WorldWideScience

Sample records for international aircraft cabin

  1. Aircraft Cabin Environmental Quality Sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gundel, Lara; Kirchstetter, Thomas; Spears, Michael; Sullivan, Douglas

    2010-05-06

    The Indoor Environment Department at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) teamed with seven universities to participate in a Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Center of Excellence (COE) for research on environmental quality in aircraft. This report describes research performed at LBNL on selecting and evaluating sensors for monitoring environmental quality in aircraft cabins, as part of Project 7 of the FAA's COE for Airliner Cabin Environmental Research (ACER)1 effort. This part of Project 7 links to the ozone, pesticide, and incident projects for data collection and monitoring and is a component of a broader research effort on sensors by ACER. Results from UCB and LBNL's concurrent research on ozone (ACER Project 1) are found in Weschler et al., 2007; Bhangar et al. 2008; Coleman et al., 2008 and Strom-Tejsen et al., 2008. LBNL's research on pesticides (ACER Project 2) in airliner cabins is described in Maddalena and McKone (2008). This report focused on the sensors needed for normal contaminants and conditions in aircraft. The results are intended to complement and coordinate with results from other ACER members who concentrated primarily on (a) sensors for chemical and biological pollutants that might be released intentionally in aircraft; (b) integration of sensor systems; and (c) optimal location of sensors within aircraft. The parameters and sensors were selected primarily to satisfy routine monitoring needs for contaminants and conditions that commonly occur in aircraft. However, such sensor systems can also be incorporated into research programs on environmental quality in aircraft cabins.

  2. Aircraft acoustics. II - Cabin noise in passenger aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munin, Anatolii Grigor'evich

    Results of theoretical and experimental studies of cabin noise and noise on the fuselage of passenger aircraft are presented, and methods of noise reduction are discussed. The discussion covers the principal noise sources, such as the gas jet, compressor, turbulent boundary layer, propeller, engine vibration, and air conditioning system. Cabin noise reduction methods discussed include sound and vibration insulation and sound and vibration absorption. Finally, methods for calculating cabin noise are presented.

  3. Mixing Ventilation System in a Single-Aisle Aircraft Cabin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter Vilhelm; Zhang, Chen; Wojcik, Kamil

    2014-01-01

    Traditionally, air is supplied to the aircraft cabin either by individual nozzles or by supply slots. The air is expected to be fully mixed in the cabin, and the system is considered to be a mixing ventilation system. This paper will provide measurements on the mixing flow in an aircraft cabin...

  4. Physiological Factors Analysis in Unpressurized Aircraft Cabins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrao, Luis; Zorro, Sara; Silva, Jorge

    2016-11-01

    Amateur and sports flight is an activity with growing numbers worldwide. However, the main cause of flight incidents and accidents is increasingly pilot error, for a number of reasons. Fatigue, sleep issues and hypoxia, among many others, are some that can be avoided, or, at least, mitigated. This article describes the analysis of psychological and physiological parameters during flight in unpressurized aircraft cabins. It relates cerebral oximetry and heart rate with altitude, as well as with flight phase. The study of those parameters might give clues on which variations represent a warning sign to the pilot, thus preventing incidents and accidents due to human factors. Results show that both cerebral oximetry and heart rate change along the flight and altitude in the alert pilot. The impaired pilot might not reveal these variations and, if this is detected, he can be warned in time.

  5. Assessment of the thermal environment in an aircraft cabin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingers, S.; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2004-01-01

    A full-scale section of a flight cabin with 21 seats was used to study the thermal environment in aircraft under laboratory conditions. Fourteen heated cylinders and two thermal manikins were used to simulate the heat load, the buoyancy flow and the flow obstruction from passengers in the cabin...

  6. Assessment of the thermal environment in an aircraft cabin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingers, S.; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2004-01-01

    A full-scale section of a flight cabin with 21 seats was used to study the thermal environment in aircraft under laboratory conditions. Fourteen heated cylinders and two thermal manikins were used to simulate the heat load, the buoyancy flow and the flow obstruction from passengers in the cabin...... equivalent temperature, up to 5.8°C, was identified in the outer seats. The results reveal that in an aircraft cabin, passengers in the outer seats may be exposed to thermal asymmetry and draught and may not find the thermal environment acceptable if the ventilation air is not properly supplied....

  7. Evaluation of an improved air distribution system for aircraft cabin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pang, Liping; Xu, Jie; Fang, Lei

    2013-01-01

    An improved air distribution system for aircraft cabin was proposed in this paper. Personalized outlets were introduced and placed at the bottom of the baggage hold. Its ratio of fresh air to recirculation air and the conditioned temperature of different types of inlets were also designed carefully...

  8. Air Distribution in Aircraft Cabins Using Free Convection Personalized Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.

    The aim of the ventilation system is to control cross infection in an aircraft cabin if one or a number of the passengers are “source patients” (source of airborne disease). The Personalized Ventilation described in this text is of the type mentioned in “Free Convection Personalized Ventilation”....

  9. Ozone-Initiated Chemistry in an Occupied Simulated Aircraft Cabin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weschler, Charles J.; Wisthaler, Armin; Cowlin, Shannon

    2007-01-01

    We have used multiple analytical methods to characterize the gas-phase products formed when ozone was added to cabin air during simulated 4-hour flights that were conducted in a reconstructed section of a B-767 aircraft containing human occupants. Two separate groups of 16 females were each exposed...

  10. Individual and collective climate control in aircraft cabins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, P.; Gids, W.F. de

    2006-01-01

    A new concept for aircraft cabin climatisation has been developed in which the seat is the main Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) and temperature control system for the passengers containing provisions for local supply and local exhaust of air. Direct supply of clean outside air in the breathing zone, throug

  11. Calibration of the Ogawa passive ozone sampler for aircraft cabins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhangar, Seema; Singer, Brett C.; Nazaroff, William W.

    2013-02-01

    Elevated ozone levels in aircraft cabins would pose a health hazard to exposed passengers and crew. The Ogawa passive sampler is a potentially useful tool for measuring in-cabin ozone levels. Accurate interpretation of measured values requires knowing the effective collection rate of the sampler. To calibrate the passive sampler for the aircraft-cabin environment, ozone was measured simultaneously with an Ogawa sampler and an active ozone analyzer that served as a transfer standard, on 11 commercial passenger flights, during Feb-Apr 2007. An empirical pressure-independent effective collection rate that can be used to convert nitrate mass to ozone mixing ratio was determined to be 14.3 ± 0.9 atm cm3 min-1 (mean ± standard error). This value is similar to estimates from other applications where airflow rates are low, such as in personal monitoring and in chamber studies. This study represents the first field calibration of any passive sampler for the aircraft cabin environment.

  12. Indoor air quality: recommendations relevant to aircraft passenger cabins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hocking, M B

    1998-07-01

    To evaluate the human component of aircraft cabin air quality the effects of respiration of a resting adult on air quality in an enclosed space are estimated using standard equations. Results are illustrated for different air volumes per person, with zero air exchange, and with various air change rates. Calculated ventilation rates required to achieve a specified air quality for a wide range of conditions based on theory agree to within 2% of the requirements determined using a standard empirical formula. These calculations quantitatively confirm that the air changes per hour per person necessary for ventilation of an enclosed space vary inversely with the volume of the enclosed space. However, they also establish that the ventilation required to achieve a target carbon dioxide concentration in the air of an enclosed space with a resting adult remains the same regardless of the volume of the enclosed space. Concentration equilibria resulting from the interaction of the respiration of a resting adult with various ventilation conditions are compared with the rated air exchange rates of samples of current passenger aircraft, both with and without air recirculation capability. Aircraft cabin carbon dioxide concentrations calculated from the published ventilation ratings are found to be intermediate to these sets of results obtained by actual measurement. These findings are used to arrive at recommendations for aircraft builders and operators to help improve aircraft cabin air quality at minimum cost. Passenger responses are suggested to help improve their comfort and decrease their exposure to disease transmission, particularly on long flights.

  13. Occupant evaluation of 7-hour exposures in a simulated aircraft cabin - Part 2: Thermal effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strøm-Tejsen, Peter; Wyon, David Peter; Zukowska, Daria

    2005-01-01

    Experiments were carried out in a simulated section of an aircraft cabin with 21 seats installed in a climate chamber, to determine the extent to which passengers’ perception of cabin air quality is affected by air temperature. The temperature inside the cabin was set at three differ-ent levels, 20...... of air quality, cabin environment, intensity of symptoms commonly experienced during flight, and thermal comfort. The investigation showed that cabin air temperature did not change symptoms typical of the aircraft cabin environment whereas it did significantly affect air quality, freshness of air...

  14. Occupant evaluation of 7-hour exposures in a simulated aircraft cabin - Part 2: Thermal effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strøm-Tejsen, Peter; Wyon, David Peter; Zukowska, Daria;

    2005-01-01

    Experiments were carried out in a simulated section of an aircraft cabin with 21 seats installed in a climate chamber, to determine the extent to which passengers’ perception of cabin air quality is affected by air temperature. The temperature inside the cabin was set at three differ-ent levels, 20...... of air quality, cabin environment, intensity of symptoms commonly experienced during flight, and thermal comfort. The investigation showed that cabin air temperature did not change symptoms typical of the aircraft cabin environment whereas it did significantly affect air quality, freshness of air...

  15. Numerical simulation study on air quality in aircraft cabins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yingjie; Dai, Bingrong; Yu, Qi; Si, Haiqing; Yu, Gang

    2017-06-01

    Air pollution is one of the main factors that affect the air quality in aircraft cabins, and the use of different air supply modes could influence the distribution of air pollutants in cabins. Based on the traditional ceiling air supply mode used on the B737NG, this study investigated another 3 different kinds of air supply modes for comparison: luggage rack air supply mode, joint mode combining ceiling and luggage rack air supply, and joint mode combining ceiling and individual air supply. Under the above 4 air supply modes, the air velocity, temperature and distribution of air pollutants in a cabin full of passengers were studied using computational fluid dynamics (CFD), and carbon dioxide (CO2) and formaldehyde were selected as 2 kinds of representative air pollutants. The simulation results show that the joint mode combining ceiling and individual air supply can create a more uniform distribution of air velocity and temperature, has a better effect on the removal of CO2 and formaldehyde, and can provide better air quality in cabins than the other 3 modes. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Mixed Reality-based Interactive Technology for Aircraft Cabin Assembly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Shiqi; PENG Tao; WANG Junfeng; XU Chi

    2009-01-01

    Due to the narrowness of space and the complexity of structure, the assembly of aircraft cabin has become one of the major bottlenecks in the whole manufacturing process. To solve the problem, at the beginning of aircraft design, the different stages of the lifecycle of aircraft must be thought about, which include the trial manufacture, assembly, maintenance, recycling and destruction of the product. Recently, thanks to the development of the virtual reality and augmented reality, some low-cost and fast solutions are found for the product assembly. This paper presents a mixed reality-based interactive technology for the aircraft cabin assembly, which can enhance the efficiency of the assemblage in a virtual environment in terms of vision, information and operation. In the mixed reality-based assembly environment, the physical scene can be obtained by a camera and then generated by a computer. The virtual parts, the features of visual assembly, the navigation information, the physical parts and the physical assembly environment will be mixed and presented in the same assembly scene. The mixed or the augmented information will provide some assembling information as a detailed assembly instruction in the mixed reality-based assembly environment. Constraint proxy and its match rules help to reconstruct and visualize the restriction relationship among different parts, and to avoid the complex calculation of constraint's match. Finally, a desktop prototype system of virtual assembly has been built to assist the assembly verification and training with the virtual hand.

  17. Finger temperature as a predictor of thermal comfort for sedentary passengers in a simulated aircraft cabin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strøm-Tejsen, Peter; Wyon, David Peter; Zukowska, Daria

    2009-01-01

    Experiments were carried out in a simulated aircraft cabin with 21 seats installed in a climate chamber, to determine the extent to which passengers’ perception of cabin air quality is affected by air temperature. The temperature inside the cabin was set at three different levels, 20.6, 23.3 and 26...

  18. Impact of Cabin Ozone Concentrations on Passenger Reported Symptoms in Commercial Aircraft

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekö, Gabriel; Allen, Joseph G.; Weschler, Charles J.

    2015-01-01

    Due to elevated ozone concentrations at high altitudes, the adverse effect of ozone on air quality, human perception and health may be more pronounced in aircraft cabins. The association between ozone and passenger-reported symptoms has not been investigated under real conditions since smoking...... was banned on aircraft and ozone converters became more common. Indoor environmental parameters were measured at cruising altitude on 83 US domestic and international flights. Passengers completed a questionnaire about symptoms and satisfaction with the indoor air quality. Average ozone concentrations were...

  19. The effects of the aircraft cabin environment on passengers during simulated flights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strøm-Tejsen, Peter

    2007-01-01

    A 3-row, 21-seat section of a simulated Boeing 767 aircraft cabin has been built in a climate chamber, simulating the cabin environment not only in terms of materials and geometry, but also in terms of cabin air and wall temperatures and ventilation with very dry air. This realistic simulation...... enables subjective assessments of the symptoms commonly experienced by passengers and crew during flights. Six investigations with subject exposure have subsequently been carried out in the aircraft cabin facility covering four environmental areas of study, i.e. humidity, air purification techniques......, ozone, and thermal effects. The humidity study, examining the optimum balance between fresh air supply and humidity, showed that increasing relative humidity in the aircraft cabin by reducing outside air flow did not reduce the intensity of symptoms typically experienced in the aircraft cabin...

  20. Concentrations of selected contaminants in cabin air of airbus aircrafts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dechow, M; Sohn, H; Steinhanses, J

    1997-07-01

    The concentrations of selected air quality parameters in aircraft cabins were investigated including particle numbers in cabin air compared to fresh air and recirculation air, the microbiological contamination and the concentration of volatile organic compounds (VOC). The Airbus types A310 of Swissair and A340 of Lufthansa were used for measurements. The particles were found to be mainly emitted by the passengers, especially by smokers. Depending on recirculation filter efficiency the recirculation air contained a lower or equal amount of particles compared to the fresh air, whereas the amount of bacteria exceeded reported concentrations within other indoor spaces. The detected species were mainly non-pathogenic, with droplet infection over short distances identified as the only health risk. The concentration of volatile organic compounds (VOC) were well below threshold values. Ethanol was identified as the compound with the highest amount in cabin air. Further organics were emitted by the passengers--as metabolic products or by smoking--and on ground as engine exhaust (bad airport air quality). Cleaning agents may be the source of further compounds.

  1. Modeling the Fate of Expiratory Aerosols and the Associated Infection Risk in an Aircraft Cabin Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wan, M.P.; To, G.N.S.; Chao, C.Y.H.

    2009-01-01

    The transport and deposition of polydispersed expiratory aerosols in an aircraft cabin were simulated using a Lagrangian-based model validated by experiments conducted in an aircraft cabin mockup. Infection risk by inhalation was estimated using the aerosol dispersion data and a model was developed...

  2. 77 FR 75600 - Policy Statement on Occupational Safety and Health Standards for Aircraft Cabin Crewmembers...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-21

    ... Occupational Safety and Health Standards for Aircraft Cabin Crewmembers; Extension of Comment Period AGENCY... regarding the regulation of some occupational safety and health conditions affecting cabin crewmembers on aircraft by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration. The comment period is scheduled to close...

  3. Quelling Cabin Noise in Turboprop Aircraft via Active Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kincaid, Rex K.; Laba, Keith E.; Padula, Sharon L.

    1997-01-01

    Cabin noise in turboprop aircraft causes passenger discomfort, airframe fatigue, and employee scheduling constraints due to OSHA standards for exposure to high levels of noise. The noise levels in the cabins of turboprop aircraft are typically 10 to 30 decibels louder than commercial jet noise levels. However. unlike jet noise the turboprop noise spectrum is dominated by a few low frequency tones. Active structural acoustic control is a method in which the control inputs (used to reduce interior noise) are applied directly to a vibrating structural acoustic system. The control concept modeled in this work is the application of in-plane force inputs to piezoceramic patches bonded to the wall of a vibrating cylinder. The goal is to determine the force inputs and locations for the piezoceramic actuators so that: (1) the interior noise is effectively damped; (2) the level of vibration of the cylinder shell is not increased; and (3) the power requirements needed to drive the actuators are not excessive. Computational experiments for data taken from a computer generated model and from a laboratory test article at NASA Langley Research Center are provided.

  4. Structural influence of cabin floor on sound transmission into propeller aircraft - Analytical investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, C. R.

    1986-01-01

    The structural influence of the cabin floor on the transmission of low frequency propeller noise into aircraft interiors has been examined using a simplified analytical model. The response amplitudes and distributions of shell displacement and internal acoustic pressure are examined for various frequencies and floor configurations. In general, at lower frequencies the floor exerts little structural influence on the transmission of acoustic energy to the interior. However, as the frequency nears half the cylinder ring frequency the floor can be seen to significantly alter the internal pressure distributions and response.

  5. Assessment of the thermal environment in a simulated aircraft cabin using thermal manikin exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strøm-Tejsen, Peter; Zukowska, Daria; Jama, Agnieszka

    2007-01-01

    The thermal environment in a full-scale 21-seat section of an aircraft cabin installed in a climate chamber was investigated. Fourteen heated cylinders and two thermal manikins were used to simulate the heat load, buoyancy flow and flow obstruction from passengers in the cabin. Measurements were...

  6. Test of Different Air Distribution Concepts for a Single-Aisle Aircraft Cabin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.; Damsgaard, Charlotte; Liu, Li

    2013-01-01

    Traditionally, air is supplied to the aircraft cabin either by individual nozzles or by supply slots. The air is expected to be fully mixed in the cabin, and the system is considered to be a mixing ventilation system. This paper will describe different air distribution systems known from other...

  7. Test of Different Air Distribution Concepts for a Single-Aisle Aircraft Cabin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.; Damsgaard, Charlotte; Liu, Li;

    2013-01-01

    Traditionally, air is supplied to the aircraft cabin either by individual nozzles or by supply slots. The air is expected to be fully mixed in the cabin, and the system is considered to be a mixing ventilation system. This paper will describe different air distribution systems known from other...

  8. Finger temperature as a predictor of thermal comfort for sedentary passengers in a simulated aircraft cabin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strøm-Tejsen, Peter; Wyon, David Peter; Zukowska, Daria

    2009-01-01

    Experiments were carried out in a simulated aircraft cabin with 21 seats installed in a climate chamber, to determine the extent to which passengers’ perception of cabin air quality is affected by air temperature. The temperature inside the cabin was set at three different levels, 20.6, 23.3 and 26.......1°C. A total of 68 subjects were exposed to each of the three conditions. The subjects completed questionnaires to provide subjective assessments of air quality, cabin environment, intensity of symptoms commonly experienced during flight, and thermal comfort. Objective physiological measurements...

  9. Factors affecting ozone removal rates in a simulated aircraft cabin environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamas, Gyöngyi; Weschler, Charles J.; Bako-Biro, Zsolt

    2006-01-01

    Ozone concentrations were measured concurrently inside a simulated aircraft cabin and in the airstream providing ventilation air to the cabin. Ozone decay rates were also measured after cessation of ozone injection into the supply airstream. By systematically varying the presence or absence...... of people, soiled T-shirts, aircraft seats and a used HEPA filter, we have been able in the course of 24 experiments to isolate the contributions of these and other factors to the removal of ozone from the cabin air. In the case of this simulated aircraft, people were responsible for almost 60% of the ozone...... removal occurring within the cabin and recirculation system; respiration can only have been responsible for about 4% of this removal. The aircraft seats removed about 25% of the ozone; the loaded HEPA filter, 7%; and the other surfaces, 10%. A T-shirt that had been slept in overnight removed roughly 70...

  10. Experimental research on photocatalytic oxidation air purification technology applied to aircraft cabins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Yuexia; Fang, Lei; Wyon, David Peter

    2008-01-01

    The experiment presented in this report was performed in a simulated aircraft cabin to evaluate the air cleaning effects of two air purification devices that used photocatalytic oxidation (PCO) technology. Objective physical, chemical and physiological measurements and subjective human assessments...

  11. Prediction of Turbulent Boundary Layer Induced Noise in the Cabin of a BWB Aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Rocha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the development of analytical models for the prediction of aircraft cabin noise induced by the external turbulent boundary layer (TBL. While, in previous works, the contribution of an individual panel to the cabin interior noise was considered, here, the simultaneous contribution of multiple flow-excited panels is analyzed. Analytical predictions are presented for the interior sound pressure level (SPL at different locations inside the cabin of a Blended Wing Body (BWB aircraft, for the frequency range 0–1000 Hz. The results show that the number of vibrating panels significantly affects the interior noise levels. It is shown that the average SPL, over the cabin volume, increases with the number of vibrating panels. Additionally, the model is able to predict local SPL values, at specific locations in the cabin, which are also affected with by number of vibrating panels, and are different from the average values.

  12. Vibro-acoustic model of an active aircraft cabin window

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aloufi, Badr; Behdinan, Kamran; Zu, Jean

    2017-06-01

    This paper presents modeling and design of an active structural acoustic control (ASAC) system for controlling the low frequency sound field transmitted through an aircraft cabin window. The system uses stacked piezoelectric elements arranged in a manner to generate out-of-plane actuation point forces acting on the window panel boundaries. A theoretical vibro-acoustic model for an active quadruple-panel system is developed to characterize the dynamic behavior of the system and achieve a good understanding of the active control performance and the physical phenomena of the sound transmission loss (STL) characteristics. The quadruple-panel system represents the passenger window design used in some classes of modern aircraft with an exterior double pane of Plexiglas, an interior dust cover pane and a glazed dimmable pane, all separated by thin air cavities. The STL characteristics of identical pane window configurations with different piezoelectric actuator sets are analyzed. A parametric study describes the influence of important active parameters, such as the input voltage, number and location of the actuator elements, on the STL is investigated. In addition, a mathematical model for obtaining the optimal input voltage is developed to improve the acoustic attenuation capability of the control system. In general, the achieved results indicate that the proposed ASAC design offers a considerable improvement in the passive sound loss performance of cabin window design without significant effects, such as weight increase, on the original design. Also, the results show that the acoustic control of the active model with piezoelectric actuators bonded to the dust cover pane generates high structural vibrations in the radiating panel (dust cover) and an increase in sound power radiation. High active acoustic attenuation can be achieved by designing the ASAC system to apply active control forces on the inner Plexiglas panel or dimmable panel by installing the actuators on the

  13. Cabin Air Quality in Commercial Aircraft : Exposure, Symptoms and Signs

    OpenAIRE

    Lindgren, Torsten

    2003-01-01

    The objective of the dissertation was to study the cabin environment, and identify personal and environmental risk factors, associated with symptoms, and perception of cabin air quality. Another objective was to study if ban of smoking, and increased relative air humidity on intercontinental flights, could have a beneficial health effect. The studies were performed among Scandinavian cabin crew in one Airline Company. Office workers from the same company served as controls. Exposure differed ...

  14. Computational fluid dynamics modeling of transport and deposition of pesticides in an aircraft cabin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isukapalli, Sastry S; Mazumdar, Sagnik; George, Pradeep; Wei, Binnian; Jones, Byron; Weisel, Clifford P

    2013-04-01

    Spraying of pesticides in aircraft cabins is required by some countries as part of a disinsection process to kill insects that pose a public health threat. However, public health concerns remain regarding exposures of cabin crew and passengers to pesticides in aircraft cabins. While large scale field measurements of pesticide residues and air concentrations in aircraft cabins scenarios are expensive and time consuming, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) models provide an effective alternative for characterizing concentration distributions and exposures. This study involved CFD modeling of a twin-aisle 11 row cabin mockup with heated manikins, mimicking a part of a fully occupied Boeing 767 cabin. The model was applied to study the flow and deposition of pesticides under representative scenarios with different spraying patterns (sideways and overhead) and cabin air exchange rates (low and high). Corresponding spraying experiments were conducted in the cabin mockup, and pesticide deposition samples were collected at the manikin's lap and seat top for a limited set of five seats. The CFD model performed well for scenarios corresponding to high air exchange rates, captured the concentration profiles for middle seats under low air exchange rates, and underestimated the concentrations at window seats under low air exchange rates. Additionally, both the CFD and experimental measurements showed no major variation in deposition characteristics between sideways and overhead spraying. The CFD model can estimate concentration fields and deposition profiles at very high resolutions, which can be used for characterizing the overall variability in air concentrations and surface loadings. Additionally, these model results can also provide a realistic range of surface and air concentrations of pesticides in the cabin that can be used to estimate potential exposures of cabin crew and passengers to these pesticides.

  15. Prediction of air temperature in the aircraft cabin under different operational conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fišer J.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the prediction of the air temperature in the aircraft cabin by means of Computational Fluid Dynamics. The simulations are performed on the CFD model which is based on geometry and cabin interior arrangement of the Flight Test Facility (FTF located at Fraunhofer IBP, Germany. The experimental test flights under three different cabin temperatures were done in FTF and the various data were gathered during these flights. Air temperature in the cabin was measured on probes located near feet, torso and head of each passenger and also surface temperature and air temperature distributed from inlets were measured. The data were firstly analysed in order to obtain boundary conditions for cabin surfaces and inlets. Then the results of air temperature from the simulations were compared with measured data. The suitability and accuracy of the CFD approach for temperature prediction is discussed.

  16. A critical review of reported air concentrations of organic compounds in aircraft cabins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagda, N L; Rector, H E

    2003-09-01

    This paper presents a review and assessment of aircraft cabin air quality studies with measured levels of volatile and semivolatile organic compounds (VOCs and SVOCs). VOC and SVOC concentrations reported for aircraft cabins are compared with those reported for residential and office buildings and for passenger compartments of other types of transportation. An assessment of measurement technologies and quality assurance procedures is included. The six studies reviewed in the paper range in coverage from two to about 30 flights per study. None of the monitored flights included any unusual or episodic events that could affect cabin air quality. Most studies have used scientifically sound methods for measurements. Study results indicate that under routine aircraft operations, contaminant levels in aircraft cabins are similar to those in residential and office buildings, with two exceptions: (1). levels of ethanol and acetone, indicators of bioeffluents and chemicals from consumer products are higher in aircraft than in home or office environments, and (2). levels of certain chlorinated hydrocarbons and fuel-related contaminants are higher in residential/office buildings than in aircraft. Similarly, ethanol and acetone levels are higher in aircraft than in other transportation modes but the levels of some pollutants, such as m-/p-xylenes, tend to be lower in aircraft.

  17. Proposal to Reduce Temperature in the Aircraft Cabin of T90-Calima

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Néstor Fabián Cedeño Niño

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Temperature is important when performing an activity, if wind chill is not pleasant, a simple job can turn into a complicated job, exposing the integrity of the person. In training aircrafts, pilots are aware of the inconveniences of exposure to high temperature generated by solar radiation and equipment among others. By including a cooling system on the training cabin, the aircraft is affected by characteristics such as balance, increased fuel consumption and decreased efficiency due to increased weight. In this article, we present three ways to reduce the temperature in the cabin of the aircraft T-90 in the different phases of flight. They consist of implementing air inlets and outlets, using a heating film for the cabin and developing a device that allows air circulation in the pre-takeoff stage.

  18. Experimental studies of thermal environment and contaminant transport in a commercial aircraft cabin with gaspers on.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, B; Duan, R; Li, J; Huang, Y; Yin, H; Lin, C-H; Wei, D; Shen, X; Liu, J; Chen, Q

    2016-10-01

    Gaspers installed in commercial airliner cabins are used to improve passengers' thermal comfort. To understand the impact of gasper airflow on the air quality in a cabin, this investigation measured the distributions of air velocity, air temperature, and gaseous contaminant concentration in five rows of the economy-class section of an MD-82 commercial aircraft. The gaseous contaminant was simulated using SF6 as a tracer gas with the source located at the mouth of a seated manikin close to the aisle. Two-fifths of the gaspers next to the aisle were turned on in the cabin, and each of them supplied air at a flow rate of 0.66 l/s. The airflow rate in the economy-class cabin was controlled at 10 l/s per passenger. Data obtained in a previous study of the cabin with all gaspers turned off were used for comparison. The results show that the jets from the gaspers had a substantial impact on the air velocity and contaminant transport in the cabin. The air velocity in the cabin was higher, and the air temperature slightly more uniform, when the gaspers were on than when they were off, but turning on the gaspers may not have improved the air quality.

  19. The influence of ozone on self-evaluation of symptoms in a simulated aircraft cabin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strøm-Tejsen, Peter; Weschler, Charles J.; Wargocki, Pawel

    2008-01-01

    Simulated 4-h flights were carried out in a realistic model of a three-row, 21-seat section of an aircraft cabin that was reconstructed inside a climate chamber. Twenty-nine female subjects, age 19-27 years, were split into two groups; each group was exposed to four conditions: two levels of ozone (...

  20. Experimental research on photocatalytic oxidation air purification technology applied to aircraft cabins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Yuexia; Fang, Lei; Wyon, David P.

    2005-01-01

    The experiment presented in this report was performed in a simulated aircraft cabin to evalu-ate the air cleaning effects of two air purification devices using Photocatalytic Oxidation (PCO) technology. Objective physical, chemical and physiological measurements and subjec-tive human assessments...

  1. Perceived Air Quality of an Occupied, Ozone Exposed, Simulated Aircraft Cabin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamás, Gyöngyi; Strøm-Tejsen, Peter; Zarzycka, Julita

    2006-01-01

    Perceived air quality was studied in a simulated aircraft cabin. Four different air quality conditions were created at low and high air change rates in the presence and absence of ozone. Two additional assessments of air quality were also performed at high outdoor airflow rates in the absence...

  2. Advanced air distribution for minimizing airborne cross infection in aircraft cabin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Dzhartov, Viktor

    2012-01-01

    The performance of personalized ventilation combined with local suction at each seat was studied for the purpose of minimizing airborne cross-infection in vehicle compartments. Experiments were carried out in a simulated aircraft cabin section (3 rows, 21 seats). One breathing thermal manikin...

  3. Advanced air distribution for minimizing airborne cross-infection in aircraft cabins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Dzhartov, Viktor

    2013-01-01

    The performance of personalized ventilation combined with local exhaust at each seat was studied for the purpose of minimizing airborne cross-infection in spaces whose occupants are sedentary, such as transportation environments. Experiments were carried out in a simulated aircraft cabin section (3...

  4. 77 FR 72998 - Policy Statement on Occupational Safety and Health Standards for Aircraft Cabin Crewmembers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-07

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Parts 91, 121, 125 and 135 Policy Statement on Occupational Safety... a proposed policy statement regarding the regulation of some occupational safety and health conditions affecting cabin crewmembers on aircraft by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration...

  5. Perceived Air Quality of an Occupied, Ozone Exposed, Simulated Aircraft Cabin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamás, Gyöngyi; Strøm-Tejsen, Peter; Zarzycka, Julita

    2006-01-01

    Perceived air quality was studied in a simulated aircraft cabin. Four different air quality conditions were created at low and high air change rates in the presence and absence of ozone. Two additional assessments of air quality were also performed at high outdoor airflow rates in the absence...

  6. Proposal to Reduce Temperature in the Aircraft Cabin of T90-Calima

    OpenAIRE

    Néstor Fabián Cedeño Niño; Elías Fernando Acosta Palacios; Ramiro Alejandro Plazas Rosas

    2015-01-01

    Temperature is important when performing an activity, if wind chill is not pleasant, a simple job can turn into a complicated job, exposing the integrity of the person. In training aircrafts, pilots are aware of the inconveniences of exposure to high temperature generated by solar radiation and equipment among others. By including a cooling system on the training cabin, the aircraft is affected by characteristics such as balance, increased fuel consumption and decreased efficiency due to incr...

  7. Assessment of the thermal environment in a simulated aircraft cabin using thermal manikin exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strøm-Tejsen, Peter; Zukowska, Daria; Jama, Agnieszka

    2007-01-01

    investigation in which 4 groups of 17 subjects participated, each group being exposed to the same three temperature conditions during simulated 7-hour transatlantic flights. The assessments indicate that an air temperature increase in the middle of a 7-hour flight period followed by a decrease before landing......The thermal environment in a full-scale 21-seat section of an aircraft cabin installed in a climate chamber was investigated. Fourteen heated cylinders and two thermal manikins were used to simulate the heat load, buoyancy flow and flow obstruction from passengers in the cabin. Measurements were...

  8. Laboratory test and acoustic analysis of cabin treatment for propfan test assessment aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuntz, H. L.; Gatineau, R. J.

    1991-01-01

    An aircraft cabin acoustic enclosure, built in support of the Propfan Test Assessment (PTA) program, is described. Helmholtz resonators were attached to the cabin trim panels to increase the sidewall transmission loss (TL). Resonators (448) were located between the trim panels and fuselage shell. In addition, 152 resonators were placed between the enclosure and aircraft floors. The 600 resonators were each tuned to a 235 Hz resonance frequency. After flight testing on the PTA aircraft, the enclosure was tested in the Kelly Johnson R and D Center Acoustics Lab. Laboratory noise reduction (NR) test results are discussed. The enclosure was placed in a Gulfstream 2 fuselage section. Broadband (138 dB overall SPL) and tonal (149 dB overall SPL) excitations were used in the lab. Tonal excitation simulated the propfan flight test excitation. The fundamental tone was stepped in 2 Hz intervals from 225 through 245 Hz. The resonators increase the NR of the cabin walls around the resonance frequency of the resonator array. The effects of flanking, sidewall absorption, cabin adsorption, resonator loading of trim panels, and panel vibrations are presented. Increases in NR of up to 11 dB were measured.

  9. Experimental Study of Dispersion and Deposition of Expiratory Aerosols in Aircraft Cabins and Impact on Infectious Disease Transmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    To, G.N.S.; Wan, M.P.; Chao, C.Y.H.

    2009-01-01

    The dispersion and deposition characteristics of polydispersed expiratory aerosols were investigated in an aircraft cabin mockup to study the transmission of infectious diseases. The airflow was characterized by particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements. Aerosol dispersionwas measured...

  10. Passenger thermal comfort and behavior: a field investigation in commercial aircraft cabins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, W; Wu, T; Ouyang, Q; Zhu, Y

    2017-01-01

    Passengers' behavioral adjustments warrant greater attention in thermal comfort research in aircraft cabins. Thus, a field investigation on 10 commercial aircrafts was conducted. Environment measurements were made and a questionnaire survey was performed. In the questionnaire, passengers were asked to evaluate their thermal comfort and record their adjustments regarding the usage of blankets and ventilation nozzles. The results indicate that behavioral adjustments in the cabin and the use of blankets or nozzle adjustments were employed by 2/3 of the passengers. However, the thermal comfort evaluations by these passengers were not as good as the evaluations by passengers who did not perform any adjustments. Possible causes such as differences in metabolic rate, clothing insulation and radiation asymmetry are discussed. The individual difference seems to be the most probable contributor, suggesting possibly that passengers who made adjustments had a narrower acceptance threshold or a higher expectancy regarding the cabin environment. Local thermal comfort was closely related to the adjustments and significantly influenced overall thermal comfort. Frequent flying was associated with lower ratings for the cabin environment.

  11. Standard Test Method to Determine Color Change and Staining Caused by Aircraft Maintenance Chemicals upon Aircraft Cabin Interior Hard Surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2001-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of color change and staining from liquid solutions, such as cleaning or disinfecting chemicals or both, on painted metallic surfaces and nonmetallic surfaces of materials being used inside the aircraft cabin. The effects upon the exposed specimens are measured with the AATCC Gray Scale for Color Change and AATCC Gray Color Scale for Staining. Note 1—This test method is applicable to any colored nonmetallic hard surface in contact with liquids. The selected test specimens are chosen because these materials are present in the majority of aircraft cabin interiors. 1.2This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  12. Experimental research on photocatalytic oxidation air purification technology applied to aircraft cabins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Yuexia; Fang, Lei; Wyon, David P.

    2005-01-01

    The experiment presented in this report was performed in a simulated aircraft cabin to evalu-ate the air cleaning effects of two air purification devices using Photocatalytic Oxidation (PCO) technology. Objective physical, chemical and physiological measurements and subjec-tive human assessments ...... observed after the first 3¼ hours of exposure. After 6 hours of expo-sure, a positive effect of using either PCO units on symptoms of dizziness and claustrophobia were observed....

  13. Wireless Local Area Network Performance Inside Aircraft Passenger Cabins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whetten, Frank L.; Soroker, Andrew; Whetten, Dennis A.; Whetten, Frank L.; Beggs, John H.

    2005-01-01

    An examination of IEEE 802.11 wireless network performance within an aircraft fuselage is performed. This examination measured the propagated RF power along the length of the fuselage, and the associated network performance: the link speed, total throughput, and packet losses and errors. A total of four airplanes: one single-aisle and three twin-aisle airplanes were tested with 802.11a, 802.11b, and 802.11g networks.

  14. Ozone consumption and volatile byproduct formation from surface reactions with aircraft cabin materials and clothing fabrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Beverly K.; Destaillats, Hugo; Hodgson, Alfred T.; Nazaroff, William W.

    We measured ozone consumption and byproduct formation on materials commonly found in aircraft cabins at flight-relevant conditions. Two series of small-chamber experiments were conducted, with most runs at low relative humidity (10%) and high air-exchange rate (˜20 h -1). New and used cabin materials (seat fabric, carpet, and plastic) and laundered and worn clothing fabrics (cotton, polyester, and wool) were studied. We measured ozone deposition to many material samples, and we measured ozone uptake and primary and secondary emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from a subset of samples. Deposition velocities ranged from 0.06 to 0.54 cm s -1. Emissions of VOCs were higher with ozone than without ozone in every case. The most commonly detected secondary emissions were C 1 through C 10 saturated aldehydes and the squalene oxidation products 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one and acetone. For the compounds measured, summed VOC emission rates in the presence of 55-128 ppb (residual level) ozone ranged from 1.0 to 8.9 μmol h -1 m -2. Total byproduct yield ranged from 0.07 to 0.24 moles of product volatilized per mole of ozone consumed. Results were used to estimate the relative contribution of different materials to ozone deposition and byproduct emissions in a typical aircraft cabin. The dominant contributor to both was clothing fabrics, followed by seat fabric. Results indicate that ozone reactions with surfaces substantially reduce the ozone concentration in the cabin but also generate volatile byproducts of potential concern for the health and comfort of passengers and crew.

  15. Correlation between subjective assessments of local thermal discomfort and thermal manikin measurements in a simulated aircraft cabin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zukowska, Daria; Strøm-Tejsen, Peter; Jama, Agnieszka

    2005-01-01

    The thermal environment in a 21-seat simulated section of an aircraft cabin installed in a climate chamber was investigated. Using two thermal manikins and fourteen heated cylin-ders to represent passengers, measurements were carried out at cabin temperatures of 20.6°C, 23.3°C and 26.1°C (69°F, 74...

  16. Passenger evaluation of the optimum balance between fresh air supply and humidity from 7-h exposures in a simulated aircraft cabin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strøm-Tejsen, Peter; Wyon, David Peter; Lagercrantz, Love Per

    2007-01-01

    A 21-seat section of an aircraft cabin with realistic pollution sources was built inside a climate chamber capable of providing fresh outside air at very low humidity. Maintaining a constant 200 l/s rate of total air supply, i.e. recircu-lated and make-up air, to the cabin, experiments simulating 7....... Analysis of the subjec-tive assessments showed that increasing RH in the aircraft cabin to 28% RH by reducing outside flow to 1.4 l/s per person did not reduce the intensity of the symptoms that are typical of the aircraft cabin environment. On the contrary, it intensified complaints of headache, dizziness...

  17. The influence of air duct geometry on air jet direction in aircraft cabin ventilated by mixing ventilation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jícha M.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with instigation of influence of air duct geometry on air jet direction in aircraft cabin ventilated by mixing ventilation. CFD approach was used for investigation and model geometry was based on small aircraft cabin mock-up geometry. Model was also equipped by nine seats and five manikins that represent passengers. The air jet direction was observed for selected ambient environment parameters and several types of air duct geometry and influence of main air duct geometry on jets direction is discussed. The model was created in StarCCM+ ver. 6.04.014 software and polyhedral mesh was used.

  18. The influence of air duct geometry on air jet direction in aircraft cabin ventilated by mixing ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fišer, J.; Jícha, M.

    2013-04-01

    The paper deals with instigation of influence of air duct geometry on air jet direction in aircraft cabin ventilated by mixing ventilation. CFD approach was used for investigation and model geometry was based on small aircraft cabin mock-up geometry. Model was also equipped by nine seats and five manikins that represent passengers. The air jet direction was observed for selected ambient environment parameters and several types of air duct geometry and influence of main air duct geometry on jets direction is discussed. The model was created in StarCCM+ ver. 6.04.014 software and polyhedral mesh was used.

  19. Products of Ozone-initiated Chemistry during 4-hour Exposures of Human Subjects in a Simulated Aircraft Cabin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weschler, Charles J.; Wisthaler, Armin; Tamás, Gyöngyi

    2006-01-01

    Proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) was used to examine organic compounds in the air of a simulated aircraft cabin under four conditions: low ozone, low air exchange rate; low ozone, high air exchange rate; high ozone, low air exchange rate; high ozone, high air exchange rate...

  20. Products of Ozone-initiated Chemistry during 4-hour Exposures of Human Subjects in a Simulated Aircraft Cabin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weschler, Charles J.; Wisthaler, Armin; Tamás, Gyöngyi;

    2006-01-01

    Proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) was used to examine organic compounds in the air of a simulated aircraft cabin under four conditions: low ozone, low air exchange rate; low ozone, high air exchange rate; high ozone, low air exchange rate; high ozone, high air exchange rate...

  1. Experimental investigation of airborne contaminant transport by a human wake moving in a ventilated aircraft cabin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poussou, Stephane B.

    The air ventilation system in jetliners provides a comfortable and healthy environment for passengers. Unfortunately, the increase in global air traffic has amplified the risks presented by infectious aerosols or noxious material released during flight. Inside the cabin, air typically flows continuously from overhead outlets into sidewall exhausts in a circular pattern that minimizes secondary flow between adjacent seat rows. However, disturbances frequently introduced by individuals walking along an aisle may alter air distribution, and contribute to spreading of contaminants. Numerical simulation of these convoluted transient flow phenomena is difficult and complex, and experimental assessment of contaminant distribution in real cabins often impractical. A fundamental experimental study was undertaken to examine the transport phenomena, to validate computations and to improve air monitoring systems. A finite moving body was modeled in a 10:1 scale simplified aircraft cabin equipped with ventilation, at a Reynolds number (based on body diameter) of the order of 10,000. An experimental facility was designed and constructed to permit measurements of the ventilation and wake velocity fields using particle image velocimetry (PIV). Contaminant migration was imaged using the planar laser induced fluorescence (PLIF) technique. The effect of ventilation was estimated by comparison with a companion baseline study. Results indicate that the evolution of a downwash predominant behind finite bodies of small aspect ratio is profoundly perturbed by the ventilation flow. The reorganization of vortical structures in the near-wake leads to a shorter longitudinal recirculation region. Furthermore, mixing in the wake is modified and contaminant is observed to convect to higher vertical locations corresponding to seated passenger breathing level.

  2. Numerical Modelling and Damage Assessment of Rotary Wing Aircraft Cabin Door Using Continuum Damage Mechanics Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyina, Gangadhara Rao T.; Rayavarapu, Vijaya Kumar; V. V., Subba Rao

    2017-02-01

    The prediction of ultimate strength remains the main challenge in the simulation of the mechanical response of composite structures. This paper examines continuum damage model to predict the strength and size effects for deformation and failure response of polymer composite laminates when subjected to complex state of stress. The paper also considers how the overall results of the exercise can be applied in design applications. The continuum damage model is described and the resulting prediction of size effects are compared against the standard benchmark solutions. The stress analysis for strength prediction of rotary wing aircraft cabin door is carried out. The goal of this study is to extend the proposed continuum damage model such that it can be accurately predict the failure around stress concentration regions. The finite element-based continuum damage mechanics model can be applied to the structures and components of arbitrary configurations where analytical solutions could not be developed.

  3. A Review of Methods Applied to Study Airborne Biocontaminants inside Aircraft Cabins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro Tavares Conceição

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Indoor-cross infection of expiratory contaminants is still a concern, worsened by the SARS outbreak in 2003 and recent cases of influenza strains (H1N1, avian flu, etc.. A variety of methods to study the airborne spread of expiratory contaminants have been worked out, including the use of tracer gas, particle generators, and CFD simulations. In this context, the main objective of this work is reviewing methods to evaluate airborne dispersion of contaminants, more specifically those related to cross infection of expiratory droplets inside aircraft cabins. This literature review provides guidance in developing methods and choosing equipment for future studies.This study gathers knowledge developed so far in a common source, serving as a guideline for researchers who work in this area.

  4. Analyses of integrated aircraft cabin contaminant monitoring network based on Kalman consensus filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rui; Li, Yanxiao; Sun, Hui; Chen, Zengqiang

    2017-07-11

    The modern civil aircrafts use air ventilation pressurized cabins subject to the limited space. In order to monitor multiple contaminants and overcome the hypersensitivity of the single sensor, the paper constructs an output correction integrated sensor configuration using sensors with different measurement theories after comparing to other two different configurations. This proposed configuration works as a node in the contaminant distributed wireless sensor monitoring network. The corresponding measurement error models of integrated sensors are also proposed by using the Kalman consensus filter to estimate states and conduct data fusion in order to regulate the single sensor measurement results. The paper develops the sufficient proof of the Kalman consensus filter stability when considering the system and the observation noises and compares the mean estimation and the mean consensus errors between Kalman consensus filter and local Kalman filter. The numerical example analyses show the effectiveness of the algorithm. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The thematic structure of passenger comfort experience and its relationship to the context features in the aircraft cabin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadpour, Naseem; Lindgaard, Gitte; Robert, Jean-Marc; Pownall, Bernard

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes passenger comfort as an experience generated by the cabin interior features. The findings of previous studies are affirmed regarding a set of 22 context features. Passengers experience a certain level of comfort when these features impact their body and elicit subjective perceptions. New findings characterise these perceptions in the form of eight themes and outline their particular eliciting features. Comfort is depicted as a complex construct derived by passengers' perceptions beyond the psychological (i.e. peace of mind) and physical (i.e. physical well-being) aspects, and includes perceptual (e.g. proxemics) and semantic (e.g. association) aspects. The seat was shown to have a focal role in eliciting seven of those themes and impacting comfort through its diverse characteristics. In a subsequent study, a group of aircraft cabin interior designers highlighted the possibility of employing the eight themes and their eliciting features as a framework for design and evaluation of new aircraft interiors.

  6. 78 FR 52848 - Occupational Safety and Health Standards for Aircraft Cabin Crewmembers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-27

    ... requirements; exposure to radiation; cabin air quality issues; food/beverage carts; and ergonomics. OSHA's... cosmic, galactic and solar ionizing radiation exposure, cabin air quality, food and beverage cart and... believed that a voluntary, data-based system or a Safety Management System (SMS)-based approach should be...

  7. Correlation between subjective assessments of local thermal discomfort and thermal manikin measurements in a simulated aircraft cabin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zukowska, Daria; Strøm-Tejsen, Peter; Jama, Agnieszka

    2005-01-01

    participated, each being exposed to the same three temperature conditions during simulated 7-hour transatlantic flights. The assessments indicate that an air temperature increase in the middle of a 7-hour flight period followed by a decrease before landing might be preferred. A comparison be-tween manikin......The thermal environment in a 21-seat simulated section of an aircraft cabin installed in a climate chamber was investigated. Using two thermal manikins and fourteen heated cylin-ders to represent passengers, measurements were carried out at cabin temperatures of 20.6°C, 23.3°C and 26.1°C (69°F, 74...

  8. Impacts of an Ammonia Leak on the Cabin Atmosphere of the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchesne, Stephanie M.; Sweterlitsch, Jeffrey J.; Son, Chang H.; Perry Jay L.

    2012-01-01

    Toxic chemical release into the cabin atmosphere is one of the three major emergency scenarios identified on the International Space Station (ISS). The release of anhydrous ammonia, the coolant used in the U.S. On-orbit Segment (USOS) External Active Thermal Control Subsystem (EATCS), into the ISS cabin atmosphere is one of the most serious toxic chemical release cases identified on board ISS. The USOS Thermal Control System (TCS) includes an Internal Thermal Control Subsystem (ITCS) water loop and an EATCS ammonia loop that transfer heat at the interface heat exchanger (IFHX). Failure modes exist that could cause a breach within the IFHX. This breach would result in high pressure ammonia from the EATCS flowing into the lower pressure ITCS water loop. As the pressure builds in the ITCS loop, it is likely that the gas trap, which has the lowest maximum design pressure within the ITCS, would burst and cause ammonia to enter the ISS atmosphere. It is crucial to first characterize the release of ammonia into the ISS atmosphere in order to develop methods to properly mitigate the environmental risk. This paper will document the methods used to characterize an ammonia leak into the ISS cabin atmosphere. A mathematical model of the leak was first developed in order to define the flow of ammonia into the ISS cabin atmosphere based on a series of IFHX rupture cases. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) methods were then used to model the dispersion of the ammonia throughout the ISS cabin and determine localized effects and ventilation effects on the dispersion of ammonia. Lastly, the capabilities of the current on-orbit systems to remove ammonia were reviewed and scrubbing rates of the ISS systems were defined based on the ammonia release models. With this full characterization of the release of ammonia from the USOS TCS, an appropriate mitigation strategy that includes crew and system emergency response procedures, personal protection equipment use, and atmosphere monitoring

  9. Occupant evaluation of 7-hour exposures in a simulated aircraft cabin - Part 1: Optimum balance between fresh air supply and humidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strøm-Tejsen, Peter; Wyon, David Peter; Lagercrantz, Love Per

    2005-01-01

    low humidity. Experiments simulating 7-hour transatlantic flights were car-ried out at four outside air supply rates - 1.4, 3.3, 4.7 and 9.4 L/s per person (3, 7, 10 and 20 cfm/p) - yielding average humidity levels of 28%, 16%, 11% and 7% RH, respectively. Four groups of 16-18 subjects were exposed......Low humidity in the aircraft cabin environment has been identified as a possible cause of symptoms experienced during long flights. A mock-up of a 21-seat section of an aircraft cabin with realistic pollution sources was built inside a climate chamber, capable of providing fresh outside air at very...... to the four conditions. The subjects completed ques-tionnaires to provide subjective assessments of symptoms commonly experienced during flights. Increasing humidity to 28% RH by reducing outside air supply rate did not reduce the intensity of the symptoms typical of the aircraft cabin environment...

  10. 飞机座舱内空气品质计算%Numerical Simulation of Cabin Air Quality in Aircraft

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘静悦; 张大林; 纪兵兵

    2011-01-01

    为改善飞机座舱的空气分配系统,在某型飞机的一段客舱物理模型里,设计了天花板送风与行李架侧壁送风(可考虑或不考虑个人通风口送风)两种主要供气方案.使用雷诺平均Navier-Stokes方程下的k-ε湍流模型和增强壁面函数法来模拟舱内湍流流场,并分别计算空气的速度场和温度场分布,以及CO2浓度分布情况.通过对参数的分析比较,提出天花板送风方案配合个人通风口送风的使用可以提供较好的舱内空气品质,计算结果为座舱环控系统的优化设计提供一定的理论依据.%To improve the air distribution system for aircraft cabins,this paper uses numerical simulation under investigation. A detailed CFD model of a small section is built in the passenger cabin of an aircraft and a Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) simulation with the k-ε equations is performed to adjust turbulence. The CFD program is used to calculate the distribution of the air velocity,air temperature,and CO2 concentration in the cabin with the ceiling air supply system and luggage air displacement system (the personalized air distribution systems can be considered or not), respectively. By comparing the air and contaminant distributions in the cabin,this study comes to the conclusion that the air quality is better by the ceiling air supply with the personalized air distribution system.

  11. International Space Station Common Cabin Air Assembly Condensing Heat Exchanger Hydrophilic Coating Failures and Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balistreri, Steven F.; Shaw, Laura A.; Laliberte, Yvon

    2010-01-01

    The ability to control the temperature and humidity of an environment or habitat is critical for human survival. These factors are important to maintaining human health and comfort, as well as maintaining mechanical and electrical equipment in good working order to support the human and to accomplish mission objectives. The temperature and humidity of the International Space Station (ISS) United States On-orbit Segment (USOS) cabin air is controlled by the Common Cabin Air Assembly (CCAA). The CCAA consists of a fan, a condensing heat exchanger (CHX), an air/water separator, temperature and liquid sensors, and electrical controlling hardware and software. The CHX is the primary component responsible for control of temperature and humidity. The CCAA CHX contains a chemical coating that was developed to be hydrophilic and thus attract water from the humid influent air. This attraction forms the basis for water removal and therefore cabin humidity control. However, there have been several instances of CHX coatings becoming hydrophobic and repelling water. When this behavior is observed in an operational CHX, the unit s ability to remove moisture from the air is compromised and the result is liquid water carryover into downstream ducting and systems. This water carryover can have detrimental effects on the cabin atmosphere quality and on the health of downstream hardware. If the water carryover is severe and widespread, this behavior can result in an inability to maintain humidity levels in the USOS. This paper will describe the operation of the five CCAAs within in the USOS, the potential causes of the hydrophobic condition, and the impacts of the resulting water carryover to downstream systems. It will describe the history of this behavior and the actual observed impacts to the ISS USOS. Information on mitigation steps to protect the health of future CHX hydrophilic coatings and potential remediation techniques will also be discussed.

  12. An Approximate Method of Calculation of Relative Humidity Required to Prevent Frosting on Inside of Aircraft Pressure Cabin Windows, Special Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Alun R.

    1940-01-01

    This report has been prepare in response to a request for information from an aircraft company. A typical example was selected for the presentation of an approximate method of calculation of the relative humidity required to prevent frosting on the inside of a plastic window in a pressure type cabin on a high speed airplane. The results of the study are reviewed.

  13. 客机座舱气态污染物及其净化技术现状%Review of gaseous pollutants in aircraft cabin and purification technologies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆义; 裴晶晶; 韩旭; 刘鲁萌; 刘俊杰

    2014-01-01

    介绍了客机座舱环境的特点与飞机环境控制系统中的通风净化系统,给出了国外关于机舱内空气质量的实际调查结果,总结了目前新风中臭氧处理的方法及可能面临的问题,对可用于回风中挥发性有机化合物处理的几种技术及其利弊进行了分析对比,探讨了机舱空气净化技术的发展方向。%Presents the characteristics of aircraft cabin environment and the ventilation purification system of its environmental control system.Gives survey results of cabin air quality,and summarizes ozone treatment methods in cabin outdoor air systems and potential problems.Analyses and compares several technologies that can be used for removal of volatile organic compounds in cabin return air systems. Discusses the developing orientation of cabin air purification technology.

  14. Investigation of vulnerability of aircraft structure and materials towards cabin explosions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wentzel, C.M.; Kasteele, R.M. van de; Soetens, F.

    2007-01-01

    Damage Tolerance of aircraft fuselage structures has a strong link to explosion resistance. Though accidental explosions can and do occur, intentional explosions are more common as the terrorist threat increases. Structural toughness is as welcome in these scenarios as it is under penetration of non

  15. International Space Station Common Cabin Air Assembly Water Separator On-Orbit Operation, Failure, and Redesign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balistreri, Steven F., Jr.; Shaw, Laura A.; Laliberte, Yvon

    2010-01-01

    The ability to control the temperature and humidity of an environment or habitat is critical for human survival. These factors are important to maintaining human health and comfort, as well as maintaining mechanical and electrical equipment in good working order to support the human and to accomplish mission objectives. The temperature and humidity of the International Space Station (ISS) United States On-orbit Segment (USOS) cabin air is controlled by the Common Cabin Air Assembly (CCAA). The CCAA consists of a fan, a condensing heat exchanger (CHX), an air/water separator, temperature and liquid sensors, and electrical controlling hardware and software. The Water Separator (WS) pulls in air and water from the CHX, and centrifugally separates the mixture, sending the water to the condensate bus and the air back into the CHX outlet airstream. Two distinct early failures of the CCAA Water Separator in the Quest Airlock forced operational changes and brought about the re-design of the Water Separator to improve the useful life via modification kits. The on-orbit operational environment of the Airlock presented challenges that were not foreseen with the original design of the Water Separator. Operational changes were instituted to prolong the life of the third installed WS, while waiting for newly designed Water Separators to be delivered on-orbit. The modification kit design involved several different components of the Water Separator, including the innovative use of a fabrication technique to build the impellers used in Water Separators out of titanium instead of aluminum. The technique allowed for the cost effective production of the low quantity build. This paper will describe the failures of the Water Separators in the Quest Airlock, the operational constraints that were implemented to prolong the life of the installed Water Separators throughout the USOS, and the innovative re-design of the CCAA Water Separator.

  16. Organophosphates in aircraft cabin and cockpit air--method development and measurements of contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solbu, Kasper; Daae, Hanne Line; Olsen, Raymond; Thorud, Syvert; Ellingsen, Dag Gunnar; Lindgren, Torsten; Bakke, Berit; Lundanes, Elsa; Molander, Paal

    2011-05-01

    Methods for measurements and the potential for occupational exposure to organophosphates (OPs) originating from turbine and hydraulic oils among flying personnel in the aviation industry are described. Different sampling methods were applied, including active within-day methods for OPs and VOCs, newly developed passive long-term sample methods (deposition of OPs to wipe surface areas and to activated charcoal cloths), and measurements of OPs in high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) recirculation filters (n = 6). In total, 95 and 72 within-day OP and VOC samples, respectively, have been collected during 47 flights in six different models of turbine jet engine, propeller and helicopter aircrafts (n = 40). In general, the OP air levels from the within-day samples were low. The most relevant OP in this regard originating from turbine and engine oils, tricresyl phosphate (TCP), was detected in only 4% of the samples (min-max cockpit air, was an order of magnitude higher as compared to after engine replacement (p = 0.02).

  17. Airborne aldehydes in cabin-air of commercial aircraft: Measurement by HPLC with UV absorbance detection of 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberger, Wolfgang; Beckmann, Bibiana; Wrbitzky, Renate

    2016-04-15

    This paper presents the strategy and results of in-flight measurements of airborne aldehydes during normal operation and reported "smell events" on commercial aircraft. The aldehyde-measurement is a part of a large-scale study on cabin-air quality. The aims of this study were to describe cabin-air quality in general and to detect chemical abnormalities during the so-called "smell-events". Adsorption and derivatization of airborne aldehydes on 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine coated silica gel (DNPH-cartridge) was applied using tailor-made sampling kits. Samples were collected with battery supplied personal air sampling pumps during different flight phases. Furthermore, the influence of ozone was investigated by simultaneous sampling with and without ozone absorption unit (ozone converter) assembled to the DNPH-cartridges and found to be negligible. The method was validated for 14 aldehydes and found to be precise (RSD, 5.5-10.6%) and accurate (recovery, 98-103 %), with LOD levels being 0.3-0.6 μg/m(3). According to occupational exposure limits (OEL) or indoor air guidelines no unusual or noticeable aldehyde pollution was observed. In total, 353 aldehyde samples were taken from two types of aircraft. Formaldehyde (overall average 5.7 μg/m(3), overall median 4.9 μg/m(3), range 0.4-44 μg/m(3)), acetaldehyde (overall average 6.5 μg/m(3), overall median 4.6, range 0.3-90 μg/m(3)) and mostly very low concentrations of other aldehydes were measured on 108 flights. Simultaneous adsorption and derivatization of airborne aldehydes on DNPH-cartridges to the Schiff bases and their HPLC analysis with UV absorbance detection is a useful method to measure aldehydes in cabin-air of commercial aircraft.

  18. Contributions from the activity analysis to the products development project: case study based on a project of innovation and comfort in aircraft's cabins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greghi, F M; Rossi, N T; Souza, G B J; Menegon, L N

    2012-01-01

    Comfort is an issue that has gained relevance within the aeronautical industry due to the necessity of manufacturers and airline companies of differentiating themselves in a market that has become more and more competitive each day. This study's aim is to analyze the comfort/discomfort of passengers, based on the analysis of the activities performed in the aircrafts' cabin during real flights, in order to create ergonomics requirements and a methodology of comfort analysis. The study has been performed during domestic commercial flights, and the adopted data collection techniques have been: the application of 219 questionnaires to passengers, 44 registrations of postures and actions through filmings and 12 semistructured interviews. The method has made possible the reconstruction of the user's action course in performing activities in real flight situations, and the calculation of the area occupied by the passenger during his or her actions. The integrated analysis of the results corroborates data from previous studies in which both the space made available to each passenger and the activity performed interfere in their perception of comfort. From this study it has been concluded that the method constitutes itself as an innovative tool within the process of aircrafts' cabins project enabling the calculation of the action space based on the reconstructed course.

  19. International Space Station Common Cabin Air Assembly Condensing Heat Exchanger Hydrophilic Coating Operation, Recovery, and Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balistreri, Steven F.; Steele, John W.; Caron, Mark E.; Laliberte, Yvon J.; Shaw, Laura A.

    2013-01-01

    The ability to control the temperature and humidity of an environment or habitat is critical for human survival. These factors are important to maintaining human health and comfort, as well as maintaining mechanical and electrical equipment in good working order to support the human and to accomplish mission objectives. The temperature and humidity of the International Space Station (ISS) United States On-orbit Segment (USOS) cabin air is controlled by the Common Cabin Air Assembly (CCAA). The CCAA consists of a fan, a condensing heat exchanger (CHX), an air/water separator, temperature and liquid sensors, and electrical controlling hardware and software. The CHX is the primary component responsible for control of temperature and humidity. The CCAA CHX contains a chemical coating that was developed to be hydrophilic and thus attract water from the humid influent air. This attraction forms the basis for water removal and therefore cabin humidity control. However, there have been several instances of CHX coatings becoming hydrophobic and repelling water. When this behavior is observed in an operational CHX in the ISS segments, the unit s ability to remove moisture from the air is compromised and the result is liquid water carryover into downstream ducting and systems. This water carryover can have detrimental effects on the ISS cabin atmosphere quality and on the health of downstream hardware. If the water carryover is severe and widespread, this behavior can result in an inability to maintain humidity levels in the USOS. This paper will describe the operation of the five CCAAs within the USOS, the potential causes of the hydrophobic condition, and the impacts of the resulting water carryover to downstream systems. It will describe the history of this behavior and the actual observed impacts to the ISS USOS. Information on mitigation steps to protect the health of future CHX hydrophilic coatings as well as remediation and recovery of the full heat exchanger will be

  20. Bower Cabin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harold Drollinger

    2007-11-02

    The Bower Cabin, located in southern Nevada, was built and occupied by B.M. Bower and her family during the early 1920s. Bower, a prominent writer of western novels, had over 90 novels to her credit. She wrote 11 of the stories while living at the cabin and, at times, incorporated the surrounding landscape features, including the cabin site itself, into them. The site was subsequently used by a gang of rustlers and for a mining base camp. Archaeological research has identified the remnants of the main structures at the site as well as the artifact material and nearby mining activities associated with the Bower and later occupations.

  1. 螺桨飞机舱内噪声的主动控制%Active control of propeller induced aircraft cabin noise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴亚锋; 任辉; 李江红

    2001-01-01

    文章讨论主动噪声控制技术在螺桨飞机舱内降噪中的应用。一实用的多通道自适应控制系统被开发,并被应用于国产运七螺桨飞机的舱内噪声控制,取得了满意的降噪效果。%An experiment using active control technique to attenuate propeller aircraft cabin noise is presented in this paper. A multichannel adaptive active noise control (ANC) system is developed. A control experiment is fulfilled in chinese Y7 arcraft and satisfiedresults is obtained.

  2. Active control of internal cabin noise in cars. Aktive Innengeraeuschreduzierung bei Kraftfahrzeugen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felske, A.; Gawron, H.J.; Schaaf, K.

    1990-01-01

    It is an important research task to develop methods for active noise control. In addition to reviewing possible operational areas, we discuss the efficiency based on measurements of a broadband active head-set and present an experimental two-channel system for active noise control which was tested in a VW Passat with 4 cylinder engine. Having solved the problem of decoupling in multi-channel systems, a reduction of the interior noise level for 2nd order frequencies up to 20 dB could be achieved. Standard speaker systems were used. Diagrams of sound pressure levels show the efficiency of the active compensation as a function of motor speed for the co-driver's right ear, and as a function of location both in longitudinal and transversal direction within the car cabin at a fixed motor speed. (orig./HW).

  3. A New Structural Design Concept for Blended Wing Body Cabins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, R.; Geuskens, F.J.J.M.M.; Hoogreef, M.F.M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper outlines a new concept for a pressure cabin design for blended-wing-body aircraft. An overview is presented of the wide oval cabin and why it is believed to be a possible alternative to existing designs of non-circular pressurized cabins. The perimeter of the oval cross section is formed

  4. A new laser vibrometry-based 2D selective intensity method for source identification in reverberant fields: part II. Application to an aircraft cabin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revel, G. M.; Martarelli, M.; Chiariotti, P.

    2010-07-01

    The selective intensity technique is a powerful tool for the localization of acoustic sources and for the identification of the structural contribution to the acoustic emission. In practice, the selective intensity method is based on simultaneous measurements of acoustic intensity, by means of a couple of matched microphones, and structural vibration of the emitting object. In this paper high spatial density multi-point vibration data, acquired by using a scanning laser Doppler vibrometer, have been used for the first time. Therefore, by applying the selective intensity algorithm, the contribution of a large number of structural sources to the acoustic field radiated by the vibrating object can be estimated. The selective intensity represents the distribution of the acoustic monopole sources on the emitting surface, as if each monopole acted separately from the others. This innovative selective intensity approach can be very helpful when the measurement is performed on large panels in highly reverberating environments, such as aircraft cabins. In this case the separation of the direct acoustic field (radiated by the vibrating panels of the fuselage) and the reverberant one is difficult by traditional techniques. The work shown in this paper is the application of part of the results of the European project CREDO (Cabin Noise Reduction by Experimental and Numerical Design Optimization) carried out within the framework of the EU. Therefore the aim of this paper is to illustrate a real application of the method to the interior acoustic characterization of an Alenia Aeronautica ATR42 ground test facility, Alenia Aeronautica being a partner of the CREDO project.

  5. A Full-Size Mockup of the Cabin for the Crew Return Vehicle (CRV) for the International Space Statio

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    This photo, taken at NASA's Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas, shows a full-size mockup of the cabin for the Crew Return Vehicle (CRV) for the International Space Station The X-38 Crew Return Vehicle (CRV) research project is designed to develop the technology for a prototype emergency crew return vehicle, or lifeboat, for the International Space Station. The project is also intended to develop a crew return vehicle design that could be modified for other uses, such as a joint U.S. and international human spacecraft that could be launched on the French Ariane-5 Booster. The X-38 project is using available technology and off-the-shelf equipment to significantly decrease development costs. Original estimates to develop a capsule-type crew return vehicle were estimated at more than $2 billion. X-38 project officials have estimated that development costs for the X-38 concept will be approximately one quarter of the original estimate. Off-the-shelf technology is not necessarily 'old' technology. Many of the technologies being used in the X-38 project have never before been applied to a human-flight spacecraft. For example, the X-38 flight computer is commercial equipment currently used in aircraft and the flight software operating system is a commercial system already in use in many aerospace applications. The video equipment for the X-38 is existing equipment, some of which has already flown on the space shuttle for previous NASA experiments. The X-38's primary navigational equipment, the Inertial Navigation System/Global Positioning System, is a unit already in use on Navy fighters. The X-38 electromechanical actuators come from previous joint NASA, U.S. Air Force, and U.S. Navy research and development projects. Finally, an existing special coating developed by NASA will be used on the X-38 thermal tiles to make them more durable than those used on the space shuttles. The X-38 itself was an unpiloted lifting body designed at 80 percent of the size of a projected

  6. Investigation of the level difference between sound pressure and sound intensity in an aircraft cabin under different fuselage conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwal, M. S.; Crocker, M. J.; Heitman, K. E.

    1985-01-01

    Problems in using two-microphone sound-intensity (SI) measurements to measure structural transmission losses are investigated in experiments involving light-aircraft fuselage panels and windows. Both sound pressure (SP) and SI are measured near the passenger and door windows and panels of a single-engine aircraft and with these barriers removed, and the effect of increasing interior acoustic absorption and blocking flanking transmission paths is also tested. The results are presented graphically, and the SP measurements are used to indicate frequency ranges in which the two-microphone technique significantly underestimates SI. It is inferred that flanking paths and interior reverberation must be effectively suppressed in order to obtain accurate transmission-loss measurements.

  7. Effects of ozone chemistry and outside air supply on passenger self-evalua-tion of symptoms during 4-hour exposures in a simulated aircraft cabin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strøm-Tejsen, Peter; Tamás, Gyöngyi; Myśków, Danuta;

    2006-01-01

    flow with and without ozone. The subjects completed questionnaires to provide subjective assessments of air quality, cabin environment, intensity of symptoms commonly experienced during flight, and thermal comfort. Physiological tests, specifically Visual Acuity, Nasal Peak Flow and Skin Dryness, were...

  8. Preparation of Waterborne Two-Component Polyurethane Coatings for the Aircraft Cabin Interior Decoration%飞机舱内装饰用水性双组分聚氨酯涂料的制备

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董晓蓉

    2015-01-01

    A waterborne two-component polyurethane coatings for the aircraft cabin interior decoration was prepared. The influences of waterborne resin,curing agent,flame retardant,antiscratch agent on the adhesion, flame resistance,stain resistance,scratch resistance of the coatings were discussed.%制备了一种飞机舱内装饰用水性双组分聚氨酯涂料.讨论了水性树脂、固化剂、阻燃剂、抗划伤剂对其附着力、阻燃性、耐沾污性、抗划痕性等性能的影响.

  9. 75 FR 9327 - Aircraft Noise Certification Documents for International Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-02

    ... as required by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), and to ensure compliance between domestic U.S. regulations and ICAO Annex 16, Amendment 8. DATES: This amendment becomes effective May 3... United States using aircraft subject to the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) Annex 16...

  10. Contemporary methods for realization and estimation of efficiency of 3Daudio technology application for sound interface improvement of an aircraft cabin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. N. Korsun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available High information load of crew is one of the main problems of modern piloted aircraft therefore researches on approving data representation form, especially in critical situations are a challenge. The article considers one of opportunities to improve the interface of a modern pilot's cabin i.e. to use a spatial sound (3D - audio technology. The 3D - audio is a technology, which recreates a spatially directed sound in earphones or via loudspeakers. Spatial audio-helps, which together with information on danger will specify also the direction from which it proceeds, can reduce time of response to an event and, therefore, increase situational safety of flight. It is supposed that helps will be provided through pilot's headset therefore technology realization via earphones is discussed.Now the main hypothesis explaining the human ability to recognize the position of a sound source in space, asserts that the human estimates distortion of a sound signal spectrum at interaction with the head and an auricle depending on an arrangement of the sound source. For exact describing the signal spectrum variations there are such concepts as Head Related Impulse Response (HRIR and Head Related Transfer Function (HRTF. HRIR is measured in humans or dummies. At present the most full-scale public HRIR library is CIPIC HRTF Database of CIPIC Interface Laboratory at UC Davis.To have 3D audio effect, it is necessary to simulate a mono-signal conversion through the linear digital filters with anthropodependent pulse characteristics (HRIR for the left and right ear, which correspond to the chosen direction. Results should be united in a stereo file and applied for reproduction to the earphones.This scheme was realized in Matlab, and the received software was used for experiments to estimate the quantitative characteristics of technology. For processing and subsequent experiments the following sound signals were chosen: a fragment of the classical music piece "Polovetsky

  11. Research on the Fault of Electronic Cabin Ventilation System in A320 Aircraft%基于对A320飞机电子舱通风系统的故障研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔相国

    2014-01-01

    A320 series aircraft is a type of civil aircraft with single channel and electric control produced by AIRBUS Company, and is the first aircraft which applies electronic control system and side-rod drive technology in the globe. The electronic equipment compartment of the plane contains a large number of control computers as-sociated with flight. During the whole flight, these computers generates huge amount of heat that can seriously im-pact on the safety during flight. This paper thoroughly researches on the operational theory of electronic cabin ven-tilation, and analyzes and summarizes the reasons of electronic cabin ventilation operation failure and thoughts of trouble shooting during maintenance.%A320系列飞机是AIRBUS公司研发的单通道电传操控民用客机,它是世界上第一种采用电传操纵及侧杆驾驶的民用客机。该飞机的电子设备舱存放大量与飞行相关的控制计算机,当飞机在飞行过程中各计算机会产生大量的热量,严重影响航空运行安全。本文深入研究电子舱通风的工作原理,并总结分析航线维护过程中电子舱通风系统故障产生原因与排故思路。

  12. Aircraft maintenance. Citations from the International Aerospace Abstracts data base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zollars, G. F.

    1980-01-01

    These citations from the international literature concern various aspects of aircraft maintenance. Both military and civil aviation experience are included. Articles cited concern airline operations, engine and avionics reliability, the use of automatic test equipment, maintenance scheduling, and reliability engineering. This updated bibliography contains 347 citations, 85 of which are new additions to the previous edition.

  13. 基于人体热调节模型的民机座舱热舒适性分析%Aircraft cabin comfort analysis with human thermoregulation model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庞丽萍; 巩萌萌; 王浚; 崔焱

    2012-01-01

    The studies about cabin thermal comfort are of great significance in the large aircraft market competition. A reasonable human thermal model is the key to analyze and evaluate the thermal comfort. Based on thermal characteristics experiment of human in the limited space, a human thermal model with the behavior of thermal regulation was established. The complex heat transfer was simplified into the heat transfer among three areas of high temperature core, blood perfusion and the equivalent organization. This model will not only overcome the limitation of the constant wall temperature or constant heat flux density, but in good agreement with the experimental results. Combined with a predicted mean vote (PMV) thermal comfort evaluation method without iterative equation proposed, the comfort in crowded space can be analyzed under the premise of ensu- ring the calculation speed. Simulation results show that the method can meet the speed requirement when the simulation is for a complex space environment, but also more accurately reflects the human physiological ther- mal regulation process.%民机座舱热舒适性研究对我国研制的大型飞机市场竞争力具有重要意义,在舒适性研究中人体热模型的合理性是影响舒适性分析与评价的关键,在开展的有限空间人员热特性实验测试基础上,建立了一种具有热调节行为的人体热模型,将人体复杂传热过程抽象为高温核心区、血液灌注区和等效组织区三者间热传递,很好地克服了常规定壁温或定热流密度人体模型的局限性,计算结果与实验结果吻合较好,将该模型结合文中提出的无迭代PMV(Predicted Mean Vote)热舒适性方程,在保证计算速度的前提下,可实现高人员密度的民机座舱舒适性分析,仿真结果表明:该方法既能够满足复杂空间的计算速度要求,又能较准确地体现人体生理热调节过程,仿真结果可靠性高。

  14. Minimum power requirement for environmental control of aircraft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ordonez, J.C.; Bejan, A. [Duke University, Durham, NC (United States). Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science

    2003-10-01

    This paper addresses two basic issues in the thermodynamic optimization of environmental control systems (ECS) for aircraft: realistic limits for the minimal power requirement, and design features that facilitate operation at minimal power consumption. Four models are proposed and optimized. In the first, the ECS operates reversibly, the air stream in the cabin is mixed to one temperature, and the cabin experiences heat transfer with the ambient, across its insulation. The cabin temperature is fixed. In the second model, the fixed cabin temperature is assigned to the internal solid surfaces of the cabin, and a thermal resistance separates these surfaces from the air mixed in the cabin. In the third model, the ECS operates irreversibly, based on the bootstrap air cycle. The fourth model combines the ECS features of the third model with the cabin-environment interaction features of the second model. It is shown that in all models the temperature of the air stream that the ECS delivers to the cabin can be optimized for operation at minimal power. The effect of other design parameters and flying conditions is documented. The optimized air delivery temperature is relatively insensitive to the complexity of the model; for example, it is insensitive to the size of the heat exchanger used in the bootstrap air cycle. This study adds to the view that robustness is a characteristic of optimized complex flow systems, and that thermodynamic optimization results can be used for orientation in the pursuit of more complex and realistic designs. (author)

  15. International aircraft ECMO transportation: first French pediatric experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rambaud, Jerome; Léger, Pierre L; Porlier, Ludovic; Larroquet, Michelle; Raffin, Herve; Pierron, Charlotte; Walti, Herve; Carbajal, Ricardo

    2017-04-01

    Refractory severe hemodynamic or respiratory failure may require extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). Since some patients are too sick to be transported safely to a referral ECMO center on conventional transportation, mobile ECMO transport teams have been developed. The experiences of some ECMO transport teams have already been reported, including air and international transport. We report the first French pediatric international ECMO transport by aircraft. This case shows that a long distance intervention of the pediatric ECMO transport team is feasible, even in an international setting. Long distance ECMO transportations are widely carried out for adults, but remain rare in neonates and children.

  16. Aerospace toxicology overview: aerial application and cabin air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, Arvind K

    2011-01-01

    Aerospace toxicology is a rather recent development and is closely related to aerospace medicine. Aerospace toxicology can be defined as a field of study designed to address the adverse effects of medications, chemicals, and contaminants on humans who fly within or outside the atmosphere in aviation or on space flights. The environment extending above and beyond the surface of the Earth is referred to as aerospace. The term aviation is frequently used interchangeably with aerospace. The focus of the literature review performed to prepare this paper was on aerospace toxicology-related subject matters, aerial application and aircraft cabin air quality. Among the important topics addressed are the following: · Aerial applications of agricultural chemicals, pesticidal toxicity, and exposures to aerially applied mixtures of chemicals and their associated formulating solvents/surfactants The safety of aerially encountered chemicals and the bioanalytical methods used to monitor exposures to some of them · The presence of fumes and smoke, as well as other contaminants that may generally be present in aircraft/space vehicle cabin air · And importantly, the toxic effects of aerially encountered contaminants, with emphasis on the degradation products of oils, fluids, and lubricants used in aircraft, and finally · Analytical methods used for monitoring human exposure to CO and HCN are addressed in the review, as are the signs and symptoms associated with exposures to these combustion gases. Although many agricultural chemical monitoring studies have been published, few have dealt with the occurrence of such chemicals in aircraft cabin air. However, agricultural chemicals do appear in cabin air; indeed, attempts have been made to establish maximum allowable concentrations for several of the more potentially toxic ones that are found in aircraft cabin air. In this article, I emphasize the need for precautionary measures to be taken to minimize exposures to aerially

  17. Operational Philosophy Concerning Manned Spacecraft Cabin Leaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSimpelaere, Edward

    2011-01-01

    The last thirty years have seen the Space Shuttle as the prime United States spacecraft for manned spaceflight missions. Many lessons have been learned about spacecraft design and operation throughout these years. Over the next few decades, a large increase of manned spaceflight in the commercial sector is expected. This will result in the exposure of commercial crews and passengers to many of the same risks crews of the Space Shuttle have encountered. One of the more dire situations that can be encountered is the loss of pressure in the habitable volume of the spacecraft during on orbit operations. This is referred to as a cabin leak. This paper seeks to establish a general cabin leak response philosophy with the intent of educating future spacecraft designers and operators. After establishing a relative definition for a cabin leak, the paper covers general descriptions of detection equipment, detection methods, and general operational methods for management of a cabin leak. Subsequently, all these items are addressed from the perspective of the Space Shuttle Program, as this will be of the most value to future spacecraft due to similar operating profiles. Emphasis here is placed upon why and how these methods and philosophies have evolved to meet the Space Shuttle s needs. This includes the core ideas of: considerations of maintaining higher cabin pressures vs. lower cabin pressures, the pros and cons of a system designed to feed the leak with gas from pressurized tanks vs. using pressure suits to protect against lower cabin pressures, timeline and consumables constraints, re-entry considerations with leaks of unknown origin, and the impact the International Space Station (ISS) has had to the standard Space Shuttle cabin leak response philosophy. This last item in itself includes: procedural management differences, hardware considerations, additional capabilities due to the presence of the ISS and its resource, and ISS docking/undocking considerations with a

  18. 飞机驾驶舱特定声音信号提取%Extraction of Specific Voice in Aircraft Cabin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨恒; 陆宇; 白文虎

    2014-01-01

    At the present stage,the identifica-tion and analysis of the acoustic signals in Cockpit Voice Recorder (CVR)cannot identify the specific voice in airplane efficiently which ignore the char-acteristic of the fixed acoustic source in cabin.A method based on Independent Component Analysis (ICA )is proposed to separate acoustic signals in this paper.The simulation is done by Matlab, many groups of experiment data are analyzed by Monte Carlo Method (MCM)to confirm the stabil-ity of this algorithm,and the results show that the specific voice is extracted efficiently.%针对现阶段国内对舱音记录仪(CVR ),所记录声音的辨别和分析方法没有充分利用机舱内声音的定源特性,不能准确地分辨出飞机上特定声音,提出了一种基于独立成分分析(ICA )对舱音信号进行分离的方法,用 Matlab 软件进行了仿真,并通过蒙特卡洛方法(MC M )计算多组实验数据的性能指标,以验证算法的稳定性。结果表明,该方法可以比较高效地提取出飞机机舱中特定语音信号。

  19. 基于航空噪声指标的高速列车观光区噪声评价%Noise Evaluation in the Tourist Cabin of High-speed Train by Using Aircraft Noise Criterion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张捷; 肖新标; 张玉梅; 王瑞乾; 王谛; 金学松

    2013-01-01

    Based on field measurements,the noise characteristics in the tourist cabin of a high-speed train are analyzed at a high running speed between 300 to 400 km/h.So far,there is still no a unified criterion in the word to evaluate the noise level in the carriage of high-speed train reasonably,while A-weighted sound level has a shortcoming in the noise evaluation.In order to further clear the shortcoming,A-weighted sound level is discussed through the detailed contrast to white noise combined with increasing sound level in different frequency bands.An aircraft noise evaluation index is used to evaluate the interior noise of the high-speed train.The obtained results indicate that:the noise in the tourist cabin of the high-speed train is dominated by the components of low and middle frequencies.Such a noise would be underestimated when A-weighted sound level is used.There is high similarity of frequency characteristics between interior noise of high-speed train and it of aircraft.The aircraft noise evaluation index is more suitable for the characteristic evaluation of interior noise of high-speed train.This paper could provide evidence for framing new proper noise evaluation criterion for high-speed train.%基于现场测试结果,对300~400 km/h速度下高速列车观光区噪声进行分析,明确车内噪声动态特性.由于国内外还没有统一的高速列车车内噪声评价标准,传统的A计权声压级又在噪声评价中存在不足之处.为研究A计权声压级是否适合高速列车车内噪声评价,通过白噪声对比、分频段声压级比例增加等方法,讨论使用A计权声压级评价车内噪声时的不足之处.运用航空噪声评价指标对高速列车车内噪声进行评价研究.研究结果表明,300 km/h以上高速列车车内噪声具有显著的中低频特性,使用A计权声压级评价会低估车内噪声水平.高速列车观光区噪声频谱特性和飞机舱内噪声频谱特性具有很高的相似性,选择

  20. KSC inventor tests cabin pressure monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Jan Zysko (left) and Rich Mizell (right) test a Personal Cabin Pressure Altitude Monitor in an altitude chamber at Tyndall Air Force Base in Florida. Zysko invented the pager-sized monitor that alerts wearers of a potentially dangerous or deteriorating cabin pressure altitude condition, which can lead to life- threatening hypoxia. Zysko is chief of the KSC Spaceport Engineering and Technology directorate's data and electronic systems branch. Mizell is a Shuttle processing engineer. The monitor, which has drawn the interest of such organizations as the Federal Aviation Administration for use in commercial airliners and private aircraft, was originally designed to offer Space Shuttle and Space Station crew members added independent notification about any depressurization.

  1. Cabin fire simulator lavatory tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutter, K. J.; Klinck, D. M.

    1980-01-01

    All tests were conducted in the Douglas Cabin Fire Simulator under in-flight ventilation conditions. All tests were allowed to continue for a period of one hour. Data obtained during these tests included: heat flux and temperatures of the lavatory; cabin temperature variations; gas analyses for O2, CO2, CO, HF, HC1, and HCN; respiration and electrocardiogram data on instrumented animal subjects (rats) exposed in the cabin; and color motion pictures. All tests resulted in a survivable cabin condition; however, occupants of the cabin would have been subjected to noxious fumes.

  2. Aircraft Wake Vortex Measurements at Denver International Airport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Robert P.; Wang, Frank Y.; Booth, Earl R.; Watts, Michael E.; Fenichel, Neil; D'Errico, Robert E.

    2004-01-01

    Airport capacity is constrained, in part, by spacing requirements associated with the wake vortex hazard. NASA's Wake Vortex Avoidance Project has a goal to establish the feasibility of reducing this spacing while maintaining safety. Passive acoustic phased array sensors, if shown to have operational potential, may aid in this effort by detecting and tracking the vortices. During August/September 2003, NASA and the USDOT sponsored a wake acoustics test at the Denver International Airport. The central instrument of the test was a large microphone phased array. This paper describes the test in general terms and gives an overview of the array hardware. It outlines one of the analysis techniques that is being applied to the data and gives sample results. The technique is able to clearly resolve the wake vortices of landing aircraft and measure their separation, height, and sinking rate. These observations permit an indirect estimate of the vortex circulation. The array also provides visualization of the vortex evolution, including the Crow instability.

  3. A Review of Selected International Aircraft Spares Pooling Programs: Lessons Learned for F-35 Spares Pooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    international military aircraft support program using true spares pooling for which we have any detailed and reliable data, and it is the closest current...for all F77 spares . The remaining non-C-17 unique spares are managed by the Defense Logistics Agency and the Air Force Air Logistics Centers .50...C O R P O R A T I O N Research Report A Review of Selected International Aircraft Spares Pooling Programs Lessons Learned for F-35 Spares Pooling

  4. Detection of respiratory viruses on air filters from aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korves, T M; Johnson, D; Jones, B W; Watson, J; Wolk, D M; Hwang, G M

    2011-09-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of identifying viruses from aircraft cabin air, we evaluated whether respiratory viruses trapped by commercial aircraft air filters can be extracted and detected using a multiplex PCR, bead-based assay. The ResPlex II assay was first tested for its ability to detect inactivated viruses applied to new filter material; all 18 applications of virus at a high concentration were detected. The ResPlex II assay was then used to test for 18 respiratory viruses on 48 used air filter samples from commercial aircraft. Three samples tested positive for viruses, and three viruses were detected: rhinovirus, influenza A and influenza B. For 33 of 48 samples, internal PCR controls performed suboptimally, suggesting sample matrix effect. In some cases, influenza and rhinovirus RNA can be detected on aircraft air filters, even more than 10 days after the filters were removed from aircraft. With protocol modifications to overcome PCR inhibition, air filter sampling and the ResPlex II assay could be used to characterize viruses in aircraft cabin air. Information about viruses in aircraft could support public health measures to reduce disease transmission within aircraft and between cities. © The MITRE corporation. Letters in Applied Microbiology © 2011 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  5. Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibbs, Bart D.; Lissaman, Peter B. S.; Morgan, Walter R.; Radkey, Robert L.

    1998-01-01

    This disclosure provides a solar rechargeable aircraft that is inexpensive to produce, is steerable, and can remain airborne almost indefinitely. The preferred aircraft is a span-loaded flying wing, having no fuselage or rudder. Travelling at relatively slow speeds, and having a two-hundred foot wingspan that mounts photovoltaic cells on most all of the wing's top surface, the aircraft uses only differential thrust of its eight propellers to turn. Each of five sections of the wing has one or more engines and photovoltaic arrays, and produces its own lift independent of the other sections, to avoid loading them. Five two-sided photovoltaic arrays, in all, are mounted on the wing, and receive photovoltaic energy both incident on top of the wing, and which is incident also from below, through a bottom, transparent surface. The aircraft is capable of a top speed of about ninety miles per hour, which enables the aircraft to attain and can continuously maintain altitudes of up to sixty-five thousand feet. Regenerative fuel cells in the wing store excess electricity for use at night, such that the aircraft can sustain its elevation indefinitely. A main spar of the wing doubles as a pressure vessel that houses hydrogen and oxygen gasses for use in the regenerative fuel cell. The aircraft has a wide variety of applications, which include weather monitoring and atmospheric testing, communications, surveillance, and other applications as well.

  6. Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibbs, B.D.; Lissaman, P.B.S.; Morgan, W.R.; Radkey, R.L.

    1998-09-22

    This disclosure provides a solar rechargeable aircraft that is inexpensive to produce, is steerable, and can remain airborne almost indefinitely. The preferred aircraft is a span-loaded flying wing, having no fuselage or rudder. Travelling at relatively slow speeds, and having a two-hundred foot wingspan that mounts photovoltaic cells on most all of the wing`s top surface, the aircraft uses only differential thrust of its eight propellers to turn. Each of five sections of the wing has one or more engines and photovoltaic arrays, and produces its own lift independent of the other sections, to avoid loading them. Five two-sided photovoltaic arrays, in all, are mounted on the wing, and receive photovoltaic energy both incident on top of the wing, and which is incident also from below, through a bottom, transparent surface. The aircraft is capable of a top speed of about ninety miles per hour, which enables the aircraft to attain and can continuously maintain altitudes of up to sixty-five thousand feet. Regenerative fuel cells in the wing store excess electricity for use at night, such that the aircraft can sustain its elevation indefinitely. A main spar of the wing doubles as a pressure vessel that houses hydrogen and oxygen gases for use in the regenerative fuel cell. The aircraft has a wide variety of applications, which include weather monitoring and atmospheric testing, communications, surveillance, and other applications as well. 31 figs.

  7. Noise and vibration control in aircraft: A global approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berhault, J.-P.; Venet, G.; Fontenot, J.

    This paper proposes an approach to noise and vibration control in new and existing aircraft, employing a global approach; that is, considering all source and effects in development of the control plan. The approach employs acoustic imaging of the engines and the cabin internal space and a vibration analysis model to describe the entire system. Completion of the global analysis leads to the treatment plan, which may include various passive mounts tecnologies and/or an active noise system.

  8. Advantages for passengers and cabin crew of operating a Gas-Phase Adsorption air purifier in 11-h simulated flights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strøm-Tejsen, Peter; Zukowska, Daria; Fang, Lei

    2008-01-01

    Experiments were carried out in a 3-row, 21-seat section of a simulated aircraft cabin installed in a climate chamber to evaluate the extent to which passengers’ perception of cabin air quality is affected by the operation of a Gas-Phase Adsorption (GPA) purification unit. A total of 68 subjects...

  9. Nuisance Caused by Aircraft Noise in the Vicinity of Tehran International Airport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stan Frost

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available Noise measurement and social questionnaire surveys in three residential areas around Mehrabad International Airport (Tehran, Iran were based upon randomly selected dwellings in each area. A total of 193 individuals responded and many are annoyed and dissatisfied with aircraft noise and in consequence they would like to move. Aircraft noise is the strongest negative environmental factor affecting the residents in the vicinity of Mehrabad Airport and it could be a hazard for their health.

  10. Occupational cosmic radiation exposure and cancer in airline cabin crew.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kojo, K.

    2013-03-15

    Cosmic radiation dose rates are considerably higher at cruising altitudes of airplanes than at ground level. Previous studies have found increased risk of certain cancers among aircraft cabin crew, but the results are not consistent across different studies. Despite individual cosmic radiation exposure assessment is important for evaluating the relation between cosmic radiation exposure and cancer risk, only few previous studies have tried to develop an exposure assessment method. The evidence for adverse health effects in aircrews due to ionizing radiation is inconclusive because quantitative dose estimates have not been used. No information on possible confounders has been collected. For an occupational group with an increased risk of certain cancers it is very important to assess if the risk is related to occupational exposure. The goal of this thesis was to develop two separate retrospective exposure assessment methods for occupational exposure to cosmic radiation. The methods included the assessment based on survey on flight histories and based on company flight timetables. Another goal was to describe the cancer incidence among aircraft cabin crew with a large cohort in four Nordic countries, i.e., Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden. Also the contribution of occupational as well as non-occupational factors to breast and skin cancer risk among the cabin crew was studied with case-control studies. Using the survey method of cosmic radiation exposure assessment, the median annual radiation dose of Finnish airline cabin crew was 0.6 milliSievert (mSv) in the 1960s, 3.3 mSv in the 1970s, and 3.6 mSv in the 1980s. With the flight timetable method, the annual radiation dose increased with time being 0.7 mSv in the 1960 and 2.1 mSv in the 1995. With the survey method, the median career dose was 27.9 mSv and with the timetable method 20.8 mSv. These methods provide improved means for individual cosmic radiation exposure assessment compared to studies where cruder

  11. Spacecraft Cabin Particulate Monitor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We have built and tested an optical extinction monitor for the detection of spacecraft cabin particulates. This sensor sensitive to particle sizes ranging from a few...

  12. Spacecraft Cabin Particulate Monitor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to design, build and test an optical extinction monitor for the detection of spacecraft cabin particulates. This monitor will be sensitive to particle...

  13. Analysis of internal flow in a ventral nozzle for STOVL aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, C. Frederic; Mcardle, Jack G.

    1990-01-01

    Short takeoff and vertical landing (STOVL) aircraft are planned for possible future development. For these aircraft, the same propulsion system will provide power for lift, hover, and horizontal flight. To accomplish this, many designs include a ventral nozzle to provide part of the vertical thrust required. Understanding and predicting the internal aerodynamic flow caused by a single exhaust duct opening are highly desirable in assessing this concept. A numerical simulation of a ventral nozzle is presented and the results are compared with experimental data. Comparisons include visualizations of the flow along the ventral duct walls and in the tailpipe plane of symmetry. Performance calculations are also compared with measured values.

  14. Commercial aircraft engine emissions characterization of in-use aircraft at Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herndon, Scott C; Jayne, John T; Lobo, Prem; Onasch, Timothy B; Fleming, Gregg; Hagen, Donald E; Whitefield, Philip D; Miake-Lye, Richard C

    2008-03-15

    The emissions from in-use commercial aircraft engines have been analyzed for selected gas-phase species and particulate characteristics using continuous extractive sampling 1-2 min downwind from operational taxi- and runways at Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport. Using the aircraft tail numbers, 376 plumes were associated with specific engine models. In general, for takeoff plumes, the measured NOx emission index is lower (approximately 18%) than that predicted by engine certification data corrected for ambient conditions. These results are an in-service observation of the practice of "reduced thrust takeoff". The CO emission index observed in ground idle plumes was greater (up to 100%) than predicted by engine certification data for the 7% thrust condition. Significant differences are observed in the emissions of black carbon and particle number among different engine models/technologies. The presence of a mode at approximately 65 nm (mobility diameter) associated with takeoff plumes and a smaller mode at approximately 25 nm associated with idle plumes has been observed. An anticorrelation between particle mass loading and particle number concentration is observed.

  15. 14 CFR 25.841 - Pressurized cabins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    .... (b) Pressurized cabins must have at least the following valves, controls, and indicators for... differential indicator meet the warning requirement for pressure differential limits and an aural or visual signal (in addition to cabin altitude indicating means) meets the warning requirement for cabin pressure...

  16. Thermodynamic efficiency of present types of internal combustion engines for aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucke, Charles E

    1917-01-01

    Report presents requirements of internal combustion engines suitable for aircraft. Topics include: (1) service requirements for aeronautic engines - power versus weight, reliability, and adaptability factors, (2) general characteristics of present aero engines, (3) aero engine processes and functions of parts versus power-weight ratio, reliability, and adaptability factors, and (4) general arrangement, form, proportions, and materials of aero parts - power-weight ratio, reliability, and adaptability.

  17. Investigation of acoustic properties of a rigid foam with application to noise reduction in light aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmer, C. I.

    1972-01-01

    A analytic model of sound transmission into an aircraft cabin was developed as well as test procedures which appropriately rank order properties which affect sound transmission. The proposed model agrees well with available data, and reveals that the pertinent properties of an aircraft cabin for sound transmission include: stiffness of cabin walls at low frequencies (as this reflects on impedance of the walls) and cabin wall transmission loss and interior absorption at mid and high frequencies. Below 315 Hz the foam contributes substantially to wall stiffness and sound transmission loss of typical light aircraft cabin construction, and could potentially reduce cabin noise levels by 3-5 db in this frequency range at a cost of about 0:2 lb/sq. ft. of treated cabin area. The foam was found not to have significant sound absorbing properties.

  18. Experimental Performance Evaluation of a Multi-Reference Algorithm for Active Control of Propeller-Induced Cabin Noise

    OpenAIRE

    Johansson, Sven; Sjösten, Per; Persson, Per; Claesson, Ingvar

    2000-01-01

    A noisy environment dominated by low frequency noise can often be improved through the use of active noise control. This situation arises naturally in propeller aircraft where the propellers induce periodic low frequency noise inside the cabin. The cabin noise is typically rather high, and the passenger flight comfort could be improved considerably if this level were significantly reduced. This paper discusses the operation and robustness of a narrowband feedforward active noise control syste...

  19. PTR-MS Assessment of Photocatalytic and Sorption-Based Purification of Recirculated Cabin Air during Simulated 7-h Flights with High Passenger Density

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisthaler, Armin; Strøm-Tejsen, Peter; Fang, Lei

    2007-01-01

    Four different air purification conditions were established in a simulated 3-row 21-seat section of an aircraft cabin: no air purifier; a photocatalytic oxidation unit with an adsorptive prefilter; a second photocatalytic unit with an adsorptive prefil-ter; and a two-stage sorptionbased air filter...... (gas-phase absorption and adsorption). The air purifiers placed in the cabin air recirculation system were commercial prototypes developed for use in aircraft cabin systems. The four conditions were established in balanced order on 4 successive days of each of 4 successive weeks during simulated 7-h...

  20. Emissions of greenhouse gases and air pollutants from commercial aircraft at international airports in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Sang-Keun; Shon, Zang-Ho

    2012-12-01

    The emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and air pollutants from aircraft in the boundary layer at four major international airports in Korea over a two-year period (2009-2010) were estimated using the Emissions and Dispersion Modeling System (EDMS) (i.e. activity-based (Landing/Take-Off (LTO) cycle) methodology). Both domestic and international LTOs and ground support equipment at the airports were considered. The average annual emissions of GHGs (CO2, N2O, CH4 and H2O) at all four airports during the study period were 1.11 × 103, 1.76 × 10-2, -1.85 × 10-3 and 3.84 × 108 kt yr-1, respectively. The emissions of air pollutants (NOx, CO, VOCs and particulate matter) were 5.20, 4.12, 7.46 × 10-1 and 3.37 × 10-2 kt yr-1, respectively. The negative CH4 emission indicates the consumption of atmospheric CH4 in the engine. The monthly and daily emissions of GHGs and air pollutants showed no significant variations at all airports examined. The emissions of GHGs and air pollutants for each aircraft operational mode differed considerably, with the largest emission observed in taxi-out mode.

  1. Cabin Environment Physics Risk Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattenberger, Christopher J.; Mathias, Donovan Leigh

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a Cabin Environment Physics Risk (CEPR) model that predicts the time for an initial failure of Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) functionality to propagate into a hazardous environment and trigger a loss-of-crew (LOC) event. This physics-of failure model allows a probabilistic risk assessment of a crewed spacecraft to account for the cabin environment, which can serve as a buffer to protect the crew during an abort from orbit and ultimately enable a safe return. The results of the CEPR model replace the assumption that failure of the crew critical ECLSS functionality causes LOC instantly, and provide a more accurate representation of the spacecraft's risk posture. The instant-LOC assumption is shown to be excessively conservative and, moreover, can impact the relative risk drivers identified for the spacecraft. This, in turn, could lead the design team to allocate mass for equipment to reduce overly conservative risk estimates in a suboptimal configuration, which inherently increases the overall risk to the crew. For example, available mass could be poorly used to add redundant ECLSS components that have a negligible benefit but appear to make the vehicle safer due to poor assumptions about the propagation time of ECLSS failures.

  2. Propagation Measurements and Comparison with EM Techniques for In-Cabin Wireless Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nektarios Moraitis

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents results of a narrowband measurement campaign conducted inside a Boeing 737–400 aircraft, the objective being the development of a propagation prediction model which can be used in the deployment of in-cabin wireless networks. The measurements were conducted at three different frequency bands: 1.8, 2.1, and 2.45 GHz, representative of several wireless services. Both a simple, empirical, inverse distance power law and a deterministic, site-specific model were investigated. Parameters for the empirical model were extracted from the measurements at different locations inside the cabin: aisle and seats. Additionally, a statistical characterization of the multipath scenario created by the transmitted signal and the various cabin elements is presented. The deterministic model, based on Physical Optics (PO techniques, provides a reasonable match with the empirical results. Finally, measurements and modeling results are provided for the penetration loss into the cabin (or out of the cabin, representative of interference scenarios.

  3. Optimization design of inner-structure of the slot-jet in aircraft cabin based on investigation of multi-scale characteristics of slot turbulent jet flow%基于狭缝湍射流多尺度特征研究的机舱条缝送风口内结构的优化设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛文涛; 郭勇; 代申; 姜楠; 刘俊杰

    2015-01-01

    针对 MD-82真实客机座舱内现有的壁面条缝型送风口流场平均流速沿座舱轴向分布的不均匀性,提出了一种送风口条缝形芯内结构的设计,使条缝型送风口处气流混合更加均匀,湍流发展更充分,平均流速沿座舱轴向分布更加均匀。并利用热线测速技术,精细测量条缝型送风口流场进行验证。从吹风感舒适性要求出发,利用子波分析,对条缝型送风口流场不同位置的瞬时速度时间序列信号作多尺度湍涡成分分析。结果表明:加装了条缝形芯内结构的条缝送风口流场的气流脉动特征频率始终维持在21.83Hz 左右,而导致人最不舒适的空气速度脉动频率为0.2~0.6Hz,从而证实加装了条缝形芯内结构的条缝送风口流场的气流提高了人体感觉的舒适性。%In order to solve the distribution heterogeneity problem of the mean span-wise ve-locity field of the slot outlet in MD-82 airliner cabin,we designed the slit-shaped inner core struc-ture in order to make the final mixture of the slot flow more uniform,the development of the tur-bulence is more sufficient and the distribution of the mean stream-wise velocity field is more hom-ogeneous.Hot-wire anemometry is used in the simplified cabin model experiments,based on which the research is carried out on the optimization design of inner structures of the slot-jet in aircraft cabin and the multiscale characteristic analysis of the turbulence.The slot-jet flow fields in model cabin environment with different inner-structure are finely measured by constant-tem-perature anemometry system.The resolution of the constant-temperature anemometry system is higher than the smallest time-scale of turbulence (inner structure and dissipation time-scale). The actual velocity field is analyzed in the stream-wise direction and normal direction respective-ly.Furthermore,based on the comfort theory,the wavelet-transformations are applied for the

  4. Effects of Gas-Phase Adsorption air purification on passengers and cabin crew in simulated 11-hour flights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strøm-Tejsen, Peter; Zukowska, Daria; Fang, Lei

    2006-01-01

    In a 3-row, 21-seat section of a simulated aircraft cabin that had been installed in a climate chamber, 4 groups of 17 subjects, acting as passengers and crew, took part in simulated 11-hour flights. Each group experienced 4 conditions in balanced order, defined by two outside air supply rates (2...

  5. Effects of acoustic treatment on the interior noise levels of a twin-engine propeller aircraft - Experimental flight results and theoretical predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, T. B.; Powell, C. A.; Daniels, E. F.; Pope, L. D.

    1984-01-01

    In-flight noise level measurements were made within two cabin configurations of a general aviation business aircraft. The Fairchild Merlin IVC twin-engine aircraft was tested with bare walls and fiberglass insulation and in an executive trim configuration. Narrow-band and octave format data were subjected to analyses which permitted identification of the blade passage harmonics (BPH). Cabin noise level reductions (insertion losses) due to added insulation varied with position in the cabin, the BPH number, cabin pressure, and engine torque. The measurements were closely predicted using the propeller aircraft interior noise (PAIN) mode.

  6. Products of Ozone-Initiated Chemistry in a Simulated Aircraft Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisthaler, Armin; Tamás, Gyöngyi; Wyon, David P.

    2005-01-01

    ), cabin plus ozone, cabin plus soiled T-shirts (surrogates for human occupants), and cabin plus soiled T-shirts plus ozone. The addition of ozone to the cabin without T-shirts, at concentrations typically encountered during commercial air travel, increased the mixing ratio (v:v concentration) of detected......We used proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) to examine the products formed when ozone reacted with the materials in a simulated aircraft cabin, including a loaded high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter in the return air system. Four conditions were examined: cabin (baseline...... pollutants from 35 ppb to 80 ppb. Most of this increase was due to the production of saturated and unsaturated aldehydes and tentatively identified low-molecular-weight carboxylic acids. The addition of soiled T-shirts, with no ozone present, increased the mixing ratio of pollutants in the cabin air only...

  7. Interior noise control ground test studies for advanced turboprop aircraft applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Myles A.; Cannon, Mark R.; Burge, Paul L.; Boyd, Robert P.

    1989-01-01

    The measurement and analysis procedures are documented, and the results of interior noise control ground tests conducted on a DC-9 aircraft test section are summarized. The objectives of these tests were to study the fuselage response characteristics of treated and untreated aircraft with aft-mount advanced turboprop engines and to analyze the effectiveness of selected noise control treatments in reducing passenger cabin noise on these aircraft. The results of fuselage structural mode surveys, cabin cavity surveys and sound intensity surveys are presented. The performance of various structural and cabin sidewall treatments is assessed, based on measurements of the resulting interior noise levels under simulated advanced turboprop excitation.

  8. Policy discourse, people's internal frames, and declared aircraft noise annoyance: an application of Q-methodology.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroesen, M.; Broer, C.

    2009-01-01

    Aircraft noise annoyance is studied extensively, but often without an explicit theoretical framework. In this article, a social approach for noise annoyance is proposed. The idea that aircraft noise is meaningful to people within a socially produced discourse is assumed and tested. More

  9. FAA-NASA Sixth International Conference on the Continued Airworthiness of Aircraft Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-12-01

    British Airways Human Factors in Aviation Maintenance: Current FAA Research .............................. 91 William T. Shepherd, Federal Aviation...Development of Advanced Structural Analysis Methodologies for Predicting W idespread Fatigue Damage in Aircraft Structures...where satellite communications to transmit aircraft position data derived from GPS directly to controllers via data link. On June 21, FAA and Qantas

  10. Products of Ozone-Initiated Chemistry in a Simulated Aircraft Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisthaler, Armin; Tamás, Gyöngyi; Wyon, David P.

    2005-01-01

    We used proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) to examine the products formed when ozone reacted with the materials in a simulated aircraft cabin, including a loaded high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter in the return air system. Four conditions were examined: cabin (baseline...

  11. Pressurized cabin for use in underground mining and tunnelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gresch, H.; Igelbuescher, H.; Hoelter, H.

    1989-11-08

    A pressurized cabin preferably made from steel, contains electrical apparatus such as switchgear in an underground mine or tunnel working. To protect the apparatus the cabin is connected to a source of compressed air, conveniently that supplying ventilation, to create excess pressure in the cabin. A compressor and a compressed-air storage vessel are provided in the cabin and are brought into operation with the aid of a pressure-sensitive valve in an emergency to maintain the excess pressure.

  12. Critical Care Performance in a Simulated Military Aircraft Cabin Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    cognitive effects of Alzheimer’s disease. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology , 20, 403-408. Levitzky, M. (2003). Pulmonary physiology. New York: McGraw...L., Barderet, L., Levinson, D., & Reeves, D. (2007). Neuropsychological assessment in extreme environments. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology , 22S

  13. Biodegradation of international jet A-1 aviation fuel by microorganisms isolated from aircraft tank and joint hydrant storage systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itah, A Y; Brooks, A A; Ogar, B O; Okure, A B

    2009-09-01

    Microorganisms contaminating international Jet A-1 aircraft fuel and fuel preserved in Joint Hydrant Storage Tank (JHST) were isolated, characterized and identified. The isolates were Bacillus subtillis, Bacillus megaterium, Flavobacterium oderatum, Sarcina flava, Micrococcus varians, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus licheniformis, Bacillus cereus and Bacillus brevis. Others included Candida tropicalis, Candida albicans, Saccharomyces estuari, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus fumigatus, Cladosporium resinae, Penicillium citrinum and Penicillium frequentans. The viable plate count of microorganisms in the Aircraft Tank ranged from 1.3 (+/-0.01) x 104 cfu/mL to 2.2 (+/-1.6) x 104 cfu/mL for bacteria and 102 cfu/mL to 1.68 (+/-0.32) x 103 cfu/mL for fungi. Total bacterial counts of 1.79 (+/-0.2) x 104 cfu/mL to 2.58 (+/-0.04) x 104 cfu/mL and total fungal count of 2.1 (+/-0.1) x 103 cfu/mL to 2.28 (+/-0.5) x 103 cfu/mL were obtained for JHST. Selected isolates were re-inoculated into filter sterilized aircraft fuels and biodegradation studies carried out. After 14 days incubation, Cladosporium resinae exhibited the highest degradation rate with a percentage weight loss of 66 followed by Candida albicans (60.6) while Penicillium citrinum was the least degrader with a weight loss of 41.6%. The ability of the isolates to utilize the fuel as their sole source of carbon and energy was examined and found to vary in growth profile between the isolates. The results imply that aviation fuel could be biodegraded by hydrocarbonoclastic microorganisms. To avert a possible deterioration of fuel quality during storage, fuel pipe clogging and failure, engine component damage, wing tank corrosion and aircraft disaster, efficient routine monitoring of aircraft fuel systems is advocated.

  14. 36 CFR 13.118 - Cabin site compatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cabin site compatibility. 13.118 Section 13.118 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Cabins General Provisions § 13.118 Cabin site...

  15. 14 CFR 25.832 - Cabin ozone concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cabin ozone concentration. 25.832 Section... Cabin ozone concentration. (a) The airplane cabin ozone concentration during flight must be shown not to... concentrations exceeding the limits prescribed by paragraph (a) of this section; or (2) The airplane ventilation...

  16. 14 CFR 121.578 - Cabin ozone concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cabin ozone concentration. 121.578 Section... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Operations § 121.578 Cabin ozone concentration... successfully demonstrated to the Administrator that the concentration of ozone inside the cabin will not exceed...

  17. Hearing status among cabin crew in a Swedish commercial airline company.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindgren, Torsten; Wieslander, Gunilla; Nordquist, Tobias; Dammström, Bo-Göran; Norbäck, Dan

    2009-07-01

    To study hearing loss in commercial airline cabin crew (CC). Totally 155 male and 781 female CC (n = 936) in a Swedish airline company underwent repeated audiometric tests during 1974-2005. The last test was used to study hearing loss. The mean test values at 3, 4, 6 kHz were used for the ear with worse hearing loss. Data were compared with a Swedish population (n = 603) who were not occupationally exposed to noise. Equivalent noise levels (Leq) were measured in different aircraft. Leq was 78-84 dB (A), maximum A-weighted exposure was 114 dB. Median values for all ages were close to the reference group. No association was found between years of employment and hearing loss, when adjusting for age and gender by multiple logistic regression analysis. Cabin crew are exposed to equivalent noise levels below the current Swedish occupational standard, and have normal age-matched hearing threshold levels.

  18. Assistive technology and passengers with special assistance needs in air transport: contributions to cabin design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina Campese

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract There has been significant growth in air transport worldwide, as well as in Brazil. However, studies have emphasized that disabled, obese, and elderly passengers face difficulties when using this means of transport. Among these difficulties, issues related to passengers’ own assistive devices, including damage, loss, or the impossibility of using during the entire flight, stand out. Therefore, the present study aims to understand the trends in assistive technology focusing on cabin design. This research is based upon literature review, interviews with manufacturers and research centers, visits to specialized trade fairs, and patent search. The results revealed a great diversity of assistive products, its trends, and an increase in their use, which affect aircraft cabin design, especially in terms of space, access, and stowage of these devices.

  19. Transfer of structureborne sound to ship's cabins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Regt, M.J.A.M. de

    1979-01-01

    In the laboratory the transfer of structureborne sound from a ship-like steel structure to cabin bulkheads has heen investigated for three types of bulkhead material: chipboard, plastic faced calcium silicate and steel plates sandwiching a rock wool core. The most relevant results of the investigati

  20. Vibration and stability of an aircraft tail under simultaneous primary-combined and internal resonance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    This paper adds a negative velocity feedback to the dynamical system of twin-tail aircraft to suppress the vibration.The system is represented by two coupled second-order nonlinear differential equations having both quadratic and cubic nonlinearities.The system describes the vibration of an aircraft tail subjected to both multi-harmonic and multi-tuned excitations.The method of multiple time scale perturbation is adopted to solve the nonlinear differential equations and obtain approximate solutions up to th...

  1. Assembly auxiliary system for narrow cabins of spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi; Li, Shiqi; Wang, Junfeng

    2015-09-01

    Due to the narrow space and complex structure of spacecraft cabin, the existing asssembly systems can not well suit for the assembly process of cabin products. This paper aims to introduce an assembly auxiliary system for cabin products. A hierarchical-classification method is proposed to re-adjust the initial assembly relationship of cabin into a new hierarchical structure for efficient assembly planning. An improved ant colony algorithm based on three assembly principles is established for searching a optimizational assembly sequence of cabin parts. A mixed reality assembly environment is constructed with enhanced information to promote interaction efficiency of assembly training and guidance. Based on the machine vision technology, the inspection of left redundant objects and measurement of parts distance in inner cabin are efficiently performed. The proposed system has been applied to the assembly work of a spacecraft cabin with 107 parts, which includes cabin assembly planning, assembly training and assembly quality inspection. The application result indicates that the proposed system can be an effective assistant tool to cabin assembly works and provide an intuitive and real assembly experience for workers. This paper presents an assembly auxiliary system for spacecraft cabin products, which can provide technical support to the spacecraft cabin assembly industry.

  2. Characterization of the frequency and nature of bleed air contamination events in commercial aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shehadi, M; Jones, B; Hosni, M

    2016-06-01

    Contamination of the bleed air used to pressurize and ventilate aircraft cabins is of concern due to the potential health and safety hazards for passengers and crew. Databases from the Federal Aviation Administration, NASA, and other sources were examined in detail to determine the frequency of bleed air contamination incidents. The frequency was examined on an aircraft model basis with the intent of identifying aircraft make and models with elevated frequencies of contamination events. The reported results herein may help investigators to focus future studies of bleed air contamination incidents on smaller number of aircrafts. Incident frequency was normalized by the number of aircraft, number of flights, and flight hours for each model to account for the large variations in the number of aircraft of different models. The focus of the study was on aircraft models that are currently in service and are used by major airlines in the United States. Incidents examined in this study include those related to smoke, oil odors, fumes, and any symptom that might be related to exposure to such contamination, reported by crew members, between 2007 and 2012, for US-based carriers for domestic flights and all international flights that either originated or terminated in the US. In addition to the reported frequency of incidents for different aircraft models, the analysis attempted to identify propulsion engines and auxiliary power units associated with aircrafts that had higher frequencies of incidents. While substantial variations were found in frequency of incidents, it was found that the contamination events were widely distributed across nearly all common models of aircraft.

  3. Numerical modelling of the internal mixing by coagulation of black carbon particles in aircraft exhaust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohlsson, S.; Stroem, J. [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Meteorology

    1997-12-31

    When exhaust gases from an aircraft engine mix with ambient air the humidity may reach water saturation and water droplets will form on the available cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). It is still not resolved if the CCN, on which the cloud droplets form, are mainly particles present in the ambient air or particles emitted by the aircraft. It the exhaust from a jet engine the particles are believed to consist mainly of black carbon (BC) and sulfate. The aim is to study, with the help of a numerical model, how a two-component aerosol (i.e. BC and sulfate) in an exhaust trail may be transformed in terms of hygroscopicity by coagulation mixing and how this may depend on the sulfur content in the fuel. (R.P.) 15 refs.

  4. MONITORING AND MODELLING OF AIR POLLUTION PRODUCED BY AIRCRAFT ENGINE EMISSION INSIDE THE ATHENS INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleksander I. Zaporozhets

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available  Experimental measuring of air pollution inside the airport, produced by aircraft engine emission during accelaration and take-off on the runway. Measurement data were used for verification of modelling results according to complex model «PolEmiCa». It consists of the following basic components: engine emission inventory calculation; transport of the contaminants by engine jets, dispersion of the contaminants in atmosphere due to wind and atmospheric turbulence.

  5. The Cabin Crew Blues. Middle-aged Cabin Attendants and Their Working Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Bergman

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines how an airline company uses the labor of a group of middle-aged cabin attendants in an industry increasingly characterized by deregulation and competiveness. The study was based on in-depth interviews with seven women, all with between 24 and 30 years of work experience as cabin attendants. The article focuses on the women’s working conditions and well-being and the analysis reveals three key aspects—intensification of work, vulnerability, and aging—that affect the cabin attendants’ experiences and emotions in relation to the work. It is at the intersection of these three aspects that the cabin attendants’ concerns must be understood. The study’s findings indicated that positive emotions such as job satisfaction and commitment have diminished because of exploitative and otherwise poor working conditions. Taking the cabin attendants’ concerns as its point of departure, the article shows that there is a need to move away from a discussion about emotional labor toward a discussion of working conditions.

  6. Cancer incidence among Nordic airline cabin crew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pukkala, Eero; Helminen, Mika; Haldorsen, Tor; Hammar, Niklas; Kojo, Katja; Linnersjö, Anette; Rafnsson, Vilhjálmur; Tulinius, Hrafn; Tveten, Ulf; Auvinen, Anssi

    2012-12-15

    Airline cabin crew are occupationally exposed to cosmic radiation and jet lag with potential disruption of circadian rhythms. This study assesses the influence of work-related factors in cancer incidence of cabin crew members. A cohort of 8,507 female and 1,559 male airline cabin attendants from Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden was followed for cancer incidence for a mean follow-up time of 23.6 years through the national cancer registries. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) were defined as ratios of observed and expected numbers of cases. A case-control study nested in the cohort (excluding Norway) was conducted to assess the relation between the estimated cumulative cosmic radiation dose and cumulative number of flights crossing six time zones (indicator of circadian disruption) and cancer risk. Analysis of breast cancer was adjusted for parity and age at first live birth. Among female cabin crew, a significantly increased incidence was observed for breast cancer [SIR 1.50, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.32-1.69], leukemia (1.89, 95% CI 1.03-3.17) and skin melanoma (1.85, 95% CI 1.41-2.38). Among men, significant excesses in skin melanoma (3.00, 95% CI 1.78-4.74), nonmelanoma skin cancer (2.47, 95% CI 1.18-4.53), Kaposi sarcoma (86.0, 95% CI 41.2-158) and alcohol-related cancers (combined SIR 3.12, 95% CI 1.95-4.72) were found. This large study with complete follow-up and comprehensive cancer incidence data shows an increased incidence of several cancers, but according to the case-control analysis, excesses appear not to be related to the cosmic radiation or circadian disruptions from crossing multiple time zones. Copyright © 2012 UICC.

  7. International technology transfer: building theory from a multiple case-study in the aircraft industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenhuis, Harm-Jan; Bruijn, de Erik J.

    2005-01-01

    International technology transfer occurs frequently in international operations, for example in cases of foreign direct investment where companies set-up existing manufacturing lines in new locations. It also occurs in situations of international outsourcing where a new supplier receives product and

  8. THE FUNCTION AND PURPOSE OF AIRCRAFT ACCIDENT INVESTIGATION ACCORDING TO THE INTERNATIONAL AIR LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atip Latipulhayat

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of an aircraft accident investigation is to find out the most probable causes of such accident. This represents a technical investigation in nature. At the practical level, however, this report is often used as legal evidence before the court. This paper argues that the main purpose of an aircraft acccident investigation is technical in nature and judicial investigation is carried out when the technical investigation found elements of crime that has been alleged as the most probable cause of the accident.   Menurut Konvensi Chicago 1944, tujuan utama suatu investigasi kecelakaan pesawat udara adalah untuk menemukan penyebab terjadinya kecelakaan tersebut. Jadi, investigasi ini bersifat teknis. Namun, laporan investigasi ini seringkali dijadikan alat bukti di pengadilan khususnya apabila faktor kesalahan manusia dianggap sebagai penyebab utama terjadinya kecelakaan tersebut. Investigasi teknis berubah menjadi investigasi yuridis. Tulisan ini berpendapat bahwa hakikat investigasi kecelakaan pesawat udara adalah bersifat teknis dan investigasi yuridis hanya akan dilakukan apabila laporan investigasi teknis menunjukkan adanya elemen kriminal.

  9. An improved source model for aircraft interior noise studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahan, J. R.; Fuller, C. R.

    1985-01-01

    There is concern that advanced turboprop engines currently being developed may produce excessive aircraft cabin noise level. This concern has stimulated renewed interest in developing aircraft interior noise reduction methods that do not significnatly increase take off weight. An existing analytical model for noise transmission into aircraft cabins was utilized to investigate the behavior of an improved propeller source model for use in aircraft interior noise studies. The new source model, a virtually rotating dipole, is shown to adequately match measured fuselage sound pressure distributions, including the correct phase relationships, for published data. The virtually rotating dipole is used to study the sensitivity of synchrophasing effectiveness to the fuselage sound pressure trace velocity distribution. Results of calculations are presented which reveal the importance of correctly modeling the surface pressure phase relations in synchrophasing and other aircraft interior noise studies.

  10. Risk factors for skin cancer among Finnish airline cabin crew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojo, Katja; Helminen, Mika; Pukkala, Eero; Auvinen, Anssi

    2013-07-01

    Increased incidence of skin cancers among airline cabin crew has been reported in several studies. We evaluated whether the difference in risk factor prevalence between Finnish airline cabin crew and the general population could explain the increased incidence of skin cancers among cabin crew, and the possible contribution of estimated occupational cosmic radiation exposure. A self-administered questionnaire survey on occupational, host, and ultraviolet radiation exposure factors was conducted among female cabin crew members and females presenting the general population. The impact of occupational cosmic radiation dose was estimated in a separate nested case-control analysis among the participating cabin crew (with 9 melanoma and 35 basal cell carcinoma cases). No considerable difference in the prevalence of risk factors of skin cancer was found between the cabin crew (N = 702) and the general population subjects (N = 1007) participating the study. The mean risk score based on all the conventional skin cancer risk factors was 1.43 for cabin crew and 1.44 for general population (P = 0.24). Among the cabin crew, the estimated cumulative cosmic radiation dose was not related to the increased skin cancer risk [adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 0.75, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.57-1.00]. The highest plausible risk of skin cancer for estimated cosmic radiation dose was estimated as 9% per 10 mSv. The skin cancer cases had higher host characteristics scores than the non-cases among cabin crew (adjusted OR = 1.43, 95% CI: 1.01-2.04). Our results indicate no difference between the female cabin crew and the general female population in the prevalence of factors generally associated with incidence of skin cancer. Exposure to cosmic radiation did not explain the excess of skin cancer among the studied cabin crew in this study.

  11. The Cabin Crew Blues. Middle-aged Cabin Attendants and Their Working Conditions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bergman, Ann; Gillberg, Gunnar

    2015-01-01

    ... must be understood. The study's findings indicated that positive emotions such as job satisfaction and commitment have diminished because of exploitative and otherwise poor working conditions. Taking the cabin attendants' concerns as its point of departure, the article shows that there is a need to move away from a discussion about emotional ...

  12. Redesign of Transjakarta Bus Driver's Cabin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardi Safitri, Dian; Azmi, Nora; Singh, Gurbinder; Astuti, Pudji

    2016-02-01

    Ergonomic risk at work stations with type Seated Work Control was one of the problems faced by Transjakarta bus driver. Currently “Trisakti” type bus, one type of bus that is used by Transjakarta in corridor 9, serving route Pinang Ranti - Pluit, gained many complaints from drivers. From the results of Nordic Body Map questionnaires given to 30 drivers, it was known that drivers feel pain in the neck, arms, hips, and buttocks. Allegedly this was due to the seat position and the button/panel bus has a considerable distance range (1 meter) to be achieved by drivers. In addition, preliminary results of the questionnaire using Workstation Checklist identified their complaints about uncomfortable cushion, driver's seat backrest, and the exact position of the AC is above the driver head. To reduce the risk level of ergonomics, then did research to design the cabin by using a generic approach to designing products. The risk analysis driver posture before the design was done by using Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA), Rapid Entire Body Assessment (REBA), and Quick Exposure Checklist (QEC), while the calculation of the moment the body is done by using software Mannequin Pro V10.2. Furthermore, the design of generic products was done through the stages: need metric-matrix, house of quality, anthropometric data collection, classification tree concept, concept screening, scoring concept, design and manufacture of products in the form of two-dimensional. While the design after design risk analysis driver posture was done by using RULA, REBA, and calculation of moments body as well as the design visualized using software 3DMax. From the results of analysis before the draft design improvements cabin RULA obtained scores of 6, REBA 9, and the result amounted to 57.38% QEC and moment forces on the back is 247.3 LbF.inch and on the right hip is 72.9 LbF.in. While the results of the proposed improvements cabin design RULA obtained scores of 3, REBA 4, and the moment of force on

  13. 46 CFR 15.855 - Cabin watchmen and fire patrolmen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cabin watchmen and fire patrolmen. 15.855 Section 15.855... REQUIREMENTS Computations § 15.855 Cabin watchmen and fire patrolmen. (a) On vessels carrying passengers at night, the master or person in charge shall ensure that a suitable number of watchmen are in...

  14. 36 CFR 13.1306 - Public use cabins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Superintendent. (c) Lighting or maintaining a fire within 500 feet of the North Arm or Holgate public use cabins... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Public use cabins. 13.1306 Section 13.1306 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR...

  15. Sequential box models for indoor air quality: Application to airliner cabin air quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, P. Barry; Spengler, John D.; Halfpenny, Paul F.

    In this paper we present the development and application of a model for indoor air quality. The model represents a departure from the standard box models typically used for indoor environments which has applicability in residences and office buildings. The model has been developed for a physical system consisting of sequential compartments which communicate only with adjacent compartments. Each compartment may contain various source and sink terms for a pollutant as well as leakage, and air transfer from adjacent compartments. The mathematical derivation affords rapid calculation of equilibrium concentrations in an essentially unlimited number of compartments. The model has been applied to air quality in the passenger cabin of three commercial aircraft. Simulations have been performed for environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) under two scenarios, CO 2 and water vapor. Additionally, concentrations in one aircraft have been simulated under conditions different from the standard configuration. Results of the simulations suggest the potential for elevated concentrations of ETS in smoking sections of non-air-recirculating aircraft and throughout the aircraft when air is recirculated. Concentrations of CO 2 and water vapor are consistent with expected results. We conclude that this model may be a useful tool in understanding indoor air quality in general and on aircraft in particular.

  16. Propeller aircraft interior noise model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, L. D.; Wilby, E. G.; Wilby, J. F.

    1984-01-01

    An analytical model was developed to predict the interior noise of propeller-driven aircraft. The fuselage model is that of a cylinder with a structurally-integral floor. The cabin sidewall is stiffened by stringers and ring frames, and the floor by longitudinal beams. The cabin interior is covered with a sidewall treatments consisting of layers of porous material and an impervious trim septum. Representation of the propeller pressure field is utilized as input data in the form of the propeller noise signature at a series of locations on a grid over the fuselage structure. Results obtained from the analytical model are compared with test data measured by NASA in a scale model cylindrical fuselage excited by a model propeller.

  17. Comparison of internal dose measures of solvents in breath, blood and urine and genotoxic changes in aircraft maintenance personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemasters, G K; Lockey, J E; Olsen, D M; Selevan, S G; Tabor, M W; Livingston, G K; New, G R

    1999-02-01

    Solvents and fuels are in widespread use both in civilian and military populations. 1,1,1-trichloroethane (TCA), xylene, toluene, methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) and methylene chloride are found in a variety of compounds including degreasing agents, paints, coatings, pesticides and paint strippers. Toluene and xylene are also found in fuels, which are complex mixtures of hundreds of agents. The purpose of this investigation was twofold. The first was to determine the optimum medium to measure internal dose of solvents comparing blood, urine and breath. The second was to determine if low level exposures were associated with genotoxic changes after a short-term exposure of fifteen or thirty weeks. To accomplish the first goal a pilot study was initiated involving eight volunteers who worked in aircraft maintenance including sheet metal, painting and assembly mechanic jobs. Industrial hygiene measurements were evaluated over 30 working days. Breath, blood and a 24-hour urine sample were collected twice to compare internal dose parameters. To achieve the second goal, 58 newly hired subjects were monitored prior to exposure and over 30 weeks to determine if there were genotoxic changes as a result of solvent and/or fuel exposure as measured by sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) and micronuclei (MN). Exposure groups included workers involved in sheet metal (fuel cell) activities, painting, fueling operations and flight line. Results of the pilot study demonstrated that industrial hygiene air samples and internal breath measures taken on the same day were highly correlated for measuring TCA (r = 0.93) and toluene (r = 0.90) but was not as well correlated for the other compounds. Breath measures were more sensitive for measuring low level exposure than were either analytes in blood or 24-hour urine samples; these latter two measures were usually below the limit of detection. A small but statistically significant increase in the frequency of SCEs occurred after 30 weeks of

  18. Computer program to predict noise of general aviation aircraft: User's guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, J. A.; Barton, C. K.; Kisner, L. S.; Lyon, C. A.

    1982-01-01

    Program NOISE predicts General Aviation Aircraft far-field noise levels at FAA FAR Part 36 certification conditions. It will also predict near-field and cabin noise levels for turboprop aircraft and static engine component far-field noise levels.

  19. Cockpit-cabin communication: I. A tale of two cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chute, R D; Wiener, E L

    1995-01-01

    Several dramatic accidents have emphasized certain deficiencies in cockpit-cabin coordination and communication. There are historical, organizational, environmental, psychosocial, and regulatory factors that have led to misunderstandings, problematic attitudes, and suboptimal interactions between the cockpit and cabin crews. Our research indicates the basic problem is that these two crews represent two distinct and separate cultures and that this separation serves to inhibit satisfactory teamwork. A survey was conducted at two airlines to measure attitudes of cockpit and cabin crews concerning the effectiveness of their communications. This article includes recommendations for the improvement of communications across the two cultures.

  20. American Spirit in Uncle Tom’s Cabin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧嘉丽

    2015-01-01

    <正>I.The American Spirit Reflected in Uncle Tom’s Cabin In most people’s opinions,Uncle Tom’s Cabin is a novel which exploded the Civil War and truly described the dreadful life of black people,in my opinion,however,the American spirit reflects in Uncle Tom’s Cabin is the truly reason to the whole course of the Civil War,it is also one of the most important prime movers in the later development of the whole nation,it is a systemic theory of Americans’thoughts

  1. Small Aircraft RF Interference Path Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Truong X.; Koppen, Sandra V.; Ely, Jay J.; Szatkowski, George N.; Mielnik, John J.; Salud, Maria Theresa P.

    2007-01-01

    Interference to aircraft radio receivers is an increasing concern as more portable electronic devices are allowed onboard. Interference signals are attenuated as they propagate from inside the cabin to aircraft radio antennas mounted on the outside of the aircraft. The attenuation level is referred to as the interference path loss (IPL) value. Significant published IPL data exists for transport and regional category airplanes. This report fills a void by providing data for small business/corporate and general aviation aircraft. In this effort, IPL measurements are performed on ten small aircraft of different designs and manufacturers. Multiple radio systems are addressed. Along with the typical worst-case coupling values, statistical distributions are also reported that could lead to better interference risk assessment.

  2. Small Aircraft RF Interference Path Loss Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Truong X.; Koppen, Sandra V.; Ely, Jay J.; Szatkowski, George N.; Mielnik, John J.; Salud, Maria Theresa P.

    2007-01-01

    Interference to aircraft radio receivers is an increasing concern as more portable electronic devices are allowed onboard. Interference signals are attenuated as they propagate from inside the cabin to aircraft radio antennas mounted on the outside of the aircraft. The attenuation level is referred to as the interference path loss (IPL) value. Significant published IPL data exists for transport and regional category airplanes. This report fills a void by providing data for small business/corporate and general aviation aircraft. In this effort, IPL measurements are performed on ten small aircraft of different designs and manufacturers. Multiple radio systems are addressed. Along with the typical worst-case coupling values, statistical distributions are also reported that could lead to more meaningful interference risk assessment.

  3. Aircraft Crash Survival Design Guide. Volume 4. Aircraft Seats, Restraints, Litters, and Cockpit/Cabin Delethalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-12-01

    to include inforirmation and changes *Now the Aviation Applied Technology Directorate, U.S. Army Aviation Rese•,c,-i and Technoilogy Activity, U.S...in) a length of metal tubing The concept was developed by an American auto- mobile manufacturing company for incorporation into steering columns to...Technical Report 75-59A, Eustis Directorate, U.S. Army Air Mobility Research and Development Laboratory, Fort Eustis, Virginia, May 1976, AD A026246. 8

  4. Policy discourse, people’s internal frames, and declared aircraft noise annoyance: An application of Q-methodology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroesen, M.; Bröer, C.

    2009-01-01

    Aircraft noise annoyance is studied extensively, but often without an explicit theoretical framework. In this article, a social approach for noise annoyance is proposed. The idea that aircraft noise is meaningful to people within a socially produced discourse is assumed and tested. More

  5. 26 CFR 1.883-1 - Exclusion of income from the international operation of ships or aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... aircraft operated by another party; (iv) Acting as a ship's agent; (v) Ship or aircraft brokering; (vi) Freight forwarding; (vii) The activities of travel agents and tour operators; (viii) Rental by a container... destination even if, en route to the passenger's final destination, a stop is made at an intermediate...

  6. Study of air flow and temperature distribution in ship's crew cabins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elsafty, A.F. [Arab Academy for Science and Technology and Maritime Transport, Alexandria (Egypt). Dept. of Mechanical and Marine Engineering; Ali, A.A.; Nasr, A.N. [Arab Academy for Science and Technology and Maritime Transport, Alexandria (Egypt). Dept. of Marine Engineering Technology

    2007-07-01

    Because of low internal heights in ship's crew cabins, the supplied air is directed to the persons at low mixing ratios. However, this does not allow the mixing process between the supplied air and the indoor air to be completed before the air enters human lungs. This paper presented an experimental and numerical simulation study that used computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to investigate the effect of the air supply location on thermal air diffusion in the ship's crew cabins space. The paper presented the results in terms of air diffusion performance index. The paper presented the CFD model, including selected space configurations; CFD simulation; boundary conditions; and CFD results. The CFD airflow simulation programs CFD were utilized to calculate the spatial distribution of temperature and velocity. The study focused on the typical Middle East region working vessel under thermal and boundary conditions including the high cooling load used in this region. Experimental data were also introduced to verify the CFD results package. It was concluded that the supply should be located near the high sidewall of the cabin. This gives better air distribution inside the space rather than the center of the room. 5 refs., 1 tab., 6 figs.

  7. Advanced Supported Liquid Membranes for Carbon Dioxide Control in Cabin Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickham, David T.; Gleason, Kevin J.; Engel, Jeffrey R.; Chullen, Cinda

    2016-01-01

    The development of new, robust, life support systems is critical to NASA's continued progress in space exploration. One vital function is maintaining the carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration in the cabin at levels that do not impair the health or performance of the crew. The CO2 removal assembly (CDRA) is the current CO2 control technology on-board the International Space Station (ISS). Although the CDRA has met the needs of the ISS to date, the repeated cycling of the molecular sieve sorbent causes it to break down into small particles that clog filters or generate dust in the cabin. This reduces reliability and increases maintenance requirements. Another approach that has potential advantages over the current system is a membrane that separates CO2 from air. In this approach, cabin air contacts one side of the membrane while other side of the membrane is maintained at low pressure to create a driving force for CO2 transport across the membrane. In this application, the primary power requirement is for the pump that creates the low pressure and then pumps the CO2 to the oxygen recovery system. For such a membrane to be practical, it must have high CO2 permeation rate and excellent selectivity for CO2 over air. Unfortunately, conventional gas separation membranes do not have adequate CO2 permeability and selectivity to meet the needs of this application. However, the required performance could be obtained with a supported liquid membrane (SLM), which consists of a microporous material filled with a liquid that selectively reacts with CO2 over air. In a recently completed Phase II SBIR project, Reaction Systems, Inc. fabricated an SLM that is very close to meeting permeability and selectivity objectives for use in the advanced space suit portable life support system. This paper describes work carried out to evaluate its potential for use in spacecraft cabin application.

  8. Method of Separating Oxygen From Spacecraft Cabin Air to Enable Extravehicular Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, John C.

    2013-01-01

    Extravehicular activities (EVAs) require high-pressure, high-purity oxygen. Shuttle EVAs use oxygen that is stored and transported as a cryogenic fluid. EVAs on the International Space Station (ISS) presently use the Shuttle cryo O2, which is transported to the ISS using a transfer hose. The fluid is compressed to elevated pressures and stored as a high-pressure gas. With the retirement of the shuttle, NASA has been searching for ways to deliver oxygen to fill the highpressure oxygen tanks on the ISS. A method was developed using low-pressure oxygen generated onboard the ISS and released into ISS cabin air, filtering the oxygen from ISS cabin air using a pressure swing absorber to generate a low-pressure (high-purity) oxygen stream, compressing the oxygen with a mechanical compressor, and transferring the high-pressure, high-purity oxygen to ISS storage tanks. The pressure swing absorber (PSA) can be either a two-stage device, or a single-stage device, depending on the type of sorbent used. The key is to produce a stream with oxygen purity greater than 99.5 percent. The separator can be a PSA device, or a VPSA device (that uses both vacuum and pressure for the gas separation). The compressor is a multi-stage mechanical compressor. If the gas flow rates are on the order of 5 to 10 lb (.2.3 to 4.6 kg) per day, the compressor can be relatively small [3 16 16 in. (.8 41 41 cm)]. Any spacecraft system, or other remote location that has a supply of lowpressure oxygen, a method of separating oxygen from cabin air, and a method of compressing the enriched oxygen stream, has the possibility of having a regenerable supply of highpressure, high-purity oxygen that is compact, simple, and safe. If cabin air is modified so there is very little argon, the separator can be smaller, simpler, and use less power.

  9. Multifunctional Coating for Crew Cabin Surfaces and Fabrics Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA's crewed spacecrafts require routine cleaning of particulate, moisture, organic, and salt contaminants on the crew cabin surfaces and fabrics. Self-cleaning...

  10. 基于条缝形出风口流场多尺度分析的飞机客舱吹风感实验研究%Experimental investigation on draft sensation in aircraft cabin based on multi-scale characteristics of slot-jet flow field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛文涛; 郭勇; 姜楠; 李建民; 刘俊杰

    2015-01-01

    Finely measures the slot-jet flow fields in the MD-82 airliner cabin environment by hot-wire anemometry system.Analyses the actual velocity fields based on the wavelet-transform multi-scales eddy analysis.Obtains the velocity fields in different directions in the turbulence jet flow field.Analyses the energy distribution and transmission law of different scale eddies.The results show that the energy distribution of different scale eddies is connected with the evolution of the slot-jet flow field,and the large scale eddies with low-frequency and low-kinetic energy generated by the effect of inverse energy cascade in the far flow field have significant impact on the thermal transmission and the diffusion of contaminant.The air flow of the slot-jet flow field in this airliner cabin dose not influence human’ s comfort in the way of flow vibration frequency,but considering periodicity and uniformity of the flow velocity distribution along slot, the flow field needs be improved.%利用热线测速技术,精细测量了MD 82飞机真实客舱环境中条缝形出风口的射流流场,对实际测得的流场进行了子波多尺度湍涡分析,重构出湍射流流场中不同方向上的速度场分布,分析了不同尺度湍涡结构的能量分布规律及其能量传递规律。结果显示,不同尺度湍涡的能量分布规律与射流流场的发展演化有关,远场逆级串生成的低频低动能大尺度湍涡对机舱内热量的传递和污染物的输运扩散产生重要影响;从气流波动频率对舒适性影响的角度分析,该客舱条缝形出风口流场的气流不会使人有不舒适的感觉,但是从速度沿格栅分布的周期性及均匀性考虑,仍有待进一步的改进。

  11. Uncle Tom’s Cabin and Abolitionist Movement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆育红

    2013-01-01

    Uncle Tom’s Cabin, the book has crowned to be the first American novel ever to sell over a million copies. Now its impact is generally thought have been incalculable: its antislavery message. This article briefly analyzes the impact of the Uncle Tom’s Cabin on the abolitionist movement from the perspective of the author’s creative purposes, her reflection of values at that time, and her creative tactics to cause attention.

  12. Medical and safety monitoring system over an in-cabin optical wireless network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinos, D.; Leonidas, F.; Vlissidis, N.; Giovanis, C.; Pagiatakis, G.; Aidinis, C.; Vassilopoulos, C.; Pistner, T.; Schmitt, N.; Klaue, J.

    2011-02-01

    An integrated health and safety monitoring system for aircraft environments using commercially available medical sensor modules and custom made safety sensors in conjunction with an appropriate database supervised through a human-machine interface is implemented. The application described aims at preventing critical health- or safety-related situations during the flight. The health monitoring part of the system is capable of collecting all relevant data, essential in analysing a passenger's health profile. These data, comprising of body temperature, blood pressure, pulse oximetry and electrocardiogram, are throughput and transmitted over a wireless optical intra-cabin link to a server. Furthermore, and in order to reduce the cabin crew workload, along with the health data from a specific passenger group, seat-embedded safety sensors provide information for all passengers' flight safety parameters (such as table upright, seat-belt closed, etc.). The data gathered by the system in a central server can, in its entirety, be stored, processed or acted upon in real time.

  13. Loss of cabin pressure in a military transport: a mass casualty with decompression illnesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Mickaila J

    2008-04-01

    Presented here is the sudden cabin depressurization of a military C-130 aircraft carrying 66 personnel. They suffered a depressurization from 2134 to 7317 m, resulting in a potential 66-person mass casualty. The aircrew were able to descend to below 3049 m in less than 5 min. They landed in the Kingdom of Bahrain--the nearest hyperbaric recompression facility. Three cases of peripheral neurologic DCS and one case of spinal DCS were identified. Limited manning, unique host nation concerns, and limited available assets led to difficulties in triage, patient transport, and asset allocation. These led to difficult decisions regarding when and for whom to initiate ground level oxygen or hyperbaric recompression therapy.

  14. Electrochromic windows - Applications for aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Caroline S.; Greenberg, Charles B.

    1989-04-01

    A transparent, solid-state, electrochromic device is described. It demonstrates deep switching in the near infrared and visible spectral regions and good room temperature cycling stability. The response appears reasonably uniform over a 14 cm x 28 cm area, which gives hope for achieving large parts for cockpit and cabin windows. The reversible darkening of the transparency, controlled by an applied voltage or current, has potential application in aircraft to reduce glare and solar heat load to pilots and passengers. The active material in the device is a thin tungsten oxide film which is incorporated into a complex, multilayered structure, essentially that of a transparent battery. The performance of the window is discussed in terms of its configuration, its similarities with commercial batteries and issues critical to aircraft.

  15. The Effect of Golden Pothos in Reducing the Level of Volatile Organic Compounds in a Simulated Spacecraft Cabin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ursprung, Matthew; Amiri, Azita; Kayatin, Matthew; Perry, Jay

    2016-01-01

    The impact of Golden Pothos on indoor air quality was studied against a simulated spacecraft trace contaminant load model, consistent with the International Space Station (ISS), containing volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and formaldehyde. Previous research provides inconclusive results on the efficacy of plant VOC removal which this projects seeks to rectify through a better experimental design. This work develops a passive system for removing common VOC's from spacecraft and household indoor air and decreasing the necessity for active cabin trace contaminant removal systems.

  16. International Pacific Air and Space Technology Conference and Aircraft Symposium, 29th, Gifu, Japan, Oct. 7-11, 1991, Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    Various papers on air and space technology are presented. Individual topics addressed include: media selection analysis: implications for training design, high-speed challenge for rotary wing aircraft, high-speed VSTOL answer to congestion, next generation in computational aerodynamics, acrobatic airship 'Acrostat', ducted fan VTOL for working platform, Arianespace launch of Lightsats, small particle acceleration by minirailgun, free-wake analyses of a hovering rotor using panel method, update of the X-29 high-angle-of-attack program, economic approach to accurate wing design, flow field around thick delta wing with rounded leading edge, aerostructural integrated design of forward-swept wing, static characteristics of a two-phase fluid drop system, simplfied-model approach to group combustion of fuel spray, avionics flight systems for the 21st century. Also discussed are: Aircraft Command in Emergency Situations, spectrogram diagnosis of aircraft disasters, shock interaction induced by two hemisphere-cylinders, impact response of composite UHB propeller blades, high-altitude lighter-than-air powered platform, integrated wiring system, auxiliary power units for current and future aircraft, Space Shuttle Orbiter Auxiliary Power Unit status, numerical analysis of RCS jet in hypersonic flights, energy requirements for the space frontier, electrical system options for space exploration, aerospace plane hydrogen scramjet boosting, manual control of vehicles with time-varying dynamics, design of strongly stabilizing controller, development of the Liquid Apogee Propulsion System for ETS-VI.

  17. Prevalence of neck pain among cabin crew of Saudi Airlines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezzat, Hesham M; Al-Sultan, Alanood; Al-Shammari, Anwar; Alyousef, Dana; Al-Hamidi, Hager; Al-Dossary, Nafla; Al-Zahrani, Nuha; Al-Abdulqader, Wala

    2015-01-01

    Neck pain is considered to be a major health problem in modern societies. Many previous studies found that certain occupations are related to this problem or are associated with the risk of developing it in future. Although the pain is caused by mechanical factors, it may progress to a serious problem and give rise to other abnormal symptoms such as vertigo, headache, or migraine. To investigate the prevalence of neck pain among the cabin crew of Saudi Airlines. A cross-sectional study was carried out on the available Saudi Airlines cabin crews in King Fahad Airport during our visits, using questionnaires and measurements of several parameters. Neck Pain Questionnaires were distributed to the cabin crews on Saudi Airlines and assessment sheets were completed by all participants of the study to evaluate the prevalence and distribution of neck pain. Physical therapy examination of neck motions in different directions and specific tests were performed by all the participants to identify any symptoms. Using these data the prevalence of neck pain among the cabin crews was calculated. Collected data were analyzed statistically using SPSS software calculating the mean, median, and score of the questionnaire. According to the scoring system of the study, 31 (30.09%) of 105 cabin crew staff of Saudi Airlines had neck pain. Our study confirmed a positive correlation between this occupation and neck pain, and in fact found that according to the results of logistic regression analysis, this occupation is the only significant factor that affects the positive compression test. The prevalence of neck pain among the cabin crews of Saudi Airlines was emphasized. The results show a high prevalence of neck pain in the participants of the study, with most cases appearing to run a chronic - episodic course. Further research is needed to help us understand more about the long-term course of neck pain and its broader outcomes and impacts.

  18. Aircraft operations management manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    The NASA aircraft operations program is a multifaceted, highly diverse entity that directly supports the agency mission in aeronautical research and development, space science and applications, space flight, astronaut readiness training, and related activities through research and development, program support, and mission management aircraft operations flights. Users of the program are interagency, inter-government, international, and the business community. This manual provides guidelines to establish policy for the management of NASA aircraft resources, aircraft operations, and related matters. This policy is an integral part of and must be followed when establishing field installation policy and procedures covering the management of NASA aircraft operations. Each operating location will develop appropriate local procedures that conform with the requirements of this handbook. This manual should be used in conjunction with other governing instructions, handbooks, and manuals.

  19. Magnetic analyses of powders from exhausted cabin air filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Aldo; Sagnotti, Leonardo

    2013-04-01

    The automotive cabin air filter is a pleated-paper filter placed in the outside-air intake for the car's passenger compartment. Dirty and saturated cabin air filters significantly reduce the airflow from the outside and introduce particulate matter (PM) and allergens (for example, pollen) into the cabin air stream. Magnetic measurements and analyses have been carried out on powders extracted from exhausted cabin air filters to characterize their magnetic properties and to compare them to those already reported for powders collected from disk brakes, gasoline exhaust pipes and Quercus ilex leaves. This study is also aimed at the identification and quantification of the contribution of the ultrafine fraction, superparamagnetic (SP) at room temperature, to the overall magnetic properties of these powders. This contribution was estimated by interpreting and comparing data from FORCs, isothermal remanent magnetization vs time decay curves, frequency and field dependence of the magnetic susceptibility and out-of-phase susceptibility. The magnetic properties and the distribution of the SP particles are generally homogenous and independent of the brand of the car, of the model of the filter and of its level of usage. The relatively high concentration of magnetic PM trapped in these filters poses relevant questions about the air quality inside a car.

  20. Emergency Cabin Lighting Installations: An Analysis of Ceiling-versus Lower Cabin-Mounted Lighting during Evacuation Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-02-01

    A, Technical Report Documentation Page 1. Report No. 2 Government Accessron No. 3. Recipient’s Catalog No. FAA-AM-81- Il.. .e,. 4. Title and...near floor level prvide.s fassorkler twareness, exit location information, and cabin illuminati , n Fot a ]onc;,.r letiod of time than ceilirig or

  1. Examination of Aircraft Interior Emergency Lighting in a Postcrash Fire Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-06-01

    Evacuation from Air Carrier, (No. AAS-74-3) Adopted 11/13/74. 6. Bukowski , R. W., Instruction Manual for National Bureau of Standards Photo- meteric...Aircraft Cabin, Report No. FAA-NA-79-42, December 1979. 9. Crane, Charles R., Ph.D., Human Tolerance Limit to Elevated Temperature: An Empirical Approach to

  2. Energy self-sufficient greenhouse cabin. Solar energy use with geothermal reservoirs; Energieautonomes Gewaechshaus. Solare Energienutzung mit geothermischem Speicher

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eggeling, Lena; Koelbel, Thomas [EnBW Energie Baden-Wuerttemberg AG, Karlsruhe (Germany); Kleinwaechter, Juergen [BSR Solar Technologies, Loerrach (Germany); Bauer, Stefan [HarbourDom GmbH, Koeln (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    Greenhouse cabins enable a cultivation of plants in cold seasons. Usually, oil heatings prevent greenhouse cabins from freezing. In the future, greenhouse cabins largely get along without conventional heating by means of a smart combination of solar and geothermal energy. This saves up to 90 % of the total energy demand of a greenhouse cabin. Thus, the use of energy self-sufficient greenhouse cabins presents a considerable potential to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions. The first realization of such a greenhouse cabin succeeded as a part of a research project. Currently, the operation of this greenhouse cabin is being tested.

  3. The search and rescue satellite mission - A basis for international cooperation. [in aircraft crash and marine distress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redisch, W. N.; Trudell, B. J.

    1978-01-01

    The use of geostationary and polar-orbiting satellites to monitor and locate signals of the Emergency Locator Transmitter (ELT) and Emergency Position Indicating Radio Beacon (EPIB) of general aviation aircraft and inspected marine vessels respectively is described. The joint U.S. Canada/France SARSAT demonstration program will require a minimum of four minutes of mutual visibility of distress transmitter, local user terminal and satellite to obtain a location by Doppler tracking. The program consisting of placing instrumentation on-board three of the Tiros-N series of NOAA operational satellites is attracting interest also from other countries including the USSR, Norway, Australia, and Japan.

  4. Role of structural noise in aircraft pressure cockpit from vibration action of new-generation engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baklanov, V. S.

    2016-07-01

    The evolution of new-generation aircraft engines is transitioning from a bypass ratio of 4-6 to an increased ratio of 8-12. This is leading to substantial broadening of the vibration spectrum of engines with a shift to the low-frequency range due to decreased rotation speed of the fan rotor, in turn requiring new solutions to decrease structural noise from engine vibrations to ensure comfort in the cockpits and cabins of aircraft.

  5. Towards an Integrated Approach to Cabin Service English Curriculum Design: A Case Study of China Southern Airlines' Cabin Service English Training Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaoqin, Liu; Wenzhong, Zhu

    2016-01-01

    This paper has reviewed the history of EOP (training) development and then illustrated the curriculum design of cabin service English training from the three perspectives of ESP, CLIL and Business Discourse. It takes the cabin crew English training of China Southern Airlines (CZ) as the case and puts forward an operational framework composed of…

  6. Cockpit-cabin communication: II. Shall we tell the pilots?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chute, R D; Wiener, E L

    1996-01-01

    In a previous article (Chute & Wiener, 1995), we explored the coordination between the "two cultures" in an airliner's crew: cockpit and cabin. In this article, we discuss a particular problem: the dilemma facing the cabin crew when they feel that they have safety-critical information and must decide whether to take it to the cockpit. We explore the reasons for the reluctance of the flight attendant to come forward with the information, such as self-doubt about the accuracy or importance of the information, fear of dismissal or rebuke by the pilots, and misunderstanding of the sterile cockpit rule. Insight into crew attitudes was based on our examination of accident and incident reports and data from questionnaires submitted by pilots and flight attendants at two airlines. The results show confusion and disagreement about what is permissible to take to the cockpit when it is sterile, as well as imbalances in authority and operational knowledge. Possible remedies are proposed.

  7. Reduced bleed air extraction for DC-10 cabin air conditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, W. H.; Viele, M. R.; Hrach, F. J.

    1980-01-01

    It is noted that a significant fuel savings can be achieved by reducing bleed air used for cabin air conditioning. Air in the cabin can be recirculated to maintain comfortable ventilation rates but the quality of the air tends to decrease due to entrainment of smoke and odors. Attention is given to a development system designed and fabricated under the NASA Engine Component Improvement Program to define the recirculation limit for the DC-10. It is shown that with the system, a wide range of bleed air reductions and recirculation rates is possible. A goal of 0.8% fuel savings has been achieved which results from a 50% reduction in bleed extraction from the engine.

  8. Fast roadway detection using car cabin video camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krokhina, Daria; Blinov, Veniamin; Gladilin, Sergey; Tarhanov, Ivan; Postnikov, Vassili

    2015-12-01

    We describe a fast method for road detection in images from a vehicle cabin camera. Straight section of roadway is detected using Fast Hough Transform and the method of dynamic programming. We assume that location of horizon line in the image and the road pattern are known. The developed method is fast enough to detect the roadway on each frame of the video stream in real time and may be further accelerated by the use of tracking.

  9. ANALYSIS OF VIBROACOUSTIC SIGNALS RECORDED IN THE PASSENGER LIFT CABIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamil Szydło

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of private tests is presented in the article. The applicable tests refer to accelerations, the level of the sound pressure as well as to the sound power emitted by the passenger lift cabin at different technical conditions of the lift. For a group of lifting devices the accelerations were tested at three axes with the use of an accelerometer. The accelerometer was placed in the central part of the cabin with simultaneous measurement of the acoustic parameters with the sound analyzer equipped with the sound volume double microphone probe. The attempt was made to determine the impact of the frame - cabin system construction as well as the lift technical condition on the recorded parameters. It can allow to establish the limit values of the lift structure parameters under which a rapid drop of comfort takes place while travelling in the lift as well as to indicate those construction elements the modification of which would affect the improvement of the operation noiselessness.

  10. A Comprehensive Assessment of Biologicals Contained Within Commercial Airliner Cabin Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaDuc, Myron T.; Osman, Shariff; Dekas, Anne; Stuecker, Tara; Newcombe, Dave; Piceno, Yvette; Fuhrman, J.; Andersen, Gary; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri; Bearman, Greg

    2006-01-01

    Gram-positive bacteria, Fusobacteria, Cyanobacteria, Deinococci, Bacterioidetes, Spirochetes, and Planctomyces in varying abundance. Neisseria meningitidis rDNA sequences were retrieved in great abundance from Airline A followed by Streptococcus oralis/mitis sequences. Pseudomonas synxantha sequences dominated Airline B clone libraries, followed by those of N. meningitidis and S. oralis/mitis. In Phase II, Airline C, sequences representative of more than 113 species, enveloping 12 classes of bacteria, were retrieved. Proteobacterial sequences were retrieved in greatest frequency (58% of all clone sequences), followed in short order by those stemming from Gram-positives bacteria (31% of all clone sequences). As for overall phylogenetic breadth, Gram-positive and alpha-proteobacteria seem to have a higher affinity for international flights, whereas beta-and gamma-proteobacteria are far more common about domestic cabin air parcels in Airline C samples. Ultimately, the majority of microbial species circulating throughout the cabin airs of commercial airliners are commensal, infrequently pathogenic normal flora of the human nasopharynx and respiratory system. Many of these microbes likely originate from the oral and nasal cavities, and lungs of passengers and flight crew and are disseminated unknowingly via routine conversation, coughing, sneezing, and stochastic passing of fomites. The data documented in this study will be useful to generate a baseline microbial population database and can be utilized to develop biosensor instrumentation for monitoring microbial quality of cabin or urban air.

  11. Impact of cabin environment on thermal protection system of crew hypersonic vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiao Wei; Zhao, Jing Quan; Zhu, Lei; Yu, Xi Kui

    2016-05-01

    Hypersonic crew vehicles need reliable thermal protection systems (TPS) to ensure their safety. Since there exists relative large temperature difference between cabin airflow and TPS structure, the TPS shield that covers the cabin is always subjected to a non-adiabatic inner boundary condition, which may influence the heat transfer characteristic of the TPS. However, previous literatures always neglected the influence of the inner boundary by assuming that it was perfectly adiabatic. The present work focuses on studying the impact of cabin environment on the thermal performance. A modified TPS model is created with a mixed thermal boundary condition to connect the cabin environment with the TPS. This helps make the simulation closer to the real situation. The results stress that cabin environment greatly influences the temperature profile inside the TPS, which should not be neglected in practice. Moreover, the TPS size can be optimized during the design procedure if taking the effect of cabin environment into account.

  12. Evaluation of cabin design based on the method of multiple attribute group decision-making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaowen; Lv, Linlin; Li, Ping

    2013-07-01

    New century, cabin design has become an important factor affecting the compact capability of modern naval vessels. Traditional cabin design, based on naval rules and designer's subjective feeling and experience, holds that weapons and equipments are more important than habitability. So crew's satisfaction is not high to ships designed by traditional methods. In order to solve this problem, the method of multiple attribute group decision-making was proposed to evaluate the cabin design projects. This method considered many factors affecting cabin design, established a target system, quantified fuzzy factors in cabin design, analyzed the need of crews and gave a reasonable evaluation on cabin design projects. Finally, an illustrative example analysis validates the effectiveness and reliability of this method.

  13. Characteristics of cabin air quality in school buses in Central Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rim, Donghyun; Siegel, Jeffrey; Spinhirne, Jarett; Webb, Alba; McDonald-Buller, Elena

    This study assessed in-cabin concentrations of diesel-associated air pollutants in six school buses with diesel engines during a typical route in suburban Austin, Texas. Air exchange rates measured by SF 6 decay were 2.60-4.55 h -1. In-cabin concentrations of all pollutants measured exhibited substantial variability across the range of tests even between buses of similar age, mileage, and engine type. In-cabin NO x concentrations ranged from 44.7 to 148 ppb and were 1.3-10 times higher than roadway NO x concentrations. Mean in-cabin PM 2.5 concentrations were 7-20 μg m -3 and were generally lower than roadway levels. In-cabin concentrations exhibited higher variability during cruising mode than frequent stops. Mean in-cabin ultrafine PM number concentrations were 6100-32,000 particles cm -3 and were generally lower than roadway levels. Comparison of median concentrations indicated that in-cabin ultrafine PM number concentrations were higher than or approximately the same as the roadway concentrations, which implied that, by excluding the bias caused by local traffic, ultrafine PM levels were higher in the bus cabin than outside of the bus. Cabin pollutant concentrations on three buses were measured prior to and following the phased installation of a Donaldson Spiracle Crankcase Filtration System and a Diesel Oxidation Catalyst. Following installation of the Spiracle, the Diesel Oxidation Catalyst provided negligible or small additional reductions of in-cabin pollutant levels. In-cabin concentration decreases with the Spiracle alone ranged from 24 to 37% for NO x and 26 to 62% and 6.6 to 43% for PM 2.5 and ultrafine PM, respectively. Comparison of the ranges of PM 2.5 and ultrafine PM variations between repetitive tests suggested that retrofit installation could not always be conclusively linked to the decrease of pollutant levels in the bus cabin.

  14. A parametric study of influence of material properties on car cabin environment

    OpenAIRE

    Pokorny Jan; Fiser Jan; Jicha Miroslav

    2014-01-01

    Recently the author presented the paper describing a car cabin heat load model for the prediction of the car cabin environment. The model allowed to simulate a transient behavior of the car cabin, i.e. radiant temperature of surfaces, air temperature and relative humidity. The model was developed in Dymola and was built on the basic principles of thermodynamics and heat balance equations. The model was validated by experiments performed on the Škoda Felicia during various operational conditio...

  15. Aircraft Carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nødskov, Kim; Kværnø, Ole

    There are many indications that China is actively researching the design of an aircraft carrier. It is unknown whether China will initiate the actual acquisition of a carrier, but the indications that are available of their research into aircraft carriers and carrier-capable aircraft, as well...... as their purchases of aircraft carrier systems, makes it more than likely that the country is preparing such an acquisition. China has territorial disputes in the South China Sea over the Spratly Islands and is also worried about the security of its sea lines of communications, by which China transports the majority...... of its foreign trade, as well as its oil imports, upon which the country is totally dependent. China therefore has good reasons for acquiring an aircraft carrier to enable it to protect its national interests. An aircraft carrier would also be a prominent symbol of China’s future status as a great power...

  16. Testing and Analysis of a Composite Non-Cylindrical Aircraft Fuselage Structure. Part 1; Ultimate Design Loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przekop, Adam; Jegley, Dawn C.; Lovejoy, Andrew E.; Rouse, Marshall; Wu, Hsi-Yung T.

    2016-01-01

    The Environmentally Responsible Aviation Project aimed to develop aircraft technologies enabling significant fuel burn and community noise reductions. Small incremental changes to the conventional metallic alloy-based 'tube and wing' configuration were not sufficient to achieve the desired metrics. One airframe concept identified by the project as having the potential to dramatically improve aircraft performance was a composite-based hybrid wing body configuration. Such a concept, however, presented inherent challenges stemming from, among other factors, the necessity to transfer wing loads through the entire center fuselage section which accommodates a pressurized cabin confined by flat or nearly flat panels. This paper discusses finite element analysis and testing of a large-scale hybrid wing body center section structure developed and constructed to demonstrate that the Pultruded Rod Stitched Efficient Unitized Structure concept can meet these challenging demands of the next generation airframes. Part I of the paper considers the five most critical load conditions, which are internal pressure only and positive and negative g-loads with and without internal pressure. Analysis results are compared with measurements acquired during testing. Performance of the test article is found to be closely aligned with predictions and, consequently, able to support the hybrid wing body design loads in pristine and barely visible impact damage conditions.

  17. Residents' Annoyance Responses to Aircraft Noise Events

    OpenAIRE

    United States, National Aeronautics and Space Administration

    1983-01-01

    In a study conducted in the vicinity of Salt Lake City International Airport, community residents reported their annoyance with individual aircraft flyovers during rating sessions conducted in their homes. Annoyance ratings were obtained at different times of the day. Aircraft noise levels were measured, and other characteristics of the aircraft were noted by trained observers. Metrics commonly used for assessing aircraft noise were compared, but none performed significantly better than A-...

  18. Aircraft Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, Albion H. (Inventor); Uden, Edward (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention is an aircraft wing design that creates a bell shaped span load, which results in a negative induced drag (induced thrust) on the outer portion of the wing; such a design obviates the need for rudder control of an aircraft.

  19. A comparison between Jubilee and Uncle Tom's Cabin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    党兆颖; 谭惠娟

    2011-01-01

    @@ Jubilee was written by the black female novelist and poet Margaret Walker (1915-1998),which was characterized as a truthful record of the Black history and slavery around the Civil War.It refuted the biased images of the black people and challenged the dominant construction of history by reconstructing the history of black people from the aspect of black female.Its greatest value lies in its trutllful reflection of black people's life.While the great work of Uncle Tom's Cabin was slave novel written from the white female Writer's perspective.

  20. 49 CFR 39.39 - How do PVOs ensure that passengers with disabilities are able to use accessible cabins?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... access to them. (b) You must, with respect to reservations made by any means (e.g., telephone, Internet... accessible cabin. (g) To prevent fraud in the assignment of accessible cabins (e.g., attempts by...

  1. Computational Fluid Dynamic Analysis of Enhancing Passenger Cabin Comfort Using PCM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purusothaman, M.; Valarmathi, T. N.; Dada Mohammad, S. K.

    2016-09-01

    The main purpose of this study is to determine a cost effective way to enhance passenger cabin comfort by analyzing the effect of solar radiation of a open parked vehicle, which is exposed to constant solar radiation on a hot and sunny day. Maximum heat accumulation occurs in the car cabin due to the solar radiation. By means of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis, a simulation process is conducted for the thermal regulation of the passenger cabin using a layer of phase change material (PCM) on the roof structure of a stationary car when exposed to ambient temperature on a hot sunny day. The heat energy accumulated in the passenger cabin is absorbed by a layer of PCM for phase change process. The installation of a ventilation system which uses an exhaust fan to create a natural convection scenario in the cabin is also considered to enhance passenger comfort along with PCM.

  2. The effects of the aircraft cabin environment on passengers during simulated flights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strøm-Tejsen, Peter

    2007-01-01

    but intensified complaints of headache, dizziness and claustrophobia, suggesting that air pollutants rather than low humidity cause the distress reported by airline passengers. Three investigations studying the efficacy of various air purification technologies showed that a gas phase adsorption purification unit...

  3. Validation for CFD Prediction of Mass Transport in an Aircraft Passenger Cabin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-11-01

    Ultraviolet Germicidal Irradiation and Ventilation in Removing Mycobacterium Tuberculosis , National Institutes of Health (NIH) Handbook, 2000. 15...The simultaneously acquired 3-dimensional data contains the true velocity vector time- history at each sample station. These data can then be time...minimum impact on the ECS- generated ventilation air introduction design. The aft bulkhead is the zero reference point of the z-axis of the

  4. A Combined Hazard Index Fire Test Methodology for Aircraft Cabin Materials. Volume I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-04-01

    successful data processing and evaluation . R. J. Sutton, Principal Technical specialist - Advanced Programs, and E. L. Weiner, Engineering Contract... Evaluation ................................................... 49 IV. DISCUSSION OF REJLTS ............................................. 51 CHAS/S’TS Test...PROGRAM TEST PANEL NO. 1 ....... 52 5 SUMARY OF EXPERIMTAL CHAS/SATS DATA FOR CI PRGRAM TEST PANEL 2, 3 & 4

  5. The effect of exposure duration on the subjective discomfort of aircraft cabin noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yu; Jiang, Weikang

    2017-01-01

    The time dependency for subjective responses to noise has been a controversial question over many years. For durations of up to 10 min, the discomfort produced by three levels of noise (ie 60, 70 and 80 dBA) was investigated in this experimental study to determine the relation of discomfort to the time duration of noise. The rate of increase in discomfort with increasing duration was 1.5 dB per doubling of exposure duration, whereas it is currently assumed to be 3 dB per doubling of exposure duration. The sound dose level (SDL) was proposed to predict the discomfort caused by noise of long duration. The combination of SDL and vibration dose value (VDV) provided more consistent estimates of the equivalent comfort contours between noise and vibration over durations from 2 to 32 s than the combination of sound exposure level and VDV or that of sound pressure level and r.m.s. acceleration. Practitioner Summary: The discomfort produced by noise of long duration can be well predicted from a new definition of sound dose level, where the discomfort increases at 1.5 dB per doubling of exposure duration.

  6. A Combined Hazard Index Fire Test Methodology for Aircraft Cabin Materials. Volume II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-04-01

    individuals have been acknowledged in the Part I Preface. In addition to these individuals, Yolanda Cortez and Terry Johns deserve special thanks for their work...dimensional flow studies of heated gases and smoke at the University ot Notre Dame, fire plume and ceiling jet models from wood crib sources, furniture...Adhesive Primer (," DMS 1526E .125 Thick Type 1 CR F&B Poplar Wood DATE: 1-10-80 General Veneer Mfg. O DMS 1903 Adhesive Batch: -A-2798 Roll 𔃼 DATE: 4

  7. Fire Management/Suppression Systems/Concepts Relating to Aircraft Cabin Fire Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-07-01

    windows melted, reticulated , combusted, and burned through within about 1 min. This is much less time than is needed for the fire to penetrate the...generate more smoke in flaming combustion.3 6 3 The reverse is true with cellulosic materials, which reduce 31 ................................. the amount...sometimes by a factor of 100, than that produced by cellulosic materials.3 0 * Higher heating levels of polymeric materials also increase their production of

  8. Reduced Pressure Cabin Testing of the Orion Atmosphere Revitalization Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Button, Amy; Sweterlisch, Jeffery J.

    2013-01-01

    An amine-based carbon dioxide (CO2) and water vapor sorbent in pressure-swing regenerable beds has been developed by Hamilton Sundstrand and baselined for the Atmosphere Revitalization System for moderate duration missions of the Orion Multipurpose Crew Vehicle. In previous years at this conference, reports were presented on extensive Johnson Space Center testing of this technology in a sea-level pressure environment with simulated and actual human metabolic loads in both open and closed-loop configurations. In 2011, the technology was tested in an open cabin-loop configuration at ambient and two sub-ambient pressures to compare the performance of the system to the results of previous tests at ambient pressure. The testing used a human metabolic simulator with a different type of water vapor generation than previously used, which added some unique challenges in the data analysis. This paper summarizes the results of: baseline and some matrix testing at all three cabin pressures, increased vacuum regeneration line pressure with a high metabolic load, a set of tests studying CO2 and water vapor co-adsorption effects relative to model-predicted performance, and validation tests of flight program computer model predictions with specific operating conditions.

  9. Comparison of different decontaminant delivery methods for sterilizing unoccupied commercial airliner cabins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Xi; Chen, Qingyan [National Air Transport Center of Excellence for Research in the Intermodal Transport Environment (RITE), School of Mechanical Engineering, Purdue University, 585 Purdue Mall, West Lafayette, IN 47905 (United States)

    2010-09-15

    Effective decontamination is crucial if an airliner cabin is contaminated by biological contaminants, such as infectious disease viruses or intentionally released biological agents. This study used computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method as a tool and vaporized hydrogen peroxide (VHP) as an exemplary decontaminant and Geobacillus stearothermophilus spores as a simulant contaminant to investigate three VHP delivery methods for sterilizing two different airliner cabins. The CFD first determined the airflow and the transient distributions of the contaminant and decontaminant in cabins. Auxiliary equations were implemented into the CFD model for evaluating efficacy of the sterilization process. The improved CFD model was validated by the measured airflow and simulated contaminant distributions obtained from a cabin mockup and the measured efficacy data from the literature. The three decontaminant delivery methods were (1) to supply the mixed VHP and air through the environmental control system of a cabin, (2) to send mixed VHP and air through a front door and to extract them from a back door of a cabin, and (3) to send directly VHP to a cabin and enhance the mixing with air in the cabin by fans. The two air cabins studied were a single-aisle and a twin-aisle airliner one. The results show that the second decontaminant delivery method (displacement method) was the best because the VHP distributions in the cabins were most uniform, the sterilization time was moderate, and the corrosion risk was low. The method displaced the existing air by the air/disinfectant solution, rather than dispersive mixing as the other two methods. (author)

  10. Amphibious Aircraft

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A brief self composed research article on Amphibious Aircrafts discussing their use, origin and modern day applications along with their advantages and disadvantages...

  11. Aircraft Disinsection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Some countries may require aircraft coming from countries where certain insects or insect-borne diseases are present, such as malaria and Zika virus, to be treated with insecticide. Find out about regulation of pesticides for this treatment.

  12. Application of variable-sweep wings to commuter aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robins, A. W.; Beissner, F. L., Jr.; Lovell, W. A.; Price, J. E.; Turriiziani, R. V.; Washburn, F. F.

    1983-01-01

    The effects of using variable-sweep wings on the riding quality and mission-performance characteristics of commuter-type aircraft were studied. A fixed-wing baseline vehicle and a variable-sweep version of the baseline were designed and evaluated. Both vehicles were twin-turboprop, pressurized-cabin, 30-passenger commuter aircraft with identical mission requirements. Mission performance was calculated with and without various ride-quality constraints for several combinations of cruise altitude and stage lengths. The variable-sweep aircraft had a gross weight of almost four percent greater than the fixed-wing baseline in order to meet the design-mission requirements. In smooth air, the variable sweep configuration flying with low sweep had a two to three percent fuel-use penalty. However, the imposition of quality constraints in rough air can result in advantages in both fuel economy and flight time for the variable-sweep vehicle flying with high sweep.

  13. A parametric study of influence of material properties on car cabin environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pokorny Jan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Recently the author presented the paper describing a car cabin heat load model for the prediction of the car cabin environment. The model allowed to simulate a transient behavior of the car cabin, i.e. radiant temperature of surfaces, air temperature and relative humidity. The model was developed in Dymola and was built on the basic principles of thermodynamics and heat balance equations. The model was validated by experiments performed on the Škoda Felicia during various operational conditions. In this paper the authors present a parametric study investigating influence of material properties on a car cabin environment. The Matlab version of the car cabin heat load model has been developed and used. The model was extended by simple graphical user interface and it was deployed into the stand alone executable application. The aim of this parametric study is to identify most important material properties and its effect on the cabin environment during specific operational conditions of car. By means of a sensitive analysis it can identified which material parameters have to be defined precisely and which parameters are not so important for the prediction of the air temperature inside cabin.

  14. Bolting Cabin Assistance System Using a Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Hak Mo

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The bolting cabin assistance system prevents operators from facing dangerous situations. This system consists of a bolting robot control system and a top view supervisory system. In order to control the bolting robot, circular Hough transforms and fuzzy reasoning are used. First, the circular Hough transform roughly estimates the location of the bolt hole. After that, errors of estimation are compensated for using fuzzy reasoning. In order to track a bolt hole, a region of interest (ROI is used. By setting the region in which to search for a bolt hole, the algorithm tracks the location of the bolt hole. In order to choose an ROI, a template‐based matching algorithm is used. In order to make the top view supervisory system, four cameras are installed at the left, right, front and back of the robot. The four individual images from the various cameras are combined to make the top view image after correcting for distortion.

  15. Dehydrohalogenation of atmospheric contaminants in the space cabin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spain, M. A.; Middleditch, B. S.; Bafus, D. A.; Galen, T.

    1985-01-01

    A total of nine chlorinated ethanes and ethenes were circulated over lithium hydroxide in a laboratory scale closed system simulator. System volume and lithium hydroxide temperature were varied from that intended to maximize possible reactions to conditions approximating those of a space cabin environment. Of the nine compounds tested, seven were found to be dehydrohalogenated (viz., loss of hydrogen chloride) in the course of one or more experimental treatments. Of particular significance was the conversion of 1,2-dichloroethane to chloroethene, a known carcinogen, and of trichloroethene to dichloroethyne, a highly toxic substance. It is therefore concluded that a potentially hazardous situation exists for the inhabitants of closed ecological systems such as spacecraft, one for which precautions must continue to be taken.

  16. Chemical gas sensors for car exhaust and cabin air monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalman, E.-L.; Winquist, F. [Department of Physics and Measurement Technology, Laboratory of Applied Physics, Linkoeping University, Gothenburg (Sweden); Rudell, B. [Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Centre of Public Health Sciences, Linkoeping, Gothenburg (Sweden); Loefvendahl, A. [Volvo Car Corporation, Gothenburg (Sweden); Wass, U. [Volvo Technological Development Corporation, Gothenburg (Sweden)

    2002-07-01

    A combination of charcoal and particle filters has previously been shown to reduce effectively the smell of diesel exhaust. In this paper it is shown that the smell of diesel exhaust can successfully be predicted by the concentration of total volatile organic compounds and the concentration of certain carbonyl compounds. Projection to latent structures was utilised for model building. An electronic nose consisting of MOFSET and MOS sensors could less successfully predict the smell, but identified the same filter combination as being most efficient. The car cabin during urban driving was also monitored, both by the means of MOFSET sensors and by chemiluminescence. The pollution level inside the car is shown to be elevated by about 30% compared to outside the car. A combination filter together with an air inlet sensor switch is shown to reduce the NO{sub x} levels inside te car by 30% compared to outside, with the ability to significantly decrease the peak levels. (author)

  17. The Fate of Trace Contaminants in a Crewed Spacecraft Cabin Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Jay L.; Kayatin, Matthew J.

    2016-01-01

    Trace chemical contaminants produced via equipment offgassing, human metabolic sources, and vehicle operations are removed from the cabin atmosphere by active contamination control equipment and incidental removal by other air quality control equipment. The fate of representative trace contaminants commonly observed in spacecraft cabin atmospheres is explored. Removal mechanisms are described and predictive mass balance techniques are reviewed. Results from the predictive techniques are compared to cabin air quality analysis results. Considerations are discussed for an integrated trace contaminant control architecture suitable for long duration crewed space exploration missions.

  18. Correlation evaluation of tested and calculated modes of a launch vehicle equipment cabin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    费红姿; 黄文虎; 牟全臣

    2002-01-01

    First, discusses some conventional modal correlation evaluation methods. And then, introduces the concepts of global modes and local modes to solve difficulties in analyzing large and complex structures with dense modes like the equipment cabin, establishes a criterion with the ratio of modal strain energy to conveniently distinguish these modes. Finally, investigates the methods of modal vector reduction, error localization and model updating used to achieve a high correlation between the tested and calculated modes of the cabin, and verifies the finite element model of the equipment cabin as a foundation for further design and analysis.

  19. Measurements of major VOCs released into the closed cabin environment of different automobiles under various engine and ventilation scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki-Hyun; Szulejko, Jan E; Jo, Hyo-Jae; Lee, Min-Hee; Kim, Yong-Hyun; Kwon, Eilhann; Ma, Chang-Jin; Kumar, Pawan

    2016-08-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in automobile cabins were measured quantitatively to describe their emission characteristics in relation to various idling scenarios using three used automobiles (compact, intermediate sedan, and large sedan) under three different idling conditions ([1] cold engine off and ventilation off, [2] exterior air ventilation with idling warm engine, and [3] internal air recirculation with idling warm engine). The ambient air outside the vehicle was also analyzed as a reference. A total of 24 VOCs (with six functional groups) were selected as target compounds. Accordingly, the concentration of 24 VOC quantified as key target compounds averaged 4.58 ± 3.62 ppb (range: 0.05 (isobutyl alcohol) ∼ 38.2 ppb (formaldehyde)). Moreover, if their concentrations are compared between different automobile operational modes: the 'idling engine' levels (5.24 ± 4.07) was 1.3-5 times higher than the 'engine off' levels (4.09 ± 3.23) across all 3 automobile classes. In summary, automobile in-cabin VOC emissions are highly contingent on changes in engine and ventilation modes.

  20. 基于白云国际机场规划对飞机噪声影响的分析探讨%Analysis and Discussion the Impact of Baiyun International Airport Planning on Aircraft Noise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马磊

    2014-01-01

    本文主要基于白云国际机场规划,研究分析了飞机噪声对周围环境的影响。通过借助计算机软件 INM7.0,拟合了白云机场的飞机噪声等值线图,并结合噪声等值线图和城市规划,对相应的降噪措施进行了分析和探讨。%This paper, mainly based on Baiyun International Airport Planning, studied and analyzed the influence of aircraft noise on the surrounding environment. By using the computer software INM7.0, the author drawn the contour map of the aircraft noise from Baiyun airport, and combined With the noise contour map and city planning, analyzed and discussed the relevant noise reduction measures.

  1. Muscle oxygenation, EMG, and cardiovascular responses for cabin attendants vs. controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandfeld, Jesper; Larsen, Lisbeth Højkjær; Crenshaw, Albert Guy

    2013-01-01

    The goal was to investigate the effect of acute moderate hypobaric exposure on the physiological responses to sustained contractions (local) and light to moderate dynamic exercise (systemic) for cabin attendants (CAB) and a matched control group (CON)....

  2. Occupational Exposure due to RF leakages within GSM Base Station Cabins in Eastern Nigeria

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ayinmode, B. O; Jibiri, N. N; Farai, I. P

    2013-01-01

    ...) Radios and TX cables and during active radio communication was measured. A total of number 30 base stations Cabins were studied in the eastern part of Nigeria, using a Broad band TES-90 Electrosmog meter...

  3. A High Performance Approach to Local Active Noise Reduction in Noisy Cabins Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Spacecraft cabin is noisy and uncomfortable. Sometimes, the noise level can exceed 80 dBA. There are 2 challenges to meet the above needs. One is to generate an...

  4. Cheat Mountain Salamander search - Cabin Knob-July 7, 2011 and August 9, 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Survey includes data gathered on two separate dates: July 7, 2011and August 9, 2011. A survey transect was established along Cabin Knob within the Idlemans Treatment...

  5. Aircraft cybernetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    The use of computers for aircraft control, flight simulation, and inertial navigation is explored. The man-machine relation problem in aviation is addressed. Simple and self-adapting autopilots are described and the assets and liabilities of digital navigation techniques are assessed.

  6. Propeller aircraft interior noise model: User's manual for computer program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilby, E. G.; Pope, L. D.

    1985-01-01

    A computer program entitled PAIN (Propeller Aircraft Interior Noise) has been developed to permit calculation of the sound levels in the cabin of a propeller-driven airplane. The fuselage is modeled as a cylinder with a structurally integral floor, the cabin sidewall and floor being stiffened by ring frames, stringers and floor beams of arbitrary configurations. The cabin interior is covered with acoustic treatment and trim. The propeller noise consists of a series of tones at harmonics of the blade passage frequency. Input data required by the program include the mechanical and acoustical properties of the fuselage structure and sidewall trim. Also, the precise propeller noise signature must be defined on a grid that lies in the fuselage skin. The propeller data are generated with a propeller noise prediction program such as the NASA Langley ANOPP program. The program PAIN permits the calculation of the space-average interior sound levels for the first ten harmonics of a propeller rotating alongside the fuselage. User instructions for PAIN are given in the report. Development of the analytical model is presented in NASA CR 3813.

  7. Investigation on mechanical exhaust of cabin fire in large-space building

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    A calculation model for mechanical exhaust rate in large-space building in the case of cabin fire is proposed through theoretical analysis. Full-scale hot smoke tests are then performed to study the cabin fire spreading to large-space building at different air change rates (ACH). The result indicates that under the standard prescribed ACH, the effective air heights in the large spaces are respectively 6, 4 and 2 m in the case of cabin fires of 0.34, 0.67 and 1 MW. Numerical experiment has been conducted using self-developing two-zone model. The smoke control efficiency is compared by varying the large space's air change rate in the case of cabin fires ranging from 0.25 to 4 MW. The calculation results show that the air change rates are respectively 3, 6, 10 and 10 ACH when the smoke layer is kept above 5 m, indicating that the centralized exhaust rates far exceed the standard prescribed value. To address this problem, a set of subsidiary distributed mechanical exhaust installing in the cabin with high fire loads is proposed. The simulation shows that both from the safety and economy point of view, the adoption of subsidiary distributed cabin exhaust design may effectively reduce the demand of designed air change rate for large-space building.

  8. Investigation on mechanical exhaust of cabin fire in large-space building

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    A calculation model for mechanical exhaust rate in large-space building in the case of cabin fire is proposed through theoretical analysis. Full-scale hot smoke tests are then performed to study the cabin fire spreading to large-space building at dif- ferent air change rates (ACH). The result indicates that under the standard pre- scribed ACH, the effective air heights in the large spaces are respectively 6, 4 and 2 m in the case of cabin fires of 0.34, 0.67 and 1 MW. Numerical experiment has been conducted using self-developing two-zone model. The smoke control effi- ciency is compared by varying the large space’s air change rate in the case of cabin fires ranging from 0.25 to 4 MW. The calculation results show that the air change rates are respectively 3, 6, 10 and 10 ACH when the smoke layer is kept above 5 m, indicating that the centralized exhaust rates far exceed the standard prescribed value. To address this problem, a set of subsidiary distributed mechanical exhaust installing in the cabin with high fire loads is proposed. The simulation shows that both from the safety and economy point of view, the adoption of subsidiary dis- tributed cabin exhaust design may effectively reduce the demand of designed air change rate for large-space building.

  9. Rib for blended wing-body aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, Arthur V. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    Structural ribs for providing structural support for a structure, such as the pressure cabin of a blended-wing body aircraft. In a first embodiment, the ribs are generally Y-shaped, being comprised of a vertical web and a pair of inclined webs attached to the vertical web to extend upwardly and outwardly from the vertical web in different directions, with only the upper edges of the inclined webs being attached to a structural element. In a second embodiment, the ribs are generally trident-shaped, whereby the vertical web extends upwardly beyond the intersection of the inclined webs with the vertical web, with the upper edge of the vertical web as well as the upper edges of the inclined webs being attached to the same structural element.

  10. Development of fire-resistant, low smoke generating, thermally stable end items for aircraft and spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagliani, J.; Sorathia, U. A. K.; Wilcoxson, A. L.

    1977-01-01

    Materials were developed to improve aircraft interior materials by modifying existing polymer structures, refining the process parameters, and by the use of mechanical configurations designed to overcome specific deficiencies. The optimization, selection, and fabrication of five fire resistant, low smoke emitting open cell foams are described for five different types of aircraft cabin structures. These include: resilient foams, laminate floor and wall paneling, thermal/acoustical insulation, molded shapes, and coated fabrics. All five have been produced from essentially the same polyimide precursor and have resulted in significant benefits from transfer of technology between the various tasks.

  11. Acoustic Measurements of an Uninstalled Spacecraft Cabin Ventilation Fan Prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, L. Danielle; Brown, Clifford A.; Shook, Tony D.; Winkel, James; Kolacz, John S.; Podboy, Devin M.; Loew, Raymond A.; Mirecki, Julius H.

    2012-01-01

    Sound pressure measurements were recorded for a prototype of a spacecraft cabin ventilation fan in a test in the NASA Glenn Acoustical Testing Laboratory. The axial fan is approximately 0.089 m (3.50 in.) in diameter and 0.223 m (9.00 in.) long and has nine rotor blades and eleven stator vanes. At design point of 12,000 rpm, the fan was predicted to produce a flow rate of 0.709 cu m/s (150 cfm) and a total pressure rise of 925 Pa (3.72 in. of water) at 12,000 rpm. While the fan was designed to be part of a ducted atmospheric revitalization system, no attempt was made to throttle the flow or simulate the installed configuration during this test. The fan was operated at six speeds from 6,000 to 13,500 rpm. A 13-microphone traversing array was used to collect sound pressure measurements along two horizontal planes parallel to the flow direction, two vertical planes upstream of the fan inlet and two vertical planes downstream of the fan exhaust. Measurements indicate that sound at blade passing frequency harmonics contribute significantly to the overall audible noise produced by the fan at free delivery conditions.

  12. Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis of a Composite Non-Cylindrical Pressurized Aircraft Fuselage Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przekop, Adam; Wu, Hsi-Yung T.; Shaw, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The Environmentally Responsible Aviation Project aims to develop aircraft technologies enabling significant fuel burn and community noise reductions. Small incremental changes to the conventional metallic alloy-based 'tube and wing' configuration are not sufficient to achieve the desired metrics. One of the airframe concepts that might dramatically improve aircraft performance is a composite-based hybrid wing body configuration. Such a concept, however, presents inherent challenges stemming from, among other factors, the necessity to transfer wing loads through the entire center fuselage section which accommodates a pressurized cabin confined by flat or nearly flat panels. This paper discusses a nonlinear finite element analysis of a large-scale test article being developed to demonstrate that the Pultruded Rod Stitched Efficient Unitized Structure concept can meet these challenging demands of the next generation airframes. There are specific reasons why geometrically nonlinear analysis may be warranted for the hybrid wing body flat panel structure. In general, for sufficiently high internal pressure and/or mechanical loading, energy related to the in-plane strain may become significant relative to the bending strain energy, particularly in thin-walled areas such as the minimum gage skin extensively used in the structure under analysis. To account for this effect, a geometrically nonlinear strain-displacement relationship is needed to properly couple large out-of-plane and in-plane deformations. Depending on the loading, this nonlinear coupling mechanism manifests itself in a distinct manner in compression- and tension-dominated sections of the structure. Under significant compression, nonlinear analysis is needed to accurately predict loss of stability and postbuckled deformation. Under significant tension, the nonlinear effects account for suppression of the out-of-plane deformation due to in-plane stretching. By comparing the present results with the previously

  13. Performance of a radiation protection cabin during implantation of pacemakers or cardioverter defibrillators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploux, Sylvain; Ritter, Philippe; Haïssaguerre, Michel; Clementy, Jacques; Bordachar, Pierre

    2010-04-01

    Pacemaker implants are associated with a high cumulative exposure of the operators to radiation. Standard radiation protection with lead aprons is incomplete and the cause of spine disorders. A radiation protection cabin offers complete protection by surrounding the operator, without requiring a lead apron. We randomly and evenly assigned 60 patients undergoing implantations of permanent pacemakers or cardioverter defibrillators (ICD) with (a) a radiation protection cabin (cabin group, n = 30) versus (b) standard protection with a 0.5 mm lead-equivalent apron (control group, n = 30). Radiation exposure was measured using personal electronic dosimeters placed on the thorax, back, and head of the operator. The patient, procedural, and device characteristics of the 2 study groups were similar. All procedures in the cabin group were performed as planned without increase in duration or complication rate compared with the control group. The mean radiation dose to the head, normalized for fluoroscopy duration, was significantly lower in the cabin (0.040 +/- 0.032 microSv/min) than in the control (1.138 +/- 0.560 microSv/min) group (p < 0.0001). The radiation doses to the thorax (0.043 +/- 0.027 vs 0.041 +/- 0.040 microSv/min) and back (0.038 +/- 0.029 vs 0.033 +/- 0.018 microSv/min) in the cabin versus control group (under the apron) were similar. The use of a radiation protection cabin markedly decreased the exposure of the operator to radiation, and eliminated the need to wear a lead apron, without increasing the procedural time or complication rate during implantation of pacemaker and ICD.

  14. Modal measurements and propeller field excitation on acoustic full scale mockup of SAAB 340 aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustavsson, Lars

    1992-06-01

    The acoustic mockup of the cabin SAAB 340 aircraft was measured in an anechoic chamber concerning modal parameters and operating deflection shapes. The mockup was excited with vibration shakers at the fuselage for modal estimation and with a ring of loudspeakers around the fuselage to generate propeller fields for operating deflection shapes. Two cases of structure configuration were used at the measurements; one consisting of only the fuselage, without trimpanels and floorpanels and one case with trimpanels and floorpanels. Modal measurements were done with excitation on a frame of the fuselage at the propeller plane. The modes were estimated for the individual components; fuselage, trimpanels, floorpanels, and soundfield in the cabin. The modes of the fuselage were compared with the acoustic models in the cabin concerning possible coupling effects. With the loudspeakering, the sound field from the left and the right propeller were generated at a blade passage frequency of 81.9 Hz and its first harmonic. Operating deflection shapes of fuselage, panels, and cabin acoustic were estimated. The results from the measurements could be used to verify a finite element model and as a tool for developing acoustic noise control systems.

  15. RFID Transponders' Radio Frequency Emissions in Aircraft Communication and Navigation Radio Bands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Truong X.; Ely, Jay J.; Williams, Reuben A.; Koppen, Sandra V.; Salud, Maria Theresa P.

    2006-01-01

    Radiated emissions in aircraft communication and navigation bands are measured from several active radio frequency identification (RFID) tags. The individual tags are different in design and operations. They may also operate in different frequency bands. The process for measuring the emissions is discussed, and includes tag interrogation, reverberation chamber testing, and instrument settings selection. The measurement results are described and compared against aircraft emission limits. In addition, interference path loss for the cargo bays of passenger aircraft is measured. Cargo bay path loss is more appropriate for RFID tags than passenger cabin path loss. The path loss data are reported for several aircraft radio systems on a Boeing 747 and an Airbus A320.

  16. What makes a space invader? Passenger perceptions of personal space invasion in aircraft travel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Laura; Patel, Harshada; D'Cruz, Mirabelle; Cobb, Sue

    2017-03-31

    The invasion of personal space is often a contributory factor to the experience of discomfort in aircraft passengers. This paper presents a questionnaire study which investigated how air travellers are affected by invasions of personal space and how they attempt to adapt to, or counter, these invasions. In support of recent findings on the factors influencing air passenger comfort, the results of this study indicate that the invasion of personal space is not only caused by physical factors (e.g. physical contact with humans or objects), but also other sensory factors such as noise, smells or unwanted eye contact. The findings of this study have implications for the design of shared spaces. Practitioner summary This paper presents a questionnaire study which investigated personal space in an aircraft environment. The results highlight the factors which affect the perception of personal space invasion in aircraft and can therefore inform the design of aircraft cabin environments to enhance the passenger experience.

  17. Altitude and airspeed effects on the optimum synchrophase angles for a four-engine propeller aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blunt, David M.

    2014-08-01

    Noise and vibration is a serious problem in all types of aircraft. Any techniques that lower cabin noise and vibration levels by even a few decibels with little or no weight or performance penalties are worth pursuing. Propeller synchrophasing is one such technique that has shown potential in aircraft with two or more propellers; however this technique is not being used to its full potential because the synchrophase angles are typically fixed. This paper provides a detailed examination of how the optimum synchrophase angles in a typical four-engine propeller aircraft vary with different altitudes and airspeeds, and how this information could lead to the design of new adaptive propeller synchrophasing systems and potentially yield improvements to other active noise control measures in propeller aircraft.

  18. 75 FR 70074 - Consensus Standards, Light-Sport Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-16

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Consensus Standards, Light-Sport Aircraft AGENCY: Federal Aviation... provisions of the Sport Pilot and Light-Sport Aircraft rule issued July 16, 2004, and effective September 1, 2004. ASTM International Committee F37 on Light Sport Aircraft developed the revised standards...

  19. 76 FR 45647 - Consensus Standards, Light-Sport Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-29

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Consensus Standards, Light-Sport Aircraft AGENCY: Federal Aviation... to the provisions of the Sport Pilot and Light-Sport Aircraft rule issued July 16, 2004, and effective September 1, 2004. ASTM International Committee F37 on Light Sport Aircraft developed the...

  20. Evaluation of a radiation protection cabin for invasive electrophysiological procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragusin, Octavian; Weerasooriya, Rukshen; Jaïs, Pierre; Hocini, Mélèze; Ector, Joris; Takahashi, Yoshihide; Haïssaguerre, Michel; Bosmans, Hilde; Heidbüchel, Hein

    2007-01-01

    Complex invasive electrophysiological procedures may result in high cumulative operator radiation exposure. Classical protection with lead aprons results in discomfort while radioprotection is still incomplete. This study evaluated the usefulness of a radiation protection cabin (RPC) that completely surrounds the operator. The evaluation was performed independently in two electrophysiology laboratories (E1-Leuven, Belgium; E2-Bordeaux, France), comparing operator radiation exposure using the RPC vs. a 0.5 mm lead-equivalent apron (total of 135 procedures). E1 used thermoluminiscent dosimeters (TLDs) placed at 16 positions in and out of the RPC and nine positions in and out of the apron. E2 used more sensitive electronic personal dosimeters (EPD), placed at waist and neck. The sensitivity thresholds of the TLDs and EPDs were 10-20 microSv and 1-1.5 microSv, respectively. All procedures could be performed unimpeded with the RPC. Median TLD dose values outside protected areas were in the range of 57-452 microSv, whereas doses under the apron or inside the RPC were all at the background radiation level, irrespective of procedure and fluoroscopy duration and of radiation energy delivered. In addition, the RPC was protecting the entire body (except the hands), whereas lead apron protection is incomplete. Also with the more sensitive EPDs, the radiation dose within the RPC was at the sensitivity threshold/background level (1.3+/-0.6 microSv). Again, radiation to the head was significantly lower within the RPC (1.9+/-1.2 microSv) than with the apron (102+/-23 microSv, P<0.001). The use of the RPC allows performing catheter ablation procedures without compromising catheter manipulation, and with negligible radiation exposure for the operator.

  1. Permanent medical disqualification in airline cabin crew: causes in 136 cases, 1993-2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pombal, Rui; Peixoto, Helena; Lima, Margarida; Jorge, Anabela

    2005-10-01

    Pronouncing cabin crew permanently unfit to fly is a difficult decision involving personal, professional, ethical, and corporate aspects. We analyzed the causes of permanent medical disqualification in cabin crew in a medium-sized European commercial airline for the period 1993-2002. The minutes of the official Medical Assessment Board of UCS for TAP Air Portugal were systematically reviewed and yielded a total of 136 cases of permanent medical disqualifications. The medical conditions most frequently responsible for grounding were otorhinolaryngological (30.1%), followed by musculoskeletal (21.3%), and psychiatric (12.5%). The remaining cases resulted from cardiovascular, malignant neoplastic, ophthalmologic, respiratory, neurological, infectious, urinary, digestive, and metabolic conditions. The disqualification rate was 9.2 for every 1000 cabin crewmembers per year. More than half of all cases (53.6%) were in the age range 41-50 yr (median 46 yr) and 66.1% were women. More than 85% had been with the company for 16 yr or more. The early retirement of these patients resulted in the loss of approximately 2364 person-years of work as cabin crew, although many patients were reassigned to ground duties with the airline. The annual disqualification rates found in this study were higher than those for airline pilots; we could find no comparable studies of rates for cabin crew. The results indicate the relevance of early detection as well as clinical and occupational follow up.

  2. Aircraft Flight Safety: A Bibliography. (La Securite en Vol: Une Bibliographie)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-12-01

    spray within the cabin 92N21328 overhead area SANDERS, DONALD C.; ENDECOTT, BOYD 91N30113 R.; CHATURVEDI, ARVIND K. Avail: CASI MARKER, TIMOTHY Avail... BEEMAN , DAVID; MORITA, NAOMI In FAA, 4 experienced. No improvement was found from The 1992 International Aerospace and Ground cleaning the wing leading

  3. Effect of cabin ventilation rate on ultrafine particle exposure inside automobiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knibbs, Luke D; de Dear, Richard J; Morawska, Lidia

    2010-05-01

    We alternately measured on-road and in-vehicle ultrafine (automobiles and ventilation settings, a positive linear relationship was found between outdoor air flow rate and I/O ratio, with the former accounting for a substantial proportion of variation in the latter (R(2) = 0.81). UFP concentrations recorded in-cabin during tunnel travel were significantly higher than those reported by comparable studies performed on open roadways. A simple mathematical model afforded the ability to predict tunnel trip average in-cabin UFP concentrations with good accuracy. Our data indicate that under certain conditions, in-cabin UFP exposures incurred during tunnel travel may contribute significantly to daily exposure. The UFP exposure of automobile occupants appears strongly related to their choice of ventilation setting and vehicle.

  4. Insecticide Exposures on Commercial Aircraft: A Literature Review and Screening Level Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maddalena, Randy I.; McKone, Thomas E.

    2008-10-01

    The objective of this project was to provide initial estimates of the relationship between insecticide use on passenger aircraft and exposure levels present in the cabin environment. The work was initially divided into three tasks including 1) a review of insecticide application practices in commercial aircraft, 2) exploratory measurements of insecticide concentrations in treated aircraft and 3) screening level exposure modeling. Task 1 gathered information that is needed to assess the time-concentration history of insecticides in the airline cabin. The literature review focused on application practices, information about the cabin environment and existing measurements of exposure concentrations following treatment. Information from the airlines was not available for estimating insecticide application rates in the U.S. domestic fleet or for understanding how frequently equipment rotate into domestic routes following insecticide treatment. However, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommends several methods for treating aircraft with insecticide. Although there is evidence that these WHO guidelines may not always be followed, and that practices vary by airline, destination, and/or applicator company, the guidelines in combination with information related to other indoor environments provides a plausible basis for estimating insecticide loading rates on aircraft. The review also found that while measurements of exposure concentrations following simulated aerosol applications are available, measurements following residual treatment of aircraft or applications in domestic aircraft are lacking. Task 2 focused on developing an approach to monitor exposure concentrations in aircraft using a combination of active and passive sampling methods. An existing active sampling approach was intended to provide data immediately following treatment while a passive sampler was developed to provide wider coverage of the fleet over longer sampling periods. The passive sampler, based

  5. Design and Testing of a Thermal Storage System for Electric Vehicle Cabin Heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Mingyu [MAHLE Behr Troy Inc.; WolfeIV, Edward [MAHLE Behr Troy Inc.; Craig, Timothy [MAHLE Behr Troy Inc.; LaClair, Tim J [ORNL; Gao, Zhiming [ORNL; Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    Without the waste heat available from the engine of a conventional automobile, electric vehicles (EVs) must provide heat to the cabin for climate control using energy stored in the vehicle. In current EV designs, this energy is typically provided by the traction battery. In very cold climatic conditions, the power required to heat the EV cabin can be of a similar magnitude to that required for propulsion of the vehicle. As a result, the driving range of an EV can be reduced very significantly during winter months, which limits consumer acceptance of EVs and results in increased battery costs to achieve a minimum range while ensuring comfort to the EV driver. To minimize the range penalty associated with EV cabin heating, a novel climate control system that includes thermal energy storage has been designed for use in EVs and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). The system uses the stored latent heat of an advanced phase change material (PCM) to provide cabin heating. The PCM is melted while the EV is connected to the electric grid for charging of the electric battery, and the stored energy is subsequently transferred to the cabin during driving. To minimize thermal losses when the EV is parked for extended periods, the PCM is encased in a high performance insulation system. The electrical PCM-Assisted Thermal Heating System (ePATHS) was designed to provide enough thermal energy to heat the EV s cabin for approximately 46 minutes, covering the entire daily commute of a typical driver in the U.S.

  6. Calculation method for natural vibration frequency of stern cabin in oceanographic research vessel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIU Xi'an

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Vibration prediction for stern cabins is an important part of research into the global vibration of ships. To address the need to improve precision and efficiency, a study is carried out on the proportion of a mixed model and the length of a 3D stern cabin model to investigate the natural frequency of a ship. Using the FE method, different types of model are established for a research vessel, including six mixed models that are used for the basis of a detailed discussion on the different proportions of mixed models, and five stern cabin models that are used to analyze the impact of the modeling range on the natural frequency. Moreover, the Lewis method and virtual mass method are both used to consider the impact of outside water in the analysis of the wet mode. It is observed that the results of the calculated natural frequency of the mixed models are approximately the same when the proportion of the mixed models is over 1/5 the length of the ship, and in good agreement with the results of the calculations when the modeling range of the stern cabin models is exactly in the vicinity of the vibration node of the ship. For the local vibration calculation of ships using the Lewis method and virtual mass method, the results of various schemes differ greatly when applied to the stern cabin models. The results suggest that the proportion of local cabin models should be 1/4 the length of the ship in the natural frequency calculation, and the virtual mass method is recommended for considering the impact of local additional water mass.

  7. Simultaneously reducing CO2 and particulate exposures via fractional recirculation of vehicle cabin air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Heejung S.; Grady, Michael L.; Victoroff, Tristan; Miller, Arthur L.

    2017-01-01

    Prior studies demonstrate that air recirculation can reduce exposure to nanoparticles in vehicle cabins. However when people occupy confined spaces, air recirculation can lead to carbon dioxide (CO2) accumulation which can potentially lead to deleterious effects on cognitive function. This study proposes a fractional air recirculation system for reducing nanoparticle concentration while simultaneously suppressing CO2 levels in the cabin. Several recirculation scenarios were tested using a custom-programmed HVAC (heat, ventilation, air conditioning) unit that varied the recirculation door angle in the test vehicle. Operating the recirculation system with a standard cabin filter reduced particle concentrations to 1000 particles/cm3, although CO2 levels rose to 3000 ppm. When as little as 25% fresh air was introduced (75% recirculation), CO2 levels dropped to 1000 ppm, while particle concentrations remained below 5000 particles/cm3. We found that nanoparticles were removed selectively during recirculation and demonstrated the trade-off between cabin CO2 concentration and cabin particle concentration using fractional air recirculation. Data showed significant increases in CO2 levels during 100% recirculation. For various fan speeds, recirculation fractions of 50–75% maintained lower CO2 levels in the cabin, while still reducing particulate levels. We recommend fractional recirculation as a simple method to reduce occupants’ exposures to particulate matter and CO2 in vehicles. A design with several fractional recirculation settings could allow air exchange adequate for reducing both particulate and CO2 exposures. Developing this technology could lead to reductions in airborne nanoparticle exposure, while also mitigating safety risks from CO2 accumulation. PMID:28781568

  8. Simultaneously reducing CO2 and particulate exposures via fractional recirculation of vehicle cabin air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Heejung S.; Grady, Michael L.; Victoroff, Tristan; Miller, Arthur L.

    2017-07-01

    Prior studies demonstrate that air recirculation can reduce exposure to nanoparticles in vehicle cabins. However when people occupy confined spaces, air recirculation can lead to carbon dioxide (CO2) accumulation which can potentially lead to deleterious effects on cognitive function. This study proposes a fractional air recirculation system for reducing nanoparticle concentration while simultaneously suppressing CO2 levels in the cabin. Several recirculation scenarios were tested using a custom-programmed HVAC (heat, ventilation, air conditioning) unit that varied the recirculation door angle in the test vehicle. Operating the recirculation system with a standard cabin filter reduced particle concentrations to 1000 particles/cm3, although CO2 levels rose to 3000 ppm. When as little as 25% fresh air was introduced (75% recirculation), CO2 levels dropped to 1000 ppm, while particle concentrations remained below 5000 particles/cm3. We found that nanoparticles were removed selectively during recirculation and demonstrated the trade-off between cabin CO2 concentration and cabin particle concentration using fractional air recirculation. Data showed significant increases in CO2 levels during 100% recirculation. For various fan speeds, recirculation fractions of 50-75% maintained lower CO2 levels in the cabin, while still reducing particulate levels. We recommend fractional recirculation as a simple method to reduce occupants' exposures to particulate matter and CO2 in vehicles. A design with several fractional recirculation settings could allow air exchange adequate for reducing both particulate and CO2 exposures. Developing this technology could lead to reductions in airborne nanoparticle exposure, while also mitigating safety risks from CO2 accumulation.

  9. Simulations of heat transfer through the cabin walls of rail vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schuster M.

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with industrial application of numerical methods to the prediction of thermal situation in the rail vehicle interior. Basic principles of heat transfer are summarised to explain both theoretical background of simulations and engineering approach to solving temperature conditions in the vehicle interior. The main part of the contribution describes the solution of the locomotive driver’s cabin heating and controlling the temperature levels. This contribution is a brief overview of both possibilities of engineering modelling of heat transfer modes and results in the simulation of the real locomotive cabin heating/ventilation system design.

  10. A Comparison of Photocatalytic Oxidation Reactor Performance for Spacecraft Cabin Trace Contaminant Control Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Jay L.; Frederick, Kenneth R.; Scott, Joseph P.; Reinermann, Dana N.

    2011-01-01

    Photocatalytic oxidation (PCO) is a maturing process technology that shows potential for spacecraft life support system application. Incorporating PCO into a spacecraft cabin atmosphere revitalization system requires an understanding of basic performance, particularly with regard to partial oxidation product production. Four PCO reactor design concepts have been evaluated for their effectiveness for mineralizing key trace volatile organic com-pounds (VOC) typically observed in crewed spacecraft cabin atmospheres. Mineralization efficiency and selectivity for partial oxidation products are compared for the reactor design concepts. The role of PCO in a spacecraft s life support system architecture is discussed.

  11. A method for Perceptual Assessment of Automotive Audio Systems and Cabin Acoustics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaplanis, Neofytos; Bech, Søren; Sakari, Tervo;

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports the design and implementation of a method to perceptually assess the acoustical prop- erties of a car cabin and the subsequent sound reproduction properties of automotive audio systems. Here, we combine Spatial Decomposition Method and Rapid Sensory Analysis techniques. The for......This paper reports the design and implementation of a method to perceptually assess the acoustical prop- erties of a car cabin and the subsequent sound reproduction properties of automotive audio systems. Here, we combine Spatial Decomposition Method and Rapid Sensory Analysis techniques...

  12. Emission analysis of large number of various passenger electronic devices in aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüür, Jens; Oppermann, Lukas; Enders, Achim; Nunes, Rafael R.; Oertel, Carl-Henrik

    2016-09-01

    The ever increasing use of PEDs (passenger or portable electronic devices) has put pressure on the aircraft industry as well as operators and administrations to reevaluate established restrictions in PED-use on airplanes in the last years. Any electronic device could cause electromagnetic interference to the electronics of the airplane, especially interference at receiving antennas of sensitive wireless navigation and communication (NAV/COM) systems. This paper presents a measurement campaign in an Airbus A320. 69 test passengers were asked to actively use a combination of about 150 electronic devices including many attached cables, preferentially with a high data load on their buses, to provoke maximal emissions. These emissions were analysed within the cabin as well as at the inputs of aircraft receiving antennas outside of the fuselage. The emissions of the electronic devices as well as the background noise are time-variant, so just comparing only one reference and one transmission measurement is not sufficient. Repeated measurements of both cases lead to a more reliable first analysis. Additional measurements of the absolute received power at the antennas of the airplane allow a good estimation of the real interference potential to aircraft NAV/COM systems. Although there were many measured emissions within the cabin, there were no disturbance signals detectable at the aircraft antennas.

  13. Research on Emerging and Descending Aircraft Noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Bartkevičiūtė

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Along with an increase in the aircraft engine power and growth in air traffic, noise level at airports and their surrounding environs significantly increases. Aircraft noise is high level noise spreading within large radius and intensively irritating the human body. Air transport is one of the main sources of noise having a particularly strong negative impact on the environment. The article deals with activities and noises taking place in the largest nationwide Vilnius International Airport.The level of noise and its dispersion was evaluated conducting research on the noise generated by emerging and descending aircrafts in National Vilnius Airport. Investigation was carried out at 2 measuring points located in a residential area. There are different types of aircrafts causing different sound levels. It has been estimated the largest exceedances that occur when an aircraft is approaching. In this case, the noisiest types of aircrafts are B733, B738 and AT72. The sound level varies from 70 to 85 dBA. The quietest aircrafts are RJ1H and F70. When taking off, the equivalent of the maximum sound level value of these aircrafts does not exceed the authorized limits. The paper describes the causes of noise in aircrafts, the sources of origin and the impact of noise on humans and the environment.Article in Lithuanian

  14. Hydraulic fluids and jet engine oil: pyrolysis and aircraft air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Netten, C; Leung, V

    2001-01-01

    Incidents of smoke in aircraft cabins often result from jet engine oil and/or hydraulic fluid that leaks into ventilation air, which can be subjected to temperatures that exceed 500 degrees C. Exposed flight-crew members have reported symptoms, including dizziness, nausea, disorientation, blurred vision, and tingling in the legs and arms. In this study, the authors investigated pyrolysis products of one jet engine oil and two hydraulic fluids at 525 degrees C. Engine oil was an important source of carbon monoxide. Volatile agents and organophosphate constituents were released from all the agents tested; however, the neurotoxin trimethyl propane phosphate was not found. The authors hypothesized that localized condensation of pyrolysis products in ventilation ducts, followed by mobilization when cabin heat demand was high, accounted for mid-flight incidents. The authors recommended that carbon monoxide data be logged continuously to capture levels during future incidents.

  15. Aircraft Electric Secondary Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    Technologies resulted to aircraft power systems and aircraft in which all secondary power is supplied electrically are discussed. A high-voltage dc power generating system for fighter aircraft, permanent magnet motors and generators for aircraft, lightweight transformers, and the installation of electric generators on turbine engines are among the topics discussed.

  16. Aircraft detection based on probability model of structural elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Long; Jiang, Zhiguo

    2014-11-01

    Detecting aircrafts is important in the field of remote sensing. In past decades, researchers used various approaches to detect aircrafts based on classifiers for overall aircrafts. However, with the development of high-resolution images, the internal structures of aircrafts should also be taken into consideration now. To address this issue, a novel aircrafts detection method for satellite images based on probabilistic topic model is presented. We model aircrafts as the connected structural elements rather than features. The proposed method contains two major steps: 1) Use Cascade-Adaboost classier to identify the structural elements of aircraft firstly. 2) Connect these structural elements to aircrafts, where the relationships between elements are estimated by hierarchical topic model. The model places strict spatial constraints on structural elements which can identify differences between similar features. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the approach.

  17. On the wave induced responses for a high-speed hydrofoil catamaran. Part 2. Cabin connected to hull by spring and response to vibration; Suichuyokutsuki kosoku sodotei no harochu oto ni tsuite. 2. Dokuritsu kozogata cabin to yodo oto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nobukawa, H.; Kitamura, M.; Kawamura, T. [Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-04-10

    A high-speed hydrofoil catamaran under development has such a structure that an independent cabin is mounted on catamaran hulls, the cabin is connected with the hulls by using four soft springs, and hydrofoils are attached to the front and rear of the cabin. The structural design conception was as follows: the self-weight of the cabin is supported by lifting power of the hydrofoils while the boat is cruising; longitudinal motions of the catamaran hulls are absorbed by soft spring struts to make the motions more difficult to be transmitted into the cabin; and vibration excited by engines rotating at high speeds, attached to rear of the catamaran hulls, is not transmitted directly to the cabin structurally. A towing experiment was carried out by using divided models of about 1/10 scale in counter waves and regular waves to investigate their vibration response characteristics in waves. Furthermore, an experimental boat made of aluminum alloy with about 1/3 scale of the design boat was attached with composite structural struts made of springs and rubber parts to perform cruising experiments on an actual sea area. As a result, it was found that vibration excited by main engines in the catamaran hulls is transmitted very little to the cabin. 2 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  18. A Method for the Determination of Air Infiltration Rates in Airplane Cabins

    Science.gov (United States)

    1946-04-01

    measure the infiltration ------- ? JACA TN No, 1017 G rate. By releasing a known quantity of gas in the cabin and measuring the gas concentration which...measured is~ The values of ~~-’ and ~~” for ? JACA standar~ conditions have been plotted against altitude in figure 2 to be used as a multiplying factor

  19. Calibration of Virtual Testing Stand of the Car Cabin using climatic chamber tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pokorny Jan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our research is to calibrate and verify of the software Virtual Testing Stand of the Car Cabin using climatic chamber tests. The Virtual Testing Stand is standalone executable software developed in Matlab for prediction of the cabin environment and thermal heat load by using the time-efficient heat balance model. The main limitation of the simulation method is a simplified convection scheme inside a cabin using the empirical correlations instead of the CFD simulations. In this paper we present the first preliminary tests of the calibration process and verification of the simulation results. Tests were carried out for the car Skoda Octavia Combi with the silver metallic paint. The material composition of the test car was deeply explored and the material properties of the cabin were identified as accurate as possible. The car was exposed to the various environments inside a climate chamber. In this paper we report about two performed tests: summer solar soak test and winter heat-up test with the defined heat source.

  20. Science driven restoration: A candle in a demon haunted world—response to cabin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian P. Giardina; Creighton M. Litton; Jarrod M. Thaxton; Susan Cordell; Lisa J. Hadway; Darren R. Sandquist

    2007-01-01

    Cabin (2007) asks whether formal science is an effective framework and methodology for designing and implementing ecological restoration programs. He argues that beyond certain ancillary benefits, restoration science has little of practical value to offer the practice of restoration. He goes on to suggest that restoration science most often represents an impediment to...

  1. Early and late Holocene glacial fluctuations and tephrostratigraphy, Cabin Lake, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zander, Paul D.; Kaufman, Darrell S.; Kuehn, Stephen C.; Wallace, Kristi L.; Anderson, R. Scott

    2013-01-01

    Marked changes in sediment types deposited in Cabin Lake, near Cordova, Alaska, represent environmental shifts during the early and late Holocene, including fluctuations in the terminal position of Sheridan Glacier. Cabin Lake is situated to receive meltwater during periods when the outwash plain of the advancing Sheridan Glacier had aggraded. A brief early Holocene advance from 11.2 to 11.0 cal ka is represented by glacial rock flour near the base of the sediment core. Non-glacial lake conditions were restored for about 1000 years before the water level in Cabin Lake lowered and the core site became a fen. The fen indicates drier-than-present conditions leading up to the Holocene thermal maximum. An unconformity spanning 5400 years during the mid-Holocene is overlain by peat until 1110 CE when meltwater from Sheridan Glacier returned to the basin. Three intervals of an advanced Sheridan Glacier are recorded in the Cabin Lake sediments during the late Holocene: 1110–1180, 1260–1540 and 1610–1780 CE. The sedimentary sequence also contains the first five reported tephra deposits from the Copper River delta region, and their geochemical signatures suggest that the sources are the Cook Inlet volcanoes Redoubt, Augustine and Crater Peak, and possibly Mt Churchill in the Wrangell Volcanic field.

  2. Aerosol generation by blower motors as a bias in assessing aerosol penetration into cabin filtration systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitbrink, William A; Collingwood, Scott

    2005-01-01

    In cabin filtration systems, blower motors pressurize a vehicle cabin with clean filtered air and recirculate air through an air-conditioning evaporator coil and a heater core. The exposure reduction offered by these cabins is evaluated by optical particle counters that measure size-dependent aerosol concentration inside and outside the cabin. The ratio of the inside-to-outside concentration is termed penetration. Blower motors use stationary carbon brushes to transmit an electrical current through a rotating armature that abrades the carbon brushes. This creates airborne dust that may affect experimental evaluations of aerosol penetration. To evaluate the magnitude of these dust emissions, blower motors were placed in a test chamber and operated at 12 and 13.5 volts DC. A vacuum cleaner drew 76 m3/hour (45 cfm) of air through HEPA filters, the test chamber, and through a 5 cm diameter pipe. An optical particle counter drew air through an isokinetic sampling probe and measured the size-dependent particle concentrations from 0.3 to 15 microm. The concentration of blower motor aerosol was between 2 x 10(5) and 1.8 x 10(6) particles/m3. Aerosol penetration into three stationary vehicles, two pesticide application vehicles and one tractor were measured at two conditions: low concentration (outside in the winter) and high concentration (inside repair shops and burning incense sticks used as a supplemental aerosol source). For particles smaller than 1 microm, the in-cabin concentrations can be explained by the blower motor emissions. For particles larger than 1 microm, other aerosol sources, such as resuspended dirt, are present. Aerosol generated by the operation of the blower motor and by other sources can bias the exposure reduction measured by optical particle counters.

  3. Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) for Integration and Use of Near Field Communication (NFC) in Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalbantoglu, Cemal; Kiehl, Thorsten; God, Ralf; Stadtler, Thiemo; Kebel, Robert; Bienert, Renke

    2016-05-01

    For portable electronic devices (PEDs), e.g. smartphones or tablets, near field communication (NFC) enables easy and convenient man-machine interaction by simply tapping a PED to a tangible NFC user interface. Usage of NFC technology in the air transport system is supposed to facilitate travel processes and self-services for passengers and to support digital interaction with other participating stakeholders. One of the potential obstacles to benefit from NFC technology in the aircraft cabin is the lack of an explicit qualification guideline for electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) testing. In this paper, we propose a methodology for EMC testing and for characterizing NFC devices and their emissions according to aircraft industry standards (RTCA DO-160, DO-294, DO-307 and EUROCAE ED- 130). A potential back-door coupling scenario of radiated NFC emissions and possible effects to nearby aircraft wiring are discussed. A potential front-door- coupling effect on NAV/COM equipment is not investigated in this paper.

  4. Evaluation of the doses to aircrew members taking into consideration the aircraft structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battistoni, G.; Ferrari, A.; Pelliccioni, M.; Villari, R.

    The radiation field originated by the interactions of primary galactic cosmic rays in the atmosphere has been investigated using the FLUKA code. From the calculated differential fluence distributions in particle energy and direction, the values of effective and ambient dose equivalent rates have been derived as a function of vertical cut-off, altitude and deceleration potential. A mathematical model of an aircraft has been developed using the combinatorial geometry package of FLUKA. The irradiation of the mathematical model in the cosmic ray environment has been simulated at 10.7 km of altitude using the calculated fluence distributions at the polar region for a deceleration potential of 465 MV. Effective dose rate and ambient dose equivalent rate have been determined inside the aircraft at several locations along the fuselage. A significant shielding effect from the aircraft structures has been observed in the middle section of the passenger cabin.

  5. Integration of noise control into the product design process : a case study : the Silent Aircraft Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faszer, A. [Noise Solutions Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2007-07-01

    The Silent Aircraft Initiative (SAI) is a study being conducted by the Cambridge-MIT Institute to discover ways to significantly reduce aircraft noise. Part of the study focuses on developing aircraft and engine designs that meet the SAI objectives. This presentation included several illustrations of the favoured configuration of a blended wing design, with 4 engines located on the upper surface of a shallow wing which shields engine noise. This presentation described various engine parts such as the low specific thrust turbofan, the variable area nozzle and the acoustic treatment in the intake and exhaust turbomachinery that minimizes noise. The requirements for market viability of the aircraft were discussed as well as the technical challenges in terms of its propulsion systems; structural analysis; mechanical design; low speed aerodynamic performance; cabin layout; and maintenance considerations. It was concluded that the SAI has achieved a credible conceptual aircraft design given the high risk of the technologies used. The project has met objectives of a functionally silent and fuel efficient aircraft. The new conceptual aircraft has potential for fuel burn of 149 pax-miles per imperial gallon and noise of 63 dBA near the perimeter of airports. 1 tab., 48 figs.

  6. Propulsion controlled aircraft computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogan, Bruce R. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A low-cost, easily retrofit Propulsion Controlled Aircraft (PCA) system for use on a wide range of commercial and military aircraft consists of an propulsion controlled aircraft computer that reads in aircraft data including aircraft state, pilot commands and other related data, calculates aircraft throttle position for a given maneuver commanded by the pilot, and then displays both current and calculated throttle position on a cockpit display to show the pilot where to move throttles to achieve the commanded maneuver, or is automatically sent digitally to command the engines directly.

  7. How to Solve Problem of Seal for Aircraft Structure Maintenance%飞机结构密封与失效修理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王哲

    2014-01-01

    为提高飞机增压舱的密封能力,给出了飞机结构密封失效的修理程序、方法、试验验证、典型结构密封的措施等,以求达到增压舱正常加压和减缓机体腐蚀发生,保证飞机在寿命期内安全飞行。%In order to enhance the sealing capacity of the pressure cabin, a set of proposals regarding the failure of the sealing in the aircraft structure is presented, including maintenance procedures, ways and means, tests, sealing options of typical structures, etc. By doing this, the normal pressurization of the pressure cabin can be ob-tained and the structure eroding can be delayed to ensure the flying security during the aircraft flight life.

  8. Passive interior noise reduction analysis of King Air 350 turboprop aircraft using boundary element method/finite element method (BEM/FEM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dandaroy, Indranil; Vondracek, Joseph; Hund, Ron; Hartley, Dayton

    2005-09-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a vibro-acoustic computational model of the Raytheon King Air 350 turboprop aircraft with an intent to reduce propfan noise in the cabin. To develop the baseline analysis, an acoustic cavity model of the aircraft interior and a structural dynamics model of the aircraft fuselage were created. The acoustic model was an indirect boundary element method representation using SYSNOISE, while the structural model was a finite-element method normal modes representation in NASTRAN and subsequently imported to SYSNOISE. In the acoustic model, the fan excitation sources were represented employing the Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings equation. The acoustic and the structural models were fully coupled in SYSNOISE and solved to yield the baseline response of acoustic pressure in the aircraft interior and vibration on the aircraft structure due to fan noise. Various vibration absorbers, tuned to fundamental blade passage tone (100 Hz) and its first harmonic (200 Hz), were applied to the structural model to study their effect on cabin noise reduction. Parametric studies were performed to optimize the number and location of these passive devices. Effects of synchrophasing and absorptive noise treatments applied to the aircraft interior were also investigated for noise reduction.

  9. AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE HANGAR

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    GEAMBASU Gabriel George

    2017-01-01

    .... The first part of research describes the aircraft maintenance process that has to be done after an updated maintenance manual according with aircraft type, followed by a short introduction about maintenance hangar...

  10. 飞机平台诱发环境温度的建模与仿真%A Research on Modeling and Simulation of Internal Environment Temperature Induced by Airplane Platform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李永林; 梁少峰; 曹克强

    2016-01-01

    The internal environment induced by airplane platform is an actual work environment of the air-borne equipment,and the induced environment temperature is a main influence factor on airborne equip-ment work.Aimed at the problems of modeling and simulation of internal environment temperature in-duced by airplane platform,the main influence factors are analyzed,and the modeling method of induced temperature is proposed based on similar heat transfer structures classification.The aircraft's similar heat transfer structures are classified as a wing cabin structure,a ring cabin structure,a big cabin structure,an open cabin structure,and a thermal protection structure.The general lumped parameter models of the 5 heat transfer structures are established.Taking Modelica language as a tool,the simulation models of the 5 heat transfer structures are also established.The similar temperature regional division is made taking a cer-tain type aircraft as example,and the 5 heat transfer structure simulation models are used.The internal environmental temperature simulation model of whole airplane platform is established.The simulation re-sult verifies the feasibility of the modeling and simulation method.The simulation results show that the air temperature in the fuselage cabin can be up to 70℃,the temperature in the engine nacelle can be up to 140℃ in short time,and between 90℃~110℃ in long time,the temperature in the engine thermal protec-tion structure can be up to 160℃.%飞机平台的诱发环境是机载设备的实际工作环境,诱发环境温度是影响机载设备工作的主要环境因素。针对飞机平台诱发环境温度的建模与仿真问题,分析了影响飞机平台诱发环境温度的主要因素,提出了以相似传热结构分类为基础的一种飞机平台诱发环境温度建模与仿真方法。将飞机平台相似传热结构分为翼形舱结构、环形舱结构、大舱室结构、开启舱结构和热防护结构,采用集中

  11. An assessment of propeller aircraft noise reduction technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, F. Bruce

    1995-01-01

    This report is a review of the literature regarding propeller airplane far-field noise reduction. Near-field and cabin noise reduction are not specifically addressed. However, some of the approaches used to reduce far-field noise produce beneficial effects in the near-field and in the cabin. The emphasis is on propeller noise reduction but engine exhaust noise reduction by muffling is also addressed since the engine noise becomes a significant part of the aircraft noise signature when propeller noise is reduced. It is concluded that there is a substantial body of information available that can be used as the basis to reduce propeller airplane noise. The reason that this information is not often used in airplane design is the associated weight, cost, and performance penalties. It is recommended that the highest priority be given to research for reducing the penalties associated with lower operating RPM and propeller diameter while increasing the number of blades. Research to reduce engine noise and explore innovative propeller concepts is also recommended.

  12. Numerical Study of Ammonia Leak and Dispersion in the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Chang H.

    2012-01-01

    Release of ammonia into the International Space Station (ISS) cabin atmosphere can occur if the water/ammonia barrier breach of the active thermal control system (ATCS) interface heat exchanger (IFHX) happens. After IFHX breach liquid ammonia is introduced into the water-filled internal thermal control system (ITCS) and then to the cabin environment through a ruptured gas trap. Once the liquid water/ammonia mixture exits ITCS, it instantly vaporizes and mixes with the U.S. Laboratory cabin air that results in rapid deterioration of the cabin conditions. The goal of the study is to assess ammonia propagation in the Station after IFHX breach to plan the operation procedure. A Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model for accurate prediction of airflow and ammonia transport within each of the modules in the ISS cabin was developed. CFD data on ammonia content in the cabin aisle way of the ISS and, in particular, in the Russian On- Orbit Segment during the period of 15 minutes after gas trap rupture are presented for four scenarios of rupture response. Localized effects of ammonia dispersion and risk mitigation are discussed.

  13. Workspace design for crane cabins applying a combined traditional approach and the Taguchi method for design of experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spasojević Brkić, Vesna K; Veljković, Zorica A; Golubović, Tamara; Brkić, Aleksandar Dj; Kosić Šotić, Ivana

    2016-01-01

    Procedures in the development process of crane cabins are arbitrary and subjective. Since approximately 42% of incidents in the construction industry are linked to them, there is a need to collect fresh anthropometric data and provide additional recommendations for design. In this paper, dimensioning of the crane cabin interior space was carried out using a sample of 64 crane operators' anthropometric measurements, in the Republic of Serbia, by measuring workspace with 10 parameters using nine measured anthropometric data from each crane operator. This paper applies experiments run via full factorial designs using a combined traditional and Taguchi approach. The experiments indicated which design parameters are influenced by which anthropometric measurements and to what degree. The results are expected to be of use for crane cabin designers and should assist them to design a cabin that may lead to less strenuous sitting postures and fatigue for operators, thus improving safety and accident prevention.

  14. Report on the Status of the Cheat Mountain Salamander in the Cabin Mountain Area of West Virginia 1991

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This outlines the results of field surveys that were conducted for the Cheat Mountain salamander on the Kelley property on three mountains in the Cabin Mountain area...

  15. Unmanned aircraft systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unmanned platforms have become increasingly more common in recent years for acquiring remotely sensed data. These aircraft are referred to as Unmanned Airborne Vehicles (UAV), Remotely Piloted Aircraft (RPA), Remotely Piloted Vehicles (RPV), or Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS), the official term used...

  16. Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI): Environmental Assessment of the Farish Recreation Area Observatory and Cabin Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-21

    potential sites were originally screened for general cabin locations. From these potential sites, two sites (Sites 2 and 5) were chosen as proposed cabin...landscape in and around Farish, resulting in fairly uniform closed-canopy coniferous forests. Ranching and agriculture early in the last century created...Site 5 are comprised of non-native fill soils dredged from Grace Lake (Weston 1984). Presumably, these soils were originally Aquolls although the

  17. Proceedings of the International Conference for the Promotion of Advanced Fire Resistant Aircraft Interior Materials, Held in Atlantic City, New Jersey on February 9 - 11, 1993

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-02-11

    Carbon Fibers, Inc. H. New Technology for Effective Control of Flammability in Polyolefin Fiber/Textiles .... 85 Charles W. Yacomeni, Great Lakes...TECHNOLOGY FOR EFFECTIVE CONTROL OF FLAMMABILITY !N POLYOLEFIN FIBER/TEXTILES" Charles W. Yacomeni, Ph.D. Great Lakes Chemical Corporation INTERNATIONAL... Bukowski ,R. W., Steifel, S.W., Hall, J. R. Jr, and Steele, S. A., 1990, "The national Fire Risk Assessment Project Final Report", National Fire

  18. Increasing EDV Range through Intelligent Cabin Air Handling Strategies: Annual Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leighton, Daniel [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Rugh, John [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-08-01

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of a Ford Focus Electric demonstrated that a split flow heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) system with rear recirculation ducts can reduce cabin heating loads by up to 57.4% relative to full fresh air usage under some conditions (steady state, four passengers, ambient temperature of -5 deg C). Simulations also showed that implementing a continuous recirculation fraction control system into the original equipment manufacturer (OEM) HVAC system can reduce cabin heating loads by up to 50.0% relative to full fresh air usage under some conditions (steady state, four passengers, ambient temperature of -5 deg C). Identified that continuous fractional recirculation control of the OEM system can provide significant energy savings for EVs at minimal additional cost, while a split flow HVAC system with rear recirculation ducts only provides minimal additional improvement at significant additional cost.

  19. Integration of Bass Enhancement and Active Noise Control System in Automobile Cabin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Wang

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available With the advancement of digital signal processing technologies, consumers are more concerned with the quality of multimedia entertainment in automobiles. In order to meet this demand, an audio enhancement system is needed to improve bass reproduction and cancel engine noise in the cabins. This paper presents an integrated active noise control system that is based on frequency-sampling filters to track and extract the bass information from the audio signal, and a multifrequency active noise equalizer to tune the low-frequency engine harmonics to enhance the bass reproduction. In the noise cancellation mode, a maximum of 3 dB bass enhancement can be achieved with significant noise suppression, while higher bass enhancement can be achieved in the bass enhance mode. The results show that the proposed system is effective for solving both the bass audio reproduction and the noise control problems in automobile cabins.

  20. 26 CFR 48.4041-4 - Application of tax on sales of liquid for use as fuel in aircraft in noncommercial aviation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... fuel in aircraft in noncommercial aviation. 48.4041-4 Section 48.4041-4 Internal Revenue INTERNAL... aircraft in noncommercial aviation. (a) In general. The taxes imposed by subparagraphs (1)(A) and (2)(A) of... operator of an aircraft, for use as a fuel in the aircraft in noncommercial aviation. (b) Liability of tax...

  1. Airliner cabin air quality: emissions of organophosphates originating from aircraft engine oil. Experimental lab simulation and measurements on flight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houtzager, M.M.G.; Havermans, J.B.G.A.; Bos, J.G.H.; Makarem Akhlaghi, H.; Hijman, W.C.; Renesse van Duivenbode, J.A.D.; Jedynska, A.D.

    2014-01-01

    In our simulation experiments, using e.g., a dedicated emission chamber, the emission of organophosphates as tricresyl phosphate (TCP) was studied using turbine oil. Experiments were carried out at 250°C and 370°C. Subsequently field studies were carried out to detect the presence of TCPs in the coc

  2. Malaria prophylaxis for aircrew: safety of Atovaquone/Proguanil in healthy volunteers under aircraft cabin pressure conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simons, M.; Valk, P.J.L.; Krul, A.J.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Because malaria in endemic areas presents a serious threat to the health of aircrew, optimal prevention is important. An effective and safe prophylactic antimalarial drug is needed. The combination of 250 mg atovaquone with 100 mg proguanil HCl (atovaquone/proguanil, or A/P) has shown go

  3. Analysis of Vibratory Excitation of Gear Systems as a Contributor to Aircraft Interior Noise. [helicopter cabin noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark, W. D.

    1979-01-01

    Application of the transfer function approach to predict the resulting interior noise contribution requires gearbox vibration sources and paths to be characterized in the frequency domain. Tooth-face deviations from perfect involute surfaces were represented in terms of Legendre polynomials which may be directly interpreted in terms of tooth-spacing errors, mean and random deviations associated with involute slope and fullness, lead mismatch and crowning, and analogous higher-order components. The contributions of these components to the spectrum of the static transmission error is discussed and illustrated using a set of measurements made on a pair of helicopter spur gears. The general methodology presented is applicable to both spur and helical gears.

  4. An Operational Hygiene Study for Ozone in the Cabin of the Canadian Forces (CC137) Boeing 707 Aircraft,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-08-01

    Biological Effects At high concentrations, ozone is a bluish gas with a characteristic pungent odour, often described as "smelling like" new mown...a sensation of irritation to the eyes within 6 minutes at a concentration of 2 - 3.7 ppm. Chronical- ly, 03 has been reported to result in bronchioli

  5. Health Effects of Airline Cabin Environments in Simulated 8-Hour Flights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-01

    Commercial air travel is usually without health incidents. However, there is a view that cabin environments may be detrimental to health, especially flights of 8 h or more. Concerns have been raised about deep vein thrombosis, upper respiratory tract infections, altitude sickness, and toxins from the engines. Passenger cabin simulators were used to achieve a comparative observational study with 8-h flights at pressures equivalent to terrestrial altitudes of ground, 4000, 6000, and 8000 ft. Biomarkers of thrombosis (D-Dimer), inflammation (interleukin-6), and respiratory dysfunction (FEV1) and oxygen saturation (Spo2) were measured, as well as pulse and blood pressure. The wellbeing of the passengers was also monitored. During 36 flights, 1260 healthy subjects [626 women (F) and 634 men (M) (mean age = 43, SD = 16)] were assessed. Additionally, 72 subjects with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (F = 32, M = 40, mean age = 48, SD = 17) and 74 with heart failure (F = 50, M = 24, mean age = 54, SD = 14) contributed to 11 flights. Additionally, 76 normal controls were observed while engaged in a usual day's work (F = 38, M = 38, mean age = 39, SD = 15). There were no health-significant changes in D-Dimer, interleukin-6, or FEV1. Spo2 varied as expected, with lowest values at 8000 ft and in patients with cardiopulmonary disease. The only differences from the controls were the loss of the normal diurnal variations in interleukin-6 and D-Dimer. This very large, comparative, controlled study provides much reassurance for the traveling public, who use airline flights of up to 8 h. We did not show evidence of the development of venous thrombosis, inflammation, respiratory embarrassment, nor passenger distress. No significant symptoms or adverse effects were reported.Ideal Cabin Environment (ICE) Research Consortium of the European Community 6th Framework Programme. Health effects of airline cabin environments in simulated 8-hour flights. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2017; 88(7):651-656.

  6. Direct oxidation of strong waste waters, simulating combined wastes in extended-mission space cabins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, L. W.

    1973-01-01

    The applications of modern technology to the resolution of the problem of solid wastes in space cabin environments was studied with emphasis on the exploration of operating conditions that would permit lowering of process temperatures in wet oxidation of combined human wastes. It was found that the ultimate degree of degradation is not enhanced by use of a catalyst. However, the rate of oxidation is increased, and the temperature of oxidation is reduced to 400 F.

  7. Performance Testing of a Photocatalytic Oxidation Module for Spacecraft Cabin Atmosphere Revitalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Jay L.; Abney, Morgan B.; Frederick, Kenneth R.; Scott, Joseph P.; Kaiser, Mark; Seminara, Gary; Bershitsky, Alex

    2011-01-01

    Photocatalytic oxidation (PCO) is a candidate process technology for use in high volumetric flow rate trace contaminant control applications in sealed environments. The targeted application for PCO as applied to crewed spacecraft life support system architectures is summarized. Technical challenges characteristic of PCO are considered. Performance testing of a breadboard PCO reactor design for mineralizing polar organic compounds in a spacecraft cabin atmosphere is described. Test results are analyzed and compared to results reported in the literature for comparable PCO reactor designs.

  8. Thermal Storage System for Electric Vehicle Cabin Heating Component and System Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaClair, Tim J [ORNL; Gao, Zhiming [ORNL; Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL; Wang, Mingyu [MAHLE Behr Troy Inc.; WolfeIV, Edward [MAHLE Behr Troy Inc.; Craig, Timothy [MAHLE Behr Troy Inc.

    2016-01-01

    Cabin heating of current electric vehicle (EV) designs is typically provided using electrical energy from the traction battery, since waste heat is not available from an engine as in the case of a conventional automobile. In very cold climatic conditions, the power required for space heating of an EV can be of a similar magnitude to that required for propulsion of the vehicle. As a result, its driving range can be reduced very significantly during the winter season, which limits consumer acceptance of EVs and results in increased battery costs to achieve a minimum range while ensuring comfort to the EV driver. To minimize the range penalty associated with EV cabin heating, a novel climate control system that includes thermal energy storage from an advanced phase change material (PCM) has been designed for use in EVs and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). The present paper focuses on the modeling and analysis of this electrical PCM-Assisted Thermal Heating System (ePATHS) and is a companion to the paper Design and Testing of a Thermal Storage System for Electric Vehicle Cabin Heating. A detailed heat transfer model was developed to simulate the PCM heat exchanger that is at the heart of the ePATHS and was subsequently used to analyze and optimize its design. The results from this analysis were integrated into a MATLAB Simulink system model to simulate the fluid flow, pressure drop and heat transfer in all components of the ePATHS. The system model was then used to predict the performance of the climate control system in the vehicle and to evaluate control strategies needed to achieve the desired temperature control in the cabin. The analysis performed to design the ePATHS is described in detail and the system s predicted performance in a vehicle HVAC system is presented.

  9. A method for Perceptual Assessment of Automotive Audio Systems and Cabin Acoustics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaplanis, Neofytos; Bech, Søren; Sakari, Tervo

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports the design and implementation of a method to perceptually assess the acoustical prop- erties of a car cabin and the subsequent sound reproduction properties of automotive audio systems. Here, we combine Spatial Decomposition Method and Rapid Sensory Analysis techniques...... material. The proposed method is described in terms of capturing, analyzing and reproducing the sound field. A brief overview of the experimental procedure is presented as well as preliminary results of a pilot experiment....

  10. Experimental study on brain injury in Beagle dogs caused by adjacent cabin explosion in warship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-teng LI

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective  Through the establishment of adjacent cabin blast injury model of Beagle dog, to investigate the pathophysiological changes in the experimental animals in this scenario, then speculate on the mechanisms of injury. Methods  Several adjacent cabins were built in the same size with the real warship. Seven Beagle dogs were subjected to injuries from the explosion, from whom one was selected randomly to implant intracranial pressure transducers before blast, the others were tested on the pathophysiological changes after blast. The dogs were mounted on the platform of a cabinet in the adjacent cabin, subjected to injury from 650g bare TNT explosive blast. The transducers recorded the value of space and intracranial shock wave pressure. Following blast treatment, the serum levels of IL -6, IL -8, neuron specific enolase (NSE, brain and chest CT and pathological changes of the brain tissue were observed. Results  Serum levels of IL-6, IL-8 and NSE were elevated to varying degrees after blast. All of them increased significantly at different time points after blast (P<0.05. Brain and chest CT examinations did not show any significant positive results. Pathological results showed that there was a little necrosis in the brain, some neurons had karyopycnosis, karyolysis or disappearance of the nucleoli, and the cell boundaries were blurred. The blast wave was blocked greatly by the scalp and skull (about 90%, but could still penetrate them and cause brain injuries. Conclusions  Explosion in the adjacent cabin causes mainly mild traumatic brain injuries. Blast wave can be blocked by the scalp and skull greatly. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2017.03.11

  11. Incidence of cancer among Finnish airline cabin attendants. 1967-92

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pukkala, E. [Finnish Cancer Registry, Helsinki (Finland); Auvinen, A. [Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK), Helsinki (Finland); Wahlberg, G. [Finnish Flight Attendants Association, Helsinki (Finland)

    1995-09-09

    The objective was to assess whether occupational exposure among commercial airline cabin attendants are associated with risk of cancer. A significant excess of breast cancer (standardised incidence ratio 1.87 (95% confidence interval 1.15 to 2.23)) and bone cancer (15.10 (1.82 to 54.40)) was found among female workers. The risk of breast cancer was most prominent 15 years after recruitment. Risks of leukaemia (3.57 (0.43 to 12.9)) and skin melanoma (2.11 (0.43 to 6.15)) were not significantly raised. Among men, one lymphoma and one Kaposi`s sarcoma were found (expected number of cases 1.6). Although the lifestyle of cabin attendants is different from that of the reference population - for example, in terms of social status and parity - concentration of the excess risks to primary sites sensitive to radiation suggests that ionising radiation during flights may add to that cancer risk of all flight personnel. Otherwise the lifestyle of cabin attendants did not seem to affect their risks of cancer. (author).

  12. An evaluation of an airline cabin safety education program for elementary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Meng-Yuan

    2014-04-01

    The knowledge, attitude, and behavior intentions of elementary school students about airline cabin safety before and after they took a specially designed safety education course were examined. A safety education program was designed for school-age children based on the cabin safety briefings airlines given to their passengers, as well as on lessons learned from emergency evacuations. The course is presented in three modes: a lecture, a demonstration, and then a film. A two-step survey was used for this empirical study: an illustrated multiple-choice questionnaire before the program, and, upon completion, the same questionnaire to assess its effectiveness. Before the program, there were significant differences in knowledge and attitude based on school locations and the frequency that students had traveled by air. After the course, students showed significant improvement in safety knowledge, attitude, and their behavior intention toward safety. Demographic factors, such as gender and grade, also affected the effectiveness of safety education. The study also showed that having the instructor directly interact with students by lecturing is far more effective than presenting the information using only video media. A long-term evaluation, the effectiveness of the program, using TV or video accessible on the Internet to deliver a cabin safety program, and a control group to eliminate potential extraneous factors are suggested for future studies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Design and Performance Assessment of a Semi-Active Suspension Model of Tractor Cabin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Ahmadi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Cumulative effect of transmitted vibrations to the tractor driver not only leads to driver health problems, but also reduces the driver working efficiency. Tractor suspension system is one of the methods which is employed to lower the level of transmitted vibrations to the driver. In this study the design and performance assessment of a semi-active suspension model of tractor cabin was considered. Tractor full vibration model was developed first, and subsequently a semi-active ON-OFF damper model was designed. The examination of the model indicated that doubling the piston area and the volume of hydraulic accumulator air chamber, led to 39% increase and 31% reduction of the resonance frequency of transmitted vibrations to the driver, respectively. On the other hand doubling the piston area and the primary air pressure of the accumulator, affected the RMS of transmitted vibration to the driver by 77 cm s-2 reduction and 66 cm s-2 increase, respectively. Moreover, the numerical comparison of the model outputs with and without activation of semi-active cabin suspension, while the model was stimulated with the same input function, led to 43% improvement in RMS acceleration of the transmitted vibrations to the tractor seat. Therefore, the designed semi-active suspension model of cabin was able to attenuate the level of transmitted vibrations to the tractor driver.

  14. Laser vibrometry vibration measurements on vehicle cabins in running conditions: helicopter mock-up application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revel, Gian Marco; Castellini, Paolo; Chiariotti, Paolo; Tomasini, Enrico Primo; Cenedese, Fausto; Perazzolo, Alessandro

    2011-10-01

    The present work deals with the analysis of problems and potentials of laser vibrometer measurements inside vehicle cabins in running conditions, with particular reference to helicopters where interior vibro-acoustic issues are very important. This paper describes the results of a systematic measurement campaign performed on an Agusta A109MKII mock-up. The aim is to evaluate the applicability of scanning laser Doppler vibrometer (SLDV) for tests in simulated flying conditions and to understand how performances of the technique are affected when the laser head is placed inside the cabin, thus being subjected to interfering inputs. First a brief description of the performed test cases and the used measuring set-ups are given. Comparative tests between the SLDV and accelerometers are presented, analyzing the achievable performances for the specific application. Results obtained measuring with the SLDV placed inside the helicopter cabin during operative excitation conditions are compared with those performed with the laser lying outside the mock-up, these last being considered as ``reference measurements.'' Finally, in order to give an estimate of the uncertainty level on measured signals, a study linking the admitted percentage of noise content on vibrometer signals due to laser head vibration levels will be introduced.

  15. Acoustic control in a tractor cabin using two optimally designed Helmholtz resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driesch, Patricia L.; Koopmann, Gary H.

    2003-10-01

    A virtual design methodology is developed to minimize the noise in enclosures with optimally designed, passive, 20 acoustic absorbers (Helmholtz resonators). A series expansion of eigenfunctions is used to represent the acoustic=20 absorbers as external volume velocities, eliminating the need for a solution of large matrix eigenvalue problems. A determination of this type (efficient model/reevaluation approach) significantly increases the design possibilities when optimization techniques are implemented. As a full-scale demonstration, the acoustic response from 90-190 Hz of a tractor cabin was investigated. The lowest cabin mode proposes a significant challenge to a noise control engineer since its anti-node is located near the head of the operator and often generates unacceptable sound-pressure levels. Exploiting the low-frequency capability of Helmholtz resonators, lumped parameter models of these resonators were coupled to the enclosure via an experimentally determined acoustic model of the tractor cabin. The virtual design methodology uses gradient optimization techniques as a post-processor for the modeling and analysis of the unmodified acoustic interior to determine optimal resonator characteristics. Using two optimally designed Helmholtz resonators, potential energy was experimentally reduced by 3.4 and 10.3 dB at 117 and 167 Hz, respectively.

  16. Control of interior surface materials for speech privacy in high-speed train cabins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, H S; Lim, H; Jeon, J Y

    2017-05-01

    The effect of interior materials with various absorption coefficients on speech privacy was investigated in a 1:10 scale model of one high-speed train cabin geometry. The speech transmission index (STI) and privacy distance (rP ) were measured in the train cabin to quantify speech privacy. Measurement cases were selected for the ceiling, sidewall, and front and back walls and were classified as high-, medium- and low-absorption coefficient cases. Interior materials with high absorption coefficients yielded a low rP , and the ceiling had the largest impact on both the STI and rP among the interior elements. Combinations of the three cases were measured, and the maximum reduction in rP by the absorptive surfaces was 2.4 m, which exceeds the space between two rows of chairs in the high-speed train. Additionally, the contribution of the interior elements to speech privacy was analyzed using recorded impulse responses and a multiple regression model for rP using the equivalent absorption area. The analysis confirmed that the ceiling was the most important interior element for improving speech privacy. These results can be used to find the relative decrease in rP in the acoustic design of interior materials to improve speech privacy in train cabins. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. The risk of melanoma in airline pilots and cabin crew: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanlorenzo, Martina; Wehner, Mackenzie R; Linos, Eleni; Kornak, John; Kainz, Wolfgang; Posch, Christian; Vujic, Igor; Johnston, Katia; Gho, Deborah; Monico, Gabriela; McGrath, James T; Osella-Abate, Simona; Quaglino, Pietro; Cleaver, James E; Ortiz-Urda, Susana

    2015-01-01

    Airline pilots and cabin crew are occupationally exposed to higher levels of cosmic and UV radiation than the general population, but their risk of developing melanoma is not yet established. To assess the risk of melanoma in pilots and airline crew. PubMed (1966 to October 30, 2013), Web of Science (1898 to January 27, 2014), and Scopus (1823 to January 27, 2014). All studies were included that reported a standardized incidence ratio (SIR), standardized mortality ratio (SMR), or data on expected and observed cases of melanoma or death caused by melanoma that could be used to calculate an SIR or SMR in any flight-based occupation. Primary random-effect meta-analyses were used to summarize SIR and SMR for melanoma in any flight-based occupation. Heterogeneity was assessed using the χ2 test and I2 statistic. To assess the potential bias of small studies, we used funnel plots, the Begg rank correlation test, and the Egger weighted linear regression test. Summary SIR and SMR of melanoma in pilots and cabin crew. Of the 3527 citations retrieved, 19 studies were included, with more than 266 431 participants. The overall summary SIR of participants in any flight-based occupation was 2.21 (95% CI, 1.76-2.77; P < .001; 14 records). The summary SIR for pilots was 2.22 (95% CI, 1.67-2.93; P = .001; 12 records). The summary SIR for cabin crew was 2.09 (95% CI, 1.67-2.62; P = .45; 2 records). The overall summary SMR of participants in any flight-based occupation was 1.42 (95% CI, 0.89-2.26; P = .002; 6 records). The summary SMR for pilots was 1.83 (95% CI, 1.27-2.63, P = .33; 4 records). The summary SMR for cabin crew was 0.90 (95% CI, 0.80-1.01; P = .97; 2 records). Pilots and cabin crew have approximately twice the incidence of melanoma compared with the general population. Further research on mechanisms and optimal occupational protection is needed.

  18. The Risk of Melanoma in Airline Pilots and Cabin Crew A Meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanlorenzo, Martina; Wehner, Mackenzie R.; Linos, Eleni; Kornak, John; Kainz, Wolfgang; Posch, Christian; Vujic, Igor; Johnston, Katia; Gho, Deborah; Monico, Gabriela; McGrath, James T.; EE; Osella-Abate, Simona; Quaglino, Pietro; Cleaver, James E.; Ortiz-Urda, Susana

    2015-01-01

    Importance Airline pilots and cabin crew are occupationally exposed to higher levels of cosmic and UV radiation than the general population, but their risk of developing melanoma is not yet established. Objective To assess the risk of melanoma in pilots and airline crew. Data Sources PubMed (1966 to October 30, 2013), Web of Science (1898 to January 27, 2014), and Scopus (1823 to January 27, 2014). Study Selection All studies were included that reported a standardized incidence ratio (SIR), standardized mortality ratio (SMR), or data on expected and observed cases of melanoma or death caused by melanoma that could be used to calculate an SIR or SMR in any flight-based occupation. Data Extraction and Synthesis Primary random-effect meta-analyses were used to summarize SIR and SMR for melanoma in any flight-based occupation. Heterogeneity was assessed using the χ2 test and I2 statistic. To assess the potential bias of small studies, we used funnel plots, the Begg rank correlation test, and the Egger weighted linear regression test. Main Outcomes and Measures Summary SIR and SMR of melanoma in pilots and cabin crew. Results Of the 3527 citations retrieved, 19 studies were included, with more than 266 431 participants. The overall summary SIR of participants in any flight-based occupation was 2.21 (95% CI, 1.76-2.77; P < .001; 14 records). The summary SIR for pilots was 2.22 (95% CI, 1.67-2.93; P = .001; 12 records). The summary SIR for cabin crew was 2.09 (95% CI, 1.67-2.62; P = .45; 2 records). The overall summary SMR of participants in any flight-based occupation was 1.42 (95% CI, 0.89-2.26; P = .002; 6 records). The summary SMR for pilots was 1.83 (95% CI, 1.27-2.63, P = .33; 4 records). The summary SMR for cabin crew was 0.90 (95% CI, 0.80-1.01; P = .97; 2 records). Conclusions and Relevance Pilots and cabin crew have approximately twice the incidence of melanoma compared with the general population. Further research on mechanisms and optimal occupational

  19. 22 CFR 121.3 - Aircraft and related articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aircraft and related articles. 121.3 Section 121.3 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS THE UNITED STATES MUNITIONS LIST Enumeration of Articles § 121.3 Aircraft and related articles. In Category...

  20. Aircraft Noise Prediction

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    This contribution addresses the state-of-the-art in the field of aircraft noise prediction, simulation and minimisation. The point of view taken in this context is that of comprehensive models that couple the various aircraft systems with the acoustic sources, the propagation and the flight trajectories. After an exhaustive review of the present predictive technologies in the relevant fields (airframe, propulsion, propagation, aircraft operations, trajectory optimisation), the paper add...

  1. Evaluation of the aerosol indirect effect using satellite, tracer transport model, and aircraft data from the International Consortium for Atmospheric Research on Transport and Transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avey, L.; Garrett, T. J.; Stohl, A.

    2007-05-01

    The magnitudes of the "indirect effects" that anthropogenic aerosols have on clouds and climate remain uncertain. Past space-based characterizations have compared satellite retrievals of cloud properties with satellite- or model-derived aerosol quantities. The two fields have been taken from air masses displaced from each other either horizontally or vertically. Thus, almost by definition, the cloud retrievals have come from different meteorological regimes than the aerosol to which ostensibly they are related. Because cloud properties depend foremost on meteorology, the difference introduces undesired ambiguity in the comparisons. In this study, we compare Terra and Aqua Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) cloud retrievals with high spatial and temporal resolution output from a tracer transport model (FLEXPART), enabling colocation of fields of pollution and clouds both vertically and horizontally. Anthropogenic carbon monoxide (CO) is used as a passive pollution tracer, because its concentrations are tied to mixing and pollutant source strength, and they are independent of atmospheric oxidation and removal processes on timescales of weeks to months. Cloud and pollution fields are compared along a downwind axis from the U.S. northeastern seaboard for the duration of the summer 2004 International Consortium for Atmospheric Research on Transport and Transformation (ICARTT) mission. Where the transport model indicates air as being polluted, cloud re is smaller and cloud optical depth is in some cases higher, at least close to primary source regions. However, within 4 ± 1 days advection time from the northeastern seaboard, cloud perturbations become negligible, probably because of wet-scavenging of CCN. No conclusive evidence was found for any perturbation to cloud liquid water path by pollution.

  2. 26 CFR 509.107 - Income from operation of ships or aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 19 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Income from operation of ships or aircraft. 509.107 Section 509.107 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS UNDER TAX CONVENTIONS SWITZERLAND General Income Tax § 509.107 Income from operation of ships or aircraft. Under Article V of...

  3. Crashworthiness Optimization of Civil Aircraft Subfloor Structure%民机机身下部结构耐撞性优化设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑建强; 向锦武; 罗漳平; 任毅如

    2012-01-01

    针对含多设计参数的典型民机机身下部结构耐撞性设计,提出了一种设计方法,该方法以最小化客舱地板的初始加速度峰值与最大化参考压溃状态的结构内能为优化双目标,通过Kriging模型对结构的冲击响应进行预测,采用非支配排序遗传算法Ⅱ(NSGA-Ⅱ)对双目标进行优化,进而由Nash-Pareto策略获得最优方案.为了得到最优设计方案,同时研究设计参数对机身结构耐撞性的影响,提出最大化期望提高与最大化预测方差同步加点准则建立代理模型.采用该设计方法,以典型民机机身下部结构设计问题为算例,对客舱地板支撑结构、货舱地板和泡沫构件形状参数进行优化.结果表明,相对原始设计客舱地板的加速度峰值降低约18.3%,次高加速度峰值也得到有效降低,改善了机身结构的耐撞性;Kriging模型预测响应与有限元分析结果误差小于1%,说明了设计方法的有效性.%For a typical civil aircraft fuselage structural crashworthiness design with several design parameters, a design approach is proposed to minimize the peak acceleration of the cabin floor and maximize the internal energy of the structure at a certain crushing state. A Kriging surrogate model is adopted for impact response approximation, a nondominated sorting genetic algorithm II (NSGA-II) for dual objective optimization, and Nash-Pareto strategy for the optimum design selection. In order to obtain the effect of design parameters on crashworthiness as well as the optimum design, a synchronous sampling criterion of the maximum expected improvement and the maximum predicted variance Is suggested to construct a surrogate model. Using this design approach, a typical civil aircraft fuselage structural design with the shape parameters of the cabin floor struts, cargo floor and foam components is studied as a design case. The results indicate that the peak acceleration of the cabin floor is reduced by

  4. Characterization of a Regenerable Impactor Filter for Spacecraft Cabin Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agui, Juan H.; Vijayakumar, R.

    2015-01-01

    Regenerable filters will play an important role in human exploration beyond low-Earth orbit. Life Support Systems aboard crewed spacecrafts will have to operate reliably and with little maintenance over periods of more than a year, even multiple years. Air filters are a key component of spacecraft life support systems, but they often require frequent routine maintenance. Bacterial filters aboard the International Space Station require almost weekly cleaning of the pre-filter screen to remove large lint debris captured in the microgravity environment. The source of the airborne matter which is collected on the filter screen is typically from clothing fibers, biological matter (hair, skin, nails, etc.) and material wear. Clearly a need for low maintenance filters requiring little to no crew intervention will be vital to the success of the mission. An impactor filter is being developed and tested to address this need. This filter captures large particle matter through inertial separation and impaction methods on collection surfaces, which can be automatically cleaned after they become heavily loaded. The impactor filter can serve as a pre-filter to augment the life of higher efficiency filters that capture fine and ultrafine particles. A prototype of the filter is being tested at the Particulate Filtration Laboratory at NASA Glenn Research Center to determine performance characteristics, including particle cut size and overall efficiency. Model results are presented for the flow characteristics near the orifice plate through which the particle-laden flow is accelerated as well as around the collection bands.

  5. 26 CFR 31.3306(m)-1 - American vessel and aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false American vessel and aircraft. 31.3306(m)-1... vessel and aircraft. (a) The term “American vessel” means any vessel which is documented (that is....) (b) The term “American aircraft” means any aircraft registered under the laws of the United States...

  6. A monocular vision system based on cooperative targets detection for aircraft pose measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenyu; Wang, Yanyun; Cheng, Wei; Chen, Tao; Zhou, Hui

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, a monocular vision measurement system based on cooperative targets detection is proposed, which can capture the three-dimensional information of objects by recognizing the checkerboard target and calculating of the feature points. The aircraft pose measurement is an important problem for aircraft’s monitoring and control. Monocular vision system has a good performance in the range of meter. This paper proposes an algorithm based on coplanar rectangular feature to determine the unique solution of distance and angle. A continuous frame detection method is presented to solve the problem of corners’ transition caused by symmetry of the targets. Besides, a displacement table test system based on three-dimensional precision and measurement system human-computer interaction software has been built. Experiment result shows that it has a precision of 2mm in the range of 300mm to 1000mm, which can meet the requirement of the position measurement in the aircraft cabin.

  7. Comparisons of cloud ice mass content retrieved from the radar-infrared radiometer method with aircraft data during the second international satellite cloud climatology project regional experiment (FIRE-II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matrosov, S.Y. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)]|[National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Environmental Technology Lab., Boulder, CO (United States); Heymsfield, A.J. [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States); Kropfli, R.A.; Snider, J.B. [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Environmental Technology Lab., Boulder, CO (United States)

    1996-04-01

    Comparisons of remotely sensed meteorological parameters with in situ direct measurements always present a challenge. Matching sampling volumes is one of the main problems for such comparisons. Aircraft usually collect data when flying along a horizontal leg at a speed of about 100 m/sec (or even greater). The usual sampling time of 5 seconds provides an average horizontal resolution of the order of 500 m. Estimations of vertical profiles of cloud microphysical parameters from aircraft measurements are hampered by sampling a cloud at various altitudes at different times. This paper describes the accuracy of aircraft horizontal and vertical coordinates relative to the location of the ground-based instruments.

  8. Study of the Influence on the Comfort of Vehicle Cabin Thermal Environment and Improve Cabin Thermal Environment Comfort%太阳辐射对汽车舱内热环境舒适性的影响研究与改善

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵树恩; 朱冰; 王荣; 谢模毅

    2016-01-01

    太阳辐射是夏季炎热环境下汽车停放在户外汽车舱内热环境最大的热负荷,严重影响车内热环境及乘员热舒适性。运用商用 FLUENT 软件数值模拟太阳辐射对汽车舱内热环境舒适性的影响,仿真分析研究在没有太阳辐射及不同太阳辐射强度情况下车内热环境的变化,确定太阳辐射对车内热环境舒适性影响大。最后通过降低车窗玻璃的透射率来减少太阳辐射进入车内,达到了改善车内热环境舒适性的目的。%Solar radiation is a car parked in a hot environment summer outdoor car cabin thermal environment maximum thermal load,seriously affect the thermal environment of car and occupant thermal comfort.Used the commercial FLUENT software simula-tion of solar radiation impact on the automotive cabin thermal environment comfort,Studied in the absence of solar radiation and different solar radiation intensity of the change of internal environment,determined the solar radiation effect on car internal envi-ronment comfort.Finally,by reducing the transmittance of the window glass to reduce solar radiation into the car,achieved the goal of internal environment to improve the car comfort.

  9. Analytical evaluation of the protection offered by sealed tractor cabins during crop pulverization with fenitrothion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcellos, Michelle; Faletti, Milena Michele; Madureira, Luiz Augusto Dos Santos; Bauer, Fernando Cesar

    2016-12-01

    The practice of large-scale agriculture requires the use of pesticides in order to maximize production. This activity has gained increasing attention in recent years, especially from rural workers, due to the risks associated with long-term exposure to pesticides. To minimize these risks, personal protection equipment (e.g., covers, gloves, and goggles) and collective protection equipment (e.g., agricultural tractors with sealed cabins) have been developed. In general, these approaches are intended to reduce the contact of farmers and agricultural machinery operators with the more toxic and stable compounds, an example of which is fenitrothion. In this study, fenitrothion was used as a marker to evaluate the protection afforded inside a sealed tractor cabin. To simulate the pesticide exposure, tests were performed using artificial cotton targets as passive adsorptive agents inside the cabin during the pesticide application. Samples were extracted according to the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) procedure using ultrasonic extraction and as proposed by the Brazilian Standard for Solid Waste Classification (NBR 10004). The extracts were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection (HPLC-DAD). The chromatographic method was optimized using a factorial design. The combined results indicated that the best conditions were achieved using a mobile phase with a water/acetonitrile ratio of 35:65, a column temperature of 40 °C, and a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min, with a total analysis time of precision was evaluated on different days and the relative standard deviations were between 0.17 and 3.41 %. In relation to the accuracy, recovery values of 95 to 104 % were obtained. The detection and quantification limits were 0.18 and 0.50 mg/kg, respectively. None of the target cottons showed concentrations of fenitrothion above the limit of detection of 0.18 mg/kg.

  10. Radiation exposure of German aircraft crews under the impact of solar cycle 23 and airline business factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frasch, Gerhard; Kammerer, Lothar; Karofsky, Ralf; Schlosser, Andrea; Stegemann, Ralf

    2014-12-01

    The exposure of German aircraft crews to cosmic radiation varies both with solar activity and operational factors of airline business. Data come from the German central dose registry and cover monthly exposures of up to 37,000 German aircraft crewmembers that were under official monitoring. During the years 2004 to 2009 of solar cycle 23 (i.e., in the decreasing phase of solar activity), the annual doses of German aircraft crews increased by an average of 20%. Decreasing solar activity allows more galactic radiation to reach the atmosphere, increasing high-altitude doses. The rise results mainly from the less effective protection from the solar wind but also from airline business factors. Both cockpit and cabin personnel differ in age-dependent professional and social status. This status determines substantially the annual effective dose: younger cabin personnel and the elder pilots generally receive higher annual doses than their counterparts. They also receive larger increases in their annual dose when the solar activity decreases. The doses under this combined influence of solar activity and airline business factors result in a maximum of exposure for German aircrews for this solar cycle. With the increasing solar activity of the current solar cycle 24, the doses are expected to decrease again.

  11. Cable Tensiometer for Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunnelee, Mark (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    The invention is a cable tensiometer that can be used on aircraft for real-time, in-flight cable tension measurements. The invention can be used on any aircraft cables with high precision. The invention is extremely light-weight, hangs on the cable being tested and uses a dual bending beam design with a high mill-volt output to determine tension.

  12. CFD Analysis of Manipulator Cabin by Selecting Proper Air Conditioning System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umesh S. Ghorpade

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Manipulator is a machine which is used to transfer heavy objects, to reduce human efforts in many industrial applications. Some of them are fully automated while some are manually operated. It is difficult to work in cabin of manipulator for the operator under hot conditions. So it is essential to provide comfort to operator using air-conditioning system. For such applications standard air conditioners are not compatible, so we have to develop assembled system. In this paper we will be dealing with design, selection and fabrication of components like compressor, condenser, expansion device and evaporator. In order to do so, we have calculated heat load.

  13. Aerodynamic Drag Reduction for a Generic Truck Using Geometrically Optimized Rear Cabin Bumps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdellah Ait Moussa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The continuous surge in gas prices has raised major concerns about vehicle fuel efficiency, and drag reduction devices offer a promising strategy. In this paper, we investigate the mechanisms by which geometrically optimized bumps, placed on the rear end of the cabin roof of a generic truck, reduce aerodynamic drag. The incorporation of these devices requires proper choices of the size, location, and overall geometry. In the following analysis we identify these factors using a novel methodology. The numerical technique combines automatic modeling of the add-ons, computational fluid dynamics and optimization using orthogonal arrays, and probabilistic restarts. Numerical results showed reduction in aerodynamic drag between 6% and 10%.

  14. Comparing Gravimetric and Real-Time Sampling of PM2.5 Concentrations Inside Truck Cabins

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Ying; Smith, Thomas J.; Davis, Mary E.; Jonathan I. Levy; Herrick, Robert; Jiang, Hongyu

    2011-01-01

    As part of a study on truck drivers’ exposure and health risk, pickup and delivery (P&D) truck drivers’ on-road exposure patterns to PM2.5 were assessed in five weeklong sampling trips in metropolitan areas of five U.S. cities from April to August of 2006. Drivers were sampled with real-time (DustTrak) and gravimetric samplers to measure average in-cabin PM2.5 concentrations and to compare their correspondence in moving trucks. In addition, GPS measurements of truck locations, meteorological ...

  15. Propulsion controlled aircraft research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullerton, C. Gordon

    1993-01-01

    The NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility has been conducting flight, ground simulator, and analytical studies to investigate the use of thrust modulation on multi-engine aircraft for emergency flight control. Two general methods of engine only control have been studied; manual manipulation of the throttles by the pilot, and augmented control where a computer commands thrust levels in response to pilot attitude inputs and aircraft motion feedbacks. This latter method is referred to as the Propulsion Controlled Aircraft (PCA) System. A wide variety of aircraft have been investigated. Simulation studies have included the B720, F-15, B727, B747 and MD-11. A look at manual control has been done in actual flight on the F15, T-38, B747, Lear 25, T-39, MD-11 and PA-30 Aircraft. The only inflight trial of the augmented (PCA) concept has been on an F15, the results of which will be presented below.

  16. L4-L5 compression and anterior/posterior joint shear forces in cabin attendants during the initial push/pull actions of airplane meal carts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandfeld, Jesper; Rosgaard, Christian; Jensen, Bente Rona

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the acute low back load of cabin attendants during cart handling and to identify working situations which present the highest strain on the worker. In a setup, 17 cabin attendants (ten females and seven males) pushed, pulled and turned a 20kg standard me...

  17. Ageing aircraft research in the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dejonge, J. B.; Bartelds, G.

    1992-01-01

    The problems of aging aircraft are worldwide. Hence, international cooperative actions to overcome or prevent problems should be taken. The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and the Netherlands Civil Aviation Department (RLD) signed a Memorandum of Cooperation in the area of structural integrity, with specific reference to research on problems in the area of aging aircraft. Here, an overview is given of aging research that is going on in the Netherlands. The work described is done largely at the National Aerospace Laboratory; much of the research is part of the forementioned cooperative agreement.

  18. Hybrid CFD/FEM-BEM simulation of cabin aerodynamic noise for vehicles traveling at high speed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; YiPing; ZHEN; Xin; WU; Jing; GU; ZhengQi; XIAO; ZhenYi; YANG; Xue

    2013-01-01

    Flow passing a vehicle may lead to the increase of the cabin interior noise level through a variety of mechanisms. These mechanisms include vibrations caused by aerodynamic excitations and reradiation from the glass panels, exterior noise trans-mitted and leaked through door seals including gaps and glass edge, and transmission of airborne noise generated by the interaction of flow with body panels. It is of vital importance to predict both the flow fields and the acoustic sources around the ve-hicle to accurately assess the impact of wind induced noise inside the cabin. In the present study, an unstructured segregated finite volume model was used to calculate the flow fields in which a hexahedron grid is used to simplify the vehicle geometry.A large eddy simulation coupled with a wall function model was applied to predict the exterior transient flow fields. The mean flow quantities were thus calculated along the symmetry plane and the vehicle’s side windows. A coupled FEM/BEM method was used to compute the vehicle’s interior noise level. The total contribution of the interior noise level due to the body panels of the vehicle was subsequently analyzed.

  19. Ergonomic design of crane cabins: a case study from a steel plant in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Pradip Kumar; Tewari, V K

    2012-01-01

    The study, carried out at the Batch Annealing Furnace (BAF) shop of Cold Rolling Mill (CRM) at an integrated steel plant of India, concerns ergonomic evaluation and redesign of a manually-operated Electrical Overhead Travelling (EOT) crane cabin. The crane cabin is a complex worksystem consisting of the crane operator and twelve specific machine components embedded in a closed workspace. A crane operator has to perform various activities, such as loading and unloading of coils, setting and removal of convector plates, and routine maintenance work. Initially, an operator had to work in standing posture with bent back most of the time. Ergonomically poor design of the chair and the controls, awkward work postures, and insufficient vision angle resulting in musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are some of the critical problems observed.. The study, conceived as an industry-academia joint initiative, was undertaken by a design team, the members of which were drawn from both the company concerned and the institute. With the project executed successfully, a number of lessons, such as how to minimize the anthropometric mismatch, how to improve the layout of the components and controls within enclosed workspace, and how to improve work posture minimizing risk of MSDs have been learned.

  20. Market Potential Study for Standing Cabin Concept for Domestic Low-Cost Commercial Airlines in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romli, Fairuz I.; Dasuki, Norhafizah; Yazdi Harmin, Mohammad

    2016-02-01

    An affordable air transportation has become the operational aim of many airlines these days. This is to cater the growing air travel demands from people of different social and economic status. One of the revolutionary proposals to reduce the operational costs, hence the flight ticket price, is by introducing the so-called standing cabin concept. This concept involves transporting passengers during the entire flight in their standing position with a proper support of a vertical seat. As can be expected with many new inventions, despite its clear advantages, the concept has been met with mixed reactions from the public. This study intends to establish whether the standing cabin concept has a market potential to be implemented for domestic flights in Malaysia. The public perception is determined from collected data through a survey done at two major local low-cost airport terminals. It can be concluded from the results that the concept has a good market potential for application on flights with duration of less than two hours.

  1. Predicting Visibility of Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Andrew; Ramirez, Cesar V.; Salud, Ellen

    2009-01-01

    Visual detection of aircraft by human observers is an important element of aviation safety. To assess and ensure safety, it would be useful to be able to be able to predict the visibility, to a human observer, of an aircraft of specified size, shape, distance, and coloration. Examples include assuring safe separation among aircraft and between aircraft and unmanned vehicles, design of airport control towers, and efforts to enhance or suppress the visibility of military and rescue vehicles. We have recently developed a simple metric of pattern visibility, the Spatial Standard Observer (SSO). In this report we examine whether the SSO can predict visibility of simulated aircraft images. We constructed a set of aircraft images from three-dimensional computer graphic models, and measured the luminance contrast threshold for each image from three human observers. The data were well predicted by the SSO. Finally, we show how to use the SSO to predict visibility range for aircraft of arbitrary size, shape, distance, and coloration. PMID:19462007

  2. Physical and subjective studies of aircraft interior noise and vibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, D. G.; Leatherwood, J. D.

    1979-01-01

    Measurements to define and quantify the interior noise and vibration stimuli of aircraft are reviewed as well as field and simulation studies to determine the subjective response to such stimuli, and theoretical and experimental studies to predict and control the interior environment. In addition, ride quality criteria/standards for noise, vibration, and combinations of these stimuli are discussed in relation to the helicopter cabin environment. Data on passenger response are presented to illustrate the effects of interior noise and vibration on speech intelligibility and comfort of crew and passengers. The interactive effects of noise with multifrequency and multiaxis vibration are illustrated by data from LaRC ride quality simulator. Constant comfort contours for various combinations of noise and vibration are presented and the incorporation of these results into a user-oriented model are discussed. With respect to aircraft interior noise and vibration control, ongoing studies to define the near-field noise, the transmission of noise through the structure, and the effectiveness of control treatments are described.

  3. Tropospheric sampling with aircraft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daum, P.H.; Springston, S.R.

    1991-03-01

    Aircraft constitute a unique environment which places stringent requirements on the instruments used to measure the concentrations of atmospheric trace gases and aerosols. Some of these requirements such as minimization of size, weight, and power consumption are general; others are specific to individual techniques. This review presents the basic principles and considerations governing the deployment of trace gas and aerosol instrumentation on an aircraft. An overview of common instruments illustrates these points and provides guidelines for designing and using instruments on aircraft-based measurement programs.

  4. SOLAR AIRCRAFT DESIGN

    OpenAIRE

    RAHMATI, Sadegh; GHASED, Amir

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. Generally domain Aircraft uses conventional fuel. These fuel having limited life, high cost and pollutant. Also nowadays price of petrol and other fuels are going to be higher, because of scarcity of those fuels. So there is great demand of use of non-exhaustible unlimited source of energy like solar energy. Solar aircraft is one of the ways to utilize solar energy. Solar aircraft uses solar panel to collect the solar radiation for immediate use but it also store the remaining part ...

  5. Lightning hazards to aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corn, P. B.

    1978-01-01

    Lightning hazards and, more generally, aircraft static electricity are discussed by a representative for the Air Force Flight Dynamics Laboratory. An overview of these atmospheric electricity hazards to aircraft and their systems is presented with emphasis on electrical and electronic subsystems. The discussion includes reviewing some of the characteristics of lightning and static electrification, trends in weather and lightning-related mishaps, some specific threat mechanisms and susceptible aircraft subsystems and some of the present technology gaps. A roadmap (flow chart) is presented to show the direction needed to address these problems.

  6. Essentials of aircraft armaments

    CERN Document Server

    Kaushik, Mrinal

    2017-01-01

    This book aims to provide a complete exposure about armaments from their design to launch from the combat aircraft. The book details modern ammunition and their tactical roles in warfare. The proposed book discusses aerodynamics, propulsion, structural as well as navigation, control, and guidance of aircraft armament. It also introduces the various types of ammunition developed by different countries and their changing trends. The book imparts knowledge in the field of design, and development of aircraft armaments to aerospace engineers and covers the role of the United Nations in peacekeeping and disarmament. The book will be very useful to researchers, students, and professionals working in design and manufacturing of aircraft armaments. The book will also serve air force and naval aspirants, and those interested in working on defence research and developments organizations. .

  7. Aircraft Fire Protection Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Navy Aircraft Protection Laboratory provides complete test support for all Navy air vehicle fire protection systems. The facility allows for the simulation of a...

  8. Aircraft Fire Protection Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Navy Aircraft Protection Laboratory provides complete test support for all Navy air vehicle fire protection systems.The facility allows for the simulation of a...

  9. Solar thermal aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Charles L.

    2007-09-18

    A solar thermal powered aircraft powered by heat energy from the sun. A heat engine, such as a Stirling engine, is carried by the aircraft body for producing power for a propulsion mechanism, such as a propeller. The heat engine has a thermal battery in thermal contact with it so that heat is supplied from the thermal battery. A solar concentrator, such as reflective parabolic trough, is movably connected to an optically transparent section of the aircraft body for receiving and concentrating solar energy from within the aircraft. Concentrated solar energy is collected by a heat collection and transport conduit, and heat transported to the thermal battery. A solar tracker includes a heliostat for determining optimal alignment with the sun, and a drive motor actuating the solar concentrator into optimal alignment with the sun based on a determination by the heliostat.

  10. Aircraft electromagnetic compatibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Clifton A.; Larsen, William E.

    1987-06-01

    Illustrated are aircraft architecture, electromagnetic interference environments, electromagnetic compatibility protection techniques, program specifications, tasks, and verification and validation procedures. The environment of 400 Hz power, electrical transients, and radio frequency fields are portrayed and related to thresholds of avionics electronics. Five layers of protection for avionics are defined. Recognition is given to some present day electromagnetic compatibility weaknesses and issues which serve to reemphasize the importance of EMC verification of equipment and parts, and their ultimate EMC validation on the aircraft. Proven standards of grounding, bonding, shielding, wiring, and packaging are laid out to help provide a foundation for a comprehensive approach to successful future aircraft design and an understanding of cost effective EMC in an aircraft setting.

  11. Depreciation of aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Edward P

    1922-01-01

    There is a widespread, and quite erroneous, impression to the effect that aircraft are essentially fragile and deteriorate with great rapidity when in service, so that the depreciation charges to be allowed on commercial or private operation are necessarily high.

  12. Indoor air quality investigation on commercial aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S C; Poon, C S; Li, X D; Luk, F

    1999-09-01

    Sixteen flights had been investigated for indoor air quality (IAQ) on Cathay Pacific aircraft from June 1996 to August 1997. In general, the air quality on Cathay Pacific aircraft was within relevant air quality standards because the average age of aircraft was less than 2 years. Carbon dioxide (CO2) levels on all flights measured were below the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) standard (30,000 ppm). The CO2 level was substantially higher during boarding and de-boarding than cruise due to low fresh air supply. Humidity on the aircraft was low, especially for long-haul flights. Minimum humidity during cruise was below the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) minimum humidity standard (20%). The average temperature was within a comfortable temperature range of 23 +/- 2 degrees C. The vertical temperature profile on aircraft was uniform and below the International Standard Organization (ISO) standard. Carbon monoxide levels were below the FAA standard (50 ppm). Trace amount of ozone detected ranged from undetectable to 90 ppb, which was below the FAA standard. Particulate level was low for most non-smoking flights, but peaks were observed during boarding and de-boarding. The average particulate level in smoking flights (138 micrograms/m3) was higher than non-smoking flights (7.6 micrograms/m3). The impact on IAQ by switching from low-mode to high-mode ventilation showed a reduction in CO2 levels, temperature, and relative humidity.

  13. International Space Station (ISS) Gas Logistics Planning in the Post Shuttle Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Daniel J.; Cook, Anthony J.; Lehman, Daniel A.

    2011-01-01

    Over its life the International Space Station (ISS) has received gas (nitrogen, oxygen, and air) from various sources. Nitrogen and oxygen are used in the cabin to maintain total pressure and oxygen partial pressures within the cabin. Plumbed nitrogen is also required to support on-board experiments and medical equipment. Additionally, plumbed oxygen is required to support medical equipment as well as emergency masks and most importantly EVA support. Gas are supplied to ISS with various methods and vehicles. Vehicles like the Progress and ATV deliver nitrogen (both as a pure gas and as air) and oxygen via direct releases into the cabin. An additional source of nitrogen and oxygen is via tanks on the ISS Airlock. The Airlock nitrogen and oxygen tanks can deliver to various users via pressurized systems that run throughout the ISS except for the Russian segment. Metabolic oxygen is mainly supplied via cabin release from the Elektron and Oxygen Generator Assembly (OGA), which are water electrolyzers. As a backup system, oxygen candles (Solid Fuel Oxygen Generators-SFOGs) supply oxygen to the cabin as well. In the past, a major source of nitrogen and oxygen has come from the Shuttle via both direct delivery to the cabin as well as to recharge the ISS Airlock tanks. To replace the Shuttle capability to recharge the ISS Airlock tanks, a new system was developed called Nitrogen/Oxygen Recharge System (NORS). NIORS consists of high pressure (7000 psi) tanks which recharge the ISS Airlock tanks via a blowdown fill for both nitrogen and oxygen. NORS tanks can be brought up on most logistics vehicles such as the HTV, COTS, and ATV. A proper balance must be maintained to insure sufficient gas resources are available on-orbit so that all users have the required gases via the proper delivery method (cabin and/or plumbed).

  14. Analysis and Interpretation of the Social Reality Reflected in Harriet Beecher Stowe’s Uncle Tom’s Cabin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    殷喆

    2013-01-01

    The basic assumption of Marxist criticism is that those who control a society's economy also control or largely influ-ence its material, cultural, and intellectual products. The Marxist criticism theory in Uncle Tom’s Cabin is about the reality of lib-eration theology, and twentieth-century political resistance movement in order to expose the evilness of slavery.

  15. Maximum Potential of the Car Cabin Temperature in the Outdoor Parking Conditions as a Source of Energy in Thermoelectric Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunawar, A.; Garniwa, I.

    2017-03-01

    Cars using the principle of converting heat energy into mechanical energy, but a lot of wasted heat energy not entirely transformed into mechanical energy, studies have been conducted that converts the heat energy into electrical energy using the principle thermoelectrically. However, there are many other energies that can be harnessed from the car, such as when the car is parked in the sun or driving in the heat of the sun, the temperature in the cabin can reach 80 degrees Celsius. The heat can be harmful to humans and the children immediately into the vehicle, as well as for the goods stored in the cabin if it contains toxins can evaporate because of the heat and dangerous. The danger can be prevented by reducing the heat in the cabin and transform into other forms of energy such as electricity. By providing a temperature difference of 40 degrees on the cold side of the module can be acquired electricity thermoelectrically up to 0.17W for one of its module, if it is made a module block the energy produced is enough to lower the temperature and charge batteries for further cooling. This study will use experiment method to get the maximum drop in temperature in the car cabin

  16. Automatic aircraft recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hmam, Hatem; Kim, Jijoong

    2002-08-01

    Automatic aircraft recognition is very complex because of clutter, shadows, clouds, self-occlusion and degraded imaging conditions. This paper presents an aircraft recognition system, which assumes from the start that the image is possibly degraded, and implements a number of strategies to overcome edge fragmentation and distortion. The current vision system employs a bottom up approach, where recognition begins by locating image primitives (e.g., lines and corners), which are then combined in an incremental fashion into larger sets of line groupings using knowledge about aircraft, as viewed from a generic viewpoint. Knowledge about aircraft is represented in the form of whole/part shape description and the connectedness property, and is embedded in production rules, which primarily aim at finding instances of the aircraft parts in the image and checking the connectedness property between the parts. Once a match is found, a confidence score is assigned and as evidence in support of an aircraft interpretation is accumulated, the score is increased proportionally. Finally a selection of the resulting image interpretations with the highest scores, is subjected to competition tests, and only non-ambiguous interpretations are allowed to survive. Experimental results demonstrating the effectiveness of the current recognition system are given.

  17. 26 CFR 48.4041-14 - Exemption for sale to or use by certain aircraft museums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... museums. 48.4041-14 Section 48.4041-14 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE....4041-14 Exemption for sale to or use by certain aircraft museums. (a) In general. (1) The tax imposed by section 4041 does not apply to liquids which are sold for use or used by an aircraft museum in...

  18. Spacecraft Cabin Air Quality Control and Its Application to Tight Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, J. L.; Graf, J. C.

    1995-01-01

    Air quality is an important consideration not only for the external environment, but also for the indoor environment. Most people spend a majority of their lives indoors and the air that they breathe is important to their physical and emotional well being. Since most modern building designs have focused on energy efficiency, less fresh air is brought from the outside. As a result, pollutants from building materials, furniture, cleaning, and cooking have no place to go. To make matters worse, most ventilation systems do not include any means for removing pollutants from the recycled air. Unfortunately, pollution at even a small level can result in eye, throat, and lung irritation in addition to chronic headaches, nausea, and fatigue. A spacecraft cabin, which represents the worst case in tight building design, requires special consideration of air quality since any effects pollutants may have on a crewmember can potentially place a mission or other crewmembers at risk. A detailed approach has been developed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to minimize cabin atmosphere pollution and provide the crew with an environment which is as free of pollutants as possible. This approach is a combination of passive and active contamination control concepts involving the evaluation and selection of materials to be used onboard the spacecraft, the establishment of air quality standards to ensure crew health, and the use of active control means onboard the spacecraft to further ensure an acceptable atmosphere. This approach has allowed NASA to prevent illness by providing crewmembers with a cabin atmosphere which contains pollutant concentrations up to 100 times lower than those specified for terrestrial indoor environments. Standard building construction, however, does not take into account the potentially harmful effects of materials used in the construction process on the health of future occupants and relies primarily on remedial rather than

  19. Toward improved durability in advanced aircraft engine hot sections; Proceedings of the Thirty-third ASME International Gas Turbine and Aeroengine Congress and Exposition, Amsterdam, Netherlands, June 5-9, 1988

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolowski, Daniel E. (Editor)

    1988-01-01

    The present conference on durability improvement methods for advanced aircraft gas turbine hot-section components discusses NASA's 'HOST' project, advanced high-temperature instrumentation for hot-section research, the development and application of combustor aerothermal models, and the evaluation of a data base and numerical model for turbine heat transfer. Also discussed are structural analysis methods for gas turbine hot section components, fatigue life-prediction modeling for turbine hot section materials, and the service life modeling of thermal barrier coatings for aircraft gas turbine engines.

  20. Active control of counter-rotating open rotor interior noise in a Dornier 728 experimental aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haase, Thomas; Unruh, Oliver; Algermissen, Stephan; Pohl, Martin

    2016-08-01

    The fuel consumption of future civil aircraft needs to be reduced because of the CO2 restrictions declared by the European Union. A consequent lightweight design and a new engine concept called counter-rotating open rotor are seen as key technologies in the attempt to reach this ambitious goals. Bearing in mind that counter-rotating open rotor engines emit very high sound pressures at low frequencies and that lightweight structures have a poor transmission loss in the lower frequency range, these key technologies raise new questions in regard to acoustic passenger comfort. One of the promising solutions for the reduction of sound pressure levels inside the aircraft cabin are active sound and vibration systems. So far, active concepts have rarely been investigated for a counter-rotating open rotor pressure excitation on complex airframe structures. Hence, the state of the art is augmented by the preliminary study presented in this paper. The study shows how an active vibration control system can influence the sound transmission of counter-rotating open rotor noise through a complex airframe structure into the cabin. Furthermore, open questions on the way towards the realisation of an active control system are addressed. In this phase, an active feedforward control system is investigated in a fully equipped Dornier 728 experimental prototype aircraft. In particular, the sound transmission through the airframe, the coupling of classical actuators (inertial and piezoelectric patch actuators) into the structure and the performance of the active vibration control system with different error sensors are investigated. It can be shown that the active control system achieves a reduction up to 5 dB at several counter-rotating open rotor frequencies but also that a better performance could be achieved through further optimisations.

  1. Modeling flight attendants' exposure to secondhand smoke in commercial aircraft: historical trends from 1955 to 1989.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ruiling; Dix-Cooper, Linda; Hammond, S Katharine

    2015-01-01

    Flight attendants were exposed to elevated levels of secondhand smoke (SHS) in commercial aircraft when smoking was allowed on planes. During flight attendants' working years, their occupational SHS exposure was influenced by various factors, including the prevalence of active smokers on planes, fliers' smoking behaviors, airplane flight load factors, and ventilation systems. These factors have likely changed over the past six decades and would affect SHS concentrations in commercial aircraft. However, changes in flight attendants' exposure to SHS have not been examined in the literature. This study estimates the magnitude of the changes and the historic trends of flight attendants' SHS exposure in U.S. domestic commercial aircraft by integrating historical changes of contributing factors. Mass balance models were developed and evaluated to estimate flight attendants' exposure to SHS in passenger cabins, as indicated by two commonly used tracers (airborne nicotine and particulate matter (PM)). Monte Carlo simulations integrating historical trends and distributions of influence factors were used to simulate 10,000 flight attendants' exposure to SHS on commercial flights from 1955 to 1989. These models indicate that annual mean SHS PM concentrations to which flight attendants were exposed in passenger cabins steadily decreased from approximately 265 μg/m(3) in 1955 and 1960 to 93 μg/m(3) by 1989, and airborne nicotine exposure among flight attendants also decreased from 11.1 μg/m(3) in 1955 to 6.5 μg/m(3) in 1989. Using duration of employment as an indicator of flight attendants' cumulative occupational exposure to SHS in epidemiological studies would inaccurately assess their lifetime exposures and thus bias the relationship between the exposure and health effects. This historical trend should be considered in future epidemiological studies.

  2. Unilateralism in International Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    international law. This note considers when and how a State or a regional organisation may legitimately take unilateral measures to protect the environment. The note will does not consider the legality of including foreign aircraft within the ETS, which has been dealt with elsewhere. Instead, it will focus...... on the legality and importance of unilateral acts for the development of international law....

  3. Further Evolution of Composite Doubler Aircraft Repairs Through a Focus on Niche Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ROACH,DENNIS P.

    2000-07-15

    The number of commercial airframes exceeding twenty years of service continues to grow. A typical aircraft can experience over 2,000 fatigue cycles (cabin pressurizations) and even greater flight hours in a single year. An unavoidable by-product of aircraft use is that crack and corrosion flaws develop throughout the aircraft's skin and substructure elements. Economic barriers to the purchase of new aircraft have created an aging aircraft fleet and placed even greater demands on efficient and safe repair methods. The use of bonded composite doublers offers the airframe manufacturers and aircraft maintenance facilities a cost effective method to safety extend the lives of their aircraft. Instead of riveting multiple steel or aluminum plates to facilitate an aircraft repair, it is now possible to bond a single Boron-Epoxy composite doubler to the damaged structure. The FAA's Airworthiness Assurance Center at Sandia National Labs (AANC) is conducting a program with Boeing and Federal Express to validate and introduce composite doubler repair technology to the US commercial aircraft industry. This project focuses on repair of DC-10 structure and builds on the foundation of the successful L-1011 door corner repair that was completed by the AANC, Lockheed-Martin, and Delta Air Lines. The L-1011 composite doubler repair was installed in 1997 and has not developed any flaws in over three years of service, As a follow-on effort, this DC-1O repair program investigated design, analysis, performance (durability, flaw containment, reliability), installation, and nondestructive inspection issues. Current activities are demonstrating regular use of composite doubler repairs on commercial aircraft. The primary goal of this program is to move the technology into niche applications and to streamline the design-to-installation process. Using the data accumulated to date, the team has designed, analyzed, and developed inspection techniques for an array of composite doubler

  4. The perceptual influence of the cabin acoustics on the reproduced sound of a car audio system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaplanis, Neofytos; Bech, Søren; Sakari, Tervo

    2015-01-01

    . In this study, a sensory evaluation methodology [Lokki et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 132, 3148–2161 (2012)] was employed to identify the most relevant attributes that characterize the influence of the physical properties of a car cabin on the reproduced sound field. A series of in-situ measurements of a high......A significant element of audio evaluation experiments is the availability of verbal descriptors that can accurately characterize the perceived auditory events. In terms of room acoustics, understanding the perceptual effects of the physical properties of the space would enable a better...... understanding of its acoustical qualities, and stipulate perceptually relevant ways to compensate for the subsequent degradations. In contrast to concert halls, perceptual evaluation of everyday-sized and less reverberant spaces has been a challenging task, and literature on the subject is limited...

  5. Multispectral imaging of aircraft exhaust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkson, Emily E.; Messinger, David W.

    2016-05-01

    Aircraft pollutants emitted during the landing-takeoff (LTO) cycle have significant effects on the local air quality surrounding airports. There are currently no inexpensive, portable, and unobtrusive sensors to quantify the amount of pollutants emitted from aircraft engines throughout the LTO cycle or to monitor the spatial-temporal extent of the exhaust plume. We seek to thoroughly characterize the unburned hydrocarbon (UHC) emissions from jet engine plumes and to design a portable imaging system to remotely quantify the emitted UHCs and temporally track the distribution of the plume. This paper shows results from the radiometric modeling of a jet engine exhaust plume and describes a prototype long-wave infrared imaging system capable of meeting the above requirements. The plume was modeled with vegetation and sky backgrounds, and filters were selected to maximize the detectivity of the plume. Initial calculations yield a look-up chart, which relates the minimum amount of emitted UHCs required to detect the presence of a plume to the noise-equivalent radiance of a system. Future work will aim to deploy the prototype imaging system at the Greater Rochester International Airport to assess the applicability of the system on a national scale. This project will help monitor the local pollution surrounding airports and allow better-informed decision-making regarding emission caps and pollution bylaws.

  6. Numerical analyses of an aircraft crash on containment building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sim, Jae Min; Kim, Seung Hyun; Chang, Yoon Suk [Kyunghee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The containment building is responsible to isolate and protect internal devices against external conditions like earthquake, hurricane and impact loading. It has also to protect leakage of radioactivity, like LOCA (Loss Of Coolant Accident), when severe accidents occurred. Meanwhile, social awareness such as terrorism has been increased globally after international aircraft crashes at World Trade Center and Pentagon. In this paper, FE (Finite Element) analyses according to variation of crash locations and speeds were carried out to examine the aircraft crash impact on a domestic containment building. In this paper, numerical analyses of aircraft crash on NPP's containment building were performed taking into account different locations and aircraft speeds. (1) Amounts of concrete failure were dependent on the crash locations and the connector was the most delicate location comparing to the dome and wall part. (2) Maximum stress values generated at the liner plate and rebars did not exceed their UTS values.

  7. Aircraft Operations Classification System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlow, Charles; Zhu, Weihong

    2001-01-01

    Accurate data is important in the aviation planning process. In this project we consider systems for measuring aircraft activity at airports. This would include determining the type of aircraft such as jet, helicopter, single engine, and multiengine propeller. Some of the issues involved in deploying technologies for monitoring aircraft operations are cost, reliability, and accuracy. In addition, the system must be field portable and acceptable at airports. A comparison of technologies was conducted and it was decided that an aircraft monitoring system should be based upon acoustic technology. A multimedia relational database was established for the study. The information contained in the database consists of airport information, runway information, acoustic records, photographic records, a description of the event (takeoff, landing), aircraft type, and environmental information. We extracted features from the time signal and the frequency content of the signal. A multi-layer feed-forward neural network was chosen as the classifier. Training and testing results were obtained. We were able to obtain classification results of over 90 percent for training and testing for takeoff events.

  8. Identification of Aircraft Hazards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. Ashley

    2006-12-08

    Aircraft hazards were determined to be potentially applicable to a repository at Yucca Mountain in ''Monitored Geological Repository External Events Hazards Screening Analysis'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 174235], Section 6.4.1). That determination was conservatively based upon limited knowledge of flight data in the area of concern and upon crash data for aircraft of the type flying near Yucca Mountain. The purpose of this report is to identify specific aircraft hazards that may be applicable to a monitored geologic repository (MGR) at Yucca Mountain, using NUREG-0800, ''Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants'' (NRC 1987 [DIRS 103124], Section 3.5.1.6), as guidance for the inclusion or exclusion of identified aircraft hazards. The intended use of this report is to provide inputs for further screening and analysis of identified aircraft hazards based upon the criteria that apply to Category 1 and Category 2 event sequence analyses as defined in 10 CFR 63.2 [DIRS 176544] (Section 4). The scope of this report includes the evaluation of military, private, and commercial use of airspace in the 100-mile regional setting of the repository at Yucca Mountain with the potential for reducing the regional setting to a more manageable size after consideration of applicable screening criteria (Section 7).

  9. IDENTIFICATION OF AIRCRAFT HAZARDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K.L. Ashley

    2005-03-23

    Aircraft hazards were determined to be potentially applicable to a repository at Yucca Mountain in the ''Monitored Geological Repository External Events Hazards Screening Analysis'' (BSC 2004, Section 6.4.1). That determination was conservatively based on limited knowledge of flight data in the area of concern and on crash data for aircraft of the type flying near Yucca Mountain. The purpose of this report is to identify specific aircraft hazards that may be applicable to a Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) at Yucca Mountain using NUREG-0800, ''Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants'' (NRC 1987, Section 3.5.1.6), as guidance for the inclusion or exclusion of identified aircraft hazards. NUREG-0800 is being used here as a reference because some of the same considerations apply. The intended use of this report is to provide inputs for further screening and analysis of the identified aircraft hazards based on the criteria that apply to Category 1 and 2 event sequence analyses as defined in 10 CFR 63.2 (see Section 4). The scope of this technical report includes the evaluation of military, private, and commercial use of airspace in the 100-mile regional setting of the MGR at Yucca Mountain with the potential for reducing the regional setting to a more manageable size after consideration of applicable screening criteria (see Section 7).

  10. Crash response data system for the controlled impact demonstration (CID) of a full-scale transport aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calloway, R. S.; Knight, V. H., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    A study involving the Controlled Impact Demonstration (CID) of a transport category aircraft was conducted with the objective to improve occupant safety during survivable crash scenarios. in connection with this study, the first remotely-piloted Full-Scale Transport aircraft was purposely crashed into the California desert. The program was initated to demonstrate the effectiveness of an imisting kerosene (AMK), a fuel additive emplyed to reduce postcrash fires. The unmanned CID flight carried 73 life-like flight research dummies, multiple experiments, high-speed interior cabin cameras, and the high-environment Crash Response Data System. Attention is given to the design approach, a block diagram of the Crash Response Data System, measurements, the digital data subsystem, signal conditioning, telemetry, on-board recording, the power subsystem, preflight checkout and calibration, and aspects of system qualification.

  11. Review of Aircraft Crash Structural Response Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-08-01

    Con:z:..~~ie C strurtIr’~s ZIL or:Es’. . :o: e ~ c: if proper r2 SiC __L nwcrtn; :e crashwortn: r25s estr : , -tn 0._. es," General~-~-- design...11Ilk LAS VEGAS A-CIDE NT CABIN FLOOR CONTROLLED TESI CABIN FLOOP Fig 6 Damage comparison between controlled test and Las %egas acc¢ident. P IL •I

  12. Development and validation of bonded composite doubler repairs for commercial aircraft.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roach, Dennis Patrick; Rackow, Kirk A.

    2007-07-01

    A typical aircraft can experience over 2,000 fatigue cycles (cabin pressurizations) and even greater flight hours in a single year. An unavoidable by-product of aircraft use is that crack, impact, and corrosion flaws develop throughout the aircraft's skin and substructure elements. Economic barriers to the purchase of new aircraft have placed even greater demands on efficient and safe repair methods. The use of bonded composite doublers offers the airframe manufacturers and aircraft maintenance facilities a cost effective method to safely extend the lives of their aircraft. Instead of riveting multiple steel or aluminum plates to facilitate an aircraft repair, it is now possible to bond a single Boron-Epoxy composite doubler to the damaged structure. The FAA's Airworthiness Assurance Center at Sandia National Labs (AANC), Boeing, and Federal Express completed a pilot program to validate and introduce composite doubler repair technology to the U.S. commercial aircraft industry. This project focused on repair of DC-10 fuselage structure and its primary goal was to demonstrate routine use of this repair technology using niche applications that streamline the design-to-installation process. As composite doubler repairs gradually appear in the commercial aircraft arena, successful flight operation data is being accumulated. These commercial aircraft repairs are not only demonstrating the engineering and economic advantages of composite doubler technology but they are also establishing the ability of commercial maintenance depots to safely adopt this repair technique. This report presents the array of engineering activities that were completed in order to make this technology available for widespread commercial aircraft use. Focused laboratory testing was conducted to compliment the field data and to address specific issues regarding damage tolerance and flaw growth in composite doubler repairs. Fatigue and strength tests were performed on a simulated wing

  13. Aircraft Material Fire Test Handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-09-01

    1968, Congres vested ii the FAA Adoruiustratoi thle vowel to presciibe aiiciaft noise standards, TrIne hijeckimig epiderm Of thie l1960s also inlveld...tapestries all serve both aesthetic and functional purposes. See Figure C-3 for a description of decorative coverings used in a typical main cabin of an...strength and-flexibility are required to provide a contoured shape; in addition, linings provide an aesthetically pleasing surface and protect the

  14. Advanced Aircraft Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Kumar Prince

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available There has been long debate on “advanced aircraft material” from past decades & researchers too came out with lots of new advanced material like composites and different aluminum alloys. Now days a new advancement that is in great talk is third generation Aluminum-lithium alloy. Newest Aluminum-lithium alloys are found out to have low density, higher elastic modulus, greater stiffness, greater cryogenic toughness, high resistance to fatigue cracking and improved corrosion resistance properties over the earlier used aircraft material as mentioned in Table 3 [1-5]. Comparison had been made with nowadays used composite material and is found out to be more superior then that

  15. AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE HANGAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GEAMBASU Gabriel George

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the maintenance process that is done on an airplane, at a certain period of time, or after a number of flight hours or cycles and describes the checks performed behind each inspection. The first part of research describes the aircraft maintenance process that has to be done after an updated maintenance manual according with aircraft type, followed by a short introduction about maintenance hangar. The second part of the paper presents a hangar design with a foldable roof and walls, which can be folded or extended, over an airplane when a maintenance process is done, or depending on weather condition.

  16. 民航客机客货舱电缆设计%Civil Airplane Wiring Design for Cabin and Cargo Zone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈志达

    2015-01-01

    Referring to the specialty of civil airplane’ s cabin and cargo zone, this article has introduced the basic method of wir-ing design for cabin and cargo zone, which includes the main wiring channel design of cabin and cargo zone, the wiring channel disconnect design of cabin and cargo zone, door wiring design, bilge wiring.%结合民航客机客货舱的特点,介绍了客货舱电缆设计的基本方法,包括客货舱电缆主通道设计、客货舱电缆分离面设计、舱门电缆设计、舱底布线。

  17. Aircraft Fuel Systems Career Ladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-09-01

    type fittings remove and install fuel cells clean work areas inspect aircraft for safety pin installation purge tanks or cells using blow purge method...INSPECT AIRCRAFT FOR SAFETY PIN INSTALLATION 84 H254 PURGE TANKS OR CELLS USING BLOW PURGE METHOD 83 H227 CHECK AIRCRAFT FOR LIQUID OXYGEN (LOX...H243 INSPECT AIRCRAFT FOR SAFETY PIN INSTALLATION 52 M483 MIX SEALANTS BY HAND 48 K372 CONNECT OR DISCONNECT WIGGINS TYPE FITTINGS 48 H236 DISCONNECT

  18. Experimental Verification and Research for the Distortion in the Integrated Frequency Responses of the High-Pressure Sealed Cabin and Magnetic Field Sensor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Deng Ming; Wei Wenbo; Jin Sheng; Ye Gaofeng; Zhang Qisheng; Jing Jian'en

    2007-01-01

    Although magnetotelluric sounding method applied to the land is advanced, there are many difficulties when it is applied to marine environment, one of which is how to lay magnetic field sensors down to the seafloor to complete measurements. To protect the magnetic field sensors from intense erosion and high pressure, suitable high-pressure sealed cabins must be designed to load them. For the consideration of magnetic measurement and marine operation, the sealed pressure cabin should be nonmagnetic and transportable. Among all optional materials, LC4 super-hard aluminum alloy has the highest performance of price/quality ratio to make the sealed pressure cabin. However, it does not mean that the high-pressure sealed cabin made using LC4 will be perfect in performance. In fact, because of its weak magnetism, the pressure cabin made using LC4 has distorting effect on frequency responses of the magnetic field sensors sealed in it. This distorting effect does not affect the use of the magnetic field sensor,but if we want to eliminate its effect, we should study it by experimental measurements. In our experiment tests, frequency sweep magnetic field as excitation signal was used, and then responses of the magnetic field sensor before and after being loaded into the high-pressure sealed cabin were measured. Finally,normalized abnormal curves for the frequency responses were obtained, through which we could show how the high-pressure sealed cabin produces effects on the responses of the magnetic field sensor. Experimental results suggest that the response distortion induced by the sealed pressure cabin appears on mid- and high-frequency areas. Using experimental results as standardization data, the frequency responses collected from seafloor magnetotelluric measurements can be corrected to restore real information about the seafloor field source.

  19. Congestion Pricing for Aircraft Pushback Slot Allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lihua; Zhang, Yaping; Liu, Lan; Xing, Zhiwei

    2017-01-01

    In order to optimize aircraft pushback management during rush hour, aircraft pushback slot allocation based on congestion pricing is explored while considering monetary compensation based on the quality of the surface operations. First, the concept of the "external cost of surface congestion" is proposed, and a quantitative study on the external cost is performed. Then, an aircraft pushback slot allocation model for minimizing the total surface cost is established. An improved discrete differential evolution algorithm is also designed. Finally, a simulation is performed on Xinzheng International Airport using the proposed model. By comparing the pushback slot control strategy based on congestion pricing with other strategies, the advantages of the proposed model and algorithm are highlighted. In addition to reducing delays and optimizing the delay distribution, the model and algorithm are better suited for use for actual aircraft pushback management during rush hour. Further, it is also observed they do not result in significant increases in the surface cost. These results confirm the effectiveness and suitability of the proposed model and algorithm.

  20. The Optimization Design of Door Connecting Rod Bracket Structure of Civil Aircraft%民用飞机舱门连杆支架优化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁修起

    2014-01-01

    The cabin latch mechanism of civil aircraft is to prevent the door accidentally open parts. When a jam occurs forced operation, it will produce a greater internal force. The equipment door latch mechanism is all stem shape and load is small except the connecting rod bracket. Connecting rod bracket structure is complex and load is bigger. Based on analyzingresistance load ,using the finite element analysis software HyperMesh and Opti-Struct , three kinds of structure forms of connecting rod bracket are simulated. With comparison and analysis, connecting rod bracket structure satisfied equipment doors functional requirements and prototype test purpose, which provides reference for the follow-up of the real product design.%民用飞机舱门闩机构是防止舱门意外开启的机构部件。当机构发生卡阻且强制操作时,将产生较大的内力。在设备舱门闩机构中除连杆支架外都是杆形件且载荷较小,连杆支架结构形式复杂且载荷较大。在分析机构卡阻载荷的基础上使用有限元分析软件HyperMesh和Opti-Struct对三种结构形式的连杆支架进行了数值模拟。通过对比分析,得到了满足样机设备舱门功能要求和试验目的的连杆支架形式,为后续真实产品的设计提供参考。

  1. Aircraft Emissions Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-03-01

    sample from each trap through a heated (1500C) six-port valve ’ Carle Instruments Model 5621) and onto the analytical column. The coLoponents in each...Environmental Protection, Vol. II. Aircraft Engine Emissions, Int. Civil Aviation Organ., 1981. 7. Nebel , G. J., "Benzene in Auto Exhaust," J. Air Poll

  2. Robots for Aircraft Maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center charged USBI (now Pratt & Whitney) with the task of developing an advanced stripping system based on hydroblasting to strip paint and thermal protection material from Space Shuttle solid rocket boosters. A robot, mounted on a transportable platform, controls the waterjet angle, water pressure and flow rate. This technology, now known as ARMS, has found commercial applications in the removal of coatings from jet engine components. The system is significantly faster than manual procedures and uses only minimal labor. Because the amount of "substrate" lost is minimal, the life of the component is extended. The need for toxic chemicals is reduced, as is waste disposal and human protection equipment. Users of the ARMS work cell include Delta Air Lines and the Air Force, which later contracted with USBI for development of a Large Aircraft Paint Stripping system (LARPS). LARPS' advantages are similar to ARMS, and it has enormous potential in military and civil aircraft maintenance. The technology may also be adapted to aircraft painting, aircraft inspection techniques and paint stripping of large objects like ships and railcars.

  3. Aircraft noise prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippone, Antonio

    2014-07-01

    This contribution addresses the state-of-the-art in the field of aircraft noise prediction, simulation and minimisation. The point of view taken in this context is that of comprehensive models that couple the various aircraft systems with the acoustic sources, the propagation and the flight trajectories. After an exhaustive review of the present predictive technologies in the relevant fields (airframe, propulsion, propagation, aircraft operations, trajectory optimisation), the paper addresses items for further research and development. Examples are shown for several airplanes, including the Airbus A319-100 (CFM engines), the Bombardier Dash8-Q400 (PW150 engines, Dowty R408 propellers) and the Boeing B737-800 (CFM engines). Predictions are done with the flight mechanics code FLIGHT. The transfer function between flight mechanics and the noise prediction is discussed in some details, along with the numerical procedures for validation and verification. Some code-to-code comparisons are shown. It is contended that the field of aircraft noise prediction has not yet reached a sufficient level of maturity. In particular, some parametric effects cannot be investigated, issues of accuracy are not currently addressed, and validation standards are still lacking.

  4. Aircraft Oxygen Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    aircraft use some form of on-board oxygen generation provided by one of two corporations that dominate this market . A review of safety incident data...manufacture of synthetic resins (e.g., Bakelite), and for 161 making dyestuffs, flavorings, perfumes , and other chemicals. Some are used as

  5. Preliminary study of impact fragility to RC wall subjected to aircraft impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Sang Shup; Hahm, Dae Gi; Choi, In Kil [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    International experience has shown that internal and external hazards such as fires, earthquakes, and aircraft impacts can be significant safety contributors to the risk to infrastructures such as nuclear power plants. Since the aircraft accident at the World Trade Center (WTC) on September 11, 2001, an aircraft impact problem has been increasingly of the interest and is one of important categories of an unexpected external hazard field. To date, aircraft impact analyses has most focused on the response analysis to the target structures. However, this preliminary study carried out an impact fragility analysis to reinforced concrete (RC) wall subjected to an aircraft impact. The aircraft velocity is used as the important variable of this study. The impact analysis of the applied Ri era's forcing function is used by Abaqus/Explicit.

  6. Prevalence of risk factors for breast cancer in German airline cabin crew: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Mareen; Blettner, Maria; Zeeb, Hajo

    2014-01-01

    Many epidemiological studies point to an increased risk of breast cancer among female airline cabin crew. Possible causes include occupational factors (e.g. cosmic radiation exposure, chronodisruption), as well as lifestyle and reproductive factors. To investigate the frequency of various risk factors in German flight attendants which are recognised to be associated with breast cancer. 2708 current and former female cabin crew were randomly selected by a flight attendants' union and mailed a questionnaire; 1311 responded (48% response). Descriptive statistics were used to compare the distribution of breast cancer risk factors with general German population data. On average, cabin crew were 3.0 cm (95% CI 2.7-3.3) taller than the comparison group, while their body mass index was 2.5 kg/m(2) (95% CI 2.4-2.6) lower. We found less use of hormone replacement therapy, but longer average use of oral contraceptives. Nulliparity among respondents aged 45+ was 57% (95% CI 54%-60%) compared to 16%. Average age at first birth was 32.1 years (95% CI 31.7-32.4) vs. 25.5 years. The birth rate was 0.62 (95% CI 0.58-0.67), less than half the population average of 1.34. Alcohol consumption was considerably higher, whereas cabin crew tended to smoke less and performed more physical exercise. We found important differences in terms of anthropometric, gynaecological, reproductive and lifestyle factors. Some of these differences (e.g. higher nulliparity, alcohol consumption, taller size) could contribute to a higher breast cancer risk, whereas others could lead to a reduction (e.g. increased physical exercise, lower BMI, less HRT use).

  7. Relationship Between Perceived In-Cabin Air Quality and Truck Drivers’ Self-Reported Health and Alertness

    OpenAIRE

    Richard TAY; Tan, Zhongchao; Cheng, Xiaoying

    2008-01-01

    This study surveyed 253 truck drivers and found that many drivers scored poorly on the Stanford and Epworth sleepiness scales indicating that they may not be as alert as they should be while driving. Moreover, those who rated the air in their truck cabins as fresh reported less irritation to their eyes, noses, throats, and skin, scored better in both sleepiness scales, and reported fewer sleep-related medical symptoms. Finally, the results of the ordinal logistic model indicate that drivers’ ...

  8. Braking performance of aircraft tires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Satish K.

    This paper brings under one cover the subject of aircraft braking performance and a variety of related phenomena that lead to aircraft hydroplaning, overruns, and loss of directional control. Complex processes involving tire deformation, tire slipping, and fluid pressures in the tire-runway contact area develop the friction forces for retarding the aircraft; this paper describes the physics of these processes. The paper reviews the past and present research efforts and concludes that the most effective way to combat the hazards associated with aircraft landings and takeoffs on contaminated runways is by measuring and displaying in realtime the braking performance parameters in the aircraft cockpit.

  9. Potential benefits of solar reflective car shells: cooler cabins, fuel savings and emission reductions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levinson, Ronnen; Pan, Heng; Ban-Weiss, George; Rosado, Pablo; Paolini, Riccardo; Akbari, Hashem

    2011-05-11

    Abstract: Vehicle thermal loads and air conditioning ancillary loads are strongly influenced by the absorption of solar energy. The adoption of solar reflective coatings for opaque surfaces of the vehicle shell can decrease the ?soak? temperature of the air in the cabin of a vehicle parked in the sun, potentially reducing the vehicle?s ancillary load and improving its fuel economy by permitting the use of a smaller air conditioner. An experimental comparison of otherwise identical black and silver compact sedans indicated that increasing the solar reflectance (?) of the car?s shell by about 0.5 lowered the soak temperature of breath-level air by about 5?6?C. Thermal analysis predicts that the air conditioning capacity required to cool the cabin air in the silver car to 25?C within 30min is 13percent less than that required in the black car. Assuming that potential reductions in AC capacity and engine ancillary load scale linearly with increase in shell solar reflectance, ADVISOR simulations of the SC03 driving cycle indicate that substituting a typical cool-colored shell (?=0.35) for a black shell (?=0.05) would reduce fuel consumption by 0.12L per 100km (1.1percent), increasing fuel economy by 0.10kmL?1 [0.24mpg] (1.1percent). It would also decrease carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions by 2.7gkm?1 (1.1percent), nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions by 5.4mgkm?1 (0.44percent), carbon monoxide (CO) emissions by 17mgkm?1 (0.43percent), and hydrocarbon (HC) emissions by 4.1mgkm?1 (0.37percent). Selecting a typical white or silver shell (?=0.60) instead of a black shell would lower fuel consumption by 0.21L per 100km (1.9percent), raising fuel economy by 0.19kmL?1 [0.44mpg] (2.0percent). It would also decrease CO2 emissions by 4.9gkm?1 (1.9percent), NOx emissions by 9.9mgkm?1 (0.80percent), CO emissions by 31mgkm?1 (0.79percent), and HC emissions by 7.4mgkm?1 (0.67percent). Our simulations may underestimate emission reductions because emissions in standardized driving cycles are

  10. Conforto e desconforto em cabines de aeronaves: um método baseado na análise da atividade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia Renata Dantas Alves Silva Ciaccia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Resumo A literatura mostra que as poltronas aeronáuticas usualmente são avaliadas por métodos objetivos em experimentos estáticos e realizados fora do seu contexto de uso. O objetivo deste artigo é apresentar um método que utiliza medição contínua de pressão de interface ocupante-poltrona em conjunto com outras técnicas, como observação, relato pós-experimento e filmagem para avaliar o conforto e o desconforto de poltronas e cabines de aeronaves em suas fases de concepção e desenvolvimento. Na primeira etapa do método, os participantes avaliaram as condições para realizar as atividades de ler e repousar em ensaios de 40 minutos, realizados em um simulador de interior de cabine de aeronave. Na segunda etapa, foi realizada uma sessão de brainstorming para gerar ideias e captar oportunidades de melhoria para a poltrona e a cabine da aeronave avaliada. Na última etapa, uma solução sugerida nobrainstorming foi prototipada e avaliada em condição de uso.

  11. 26 CFR 31.3121(f)-1 - American vessel and aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false American vessel and aircraft. 31.3121(f)-1... § 31.3121(f)-1 American vessel and aircraft. (a) The term “American vessel” means any vessel which is...”, see § 31.3121 (e)-1.) (b) The term “American aircraft” means any aircraft registered under the laws of...

  12. Aircraft panel with sensorless active sound power reduction capabilities through virtual mechanical impedances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulandet, R.; Michau, M.; Micheau, P.; Berry, A.

    2016-01-01

    This paper deals with an active structural acoustic control approach to reduce the transmission of tonal noise in aircraft cabins. The focus is on the practical implementation of the virtual mechanical impedances method by using sensoriactuators instead of conventional control units composed of separate sensors and actuators. The experimental setup includes two sensoriactuators developed from the electrodynamic inertial exciter and distributed over an aircraft trim panel which is subject to a time-harmonic diffuse sound field. The target mechanical impedances are first defined by solving a linear optimization problem from sound power measurements before being applied to the test panel using a complex envelope controller. Measured data are compared to results obtained with sensor-actuator pairs consisting of an accelerometer and an inertial exciter, particularly as regards sound power reduction. It is shown that the two types of control unit provide similar performance, and that here virtual impedance control stands apart from conventional active damping. In particular, it is clear from this study that extra vibrational energy must be provided by the actuators for optimal sound power reduction, mainly due to the high structural damping in the aircraft trim panel. Concluding remarks on the benefits of using these electrodynamic sensoriactuators to control tonal disturbances are also provided.

  13. Cosmic radiation exposure at aircraft crew workplaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Latocha, M.; Beck, P.; Rollet, S. [ARC Seibersdorf Research, Seibersdorf (Austria); Latocha, M. [Institute of Nuclear Physics Polish Academy of Sciences, Krakow (Poland)

    2006-07-01

    E.U.R.A.D.O.S. working group W.G.5. on air crew dosimetry coordinated research of some 24 international institutes to exchange experimental data and results of calculations of the radiation exposure in aircraft altitudes due to cosmic radiation. The purpose was to provide a data-set for all European Union Member States for the assessment of individual doses, the validity of different approaches, and to provide an input to technical recommendations by the Article 31 group of experts and the European Commission. The results of this work have been recently published and are available for the international community. The radiation protection quantity of interest is effective dose, E (ISO), but the comparison of measurement results and the results of calculations, is done in terms of the operational quantity ambient dose equivalent, H{sup *}(10). This paper gives an overview of the E.U.R.A.D.O.S. Aircraft Crew In-Flight Database which was implemented under the responsibility of A.R.C. Seibersdorf research. It discusses calculation models for air crew dose assessment comparing them with measurements contained in this database. Further it presents current developments using updated information of galactic cosmic radiation proton spectra and new results of the recently finalized European research project D.O.S.M.A.X. on dosimetry of aircraft crew at solar maximum. (authors)

  14. Aircraft Wake Vortex Measurement with Coherent Doppler Lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Songhua; Liu, Bingyi; Liu, Jintao

    2016-06-01

    Aircraft vortices are generated by the lift-producing surfaces of the aircraft. The variability of near-surface conditions can change the drop rate and cause the cell of the wake vortex to twist and contort unpredictably. The pulsed Coherent Doppler Lidar Detection and Ranging is an indispensable access to real aircraft vortices behavior which transmitting a laser beam and detecting the radiation backscattered by atmospheric aerosol particles. Experiments for Coherent Doppler Lidar measurement of aircraft wake vortices has been successfully carried out at the Beijing Capital International Airport (BCIA). In this paper, the authors discuss the Lidar system, the observation modes carried out in the measurements at BCIA and the characteristics of vortices.

  15. Aircraft Wake Vortex Measurement with Coherent Doppler Lidar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Songhua

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aircraft vortices are generated by the lift-producing surfaces of the aircraft. The variability of near-surface conditions can change the drop rate and cause the cell of the wake vortex to twist and contort unpredictably. The pulsed Coherent Doppler Lidar Detection and Ranging is an indispensable access to real aircraft vortices behavior which transmitting a laser beam and detecting the radiation backscattered by atmospheric aerosol particles. Experiments for Coherent Doppler Lidar measurement of aircraft wake vortices has been successfully carried out at the Beijing Capital International Airport (BCIA. In this paper, the authors discuss the Lidar system, the observation modes carried out in the measurements at BCIA and the characteristics of vortices.

  16. Temperature Distribution in a Long-Span Aircraft Hangar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PEI Yongzhong; BAI Yin; SHI Yongjiu; ZHU Dan; WANG Yuanqing

    2008-01-01

    Long-span aircraft hangars have features which differ from other large structural systems. The temperature stresses due to temperature variations often greatly impact the mechanical performance of the structure. The paper presents an analysis of the heat transfer processes and factors which influence the temperature distribution. The AMECO-A380 aircraft hangar at the Beijing Capital International Airport was selected as a practical example to illustrate the use of finite volume analysis to calculate the temperature field taking into account meteorological conditions, solar radiation, heat convection, etc. The temperature distribution and the variation of the length of the upper and lower chords of the grid structure roof were ana-lyzed to develop guidelines for the temperature distributions in very large aircraft hangars. The results show that the temperature effect will be large for long-span hangars, and the temperature stresses due to non-uniform temperatures should be analyzed to guarantee the structural safety of large aircraft hangars.

  17. On the vibro-acoustical operational modal analysis of a helicopter cabin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierro, E.; Mucchi, E.; Soria, L.; Vecchio, A.

    2009-05-01

    This paper aims to present a modal decomposition formulation for a vibro-acoustical operational modal analysis (OMA). In literature many works can be found on this topic, but until now no attention has been focused on the analytical form of the cross-power spectra (CPs) between the system outputs when a fluid-structure coupling is present. In this work it is shown that the CPs modal decomposition depends on the choice of the references, i.e. acoustical or structural. At first it is theoretically pointed out that the CP formulation for the acoustical and structural case is formally identical if appropriately pre-processed. Then, this theoretical result is verified through the results of an extensive experimental testing on the helicopter EUROCOPTER EC-135. The CPs between the structural output velocities and the acoustical response of the microphone inside the helicopter cabin are considered as inputs of an OMA. In order to verify the effectiveness of the modal model so obtained a classical modal analysis is also performed. The acoustical reference choice reveals to be suitable for a vibro-acoustical OMA. It is highlighted, indeed, that the acoustical pressure measurement inside the enclosure can be used as reference instead of the commonly used structural sensors, both from the theoretical and practical point of view. This is useful for high scale structures where the structural responses are usually measured by means of moving sensor arrays and additional fixed reference sensors should be positioned on the surface.

  18. Rhetorical engagement with racism: Uncle Tom’s Cabin and Adventures of Huckleberry Finn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. E. Kim

    1998-05-01

    Full Text Available Racial relationships were an extremely controversial subject around the time of the Civil War in the USA. Harriet Beecher Stowe in Uncle Tom’s Cabin and Mark Twain in Adventures of Huckleberry Finn treat this provocative issue of race by entrusting important roles to the African-American characters. Uncle Tom and Jim. Predicting the reader's possible revolt against the blatant treatment of the issue, the two novelists use racist expressions in the convention of their contemporary audiences to construct a communication channel with their audiences. As a result, these novels have won enormous popularity. However, they have been criticized for racist tendencies Beneath the seemingly racist surface of their texts, Stowe and Twain present an innovative vision of unconditional human equality. Using various rhetorical strategies, these authors help their audiences realize the unfairness and false grounds of racism. The dialectic between the racist language and the anti-racist message of their texts creates a dynamic force spurring readers into a reconsideration of their attitude toward race.

  19. Operating Comfort Prediction Model of Human-Machine Interface Layout for Cabin Based on GEP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Li; Wang, Guohua; Chen, Bo

    2015-01-01

    In view of the evaluation and decision-making problem of human-machine interface layout design for cabin, the operating comfort prediction model is proposed based on GEP (Gene Expression Programming), using operating comfort to evaluate layout scheme. Through joint angles to describe operating posture of upper limb, the joint angles are taken as independent variables to establish the comfort model of operating posture. Factor analysis is adopted to decrease the variable dimension; the model's input variables are reduced from 16 joint angles to 4 comfort impact factors, and the output variable is operating comfort score. The Chinese virtual human body model is built by CATIA software, which will be used to simulate and evaluate the operators' operating comfort. With 22 groups of evaluation data as training sample and validation sample, GEP algorithm is used to obtain the best fitting function between the joint angles and the operating comfort; then, operating comfort can be predicted quantitatively. The operating comfort prediction result of human-machine interface layout of driller control room shows that operating comfort prediction model based on GEP is fast and efficient, it has good prediction effect, and it can improve the design efficiency.

  20. Computer-aided human factors analysis of the industrial vehicle driver cabin to improve occupational health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koushik Balaji, K; Alphin, M S

    2016-09-01

    Industrial vehicle operator's solace and safety have gained significant consideration because of the increment in occupational health issues and accidents. The purpose of this work was to amend the design of the excavator driver cabin through human factor analysis. Thirty operators of excavators who were serving as subjects, were interviewed and identified that their wrist, upper arm and trunk were at a higher risk level while operating. Photograph of the operators was taken and the work environment was simulated. RULA (Rapid Upper Limb Assessment) and REBA (Rapid Entire Body Assessment) scoring was made on different simulated work posture of operators using CATIA V5 and UEAT1.8 softwares. Based on overall RULA and REBA scoring, it was found nearly 46% of the operators were operating at a high hazard level and needed investigation immediately, whereas 35% of operators were at a medium risk level and only 19% of operators were operating safely. The individual RULA and REBA scoring proved prevalence of discomfort in wrist, upper arm and trunk while operating. Identifying the optimized conditions to hold the control levers will help to reduce the operator strain. From the design optimization in excavators, the optimal conditions to hold the control lever is found to be 40cm for popliteal height, 60.51 cm for distance from elbow to ground and 15.07º for reach angle from the seat reference point.

  1. Avaliação ergonômica da cabine de um trator florestal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haroldo Carlos Fernandes

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Pesquisas desenvolvidas por meio de avaliações ergonômicas e antropométricas contribuem a dar subsídios para novos projetos, com base no dimensionamento de máquinas e equipamentos. Objetivou-se com o presente trabalho realizar uma análise antropométrica de trabalhadores que operam as máquinas de colheita de madeira e avaliar ergonomicamente a cabine do "Feller-Buncher", com a finalidade de levantar informações necessárias para futuras modificações a serem realizadas com base nos dados obtidos. As análises foram realizadas na empresa florestal Cenibra, localizada no Estado de Minas Gerais. A avaliação antropométrica dos operadores foi realizada por dois conjuntos de medidas, na posição em pé e sentado. Durante as avaliações ergonômicas e a mensuração do posicionamento dos órgãos de comando e campo de visão foram determinadas as distâncias a partir do ponto de referência do assento (PRA nas três dimensões (x, y e z. De acordo com os resultados, pode-se concluir que há necessidade de melhorias ergonômicas no assento, controle, painel de controle, simbologia de comandos, mostradores e luzes de advertência.

  2. Comparing gravimetric and real-time sampling of PM(2.5) concentrations inside truck cabins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ying; Smith, Thomas J; Davis, Mary E; Levy, Jonathan I; Herrick, Robert; Jiang, Hongyu

    2011-11-01

    As part of a study on truck drivers' exposure and health risk, pickup and delivery (P&D) truck drivers' on-road exposure patterns to PM(2.5) were assessed in five, weeklong sampling trips in metropolitan areas of five U.S. cities from April to August of 2006. Drivers were sampled with real-time (DustTrak) and gravimetric samplers to measure average in-cabin PM(2.5) concentrations and to compare their correspondence in moving trucks. In addition, GPS measurements of truck locations, meteorological data, and driver behavioral data were collected throughout the day to determine which factors influence the relationship between real-time and gravimetric samplers. Results indicate that the association between average real-time and gravimetric PM(2.5) measurements on moving trucks was fairly consistent (Spearman rank correlation of 0.63), with DustTrak measurements exceeding gravimetric measurements by approximately a factor of 2. This ratio differed significantly only between the industrial Midwest cities and the other three sampled cities scattered in the South and West. There was also limited evidence of an effect of truck age. Filter samples collected concurrently with DustTrak measurements can be used to calibrate average mass concentration responses for the DustTrak, allowing for real-time measurements to be integrated into longer-term studies of inter-city and intra-urban exposure patterns for truck drivers.

  3. Full-Scale Structural and NDI Validation Tests of Bonded Composite Doublers for Commercial Aircraft Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roach, D.; Walkington, P.

    1999-02-01

    Composite doublers, or repair patches, provide an innovative repair technique which can enhance the way aircraft are maintained. Instead of riveting multiple steel or aluminum plates to facilitate an aircraft repair, it is possible to bond a single Boron-Epoxy composite doubler to the damaged structure. Most of the concerns surrounding composite doubler technology pertain to long-term survivability, especially in the presence of non-optimum installations, and the validation of appropriate inspection procedures. This report focuses on a series of full-scale structural and nondestructive inspection (NDI) tests that were conducted to investigate the performance of Boron-Epoxy composite doublers. Full-scale tests were conducted on fuselage panels cut from retired aircraft. These full-scale tests studied stress reductions, crack mitigation, and load transfer capabilities of composite doublers using simulated flight conditions of cabin pressure and axial stress. Also, structures which modeled key aspects of aircraft structure repairs were subjected to extreme tension, shear and bending loads to examine the composite laminate's resistance to disbond and delamination flaws. Several of the structures were loaded to failure in order to determine doubler design margins. Nondestructive inspections were conducted throughout the test series in order to validate appropriate techniques on actual aircraft structure. The test results showed that a properly designed and installed composite doubler is able to enhance fatigue life, transfer load away from damaged structure, and avoid the introduction of new stress risers (i.e. eliminate global reduction in the fatigue life of the structure). Comparisons with test data obtained prior to the doubler installation revealed that stresses in the parent material can be reduced 30%--60% through the use of the composite doubler. Tests to failure demonstrated that the bondline is able to transfer plastic strains into the doubler and that

  4. Experimental study on occupant's thermal responses under the non-uniform conditions in vehicle cabin during the heating period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wencan; Chen, Jiqing; Lan, Fengchong

    2014-03-01

    The existing investigations on thermal comfort mostly focus on the thermal environment conditions, especially of the air-flow field and the temperature distributions in vehicle cabin. Less attention appears to direct to the thermal comfort or thermal sensation of occupants, even to the relationship between thermal conditions and thermal sensation. In this paper, a series of experiments were designed and conducted for understanding the non-uniform conditions and the occupant's thermal responses in vehicle cabin during the heating period. To accurately assess the transient temperature distribution in cabin in common daily condition, the air temperature at a number of positions is measured in a full size vehicle cabin under natural winter environment in South China by using a discrete thermocouples network. The occupant body is divided into nine segments, the skin temperature at each segment and the occupant's local thermal sensation at the head, body, upper limb and lower limb are monitored continuously. The skin temperature is observed by using a discrete thermocouples network, and the local thermal sensation is evaluated by using a seven-point thermal comfort survey questionnaire proposed by American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc(ASHRAE) Standard. The relationship between the skin temperature and the thermal sensation is discussed and regressed by statistics method. The results show that the interior air temperature is highly non-uniform over the vehicle cabin. The locations where the occupants sit have a significant effect on the occupant's thermal responses, including the skin temperature and the thermal sensation. The skin temperature and thermal sensation are quite different between body segments due to the effect of non-uniform conditions, clothing resistance, and the human thermal regulating system. A quantitative relationship between the thermal sensation and the skin temperature at each body segment of occupant in

  5. Measuring In-Cabin School Bus Tailpipe and Crankcase PM2.5: A New Dual Tracer Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireson, Robert G; Ondov, John M; Zielinska, Barbara; Weaver, Christopher S; Easter, Michael D; Lawson, Douglas R; Hesterberg, Thomas W; Davey, Mark E; Liu, L-J Sally

    2011-05-01

    Exposures of occupants in school buses to on-road vehicle emissions, including emissions from the bus itself, can be substantially greater than those in outdoor settings. A dual tracer method was developed and applied to two school buses in Seattle in 2005 to quantify in-cabin fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations attributable to the buses' diesel engine tailpipe (DPMtp) and crankcase vent (PMck) emissions. The new method avoids the problem of differentiating bus emissions from chemically identical emissions of other vehicles by using a fuel-based organometallic iridium tracer for engine exhaust and by adding deuterated hexatriacontane to engine oil. Source testing results showed consistent PM:tracer ratios for the primary tracer for each type of emissions. Comparisons of the PM:tracer ratios indicated that there was a small amount of unburned lubricating oil emitted from the tailpipe; however, virtually no diesel fuel combustion products were found in the crankcase emissions. For the limited testing conducted here, although PMck emission rates (averages of 0.028 and 0.099 g/km for the two buses) were lower than those from the tailpipe (0.18 and 0.14 g/km), in-cabin PMck concentrations averaging 6.8 μg/m(3) were higher than DPMtp (0.91 μg/m(3) average). In-cabin DPMtp and PMck concentrations were significantly higher with bus windows closed (1.4 and 12 μg/m(3), respectively) as compared with open (0.44 and 1.3 μg/m(3), respectively). For comparison, average closed- and open-window in-cabin total PM2.5 concentrations were 26 and 12 μg/m(3), respectively. Despite the relatively short in-cabin sampling times, very high sensitivities were achieved, with detection limits of 0.002 μg/m(3) for DPMtp and 0.05 μg/m(3) for PMck. [Box: see text].

  6. Aircraft Data Acquisition

    OpenAIRE

    Elena BALMUS

    2016-01-01

    The introduction of digital systems instead of analog ones has created a major separation in the aviation technology. Although the digital equipment made possible that the increasingly faster controllers take over, we should say that the real world remains essentially analogue [4]. Fly-by-wire designers attempting to control and measure the real feedback of an aircraft were forced to find a way to connect the analogue environment to their digital equipment. In order to manage the implications...

  7. Airline and Aircraft Reliability

    OpenAIRE

    Hauka, Maris; Paramonovs, Jurijs

    2014-01-01

    Development of the inspection programme of fatigue-prone aircraft construction under limitation of airline fatigue failure rate. The highest economical effectiveness of airline under limitation of fatigue failure rate and failure probability is discussed. For computing is used exponential regression, Monte Carlo method, Log Normal distribution, Markov chains and semi-Markov process theory. The minimax approach is offered for processing the results of full-scale fatigue approval test of an air...

  8. Slotted Aircraft Wing

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, James D. (Inventor); Witkowski, David P. (Inventor); Campbell, Richard L. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A swept aircraft wing includes a leading airfoil element and a trailing airfoil element. At least one full-span slot is defined by the wing during at least one transonic condition of the wing. The full-span slot allows a portion of the air flowing along the lower surface of the leading airfoil element to split and flow over the upper surface of the trailing airfoil element so as to achieve a performance improvement in the transonic condition.

  9. 航空噪声与运行监测系统在首都机场的应用%The Application of Aircraft Noise and Operation Monitoring System ( ANOMS) in Beijing Capital International Airport

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段钢; 姜文娟

    2015-01-01

    With the rapid growth of the passenger throughput and flight volume ,the influence of air craft noise has become increasingly serious around the airport .As the first and the only one airport having ANOMS in China ,the airport is strength-ening the use of ANOMS .On the basis of the monitoring data within these years ,the system can promote the work of noise abatement through several measures ,such as the calculating of noise contour ,analysis of the priority runway ,recognition of the noise sensitive area ,eli mination of the old aircraft ,and monitoring of the illegal aircraft ,etc.%指出了随着旅客吞吐量和航班量的快速增长,首都机场周边的航空噪声影响日益严重,通过积累多年的监测数据,实现了等值线图的绘制、优先跑道分析、噪声敏感区识别、老旧机型淘汰、违规航班监测等功能,以全方位推动航空噪声削减工作.

  10. 飞机舱门密封设计研究%Study on Design of the Aircraft Hatch Seal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马莹

    2011-01-01

    舱门密封设计是飞机密封舱设计的重要组成部分,密封舱性能的好坏关系着飞机的飞行安全,因而舱门密封设计需要得到足够重视.舱门密封性能的影响因素很多,本文对影响结构密封性能的主要因素进行分析讨论,给出结构密封性能验证思路.%Design of the aircraft hatch seal is one of the most important parts of aircraft sealed cabin. The property of the aircraft hatch seal is relative to the airplane safety, so the design should be paid enough attention. There are many factors that affect the property of the aircraft hatch seal. In this study, the main effecting factors on structural sealing property are analyzed and discussed, and a testable method for the structural sealing property is presented.

  11. Interaction of Aircraft Wakes From Laterally Spaced Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, Fred H.

    2009-01-01

    Large Eddy Simulations are used to examine wake interactions from aircraft on closely spaced parallel paths. Two sets of experiments are conducted, with the first set examining wake interactions out of ground effect (OGE) and the second set for in ground effect (IGE). The initial wake field for each aircraft represents a rolled-up wake vortex pair generated by a B-747. Parametric sets include wake interactions from aircraft pairs with lateral separations of 400, 500, 600, and 750 ft. The simulation of a wake from a single aircraft is used as baseline. The study shows that wake vortices from either a pair or a formation of B-747 s that fly with very close lateral spacing, last longer than those from an isolated B-747. For OGE, the inner vortices between the pair of aircraft, ascend, link and quickly dissipate, leaving the outer vortices to decay and descend slowly. For the IGE scenario, the inner vortices ascend and last longer, while the outer vortices decay from ground interaction at a rate similar to that expected from an isolated aircraft. Both OGE and IGE scenarios produce longer-lasting wakes for aircraft with separations less than 600 ft. The results are significant because concepts to increase airport capacity have been proposed that assume either aircraft formations and/or aircraft pairs landing on very closely spaced runways.

  12. 19 CFR 122.64 - Other aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Other aircraft. 122.64 Section 122.64 Customs... AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Clearance of Aircraft and Permission To Depart § 122.64 Other aircraft. Clearance or permission to depart shall be requested by the aircraft commander or agent for aircraft covered...

  13. Guidance Systems of Fighter Aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.N. Rajanikanth

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Mission performance of a fighter aircraft is crucial for survival and strike capabilities in todays' aerial warfare scenario. The guidance functions of such an aircraft play a vital role inmeeting the requirements and accomplishing the mission success. This paper presents the requirements of precision guidance for various missions of a fighter aircraft. The concept ofguidance system as a pilot-in-loop system is pivotal in understanding and designing such a system. Methodologies of designing such a system are described.

  14. Guidance Systems of Fighter Aircraft

    OpenAIRE

    K.N. Rajanikanth; Rao, R S; P. S. Subramanyam; Ajai Vohra

    2005-01-01

    Mission performance of a fighter aircraft is crucial for survival and strike capabilities in todays' aerial warfare scenario. The guidance functions of such an aircraft play a vital role inmeeting the requirements and accomplishing the mission success. This paper presents the requirements of precision guidance for various missions of a fighter aircraft. The concept ofguidance system as a pilot-in-loop system is pivotal in understanding and designing such a system. Methodologies of designing s...

  15. Scheduling of an aircraft fleet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paltrinieri, Massimo; Momigliano, Alberto; Torquati, Franco

    1992-01-01

    Scheduling is the task of assigning resources to operations. When the resources are mobile vehicles, they describe routes through the served stations. To emphasize such aspect, this problem is usually referred to as the routing problem. In particular, if vehicles are aircraft and stations are airports, the problem is known as aircraft routing. This paper describes the solution to such a problem developed in OMAR (Operative Management of Aircraft Routing), a system implemented by Bull HN for Alitalia. In our approach, aircraft routing is viewed as a Constraint Satisfaction Problem. The solving strategy combines network consistency and tree search techniques.

  16. Development of a Prototype Algal Reactor for Removing CO2 from Cabin Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Vrajen; Monje, Oscar

    2013-01-01

    Controlling carbon dioxide in spacecraft cabin air may be accomplished using algal photobioreactors (PBRs). The purpose of this project was to evaluate the use of a commercial microcontroller, the Arduino Mega 2560, for measuring key photioreactor variables: dissolved oxygen, pH, temperature, light, and carbon dioxide. The Arduino platform is an opensource physical computing platform composed of a compact microcontroller board and a C++/C computer language (Arduino 1.0.5). The functionality of the Arduino platform can be expanded by the use of numerous add-ons or 'shields'. The Arduino Mega 2560 was equipped with the following shields: datalogger, BNC shield for reading pH sensor, a Mega Moto shield for controlling CO2 addition, as well as multiple sensors. The dissolved oxygen (DO) probe was calibrated using a nitrogen bubbling technique and the pH probe was calibrated via an Omega pH simulator. The PBR was constructed using a 2 L beaker, a 66 L box for addition of CO2, a micro porous membrane, a diaphragm pump, four 25 watt light bulbs, a MasterFiex speed controller, and a fan. The algae (wild type Synechocystis PCC6803) was grown in an aerated flask until the algae was dense enough to used in the main reactor. After the algae was grown, it was transferred to the 2 L beaker where CO2 consumption and O2 production was measured using the microcontroller sensor suite. The data was recorded via the datalogger and transferred to a computer for analysis.

  17. Small Engine Technology (SET) Task 24 Business and Regional Aircraft System Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieber, Lysbeth

    2003-01-01

    This final report has been prepared by Honeywell Engines & Systems, Phoenix, Arizona, a unit of Honeywell International Inc., documenting work performed during the period June 1999 through December 1999 for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio, under the Small Engine Technology (SET) Program, Contract No. NAS3-27483, Task Order 24, Business and Regional Aircraft System Studies. The work performed under SET Task 24 consisted of evaluating the noise reduction benefits compared to the baseline noise levels of representative 1992 technology aircraft, obtained by applying different combinations of noise reduction technologies to five business and regional aircraft configurations. This report focuses on the selection of the aircraft configurations and noise reduction technologies, the prediction of noise levels for those aircraft, and the comparison of the noise levels with those of the baseline aircraft.

  18. A NASA study of the impact of technology on future sea based attack aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Andrew S.

    1992-01-01

    A conceptual aircraft design study was recently completed evaluating carrier-based, subsonic attack aircraft using contemporary and future technology assumptions. The study examined a configuration matrix that was made up of light and medium bomb loads, one and two man crews, internal and external weapons carriage, as well as conventional and flying wing planforms. Use of common technology assumptions, engine cycle simulation code, design mission, and consistent application of methods allow for direct comparison of the aircraft. This paper describes the design study ground rules and the aircraft designed. The aircraft descriptions include weights, dimensions, layout, design mission, design constraints, maneuver performance, and fallout mission performance. The strengths, and weaknesses of each aircraft are highlighted.

  19. Bioelectric Control of a 757 Class High Fidelity Aircraft Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgensen, Charles; Wheeler, Kevin; Stepniewski, Slawomir; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents results of a recent experiment in fine grain Electromyographic (EMG) signal recognition, We demonstrate bioelectric flight control of 757 class simulation aircraft landing at San Francisco International Airport. The physical instrumentality of a pilot control stick is not used. A pilot closes a fist in empty air and performs control movements which are captured by a dry electrode array on the arm, analyzed and routed through a flight director permitting full pilot outer loop control of the simulation. A Vision Dome immersive display is used to create a VR world for the aircraft body mechanics and flight changes to pilot movements. Inner loop surfaces and differential aircraft thrust is controlled using a hybrid neural network architecture that combines a damage adaptive controller (Jorgensen 1998, Totah 1998) with a propulsion only based control system (Bull & Kaneshige 1997). Thus the 757 aircraft is not only being flown bioelectrically at the pilot level but also demonstrates damage adaptive neural network control permitting adaptation to severe changes in the physical flight characteristics of the aircraft at the inner loop level. To compensate for accident scenarios, the aircraft uses remaining control surface authority and differential thrust from the engines. To the best of our knowledge this is the first time real time bioelectric fine-grained control, differential thrust based control, and neural network damage adaptive control have been integrated into a single flight demonstration. The paper describes the EMG pattern recognition system and the bioelectric pattern recognition methodology.

  20. Commercial Aircraft Protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehst, David A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-10-26

    This report summarizes the results of theoretical research performed during 3 years of P371 Project implementation. In results of such research a new scientific conceptual technology of quasi-passive individual infrared protection of heat-generating objects – Spatial Displacement of Thermal Image (SDTI technology) was developed. Theoretical substantiation and description of working processes of civil aircraft individual IR-protection system were conducted. The mathematical models and methodology were presented, there were obtained the analytical dependencies which allow performing theoretical research of the affect of intentionally arranged dynamic field of the artificial thermal interferences with variable contrast onto main parameters of optic-electronic tracking and homing systems.

  1. Chemistry in aircraft plumes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraabol, A.G.; Stordal, F.; Knudsen, S. [Norwegian Inst. for Air Research, Kjeller (Norway); Konopka, P. [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR), Wessling (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik der Atmosphaere

    1997-12-31

    An expanding plume model with chemistry has been used to study the chemical conversion of NO{sub x} to reservoir species in aircraft plumes. The heterogeneous conversion of N{sub 2}O{sub 5} to HNO{sub 3}(s) has been investigated when the emissions take place during night-time. The plume from an B747 has been simulated. During a ten-hour calculation the most important reservoir species was HNO{sub 3} for emissions at noon. The heterogeneous reactions had little impact on the chemical loss of NO{sub x} to reservoir species for emissions at night. (author) 4 refs.

  2. Hydrogen aircraft technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, G. D.

    1991-01-01

    A comprehensive evaluation is conducted of the technology development status, economics, commercial feasibility, and infrastructural requirements of LH2-fueled aircraft, with additional consideration of hydrogen production, liquefaction, and cryostorage methods. Attention is given to the effects of LH2 fuel cryotank accommodation on the configurations of prospective commercial transports and military airlifters, SSTs, and HSTs, as well as to the use of the plentiful heatsink capacity of LH2 for innovative propulsion cycles' performance maximization. State-of-the-art materials and structural design principles for integral cryotank implementation are noted, as are airport requirements and safety and environmental considerations.

  3. Optics in aircraft engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vachon, James; Malhotra, Subhash

    The authors describe optical IR&D (independent research and development) programs designed to demonstrate and evaluate optical technologies for incorporation into next-generation military and commercial aircraft engines. Using a comprehensive demonstration program to validate this technology in an on-engine environment, problems encountered can be resolved early and risk can be minimized. In addition to specific activities related to the optics demonstration on the fighter engine, there are other optical programs underway, including a solenoid control system, a light off detection system, and an optical communication link. Research is also underway in simplifying opto-electronics and exploiting multiplexing to further reduce cost and weight.

  4. Aircraft propeller control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Stanley G. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    In the invention, the speeds of both propellers in a counterrotating aircraft propeller pair are measured. Each speed is compared, using a feedback loop, with a demanded speed and, if actual speed does not equal demanded speed for either propeller, pitch of the proper propeller is changed in order to attain the demanded speed. A proportional/integral controller is used in the feedback loop. Further, phase of the propellers is measured and, if the phase does not equal a demanded phase, the speed of one propeller is changed, by changing pitch, until the proper phase is attained.

  5. Aircraft vulnerability analysis by modelling and simulation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Willers, CJ

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available attributable to misuse of the weapon or to missile performance restrictions. This paper analyses some of the factors affecting aircraft vulnerability and demonstrates a structured analysis of the risk and aircraft vulnerability problem. The aircraft...

  6. The extremum principle of mass entransy dissipation and its application to decontamination ventilation designs in space station cabins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Qun; REN JianXun; GUO ZengYuan

    2009-01-01

    In terms of the analogy between mass and heat transfer phenomena,a new physical quantity,i.e.mass entransy,is introduced to represent the ability of an object for transferring mass to outside.Meanwhile,the mass entransy dissipation occurs during mass transfer processes as an alternative to measure the mass transfer irreversibility.Then the concepts of mass entransy and its dissipation are used to develop the extremum principle of mass entransy dissipation and the corresponding method for convective mass transfer optimization,based on which an Euler's equation has been deduced as the optimization equation for the fluid flow to obtain the best convective mass transfer performance with some specific constraints.As an example,the ventilation process for removing gaseous pollutants in a space station cabin with a uniform air supply system has been optimized to reduce the energy consumption of the ventilation system and decrease the contaminant concentration in the cabin.By solving the optimization equation,an optimal air velocity distribution with the best decontamination performance for a given viscous dissipation is firstly obtained.With the guide of this optimal velocity field,a suitable concentrated air supply system with appropriate air inlet position and width has been designed to replace the uniform air supply system,which leads to the averaged and the maximum contaminant con centrations in the cabin been decreased by 75% and 60%,respectively,and the contaminant concen tration near the contaminant source surface been decreased by 50%,while the viscous dissipation been reduced by 30% simultaneously.

  7. Validation by numerical simulation of the behaviour of protective structures of machinery cabins subjected to standardized shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumitrache, P.; Goanţă, A. M.

    2017-08-01

    The ability of the cabins to insure the operator protection in the case of the shock loading that appears at the roll-over of the machine or when the cab is struck by the falling objects, it’s one of the most important performance criterions that it must comply by the machines and the mobile equipments. The experimental method provides the most accurate information on the behaviour of protective structures, but generates high costs due to experimental installations and structures which may be compromised during the experiments. In these circumstances, numerical simulation of the actual problem (mechanical shock applied to a strength structure) is a perfectly viable alternative, given that the hardware and software current performances provides the necessary support to obtain results with an acceptable level of accuracy. In this context, the paper proposes using FEA platforms for virtual testing of the actual strength structures of the cabins using their finite element models based on 3D models generated in CAD environments. In addition to the economic advantage above mentioned, although the results obtained by simulation using the finite element method are affected by a number of simplifying assumptions, the adequate modelling of the phenomenon can be a successful support in the design process of structures to meet safety performance criteria imposed by current standards. In the first section of the paper is presented the general context of the security performance requirements imposed by current standards on the cabins strength structures. The following section of the paper is dedicated to the peculiarities of finite element modelling in problems that impose simulation of the behaviour of structures subjected to shock loading. The final section of the paper is dedicated to a case study and to the future objectives.

  8. Structural Integrity Assessment of Reactor Containment Subjected to Aircraft Crash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Junyong; Chang, Yoonsuk [Department of Nuclear Engineering/Kyung Hee Univ., Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    When an accident occurs at the NPP, containment building which acts as the last barrier should be assessed and analyzed structural integrity by internal loading or external loading. On many occasions that can occur in the containment internal such as LOCA(Loss Of Coolant Accident) are already reflected to design. Likewise, there are several kinds of accidents that may occur from the outside of containment such as earthquakes, hurricanes and strong wind. However, aircraft crash that at outside of containment is not reflected yet in domestic because NPP sites have been selected based on the probabilistic method. After intentional aircraft crash such as World Trade Center and Pentagon accident in US, social awareness for safety of infrastructure like NPP was raised world widely and it is time for assessment of aircraft crash in domestic. The object of this paper is assessment of reactor containment subjected to aircraft crash by FEM(Finite Element Method). In this paper, assessment of structural integrity of containment building subjected to certain aircraft crash was carried out. Verification of structure integrity of containment by intentional severe accident. Maximum stress 61.21MPa of horizontal shell crash does not penetrate containment. Research for more realistic results needed by steel reinforced concrete model.

  9. Spatial Analysis and Synthesis of Car Audio System and Car Cabin Acoustics with a Compact Microphone Array

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sakari, Tervo; Pätynen, Jukka; Kaplanis, Neofytos

    2015-01-01

    This research proposes a spatial sound analysis and synthesis approach for automobile sound systems, where the acquisition of the measurement data is much faster than with the Binaural Car Scanning method. This approach avoids the problems that are typically found with binaural reproduction...... the synthesis of multichannel loudspeaker reproduction. Because of the extreme acoustics of an automobile cabin, the authors recommend several steps to improve both the objective and perceptual performance. Because SDM is a parametric approach to spatial impulse response analysis, this allows automobile audio...

  10. Computational analysis of aircraft pressure relief doors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schott, Tyler

    Modern trends in commercial aircraft design have sought to improve fuel efficiency while reducing emissions by operating at higher pressures and temperatures than ever before. Consequently, greater demands are placed on the auxiliary bleed air systems used for a multitude of aircraft operations. The increased role of bleed air systems poses significant challenges for the pressure relief system to ensure the safe and reliable operation of the aircraft. The core compartment pressure relief door (PRD) is an essential component of the pressure relief system which functions to relieve internal pressure in the core casing of a high-bypass turbofan engine during a burst duct over-pressurization event. The successful modeling and analysis of a burst duct event are imperative to the design and development of PRD's to ensure that they will meet the increased demands placed on the pressure relief system. Leveraging high-performance computing coupled with advances in computational analysis, this thesis focuses on a comprehensive computational fluid dynamics (CFD) study to characterize turbulent flow dynamics and quantify the performance of a core compartment PRD across a range of operating conditions and geometric configurations. The CFD analysis was based on a compressible, steady-state, three-dimensional, Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes approach. Simulations were analyzed, and results show that variations in freestream conditions, plenum environment, and geometric configurations have a non-linear impact on the discharge, moment, thrust, and surface temperature characteristics. The CFD study revealed that the underlying physics for this behavior is explained by the interaction of vortices, jets, and shockwaves. This thesis research is innovative and provides a comprehensive and detailed analysis of existing and novel PRD geometries over a range of realistic operating conditions representative of a burst duct over-pressurization event. Further, the study provides aircraft

  11. Aircraft landing using GPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, David Gary

    The advent of the Global Positioning System (GPS) is revolutionizing the field of navigation. Commercial aviation has been particularly influenced by this worldwide navigation system. From ground vehicle guidance to aircraft landing applications, GPS has the potential to impact many areas of aviation. GPS is already being used for non-precision approach guidance; current research focuses on its application to more critical regimes of flight. To this end, the following contributions were made: (1) Development of algorithms and a flexible software architecture capable of providing real-time position solutions accurate to the centimeter level with high integrity. This architecture was used to demonstrate 110 automatic landings of a Boeing 737. (2) Assessment of the navigation performance provided by two GPS-based landing systems developed at Stanford, the Integrity Beacon Landing System, and the Wide Area Augmentation System. (3) Preliminary evaluation of proposed enhancements to traditional techniques for GPS positioning, specifically, dual antenna positioning and pseudolite augmentation. (4) Introduction of a new concept for positioning using airport pseudolites. The results of this research are promising, showing that GPS-based systems can potentially meet even the stringent requirements of a Category III (zero visibility) landing system. Although technical and logistical hurdles still exist, it is likely that GPS will soon provide aircraft guidance in all phases of flight, including automatic landing, roll-out, and taxi.

  12. 76 FR 45011 - Control of Air Pollution From Aircraft and Aircraft Engines; Proposed Emission Standards and Test...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-27

    ...-7742. DOI: 10.1021/es101325r. The formation of fine particulate matter, i.e., PM 2.5 , from emission of... to the Chicago Convention).\\10\\ \\10\\ ICAO, ``Aircraft Engine Emissions,'' International Standards and... docket EPA- HQ-OAR-2010-0687, May 10, 2011. Table 1--Current National NOX Emissions From Commercial...

  13. Auralization of novel aircraft configurations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arntzen, M.; Bertsch, E.L.; Simons, D.G.

    2015-01-01

    A joint initiative of NLR, DLR, and TU Delft has been initiated to streamline the process of generating audible impressions of novel aircraft configurations. The integrated approach adds to the value of the individual tools and allows predicting the sound of future aircraft before they actually fly.

  14. MISSILES AND AIRCRAFT (PART1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.M. Meyer

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Many sources maintain that the role played by air power in the 1973 Yom Kippur War was important. Other interpretations state that control of air space over the battlefield areas, (either by aircraft or anti-aircraft defences, was vital.

  15. Integrated numerical methods for hypersonic aircraft cooling systems analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petley, Dennis H.; Jones, Stuart C.; Dziedzic, William M.

    1992-01-01

    Numerical methods have been developed for the analysis of hypersonic aircraft cooling systems. A general purpose finite difference thermal analysis code is used to determine areas which must be cooled. Complex cooling networks of series and parallel flow can be analyzed using a finite difference computer program. Both internal fluid flow and heat transfer are analyzed, because increased heat flow causes a decrease in the flow of the coolant. The steady state solution is a successive point iterative method. The transient analysis uses implicit forward-backward differencing. Several examples of the use of the program in studies of hypersonic aircraft and rockets are provided.

  16. Multi-parameter decoupling and slope tracking control strategy of a large-scale high altitude environment simulation test cabin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Ke; Liu Wangkai; Wang Jun; Huang Yong; Liu Meng

    2014-01-01

    A large-scale high altitude environment simulation test cabin was developed to accu-rately control temperatures and pressures encountered at high altitudes. The system was developed to provide slope-tracking dynamic control of the temperature–pressure two-parameter and over-come the control difficulties inherent to a large inertia lag link with a complex control system which is composed of turbine refrigeration device, vacuum device and liquid nitrogen cooling device. The system includes multi-parameter decoupling of the cabin itself to avoid equipment damage of air refrigeration turbine caused by improper operation. Based on analysis of the dynamic characteris-tics and modeling for variations in temperature, pressure and rotation speed, an intelligent control-ler was implemented that includes decoupling and fuzzy arithmetic combined with an expert PID controller to control test parameters by decoupling and slope tracking control strategy. The control system employed centralized management in an open industrial ethernet architecture with an indus-trial computer at the core. The simulation and field debugging and running results show that this method can solve the problems of a poor anti-interference performance typical for a conventional PID and overshooting that can readily damage equipment. The steady-state characteristics meet the system requirements.

  17. Commercial aircraft composite technology

    CERN Document Server

    Breuer, Ulf Paul

    2016-01-01

    This book is based on lectures held at the faculty of mechanical engineering at the Technical University of Kaiserslautern. The focus is on the central theme of societies overall aircraft requirements to specific material requirements and highlights the most important advantages and challenges of carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP) compared to conventional materials. As it is fundamental to decide on the right material at the right place early on the main activities and milestones of the development and certification process and the systematic of defining clear requirements are discussed. The process of material qualification - verifying material requirements is explained in detail. All state-of-the-art composite manufacturing technologies are described, including changes and complemented by examples, and their improvement potential for future applications is discussed. Tangible case studies of high lift and wing structures emphasize the specific advantages and challenges of composite technology. Finally,...

  18. Aircraft control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisoski, Derek L. (Inventor); Kendall, Greg T. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A solar rechargeable, long-duration, span-loaded flying wing, having no fuselage or rudder. Having a two-hundred foot wingspan that mounts photovoltaic cells on most all of the wing's top surface, the aircraft uses only differential thrust of its eight propellers to turn, pitch and yaw. The wing is configured to deform under flight loads to position the propellers such that the control can be achieved. Each of five segments of the wing has one or more motors and photovoltaic arrays, and produces its own lift independent of the other segments, to avoid loading them. Five two-sided photovoltaic arrays, in all, are mounted on the wing, and receive photovoltaic energy both incident on top of the wing, and which is incident also from below, through a bottom, transparent surface.

  19. Assessment of Cabin Dimensions to Accommodate Infantry Soldiers for the Future Vertical Lift/Joint Multi-Role Medium-Class Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Soldier (small body size/60-mm assistant gunner) reported that his canteen had to be repositioned before he was 11 able to fit in the seat space, and...horizontal; problems putting javelin down—needed to wait to get up due to Javelin; canteen had to be repositioned; had to move squad automatic weapon to...39% Can’t move feet, but they fit. Worn gear that had to be repositioned for seating: Canteen pouch – Ammo pocket on left side Problems with stowage

  20. Aircraft recognition and pose estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hmam, Hatem; Kim, Jijoong

    2000-05-01

    This work presents a geometry based vision system for aircraft recognition and pose estimation using single images. Pose estimation improves the tracking performance of guided weapons with imaging seekers, and is useful in estimating target manoeuvres and aim-point selection required in the terminal phase of missile engagements. After edge detection and straight-line extraction, a hierarchy of geometric reasoning algorithms is applied to form line clusters (or groupings) for image interpretation. Assuming a scaled orthographic projection and coplanar wings, lateral symmetry inherent in the airframe provides additional constraints to further reject spurious line clusters. Clusters that accidentally pass all previous tests are checked against the original image and are discarded. Valid line clusters are then used to deduce aircraft viewing angles. By observing that the leading edges of wings of a number of aircraft of interest are within 45 to 65 degrees from the symmetry axis, a bounded range of aircraft viewing angles can be found. This generic property offers the advantage of not requiring the storage of complete aircraft models viewed from all aspects, and can handle aircraft with flexible wings (e.g. F111). Several aircraft images associated with various spectral bands (i.e. visible and infra-red) are finally used to evaluate the system's performance.

  1. Testing and Analysis of a Composite Non-Cylindrical Aircraft Fuselage Structure . Part II; Severe Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przekop, Adam; Jegley, Dawn C.; Lovejoy, Andrew E.; Rouse, Marshall; Wu, Hsi-Yung T.

    2016-01-01

    The Environmentally Responsible Aviation Project aimed to develop aircraft technologies enabling significant fuel burn and community noise reductions. Small incremental changes to the conventional metallic alloy-based 'tube and wing' configuration were not sufficient to achieve the desired metrics. One airframe concept identified by the project as having the potential to dramatically improve aircraft performance was a composite-based hybrid wing body configuration. Such a concept, however, presented inherent challenges stemming from, among other factors, the necessity to transfer wing loads through the entire center fuselage section which accommodates a pressurized cabin confined by flat or nearly flat panels. This paper discusses a finite element analysis and the testing of a large-scale hybrid wing body center section structure developed and constructed to demonstrate that the Pultruded Rod Stitched Efficient Unitized Structure concept can meet these challenging demands of the next generation airframes. Part II of the paper considers the final test to failure of the test article in the presence of an intentionally inflicted severe discrete source damage under the wing up-bending loading condition. Finite element analysis results are compared with measurements acquired during the test and demonstrate that the hybrid wing body test article was able to redistribute and support the required design loads in a severely damaged condition.

  2. Robust active noise control in the loadmaster area of a military transport aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochan, Kay; Sachau, Delf; Breitbach, Harald

    2011-05-01

    The active noise control (ANC) method is based on the superposition of a disturbance noise field with a second anti-noise field using loudspeakers and error microphones. This method can be used to reduce the noise level inside the cabin of a propeller aircraft. However, during the design process of the ANC system, extensive measurements of transfer functions are necessary to optimize the loudspeaker and microphone positions. Sometimes, the transducer positions have to be tailored according to the optimization results to achieve a sufficient noise reduction. The purpose of this paper is to introduce a controller design method for such narrow band ANC systems. The method can be seen as an extension of common transducer placement optimization procedures. In the presented method, individual weighting parameters for the loudspeakers and microphones are used. With this procedure, the tailoring of the transducer positions is replaced by adjustment of controller parameters. Moreover, the ANC system will be robust because of the fact that the uncertainties are considered during the optimization of the controller parameters. The paper describes the necessary theoretic background for the method and demonstrates the efficiency in an acoustical mock-up of a military transport aircraft.

  3. Investigation of the relationship between aircraft noise and community annoyance in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Guoqing

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A survey of community annoyance induced by aircraft noise exposure was carried out around Hangzhou Xiaoshan International Airport. To investigate the relationship curves between aircraft noise and the percentage of "highly annoyed" persons in China and also to get annoyance threshold of aircraft noise in China. Noise annoyance induced by aircraft noise exposure was assessed by 764 local residents around the airport using the International Commission on Biological Effect of Noise (ICBEN scale. The status quo of aircraft noise pollution was measured by setting up 39 monitoring points. The interpolation was used to estimate the weighted effective continuous perceived noise levels (LWECPN in different areas around the airport, and the graph of equal noise level contour was drawn. The membership function was used to calculate the annoyance threshold of aircraft noise. Data were analyzed using SPSS 16.0 and Origin 8.0. The results showed that if LWECPN was 64.3 dB (Ldn was 51.4 dB, then 15% respondents were highly annoyed. If LWECPN was 68.1 dB (Ldn was 55.0 dB, then 25% respondents were highly annoyed. The annoyance threshold of aircraft noise (LWECPN was 73.7 dB, while the annoyance threshold of a single flight incident instantaneous noise level (LAmax was 72.9 dB. People around the airport had felt annoyed before the aircraft noise LWECPN reached the standard limit.

  4. 36 CFR 327.4 - Aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aircraft. 327.4 Section 327.4... Aircraft. (a) This section pertains to all aircraft including, but not limited to, airplanes, seaplanes, helicopters, ultra-light aircraft, motorized hang gliders, hot air balloons, any non-powered flight devices or...

  5. 14 CFR 141.39 - Aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aircraft. 141.39 Section 141.39 Aeronautics... CERTIFICATED AGENCIES PILOT SCHOOLS Personnel, Aircraft, and Facilities Requirements § 141.39 Aircraft. (a... certificate or provisional pilot school certificate must show that each aircraft used by the school for flight...

  6. 48 CFR 246.408-71 - Aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Aircraft. 246.408-71... Aircraft. (a) The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has certain responsibilities and prerogatives in connection with some commercial aircraft and of aircraft equipment and accessories (Pub. L. 85-726 (72 Stat...

  7. 14 CFR 252.13 - Small aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Small aircraft. 252.13 Section 252.13 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS SMOKING ABOARD AIRCRAFT § 252.13 Small aircraft. Air carriers shall prohibit smoking on aircraft...

  8. 36 CFR 331.14 - Aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aircraft. 331.14 Section 331..., KENTUCKY AND INDIANA § 331.14 Aircraft. (a) The operation of aircraft on WCA lands and waters is prohibited... prohibited. (c) The provisions of this section shall not be applicable to aircraft engaged on official...

  9. 40 CFR 87.6 - Aircraft safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aircraft safety. 87.6 Section 87.6 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM AIRCRAFT AND AIRCRAFT ENGINES General Provisions § 87.6 Aircraft safety. The provisions...

  10. A comparison of low-pressure and supercharged operation of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell systems for aircraft applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, C.; Preiß, G.; Gores, F.; Griebenow, M.; Heitmann, S.

    2016-08-01

    Multifunctional fuel cell systems are competitive solutions aboard future generations of civil aircraft concerning energy consumption, environmental issues, and safety reasons. The present study compares low-pressure and supercharged operation of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells with respect to performance and efficiency criteria. This is motivated by the challenge of pressure-dependent fuel cell operation aboard aircraft with cabin pressure varying with operating altitude. Experimental investigations of low-pressure fuel cell operation use model-based design of experiments and are complemented by numerical investigations concerning supercharged fuel cell operation. It is demonstrated that a low-pressure operation is feasible with the fuel cell device under test, but that its range of stable operation changes between both operating modes. Including an external compressor, it can be shown that the power demand for supercharging the fuel cell is about the same as the loss in power output of the fuel cell due to low-pressure operation. Furthermore, the supercharged fuel cell operation appears to be more sensitive with respect to variations in the considered independent operating parameters load requirement, cathode stoichiometric ratio, and cooling temperature. The results indicate that a pressure-dependent self-humidification control might be able to exploit the potential of low-pressure fuel cell operation for aircraft applications to the best advantage.

  11. 78 FR 54385 - Airworthiness Directives; Various Aircraft Equipped With Rotax Aircraft Engines 912 A Series Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-04

    ... Aircraft Equipped With Rotax Aircraft Engines 912 A Series Engine AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration... directive (AD) for various aircraft equipped with Rotax Aircraft Engines 912 A Series Engine. This AD...; phone: +43 7246 601 0; fax: +43 7246 601 9130; Internet: http://www.rotax-aircraft-engines.com . You...

  12. 14 CFR 21.6 - Manufacture of new aircraft, aircraft engines, and propellers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Manufacture of new aircraft, aircraft engines, and propellers. (a) Except as specified in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section, no person may manufacture a new aircraft, aircraft engine, or propeller based on... provisions of §§ 21.183(c), 21.184(b), or 21.185(c); and (2) New aircraft engines or propellers...

  13. VTOL to Transonic Aircraft Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The cyclogyro, an aircraft propulsion concept with the potential for VTOL to the lower bounds of transonic flight, is conceptually simple but structurally and...

  14. Aircraft recognition and tracking device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filis, Dimitrios P.; Renios, Christos I.

    2011-11-01

    The technology of aircraft recognition and tracking has various applications in all areas of air navigation, be they civil or military, spanning from air traffic control and regulation at civilian airports to anti-aircraft weapon handling and guidance for military purposes.1, 18 The system presented in this thesis is an alternative implementation of identifying and tracking flying objects, which benefits from the optical spectrum by using an optical camera built into a servo motor (pan-tilt unit). More specifically, through the purpose-developed software, when a target (aircraft) enters the field of view of the camera18, it is both detected and identified.5, 22 Then the servo motor, being provided with data on target position and velocity, tracks the aircraft while it is in constant communication with the camera (Fig. 1). All the features are so designed as to operate under real time conditions.

  15. Quality standard of aircraft maintenance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Боузаієнне Меккі бен Салем

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available  The question of the account of operation conditions of an aeronautical engineering in airlines is considered at formation and a correcting of plans on aircrafts park maintenance.

  16. Causes of aircraft electrical failures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galler, Donald; Slenski, George

    1991-08-01

    The results of a survey of data on failures of aircraft electronic and electrical components that was conducted to identify problematic components are reported. The motivation for the work was to determine priorities for future work on the development of accident investigation techniques for aircraft electrical components. The primary source of data was the Airforce Mishap Database, which is maintained by the Directorate of Aerospace Safety at Norton Air Force Base. Published data from the Air Force Avionics Integrity Program (AVIP) and Hughes Aircraft were also reviewed. Statistical data from these three sources are presented. Two major conclusions are that problems with interconnections are major contributors to aircraft electrical equipment failures, and that environmental factors, especially corrosion, are significant contributors to connector problems.

  17. Fire resistant aircraft seat program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fewell, L. A.

    1979-01-01

    Foams, textiles, and thermoformable plastics were tested to determine which materials were fire retardant, and safe for aircraft passenger seats. Seat components investigated were the decorative fabric cover, slip covers, fire blocking layer, cushion reinforcement, and the cushioning layer.

  18. Western Pacific Typhoon Aircraft Fixes

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Western Pacific typhoon aircraft reconnaissance data from the years 1946 - 1965 and 1978, excluding 1952, were transcribed from original documents, or copy of...

  19. Bacteria that Travel: The Quality of Aircraft Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harald Handschuh

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The travelling population is increasing globally year on year. International tourist arrival figures reached 1087 million in 2013 and 1133 million in 2014; of which 53% and 54% respectively accounted for air transport. The water on board aircraft is sourced from surface or ground water; piped to a central filling point and distributed to each aircraft by water service vehicles at the home base or at the destination airport. The purpose of this study was to ascertain the microbial, chemical (pH; Total and Free chlorine and physical (temperature quality of water from two aircraft, long- and short-haul, as well as from the original water source and the water service vehicle. A total of 154 water samples were collected and analysed. Long-haul flights were found to be significantly poorer in terms of microbial quality than short haul flights (p = 0.015. Furthermore, correlation and regression analysis showed that the water service vehicle was a significant source of increased microbial load in aircraft. Microbial diversity was also demonstrated, with 37 bacterial species identified belonging to eight classes: γ-Proteobacteria; β-Proteobacteria; α-Proteobacteria; Bacilli; Actinobacteria; Flavobacteria; Sphingobacteria and Cytophaga; using phenotypic and 16S rDNA sequence-based analysis. We present a novel quantified study of aircraft-related potable water supplies.

  20. TRACON Aircraft Arrival Planning and Optimization Through Spatial Constraint Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergh, Christopher P.; Krzeczowski, Kenneth J.; Davis, Thomas J.; Denery, Dallas G. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    A new aircraft arrival planning and optimization algorithm has been incorporated into the Final Approach Spacing Tool (FAST) in the Center-TRACON Automation System (CTAS) developed at NASA-Ames Research Center. FAST simulations have been conducted over three years involving full-proficiency, level five air traffic controllers from around the United States. From these simulations an algorithm, called Spatial Constraint Satisfaction, has been designed, coded, undergone testing, and soon will begin field evaluation at the Dallas-Fort Worth and Denver International airport facilities. The purpose of this new design is an attempt to show that the generation of efficient and conflict free aircraft arrival plans at the runway does not guarantee an operationally acceptable arrival plan upstream from the runway -information encompassing the entire arrival airspace must be used in order to create an acceptable aircraft arrival plan. This new design includes functions available previously but additionally includes necessary representations of controller preferences and workload, operationally required amounts of extra separation, and integrates aircraft conflict resolution. As a result, the Spatial Constraint Satisfaction algorithm produces an optimized aircraft arrival plan that is more acceptable in terms of arrival procedures and air traffic controller workload. This paper discusses the current Air Traffic Control arrival planning procedures, previous work in this field, the design of the Spatial Constraint Satisfaction algorithm, and the results of recent evaluations of the algorithm.

  1. Bacteria that Travel: The Quality of Aircraft Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handschuh, Harald; O'Dwyer, Jean; Adley, Catherine C

    2015-10-30

    The travelling population is increasing globally year on year. International tourist arrival figures reached 1087 million in 2013 and 1133 million in 2014; of which 53% and 54% respectively accounted for air transport. The water on board aircraft is sourced from surface or ground water; piped to a central filling point and distributed to each aircraft by water service vehicles at the home base or at the destination airport. The purpose of this study was to ascertain the microbial, chemical (pH; Total and Free chlorine) and physical (temperature) quality of water from two aircraft, long- and short-haul, as well as from the original water source and the water service vehicle. A total of 154 water samples were collected and analysed. Long-haul flights were found to be significantly poorer in terms of microbial quality than short haul flights (p = 0.015). Furthermore, correlation and regression analysis showed that the water service vehicle was a significant source of increased microbial load in aircraft. Microbial diversity was also demonstrated, with 37 bacterial species identified belonging to eight classes: γ-Proteobacteria; β-Proteobacteria; α-Proteobacteria; Bacilli; Actinobacteria; Flavobacteria; Sphingobacteria and Cytophaga; using phenotypic and 16S rDNA sequence-based analysis. We present a novel quantified study of aircraft-related potable water supplies.

  2. Bacteria that Travel: The Quality of Aircraft Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handschuh, Harald; Dwyer, Jean O’; Adley, Catherine C.

    2015-01-01

    The travelling population is increasing globally year on year. International tourist arrival figures reached 1087 million in 2013 and 1133 million in 2014; of which 53% and 54% respectively accounted for air transport. The water on board aircraft is sourced from surface or ground water; piped to a central filling point and distributed to each aircraft by water service vehicles at the home base or at the destination airport. The purpose of this study was to ascertain the microbial, chemical (pH; Total and Free chlorine) and physical (temperature) quality of water from two aircraft, long- and short-haul, as well as from the original water source and the water service vehicle. A total of 154 water samples were collected and analysed. Long-haul flights were found to be significantly poorer in terms of microbial quality than short haul flights (p = 0.015). Furthermore, correlation and regression analysis showed that the water service vehicle was a significant source of increased microbial load in aircraft. Microbial diversity was also demonstrated, with 37 bacterial species identified belonging to eight classes: γ-Proteobacteria; β-Proteobacteria; α-Proteobacteria; Bacilli; Actinobacteria; Flavobacteria; Sphingobacteria and Cytophaga; using phenotypic and 16S rDNA sequence-based analysis. We present a novel quantified study of aircraft-related potable water supplies. PMID:26529000

  3. Structural Dynamics of Maneuvering Aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-09-01

    AD-RI92 376 STRUCTURAL DYNAMICS OF MANEUVERING RIRCRAFT(U) CONRAD I TECHNOLOGIES INC KING OF PRUSSIA PR M M REDDI SEP 97 CTI-8601 NRDC-88014-69...REPORT NO. NADC-8014-60 STRUCTURAL DYNAMICS OF MANEUVERING AIRCRAFT M. Mahadeva Reddi .4 Conrad Technologies, Inc. 650 S. Henderson Rd. D T IQ King of...NO A0 CCESSION NO. R02303001 107601 11. TITLE (Include Security Classfication) (u) STRUCTURAL DYNAMICS OF MANEUVERING AIRCRAFT 12. PERSONAL AUTHORS) M

  4. Near-field commercial aircraft contribution to nitrogen oxides by engine, aircraft type, and airline by individual plume sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carslaw, David C; Ropkins, Karl; Laxen, Duncan; Moorcroft, Stephen; Marner, Ben; Williams, Martin L

    2008-03-15

    Nitrogen oxides (NOx) concentrations were measured in individual plumes from aircraft departing on the northern runway at Heathrow Airport in west London. Over a period of four weeks 5618 individual plumes were sampled by a chemiluminescence monitor located 180 m from the runway. Results were processed and matched with detailed aircraft movement and aircraft engine data using chromatographic techniques. Peak concentrations associated with 29 commonly used engines were calculated and found to have a good relationship with N0x emissions taken from the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) databank. However, it is found that engines with higher reported NOx emissions result in proportionately lower NOx concentrations than engines with lower emissions. We show that it is likely that aircraft operational factors such as takeoff weight and aircraftthrust setting have a measurable and important effect on concentrations of N0x. For example, NOx concentrations can differ by up to 41% for aircraft using the same airframe and engine type, while those due to the same engine type in different airframes can differ by 28%. These differences are as great as, if not greater than, the reported differences in NOx emissions between different engine manufacturers for engines used on the same airframe.

  5. Aircraft vibration and flutter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. R. Aggarwal

    1958-04-01

    Full Text Available "The paper outlines the theoretical and experimental procedure one has to adopt for flutter prevention during the various stages (project, design and prototype of the development of modern aircraft. With the advent of high speed, the aerodynamic coefficients have to be calculated with due regards to the effects of compressibility, finite aspect ratio of the lifting surfaces, sweep back and other peculiar shapes of the wings. The use of thin, small aspect ratio with external masses, necessitates the computation of higher frequency modes of vibration. Single degree of freedom flutter and the effect of control surface non-linearities has also become very important. Thus, it is shown how the availability of high speed computing machines, improved experimental technique for model and full scale testing has not kept pace with the uncertainties associated with the transonic speeds, low aspect ratio and the high frequency modes. Cross-checking of theoretical and experimental results at every stage seem to be the only answer."

  6. Aircraft exhaust sulfur emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, R.C.; Anderson, M.R.; Miake-Lye, R.C.; Kolb, C.E. [Aerodyne Research, Inc., Billerica, MA (United States). Center for Chemical and Environmental Physics; Sorokin, A.A.; Buriko, Y.I. [Scientific Research Center `Ecolen`, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1997-12-31

    The extent to which fuel sulfur is converted to SO{sub 3} during combustion and the subsequent turbine flow in supersonic and subsonic aircraft engines is estimated numerically. The analysis is based on: a flamelet model with non-equilibrium sulfur chemistry for the combustor, and a one-dimensional, two-stream model with finite rate chemical kinetics for the turbine. The results indicate that between 2% and 10% of the fuel sulfur is emitted as SO{sub 3}. It is also shown that, for a high fuel sulfur mass loading, conversion in the turbine is limited by the level of atomic oxygen at the combustor exit, leading to higher SO{sub 2} oxidation efficiency at lower fuel sulfur loadings. While SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3} are the primary oxidation products, the model results further indicate H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} levels on the order of 0.1 ppm for supersonic expansions through a divergent nozzle. This source of fully oxidized S(6) (SO{sub 3} + H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) exceeds previously calculated S(6) levels due to oxidation of SO{sub 2} by OH in the exhaust plume outside the engine nozzle. (author) 26 refs.

  7. Laser aircraft. [using kerosene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertzberg, A.; Sun, K.; Jones, W. S.

    1979-01-01

    The concept of a laser-powered aircraft is discussed. Laser flight would be completely compatible with existing airports and air-traffic control, with the airplane using kerosene only power, up to a cruising altitude of 9 km where the laser satellite would lock on and beam laser energy to it. Two major components make up the laser turbofan, a heat exchanger for converting laser radiation into thermal energy, and conventional turbomachinery. The laser power satellite would put out 42 Mw using a solar-powered thermal engine to generate electrical power for the closed-cycle supersonic electric discharge CO laser, whose radiators, heat exchangers, supersonic diffuser, and ducting will amount to 85% of the total subsystem mass. Relay satellites will be used to intercept the beam from the laser satellite, correct outgoing beam aberrations, and direct the beam to the next target. A 300-airplane fleet with transcontinental range is projected to save enough kerosene to equal the energy content of the entire system, including power and relay satellites, in one year.

  8. Innovations in Aircraft Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    The Boeing 777 carries with it basic and applied research, technology, and aerodynamic knowledge honed at several NASA field centers. Several Langley Research Center innovations instrumental to the development of the aircraft include knowledge of how to reduce engine and other noise for passengers and terminal residents, increased use of lightweight aerospace composite structures for increased fuel efficiency and range, and wind tunnel tests confirming the structural integrity of 777 wing-airframe integration. Test results from Marshall Space Flight Center aimed at improving the performance of the Space Shuttle engines led to improvements in the airplane's new, more efficient jet engines. Finally, fostered by Ames Research Center, the Boeing 777 blankets that protect areas of the plane from high temperatures and fire have a lineage to Advanced Flexible Reusable Surface Insulation used on certain areas of the Space Shuttle. According to Boeing Company estimates, the 777 has captured three-quarters of new orders for airplanes in its class since the program was launched.

  9. Parabolic aircraft solidification experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workman, Gary L. (Principal Investigator); Smith, Guy A.; OBrien, Susan

    1996-01-01

    A number of solidification experiments have been utilized throughout the Materials Processing in Space Program to provide an experimental environment which minimizes variables in solidification experiments. Two techniques of interest are directional solidification and isothermal casting. Because of the wide-spread use of these experimental techniques in space-based research, several MSAD experiments have been manifested for space flight. In addition to the microstructural analysis for interpretation of the experimental results from previous work with parabolic flights, it has become apparent that a better understanding of the phenomena occurring during solidification can be better understood if direct visualization of the solidification interface were possible. Our university has performed in several experimental studies such as this in recent years. The most recent was in visualizing the effect of convective flow phenomena on the KC-135 and prior to that were several successive contracts to perform directional solidification and isothermal casting experiments on the KC-135. Included in this work was the modification and utilization of the Convective Flow Analyzer (CFA), the Aircraft Isothermal Casting Furnace (ICF), and the Three-Zone Directional Solidification Furnace. These studies have contributed heavily to the mission of the Microgravity Science and Applications' Materials Science Program.

  10. Analysis of Commute Times and Neurobehavioral Performance Capacity in Aviation Cabin Crew

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    sea on the alertness of ma- rine pilots working extended hours. Chronobiology International, 25(2), 399-411. Gallup, Inc. (2007). Workers average...Dawson, D., & Roach, G.D. (2006). Do short international layovers al- low sufficient opportunity for pilots to recover? Chronobiology

  11. The Application of Memetics in ESP Cabin English Teaching%模因论在专门用途英语Cabin English教学中的 具体应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王静

    2016-01-01

    Memetics, proposed by Richard Dawkins, is a new the-ory intending to explain the cultural transmission based on the Darwinian principles. Memes are the origin of language, which in turn promotes meme replication and transmission. The two forms of meme replication including genotype meme and phenotype meme, as well as the four phases of meme lifecycle involving as-similation, retention, expression and transmission indicate that in Cabin English teaching, teachers may give students encourage-ment and guidance concerning recitation, imitation and role-play so as to improve their language proficiency.%模因论是由Dawkins提出的建立在达尔文进化论观点基础上,以阐释文化进化的一种理论.模因促成了语言的起源,而语言的功能就在于传播模因.模因复制和传播的两种方式(基因型模因和表现型模因)以及模因生命周期所包含的四个阶段(同化、记忆、表达和传输)显示在专门用途英语Cabin English教学中,教师可以鼓励并指导学生通过背诵、模仿、创设情境进行角色扮演来提高自己的语言应用能力.

  12. Simulation of Underwater Vehicle’s Cabin Door Opening Process%水下航行器舱门开启过程仿真

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙善春

    2014-01-01

    Aiming at the shape changes of the underwater vehicle at the cabin door opening, simulate hydrodynamics features of cabin door opening process. According to hydrodynamics feature of cabin door opening process, take hydrodynamics index as variation curve of vehicle dynamics equation index, simulate cabin door opening movement, then give the calculation process in detail. The simulation results show that the cabin door opening design is reasonable. When door is opening, the speed and attack angle decrease, but the changing amplitude of physical quantity is normally. The method will give reference for movement simulation when the underwater vehicle is changing in shape at movement.%针对水下航行器的舱门在开启过程中航行器外形会发生变化的情况,对航行器舱门开启过程的流体特性进行仿真分析。根据舱门开启过程的流体特性,将得到的流体系数作为航行器动力学方程参数的变化曲线,对舱门开启过程的运动进行了仿真,并给出详细的计算过程。仿真结果表明:该舱门开启过程设计合理,随着舱门的开启,虽然航行器的速度和攻角有所下降,但各物理量的变化幅度仍然在常规范围内,该方法为水下航行器存在外形变化时的运动仿真提供了思路。

  13. 客舱乘务员资源管理的实施途径%Implementation Approach of Cabin-Crew Resource Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李广春

    2013-01-01

      随着民航业的发展,航空安全管理越来越重视人的因素的作用。客舱乘务员所肩负的是客舱内部的安全,它是飞行安全的重要组成部分和重要保障。客舱乘务员资源管理(C-CRM)是保证飞行安全和服务高效的重要理论。该理论强调客舱乘务员本身的因素、团队的合作以及对物理与人文环境的驾驭与管理,客舱乘务员资源管理可以强化乘务员职业化素养和乘务组的团队观念,提升乘务员的决策技能和有效的沟通技巧,培养良好的情景意识和注意力分配、转移才能,培养客舱乘务员良好的驾驭和领导才能,提高客舱乘务员应对压力的才能和妥善应对客舱冲突的才能。实施客舱乘务员资源管理(C-CRM)的途径主要通过强化乘务员职业化素养、加强乘务员的工作负荷管理、注重乘务组的团队合作、营造无缝隙的客舱沟通、加强安全隐患管理等来实现。%With the development of civil airlines, aviation safety management pays more and more attention to the factor of human. Cabin crew, who are responsible for safety of the cabin, are the important part and guarantee of cabin safety. Cabin-Crew Resource Management (C-CRM) is the major theory in guaranteeing flight safety and high efficiency service. This theory emphasize the factor of cabin crew, team cooperation, control and management of physical and human environment. C-CRM can strengthen professionalism and team spirit of cabin crew, improve their decision-making and communication skills, cultivate their situational consciousness and attention allocation and deviation skills, cultivate their reigning and guiding competence, improve their competence to face up with stress and cabin conflicts. C-CRM can be realized through consolidating cabin crew professionalism and their working load manage-ment, value team cooperation among crew members, create seamless communication in cabin, strengthen

  14. Analysing the effects of rigid and flexible aircraft dynamics on the ejection of a large store

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jamison, Kevin

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Aeronautical Systems Competency Defence, Peace, Safety and Security (DPSS) ANALYSING THE EFFECTS OF RIGID AND FLEXIBLE AIRCRAFT DYNAMICS ON THE EJECTION OF A LARGE STORE International Aerospace Symposium of South Africa 26 ? 28... & rigid aircraft dynamics on store release ? Closing the loop ? comparison with flight tests ? Conclusions ? CSIR 2011 Slide 3 Background to Hawk / Katleho project ? CSIR 2011 Slide 4 ? Katleho is a PGM under development by Denel Dynamics...

  15. Aircraft noise effects on sleep: Mechanisms, mitigation and research needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias Basner

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available There is an ample number of laboratory and field studies which provide sufficient evidence that aircraft noise disturbs sleep and, depending on traffic volume and noise levels, may impair behavior and well-being during the day. Although clinical sleep disorders have been shown to be associated with increased risk of cardiovascular diseases, only little is known about the long-term effects of aircraft noise disturbed sleep on health. National and international laws and guidelines try to limit aircraft noise exposure facilitating active and passive noise control to prevent relevant sleep disturbances and its consequences. Adopting the harmonized indicator of the European Union Directive 2002/49/EC, the WHO Night Noise Guideline for Europe (NNG defines four Lnight , outside ranges associated with different risk levels of sleep disturbance and other health effects ( 55 dBA. Although traffic patterns differing in number and noise levels of events that lead to varying degrees of sleep disturbance may result in the same Lnight , simulations of nights with up to 200 aircraft noise events per night nicely corroborate expert opinion guidelines formulated in WHO′s NNG. In the future, large scale field studies on the effects of nocturnal (aircraft noise on sleep are needed. They should involve representative samples of the population including vulnerable groups like children and chronically ill subjects. Optimally, these studies are prospective in nature and examine the long-term consequences of noise-induced sleep disturbances. Furthermore, epidemiological case-control studies on the association of nocturnal (aircraft noise exposure and cardiovascular disease are needed. Despite the existing gaps in knowledge on long-term health effects, sufficient data are available for defining limit values, guidelines and protection concepts, which should be updated with the availability of new data.

  16. Managing Life-Cycle Information of Aircraft Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    starting to implement Product Life Cycle Management ( PLM ), a closed-loop system that encompasses internationally standardized data-exchange technology...aircraft have much to gain from the use of tracking technologies in support of a PLM system. To investigate how efficiencies can be attained in the...missing the card. The problem stems from the lack of reliability of the card-based system. Moving to an automated PLM system would address these

  17. Comparing on-road real-time simultaneous in-cabin and outdoor particulate and gaseous concentrations for a range of ventilation scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavey, Anna; Reed, Nathan; Patel, Sameer; Bradley, Kevin; Kulkarni, Pramod; Biswas, Pratim

    2017-10-01

    Advanced automobile technology, developed infrastructure, and changing economic markets have resulted in increasing commute times. Traffic is a major source of harmful pollutants and consequently daily peak exposures tend to occur near roadways or while travelling on them. The objective of this study was to measure simultaneous real-time particulate matter (particle numbers, lung-deposited surface area, PM2.5, particle number size distributions) and CO concentrations outside and in-cabin of an on-road car during regular commutes to and from work. Data was collected for different ventilation parameters (windows open or closed, fan on, AC on), whilst travelling along different road-types with varying traffic densities. Multiple predictor variables were examined using linear mixed-effects models. Ambient pollutants (NOx, PM2.5, CO) and meteorological variables (wind speed, temperature, relative humidity, dew point) explained 5-44% of outdoor pollutant variability, while the time spent travelling behind a bus was statistically significant for PM2.5, lung-deposited SA, and CO (adj-R2 values = 0.12, 0.10, 0.13). The geometric mean diameter (GMD) for outdoor aerosol was 34 nm. Larger cabin GMDs were observed when windows were closed compared to open (b = 4.3, p-value = <0.01). When windows were open, cabin total aerosol concentrations tracked those outdoors. With windows closed, the pollutants took longer to enter the vehicle cabin, but also longer to exit it. Concentrations of pollutants in cabin were influenced by outdoor concentrations, ambient temperature, and the window/ventilation parameters. As expected, particle number concentrations were impacted the most by changes to window position/ventilation, and PM2.5 the least. Car drivers can expect their highest exposures when driving with windows open or the fan on, and their lowest exposures during windows closed or the AC on. Final linear mixed-effects models could explain between 88 and 97% of cabin pollutant

  18. Introduction to unmanned aircraft systems

    CERN Document Server

    Marshall, Douglas M; Hottman, Stephen B; Shappee, Eric; Most, Michael Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Introduction to Unmanned Aircraft Systems is the editors' response to their unsuccessful search for suitable university-level textbooks on this subject. A collection of contributions from top experts, this book applies the depth of their expertise to identify and survey the fundamentals of unmanned aircraft system (UAS) operations. Written from a nonengineering civilian operational perspective, the book starts by detailing the history of UASs and then explores current technology and what is expected for the future. Covering all facets of UAS elements and operation-including an examination of s

  19. Future aircraft networks and schedules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Yan

    2011-07-01

    Because of the importance of air transportation scheduling, the emergence of small aircraft and the vision of future fuel-efficient aircraft, this thesis has focused on the study of aircraft scheduling and network design involving multiple types of aircraft and flight services. It develops models and solution algorithms for the schedule design problem and analyzes the computational results. First, based on the current development of small aircraft and on-demand flight services, this thesis expands a business model for integrating on-demand flight services with the traditional scheduled flight services. This thesis proposes a three-step approach to the design of aircraft schedules and networks from scratch under the model. In the first step, both a frequency assignment model for scheduled flights that incorporates a passenger path choice model and a frequency assignment model for on-demand flights that incorporates a passenger mode choice model are created. In the second step, a rough fleet assignment model that determines a set of flight legs, each of which is assigned an aircraft type and a rough departure time is constructed. In the third step, a timetable model that determines an exact departure time for each flight leg is developed. Based on the models proposed in the three steps, this thesis creates schedule design instances that involve almost all the major airports and markets in the United States. The instances of the frequency assignment model created in this thesis are large-scale non-convex mixed-integer programming problems, and this dissertation develops an overall network structure and proposes iterative algorithms for solving these instances. The instances of both the rough fleet assignment model and the timetable model created in this thesis are large-scale mixed-integer programming problems, and this dissertation develops subproblem schemes for solving these instances. Based on these solution algorithms, this dissertation also presents

  20. Separation and quantification of frequency coupled noise sources of submarine cabin%舱段模型频率耦合噪声源的分离量化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李思纯; 宫元彬; 时胜国; 于树华; 韩闯

    2016-01-01

    Traditional methods do not effectively handle separation and quantification of coupled vibration noise sources in submarines. So a new multivariate statistical analysis method, partial least square regression ( PLS) , is presented, which can be used to separate and quantify frequency coupled noise sources. PLS has the characteristic of simultaneously extracting principal input/output components, including maximum information, correlation of in⁃put with output, and regression modeling with multiple correlations among variables. Simulation and cabin model experiments show that, when there is frequency coupling between multiple excitation sources, PLS is capable of sorting among the energy contributions of internal noise sources to submarine hull, submarine hull to underwater a⁃coustic field, and noise sources to underwater acoustic field. The feasibility of PLS for frequency coupled source separation and quantification is proven. The method provides a basis for the control of the main noise sources.%由于潜艇振动噪声源存在频率相互耦合现象,常规方法难以有效地解决耦合噪声源分离与贡献量化问题。采用一种新型多元统计分析方法-偏最小二乘回归分析方法来实现频率耦合噪声源的分离量化,该方法可同时提取反映输入/输出中最大信息且相关性最大的主成分,并能够在变量间存在多重相关性的条件下进行回归建模。仿真与舱段模型试验表明:当多激励源之间存在频率耦合时,能对噪声源进行分离和贡献量化,从而实现了噪声源对耐压壳体观测点贡献以及噪声源对辐射声场观测点贡献的排序,验证了偏最小二乘回归用于频率耦合源分离量化的可行性,为主要噪声源的控制提供了依据。

  1. Versatile Electric Propulsion Aircraft Testbed Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An all-electric aircraft testbed is proposed to provide a dedicated development environment for the rigorous study and advancement of electrically powered aircraft....

  2. Modular Electric Propulsion Test Bed Aircraft Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An all electric aircraft test bed is proposed to provide a dedicated development environment for the rigorous study and advancement of electrically powered aircraft....

  3. Statistical estimation of aircraft service conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Боузаієнне Меккі бен Салем

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available  The question of an estimation of aircraft service conditions in airlines with use of statistical methods is considered at the analysis of maintenance programs of a aircrafts park to normative requirements.

  4. Field Study Evaluation of Cepstrum Coefficient Speech Analysis for Fatigue in Aviation Cabin Crew

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    the alertness of marine pilots working extended hours. Chronobiology International, 25(2), 399-411. Greeley, H.P., Berg, J., Friets, E., Wilson, J...allow sufficient opportunity for pilots to recover? Chronobiology Inter- national, 23(6), 1285-94. Lieberman, P., Morey, A., Hochstadt, J., Larson, M...offshore 18:00-06:00 h and 19:00-07:00 hr shift workers. Chronobiology International, 25(2&3), 225-235. Thorne, D R., Johnson, D.E., Redmond, D.P., Sing

  5. HISTORICAL ANALYSIS AND INTERNATIONAL EXPERIENCE OF FIGHT WITH SKYJACKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alyokhin V. P.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available There was considered the historical analysis and international experience of fight with skyjacking in the article. The article is relevant, as the hijacking of aircraft is a crime with the highest public risk, both in Russia and worldwide, this international crime. Discusses statistical data theft aircraft in Russia from 1998 to 2014. The article reveals the object, the objective side, the subject and the subjective side of the hijacking of aircraft. Given the criminal law comparative analysis of auto theft and hijacking of aircraft. Considered criminal legislation of the CIS member States about the hijacking of aircraft. The article provides examples of judicial practice on the hijacking of aircraft. Discusses and international legislation, in particular the Convention for the suppression of acts of unlawful interference involving aircraft. Given the chronological table analysis grabs passenger aircraft in the USSR in the period from 1973 to 1989. In conclusion, the article draws conclusions and makes suggestions for improvement of the criminal legislation about the hijacking of aircraft. In particular they say about the need to improve legislation on transport and the development of a complete and correct concepts.

  6. Closed cycle propulsion for small unmanned aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hays, Thomas Chadwick

    This study evaluates the merit of closed cycle propulsion systems for use in unmanned systems. The complexity and added weight of closed cycle engines is offset by benefits in high altitude performance, operation in polluted air environments, multi-fuel operation, and potential for flight in low oxygen environments using generic thermal heat sources. Although most closed thermal cycles cannot match the efficiency and power density potential of internal combustion engines (ICE) and turbomachines in aircraft propulsion applications, the addition of design requirements regarding noise output, and operation at high altitude results in IC and CC engine's performance becoming much more comparable. Muffling devices increase backpressure on internal combustion engines thereby reducing power output and efficiency. Multi stage turbo supercharging for operation at high altitude can in some cases increase efficiency of ICE's, but at the result of significant additional complexity and cost that also reduces practical reliability because of the often intricate mechanisms involved. It is in these scenarios that closed cycle engines offer a comparable performance alternative that may prove to be simpler, cheaper, and more reliable than high altitude or low noise internal combustion or turbomachine propulsion systems.

  7. 75 FR 922 - Notification and Reporting of Aircraft Accidents or Incidents and Overdue Aircraft, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-07

    ... SAFETY BOARD 49 CFR Part 830 Notification and Reporting of Aircraft Accidents or Incidents and Overdue Aircraft, and Preservation of Aircraft Wreckage, Mail, Cargo, and Records AGENCY: National Transportation... notification and reporting requirements regarding aircraft accidents or incidents. In particular, the NTSB is...

  8. 77 FR 1626 - Airworthiness Directives; Various Aircraft Equipped With Rotax Aircraft Engines 912 A Series Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-11

    ... Equipped With Rotax Aircraft Engines 912 A Series Engine AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT... various aircraft equipped with Rotax Aircraft Engines 912 A series engine. This AD results from mandatory... Rotax Aircraft Engines BRP has issued Alert Service Bulletin ASB- 912-059 and ASB-914-042...

  9. 76 FR 31465 - Airworthiness Directives; Various Aircraft Equipped With Rotax Aircraft Engines 912 A Series Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    ... Aircraft Equipped With Rotax Aircraft Engines 912 A Series Engine AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration...://www.rotax-aircraft-engines.com . You may review copies of the referenced service information at the... by examining the MCAI in the AD docket. Relevant Service Information Rotax Aircraft Engines...

  10. Analysis and experimental validation of the middle-frequency vibro-acoustic coupling property for aircraft structural model based on the wave coupling hybrid FE-SEA method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yunju; Li, Pengbo; Lin, Huagang

    2016-06-01

    The finite element (FE) method is suitable for low frequency analysis and the statistical energy analysis (SEA) for high frequency analysis, but the vibro-acoustic coupling analysis at middle frequency, especially with a certain range of uncertainty system, requires some new methods. A hybrid FE-SEA method is proposed in this study and the Monte Carlo method is used to check the hybrid FE-SEA method through the energy response analysis of a beam-plate built-up structure with some uncertainty, and the results show that two kinds of calculation results match well consistently. Taking the advantage of the hybrid FE-SEA method, the structural vibration and the cabin noise field responses under the vibro-acoustic coupling for an aircraft model are numerically analyzed, and, also, the corresponding experiment is carried out to verify the simulated results. Results show that the structural vibration responses at low frequency accord well with the experiment, but the error at high frequency is greater. The error of sound pressure response level in cabin throughout the spectrum is less than 3 dB. The research proves the reliability of the method proposed in this paper. This indicates that the proposed method can overcome the strict limitations of the traditional method for a large complex structure with uncertainty factors, and it can also avoid the disadvantages of solving complex vibro-acoustic system using the finite element method or statistical energy analysis in the middle frequency.

  11. Analyses of Aircraft Responses to Atmospheric Turbulence

    OpenAIRE

    Van Staveren, W.H.J.J.

    2003-01-01

    The response of aircraft to stochastic atmospheric turbulence plays an important role in aircraft-design (load calculations), Flight Control System (FCS) design and flight-simulation (handling qualities research and pilot training). In order to simulate these aircraft responses, an accurate mathematical model is required. Two classical models will be discussed in this thesis, that is the Delft University of Technology (DUT) model and the Four Point Aircraft (FPA) model. Although they are well...

  12. Method and apparatus for monitoring aircraft components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickens, Larry M.; Haynes, Howard D.; Ayers, Curtis W.

    1996-01-01

    Operability of aircraft mechanical components is monitored by analyzing the voltage output of an electrical generator of the aircraft. Alternative generators, for a turbine-driven rotor aircraft, include the gas producer turbine tachometer generator, the power turbine tachometer generator, and the aircraft systems power producing starter/generator. Changes in the peak amplitudes of the fundamental frequency and its harmonics are correlated to changes in condition of the mechanical components.

  13. THE AIRPORT DE-ICING OF AIRCRAFTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert KONIECZKA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a summary of the issues involved in de-icing several kinds of aircrafts before flight. The basic risks of an iced aircraft and the factors that can influence its intensity are stated. It discusses the methods for de-icing and protecting against ice formation on small aircrafts, helicopters, and large aircrafts. It also classifies the fluids and other methods used for these de-icing operations, and explains the characteristics and limitations of their use.

  14. Aircraft height estimation using 2-D radar

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hakl, H

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A method to infer height information from an aircraft tracked with a single 2-D search radar is presented. The method assumes level flight in the target aircraft and a good estimate of the speed of the aircraft. The method yields good results...

  15. 14 CFR 91.117 - Aircraft speed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aircraft speed. 91.117 Section 91.117... AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Flight Rules General § 91.117 Aircraft speed. (a) Unless otherwise authorized by the Administrator, no person may operate an aircraft below 10...

  16. Analyses of Aircraft Responses to Atmospheric Turbulence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Staveren, W.H.J.J.

    2003-01-01

    The response of aircraft to stochastic atmospheric turbulence plays an important role in aircraft-design (load calculations), Flight Control System (FCS) design and flight-simulation (handling qualities research and pilot training). In order to simulate these aircraft responses, an accurate

  17. 19 CFR 122.37 - Precleared aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Precleared aircraft. 122.37 Section 122.37 Customs... AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Landing Requirements § 122.37 Precleared aircraft. (a) Application. This section applies when aircraft carrying crew, passengers and baggage, or merchandise which has been...

  18. 43 CFR 423.41 - Aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Aircraft. 423.41 Section 423.41 Public... Aircraft. (a) You must comply with any applicable Federal, State, and local laws, and with any additional... this part 423, with respect to aircraft landings, takeoffs, and operation on or in the proximity of...

  19. 14 CFR 21.127 - Tests: aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tests: aircraft. 21.127 Section 21.127 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT CERTIFICATION PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS Production Under Type Certificate Only § 21.127 Tests: aircraft. (a) Each...

  20. 78 FR 67309 - Earth Stations Aboard Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-12

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 25 Earth Stations Aboard Aircraft AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION... collection associated with the Commission's Earth Station Aboard Aircraft, Report and Order (Order), which adopted licensing and service rules for Earth Stations Aboard Aircraft (ESAA) communicating with Fixed...

  1. 48 CFR 908.7102 - Aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Aircraft. 908.7102 Section... REQUIRED SOURCES OF SUPPLIES AND SERVICES Acquisition of Special Items 908.7102 Aircraft. Acquisition of aircraft shall be in accordance with DOE-PMR 41 CFR 109-38.5205. ...

  2. 50 CFR 27.34 - Aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Aircraft. 27.34 Section 27.34 Wildlife and... WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM PROHIBITED ACTS Disturbing Violations: With Vehicles § 27.34 Aircraft. The unauthorized operation of aircraft, including sail planes, and hang gliders, at altitudes resulting in...

  3. 47 CFR 32.2113 - Aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Aircraft. 32.2113 Section 32.2113... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.2113 Aircraft. This account shall include the original cost of aircraft and any associated equipment and furnishings installed...

  4. Policy and the evaluation of aircraft noise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroesen, M.; Molin, E.J.E.; Van Wee, G.P.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we hypothesize and test the ideas that (1) people’s subjectivity in relation to aircraft noise is shaped by the policy discourse, (2) this results in a limited number of frames towards aircraft noise, (3) the frames inform people how to think and feel about aircraft noise and (4) the

  5. 36 CFR 13.1004 - Aircraft use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aircraft use. 13.1004 Section... § 13.1004 Aircraft use. In extraordinary cases where no reasonable alternative exists, local rural residents who permanently reside in the following exempted community(ies) may use aircraft for access to...

  6. Analyses of Aircraft Responses to Atmospheric Turbulence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Staveren, W.H.J.J.

    2003-01-01

    The response of aircraft to stochastic atmospheric turbulence plays an important role in aircraft-design (load calculations), Flight Control System (FCS) design and flight-simulation (handling qualities research and pilot training). In order to simulate these aircraft responses, an accurate mathemat

  7. Policy and the evaluation of aircraft noise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroesen, M.; Molin, E.J.E.; Van Wee, G.P.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we hypothesize and test the ideas that (1) people’s subjectivity in relation to aircraft noise is shaped by the policy discourse, (2) this results in a limited number of frames towards aircraft noise, (3) the frames inform people how to think and feel about aircraft noise and (4) the

  8. A New Method for Automatically Labeling Aircrafts in Airport Video

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luo Xiao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available For the problem that the airport video monitoring could only provide the image information while the label information including the flight number is not provided, a new method for automatically labeling aircrafts in airport video through the fusion of video and ADS-B data has been proposed. First, the image coordinates of aircrafts will be obtained through the image tracking of video. Then, the homography matrix between two projection planes will be calculated with the four and above point and line correspondences selected from the airport map and video image, respectively to the map image coordinates into the map coordinates. Finally, the aircrafts in video can be automatically labeled through the fusion of image tracking data and ADS-B monitoring data. Because an image coordinate measurement error exists at the time of selecting points from the image, the resulting coordinate conversion error is derived and the impact of point correspondence geometric layout on mesh coordinate mapping error is analyzed. Experiments have been conducted based on the actual data of Chengdu Shuangliu International Airport. The results show that the method can automatically label aircrafts in video in an effective way.

  9. Intelligent modeling and identification of aircraft nonlinear flight

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alireza Roudbari; Fariborz Saghafi

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a new approach has been proposed to identify and model the dynamics of a highly maneuverable fighter aircraft through artificial neural networks (ANNs). In general, air-craft flight dynamics is considered as a nonlinear and coupled system whose modeling through ANNs, unlike classical approaches, does not require any aerodynamic or propulsion information and a few flight test data seem sufficient. In this study, for identification and modeling of the aircraft dynamics, two known structures of internal and external recurrent neural networks (RNNs) and a proposed structure called hybrid combined recurrent neural network have been used and compared. In order to improve the training process, an appropriate evolutionary method has been applied to simultaneously train and optimize the parameters of ANNs. In this research, it has been shown that six ANNs each with three inputs and one output, trained by flight test data, can model the dynamic behavior of the highly maneuverable aircraft with acceptable accuracy and without any priori knowledge about the system.

  10. Aircraft Simulators and Pilot Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caro, Paul W.

    Flight simulators are built as realistically as possible, presumably to enhance their training value. Yet, their training value is determined by the way they are used. Traditionally, simulators have been less important for training than have aircraft, but they are currently emerging as primary pilot training vehicles. This new emphasis is an…

  11. Aircraft Natural/Artificial Icing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-12

    axial vibration is caused by an oscillator driving a coil in the probe to create a magnetostrictive force. A sensing coil within the probe senses the...Consequence TOP 7-3-537 12 February 2009 C-1 APPENDIX C. ICING TEST SITE SELECTION 1. INTRODUCTION Unlike large fixed-wing aircraft, helicopters

  12. Human Response to Aircraft Noise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroesen, M.

    2011-01-01

    How can it be that one person is extremely annoyed by the sounds of aircrafts, while his neighbour claims not to be bothered at all? The present thesis attempts to explain this observation by applying a range of quantitative methods to field data gathered among residents living near large airports.

  13. Design of Aircraft (Selected Chapters),

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-09-22

    al-y, after vowels , and after -, i; e elsewhere. e’,’ v:nwrftten as e 4r. Russian, transliterate as y! or . RUSSIAN AND 0x:,LiSh TRIGONOMETRIC...comfort" and " aesthetics and the controls of aircraft" (see journal "Technical aesthetics ", No 11, 1966 and No 10, 1968). ENDFOOTNOTE. Distance

  14. MATE. Multi Aircraft Training Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauland, G.; Bove, T.; Andersen, Henning Boje

    2002-01-01

    . The cockpit switches and instruments in MATE are computer-generated graphics. The graphics are back projected onto semi-transparent touch screen panels in a hybrid cockpit mock-up. Thus, the MATE is relativelycheap, it is always available, it is reconfigurable (e.g. between types of aircraft...

  15. Aircraft Lightning Electromagnetic Environment Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ely, Jay J.; Nguyen, Truong X.; Szatkowski, George N.

    2011-01-01

    This paper outlines a NASA project plan for demonstrating a prototype lightning strike measurement system that is suitable for installation onto research aircraft that already operate in thunderstorms. This work builds upon past data from the NASA F106, FAA CV-580, and Transall C-180 flight projects, SAE ARP5412, and the European ILDAS Program. The primary focus is to capture airframe current waveforms during attachment, but may also consider pre and post-attachment current, electric field, and radiated field phenomena. New sensor technologies are being developed for this system, including a fiber-optic Faraday polarization sensor that measures lightning current waveforms from DC to over several Megahertz, and has dynamic range covering hundreds-of-volts to tens-of-thousands-of-volts. A study of the electromagnetic emission spectrum of lightning (including radio wave, microwave, optical, X-Rays and Gamma-Rays), and a compilation of aircraft transfer-function data (including composite aircraft) are included, to aid in the development of other new lightning environment sensors, their placement on-board research aircraft, and triggering of the onboard instrumentation system. The instrumentation system will leverage recent advances in high-speed, high dynamic range, deep memory data acquisition equipment, and fiber-optic interconnect.

  16. Advanced aircraft electric power system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segrest, J.D.

    1981-01-01

    The role of electric energy in both military and commercial aircraft increases in importance with every advancement in airframe performance and avionic technology. Microcircuits and volatile memories impact power continuity and quality, digital flight control and stability augmentation require high reliability. This paper presents the system concept, hardware development and status of the Navy program.

  17. Direct Lightning Strikes to Aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-06-01

    clouds. The aircraft used in this project consisted of a B25 medium bomber and a B17 6 medium .)omber. The main instrumentation used in this project...across the gap fell to less than the breakdown voltage. Damage to the screw was examined by two of the personnel that wit - nessed the actual damage to the

  18. Survival analysis of aging aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benavides, Samuel

    This study pushes systems engineering of aging aircraft beyond the boundaries of empirical and deterministic modeling by making a sharp break with the traditional laboratory-derived corrosion prediction algorithms that have shrouded real-world failures of aircraft structure. At the heart of this problem is the aeronautical industry's inability to be forthcoming in an accurate model that predicts corrosion failures in aircraft in spite of advances in corrosion algorithms or improvements in simulation and modeling. The struggle to develop accurate corrosion probabilistic models stems from a multitude of real-world interacting variables that synergistically influence corrosion in convoluted and complex ways. This dissertation, in essence, offers a statistical framework for the analysis of structural airframe corrosion failure by utilizing real-world data while considering the effects of interacting corrosion variables. This study injects realism into corrosion failures of aging aircraft systems by accomplishing four major goals related to the conceptual and methodological framework of corrosion modeling. First, this work connects corrosion modeling from the traditional, laboratory derived algorithms to corrosion failures in actual operating aircraft. This work augments physics-based modeling by examining the many confounding and interacting variables, such as environmental, geographical and operational, that impact failure of airframe structure. Examined through the lens of censored failure data from aircraft flying in a maritime environment, this study enhances the understanding between the triad of the theoretical, laboratory and real-world corrosion. Secondly, this study explores the importation and successful application of an advanced biomedical statistical tool---survival analysis---to model censored corrosion failure data. This well-grounded statistical methodology is inverted from a methodology that analyzes survival to one that examines failures. Third, this

  19. Rhetorical engagement with racism: Uncle Tom’s Cabin and Adventures of Huckleberry Finn

    OpenAIRE

    B. E. Kim

    1998-01-01

    Racial relationships were an extremely controversial subject around the time of the Civil War in the USA. Harriet Beecher Stowe in Uncle Tom’s Cabin and Mark Twain in Adventures of Huckleberry Finn treat this provocative issue of race by entrusting important roles to the African-American characters. Uncle Tom and Jim. Predicting the reader's possible revolt against the blatant treatment of the issue, the two novelists use racist expressions in the convention of their contemporary audiences to...

  20. Simulating Airflow and Contaminant Transport in Airline Cabin Using COwZ Model%基于COwZ模型的机舱环境模拟研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    才余; 孙贺江

    2012-01-01

    The study of airflow and contaminant transport in airliner cabins is very important for creating a com-fortable and healthy environment. To know how the air and contaminants are distributed and transported in the whole air cabins fast. A zonal model called COwZ is chosen. This study validates the COwZ model using data from a mockup cabin in the literature, The numerical results are compared to the experiment data. The air distribution could reflect the flow trend approximately. Most of the measure points whose non-dimensional ( SF6) concentration profiles are with an error less than 25%. The results indicate that COwZ model is practicable for simulating airline-cabin environment.%机舱内部气流组织及污染物传播的研究对于创造舒适和健康的机舱环境是十分重要的.为了快速地得到机舱内部气流分布及污染物传播规律,选用COwZ模型.它是多区域模型的一种,应用4排座机舱模型对COwZ模型进行了模型验证.把模拟结果与实验值进行比较,气流组织与实验测的的趋势符合,大部分实验测量点污染物无量纲比值的相对误差率在25%以内,得出结论COwZ预测机舱环境是可行的.