as major cosmetics regulatory policy shifts in China and South Korea, and in securing precedent-setting reductions in in vivo data requirements for pesticides in the EU through the revision of biocides and plant protection product regulations, among others. HSI is currently working to export these life-saving measures to more than a dozen industrial and emerging economies. 2013 FRAME.

  10. Main achievements of the World Organisation for Animal Health/United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization network on animal influenza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauphin, Gwenaelle; Hamilton, Keith; Kim, L Mia; Choudhury, Bhudipa; Capua, Ilaria; Edwards, Steve

    2010-03-01

    The World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE)/United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) joint network of expertise on animal influenza (OFFLU) includes all ten OIE/FAO reference laboratories and collaborating centers for avian influenza, other diagnostic laboratories, research and academic institutions, and experts in the fields of virology, epidemiology, vaccinology, and molecular biology. OFFLU has made significant progress in improving its infrastructure, in identifying and addressing technical gaps, and in establishing associations among leading veterinary institutions. Interaction with the World Health Organization (WHO) Global Influenza Program is also critical, and mechanisms for permanent interaction are being developed. OFFLU played a key role in the WHO/OIE/FAO Joint Technical Consultation held in Verona (October 7-9, 2008), which provided an opportunity to highlight and share knowledge and identify potential gaps regarding issues at the human-animal interface for avian influenza. OFFLU experts also contributed to the working group for the Unified Nomenclature System for H5N1 influenza viruses based on hemagglutinin gene phylogeny (WHO/OIE/FAO, H5N1 Evolution Working Group, Towards a unified nomenclature system for highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (H5N1) in Emerging Infectious Diseases 14:el, 2008). OFFLU technical activities, led by expert scientists from OIE/FAO reference institutions and coordinated by OIE and FAO focal points, have been prioritized to include commercial diagnostic kit evaluation, applied epidemiology, biosafety, vaccination, proficiency testing, development of standardized reference materials for sera and RNA, and issues at the human-animal interface. The progress to date and future plans for these groups will be presented. OFFLU is also involved in two national projects implemented by FAO in Indonesia and Egypt that seek to establish sustainable mechanisms for monitoring virus circulation, including viral

  11. On-going research projects at Ankara Nuclear Research Center in Agriculture and Animal Science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tukenmez, I.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: The research and development activities of Ankara Nuclear Research Center in Agriculture and Animal Science(ANRCAA) are concentrated on the contribution of atomic energy to peace by the use of nuclear and related techniques in food, agriculture and animal science. Nuclear techniques are used in the above fields in two ways: in vitro or in vivo radio tracing the substances and processes of biological importance, and irradiation of biological materials for preservation and quality modification. Research projects are carried out by interdisciplinary studies with well equipped laboratories at the Center. The projects in progress conducted by the Center comprises nuclear-aided researches in soil fertility, plant nutrition, plant protection, improvement of field crops, improvement of horticultural plants and forest trees by mutation breeding, in vitro culture technique with mutagen treatments, use of phosphogypsum in soil amelioration, sterilization of medical supplies, wastewater treatment, animal nutrition, animal health and productivity and accreditation. The on-going projects with the above subjects will be summarized for possible collaborations

  12. Nontherapeutic Use of Antimicrobial Agents in Animal Agriculture: Implications for Pediatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulson, Jerome A; Zaoutis, Theoklis E

    2015-12-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is one of the most serious threats to public health globally and threatens our ability to treat infectious diseases. Antimicrobial-resistant infections are associated with increased morbidity, mortality, and health care costs. Infants and children are affected by transmission of susceptible and resistant food zoonotic pathogens through the food supply, direct contact with animals, and environmental pathways. The overuse and misuse of antimicrobial agents in veterinary and human medicine is, in large part, responsible for the emergence of antibiotic resistance. Approximately 80% of the overall tonnage of antimicrobial agents sold in the United States in 2012 was for animal use, and approximately 60% of those agents are considered important for human medicine. Most of the use involves the addition of low doses of antimicrobial agents to the feed of healthy animals over prolonged periods to promote growth and increase feed efficiency or at a range of doses to prevent disease. These nontherapeutic uses contribute to resistance and create new health dangers for humans. This report describes how antimicrobial agents are used in animal agriculture, reviews the mechanisms of how such use contributes to development of resistance, and discusses US and global initiatives to curb the use of antimicrobial agents in agriculture. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  13. On-going research projects at Ankara Nuclear research center in agriculture and animal science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tukenmez, I.

    2004-01-01

    Full text:The research and development activities of Ankara Nuclear Research Center in Agriculture and Animal Science(ANRCAA) are concentrated on the contribution of atomic energy to peace by the use of nuclear and related techniques in food, agriculture and animal science. Nuclear techniques are used in the above fields in two ways: in vitro or in vivo radio tracing the substances and processes of biological importance, and irradiation of biological materials for preservation and quality modification. Research projects are carried out by interdisciplinary studies with well equipped laboratories at the Center. The projects in progress conducted by the Center comprises nuclear-aided researches in soil fertility, plant nutrition, plant protection, improvement of field crops, improvement of horticultural plants and forest trees by mutation breeding, in vitro culture technique with mutagen treatments, use of phosphogypsum in soil amelioration, sterilization of medical supplies, wastewater treatment, animal nutrition, animal health and productivity and accreditation. The on-going projects with the above subjects will be summarized for possible collaborations

  14. Review of Russian language studies on radionuclide behaviour in agricultural animals: biological half-lives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fesenko, S.; Isamov, N.; Barnett, C.L.; Beresford, N.A.; Howard, B.J.; Sanzharova, N.; Fesenko, E.

    2015-01-01

    Extensive studies on transfer of radionuclides to animals were carried out in the USSR from the 1950s. Few of these studies were published in the international refereed literature or taken into account in international reviews. This paper continues a series of reviews of Russian language literature on radionuclide transfer to animals, providing information on biological half-lives of radionuclides in various animal tissues. The data are compared, where possible, with those reported in other countries. The data are normally quantified using a single or double exponential accounting for different proportions of the loss. For some products, such as milk, biological half-lives tend to be rapid at 1–3 d for most radionuclides and largely described by a single exponential. However, for other animal products biological half-lives can vary widely as they are influenced by many factors such as the age and size of the animal. Experimental protocols, such as the duration of the study, radionuclide administration and/or sample collection protocol also influence the value of biological half-lives estimated. - Highlights: • The data on biological half-lives from Russian language literature were reviewed. • Radionuclides with the shortest half-lives in animals are those which accumulate in soft tissues. • Short term behaviour is affected by the form in which radionuclides are administered. • There is a tendency for more rapid radionuclide turnover in younger animals

  15. Freshwater quality of a stream in agricultural area where organic compost from animal and vegetable wastes is used

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Maria Saran

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Organic compost from biomass residues constitutes a viable alternative for partial or total replacement of mineral fertilizers for growing vegetables. This study evaluated the effects of compost on the water quality of a stream used mainly for irrigation of agricultural crops cultivated in nearby soil that has been treated with organic compost produced by carcasses, animal and vegetable waste for the last ten years. We sampled water biannually for two years, 2013 and 2014, from five locations along the stream. Physical variables and some chemical variables were analyzed. We also analyzed the total number of coliforms (Escherichia coli. Bacterial populations were compared by carbon substrate consumption. Total phosphorus contents in the samples from 2014 exceeded 0.1 mg L-1. The concentrations of other chemical species analyzed and the results for the physical variables were in accordance with the expected values compared with national and international water quality standards. The environment showed differential carbon source consumption and a high diversity of microorganisms, but our results did not show any evidence that the applied compost is changing the microbial population or its metabolic activity. This study shows that the use of the organic compost in agricultural areas seen does not negatively influence the quality of surface water in the study area. These results are important because the process of composting animal and vegetable waste and the use of compost obtained can be an alternative sustainable for adequate destination of these wastes.

  16. Urban agriculture: Growing food in our cities | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2012-01-25

    Jan 25, 2012 ... Only since the mid-1990s, however, has the concept of urban agriculture ... IDRC program officer and urban agriculture specialist Luc Mougeot traces ... more research and policy aimed at solving specific problems rather than ...

  17. Factors related to in-house agricultural animal caseloads in US veterinary teaching hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, Jeff W; Miller, Robert B; Constable, Peter D; Hostetler, Douglas E; Lakritz, Jeff; Hardin, David K; Angel, Kenneth L; Wolfe, Dwight F

    2002-01-01

    A retrospective observational study was conducted to determine whether agricultural animal caseloads at veterinary teaching hospitals declined between 1995 and 1998. Thereafter, the effect of organizational and demographic factors on 1998 in-house agricultural animal caseloads was examined. Caseload data were obtained from the American Association of Veterinary Medical Colleges. Demographic and organizational data were obtained by surveys, telephone interviews, and web-based resources. Complete data were available from 25 veterinary colleges, and data from these schools were used in subsequent analyses. In 1998, in-house food animal caseload decreased relative to 1995 in 17 schools and increased relative to 1995 in 8 schools. This trend was not significant (P = .053); however, the power of the test was limited (.50). Mean 1998 caseload was 886 +/- 504. Among schools with a discipline-based organizational structure, annual mean caseload was 464 +/- 220. Among schools with a species-based organizational structure, mean caseload was 1,167 +/- 463. The regression model that best predicted caseload was a forward-stepping model that included only organizational structure as an independent variable. No additional independent variable was significantly associated with caseload.

  18. Growth and Development Symposium: promoting healthier humans through healthier livestock: animal agriculture enters the metagenomics era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, D N

    2011-03-01

    The priorities of public health and agricultural sciences intersect through a shared objective to foster better human health. Enhancements in food quality and reductions in the environmental effects of modern agriculture represent 2 distinct paths through which animal sciences can contribute to the cause of public health. Recent developments in the study of human-associated microbial communities (microbiotas), notably in association with disease, indicate that better understanding of the microbial ecology of livestock can contribute to achieving the goals of better foods and a cleaner environment. Culture-independent microbiological technologies now permit comprehensive study of complex microbial communities in their natural environments. Microbiotas associated with both humans and animals provide myriad beneficial services to their hosts that, if lost or diminished, could compromise host health. Dysfunctional microbial communities have been noted in several human conditions, including inflammatory bowel disease, obesity, and antibiotic-associated diarrhea. Examination of the mechanisms by which the human microbiota influences health and disease susceptibility can inform similar studies of host-microbe function in the animal sciences. Insights gained from human studies indicate strategies to raise not only healthier livestock, through selective manipulation of microbial communities, but also healthier humans.

  19. GMOs in animal agriculture: time to consider both costs and benefits in regulatory evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Eenennaam, Alison L

    2013-09-25

    In 2012, genetically engineered (GE) crops were grown by 17.3 million farmers on over 170 million hectares. Over 70% of harvested GE biomass is fed to food producing animals, making them the major consumers of GE crops for the past 15 plus years. Prior to commercialization, GE crops go through an extensive regulatory evaluation. Over one hundred regulatory submissions have shown compositional equivalence, and comparable levels of safety, between GE crops and their conventional counterparts. One component of regulatory compliance is whole GE food/feed animal feeding studies. Both regulatory studies and independent peer-reviewed studies have shown that GE crops can be safely used in animal feed, and rDNA fragments have never been detected in products (e.g. milk, meat, eggs) derived from animals that consumed GE feed. Despite the fact that the scientific weight of evidence from these hundreds of studies have not revealed unique risks associated with GE feed, some groups are calling for more animal feeding studies, including long-term rodent studies and studies in target livestock species for the approval of GE crops. It is an opportune time to review the results of such studies as have been done to date to evaluate the value of the additional information obtained. Requiring long-term and target animal feeding studies would sharply increase regulatory compliance costs and prolong the regulatory process associated with the commercialization of GE crops. Such costs may impede the development of feed crops with enhanced nutritional characteristics and durability, particularly in the local varieties in small and poor developing countries. More generally it is time for regulatory evaluations to more explicitly consider both the reasonable and unique risks and benefits associated with the use of both GE plants and animals in agricultural systems, and weigh them against those associated with existing systems, and those of regulatory inaction. This would represent a shift away

  20. Review of Russian language studies on radionuclide behaviour in agricultural animals: biological half-lives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fesenko, S; Isamov, N; Barnett, C L; Beresford, N A; Howard, B J; Sanzharova, N; Fesenko, E

    2015-04-01

    Extensive studies on transfer of radionuclides to animals were carried out in the USSR from the 1950s. Few of these studies were published in the international refereed literature or taken into account in international reviews. This paper continues a series of reviews of Russian language literature on radionuclide transfer to animals, providing information on biological half-lives of radionuclides in various animal tissues. The data are compared, where possible, with those reported in other countries. The data are normally quantified using a single or double exponential accounting for different proportions of the loss. For some products, such as milk, biological half-lives tend to be rapid at 1-3 d for most radionuclides and largely described by a single exponential. However, for other animal products biological half-lives can vary widely as they are influenced by many factors such as the age and size of the animal. Experimental protocols, such as the duration of the study, radionuclide administration and/or sample collection protocol also influence the value of biological half-lives estimated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goetz, B.; Riss, A.; Zethner, G.

    2001-01-01

    This chapter deals with fertilization techniques, bioenergy from agriculture, environmental aspects of a common agriculture policy in the European Union, bio-agriculture, fruit farming in Austria and with environmental indicators in agriculture. In particular renewable energy sources (bio-diesel, biogas) from agriculture are studied in comparison to fossil fuels and other energy sources. (a.n.)

  2. Do terrestrial animals avoid areas close to turbines in functioning wind farms in agricultural landscapes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łopucki, Rafał; Klich, Daniel; Gielarek, Sylwia

    2017-07-01

    Most studies on the effects of wind energy on animals have focused on avian and bat activity, habitat use, and mortality, whereas very few have been published on terrestrial, non-volant wildlife. In this paper, we studied the utilization of functioning wind farm areas by four terrestrial animals common to agricultural landscapes: European roe deer, European hare, red fox, and the common pheasant. Firstly, we expected that the studied animals do not avoid areas close to turbines and utilize the whole area of functioning wind farms with a frequency similar to the control areas. Secondly, we expected that there is no relation between the turbine proximity and the number of tracks of these animals. The study was conducted over two winter seasons using the snow-tracking method along 100 m linear transects. In total, 583 transects were recorded. Wind farm operations may affect terrestrial animals both in wind farm interiors and in a 700-m buffer zone around the edge of turbines. The reactions of animals were species specific. Herbivorous mammals (roe deer and European hare) avoided wind farm interiors and proximity to turbines. The common pheasant showed a positive reaction to wind turbine proximity. The red fox had the most neutral response to wind turbines. Although this species visited wind farm interiors less often than the control area, there was no relation between fox track density and turbine proximity. Greater weight should be given to the effects of wind farms on non-flying wildlife than at present. Investors and regulatory authorities should always consider the likely impacts of wind farms during environmental impact assessments and try to reduce these negative effects.

  3. Assessment of Biotechnology Policies and International Trade in Key Markets for U.S. Agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Marchant, Mary A.; Song, Baohui

    2005-01-01

    The United States leads the world in agricultural biotechnology research, adoption, commercialization, and exports. Our biotech commodities are highly dependent on international markets. Thus, any biotech policy changes by key importing countries may affect U.S. agricultural biotech product exports. This article identifies key markets for U.S. agricultural exports including biotech commodities and discusses current and proposed biotech policies in key markets for U.S. agricultural exports foc...

  4. 76 FR 33700 - Board for International Food and Agricultural Development; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-09

    ... Citizenship and Public Affairs, Syracuse University. Board members with continuing service include Elsa Murano... International Food and Agricultural Development; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to the Federal Advisory Committee Act, notice is hereby given of the public meeting of the Board for International Food and Agricultural...

  5. IMPROVEMENT OF THE METHODS OF INTERNAL CONTROL OF INVENTORIES IN AGRICULTURAL ORGANIZATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Afanasenko A. N.

    2013-01-01

    The article considers the necessity of inventories for any organization. The fate of the organization depends on its management effectiveness and its financial position. The organizational peculiarities of internal control in the agricultural sphere have been studied and the ways of improvement of the organizational and methodological mechanisms have been offered for the internal control of inventories in agricultural organizations

  6. International Journal of Tropical Agriculture and Food Systems

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and Food Systems (IJOTAFS) publishes high-quality peer reviewed articles, in English, in all areas of agriculture and food production and processing including tree production, pesticide science, post harvest biology and technology, seed science, irrigation, agricultural engineering, water resources management, marine ...

  7. Biogenic emissions of greenhouse gases caused by arable and animal agriculture. Task 3. Overall biogenic greenhouse gas emissions from agriculture. National Inventories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hensen, A.

    1999-12-01

    The aim of the concerted action 'Biogenic Emissions of Greenhouse Gases Caused by Arable and Animal Agriculture' is to obtain an overview of the current knowledge on the emissions of greenhouse gases related to agricultural activities. This task 3 report summarises the activities that take place in the Netherlands with respect to agriculture emission inventories. This 'national' report was compiled using information from a number of Dutch groups. Therefore, from a national point of view the compilation does not contain new information. The paper can however be useful for other European partners to get an overview of how emission estimates are obtained in the Netherlands. 14 p

  8. Report on international round table conference 'Accidental radiation contamination of food of animal origin'. Vol. I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1986-07-01

    The World Association of Veterinary Food Hygienists (WAVFH) held an international round table conference in Stockholm, Sweden, January 26-29, 1987. The topic of the conference was 'Accidental Radiation Contamination of Food of Animal Origin'. The agenda was divided into three major topic areas: 1. Ecological Science; 2. Veterinary Science - Live Animals; and 3. Veterinary Science - Food of Animal Origin. Experts and delegates from member countries presented papers, participated in discussions and workshops and produced a multidisciplinary report covering the topic areas. The recent accidental release of radioactive substances into the environment from the Chernobyl accident, demonstrated the need for veterinary, ecological, physical and medical sciences to be prepared to respond to an incident in order to protect the environment, food chain, other agricultural assets and humans from the adverse effects of radionuclides. Several presentations suggested that even with the best technologies, national and regional commitment, and relatively unrestricted resource levels, nuclear incidents can cross international boundaries and can contaminate the environment to the extent that the integrity of various food and water supplies can be at risk. Speakers and subsequent discussers tended to concentrate on the issues associated with lessening future environmental impacts if similar types of incidents should occur again.

  9. Report on international round table conference 'Accidental radiation contamination of food of animal origin'. Vol. I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The World Association of Veterinary Food Hygienists (WAVFH) held an international round table conference in Stockholm, Sweden, January 26-29, 1987. The topic of the conference was 'Accidental Radiation Contamination of Food of Animal Origin'. The agenda was divided into three major topic areas: 1. Ecological Science; 2. Veterinary Science - Live Animals; and 3. Veterinary Science - Food of Animal Origin. Experts and delegates from member countries presented papers, participated in discussions and workshops and produced a multidisciplinary report covering the topic areas. The recent accidental release of radioactive substances into the environment from the Chernobyl accident, demonstrated the need for veterinary, ecological, physical and medical sciences to be prepared to respond to an incident in order to protect the environment, food chain, other agricultural assets and humans from the adverse effects of radionuclides. Several presentations suggested that even with the best technologies, national and regional commitment, and relatively unrestricted resource levels, nuclear incidents can cross international boundaries and can contaminate the environment to the extent that the integrity of various food and water supplies can be at risk. Speakers and subsequent discussers tended to concentrate on the issues associated with lessening future environmental impacts if similar types of incidents should occur again

  10. Dietary phytonutrients as alternatives-to-antibiotics in agricultural animals: Mode of action in modulating cross-talks amonh immunity, disease resistance and gut microbiota

    Science.gov (United States)

    New antibiotic regulatory policies affecting agricultural animal production now challenge animal scientists to think outside of the box to develop alternative strategies for sustainable animal agriculture. For those animal infectious diseases for which effective vaccines are lacking, there is a cri...

  11. Update on epidemiology and control of Foot and Mouth Disease - A menace to international trade and global animal enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. M. Depa

    Full Text Available Foot and mouth disease (FMD is one of the most economically and socially devastating disease affecting animal agriculture throughout the world. This review describes economic impact of disease outbreaks, an update of recent findings in epidemiology of FMD both at International and national level and control of this disease. The etiological agent (FMD virus is examined in detail at genetic and molecular characterization level and in terms of antigenic diversity. [Vet World 2012; 5(11.000: 694-704

  12. Children and their 4-H animal projects: How children use science in agricultural activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emo, Kenneth Roy

    Many children are introduced to science through informal educational programs. 4-H, an educational youth program, has a history of introducing scientific practices into agriculture. The purpose of this ethnographically-driven case study is to examine how science informs the actions of children raising market animals in a 4-H project. For two years the researcher collected data on 4-H children with market animal projects. Observations, interviews, and artifacts gathered are interpreted using the framework of activity theory. This study provides evidence for how the context of an activity system influences individual actions. Rules developed by the organization guide the actions of children to incorporate physical and psychological tools of science into their project to achieve the object: producing animals of proper weight and quality to be competitive in the county fair. Children learn the necessary actions from a community of practitioners through which expertise is distributed. Children's learning is demonstrated by the way their participation in their project changes with time, from receiving assistance from others to developing expertise in which they provide assistance to others. The strength of this educational experience is how children apply specific tools of science in ways that provide meaning and relevancy to their 4-H activity.

  13. Cellphones are improving agriculture in Kenya | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-10-27

    Oct 27, 2010 ... DrumNet offers an essential tool to farmers — information. ... Using GSM-enabled (Global System for Mobile Communications) cellphone ... set of services also include credit linked to agricultural extension and marketing.

  14. International Journal of Tropical Agriculture and Food Systems - Vol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phyto-extraction of nickel, chromium, lead and copper from crude oil polluted agricultural soil · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT ... Microbial contamination of contact surfaces at eating houses in Nsukka, southeast, Nigeria · EMAIL FULL ...

  15. Genetically engineered livestock for agriculture: a generation after the first transgenic animal research conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, James D; Maga, Elizabeth A

    2016-06-01

    At the time of the first Transgenic Animal Research Conference, the lack of knowledge about promoter, enhancer and coding regions of genes of interest greatly hampered our efforts to create transgenes that would express appropriately in livestock. Additionally, we were limited to gene insertion by pronuclear microinjection. As predicted then, widespread genome sequencing efforts and technological advancements have profoundly altered what we can do. There have been many developments in technology to create transgenic animals since we first met at Granlibakken in 1997, including the advent of somatic cell nuclear transfer-based cloning and gene editing. We can now create new transgenes that will express when and where we want and can target precisely in the genome where we want to make a change or insert a transgene. With the large number of sequenced genomes, we have unprecedented access to sequence information including, control regions, coding regions, and known allelic variants. These technological developments have ushered in new and renewed enthusiasm for the production of transgenic animals among scientists and animal agriculturalists around the world, both for the production of more relevant biomedical research models as well as for agricultural applications. However, even though great advancements have been made in our ability to control gene expression and target genetic changes in our animals, there still are no genetically engineered animal products on the market for food. World-wide there has been a failure of the regulatory processes to effectively move forward. Estimates suggest the world will need to increase our current food production 70 % by 2050; that is we will have to produce the total amount of food each year that has been consumed by mankind over the past 500 years. The combination of transgenic animal technology and gene editing will become increasingly more important tools to help feed the world. However, to date the practical benefits of

  16. Regional and international approaches on prevention and control of animal transboundary and emerging diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domenech, J; Lubroth, J; Eddi, C; Martin, V; Roger, F

    2006-10-01

    Transboundary animal diseases pose a serious risk to the world animal agriculture and food security and jeopardize international trade. The world has been facing devastating economic losses from major outbreaks of transboundary animal diseases (TADs) such as foot-and-mouth disease, classical swine fever, rinderpest, peste des petits ruminants (PPR), and Rift Valley fever. Lately the highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) due to H5N1 virus, has become an international crisis as all regions around the world can be considered at risk. In the past decades, public health authorities within industrialized countries have been faced with an increasing number of food safety issues. The situation is equally serious in developing countries. The globalization of food (and feed) trade, facilitated by the liberalization of world trade, while offering many benefits and opportunities, also represents new risks. The GF-TADs Global Secretariat has carried out several regional consultations for the identification of priority diseases and best ways for their administration, prevention and control. In the questionnaires carried out and through the consultative process, it was noted that globally, FMD was ranked as the first and foremost priority. Rift Valley fever, and today highly pathogenic avian influenza, are defined as major animal diseases which also affect human health. PPR and CBPP, a disease which is particularly serious in Africa and finally, African swine fever (ASF) and classical swine fever (CSF) are also regionally recognised as top priorities on which the Framework is determined to work. The FAO philosophy--shared by the OIE--embraces the need to prevent and control TADs and emerging diseases at their source, which is most of the time in developing countries. Regional and international approaches have to be followed, and the FAO and OIE GF-TADs initiative provides the appropriate concepts and objectives as well as an organizational framework to link international and

  17. Methods and techniques for measuring gas emissions from agricultural and animal feeding operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Enzhu; Babcock, Esther L; Bialkowski, Stephen E; Jones, Scott B; Tuller, Markus

    2014-01-01

    Emissions of gases from agricultural and animal feeding operations contribute to climate change, produce odors, degrade sensitive ecosystems, and pose a threat to public health. The complexity of processes and environmental variables affecting these emissions complicate accurate and reliable quantification of gas fluxes and production rates. Although a plethora of measurement technologies exist, each method has its limitations that exacerbate accurate quantification of gas fluxes. Despite a growing interest in gas emission measurements, only a few available technologies include real-time, continuous monitoring capabilities. Commonly applied state-of-the-art measurement frameworks and technologies were critically examined and discussed, and recommendations for future research to address real-time monitoring requirements for forthcoming regulation and management needs are provided.

  18. International Trade of Agricultural Products in the Context of "B&R" Initiative

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lijing WU; Shuhua XIE

    2016-01-01

    At present,China’s agricultural product trade is facing the development dilemma. The trade deficit is expanding,market and product structure is irrational,and the Chinese agriculture products often encounter trade barriers. " B&R" initiative provides a rare opportunity for the development of agricultural products in China. It is necessary to seize this opportunity to change idea and innovate upon mechanism so as to increase the added value of exported agricultural products through various channels. There is also a need to develop electronic commerce,and make full use of interconnectivity and trade facilitation in " B&R" initiative to develop the international trade of agricultural products.

  19. Animal Science Experts' Opinions on the Non-Technical Skills Secondary Agricultural Education Graduates Need for Employment in the Animal Science Industry: A Delphi Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slusher, Wendy L.; Robinson, J. Shane; Edwards, M. Craig

    2010-01-01

    Non-technical, employability skills are in high demand for entry-level job-seekers. As such, this study sought to describe the perceptions of Oklahoma's animal science industry leaders as it related to the employability skills needed for entry-level employment of high school graduates who had completed coursework in Oklahoma's Agricultural, Food…

  20. Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    The EPA Agriculture Resource Directory offers comprehensive, easy-to-understand information about environmental stewardship on farms and ranches; commonsense, flexible approaches that are both environmentally protective and agriculturally sound.

  1. Creating an agricultural world order: regional plant protection problems and international phytopathology, 1878-1939.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castonguay, Stéphane

    2010-01-01

    Beginning in 1878 with the International Phylloxera Convention of Berne, international conventions have sought to relieve national agricultural industries from two specific burdens. First, by defining phytosanitary practices to be enforced by national plant protection services, these conventions attempted to prevent the introduction of plant diseases and pests into national territories from which they were previously absent. Second, by standardizing these practices - especially through the design of a unique certificate of inspection - the conventions attempted to eliminate barriers such as quarantines affection international agricultural trade. The succession of phytopathological conventions seemed to epitomize the coalescence of an international community against agricultural pests. What actually coalesced was bio-geopolitics wherein plant pathologists and economic entomologists from North America and the British Empire questioned the so-called internationality of the environmental and economic specificities of continental European agriculture, embodied in "international" conventions. Although an international phenomenon, the dissemination of agricultural pests provided opportunities for cooperation on a strictly regional albeit transnational basis that pitted bio-geopolitical spaces against each other. This article retraces the formation of these spaces by analyzing the deliberations of committees and congresses that gathered to define an international agricultural order based on the means to prevent the spread of plant diseases and pests.

  2. Stationary point of the radiometric control of cesium contamination of agricultural animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    Stationary point of the radiometric control of cesium contamination of an agricultural animals. Is intended for vital measurements of the contents of radiocesium in muscular tissue of a cattle. Can be used on cattle-breeding farms, providing points, in meat factories and personal facilities. As a base means for accommodation of the control point the motor-car is used. Design of the car allows to automate operations on deployment of the control point on a place and translation of one to a transport mode. Limits of measured specific activity of cesium contamination of a cattle is up 5*10 -9 to 5*10 -6 Ci/kg. The basic error on the bottom limit of measurement at confidence coefficient 0,95 is no more than 30%. Measurement time for the bottom limit of determined specific activity is no more than 30 s. There is automatic measurement mode. Type of a power is 220 V, 50 Hz. Range of working temperatures is up -15 to +35 centigrade. Relative humidity is no more than 98% at 25 centigrade. External gamma background is till 0.035 mR/h. Time of installation and dismantle of stationary control point is no more than 1,5 hours. The direct radiometric control in divo allows to fulfil and to use biotechnological process of removing of cesium isotopes from body of animals for decrease of levels of radioactive contamination

  3. Discussion on Industry Chain Financing Promoting International Competitiveness of China’s Agriculture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tuo; LI; Tingting; CHANG

    2015-01-01

    Industry chain financing,also known as supply chain financing,is a kind of financial innovation in production and transaction emerging from the 1990 s. Recent years,industry chain financing has gradually permeated in agriculture. As one of the major agricultural countries in the world,China should still make great endeavor in satisfying domestic requirement of agricultural products and improving international competitiveness. Based on the empirical and feasible analysis of agricultural industry chain financing,this article emphasizes on the new mode of industry chain financing and puts forward some related policy suggestions to discuss how to quicken agricultural development with financial support as well as promote international competitiveness of China’s agriculture.

  4. Improving animal productivity by supplementary feeding of multi-nutrient blocks, controlling internal parasites and enhancing utilization of alternate feed resources. A publication prepared under the framework of an RCA with technical support of the Joint FAO/IAEA Programme of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-12-01

    A major constraint to livestock production in developing countries is the scarcity and fluctuating quantity and quality of the year-round feed supply. Providing adequate good quality feed to livestock to raise and maintain their productivity is, and will continue to be, a major challenge to agricultural scientists and policy makers all over the world. The increase in population and rapid growth in world economies will lead to an enormous increase in demand for animal products, a large part of which will be from developing countries. Future hopes of feeding the millions and safeguarding their food security will depend on the enhanced and efficient utilization of alternative feed resources that cannot be used as food for humans. In addition, a large area of land in the world is degraded, barren or marginal and the amount is increasing every year. This also calls for identification and introduction of new and lesser-known plants capable of growing in poor soils, which can play a vital role in the control of soil erosion in addition to providing food and feed. In developing countries, livestock are fed mainly on low quality roughages, including natural grazing and agro-industrial by-products, such as cereal straws/stovers, sugarcane byproducts and other similar feeds, all of which contain large quantities of ligno-cellulosic material. These feeds are deficient in protein, energy, minerals and vitamins. In addition, at certain times of the year, the quality of grazing and browse deteriorates substantially due to seasonal influences, and livestock, productivity consequently declines, and in the case of lactation ceases, unless supplements are offered. Addition of foliage from tree leaves or supplementation with seed meals, or for ruminants' urea in the form of urea-molasses multinutrient blocks, can improve the utilization of low quality roughages mainly through the supply of nitrogen to the rumen microbes. Attempts to increase the productivity of ruminants in developing

  5. International institute of tropical agriculture plantain and banana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-07-04

    Jul 4, 2008 ... the Training and Visit (T and V) management system is to trigger and ... an essential feature of sustainable agricultural innovation ... plantain hybrids growing farmers, the pilot farmers (direct project ..... Foundation For Science (IFS) Stockholm, Sweden. ... Cv.AAB) production in compound gardens in.

  6. Review of the Third Edition of the Guide for the Care and Use of Agricultural Animals in Research and Teaching

    OpenAIRE

    Vaughn, Sherry E

    2012-01-01

    The third edition (January 2010) of the Guide for the Care and Use of Agricultural Animals in Research and Teaching (the Ag Guide) was the collaborative effort of a group of 64 authors and provides a science-based reference and performance-based guidelines for institutions that use agricultural species in research and teaching. The adoption of the Ag Guide by the AAALAC Board of Trustees as a primary standard signifies its importance in the AAALAC accreditation process.

  7. Performance of African Agricultural Exports and External Market Access Conditions under International Trade Reforms

    OpenAIRE

    Nyangito, Hezron Omare

    2004-01-01

    Sub Saharan African agriculture is currently facing challenges in international trade with respect to external market access conditions and competition in world markets as a result of trade liberalization efforts under the world trade organization (WTO) agreements and in particular the agreement on agriculture (AoA). This paper presents the performance of agricultural exports for selected countries and indicates external market barriers faced and the resulting implications of the barriers on ...

  8. Proceedings of the Scientific Meeting on Application of Isotopes and Radiation, Book I, Agricultural, Animal and Biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suhadi, F.; Sisworo, E.L.; Maha, M.; Ismachin, M.; Hilmy, N.; Sumatra, M.; Mugiono; Wandowo; Soebianto, Y.S

    1998-01-01

    The aim of the 10 t h Meeting of the Isotope and Radiation Application is to disseminate the result of research on application of nuclear techniques on agriculture, animal, biology, chemistry, environment, radiation process and industry. The meeting was held in Jakarta, 18-19 February 1998, and there were 6 invited papers and 52 papers indexed individually. This proceeding is divided by two volumes. Volume I and volume II consists of agriculture, animal, biology and chemistry, environment, radiation process and industry, respectively.(ID)

  9. Unexpected Interactions between Agricultural and Forest Sectors through International Trade: Wood Pallets and Agricultural Exports in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaline Jadin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available International market forces have played an increasingly important role in shaping land use dynamics through complex supply chains. In Costa Rica, the shift from a net loss to a net gain in forest cover was facilitated by forest plantations and the replacement of extensive cropland and pastures by export-oriented, high-yielding crops. However, agricultural intensification generated several feedbacks affecting forests. We analyzed the interactions between Costa Rica’s agricultural and forestry sectors associated with the use of wood pallets for commodity exports over 1985–2013. Wood pallets for growing agricultural exports created a demand for domestic tree plantations. The annual land demand for tree plantations to produce these wood pallets increased by 669%, reaching 17,606 ha in 2013 and representing 28% of the increase in demand for cropland for agricultural exports over 1994–2013. Wood supplied from plantations failed to fully substitute for wood from natural forests, only allowing for a relative substitution and preventing a major sparing of these forests. The dominant use of wood from plantations for production of low-value pallets de-incentivized investments in sustainable plantations. We showed that, beyond the typical interactions between agriculture and forestry through direct competition for land, international trade generated unexpected feedback where agricultural activities and supply chains affected forestry by triggering new demand and profound changes in forestry management. Land systems behave as complex systems, calling for integrated approaches to study the outcomes of forest conservation, reforestation programs, and development of land-based businesses.

  10. Assessment of the safety of aquatic animal commodities for international trade: the OIE Aquatic Animal Health code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oidtmann, B; Johnston, C; Klotins, K; Mylrea, G; Van, P T; Cabot, S; Martin, P Rosado; Ababouch, L; Berthe, F

    2013-02-01

    Trading of aquatic animals and aquatic animal products has become increasingly globalized during the last couple of decades. This commodity trade has increased the risk for the spread of aquatic animal pathogens. The World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) is recognized as the international standard-setting organization for measures relating to international trade in animals and animal products. In this role, OIE has developed the Aquatic Animal Health Code, which provides health measures to be used by competent authorities of importing and exporting countries to avoid the transfer of agents pathogenic for animals or humans, whilst avoiding unjustified sanitary barriers. An OIE ad hoc group developed criteria for assessing the safety of aquatic animals or aquatic animal products for any purpose from a country, zone or compartment not declared free from a given disease 'X'. The criteria were based on the absence of the pathogenic agent in the traded commodity or inactivation of the pathogenic agent by the commercial processing used to produce the commodity. The group also developed criteria to assess the safety of aquatic animals or aquatic animal products for retail trade for human consumption from potentially infected areas. Such commodities were assessed considering the form and presentation of the product, the expected volume of waste tissues generated by the consumer and the likely presence of viable pathogenic agent in the waste. The ad hoc group applied the criteria to commodities listed in the individual disease chapters of the Aquatic Animal Health Code (2008 edition). Revised lists of commodities for which no additional measures should be required by the importing countries regardless of the status for disease X of the exporting country were developed and adopted by the OIE World Assembly of Delegates in May 2011. The rationale of the criteria and their application will be explained and demonstrated using examples. © 2012 Crown Copyright. Reproduced

  11. Climate variability and international migration: the importance of the agricultural linkage

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cai, R.; Feng, S.; Oppenheimer, M.; Pytliková, Mariola

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 79, September (2016), s. 135-151 ISSN 0095-0696 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : international migration * temperature * agricultural productivity Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 2.305, year: 2016

  12. Climate variability and international migration: the importance of the agricultural linkage

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cai, R.; Feng, S.; Oppenheimer, M.; Pytliková, Mariola

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 79, September (2016), s. 135-151 ISSN 0095-0696 Institutional support: PRVOUK-P23 Keywords : international migration * temperature * agricultural productivity Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 2.305, year: 2016

  13. Does the Recent Growth of Aquaculture Create Antibiotic Resistance Threats Different from those Associated with Land Animal Production in Agriculture?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Done, Hansa Y; Venkatesan, Arjun K; Halden, Rolf U

    2015-05-01

    Important antibiotics in human medicine have been used for many decades in animal agriculture for growth promotion and disease treatment. Several publications have linked antibiotic resistance development and spread with animal production. Aquaculture, the newest and fastest growing food production sector, may promote similar or new resistance mechanisms. This review of 650+ papers from diverse sources examines parallels and differences between land-based agriculture of swine, beef, and poultry and aquaculture. Among three key findings was, first, that of 51 antibiotics commonly used in aquaculture and agriculture, 39 (or 76%) are also of importance in human medicine; furthermore, six classes of antibiotics commonly used in both agriculture and aquaculture are also included on the World Health Organization's (WHO) list of critically important/highly important/important antimicrobials. Second, various zoonotic pathogens isolated from meat and seafood were observed to feature resistance to multiple antibiotics on the WHO list, irrespective of their origin in either agriculture or aquaculture. Third, the data show that resistant bacteria isolated from both aquaculture and agriculture share the same resistance mechanisms, indicating that aquaculture is contributing to the same resistance issues established by terrestrial agriculture. More transparency in data collection and reporting is needed so the risks and benefits of antibiotic usage can be adequately assessed.

  14. Agricultural protectionism of the European union in the conditions of international trade liberalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marković Ivan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The key objective of agricultural protectionism is reflected in the protection and developing of agriculture sector. Integrated parts of this policy in the European Union are the initial model of agricultural protectionism and a new strategy of agricultural policy, which emerged as a response to the shortcomings of previously existing model. The paper presents the key reforms of agricultural policy, conditioned to internal problems and pressures in the negotiations of trade liberalization of agricultural and food products. Reform solutions for the period of 2014 to the 2020 will have similar goals. The priority will be to develop sustainable food production and sustainable management of natural resources. There is a widespread awareness of sustainable development that includes not only the economic component (which is reflected in the increase in productivity and production efficiency, but also an environmental component (the need to preserve the environment, as well as the social component of sustainable development (integrated rural development. Conducting negotiations in the framework of liberalization of agricultural and food products, there was a gradual reduction of restrictive measures in the field of domestic agriculture protection. However, the European food market is still highly protected from foreign competition because of the many features of the agricultural production sector and the importance of agriculture for the entire society. It is certain that the CAP will lose its narrow agricultural character.

  15. Development and outlook for agriculture in international climate negotiations. Climate Report no. 48

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tronquet, Clothilde; Foucherot, Claudine

    2015-02-01

    Agriculture has a specific role to play in current and future climate change. This carbon-intensive sector, which is responsible for 13.5% of global greenhouse gas emissions, is also highly exposed to the impacts of climate change, including a downward trend and increasing variability in yields. Yet agriculture's capacity to adapt and potential for mitigation also make it part of the solution to climate change. The agricultural sector is often treated as a poor relation in international climate negotiations, which is inappropriate given its specific characteristics and fundamental role. The aim of this report is to consider how agriculture can participate effectively in the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) negotiations and identify the main challenges faced by this sector in the coming years. An analysis of the history of negotiations and their current situation belies the idea that agriculture plays no part in the UNFCCC process, although it does not enjoy specific consideration as a sector. It falls within the scope of various mitigation and adaptation mechanisms, while its effective participation remains limited. Since 2009, agriculture has also been included in the COP negotiation process and is currently part of the UNFCCC's Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice (SBSTA). However, agriculture is only at the first stage of a long and complex negotiation process which cannot be expected to be completed during COP21. While we can hope for COP21 to achieve progress in dialogue regarding monitoring, reporting and verification (MRV) or the adoption of a landscape approach, the SBSTA's work on agriculture will continue beyond 2015, representing a vital step before the development of any operational tools. Multilateral initiatives such as the Global Alliance for Climate-Smart Agriculture are meanwhile helping to mobilise the international community regarding agricultural issues, in parallel with

  16. International Journal of Tropical Agriculture and Food Systems ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Manuscript should be typed on white A4 paper, double-spaced with wide margin. ... Anyanwu, G. A., Esonu, B. O., Iwuala, F., Okorie, K. and Etuk, E. B. (2003). ... Books: Payne, W. J. A. (1990). An introduction to animal husbandry in the tropics.

  17. The Integration of International Agricultural Concepts into Agricultural Science Programs in the North Central Region of the United States. Summary of Research 78.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibezim, Don O.; McCracken, J. David

    A study examined the extent to which international agricultural dimensions were taught in secondary agricultural programs and factors associated with the extent of integration. A systematic sampling technique was used to select a random sample of 332 of the 2,612 secondary agricultural teachers in 12 states of the North Central United States. Of…

  18. Support to the Consultative Group on International Agricultural ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Le CRDI lance un nouveau projet dans la région de l'ANASE. L'honorable Chrystia Freeland, ministre du Commerce international, a annoncé le lancement d'un nouveau projet financé par le Centre de recherches pour le développement international (CRDI). Voir davantageLe CRDI lance un nouveau projet dans la région ...

  19. Agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The report entitled Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation : A Canadian Perspective, presents a summary of research regarding the impacts of climate change on key sectors over the past five years as it relates to Canada. This chapter on agriculture describes how climate change will affect primary agriculture production in Canada with particular focus on potential adaptation options, and vulnerability of agriculture at the farm level. Agriculture is a vital part of the Canadian economy, although only 7 per cent of Canada's land mass is used for agricultural purposes due to the limitations of climate and soils. Most parts of Canada are expected to experience warmer conditions, longer frost-free seasons and increased evapotranspiration. The impacts of these changes on agriculture will vary depending on precipitation changes, soil conditions, and land use. Northern regions may benefit from longer farming seasons, but poor soil conditions will limit the northward expansion of agricultural crops. Some of the negative impacts associated with climate change on agriculture include increased droughts, changes in pest and pathogen outbreaks, and moisture stress. In general, it is expected that the positive and negative impacts of climate change would offset each other. 74 refs., 2 tabs., 1 fig

  20. THE USE OF CHEMICALS IN THE FIELD OF FARM ANIMAL HEALTH (NUTRITION, ENTOMOLOGY, PATHOLOGY). AGRICULTURAL CHEMICALS TECHNOLOGY, NUMBER 7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center for Vocational and Technical Education.

    DEVELOPED BY A NATIONAL TASK FORCE ON THE BASIS OF STATE STUDIES, THIS MODULE IS ONE OF A SERIES DESIGNED TO ASSIST TEACHERS IN PREPARING POST-SECONDARY STUDENTS FOR AGRICULTURAL CHEMICAL OCCUPATIONS. THE SPECIFIC OBJECTIVE OF THIS MODULE IS TO PREPARE TECHNICIANS IN THE FIELD OF THE USE OF CHEMICALS FOR ANIMAL HEALTH. SECTIONS INCLUDE -- (1)…

  1. Report from the second international symposium on animal genomics for animal health: critical needs, challenges and potential solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Steve C; Lunney, Joan K; Pinard-van der Laan, Marie-Hélène; Gay, Cyril G

    2011-06-03

    The second International Symposium on Animal Genomics for Animal Health held in Paris, France 31 May-2 June, 2010, assembled more than 140 participants representing research organizations from 40 countries. The symposium included a roundtable discussion on critical needs, challenges and opportunities, and a forward look at the potential applications of animal genomics in animal health research. The aim of the roundtable discussion was to foster a dialogue between scientists working at the cutting edge of animal genomics research and animal health scientists. Importantly, stakeholders were included to provide input on priorities and the potential value of animal genomics to the animal health community. In an effort to facilitate the roundtable discussion, the organizers identified four priority areas to advance the use of genome-enabled technologies in animal health research. Contributions were obtained through open discussions and a questionnaire distributed at the start of the symposium. This report provides the outcome of the roundtable discussion for each of the four priority areas. For each priority, problems are identified, including potential solutions and recommendations. This report captures key points made by symposium participants during the roundtable discussion and serves as a roadmap to steer future research priorities in animal genomics research.

  2. Report on the 41st International Symposium Actual Tasks on Agricultural Engineering, 19-22 February 2013, Opatija, Croatia

    OpenAIRE

    Silvio Kosutic; Daniele De Wrachien

    2013-01-01

    The 41st International Symposium Actual Tasks on Agricultural Engineering was held on 19th-22nd February 2013 in Grand Hotel Adriatic Opatija, Republic of Croatia. The principal Organiser, Agricultural Engineering Department, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Zagreb was supported by the following frameworks: Department of Agricultural Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture, University J.J. Strossmayer, Osijek; Department of Bio-systems Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Marib...

  3. Review of Russian language studies on radionuclide behaviour in agricultural animals: part 2. Transfer to milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fesenko, S.; Howard, B.J.; Isamov, N.; Voigt, G.; Beresford, N.A.; Sanzharova, N.; Barnett, C.L.

    2007-01-01

    An overview of original information available from Russian language papers on radionuclide transfer to milk is provided. Most of the data presented have not been taken into account in international reviews. The transfer coefficient (F m ) values for radioactive isotopes of strontium, caesium and iodine are in good agreement with those previously published. The Russian language data, often based on experiments with many animals, constitute a considerable increase to the available data for many less well-studied radionuclides. In some instances, the Russian language data suggest changes in recommended values (e.g. Zr and Ru). The information presented here substantially increases the amount of available data on radionuclide transfer to milk and will be included in the current revision of the IAEA TRS Handbook of parameter values for radionuclide transfer

  4. Review of Russian language studies on radionuclide behaviour in agricultural animals: part 2. Transfer to milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fesenko, S; Howard, B J; Isamov, N; Voigt, G; Beresford, N A; Sanzharova, N; Barnett, C L

    2007-01-01

    An overview of original information available from Russian language papers on radionuclide transfer to milk is provided. Most of the data presented have not been taken into account in international reviews. The transfer coefficient (F(m)) values for radioactive isotopes of strontium, caesium and iodine are in good agreement with those previously published. The Russian language data, often based on experiments with many animals, constitute a considerable increase to the available data for many less well-studied radionuclides. In some instances, the Russian language data suggest changes in recommended values (e.g. Zr and Ru). The information presented here substantially increases the amount of available data on radionuclide transfer to milk and will be included in the current revision of the IAEA TRS Handbook of parameter values for radionuclide transfer.

  5. Review of Russian language studies on radionuclide behaviour in agricultural animals: 3. Transfer to muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fesenko, S; Isamov, N; Howard, B J; Beresford, N A; Barnett, C L; Sanzharova, N; Voigt, G

    2009-03-01

    Over 150 publications reporting studies conducted in the former USSR were reviewed to provide transfer coefficients (F(f)) to the muscle of domestic animals from experiments using chronic administration, often for long timescales in large scale experiments. Only a few of these studies were made available in the English language literature or taken into account in international reviews. The values derived have been compared with expected values reported by the IAEA's Handbook of parameter values for the prediction of radionuclide transfer in temperate environments (TRS 364) where possible. The information presented here has been used in the current updating of parameters recommended for environmental assessments by the IAEA. Many of the reported values are for Sr due to the Mayak accident and Cs due to the Chernobyl accident. Nevertheless, the reported data for a wide range of radionuclides, in particular for Ru, Sb, and Zn markedly improve the extent of available data.

  6. Review of Russian language studies on radionuclide behaviour in agricultural animals: 3. Transfer to muscle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fesenko, S. [International Atomic Energy Agency, NAAL, 1400 Vienna (Austria)], E-mail: s.fesenko@iaea.org; Isamov, N. [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Radioecology, 249020 Obninsk (Russian Federation); Howard, B.J.; Beresford, N.A.; Barnett, C.L. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Avenue, Bailrigg, Lancaster LAI 4AP (United Kingdom); Sanzharova, N. [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Radioecology, 249020 Obninsk (Russian Federation); Voigt, G. [International Atomic Energy Agency, NAAL, 1400 Vienna (Austria)

    2009-03-15

    Over 150 publications reporting studies conducted in the former USSR were reviewed to provide transfer coefficients (F{sub f}) to the muscle of domestic animals from experiments using chronic administration, often for long timescales in large scale experiments. Only a few of these studies were made available in the English language literature or taken into account in international reviews. The values derived have been compared with expected values reported by the IAEA's Handbook of parameter values for the prediction of radionuclide transfer in temperate environments (TRS 364) where possible. The information presented here has been used in the current updating of parameters recommended for environmental assessments by the IAEA. Many of the reported values are for Sr due to the Mayak accident and Cs due to the Chernobyl accident. Nevertheless, the reported data for a wide range of radionuclides, in particular for Ru, Sb, and Zn markedly improve the extent of available data.

  7. Roles of the International Council for Laboratory Animal Science (ICLAS) and International Association of Colleges of Laboratory Animal Medicine (IACLAM) in the Global Organization and Support of 3Rs Advances in Laboratory Animal Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Patricia V; Pekow, Cynthia; Clark, Judy MacArthur; Vergara, Patri; Bayne, Kathryn; White, William J; Kurosawa, Tsutomu Miki; Seok, Seung-Hyeok; Baneux, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Practical implementation of the 3Rs at national and regional levels around the world requires long-term commitment, backing, and coordinated efforts by international associations for laboratory animal medicine and science, including the International Association of Colleges of Laboratory Animal Medicine (IACLAM) and the International Council for Laboratory Animal Science (ICLAS). Together these organizations support the efforts of regional organization and communities of laboratory animal science professionals as well as the development of local associations and professional colleges that promote the training and continuing education of research facility personnel and veterinary specialists. The recent formation of a World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) Collaborating Center for Laboratory Animal Science and Welfare emphasizes the need for research into initiatives promoting laboratory animal welfare, particularly in emerging economies and regions with nascent associations of laboratory animal science. PMID:25836964

  8. [Brazil: agricultural modernisation and food production restructuring in the international crisis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, J P

    1985-01-01

    development in the mid-1960s which required insertion into the world economy, notably through a search for new export sectors. The agricultural sector was assigned 3 functions: producing food as cheaply as possible, increasing the proportion of exportable crops, and substituting some of the foods imported. Brazil evolved in 2 decades from a classic agroexporter to a more complex structure reflecting the semiindustrialized state of the economy. The share of processed agricultural goods increased accordingly. The foods produced for the internal market have been changing at the same time that a new hierarchy of exportable products has evolved. Agricultural policy involved recourse to market mechanisms and cheap credit focused on the south and southeastern regions, large and medium sized producers, and a few products including soy, coffee, sugar cane, and cotton. Just 3% of credits went to the traditional foodstuffs beans and manioc. The most serious consequence of the internationalization of the agricultural economy has been a dangerous increase in the vulnerability of low income groups to world food price fluctuations.

  9. Contamination with bacterial zoonotic pathogen genes in U.S. streams influenced by varying types of animal agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haack, Sheridan K.; Duris, Joseph W.; Kolpin, Dana W.; Focazio, Michael J.; Meyer, Michael T.; Johnson, Heather E.; Oster, Ryan J.; Foreman, William T.

    2016-01-01

    Animal waste, stream water, and streambed sediment from 19 small (animal agriculture (control, n = 4), or predominantly beef (n = 4), dairy (n = 3), swine (n = 5), or poultry (n = 3) were tested for: 1) cholesterol, coprostanol, estrone, and fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) concentrations, and 2) shiga-toxin producing and enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli, Salmonella, Campylobacter, and pathogenic and vancomycin-resistant enterococci by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on enrichments, and/or direct quantitative PCR. Pathogen genes were most frequently detected in dairy wastes, followed by beef, swine and poultry wastes in that order; there was only one detection of an animal-source-specific pathogen gene (stx1) in any water or sediment sample in any control watershed. Post-rainfall pathogen gene numbers in stream water were significantly correlated with FIB, cholesterol and coprostanol concentrations, and were most highly correlated in dairy watershed samples collected from 3 different states. Although collected across multiple states and ecoregions, animal-waste gene profiles were distinctive via discriminant analysis. Stream water gene profiles could also be discriminated by the watershed animal type. Although pathogen genes were not abundant in stream water or streambed samples, PCR on enrichments indicated that many genes were from viable organisms, including several (shiga-toxin producing or enterotoxigenic E. coli, Salmonella, vancomycin-resistant enterococci) that could potentially affect either human or animal health. Pathogen gene numbers and types in stream water samples were influenced most by animal type, by local factors such as whether animals had stream access, and by the amount of local rainfall, and not by studied watershed soil or physical characteristics. Our results indicated that stream water in small agricultural U.S. watersheds was susceptible to pathogen gene inputs under typical agricultural practices and environmental conditions

  10. Assessment of Professional Training Programmes in International Agricultural Research Institutions: The Case of ICRAF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanjiku, Julliet; Mairura, Franklin; Place, Frank

    2010-01-01

    The following survey was undertaken in 2005 to assess the effectiveness of professional training activities in international agricultural research organizations that were undertaken between 1999 and 2002 at ICRAF (International Centre for Research in Agroforestry), now World Agroforestry Centre, Nairobi. Trainees were randomly selected from…

  11. The International Comparison of Value Added, Productivity and Purchasing Power Parities in Agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maddison, Angus; Ooststroom, Harry van

    1993-01-01

    This study is part of the ICOP (International Comparison of Output and Productivity) project of the University of Groningen. It presents international comparisons of levels of value added, productivity and purchasing power parities (PPPs) in agriculture for 13 countries for 1975. An early version of

  12. International Clostridium difficile animal strain collection and large diversity of animal associated strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janezic, Sandra; Zidaric, Valerija; Pardon, Bart

    2014-01-01

    Background: Clostridium difficile is an important cause of intestinal infections in some animal species and animals might be a reservoir for community associated human infections. Here we describe a collection of animal associated C. difficile strains from 12 countries based on inclusion criteria...... of one strain (PCR ribotype) per animal species per laboratory. Results: Altogether 112 isolates were collected and distributed into 38 PCR ribotypes with agarose based approach and 50 PCR ribotypes with sequencer based approach. Four PCR ribotypes were most prevalent in terms of number of isolates...... as well as in terms of number of different host species: 078 (14.3% of isolates; 4 hosts), 014/020 (11.6%; 8 hosts); 002 (5.4%; 4 hosts) and 012 (5.4%; 5 hosts). Two animal hosts were best represented; cattle with 31 isolates (20 PCR ribotypes; 7 countries) and pigs with 31 isolates (16 PCR ribotypes; 10...

  13. “We Are All Animals:” James Joyce, Stephen Dedalus, and the Problem of Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caitlin McIntyre

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This article will position James Joyce’s novels A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man (1916 and Ulysses (1922 as literary works that are concerned with ecological issues associated with agriculture; here, this concern is traced through Stephen Dedalus’s awareness of land and animals beyond and outside Dublin. Specifically, Joyce frequently depicts the colonization of Ireland as centered on the control of nonhumans in the form of agriculture, which he brings into the novels’ political foreground. I will argue further that Joyce is equally critical of the violent nationalist rhetoric and insurrections of early 1900s Ireland, as a movement, which perpetuated the agricultural control of land. Joyce illustrates the violence of this agricultural aporia through the lives of nonhumans, the world of “filthy cowyards” and cannibalistic sows. Yet, this paper will also find in Stephen’s relations with animals an effective aesthetic rebellion to this aporia, for example, his self-styling as the “Bous Stephanoumenos”, as well as his interactions with dogs and swallows as fellow Dubliners, artists, and sufferers. These examples point to a kind of queer ecology as a form of resistance to agricultural violence.

  14. New Research in Organic Agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1996-01-01

    The book is the proceedings from the bi-annual international scientific conference on organic agriculture. The chapters are: - plant and soil interactions, - animal production systems, - traditional knowledge in sustainable agriculture, - research, education and extension in sustainable agricultu......, - environmental impact and nature, - potentials of organic farming, - community, consumer and market, and - policy and financial strategies.......The book is the proceedings from the bi-annual international scientific conference on organic agriculture. The chapters are: - plant and soil interactions, - animal production systems, - traditional knowledge in sustainable agriculture, - research, education and extension in sustainable agriculture...

  15. The International Congress of Mechanical Engineering and Agricultural Sciences – CIIMCA 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remolina-Millán, Aduljay; Hernández-Arroyo, Emil

    2014-01-01

    The organizing committee of The International Congress of Mechanical Engineering and Agricultural Sciences – CIIMCA 2013 – are pleased to present CIIMCA-2013: the first international conference focused on subjects of materials science, mechanical engineering and renewable energy organized by Mechanical Engineering Faculty of the ''Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana'' in Bucaramanga, Colombia. This conference aims to be a place to produce discussions on whole topics of the congress, between the scientists of Colombia and the world. We strongly believe that knowledge is fundamental to the development of our countries. For that reason this multidisciplinary conference is looking forward to integrate engineering, agricultural science and nanoscience and nanotechnology to produce a synergy of this area of knowledge and to achieve scientific and technological developments. Agriculture is a very important topic for our conference; in Colombia, agricultural science needs more attention from the scientific community and the government. In the Faculty of Mechanical Engineering we are beginning to work on these issues to produce knowledge and improve the conditions in our country. The CIIMCA conference is a great opportunity to create interpersonal relationships and networks between scientists around the world. The interaction between scientists is very important in the process of the construction of knowledge. The general chairman encourages and invites you to make friends, relationships and participate strongly in the symposia and all program activities. PhD Aduljay Remolina-Millán Principal Chairman, International Mechanical Engineering and Agricultural Sciences Congress – CIIMCA Msc Emil Hernández-Arroyo Principal Chairman, International Mechanical Engineering and Agricultural Sciences Congress – CIIMCA Conferencephotograph Conferencephotograph 'Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana seccional Bucaramanga' host of the first

  16. The human consequences of animal health | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-12-09

    Dec 9, 2010 ... ... fish are primary animal protein sources, and that has huge implications.” ... and others are working on making fish diets from table scraps”— all of ... Highlight: Canadian High Commissioners call IDRC a catalyst for change.

  17. A Report on the 40th International Symposium Actual Tasks on Agricultural Engineering, 21-24 February 2012, Opatija, Croatia

    OpenAIRE

    Silvio Kosutic; Daniele De Wrachien

    2012-01-01

    The 40th International Symposium, Actual Tasks on Agricultural Engineering, was held on 21-24 February 2012 in the “Grand Hotel Adriatic”, Opatija, in the Republic of Croatia. It was organized by the Agricultural Engineering Department of the Faculty of Agriculture of the University of Zagreb, and was supported by the Department of Agricultural Engineering of the Faculty of Agriculture of the J.J. Strossmayer University, Osijek, the Department of Bio-Systems Engineering of the Faculty of Agri...

  18. Bridging Gaps in the Agricultural Phosphorus Cycle from an Animal Husbandry Perspective—The Case of Pigs and Poultry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Oster

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Since phosphorus (P is an essential element for life, its usage and application across agricultural production systems requires great attention. Monogastric species such as pigs and poultry can significantly contribute to global food security but these animals remain highly dependent on the supply of mineral inorganic P in their feeds. Pig and poultry, which represent 70% of the global meat production, are also major P excretors and thus represent important sources of environmental P inputs. Balancing the P cycle within farming systems is crucial to achieve P sustainable and resilient livestock production. Therefore, the interconnection of animal feed, livestock farming, manure, and soil/aquatic ecosystems requires multidisciplinary approaches to improve P management. With regard to a sustainable agricultural P cycle, this study addresses aspects of feeding strategies and animal physiology (e.g., phase feeding, P conditioning, liquid feeding, phytase supplementation, genetics, soil agroecosystems (e.g., P cycling, P losses, P gains, reuse and recycling (e.g., manure, slaughter waste, measures of farmers’ economic performance (e.g., bio-economic models, and P governance/policy instruments (e.g., P quota, P tax. To reconcile the economic and ecological sustainability of animal husbandry, the strategic objective of future research will be to provide solutions for a sufficient supply of high-quality animal products from resource-efficient and economically competitive agro-systems which are valued by society and preserve soil and aquatic ecosystems.

  19. The Post-war International Food Order: The Case of Agriculture in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Felipe Gaviria Garcés

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the post-war period, Colombian agriculture has been reshaped mainly by international measures. The post-war international food order (called food regime over time has exacerbated Colombian rural problems linked to land issues. Emphasizing in five groups of crops (Cereals, Fruits, Pulses, Roots and Tubers, and Vegetables this article found how Colombia has turned from being a self-sufficient producer into a net importer. Consequently, the food regime has reshaped agricultural structures where policies have favored certain groups rather than solving land issues. Bio-fuel crop policies are following the same direction, jeopardizing food sovereignty and deepening rural Colombian problems.

  20. Implementing international experience in promoting agricultural products to foreign markets: the Russian export strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilia S. Revenko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Almost all countries in the world actively regulate both import and export of agricultural products, however this process is very conflictгфд because of acute contradictions on the market. They are associated with the changing conditions of production, increase of attention of the world community to the food securitysituation, change of the used resources efficiency level, competition enhancement. Both internal and external components of agricultural producers support are important for Russia. That means the regulation should be aimed at meeting the needs of the domestic market and at increasing competitiveness of Russian products abroad. The development of the Russian export strategy for agricultural products is currently very important. This problem is closely related to the general subject of the agricultural productiondevelopment, but it has an explicit specific character. Inthiscontextexperienceofforeigncountriesisinteresting. Almost all tools of export regulation existing in the world practice are used in the foreign practice of export regulation of agricultural raw materials and food. Stimulation measures prevail in regards to the coverage of commodity items, number of episodes involving the use of agricultural export regulationmeasures, effectiveness of impact to the national agricultural sector. Holistic strategies of agricultural export development are not a widespread phenomenon abroad at the present stage of the world economy development. Their existence is typical for countries with a high level of food self-sufficiency. Special programs where export component is a harmonically built-in element are now more widely spread. Export development programs of the developed countries include a range of measures to maintain the target income level of producers and to maintain procurement and consumer prices. Export policy of the developing countries has a subordinated importance and is considered as one of the levels to develop national

  1. Novel Antibiotic Resistance Determinants from Agricultural Soil Exposed to Antibiotics Widely Used in Human Medicine and Animal Farming

    OpenAIRE

    Lau, Calvin Ho-Fung; van Engelen, Kalene; Gordon, Stephen; Renaud, Justin; Topp, Edward

    2017-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance has emerged globally as one of the biggest threats to human and animal health. Although the excessive use of antibiotics is recognized as accelerating the selection for resistance, there is a growing body of evidence suggesting that natural environments are “hot spots” for the development of both ancient and contemporary resistance mechanisms. Given that pharmaceuticals can be entrained onto agricultural land through anthropogenic activities, this could be a potential dr...

  2. Bioethics Symposium: The ethical food movement: What does it mean for the role of science and scientists in current debates about animal agriculture?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croney, C C; Apley, M; Capper, J L; Mench, J A; Priest, S

    2012-05-01

    Contemporary animal agriculture is increasingly criticized on ethical grounds. Consequently, current policy and legislative discussions have become highly controversial as decision makers attempt to reconcile concerns about the impacts of animal production on animal welfare, the environment, and on the efficacy of antibiotics required to ensure human health with demands for abundant, affordable, safe food. Clearly, the broad implications for US animal agriculture of what appears to be a burgeoning movement relative to ethical food production must be understood by animal agriculture stakeholders. The potential effects of such developments on animal agricultural practices, corporate marketing strategies, and public perceptions of the ethics of animal production must also be clarified. To that end, it is essential to acknowledge that people's beliefs about which food production practices are appropriate are tied to diverse, latent value systems. Thus, relying solely on scientific information as a means to resolve current debates about animal agriculture is unlikely to be effective. The problem is compounded when scientific information is used inappropriately or strategically to advance a political agenda. Examples of the interface between science and ethics in regards to addressing currently contentious aspects of food animal production (animal welfare, antimicrobial use, and impacts of animal production practices on the environment) are reviewed. The roles of scientists and science in public debates about animal agricultural practices are also examined. It is suggested that scientists have a duty to contribute to the development of sound policy by providing clear and objectively presented information, by clarifying misinterpretations of science, and by recognizing the differences between presenting data vs. promoting their own value judgments in regard to how and which data should be used to establish policy. Finally, the role of the media in shaping public opinions

  3. Effect of Antimicrobial Use in Agricultural Animals on Drug-resistant Foodborne Campylobacteriosis in Humans: A Systematic Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrackin, M A; Helke, Kristi L; Galloway, Ashley M; Poole, Ann Z; Salgado, Cassandra D; Marriott, Bernadette P

    2016-10-02

    Controversy continues concerning antimicrobial use in food animals and its relationship to drug-resistant infections in humans. We systematically reviewed published literature for evidence of a relationship between antimicrobial use in agricultural animals and drug-resistant foodborne campylobacteriosis in humans. Based on publications from the United States (U.S.), Canada and Denmark from 2010 to July 2014, 195 articles were retained for abstract review, 50 met study criteria for full article review with 36 retained for which data are presented. Two publications reported increase in macrolide resistance of Campylobacter coli isolated from feces of swine receiving macrolides in feed, and one of these described similar findings for tetracyclines and fluoroquinolones. A study in growing turkeys demonstrated increased macrolide resistance associated with therapeutic dosing with Tylan® in drinking water. One publication linked tetracycline-resistant C. jejuni clone SA in raw cow's milk to a foodborne outbreak in humans. No studies that identified farm antimicrobial use also traced antimicrobial-resistant Campylobacter from farm to fork. Recent literature confirms that on farm antibiotic selection pressure can increase colonization of animals with drug-resistant Campylobacter spp. but is inadequately detailed to establish a causal relationship between use of antimicrobials in agricultural animals and prevalence of drug-resistant foodborne campylobacteriosis in humans.

  4. MAGGnet: An international network to foster mitigation of agricultural greenhouse gases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liebig, M.A.; Franzluebbers, A.J.; Alvarez, C.

    2016-01-01

    Research networks provide a framework for review, synthesis and systematic testing of theories by multiple scientists across international borders critical for addressing global-scale issues. In 2012, a GHG research network referred to as MAGGnet (Managing Agricultural Greenhouse Gases Network...

  5. Agriculture and food animals as a source of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Economou V

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Vangelis Economou,1 Panagiota Gousia2 1Department of Hygiene and Technology of Food of Animal Origin, School of Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece; 2Food-Water Microbiology Unit, Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, School of Health Sciences, University of Ioannina, Ioannina, Greece Abstract: One of the major breakthroughs in the history of medicine is undoubtedly the discovery of antibiotics. Their use in animal husbandry and veterinary medicine has resulted in healthier and more productive farm animals, ensuring the welfare and health of both animals and humans. Unfortunately, from the first use of penicillin, the resistance countdown started to tick. Nowadays, the infections caused by antibiotic-resistant bacteria are increasing, and resistance to antibiotics is probably the major public health problem. Antibiotic use in farm animals has been criticized for contributing to the emergence of resistance. The use and misuse of antibiotics in farm animal settings as growth promoters or as nonspecific means of infection prevention and treatment has boosted antibiotic consumption and resistance among bacteria in the animal habitat. This reservoir of resistance can be transmitted directly or indirectly to humans through food consumption and direct or indirect contact. Resistant bacteria can cause serious health effects directly or via the transmission of the antibiotic resistance traits to pathogens, causing illnesses that are difficult to treat and that therefore have higher morbidity and mortality rates. In addition, the selection and proliferation of antibiotic-resistant strains can be disseminated to the environment via animal waste, enhancing the resistance reservoir that exists in the environmental microbiome. In this review, an effort is made to highlight the various factors that contribute to the emergence of antibiotic resistance in farm animals and to

  6. INTERNATIONAL TRADE AND UNEXPLAINED GENDER WAGE GAPS: EVIDENCE FOR AGRICULTURAL SECTOR IN BOLIVIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Jorge Molina Tejerina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation has the objective of showing evidence that there would be a reduction on wage differences between men and women in agriculture if they participate in international trade. The methodology that will be used is based on Molina[Mol10], who used Becker [Bec71] as a knowledge base for his study. This methodology consists on showing that wage difference occurs because of a taste for discrimination. This means that companies are willing to pay a higher salary to men just because they want to. But because international trade brings new competence to the markets, local companies need to be more competitive to survive. Therefore they wouldn’t be able to pay higher wages to men; this would reduce the wage difference by gender. Agriculture shows a different behavior from other sectors due to the strong agricultural subsidies governments give, De la Dehesa[Del03]. Using the Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition an estimate wage can be found for both men and women in tradable and non-tradable sectors of agriculture. At the same time two components will be found, one of them shows the difference produced by factors that affect the productivity of an individual. The second component shows the difference that cannot be explained, this is where discrimination is shown. Once these results are found they will be compared to find out if they are different in tradable and non-tradable sectors. The results that have been found show consistency with Molina’s study for the year 2002. Agriculture shows a behavioral difference from other economic sectors and different from Becker’s idea. As there is no unexplained wage difference by gender between tradable and non-tradable sectors. The results show that the difference is that these two sectors are the same. Thus international trade doesn’t result in a reduction of inequality in agriculture.

  7. A campaign to end animal testing: introducing the PETA International Science Consortium Ltd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoddart, Gilly; Brown, Jeffrey

    2014-12-01

    The successful development and validation of non-animal techniques, or the analysis of existing data to satisfy regulatory requirements, provide no guarantee that this information will be used in place of animal experiments. In order to advocate for the replacement of animal-based testing requirements, the PETA International Science Consortium Ltd (PISC) liaises with industry, regulatory and research agencies to establish and promote clear paths to validation and regulatory use of non-animal techniques. PISC and its members use an approach that identifies, promotes and verifies the implementation of good scientific practices in place of testing on animals. Examples of how PISC and its members have applied this approach to minimise the use of animals for the Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals regulation in the EU and testing of cosmetics on animals in India, are described. 2014 FRAME.

  8. On-going research projects at Ankara Nuclear Research Center in agriculture and animal science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tukenmez, I.

    2004-01-01

    The projects in progress conducted by the Center comprise nuclear-aided researches in soil fertility, plant nutrition, plant protection, improvement of field crops, improvement of horticultural plants and forest trees by mutation breeding, in vitro culture technique with mutagen treatments, use of phosphogypsum in soil amelioration, sterilization of medical supplies, wastewater treatment, animal nutrition, animal health and productivity and accreditation. The on-going main projects involving several sub-projects with the above subjects were summarized for possible future collaborations. (author)

  9. International Climate Migration: Evidence for the Climate Inhibitor Mechanism and the Agricultural Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawrotzki, Raphael J; Bakhtsiyarava, Maryia

    2017-05-01

    Research often assumes that, in rural areas of developing countries, adverse climatic conditions increase (climate driver mechanism) rather than reduce (climate inhibitor mechanism) migration, and that the impact of climate on migration is moderated by changes in agricultural productivity (agricultural pathway). Using representative census data in combination with high-resolution climate data derived from the novel Terra Populus system, we explore the climate-migration relationship in rural Burkina Faso and Senegal. We construct four threshold-based climate measures to investigate the effect of heat waves, cold snaps, droughts and excessive precipitation on the likelihood of household-level international outmigration. Results from multi-level logit models show that excessive precipitation increases international migration from Senegal while heat waves decrease international mobility in Burkina Faso, providing evidence for the climate inhibitor mechanism. Consistent with the agricultural pathway, interaction models and results from a geographically weighted regression (GWR) reveal a conditional effect of droughts on international outmigration from Senegal, which becomes stronger in areas with high levels of groundnut production. Moreover, climate change effects show a clear seasonal pattern, with the strongest effects appearing when heat waves overlap with the growing season and when excessive precipitation occurs prior to the growing season.

  10. International Climate Migration: Evidence for the Climate Inhibitor Mechanism and the Agricultural Pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawrotzki, Raphael J.; Bakhtsiyarava, Maryia

    2016-01-01

    Research often assumes that, in rural areas of developing countries, adverse climatic conditions increase (climate driver mechanism) rather than reduce (climate inhibitor mechanism) migration, and that the impact of climate on migration is moderated by changes in agricultural productivity (agricultural pathway). Using representative census data in combination with high-resolution climate data derived from the novel Terra Populus system, we explore the climate-migration relationship in rural Burkina Faso and Senegal. We construct four threshold-based climate measures to investigate the effect of heat waves, cold snaps, droughts and excessive precipitation on the likelihood of household-level international outmigration. Results from multi-level logit models show that excessive precipitation increases international migration from Senegal while heat waves decrease international mobility in Burkina Faso, providing evidence for the climate inhibitor mechanism. Consistent with the agricultural pathway, interaction models and results from a geographically weighted regression (GWR) reveal a conditional effect of droughts on international outmigration from Senegal, which becomes stronger in areas with high levels of groundnut production. Moreover, climate change effects show a clear seasonal pattern, with the strongest effects appearing when heat waves overlap with the growing season and when excessive precipitation occurs prior to the growing season. PMID:28943813

  11. Radionuclides distribution in internal organs of wild animals in alienation zone of Chernobyl NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorbatova, T.A.; Kudryashov, V.P.; Mironov, V.P.

    2002-01-01

    Activities of caesium 137, strontium 90, plutonium isotopes and americium 241 are experimentally defined in the internal organs of bearer and wolf alienation zone of Chernobyl NPP. Radionuclides distribution in the internal organs of wild animals is defined by destruction of nuclear fuel particles

  12. Regulation of lipid deposition in farm animals: Parallels between agriculture and human physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergen, Werner G; Brandebourg, Terry D

    2016-06-01

    For many years, clinically oriented scientists and animal scientists have focused on lipid metabolism and fat deposition in various fat depots. While dealing with a common biology across species, the goals of biomedical and food animals lipid metabolism research differ in emphasis. In humans, mechanisms and regulation of fat synthesis, accumulation of fat in regional fat depots, lipid metabolism and dysmetabolism in adipose, liver and cardiac tissues have been investigated. Further, energy balance and weight control have also been extensively explored in humans. Finally, obesity and associated maladies including high cholesterol and atherosclerosis, cardiovascular disease, insulin resistance, hypertension, metabolic syndrome and health outcomes have been widely studied. In food animals, the emphasis has been on regulation of fatty acid synthesis and lipid deposition in fat depots and deposition of intramuscular fat. For humans, understanding the regulation of energy balance and body weight and of prevention or treatment of obesity and associated maladies have been important clinical outcomes. In production of food animals lowering fat content in muscle foods while enhancing intramuscular fat (marbling) have been major targets. In this review, we summarize how our laboratories have addressed the goal of providing lean but yet tasty and juicy muscle food products to consumers. In addition, we here describe efforts in the development of a new porcine model to study regulation of fat metabolism and obesity. Commonalities and differences in regulation of lipid metabolism between humans, rodents and food animals are emphasized throughout this review. © 2016 by the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine.

  13. Animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skuterud, L.; Strand, P.; Howard, B.J.

    1997-01-01

    The radionuclides of most concern with respect to contamination of animals after a nuclear accident are radioiodine, radiocaesium and radiostrontium (ICRP 30, 1979). Of the other significant anthropogenic radionuclides likely to be released in most accidents, only small proportions of that ingested will be absorbed in an animals gut, and the main animal products, milk and meat, will not normally be contaminated to a significant extent. Animal products will mostly be contaminated as a result of ingestion of contaminated feed and possibly, but to a much lesser extent, from inhalation (for radioiodine only). Direct external contamination of animals is of little or no consequence in human food production. Radioiodine and radiostrontium are important with respect to contamination of milk; radiocaesium contaminates both milk and meat. The physical and chemical form of a radionuclide can influence its absorption in the animal gut. For example, following the Chernobyl accident radiocaesium incorporated into vegetation by root uptake was more readily absorbed than that associated with the original deposit. The transfer of radiocaesium and radiostrontium to animals will be presented both as transfer coefficients and aggregated transfer coefficients. For most animal meat products, only radiocaesium is important as other radionuclides do not significantly contaminate muscle. Farm animal products are the most important foodstuff determining radiocaesium intake by the average consumer in the Nordic countries. The major potential source of radioiodine and radiostrontium to humans is milk and milk products. Of the different species, the smaller animals have the highest transfer of radiocaesium from fodder to meat and milk. (EG)

  14. Research, values, and ethics in organic agriculture - examples from sustainability, precaution, nature quality, and animal welfare

    OpenAIRE

    Alrøe, Hugo Fjelsted; Kristensen, Erik Steen

    2000-01-01

    Agricultural systems are characterised by involving both natural and social systems. Organic farming, in particular, has developed as part of a wider organic movement incorporating producers, manufacturers and consumers. The organic movement is based on explicit rules as well as broader formulated principles and goals for farming and manufacturing, which are connected to underlying values and perceptions of the relationship between human and nature. This paper is concerned with the challenges...

  15. Surface-water quality in agricultural watersheds of the North Carolina Coastal Plain associated with concentrated animal feeding operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden, Stephen L.

    2015-01-01

    The effects of concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) on water quality were investigated at 54 agricultural stream sites throughout the North Carolina Coastal Plain during 2012 and 2013. Three general watershed land-use types were examined during the study, including 18 background watersheds with no active CAFOs (BK sites), 18 watersheds with one or more active swine CAFOs but no poultry CAFOs (SW sites), and 18 watersheds with at least one active swine CAFO and one active dry-litter poultry CAFO (SP sites). The watershed drainage areas for these 54 stream sites ranged from 1.2 to 17.5 square miles. Conventional fertilizers used for crop production are the primary source of nutrients at the BK sites. Animal-waste manures represent an additional source of nutrients at the SW and SP study sites.

  16. U.S. International Agricultural Trade Policy: Interests, Institutions and Information in the Corn Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laís Forti Thomaz

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to analyze the U.S. international agricultural trade policy by focusing on instruments and institutional arrangements. Policy decision-making is analyzed by means of three variables: 1 how interests are mobilized; 2 how information is disseminated; and 3 how spaces are occupied in deliberation arenas. The study refers to the corn sector and observes how the National Corn Growers Association operated to ensure subsidies and incentives for this supply chain along the elaboration of the 2002 and 2008 Farm Bills, as well as from other laws pertaining to agricultural and energy incentives. This paper provides evidences in favor of four arguments: first, empirical studies on the formulation and implementation of foreign trade policy, especially when it comes to agricultural issues, would greatly benefit with a greater attention on understanding the role domestic actors play in the decision-making processes; second, interest groups play a key role in this decision-making process; third, they provide the rationale for the formulation and implementation of the U.S. international agricultural trade policy; and, fourth, when the economic sector coordinates complex and relevant supply chains in the U.S. economy, it is hardly possible to revert the U.S. protectionist position in the Legislative branch.

  17. The Effects of a Serious Digital Game on the Animal Science Competency, Mathematical Competency, Knowledge Transfer Ability, and Motivation of Secondary Agricultural Education Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunch, James Charles

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was twofold: 1) to compare the effectiveness of two teaching methods (i.e., lecture/discussion and digital game-based learning) on student achievement in agriculture and mathematics regarding a unit on swine diseases in animal science courses offered through secondary agricultural education programs in Oklahoma; 2) to…

  18. Combustible gas and biochar production from co-pyrolysis of agricultural plastic wastes and animal manures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Researchers report that manure-derived biochar has considerable potential both for improving soil quality and reducing water pollution. One of obstacles in obtaining manure biochar is its high energy requirement for pyrolyzing wet and low-energy-density animal manures. The combustible gas produced f...

  19. Agricultural production - Phase 2. Indonesia. National training course on ELISA for seradiagnosis of animal diseases (5)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobson, R.H.

    1992-01-01

    This report describes the content of a three-week national training course for 16 participants from regional Disease Investigation Centres and other agencies in Indonesia. The subject of the course was the use of ELISA for the diagnosis of animal diseases in Indonesia, with particular emphasis placed on bovine brucellosis

  20. Activating institutional innovations for hunger and poverty reduction : potential of applied international agricultural research

    OpenAIRE

    Kamanda, Josey

    2015-01-01

    The CGIAR system has made several attempts to improve its organizational structure, the latest being a reform process initiated in 2009. A key issue that has been debated over the years is how the CGIAR centres are best placed within the range of institutions involved in agricultural research and development. The CGIAR still faces the unresolved dilemma between a focus on upstream research that produces international public goods versus downstream activities that ensure impact. Therefore, the...

  1. Animator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tech Directions, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Art and animation work is the most significant part of electronic game development, but is also found in television commercials, computer programs, the Internet, comic books, and in just about every visual media imaginable. It is the part of the project that makes an abstract design idea concrete and visible. Animators create the motion of life in…

  2. Animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skuterud, L.; Strand, P. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (Norway); Howard, B.J. [Inst. of Terrestrial Ecology (United Kingdom)

    1997-10-01

    The radionuclides of most concern with respect to contamination of animals after a nuclear accident are radioiodine, radiocaesium and radiostrontium (ICRP 30, 1979). Of the other significant anthropogenic radionuclides likely to be released in most accidents, only small proportions of that ingested will be absorbed in an animals gut, and the main animal products, milk and meat, will not normally be contaminated to a significant extent. Animal products will mostly be contaminated as a result of ingestion of contaminated feed and possibly, but to a much lesser extent, from inhalation (for radioiodine only). Direct external contamination of animals is of little or no consequence in human food production. Radioiodine and radiostrontium are important with respect to contamination of milk; radiocaesium contaminates both milk and meat. The physical and chemical form of a radionuclide can influence its absorption in the animal gut. For example, following the Chernobyl accident radiocaesium incorporated into vegetation by root uptake was more readily absorbed than that associated with the original deposit. The transfer of radiocaesium and radiostrontium to animals will be presented both as transfer coefficients and aggregated transfer coefficients. For most animal meat products, only radiocaesium is important as other radionuclides do not significantly contaminate muscle. Farm animal products are the most important foodstuff determining radiocaesium intake by the average consumer in the Nordic countries. The major potential source of radioiodine and radiostrontium to humans is milk and milk products. Of the different species, the smaller animals have the highest transfer of radiocaesium from fodder to meat and milk. (EG). 68 refs.

  3. International Animal Protection Society Leadership: The Right People for the Right Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Michelle; Phillips, Clive J C

    2018-06-07

    As the increasing body of scientific information about the experiences of other species and their ability to suffer becomes available to those working within the field of animal welfare, the amount of potential issues to address also increases. Carefully choosing issues to address, and indeed leaders to drive the cause forward, has the potential to significantly increase the efficacy of the international animal welfare movement. Within this study 15 leaders of major international animal welfare organizations were interviewed about their experiences, thoughts and strategies, which have been primarily acquired through long-term exposure to the movement, and endeavors of trial and error. After thematic analysis, key themes are presented, along with strategies and cautions that may be beneficial to the animal welfare movement. Animal welfare leaders suggested a focus on issues that fitted well with their organizations' remit and were not too broad, to avoid spreading resources and expertise too thin. A utilitarian framework was also considered important, aiming to improve the lives of as many animals as possible for the resources deployed. Good leaders were believed to have passion for their cause, not just for animals, and an ability to build and lead good teams, hence good interpersonal human skills were also perceived as essential. It is concluded that establishing what makes a good animal welfare leader could offer useful direction for future engagement of successful leaders in this field.

  4. Rainfed areas and animal agriculture in Asia: the wanting agenda for transforming productivity growth and rural poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devendra, C

    2012-01-01

    The importance of rainfed areas and animal agriculture on productivity enhancement and food security for economic rural growth in Asia is discussed in the context of opportunities for increasing potential contribution from them. The extent of the rainfed area of about 223 million hectares and the biophysical attributes are described. They have been variously referred to inter alia as fragile, marginal, dry, waste, problem, threatened, range, less favoured, low potential lands, forests and woodlands, including lowlands and uplands. Of these, the terms less favoured areas (LFAs), and low or high potential are quite widely used. The LFAs are characterised by four key features: i) very variable biophysical elements, notably poor soil quality, rainfall, length of growing season and dry periods, ii) extreme poverty and very poor people who continuously face hunger and vulnerability, iii) presence of large populations of ruminant animals (buffaloes, cattle, goats and sheep), and iv) have had minimum development attention and an unfinished wanting agenda. The rainfed humid/sub-humid areas found mainly in South East Asia (99 million ha), and arid/semi-arid tropical systems found in South Asia (116 million ha) are priority agro-ecological zones (AEZs). In India for example, the ecosystem occupies 68% of the total cultivated area and supports 40% of the human and 65% of the livestock populations. The area also produces 4% of food requirements. The biophysical and typical household characteristics, agricultural diversification, patterns of mixed farming and cropping systems are also described. Concerning animals, their role and economic importance, relevance of ownership, nomadic movements, and more importantly their potential value as the entry point for the development of LFAs is discussed. Two examples of demonstrated success concern increasing buffalo production for milk and their expanded use in semi-arid AEZs in India, and the integration of cattle and goats with oil

  5. Rainfed Areas and Animal Agriculture in Asia: The Wanting Agenda for Transforming Productivity Growth and Rural Poverty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devendra, C.

    2012-01-01

    The importance of rainfed areas and animal agriculture on productivity enhancement and food security for economic rural growth in Asia is discussed in the context of opportunities for increasing potential contribution from them. The extent of the rainfed area of about 223 million hectares and the biophysical attributes are described. They have been variously referred to inter alia as fragile, marginal, dry, waste, problem, threatened, range, less favoured, low potential lands, forests and woodlands, including lowlands and uplands. Of these, the terms less favoured areas (LFAs), and low or high potential are quite widely used. The LFAs are characterised by four key features: i) very variable biophysical elements, notably poor soil quality, rainfall, length of growing season and dry periods, ii) extreme poverty and very poor people who continuously face hunger and vulnerability, iii) presence of large populations of ruminant animals (buffaloes, cattle, goats and sheep), and iv) have had minimum development attention and an unfinished wanting agenda. The rainfed humid/sub-humid areas found mainly in South East Asia (99 million ha), and arid/semi-arid tropical systems found in South Asia (116 million ha) are priority agro-ecological zones (AEZs). In India for example, the ecosystem occupies 68% of the total cultivated area and supports 40% of the human and 65% of the livestock populations. The area also produces 4% of food requirements. The biophysical and typical household characteristics, agricultural diversification, patterns of mixed farming and cropping systems are also described. Concerning animals, their role and economic importance, relevance of ownership, nomadic movements, and more importantly their potential value as the entry point for the development of LFAs is discussed. Two examples of demonstrated success concern increasing buffalo production for milk and their expanded use in semi-arid AEZs in India, and the integration of cattle and goats with oil

  6. International Agricultural Trade and Policy: Issues and Implications for U.S. Agriculture. Texas Agricultural Market Research Center Special Series Report No. SS-2-89.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Gary W.

    Historical events have set the stage for the current U.S. agricultural export performance. Agricultural exports in the early 1990s were as large or larger relative to the size of the agricultural sector than at any time since. A dramatic decrease in net farm income was caused by the Great Depression (1929-1932). Following passage of the…

  7. Ensuring good governance to address emerging and re-emerging animal disease threats: supporting the veterinary services of developing countries to meet OIE international standards on quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallat, B; Mallet, E

    2006-04-01

    As an effect of increased globalisation, animal diseases, in particular those transmissible to man, have an immediate global economic and social impact. This fact, dramatically illustrated by the current avian influenza epizootic in South-East Asia and Eastern Europe, clearly demonstrates the crucial importance of the national Veterinary Services (VS) for the prevention, early detection and response for the efficient control of animal diseases. Complying with this mission for the VS presupposes the existence of appropriate governance and legislation and of an official system to control their quality and reliability- an obvious weakness in many developing and in transition countries. The World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) has therefore developed a project aiming at strengthening the VS in those countries facing the greatest animal health threats and to bring them into line with OIE international standards already adopted by the same countries. Based on the evaluation of the VS and subsequent actions at the global, regional and national levels, the project will have a significant beneficial impact on the targeted countries as well as the international community as a whole, not only in the fields of agriculture, food security and production, and food safety, but also for the local and global prevention of emerging and re-emerging diseases of veterinary and public health importance. The project will be implemented in strong collaboration with the Food and Agriculture Organization. The actions proposed must be considered eligible for the concept of International Public Good.

  8. Standards and criteria of international organizations concerning agricultural aspects of radiological emergency situations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richards, J.I.; Hance, R.J.; Crick, M.J.

    1997-01-01

    The nuclear facilities are not generally located in densely populated zones, but usually in rural rather agricultural environment. The Chernobyl accident has shown that farming activities may be affected over hundreds if not thousands kilometers from the accident site. Emergency plans must be implemented in order to trigger countermeasures aiming at reducing agricultural product contamination even in countries having not nuclear facilities or programmes of their own. In Introduction the paper presents the principal objectives to be taken into account by the governmental authorities (at central and local level) after an agricultural countermeasure strategy has been elaborated. The second section deals with the development of criteria and intervening levels. On the basis of the new Recommendations of International Commission on Radiological Protection and the Guidelines concerning the Intervention Levels for Protecting the Public in the Event of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency issued by an IAEA Consultative Group, IAEA and FAO have published in 1994 common directives concerning the measures to be taken at agricultural level in case of an accidental release of radioactivity. The section 3 presents the concepts and criteria for selecting efficient and appropriate countermeasures. It discusses the importance of planning and intervention preparations, the management of accidents and the proper protection measures. The generic activity levels requiring intervention for withdraw from market of alimentary products are presented in the Section 4. The paper discusses also specific level s of intervention (for milk and meat for instance adopted in Belarus, Ukraine and Russia) as well as future prospects

  9. THE CHARACTERIZATION AGRICULTURAL POTENTIAL IN THE VEGETABLE AND THE ANIMAL AREA IN FOUR COUNTIES FROM TRANSILVANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.C. JURCO

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study I present some comparative element concerning agricultural potentialin some counties from Transilvania (Alba, Bistrita Nasaud, Cluj and Mures. Thiselements makes repport to the total agricol surface and the categoryes of agricolground (APF on groups of fertilisation, bread structure, the totale and queenefective of cattle (buffalo and cattle milk. Total surface which was in research isby 2444505 ha from which 1464890 ha are agricol surfaces which represent59.73% from the total surface. Analysed in what looks the categories lot of APF,arable, pastures and hay fields, the surface is placed somewhere to 1366612 hafrom which 600059 ha arable, 483958 ha pastures and 282795 ha hay fields, withweight from total of 43.91%, the pastures with 35.41% respectively 20.69% for thesurfaces of hay fields. . The totals effectives from the 4 involved counties are of333891 heads from which 61.77% quene, that is 206252 heads. From the totalequene efffective, cows represents 95.05% and buffalo milk 4.95%.

  10. Agricultural production - Phase 2. Indonesia. National training course on ELISA for seradiagnosis of animal diseases (4)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, T.

    1992-01-01

    This report details and UNDP/FAO/IAEA consultancy undertaken from Monday 13 February to Saturday 25 February 1989. The purpose of the consultancy was to provide practical and theoretical training to Indonesian scientists in ELISA technology. This occurred under the program title of ''National Training Course on the Use of ELISA for Serodiagnosis of Animal Diseases, with Emphasis on Brucellosis''. The course was held in the Bacteriology Department, Research Institute for Veterinary Sciences (Balitvet), Bogor, Indonesia. The majority of the 19 participants came from the Regional Disease Investigation Centre Laboratories within Indonesia. The principal course instructor was Dr. Richard Jacobson who was assisted by Dr. Larry McClure, Dr. Susan Sutherland, Dr. Mark Eisler, Dr. Barry Patten and myself. The course concluded with a one day seminar organized by BATAN, DITKESWAN and BALITVET entitled ''Bovine Brucellosis: A Challenging Disease for Indonesia'' which was attended by approximately fifty people. Refs and tabs

  11. The Effect of the Common Agricultural Policy Reform by 2013 on Direct Payments in Relation to Animal Welfare in the European Union - Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Angelovič

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The primary role of agriculture is to provide food and the European Union should be able to contribute to rising world food demand. The Common Agriculture Policy covers the wide variety of measures used to support and protect the European Union farmers. The most important measure within the Common Agriculture Policy is direct payments paid directly to farmers to protect their income. The Common Agriculture Policy is due to be reformed by 2013. The main object of the Common Agriculture Policy, which is a provision of safe, healthy choice of food at transparent and affordable prices, will remain unchanged, but further changes of the Common Agriculture Policy are necessary to respond to the new challenges such as animal welfare, global food security, natural resources such as water, air, biodiversity and soil, climate changes, increasing globalization and rising price volatility.

  12. Building Transnational Bodies: Norway and the International Development of Laboratory Animal Science, ca. 1956–1980

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druglitrø, Tone; Kirk, Robert G. W.

    2015-01-01

    Argument This article adopts a historical perspective to examine the development of Laboratory Animal Science and Medicine, an auxiliary field which formed to facilitate the work of the biomedical sciences by systematically improving laboratory animal production, provision, and maintenance in the post Second World War period. We investigate how Laboratory Animal Science and Medicine co-developed at the local level (responding to national needs and concerns) yet was simultaneously transnational in orientation (responding to the scientific need that knowledge, practices, objects and animals circulate freely). Adapting the work of Tsing (2004), we argue that national differences provided the creative “friction” that helped drive the formation of Laboratory Animal Science and Medicine as a transnational endeavor. Our analysis engages with the themes of this special issue by focusing on the development of Laboratory Animal Science and Medicine in Norway, which both informed wider transnational developments and was formed by them. We show that Laboratory Animal Science and Medicine can only be properly understood from a spatial perspective; whilst it developed and was structured through national “centers,” its orientation was transnational necessitating international networks through which knowledge, practice, technologies, and animals circulated. More and better laboratory animals are today required than ever before, and this demand will continue to rise if it is to keep pace with the quickening tempo of biological and veterinary research. The provision of this living experimental material is no longer a local problem; local, that is, to the research institute. It has become a national concern, and, in some of its aspects . . . even international. (William Lane-Petter 1957, 240) PMID:24941794

  13. Coordinated international action to accelerate genome-to-phenome with FAANG, the Functional Annotation of Animal Genomes project : open letter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Archibald, A.L.; Bottema, C.D.; Brauning, R.; Burgess, S.C.; Burt, D.W.; Casas, E.; Cheng, H.H.; Clarke, L.; Couldrey, C.; Dalrymple, B.P.; Elsik, C.G.; Foissac, S.; Giuffra, E.; Groenen, M.A.M.; Hayes, B.J.; Huang, L.S.; Khatib, H.; Kijas, J.W.; Kim, H.; Lunney, J.K.; McCarthy, F.M.; McEwan, J.; Moore, S.; Nanduri, B.; Notredame, C.; Palti, Y.; Plastow, G.S.; Reecy, J.M.; Rohrer, G.; Sarropoulou, E.; Schmidt, C.J.; Silverstein, J.; Tellam, R.L.; Tixier-Boichard, M.; Tosser-klopp, G.; Tuggle, C.K.; Vilkki, J.; White, S.N.; Zhao, S.; Zhou, H.

    2015-01-01

    We describe the organization of a nascent international effort, the Functional Annotation of Animal Genomes (FAANG) project, whose aim is to produce comprehensive maps of functional elements in the genomes of domesticated animal species.

  14. Effects of watershed densities of animal feeding operations on nutrient concentrations and estrogenic activity in agricultural streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciparis, Serena; Iwanowicz, Luke R; Voshell, J Reese

    2012-01-01

    Application of manures from animal feeding operations (AFOs) as fertilizer on agricultural land can introduce nutrients and hormones (e.g. estrogens) to streams. A landscape-scale study was conducted in the Shenandoah River watershed (Virginia, USA) in order to assess the relationship between densities of AFOs in watersheds of agricultural streams and in-stream nutrient concentrations and estrogenic activity. The effect of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) on nutrients and estrogenic activity was also evaluated. During periods of high and low flow, dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) and orthophosphate (PO(4)-P) concentrations were analyzed and estrogens/estrogenic compounds were extracted and quantified as17β-estradiol equivalents (E2Eq) using a bioluminescent yeast estrogen screen. Estrogenic activity was measurable in the majority of collected samples, and 20% had E2Eq concentrations >1 ng/L. Relatively high concentrations of DIN (>1000 μg/L) were also frequently detected. During all sampling periods, there were strong relationships between watershed densities of AFOs and in-stream concentrations of DIN (R(2) = 0.56-0.81) and E2Eq (R(2) = 0.39-0.75). Relationships between watershed densities of AFOs and PO(4)-P were weaker, but were also significant (R(2) = 0.27-0.57). When combined with the effect of watershed AFO density, streams receiving WWTP effluent had higher concentrations of PO(4)-P than streams without WWTP discharges, and PO(4)-P was the only analyte with a consistent relationship to WWTPs. The results of this study suggest that as the watershed density of AFOs increases, there is a proportional increase in the potential for nonpoint source pollution of agricultural streams and their receiving waters by nutrients, particularly DIN, and compounds that can cause endocrine disruption in aquatic organisms. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of watershed densities of animal feeding operations on nutrient concentrations and estrogenic activity in agricultural streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciparis, Serena; Iwanowicz, Luke R.; Voshell, J. Reese

    2012-01-01

    Application of manures from animal feeding operations (AFOs) as fertilizer on agricultural land can introduce nutrients and hormones (e.g. estrogens) to streams. A landscape-scale study was conducted in the Shenandoah River watershed (Virginia, USA) in order to assess the relationship between densities of AFOs in watersheds of agricultural streams and in-stream nutrient concentrations and estrogenic activity. The effect of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) on nutrients and estrogenic activity was also evaluated. During periods of high and low flow, dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) and orthophosphate (PO4-P) concentrations were analyzed and estrogens/estrogenic compounds were extracted and quantified as17β-estradiol equivalents (E2Eq) using a bioluminescent yeast estrogen screen. Estrogenic activity was measurable in the majority of collected samples, and 20% had E2Eq concentrations > 1 ng/L. Relatively high concentrations of DIN (> 1000 μg/L) were also frequently detected. During all sampling periods, there were strong relationships between watershed densities of AFOs and in-stream concentrations of DIN (R2 = 0.56–0.81) and E2Eq (R2 = 0.39–0.75). Relationships between watershed densities of AFOs and PO4-P were weaker, but were also significant (R2 = 0.27–0.57). When combined with the effect of watershed AFO density, streams receiving WWTP effluent had higher concentrations of PO4-P than streams without WWTP discharges, and PO4-P was the only analyte with a consistent relationship to WWTPs. The results of this study suggest that as the watershed density of AFOs increases, there is a proportional increase in the potential for nonpoint source pollution of agricultural streams and their receiving waters by nutrients, particularly DIN, and compounds that can cause endocrine disruption in aquatic organisms.

  16. BIG DATA ANALYTICS AND PRECISION ANIMAL AGRICULTURE SYMPOSIUM: Data to decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, B J; Amrine, D E; Larson, R L

    2018-04-14

    Big data are frequently used in many facets of business and agronomy to enhance knowledge needed to improve operational decisions. Livestock operations collect data of sufficient quantity to perform predictive analytics. Predictive analytics can be defined as a methodology and suite of data evaluation techniques to generate a prediction for specific target outcomes. The objective of this manuscript is to describe the process of using big data and the predictive analytic framework to create tools to drive decisions in livestock production, health, and welfare. The predictive analytic process involves selecting a target variable, managing the data, partitioning the data, then creating algorithms, refining algorithms, and finally comparing accuracy of the created classifiers. The partitioning of the datasets allows model building and refining to occur prior to testing the predictive accuracy of the model with naive data to evaluate overall accuracy. Many different classification algorithms are available for predictive use and testing multiple algorithms can lead to optimal results. Application of a systematic process for predictive analytics using data that is currently collected or that could be collected on livestock operations will facilitate precision animal management through enhanced livestock operational decisions.

  17. Providing Japanese health care information for international visitors: digital animation intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishikawa, Mariko; Yamanaka, Masaaki; Kiriya, Junko; Jimba, Masamine

    2018-05-21

    Over 24 million international visitors came to Japan in 2016 and the number is expected to increase. Visitors could be at a risk of illness or injury that may result in hospitalization in Japan. We assessed the effects of a four-minute digital animation titled Mari Info Japan on the level of anxiety experienced by international visitors to Japan. We conducted a non-randomized, controlled study at Narita International Airport outside Tokyo in December 2014. On the first day, we recruited international visitors for the intervention group at predetermined departure gates and, the following day, we sampled visitors for the control group at the same gates. We repeated this procedure twice over 4 days. The intervention group watched the digital animation and the control group read a standard travel guidebook in English. After receiving either intervention, they completed a questionnaire on their level of anxiety. The outcome was assessed using the Mari Meter-X, The State-Trait Anxiety Inventory Form Y (STAI-Y), and a face scale, before and immediately after the intervention. We analyzed data with Wilcoxon rank sum tests. We recruited 265 international visitors (134 in the intervention group, 131 in the control group), 241 (91%) of whom completed the questionnaire. Most of them had no previous Japanese health information before arrival in Japan. The level of anxiety about health services in Japan was significantly reduced in the intervention group (Mari Meter-X median: - 5 and 0, p animation is more effective in reducing anxiety among international visitors to Japan compared with reading a standard brochure or guidebook. Such effective animations of health information should be more widely distributed to international visitors. UMIN-CTR (University Hospital Medical Information Network Center Clinical Trials Registry), UMIN000015023 , September 3, 2014.

  18. Management of Internal and External Factors of Decisive Policies in Agriculture in Macroeconomic Crisis Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanghele Cristian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The management of internal and external factors directly influencing the decisions implemented by the managerial act at the macroeconomic analysis of the relations within this branch and sub-branches, of the disturbing factors with the implementation of some decisions to stop the phenomena of soil degradation and agricultural land and to preserve and develop their productive potential, a production surplus for ash consumption and ensuring a productive production for industrial consumption with the result of gaining added value and net profit as much as possible for the exploitation farms.

  19. Persian Agricultural Journals and Standard: Degree of Compatibility of Persian Scientific Agricultural Journals with International Standard Organization (ISO Publishing standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Gilvari

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Standard is a collection of recipes, guidelines or recommendations which use in production, creating or making of goods, products, documents or special resources. Extent of adaptation of Persian Agricultural scientific journals which are publishing in Iran with ISO publishing standards was evaluated in this research. The information items which were necessary to be presented in different sections of Agricultural scientific journals were examined. Items which were needed to be present in cover page, content, title page, running title, and endnote, abstract, first page of an article, references and its structure were among the information items. 47 Agricultural scientific journals were publishing until February 2009 consisted of the research population. Descriptive survey method is used. Results showed the adaption rate with ISO standards in research population was 53.47 percent. There was no private publisher which publishes agricultural scientific journals. The extent of adaptation with ISO standards was high in journal sections such as abstracts and keywords.

  20. Internal and External Dispersal of Plants by Animals: An Aquatic Perspective on Alien Interference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casper H. A. van Leeuwen

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Many alien plants use animal vectors for dispersal of their diaspores (zoochory. If alien plants interact with native disperser animals, this can interfere with animal-mediated dispersal of native diaspores. Interference by alien species is known for frugivorous animals dispersing fruits of terrestrial plants by ingestion, transport and egestion (endozoochory. However, less attention has been paid to possible interference of alien plants with dispersal of diaspores via external attachment (ectozoochory, epizoochory or exozoochory, interference in aquatic ecosystems, or positive effects of alien plants on dispersal of native plants. This literature study addresses the following hypotheses: (1 alien plants may interfere with both internal and external animal-mediated dispersal of native diaspores; (2 interference also occurs in aquatic ecosystems; (3 interference of alien plants can have both negative and positive effects on native plants. The studied literature revealed that alien species can comprise large proportions of both internally and externally transported diaspores. Because animals have limited space for ingested and adhering diaspores, alien species affect both internal and external transport of native diaspores. Alien plant species also form large proportions of all dispersed diaspores in aquatic systems and interfere with dispersal of native aquatic plants. Alien interference can be either negative (e.g., through competition with native plants or positive (e.g., increased abundance of native dispersers, changed disperser behavior or attracting additional disperser species. I propose many future research directions, because understanding whether alien plant species disrupt or facilitate animal-mediated dispersal of native plants is crucial for targeted conservation of invaded (aquatic plant communities.

  1. Stages of Agricultural Land Consolidation in Ukraine with Consideration for International Best Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popov Andriy S.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to develop recommendations on defining stages of consolidation of agricultural land in Ukraine on the basis of the best international practices. The analysis, systematization and generalization of scientific works of domestic and foreign scientists made it possible to determine a possible order of land consolidation in Ukraine and provide a detailed description of each stage. As a result of the research, the following main stages of land consolidation were proposed: the initiation, inventory, planning, implementation and final one. Each of these stages is considered consistently with justification of its expediency, the list of necessary measures and land management documentation, presentation of practical examples from different countries of the world. It is determined that each stage of the land consolidation procedure should be conducted in compliance with the principle of openness, which ensures the involvement of the maximum number of landowners/land users and protection of their interests, creates a positive attitude of the society towards land consolidation. A structural and logical model of the procedure for consolidating agricultural land, which clearly reflects the stages and activities of its implementation, is drawn up. There presented recommendations on the need to introduce new land management documentation for land consolidation with a detailed description of their essence. The relevance of further studies of the procedure for the agricultural land consolidation is in bringing a flexible, simple, cost-effective and short-term approach to its implementation.

  2. Virtual water flows in the international trade of agricultural products of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Jinhe; Tang, Guorong; Chen, Min; Wang, Lachun

    2016-07-01

    With the rapid development of the economy and population, water scarcity and poor water quality caused by water pollution have become increasingly severe in China. Virtual water trade is a useful tool to alleviate water shortage. This paper focuses on a comprehensive study of China's international virtual water flows from agricultural products trade and completes a diachronic analysis from 2001 to 2013. The results show that China was in trade surplus in relation to the virtual water trade of agricultural products. The exported virtual water amounted to 29.94billionm(3)/yr. while 155.55billionm(3)/yr. was embedded in imported products. The trend that China exported virtual water per year was on the decline while the imported was on a rising trend. Virtual water trade of China was highly concentrated. Not all of the exported products had comparative advantages in virtual water content. Imported products were excessively concentrated on water intensive agricultural products such as soya beans, cotton, and palm oil. The exported virtual water mainly flowed to the Republic of Korea, Hong Kong of China and Japan, while the imported mainly flowed from the United States of America, Brazil and Argentina. From the ethical point of view, the trade partners were classified into four types in terms of "net import" and "water abundance": mutual benefit countries, such as Australia and Canada; unilateral benefit countries, such as Mongolia and Norway; supported countries, such as Egypt and Singapore; and double pressure countries, such as India and Pakistan. Virtual water strategy refers to water resources, agricultural products and human beings. The findings are beneficial for innovating water resources management system, adjusting trade structure, ensuring food security in China, and promoting the construction of national ecological security system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Influence of different methods of internal bone fixation on characteristics of bone callus in experimental animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gajdobranski Đorđe

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Correct choice of osteosynthesis method is a very important factor in providing the optimal conditions for appropriate healing of the fracture. There are still disagreements about the method of stabilization of some long bone fractures. Critically observed, no method of fracture fixation is ideal. Each osteosynthesis method has both advantages and weaknesses. Objective. The objective of this study was to compare the results of the experimental application of three different internal fixation methods: plate fixation, intramedullary nail fixation and self-dynamisable internal fixator (SIF. Methods. A series of 30 animals were used (Lepus cuniculus as experimental animals, divided into three groups of ten animals each. Femoral diaphysis of each animal was osteotomized and fixed with one of three implants. Ten weeks later all animals were sacrificed and each specimen underwent histological and biomechanical testing. Results. Histology showed that the healing process with SIF was more complete and bone callus was more mature in comparison to other two methods. During biomechanical investigation (computerized bending stress test, it was documented with high statistical significance that using SIF led to stronger healing ten weeks after the operation. Conclusion. According to the results obtained in this study, it can be concluded that SIF is a suitable method for fracture treatment.

  4. The research with animal lab, colombia most accomplish the international agreements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mrad

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available Cuando se realiza investigación en un marco pleno de ética  y se mantiene el bienestar de los animales, la calidad de la ciencia y los datos que se deriven del trabajo serán lo mejor que se puede lograr. La experimentación animal es y seguirá siendo fundamental en la investigación biológica y biomédica, puesto que gracias a ella la humanidad ha podido hacer acopio de los más grandes descubrimientos por y para el mejoramiento de la calidad de vida humana y animal (Mrad y Cardozo, 1998. La Organización Panamericana de la Salud (OPS en su XI Reunión Interamericana de 1.980 dejaba claro que "los países que han logrado un gran avance en el control de las enfermedades humanas y animales son aquellos que han establecido mecanismos y entidades que se dedican al mejor desarrollo de la Ciencia de los Animales de Laboratorio". También se ocupan de éste tema organismos internacionales como ICLAS (International Council of Laboratory Animal Science, ILAR (Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources, así como muchas asociaciones dedicadas al cuidado de animales de laboratorio como son AALAS (American Associaton of Laboratory Animal Science y FELASA (Federation of European Laboratory Animal Science Associations

  5. Agriculture Oral Presentations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This publication contains 23 papers related to the use of nuclear techniques in plant breeding in Turkey, effect of gamma irradiations on growing various plants, mutations and soil chemistry, etc., presented at 4. International Congress of Nuclear Agriculture and Animal Science in Bursa, Turkey, 25-27 Sep 1996. A separate abstract was prepared for each paper

  6. Animal products, diseases and drugs: a plea for better integration between agricultural sciences, human nutrition and human pharmacology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haug Anna

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Eicosanoids are major players in the pathogenesis of several common diseases, with either overproduction or imbalance (e.g. between thromboxanes and prostacyclins often leading to worsening of disease symptoms. Both the total rate of eicosanoid production and the balance between eicosanoids with opposite effects are strongly dependent on dietary factors, such as the daily intakes of various eicosanoid precursor fatty acids, and also on the intakes of several antioxidant nutrients including selenium and sulphur amino acids. Even though the underlying biochemical mechanisms have been thoroughly studied for more than 30 years, neither the agricultural sector nor medical practitioners have shown much interest in making practical use of the abundant high-quality research data now available. In this article, we discuss some specific examples of the interactions between diet and drugs in the pathogenesis and therapy of various common diseases. We also discuss, using common pain conditions and cancer as specific examples, how a better integration between agricultural science, nutrition and pharmacology could lead to improved treatment for important diseases (with improved overall therapeutic effect at the same time as negative side effects and therapy costs can be strongly reduced. It is shown how an unnaturally high omega-6/omega-3 fatty acid concentration ratio in meat, offal and eggs (because the omega-6/omega-3 ratio of the animal diet is unnaturally high directly leads to exacerbation of pain conditions, cardiovascular disease and probably most cancers. It should be technologically easy and fairly inexpensive to produce poultry and pork meat with much more long-chain omega-3 fatty acids and less arachidonic acid than now, at the same time as they could also have a similar selenium concentration as is common in marine fish. The health economic benefits of such products for society as a whole must be expected vastly to outweigh the direct

  7. Agriculture Sectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Agriculture sectors comprise establishments primarily engaged in growing crops, raising animals, and harvesting fish and other animals. Find information on compliance, enforcement and guidance on EPA laws and regulations on the NAICS 111 & 112 sectors.

  8. Potential for remote sensing of agriculture from the international space station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgenthaler, George W.; Khatib, Nader

    1999-01-01

    Today's spatial resolution of orbital sensing systems is too coarse to economically serve the yield-improvement/contamination-reduction needs of the small to mid-size farm enterprise. Remote sensing from aircraft is being pressed into service. However, satellite remote sensing constellations with greater resolution and more spectral bands, i.e., with resolutions of 1 m in the panchromatic, 4 m in the multi-spectral, and 8 m in the hyper-spectral are expected to be in orbit by the year 2000. Such systems coupled with Global Positioning System (GPS) capability will make 'precision agriculture', i.e., the identification of specific and timely fertilizer, irrigation, herbicide, and insecticide needs on an acre-by-acre basis and the ability to meet these needs with precision delivery systems at affordable costs, is what is needed and can be achieved. Current plans for remote sensing systems on the International Space Station (ISS) include externally attached payloads and a window observation platform. The planned orbit of the Space Station will result in overflight of a specific latitude and longitude at the same clock time every 3 months. However, a pass over a specific latitude and longitude during 'daylight hours' could occur much more frequently. The ISS might thus be a space platform for experimental and developmental testing of future commercial space remote sensing precision agriculture systems. There is also a need for agricultural 'truth' sites so that predictive crop yield and pollution models can be devised and corrective suggestions delivered to farmers at affordable costs. In Summer 1998, the University of Colorado at Boulder and the Center for the Study of Terrestrial and Extraterrestrial Atmospheres (CSTEA) at Howard University, under NASA Goddard Space Flight Center funding, established an agricultural 'truth' site in eastern Colorado. The 'truth' site was highly instrumented for measuring trace gas concentrations (NO x , SO x , CO 2 , O 3 , organics

  9. NOVEL ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE DETERMINANTS FROM AGRICULTURAL SOIL EXPOSED TO ANTIBIOTICS WIDELY USED IN HUMAN MEDICINE AND ANIMAL FARMING.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Calvin Ho-Fung; van Engelen, Kalene; Gordon, Stephen; Renaud, Justin; Topp, Edward

    2017-06-16

    Antibiotic resistance has emerged globally as one of the biggest threats to human and animal health. Although the excessive use of antibiotics is recognized for accelerating the selection for resistance, there is a growing body of evidence suggesting that natural environments are "hotspots" for the development of both ancient and contemporary resistance mechanisms. Given that pharmaceuticals can be entrained onto agricultural land through anthropogenic activities, this could be a potential driver for the emergence and dissemination of resistance in soil bacteria. Using functional metagenomics, we interrogated the "resistome" of bacterial communities found in a collection of Canadian agricultural soil, some of which had been receiving antibiotics widely used in human medicine (macrolides) or food animal production (sulfamethazine, chlortetracycline and tylosin) for up to 16 years. Of the 34 new antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) recovered, the majority were predicted to encode for (multi)drug efflux systems, while a few share little to no homology with established resistance determinants. We characterized several novel gene products, including putative enzymes that can confer high-level resistance against aminoglycosides, sulfonamides, and broad range of beta-lactams, with respect to their resistance mechanisms and clinical significance. By coupling high-resolution proteomics analysis with functional metagenomics, we discovered an unusual peptide, PPP AZI 4 , encoded within an alternative open-reading frame not predicted by bioinformatics tools. Expression of the proline-rich PPP AZI 4 can promote resistance against different macrolides but not other ribosomal-targeting antibiotics, implicating a new macrolide-specific resistance mechanism that could be fundamentally linked to the evolutionary design of this peptide. IMPORTANCE Antibiotic resistance is a clinical phenomenon with an evolutionary link to the microbial pangenome. Genes and protogenes encoding for

  10. Globalization, international trade and animal health: the new roles of OIE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiermann, Alejandro B

    2005-02-01

    In order for countries and their stakeholders to maximize the benefits of globalization they must become familiar with, and must adhere to, the rights and obligations set out by the World Trade Organization (WTO) under the Agreement on Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (SPS). For the purpose of trade in animals and animal products, they must also adhere to the standards, guidelines and recommendations established by the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE). Countries are also encouraged to participate in this standard setting process of the OIE. Only after implementing these requirements and after strengthening the veterinary infrastructures and their surveillance and monitoring systems, will countries be able to fully benefit from these new international trade rules.

  11. The Impact of Trade Policies on Spiraling Prices in International Agricultural Commodity Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes Ghibuțiu

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Since the mid-2000s food prices have been on an upward trend. In the first months of 2011, agricultural commodity prices reached an all-time high, fuelling fears about the imminent outbreak of a new food crisis, similar to the 1973/74 and 2006/08 ones. Behind concerns about increased price levels and volatility in international agricultural commodity markets lie concerns about food security. Hence, the international community is now under pressure to urgently find solutions for tempering strong upward fluctuations in prices for many major food commodities. Trade policy changes are increasingly discussed as a major contributing factor to food price surges. This paper addresses some issues related to the recurrent global food crises from the perspective of trade policy, specifically export restrictions. After a brief review of the fundamental drivers of the upward trend in real food prices (rising global population and income, climate change, high oil prices, increasing cereal use for biofuel production, and financial speculation, it examines the upsurge in agricultural export restrictions over the recent years. Relying on WTO's trade policy monitoring exercise, it highlights typology, motivations and effects of the newly introduced export restrictions, and finds that a major factor behind their recent proliferation is the lack of effective and binding multilateral rules concerning these trade policy instruments. The paper argues that strenghtening and improving WTO's rules and disciplines is essential for mitigating increased price pressure and volatility as well as the associated food security risks. While the issue of export restrictions is currently the topic of discussions under the Doha Round, trade negotiations are in impasse since 2008. Hence, urgent and successful conclusion of the round would be an essential step. In the meanwhile, a closer regular monitoring of all forms of export restrictions would help to provide at least more

  12. Internal and external dose conversion coefficient for domestic reference animals and plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keum, Dong Kwon; Jun, In; Lim, Kwang Muk; Park, Du Won; Choi, Young Ho

    2009-07-15

    This report presents the internal and external dose conversion coefficients for domestic reference animals and plant, which are essential to assess the radiological impact of an environmental radiation on non-human species. To calculate the dose conversion coefficients, a uniform isotropic model and a Monte Carlo method for a photon transport simulation in environmental media with different densities have been applied for aquatic and terrestrial animals, respectively. In the modeling all the target animals are defined as a simple 3D elliptical shape. To specify the external radiation source it is assumed that aquatic animals are fully immersed in infinite and uniformly contaminated water, and the on-soil animals are living on the surface of a horizontally infinite soil source, and the in-soil organisms are living at the center of a horizontally infinite and uniformly contaminated soil to a depth of 50cm. A set of internal and external dose conversion coefficients for 8 Korean reference animals and plant (rat, roe-deer, frog, snake, Chinese minnow, bee, earthworm, and pine tree) are presented for 25 radionuclides ({sup 3}H, {sup 7}Be, {sup 14}C, {sup 40}K, {sup 51}Cr, {sup 54}Mn, {sup 59}Fe, {sup 58}Co, {sup 60}Co, {sup 65}Zn, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 95}Zr, {sup 95}Nb, {sup 99}Tc, {sup 106}Ru, {sup 129}I, {sup 131}I, {sup 136}Cs, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 140}Ba, {sup 140}La, {sup 144}Ce, {sup 238}U, {sup 239}Pu, and {sup 240}Pu)

  13. An International Comparison of Female and Male Students' Attitudes to the Use of Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Clive; Izmirli, Serdar; Aldavood, Javid; Alonso, Marta; Choe, Bi; Hanlon, Alison; Handziska, Anastasija; Illmann, Gudrun; Keeling, Linda; Kennedy, Mark; Lee, Gwi; Lund, Vonne; Mejdell, Cecilie; Pelagic, Veselinas; Rehn, Therese

    2011-01-01

    Simple Summary We surveyed university students in 11 Eurasian countries for their attitudes to animals, using an internet-based questionnaire to which 1,902 female and 1,530 male student responded from 102 universities. Across countries female students had greater concern for animal welfare and rights than males, but especially so in more gender empowered countries. One contributing factor appeared to be the greater association of females than males with pets, and a possible outcome was greater female avoidance of meat consumption, especially red meat. Abstract Previous research has demonstrated that in households where the male partner is more dominant, there is convergence in male and female attitudes towards animals, whereas if the female partner is empowered they exhibit greater empathy towards animals than the male partner. We tested this theory of ‘female empowered empathy’ internationally in a survey of female and male students' attitudes towards use of animals, conducted in 11 Eurasian countries: China, Czech Republic, Great Britain, Iran, Ireland, South Korea, Macedonia, Norway, Serbia, Spain and Sweden. Gender empowerment was estimated for each country using the Gender Empowerment Measure designed by the United Nations. The survey was administered via the internet in universities within countries, and 1,902 female and 1,530 male student responses from 102 universities were received. Respondents rated the acceptability of 43 major concerns about human use of animals, and the importance of 13 world social issues, including animal protection, environmental protection and sustainable development. Females had greater concern for animal welfare and rights than males. There was a positive correlation between the Gender Empowerment Measure and the ratio of female to male concern for animal welfare and rights, but not for other world issues. Thus in countries where females were more empowered, principally Sweden, Norway and Great Britain, females had much

  14. Analysis of Maize versus Ethanol Production in Nebraska, United States and International Agricultural Droughts: Lessons for Global Food Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boken, V.; Tenkorang, F.

    2012-04-01

    Nebraska is one of the eight main corn (maize) belt states of the United States. Maize is the major crop of Nebraska with an average annual production of about 38 million tons (about 12% of U.S. production), which contributes billions of dollars to the state's economy. The yield of maize has increased significantly over the past century - from 1.6 t/ha in 1900 to 10.4 t/ha in 2010. While the majority of maize (about 40%) is currently used for animal feed and ethanol production, only about six percent is exported. It is estimated that about one billion people accounting for about 15% population of the world live in chronic hunger because of low agricultural productivity and drought. Most of these people depend on the U.S. for grains including maize. If a greater quantity of maize is diverted to ethanol production, considerably less quantity of maize would be available for export to developing countries where it could be used for human consumption and to mitigate hunger and improve food security. This paper presents analysis of maize production in Nebraska for the past three decades and examines how its commercialization for ethanol production has affected its exports in the face of drought at an international level.

  15. Determination of arsenic in agricultural products, animal products and drinking water of rural areas of Bijar and Gharve, Kurdestan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Pirsaheb

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Environmental and food contamination with toxic element arsenic is one of the important issues that are threatening public health and other creatures. In this study, a total sample of 983 consisting agricultural and animal products as well as water samples was analyzed for arsenic contamination. According to the results, the highest concentration of arsenic (1.737 mg/l was found in the piped water of Aliabad. Moreover, the highest level of arsenic contamination was detected in wheat obtained from Giklo and Gondak (0.14 mg/kg. Accordingly, highest arsenic level in barley, peas and lentils, was estimated in the samples of Gondak (0.11 mg/kg, Giklo (mg/kg 0.013 and Ghojagh (0.017 mg/kg, respectively. In addition, the highest mean concentration of arsenic in meat and milk samples was found in Ghojagh (0.167 mg/kg and Gondak (0.0129 mg/l. The results revealed that the contamination level of arsenic in all crops, meat and milk samples were lower than the maximum acceptable limit adopted in many other countries. However, the concentration of arsenic in water samples was 174 times higher than the acceptable limit (0.01 mg/l determined by the Iranian National Standard. Therefore, it is necessary to perform comprehensive studies on contaminations of water sources in this area.

  16. Stimulating climate smart agriculture within the boundaries of international trade law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verschuuren, Jonathan

    The Paris Agreement implies that comprehensive policies aimed at climate smart agriculture, i.e., reducing emissions from agriculture, increasing sequestration through agriculture and land use, and increasing resilience of the agricultural sector need to be developed and implemented soon. This

  17. Animal-assisted interventions in internal and rehabilitation medicine: a review of the recent literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz Lasa, S; Ferriero, G; Brigatti, E; Valero, R; Franchignoni, F

    2011-06-01

    While conventional wisdom has always affirmed the value of animals in promoting human well-being, only recently has their therapeutic role in medicine become the focus of dedicated research. Therapeutic modalities that use animals as a tool for improving the physical, emotional, cognitive and/or social functioning of humans are called animal-assisted interventions (AAI), and are classified into: animal-assisted activities (AAA); animal-assisted therapy (AAT); and service animal programs (SAP). The aim of this review is to analyze the papers published between 2001 and 2010 in the most influential medical journals dealing with AAI, and discuss their findings in the light of what may be of interest for internal medicine and rehabilitation. A total of 35 articles met the strict inclusion criteria for this review: 18 papers dealing with AAA, 8 with AAT, and 9 with SAP. The therapeutic outcomes associated with AAA are: enhancement of socialization; reduction of stress, anxiety and loneliness; improvement in mood and general well-being; and development of leisure/recreation skills. Regarding AAT, horses are often used as a complementary strategy to facilitate the normalization of muscle tone and improve motor skills in children with cerebral palsy and persons with lower limb spasticity. Finally, most SAP utilize dogs, that assist people with various disabilities in performing everyday activities, thus reducing their dependence on other persons. Further studies are needed to better define the fields and programs for the therapeutic use of animals and to increase their utilization in medicine, as a promising, complementary and natural means to improve both functional autonomy and quality of life.

  18. Restrictions on antimicrobial use in food animal production: an international regulatory and economic survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The administration of antimicrobial drugs to food animals at low doses for extended durations for growth promotion and disease prevention has been linked to the global health crisis of antimicrobial resistance. Internationally, multiple jurisdictions have responded by restricting antimicrobial use for these purposes, and by requiring a veterinary prescription to use these drugs in food animals. Opponents of these policies have argued that restrictions have been detrimental to food animal production where they have been adopted. Methods We surveyed the antimicrobial use policies of 17 political jurisdictions outside of the United States with respect to growth promotion, disease prevention, and veterinary oversight, and reviewed the available evidence regarding their production impacts, including measures of animal health. Jurisdictions were included if they were a top-five importer of a major U.S. food animal product in 2011, as differences between the policies of the U.S. and other jurisdictions may lead to trade barriers to U.S. food animal product exports. Jurisdictions were also included if information on their policies was publicly available in English. We searched the peer-reviewed and grey literatures and corresponded with jurisdictions’ U.S. embassies, regulators, and local experts. Results Jurisdictions were categorized by whether they prohibit use of antimicrobials for growth promotion and/or use of antimicrobials without a veterinary prescription. Of the 17 jurisdictions surveyed, six jurisdictions have prohibited both types of use, five jurisdictions have prohibited one use but not the other use, and five jurisdictions have not prohibited either use, while information was not available for one jurisdiction. Data on the production impacts of these prohibitions were limited, although available data, especially from Denmark and Sweden, suggest that restrictions on growth promotion use can be implemented with minimal production consequences

  19. Restrictions on antimicrobial use in food animal production: an international regulatory and economic survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maron, Dina Fine; Smith, Tyler J S; Nachman, Keeve E

    2013-10-16

    The administration of antimicrobial drugs to food animals at low doses for extended durations for growth promotion and disease prevention has been linked to the global health crisis of antimicrobial resistance. Internationally, multiple jurisdictions have responded by restricting antimicrobial use for these purposes, and by requiring a veterinary prescription to use these drugs in food animals. Opponents of these policies have argued that restrictions have been detrimental to food animal production where they have been adopted. We surveyed the antimicrobial use policies of 17 political jurisdictions outside of the United States with respect to growth promotion, disease prevention, and veterinary oversight, and reviewed the available evidence regarding their production impacts, including measures of animal health. Jurisdictions were included if they were a top-five importer of a major U.S. food animal product in 2011, as differences between the policies of the U.S. and other jurisdictions may lead to trade barriers to U.S. food animal product exports. Jurisdictions were also included if information on their policies was publicly available in English. We searched the peer-reviewed and grey literatures and corresponded with jurisdictions' U.S. embassies, regulators, and local experts. Jurisdictions were categorized by whether they prohibit use of antimicrobials for growth promotion and/or use of antimicrobials without a veterinary prescription. Of the 17 jurisdictions surveyed, six jurisdictions have prohibited both types of use, five jurisdictions have prohibited one use but not the other use, and five jurisdictions have not prohibited either use, while information was not available for one jurisdiction. Data on the production impacts of these prohibitions were limited, although available data, especially from Denmark and Sweden, suggest that restrictions on growth promotion use can be implemented with minimal production consequences. A majority of leading U.S. trade

  20. FAO/IAEA international symposium on applications of gene-based technologies for improving animal production and health in developing countries. Book of extended synopses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    Genetic engineering is at the forefront of much biological research - basic, adaptive and applied or near market. Manipulation of genes to bring about the expression of a specific product, or to produce a characteristic or trait, offers exciting possibilities within both the plant and the animal kingdom. The opportunities, in terms of improving livestock productivity or reducing losses from disease, lie in a number of areas. In almost all areas of this research, isotopic markers are extensively used and are in most cases essential for achieving the levels of sensitivity required for genetic characterization and manipulation. Genetic engineering has the potential to solve many problems relating to animal productivity and health. At present the focus is on the problems that face livestock producers in the developed world. If the full benefit of this technology is to be realized globally, the problems confronting livestock farmers in developing countries will have to be considered. The characterization and application of methods in these regions has to be managed and exploited. It is hoped that this Symposium will stimulate the international exchange of information and ideas that contribute to greater accessibility and enhanced use of gene based technologies in animal agriculture in developing countries. OBJECTIVES: To create an interactive environment to discuss the role and future potential of gene based technologies for improving animal production and health; To identify constraints in the use of gene based technologies in developing countries and to determine how to use these technologies in a simple, practical way; To identify and prioritize specific research needs; To explore the possibility of international co-ordination in the area of gene based technologies in animal agriculture; To examine ethical, technological, policy and environmental issues and the role of nuclear techniques in the further development and application of gene based technologies with

  1. FAO/IAEA international symposium on applications of gene-based technologies for improving animal production and health in developing countries. Book of extended synopses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Genetic engineering is at the forefront of much biological research - basic, adaptive and applied or near market. Manipulation of genes to bring about the expression of a specific product, or to produce a characteristic or trait, offers exciting possibilities within both the plant and the animal kingdom. The opportunities, in terms of improving livestock productivity or reducing losses from disease, lie in a number of areas. In almost all areas of this research, isotopic markers are extensively used and are in most cases essential for achieving the levels of sensitivity required for genetic characterization and manipulation. Genetic engineering has the potential to solve many problems relating to animal productivity and health. At present the focus is on the problems that face livestock producers in the developed world. If the full benefit of this technology is to be realized globally, the problems confronting livestock farmers in developing countries will have to be considered. The characterization and application of methods in these regions has to be managed and exploited. It is hoped that this Symposium will stimulate the international exchange of information and ideas that contribute to greater accessibility and enhanced use of gene based technologies in animal agriculture in developing countries. OBJECTIVES: To create an interactive environment to discuss the role and future potential of gene based technologies for improving animal production and health; To identify constraints in the use of gene based technologies in developing countries and to determine how to use these technologies in a simple, practical way; To identify and prioritize specific research needs; To explore the possibility of international co-ordination in the area of gene based technologies in animal agriculture; To examine ethical, technological, policy and environmental issues and the role of nuclear techniques in the further development and application of gene based technologies with

  2. Absorbed Internal Dose Conversion Coefficients for Domestic Reference Animals and Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keum, Dong Kwon; Jun, In; Lim, Kwang Muk; Choi, Yong Ho [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-02-15

    This paper describes the methodology of calculating the internal dose conversion coefficient in order to assess the radiological impact on non-human species. This paper also presents the internal dose conversion coefficients of 25 radionuclides ({sup 3}H, {sup 7}Be, {sup 14}C, {sup 40}K, {sup 51}Cr, {sup 54}Mn, {sup 59}Fe, {sup 58}Co, {sup 60}Co, {sup 65}Zn, {sup 90}Sr, '9{sup 5}Zr, {sup 95}Nb, {sup 99}Tc, {sup 106}Ru, {sup 129}I, {sup 131}I, {sup 136}Cs, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 140}Ba, {sup 140}La, {sup 144}Ce, {sup 238}U, {sup 239}Pu, {sup 240}Pu) for domestic seven reference animals (roe deer, rat, frog, snake, Chinese minnow, bee, and earthworm) and one reference plant (pine tree). The uniform isotropic model was applied in order to calculate the internal dose conversion coefficients. The calculated internal dose conversion coefficient (muGyd{sup -1} per Bqkg{sup -1}) ranged from 10{sup -6} to 10{sup -2} according to the type of radionuclides and organisms studied. It turns out that the internal does conversion coefficient was higher for alpha radionuclides, such as {sup 238}U, {sup 239}Pu, and {sup 240}Pu, and for large organisms, such as roe deer and pine tree. The internal dose conversion coefficients of {sup 239}Pu, {sup 240}Pu, {sup 238}U, {sup 14}C, {sup 3}H and {sup 99}Tc were independent of the organism

  3. Influence of biofuels usage in internal combustion engines of agricultural tractors on output parametrs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Šmerda

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Application of alternative fuels brings the social benefits in terms of reducing dependence on oil industry and its products as well as decreasing of damage of the environment together with using of na­tu­ral resources, especially in field of renewable energy resources. The use of biofuels is the most important part of energy strategy in European Union, whose member states have agreed the content of biofuels will achieve 5.75% of the total energy sum of fuel for transport purposes in 2010. Operation of internal combustion engine fueled by RME brings environmental benefits as described several authors in analysis of the life cycle. The contribution deals with technical difficulties of the RME usage in internal combustion engine used in agricultural tractors. Different fuel causes different process of combustion which means changes in output power and pollution. The aim of this experiment was to determine these effects. Experimental work was divided into two parts according to various fuel systems. The first tractor was equipped with mechanical injection system, the second one was provided with common-rail fuel system. The test procedures consisted of measurement of power- torque curves where the engine load was created by Eddy current dynamometer. Exhaust gas analyzer sampled the pollution of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and hydrocarbons as the most important indicators of combustion process.

  4. From France to the World: The International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements (IFOAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Paull

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The formation of the International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements (IFOAM at Versailles, France, in 1972 set organic food and farming on a strong future trajectory. It was an initiative of France’s Nature et Progrès, and driven by its then President, Roland Chevriot. IFOAM was founded with the support of a small cluster of kindred organisations: Rodale Press of the USA; the Soil Association of the UK; the Soil Association of South Africa; and the Swedish Biodynamic Association. None of these five organisations bore the term ‘organic’ in their title, nevertheless, the choice of name acknowledged ‘organic’ as the term to signify their common cause. It secured ‘organic’ as the core narrative element and as the international descriptor of what is now a clearly identifiable and differentiated segment of the global food and farming sector. From the outset ‘biodynamic’ was accepted as a special case of ‘organic’. The formation of IFOAM created an entity which united the aspirations, the philosophies and the hopes of disparate groups each with roles primarily restricted to national advocacy. IFOAM has grown to a federation of 804 organisations from 111 counties. Organic production statistics are now reported by IFOAM from 154 countries and organic sector retail sales are reported to be US$51b annually. IFOAM is based in Bonn, Germany, and as the global umbrella advocacy group for the organic sector it is without peer.

  5. The role of agricultural and natural ecosystems in the internal dose formation in the inhabitants of a controlled area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balonov, M.I.; Travnikova, I.G.

    1990-01-01

    The dynamics of caesium radionuclide transfer to agricultural and natural food products produced in western areas of the Bryansk region during 3 years after the Chernobyl accident and its change due to the protective measures adopted have been determined. It has been shown that the role of agricultural and natural (mushrooms, fish, berries) food products in the people's internal irradiation may be equally important both with routine diet and with the food restrictions imposed. The substitution of local food products for radiation-free ones reduced the internal irradiation dose in the adult rural inhabitants of the controlled area by 70-86% during 1.5 years. (author)

  6. Abstracts of the 17. world congress of the International Commission of Agriculture and Biosystems Engineering (CIGR) : sustainable biosystems through engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savoie, P.; Villeneuve, J.; Morisette, R. [Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Quebec City, PQ (Canada). Soils and Crops Research and Development Centre] (eds.)

    2010-07-01

    This international conference provided a forum to discuss methods to produce agricultural products more efficiently through improvements in engineering and technology. It was attended by engineers and scientists working from different perspectives on biosystems. Beyond food, farms and forests can provide fibre, bio-products and renewable energy. Seven sections of CIGR were organized in the following technical sessions: (1) land and water engineering, (2) farm buildings, equipment, structures and environment, (3) equipment engineering for plants, (4) energy in agriculture, (5) management, ergonomics and systems engineering, (6) post harvest technology and process engineering, and (7) information systems. The Canadian Society of Bioengineering (CSBE) merged its technical program within the 7 sections of CIGR. Four other groups also held their activities during the conference. The American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers (ASABE) organized its 9th international drainage symposium and the American Ecological Engineering Society (AEES) held its 10th annual meeting. The International Network for Information Technology in Agriculture (INFITA), and the 8th world congress on computers in agriculture also joined CIGR 2010.

  7. Regulatory and biosafety issues in relation to transgenic animals in food and agriculture, feeds containing genetically modified organisms (GMO) and veterinary biologics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kochhar, H.P.S.; Gifford, G.A.; Kahn, S.

    2005-01-01

    Development of an effective regulatory system for genetically engineered animals and their products has been the subject of increasing discussion among researchers, industry and policy developers, as well as the public. Since transgenesis and cloning are relatively new scientific techniques, transgenic animals are new organisms for which there is limited information. The issues associated with the regulation and biosafety of transgenic animals pertain to environmental impact, human food safety, animal health and welfare, trade and ethics. To regulate this new and powerful technology predicated on limited background information is a challenge not only for the regulators, but also for the developers of such animals, who strive to prove that the animals are safe and merit bio-equivalency to their conventional counterparts. In principle, an effective regulatory sieve should permit safe products while forming a formidable barrier for those assessed of posing an unacceptable risk. Adoption of transgenic technology for use in agriculture will depend upon various factors that range from perceived benefits for humans and animals, to safe propagation, animal welfare considerations and integrity of species, as well as effects on bio-diversity. A regulatory framework designed to address the concerns connected with the environmental release of transgenic animals needs to also take into account the ability of genetically modified animals to survive and compete with conventional populations. Regulatory initiatives for biotechnology-derived animals and their products should ensure high standards for human and animal health; a sound scientific basis for evaluation; transparency and public involvement; and maintenance of genetic diversity. Feeds obtained by use of biotechnology have to be evaluated for animal and human safety by using parameters that define their molecular characterization, nutritional qualities and toxicological aspects, while veterinary biologics derived from

  8. Internalization and Dissemination of Human Norovirus and Animal Caliciviruses in Hydroponically Grown Romaine Lettuce

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiCaprio, Erin; Ma, Yuanmei; Purgianto, Anastasia; Hughes, John

    2012-01-01

    Fresh produce is a major vehicle for the transmission of human norovirus (NoV) because it is easily contaminated during both pre- and postharvest stages. However, the ecology of human NoV in fresh produce is poorly understood. In this study, we determined whether human NoV and its surrogates can be internalized via roots and disseminated to edible portions of the plant. The roots of romaine lettuce growing in hydroponic feed water were inoculated with 1 × 106 RNA copies/ml of a human NoV genogroup II genotype 4 (GII.4) strain or 1 × 106 to 2 × 106 PFU/ml of animal caliciviruses (Tulane virus [TV] and murine norovirus [MNV-1]), and plants were allowed to grow for 2 weeks. Leaves, shoots, and roots were homogenized, and viral titers and/or RNA copies were determined by plaque assay and/or real-time reverse transcription (RT)-PCR. For human NoV, high levels of viral-genome RNA (105 to 106 RNA copies/g) were detected in leaves, shoots, and roots at day 1 postinoculation and remained stable over the 14-day study period. For MNV-1 and TV, relatively low levels of infectious virus particles (101 to 103 PFU/g) were detected in leaves and shoots at days 1 and 2 postinoculation, but virus reached a peak titer (105 to 106 PFU/g) at day 3 or 7 postinoculation. In addition, human NoV had a rate of internalization comparable with that of TV as determined by real-time RT-PCR, whereas TV was more efficiently internalized than MNV-1 as determined by plaque assay. Taken together, these results demonstrated that human NoV and animal caliciviruses became internalized via roots and efficiently disseminated to the shoots and leaves of the lettuce. PMID:22729543

  9. Y2K and International Agricultural Transportation: Analysis of Export Markets, Import Suppliers, and Major Food Aid Recipient Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-09-01

    USDA Y2K information assessment of international food transportation modes in : selected foreign countries. The assessment targeted 9 of the top 10 markets for : U.S. Agricultural exports and 7 of the top 8 suppliers of imported food products : to th...

  10. The technique of express vital determination of radiocesium specific activity in muscular tissue of large agricultural animals by means of the TIM-140 radiometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The technique is intended for vital determination of cesium 137 specific activity in muscular tissue of large agricultural animals by means of the TIM-140 radiometer. The specific activity is determined using two measurements. With one measurement the gamma radiation detector is located on a lateral surface of coxofemoral part of the animal, and with the second measurement the absorbing gamma radiation screen is placed between the detector and zone of measurement. The external gamma background and useful signal are registered simultaneously. It allows to carry out measurements with a background till 0.05 mR/h without application of external screens

  11. Case note: ECHR (Animal Defenders International v UK: App no 48876/08: Political Advertising Bans and Freedom of Expression)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ó Fathaigh, R.

    2013-01-01

    In Animal Defenders International v UK, the 17-judge Grand Chamber of the European Court of Human Rights ruled that the UK’s ban on political advertising on television, as applied to an animal rights organisation, did not violate freedom of expression. The Court divided nine votes to eight, with the

  12. Assessing health in agriculture--towards a common research framework for soils, plants, animals, humans and ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieweger, Anja; Döring, Thomas F

    2015-02-01

    In agriculture and food systems, health-related research includes a vast diversity of topics. Nutritional, toxicological, pharmacological, epidemiological, behavioural, sociological, economic and political methods are used to study health in the five domains of soils, plants, livestock, humans and ecosystems. An idea developed in the early founding days of organic agriculture stated that the health of all domains is one and indivisible. Here we show that recent research reveals the existence and complex nature of such health links among domains. However, studies of health aspects in agriculture are often separated by disciplinary boundaries. This restrains the understanding of health in agricultural systems. Therefore we explore the opportunities and limitations of bringing perspectives together from the different domains. We review current approaches to define and assess health in agricultural contexts, comparing the state of the art of commonly used approaches and bringing together the presently disconnected debates in soil science, plant science, veterinary science and human medicine. Based on a qualitative literature analysis, we suggest that many health criteria fall into two paradigms: (1) the Growth Paradigm, where terms are primarily oriented towards continued growth; (2) the Boundary Paradigm, where terms focus on maintaining or coming back to a status quo, recognising system boundaries. Scientific health assessments in agricultural and food systems need to be explicit in terms of their position on the continuum between Growth Paradigm and Boundary Paradigm. Finally, we identify areas and concepts for a future direction of health assessment and research in agricultural and food systems. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. 3D reconstruction of internal structure of animal body using near-infrared light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Trung Nghia; Yamamoto, Kohei; Namita, Takeshi; Kato, Yuji; Shimizu, Koichi

    2014-03-01

    To realize three-dimensional (3D) optical imaging of the internal structure of animal body, we have developed a new technique to reconstruct CT images from two-dimensional (2D) transillumination images. In transillumination imaging, the image is blurred due to the strong scattering in the tissue. We had developed a scattering suppression technique using the point spread function (PSF) for a fluorescent light source in the body. In this study, we have newly proposed a technique to apply this PSF for a light source to the image of unknown light-absorbing structure. The effectiveness of the proposed technique was examined in the experiments with a model phantom and a mouse. In the phantom experiment, the absorbers were placed in the tissue-equivalent medium to simulate the light-absorbing organs in mouse body. Near-infrared light was illuminated from one side of the phantom and the image was recorded with CMOS camera from another side. Using the proposed techniques, the scattering effect was efficiently suppressed and the absorbing structure can be visualized in the 2D transillumination image. Using the 2D images obtained in many different orientations, we could reconstruct the 3D image. In the mouse experiment, an anesthetized mouse was held in an acrylic cylindrical holder. We can visualize the internal organs such as kidneys through mouse's abdomen using the proposed technique. The 3D image of the kidneys and a part of the liver were reconstructed. Through these experimental studies, the feasibility of practical 3D imaging of the internal light-absorbing structure of a small animal was verified.

  14. Methods for reducing internal collective doses due to contamination of agricultural lands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prister, B.S.; Novikova, N.K.; Tkachenko, N.V.; Nagovisyna, L.I.; Berezhnaya, T.I.; Semenyuk, N.D.; Rudoj, V.M.

    1990-01-01

    Radioactive contamination of agricultural lands in 30 km vicinity of Chernobyl NPP asw well as agricultural products involved in food chains is considered. Attention is paid to population collective doses due to intake of contaminated food. It is shown that target optimization of agricultural production structure in territories where food contamination does not result in increase of population dose limit lies in achievement of minimal inclusion of radionuclides in human diet

  15. Use of antibiotics in animal agriculture & emergence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) clones: need to assess the impact on public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehndiratta, P L; Bhalla, P

    2014-09-01

    Widespread use of antibiotics in human, veterinary medicine and agricultural settings has played a significant role in the emergence of resistant MRSA clones due to selection pressure. MRSA has now become established in human population as well as in various animal species. An animal associated clone, MRSA ST 398 has been reported from animal foods and also from human infections in the community as well as from the health care associated infections. Clonal relationship between strains of animal and human origins are indicators of interspecies transmission of clones. Spread of these organisms may pose a great impact on public health if animal associated strains enter into the community and health care settings. Surveillance is important to correlate the genetic changes associated with their epidemiological shift and expansion to predict its impact on public health. Strict regulations on the use of antibiotics in humans as well as in animal food production are required to control the emergence of drug resistant clones. t0 his article reviews the information available on the role of antibiotics in emergence of MRSA strains, their epidemiological shift between humans and animals and its impact on the public health.

  16. Integration of agriculture in policies of mitigation of climate changes. Collection of international experiences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandaele, Diane; Martin, Sarah; Larbodiere, Ludovic; Portet, Fabienne; Marrel, Solenn

    2012-03-01

    After having indicated some key figures about France and the European Union (population, surface, levels and objectives of greenhouse gas emissions, share of the main sectors in greenhouse gas emissions), this document reports the study of innovative policies implemented by different countries (New-Zealand, Australia, United States and Canada, Netherlands, United Kingdom, Germany and Brazil) to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the agricultural sector. These policies correspond to an integration of agriculture into the carbon market, a participation of landowners to the carbon market, a use of agriculture as a compensatory activity, a reduction of emissions by the milk sector, an energy independence, a reduction of CO 2 and CH 4 emissions and a diversification of agriculture while supporting methanation, or a program for a low carbon agriculture

  17. Enhancement of Apoptosis by Titanium Alloy Internal Fixations during Microwave Treatments for Fractures: An Animal Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Wang

    Full Text Available Microwaves are used in one method of physical therapy and can increase muscle tissue temperature which is useful for improving muscle, tendon and bone injuries. In the study, we sought to determine whether titanium alloy internal fixations influence apoptosis in tissues subjected to microwave treatments at 2,450 MHz and 40 W during the healing of fractures because this issue is not yet fully understood.In this study, titanium alloy internal fixations were used to treat 3.0-mm transverse osteotomies in the middle of New Zealand rabbits' femurs. After the operation, 30-day microwave treatments were applied to the 3.0 mm transverse osteotomies 3 days after the operation. The changes in the temperatures of the muscle tissues in front of the implants or the 3.0 mm transverse osteotomies were measured during the microwave treatments. To characterize the effects of titanium alloy internal fixations on apoptosis in the muscles after microwave treatment, we performed TUNEL assays, fluorescent real-time (quantitative PCR, western blotting analyses, reactive oxygen species (ROS detection and transmission electron microscopy examinations.The temperatures were markedly increased in the animals with the titanium alloy implants. Apoptosis in the muscle cells of the implanted group was significantly more extensive than that in the non-implanted control group at different time points. Transmission electron microscopy examinations of the skeletal muscles of the implanted groups revealed muscular mitochondrial swelling, vacuolization. ROS, Bax and Hsp70 were up-regulated, and Bcl-2 was down-regulated in the implanted group.Our results suggest that titanium alloy internal fixations caused greater muscular tissue cell apoptosis following 2,450 MHz, 40 W microwave treatments in this rabbit femur fracture models.

  18. 131I-SPGP internal dosimetry: animal model and human extrapolation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, Henrique Martins de; Ferreira, Andrea Vidal; Soprani, Juliana; Santos, Raquel Gouvea dos; Figueiredo, Suely Gomes de

    2009-01-01

    Scorpaena plumieri is commonly called moreia-ati or manganga and is the most venomous and one of the most abundant fish species of the Brazilian coast. Soprani 2006, demonstrated that SPGP - an isolated protein from S. plumieri fish- possess high antitumoral activity against malignant tumours and can be a source of template molecules for the development (design) of antitumoral drugs. In the present work, Soprani's 125 ISPGP biokinetic data were treated by MIRD formalism to perform Internal Dosimetry studies. Absorbed doses due to the 131 I-SPGP uptake were determinate in several organs of mice, as well as in the implanted tumor. Doses obtained for animal model were extrapolated to humans assuming a similar ratio for various mouse and human tissues. For the extrapolation, it was used human organ masses from Cristy/Eckerman phantom. Both penetrating and non-penetrating radiation from 131 I were considered. (author)

  19. {sup 131}I-CRTX internal dosimetry: animal model and human extrapolation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Henrique Martins de; Ferreira, Andrea Vidal; Soares, Marcella Araugio; Silveira, Marina Bicalho; Santos, Raquel Gouvea dos [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN-CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)], e-mail: hma@cdtn.br

    2009-07-01

    Snake venoms molecules have been shown to play a role not only in the survival and proliferation of tumor cells but also in the processes of tumor cell adhesion, migration and angiogenesis. {sup 125}I-Crtx, a radiolabeled version of a peptide derived from Crotalus durissus terrificus snake venom, specifically binds to tumor and triggers apoptotic signalling. At the present work, {sup 125}I-Crtx biokinetic data (evaluated in mice bearing Erlich tumor) were treated by MIRD formalism to perform Internal Dosimetry studies. Doses in several organs of mice were determinate, as well as in implanted tumor, for {sup 131}I-Crtx. Doses results obtained for animal model were extrapolated to humans assuming a similar concentration ratio among various tissues between mouse and human. In the extrapolation, it was used human organ masses from Cristy/Eckerman phantom. Both penetrating and non-penetrating radiation from {sup 131}I in the tissue were considered in dose calculations. (author)

  20. {sup 131}I-SPGP internal dosimetry: animal model and human extrapolation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Henrique Martins de; Ferreira, Andrea Vidal; Soprani, Juliana; Santos, Raquel Gouvea dos [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN-CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)], e-mail: hma@cdtn.br; Figueiredo, Suely Gomes de [Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo, (UFES), Vitoria, ES (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Fisiologicas. Lab. de Quimica de Proteinas

    2009-07-01

    Scorpaena plumieri is commonly called moreia-ati or manganga and is the most venomous and one of the most abundant fish species of the Brazilian coast. Soprani 2006, demonstrated that SPGP - an isolated protein from S. plumieri fish- possess high antitumoral activity against malignant tumours and can be a source of template molecules for the development (design) of antitumoral drugs. In the present work, Soprani's {sup 125}ISPGP biokinetic data were treated by MIRD formalism to perform Internal Dosimetry studies. Absorbed doses due to the {sup 131}I-SPGP uptake were determinate in several organs of mice, as well as in the implanted tumor. Doses obtained for animal model were extrapolated to humans assuming a similar ratio for various mouse and human tissues. For the extrapolation, it was used human organ masses from Cristy/Eckerman phantom. Both penetrating and non-penetrating radiation from {sup 131}I were considered. (author)

  1. 131I-CRTX internal dosimetry: animal model and human extrapolation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, Henrique Martins de; Ferreira, Andrea Vidal; Soares, Marcella Araugio; Silveira, Marina Bicalho; Santos, Raquel Gouvea dos

    2009-01-01

    Snake venoms molecules have been shown to play a role not only in the survival and proliferation of tumor cells but also in the processes of tumor cell adhesion, migration and angiogenesis. 125 I-Crtx, a radiolabeled version of a peptide derived from Crotalus durissus terrificus snake venom, specifically binds to tumor and triggers apoptotic signalling. At the present work, 125 I-Crtx biokinetic data (evaluated in mice bearing Erlich tumor) were treated by MIRD formalism to perform Internal Dosimetry studies. Doses in several organs of mice were determinate, as well as in implanted tumor, for 131 I-Crtx. Doses results obtained for animal model were extrapolated to humans assuming a similar concentration ratio among various tissues between mouse and human. In the extrapolation, it was used human organ masses from Cristy/Eckerman phantom. Both penetrating and non-penetrating radiation from 131 I in the tissue were considered in dose calculations. (author)

  2. Microbiological detection of bacteria in animal products seized in baggage of international air passengers to Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Melo, Cristiano Barros; de Sá, Marcos Eielson Pinheiro; Sabino, Valéria Mourão; de Fatima Boechat-Fernandes, Maria; Santiago, Marco Túlio; Schwingel, Fábio Fraga; Freitas, Cleverson; Magioli, Carlos Alberto; Cabral-Pinto, Sergio; McManus, Concepta; Seixas, Luiza

    2015-01-01

    Airline travel favours the transmission of diseases, given the short time it takes to travel long distances. In this study, animal products without health certificates seized in international air passengers' baggage at Guarulhos (GRU) and Galeão (GIG) airports in Brazil underwent a microbiological evaluation. Analyses (1610) were carried out on 322 seizures to test for the presence of total and thermotolerant coliforms, as well as Staphylococcus aureus counts and the presence of Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella. Most seizures analysed showed coliform contamination and coliforms were present above acceptable limits in 83.4% (40/48) of the products that had some type of contamination. The second most prevalent microorganism found was L. monocytogenes in 22.9% (11/48) and S. aureus was cultivated in 14.58% (7/48) of seizures. Among the items seized in the present work, Salmonella was found in one seizure of pig sausage. Contamination of animal products with microbiological pathogens of importance to public health and indicators of the bad quality of the food were shown in the present study. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Studies on the Th biodistribution in internal contamination by the fission track method using animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciubotariu, M.; Danis, A.; Dumitrescu, G.; Cucu, M.

    1998-01-01

    In our previous studies on the U internal contamination, qualitative and quantitative results were obtained by using the fission track methods. In order to obtain complete data on the fissionable element internal contamination using animals, we started a similar study using Th as contaminating element and Wistar London breed rats as laboratory animals. Different ways to obtain internal contaminations were investigated: ingestion, inhalation, absorption by skin and through wounds. In this stage, Wistar-London breed rats of the same sex, weight and age were internal contaminated by 1 ml Th solution ingestion for each rat corresponding to an Annual Limit Intake.The animals were kept in normal life conditions and under permanent medical surveillance up to their sacrifice. Also, their evacuations where sampled every 24 hours. They were sacrificed at different time intervals after their contamination: 2 days (RAT 1), 7 days (RAT 2) and 14 days (RAT 3). After sacrifice, their vital organs were sampled, weighed, calcined, reweighed and finally analysed by track detection using the fission track micromapping technique. This technique was used in the following conditions: - mica-muscovite as track detector pre-etched for fossil tracks 18 h in HF; - the neutron irradiations were performed in the nuclear reactor VVR-S Bucharest at the neutron fluences of 3x10 15 - 2x10 16 fast neutrons/cm 2 . In order to check whether there is any U contribution to the fission track densities obtained in track detectors, U existing in the rat body due to food and water, the neutron irradiations of the ensembles were performed with and without 1 mm Cd shielding; - the visualization of the Th induced fission tracks were obtained by chemical etching in HF, 3 h at room temperature; - the Th track micromappings obtained in track detectors were studied by optical microscopy using a stereomicroscope WILD M7S for ensemble study (X6-X31) and a binocular ZEISS JENA microscope for qualitative and

  4. Perspectives on Climate Effects on Agriculture: The International Efforts of AgMIP in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kihara, Job; MacCarthy, Dilys S.; Bationo, Andre; Koala, Saidou; Hickman, Jonathon; Koo, Jawoo; Vanya, Charles; Adiku, Samuel; Beletse, Yacob; Masikate, Patricia; hide

    2012-01-01

    Agriculture in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is experiencing climate change-related effects that call for integrated regional assessments, yet capacity for these assessments has been low. The Agricultural Model Intercomparison and Improvement Project (AgMIP) is advancing research on integrated regional assessments of climate change that include climate, crop, and economic modeling and analysis. Through AgMIP, regional integrated assessments are increasingly gaining momentum in SSA, and multi-institutional regional research teams (RRTs) centered in East, West, and Southern· Africa are generating new information on climate change impacts and adaptation in selected agricultural systems. The research in Africa is organized into four RRTs and a coordination team. Each of the RRTs in SSA is composed of scientists from the Consultative Group of International Agricultural Research (CGIAR) institutions, National Agriculture Research institutes (NARs), and universities consisting of experts in crop and economic modeling, climate, and information technology. Stakeholder involvement to inform specific agricultural systems to be evaluated, key outputs, and the representative agricultural pathways (RAPs), is undertaken at two levels: regional and national, in order to contribute to decision making at these levels. Capacity building for integrated assessment (lA) is a key component that is undertaken continuously through interaction with experts in regional and SSA-wide workshops, and through joint creation of tools. Many students and research affiliates have been identified and entrained as part of capacity building in IA. Bi-monthly updates on scholarly publications in climate change in Africa also serve as a vehicle for knowledge-sharing. With 60 scientists already trained and actively engaged in IA and over 80 getting monthly briefs on the latest information on climate change, a climate-informed community of experts is gradually taking shape in SSA. (See Part 2, Appendices 3-5 in

  5. 76 FR 36512 - Board for International Food and Agricultural Development; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-22

    ... members with continuing service include Elsa Murano, Professor and President Emerita of Texas A&M... Coordinator, Feed the Future. Elsa Murano, Chair, Department of Agriculture, Texas A&M University and BIFAD...

  6. 78 FR 13855 - Board for International Food and Agricultural Development; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    ... ``Globalization of agriculture and food research at land-grant universities: BIFAD public meeting at University of... BIFAD Chair Brady Deaton. The Board will address both old and new business during this time and hear...

  7. Internal and external dispersal of plants by animals: an aquatic perspective on alien interference

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, Casper

    2018-01-01

    Many alien plants use animal vectors for dispersal of their diaspores (zoochory). If alien plants interact with native disperser animals, this can interfere with animal-mediated dispersal of native diaspores. Interference by alien species is known for frugivorous animals dispersing fruits of

  8. Classification of agricultural assets on the international accounting standard 41 Agriculture Klasyfikacja aktywów pochodzenia rolniczego według MSR 41 Rolnictwo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Czerwińska-Kayzer

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural activity is characterised by dissimilarity and complexity of economic events. Therefore, the assets related to agricultural activity, should be properly classified, as it affects the method of valuation and the company assessment. In the article the classification of agricultural assets has been presented in respect of IAS/IFRS 41 Agriculture.

  9. International trade standards for commodities and products derived from animals: the need for a system that integrates food safety and animal disease risk management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, G R; Penrith, M-L; Atkinson, M W; Thalwitzer, S; Mancuso, A; Atkinson, S J; Osofsky, S A

    2013-12-01

    A case is made for greater emphasis to be placed on value chain management as an alternative to geographically based disease risk mitigation for trade in commodities and products derived from animals. The geographic approach is dependent upon achievement of freedom in countries or zones from infectious agents that cause so-called transboundary animal diseases, while value chain-based risk management depends upon mitigation of animal disease hazards potentially associated with specific commodities or products irrespective of the locality of production. This commodity-specific approach is founded on the same principles upon which international food safety standards are based, viz. hazard analysis critical control points (HACCP). Broader acceptance of a value chain approach enables animal disease risk management to be combined with food safety management by the integration of commodity-based trade and HACCP methodologies and thereby facilitates 'farm to fork' quality assurance. The latter is increasingly recognized as indispensable to food safety assurance and is therefore a pre-condition to safe trade. The biological principles upon which HACCP and commodity-based trade are based are essentially identical, potentially simplifying sanitary control in contrast to current separate international sanitary standards for food safety and animal disease risks that are difficult to reconcile. A value chain approach would not only enable more effective integration of food safety and animal disease risk management of foodstuffs derived from animals but would also ameliorate adverse environmental and associated socio-economic consequences of current sanitary standards based on the geographic distribution of animal infections. This is especially the case where vast veterinary cordon fencing systems are relied upon to separate livestock and wildlife as is the case in much of southern Africa. A value chain approach would thus be particularly beneficial to under-developed regions of

  10. The cultivated agricultural environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eriksson, Aa.

    1997-01-01

    Local agricultural practices in the Nordic countries have resulted in a great diversity in agriculture in the Nordic countries. The diversities mean that in the event of contamination of agricultural land by radioactive fallout the consequences may differ greatly from region to region. For crops and soils contaminated directly by radioactive fallout there are five primary causes for concern, namely: 1. short-term internal contamination of man and animals through ingestion of surface-contaminated mature crops; 2. internal contamination of crops through foliar intake; 3. contamination of mature crops from resuspended soil; 4. direct irradiation of agricultural workers; 5. internal irradiation from inhalation of resuspended soil particulates. In the short-term, most of the radionuclides likely to be released to the atmosphere in the event of an accident have a potential to cause problems in agriculture and many have the potential for causing long-term problems. Generally, the magnitude of the problems created will depend on the: deposition mechanism (wet or dry); radionuclide composition of the fallout; type of farming system (i.e. arable or dairy); type of soil (for instance organic soils are more sensitive than mineral soils with respect to radiocaesium); state of development of the crop which in turn is determined by the season of the year. (EG)

  11. The cultivated agricultural environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eriksson, Aa [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Dept. of Radioecology (Sweden)

    1997-10-01

    Local agricultural practices in the Nordic countries have resulted in a great diversity in agriculture in the Nordic countries. The diversities mean that in the event of contamination of agricultural land by radioactive fallout the consequences may differ greatly from region to region. For crops and soils contaminated directly by radioactive fallout there are five primary causes for concern, namely: 1. short-term internal contamination of man and animals through ingestion of surface-contaminated mature crops; 2. internal contamination of crops through foliar intake; 3. contamination of mature crops from resuspended soil; 4. direct irradiation of agricultural workers; 5. internal irradiation from inhalation of resuspended soil particulates. In the short-term, most of the radionuclides likely to be released to the atmosphere in the event of an accident have a potential to cause problems in agriculture and many have the potential for causing long-term problems. Generally, the magnitude of the problems created will depend on the: deposition mechanism (wet or dry); radionuclide composition of the fallout; type of farming system (i.e. arable or dairy); type of soil (for instance organic soils are more sensitive than mineral soils with respect to radiocaesium); state of development of the crop which in turn is determined by the season of the year. (EG). 56 refs.

  12. Collection and presentation of animal data relating to internally distributed radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lathrop, K.A.

    1981-01-01

    Data obtained from laboratory animals on the distribution of an internally administered radionuclide may be put to use by various people in ways quite different from the one for which the original observations were made. Consideration for these other scientists, sometimes in unrelated fields, can be shown by attention to a few details in the method of data collection and reporting that may improve the author's credibility, the reader's comprehension, and the value of the data. Briefly stated, two rules should be followed: Account for 100% of the administered radioactivity; and report data as fraction of administered activity per organ. The first rule serves as an internal check on the proper functioning of counting equipment, and may disclose excretion, contamination of counting tubes, or failure to inject the desired amount of activity. The second rule allows anyone to make use of the raw data. Presentation of the data only in complicated, manipulated form either totally prevents reconstruction of the raw data, or demands tedious, uncertain conversions. Examples of such manipulated data include percent dose per gram per 1% body weight and percent kilogram dose per gram. At the other extreme in reporting data for radioactivity, and to be equally avoided, are completely unprocessed values, such as counts per minute, with no reference made to the number of counts injected or to the time lapse between counts. Adherence to these two principles will permit the reader to follow through on any permutations of the data that the author may make, and to apply the data in unrelated situations

  13. The experience of biology, agriculture and health students at the Universidade Católica Dom Bosco regarding the use of animals in class practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Odalia Rímoli

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available The controversy arising in connection with the use of animals in practical classes has led to serious ethical discussions at universities in Brazil and around the world. In most cases, the students themselves who feel obliged to perform acts that are against their principles initiate these discussions. The above context motivated this research, which was carried out by means of a questionnaire distributed to one hundred students enrolled in biological, health and agricultural sciences at UCDB in Campo Grande, MS. The main objective was to analyze the students' opinions regarding this problem. It was noted that in general students did not know of any teaching materials that could be used as an alternative to the use of animals. Most of them (X = 85.8 ± 9.7 would prefer not to use animals in practical classes, mainly that are phylogenetically close to humans (mammals, if alternative methods were effective or available. Moreover, it was noted that most students (X = 65.7 ± 24.7 are worried about the controversy provoked by this matter, considering that many believe that this practice is fundamental for their profession and that the university should offer alternatives to those who are against the use of animals.

  14. Complexities of Nitrogen Isotope Biogeochemistry in Plant-Soil Systems: Implications for the Study of Ancient Agricultural and Animal Management Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul eSzpak

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen isotopic studies have potential to shed light on the structure of ancient ecosystems, agropastoral regimes, and human-environment interactions. Until relatively recently, however, little attention was paid to the complexities of nitrogen transformations in ancient plant-soil systems and their potential impact on plant and animal tissue nitrogen isotopic compositions. This paper discusses the importance of understanding nitrogen dynamics in ancient contexts, and highlights several key areas of archaeology where a more detailed understanding of these processes may enable us to answer some fundamental questions. This paper explores two larger themes that are prominent in archaeological studies using stable nitrogen isotope analysis: (1 agricultural practices (use of animal fertilizers, burning of vegetation or shifting cultivation, and tillage and (2 animal domestication and husbandry (grazing intensity/stocking rate and the foddering of domestic animals with cultigens. The paucity of plant material in ancient deposits necessitates that these issues are addressed primarily through the isotopic analysis of skeletal material rather than the plants themselves, but the interpretation of these data hinges on a thorough understanding of the underlying biogeochemical processes in plant-soil systems. Building on studies conducted in modern ecosystems and under controlled conditions, these processes are reviewed, and their relevance discussed for ancient contexts.

  15. Fertilia: a European International Cooperation (INCO EU) project for monitoring trace elements in agricultural ecosystems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Marmiroli, N.; Maestri, E.; Mucchino, C.; Antonioli, G.; Marmiroli, M.; Izquierdo, C. G.; Hernandez, T.; Waclawek, W.; Mocko, A.; Bozym, M.; Nowak, A.; Nowak, J.; Večeřa, Zbyněk; Dočekal, Bohumil

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 1 (2001), s. 41-54 ISSN 1120-4826 Grant - others:Copernicus(BE) ERB IC-15-CT98-0124 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4031919 Keywords : monitoring * trace elements * agricultural ecosystems Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 0.207, year: 2001

  16. International diffusion of gains from biotechnology and the European Union's common agricultural policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijl, van H.; Tongeren, van F.W.

    2004-01-01

    This paper analyses the impact of adopting or rejecting genetically modified (GM) crops in the European Union, taking into account the EU Common Agricultural Policy (CAP). In this paper the productivity impact of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) differs across crops, taking factor biased

  17. Internal Dose Conversion Coefficients of Domestic Reference Animal and Plants for Dose Assessment of Non-human Species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keum, Dong Kwon; Jun, In; Lim, Kwang Muk; Choi, Yong Ho

    2009-01-01

    Traditionally, radiation protection has been focused on a radiation exposure of human beings. In the international radiation protection community, one of the recent key issues is to establish the methodology for assessing the radiological impact of an ionizing radiation on non-human species for an environmental protection. To assess the radiological impact to non-human species dose conversion coefficients are essential. This paper describes the methodology to calculate the internal dose conversion coefficient for non-human species and presents calculated internal dose conversion coefficients of 25 radionuclides for 8 domestic reference animal and plants

  18. Articles from Volume 2, Issue 1, 2006, Journal of International Agricultural Trade and Development

    OpenAIRE

    Anonymous

    2006-01-01

    Content: Abler, David. "Introduction: Modeling Global Food and Agricultural Markets." (pp. v); (1) Sheldon, Ian. "Monopolistic Competition and Trade: Does the Theory Carry any Empirical Weight?" (pp. 1-32); (2) Abbott, Phillip. "Comment on: Monopolistic Competition and Trade: Does the Theory Carry any Empirical Weight?" (pp. 33-38); (3) Sarker, Rakhal and Yves Surry. "Product Differentiation and Trade in Agri-Food Products: Taking Stock and Looking Forward." (pp. 39-78); (4) Alston, Julian M....

  19. Progress in animal experimentation ethics: a case study from a Brazilian medical school and from the international medical literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramalli, Edvaldo Luiz; Ho, Wanli; Alves, Mônica; Rocha, Eduardo Melani

    2012-09-01

    This study describes in Brazil and in the global biomedical community the time course of the development of animal research welfare guidelines. The database of the Ethics Committee of the Faculty of Medicine of Ribeirao Preto (EC/FMRP-USP), Brazil, was surveyed since its inception in 2002 as the regulations became more stringent to provide better protection of animal research welfare at this institution. Medline database was evaluated to identify the number of publications in the period between 1968 and 2008 that used research animals and were in compliance with established ethics guidelines. The EC/FMRP-USP evaluated 979 projects up until 2009. Most of the applications came from Department of Physiology and the most frequently requested species was the rat. In 2004, national research funding agencies started to request prior approval from institutional review ethics committees prior to application review and this requirement became federal law in Brazil in 2008. The analysis of international publications revealed a relative reduction in studies involving research animals (18% in 1968 to 7.5% in 2008). The present work showed that in the last four decades major changes occurred in the guidelines dictating use of research animals occurred and they are being adopted by developing countries. Moreover, animal welfare concern in the scientific community preceded the introduction of journal guidelines for this purpose. Furthermore, in Brazil it was anticipated that laws were needed to protect animal research welfare from being not upheld.

  20. Animal Research, the 3Rs, and the "Internet of Things": Opportunities and Oversight in International Pharmaceutical Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemi, Steven M; Davies, Gail F

    2016-12-01

    Stages of drug (and vaccine) discovery and evaluation that involve laboratory animals increasingly occur via scientific collaborations across national borders and continents. Many of these research collaborations are between asset-rich institutions and others in less wealthy parts of the world. The care and use of laboratory animals in geographically disparate locations introduces new complexities, such as different oversight requirements and available resources, as well as diverse organizational and cultural milieus. These complexities can hamper the effectiveness of local animal welfare committees and regulatory compliance, as well as compromise good science and animal welfare. At the same time, new technologies are becoming available that offer greater transparency in how these collaborations and their animal subjects are faring in real time that, in turn, can enable progress towards the 3 Rs. The focus of this essay is to identify potential rewards and risks stemming from new techniques for producing and connecting data in preclinical pharmaceutical development and consider how further social scientific investigations have the potential to enhance the benefits of international research collaborations for both human health and animal welfare. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Institute for Laboratory Animal Research. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Sustainability of ruminant agriculture in the new context: feeding strategies and features of animal adaptability into the necessary holistic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocquier, F; González-García, E

    2010-07-01

    There are numerous recent studies highlighting sustainability problems for the development of ruminant production systems (RPS) while facing increasing human food necessities and global climate change. Despite the complexity of the context, in our view the main objectives of the ruminants' physiologist should be convergent for both industrialized (IC) and developing countries (DC) in a common and global strategy of advancing knowledge. In DC, this means improving the efficiency of RPS, taking into account the unique possibility of using rangelands. For IC settings, RPS should be revisited in terms of autonomy and environment- friendly feeding and managing practices. Assuming that competition for feed/food use is still a crucial criterion, future ruminant feeding systems (FeSyst) should preferably focus on lignocellulosic sources. According to biome distributions, and the recent increases in volumes of crop residues and their by-products, the annually renewed volumes of these biomasses are considerable. Therefore, we need to redesign our strategies for their efficient utilization at the local level. For this purpose, digestion processes and rumen functioning need to be better understood. The renewed vision of ruminal digestion through the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions is also a key aspect as it is an environmental demand that cannot be ignored. With regard to other ruminants' physiological functions, accumulated knowledge could be mobilized into an integrative approach that puts forward the adaptive capacities of animals to face variability in quantity and quality of supplied feeds. Basically, the reduction of inputs that were traditionally used to ensure FeSyst will need more flexible animals. In that sense, the concepts of homeostasis and teleophorhesis need to be updated and adapted to domestic species and breeds that were until now largely excluded from the dominant productive systems. In conclusion, a more holistic approach of research targets is

  2. Internalizing external environmental costs of agriculture into product prices, Case study for milk and potatoes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Masselink, Dirk Jan

    2007-01-01

    Society has to pay large amounts of money to compensate for the environmental damages caused by farm emissions. These external costs are not fully accounted for in product prices and internalization of these external costs into the cost price of agricultu

  3. Report on international round table conference 'Accidental radiation contamination of food of animal origin'. Vol.II (Working papers)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The World Association of Veterinary Food Hygienists (WAVFH) held an international round table conference in Stockholm, Sweden, January 26-29, 1987. The topic of the conference was 'Accidental Radiation Contamination of Food of Animal Origin'. The agenda was divided into three major topic areas: 1. Ecological Science; 2. Veterinary Science - Live Animals; and 3. Veterinary Science - Food of Animal Origin. Experts and delegates from member countries presented papers, participated in discussions and workshops and produced a multidisciplinary report covering the topic areas. Two volumes were produced; one a collection of all papers presented, and the other a compilation of the proceedings from each of the topic workshops. In order to rapidly distribute the Association's information to members, papers and other information were collated and disseminated as presented to the conference participants

  4. Report on international round table conference 'Accidental radiation contamination of food of animal origin'. Vol.II (Working papers)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1986-07-01

    The World Association of Veterinary Food Hygienists (WAVFH) held an international round table conference in Stockholm, Sweden, January 26-29, 1987. The topic of the conference was 'Accidental Radiation Contamination of Food of Animal Origin'. The agenda was divided into three major topic areas: 1. Ecological Science; 2. Veterinary Science - Live Animals; and 3. Veterinary Science - Food of Animal Origin. Experts and delegates from member countries presented papers, participated in discussions and workshops and produced a multidisciplinary report covering the topic areas. Two volumes were produced; one a collection of all papers presented, and the other a compilation of the proceedings from each of the topic workshops. In order to rapidly distribute the Association's information to members, papers and other information were collated and disseminated as presented to the conference participants.

  5. Long distance animal transport: the way forward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osinga, Klaas Johan

    2008-01-01

    Too often, the issue of animal welfare during transport is the subject of emotional debates. For farmers within the International Federation of Agricultural Producers, it is important that the economic, scientific and practical aspects be taken into account when setting international rules for animal welfare. Farmers also stress the need to combine scientific data with their practical experience. Raising awareness, adopting a risk-based approach, education, labelling, slaughterhouse capacity and animal health, as well as standards and rules, are issues of importance for developing a long distance transportation infrastructure respectful of animal welfare around the world.

  6. FAO/IAEA international symposium on sustainable improvement of animal production and health. Synopses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The on-going 'Livestock Revolution', a demand-driven increase in livestock production, especially in developing countries, presents both opportunities and risks. The shift in the human diet from plant-based protein sources to animal-based protein sources, consumer demand for safe and quality animal products, and expanding markets for livestock products have raised several challenges such as; cost-effective production of safe and quality animal products, control of emerging and zoonotic diseases, and efficient management of impact of livestock on the environment. However, these changes have also provided many opportunities to benefit the local economy and producers, and reduce poverty. New challenges and opportunities demand innovative ideas and approaches, and mechanisms to take this knowledge to potential users. Many of the approaches will be multidisciplinary in nature and require collaboration with specialists in areas other than animal scientists. Livestock production in developing countries is constrained by low genetic potential of animals, poor nutrition, poor husbandry and infectious diseases. Nuclear techniques, when applied in conjunction with conventional methods, can identify critical points in these areas that can be targeted for cost-effective improvements and interventions. Thus the challenge is to use such technologies to enhance food security and alleviate poverty by supporting sustainable livestock production systems in developing countries through strategic and applied research, technology transfer and capacity building. Topics addressed at the symposium: - Interactions among nutrition, reproduction and genotype; - Livestock-environment interaction / productivity/ climate (water/ land/ plants/heat/ altitude); - Detection and control of transboundary animal diseases, including zoonoses; - Animal product safety and food quality. Each of the papers published in this book of synopses has been indexed separately

  7. INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY PROTECTION AND THE INTERNATIONAL MARKETING OF AGRICULTURAL BIOTECHNOLOGY: FIRM AND HOST COUNTRY IMPACTS

    OpenAIRE

    Goldsmith, Peter D.; Ramos, Gabriel; Steiger, Carlos

    2001-01-01

    The protection of intellectual property rights has been a contentious issue over the last 20 years. Industrialized nations have moved to knowledge-based economies and simultaneously trade barriers have fallen, making intellectual property vulnerable. Adding to this vulnerability are conflicting international institutional environments, belief systems, and economic realities. The debate over IPR protection has become a significant global trade issue pitting the net- technology producing North ...

  8. Nuclear techniques in food and agriculture 1990-2002. International Atomic Energy Agency publications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-02-01

    This catalogue lists all sales publications, including technical documents (TECDOCs), of the International Atomic Energy Agency issued between 1 January 1990 and 31 December 2002. It is divided into two parts. The first part lists all sales publications in alphabetical order by subject category whereas the second part lists all TECDOCs in alphabetical order by subject category. Most publications are issued in English, although some are also available in other languages

  9. Nuclear techniques in food and agriculture 1990-2002. International Atomic Energy Agency publications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-02-01

    This catalogue lists all sales publications, including technical documents (TECDOCs), of the International Atomic Energy Agency issued between 1 January 1990 and 31 December 2002. It is divided into two parts. The first part lists all sales publications in alphabetical order by subject category whereas the second part lists all TECDOCs in alphabetical order by subject category. Most publications are issued in English, although some are also available in other languages.

  10. Agriculture: Land Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Land Use and agriculture. Information about land use restrictions and incentive programs.Agricultural operations sometimes involve activities regulated by laws designed to protect water supplies, threatened or endangered plants and animals, or wetlands.

  11. Dynamics of seizure of animal products in international baggage on Airport of Brasilia (AIB-PJK/SBBR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Barros de Melo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. de Melo C.B., Fino T.C.M., Schwingel F.F., Santiago M.T., de Barros L.F.R., McManus C. & Sá M.E.P. [Dynamics of seizure of animal products in international baggage on Airport of Brasilia (AIB-PJK/SBBR.] Dinâmica da apreensão de produtos de origem animal em bagagens internacionais no Aeroporto de Brasília (AIB-PJK/SBBR. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 38(3:265-276, 2016. Universidade de Brasília, PPGCA, Campus Universitário Darcy Ribeiro, ICC Sul, Asa Norte, Brasília, DF 70910-900, Brasil. E-mail: cristianomelo@unb.br The risk of introducing infectious agents increases as the volume of imported products rises. The illegal entry of animal products (POA brought in international passenger baggage is a factor that makes up the risk assessment and that grows proportionally to the intensification of international transit passengers. They evaluated the data on seizures of animal products intercepted in international baggage passengers in Airport of Brasilia (AIB-PJK/SBBR between the years 2010 and 2012. The analysis of the dynamics of these seizures considered the POA category, origin, airline and months more frequently and also verified the correlation between these variables. According to retrospective analysis, nearly eight tons of POA were seized from 52 countries throughout the study period. The results showed Portugal (p <0.0001 as the source of passengers who had higher frequency and quantity of seizures, and, added to other European origins, totaled 84.3% of seizures. The months of July, August and September stood out for the highest number of seizures and greater movement of international passengers. The increase in the number of seizures accompanied by a rise in the percentage of inspected passengers (r=0.69, emphasizing the importance of airport surveillance. According to the calculation of relative risk, passengers from African and South American countries showed greater magnitude of risk to bring animal

  12. The dynamics of fauna and population of birds in agricultural landscapes on the border of Kazan International Airport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bespalov, A. F.; Belyaev, A. N.

    2018-01-01

    The dynamics of fauna and population of birds from agricultural lands near Kazan International Airport has been studied for one year. A total of 60 bird species have been registered, of which 26 species must be considered as highly dangerous to flying aircraft. With regard to seasonal activity, the nesting period (April - June) is the most hazardous, since it is characterized by maximum species richness and total population density of birds, as well as their high species diversity. Furthermore, a serious danger is posed by the period of postnesting nomadic movements and the onset of migrations (July - September) when the species diversity turns out to be the highest and the total population density begins to decrease. It has been recommended based on the obtained results that the current crops should be replaced by cultivars that will be less attractive to birds. In spring and autumn, certain bird hazing and frightening measures must be taken on a more regular basis.

  13. Steps towards the international regulatory acceptance of non-animal methodology in safety assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sewell, Fiona; Doe, John; Gellatly, Nichola; Ragan, Ian; Burden, Natalie

    2017-10-01

    The current animal-based paradigm for safety assessment must change. In September 2016, the UK National Centre for Replacement, Refinement and Reduction of Animals in Research (NC3Rs) brought together scientists from regulatory authorities, academia and industry to review progress in bringing new methodology into regulatory use, and to identify ways to expedite progress. Progress has been slow. Science is advancing to make this possible but changes are necessary. The new paradigm should allow new methodology to be adopted once it is developed rather than being based on a fixed set of studies. Regulatory authorities can help by developing Performance-Based Standards. The most pressing need is in repeat dose toxicology, although setting standards will be more complex than in areas such as sensitization. Performance standards should be aimed directly at human safety, not at reproducing the results of animal studies. Regulatory authorities can also aid progress towards the acceptance of non-animal based methodology by promoting "safe-haven" trials where traditional and new methodology data can be submitted in parallel to build up experience in the new methods. Industry can play its part in the acceptance of new methodology, by contributing to the setting of performance standards and by actively contributing to "safe-haven" trials. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Proceedings of the Scientific Meeting on Application of Isotopes and Radiation, Book I, Agricultural, Animal and Biology; Risalah Pertemuan Ilmiah Penelitian Dan Pengembangan Aplikasi Isotop Dan Radiasi. Buku 1, Pertanian, Peternakan dan Biologi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suhadi, F; Sisworo, E L; Maha, M; Ismachin, M; Hilmy, N; Sumatra, M; Mugiono,; Wandowo,; Soebianto, Y S [Center for Application of Isotopes and Radiation, National Atomic Energy Agency, Serpong (Indonesia)

    1998-07-01

    The aim of the 10{sup t}h Meeting of the Isotope and Radiation Application is to disseminate the result of research on application of nuclear techniques on agriculture, animal, biology, chemistry, environment, radiation process and industry. The meeting was held in Jakarta, 18-19 February 1998, and there were 6 invited papers and 52 papers indexed individually. This proceeding is divided by two volumes. Volume I and volume II consists of agriculture, animal, biology and chemistry, environment, radiation process and industry, respectively.(ID)

  15. Global Journal of Agricultural Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal Homepage Image. Global Journal of Agricultural Sciences is aimed at promoting research in all areas of Agricultural Sciences including Animal Production, Fisheries, Agronomy, Processing and Agricultural Mechanization. Related ...

  16. Radiation and Radioisotopes Applied to Insects of Agricultural Importance. Proceedings of the Symposium on the Use and Application of Radioisotopes and Radiation in the Control of Plant and Animal Insect Pests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1963-09-15

    Since the pioneer work of the United States Department of Agriculture in the application of radiation and radioisotopes in the control of insect pests to cattle, many countries and organizations have pursued the advantages which might be gained in this field. Two years ago the IAEA organized the first international symposium in Bombay to study this problem, since when a considerable amount of basic research on the application of nuclear science in entomology and insect pest control has been undertaken. The potential gain of these studies, which would be in the form of an increased output of better food, is obvious to all Governments; hence the extensive international interest in the subject of this present Symposium, which was attended by 100 participants from 26 countries and 5 international organizations. The proceedings consist of 37 papers presented by experts from 10 countries, together with a record of the discussions, and cover the use of radioisotopes in the study of the ecology of insects, such as their dispersal, migration and life-cycle. The application of radioisotopes to insecticides covers such subjects as labelling, application, uptake, translocation, metabolism, mode of action, and the determination' of residues in plants and animals. The present position on the effects of radiation on insects is dealt with, including mutation, sterilization and the use of the sterile-male technique for the control and eradication of insect pests, and the need is emphasized for integration of chemical, biological, radiation and other methods of insect control. The emphasis of this Symposium has been mainly on aspects of crop protection and it is hoped that the next symposium will also deal with aspects of livestock protection.

  17. Agriculture Oral Presentations; Tarim Soezlue Bildirileri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    This publication contains 23 papers related to the use of nuclear techniques in plant breeding in Turkey, effect of gamma irradiations on growing various plants, mutations and soil chemistry, etc., presented at 4. International Congress of Nuclear Agriculture and Animal Science in Bursa, Turkey, 25-27 Sep 1996. A separate abstract was prepared for each paper.

  18. Proposal of a model of system of identification for domestic animals: a comparison between brazilian and international laws

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolau Cardoso Neto

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between humans and pets, especially dogs and cats is taking gigantic proportions, this can be seen by the data recently published by IBGE, where it was verified that the number of pets grows more than the number of child birth (IBGE, 2015. As so foreseen, the purpose of this study is to acknowledge which is the federal juridical basis related to the registration of Domestic Animals in Brazil, comparing them with the international legal standards that can be of reference, such as Canada, United States of America, Republic of Ireland and United Kingdom. This increase in pet population shows problems of many dimensions that relate to several causes in urban centers, especially when referring to zoonosis and conflicts that come from irresponsible ownership, bringing up a public health issue. The intension was to verify the possibility to adequate them to the reality encountered in Brazil, creating a model of identification for the Domestic Animals in urban areas in this country. As for that, the article addresses themes related to responsible ownership, animal welfare and models of registration already accomplished in the mentioned countries. At the end the article presents the proposal of a model for a system of identification of the Domestic Animals.

  19. A new internal standard for HPLC assay of conjugated linoleic acid in animal tissues and milk

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Czauderna, M.; Kowalczyk, J.; Marounek, Milan; Michalski, J. P.; Rozbicka-Wieczorek, A. J.; Krajewska, K. A.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 1 (2011), s. 23-29 ISSN 1212-1819 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : sorbic acid * internal standard * CLA isomers Subject RIV: GH - Livestock Nutrition Impact factor: 1.079, year: 2011

  20. Modeling of combined effect of alcohol, tobacco smokes and internal irradiation of laboratory animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sukal'skaya, S.Ya.

    1987-01-01

    Concentration of 90 Sr and 20 Po in kidneys and bone tissues was measured both separately and in combination with ethanol introduction. Carbon oxide (CO), which content was measured by a gas analyser, served as an index of tobacco smokes in a chamber with test animals. It is shown that ethanol had no noticeable effect either on the character or the levels of radionuclide accumulation in kidneys and bone tissues. Under experimental conditions quantitative characteristics of studied factors (intensity, the effect time and levels) remained stable within the specified limits independent on their combination

  1. Role of animal toxicity studies in the evaluation of human health risks from internally deposited transuranics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, R.C.

    1977-02-01

    The extrapolation of animal data to man has always been a problem for those concerned with human biology. Especially if one is interested in the effects of toxicants, opportunities for direct observation in man are usually limited, and approval of planned experiments employing human subjects is difficult to obtain. In no case are these limitations more restrictive than for transuranic elements, for which no life-threatening effects have yet been demonstrated in man. This lack of human experience is coupled with a massive public concern over possible future effects of transuranics, which contrasts sharply with the general public apathy toward a multitude of present environmental pollutants of clearly established toxicity. This concern for the transuranics, especially 239 Pu, and for other radionuclides has prompted the expenditure of many millions of dollars (and francs and marks and pounds and roubles) on studies to investigate their toxicity in animals. Results of these studies are extensive, and still accumulating, but in many quarters there is now a reluctance to accept these results as relevant to the prediction of human effects

  2. International Veterinary Epilepsy Task Force consensus report on epilepsy definition, classification and terminology in companion animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berendt, Mette; Farquhar, Robyn G; Mandigers, Paul J J

    2015-01-01

    the years reflecting always in parts the current proposals coming from the human epilepsy organisation the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE). It has however not been possible to gain agreed consensus, "a common language", for the classification and terminology used between veterinary and human...... neurologists and neuroscientists, practitioners, neuropharmacologists and neuropathologists. This has led to an unfortunate situation where different veterinary publications and textbook chapters on epilepsy merely reflect individual author preferences with respect to terminology, which can be confusing...... to the readers and influence the definition and diagnosis of epilepsy in first line practice and research studies.In this document the International Veterinary Epilepsy Task Force (IVETF) discusses current understanding of canine epilepsy and presents our 2015 proposal for terminology and classification...

  3. A Tool for Assessment of Animal Health Laboratory Safety and Biosecurity: The Safety Module of the Food and Agriculture Organization’s Laboratory Mapping Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrice Mouillé

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The Laboratory Management Tool (LMT is a standardized spreadsheet-based assessment tool developed to help support national, regional, and global efforts to maintain an effective network of animal health and veterinary public health laboratories. The safety and biosecurity module of the LMT (LMT-S includes 98 measures covering administrative, operational, engineering, and personal protective equipment practices used to provide laboratory safety and biosecurity. Performance aspects of laboratory infrastructure and technical compliance considered fundamental for ensuring that a laboratory is able to appropriately function in a safe and biosecure manner are systematically queried and scored for compliance on a four-point scale providing for a semi-quantitative assessment. Data collected is used to generate graphs and tables mapping levels of compliance with international standards and good practices, as well as for documenting progress over time. The LMT-S was employed by trained auditors in 34 laboratories located in 19 countries between 2015 and 2017. The tool is intended to help standardize animal health laboratory assessments, document compliance with recognized laboratory safety and biosecurity measures, serve as a self-help and training tool, and assist global laboratory development efforts by providing an accurate measurement of laboratory safety and biosecurity at local, national, and regional levels.

  4. The Learning Outcomes of Students Meeting Their International Dimension Requirement through Courses Offered in a College of Agriculture: Did Student Learning Differ Depending on Mode of Instruction Delivery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriba, Samba; Edwards, M. Craig

    2013-01-01

    Many online courses have been developed in an effort to meet the needs of students who are either unable or less inclined to attend face-to-face classes. The College of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources (CASNR) at Oklahoma State University has been preparing its students to attain international awareness and become globally competent…

  5. Tasks in Research, Education, and International Collaboration in Agriculture Biotechnology at Kasetsart University With Special Emphasis on the Role of Former Students Who Studied Abroad

    OpenAIRE

    ATTATHOM, Supat

    2004-01-01

    Thailand is considered as one of the food producing countries of the world. For centuries, Thailand hasa large number of skilled farmers engaged in food production. With the increasing demand for agriculturalproducts for export, animal and crop production systems are moving toward high inputs for higheryields. High cost of agricultural production results in less income for farmers and creates an unhealthyenvironment.Biotechnology offers a challenge to sustainable bioagriculture production and...

  6. Agricultural Research Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Menu United States Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service Research Research Home National Programs Research Projects Scientific Manuscripts International Programs Scientific Software/Models Databases and Datasets Office of Scientific Quality ...

  7. Establishment of an animal model of internal exposure to radioactive iodine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nitta, Y.; Hoshi, M. [Research Institute for Radiation Biology and Medicine, Hiroshima (Japan); Endo, S. [Hiroshima Univ., Hiroshima (Japan)

    2002-07-01

    Age is a potent modifier of the thyroid cancer risk at internal as well as external exposure. The short latency for the development of thyroid cancer in the post-Chernobyl cases proposes us to make sure the thyroid susceptibility to internal exposure at young ages. At the beginning of a large-scale carcinogenesis experiment for the induction of thyroid cancer by the internal exposure of 131 I into rats, we established the way to estimate absorbed doses in the thyroid and total body of rats at different ages: newborn, puberty and adult. Female rats of the Fischer 344 strain were exposed to {sub 131} I at the age of 1, 4 and 9 weeks, and have been kept for 16 days (twice of the {sub 131} I-half life) to draw kinetic curves of the isotope in the thyroid and total body. We drew the standard curve to estimate absorbed fraction of radioactivity from {beta} - and {gamma} -rays from the {sub 131} I in the thyroids of different sizes, because the thyroid size differs depending on age. Then we drew the standard curve to estimate absorbed doses in the thyroid and total body from the injected activities. Irradiation at 1 week of age caused heavier exposure than at 4 and 9 weeks of ages by 8 times in the thyroid. We tested the acute effects of radiation on the thyroid epithelium at the three ages. Radiation-induced apoptosis and post apoptotic cell proliferation of the thyroid epithelium were investigated. Apoptosis was not obvious in all the three age groups. Labeling index of the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) increased in the 4 weeks old groups of both SD and IDD treatment. While in the 9 weeks old groups, it increased only by the treatment of IDD. One-week-old rats did not show any increase in the cell proliferation activity by{sub 60} Co {gamma} -irradiation, and did show small increase in the Sodium- {sub 131} I ( {sub 131} I)-injected IDD group.

  8. BIODYNAMIC AGRICULTURE - ECO-FRIENDLY AGRICULTURAL PRACTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veselka Vlahova

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Biodynamic agriculture is undoubtedly the oldest organized agricultural movement in the world. It is considered as an organic agricultural farming approach and determined as the oldest organized alternative agricultural movement in the world. In 1924 Rudolf Steiner – an Austrian natural scientist and philosopher, carried out a series of eight lectures in Koberwitz, currently Kobierzyce- Poland, where he formulated his visions on changes in agriculture and revealed his spiritual and scientific concepts about the connection between nature and agriculture by determining the important role of agriculture for the future of humanity and thus he became known as “the father of anthroposophy”. The great ecological effect of the application of the biodynamic agriculture is expressed in soil preservation and preservation of the living organisms in the soil, as well as maintenance of the natural balance in the vegetable and animal kingdom.

  9. Gender in crop agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Food and Agriculture Organization; The World Bank; IFAD

    2008-01-01

    Metadata only record This is a module in the "Gender in Agriculture Sourcebook" published by the World Bank, UN Food and Agriculture Organization, and International Fund for Agricultural Development. This module examines the role of gender in crop agriculture as an essential component of development and poverty reduction. Gender is an integral aspect of crop agriculture because women's roles in crop production and household subsistence, as well as their knowledge of complex production syst...

  10. Animal model for angiotensin II effects in the internal anal sphincter smooth muscle: mechanism of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Ya-Ping; Puri, Rajinder N; Rattan, Satish

    2002-03-01

    Effect of ANG II was investigated in in vitro smooth muscle strips and in isolated smooth muscle cells (SMC). Among different species, rat internal and sphincter (IAS) smooth muscle showed significant and reproducible contraction that remained unmodified by different neurohumoral inhibitors. The AT(1) antagonist losartan but not AT(2) antagonist PD-123319 antagonized ANG II-induced contraction of the IAS smooth muscle and SMC. ANG II-induced contraction of rat IAS smooth muscle and SMC was attenuated by tyrosine kinase inhibitors genistein and tyrphostin, protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor H-7, Ca(2+) channel blocker nicardipine, Rho kinase inhibitor Y-27632 or p(44/42) mitogen-activating protein kinase (MAPK(44/42)) inhibitor PD-98059. Combinations of nicardipine and H-7, Y-27632, and PD-98059 caused further attenuation of the ANG II effects. Western blot analyses revealed the presence of both AT(1) and AT(2) receptors. We conclude that ANG II causes contraction of rat IAS smooth muscle by the activation of AT(1) receptors at the SMC and involves multiple intracellular pathways, influx of Ca(2+), and activation of PKC, Rho kinase, and MAPK(44/42).

  11. Animal Science Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    Researches carried out in the 'Animal Science Project' of the Agricultural Nuclear Energy Center, Piracicaba, Sao Paulo state, Brazil, are described. Such researches comprise : immunology and animal nutrition. Tracer techniques are employed in this study. (M.A.) [pt

  12. Agriculture as an Upholder of Cultural Heritage? Conceptualizations and Value Judgements--A Norwegian Perspective in International Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daugstad, Karoline; Ronningen, Katrina; Skar, Birgitte

    2006-01-01

    The multifunctional role of agriculture as a producer of collective goods in addition to food and fibre, has been stressed within the context of negotiations on the liberalization of the world market for food (WTO) and in general in discussions concerning restructuring of the agricultural sector. One of these collective goods, cultural heritage,…

  13. Nuclear techniques in food and agriculture and international cooperation in their use; Les sciences nucleaires dans l'alimentation et l'agriculture et la cooperation internationale dans ce domaine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fried, M.; Sigurbjörnsson, B. [Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Atomic Energy in Food and Agriculture, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria)

    1970-01-15

    that the medfly attacking citrus, the olive fly, the codling moth attacking apples, the tsetse fly and a number of other insects can be eliminated in this way. Radiation can be used to attenuate parasitic larvae attacking animals. The parasites which have thus lost their virulence are used in the production of animal vaccines. In fact, this is still the only known method of producing such vaccines. Isotopic tracers are used to study the movement and metabolism of nutrients in animal production and are particularly useful in studies of essential micronutrients. This unique ability of isotopic tracers to enable detection of chemicals in minute quantities forms the basis for a new program on studies of harmful pesticide residues on plant and animal foods. The sterilizing and killing effect of radiation has been shown to be uniquely effective in preventing or delaying spoilage in a variety of food commodities. Radiation preservation can, for example, be applied to perishable products which do not tolerate cooking or freezing - even after the products are packed. To foster international activities in the field of nuclear science in food and agriculture, the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Atomic Energy in Food and Agriculture carries out a single joint program of work approved by the two parent organizations. To carry out work in all these fields, the Division relies heavily on the concept of coordinated research based on research contracts or research agreements. A large part of the work is carried out under various technical assistance projects including expert advice, equipment and training and through the two UNDP Special Fund Projects executed by the IAEA. The IAEA Laboratory plays an indispensable role in the Division’s programs by providing various coordinating services, research, and specialized training. (author) [French] Les méthodes nucléaires sont employées dans la recherche et la production à tous les niveaux successifs de la chaîhe alimentaire: sol et eau

  14. An overview of the roles and structure of international high-security veterinary laboratories for infectious animal diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, P K

    1998-08-01

    The unique structure, role and operations of government high-security (HS) laboratories which work on animal diseases are described, with particular reference to the laboratories of nine countries. High-security laboratories provide cost-effective insurance against catastrophic losses which could occur following exotic disease outbreaks. The importance of these laboratories is reflected in the fact that several new laboratories have recently been constructed at considerable expense and older facilities have undergone major renovations. Biosecurity is fundamental to the operation of high-security laboratories, so good facility design and microbiological security practices are very important. High-security laboratories conduct exotic disease diagnosis, certification and surveillance, and also perform research into virology, disease pathogenesis and improvements to diagnostic tests and vaccines. The mandate of these laboratories includes the training of veterinarians in the recognition of exotic diseases. One extremely important role is the provision of expert advice on exotic diseases and participation (both nationally and internationally) in policy decisions regarding animal disease issues.

  15. Animal Research International: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tables should be comprehensible without reference to the text and numbered ... format and pictures in photo shop format) should be comprehensible without reference to ... Effects of in vivo Crude Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (cHCG) on ...

  16. Animal Research International

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of the use of pentazocine in combination with diazepam and ketamine for surgical anaesthesia in rabbits · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Rita Ijeoma Udegbunam, Sunday Ositadimma Udegbunam, Austine Chukwudum Onuba, Nnenna Ebere Ugwu ...

  17. 9 CFR 95.20 - Animal manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Animal manure. 95.20 Section 95.20 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SANITARY CONTROL OF ANIMAL...

  18. 7 CFR 371.7 - Animal Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Animal Care. 371.7 Section 371.7 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION, FUNCTIONS, AND DELEGATIONS OF AUTHORITY § 371.7 Animal Care. (a...

  19. 7 CFR 1230.18 - Porcine animal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Porcine animal. 1230.18 Section 1230.18 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... animal. Porcine animal means a swine, that is raised as (a) a feeder pig, that is, a young pig sold to...

  20. International bioenergymarkets - the effects of biofuelpolicies on agriculture and arable area; Kansainvaelinen bioenergiakauppa. Biopolttoainetavoitteiden vaikutukset maatalouteen ja viljelyalan kaeyttoeoen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rintamaeki, H.; Aro-Heinilae, E.

    2012-11-01

    The worldwide production of biofuels has increased continuously in this millennium. The biofuels have been seen as a means to prevent the climate change, to reduce the dependence of the fossil oil resources and to promote the development of the rural areas. The encouraging factor has been official promotion measures which have operated and have provided the necessary conditions for the growth of both the demand and the supply. The rapid growth of biofuels production has raised many concerns among experts worldwide, in particular regard to sustainability issues and the threat posed to food security. The main purpose of this report was to examine and quantify as to what extent the biofuels production may alter the long-term outlook for agriculture and of the cultivation land. The subject of the examination was liquid biofuels that have been meant for traffic use. In the report several scenarios where examined after Fischer (2009) research results for the years 2020, 2030 and 2050. The scenario based quantitative results to be obtained from the study of Fischer are based on the AEZ and WFS models. The models comprise among others demographic and socio-economic factors, the dynamics of production and consumption and the dynamics of the international trade. It is supposed that the demand for liquid biofuels for transportation use is increasing 150 per cent by the year 2030 from the level of 2010. It is anticipated that the demand is increasing everywhere in the world, especially in the developing countries, when the United States and Europe remain the biggest consumers of biofuels. Even though the majority of the biofuels will be produced and spent locally in the future, it is anticipated that their international trade is increasing significantly. The methods of the expansion of the biofuel production are state subsidies, the enlarged objectives of the use of biofuels and the compulsory mixing ratios. The growth of the production of the first generation biofuels which

  1. Cameroon Journal of Agricultural Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal Camerounais des Sciences Agricoles The Cameroon Journal of Agricultural Science publishes new information on all aspects of agricultural science – agronomy, breeding, crop protection, economics, rural sociology, forestry and animal science, health and production ...

  2. Gender and agricultural markets

    OpenAIRE

    Food and Agriculture Organization; The World Bank; IFAD

    2008-01-01

    Metadata only record This is a module in the "Gender in Agriculture Sourcebook" published by the World Bank, UN Food and Agriculture Organization, and International Fund for Agricultural Development. This module examines the traditional division of labor within agricultural markets, where women farmers are primarily responsible for subsistence and household crop production while male farmers dominate the commercial sector. Challenging these gendered roles by increasing women farmers' acces...

  3. Analysis of the operation of the organs of internal control in the non agricultural cooperatives of the county of Pinar del Rio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis del Llano Sobrino

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The achievement of a good operation of any entity, demands a high efficiency in the acting of its organs of internal control. It guarantees it that they are detected and prevent the internal deficiencies that affect the achievement of the objectives of the company, on time either material, social and financial without to wait to that coming organisms from the exterior of the entity are those that detect the same ones. At the present time the Non Agricultural Cooperatives in Cuba, are not isolated of this problem, being evidenced structural and functional inadequacies of the organs of internal control in the same ones that affect their inspection processes as well as the control of the execution of the agreements of their General Assembly of Associates. For what is necessary to propose a structure and functions for the organs of the Non Agricultural Cooperatives that it contributes to the improvement of their internal control and consequently the improvement of their economic and social administration.

  4. Studies on the application of ionizing radiation for the advanced quarantine management of agricultural commodities for export and international trade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ju Woon; Kim, Jae Hun; Song, Beom Seok; Lee, Kwang Youll; Choi, Yeong Jun [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-12-15

    {Omicron} Quarantine waste of agricultural goods for export are 50 billion won per year in Korea. The major reason of quarantine waste were inspected of quarantine regulated pest or detected of pesticide residues during importation or exportation clearance. {Omicron} According to the Montreal protocol, reduce the using of chemical fumigant(Methyl Bromide) and required alternative quarantine treatment {Omicron} It is necessary for commercialization project that to practice evaluation and development of quarantine management system using irradiation as a phytosanitary measure for exportation agricultural commodities.

  5. Journal of Agricultural Research and Development

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Journal of Agricultural Research and Development aims at publishing research reports, short communications, Critical Reviews in Agricultural Economics and Farm Management, Agronomy, Forestry, Animal Science, Food Technology, Soil Science, Home Economics, Agricultural Extension, Rural development, ...

  6. China Report, Agriculture, No. 276

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1983-01-01

    Partial Contents: Rural Survey, Economics, Ecology, Agricultural, Historical, Freshwater Fish, Weather Station, Warning, Forestry Productions, Animal Husbandry, Wheat Procurement, Grains, Wheat, Potato, Harvest, Rice...

  7. Agricultural problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bickerton, George E.

    1997-01-01

    Although there were not reasons to deplore against major activity release from any of the 110 industrial reactors authorized to operate in US, the nuclear incident that occurred at the Three Mile Island Plant in 1979 urged the public conscience toward the necessity of readiness to cope with events of this type. The personnel of the Emergency Planning Office functioning in the frame of US Department of Agriculture has already participated in around 600 intervention drillings on a federal, local or state scale to plan, test or asses radiological emergency plans or to intervene locally. These exercises allowed acquiring a significant experience in elaborating emergency plans, planning the drillings, working out scenarios and evaluation of the potential impact of accidents from the agricultural point of view. We have also taken part in different international drillings among which the most recent are INEX 1 and RADEX 94. We have found on these occasions that the agricultural problems are essential preoccupations in most of the cases no matter if the context is international, national, local or of state level. The paper poses problems specifically related to milk, fruits and vegetables, soils, meat and meat products. Finally the paper discusses issues like drilling planning, alarm and notification, sampling strategy, access authorizations for farmers, removing of contamination wastes. A number of social, political and economical relating problems are also mentioned

  8. Agriculture and food processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhammad Lebai Juri

    2003-01-01

    This chapter discuss the application of nuclear technology in agriculture sector. Nuclear Technology has help agriculture and food processing to develop tremendously. Two techniques widely use in both clusters are ionization radiation and radioisotopes. Among techniques for ionizing radiation are plant mutation breeding, SIT and food preservation. Meanwhile radioisotopes use as a tracer for animal research, plant soil relations water sedimentology

  9. Energy for agriculture: a computerized information retrieval system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stout, B A; Myers, C A [comp.

    1979-12-01

    This bibliography contains 2613 citations to the literature for 1973 through May 1979. Some of the subjects covered include: accounting, agriculture, animal production, conservation, drying, fertilizer, food processing, greenhouses, home, international, irrigation, organic, solar, storage, tillage, and wind. Author and keyword indexes are included. (MHR)

  10. 9 CFR 117.2 - Animal facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Animal facilities. 117.2 Section 117.2 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES... Animal facilities. Animal facilities shall comply with the requirements provided in part 108 of this...

  11. Animation & Neurocinematics*

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carpe Pérez, Inmaculada Concepción

    2015-01-01

    , indeed, can be considered a social/ emotional learning media, which goes beyond the limitations of live action movies. This is due to the diversity of techniques, and its visual plasticity that constructs the impossible. Animators are not real actors but more like the midwife who brings the anima...... into aliveness, which requires knowing how emotions work. Ed Hooks as an expert in training animators and actors, always remarks: “emotions tend to lead to action”. In this paper we want to argue that by producing animated films, as we watch them, cause a stronger effect, not only in our brains, but also in our...... bodies. By using animation as a learning tool we can explore the world of emotions and question beliefs, feelings and actions in order to express our voices and enhance our communication, and well-being, both, internally and with others. Animation can be the visual expression of the emotions in movement...

  12. International Product Differentiation through a Country Brand: An Economic Analysis of National Branding as a Marketing Strategy for Agricultural Products

    OpenAIRE

    Innes, Brian G.; Kerr, William A.; Hobbs, Jill E.

    2007-01-01

    Trade policy initiatives of developed country governments are in flux. Governments’ need for new trade policy measures has arisen partly because of constraints imposed on the use of export subsidies by the Agreement on Agriculture reached as part of the Uruguay Round of General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade in 1994. Further disciplines on export subsidies and other policy measures may be agreed on in the Doha Round of World Trade Organization (WTO) negotiations, accentuating the need for new...

  13. Louis Blajan, DVM, 1924-2010: The dynamic veterinarian who brought the World Organisation for Animal Health (Office International des Épizooties: OIE into the modern age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anon.

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Chevalier de la Légion d’honneurCroix du Combattant volontaire 1939-1945Officier du Mérite agricoleOfficier de l'Ordre national de la Côte d'Ivoire Louis Blajan was born in Lahage (Haute-Garonne, France on 10 April 1924 and passed away in Mont-de-Marsan on 10 February 2010. After studying at the Pierre de Fermat Lycée in Toulouse, Louis graduated from the Toulouse Veterinary School in 1948. He received the Institut d’élevage et de médecine vétérinaire des pays tropicaux (IEMVT diploma in 1949 and was posted in the French Overseas Territory of Mali from 1949 to 1952. Upon his return to France, Louis was appointed to the position of State Veterinarian in the Ministry of Agriculture from 1953 to 1968; there he was responsible for foot and mouth disease, swine fever and Newcastle disease. He also headed the consultative committee on infectious diseases. Subsequently, he was appointed Veterinary Inspector-in-Chief and Head of Border Controls Policy.Louis married Janine in 1952. She was extremely supportive of him throughout his career. She died in an accident a month before Louis retired in 1990.He was the technical director of Cofranimex (Compagnie française pour l’importation et l’exportation des animaux reproducteurs et leur semence from 1968 to 1977 and Director of the Association pour le développement des techniques de l’élevage français (ADETEF from 1977 to 1978.Louis moved to the Office International des Épizooties (now known as the World Organisation for Animal Health or ‘OIE’ where he was Head of the Technical Department from 1978 to 1980. Two years later, he was elected to the most prestigious of positions for a veterinarian, Director General, in 1980. He was re-elected in 1985 and retired in 1990.Louis succeeded in modernising the rather old-fashioned OIE and transformed it into a modern and efficient international organisation. He was instrumental in developing the International zoo-sanitary code (now the

  14. Disease spread models to estimate highly uncertain emerging diseases losses for animal agriculture insurance policies: an application to the U.S. farm-raised catfish industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagmutt, Francisco J; Sempier, Stephen H; Hanson, Terril R

    2013-10-01

    Emerging diseases (ED) can have devastating effects on agriculture. Consequently, agricultural insurance for ED can develop if basic insurability criteria are met, including the capability to estimate the severity of ED outbreaks with associated uncertainty. The U.S. farm-raised channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) industry was used to evaluate the feasibility of using a disease spread simulation modeling framework to estimate the potential losses from new ED for agricultural insurance purposes. Two stochastic models were used to simulate the spread of ED between and within channel catfish ponds in Mississippi (MS) under high, medium, and low disease impact scenarios. The mean (95% prediction interval (PI)) proportion of ponds infected within disease-impacted farms was 7.6% (3.8%, 22.8%), 24.5% (3.8%, 72.0%), and 45.6% (4.0%, 92.3%), and the mean (95% PI) proportion of fish mortalities in ponds affected by the disease was 9.8% (1.4%, 26.7%), 49.2% (4.7%, 60.7%), and 88.3% (85.9%, 90.5%) for the low, medium, and high impact scenarios, respectively. The farm-level mortality losses from an ED were up to 40.3% of the total farm inventory and can be used for insurance premium rate development. Disease spread modeling provides a systematic way to organize the current knowledge on the ED perils and, ultimately, use this information to help develop actuarially sound agricultural insurance policies and premiums. However, the estimates obtained will include a large amount of uncertainty driven by the stochastic nature of disease outbreaks, by the uncertainty in the frequency of future ED occurrences, and by the often sparse data available from past outbreaks. © 2013 Society for Risk Analysis.

  15. An Eye Tracking Comparison of External Pointing Cues and Internal Continuous Cues in Learning with Complex Animations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucheix, Jean-Michel; Lowe, Richard K.

    2010-01-01

    Two experiments used eye tracking to investigate a novel cueing approach for directing learner attention to low salience, high relevance aspects of a complex animation. In the first experiment, comprehension of a piano mechanism animation containing spreading-colour cues was compared with comprehension obtained with arrow cues or no cues. Eye…

  16. Uma abordagem centrada no usuário para o projeto de máquinas agrícolas de tração animal An user centered approach to the design of animal traction agricultural machinery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Romeiro Filho

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta um estudo realizado como parte do projeto de uma semeadora-adubadora à tração animal, utilizando princípios relacionados a disciplinas como Usabilidade, Ergonomia e Antropotecnologia, dentro de uma perspectiva de Design para Sustentabilidade (DfS e desenvolvimento de produtos adequados à Base da Pirâmide (BoP. O estudo forneceu subsídios para uma série de alterações a serem introduzidas no equipamento, tendo em vista a melhoria das condições de trabalho em pequenas propriedades de agricultura familiar. A partir desta abordagem na análise de um implemento existente, são sugeridas formas de adequação do produto e apresentada uma proposta para uma nova semeadora-adubadora à tração animal.This paper presents a study conducted as a part of the design of an Animal Traction Sewing Machine using principles related to Usability, Ergonomics, and Antropotechnology focusing on Design for Sustainability (DfS and product development suitable for the Base of the Pyramid (BoP. The present study provided information for a series of design changes in the equipment in order to improve working conditions in small family farming properties. From this approach to the analysis of an existing implement, ways of adjusting the product are suggested, and a proposal for a novel Animal Traction Sowing Machine is presented.

  17. International energy technology collaboration and climate change mitigation. Case study 2. Cooperation in Agriculture. R and D on High-Yielding Crop Varieties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gagnon-Lebrun, F. [Global and Structural Policies Division, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development OECD, Paris (France)

    2004-07-01

    international collaboration by describing the globalisation of the economy and current efforts of technology collaboration and transfer. Finally, it considers various ways to strengthen international energy technology collaboration. This paper is one of six case-studies designed in an effort to provide practical insights on the role international technology collaboration could play to achieve the objectives of the UNFCCC. They will all consider the past achievements of international technology collaboration, and the role it could play in helping to develop and disseminate new technologies in the future: what worked, what did not work and why, and what lessons might be drawn from past experiences. Most case studies consider energy technologies that could help mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. A few others consider areas not directly related to greenhouse gas emissions but where international technology collaboration has proven particularly successful in the past. This case study's aim is to review experience in international collaboration in the field of agriculture research and development (R and D) in order to identify lessons that may be relevant for climate-friendly technology collaboration. To this end, it traces the role of international collaboration in researching, developing and diffusing seeds of high-yielding varieties (HYV) to the world's farmers. This is done by looking mainly at the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR). The main question this paper addresses is: What are the lessons learned from international collaboration in the field of agriculture that could inform collaboration for climate-friendly technology?.

  18. Determination of transfer factors of uranium, thorium, radium and lead from soil to agricultural product in Japan for estimating internal radiation dose through ingestion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Tomozo; Tashiro, Yoshikazu; Fujinaga, Hideshi; Ishii, Tomoaki; Gunji, Yasuyoshi

    2002-01-01

    The transfer factors (TFs) of uranium (U), thorium (Th), radium (Ra) and lead (Pb) from soil to agricultural products were determined in order to estimate the internal radiation dose to the human body through ingestion. Samples of rice, potato, onion, cabbage, mandarin orange, spinach, apple and soil were collected from various districts in Japan. After appropriate pretreatment of the samples, concentrations in the sample solutions were measured by Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) (for U, Th and Pb) and liquid scintillation counter (for Ra). It was recognized that TFs were 4.9 x 10 -6 (apple) and 3.6 x 10 -4 (spinach) for U, 2.8 x 10 -6 (apple) and 2.3 x 10 -4 (spinach) for Th, and 4.0 x 10 -3 (hulled rice), 7.0 x 10 -5 (onion) and 5.0 x 10 -3 (hulled rice) for Pb. The TF of Ra, however, was not determined due to detection limitations. TF values obtained in the present study range from the same order of magnitude to 1/100 compared to the data in Technical Report Series No.364 (TRS364) as reported by IAEA. It was revealed that the internal radiation dose caused by the intake of uranium series radioactive nuclides through agricultural food ingestion was 16 μSv/y, where Pb was the most contributory nuclide. (author)

  19. A tool for assessment of animal health laboratory safety and biosecurity: The safety module of the Food and Agriculture Organization’s laboratory mapping tool

    OpenAIRE

    Mouillé, B; Dauphin, G; Wiersma, L; Blacksell, SD; Claes, F; Kalpravidh, W; Kabore, Y; Hietala, S

    2018-01-01

    The Laboratory Management Tool (LMT) is a standardized spreadsheet-based assessment tool developed to help support national, regional, and global efforts to maintain an effective network of animal health and veterinary public health laboratories. The safety and biosecurity module of the LMT (LMT-S) includes 98 measures covering administrative, operational, engineering, and personal protective equipment practices used to provide laboratory safety and biosecurity. Performance aspects of laborat...

  20. 9 CFR 117.4 - Test animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Test animals. 117.4 Section 117.4 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS ANIMALS AT LICENSED ESTABLISHMENTS § 117.4...

  1. 9 CFR 116.6 - Animal records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    .... Complete records shall be kept for all animals at a licensed establishment. Results of tests performed... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Animal records. 116.6 Section 116.6 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES...

  2. Sustainable agriculture in the picture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brouwer, F.M.; De Bont, C.J.A.M.; Leneman, H.; Van der Meulen, H.A.B.

    2004-01-01

    Sustainable agriculture in the picture provides a systematic overview of the available data that are relevant for debate on transitions towards sustainable agriculture. Review for the agrocomplex, greenhouse horticulture, dairy farming and pig farming. Indicators on economy, environment, nature, animal welfare, human and animal health. Results achieved in practice for the three dimensions of sustainable agriculture, namely economics ('profit'), ecology ('planet') and socio-cultural ('people') [nl

  3. Trade and Development: Proceedings of the Winter 1986 Meeting of the International Agricultural Trade Research Consortium (Texcoco, Mexico, December 1986).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shane, Mathew D., Ed.

    Three levels of papers are contained in this proceedings. The first set contains full research papers presented during the theme day of the meeting. The following papers were given: "International Trade and Factor Movements in Development Theory, Policy, and Experience" (T. N. Srinivasan); "Government in the Process of Trade and…

  4. Fuel gas production from animal and agricultural residues and biomass. Quarterly coordination meeting, December 11-12, 1978, Denver, Colorado. Second Quarterly progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wise, D L; Ashare, E; Wentworth, R L

    1979-01-05

    The tenth quarterly coordination meeting of the methane production group of the Fuels from Biomass Systems Branch, US Department of Energy was held at Denver, Colorado, December 11-12, 1978. Progress reports were presented by the contractors and a site visit was made to the Solar Energy Research Institute, Golden, Colorado. A meeting agenda, a list of attendees, and progress are presented. Report titles are: pipeline fuel gas from an environmental feedlot; operation of a 50,000 gallon anaerobic digester at the Monroe State Dairy Farm near Monroe, Washington; anaerobic fermentation of livestock and crop residues; anaerobic fermentation of agricultural residues - potential for improvement and implementation; heat treatment of organics for increasing anaerobic biodegradability; and biological conversion of biomass to methane. (DC)

  5. ACCOUNTING ON THE PARTICULARITIES THAT CONCESSION AGRICULTURAL UNITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BOCHIS LEONICA

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture represents the branch of the material production which deals with growing crops and raising animals in order to obtain farm produce and some raw materials, as well asthe totality of works and methods used for this purpose. Agriculture has specific traits mainly induced by the traits of its results. Thereupon, what sets apart agriculture from other sectors of the economy is the volume, structure and concretization of the resources in the process of their consumption. The essential cause of these differences is the fact that land is the main production factor and that, compared to the development level of the production forces and the natural and biological factors, it behaves in a specific manner.Definitions and characteristics of agricultural activities are given also in The International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS , respectively IAS 41, “Agriculture”. Hence, according to IAS 41 “Agriculture”, agricultural activity is defined as the management of the biological transformation of biological assets (living plants and animals into agricultural produce (harvested product of the entity's biological assets. The received concessions represent an important characteristic of these units and, as a particular case concerning such concessions, we will tackle the issue of terrains pertaining to the assets sold by the Romsilva National Forests Administration.

  6. Application of internal electrodes to the oesophageal and tracheal tube in an animal trial: evaluation of its clinical and technical potentiality in electrical impedance tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czaplik, Michael; Antink, Christoph Hoog; Rossaint, Rolf; Leonhardt, Steffen

    2014-06-01

    Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) is of potential medical interest e.g., to optimize ventilator settings during mechanical ventilation. Nevertheless there are still several challenges. Although electrode belts are commonly used and promoted, they are not necessarily adequate for the long-term monitoring of patients in intensive-care units (ICU). ICU patients are usually equipped with breathing tubes and feeding tubes, ideal surfaces to attach EIT electrodes to. The aim of our study was therefore to examine the potentiality of internal electrodes in a porcine animal trial. Following an animal trial protocol studying acute lung injury, additional EIT measurements were obtained both with conventional electrodes set upon a rubber belt and after having moved the electrodes internally in seven pigs. For this reason the two most dorsally located electrodes were selected. An adjacent stimulation and measurement pattern was used, and resulting voltages in the time and frequency domains as well as within reconstructed images were examined to compare perfusion and ventilation data qualitatively and quantitatively. Particularly, lung morphology as well as signal strength for both the mediastinal and lung region were studied. All animals were submitted to the additional protocol without any adverse events. Distinguishability of lungs was improved in reconstructed frames. The resulting sensitivity of measured electrical impedance was enhanced around the mediastinal region and even cardiac-related activity was significantly increased by a factor of up to 6. In conclusion the application of internal electrodes appears to be beneficial for diverse clinical purposes and should be addressed in further studies.

  7. Animal Production Research Advances

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Animal Production Research Advances is a peer-review journal established expressly to promote the production of all animal species utilized as food. The journal has an international scope and is intended for professionals in animal production and related sciences. We solicit contributions from animal production and ...

  8. International consensus statement regarding the use of animal models for research on anastomoses in the lower gastrointestinal tract

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosmans, Joanna W. A. M.; Moossdorff, Martine; Al-Taher, Mahdi; van Beek, Lotte; Derikx, Joep P. M.; Bouvy, Nicole D.

    2016-01-01

    This project aimed to reach consensus on the most appropriate animal models and outcome measures in research on anastomoses in the lower gastrointestinal tract (GIT). The physiology of anastomotic healing remains an important research topic in gastrointestinal surgery. Recent results from

  9. Agriculture: Agriculture and Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information on air emissions from agricultural practices, types of agricultural burning, air programs that may apply to agriculture, reporting requirements, and links to state and other federal air-quality information.

  10. Agricultural science and ethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerris, Mickey; Vaarst, Mette

    2014-01-01

    Humans live in constant interaction with nature. That is part and parcel of being a biological creature on this planet. On one hand, humans exploit the available resources to survive, and at the same time, humans are deeply dependent on the continued capacity of nature to sustain their lives......, about 20 % of the world's coral reefs and 35 % of the mangrove areas were lost (Millennium Ecosystem Assessment 2005). In the following, the development of agricultural science will be sketched out and the role of ethics in agricultural science will be discussed. Then different views of nature that have...... shaped agriculture and the role of science in agriculture will be discussed by analyzing some of the presumptions behind the concept of ecosystem services and the way animals are viewed. Finally, the concepts of animal welfare and sustainability will be explored to show how they make vivid the connection...

  11. International Society of Human and Animal Mycology (ISHAM)-ITS reference DNA barcoding database--the quality controlled standard tool for routine identification of human and animal pathogenic fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irinyi, Laszlo; Serena, Carolina; Garcia-Hermoso, Dea; Arabatzis, Michael; Desnos-Ollivier, Marie; Vu, Duong; Cardinali, Gianluigi; Arthur, Ian; Normand, Anne-Cécile; Giraldo, Alejandra; da Cunha, Keith Cassia; Sandoval-Denis, Marcelo; Hendrickx, Marijke; Nishikaku, Angela Satie; de Azevedo Melo, Analy Salles; Merseguel, Karina Bellinghausen; Khan, Aziza; Parente Rocha, Juliana Alves; Sampaio, Paula; da Silva Briones, Marcelo Ribeiro; e Ferreira, Renata Carmona; de Medeiros Muniz, Mauro; Castañón-Olivares, Laura Rosio; Estrada-Barcenas, Daniel; Cassagne, Carole; Mary, Charles; Duan, Shu Yao; Kong, Fanrong; Sun, Annie Ying; Zeng, Xianyu; Zhao, Zuotao; Gantois, Nausicaa; Botterel, Françoise; Robbertse, Barbara; Schoch, Conrad; Gams, Walter; Ellis, David; Halliday, Catriona; Chen, Sharon; Sorrell, Tania C; Piarroux, Renaud; Colombo, Arnaldo L; Pais, Célia; de Hoog, Sybren; Zancopé-Oliveira, Rosely Maria; Taylor, Maria Lucia; Toriello, Conchita; de Almeida Soares, Célia Maria; Delhaes, Laurence; Stubbe, Dirk; Dromer, Françoise; Ranque, Stéphane; Guarro, Josep; Cano-Lira, Jose F; Robert, Vincent; Velegraki, Aristea; Meyer, Wieland

    2015-05-01

    Human and animal fungal pathogens are a growing threat worldwide leading to emerging infections and creating new risks for established ones. There is a growing need for a rapid and accurate identification of pathogens to enable early diagnosis and targeted antifungal therapy. Morphological and biochemical identification methods are time-consuming and require trained experts. Alternatively, molecular methods, such as DNA barcoding, a powerful and easy tool for rapid monophasic identification, offer a practical approach for species identification and less demanding in terms of taxonomical expertise. However, its wide-spread use is still limited by a lack of quality-controlled reference databases and the evolving recognition and definition of new fungal species/complexes. An international consortium of medical mycology laboratories was formed aiming to establish a quality controlled ITS database under the umbrella of the ISHAM working group on "DNA barcoding of human and animal pathogenic fungi." A new database, containing 2800 ITS sequences representing 421 fungal species, providing the medical community with a freely accessible tool at http://www.isham.org/ and http://its.mycologylab.org/ to rapidly and reliably identify most agents of mycoses, was established. The generated sequences included in the new database were used to evaluate the variation and overall utility of the ITS region for the identification of pathogenic fungi at intra-and interspecies level. The average intraspecies variation ranged from 0 to 2.25%. This highlighted selected pathogenic fungal species, such as the dermatophytes and emerging yeast, for which additional molecular methods/genetic markers are required for their reliable identification from clinical and veterinary specimens. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The International Society for Human and Animal Mycology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. International consensus statement regarding the use of animal models for research on anastomoses in the lower gastrointestinal tract

    OpenAIRE

    Bosmans, Joanna W. A. M.; Moossdorff, Martine; Al-Taher, Mahdi; van Beek, Lotte; Derikx, Joep P. M.; Bouvy, Nicole D.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This project aimed to reach consensus on the most appropriate animal models and outcome measures in research on anastomoses in the lower gastrointestinal tract (GIT). The physiology of anastomotic healing remains an important research topic in gastrointestinal surgery. Recent results from experimental studies are limited with regard to comparability and clinical translation. Methods PubMed and EMBASE were searched for experimental studies investigating anastomotic healing in the lower...

  13. International consensus statement regarding the use of animal models for research on anastomoses in the lower gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosmans, Joanna W A M; Moossdorff, Martine; Al-Taher, Mahdi; van Beek, Lotte; Derikx, Joep P M; Bouvy, Nicole D

    2016-05-01

    This project aimed to reach consensus on the most appropriate animal models and outcome measures in research on anastomoses in the lower gastrointestinal tract (GIT). The physiology of anastomotic healing remains an important research topic in gastrointestinal surgery. Recent results from experimental studies are limited with regard to comparability and clinical translation. PubMed and EMBASE were searched for experimental studies investigating anastomotic healing in the lower GIT published between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2014 to assess currently used models. All corresponding authors were invited for a Delphi-based analysis that consisted of two online survey rounds followed by a final online recommendation survey to reach consensus on the discussed topics. Two hundred seventy-seven original articles were retrieved and 167 articles were included in the systematic review. Mice, rats, rabbits, pigs, and dogs are currently being used as animal models, with a large variety in surgical techniques and outcome measures. Forty-four corresponding authors participated in the Delphi analysis. In the first two rounds, 39/44 and 35/39 participants completed the survey. In the final meeting, 35 experts reached consensus on 76/122 items in six categories. Mouse, rat, and pig are considered appropriate animal models; rabbit and dog should be abandoned in research regarding bowel anastomoses. ARRIVE guidelines should be followed more strictly. Consensus was reached on several recommendations for the use of animal models and outcome measurements in research on anastomoses of the lower GIT. Future research should take these suggestions into account to facilitate comparison and clinical translation of results.

  14. Draught animals and welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaswamy, N S

    1994-03-01

    In fifty developing countries, which contain half of the total human population of the world, there is a heavy dependence on draught animals as an energy source. These animals are used for agriculture operations in 52% of cultivated areas of the world, as well as for hauling 25 million carts. This situation is likely to continue for at least another fifty years. The work performed annually by these draught animals would require 20 million tons of petroleum, valued at US$6 billion, if it were performed by motorized vehicles. The poor working conditions of these animals often adversely affect their productivity. The application of improved technology and better management (i.e. through better feed and health services, and improved design of agricultural implements and carts) could considerably improve the welfare of these animals. Improved systems would generate sufficient benefits for the economy to justify the required investment. High priority should therefore be given to draught animal power in the economic development agenda.

  15. Agriculture. Sector 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    In Lebanon, emissions of greenhouse gases from agricultural activities occur through the following processes: -enteric fermentation and manure management of the domestic livestock emits methane and nitrous oxide. -agricultural burning of crop residues is of minor importance since field burning of crop residue is not a common practice in Lebanon -agricultural soils are a source of nitrous oxide directly from the soils and from animal production, and indirectly from the nitrogen added to the soils. The following results were obtained for the inventory year 1994: 7.60955 Gg of methane, 3.01478 Gg of nitrous oxide, 0.00146 Gg of nitrogen oxides and 0.04306 Gg of carbon monoxide

  16. Prevalence of internal parasites in beef cows in the United States: Results of the National Animal Health Monitoring System’s (NAHMS) beef study, 2007–2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stromberg, Bert E.; Gasbarre, Louis C.; Ballweber, Lora R.; Dargatz, David A.; Rodriguez, Judith M.; Kopral, Christine A.; Zarlenga, Dante S.

    2015-01-01

    During the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) National Animal Health Monitoring System’s (NAHMS) 2007–2008 beef study, 567 producers from 24 US States were offered the opportunity to collect fecal samples from weaned beef calves and have them evaluated for the presence of parasite eggs (Phase 1). Participating producers were provided with instructions and materials for sample collection. Up to 20 fresh fecal samples were collected from each of the 99 participating operations. Fresh fecal samples were submitted to one of 3 randomly assigned laboratories for evaluation. Upon arrival at the laboratories, all samples were processed for the enumeration of strongyle, Nematodirus, and Trichuris eggs using the modified Wisconsin technique. The presence or absence of coccidian oocysts and tapeworm eggs was also noted. In submissions where the strongyle eggs per gram exceeded 30, aliquots from 2 to 6 animals were pooled for DNA extraction. Extracted DNA was subjected to genus level polymerase chain reaction (PCR) identification for the presence of Ostertagia, Cooperia, Haemonchus, Oesophagostomum, and Trichostrongylus. In this study, 85.6% of the samples had strongyle type, Nematodirus, and Trichuris eggs. Among the samples evaluated, 91% had Cooperia, 79% Ostertagia, 53% Haemonchus, 38% Oesophagostomum, 18% Nematodirus, 7% Trichuris, and 3% Trichostrongylus. The prevalence of coccidia and tapeworm eggs was 59.9% and 13.7%, respectively. PMID:26424909

  17. Prevalence of internal parasites in beef cows in the United States: Results of the National Animal Health Monitoring System's (NAHMS) beef study, 2007-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stromberg, Bert E; Gasbarre, Louis C; Ballweber, Lora R; Dargatz, David A; Rodriguez, Judith M; Kopral, Christine A; Zarlenga, Dante S

    2015-10-01

    During the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) National Animal Health Monitoring System's (NAHMS) 2007-2008 beef study, 567 producers from 24 US States were offered the opportunity to collect fecal samples from weaned beef calves and have them evaluated for the presence of parasite eggs (Phase 1). Participating producers were provided with instructions and materials for sample collection. Up to 20 fresh fecal samples were collected from each of the 99 participating operations. Fresh fecal samples were submitted to one of 3 randomly assigned laboratories for evaluation. Upon arrival at the laboratories, all samples were processed for the enumeration of strongyle, Nematodirus, and Trichuris eggs using the modified Wisconsin technique. The presence or absence of coccidian oocysts and tapeworm eggs was also noted. In submissions where the strongyle eggs per gram exceeded 30, aliquots from 2 to 6 animals were pooled for DNA extraction. Extracted DNA was subjected to genus level polymerase chain reaction (PCR) identification for the presence of Ostertagia, Cooperia, Haemonchus, Oesophagostomum, and Trichostrongylus. In this study, 85.6% of the samples had strongyle type, Nematodirus, and Trichuris eggs. Among the samples evaluated, 91% had Cooperia, 79% Ostertagia, 53% Haemonchus, 38% Oesophagostomum, 18% Nematodirus, 7% Trichuris, and 3% Trichostrongylus. The prevalence of coccidia and tapeworm eggs was 59.9% and 13.7%, respectively.

  18. Antimicrobial Use Guidelines for Treatment of Urinary Tract Disease in Dogs and Cats: Antimicrobial Guidelines Working Group of the International Society for Companion Animal Infectious Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Scott Weese

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract disease is a common reason for use (and likely misuse, improper use, and overuse of antimicrobials in dogs and cats. There is a lack of comprehensive treatment guidelines such as those that are available for human medicine. Accordingly, guidelines for diagnosis and management of urinary tract infections were created by a Working Group of the International Society for Companion Animal Infectious Diseases. While objective data are currently limited, these guidelines provide information to assist in the diagnosis and management of upper and lower urinary tract infections in dogs and cats.

  19. Research on Agricultural Development Based on “Internet +”

    OpenAIRE

    Feng , Wenjie; Wang , Lei; Zhao , Jia; Ruan , Huaijun

    2015-01-01

    International audience; Agricultural modernization is an important way to construct modern agriculture. The development of intelligent terminal, mobile internet, communication technology, internet of things is being applied to agricultural production. It will greatly improve the level and degree of agricultural informatization, promote agricultural informatization development, improve agricultural production efficiency and improve agricultural production efficiency and promote the development...

  20. [Overview of organic agriculture development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao Mei; Yu, Hong Jun; Li, Qiang; Jiang, Wei Jie

    2016-04-22

    This paper introduced the concepts of organic agriculture as defined by different international organizations, origin and theoretical development of organic agriculture, as well as its developing trajectory in China (i.e. a late start followed by rapid growth compared to developed countries). The differences between domestic and international organic agriculture were illustrated by scale, crop types, production standards, inputs and planting techniques. Constraints limiting improvements to organic agriculture in aspects of standards, technology, marketing, certification, environmental pollution, enterprise reputation, and national policies were discussed. Future directions and strategies for developing healthy organic agriculture in China were provided.

  1. Australian agricultural quarantine - imports and exports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turpin, J.W.; Read, B.J.; Pinson, R.S.; Higgs, G.M.

    1985-01-01

    Agricultural quarantine is administered by Government to protect all facets of agriculture and the environment from unwanted pests and diseases of animals and plants. Ionising energy would appear to have an excellent future as a quarantine treatment

  2. Drivers for animal welfare policies in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molomo, M; Mumba, T

    2014-04-01

    Livestock in Africa represent on average 30% of the agricultural gross domestic product (GDP) and about 10% of the national GDP. Up to 300 million people depend on livestock for their income and livelihood. Accordingly, livestock are considered to be important for the African continent. Despite this, little or no provision for animal welfare is made in the laws and regulations of most African countries. However, the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) Performance of Veterinary Services (PVS) Tool includes animal welfare as a critical competency in Veterinary Services, and most African countries have now conducted PVS appraisals. The development of a Regional Animal Welfare Strategy in Africa is also important because it will provide opportunities for full engagement by all relevant parties. Key elements in this process should include collaboration and coordination in information dissemination to all stakeholders, who should include all those in the value chain. The roles played by the OIE Member Delegates and Focal Points, and non-governmental organisations (NGOs), in driving animal welfare policy in most African countries are notable. Without a level of understanding of animal welfare that is sufficient to support clear animal welfare policy development and implementation, problems may appear in the near future which could jeopardise the attainment of increased animal productivity and product quality. This may have negative implications for economic growth and for national and international trade.

  3. International Cartilage Repair Society (ICRS) Recommended Guidelines for Histological Endpoints for Cartilage Repair Studies in Animal Models and Clinical Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoemann, Caroline; Kandel, Rita; Roberts, Sally; Saris, Daniel B.F.; Creemers, Laura; Mainil-Varlet, Pierre; Méthot, Stephane; Hollander, Anthony P.; Buschmann, Michael D.

    2011-01-01

    Cartilage repair strategies aim to resurface a lesion with osteochondral tissue resembling native cartilage, but a variety of repair tissues are usually observed. Histology is an important structural outcome that could serve as an interim measure of efficacy in randomized controlled clinical studies. The purpose of this article is to propose guidelines for standardized histoprocessing and unbiased evaluation of animal tissues and human biopsies. Methods were compiled from a literature review, and illustrative data were added. In animal models, treatments are usually administered to acute defects created in healthy tissues, and the entire joint can be analyzed at multiple postoperative time points. In human clinical therapy, treatments are applied to developed lesions, and biopsies are obtained, usually from a subset of patients, at a specific time point. In striving to standardize evaluation of structural endpoints in cartilage repair studies, 5 variables should be controlled: 1) location of biopsy/sample section, 2) timing of biopsy/sample recovery, 3) histoprocessing, 4) staining, and 5) blinded evaluation with a proper control group. Histological scores, quantitative histomorphometry of repair tissue thickness, percentage of tissue staining for collagens and glycosaminoglycan, polarized light microscopy for collagen fibril organization, and subchondral bone integration/structure are all relevant outcome measures that can be collected and used to assess the efficacy of novel therapeutics. Standardized histology methods could improve statistical analyses, help interpret and validate noninvasive imaging outcomes, and permit cross-comparison between studies. Currently, there are no suitable substitutes for histology in evaluating repair tissue quality and cartilaginous character. PMID:26069577

  4. Agriculture: Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Climate change affects agricultural producers because agriculture and fisheries depend on specific climate conditions. Temperature changes can cause crop planting dates to shift. Droughts and floods due to climate change may hinder farming practices.

  5. Indian draught animals power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. L. Phaniraja

    Full Text Available With the modernization of agriculture, the use of mechanical power in agriculture has increased but draught animal power (DAP continues to be used on Indian farms due to small holdings and hill agriculture. More than 55% of the total cultivated area is still being managed by using draught animals as against about 20% by tractors. India possessed the finest breeds of draught animals. Bullocks, buffaloes and camels are the major draught animals for field operations. Horses, mules, donkeys, yak and mithun are the pack animals for transport. The quality of work from the draught animals depends upon the power developed by them. The design of traditional implements is based on long experience and these have served the purpose of the farmers. However there is plenty of scope to improve the design based on animal-machine-environment interaction so as to have more output and increased efficiency without jeopardizing animal health. [Vet World 2009; 2(10.000: 404-407

  6. Agricultural Overpopulation

    OpenAIRE

    Bičanić, Rudolf

    2003-01-01

    The author discusses three different approaches to agricultural overpopulation: from the consumption side, from the production side and from the aspect of immobility of agricultural population. In the first approach agrarian overpopulation is defined from the consumption point of viewas the number of people living from agriculture that can live from aggregate agricultural income at a certain standard of consumption. In this connection the problem of measuring total agricultu...

  7. The Current Developments of Agricultural Biotechnologies Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna M. Shkolyarenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Population growth in the context of limited land resources makes the global scientific society research new ways to increase the agricultural yields. Over the past 20 years, biotechnology and GM crops have become widely spread and now are cultivated in 28 countries. The total area of crops has tripled, and it suggests the further vertical and horizontal integration in short term. In 2015, the US Department of Agriculture authorized the commercial use of GM farm animals. The development of agricultural biotechnology market is constrained by opponents of GM crops in more than 160 countries, which include Russia and the European Union, where the production of GM crops is banned due to economic, ethical, ideological and biological reasons. Currently, the EU is seeking to reduce the imports of GM crops and products; Russia's GM imports and exports are prohibited, and the deadline of designing a consolidated position on agricultural biotechnology has been moved to 2017. The author seeks to analyze the volume of production and international trade of agricultural products based on biotechnologies and to describe the main trends in the global market, which could be integrated into the food value chain in Russia. In the context of the worsening economic indicators, the article proposes the possibility of extending the use of GM crops in Russia non-food sector.

  8. Food and agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhammad Lebai Juri

    2005-01-01

    This chapter discussed the basic principles and techniques of nuclear science and technology applied in food and agricultural study. The following subjects covered: 1) Utilization of radiation in plant breeding, pest control, food irradiation, moisture content, food contamination study; 2) Utilization of radioisotopes in soil and plant studies, animal research

  9. Agricultural Land Use in Ahlat District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Necmettin ELMASTAŞ

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Ahlat district has suitable topography for growing of agricultural products. Almost half of Ahlat district is suitable for agricultural. Today, 32.7% of the land use in Ahlat is agricultural area. 90% of agricultural area is dry farming area. 10% of agricultural area is irrigated. 60.3%of land use in Ahlat district is pasturage area. The economy of Ahlat is based on agricultural and animal husbandry. Today, agricultural products such as wheat, potato and sugar beet are grown in agricultural areas. Ahlat district has some problems like unplanned production, irrigation and marketing.

  10. Agricultural policy and sustainable livestock development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schillhorn van Veen, T W

    1999-01-01

    Future agricultural and rural development is, to a large extent, influenced by the projected food needs of 2.5 billion people expected to swell the world population by 2020. This increase will require more food in general and, in view of recent experience in East Asia, more animal products. To achieve this increase will require judicious use of resources, and trade, especially in those countries where natural resources are insufficient to support food production. Achieving food sufficiency in a sustainable manner is a major challenge for farmers, agro-industries, researchers and governments. The latter play an important role as many of the farmers' choices are, to a large extent, directed by government or supra-government, often through macro- and micro-economic policy. In many countries the economic, environmental, trade and agricultural policies have not been conducive to an agricultural development that is risk-free with respect to the environment, animal welfare or public health. The recent decline of government support in agriculture forced farmers in Western countries to think about more risk adverse agricultural practices and more efficient production systems. On the other hand, many countries in Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union, as well as other developing countries, are still going through a painful process of adjustment to new market conditions. International banks and development agencies have a mandate to help developing countries, but are somewhat restricted both by needing to work directly with governments and by their perceived dogmatic approach to development. Changing policies do, now and in the future, also affect the development of animal disease control programmes, including the control of parasitic diseases. On the one hand there is an increasing interest in risk-free control practices, and on the other hand a demand for greater regulatory control over the production process. As parasitic diseases of animals are closely linked to the

  11. Electronic publication of new animal names - An interview with Frank-T. Krell, Commissioner of the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature and Chair of the ICZN ZooBank Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    On the 4th September 2012 the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature announced an amendment to the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature allowing for electronic publication of the scientific names of animals. In this interview Frank-T. Krell discusses the implications of this amendment for authors wishing to publish descriptions of newly identified animal species in online and open access journals, and for the future of taxonomic science. PMID:22978411

  12. Human migration is important in the international spread of exotic Salmonella serovars in animal and human populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iveson, J B; Bradshaw, S D; How, R A; Smith, D W

    2014-11-01

    The exposure of indigenous humans and native fauna in Australia and the Wallacea zoogeographical region of Indonesia to exotic Salmonella serovars commenced during the colonial period and has accelerated with urbanization and international travel. In this study, the distribution and prevalence of exotic Salmonella serovars are mapped to assess the extent to which introduced infections are invading native wildlife in areas of high natural biodiversity under threat from expanding human activity. The major exotic Salmonella serovars, Bovismorbificans, Derby, Javiana, Newport, Panama, Saintpaul and Typhimurium, isolated from wildlife on populated coastal islands in southern temperate areas of Western Australia, were mostly absent from reptiles and native mammals in less populated tropical areas of the state. They were also not recorded on the uninhabited Mitchell Plateau or islands of the Bonaparte Archipelago, adjacent to south-eastern Indonesia. Exotic serovars were, however, isolated in wildlife on 14/17 islands sampled in the Wallacea region of Indonesia and several islands off the west coast of Perth. Increases in international tourism, involving islands such as Bali, have resulted in the isolation of a high proportion of exotic serovar infections suggesting that densely populated island resorts in the Asian region are acting as staging posts for the interchange of Salmonella infections between tropical and temperate regions.

  13. Use of studies with laboratory animals to assess the potential early health effects of combined internal alpha and beta irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, B.R.; Hahn, F.F.; Guilmette, R.A.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Snipes, M.B.; Boecker, B.B.; McClellan, R.O.

    1986-01-01

    The potential health impacts of radionuclides released in nuclear accidents are of major concern to the public and to regulatory and other governmental agencies. One mode of potential exposure is by inhalation of airborne radionuclides, which could lead to combined internal irradiation by high (alpha) and low (beta) linear energy transfer (LET) radiations. Epidemiological data for health effects of human inhalation exposure are too limited to derive reliable estimates of risks of potential health effects. However, results of studies in which beagle dogs were exposed by inhalation to insoluble radioactive aerosols can be used to estimate expected effects in humans. Data for mortality from radiation pneumonitis and pulmonary fibrosis caused by internal irradiation of dog lungs by alpha or beta radiations are used to derive the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of alpha irradiation compared to beta irradiation; predict the expected combined effects of alpha and beta irradiation of dog lungs; and extrapolate the results to humans. The extrapolation to humans assumed that, for similar ages at exposure, dog and human lungs have similar sensitivities to lung irradiation. Results of theoretical calculations related to mortality from early effects indicated that the synergistic effects of high- and low-LET radiations should depend on the percentages of the total dose contributed by high- and low-LET radiations, and for very low or very high doses, synergistic effects should be negligible. 23 refs., 8 figs

  14. Monitoring residue in animals and primary products of animal origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janković Saša

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of control and systematic monitoring of residue is to secure, by the examination of a corresponding number of samples, the efficient monitoring of the residue level in tissues and organs of animals, as well as in primary products of animal origin. This creates possibilities for the timely taking of measures toward the securing of food hygiene of animal origin and the protection of public health. Residue can be a consequence of the inadequate use of medicines in veterinary medicine and pesticides in agriculture and veterinary medicine, as well as the polluting of the environment with toxic elements, dioxins, polychlorinated biphenyls, and others. Residue is being monitored in Serbia since 1972, and in 2004, national monitoring was brought to the level of EU countries through significant investments by the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Water Management. This is also evident in the EU directives which permit exports of all kinds of meat and primary products of animal origin, covered by the Residue Monitoring Program. The program of systematic examinations of residue has been coordinated with the requirements of the European Union, both according to the type of examined substance, as well as according to the number of samples and the applied analytical techniques. In addition to the development of methods and the including of new harmful substances into the monitoring programme, it is also necessary to coordinate the national regulations that define the maximum permitted quantities of certain medicines and contaminants with the EU regulations, in order to protect the health of consumers as efficiently as possible, and for the country to take equal part in international trade.

  15. Proceedings of the International Symposium on Biotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    This is a book of abstracts of oral communications and posters that were presented during the International Symposium on Biotechnology that was held in Sfax, Tunisia from May 4th to 8th, 2008. The following themes were covered : - Biotechnology for animal and human health and biopharmaceuticals; - Microbial and environmental biotechnology; - Agricultural, Food and marine biotechnology

  16. The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) - 35 Years of Global Efforts to Ensure That International Trade in Wild Animals and Plants Is Legal and Sustainable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijnstekers, W

    2011-01-01

    CITES is a 35-year-old convention with a current total of 175 signatories, or parties. It regulates international trade in live specimens and products of more than 30,000 animal and plant species under three different trade regimes. CITES has clearly proved its importance for nature conservation, but its regulations often are difficult to implement and enforce, leading to unacceptably high levels of unsustainable and illegal trade in many wildlife species. There are ways, however, to improve the situation and to make compliance with CITES regulations both easier and more attractive. Copyright © 2011 Central Police University.

  17. Indicatoren voor dierenwelzijn en diergezondheid = Indicators for animal welfare and animal health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenstra, F.R.; Neijenhuis, F.

    2009-01-01

    The Dutch Ministry of Agriculture, Nature and Food Quality requires a monitor for animal welfare and animal health to evaluate progress in this field. This report describes which indicators for animal welfare and health can be used for the monitor

  18. 9 CFR 91.15 - Inspection of animals for export.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inspection of animals for export. 91.15 Section 91.15 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS...

  19. 9 CFR 91.16 - Certification of animals for export.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Certification of animals for export. 91.16 Section 91.16 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS...

  20. 9 CFR 2.128 - Inspection for missing animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inspection for missing animals. 2.128 Section 2.128 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Miscellaneous § 2.128 Inspection for missing animals. Each dealer...

  1. 9 CFR 93.806 - Animals refused entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Animals refused entry. 93.806 Section 93.806 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF...

  2. 9 CFR 95.3 - Byproducts from diseased animals prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Byproducts from diseased animals prohibited. 95.3 Section 95.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS...

  3. 9 CFR 2.131 - Handling of animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Handling of animals. 2.131 Section 2.131 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Miscellaneous § 2.131 Handling of animals. (a) All licensees who maintain wild...

  4. 9 CFR 151.7 - Examination of animal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Examination of animal. 151.7 Section 151.7 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL BREEDS RECOGNITION OF BREEDS AND BOOKS OF RECORD OF PUREBRED ANIMALS Certification of...

  5. Agricultural practices and water quality on farms registered for derogation in 2015

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooijboer AEJ; de Koeijer TJ; Prins H; Vrijhoef A; Daatselaar CHG; LGW; M&V

    2017-01-01

    Dutch manure policy tries to limit the harmful environmental impact of agriculture. This is in line with international agreements on fertilizer use. The European Nitrates Directive prescribes Member States to limit the use of animal manure to 170 kg nitrogen per hectare. Farms with at least 80

  6. The well-being of farm animals: challenges and solutions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Benson, G. John; Rollin, Bernard E

    2004-01-01

    .... The Well-Being of Farm Animals: Challenges and Solutions offers veterinarians, veterinary and agriculture students, animal scientists, and food animal producers both practical methods to enhance farm animal well-being, and greater...

  7. 7 CFR 905.142 - Animal feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Animal feed. 905.142 Section 905.142 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements..., disposed of, or in any way handled so as to enter fresh fruit channels; (3) The quantity does not exceed 1...

  8. 7 CFR 1230.611 - Porcine animal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Porcine animal. 1230.611 Section 1230.611 Agriculture... CONSUMER INFORMATION Procedures for the Conduct of Referendum Definitions § 1230.611 Porcine animal. The term Porcine animal means a swine, that is raised: (a) As a feeder pig, that is, a young pig sold to...

  9. Animals on drugs: understanding the role of pharmaceutical companies in the animal-industrial complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twine, Richard

    2013-12-01

    In this paper I revisit previous critiques that I have made of much, though by no means all, bioethical discourse. These pertain to faithfulness to dualistic ontology, a taken-for-granted normative anthropocentrism, and the exclusion of a consideration of how political economy shapes the conditions for bioethical discourse (Twine Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 8(3):285-295, 2005; International Journal of Sociology of Agriculture and Food 16(3):1-18, 2007, 2010). Part of my argument around bioethical dualist ontology is to critique the assumption of a division between the "medical" (human) and "agricultural" (nonhuman) and to show various ways in which they are interrelated. I deepen this analysis with a focus on transnational pharmaceutical companies, with specific attention to their role in enhancing agricultural production through animal drug administration. I employ the topical case of antibiotics in order to speak to current debates in not only the interdisciplinary field of bioethics but also that of animal studies. More generally, the animal-industrial complex (Twine Journal for Critical Animal Studies 10(1):12-39, 2012) is underlined as a highly relevant bioethical object that deserves more conceptual and empirical attention.

  10. The role of the World Trade Organization and the 'three sisters' (the World Organisation for Animal Health, the International Plant Protection Convention and the Codex Alimentarius Commission) in the control of invasive alien species and the preservation of biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, S; Pelgrim, W

    2010-08-01

    The missions of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) include the design of surveillance and control methods for infectious transboundary animal diseases (including zoonoses), the provision of guarantees concerning animal health and animal production food safety, and the setting of standards for, and promotion of, animal welfare. The OIE role in setting standards for the sanitary safety of international trade in animals and animal products is formally recognised in the World Trade Organization (WTO) Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (the SPS Agreement). While the primary focus of the OIE is on animal diseases and zoonoses, the OIE has also been working within the WTO framework to examine possible contributions the organisation can make to achieving the goals of the Convention on Biological Diversity, particularly to preventing the global spread of invasive alien species (IAS). However, at the present time, setting standards for invasive species (other than those connected to the cause and distribution of diseases listed by the OIE) is outside the OIE mandate. Any future expansion of the OIE mandate would need to be decided by its Members and resources (expertise and financial contributions) for an extended standard-setting work programme secured. The other international standard-setting organisations referenced by the SPS Agreement are the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC) and the Codex Alimentarius Commission (CAC). The IPPC mandate and work programme address IAS and the protection of biodiversity. The CAC is not involved in this field.

  11. Living on a farm, contact with farm animals and pets, and childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia: pooled and meta-analyses from the Childhood Leukemia International Consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsi, Laurent; Magnani, Corrado; Petridou, Eleni T; Dockerty, John D; Metayer, Catherine; Milne, Elizabeth; Bailey, Helen D; Dessypris, Nick; Kang, Alice Y; Wesseling, Catharina; Infante-Rivard, Claire; Wünsch-Filho, Victor; Mora, Ana M; Spector, Logan G; Clavel, Jacqueline

    2018-04-16

    The associations between childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and several factors related to early stimulation of the immune system, that is, farm residence and regular contacts with farm animals (livestock, poultry) or pets in early childhood, were investigated using data from 13 case-control studies participating in the Childhood Leukemia International Consortium. The sample included 7847 ALL cases and 11,667 controls aged 1-14 years. In all studies, the data were obtained from case and control parents using standardized questionnaires. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated by unconditional logistic regression adjusted for age, sex, study, maternal education, and maternal age. Contact with livestock in the first year of life was inversely associated with ALL (OR = 0.65, 95% CI: 0.50, 0.85). Inverse associations were also observed for contact with dogs (OR = 0.92, 95% CI: 0.86, 0.99) and cats (OR = 0.87, 95% CI: 0.80, 0.94) in the first year of life. There was no evidence of a significant association with farm residence in the first year of life. The findings of these large pooled and meta-analyses add additional evidence to the hypothesis that regular contact with animals in early childhood is inversely associated with childhood ALL occurrence which is consistent with Greaves' delayed infection hypothesis. © 2018 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Nuclear techniques in animal production and health. Proceedings series. Proceedings of an international symposium on nuclear techniques in animal production and health, Vienna, Austria, February 2--6, 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-01-01

    Fifty-three papers were presented on the use of nuclear techniques in the following areas of research: minerals in soil- plant- animal relations; trace elements in animal nutrition; calcium, phosphorus, and magnesium metabolism; protein and nitrogen metabolism in ruminants and non-ruminants; control of parasitic infections; and animal endocrinology. (HLW)

  13. Technical, economic and policy considerations on marker-assisted selection in crops: lessons from the experience at an international agricultural research centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    William, H.M.; Warburton, M.; Morris, M.; Hoisington, D.A.

    2007-01-01

    Molecular markers and related technologies have been used extensively in genetic characterization and identification of loci controlling traits of economic importance in many crop species. However, the application of such tools for crop improvement has not been extensive, at least in the public sector. Although there are clear advantages in using molecular markers as tools for indirect selection of traits of importance, available examples indicate that their use is restricted to traits with monogenic inheritance or when the inheritance is conditioned by a few genes with large effects. Another important limitation of large-scale marker applications is the cost involved in marker assays, which may be beyond the capacities of many public plant breeding enterprises. For an effective marker-assisted selection (MAS) activity to facilitate ongoing crop improvement programmes, especially in the context of the developing countries, laboratories with adequate capacity and adequately trained scientific personnel as well as operational resources are required. Although recent technological advances such as single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and associated assay protocols are likely to reduce assay costs significantly, for many of these operations, assay platforms with significant capital investments including computational capacity are required. Coupled with these limitations, private sector domination of biotechnology research with proprietary rights to important products and processes with immediate benefits to developing countries may further constrain the benefits these technologies may offer to resource-poor farmers. Policy-makers in different national programmes and international development and research agencies have a responsibility to sustain and augment the capacity of national public agricultural research organizations to ensure that biotechnology tools and processes are infused appropriately into national research efforts. They must also ensure that any

  14. Worldwide risks of animal diseases: introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, J E

    2006-01-01

    Animal diseases impact food supplies, trade and commerce, and human health and well-being in every part of the world. Outbreaks draw the attention of those in agriculture, regulatory agencies, and government, as well as the general public. This was demonstrated by the 2000-2001 foot and mouth disease (FMD) outbreaks that occurred in Europe, South America, Asia and Africa and by the recent increased occurrence of emerging diseases transmitted from animals to humans. Examples of these emerging zoonotic diseases are highly pathogenic avian influenza, bovine spongiform encephalopathy, West Nile virus and severe acute respiratory syndrome. There is also the risk of well-known and preventable zoonotic diseases, such as rabies, brucellosis, leishmaniasis, and echinococcosis/hydatidosis, in certain countries; these diseases have a high morbidity with the potential for a very high mortality. Animal agriculturalists should have a global disease awareness of disease risks and develop plans of action to deal with them; in order to better respond to these diseases, they should develop the skills and competencies in politics, media interactions, and community engagement. This issue of Veterinaria Italiana presents information on the risk of animal diseases; their impact on animals and humans at the international, national, industry, and societal levels; and the responses to them. In addition, specific information is provided on national and international disease monitoring, surveillance and reporting, the risk of spread of disease by bioterrorism and on import risk analysis.

  15. Harmonisation of agricultural accounting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslav Sedláček

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the accounting of the biological assets. There are described two approaches: Czech and international. The International Accounting Standards are emulative of more authentic presentment of economic processes in agricultural activities than Czech accounting legislation. From the comparison the both approaches accrued some differences, which can influent the financial statements of enterprises. The causation of main difference appears an application of fair value, which is prescribed for biological assets in international accounting standards. In international accounting standards is preferred principle of fair and true view, while in Czech accounting is preferred prudence principle.

  16. Agriculture in the plan change to build peace. An internal critique El agro en el plan Cambio para construir la paz. Una crítica interna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rivera Carlos Fernando

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the nature, bases, and coherence requirements of a plan, in order to specify the methodological criteria of its internal critique of the agricultural chapter. The examination of its diagnosis leads to a different diagnosis, which is inferred by the objective of "integrating the rural sector": the persistence of the agrarian problem, expressed in a bimodal structure, polarized into 'the economic' and 'the social'. The plan's objective reveals a long-term vision: to
    contribute to the solution of the agrarian problem. Thus, the policies differentiate between the advanced entrepreneurial and peasant sectors, for which it designs different strategies which assign different roles for the state: to facilitate socioeconomic processes for the former, and to promote rural development for the latter. The article shows that the Plan maintains internal coherence, and illustrates its limitations
    due to the institutional environment, which is manifested in its
    design and in the possibilities for its execution. It concludes that the most important policies are the weakest, and that rural developmerlt is not only a problem of social design, but above all of the mentality and commitment of society on all levels.Este articulo expone la naturaleza, fundamentos y requerimientos de coherencia de un plan para precisar los criterios metodologicos de su critica interna al capitulo agropecuario. El examen de diagnostico lleva a un diagnostico diferente, que se infiere del objetivo de "integrar al sector rural" la persistencia del problema agrario en el pais, expresada en un estructura bimodal, polarizada en lo economico y en lo social. El objetivo del plan revela una vision de largo plazo: contribuir a resolver el problema agrario. Adi, las politicas diferencian entre sector empresarial avanzado y campesino, para los cuales diseña estrategias distintan que asignan un papel distinto al Estado: facilitar procesos socio-economicos para

  17. Agricultural experts’ attitude towards precision agriculture: Evidence from Guilan Agricultural Organization, Northern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Sadegh Allahyari

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Identifying factors that influence the attitudes of agricultural experts regarding precision agriculture plays an important role in developing, promoting and establishing precision agriculture. The aim of this study was to identify factors affecting the attitudes of agricultural experts regarding the implementation of precision agriculture. A descriptive research design was employed as the research method. A research-made questionnaire was used to examine the agricultural experts’ attitude toward precision agriculture. Internal consistency was demonstrated with a coefficient alpha of 0.87, and the content and face validity of the instrument was confirmed by a panel of experts. The results show that technical, economic and accessibility factors accounted for 55% of the changes in attitudes towards precision agriculture. The findings revealed that there were no significant differences between participants in terms of gender, field of study, extension education, age, experience, organizational position and attitudes, while education levels had a significant effect on the respondent’s attitudes.

  18. Atoms in the service of agriculture: 25 years of co-operation of the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This film displays joint FAO/IAEA co-operation in developing nuclear technology to improve methods in agriculture. The goal of these methods is to help end world hunger without destroying the environment. Such technology includes: monitoring water levels beneath the earth's surface, improving plant varieties, enriching the soil, preserving foods, eradicating harmful insects, etc., by using isotopes and radiation techniques

  19. Atoms in the service of agriculture: 25 years of co-operation of the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1990-12-31

    This film displays joint FAO/IAEA co-operation in developing nuclear technology to improve methods in agriculture. The goal of these methods is to help end world hunger without destroying the environment. Such technology includes: monitoring water levels beneath the earth`s surface, improving plant varieties, enriching the soil, preserving foods, eradicating harmful insects, etc., by using isotopes and radiation techniques

  20. Harmonisation of agricultural accounting

    OpenAIRE

    Jaroslav Sedláček

    2007-01-01

    This paper deals with the accounting of the biological assets. There are described two approaches: Czech and international. The International Accounting Standards are emulative of more authentic presentment of economic processes in agricultural activities than Czech accounting legislation. From the comparison the both approaches accrued some differences, which can influent the financial statements of enterprises. The causation of main difference appears an application of fair value, which is ...

  1. Spanish for Agricultural Purposes: The Basic Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainous, Bruce H.; And Others

    This manual, part of a one-semester course for North American agriculture specialists preparing to work in Latin America, is built around specimens of agricultural writing in Spanish. The manual contains 12 lessons on general agriculture, sugar production, grain production, geography, forestry, animal husbandry, soy bean production, agricultural…

  2. Control of agricultural pests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1961-01-01

    The methods of using isotopes and radiation sources in agricultural entomology were discussed by experts from 11 countries at a scientific symposium held by the International Atomic Energy Agency in Bombay from 5-9 December 1960. The scientists reviewed the techniques which have already been introduced, exchanged information on the results obtained and discussed the possibilities of further research in new directions

  3. 9 CFR 117.3 - Admittance of animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Admittance of animals. 117.3 Section 117.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS ANIMALS AT LICENSED...

  4. 9 CFR 2.129 - Confiscation and destruction of animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Confiscation and destruction of animals. 2.129 Section 2.129 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Miscellaneous § 2.129 Confiscation and destruction of...

  5. 9 CFR 311.29 - Unborn and stillborn animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Unborn and stillborn animals. 311.29 Section 311.29 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Unborn and stillborn animals. All unborn and stillborn animals shall be condemned and no hide or skin...

  6. 9 CFR 50.7 - Destruction of animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Destruction of animals. 50.7 Section 50.7 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COOPERATIVE CONTROL AND ERADICATION OF LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF...

  7. 9 CFR 51.29 - Destruction of animals; time limit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Destruction of animals; time limit. 51.29 Section 51.29 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COOPERATIVE CONTROL AND ERADICATION OF LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED...

  8. 9 CFR 117.5 - Segregation of animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Segregation of animals. 117.5 Section 117.5 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS ANIMALS AT LICENSED...

  9. 9 CFR 117.6 - Removal of animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Removal of animals. 117.6 Section 117.6 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS ANIMALS AT LICENSED ESTABLISHMENTS...

  10. Animal Telemetry Network (ATN)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data (updated daily) are from the Animal Telemetry Network (ATN) program. Begun as one of the field projects in the international Census of Marine Life, the...

  11. Research Frontiers of Agricultural Economics and Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang L.X.

    2004-01-01

    @@ Introduction The focus of research on Agricultural Economics and Management (AEM) has been switching from developed countries to developing countries. In important international journals on AEM such as "American Journal of Agricultural Economics" and "Agricultural Economics", the research objectives mainly focus on AEM problems in developing countries, e.g. the effects of globalization and liberalization on agricultural production in developing countries, and problems in agricultural resources and environmental protections in developing countries.

  12. An evaluation of the International Society for Animal Genetics recommended parentage and identification panel for the domestic pigeon (Columba livia domestica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Groot, M; van Haeringen, W A

    2017-08-01

    In this study, the International Society for Animal Genetics (ISAG) recommended panel for the identification of the domestic pigeon (Columba livia domestica) is characterized based on commonly used statistical parameters. The marker panel is based on 16 short tandem repeat (STR) loci (PIGN15, PIGN10, PIGN57, PIGN26, CliμD16, CliμD19, PIGN12, CliμD17, CliμT17, PIGN04, CliμD01, CliμD11, CliμD35, CliμT02, CliμT13, CliμT43). The alleles of the 16 loci consist of a mixture of tri-, tetra-, penta- and hexameric repeat patterns. A sex determination marker was included in the multiplex for quality control. The repeat sequence of the PIGN markers was previously unpublished and therefore sequenced to reveal the sequence pattern. In total, 1421 pigeons were genotyped on 16 STR loci to generate allele frequency data for each locus. For all 16 markers combined, a PE1 (combined non-exclusion probability, first parent) of 0.9986 and PE2 (combined non-exclusion probability, second parent) of >0.9999 was observed. Comparing the alleged father and mother, a PE value of >0.9999 was observed. Two of the markers, CliμD19 and PIGN12, were found to have relatively high Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and F(null) values. Therefore these markers may be considered to be replaced by other STRs. Another point of discussion may be to add a gender identification marker to the recommended ISAG panel. Not only can this serve as an extra identification marker, but this can also confirm the sex of a sample, because it is challenging to determine the sex based on phenotypical characteristics, especially for chicks. In conclusion, the set of 16 STR markers can be used in routine parentage verification and the identification of individuals. © 2017 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  13. Entomophagy and space agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, N.; Ishikawa, Y.; Takaoki, M.; Yamashita, M.; Nakayama, S.; Kiguchi, K.; Kok, R.; Wada, H.; Mitsuhashi, J.; Space Agriculture Task Force, J.

    Supplying food for human occupants remains one of the primary issues in engineering space habitation Evidently for long-term occupation on a distant planet it is necessary to start agriculture on site Historically humans have consumed a variety of animals and it is required to fill our nutritional need when they live in space Among many candidate group and species of animal to breed in space agriculture insects are of great interest since they have a number of advantages over mammals and other vertebrates or invertebrates About 70-75 of animal species is insects and they play an important role in materials recycle loop of terrestrial biosphere at their various niche For space agriculture we propose several insect species such as the silkworm Bombyx mori the drugstore beetle Stegobium paniceum and the termite Macrotermes subhyalinus Among many advantages these insects do not compete with human in terms of food resources but convert inedible biomass or waste into an edible food source for human The silkworm has been domesticated since 5 000 years ago in China Silk moth has lost capability of flying after its domestication history This feature is advantageous in control of their breeding Silkworm larvae eat specifically mulberry leaves and metamorphose in their cocoon Silk fiber obtained from cocoon can be used to manufacture textile Farming system of the drugstore beetle has been well established Both the drugstore beetle and the termite are capable to convert cellulose or other inedible biomass

  14. Textbook animal breeding : animal breeding andgenetics for BSc students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oldenbroek, Kor; Waaij, van der Liesbeth

    2014-01-01

    This textbook contains teaching material on animal breeding and genetics for BSc students. The text book started as an initiative of the Dutch Universities for Applied (Agricultural) Sciences. The textbook is made available by the Animal Breeding and Genomics Centre (ABGC) of Wageningen UR

  15. Agriculture: About EPA's National Agriculture Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's National Agriculture Center (Ag Center), with the support of the United States Department of Agriculture, serves growers, livestock producers, other agribusinesses, and agricultural information/education providers.

  16. Animal research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, I.A.S.; Sandøe, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the ethical issues in animal research using a combined approach of ethical theory and analysis of scientific findings with bearing on the ethical analysis. The article opens with a general discussion of the moral acceptability of animal use in research. The use of animals...... in research is analyzed from the viewpoint of three distinct ethical approaches: contractarianism, utilitarianism, and animal rights view. On a contractarian view, research on animals is only an ethical issue to the extent that other humans as parties to the social contract care about how research animals...... are faring. From the utilitarian perspective, the use of sentient animals in research that may harm them is an ethical issue, but harm done to animals can be balanced by benefit generated for humans and other animals. The animal rights view, when thoroughgoing, is abolitionist as regards the use of animals...

  17. The role of the International Society for Applied Ethology (ISAE) in the global development of animal welfare science and its relationship with the OIE; strength through partnership

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this presentation is to introduce the ISAE and to highlight members’ roles in the development and implementation of OIE’s animal welfare standards. Animal welfare science is a young discipline. Originally, welfare science was heavily focused on animal behavior (ethology), but it is ...

  18. Animal health organizations: roles to mitigate the impact of ecologic change on animal health in the tropics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acord, Bobby R; Walton, Thomas E

    2004-10-01

    Production of livestock across North and South America is extensive. The opportunities for production, commerce, and thriving economies related to animal agriculture are balanced against the devastating threats of disease. Commitment by livestock and poultry producers in exporting countries to production methods, herd health management, and biosecurity in their operations must be coupled with an animal health and marketing infrastructure that allows the industries to thrive and offers assurances to trading partners that their livestock industries will not be jeopardized. National and international animal health organizations play a key role in providing this infrastructure to the industries that they serve. The incentive for the successful World agricultural production economies to provide direction and support for improving animal health and conveying principles for competitive and safe production to lesser developed nations is the assurance that the expanding economies of these nations offer an eager and hungry market for the products of the other industries of an export-dependent economy. The World Trade Organization (WTO) was established after the Uruguay Round of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT). The WTO provides the permanent international multilateral institutional framework for implementing dispute resolution agreements and the agreement on the application of sanitary and phytosanitary (SPS) measures. The SPS agreements allow for the protection of animal and plant health.

  19. Nutrient requirements of laboratory animals

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Subcommittee on Laboratory Animal Nutrition; Committee on Animal Nutrition; Board on Agriculture, National Research Council; Institute for Laboratory Animal Research; National Research Council; National Academy of Sciences

    1995-01-01

    ... Animal Nutrition Committee on Animal Nutrition Board on Agriculture National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1995 i Copyrightline as original; publication to the this true are version of breaks print Page files. the use Please typesetting inserted. original accidentally from been not have book, may paper errors the original typog...

  20. The importance and implication of genetic resources in agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milošević Mirjana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The maintenance and preservation of biodiversity is going through the processes of conservation and restoration of disturbed ecosystems and habitats, as well as the preservation and recovery of species. Genetic diversity means the variety and total number of genes contained in plant and animal species and microorganisms. Genetic diversity is the basic unit of diversity, which is responsible for differences between individuals, populations and species. Genetic diversity is very important for the preservation of biodiversity and can be saved in several ways. Part of the germplasm is maintained through breeding programs as they evaluate germplasm stored and used as a source of needed diversity. The Convention on Biological Diversity is one of the most important international agreements to protect nature and conserve genetic resources. International treaties governing the use of genetic resources for food and agriculture are a way to ensure the conservation and sustainable use of plant resources for food and agriculture, and to regulate the rights of farmers.

  1. Emerging Agricultural Biotechnologies for Sustainable Agriculture and Food Security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Jennifer A; Gipmans, Martijn; Hurst, Susan; Layton, Raymond; Nehra, Narender; Pickett, John; Shah, Dilip M; Souza, Thiago Lívio P O; Tripathi, Leena

    2016-01-20

    As global populations continue to increase, agricultural productivity will be challenged to keep pace without overtaxing important environmental resources. A dynamic and integrated approach will be required to solve global food insecurity and position agriculture on a trajectory toward sustainability. Genetically modified (GM) crops enhanced through modern biotechnology represent an important set of tools that can promote sustainable agriculture and improve food security. Several emerging biotechnology approaches were discussed in a recent symposium organized at the 13th IUPAC International Congress of Pesticide Chemistry meeting in San Francisco, CA, USA. This paper summarizes the innovative research and several of the new and emerging technologies within the field of agricultural biotechnology that were presented during the symposium. This discussion highlights how agricultural biotechnology fits within the context of sustainable agriculture and improved food security and can be used in support of further development and adoption of beneficial GM crops.

  2. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 29

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-12-01

    This issue of the newsletter outlines activities and coordinated research programmes in the areas of animal production and animal health for the year 1999 by the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in food and agriculture and FAO/IAEA Agriculture and Biotechnology Laboratory, Seibersdorf

  3. The roots of organic agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Paull, John

    2012-01-01

    It was concern about the replacement of traditional organic fertilizers by the then new chemical fertilizers that precipitated the early stirrings of disquiet about the prevailing direction of agriculture and which has grown into today’s organic agriculture movement. Unease about the issue of synthetic fertilizers preceded the current era of concerns about manufactured nanomaterials in food and farming, genetically modified organisms (GMOs), antibiotic-fattened farm animals, and synthetic pes...

  4. Agriculture applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastidas O, G.; Obando D, R.; Alvarez F, A.

    1989-01-01

    Since its beginnings, the Agricultural Area had a selected research team involved in the development of different agricultural techniques. Currently, there are two main branches engaged in the solution of agricultural problems: Soil fertility and induced mutations. Soil fertility: Within this branch, studies on soil nutrients and availability of water and light resources, have been made by using isotope methods. In the near future studies on nitrogen and potassium content in potato, rice and wheat plantations will be held. Induced mutations: The main objective of this team is to obtain through radioinduced mutations, as well as in vitro growth, improved rice and other cereal seeds to be used under hostile environmental conditions. The further goal will be to develop new genotypes straight from the mutants or by utilization of this material as breeding materials in interchange programs

  5. International

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    This rubric reports on 10 short notes about international economical facts about nuclear power: Electricite de France (EdF) and its assistance and management contracts with Eastern Europe countries (Poland, Hungary, Bulgaria); Transnuclear Inc. company (a 100% Cogema daughter company) acquired the US Vectra Technologies company; the construction of the Khumo nuclear power plant in Northern Korea plays in favour of the reconciliation between Northern and Southern Korea; the delivery of two VVER 1000 Russian reactors to China; the enforcement of the cooperation agreement between Euratom and Argentina; Japan requested for the financing of a Russian fast breeder reactor; Russia has planned to sell a floating barge-type nuclear power plant to Indonesia; the control of the Swedish reactor vessels of Sydkraft AB company committed to Tractebel (Belgium); the renewal of the nuclear cooperation agreement between Swiss and USA; the call for bids from the Turkish TEAS electric power company for the building of the Akkuyu nuclear power plant answered by three candidates: Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL), Westinghouse (US) and the French-German NPI company. (J.S.)

  6. Agricultural sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ainul Hayati Daud; Hazmimi Kasim

    2010-01-01

    The applications of nuclear technology in agriculture sector cover the use of the technology at every aspects of agricultural activity, starting from the seed to harvesting as well as the management of plantations itself. In this sector, a total of 55 entities comprising 17 public agencies and 38 private companies were selected for the study. Almost all, 91 % of them are located in Peninsular Malaysia; the rest operates in Sabah and Sarawak. The findings of the study in the public agencies and private companies are presented in the next sections. (author)

  7. Agricultural methanization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    After having briefly outlined the interest of the development of methanization of agricultural by-products in the context of struggle against climate change, and noticed that France is only now developing this sector as some other countries already did, this publication describes the methanization process also called anaerobic digestion, which produces a digestate and biogas. Advantages for the agriculture sector are outlined, as well as drawbacks and recommendations (required specific technical abilities, an attention to the use of energetic crops, an improved economic balance which still depends on public subsidies, competition in the field of waste processing). Actions undertaken by the ADEME are briefly evoked

  8. 美国和加拿大有机农业及国际等效互认的意义%Organic Agriculture Development in USA and Canada and the Significance of International Equivalency Recognition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    解卫华; 张纪兵; 汪云岗

    2011-01-01

    The organic agriculture has been booming since about 30 years ago in the world. USA and Canada have both acted as one of the countries developed organic agriculture earliest. This paper introduces the brief situation of production development, policy and laws/regulations, supervision system and research in organic agriculture in USA and Canada. The USA-Canada Organic Equivalency Agreement is introduced and analyzed on the meaningfulness to the international equivalency recognition. This paper indicates the international multiple equivalency recognition will benefit the decrease of technical barrier in commerce, which is significant important to the healthy and orderly development of global organic agriculture.%有机农业于近30年在全球兴起并快速发展,美国和加拿大都是有机农业发展较早的国家之一.主要介绍了美国和加拿大两国的有机农业在产业发展、政策法规、监管体系、研究服务等方面的概况,介绍并分析了美国-加拿大有机等效协议对国际多边互认的借鉴意义,指出有机农业标准法规的国际多边互认有利于减少贸易技术壁垒,对全球有机产业的健康有序发展具有重要意义.

  9. Poultry Houses, WI Livestock Consortium Livestock Premises; confidentiality protected by law; use for animal health emergencies only; some aggregated county data, Published in 2009, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Wisconsin Department of Agriculture, Trade & Consumer Protection.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — Poultry Houses dataset current as of 2009. WI Livestock Consortium Livestock Premises; confidentiality protected by law; use for animal health emergencies only; some...

  10. Animal Bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild animals usually avoid people. They might attack, however, if they feel threatened, are sick, or are protecting their ... or territory. Attacks by pets are more common. Animal bites rarely are life-threatening, but if they ...

  11. 7 CFR 1540.44 - Submission of recommendations by the Secretary of Agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Submission of recommendations by the Secretary of Agriculture. 1540.44 Section 1540.44 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOREIGN AGRICULTURAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE INTERNATIONAL AGRICULTURAL TRADE Emergency Relief...

  12. 7 CFR 1540.24 - Determination of the Secretary of Agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Determination of the Secretary of Agriculture. 1540.24 Section 1540.24 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOREIGN AGRICULTURAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE INTERNATIONAL AGRICULTURAL TRADE Emergency Relief From Certain...

  13. In memoriam:Jean Blancou, DVM, 1936-2010. World authority on rabies, historian and former Director General of the World Organisation for Animal Health (Office International des Épizooties: OIE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anon.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Chevalier de la Légion d’honneurChevalier de l’Ordre national du mérite agricoleCommandeur de l’Ordre national du mérite agricoleCorresponding member of the Argentinean Academy of Agronomy and Veterinary Medicine Docteur honoris causa, Liege University (Belgium Foreign member of the Royal Belgian Academy of Agriculture Foreign member of the Russian Academy of Agronomic Sciences Honorary Director General of the OIEHonorary Member of the British Veterinary AssociationMédaille d’honneur, CNEVAMember and previous President of the French Veterinary Academy Member of the Academy of Sciences of Overseas TerritoriesPrix Trasbot, Académie vétérinaire de France, 1980Vice President of the Société française d’histoire de la médecine et des sciences vétérinairese Jean-Marie Blancou was born in Bangui on 28 August 1936 and passed away in Paris on 10 November 2010 at the age of 74. After studying at the Pierre de Fermat Lycée in Toulouse, Jean Blancou graduated from the Toulouse Veterinary School in 1960. He continued his studies in tropical veterinary medicine in Paris until 1963, extending his knowledge of immunology, microbiology, biochemistry and zoology, at the Institut Pasteur. He obtained his doctorate in biological sciences at the University of Nancy in 1982.Jean Blancou commenced his career as technical adviser to the Veterinary Services of Ethiopia where he directed a campaign against rinderpest in the south of the county. From 1965 to 1967 he was deputy director of the national veterinary laboratory in Niamey where he was responsible for the diagnosis of animal diseases and the production of veterinary vaccines.In 1967, he moved to the central livestock laboratory in Madagascar, where he commenced research on the diagnosis and control of dermatophilosis, bovine tuberculosis and other bacterial and parasitic diseases.In August 1968 he married Geneviève Orue.In 1975 he was appointed as head of the national veterinary

  14. Sustainable Improvement of Animal Production and Health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odongo, N.E.; Garcia, M.; Viljoen, G.J.

    2010-01-01

    The world's poorest people, some one billion living mostly in Africa and Asia, depend on livestock for their day-to-day livelihood. To reduce poverty, fight hunger and ensure global food security, there is an urgent need to increase livestock production in sustainable ways. However, livestock production in developing countries is constrained by low genetic potential of the animals, poor nutrition and husbandry practices and infectious diseases. Nuclear techniques, when applied in conjunction with conventional methods, can identify constraints to livestock productivity as well as interventions that lead to their reduction or elimination in ways that are economically and socially acceptable. The challenge is how best to exploit these techniques for solving problems faced by livestock keepers within the many agricultural production systems that exist in developing countries and demonstrating their advantages to owners, local communities and government authorities. This publication is a compilation of the contributions emanating from an international Symposium on Sustainable Improvement of Animal Production and Health organised by the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture in cooperation with the Animal Production and Health Division of FAO. It provides invaluable information not only on how nuclear and related techniques can be used to support sustainable livestock production systems, but also about the constraints and opportunities for using these techniques in developing countries; it also attempts to identify specific research needs and gaps and new options for using these techniques for solving established and emerging problems. As such, it is hoped that the information presented and suggestions made will provide valuable guidance to scientists in both the public and private sectors as well as to government and institutional policy and decision makers. The Symposium comprised a plenary session and four thematic sessions, covering (i

  15. Sustainable Improvement of Animal Production and Health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odongo, N E; Garcia, M; Viljoen, G J [Animal Production and Health Subprogramme, Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, Department of Nuclear Sciences and Applications, International Atomic Agency, Vienna (Austria)

    2010-07-01

    The world's poorest people, some one billion living mostly in Africa and Asia, depend on livestock for their day-to-day livelihood. To reduce poverty, fight hunger and ensure global food security, there is an urgent need to increase livestock production in sustainable ways. However, livestock production in developing countries is constrained by low genetic potential of the animals, poor nutrition and husbandry practices and infectious diseases. Nuclear techniques, when applied in conjunction with conventional methods, can identify constraints to livestock productivity as well as interventions that lead to their reduction or elimination in ways that are economically and socially acceptable. The challenge is how best to exploit these techniques for solving problems faced by livestock keepers within the many agricultural production systems that exist in developing countries and demonstrating their advantages to owners, local communities and government authorities. This publication is a compilation of the contributions emanating from an international Symposium on Sustainable Improvement of Animal Production and Health organised by the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture in cooperation with the Animal Production and Health Division of FAO. It provides invaluable information not only on how nuclear and related techniques can be used to support sustainable livestock production systems, but also about the constraints and opportunities for using these techniques in developing countries; it also attempts to identify specific research needs and gaps and new options for using these techniques for solving established and emerging problems. As such, it is hoped that the information presented and suggestions made will provide valuable guidance to scientists in both the public and private sectors as well as to government and institutional policy and decision makers. The Symposium comprised a plenary session and four thematic sessions, covering (i

  16. Animal experimentation

    OpenAIRE

    Laz, Alak; Cholakova, Tanya Stefanova; Vrablova, Sofia; Arshad, Naverawaheed

    2016-01-01

    Animal experimentation is a crucial part of medical science. One of the ways to define it is any scientific experiment conducted for research purposes that cause any kind of pain or suffering to animals. Over the years, the new discovered drugs or treatments are first applied on animals to test their positive outcomes to be later used by humans. There is a debate about violating ethical considerations by exploiting animals for human benefits. However, different ethical theories have been made...

  17. Animal models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gøtze, Jens Peter; Krentz, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    In this issue of Cardiovascular Endocrinology, we are proud to present a broad and dedicated spectrum of reviews on animal models in cardiovascular disease. The reviews cover most aspects of animal models in science from basic differences and similarities between small animals and the human...

  18. Animal Deliberation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driessen, C.P.G.

    2014-01-01

    While much has been written on environmental politics on the one hand, and animal ethics and welfare on the other, animal politics, as the interface of the two, is underexamined. There are key political implications in the increase of animal protection laws, the rights of nature, and political

  19. Analysis of international and European policy instruments: pollution swapping . Task 2 Service contract "Integrated measures in agriculture to reduce ammonia emissions"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oenema, O.; Velthof, G.L.

    2007-01-01

    This Report describes the results of Task 2 ‘Analysis of International and European policy instruments’. The aim of this task is to analyze the existing International and European policy instruments aiming at reducing emissions of ammonia, nitrous oxide and methane to the atmosphere and nitrate to

  20. Recent progress and future directions for reduction, refinement, and replacement of animal use in veterinary vaccine potency and safety testing: a report from the 2010 NICEATM-ICCVAM International Vaccine Workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, W S; Kulpa-Eddy, J; Brown, K; Srinivas, G; McFarland, R

    2012-01-01

    Veterinary vaccines contribute to improved animal and human health and welfare by preventing infectious diseases. However, testing necessary to ensure vaccine effectiveness and safety can involve large numbers of animals and significant pain and distress. NICEATM and ICCVAM recently convened an international workshop to review the state of the science of human and veterinary vaccine potency and safety testing, and to identify priority activities to advance new and improved methods that can further reduce, refine and replace animal use. Rabies, Clostridium sp., and Leptospira sp. vaccines were identified as the highest priorities, while tests requiring live viruses and bacteria hazardous to laboratory workers, livestock, pets, and wildlife were also considered high priorities. Priority research, development and validation activities to address critical knowledge and data gaps were identified, including opportunities to apply new science and technology. Enhanced international harmonization and cooperation and closer collaborations between human and veterinary researchers were recommended to expedite progress. Implementation of the workshop recommendations is expected to advance new methods for vaccine testing that will benefit animal welfare and ensure continued and improved protection of human and animal health.

  1. Agriculture products as source of radionuclides and some monitoring principles of agriculture near nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleksakhin, R.M.; Korneev, N.A.; Panteleev, L.I.; Shukhovtsev, B.I.

    1985-01-01

    Migration of radionuclides into agriculture products in regions adjoining the nuclear facilities depends on a large number of factors. Among them is the complex of ecological conditions: meteorological factors, type of soils etc., as well as biological peculiarities of agriculture plants and animals. It is possible to control the radionuclide content administered to man's organism with agriculture products changing large branches of agriculture and varying within the range of seprate branches of industry, taking into account the most effective ways of radionuclide pathways

  2. Agricultural transportation fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    The recommendations on the title subject are focused on the question whether advantages and disadvantages of agricultural fuels compared to fossil fuels justify the Dutch policy promotion of the use of agricultural products as basic materials for agricultural fuels. Attention is paid to energetic, environmental and economical aspects of both fuel types. Four options to apply agricultural transportation fuels are discussed: (1) 10% bio-ethanol in euro-unleaded gasoline for engines of passenger cars, equipped with a three-way catalyst; (2) the substitution of 15% methyl tertiair butyl ether (MTBE) by ethyl tertiair butyl ether (ETBE) as a substituent for lead in unleaded super plus gasoline (Sp 98) for engines of passenger cars, equipped with a three-way catalyst; (3) 50% KME (rapeseed oil ester) in low-sulfur diesel (0.05%S D) for engines of vans without a catalyst; and (4) the substitution of 0.05% S D by bio-ethanol or KME for buses with fuel-adjusted engines, equipped with a catalyst. Also the substitution by liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), compressed natural gas (CNG) or E 95 was investigated in option four. Each of the options investigated can contribute to a reduction of the use of fossil energy and the environmental effects of the use of fossil fuels, although some environmental effects from agricultural fuels must be taken into consideration. It is recommended to seriously pay attention to the promotion of agricultural fuels, not only in the Netherlands, but also in an international context. Policy instruments to be used in the stimulation of the use of such fuels are the existing European Community subsidies on fallow lands, exemption of the European Community energy levy, and the use of tax differentiation. Large-scale demonstration projects must be started to quantify hazardous emissions and to solve still existing technical problems. 8 figs., 3 tabs., refs., 4 appendices

  3. AGRICULTURAL USES OF SEAWEEDS EXTRACTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Popescu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Marine bioactive substances extracted from seaweed are currently used in food, animal feed, as a raw material in the industry and have therapeutic applications. Most of the products based on marine algae are extracted from Brown algae Ascophyllum nodosum. The use of extracts of seaweed in agriculture is beneficial because the amount of chemical fertilizers and obtaining organic yield.

  4. Animals and ICE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Hemmen, J Leo; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob; Carr, Catherine E

    2016-01-01

    experimental and mathematical foundation, it is known that there is a low-frequency regime where the internal time difference (iTD) as perceived by the animal may well be 2-5 times higher than the external ITD, the interaural time difference, and that there is a frequency plateau over which the fraction i......TD/ITD is constant. There is also a high-frequency regime where the internal level (amplitude) difference iLD as perceived by the animal is much higher than the interaural level difference ILD measured externally between the two ears. The fundamental tympanic frequency segregates the two regimes. The present special...... issue devoted to "internally coupled ears" provides an overview of many aspects of ICE, be they acoustic, anatomical, auditory, mathematical, or neurobiological. A focus is on the hotly debated topic of what aspects of ICE animals actually exploit neuronally to localize a sound source....

  5. Agricultural Experiences as Correlates of Secondary School ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    info

    medicine, agricultural engineering, fishery, animal/livestock production, forestry among others. ..... implies poultry management, fishery production and cashew farming were related to ..... Manual for career decision, Self-efficacy and CDSE.

  6. Agricultural Education Curriculum Guide. Agricultural Production and Management I. Course No. 6811. Agricultural Production and Management II. Course No. 6812.

    Science.gov (United States)

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh.

    This document is designed for use by teachers of Agricultural Production and Management courses in North Carolina. It updates the competencies and content outlines from the previous guide. It lists core and optional competencies for two courses in seven areas as follows: leadership; supervised agricultural experience programs; animal science;…

  7. Agricultura brasileira: uma observação do sub-setor de mercado internoBrazilian agriculture: an observation of the sub-sector of the internal market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideharu Carlos Ikehara

    1981-11-01

    Full Text Available Análise do sub-setor agrícola de mercado interno, no período 1970/80. Os resultados mostraram que a oferta de culturas de consumo doméstico apresentou crescimento inferior à expansão da demanda de alimentos imposta pelo crescimento demográfico e aumento da renda per capita, com uma performance abaixo daquele observado durante a década de 60, em contraste com o extraordinário desempenho das culturas de mercado externo, consequência de um modelo de desenvolvimento agrícola com nítida direção a estímulos de bens agrícolas com cotação no mercado internacional, trazendo à tona o recrudescimento dos problemas de abastecimento e migração rural-urbam.Analysis of the agricultural subsetor of the internal market in the period 1970-80. The results showed that the supply of products for domestic consumption presented a growth inferior to the expansion of the demand for food imposed by the demographic growth and the rise in income per capita, with a performance lower than that observed during the decade of the 60s, in contrast to the extraordinary behavior of the products in the external market, wich was the consequence of a model for agricultural development with clear definition of stimuli for agricultural goods in the international market, briging into focus the problems of food supply and rural-urban migration.

  8. Animal-based agriculture, phosphorus management and water quality in Brazil: options for the future Produção animal, manejo de fósforo e qualidade da água no Brasil: opções para o futuro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francirose Shigaki

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Eutrophication has become a major threat to water quality in the U.S., Europe, and Australasia. In most cases, freshwater eutrophication is accelerated by increased inputs of phosphorus (P, of which agricultural runoff is now a major contributor, due to intensification of crop and animal production systems since the early 1990s'. Once little information is available on the impacts of Brazilian agriculture in water quality, recent changes in crop and animal production systems in Brazil were evaluated in the context of probable implications of the fate of P in agriculture. Between 1993 and 2003, there was 33% increase in the number of housed animals (i.e., beef, dairy cows, swine, and poultry, most in the South Region (i.e., Paraná, Rio Grande do Sul, and Santa Catarina States, where 43 and 49% of Brazil's swine and poultry production is located, respectively. Although grazing-based beef production is the major animal production system in Brazil, it is an extensive system, where manure is deposited over grazed pastures; confined swine and poultry are intensive systems, producing large amounts of manure in small areas, which can be considered a manageable resource. This discussion will focus on swine and poultry farming. Based on average swine (100 kg and poultry weights (1.3 kg, daily manure production (4.90 and 0.055 kg per swine and poultry animal unit, respectively, and manure P content (40 and 24 g kg-1 for swine and poultry, respectively, an estimated 2.5 million tones of P in swine and poultry manure were produced in 2003. Mostly in the South and Southeast regions of Brazil (62%, which represent only 18% of the country's land area. In the context of crop P requirements, there was 2.6 times more P produced in manure (1.08 million tones than applied as fertilizer (0.42 million tonnes in South Brazil in 2003. If it is assumed that fertilizer P use represents P added to meet crop needs and accounts for P sorbed by soil in unavailable forms each

  9. Animal and human influenzas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peiris, M; Yen, H-L

    2014-08-01

    Influenza type A viruses affect humans and other animals and cause significant morbidity, mortality and economic impact. Influenza A viruses are well adapted to cross species barriers and evade host immunity. Viruses that cause no clinical signs in wild aquatic birds may adapt in domestic poultry to become highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses which decimate poultry flocks. Viruses that cause asymptomatic infection in poultry (e.g. the recently emerged A/H7N9 virus) may cause severe zoonotic disease and pose a major pandemic threat. Pandemic influenza arises at unpredictable intervals from animal viruses and, in its global spread, outpaces current technologies for making vaccines against such novel viruses. Confronting the threat of influenza in humans and other animals is an excellent example of a task that requires a One Health approach. Changes in travel, trade in livestock and pets, changes in animal husbandry practices, wet markets and complex marketing chains all contribute to an increased risk of the emergence of novel influenza viruses with the ability to cross species barriers, leading to epizootics or pandemics. Coordinated surveillance at the animal- human interface for pandemic preparedness, risk assessment, risk reduction and prevention at source requires coordinated action among practitioners in human and animal health and the environmental sciences. Implementation of One Health in the field can be challenging because of divergent short-term objectives. Successful implementation requires effort, mutual trust, respect and understanding to ensure that long-term goals are achieved without adverse impacts on agricultural production and food security.

  10. Study Guide for TCT in Agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sailors, Robert A.

    This study guide was specifically designed for individuals preparing to take the Georgia Teacher Certification Test (TCT) in agriculture. The agriculture test was developed by the National Evaluation Systems, Inc. and educators in Georgia. The test covers 13 subareas: (1) plant science; (2) crop management; (3) animal science; (4) livestock and…

  11. The surprisingly small but increasing role of international agricultural trade on the European Union’s dependence on mineral phosphorus fertiliser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesme, Thomas; Roques, Solène; Metson, Geneviève S.; Bennett, Elena M.

    2016-02-01

    Phosphorus (P) is subject to global management challenges due to its importance to both food security and water quality. The European Union (EU) has promoted policies to limit fertiliser over-application and protect water quality for more than 20 years, helping to reduce European P use. Over this time period, the EU has, however, become more reliant on imported agricultural products. These imported products require fertiliser to be used in distant countries to grow crops that will ultimately feed European people and livestock. As such, these imports represent a displacement of European P demand, possibly allowing Europe to decrease its apparent P footprint by moving P use to locations outside the EU. We investigated the effect of EU imports on the European P fertiliser footprint to better understand whether the EU’s decrease in fertiliser use over time resulted from P demand being ‘outsourced’ to other countries or whether it truly represented a decline in P demand. To do this, we quantified the ‘virtual P flow’ defined as the amount of mineral P fertiliser applied to agricultural soils in non-EU countries to support agricultural product imports to the EU. We found that the EU imported a virtual P flow of 0.55 Tg P/yr in 1995 that, surprisingly, decreased to 0.50 Tg P/yr in 2009. These results were contrary to our hypothesis that trade increases would be used to help the EU reduce its domestic P fertiliser use by outsourcing its P footprint abroad. Still, the contribution of virtual P flows to the total P footprint of the EU has increased by 40% from 1995 to 2009 due to a dramatic decrease in domestic P fertiliser use in Europe: in 1995, virtual P was equivalent to 32% of the P used as fertiliser domestically to support domestic consumption but jumped to 53% in 2009. Soybean and palm tree products from South America and South East Asia contributed most to the virtual P flow. These results demonstrate that, although policies in the EU have successfully

  12. Coupling movement and landscape ecology for animal conservation in production landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, Tim S; Driscoll, Don A

    2018-01-10

    Habitat conversion in production landscapes is among the greatest threats to biodiversity, not least because it can disrupt animal movement. Using the movement ecology framework, we review animal movement in production landscapes, including areas managed for agriculture and forestry. We consider internal and external drivers of altered animal movement and how this affects navigation and motion capacities and population dynamics. Conventional management approaches in fragmented landscapes focus on promoting connectivity using structural changes in the landscape. However, a movement ecology perspective emphasizes that manipulating the internal motivations or navigation capacity of animals represents untapped opportunities to improve movement and the effectiveness of structural connectivity investments. Integrating movement and landscape ecology opens new opportunities for conservation management in production landscapes. © 2018 The Authors.

  13. Improvement of animal production through research using radioisotopes and radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    High birth rates coupled with greater longevity continue to increase the.world's population, especially in the less developed countries. The prevention of undernutrition and ultimately starvation will only be averted by increased food production and more efficient use of that food. At the same time people who have largely subsisted upon plant food diets and whose standards of living are rising, want to increase the use of animal products in order to upgrade their diets. To provide this high quality food animal scientists must find ways of increasing the supply especially in the less developed countries. Since most of the available pasture lands are presently being fully utilized or overgrazed, improved efficiency of the present herds and use of agroindustrial wastes are the only methods left to increase production significantly. The use of radioisotopes and radiation in research are making major contributions to the understanding of the processes necessary to achieve better animal production. In order to provide a forum for exchange of information in this field, the FAO/IAEA Joint Division of Atomic Energy in Food and Agriculture organized an international symposium, held in Vienna, from 2?6 February, on the use of nuclear techniques in animal production. Among the topics discussed at the symposium were: Soil-plant-animal relations regarding minerals, Trace elements in animal nutrition, Calcium, phosphorus and magnesium metabolism, Protein (nitrogen) metabolism - ruminants Protein (nitrogen) metabolism - non-ruminants Nuclear techniques in the control of parasitic infections Animal endocrinology with special emphasis on radioimmunoassays

  14. Improvement of animal production through research using radioisotopes and radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1976-07-01

    High birth rates coupled with greater longevity continue to increase the.world's population, especially in the less developed countries. The prevention of undernutrition and ultimately starvation will only be averted by increased food production and more efficient use of that food. At the same time people who have largely subsisted upon plant food diets and whose standards of living are rising, want to increase the use of animal products in order to upgrade their diets. To provide this high quality food animal scientists must find ways of increasing the supply especially in the less developed countries. Since most of the available pasture lands are presently being fully utilized or overgrazed, improved efficiency of the present herds and use of agroindustrial wastes are the only methods left to increase production significantly. The use of radioisotopes and radiation in research are making major contributions to the understanding of the processes necessary to achieve better animal production. In order to provide a forum for exchange of information in this field, the FAO/IAEA Joint Division of Atomic Energy in Food and Agriculture organized an international symposium, held in Vienna, from 2?6 February, on the use of nuclear techniques in animal production. Among the topics discussed at the symposium were: Soil-plant-animal relations regarding minerals, Trace elements in animal nutrition, Calcium, phosphorus and magnesium metabolism, Protein (nitrogen) metabolism - ruminants Protein (nitrogen) metabolism - non-ruminants Nuclear techniques in the control of parasitic infections Animal endocrinology with special emphasis on radioimmunoassays.

  15. International Data & Economic Analysis (IDEA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — International Data UN Food and Agriculture Organization, Food Price Index; IMF, Direction of Trade Statistics; Millennium Challenge Corporation; and World Bank,...

  16. Agroecology and Sustainable Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Caporali

    Full Text Available In the framework of the 16th National Meeting of the Italian Ecological Society (“Global Change, Ecological Diversity and Sustainability”, University of Tuscia, Viterbo, 19-22 September 2006, a symposium was devoted to “Agroecology and Sustainable Development”. A major goal of this symposium was to contribute to keeping the dialogue among the experts of the various disciplines alive. Sustainability of agriculture is a challenge for society world wide. Universities and society as a whole have a responsibility in re-examining current perception of nature, of the world and of human society in the light of natural resources depletion, increasing pollution and social inequalities. The urgency to address sustainability issues is increasingly being reflected in the manner in which institutions of higher education around the world are giving priority to the teaching, research and practice of sustainability. The University of Tuscia is involved in international initiatives concerning teaching and research in Agroecology and Sustainable Agriculture.

  17. Animated Asphalt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paldam, Camilla Skovbjerg

    2015-01-01

    to be understood? How does animation differ in different media? And in particular by focusing on and questioning the gender positions inherent in Mitchell’s theory. Animation has an erotic component of seduction and desire, and what pictures want, becomes for Mitchell, what women want. There is of course no simple...

  18. Animal magic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denny, Mark

    2017-11-01

    Writing a popular-science book about animal biophysics is hard work. Authors must read through hundreds of research papers as the subject is so multidisciplinary. On both counts of research and writing, Matin Durrani and Liz Kalaugher have done a good to excellent job with their book Furry Logic: the Physics of Animal Life

  19. Animal ethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmer, Clare; Sandøe, Peter

    2011-01-01

    This chapter describes and discusses different views concerning our duties towards animals. First, we explain why it is necessary to engage in thinking about animal ethics and why it is not enough to rely on feelings alone. Secondly, we present and discuss five different kinds of views about...

  20. ANIMAL code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindemuth, I.R.

    1979-01-01

    This report describes ANIMAL, a two-dimensional Eulerian magnetohydrodynamic computer code. ANIMAL's physical model also appears. Formulated are temporal and spatial finite-difference equations in a manner that facilitates implementation of the algorithm. Outlined are the functions of the algorithm's FORTRAN subroutines and variables

  1. Animal Detectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulvey, Bridget; Warnock, Carly

    2015-01-01

    During a two-week inquiry-based 5E learning cycle unit, children made observations and inferences to guide their explorations of animal traits and habitats (Bybee 2014). The children became "animal detectives" by studying a live-feed webcam and digital images of wolves in their natural habitat, reading books and online sources about…

  2. Conservation and sustainable use of animal genetic resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiemstra, S.J.

    2013-01-01

    Genetic diversity is the basis of agriculture. Adapting populations of domestic animals through breeding is impossible withot genetic diversity. Genetic diversity is part of the history of mankind and is essential for future improvements in agricultural production.

  3. Beliefs and Attitudes of Secondary Agriculture Teachers about Global Agriculture Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, Sara D.; Roberts, T. Grady; Harder, Amy

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the beliefs and attitudes of secondary agriculture teachers regarding global agricultural issues. A randomized national sample of 417 teachers were surveyed using a modified version of the International Agricultural Awareness and Understanding Survey (Wingenbach, Boyd, Lindner, Dick, Arispe, & Haba,…

  4. Animal experimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolar, Roman

    2006-01-01

    Millions of animals are used every year in often times extremely painful and distressing scientific procedures. Legislation of animal experimentation in modern societies is based on the supposition that this is ethically acceptable when certain more or less defined formal (e.g. logistical, technical) demands and ethical principles are met. The main parameters in this context correspond to the "3Rs" concept as defined by Russel and Burch in 1959, i.e. that all efforts to replace, reduce and refine experiments must be undertaken. The licensing of animal experiments normally requires an ethical evaluation process, often times undertaken by ethics committees. The serious problems in putting this idea into practice include inter alia unclear conditions and standards for ethical decisions, insufficient management of experiments undertaken for specific (e.g. regulatory) purposes, and conflicts of interest of ethics committees' members. There is an ongoing societal debate about ethical issues of animal use in science. Existing EU legislation on animal experimentation for cosmetics testing is an example of both the public will for setting clear limits to animal experiments and the need to further critically examine other fields and aspects of animal experimentation.

  5. Animal Transports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Ludrovcová

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose and Originality: The research is aimed to the animal transports issue, from two points of view – first is the animal cruelty and second is the policy and economic consideration. The goal is to acquaint the readers with the transports risks and its cruelty and evaluation of the economic, political aspects for he involved countries. The study is oriented on more points of view, what is rare in works with a similar theme. Method: This paper examines many issues and examinations from different authors and subsequently summarized the findings with authors own knowledge to one expanded unit. Results: Results proves, that livestock transports have negative impact on animal´s health, environment. Number of transported animals is rising every year. Society: Research familiarize the society with the animal transports, cruelty against animals during them, and influence of transports on some countries, their economy, policy. People get better informed and can form their own opinion on this topic. They may start acting, undertaking some steps to improve the present situation, what could help a lot to animals and environment. Limitations / further research: Future research could show progress and improvement of transports, quality of food supply and economics.

  6. Mapping farm animal genomes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čepica, Stanislav

    1998-01-01

    Roč. 43, č. 9 (1998), s. 386 ISSN 0044-4847. [Genetics Day-International conference on animal genetics /18./. 08.09.1998-10.09.1998, České Budějovice] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA523/96/0597 Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  7. Cuban agriculture and nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labrada Remon, A.; Perez Talavera, S.

    1997-01-01

    The application of nuclear techniques to agriculture emerged in Cuba at the end of the 60s. At the beginning only few researchers used these techniques for stimulating or mutational purposes. At the end of the 80 s systematic research began for its possible application to existing agricultural problems among which we can highlight radiomutable genesis and the determination of diagnostic damage of seeds by x-rays, plant nutrition and soil fertility, efficient water use, animal nutrition, reproduction and health as well as pest control

  8. Animal tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillette, E.L.

    1983-01-01

    There are few trained veterinary radiation oncologists and the expense of facilities has limited the extent to which this modality is used. In recent years, a few cobalt teletherapy units and megavoltage x-ray units have been employed in larger veterinary institutions. In addition, some radiation oncologists of human medical institutions are interested and willing to cooperate with veterinarians in the treatment of animal tumors. Carefully designed studies of the response of animal tumors to new modalities serve two valuable purposes. First, these studies may lead to improved tumor control in companion animals. Second, these studies may have important implications to the improvement of therapy of human tumors. Much remains to be learned of animal tumor biology so that appropriate model systems can be described for such studies. Many of the latter studies can be sponsored by agencies interested in the improvement of cancer management

  9. Mentalizing animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasperbauer, Tyler Joshua

    2017-01-01

    Ethicists have tended to treat the psychology of attributing mental states to animals as an entirely separate issue from the moral importance of animals’ mental states. In this paper I bring these two issues together. I argue for two theses, one descriptive and one normative. The descriptive thesis...... holds that ordinary human agents use what are generally called phenomenal mental states (e.g., pain and other emotions) to assign moral considerability to animals. I examine recent empirical research on the attribution of phenomenal states and agential states (e.g., memory and intelligence) to argue...... that phenomenal mental states are the primary factor, psychologically, for judging an animal to be morally considerable. I further argue that, given the role of phenomenal states in assigning moral considerability, certain theories in animal ethics will meet significant psychological resistance. The normative...

  10. Framing the Future with Bacteriophages in Agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svircev, Antonet; Roach, Dwayne; Castle, Alan

    2018-04-25

    The ability of agriculture to continually provide food to a growing world population is of crucial importance. Bacterial diseases of plants and animals have continually reduced production since the advent of crop cultivation and animal husbandry practices. Antibiotics have been used extensively to mitigate these losses. The rise of antimicrobial resistant (AMR) bacteria, however, together with consumers’ calls for antibiotic-free products, presents problems that threaten sustainable agriculture. Bacteriophages (phages) are proposed as bacterial population control alternatives to antibiotics. Their unique properties make them highly promising but challenging antimicrobials. The use of phages in agriculture also presents a number of unique challenges. This mini-review summarizes recent development and perspectives of phages used as antimicrobial agents in plant and animal agriculture at the farm level. The main pathogens and their adjoining phage therapies are discussed.

  11. Animal-free toxicology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Lisbeth E

    2013-01-01

    Human data on exposure and adverse effects are the most appropriate for human risk assessment, and modern toxicology focuses on human pathway analysis and the development of human biomarkers. Human biomonitoring and human placental transport studies provide necessary information for human risk...... assessment, in accordance with the legislation on chemical, medicine and food safety. Toxicology studies based on human mechanistic and exposure information can replace animal studies. These animal-free approaches can be further supplemented by new in silico methods and chemical structure......-activity relationships. The inclusion of replacement expertise in the international Three Rs centres, the ongoing exploration of alternatives to animal research, and the improvement of conditions for research animals, all imply the beginning of a paradigm shift in toxicology research toward the use of human data....

  12. 7 CFR 318.47-4 - Shipments by the Department of Agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Shipments by the Department of Agriculture. 318.47-4 Section 318.47-4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE STATE OF HAWAII AND TERRITORIES QUARANTINE NOTICES...

  13. 7 CFR 319.8-20 - Importations by the Department of Agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Importations by the Department of Agriculture. 319.8-20 Section 319.8-20 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Foreign Cotton and...

  14. 7 CFR 318.13-12 - Movement by the U.S. Department of Agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Movement by the U.S. Department of Agriculture. 318.13-12 Section 318.13-12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE STATE OF HAWAII AND TERRITORIES QUARANTINE...

  15. The EU Seal Products Ban – Why Ineffective Animal Welfare Protection Cannot Justify Trade Restrictions under European and International Trade Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Hennig

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the author questions the legitimacy of the general ban on trade in seal products adopted by the European Union. It is submitted that the EU Seal Regime, which permits the marketing of Greenlandic seal products derived from Inuit hunts, but excludes Canadian and Norwegian seal products from the European market, does not ensure a satisfactory degree of animal welfare protection in order to justify the comprehensive trade restriction in place. It is argued that the current ineffective EU ban on seal products, which according to the WTO Appellate Body cannot be reconciled with the objective of protecting animal welfare, has no legal basis in EU Treaties and should be annulled.

  16. Regularity of mortality and life span of the experimental animals under the exposure of protracted internal irradiation with radionuclides of 137Cs and 90Sr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yindik, V.M.; Serkyiz, Ya.Yi.; Lips'ka, A.Yi.; Alyistratov, O.V.; Drozd, Yi.P.; Gerasimova, T.B.; Dudchenko, T.M.

    2002-01-01

    It has been shown that exposure to protracted low intense irradiation with low doses, caused by radionuclides ( 137 Cs and 90 Sr) has negative influence on survival indices and expected life span in different groups according to age. Mortality of irradiated animals is mainly caused by development of pathological processes of tumor origin. The frequency of radiation induced tumors is the same with intact control

  17. Danish emission inventories for agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Mette Hjorth; Albrektsen, Rikke; Gyldenkærne, Steen

    . This report contains a description of the emissions from the agricultural sector from 1985 to 2009. Furthermore, the report includes a detailed description of methods and data used to calculate the emissions, which is based on national methodologies as well as international guidelines. For the Danish...... emissions calculations and data management an Integrated Database model for Agricultural emissions (IDA) is used. The emission from the agricultural sector includes emission of the greenhouse gases methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), ammonia (NH3), particulate matter (PM), non-methane volatile organic...... compounds (NMVOC) and other pollutants related to the field burning of agricultural residue such as NOx, CO2, CO, SO2, heavy metals, dioxin and PAH. The ammonia emission from 1985 to 2009 has decreased from 119 300 tonnes of NH3 to 73 800 tonnes NH3, corresponding to a 38 % reduction. The emission...

  18. Legislation on treating animals in human care

    OpenAIRE

    Konečná, Petra

    2016-01-01

    1 Abstract This Master's thesis entitled Legislation on treating animals in human care compares Czech and Australian legislation in selected aspects of three categories of animals in human care - farm animals, companion animals and animals used for scientific and other research purposes. The thesis is composed of 5 main chapters. The first chapter describes sources of law regarding treating animals in human care from the perspectives of international law, European Union law, federal Czech law...

  19. Climate Change and Agricultural Vulnerability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, G.; Shah, M.; Van Velthuizen, H.

    2002-08-01

    After the introduction Chapter 2 presents details of the ecological-economic analysis based on the FAO/IIASA agro-ecological zones (AEZ) approach for evaluation of biophysical limitations and agricultural production potentials, and IIASA's Basic Linked System (BLS) for analyzing the world's food economy and trade system. The BLS is a global general equilibrium model system for analyzing agricultural policies and food system prospects in an international setting. BLS views national agricultural systems as embedded in national economies, which interact with each other through trade at the international level. The combination of AEZ and BLS provides an integrated ecological-economic framework for the assessment of the impact of climate change. We consider climate scenarios based on experiments with four General Circulation Models (GCM), and we assess the four basic socioeconomic development pathways and emission scenarios as formulated by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) in its Third Assessment Report. Chapter 3 presents the main AEZ results of the impact of climate change on agriculture. Results comprise environmental constraints to crop agriculture; climate variability and the variability of rain-fed cereal production; changes in potential agricultural land; changes in crop-production patterns; and the impact of climate change on cereal-production potential. Chapter 4 discusses the AEZ-BLS integrated ecological-economic analysis of climate change on the world food system. This includes quantification of scale and location of hunger, international agricultural trade, prices, production, land use, etc. It assesses trends in food production, trade, and consumption, and the impact on poverty and hunger of alternative development pathways and varying levels of climate change. Chapter 5 presents the main conclusions and policy implications of this study

  20. Animated Reconstruction of Forensic Animation

    OpenAIRE

    Hala, Albert; Unver, Ertu

    1998-01-01

    An animated accident display in court can be significant evidentiary tool. Computer graphics animation reconstructions which can be shown in court are cost effective, save valuable time and illustrate complex and technical issues, are realistic and can prove or disprove arguments or theories with reference to the perplexing newtonian physics involved in many accidents: this technology may well revolutionise accident reconstruction, thus enabling prosecution and defence to be more effective in...

  1. 17th International Congress of Biometeorology (ICB) 2005. Vol. 1. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2005-01-01

    The theme of the 17th International Congress of Biometeorology is adaptation to weather, climate, and climate change. Volume 1 of the congress proceedings contains 141 contributions. They are sorted under the following lecture topics: agriculture and forest, air pollution, animals, artificial/indoor/urban, climate change, history of biometeorology, human. (uke)

  2. Journal of Agriculture, Forestry and the Social Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Journal of Agriculture, Forestry and the Social Sciences generally aims to foster progressive partnerships between different stake holders towards sustainable Agriculture. Papers in Animal husbandry, Fisheries, wild life, crop and Soil Science, agricultural economics, Extension, Forestry, environment and papers with a ...

  3. Supporting research in Brazilian agriculture and the Amazon Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munoz-Ribadeneira, F.J.

    1989-01-01

    Isotope experiments in agriculture have been carried out in Brazil since 1954. Since 1982, the IAEA has supported the agricultural sciences in Brazil through the projects financed under the IAEA's technical assistance and co-operation programme. These projects include: Radioisotopes in Agriculture; Biological Nitrogen Fixation; Animal Science; Medfly Eradication; and Soil Formation and Degradation. 26 refs, 6 figs, 1 tab

  4. 78 FR 79660 - Enhancing Agricultural Coexistence; Extension of Comment Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-31

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service [Docket No. APHIS-2013-0047... foster communication and collaboration among those involved in diverse agricultural production systems in... comment on how the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) can best foster communication and collaboration...

  5. Agriculture, development, and urban bias

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bezemer, Dirk; Headey, Derek

    Throughout history, agriculture-led development strategies with state support programs have been essential to achieving rapid economy-wide growth, poverty reduction, and structural transformation. Yet over the last three decades, the domestic and international policy environments have continued to

  6. Colonial adventures in tropical agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buelens, Frans; Frankema, Ewout

    2016-01-01

    How profitable were foreign investments in plantation agriculture in the Netherlands Indies during the late colonial era? We use a new dataset of monthly quoted stock prices and dividends of international companies at the Brussels stock exchange to estimate the returns to investment in tropical

  7. Agriculture & Agronomy: A Dissertation Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978

    This bibliography presents a compilation of Agriculture and Agronomy doctoral research for the years 1973-1976. Each of the 3,386 doctoral dissertations cited herein has been accepted by accredited degree-granting universities in North America and published by University Microfilms International (UMI). Dissertations are arranged alphabetically in…

  8. Thymic Nurse Cells Participate in Heterotypic Internalization and Repertoire Selection of Immature Thymocytes; Their Removal from the Thymus of Autoimmune Animals May be Important to Disease Etiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyden, J C; Martinez, M; Chilukuri, R V E; Reid, V; Kelly, F; Samms, M-O D

    2015-01-01

    Thymic nurse cells (TNCs) are specialized epithelial cells that reside in the thymic cortex. The initial report of their discovery in 1980 showed TNCs to contain up to 200 thymocytes within specialized vacuoles in their cytoplasm. Much has been reported since that time to determine the function of this heterotypic internalization event that exists between TNCs and developing thymocytes. In this review, we discuss the literature reported that describes the internalization event and the role TNCs play during T cell development in the thymus as well as why these multicellular complexes may be important in inhibiting the development of autoimmune diseases.

  9. Agriculture et changement climatique: enjeux et solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mergeai, G.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture and Climate Change: Challenges and Solutions. According to the latest report from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC, climate change is already having a significant impact on agriculture. Several models highlight the increasingly negative effects of increased temperatures on crop yields and livestock farming in developing countries. These impacts can be caused by negative physiological effects for plants and animals, which result from higher temperatures or the proliferation of pests and diseases caused by the latter. The increased number of extreme weather events, especially floods, and changing precipitation patterns are linked to climate changes. These factors dramatically affect the crop production potential of agricultural land. Populations in the developing world, which are already vulnerable and exposed to food insecurity, are the most seriously affected. In many countries in the southern hemisphere, agriculture actually represents the main source of income for a major proportion of the active population. Combined with increased demographic pressure, climate changes therefore help to exacerbate the pressure on global food systems. In addition, it should be noted that agriculture also plays a key role in the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and is therefore at the heart of a variety of complex issues. In light of these facts, it is essential that we make every effort to identify solutions, aimed at adapting to climate changes and alleviating the contribution of certain agricultural practices to the latter, in order to respond to all the challenges that they create. This involves reinforcing research initiatives aimed at understanding and quantifying the problems, while identifying steps that need to be taken in order to limit these problems. It also involves lobbying for appropriate policies to be put into place, based on the results of this research. Last but not least, it involves developing field

  10. Overview and assessment of techniques to measure ammonia emissions from animal houses: the case of the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosquera, J.; Monteny, G.J.; Erisman, J.W.

    2005-01-01

    In order to comply with the ammonia (NH 3 ) emission reduction assigned to the Netherlands development of new measures are needed, which should be supported by fast and accurate measurements to arrive at new estimates of the NH 3 emission from each agricultural source. This paper gives an overview of the current methods used in the Netherlands to measure NH 3 emissions from animal houses, and provides alternative methods for some particular situations. For mechanically ventilated animal houses, passive flux samplers placed in the ventilation shafts of the animal house are presented as alternative to measure a larger number of animal houses (replicates) with the same housing system at a low price. For naturally ventilated animal houses, when mixing in the animal house is not good enough to allow measurements within the animal house (internal tracer gas ratio method), two measurement methods are discussed: the Gaussian plume dispersion model, which is usually not suitable for agricultural situations, and the flux frame method, which is not always applicable because of distortion of the flow around the building. Finally, for animal houses with outside yards for the animals, there are at this moment no methods available to measure the NH 3 emissions from these complex situations, although quick box methods (for the outside yards) and a combination of a backward Lagrangian stochastic model with open-path concentration measurements with a tunable diode laser (TDL), look promising. - There are no methods to measure ammonia effectively from outdoor stockyards

  11. Organic Animal Production and Mycotoxins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurcan Çetinkaya

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Organic animal production; is a form of production without using any chemical inputs from production to consumption. In organic livestock production; organic breeding, feedstuff and animal nutrition conditions are stated in the Regulation on the Principles and Implementation of Organic Agriculture. Organic animal products must be prevented from recontamination. There are three different contamination hazards; biological (mold-toxins and pathogenic micro-organisms, chemical (pesticide residues, and physical (broken metal or glass, etc.. Molding and mycotoxin formation in organic feeds is one of the most important problems since they adversly affect animal health and toxines pass through the products. Since any chemical method cannot be applied to the organic feedstuffs especially in the struggle with mycotoxin in organic animal production, this should be considered in the measures to be taken and in the systems to be applied and the system should be planned to include organic agriculture. Countries that have established HACCP and ISO 22000 food safety management systems are able to avoid the problem of mycotoxin pollution in organic animal foods. The establishment of the feed safety system based on HACCP principles and its application in production have been made compulsory by Feed Hygiene Regulation issued in Turkey since 2011. In this review, the relationship between organic animal production and mycotoxin, and the precautions to be taken are discussed.

  12. Evaluation of Exchange Rate Policy on Agricultural Trade in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    International Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development ... this study was to evaluate the effect of exchange rate policy on agricultural trade in Nigeria. ... Government support to farmers in the form of credit and input subsidies is a veritable ...

  13. Agriculture for Improved Nutrition and Health: Support to the ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Long-time IDRC partner, the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research ... and intake of nutritious foods, to improve agricultural labour productivity, ... IWRA/IDRC webinar on climate change and adaptive water management.

  14. Evaluation of the agricultural extension programmes of Shell ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    International Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development ... Agricultural Extension Services as part of her corporate social responsibilities in Rivers, ... limited by inadequate communication and transport facilities, non-repayment of soft loans ...

  15. Agro-Science Journal of Tropical Agriculture, Food, Environment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PC USER

    Agro-Science Journal of Tropical Agriculture, Food, Environment and Extension. Volume 12 Number 3 ... agricultural field one could maintain a high level of soil fertility. ..... Journal of Applied Biosciences. 7: 202-206. ... International Journal of.

  16. Agro-Science Journal of Tropical Agriculture, Food, Environment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OLUWOLE AKINNAGBE

    2009-09-03

    Sep 3, 2009 ... Agro-Science Journal of Tropical Agriculture, Food, Environment and Extension. Volume 8 ... 3 International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, High Rainfall Station,. Onne, Rivers State ...... Biosciences proceedings. 6: 444-454.

  17. Economic Analyses of Ware Yam Production in Orlu Agricultural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Economic Analyses of Ware Yam Production in Orlu Agricultural Zone of Imo State. ... International Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development ... statistics, gross margin analysis, marginal analysis and multiple regression analysis. Results ...

  18. Animal toxicology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amdur, M.

    1996-12-31

    The chapter evaluates results of toxicological studies on experimental animals to investigate health effects of air pollutants and examines the animal data have predicted the response to human subject. Data are presented on the comparative toxicity of sulfur dioxide and sulfuric acid. The animal data obtained by measurement of airway resistance in guinea pigs and of bronchial clearance of particles in donkeys predicted clearly that sulfuric acid was more irritant than sulfur dioxide. Data obtained on human subjects confirmed this prediction. These acute studies also correctly predicted the comparative toxicity of the two compounds in two year studies of monkeys. Such chronic studies are not possible in human subjects but it is a reasonable to assume that sulfuric acid would be more toxic than sulfur dioxide. Current findings in epidemiological studies certainly support this assumption.

  19. Animal Production Research Advances: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Focus and Scope. Animal production research advances is a peer-review journal established expressly to promote the production of all animal species utilized as food. The journal has an international scope and is intended for professionals in animal production and related sciences. We solicit contributions from animal ...

  20. Comparing Pathways to Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorian Q Fuller

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The transition from foraging systems to agricultural dependence is a persistent focus of archaeological research, and the focus of a major research project supported by the European Research Council (ERC grant no. 323842, ’ComPAg’. Gordon Childe, director of the Institute of Archaeology 1947–1957, influentially defined the Neolithic revolution as that which instigated a series of changes in human societies towards sedentism (settling in one place, larger populations, food production based on domesticated plants and animals, transformed cosmologies and the dawn of new malleable technologies such as ceramics and textiles (Childe 1936.

  1. World Organisation for Animal Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Simulation Exercises Info list & RSS National Disease Contingency Plans WAHIS-Wild Interface World Animal Health Official ... FOOD SAFETY ANTIMICROBIAL RESISTANCE STANDARDS AND INTERNATIONAL TRADE View more themes The OIE in brief PRESS ROOM ...

  2. Animal evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Claus

    This book provides a comprehensive analysis of evolution in the animal kingdom. It reviews the classical, morphological information from structure and embryology, as well as the new data gained from studies using immune stainings of nerves and muscles and blastomere markings, which makes it possi......This book provides a comprehensive analysis of evolution in the animal kingdom. It reviews the classical, morphological information from structure and embryology, as well as the new data gained from studies using immune stainings of nerves and muscles and blastomere markings, which makes...

  3. Determination of ten steroid hormones in animal waste manure and agricultural soil using inverse and integrated clean-up pressurized liquid extraction and gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Martin; Krogh, Kristine Andersen; Halling-Sørensen, Bent

    2011-01-01

    ... Martin Hansen , Kristine A. Krogh , Bent Halling ... in a 22 mL PLE cell : firstly by flushing the sample with heptane to remove unwanted matrix components (inverse- PLE , i- PLE ) and secondly, performing internal clean-up (ic- PLE ) and eluting the steroid hormones by attaching an ...

  4. Farm animal proteomics - A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendixen, Emøke; Danielsen, Marianne; Hollung, Kristin

    2011-01-01

    In agricultural sciences as in all other areas of life science, the implementation of proteomics and other post-genomic tools is an important step towards more detailed understanding of the complex biological systems that control physiology and pathology of living beings. Farm animals are raised...... and cattle are relevant not only for farm animal sciences, but also for adding to our understanding of complex biological mechanisms of health and disease in humans. The aim of this review is to present an overview of the specific topics of interest within farm animal proteomics, and to highlight some...... of the areas where synergy between classic model organism proteomics and farm animal proteomics is rapidly emerging. Focus will be on introducing the special biological traits that play an important role in food production, and on how proteomics may help optimize farm animal production...

  5. Animal Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanCleave, Janice

    2001-01-01

    Presents a set of hands-on, outdoor science experiments designed to teach elementary school students about animal adaptation. The experiments focus on: how color camouflage affects an insect population; how spiderlings find a home; and how chameleons camouflage themselves by changing color. (SM)

  6. Animal radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    This chapter presents historical x rays of a wide variety of animals taken within 5 years of the discovery of x radiation. Such photos were used as tests or as illustrations for radiographic publications. Numerous historical photographs are included. 10 refs

  7. Animal impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norbert V. DeByle

    1985-01-01

    The aspen ecosystem is rich in number and species of animals, especially in comparison to associated coniferous forest types. This natural species diversity and richness has been both increased and influenced by the introduction of domestic livestock. The high value of the aspen type as a forage resource for livestock and as forage and cover for wildlife makes the...

  8. Animated symbols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølunde, Lisbeth

    2008-01-01

    an analytic working model called Animated Symbols concerning critical reflection in a dialogic learning process. The model shows dialogue as interactions that involve two types of transformation: inner ‘learning processes' and outer signs and symbols. The classroom-based research study is part of a Ph...

  9. Outlook on Agricultural Changes and its Drivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Vuuren, Detlef; Ochola, Washington; Riha, Susan

    2009-01-01

    The International Assessment of Agricultural Knowledge, Science, and Technology for Development (IAASTD) looks realistically at how we could effectively use agriculture/AKST to help us meet development and sustainability goals. An unprecedented three-year collaborative effort, the IAASTD involved...

  10. Improving artificial breeding of cattle and buffalo in Asia. Guidelines and recommendations. A manual prepared under the framework of an IAEA Technical Cooperation Regional RCA Project on 'Improving Animal Productivity and Reproductive Efficiency', with technical support of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-11-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the Regional Cooperative Agreement for Asia and the Pacific Region (RCA), with technical support of the Joint FAO/IAEA Programme of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, implemented a Technical Cooperation (TC) project entitled Improving Animal Productivity and Reproductive Efficiency. The dual objectives of this project are (a) strengthening and extending the field applications of Urea Molasses Multinutrient Blocks (UMMB) and other feed supplementation strategies, and (b) monitoring and improving the reproductive management and fertility of smallholder dairy cattle subjected to Artificial Insemination (AI). The radioimmunoassay (RIA) for measurement of progesterone in milk and use of the computer database AIDA (Artificial Insemination Database Application) play important roles in the success of the latter objective. The first meeting to plan project activities was held in January 1999 in Yangon, Myanmar and the second meeting to review progress and develop further work plans was held in February 2000 in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The latter meeting concluded that the procedures currently used by different Asian countries for evaluation of breeding bulls should be standardized and unified protocols developed for ensuring quality control of semen during processing, storage and field use. It was recommended that this should be accomplished through a regional workshop of national consultants. A workshop of national consultants from 10 RCA Member States was therefore held in April 2002 in Faisalabad, Pakistan, to consider and discuss the following aspects and arrive at a consensus on the best procedures and practices to be adopted to suit conditions and needs in developing countries of Asia: - Selection, management and health control of AI bulls; - Semen technologies from collection through processing to storage; - Delivery and follow-up of field AI services to farmers The IAEA has also supported a similar project in

  11. 48 CFR 252.235-7002 - Animal welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Animal welfare. 252.235... Clauses 252.235-7002 Animal welfare. As prescribed in 235.072(a), use the following clause: Animal Welfare... animals only from dealers licensed by the Secretary of Agriculture under 7 U.S.C. 2133 and 9 CFR subpart A...

  12. 77 FR 76815 - Handling of Animals; Contingency Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-31

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Parts 2 and 3 [Docket No. APHIS-2006-0159] RIN 0579-AC69 Handling of Animals; Contingency Plans AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: We are amending the Animal Welfare Act...

  13. Public perceptions of farm animal cloning in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Jesper

    This report presents a picture of European opinion on farm animal cloning. In the report, both agricultural and biomedical applications of farm animal cloning are considered. With the arrival of Dolly, animal cloning became an integral part of the biotech debate, but this debate did not isolate...... animal cloning as a single issue....

  14. Urban Agriculture Guide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, A.J.; Jansma, J.E.; Dekking, A.J.G.; Klieverik, M.J.M.

    2007-01-01

    The Urban Agriculture Guide describes the experiences, learning moments, tips and tricks of those involved in the initiatives of urban agriculture and an indication is provided of what is required to develop urban agriculture further in the Netherlands

  15. Agricultural SWOT analysis and wisdom agriculture design of chengdu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Chen, Xiangyu; Du, Shaoming; Yin, Guowei; Yu, Feng; Liu, Guicai; Gong, Jin; Han, Fujun

    2017-08-01

    According to the status of agricultural information, this paper analyzed the advantages, opportunities and challenges of developing wisdom agriculture in Chengdu. By analyzed the local characteristics of Chengdu agriculture, the construction program of Chengdu wisdom agriculture was designed, which was based on the existing agricultural informatization. The positioning and development theme of Chengdu agriculture is leisure agriculture, urban agriculture and quality agriculture.

  16. Biotecnologia animal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Lehmann Coutinho

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A biotecnologia animal tem fornecido novas ferramentas para os programas de melhoramento e, dessa forma, contribuído para melhorar a eficiência da produção dos produtos de origem animal. No entanto, os avanços têm sido mais lentos do que antecipados, especialmente em razão da dificuldade na identificação dos genes responsáveis pelas características fenotípicas de interesse zootécnico. Três estratégias principais têm sido utilizadas para identificar esses genes - mapeamento de QTL, genes candidatos e sequenciamento de DNA e mRNA - e cada uma tem suas vantagens e limitações. O mapeamento de QTL permite determinar as regiões genômicas que contêm genes, mas o intervalo de confiança do QTL pode ser grande e conter muitos genes. A estratégia de genes candidatos é limitada por causa do conhecimento ainda restrito das funções de todos os genes. Os sequenciamentos de genomas e de sequências expressas podem auxiliar na identificação da posição de genes e de vias metabólicas associadas à característica de interesse. A integração dessas estratégias por meio do desenvolvimento de programas de bioinformática permitirá a identificação de novos genes de interesse zootécnico. Assim, os programas de melhoramento genético se beneficiarão pela inclusão da informação obtida diretamente do DNA na avaliação do mérito genético dos plantéis disponíveis.Animal biotechnology is providing new tools for animal breeding and genetics and thus contributing to advances in production efficiency and quality of animal products. However, the progress is slower than anticipated, mainly because of the difficulty involved in identifying genes that control phenotypic characteristics of importance to the animal industry. Three main strategies: QTL mapping, candidate genes and DNA and mRNA sequencing have been used to identify genes of economic interest to animal breeding and each has advantages and disadvantages. QTL mapping allows

  17. [Ethical issue in animal experimentation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parodi, André-Laurent

    2009-11-01

    In the 1970s, under pressure from certain sections of society and thanks to initiatives by several scientific research teams, committees charged with improving the conditions of laboratory animals started to be created, first in the United States and subsequently in Europe. This led to the development of an ethical approach to animal experimentation, taking into account new scientific advances. In addition to the legislation designed to provide a legal framework for animal experimentation and to avoid abuses, this ethical approach, based on the concept that animals are sentient beings, encourages greater respect of laboratory animals and the implementation of measures designed to reduce their suffering. Now, all animal experiments must first receive ethical approval--from in-house committees in the private sector and from regional committees for public institutions. Very recently, under the impetus of the French ministries of research and agriculture, the National committee for ethical animal experimentation published a national ethical charter on animal experimentation, setting the basis for responsible use of animals for scientific research and providing guidelines for the composition and functioning of ethics committees. Inspired by the scientific community itself this ethical standardization should help to assuage--but not eliminate--the reticence and hostility expressed by several sections of society.

  18. Animal Welfare: What's coming down the pipe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concern for farm animal welfare is not a new concept. However, increased public pressure and an increasingly entangled global economy are effecting change across the world. The conversation about farm animal welfare is difficult because the world’s population has become disconnected from agricultur...

  19. The Ecologist's View of Animal Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Walter E.

    1994-01-01

    Provides insights on the controversial issue of animal rights. Four factors are considered: (1) animals' rights; (2) research; (3) hunting and fishing; and (4) agriculture. Contends that it is imperative that the public knows all the facts before casting their vote on the issue. (ZWH)

  20. Agricultural biotechnologies in developing countries and their possible contribution to food security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruane, John; Sonnino, Andrea

    2011-12-20

    Latest FAO figures indicate that an estimated 925 million people are undernourished in 2010, representing almost 16% of the population in developing countries. Looking to the future, there are also major challenges ahead from the rapidly changing socio-economic environment (increasing world population and urbanisation, and dietary changes) and climate change. Promoting agriculture in developing countries is the key to achieving food security, and it is essential to act in four ways: to increase investment in agriculture, broaden access to food, improve governance of global trade, and increase productivity while conserving natural resources. To enable the fourth action, the suite of technological options for farmers should be as broad as possible, including agricultural biotechnologies. Agricultural biotechnologies represent a broad range of technologies used in food and agriculture for the genetic improvement of plant varieties and animal populations, characterisation and conservation of genetic resources, diagnosis of plant or animal diseases and other purposes. Discussions about agricultural biotechnology have been dominated by the continuing controversy surrounding genetic modification and its resulting products, genetically modified organisms (GMOs). The polarised debate has led to non-GMO biotechnologies being overshadowed, often hindering their development and application. Extensive documentation from the FAO international technical conference on Agricultural Biotechnologies in Developing Countries (ABDC-10), that took place in Guadalajara, Mexico, on 1-4 March 2010, gave a very good overview of the many ways that different agricultural biotechnologies are being used to increase productivity and conserve natural resources in the crop, livestock, fishery, forestry and agro-industry sectors in developing countries. The conference brought together about 300 policy-makers, scientists and representatives of intergovernmental and international non

  1. All projects related to | Page 161 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Ecohealth Chair on Human and Animal Health in Protected Ecosystems of Central and Eastern Africa. Project ... Topic: AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION, ZOONOSES, GENDER ANALYSIS, Disease control, ANTIBIOTICS, ANIMAL DISEASES.

  2. Animal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritz, T.E.; Angerman, J.M.; Keenan, W.G.; Linsley, J.G.; Poole, C.M.; Sallese, A.; Simkins, R.C.; Tolle, D.

    1981-01-01

    The animal facilities in the Division are described. They consist of kennels, animal rooms, service areas, and technical areas (examining rooms, operating rooms, pathology labs, x-ray rooms, and 60 Co exposure facilities). The computer support facility is also described. The advent of the Conversational Monitor System at Argonne has launched a new effort to set up conversational computing and graphics software for users. The existing LS-11 data acquisition systems have been further enhanced and expanded. The divisional radiation facilities include a number of gamma, neutron, and x-ray radiation sources with accompanying areas for related equipment. There are five 60 Co irradiation facilities; a research reactor, Janus, is a source for fission-spectrum neutrons; two other neutron sources in the Chicago area are also available to the staff for cell biology studies. The electron microscope facilities are also described

  3. Public perception and risk communication in regard to bioterrorism against animals and plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, G S

    2006-04-01

    This paper examines the total international prohibition on the use of disease to attack humans, animals and plants, noting that in the past several countries had developed programmes for attacks on animals and plants as well as humans. Current activities undertaken by intergovernmental organisations - the World Health Organization (WHO), Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) and World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE)--to counter the threat of attacks on humans, animals and plants are examined. Effective countermeasures to deliberate attacks need to be developed in harmony with existing measures to control natural or accidental outbreaks of disease. Finally the paper assesses the risk and the public perception of it, and considers what risk communication is needed and to whom. Clear mandates are needed for the FAO and OIE to be prepared to deal with outbreaks of disease, and with contamination of the food supply chain, whether accidental or intentional.

  4. Animal Locomotion

    CERN Document Server

    Taylor, Graham K; Tropea, Cameron

    2010-01-01

    This book provides a wide-ranging snapshot of the state-of-the-art in experimental research on the physics of swimming and flying animals. The resulting picture reflects not only upon the questions that are of interest in current pure and applied research, but also upon the experimental techniques that are available to answer them. Doubtless, many new questions will present themselves as the scope and performance of our experimental toolbox develops over the coming years.

  5. International Entomology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pests and diseases of plants in agriculture are a shared international problem. Yet some of the very places that pest invaders come from often lack the institutional structure and organization necessary to help in understanding the biology of the pest or disease. Strengthening entomology by stimulat...

  6. ASPECTS OF THE FUTURE COMMON AGRICULTURAL POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo GAJO

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper aimed to present the main CAP reforms imposed by the actual situation of agriculture development in the EU. The Common Agriculture Policy is focused on decoupling, modulation and cross-compliance. The single payment scheme will assure aids only for farms where production complies with environment, food safety, animal and plant health, animal welfare, and agricultural land maintenance in good condition. The new legislation provides the introduction of "green payments" related to the adoption of agricultural practices beneficial for the climate and the environment. The demographic growth imposes more production and a better distribution of food in the world. The EU has to be prepared to produce more because of the mass emigration to the rich countries from the region where food demand can not be covered.

  7. The costly benefits of opposing agricultural biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apel, Andrew

    2010-11-30

    Rigorous application of a simple definition of what constitutes opposition to agricultural biotechnology readily encompasses a wide array of key players in national and international systems of food production, distribution and governance. Even though the sum of political and financial benefits of opposing agricultural biotechnology appears vastly to outweigh the benefits which accrue to providers of agricultural biotechnology, technology providers actually benefit from this opposition. If these barriers to biotechnology were removed, subsistence farmers still would not represent a lucrative market for improved seed. The sum of all interests involved ensures that subsistence farmers are systematically denied access to agricultural biotechnology. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Behaviour and fate of animal waste nitrogen and soluble ions in the agricultural environment with particular reference to rice. Part of a coordinated programme on agricultural nitrogen residues with particular reference to their conservation as fertilizers and behaviour as potential pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, H.

    1976-11-01

    The fate of residual nitrogen and its fertilizer efficiency following application to rice plants in pots under controlled laboratory conditions have been studied. Nitrogen was applied as 15 N labelled fecal waste from goat and hog, and as chemical fertilizer (ammonium sulphate) respectively. Animal waste nitrogen was less effective than ammonium sulphate nitrogen in terms of rice yield. On the other hand residual nitrogen in the high soil layers was much higher for the organic nitrogen application and there appeared to be lower losses by volatilization (20-30% for animal waste N, 30-40% for ammonium sulphate nitrogen). Leaching losses were minimal and similar for both kinds of N-application (ca. 1%). Similar results were obtained under field conditions with alluvial, and ''sandy'' soils respectively. Plant recovery of N was greater from ammonium sulphate than from animal waste but overall losses in total balance studies appeared greater for N applied as ammonium sulphate under otherwise comparable conditions (30-40% of N applied as ammonium sulphate and 19-32% of N applied as fecal waste)

  9. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Animal & Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Share Tweet Linkedin Pin ...

  10. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Animal & Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Share Tweet Linkedin Pin ...

  11. Nuclear energy and Ecuadorian agriculture development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molineros Andrade, J.

    1979-09-01

    The Ecuadorian Atomic Energy Commission has elaborated a plan for development of nuclear energy, the construction of a 1-3 MW Nuclear Reactor for Research and production of radioisotopes and of the related laboratories. Agriculture is a very important part of this plan, in the following areas: genetics, irrigation, plant and animal nutrition and metabolisms, and pest and disease control. Ecuadorian agriculture institutions have also been considered in this plan. (Author)

  12. Philosophy, policy and procedures of the World Organisation for Animal Health for the development of standards in animal welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrini, A; Wilson, D

    2005-08-01

    Animal welfare was identified as a priority for the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) in the 2001-2005 OIE Strategic Plan. Member Countries recognised that, as animal protection is a complex, multi-faceted public policy issue which includes important scientific, ethical, economic and political dimensions, the OIE needed to develop a detailed vision and strategy incorporating and balancing these dimensions. A permanent working group on animal welfare was established in order to provide guidance to the OIE in its work on the development of science-based standards and guidelines. The Working Group decided to give priority to the welfare of animals used in agriculture and aquaculture, and that, within those groups, the topics of transportation, slaughter for human consumption and killing for disease control purposes would be addressed first. Some guiding principles were approved by the International Committee of OIE Member Countries during the 72nd General Session in May 2004, and these have been followed by four specific guidelines on the priority topics listed above.

  13. Vocational Agriculture Computer Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kentucky State Dept. of Education, Frankfort.

    This document is a catalog of reviews of computer software suitable for use in vocational agriculture programs. The reviews were made by vocational agriculture teachers in Kentucky. The reviews cover software on the following topics: farm management, crop production, livestock production, horticulture, agricultural mechanics, general agriculture,…

  14. African agricultural trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hans Grinsted; Sandrey, Ron

    2015-01-01

    This article starts with a profile of African agricultural trade. Using the pre-release version 9.2 of the GTAP database, we then show that the results for tariff elimination on intra-African trade are promising, but these tariff barriers are not as significant as the various trade-related barriers...... outside of tariffs. Impressive results were forecast by simulating both a 50% reduction in what can be considered traditional non-tariff barriers and a modest 20% reduction in the costs associated with transit time delays at customs, terminals and internal land transportation. Gains from tariff...... elimination, non-tariff barrier reductions and time in transit cost reductions are likely to be cumulative and would generate very large gains to Africa. The policy implications are clear: while cooperation will enhance the gains, much of the benefits will result from unilateral actions and regional...

  15. SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF NATIONAL AGRICULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anda GHEORGHIU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture today is a strategic point of a country's economy, providing food based on population, development of internal and external trade and manufacturing industries by supplying raw materials. For Romania, this branch is a strong point both in terms climatic (temperate, balanced relief, soil quality and at the same time is also a way of national development and convergence of rural areas to their full potential untapped. With strong reforms, well implemented, a specific legislative framework which aims to protecting private property, Romania could reduce the low efficiency and can have a sustainable agriculture. The paper aimed to present the advantages of consuming organic products, and, on the other hand, the advantages of a country in terms of organic farming. European agriculture is a competitive, market-oriented, but also protecting the environment model.

  16. Animated war

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølunde, Lisbeth

    2012-01-01

    in production: Gzim Rewind (Sweden, 2011) by Knutte Wester, and In-World War (USA, expected 2011) by DJ Bad Vegan. These films have themes of war and include film scenes that are ‘machinima’ (real-time animation made in 3D graphic environments) within live action film scenes. Machinima harnesses...... DIY multimedia storytellers explore new ways to tell and to ‘animate’ stories. The article contains four parts: introduction to machinima and the notions of resemiosis and authorial practice, presentation of DIY filmmaking as a practice that intertwines with new networked economics, analysis...

  17. Needlestick Injuries in Agriculture Workers and Prevention Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buswell, Minden L; Hourigan, Mary; Nault, André J; Bender, Jeffrey B

    2016-01-01

    There are a variety of biologics, vaccines, antibiotics, and hormones used in animal agriculture. Depending upon the procedure or pharmaceutical used, accidental injections or product exposures can result in mild to severe injuries. Needlestick injury (NSI) prevention, research, and education for veterinarians and agriculture workers is limited. The objective of this study was to collect and review published case reports and case series/surveys on human needlestick exposure to veterinary biologics and to summarize needlestick prevention strategies for agricultural workers/veterinarians. A search was conducted of PubMed and Centre for Agriculture Bioscience International (CABI) databases. References were reviewed to identify additional articles. NSI among agricultural workers were primarily included in this review. Thirty articles were applicable to exposures in agricultural settings. Relevant literature consisted of case reports, survey/case series articles, prevention documents, and background articles. Fifty-nine case patients were identified. Most of these cases were associated with exposures to specific vaccines or veterinary products. Injury location was identified from 36 individuals: 24 (67%) NSI to the hands, 10 (28%) injuries to the legs, and 2 to other body locations. Of the 59 cases, 20 (34%) involved oil-adjuvant vaccines. Evidence of hospitalization was recorded for 30 case patients. The length of hospitalization was available from 11 case patients. Median length of hospitalization was 3 days (range: 1-4). Surgical intervention was reported in 25 case patients. Outcome information was available on 30 case patients. Fifteen made a complete recovery within 2 weeks of treatment, 14 had residual sequelae attributed to the injury, and there was 1 reported death. Of the 13 survey/case series articles: 2 focused on oil-adjuvant products, 1 on Brucellosis RB-51 vaccine, 3 on tilmicosin, 1 on Salmonella enteritidis vaccine, 1 on high-pressure injection, and 5

  18. Review Of Development And Characteristics Of Organic Agriculture In Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Petljak

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade, an ever increasing interest of both foreign and domestic academic and general public for organic agriculture can be observed. Organic agriculture, as a new agricultural production system, enables full utilization of farming potentials while satisfying social and economic needs and preserving natural ecosystem and environment. Act on Organic Production of Agricultural Products and Foodstuffs provides an elementary strategic frame for agricultural production development in Republic of Croatia. This article gives an overview of organic agriculture legislation in Croatia and detailed analysis of development periods of organic agriculture. Special emphasis is put on structure of organic production which highlights data on organic plant and animal production in Croatia. The paper provides a comparison between levels of organic agriculture development in the world (with the special emphasis on Europe and in Croatia, as well as the overview of main obstacles towards more significant development of organic agriculture in Republic of Croatia.

  19. The economic impact of more sustainable water use in agriculture: A computable general equilibrium analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calzadilla, A.; Rehdanz, K.; Tol, R.S.J.

    2010-01-01

    Agriculture is the largest consumer of freshwater resources - around 70 percent of all freshwater withdrawals are used for food production. These agricultural products are traded internationally. A full understanding of water use is, therefore, impossible without understanding the international

  20. Animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Ellen A

    2010-01-01

    As clinical studies reveal that chemotherapeutic agents may impair several different cognitive domains in humans, the development of preclinical animal models is critical to assess the degree of chemotherapy-induced learning and memory deficits and to understand the underlying neural mechanisms. In this chapter, the effects of various cancer chemotherapeutic agents in rodents on sensory processing, conditioned taste aversion, conditioned emotional response, passive avoidance, spatial learning, cued memory, discrimination learning, delayed-matching-to-sample, novel-object recognition, electrophysiological recordings and autoshaping is reviewed. It appears at first glance that the effects of the cancer chemotherapy agents in these many different models are inconsistent. However, a literature is emerging that reveals subtle or unique changes in sensory processing, acquisition, consolidation and retrieval that are dose- and time-dependent. As more studies examine cancer chemotherapeutic agents alone and in combination during repeated treatment regimens, the animal models will become more predictive tools for the assessment of these impairments and the underlying neural mechanisms. The eventual goal is to collect enough data to enable physicians to make informed choices about therapeutic regimens for their patients and discover new avenues of alternative or complementary therapies that reduce or eliminate chemotherapy-induced cognitive deficits.