WorldWideScience

Sample records for international air cargo

  1. Liberalisation of air cargo transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-05-02

    Over a period of many years, international air cargo demand has continued to increase more rapidly than international air passenger demand. Air cargo arrangements need to be as efficient and expeditious as possible, to meet user requirements for air ...

  2. Wisconsin Air Cargo Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    Air cargo is a key economic lifeline for the communities that have airports. Manufacturers, businesses, hospitals and : other community cornerstone employers depend on air cargo to successfully operate. While there is no doubt that air : cargo repres...

  3. Comparative International Air Cargo Solutions: The Pathway to a Resilient, Adaptable, Balanced and Sustainable Secure Global Air Cargo Supply Chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    counterfeit merchandise smugglers, and remains the weakest link in the air cargo transportation chain. The TSA and CBP continue to seek administrative...been exploited by narcotics, human and counterfeit merchandise smugglers for centuries, remains the weakest link in the air cargo transportation chain... visual depiction of the European Union 3rd country security processes. 96 Official Journal of the

  4. Domestic & International Air Cargo Activity: National and Selected Hub Forecasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-11-01

    111371 1991 1887811 2?. 768 :297968 Forecast utilizes 1972 dollar GNP from Wharton’s annual model, December 6, 1978, Post-Meeting Control Solution...mile based on 1973 revenue ton-miles reported in the DOT/CAB, Air Carrier Traffic Statistics. South America - RSA - simple average of American (Latin...9518 F (2/11) = 129.347 DW = 1.41 (b) South America (ESA) 4 = 11.8926 + 18.2908* (GDPSA.C) - 8.94307* ( RSA ) 4 (0.14) (6.08) (-0.46) R2 .8717 F (2/11

  5. International air cargo operations and gateways : their emerging importance to the state of Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    Air cargo transport has become particularly important in todays expanding global : economy for the movement of high-value goods such as electronics, computer components, : precision equipment, medical supplies, auto parts, and perishables. Air car...

  6. 76 FR 51847 - Air Cargo Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-18

    ... apply to international inbound cargo. \\2\\ 74 FR 47672. The IFR provides detailed information on TSA's... Chain Management Professionals, Express Delivery and Logistics Association, International Air Transport... use in other countries for international inbound cargo. TSA Response: TSA is working closely with its...

  7. Optimization of the air cargo supply chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Pérez Bernal

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This paper aims to evaluate and optimize the various operations within the air cargo chain. It pursues to improve the efficiency of the air cargo supply chain and to provide more information to the decision-makers to optimize their fields.Design/methodology/approach: The method used is a process simulation modelling software, WITNESS, which provides information to the decision-makers about the most relevant parameters subject to optimization. The input for the simulation is obtained from a qualitative analysis of the air cargo supply chain with the involved agents and from a study of the external trade by air mode, given that their behaviour depend on the location. The case study is focused on a particular location, the Case of Zaragoza Airport (Spain.Findings: This paper demonstrates that efficiency of the air cargo supply chain can increase by leveraging several parameters such as bottlenecks, resources or warehouses.Originality/value: It explores the use of a simulation modeling software originally intended for manufacturing processes and extended to support decision making processes in the area of air cargo.

  8. Revenue management of air cargo service in theory and practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budiarto, S.; Putro, H. P.; Pradono, P.; Yudoko, G.

    2018-05-01

    This study examines the air cargo service by comparing existing theories from previous research with the conditions on the ground. The object of the study is focused on the freight forwarder and the airport management. This study reviews the models and results of previous research that will be summarized and used to identify any issues related to the characteristics of air cargo operational services, as well as observing and monitoring literature with airlines, shipping companies, and airport management to explore and see the gap between prior research and implementation of its process in the air cargo service. The first phase in this study is to provide an overview of the air cargo industry. The second phase analyzes the characteristic differences between air cargo services and air passenger operating services. And the third phase is a literary bibliography study of air cargo operations, where the focus is on the studies using quantitative models from the perspective of the object of the study, which is the optimization of revenue management on air cargo services. From the results of the study, which is based on the gap between theory and practice, new research opportunities which are related to management of air cargo service revenue in the form of model development are found by adding booking timelines aspects of cargo that can affect the revenue of cargo airline companies and airports.

  9. Models for Comparing Air-Only and Sea/Air Transportation of Wartime Deployment Cargo

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Theres, Michael

    1998-01-01

    ...) to an overseas Port of Debarkation (POD). This thesis evaluates a proposal to load air-transportable cargo aboard vessels at CONUS seaports and to ship that cargo to an appropriately located sea-air-interface (SAI...

  10. National Security Science and Technology Initiative: Air Cargo Screening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bingham, Philip R [ORNL; White, Tim [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Cespedes, Ernesto [Idaho National Laboratory (INL); Bowerman, Biays [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL); Bush, John [Battelle

    2010-11-01

    The non-intrusive inspection (NII) of consolidated air cargo carried on commercial passenger aircraft continues to be a technically challenging, high-priority requirement of the Department of Homeland Security's Science and Technology Directorate (DHS S&T), the Transportation Security Agency and the Federal Aviation Administration. The goal of deploying a screening system that can reliably and cost-effectively detect explosive threats in consolidated cargo without adversely affecting the flow of commerce will require significant technical advances that will take years to develop. To address this critical National Security need, the Battelle Memorial Institute (Battelle), under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) with four of its associated US Department of Energy (DOE) National Laboratories (Oak Ridge, Pacific Northwest, Idaho, and Brookhaven), conducted a research and development initiative focused on identifying, evaluating, and integrating technologies for screening consolidated air cargo for the presence of explosive threats. Battelle invested $8.5M of internal research and development funds during fiscal years 2007 through 2009. The primary results of this effort are described in this document and can be summarized as follows: (1) Completed a gap analysis that identified threat signatures and observables, candidate technologies for detection, their current state of development, and provided recommendations for improvements to meet air cargo screening requirements. (2) Defined a Commodity/Threat/Detection matrix that focuses modeling and experimental efforts, identifies technology gaps and game-changing opportunities, and provides a means of summarizing current and emerging capabilities. (3) Defined key properties (e.g., elemental composition, average density, effective atomic weight) for basic commodity and explosive benchmarks, developed virtual models of the physical distributions (pallets) of three commodity types and three

  11. 14 CFR 399.86 - Payments for non-air transportation services for air cargo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Payments for non-air transportation... Enforcement § 399.86 Payments for non-air transportation services for air cargo. The Board considers that... air carriers for non-air transportation preparation of air cargo shipments are for services ancillary...

  12. Air Cargo Transportation Route Choice Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obashi, Hiroshi; Kim, Tae-Seung; Oum, Tae Hoon

    2003-01-01

    Using a unique feature of air cargo transshipment data in the Northeast Asian region, this paper identifies the critical factors that determine the transshipment route choice. Taking advantage of the variations in the transport characteristics in each origin-destination airports pair, the paper uses a discrete choice model to describe the transshipping route choice decision made by an agent (i.e., freight forwarder, consolidator, and large shipper). The analysis incorporates two major factors, monetary cost (such as line-haul cost and landing fee) and time cost (i.e., aircraft turnaround time, including loading and unloading time, custom clearance time, and expected scheduled delay), along with other controls. The estimation method considers the presence of unobserved attributes, and corrects for resulting endogeneity by use of appropriate instrumental variables. Estimation results find that transshipment volumes are more sensitive to time cost, and that the reduction in aircraft turnaround time by 1 hour would be worth the increase in airport charges by more than $1000. Simulation exercises measures the impacts of alternative policy scenarios for a Korean airport, which has recently declared their intention to be a future regional hub in the Northeast Asian region. The results suggest that reducing aircraft turnaround time at the airport be an effective strategy, rather than subsidizing to reduce airport charges.

  13. Air cargo in the Mid-America Freight Coalition region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    This report contains a contextual review of air cargo transportation in the 10-state Mid-America Freight Coalition (MAFC) region including the industrys recent history, security implications, and integration within the greater MAFC economy. The re...

  14. Optimisation of key performance measures in air cargo demand management

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander May; Adrian Anslow; Udechukwu Ojiako; Yue Wu; Alasdair Marshall; Maxwell Chipulu

    2014-01-01

    This article sought to facilitate the optimisation of key performance measures utilised for demand management in air cargo operations. The focus was on the Revenue Management team at Virgin Atlantic Cargo and a fuzzy group decision-making method was used. Utilising intelligent fuzzy multi-criteria methods, the authors generated a ranking order of ten key outcome-based performance indicators for Virgin Atlantic air cargo Revenue Management. The result of this industry-driven study showed that ...

  15. 19 CFR 122.117 - Requirements for transit air cargo transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Requirements for transit air cargo transport. 122... Requirements for transit air cargo transport. (a) Transportation—(1) Port to port. Transit air cargo may be... surface carrier for transport. Otherwise, all shipments on the transit air cargo manifest shall be...

  16. "Choice of Air Cargo Transshipment Airport: An Application to Air Cargo Traffic to/from Northeast Asia"

    OpenAIRE

    Hiroshi Ohashi; Tae-Seung Kim; Tae Hoon Oum; Chunyan Yu

    2004-01-01

    Based on a unique data set of 760 air cargo transshipment routings to/from the Northeast Asian region in 2000, this paper applies an aggregate form of multinomial logit model to identify the critical factors influencing air cargo transshipment route choice decisions. The analysis focuses on the trade-off between monetary cost and time cost while considering other variables relevant for choice of transshipment airport. The estimation method considers the presence of unobserved attributes, and ...

  17. Characteristics of future air cargo demand and impact on aircraft development: A report on the Cargo/Logistic Airlift Systems Study (CLASS) project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, A. H., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Current domestic and international air cargo operations are studied and the characteristics of 1990 air cargo demand are postulated from surveys conducted at airports and with shippers, consignees, and freight forwarders as well as air, land, and ocean carriers. Simulation and route optimization programs are exercised to evaluate advanced aircraft concepts. The results show that proposed changes in the infrastructure and improved cargo loading efficiencies are as important enhancing the prospects of air cargo growth as is the advent of advanced freighter aircraft. Potential reductions in aircraft direct operating costs are estimated and related to future total revenue. Service and cost elasticities are established and utilized to estimate future potential tariff reductions that may be realized through direct and indirect operating cost reductions and economies of scale.

  18. Opportunity of Constructing a Cargo Terminal – Case Study Brașov International Airport, Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel BRĂTUCU

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Air transport and especially air cargo transport became ever more important during the last 25 years, with a signifi cant impact upon economic development. Air cargo transport supports regional economic development, provided there is suffi cient local demand for its services. In our study, we have identifi ed signifi cant elements of the impact a cargo terminal at the International Brașov-Ghimbav Airport would have upon local economic development. For this purpose, we have conducted a quantitative market research. We have reached the conclusion that constructing a cargo terminal at the Brașov-Ghimbav Airport is a necessary investment in the current economic context, with an important contribution to the economic development of its surrounding counties. The positive results registered in our study could contribute to improving the economic and fi nancial prospects of Brașov-Ghimbav Airport and attract investors in this project.

  19. Cooperating to Compete in the Global Air Cargo Industry: The Case of the DHL Express and Lufthansa Cargo A.G. Joint Venture Airline ‘AeroLogic’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenn Baxter

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a case study of the DHL Express and Lufthansa Cargo strategic joint venture cargo airline ‘AeroLogic’, the global air cargo industry’s largest operative joint venture between an airline and a leading international express and logistics provider. The study used a qualitative research approach. The data gathered for the study was examined by document analysis. The strategic analysis of the AeroLogic joint venture was based on the use of Porter’s Five Forces framework. The study found that the AeroLogic joint venture airline has provided synergistic benefits to both partners and has allowed the partners to access new markets and to participate in the evolution of the air cargo industry. The new venture has also enabled both joint venture partners to enhance their competitive position in the global air cargo industry through strengthened service offerings and has provided the partners with increased cargo capacities, a larger route network, and greater frequencies within their own route networks. The study also found that the AeroLogic business model is unique in the air cargo industry. A limitation of the study was that AeroLogic’s annual revenue or freight traffic data was not available. It was, therefore, not possible to analyse the business performance of the joint venture.

  20. Spatial relationships and movement patterns of the air cargo industry in airport regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrus J. van V. Coetzee

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: During the past few years, with the increase in air traffic and the expansion of airports, very few industries had such a large spatial development and movement impact as that of airport-related clusters or airport regions. Although much research was done on the various impacts of the airport industry, very little research was done on the air cargo industry in airport regions. Objectives: This article specifically explored the unique spatial relationships, impacts, trends and movement patterns of the air cargo industry within a typical airport region. Method: The article focused on the OR Tambo International Airport in Gauteng, South Africa, as a case study and was informed by an extensive quantitative spatial and land use analysis and modelling of the study area. Results: The article presented findings and insights on the movement patterns and relationships between (1 the airport facility and (2 the spatial configuration of air cargo industries in the particular airport region. These findings also provided some framework for a possible spatial model and guideline that could assist in steering and managing development and movement patterns in airport regions. Conclusion: The article provided new insights and understanding on the spatial dynamics of airport regions and the air cargo industry, ultimately addressing some gaps in this knowledge field. The article in the end highlighted the need for a different and novel approach to the planning and management of the air cargo industry in airport regions and a basis for further research.

  1. Optimisation of key performance measures in air cargo demand management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander May

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This article sought to facilitate the optimisation of key performance measures utilised for demand management in air cargo operations. The focus was on the Revenue Management team at Virgin Atlantic Cargo and a fuzzy group decision-making method was used. Utilising intelligent fuzzy multi-criteria methods, the authors generated a ranking order of ten key outcome-based performance indicators for Virgin Atlantic air cargo Revenue Management. The result of this industry-driven study showed that for Air Cargo Revenue Management, ‘Network Optimisation’ represents a critical outcome-based performance indicator. This collaborative study contributes to existing logistics management literature, especially in the area of Revenue Management, and it seeks to enhance Revenue Management practice. It also provides a platform for Air Cargo operators seeking to improve reliability values for their key performance indicators as a means of enhancing operational monitoring power.

  2. Shift designs for freight handling personnel at air cargo terminals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rong, Aiying; Grunow, Martin

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an integrated mixed integer linear programming (MILP) model for determining manpower requirements and related personnel shift designs for the build-up and break-down of the unit load devices (ULDs) at the air cargo terminal to minimize manpower costs. To utilize the manpower...... resources efficiently, we implement a new mechanism for demand leveling. In addition, we consider the qualification hierarchy between build-up and break-down workers. A case study based on the real-life data shows that the model is useful for manpower planning at air cargo terminals and the integrated...

  3. 77 FR 65395 - Air Cargo Advance Screening (ACAS) Pilot Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Air Cargo Advance Screening (ACAS) Pilot Program Correction In notice document 2012-26031 appearing on pages 65006-65009 in the issue of October 24, 2012 make the following correction: On page 65007, in the first column, under the...

  4. Air cargo market outlook and impact via the NASA CLASS project. [Cargo/Logistics Airlift Systems Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winston, M. M.; Conner, D. W.

    1980-01-01

    An overview is given of the Cargo/Logistics Airlift Systems Study (CLASS) project which was a 10 man-year effort carried out by two contractor teams, aimed at defining factors impacting future system growth and obtaining market requirements and design guidelines for future air freighters. Growth projection was estimated by two approaches: one, an optimal systems approach with a more efficient and cost effective system considered as being available in 1990; and the other, an evolutionary approach with an econometric behavior model used to predict long term evolution from the present system. Both approaches predict significant growth in demand for international air freighter services and less growth for U.S. domestic services. Economic analysis of air freighter fleet options indicate very strong market appeal of derivative widebody transports in 1990 with little incentive to develop all new dedicated air freighters utilizing the 1990's technology until sometime beyond the year 2000. Advanced air freighters would be economically attractive for a wide range of payload sizes (to 500 metric tons), however, if a government would share in the RD and T costs by virtue of its needs for a slightly modified version of a civil air freighter design (a.g. military airlifter).

  5. ATHLETE: Lunar Cargo Handling for International Lunar Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Brian H.

    2010-01-01

    As part of the Human-Robot Systems Project within the NASA Exploration Technology Development Program, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory is developing a vehicle called ATHLETE: the All-Terrain Hex-Limbed Extra-Terrestrial Explorer. The basic idea of ATHLETE is to have six relatively small wheels on the ends of legs. The small wheels and associated drive actuators are much less massive than the larger wheels and gears needed for an "all terrain" vehicle that cannot "walk" out of extreme terrain. The mass savings for the wheels and wheel actuators is greater than the mass penalty of the legs, for a net mass savings. Starting in 2009, NASA became engaged in detailed architectural studies for international discussions with the European Space Agency (ESA), the Japanese Space Agency (JAXA), and the Canadian Space Agency (CSA) under the auspices of the International Architecture Working Group (IAWG). ATHLETE is considered in most of the campaign options considered, providing a way to offload cargo from large Altair-class landers (having a cargo deck 6+ meters above the surface) as well as offloading international landers launched on Ariane-5 or H-2 launch vehicles. These international landers would carry provisions as well as scientific instruments and/or small rovers that would be used by international astronauts as part of an international effort to explore the moon.Work described in this paper includes architectural studies in support of the international missions as well as field testing of a half-scale ATHLETE prototype performing cargo offloading from a lander mockup, along with multi-kilometer traverse, climbing over greater than 1 m rocks, tool use, etc.

  6. 76 FR 4362 - Extension of Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB Review: Air Cargo Security...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-25

    ... airports, passenger aircraft operators, foreign air carriers, indirect air carriers operating under a security program, and all-cargo carriers. These five categories are: Security programs, security threat assessments (STA), known shipper data via the Known Shipper Management System (KSMS), cargo screening...

  7. 77 FR 24506 - Extension of Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB Review: Air Cargo Security...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-24

    ... air carriers, indirect air carriers and all-cargo carriers operating under a TSA-approved security program. These five categories are: Security programs, security threat assessments (STAs), known shipper data via the Known Shipper Management System (KSMS), cargo screening reporting, and evidence of...

  8. 77 FR 65006 - Air Cargo Advance Screening (ACAS) Pilot Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-24

    ... electronic cargo information by way of a CBP-approved electronic data interchange (EDI) system before the... electronically receive certain information regarding that cargo through a CBP-approved EDI system no later than... the above information regarding that cargo through a CBP-approved EDI system no later than the time of...

  9. 77 FR 11145 - Intent to Request Renewal From OMB of One Current Public Collection of Information: Air Cargo...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-24

    ... operating under a security program, and all-cargo carriers. The collections of information that make up this ICR are security programs, security threat assessments (STA), known shipper data via the Known Shipper Management System (KSMS), Air Cargo Data Management System (ACDMS), Cargo Reporting Tool for cargo screening...

  10. 75 FR 9919 - Extension of Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB Review: Air Cargo Security...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-04

    ... operating under a security program, and all-cargo carriers. These five categories are: security programs, security threat assessments (STA), known shipper data via the Known Shipper Management System (KSMS), cargo... Verification Form, Aircraft Operator or Air Carrier Reporting Template, Security Threat Assessment Application...

  11. CHARACTERISTICS OF THE CARGO INSURANCE CONTRACT IN CASE OF INTERNATIONAL LAND TRANSPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dănilă Ștefan MATEI

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Cargo international transport is an engine for the development of the economic relations between states involving cross-border movement of goods through the crossing of at least one border of a state (international transport or by crossing at least two border crossing points, in which case we are in the presence of an international cargo transit. During the transit the goods transported may be subject to an insurance. The object of the cargo insurance is, thus, represented by the goods, the items expressly listed in the insurance policy, within the territorial limits specified in the insurance policy, both during the transport and during the storage, in the latter case, at the express request of the insured and with the acceptance of the insurer. This paper analyzes the characteristics of the cargo insurance aiming to present the theoretical and practical aspects of interest with regard to the cargo insurance concluded in case of an international land freight transport.

  12. Analysis of forecasting methods of cargo flows in International transportation by land transport

    OpenAIRE

    Ponomareva, N.

    2005-01-01

    Advantages and disadvantages of the existing forecasting methods of cargo flows are presented. The improvement of cargo flows forecasting method in international transportation by land transport is considered on the basis of a interregional balance model to get more correct and fuller forecast.

  13. Air cargo: An Integrated Systems View. 1978 Summer Faculty Fellowship Program in Engineering Systems Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keaton, A. (Editor); Eastman, R. (Editor); Hargrove, A. (Editor); Rabiega, W. (Editor); Olsen, R. (Editor); Soberick, M. (Editor)

    1978-01-01

    The national air cargo system is analyzed and how it should be in 1990 is prescribed in order to operate successfully through 2015; that is through one equipment cycle. Elements of the system which are largely under control of the airlines and the aircraft manufacturers are discussed. The discussion deals with aircraft, networks, facilities, and procedures. The regulations which govern the movement of air freight are considered. The larger public policy interests which must be served by the kind of system proposed, the air cargo integrated system (ACIS), are addressed. The possible social, economical, political, and environment impacts of the system are considered. Recommendations are also given.

  14. Evaluation of Burning Test Rate Method for Flammable Solids to Increase air-Cargo Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukežič, Marjan; Marinšek, Marjan; Faganeli, Jadran

    2010-03-01

    This paper deals with a standard classification procedure for readily combustible solids and their assignment to the relevant packing groups according to international air-cargo legislation and regulations. The current International Air Transport Association and United Nations Orange Book regulations were used on chemically similar substances: hexamethylenetetramine and Dancook ignition briquettes, which are both assigned into the same Packing Group III. To critically evaluate the degree of hazard both chemicals present, a standard burning test rate as well as thermogravimetry, differential scanning calorimetry and evolved gas analysis measurements were performed. It was shown that relatively small changes in the chemical composition of the material may have essential influence on the package group determination. Taking into account all the facts collected in the experimental work, it was concluded that ignition briquettes will undergo spontaneous combustion if exposed to elevated temperatures and, from this point of view, represent higher risk than hexamethylenetetramine during air transportation. Therefore, ignition briquettes should be classified into Packing Group II.

  15. 19 CFR 122.48a - Electronic information for air cargo required in advance of arrival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Electronic information for air cargo required in... OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Entry and Entry Documents; Electronic Manifest Requirements for Passengers, Crew Members, and Non-Crew Members Onboard...

  16. National Security Science and Technology Initiative: Air Cargo Screening, Final Report for CRADA Number NFE-07-01081

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bingham, Philip [ORNL; Bush, John [Battelle Memorial Institute; Bowerman, Biays [Brookhaven National Laboratory; Cespedes, Ernesto [Idaho National Laboratory; White, Timothy [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    2004-12-01

    The non-intrusive inspection (NII) of consolidated air cargo carried on commercial passenger aircraft continues to be a technically challenging, high-priority requirement of the Department of Homeland Security’s Science and Technology Directorate (DHS S&T), the Transportation Security Agency and the Federal Aviation Administration. The goal of deploying a screening system that can reliably and cost-effectively detect explosive threats in consolidated cargo without adversely affecting the flow of commerce will require significant technical advances that will take years to develop. To address this critical National Security need, the Battelle Memorial Institute (Battelle), under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) with four of its associated US Department of Energy (DOE) National Laboratories (Oak Ridge, Pacific Northwest, Idaho, and Brookhaven), conducted a research and development initiative focused on identifying, evaluating, and integrating technologies for screening consolidated air cargo for the presence of explosive threats. Battelle invested $8.5M of internal research and development funds during fiscal years 2007 through 2009.

  17. EVALUATION OF ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY PERTAINING TO USAGE OF AUTOMOTIVE TRANSPORT FACILITIES WHILE EXECUTING INTERNATIONAL CARGO TRANSPORTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. B. Ivut

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a methodology for evaluation of economic efficiency pertaining to usage of automotive transport facilities while executing international cargo transportation on the basis of average internal norm calculation of automotive operational profitability of a specific model under conditions which are typical for the given market by an average carrier.

  18. Spiders (Araneae) Found in Bananas and Other International Cargo Submitted to North American Arachnologists for Identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetter, Richard S; Crawford, Rodney L; Buckle, Donald J

    2014-11-01

    Spiders found in international cargo brought into North America are sometimes submitted to arachnologists for identification. Often, these spiders are presumed to be of medical importance because of size or a submitter's familiarity with a toxic spider genus from the continent of origin. Starting in 2006, requests were made for spiders found in international cargo brought into North America, in addition to the specimens from similar cargo shipments already in our museum collections. This was an ad hoc study that allowed us to focus on spiders of concern to the discoverer. We identified 135 spiders found in international cargo. A key for the most common species is provided. The most frequently submitted spiders were the pantropical huntsman spider, Heteropoda venatoria (L.) (Sparassidae), and the redfaced banana spider, Cupiennius chiapanensis Medina Soriano (Ctenidae). Spiders of medical importance were rare. The most common cargo from which spiders were submitted was bananas with most specimens coming from Central America, Ecuador, or Colombia. Lack of experience with nonnative fauna caused several experienced American arachnologists to misidentify harmless ctenid spiders (C. chiapanensis, spotlegged banana spider, Cupiennius getazi Simon) as highly toxic Phoneutria spiders. These misidentifications could have led to costly, unwarranted prophylactic eradication measures, unnecessary employee health education, heightened employee anxiety and spoilage when perishable goods are left unloaded due to safety concerns. © 2014 Entomological Society of America.

  19. 75 FR 63192 - Intent To Request Renewal From OMB of One Current Public Collection of Information: Air Cargo...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-14

    ... carriers, indirect air carriers operating under a security program, and all-cargo carriers: Security programs, security threat assessments (STA), known shipper data via the Known Shipper Management System... system to screen, inspect, report, or otherwise ensure the security of all cargo that is to be...

  20. A Benchmarking of Operational Efficiency in Asia Pacific International Cargo Airports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae-won Chung

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper compares operational efficiency of major cargo airports in the Asia Pacific region. The multi-dimensional scaling cluster analysis by R-square method was used as the benchmarking tool to provide airport management with a means to examine various aspects of their operational efficiency against those of other airports. Ten operational efficiency factors for the clustering and efficiency estimation of airports in the Asia Pacific region were used in a regression model to overcome the complexity of multi-dimensional scaling approach. The resulting classification is used to identify the efficiency benchmarks of leading air cargo airports which have implications for Incheon airport in Korea.

  1. Role of Air Cargo and Road Feeder Services for Regional Airports – Case Studies from the Baltic Sea Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beifert Anatoli

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Although airports play an important role the global and European economies, according to the new guidelines of the EU Commission on the new state aid rules for a competitive aviation industry (EC, 2014, it will be more difficult for unprofitable airports, to get financial public subsidies in the future. The Commission noted that the majority of regional airports experience severe problems to cover their operative costs, resulting from among other things from overlapping of airports’ catchment areas. The main objective of the above mentioned measures is not to close the regional airports, but to motivate them to operate on cost efficient, profitable and more flexible basis, stating however that and that the most inefficient airports will be still closed. In order face upcoming challenges, the regional airports shall reconsider their future development plans. Traditionally, the airports including small and regional airports focus on the passenger traffic and thus, the possible benefits and opportunities of the air cargo market are totally underestimated or even completely ignored. Most regional airports in the Baltic Sea region act totally isolated and do not have a clear picture of the current situation on the international air cargo market today, its future perspectives and sustainable development plans remain basically hidden. There are some examples when trying to meet the market demand, the regional airports have made huge, but unfortunately unjustified investments, e.g. improving airport infrastructure, runways, etc. However, the airports’ infrastructural investments alone cannot fulfil the expected “remedy” role for the airports’ sustainability. This paper aims at investigating the positioning and the role of the regional airports in the current hub-and-spoke network, focusing on the relevance and potential of the air cargo sector for the regional airports development. The optional freight value proposition for the development of

  2. Design of Air Ventilation System for Cargo Hold Vessels Using Solar Desiccant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alam Baheramsyah

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available One of the facilities and infrastructure of the vessel is the ventilation system in the cargo hold to maintain the quality. One attempt to avoid high moisture ratios is to provide a dry air supply by using desiccants. The purpose of this thesis is to design the system of air ventilation with solar desiccant by analysis the calculation with decrease air humidity ratio after passing desiccant rotor as well as fulfillment needs of heater and cooling system using heat of exhaust gas and seawater as well as fulfillment of electricity need using solar energy. From the result of analysis obtain to provide air supply in the cargo hold of 437.5 m3 / hour, the specification of rotor desiccant has a diameter of 550 mm with thickness 200 mm to decrease ratio of outside air humidity equal to 83.1% become 46.5%. Dehumidification air temperature of 47.7oC will be lowered to 35oC by using the sea water cooling media. As for the reactivation air heater requirement of 24.292 kW would be to fulfilled by utilizing the exhaust power of 498.12 kW. And for the electric power needs of the syetm is 34,488 wp will be supplied from the total solar module is 33 units with 345 wp per-capacity.

  3. Multi-energy x-ray detectors to improve air-cargo security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulus, Caroline; Moulin, Vincent; Perion, Didier; Radisson, Patrick; Verger, Loïck

    2017-05-01

    X-ray based systems have been used for decades to screen luggage or cargo to detect illicit material. The advent of energy-sensitive photon-counting x-ray detectors mainly based on Cd(Zn)Te semi-conductor technology enables to improve discrimination between materials compared to single or dual energy technology. The presented work is part of the EUROSKY European project to develop a Single European Secure Air-Cargo Space. "Cargo" context implies the presence of relatively heavy objects and with potentially high atomic number. All the study is conducted on simulations with three different detectors: a typical dual energy sandwich detector, a realistic model of the commercial ME100 multi-energy detector marketed by MULTIX, and a ME100 "Cargo": a not yet existing modified multi-energy version of the ME100 more suited to air freight cargo inspection. Firstly, a comparison on simulated measurements shows the performances improvement of the new multi-energy detectors compared to the current dual-energy one. The relative performances are evaluated according to different criteria of separability or contrast-to-noise ratio and the impact of different parameters is studied (influence of channel number, type of materials and tube voltage). Secondly, performances of multi-energy detectors for overlaps processing in a dual-view system is accessed: the case of orthogonal projections has been studied, one giving dimensional values, the other one providing spectral data to assess effective atomic number. A method of overlap correction has been proposed and extended to multi-layer objects case. Therefore, Calibration and processing based on bi-material decomposition have been adapted for this purpose.

  4. International liner cargo shipping: a review of Part X of the Trade Practices Act 1974

    OpenAIRE

    Productivity Commission

    2001-01-01

    On 12 March 1999 the Assistant Treasurer referred Part X of the Trade Practices Act 1974 and associated regulations to the Commission for inquiry and report within six months. The Commission was to report on the appropriate arrangements for regulation of international cargo shipping services.

  5. 14 CFR 399.41 - Zones of limited suspension for international cargo rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) POLICY STATEMENTS STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY Policies Relating to Rates and Tariffs § 399.41 Zones of limited suspension for international cargo rates. (a) Applicability. This section states the Board's policy for suspending rate changes for the transportation of property...

  6. Fast neutron radiography scanner for the detection of contraband in air cargo containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eberhardt, J.E.; Rainey, S.; Stevens, R.J.; Sowerby, B.D.; Tickner, J.R.

    2005-01-01

    There is a growing need to rapidly scan bulk air cargo for contraband such as illicit drugs and explosives. The Commonwealth Science and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) have been working with Australian Customs Service to develop a scanner capable of directly scanning airfreight containers in 1-2 minutes without unpacking. The scanner combines fast neutron and gamma-ray radiography to provide high-resolution images that include information on material composition. A full-scale prototype scanner has been successfully tested in the laboratory and a commercial-scale scanner is due to be installed at Brisbane airport in 2005

  7. Fast neutron radiography scanner for the detection of contraband in air cargo containers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eberhardt, J.E. [CSIRO Minerals, Private Mail Bag 5, Menai, NSW 2234 (Australia); Rainey, S. [CSIRO Minerals, Private Mail Bag 5, Menai, NSW 2234 (Australia); Stevens, R.J. [CSIRO Minerals, Private Mail Bag 5, Menai, NSW 2234 (Australia); Sowerby, B.D. [CSIRO Minerals, Private Mail Bag 5, Menai, NSW 2234 (Australia)]. E-mail: brian.sowerby@csiro.au; Tickner, J.R. [CSIRO Minerals, Private Mail Bag 5, Menai, NSW 2234 (Australia)

    2005-08-01

    There is a growing need to rapidly scan bulk air cargo for contraband such as illicit drugs and explosives. The Commonwealth Science and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) have been working with Australian Customs Service to develop a scanner capable of directly scanning airfreight containers in 1-2 minutes without unpacking. The scanner combines fast neutron and gamma-ray radiography to provide high-resolution images that include information on material composition. A full-scale prototype scanner has been successfully tested in the laboratory and a commercial-scale scanner is due to be installed at Brisbane airport in 2005.

  8. THE ASSESSMENT MODELS OF AIR POLLUTION DURING TRANSPORTATION OF BULK CARGO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Biliaiev

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The scientific work is concentrated on development of 3D, 2D numerical models for the prediction of atmospheric pollution during transport of bulk cargo in the railway car. Methodology. To solve this problem numerical models were developed, based on the use of the motion equations of inviscid incompressible fluid and mass transfer, to determine the field of wind velocity near the cars and dispersion of dust in the atmosphere. For the numerical integration of the pollutant transport equation implicit alternating-triangular difference scheme was used. When constructing a difference scheme splitting of the transport equation is carried out that allows us to construct an efficient algorithm for solving a differential problem. Unknown value of the pollutant concentration at every step of splitting is determined by the explicit scheme – the method of point-to-point computation, which provides a simple numerical implementation of splitting equations. For numerical integration of the 3D equation for the velocity potential method of Richardson is applied. For numerical integration of the 2D equation for the velocity potential the method of total approximation is applied. The developed numerical models are the basis of established software package. On the basis of the constructed numerical models a computational experiment to assess the level of air pollution when demolition of coal dust from the gondola car was carried out. Findings. 3D, 2D numerical models that belong to the class «diagnostic models» were developed. These models take into account the main physical factors affecting the process of dust pollution dispersion in the atmosphere during transportation of bulk cargo, but require small costs of the computer time in the practice at the low and medium power machines. These models are used for serial calculations of various situations of scenarios related to issues of environmental protection and pollution intensity diagnostics for

  9. Life Science on the International Space Station Using the Next Generation of Cargo Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, J. A.; Phillion, J. P.; Hart, A. T.; Comella, J.; Edeen, M.; Ruttley, T. M.

    2011-01-01

    With the retirement of the Space Shuttle and the transition of the International Space Station (ISS) from assembly to full laboratory capabilities, the opportunity to perform life science research in space has increased dramatically, while the operational considerations associated with transportation of the experiments has changed dramatically. US researchers have allocations on the European Automated Transfer Vehicle (ATV) and Japanese H-II Transfer Vehicle (HTV). In addition, the International Space Station (ISS) Cargo Resupply Services (CRS) contract will provide consumables and payloads to and from the ISS via the unmanned SpaceX (offers launch and return capabilities) and Orbital (offers only launch capabilities) resupply vehicles. Early requirements drove the capabilities of the vehicle providers; however, many other engineering considerations affect the actual design and operations plans. To better enable the use of the International Space Station as a National Laboratory, ground and on-orbit facility development can augment the vehicle capabilities to better support needs for cell biology, animal research, and conditioned sample return. NASA Life scientists with experience launching research on the space shuttle can find the trades between the capabilities of the many different vehicles to be confusing. In this presentation we will summarize vehicle and associated ground processing capabilities as well as key concepts of operations for different types of life sciences research being launched in the cargo vehicles. We will provide the latest status of vehicle capabilities and support hardware and facilities development being made to enable the broadest implementation of life sciences research on the ISS.

  10. 46 CFR 32.50-35 - Remote manual shutdown for internal combustion engine driven cargo pump on tank vessels-TB/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Remote manual shutdown for internal combustion engine... for Cargo Handling § 32.50-35 Remote manual shutdown for internal combustion engine driven cargo pump on tank vessels—TB/ALL. (a) Any tank vessel which is equipped with an internal combustion engine...

  11. Usefulness of current international air transport statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-05-01

    International air transportation is the fastest growing segment of transportation. It performs a major function in the globalization process and is a significant feature of the late 20th century. Public policy regarding international air transportati...

  12. Comparison of neutron and high-energy X-ray dual-beam radiography for air cargo inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Y.; Sowerby, B.D.; Tickner, J.R.

    2008-01-01

    Dual-beam radiography techniques utilising various combinations of high-energy X-rays and neutrons are attractive for screening bulk cargo for contraband such as narcotics and explosives. Dual-beam radiography is an important enhancement to conventional single-beam X-ray radiography systems in that it provides additional information on the composition of the object being imaged. By comparing the attenuations of transmitted dual high-energy beams, it is possible to build a 2D image, colour coded to indicate material. Only high-energy X-rays, gamma-rays and neutrons have the required penetration to screen cargo containers. This paper reviews recent developments and applications of dual-beam radiography for air cargo inspection. These developments include dual high-energy X-ray techniques as well as fast neutron and gamma-ray (or X-ray) radiography systems. High-energy X-ray systems have the advantage of generally better penetration than neutron systems, depending on the material being interrogated. However, neutron systems have the advantage of much better sensitivity to material composition compared to dual high-energy X-ray techniques. In particular, fast neutron radiography offers the potential to discriminate between various classes of organic material, unlike dual energy X-ray techniques that realistically only offer the ability to discriminate between organic and metal objects

  13. A Study of Fatigue and Performance Considerations in Air Mobility Cargo Aircrews Flying Transatlantic Missions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Levin, Julian

    1997-01-01

    The U.S. Air Force Air Mobility Command (AMC) is responsible for movement of supplies and personnel, air refueling operations and air evacuation operations throughout the world in support of the United States' national interest...

  14. Cargo Data Management Demonstration System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-02-01

    Delays in receipt and creation of cargo documents are a problem in international trade. The work described demonstrates some of the advantages and capabilities of a computer-based cargo data management system. A demonstration system for data manageme...

  15. X-ray and neutron interrogation of air cargo for mobile applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Liew, Seth

    2015-06-01

    A system for scanning break-bulk cargo for mobile applications is presented. This combines a 140 kV multi-view, multi-energy X-ray system with 2.5 MeV neutrons. The system uses dual energy X-ray radiography with neutron radiography. The X-ray and neutron systems were designed to be collocated in a mobile environment. Various materials were interrogated with the intent of distinguishing threat materials such as explosives from similar benign materials. In particular, the identification of threats and bengins with nearly identical effective atomic numbers has been demonstrated.

  16. X-ray and neutron interrogation of air cargo for mobile applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Liew, Seth

    2015-01-01

    A system for scanning break-bulk cargo for mobile applications is presented. This combines a 140 kV multi-view, multi-energy X-ray system with 2.5 MeV neutrons. The system uses dual energy X-ray radiography with neutron radiography. The X-ray and neutron systems were designed to be collocated in a mobile environment. Various materials were interrogated with the intent of distinguishing threat materials such as explosives from similar benign materials. In particular, the identification of threats and bengins with nearly identical effective atomic numbers has been demonstrated

  17. International dissemination of epidemic Vibrio cholerae by cargo ship ballast and other nonpotable waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, S A; Khambaty, F M

    1994-07-01

    In 1991 and 1992, toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O1, serotype Inaba, biotype El Tor, was recovered from nonpotable (ballast, bilge, and sewage) water from five cargo ships docked in ports of the U.S. Gulf of Mexico. Four of these ships had taken on ballast water in cholera-infected countries; the fifth took on ballast in a noninfected country. Isolates examined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis were indistinguishable from the Latin American epidemic strain, C6707; however, they differed significantly from the endemic Gulf Coast strain (VRL 1984), the sixth-pandemic strain (569-B), and a V. cholerae non-O1 strain isolated from a ship arriving from a foreign port. On the basis of our findings, the Food and Drug Administration recommended that the U.S. Coast Guard issue an advisory to shipping agents and captains requesting that ballast waters be exchanged on the high seas before entry of ships into U.S. ports.

  18. Development in Danish international air traffic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Linda

    The paper is describing the development in international air traffic made by Danes and for all travellers out of Denmark in the period 2002 - 2012. Development in passengers, destination countries and prices is illustrated. The person kilometres by Danes have increased 80% or 7.2% per year in mean...... during the 10 years. This increase has been analysed by a panel data model. The conclusion found by modelling is the increasing travel activity first of all is driven by increasing income and to less extent by decreasing prices. The paper is furthermore showing how the international air traffic has got...

  19. Complexity in human transportation networks: a comparative analysis of worldwide air transportation and global cargo-ship movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolley-Meza, O.; Thiemann, C.; Grady, D.; Lee, J. J.; Seebens, H.; Blasius, B.; Brockmann, D.

    2011-12-01

    We present a comparative network-theoretic analysis of the two largest global transportation networks: the worldwide air-transportation network (WAN) and the global cargo-ship network (GCSN). We show that both networks exhibit surprising statistical similarities despite significant differences in topology and connectivity. Both networks exhibit a discontinuity in node and link betweenness distributions which implies that these networks naturally segregate into two different classes of nodes and links. We introduce a technique based on effective distances, shortest paths and shortest path trees for strongly weighted symmetric networks and show that in a shortest path tree representation the most significant features of both networks can be readily seen. We show that effective shortest path distance, unlike conventional geographic distance measures, strongly correlates with node centrality measures. Using the new technique we show that network resilience can be investigated more precisely than with contemporary techniques that are based on percolation theory. We extract a functional relationship between node characteristics and resilience to network disruption. Finally we discuss the results, their implications and conclude that dynamic processes that evolve on both networks are expected to share universal dynamic characteristics.

  20. Acoustic Multipurpose Cargo Transfer Bag

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccus, Shelley

    2015-01-01

    The Logistics Reduction (LR) project within the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) program is tasked with reducing logistical mass and repurposing logistical items. Multipurpose Cargo Transfer Bags (MCTB) are designed to be the same external volume as a regular cargo transfer bag, the common logistics carrier for the International Space Station. After use as a cargo bag, the MCTB can be unzipped and unfolded to be reused. This Acoustic MCTBs transform into acoustic blankets after the initial logistics carrying objective is complete.

  1. 19 CFR 10.41a - Lift vans, cargo vans, shipping tanks, skids, pallets, and similar instruments of international...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... imported cargo to a point where export cargo is to be loaded or to an exterior port of departure by a... section 402, Tariff Act of 1930 (19 U.S.C. 1401a), as amended by the Trade Agreements Act of 1979 (TAA...

  2. Using Monte Carlo Simulation To Improve Cargo Mass Estimates For International Space Station Commercial Resupply Flights

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    The Challenges of ISS Resupply .......................................... 23 F. THE IMPORTANCE OF MASS PROPERTIES IN SPACECRAFT AND MISSION DESIGN...Transportation System TBA trundle bearing assembly VLC verification loads cycle xv EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Resupplying the International Space Station...management priorities. This study addresses those challenges by developing Monte Carlo simulations based on over 13 years of as- flownSS resupply

  3. Regional, national and international security requirements for the transport of nuclear cargo by sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Booker, P.A.; Barnwell, I.

    2004-01-01

    Since the beginning of the nuclear age in the 1940's, the world has focused on the immense possibilities of nuclear power with both its destructive and productive capabilities. The civil nuclear industry in the UK, as in most nuclear weapons states, grew from the military facilities built in the post war years under the political climate of the Cold War. In the early years of the industry, civil and defence nuclear facilities were inextricably linked both in public perceptions and the regulatory infrastructure under which they operated. The nuclear arms race and the spread of communism overshadowed people's perceptions of there being two separate uses of nuclear material. This was a double edged sword which initially allowed the industry to develop largely unhindered by public concerns but latterly meant the industry could not break away from its roots and to many is still perceived as a dangerous and destructive force. Regulatory frameworks governing all aspects of the industry have developed both nationally and internationally driven by valid public concerns, political agendas and an international consensus that the unregulated use of nuclear material has catastrophic possibilities on an international scale. With the internationalisation of the civil nuclear industry and the costs associated with developing facilities to fully support each stage of the fuel cycle, from enrichment, fuel manufacturing, reprocessing and waste remediation, it became inevitable that a transport infrastructure would develop to make best use of the facilities. Regulations, both national and international are implicit in ensuring the security of nuclear material in transit. Due to the physical size of many of the irradiated fuel packages and implications of the changes to transport safety regulations, international transports of nuclear material, other than within mainland Europe, is predominantly carried out by sea

  4. Regional, national and international security requirements for the transport of nuclear cargo by sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Booker, P.A.; Barnwell, I. [Marine Operations, BNFL International Transport and British Nuclear Group Security (United Kingdom)

    2004-07-01

    Since the beginning of the nuclear age in the 1940's, the world has focused on the immense possibilities of nuclear power with both its destructive and productive capabilities. The civil nuclear industry in the UK, as in most nuclear weapons states, grew from the military facilities built in the post war years under the political climate of the Cold War. In the early years of the industry, civil and defence nuclear facilities were inextricably linked both in public perceptions and the regulatory infrastructure under which they operated. The nuclear arms race and the spread of communism overshadowed people's perceptions of there being two separate uses of nuclear material. This was a double edged sword which initially allowed the industry to develop largely unhindered by public concerns but latterly meant the industry could not break away from its roots and to many is still perceived as a dangerous and destructive force. Regulatory frameworks governing all aspects of the industry have developed both nationally and internationally driven by valid public concerns, political agendas and an international consensus that the unregulated use of nuclear material has catastrophic possibilities on an international scale. With the internationalisation of the civil nuclear industry and the costs associated with developing facilities to fully support each stage of the fuel cycle, from enrichment, fuel manufacturing, reprocessing and waste remediation, it became inevitable that a transport infrastructure would develop to make best use of the facilities. Regulations, both national and international are implicit in ensuring the security of nuclear material in transit. Due to the physical size of many of the irradiated fuel packages and implications of the changes to transport safety regulations, international transports of nuclear material, other than within mainland Europe, is predominantly carried out by sea.

  5. PHOTOGRAMMETRIC MODEL BASED METHOD OF AUTOMATIC ORIENTATION OF SPACE CARGO SHIP RELATIVE TO THE INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. B. Blokhinov

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The technical problem of creating the new Russian version of an automatic Space Cargo Ship (SCS for the International Space Station (ISS is inseparably connected to the development of a digital video system for automatically measuring the SCS position relative to ISS in the process of spacecraft docking. This paper presents a method for estimating the orientation elements based on the use of a highly detailed digital model of the ISS. The input data are digital frames from a calibrated video system and the initial values of orientation elements, these can be estimated from navigation devices or by fast-and-rough viewpoint-dependent algorithm. Then orientation elements should be defined precisely by means of algorithmic processing. The main idea is to solve the exterior orientation problem mainly on the basis of contour information of the frame image of ISS instead of ground control points. A detailed digital model is used for generating raster templates of ISS nodes; the templates are used to detect and locate the nodes on the target image with the required accuracy. The process is performed for every frame, the resulting parameters are considered to be the orientation elements. The Kalman filter is used for statistical support of the estimation process and real time pose tracking. Finally, the modeling results presented show that the proposed method can be regarded as one means to ensure the algorithmic support of automatic space ships docking.

  6. International Affairs Programs: The Air Force Versus the Army

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    individual tutoring programs . Additionally RAS personnel are offered regional enhancement studies opportunities at several facilities.48 RAS personnel...AU/ACSC/2015 AIR COMMAND AND STAFF COLLEGE AIR UNIVERSITY INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS PROGRAMS : THE AIR FORCE VERSUS THE ARMY by Robin L...5 COMPARISON: INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS PROGRAMS AIR FORCE VERSUS ARMY 8

  7. Health risks in international container and bulk cargo transport due to volatile toxic compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baur, Xaver; Budnik, Lygia T; Zhao, Zhiwei

    2015-01-01

    To ensure the preservation and quality of the goods, physical (i.e. radiation) or chemical pest control is needed. The dark side of such consents may bear health risks in international transport and production sharing. In fact, between 10% and 20% of all containers arriving European harbors were...... with lethal outcome, occur not only during the fumigation, but also during freight transport (on bulk carriers and other transport vessels), as well as in the logistic lines during loading and unloading. Risk occupations include dock-workers, seafarers, inspectors, as well as the usually uninformed workers...... of importing enterprises that unload the products. Bystanders as well as vulnerable consumers may also be at risk. Ongoing studies focus on the release of these toxic volatile substances from various goods. It was shown that the half-lives of the off-gassing process range between minutes and months, depending...

  8. Cargo liability regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    There are at present at least three international regimes of maritime cargo liability in force in different countries of the world - the original Hague rules (1924), the updated version known as the Hague-Visby rules (1968, further amended 1979), and...

  9. Health risks in international container and bulk cargo transport due to volatile toxic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baur, Xaver; Budnik, Lygia Therese; Zhao, Zhiwei; Bratveit, Magne; Djurhuus, Rune; Verschoor, Louis; Rubino, Federico Maria; Colosio, Claudio; Jepsen, Jorgen R

    2015-01-01

    To ensure the preservation and quality of the goods, physical (i.e. radiation) or chemical pest control is needed. The dark side of such consents may bear health risks in international transport and production sharing. In fact, between 10% and 20% of all containers arriving European harbors were shown to contain volatile toxic substances above the exposure limit values. Possible exposure to these toxic chemicals may occur not only for the applicators but also the receiver by off gassing from products, packing materials or transport units like containers. A number of intoxications, some with lethal outcome, occur not only during the fumigation, but also during freight transport (on bulk carriers and other transport vessels), as well as in the logistic lines during loading and unloading. Risk occupations include dock-workers, seafarers, inspectors, as well as the usually uninformed workers of importing enterprises that unload the products. Bystanders as well as vulnerable consumers may also be at risk. Ongoing studies focus on the release of these toxic volatile substances from various goods. It was shown that the half-lives of the off-gassing process range between minutes and months, depending on the toxic substance, its chemical reactivity, concentration, the temperature, the contaminated matrix (goods and packing materials), and the packing density in the transport units. Regulations on declaration and handling dangerous goods are mostly not followed. It is obvious that this hazardous situation in freight transport urgently requires preventive steps. In order to improve awareness and relevant knowledge there is a need for more comprehensive information on chemical hazards and a broader implementation of the already existing regulations and guidelines, such as those from ILO, IMO, and national authorities. It is also necessary to have regular controls by the authorities on a worldwide scale, which should be followed by sanctions in case of disregarding regulations

  10. The Cargo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birch, Thomas; Charlton, Michael F.; Biggs, Lynn

    2014-01-01

    The Gresham ship was carrying a substantial cargo of different metals when she sank, representing a considerable financial loss. Reports record that some of that material recovered in 1846 included 2700 tin ingots, lead pigs and iron bars (British Archaeological Association, 1847, 361......). The excavations in 2003–4 found a further three stamped lead ingots, five tin ingots and 42 iron bars from the hull area of the ship. The size of the original cargo remains unknown, though the estimated capacity of the ship, perhaps some 150 tons, provides an indication. In this chapter, the assemblage of lead...... and tin ingots and the bar iron will be described, the production processes established and the innovative analytical evidence for the provenance of the metals discussed. The research presented here suggests that lead ingots were from Derbyshire, the tin from Cornwall, but the bar iron seems...

  11. Investigating a Random Walk in Air Cargo Exports of Fresh Agricultural Products: Evidence from a Developing Country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mawanga Freddie Festo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1990s exports of fresh agricultural products by air from Uganda have been increasing and making a significant contribution to her International trade. Products include mostly fish, flowers, papain, and vanilla constituting over 95% of all air exports. Farming of the items is mainly by small scale farmers who depend on the natural climate of the country. Consequently, monthly yields are also climate dependent making individual export volumes unpredictable. In spite of these uncertainties, this study was intended to investigate possible existence of a model in the trends. Monthly data were collected from Uganda Civil Aviation Authority from 2009 to 2012. Analysis was by using ARIMA Approach with the help of Eviews 8. Visually the data exhibited irregular patterns and without a trend or seasonality. First order differencing stationarised the data and the residuals had a random non-significant noise suggesting a Random Walk Model expressed as ARIMA (0, 1, 0 and a negative drift. The model shows a link between current and one lag export volumes and the negative drift is a convergence of successive differences in export volumes. These findings have policy implications in expansion and forecasting of the exports potential of applicability of Random Walk Theory in practice.

  12. International trade and air pollution: estimating the economic costs of air emissions from waterborne commerce vessels in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Kevin P

    2005-10-01

    Although there is a burgeoning literature on the effects of international trade on the environment, relatively little work has been done on where trade most directly effects the environment: the transportation sector. This article shows how international trade is affecting air pollution emissions in the United States' shipping sector. Recent work has shown that cargo ships have been long overlooked regarding their contribution to air pollution. Indeed, ship emissions have recently been deemed "the last unregulated source of traditional air pollutants". Air pollution from ships has a number of significant local, national, and global environmental effects. Building on past studies, we examine the economic costs of this increasing and unregulated form of environmental damage. We find that total emissions from ships are largely increasing due to the increase in foreign commerce (or international trade). The economic costs of SO2 pollution range from dollars 697 million to dollars 3.9 billion during the period examined, or dollars 77 to dollars 435 million on an annual basis. The bulk of the cost is from foreign commerce, where the annual costs average to dollars 42 to dollars 241 million. For NOx emissions the costs are dollars 3.7 billion over the entire period or dollars 412 million per year. Because foreign trade is driving the growth in US shipping, we also estimate the effect of the Uruguay Round on emissions. Separating out the effects of global trade agreements reveals that the trade agreement-led emissions amounted to dollars 96 to dollars 542 million for SO2 between 1993 and 2001, or dollars 10 to dollars 60 million per year. For NOx they were dollars 745 million for the whole period or dollars 82 million per year. Without adequate policy responses, we predict that these trends and costs will continue into the future.

  13. Reducing Air Pollution from International Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Because of their reliance on petroleum-based fuels and their dramatic growth rates in recent decades, air and sea transport are responsible for significant emissions of both traditional air pollutants and greenhouse gases.

  14. International antiterrorist conventions concerning the safety of air transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek BARCIK

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article the international law regulations are presented concerning the civilian safety of the air transport. The history concerning air terrorism and international antiterrorist conventions was described in detail, involving The Chicago Convention, The Tokyo Convention, The Hague Convention and Montreal Convention.

  15. 46 CFR 154.1810 - Cargo manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... with inert gas and air. (13) A description of hull and cargo tank temperature monitoring systems. (14... vaporization system. (v) Gas main system. (vi) Cargo tank or compressor relief system and blocked liquid or gas relief system. (vii) Inerting system. (viii) Boil-off gas compressor or reliquefaction system. (ix) Gas...

  16. Radioactive material air transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pader y Terry, Claudio Cosme

    2002-01-01

    As function of the high aggregated value, safety regulations and the useful life time, the air transportation has been used more regularly because is fast, reliable, and by giving great security to the cargo. Based on the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the IATA (International Air Transportation Association) has reproduced in his dangerous goods manual (Dangerous Goods Regulations - DGR IATA), the regulation for the radioactive material air transportation. Those documents support this presentation

  17. Air-steam hybrid engine : an alternative to internal combustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    In this Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Phase 1 project, an energy-efficient air-steam propulsion system has been developed and patented, and key performance attributes have been demonstrated to be superior to those of internal combustion e...

  18. 46 CFR 154.534 - Cargo pumps and cargo compressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo pumps and cargo compressors. 154.534 Section 154.534 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES... Equipment Cargo and Process Piping Systems § 154.534 Cargo pumps and cargo compressors. Cargo pumps and...

  19. 75 FR 51569 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-20

    ... Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol... for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines AGENCY: Environmental... hazardous air pollutants for existing stationary spark ignition reciprocating internal combustion engines...

  20. Logistics of International Express Shipping and Air Traffic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmina Pašagić Škrinjar

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper studies the relations between logistics of international express shipments and air traffic analysing the basic characteristics of international express shipments that are carried by combined transport, usually road vehicles and aircraft. The paper indicates the possibility of optimising individual technological processes in the logistic chain of express shipments distribution. It analyses the forms for the calculation of time slots in single logistic chain hubs of collecting and delivery of express shipments. It has been shown that the international distribution chains in the air express sector, related to the globalisation process, change the traditional functions of combined ground-air transport. Here, the increased investment into automation plays the crucial role in the development strategies of companies and in the operationalization of the quality policy of numerous carriers of express shipments by air.

  1. The Internal Ballistics of an Air Gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denny, Mark

    2011-01-01

    The internal ballistics of a firearm or artillery piece considers the pellet, bullet, or shell motion while it is still inside the barrel. In general, deriving the muzzle speed of a gunpowder firearm from first principles is difficult because powder combustion is fast and it very rapidly raises the temperature of gas (generated by gunpowder…

  2. Safety of Cargo Aircraft Handling Procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Hlavatý

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to get acquainted with the ways how to improve the safety management system during cargo aircraft handling. The first chapter is dedicated to general information about air cargo transportation. This includes the history or types of cargo aircraft handling, but also the means of handling. The second part is focused on detailed description of cargo aircraft handling, including a description of activities that are performed before and after handling. The following part of this paper covers a theoretical interpretation of safety, safety indicators and legislative provisions related to the safety of cargo aircraft handling. The fourth part of this paper analyzes the fault trees of events which might occur during handling. The factors found by this analysis are compared with safety reports of FedEx. Based on the comparison, there is a proposal on how to improve the safety management in this transportation company.

  3. Saltsjoebaden V - Taking international air pollution policies into the future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-10-15

    24-26 June 2013, 130 leading international policy makers, scientists, experts and others met at an international workshop in Gothenburg, Sweden, in order to discuss and outline future directions in air pollution science and policy. The workshop, which was organised in close collaboration with the Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution and the European Commission, involved several themes such as linkages to climate change including SLCP, nitrogen, global governance and effects to health and environment. The output is a series of recommendations for further actions with respect to effects to health, ecosystems and near-term climate actions. Recommendations were also given with respect to heavy metals and POPs. The recommendations are directed towards several international organisations and initiatives such as CLRTAP, European Commission, Climate and Clean Air Coalition and the Arctic Council. (Author)

  4. International shipment of plutonium by air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercado, J.E.; McGrogan, J.P.

    1995-05-01

    In support of the United States (US) Government's decision to place excess plutonium oxide at the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site under International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards, the Department of State notified the Congress that a plutonium storage vault at the Plutonium Finishing Plant at the Hanford Site would be added to the eligible facilities list. As part of the preparations to transfer the plutonium oxide under IAEA safeguards, samples of the powder were taken from the inventory to be shipped to the IAEA headquarters in Vienna, Austria, for laboratory analysis. The analysis of these samples was of high priority, and the IAEA requested that the material be shipped by aircraft, the most expeditious method

  5. Aviation security : preliminary observations on TSA's progress and challenges in meeting the statutory mandate for screening air cargo on passenger aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    The Implementing : Recommendations of the 9/11 : Commission Act of 2007 mandates : the Department of Homeland : Security (DHS) to establish a : system to physically screen 50 : percent of cargo transported on : passenger aircraft by February : 2009 a...

  6. 77 FR 34122 - Application of Sun Air Express, LLC, d/b/a Sun Air International for Commuter Authority

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Office of the Secretary [Docket DOT-OST-2011-0169] Application of Sun Air Express, LLC, d/b/a Sun Air International for Commuter Authority AGENCY: Department of... order finding Sun Air Express, LLC d/b/a Sun Air International fit, willing, and able, and awarding it...

  7. Product development of Indian cargo scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    A cargo scanner is required for nonintrusive screening of suspected cargo containers in trade, using high energy X-ray, to detect any mis-declarations, contraband goods concealment or hidden ammunition or explosives. The cargo scanners help authorities to process large number of suspected cargo with a high level of confidence with other additional benefit of faster clearance, minimised intrusive inspection and generating secured digital record of the process. BARC is in process of developing Indian Cargo Scanner with indigenous X-ray source. Proof of concept and conformance of the results to the international standards has been demonstrated in laboratory. Full scale equipment named as Portal scanner shall be demonstrated at Gamma field Trombay in year 2017. Subsequently the technology transfer may be done to a suitable Indian vendor

  8. 77 FR 33811 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-07

    ... 63 National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines; New Source Performance Standards for Stationary Internal Combustion Engines; Proposed Rule #0;#0... Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines; New Source...

  9. 77 FR 37361 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-21

    ... National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines; New Source Performance Standards for Stationary Internal Combustion Engines AGENCY: Environmental Protection... Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines; New Source Performance...

  10. Planes, Politics and Oral Proficiency: Testing International Air Traffic Controllers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moder, Carol Lynn; Halleck, Gene B.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates the variation in oral proficiency demonstrated by 14 Air Traffic Controllers across two types of testing tasks: work-related radio telephony-based tasks and non-specific English tasks on aviation topics. Their performance was compared statistically in terms of level ratings on the International Civil Aviation Organization…

  11. Prácticas y representaciones bibliotecarias en la Biblioteca Pública de Buenos Aires: Una lectura del libro de "Cargo y data" (1810-1818 Library practices and representations in the public library of Buenos Aires: a reading of the book of "Cargo y data" (1810-1818

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro E. Parada

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available El artículo estudia, brevemente, las prácticas de gestión bibliotecaria en la Biblioteca Pública de Buenos Aires durante el período 1810-1818. El mismo se basa en un documento existente en el Archivo General de la Nación: el "Libro de cargo y data, o de cuenta corriente de los encargados de los gastos de la Biblioteca Pública formado por el Director de ella Dr. Dn. Luis José Chorroarín en el año 1812". Gracias a esta fuente es posible rastrear la administración y los diversos procesos que permitieron administrar a ese importante establecimiento, una de las primeras creaciones de política cultural de la Revolución de Mayo. De este modo, se abordan varios tópicos de particular interés: ingresos y gastos, personal, venta de ejemplares duplicados y deteriorados, encuadernación de obras, adquisición de libros, mantenimiento edilicio, etc. Entre otras conclusiones se señala la importancia de este tipo de documentos administrativos y burocráticos para conocer la variedad de las prácticas bibliotecarias dentro del marco de la Historia de la Bibliotecología en la Argentina.The article briefly studies the library management practices in the Public Library of Buenos Aires from 1810 to 1818. It is based on a document from the General Archive of the Nation: the "Libro de cargo y data, o de cuenta corriente de los encargados de los gastos de la Biblioteca Pública formado por el Director de ella Dr. Dn. Luis José Chorroarín en el año 1812". Thanks to that source it is possible to track the administration and the different processes that allowed to manage that important place, one of the first creations of cultural politics of the Revolution of May. Thus, several subjects of particular interest are seen here: incomes and expenditures; personnel; selling of duplicate or damaged material; bookbinding; book acquisition; building maintenance; etc. Among several conclusions, the relevance of this type of administrative and bureaucratic

  12. Mobile Air Quality Studies (MAQS-an international project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudik Claudia

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Due to an increasing awareness of the potential hazardousness of air pollutants, new laws, rules and guidelines have recently been implemented globally. In this respect, numerous studies have addressed traffic-related exposure to particulate matter using stationary technology so far. By contrast, only few studies used the advanced technology of mobile exposure analysis. The Mobile Air Quality Study (MAQS addresses the issue of air pollutant exposure by combining advanced high-granularity spatial-temporal analysis with vehicle-mounted, person-mounted and roadside sensors. The MAQS-platform will be used by international collaborators in order 1 to assess air pollutant exposure in relation to road structure, 2 to assess air pollutant exposure in relation to traffic density, 3 to assess air pollutant exposure in relation to weather conditions, 4 to compare exposure within vehicles between front and back seat (children positions, and 5 to evaluate "traffic zone"-exposure in relation to non-"traffic zone"-exposure. Primarily, the MAQS-platform will focus on particulate matter. With the establishment of advanced mobile analysis tools, it is planed to extend the analysis to other pollutants including NO2, SO2, nanoparticles and ozone.

  13. International Collaboration on Air Pollution and Pregnancy Outcomes (ICAPPO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, Tracey J.; Parker, Jennifer D.; Adams, Kate; Bell, Michelle L.; Gehring, Ulrike; Glinianaia, Svetlana; Ha, Eun-Hee; Jalaludin, Bin; Slama, Rémy

    2010-01-01

    Reviews find a likely adverse effect of air pollution on perinatal outcomes, but variation of findings hinders the ability to incorporate the research into policy. The International Collaboration on Air Pollution and Pregnancy Outcomes (ICAPPO) was formed to better understand relationships between air pollution and adverse birth outcomes through standardized parallel analyses in datasets from different countries. A planning group with 10 members from 6 countries was formed to coordinate the project. Collaboration participants have datasets with air pollution values and birth outcomes. Eighteen research groups with data for approximately 20 locations in Asia, Australia, Europe, North America, and South America are participating, with most participating in an initial pilot study. Datasets generally cover the 1990s. Number of births is generally in the hundreds of thousands, but ranges from around 1,000 to about one million. Almost all participants have some measure of particulate matter, and most have ozone, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide. Strong enthusiasm for participating and a geographically-diverse range of participants should lead to understanding uncertainties about the role of air pollution in perinatal outcomes and provide decision-makers with better tools to account for pregnancy outcomes in air pollution policies. PMID:20644693

  14. 8th International Symposium on Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, Yingxin; Li, Yuguo; Vol.1 Indoor and Outdoor Environment; Vol.2 HVAC&R Component and Energy System; Vol.3 Building Simulation and Information Management

    2014-01-01

    Proceedings of the 8th International Symposium on Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning is based on the 8th International Symposium of the same name (ISHVAC2013), which took place in Xi’an on October 19-21, 2013. The conference series was initiated at Tsinghua University in 1991 and has since become the premier international HVAC conference initiated in China, playing a significant part in the development of HVAC and indoor environmental research and industry around the world. This international conference provided an exclusive opportunity for policy-makers, designers, researchers, engineers and managers to share their experience. Considering the recent attention on building energy consumption and indoor environments, ISHVAC2013 provided a global platform for discussing recent research on and developments in different aspects of HVAC systems and components, with a focus on building energy consumption, energy efficiency and indoor environments. These categories span a broad range of topics, and the proce...

  15. Fairer flying: an international air travel levy for adaptation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chambwera, Muyeye; Muller, Benito

    2008-11-15

    For the world's poorest countries and communities, adaptation to climate change is urgently needed, but costly: estimates run into tens of billions of dollars a year. Given the shortfall in current international adaptation funding, how can resources for the developing world be raised? An adaptation levy on international air travel could help fill the gap. A small per-trip payment by passengers could contribute US$8 billion to US$10 billion a year towards adaptation. Similar schemes in France and elsewhere show that this kind of ethical solidarity and 'polluter pays' approach would be simple to implement in practical and institutional terms.

  16. Proceedings: Second international conference on managing hazardous air pollutants, 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chow, W.; Levin, L.

    1994-09-01

    This volume contains the Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Managing Hazardous Air Pollutants, held in Washington, DC on July 13--15, 1993. This conference provided an important forum for sharing information and strategies at a critical time for electric utilities in the US and elsewhere. As mandated by the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, the US EPA is currently conducting a risk analysis of air toxic emissions from power plants which is expected in November 1995. This conference presented the results of recent research conducted by the EPA and others that may eventually be reflected in an assessment of power plant risks. New research in a number of areas will provide important inputs to a comprehensive and credible risk assessment. These research areas include the concentrations of toxic contaminants in fossil fuels, the development and testing of improved methods for measuring toxics in power plant emissions, the effectiveness of control devices in removing specific air toxics, the transport and dispersion of toxics through the air and other media, and the potential responses of the human body and environment to exposure to these pollutants. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database

  17. The Carrier's Liability for Damage Caused by Delay in International Air Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kang Bin

    2003-01-01

    Delay in the air transport occurs when passengers, baggage or cargo do not arrive at their destination at the time indicated in the contract of carriage. The causes of delay in the carriage of passengers are booking errors or double booking, delayed departure of aircraft, incorrect information regarding the time of departure, failure to land at the scheduled destination and changes in flight schedule or addition of extra landing stops. Delay in the carriage of baggage or cargo may have different causes: no reservation, lack of space, failure to load the baggage or cargo at the right place, or to deliver the covering documents at the right place. The Montreal Convention of 1999 Article 19 provides that 'The carrier is liable for damage occasioned by delay in the carriage by air of passengers, baggage or cargo. Nevertheless, the carder shall not be liable for damage occasioned by delay if it proves that it and its servants and agents took all measures that could reasonably be required to avoid the damage or that it was impossible for it or them to take such measures'. The Montreal Convention Article 22 provides liability limits of the carrier in case of delay for passengers and their baggage and for cargo. In the carriage of persons, the liability of the carrier for each passenger is limited to 4,150 SDR. In the carriage of baggage, the liability of the carrier is limited to 1,000 SDR for each passenger unless a special declaration as to the value of the baggage has been made. In the carriage of cargo, the liability of the carrier is limited to 17 SDR per kilogram unless a special declaration as to the value of the cargo has been made. The Montreal Convention Article 19 has shortcomings: it is silent on the duration of the liability for carriage,andit does not make any distinction between persons and good. It does not give any indication concerning the circumstances to be taken into account in cases of delay, and about the length of delay. In conclusion, it is

  18. e-compendium - Air Pollution Prevention in an International and EU Environmental Law Perspective, Summer 2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steen, Ulla

    2014-01-01

    E-compendium Air Pollution Prevention in an International and EU Environmental Law Perspective, Summer 2014......E-compendium Air Pollution Prevention in an International and EU Environmental Law Perspective, Summer 2014...

  19. 75 FR 37732 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-30

    ... National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines... hazardous air pollutants for existing stationary compression ignition reciprocating internal combustion... combustion engines. 40 CFR 63.6590 was amended by revising paragraphs (b)(1) and (3). Inadvertently...

  20. Computational fluid dynamics for turbomachinery internal air systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, John W; Hills, Nicholas J

    2007-10-15

    Considerable progress in development and application of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) for aeroengine internal flow systems has been made in recent years. CFD is regularly used in industry for assessment of air systems, and the performance of CFD for basic axisymmetric rotor/rotor and stator/rotor disc cavities with radial throughflow is largely understood and documented. Incorporation of three-dimensional geometrical features and calculation of unsteady flows are becoming commonplace. Automation of CFD, coupling with thermal models of the solid components, and extension of CFD models to include both air system and main gas path flows are current areas of development. CFD is also being used as a research tool to investigate a number of flow phenomena that are not yet fully understood. These include buoyancy-affected flows in rotating cavities, rim seal flows and mixed air/oil flows. Large eddy simulation has shown considerable promise for the buoyancy-driven flows and its use for air system flows is expected to expand in the future.

  1. 49 CFR 1546.205 - Acceptance and screening of cargo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Acceptance and screening of cargo. 1546.205... SECURITY Operations § 1546.205 Acceptance and screening of cargo. (a) Preventing or deterring the carriage... aircraft. (2) Prevents access by unauthorized persons other than an authorized foreign air carrier employee...

  2. Efficient energy recovering air inlet system for an internal combustion engine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2011-01-01

    An air inlet system (10) for an internal combustion engine (200) is provided. The air inlet system comprises an air intake port (20), an air output port (30) for providing air for a combustion chamber (202) of the combustion engine (200), and a turbine (40). The turbine (40) is situated in between

  3. Efficient energy recovering air inlet system for an international combustion engine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2013-01-01

    An air inlet system (10) for an internal combustion engine (200) is provided. The air inlet system comprises an air intake port (20), an air output port (30) for providing air for a combustion chamber (202) of the combustion engine (200), and a turbine (40). The turbine (40) is situated in between

  4. Controlling pandemic flu: the value of international air travel restrictions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua M Epstein

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Planning for a possible influenza pandemic is an extremely high priority, as social and economic effects of an unmitigated pandemic would be devastating. Mathematical models can be used to explore different scenarios and provide insight into potential costs, benefits, and effectiveness of prevention and control strategies under consideration.A stochastic, equation-based epidemic model is used to study global transmission of pandemic flu, including the effects of travel restrictions and vaccination. Economic costs of intervention are also considered. The distribution of First Passage Times (FPT to the United States and the numbers of infected persons in metropolitan areas worldwide are studied assuming various times and locations of the initial outbreak. International air travel restrictions alone provide a small delay in FPT to the U.S. When other containment measures are applied at the source in conjunction with travel restrictions, delays could be much longer. If in addition, control measures are instituted worldwide, there is a significant reduction in cases worldwide and specifically in the U.S. However, if travel restrictions are not combined with other measures, local epidemic severity may increase, because restriction-induced delays can push local outbreaks into high epidemic season. The per annum cost to the U.S. economy of international and major domestic air passenger travel restrictions is minimal: on the order of 0.8% of Gross National Product.International air travel restrictions may provide a small but important delay in the spread of a pandemic, especially if other disease control measures are implemented during the afforded time. However, if other measures are not instituted, delays may worsen regional epidemics by pushing the outbreak into high epidemic season. This important interaction between policy and seasonality is only evident with a global-scale model. Since the benefit of travel restrictions can be substantial while

  5. Performance and Internal Flow of a Dental Air Turbine Handpiece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuyuki Nishi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available An air turbine handpiece is a dental abrasive device that rotates at high speed and uses compressed air as the driving force. It is characterized by its small size, light weight, and painless abrading due to its high-speed rotation, but its torque is small and noise level is high. Thus, to improve the performance of the air turbine handpiece, we conducted a performance test of an actual handpiece and a numerical analysis that modeled the whole handpiece; we also analyzed the internal flow of the handpiece. Results show that experimental and calculated values were consistent for a constant speed load method with the descending speed of 1 mm/min for torque and turbine output. When the tip of the blade was at the center of the nozzle, the torque was at its highest. This is likely because the jet from the nozzle entered the tip of the blade from a close distance that would not reduce the speed and exited along the blade.

  6. 75 FR 75937 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-07

    ... National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines... internal combustion engines. Subsequently, the Administrator received two petitions for reconsideration... Any industry using a stationary 2211 Electric power reciprocating internal generation, combustion...

  7. 76 FR 12923 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-09

    ... National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines... pollutants for existing stationary spark ignition reciprocating internal combustion engines. The final rule... reciprocating internal combustion generation, engine. transmission, or distribution. 622110 Medical and surgical...

  8. 77 FR 60341 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-03

    ... National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines; New Source Performance Standards for Stationary Internal Combustion Engines AGENCY: Environmental Protection... Pollutants for Stationary Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines to solicit comment on specific issues...

  9. 78 FR 54606 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-05

    ... Combustion Engines; New Source Performance Standards for Stationary Internal Combustion Engines AGENCY... hazardous air pollutants for stationary reciprocating internal combustion engines and the standards of performance for stationary internal combustion engines. Subsequently, the EPA received three petitions for...

  10. Fundraising flights: a levy on international air travel for adaptation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birch, Tom; Chambwera, Muyeye

    2011-03-15

    Adapting to climate change will not be cheap: it will cost an estimated tens of billions of dollars each year. But where will the money come from? The UN climate negotiations have set up dedicated funds for the task but domestic politics have resulted in insufficient, variable and unreliable contributions from governments. An innovative adaptation levy on international air travel could help fill the gap. A small charge to individual travellers would raise up to US$10 billion a year. The levy, which follows the 'polluter pays' principle, could be implemented very quickly and at minimal cost and would go a long way to raising sums that could make a significant difference.

  11. China's international trade and air pollution in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jintai; Pan, Da; Davis, Steven J; Zhang, Qiang; He, Kebin; Wang, Can; Streets, David G; Wuebbles, Donald J; Guan, Dabo

    2014-02-04

    China is the world's largest emitter of anthropogenic air pollutants, and measurable amounts of Chinese pollution are transported via the atmosphere to other countries, including the United States. However, a large fraction of Chinese emissions is due to manufacture of goods for foreign consumption. Here, we analyze the impacts of trade-related Chinese air pollutant emissions on the global atmospheric environment, linking an economic-emission analysis and atmospheric chemical transport modeling. We find that in 2006, 36% of anthropogenic sulfur dioxide, 27% of nitrogen oxides, 22% of carbon monoxide, and 17% of black carbon emitted in China were associated with production of goods for export. For each of these pollutants, about 21% of export-related Chinese emissions were attributed to China-to-US export. Atmospheric modeling shows that transport of the export-related Chinese pollution contributed 3-10% of annual mean surface sulfate concentrations and 0.5-1.5% of ozone over the western United States in 2006. This Chinese pollution also resulted in one extra day or more of noncompliance with the US ozone standard in 2006 over the Los Angeles area and many regions in the eastern United States. On a daily basis, the export-related Chinese pollution contributed, at a maximum, 12-24% of sulfate concentrations over the western United States. As the United States outsourced manufacturing to China, sulfate pollution in 2006 increased in the western United States but decreased in the eastern United States, reflecting the competing effect between enhanced transport of Chinese pollution and reduced US emissions. Our findings are relevant to international efforts to reduce transboundary air pollution.

  12. 14 CFR 375.50 - Transit flights; scheduled international air service operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Transit flights; scheduled international... WITHIN THE UNITED STATES Transit Flights § 375.50 Transit flights; scheduled international air service... to the International Air Services Transit Agreement in transit across the United States may not be...

  13. Radioactive material air transportation; Transporte aereo de material radioativo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pader y Terry, Claudio Cosme [Varig Logistica (VARIGLOG), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2002-07-01

    As function of the high aggregated value, safety regulations and the useful life time, the air transportation has been used more regularly because is fast, reliable, and by giving great security to the cargo. Based on the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the IATA (International Air Transportation Association) has reproduced in his dangerous goods manual (Dangerous Goods Regulations - DGR IATA), the regulation for the radioactive material air transportation. Those documents support this presentation.

  14. Indirect estimation of radioactivity in containerized cargo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarman, K.D.; Scherrer, C.; Smith, L.E.; Chilton, L.K.; Anderson, K.K.; Ressler, J.J.; Trease, L.L.

    2011-01-01

    Naturally occurring radioactive material in containerized cargo challenges the state of the art in national and international efforts to detect illicit nuclear and radiological material in transported containers. Current systems are being evaluated and new systems envisioned to provide the high probability of detection necessary to thwart potential threats, combined with extremely low nuisance and false alarm rates necessary to maintain the flow of commerce impacted by the enormous volume of commodities imported in shipping containers. Maintaining flow of commerce also means that inspection must be rapid, requiring relatively non-intrusive, indirect measurements of cargo from outside containers to the extent possible. With increasing information content in such measurements, it is natural to ask how the information might be combined to improve detection. Toward this end, we present an approach to estimating isotopic activity of naturally occurring radioactive material in cargo grouped by commodity type, combining container manifest data with radiography and gamma-ray spectroscopy aligned to location along the container. The heart of this approach is our statistical model of gamma-ray counts within peak regions of interest, which captures the effects of background suppression, counting noise, convolution of neighboring cargo contributions, and down-scattered photons to provide estimates of counts due to decay of specific radioisotopes in cargo alone. Coupled to that model, we use a mechanistic model of self-attenuated radiation flux to estimate the isotopic activity within cargo, segmented by location within each container, that produces those counts. We test our approach by applying it to a set of measurements taken at the Port of Seattle in 2006. This approach to synthesizing disparate available data streams and extraction of cargo characteristics, while relying on several simplifying assumptions and approximations, holds the potential to support improvement of

  15. Cargo-mix optimization in Liner Shipping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jonas Mark; Pacino, Dario; Fonseca, Joao Filipe Paiva

    International transportation constitutes one of the biggest challenges in limiting CO2 emission in theworld: it is technically hard to find viable alternatives to fossil fuels, and due to the internationalnature, it is very difficult to regulate CO2 emission of intercontinental trade. Moreover...... and have to find a load configuration (stowage plan)that both suits the current cargo to be loaded but also guarantees that the vessel can be utilizedto its maximum in future ports. The size of nowadays vessels is, however, making this work harderand harder (Pacino et al. (2011)). Moreover, the cargo...

  16. Internal Barriers to Implementing Diversity Management in the Air Force: Four Conversations We Must Have

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bean, Debra

    2000-01-01

    .... This project examined one part of internal environmental analysis, the likely barriers to implementing diversity, to provide Air Force planners a set of considerations for effective program development...

  17. China's international trade and air pollution: 2000 - 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Ruijing; Lin, Jintai; Pan, Da; Wang, Jingxu; Yan, Yingying; Zhang, Qiang

    2016-04-01

    As the world's top trading country, China is now the most polluted country. However, a large portion of pollution produced in China is associated with its production of goods for foreign consumption via international trade. Along with China's rapid economic growth in recent years, its economic-trade structure and volume has been changing all the time, resulting in large changes in total emissions and the shares of trade-related emissions. Here, we assess the influence of China's changing total and export-related emissions between 2000 and 2009 on its atmospheric pollution loadings and transport, by exploiting simulations of a global chemical transport model GEOS-Chem. We find that both air pollution related to Chinese exports (PRE) which including nitrogen oxides (NOx), sulfur dioxide (SO2), carbon monoxide (CO), black carbon (BC), and primary organic aerosol (POA), and its share in total Chinese pollution have experienced continuous rapid growth until 2007, exposing more and more people to severely polluted air. After 2007, PRE decreases due to strengthened emission controls accompanied by declined exports as a result of the global financial crisis. Although production for exports contribute less than 35% SO2 over China in any year, the increasing trend of trade-related SO2 contributes 51% of integral trend. The changing PRE of China also affects its downwind regions such as the western United States. The contribution of export-related Chinese pollution to surface sulfate concentrations over the western United States has increased from 3% in 2000 to 12% in 2007. Overall, we find that the interannual variation of trade and associated production is a critical factor driving the trend of pollution over China and its downwind regions.

  18. NASA Constellation Program (CxP) Key Driving Requirements and Element Descriptions for International Architecture Working Group (IAWG) Functional Teams Human Transportation Cargo Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Roland M.

    2009-01-01

    The NASA Constellation uncrewed cargo mission delivers cargo to any designated location on the lunar surface (or other staging point) in a single mission. This capability is used to deliver surface infrastructure needed for lunar outpost construction, to provide periodic logistics resupply to support a continuous human lunar presence, and potentially deliver other assets to various locations.In the nominal mission mode, the Altair lunar lander is launched on Ares V into Low Earth Orbit (LEO), following a short Low Earth Orbit (LEO) loiter period, the Earth Departure Stage (EDS) performs the Trans Lunar Injection (TLI) burn and is then jettisoned. The Altair performs translunar trajectory correction maneuvers as necessary and performs the Lunar Orbit Insertion (LOI) burn. Altair then descends to the surface to land near a designated target, presumably in proximity to an Outpost location or another site of interest for exploration.Alternatively, the EDS and Altair Descent Stage could deliver assets to various staging points within their propulsive capabilities.

  19. 41 CFR 102-117.140 - What is cargo preference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-9US-FLAG e-mail: [email protected] [65 FR 60060, Oct. 6, 2000; 65 FR 81405, Dec. 26, 2000] ...-borne cargo that moves internationally be transported on U.S. flag vessels. Deviations or waivers from...

  20. STATE REGULATION OF CARGO SECURING FOR ROAD TRANSPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay Anatolievich Atrokhov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the legal documents governing the securing of cargo in road transport, provides an overview of international experience in the safety of road transport of goods by means of securing.

  1. International conventions on air pollution abatement. Implementation measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adler, S.; Groza, L.

    1996-01-01

    The environmental protection, the pollution reduction, their positive direct and indirect effects, the energy efficiency increase in using fossil fuels have an important role on the environmental and energy policies, as well as on the long-term planning. The report presents, under the new legislative context, the general frame from the implementation of concrete actions to fulfill the commitments contained in different environmental conventions, in which Romania is or intends to be a part. In this context it is presented the national approach for the implementation of two conventions: the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution, this under the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe. The report presents the necessary measures to reduce the emissions of carbon, sulfur and nitrogen oxides taking into account the process of the Romanian integration in the European structure as well as the dynamic of the economic reform. Romania is aware that the necessary environmental activities (research, design, environmental investments etc.) must be financed from internal resources, the own resources of the polluting economic units, the central and local budgets. (author). 7 refs

  2. 76 FR 12863 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-09

    ... National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines... combustion engines. The final rule was published on August 20, 2010. This direct final action amends certain... Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant for Stationary Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines...

  3. 76 FR 4709 - Extension of Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB Review: Certified Cargo Screening...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-26

    ... facilities upstream in the air cargo supply chain, such as shippers, manufacturers, warehousing entities... enable aircraft operators and other entities upstream in the air cargo supply chain to accept, screen... Request (ICR), OMB control number 1652-0053, abstracted below to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB...

  4. Determinants of Operational Efficiency at Chemical Cargo Terminals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.A. Gúlcan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In today’s globalized world, one of the requirements of global supply chains is efficient transportation systems. Approximately 80 per cent of world merchandise trade carried by sea and handled by ports worldwide. For this reason, maritime transport has the strategic economic importance. Loading of oil and gas has the biggest share (%30 in commodities carried by sea and 2.9 billion tons oil and gas loaded to ship in 2013. This study is focus on chemical cargo terminals which is a special terminal form where high and international levels of safety and quality elements applied. Unlike conventional bulk cargo and container cargo operations, chemical cargo operations include own priorities, applications, and the evaluation criteria. The aim of this study is to perform a qualitative research to determine the factors affecting the operational efficiency of ship, berth and warehousing operations in chemical cargo terminals.

  5. SpaceX Dragon Air Circulation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Brenda; Piatrovich, Siarhei; Prina, Mauro

    2011-01-01

    The Dragon capsule is a reusable vehicle being developed by Space Exploration Technologies (SpaceX) that will provide commercial cargo transportation to the International Space Station (ISS). Dragon is designed to be a habitable module while it is berthed to ISS. As such, the Dragon Environmental Control System (ECS) consists of pressure control and pressure equalization, air sampling, fire detection, illumination, and an air circulation system. The air circulation system prevents pockets of stagnant air in Dragon that can be hazardous to the ISS crew. In addition, through the inter-module duct, the air circulation system provides fresh air from ISS into Dragon. To utilize the maximum volume of Dragon for cargo packaging, the Dragon ECS air circulation system is designed around cargo rack optimization. At the same time, the air circulation system is designed to meet the National Aeronautics Space Administration (NASA) inter-module and intra-module ventilation requirements and acoustic requirements. A flight like configuration of the Dragon capsule including the air circulation system was recently assembled for testing to assess the design for inter-module and intra-module ventilation and acoustics. The testing included the Dragon capsule, and flight configuration in the pressure section with cargo racks, lockers, all of the air circulation components, and acoustic treatment. The air circulation test was also used to verify the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model of the Dragon capsule. The CFD model included the same Dragon internal geometry that was assembled for the test. This paper will describe the Dragon air circulation system design which has been verified by testing the system and with CFD analysis.

  6. Ethiopian Law of International Carriage by Air: An Overview ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethiopia's aviation history goes back to the late 1920s. And, carriage of goods and passengers by air dates at least as far back as the 1940s – the decade which witnessed the establishment of Ethiopian Air Lines Corporation (now Ethiopian Airlines). Despite Ethiopia's relative success in commercial aviation, domestic ...

  7. ethiopian law of international carriage by air: an overview

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eliasn

    University of ... Ethiopia started its aviation history a few years after the Warsaw Convention was signed.9 ... London, Butterworths, § 1.1 – 1.54 [hereinafter Philipson]. 8 .... technological advancements greatly reduced the risks of air transportation.

  8. Air cooled turbine component having an internal filtration system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeck, Alexander R [Orlando, FL

    2012-05-15

    A centrifugal particle separator is provided for removing particles such as microscopic dirt or dust particles from the compressed cooling air prior to reaching and cooling the turbine blades or turbine vanes of a turbine engine. The centrifugal particle separator structure has a substantially cylindrical body with an inlet arranged on a periphery of the substantially cylindrical body. Cooling air enters centrifugal particle separator through the separator inlet port having a linear velocity. When the cooling air impinges the substantially cylindrical body, the linear velocity is transformed into a rotational velocity, separating microscopic particles from the cooling air. Microscopic dust particles exit the centrifugal particle separator through a conical outlet and returned to a working medium.

  9. 49 CFR 173.166 - Air bag inflators, air bag modules and seat-belt pretensioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... generant and, in some cases, a pressure vessel (cylinder)) is a gas generator used to inflate an air bag in... domestic transportation by highway, rail freight, cargo vessel or cargo aircraft, a serviceable air bag...

  10. 46 CFR 153.907 - Cargo information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Information § 153.907 Cargo information. (a) The master shall ensure that the following information for each cargo carried under this part is readily available to those on the tankship engaged in cargo operations... exposed to the cargo. (7) A list of fire fighting procedures and extinguishing agents effective with cargo...

  11. An Analysis of International Air Freight Forwarding Support for the United States Navy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-06-01

    2. The Role of IATA in Ratemaking ... ...... 23 3. Current Environment ..... ........... 24 III. BURLINGTON-NORTHERN AIR FREIGHT, INCORPORATED . . 28...carrier is permitted access [Ref. 16]. 2. The Role of IATA in Ratemaking Factors other than shipper demand and carrier costs affect international freight...capability of the Air Force and Navy into one transport organization called the Military Air Transport Service (MATS). The mission of MATS was basically that

  12. The impact of international shipping on European air quality and climate forcing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van Aardenne, J. [European Environment Agency (EEA), Copenhagen (Denmark); Colette, A. [INERIS (France); Degraeuwe, B.; de Vlieger, I. [VITO (Belgium); Hammingh, P. [PBL Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency (Netherlands); Viana, M. [CSIC (Spain)

    2013-03-15

    This EEA Technical report provides an overview on the state of knowledge on the impact of international shipping in European waters to air quality and climate change. Based on literature review and model assessment studies information is provided on past and future emissions of air pollutants and greenhouse gases, monitoring of ship emissions, emission mitigation policies and impact on European air quality and radiative forcing. (Author)

  13. The Entangled Sovereignties of Air Police: Mapping the Boundary of the International and the Imperial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munro, Campbell Alexander Omoluaye

    2015-01-01

    The contemporary proliferation of drones and other forms of aerial interventions herald the (re)emergence of air policing as the principal modality for the fabrication of order in the global periphery. Air policing is predomi- nantly framed by international legal analysis as merely ‘killing from...

  14. Taking control of air pollution in Mexico city | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Earlier efforts to assess the costs of pollution in Mexico City had focused on ... a range of health benefits and “savings,” including people's willingness to pay for ... $15 billion of public and private investments in air quality improvement projects.

  15. Internal flow characteristics of a rectangular ramjet air intake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moerel, J.-L.; Veraar, R.G.; Halswijk, W.H.C.; Pimentel, R.; Corriveau, D.; Hamel, N.; Lesage, F.; Vos, J.B.

    2009-01-01

    Two research institutes TNO Defence, Security and Safety and DRDC-Valcartier have worked together on the improvement of modeling and simulation tools for the functioning of supersonic air intakes for realistic ramjet engines of tactical missiles. The emphasis laid on complex rectangular intake

  16. BNFL's experience in preparing and implementing radiation protection programmes for the control of exposure to workers involved with the international transport of nuclear cargoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billing, D.

    2004-01-01

    BNFL International Transport have successfully developed appropriate Radiation Protection Programmes for their business. The business supports BNFL's worldwide Nuclear Fuel Services with key customer bases in Europe, Japan and the UK, utilising marine, rail and road modal transports. Experience in the business spans over 4 decades. The preparation of RPP's for each aspect of its operations has been made relatively straight forward in that the key elements within the internationally recognised model RPP (by WNTI) were already in place in BNFL's procedures to satisfy current National UK and International Regulations. Arrangements are supported by Management systems which comply with International Standards for Quality Assurance. Exposure to key worker groups continues to be within Category 1 (less than 1mSv/y) of the IAEA Transport Regulations TS-R-1 (ST-1 revised)

  17. System and method for conditioning intake air to an internal combustion engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellnau, Mark C.

    2015-08-04

    A system for conditioning the intake air to an internal combustion engine includes a means to boost the pressure of the intake air to the engine and a liquid cooled charge air cooler disposed between the output of the boost means and the charge air intake of the engine. Valves in the coolant system can be actuated so as to define a first configuration in which engine cooling is performed by coolant circulating in a first coolant loop at one temperature, and charge air cooling is performed by coolant flowing in a second coolant loop at a lower temperature. The valves can be actuated so as to define a second configuration in which coolant that has flowed through the engine can be routed through the charge air cooler. The temperature of intake air to the engine can be controlled over a wide range of engine operation.

  18. 46 CFR 91.60-5 - Cargo Ship Safety Construction Certificate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo Ship Safety Construction Certificate. 91.60-5... VESSELS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Certificates Under International Convention for Safety of Life at Sea, 1974 § 91.60-5 Cargo Ship Safety Construction Certificate. (a) All vessels on an international voyage...

  19. 46 CFR 189.60-10 - Cargo Ship Safety Equipment Certificate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo Ship Safety Equipment Certificate. 189.60-10... VESSELS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Certificates Under International Convention for Safety of Life at Sea, 1974 § 189.60-10 Cargo Ship Safety Equipment Certificate. (a) All vessels on an international voyage...

  20. 46 CFR 189.60-5 - Cargo Ship Safety Construction Certificate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo Ship Safety Construction Certificate. 189.60-5... VESSELS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Certificates Under International Convention for Safety of Life at Sea, 1974 § 189.60-5 Cargo Ship Safety Construction Certificate. (a) All vessels on an international voyage...

  1. 46 CFR 91.60-10 - Cargo Ship Safety Equipment Certificate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo Ship Safety Equipment Certificate. 91.60-10... VESSELS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Certificates Under International Convention for Safety of Life at Sea, 1974 § 91.60-10 Cargo Ship Safety Equipment Certificate. (a) All vessels on an international voyage are...

  2. Internal Realignment of TAC (Tactical Air Command) Services Squadrons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-04-01

    shows where consolidated management is possible. The paper also shows that the current organizatinal configuration does not totally comply with Air...activities in one area in the squadron? Henry H. Albers, in his book, Organized Executive Action: Discussion Making, Communication, and Leadership discusses...Henry H. Organized Executive Action: Decision Making, Communication, and Leadership . New York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1962. 2. Brinckloe, William D

  3. Predicting the impacts of new technology aircraft on international air transportation demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ausrotas, R. A.

    1981-01-01

    International air transportation to and from the United States was analyzed. Long term and short term effects and causes of travel are described. The applicability of econometric methods to forecast passenger travel is discussed. A nomograph is developed which shows the interaction of economic growth, airline yields, and quality of service in producing international traffic.

  4. 78 FR 14457 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-06

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 60 and 63 [EPA-HQ-OAR-2008-0708, FRL-9756-4] RIN 2060-AQ58 National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines; New Source Performance Standards for Stationary Internal Combustion Engines Correction In rule...

  5. Mexico City air quality: Progress of an international collaborative project to define air quality management options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streit, G.E.

    1992-01-01

    Mexico City, faces a severe air pollution problem due to a combination of circumstances. The city is in a high mountain basin at a subtropical latitude. The basin setting inhibits dispersion of pollution and contributes to frequent wintertime thermal inversions which further trap pollutants near the surface. The elevation and latitude combine to provide plentiful sunshine which, in comparison to more northern latitudes, is enhanced in the UV radiation which drives atmospheric photochemistry to produce secondary pollutants such as ozone. The Area Metropolitana de la Ciudad de Mexico AMCW is defined to include the 16 delegations of the Federal District (D.F.) and 17 highly urbanized municipalities in the State of Mexico which border the D.F. The 1990 census (XI Censo General de Poblacion y Vivienda de 1990) records that slightly over 15 million people live in the AMCM. There are numerous other nearby communities which are in the airshed region of Mexico City, but which are not included in the definition and population of the AMCM. The Mexico City Air Quality Research Initiative is one project that is examining the complex relationship between air pollution, economic growth, societal values, and air quality management policies. The project utilizes a systems approach including computer modeling, comprehensive measurement studies of Mexico City's air pollutants, environmental chemical reaction studies and socioeconomic analysis. Los Alamos National Laboratory (USA) and the Mexican Petroleum Institute are the designated lead institutions

  6. Air Transport and Operations. Proceedings of the Third International Air Transport and Operations Symposium 2012

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Curran, R.; Fischer, L.; Pérez, D.; Klein, K.; Hoekstra, J.; Roling, P.; Verhagen, W.J.C.

    2012-01-01

    Air transport must evolve if it is to optimize its value in the 21st century. The mood in the aerospace industry is positive with regard to economic recovery, but the focus in this transitional time must be on sustaining value, without losing sight of environmental and safety priorities

  7. 29 CFR 1918.84 - Bulling cargo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bulling cargo. 1918.84 Section 1918.84 Labor Regulations...) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR LONGSHORING Handling Cargo § 1918.84 Bulling cargo. (a) Bulling cargo shall be done with the bull line led directly from the heel block. However, bulling may be done from the...

  8. 77 FR 30542 - Air Cargo Screening Fees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-23

    ... Security Identification Display Area (SIDA) IDs. Another commenter requested that if TSA intends to limit... obtain SIDA IDs were not included in the fee models for this rulemaking because STAs for holders of SIDA... FR 51854. Comment: One commenter appreciated TSA's recognition that the STAs performed under the SIDA...

  9. ANITA Air Monitoring on the International Space Station: Results Compared to Other Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honne, A.; Schumann-Olsen, H.; Kaspersen, K.; Limero, T.; Macatangay, A.; Mosebach, H.; Kampf, D.; Mudgett, P. D.; James, J. T.; Tan, G.; hide

    2009-01-01

    ANITA (Analysing Interferometer for Ambient Air) is a flight experiment precursor for a permanent continuous air quality monitoring system on the ISS (International Space Station). For the safety of the crew, ANITA can detect and quantify quasi-online and simultaneously 33 gas compounds in the air with ppm or sub-ppm detection limits. The autonomous measurement system is based on FTIR (Fourier Transform Infra-Red spectroscopy). The system represents a versatile air quality monitor, allowing for the first time the detection and monitoring of trace gas dynamics in a spacecraft atmosphere. ANITA operated on the ISS from September 2007 to August 2008. This paper summarizes the results of ANITA s air analyses with emphasis on comparisons to other measurements. The main basis of comparison is NASA s set of grab samples taken onboard the ISS and analysed on ground applying various GC-based (Gas Chromatography) systems.

  10. The carriage of dangerous and nuclear cargoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, P.E.

    1986-01-01

    In an area of real public concern it is regrettable that the applicable principles of legal liability at common law are not certain nor readily adaptable to admittedly remarkable technological change. Whilst the ever-flexible principle of negligence suggests a way forward, in the case of totally destructive cargoes or where evidence of fault may be scarce, principles of strict liability find a necessary operation. This is the approach reflected in the international codes referred to, especially in the area of uranium-related activities which Australia has not yet adopted

  11. Transboundary health impacts of transported global air pollution and international trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, D.; Zhang, Q.; Jiang, X.

    2017-12-01

    Millions of people die every year from diseases caused by exposure to outdoor air pollution. Some studies have estimated premature mortality related to local sources of air pollution, but local air quality can also be affected by atmospheric transport of pollution from distant sources. International trade is contributing to the globalization of emission and pollution as a result of the production of goods (and their associated emissions) in one region for consumption in another region. The effects of international trade on air pollutant emissions, air quality and health have been investigated regionally, but a combined, global assessment of the health impacts related to international trade and the transport of atmospheric air pollution is lacking. Here we combine four global models to estimate premature mortality caused by fine particulate matter (PM2.5) pollution as a result of atmospheric transport and the production and consumption of goods and services in different world regions. We find that, of the 3.45 million premature deaths related to PM2.5 pollution in 2007 worldwide, about 12 per cent (411,100 deaths) were related to air pollutants emitted in a region of the world other than that in which the death occurred, and about 22 per cent (762,400 deaths) were associated with goods and services produced in one region for consumption in another. For example, PM2.5 pollution produced in China in 2007 is linked to more than 64,800 premature deaths in regions other than China, including more than 3,100 premature deaths in western Europe and the USA; on the other hand, consumption in western Europe and the USA is linked to more than 108,600 premature deaths in China. Our results reveal that the transboundary health impacts of PM2.5 pollution associated with international trade are greater than those associated with long-distance atmospheric pollutant transport.

  12. Transboundary health impacts of transported global air pollution and international trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiang; Jiang, Xujia; Tong, Dan; Davis, Steven J; Zhao, Hongyan; Geng, Guannan; Feng, Tong; Zheng, Bo; Lu, Zifeng; Streets, David G; Ni, Ruijing; Brauer, Michael; van Donkelaar, Aaron; Martin, Randall V; Huo, Hong; Liu, Zhu; Pan, Da; Kan, Haidong; Yan, Yingying; Lin, Jintai; He, Kebin; Guan, Dabo

    2017-03-29

    Millions of people die every year from diseases caused by exposure to outdoor air pollution. Some studies have estimated premature mortality related to local sources of air pollution, but local air quality can also be affected by atmospheric transport of pollution from distant sources. International trade is contributing to the globalization of emission and pollution as a result of the production of goods (and their associated emissions) in one region for consumption in another region. The effects of international trade on air pollutant emissions, air quality and health have been investigated regionally, but a combined, global assessment of the health impacts related to international trade and the transport of atmospheric air pollution is lacking. Here we combine four global models to estimate premature mortality caused by fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) pollution as a result of atmospheric transport and the production and consumption of goods and services in different world regions. We find that, of the 3.45 million premature deaths related to PM 2.5 pollution in 2007 worldwide, about 12 per cent (411,100 deaths) were related to air pollutants emitted in a region of the world other than that in which the death occurred, and about 22 per cent (762,400 deaths) were associated with goods and services produced in one region for consumption in another. For example, PM 2.5 pollution produced in China in 2007 is linked to more than 64,800 premature deaths in regions other than China, including more than 3,100 premature deaths in western Europe and the USA; on the other hand, consumption in western Europe and the USA is linked to more than 108,600 premature deaths in China. Our results reveal that the transboundary health impacts of PM 2.5 pollution associated with international trade are greater than those associated with long-distance atmospheric pollutant transport.

  13. Impact of Air Entraining Method on the Resistance of Concrete to Internal Cracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wawrzeńczyk, Jerzy; Molendowska, Agnieszka

    2017-10-01

    This paper presents the test results of air entrained concrete mixtures made at a constant W/C ratio of 0.44. Three different air entraining agents were used: polymer microspheres, glass microspheres and a conventional air entraining admixture. The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of the air entraining methods. Concrete mixture tests were performed for consistency (slump test), density and, in the case of AEA series, air content by pressure method. Hardened concrete tests were performed for compressive strength, water absorption, resistance to chloride ingress, and freeze-thaw durability - resistance to internal cracking tests were conducted in accordance with PN-88/B-06250 on cube specimens and with the modified ASTM C666 A test method on beam specimens; porosity characteristics (A, A300, \\bar L) were determined to PN-EN 480-11:1998. No significant mass and length changes were recorded for the concrete air entrained with the conventional methods or with polymer microspheres. The results indicate that polymer microspheres are a very good alternative to traditional air entraining methods for concrete, providing effective air entrainment and protection from freezing and thawing. The glass microsphere-based concretes showed insufficient freeze-thaw resistance. The test results indicate that both the conventional methods (AEA) and the air entrainment by polymer microspheres are effective air entraining methods. It has to be noted that in the case of the use of polymer microspheres, a comparable value of \\bar L and a very good freeze-thaw resistance can be achieved at a noticeably lower air and micropore contents and at lower strength loss.

  14. 46 CFR 31.40-10 - Cargo Ship Safety Equipment Certificate-T/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo Ship Safety Equipment Certificate-T/ALL. 31.40-10 Section 31.40-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Certificates Under International Convention for Safety of Life at Sea, 1974 § 31.40-10 Cargo Ship...

  15. 46 CFR 31.40-5 - Cargo Ship Safety Construction Certificate-T/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo Ship Safety Construction Certificate-T/ALL. 31.40-5 Section 31.40-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Certificates Under International Convention for Safety of Life at Sea, 1974 § 31.40-5 Cargo Ship...

  16. 46 CFR 31.40-15 - Cargo Ship Safety Radio Certificate-T/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo Ship Safety Radio Certificate-T/ALL. 31.40-15 Section 31.40-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Certificates Under International Convention for Safety of Life at Sea, 1974 § 31.40-15 Cargo Ship...

  17. 46 CFR 189.60-15 - Cargo Ship Safety Radio Certificate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo Ship Safety Radio Certificate. 189.60-15 Section... VESSELS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Certificates Under International Convention for Safety of Life at Sea, 1974 § 189.60-15 Cargo Ship Safety Radio Certificate. Every vessel equipped with a radio installation...

  18. 46 CFR 91.60-15 - Cargo Ship Safety Radio Certificate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo Ship Safety Radio Certificate. 91.60-15 Section 91... VESSELS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Certificates Under International Convention for Safety of Life at Sea, 1974 § 91.60-15 Cargo Ship Safety Radio Certificate. Every vessel equipped with a radio installation on...

  19. 49 CFR 180.416 - Discharge system inspection and maintenance program for cargo tanks transporting liquefied...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... section. (v) Stainless steel flexible connectors with damaged reinforcement braid. (vi) Internal self... program for cargo tanks transporting liquefied compressed gases. 180.416 Section 180.416 Transportation... PACKAGINGS Qualification and Maintenance of Cargo Tanks § 180.416 Discharge system inspection and maintenance...

  20. Shared Value Potential of Transporting Cargo via Hyperloop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max Werner

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This research estimates the shared value created by constructing a hypothetical Hyperloop to transport cargo along 300 km in Northern Germany. Following Porter-Kramer (2011, we identified and evaluated eight factors that create shared value: travel speed, operating costs, safety, noise pollution, air pollution, climate effect/carbon footprint, separation effect/ property efficiency, and maintenance. Using official data compiled by several German institutes and organizations, we conducted comparative analysis to quantify and compare the abovementioned factors for Hyperloop and over-the-road cargo transport in Germany. Then, we monetized the individual and collective benefits of the shared value created by Hyperloop replacing a significant share of cargo transported by truck. Our findings indicate that the hypothetical Hyperloop project in Northern Germany would create €660 to €900 million of shared value annually. Our research method establishes a framework for assessing future transportation projects like Hyperloop, and our findings can be generalized to industrialized nations beyond Germany.

  1. 75 FR 80761 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-23

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 63 [EPA-HQ-OAR-2008-0708, FRL-9244-2] RIN 2060-AP36 National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines... combustion engines and requesting public comment on one issue arising from the final rule. Specifically, EPA...

  2. Air pollution and international law: a subject important to nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rose, D.J.

    1985-01-01

    An increasingly important advantage of nuclear power is its minimal air pollution, in particular the absence of combustion products such as acid rain and carbon dioxide. Developing a consensus about acceptable limits of such pollutants is a slow process that culminates in domestic an international agreements. Therefore, the pace of adoption of new technologies, nuclear power included, is often controlled by the level and intensity of debate, rather than by the technology alone. The state of understanding and consensus about local and long-range transboundary air pollution is therefore germane to the nuclear sector. Progress over the past several decades, mainly between the United States and Canada and within Europe, in developing a more comprehensive and effective international consensus, both informal and formal, is reviewed. There appears to be a trend toward more effective international participation in seeking a less-polluting world, albeit it is punctuated at times by unconcern

  3. Winter season air pollution in El Paso-Ciudad Juarez. A review of air pollution studies in an international airshed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Einfeld, W.; Church, H.W.

    1995-03-01

    This report summarizes a number of research efforts completed over the past 20 years in the El Paso del Norte region to characterize pollution sources and air quality trends. The El Paso del Norte region encompasses the cities of El Paso, Texas and Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua and is representative of many US-Mexico border communities that are facing important air quality issues as population growth and industrialization of Mexican border communities continue. Special attention is given to a group of studies carried out under special US Congressional funding and administered by the US Environmental Protection Agency. Many of these studies were fielded within the last several years to develop a better understanding of air pollution sources and trends in this typical border community. Summary findings from a wide range of studies dealing with such issues as the temporal and spatial distribution of pollutants and pollution potential from both stationary and mobile sources in both cities are presented. Particular emphasis is given to a recent study in El Paso-Ciudad Juarez that focussed on winter season PM{sub 10} pollution in El Paso-Ciudad Juarez. Preliminary estimates from this short-term study reveal that biomass combustion products and crustal material are significant components of winter season PM{sub 10} in this international border community.

  4. Resistance to Internal Damage and Scaling of Concrete Air Entrained By Microspheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molendowska, Agnieszka; Wawrzenczyk, Jerzy

    2017-10-01

    This paper report the test results of high strength concrete produced with slag cement and air entrained with polymer microspheres in three diameters. The study focused on determining the effects of the microsphere size and quantity on the air void structure and resistance to internal cracking and scaling of the concrete. The resistance to internal cracking was determined in compliance with the requirements of the modified ASTM C666 A method on beam specimens. The scaling resistance in a 3% NaCl solution was determined using the slab test in accordance with PKN-CEN/TS 12390-9:2007. The air void structure parameters were determined to PN-EN 480-11:1998. The study results indicate that the use of microspheres is an effective air entrainment method providing very good air void structure parameters. The results show high freeze-thaw durability of polymer microsphere-based concrete in exposure class XF3. The scaling resistance test confirms that it is substantially more difficult to protect concrete against scaling in the presence of the 3% NaCl solution (exposure class XF4). Concrete scaling is a complex phenomenon controlled by a number of independent factors.

  5. Combining technologies - radiography and neutron based - for cargo security applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gozani, T.; Liu, F.; Sivakumar, M.; Brown, D.

    2004-01-01

    Inspection of air and sea cargo has traditionally been done by X-ray systems of various energies relying on operators to analyze images looking for anomalies in the image of cargo that may signify a threat. This has shown only limited success in detecting explosives and other threats, which do not have any distinctive shapes. OSI Systems, through its subsidiaries Rapiscan and Ancore, has combined high-energy x-ray radiography with thermal neutron analysis (TNA) to create the combined system-''TNX''. The system provides automatic material specific detection of bulk threat items, like explosives, while furnishing the operator with a high-resolution image for weapons detection and also to identify anomalies for the TNA to inspect. Similarly the Pulsed Fast Neutron Analysis (PFNA) can be combined with high-energy x-ray to create a ''FNX'' system for both air and sea cargo applications. This enables the operator obtain a three dimensional image of the material composition of the cargo under inspection and remove the clutter from the image leaving only the potentially hazardous material(s) automatically while viewing a high resolution image for manifest verification and weapons. The current status of the technology will be discussed and data be presented

  6. Multipurpose Cargo Transfer Bags fro Reducing Exploration Mission Logistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccus, Shelley; Broyan, James Lee, Jr.; Borrego, Melissa

    2016-01-01

    The Logistics Reduction (LR) project within the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) division is tasked with reducing logistical mass and repurposing logistical items. Multipurpose Cargo Transfer Bags (MCTB) have been designed such that they can serve the same purpose as a Cargo Transfer Bag (CTB), the common logistics carrying bag for the International Space Station (ISS). After use as a cargo carrier, a regular CTB becomes trash, whereas the MCTB can be unfolded into a flat panel for reuse. Concepts and potential benefits for various MCTB applications will be discussed including partitions, crew quarters, solar radiation storm shelters, acoustic blankets, and forward osmosis water processing. Acoustic MCTBs are currently in use on ISS to reduce the noise generated by the T2 treadmill, which reaches the hazard limit at high speeds. The development of the AMCTB included identification of keep out zones, acoustic properties, deployment considerations, and structural testing. Features developed for these considerations are applicable to MCTBs for all crew outfitting applications.

  7. Reducing Mission Logistics with Multipurpose Cargo Transfer Bags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccus, Shelley; Broyan, James Lee, Jr.; Borrego, Melissa

    2016-01-01

    The Logistics Reduction (LR) project within Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) is tasked with reducing logistical mass and repurposing logistical items. Multipurpose Cargo Transfer Bags (MCTB) have been designed such that they can serve the same purpose as a Cargo Transfer Bag (CTB), the common logistics carrying bag for the International Space Station (ISS). After use as a cargo carrier, a regular CTB becomes trash, whereas the MCTB can be unfolded into a flat panel for reuse. Concepts and potential benefits for various MCTB applications will be discussed including partitions, crew quarters, solar radiation storm shelters, acoustic blankets, and forward osmosis water processing. Acoustic MCTBs are currently in use on ISS to reduce the noise generated by the T2 treadmill, which reaches the hazard limit at high speeds. The development of the AMCTB included identification of keep-out zones, acoustic properties, deployment considerations, and structural testing. Features developed for these considerations are applicable to MCTBs for all crew outfitting applications.

  8. Dangers of releasing CO₂ to fight fires in the cargo hold of seagoing bulk carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedlund, Frank Huess; Jarleivson Hilduberg, Øssur

    the application of CO₂ to deep-seated fires involving solids subject to smoldering, but without identifying or alerting the reader to the potential presence of explosive pyrolysis gases. NFPA 12 appears to presume that electrostatic discharges will dissipate safety if metal nozzles are used and the entire system......On seagoing general cargo vessels, the cargo is stored in bulk in the holds. Fire protection for cargo holds comprises detection and firefighting capability. Detection normally incorporates a smoke sampling system that continuously draws air from each cargo hold and passes it to a smoke detector...... cabinet. The fire can be fought by flooding the cargo hold with inert carbon dioxide. The carbon dioxide is stored in its liquid form at pressures in excess of 50 bar and kept in multiple vertical steel cylinders arranged in a battery. For firefighting to be effective, SOLAS regulations require...

  9. Transboundary health impacts of transported global air pollution and international trade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Qiang; Jiang, Xujia; Tong, Dan; Davis, Steven J.; Zhao, Hongyan; Geng, Guannan; Feng, Tong; Zheng, Bo; Lu, Zifeng; Streets, David G.; Ni, Ruijing; Brauer, Michael; van Donkelaar, Aaron; Martin, Randall V.; Huo, Hong; Liu, Zhu; Pan, Da; Kan, Haidong; Yan, Yingying; Lin, Jintai; He, Kebin; Guan, Dabo

    2017-03-29

    Millions of people die every year from diseases caused by exposure to outdoor air pollution1, 2, 3, 4, 5. Some studies have estimated premature mortality related to local sources of air pollution6, 7, but local air quality can also be affected by atmospheric transport of pollution from distant sources8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18. International trade is contributing to the globalization of emission and pollution as a result of the production of goods (and their associated emissions) in one region for consumption in another region14, 19, 20, 21, 22. The effects of international trade on air pollutant emissions23, air quality14 and health24 have been investigated regionally, but a combined, global assessment of the health impacts related to international trade and the transport of atmospheric air pollution is lacking. Here we combine four global models to estimate premature mortality caused by fine particulate matter (PM2.5) pollution as a result of atmospheric transport and the production and consumption of goods and services in different world regions. We find that, of the 3.45 million premature deaths related to PM2.5 pollution in 2007 worldwide, about 12 per cent (411,100 deaths) were related to air pollutants emitted in a region of the world other than that in which the death occurred, and about 22 per cent (762,400 deaths) were associated with goods and services produced in one region for consumption in another. For example, PM2.5 pollution produced in China in 2007 is linked to more than 64,800 premature deaths in regions other than China, including more than 3,100 premature deaths in western Europe and the USA; on the other hand, consumption in western Europe and the USA is linked to more than 108,600 premature deaths in China. Our results reveal that the transboundary health impacts of PM2.5 pollution associated with international trade are greater than those associated with long-distance atmospheric pollutant transport.

  10. The Design of Bulk Carrier Cargo Holds State Integrated Monitoring System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Ru-jiang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Most ship cargo hold Internal uses artificial watch or is unattended. Therefore, it is impossible to know the appropriate information of the cargo holds Internal timely and accurately. Cargo damage and ship accidents occurred frequently. Automation remote processing and monitoring alarm system for the bulk carrier is an important part of the marine automation. The system plays a significant role to guarantee the navigation safety for bulk carriers. The paper introduced the important parts of the integrated monitoring system, structural design, hardware configuration, various modules communication transmission and various data processing software design were included. Based on embedded development, the real time information including the cargo hold internal humidity temperature, oxygen concentration, smoke gas concentration, cold water well level and other data were collected, as well the hatch closed state was detected and the cargo hold internal real time video information was collected. Then the real-time communication between the control display and acquisition modules were assured. By adjusting the corresponding buttons on the bridge according to the monitoring information, so that the cargo hold always in a safe environment, so as to avoid cargo hold accidents.

  11. 49 CFR 178.320 - General requirements applicable to all DOT specification cargo tank motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... removed from the motor vehicle; and (3) Is not fabricated under a specification for cylinders... determine leak tightness of the cargo tank when testing with pneumatic pressure. Internal self-closing stop...

  12. Public library services in the information age: international overview and the situation in Buenos Aires (Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa Barber

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analizes public/popular library services in Buenos Aires and surrounding areas. The aim has been to relate the descriptive local data with the trends in developed countries after a selective study of the international literature. The results have shown that the studied units provide a basic service, misuse their alleged technological infrastructure and do not direct their resources to implement the services required by society in the information age.

  13. First experience in international air transportation of RR SFA in Russian-made TUK-19 casks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanashov, B.A.; Barinkov, O.P.; Dorofeev, A.N.; Komarov, S.V.; Smirnov, A.V.; Biro, L.; Budu, M.; Ciocanescu, M.

    2010-01-01

    Traditionally, spent fuel assemblies (SFA) have been transported across the Russian Federation by rail in special railcars. New conditions required SFA shipments by other conveyance, i.e. road, sea and even air transport. The air shipment of the VVR-S research reactor SNF in TUK-19 casks from Magurele, Romania in June 2009 was the first experience after new Russian and international regulations for the safe transport of radioactive material came into effect. The preparatory stage of the shipment focused on the issues associated with radiation and nuclear safety both during the loading and transport operations. The project covered development of a technology and equipment for SFA loading into TUK-19 casks and that for the air shipment. The SFAs were loaded into the TUK-19 casks with a specially designed transfer cask, and the SFA-containing packages were transported in specialized freight 20-foot ISO-containers. The safety of the loading and transport operations was ensured both by reliable engineering solutions, and selected conveyances and routes. The paper shows that the loading and the air shipment of the Romanian SFAs in TUK-19 casks does not contradict Romanian, Russian and international regulations for the safe transport of radioactive material. The outcomes of the SNF shipment from Romania confirmed correctness of the solutions and demonstrated high environmental safety. (author)

  14. Probabilistic reconstruction of internal exposure for nuclear power plant workers using air concentration measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linkov, I.; Burmistrov, D.

    2000-01-01

    Air surveys, whole-body counting, bioassays or combination of these measurements can be utilized for purposes or assessing internal doses to determine compliance with occupational dose equivalent limits. Air sampling with a little support provided by whole body counting and/or bioassays was often relied on in dose calculations. The utility of air sampling for internal dose reconstruction is addressed in this paper through the probabilistic analysis of environmental factors and their impact on dose estimates. In this paper we attempt to reconstruct an internal dose due to inhalation of beta + gamma emitting radionuclides for a contractual electrician, Mr. X. The data available for reconstruction of internal dose for Mr. X was found to be highly variable and uncertain. Uncertainty describes a lack of knowledge about a parameter, this lack of knowledge theoretically can be reduced, e.g., if more measurements were to be taken (for example, estimated activities for alpha-emitting radionuclides are uncertain due to the influence of naturally-occurring alpha-emitters). Variability describes the existence of different values that represent different environmental conditions (for example, the air concentrations of radionuclides may vary over time because of the different tasks performed by workers in the area). Variability can not be reduced by additional data collection because the varying values reflect the variable nature of the environment, not a lack of data. The high variability in measured air concentrations in the restricted areas of a LWR nuclear power plant where he worked do not allow adequate reconstruction of his individual internal dose using deterministic methods and therefore probabilistic methods are desirable. The guidance for probabilistic assessment developed by the United States Environmental Protection Agency as well as recommendations of the National Council of Radiation Protection provide an adequate framework for probabilistic reconstruction of

  15. The Role of Air Transport in the Development of International Tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Zajac

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available There are close links between air transport and international tourism. The latter, in a significant way has an impact on the development and stimulation of changes in aviation and, in particular, this applies to establishing new routes or increasing competition by the emergence of new air carriers. The essence of aviation is manifested in the aviation business travel and learning about the new States. Therefore, a change that has been made in aviation in the second half of the 20th century is a breakthrough. It is about a liberalization of this sector, which has enabled the development of international tourism. There are plenty of benefits for the development of tourism coming from the liberalization of aviation sector. Thanks to competitive prices and continually increasing offer of air connections to various places in the world, demand for tourism is growing trend. Among the factors hampering the development of aviation tourism, the following should be included: maintaining the visa requirement for many countries, the threat of terrorist attacks, a set of factors in the structure of tourism and safety issue. When it comes to Europe, along with the implementation of the common policy of the European Union, the sector of the tourism industry started to develop. Eliminating internal barriers and the gradual implementation of the freedom of movement of persons, services and capital has led to an increase in the demand for tourism in the EU. Europe is an attractive tourist destination in the world.

  16. Shared Value Potential of Transporting Cargo via Hyperloop

    OpenAIRE

    Werner, Max; Eissing, Klaus; Langton, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    This research estimates the shared value created by constructing a hypothetical Hyperloop to transport cargo along 300 km in Northern Germany. Following Porter and Kramer (2011, 2012), we identified and evaluated eight factors that create shared value: travel speed, operating costs, safety, noise pollution, air pollution, climate effect/carbon footprint, separation effect/property efficiency, and maintenance. Using official data compiled by several German institutes and organizations, we cond...

  17. Effects of decarbonising international shipping and aviation on climate mitigation and air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dessens, Olivier; Anger, Annela; Barker, Terry; Pyle, John

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A global emissions trading scheme is applied to international aviation and shipping. • We couple an energy–environment–economy model with an atmospheric model. • 65% reduction on CO 2 emissions in 2050 reduces other pollutants emissions. • Climate effects are reduced and air quality is improved by the scheme. - Abstract: This paper assesses the effects of a global emissions trading scheme (GETS) for international aviation and shipping as a way of reducing emissions of both greenhouse gases (GHG) and other atmospheric emissions that lead to air pollution. A prior assessment of such integration requires the coupling of energy–environment–economy (E3) global modelling of mitigation policies with the atmospheric modelling of pollution sources, mixing and deposition. We report the methodology and results of coupling of the E3MG model and the global atmospheric model, p-TOMCAT. We assess the effects of GETS on the concentrations of atmospheric gases and on the radiative forcing, comparing a GETS scenario to a reference BASE scenario with higher use of fossil fuels. The paper assesses the outcome of GETS for atmospheric composition and radiative forcing for 2050. GETS on international shipping and aviation reduces their CO 2 and non-CO 2 emissions up to 65%. As a consequence atmospheric concentrations are modified and the radiative forcing due to international transport is reduced by different amounts as a function of the pollutant studied (15% for CO 2 , 35% for methane and up to 50% for ozone)

  18. Green channel cargo inspection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Yuanping; Yu Jingsheng; Sun Hongqiang; Hao Pu; Cai Wenxia

    2011-01-01

    A radiation detection device was installed in the lanes of a highway toll station, radioactive rays which was collimated emitted through the measured, and arrived the detector. The average density of the fresh agricultural products belonged to Green channel and other prohibited items vary greatly, the absorption of radiation are different between the Green Channel Cargo and other substances. Prior to the experimental group, different standard samples which represent different models and goods were measured, the different standard samples were stored in a computer database. When the trucks get through the Green Channel, the detector will detect the radiation signal and bring to the computer, the computer will process the measured data, and make a conclusion whether the goods are Green Channel cargo. (authors)

  19. The Benefits of Internalizing Air Quality and Greenhouse Gas Externalities in the US Energy System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Kristen E.

    The emission of pollutants from energy use has effects on both local air quality and the global climate, but the price of energy does not reflect these externalities. This study aims to analyze the effect that internalizing these externalities in the cost of energy would have on the US energy system, emissions, and human health. In this study, we model different policy scenarios in which fees are added to emissions related to generation and use of energy. The fees are based on values of damages estimated in the literature and are applied to upstream and combustion emissions related to electricity generation, industrial energy use, transportation energy use, residential energy use, and commercial energy use. The energy sources and emissions are modeled through 2055 in five-year time steps. The emissions in 2045 are incorporated into a continental-scale atmospheric chemistry and transport model, CMAQ, to determine the change in air quality due to different emissions reduction scenarios. A benefit analysis tool, BenMAP, is used with the air quality results to determine the monetary benefit of emissions reductions related to the improved air quality. We apply fees to emissions associated with health impacts, climate change, and a combination of both. We find that the fees we consider lead to reductions in targeted emissions as well as co-reducing non-targeted emissions. For fees on the electric sector alone, health impacting pollutant (HIP) emissions reductions are achieved mainly through control devices while Greenhouse Gas (GHG) fees are addressed through changes in generation technologies. When sector specific fees are added, reductions come mainly from the industrial and electricity generation sectors, and are achieved through a mix of energy efficiency, increased use of renewables, and control devices. Air quality is improved in almost all areas of the country with fees, including when only GHG fees are applied. Air quality tends to improve more in regions with

  20. Design, Construction, and Validation of an Internally Lit Air-Lift Photobioreactor for Growing Algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hincapie, Esteban [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Russ College of Engineering and Technology, Ohio University, Athens, OH (United States); Stuart, Ben J., E-mail: stuart@ohio.edu [Department of Civil Engineering, Russ College of Engineering and Technology, Ohio University, Athens, OH (United States)

    2015-01-23

    A novel 28 L photobioreactor for growing algae was developed using fiber optics for internal illumination. The proposed design uses the air-lift principle to enhance the culture circulation and induce light/dark cycles to the microorganisms. Optical fibers were used to distribute photons inside the culture media providing an opportunity to control both light cycle and intensity. The fibers were coupled to an artificial light source; however, the development of this approach aims for the future use of natural light collected through parabolic solar collectors. This idea could also allow the use of opaque materials for photobioreactor construction significantly reducing costs and increasing durability. Internal light levels were determined in dry conditions and were maintained above 80 μmol/(s·m{sup 2}). The hydrodynamic equations of the air-lift phenomena were explored and used to define the geometric characteristics of the unit. The reactor was inoculated with the algae strain Chlorella sp. and sparged with air. The reactor was operated under batch mode and daily monitored for biomass concentration. The specific growth rate constant of the novel device was determined to be 0.011 h{sup −1}. The proposed design can be effectively and economically used in carbon dioxide mitigation technologies and in the production of algal biomass for biofuel and other bioproducts.

  1. Design, Construction, and Validation of an Internally Lit Air-Lift Photobioreactor for Growing Algae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hincapie, Esteban; Stuart, Ben J.

    2015-01-01

    A novel 28 L photobioreactor for growing algae was developed using fiber optics for internal illumination. The proposed design uses the air-lift principle to enhance the culture circulation and induce light/dark cycles to the microorganisms. Optical fibers were used to distribute photons inside the culture media providing an opportunity to control both light cycle and intensity. The fibers were coupled to an artificial light source; however, the development of this approach aims for the future use of natural light collected through parabolic solar collectors. This idea could also allow the use of opaque materials for photobioreactor construction significantly reducing costs and increasing durability. Internal light levels were determined in dry conditions and were maintained above 80 μmol/(s·m 2 ). The hydrodynamic equations of the air-lift phenomena were explored and used to define the geometric characteristics of the unit. The reactor was inoculated with the algae strain Chlorella sp. and sparged with air. The reactor was operated under batch mode and daily monitored for biomass concentration. The specific growth rate constant of the novel device was determined to be 0.011 h −1 . The proposed design can be effectively and economically used in carbon dioxide mitigation technologies and in the production of algal biomass for biofuel and other bioproducts.

  2. Internal air flow analysis of a bladeless micro aerial vehicle hemisphere body using computational fluid dynamic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Othman, M. N. K., E-mail: najibkhir86@gmail.com, E-mail: zuradzman@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: hazry@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: khairunizam@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: shahriman@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: s.yaacob@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: syedfaiz@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: abadal@unimap.edu.my; Zuradzman, M. Razlan, E-mail: najibkhir86@gmail.com, E-mail: zuradzman@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: hazry@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: khairunizam@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: shahriman@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: s.yaacob@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: syedfaiz@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: abadal@unimap.edu.my; Hazry, D., E-mail: najibkhir86@gmail.com, E-mail: zuradzman@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: hazry@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: khairunizam@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: shahriman@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: s.yaacob@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: syedfaiz@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: abadal@unimap.edu.my; Khairunizam, Wan, E-mail: najibkhir86@gmail.com, E-mail: zuradzman@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: hazry@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: khairunizam@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: shahriman@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: s.yaacob@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: syedfaiz@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: abadal@unimap.edu.my; Shahriman, A. B., E-mail: najibkhir86@gmail.com, E-mail: zuradzman@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: hazry@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: khairunizam@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: shahriman@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: s.yaacob@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: syedfaiz@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: abadal@unimap.edu.my; Yaacob, S., E-mail: najibkhir86@gmail.com, E-mail: zuradzman@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: hazry@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: khairunizam@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: shahriman@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: s.yaacob@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: syedfaiz@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: abadal@unimap.edu.my; Ahmed, S. Faiz, E-mail: najibkhir86@gmail.com, E-mail: zuradzman@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: hazry@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: khairunizam@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: shahriman@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: s.yaacob@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: syedfaiz@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: abadal@unimap.edu.my [Centre of Excellence for Unmanned Aerial Systems, Universiti Malaysia Perlis, 01000 Kangar, Perlis (Malaysia); and others

    2014-12-04

    This paper explain the analysis of internal air flow velocity of a bladeless vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL) Micro Aerial Vehicle (MAV) hemisphere body. In mechanical design, before produce a prototype model, several analyses should be done to ensure the product's effectiveness and efficiency. There are two types of analysis method can be done in mechanical design; mathematical modeling and computational fluid dynamic. In this analysis, I used computational fluid dynamic (CFD) by using SolidWorks Flow Simulation software. The idea came through to overcome the problem of ordinary quadrotor UAV which has larger size due to using four rotors and the propellers are exposed to environment. The bladeless MAV body is designed to protect all electronic parts, which means it can be used in rainy condition. It also has been made to increase the thrust produced by the ducted propeller compare to exposed propeller. From the analysis result, the air flow velocity at the ducted area increased to twice the inlet air. This means that the duct contribute to the increasing of air velocity.

  3. Air contamination measurements for the evaluation of internal dose to workers in nuclear medicine departments

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Massimi, B.; Bianchini, D.; Sarnelli, A.; D'Errico, V.; Marcocci, F.; Mezzenga, E.; Mostacci, D.

    2017-11-01

    Radionuclides handled in nuclear medicine departments are often characterized by high volatility and short half-life. It is generally difficult to monitor directly the intake of these short-lived radionuclides in hospital staff: this makes measuring air contamination of utmost interest. The aim of the present work is to provide a method for the evaluation of internal doses to workers in nuclear medicine, by means of an air activity sampling detector, to ensure that the limits prescribed by the relevant legislation are respected. A continuous air sampling system measures isotope concentration with a Nal(TI) detector. Energy efficiency of the system was assessed with GEANT4 and with known activities of 18F. Air is sampled in a number of areas of the nuclear medicine department of the IRST-IRCCS hospital (Meldola- Italy). To evaluate committed doses to hospital staff involved (doctors, technicians, nurses) different exposure situations (rooms, times, radionuclides etc) were considered. After estimating the intake, the committed effective dose has been evaluated, for the different radionuclides, using the dose coefficients mandated by the Italian legislation. Error propagation for the estimated intake and personal dose has been evaluated, starting from measurement statistics.

  4. Internal air flow analysis of a bladeless micro aerial vehicle hemisphere body using computational fluid dynamic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, M. N. K.; Zuradzman, M. Razlan; Hazry, D.; Khairunizam, Wan; Shahriman, A. B.; Yaacob, S.; Ahmed, S. Faiz; Hussain, Abadalsalam T.

    2014-12-01

    This paper explain the analysis of internal air flow velocity of a bladeless vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL) Micro Aerial Vehicle (MAV) hemisphere body. In mechanical design, before produce a prototype model, several analyses should be done to ensure the product's effectiveness and efficiency. There are two types of analysis method can be done in mechanical design; mathematical modeling and computational fluid dynamic. In this analysis, I used computational fluid dynamic (CFD) by using SolidWorks Flow Simulation software. The idea came through to overcome the problem of ordinary quadrotor UAV which has larger size due to using four rotors and the propellers are exposed to environment. The bladeless MAV body is designed to protect all electronic parts, which means it can be used in rainy condition. It also has been made to increase the thrust produced by the ducted propeller compare to exposed propeller. From the analysis result, the air flow velocity at the ducted area increased to twice the inlet air. This means that the duct contribute to the increasing of air velocity.

  5. Internal air flow analysis of a bladeless micro aerial vehicle hemisphere body using computational fluid dynamic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Othman, M. N. K.; Zuradzman, M. Razlan; Hazry, D.; Khairunizam, Wan; Shahriman, A. B.; Yaacob, S.; Ahmed, S. Faiz

    2014-01-01

    This paper explain the analysis of internal air flow velocity of a bladeless vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL) Micro Aerial Vehicle (MAV) hemisphere body. In mechanical design, before produce a prototype model, several analyses should be done to ensure the product's effectiveness and efficiency. There are two types of analysis method can be done in mechanical design; mathematical modeling and computational fluid dynamic. In this analysis, I used computational fluid dynamic (CFD) by using SolidWorks Flow Simulation software. The idea came through to overcome the problem of ordinary quadrotor UAV which has larger size due to using four rotors and the propellers are exposed to environment. The bladeless MAV body is designed to protect all electronic parts, which means it can be used in rainy condition. It also has been made to increase the thrust produced by the ducted propeller compare to exposed propeller. From the analysis result, the air flow velocity at the ducted area increased to twice the inlet air. This means that the duct contribute to the increasing of air velocity

  6. Assessment and monitoring of air pollution effects. Possibilities and constraints of international cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panzer, K.F.; Hassan, I.A.; Vellisariou, D.A.

    1996-01-01

    Under the geneva convention on long-range transboundary air pollution, an international cooperative programme on 'Assessment and monitoring of Air effects' had been set-up in 1985. of the 34 signatory states of the convention, 28 participate in the implementation of the programme. The objective is to assess effects of air pollution on forests in europe, using a common survey method in order to assure comparability of survey results. In 1987, 20 countries conducted harmonized forest health surveys based on the assessment of two visible symptoms, loss and/or discoloration of foliage. harmonization of the surveys was quickly achieved because of the simplicity of the methodical approach. The price of rapidly obtaining large-area information on defoliation of forests is, that no distinction can be made in the assessment process between defoliation caused by air pollution and defoliation caused by natural, biotic or a biotic causes. Further improvements of the interpretability of survey results can be expected if additional visible symptoms can be defined for the major species in the different european regions. Possibilities and constraints of incorporating differentiating symptoms into the annual health surveys are discussed. 1 fig., 2 tabs

  7. Internalization of Air Force Core Values Among Company Grade Officers: Where are We and Where are We Going?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Anderson, Brian

    1997-01-01

    Our senior leadership is placing renewed emphasis on Air Force core values and recognizes the internalization of these values are critical to the long-term success of our professional officer corps...

  8. Vibration survey of internal combustion engines for use on unmanned air vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duanis, B.

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes the method, the procedure and data results of engine vibration test which is carried out on engines for use on unmanned air vehicles. The paper focuses on the testing of rotating propulsion systems powered by an internal combustion engine which is composed of main rotating components such as the alternator, gearbox, propeller , dampers and couplings. Three measurement methods for measuring torsional and lateral vibrations are presented: a. Gear tooth pulse signal. b. Shaft Strain Gage. c. Laser Displacement Sensors The paper also presents data from tests which were performed using each method and discusses the applications, the advantages and disadvantages of each method

  9. Transformation of Air Quality Monitor Data from the International Space Station into Toxicological Effect Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, John T.; Zalesak, Selina M.

    2011-01-01

    The primary reason for monitoring air quality aboard the International Space Station (ISS) is to determine whether air pollutants have collectively reached a concentration where the crew could experience adverse health effects. These effects could be near-real-time (e.g. headache, respiratory irritation) or occur late in the mission or even years later (e.g. cancer, liver toxicity). Secondary purposes for monitoring include discovery that a potentially harmful compound has leaked into the atmosphere or that air revitalization system performance has diminished. Typical ISS atmospheric trace pollutants consist of alcohols, aldehydes, aromatic compounds, halo-carbons, siloxanes, and silanols. Rarely, sulfur-containing compounds and alkanes are found at trace levels. Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations (SMACs) have been set in cooperation with a subcommittee of the National Research Council Committee on Toxicology. For each compound and time of exposure, the limiting adverse effect(s) has been identified. By factoring the analytical data from the Air Quality Monitor (AQM), which is in use as a prototype instrument aboard the ISS, through the array of compounds and SMACs, the risk of 16 specific adverse effects can be estimated. Within each adverse-effect group, we have used an additive model proportioned to each applicable 180-day SMAC to estimate risk. In the recent past this conversion has been performed using archival data, which can be delayed for months after an air sample is taken because it must be returned to earth for analysis. But with the AQM gathering in situ data each week, NASA is in a position to follow toxic-effect groups and correlate these with any reported crew symptoms. The AQM data are supplemented with data from real-time CO2 instruments aboard the ISS and from archival measurements of formaldehyde, which the AQM cannot detect.

  10. Collector Efficiency in Downward-Type Internal-Recycle Solar Air Heaters with Attached Fins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chii-Dong Ho

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The internal-recycle operation effect on collector efficiency in downward-type rectangular solar air heaters with attached fins is theoretically investigated. It is found that considerable collector efficiency is obtainable if the collector has attached fins and the operation is carried out with internal recycling. The recycling operation increases the fluid velocity to decrease the heat transfer resistance, compensating for the undesirable effect of decreasing the heat transfer driving force (temperature difference due to remixing. The attached fins provide an enlarged heat transfer area. The order of performance in a device of same size is: double pass with recycle and fins > double pass with recycle but without fins > single pass without recycle and fins.

  11. Characterizing Density and Complexity of Imported Cargos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birrer, Nathaniel [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Divin, Charles [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Glenn, Steven [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Martz, Harry [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-08-01

    X-ray inspection systems are used to detect radiological and nuclear threats in imported cargo. In order to better understand performance of these systems, system imaging capabilities and the characteristics of imported cargo need to be determined. This project involved calculation of the modulation transfer function as a metric of system imaging performance and a study of the density and inhomogeneity of imported cargos, which have been shown to correlate with human analysts, threat detection performance.

  12. Understanding X-ray cargo imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Gongyin

    2005-01-01

    Cargo imaging is the field of imaging large objects, usually cargo containers, trains, trucks or boats. Transmission imaging with photons, especially X-rays of up to 9 MV is the dominant current technique, providing compelling details of the contents of objects this large. This paper discusses the physics aspects of a good X-ray cargo imaging system. The basic performance requirements, such as penetration, contrast and resolution and the components of a cargo imaging system are introduced. The imaging process is divided in this paper into three stages: forming information (probing the object), recording information and presenting information (image display). Their impact on performance is analyzed

  13. Forced-air warming design: evaluation of intake filtration, internal microbial buildup, and airborne-contamination emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Mike; Kimberger, Oliver; McGovern, Paul D; Albrecht, Mark C

    2013-08-01

    Forced-air warming devices are effective for the prevention of surgical hypothermia. However, these devices intake nonsterile floor-level air, and it is unknown whether they have adequate filtration measures to prevent the internal buildup or emission of microbial contaminants. We rated the intake filtration efficiency of a popular current-generation forced-air warming device (Bair Hugger model 750, Arizant Healthcare) using a monodisperse sodium chloride aerosol in the laboratory. We further sampled 23 forced-air warming devices (same model) in daily hospital use for internal microbial buildup and airborne-contamination emissions via swabbing and particle counting. Laboratory testing found the intake filter to be 63.8% efficient. Swabbing detected microorganisms within 100% of the forced-air warming blowers sampled, with isolates of coagulase-negative staphylococci, mold, and micrococci identified. Particle counting showed 96% of forced-air warming blowers to be emitting significant levels of internally generated airborne contaminants out of the hose end. These findings highlight the need for upgraded intake filtration, preferably high-efficiency particulate air filtration (99.97% efficient), on current-generation forced-air warming devices to reduce contamination buildup and emission risks.

  14. Evaluation of the Air Quality Monitor's Performance on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limero, Thomas; Reese, Eric; Ballard, Ken; Durham, Tamara

    2010-01-01

    The Air Quality Monitor (AQM) was flown to the International Space Station (ISS) as an experiment to evaluate its potential to replace the aging Volatile Organic Analyzer (VOA), which ceased operations in August 2009. The AQM (Figure 1) is a small gas chromatography/differential mobility spectrometer (GC/DMS) manufactured by Sionex. Data was presented at last year s ISIMS conference that detailed the preparation of the AQM for flight, including instrument calibration. Furthermore, initial AQM data was compared to VOA results from simultaneous runs of the two instruments. Although comparison with VOA data provided a measure of confidence in the AQM performance, it is the comparison with results from simultaneously acquired air samples (grab sample containers-GSCs) that will define the success (or failure) of the AQM performance. This paper will update the progress in the AQM investigation by comparing AQM data to results from the analyses of GSC samples, returned from ISS. Additionally, a couple of example will illustrate the AQM s ability to detect disruptions in the spacecraft s air quality. Discussion will also focus upon a few unexpected issues that have arisen and how these will be a addressed in the final operational unit now being built.

  15. A dynamic model and an experimental study for the internal air and soil temperatures in an innovative greenhouse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joudi, Khalid A.; Farhan, Ammar A.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Simulation model for internal Greenhouse temperature including soil reflectance. • Greenhouse soil heat exchange affects internal temperature by approximately 12%. • Solar air heaters as greenhouse roof maintain better internal temperature year round. - Abstract: An innovative greenhouse which integrates a conventional greenhouse with roof mounted solar air heaters is used in this investigation. This design reduces the solar radiation incoming to the greenhouse in summer which reduced the load and cost of greenhouse cooling and provides a means of solar heating. Experimental measurements of the internal air and internal soil sub-layer temperatures in the greenhouse, without crops, were performed in Baghdad University, Baghdad, Iraq (33.3 °N, 44.4 °E). Measurements were recorded for clear and partly cloudy winter days. A dynamic model was developed to predict the all internal temperatures of the greenhouse. This model includes soil surface heat exchange with the greenhouse air which was found to give a more accurate prediction of the internal temperatures. Soil surface heat exchange has a positive contribution to the internal environment. The input parameters of the model were the measured meteorological conditions and the thermo-physical properties of the greenhouse components which include the cover, inside air, and soil. Comparisons between the predicted and measured results show good agreement. Also, results show that soil sub-layers inside the greenhouse at 50 cm depth are the best place for heat storage elements. The integrated system rendered maximum differences between ambient and internal air temperatures of 16 °C in February and 10 °C in June without operating any heating or cooling system

  16. 46 CFR 154.235 - Cargo tank location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo tank location. 154.235 Section 154.235 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS... Survival Capability and Cargo Tank Location § 154.235 Cargo tank location. (a) For type IG hulls, cargo...

  17. The Global Framework for Providing Information about Volcanic-Ash Hazards to International Air Navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, R. W.; Guffanti, M.

    2009-12-01

    The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) created the International Airways Volcano Watch (IAVW) in 1987 to establish a requirement for international dissemination of information about airborne ash hazards to safe air navigation. The IAVW is a set of operational protocols and guidelines that member countries agree to follow in order to implement a global, multi-faceted program to support the strategy of ash-cloud avoidance. Under the IAVW, the elements of eruption reporting, ash-cloud detecting, and forecasting expected cloud dispersion are coordinated to culminate in warnings sent to air traffic controllers, dispatchers, and pilots about the whereabouts of ash clouds. Nine worldwide Volcanic Ash Advisory Centers (VAAC) established under the IAVW have the responsibility for detecting the presence of ash in the atmosphere, primarily by looking at imagery from civilian meteorological satellites, and providing advisories about the location and movement of ash clouds to aviation meteorological offices and other aviation users. Volcano Observatories also are a vital part of the IAVW, as evidenced by the recent introduction of a universal message format for reporting the status of volcanic activity, including precursory unrest, to aviation users. Since 2003, the IAVW has been overseen by a standing group of scientific, technical, and regulatory experts that assists ICAO in the development of standards and other regulatory material related to volcanic ash. Some specific problems related to the implementation of the IAVW include: the lack of implementation of SIGMET (warning to aircraft in flight) provisions and delayed notifications of volcanic eruptions. Expected future challenges and developments involve the improvement in early notifications of volcanic eruptions, the consolidation of the issuance of SIGMETs, and the possibility of determining a “safe” concentration of volcanic ash.

  18. Secondary drive of an internal combustion engine for an air presser. Nebenantrieb einer Brennkraftmaschine fuer einen Luftpresser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubis, H.

    1990-04-19

    The invention concerns an air presser propelled by a gearwheel and designed as a piston compressor. The drive gearwheel on the air presser crankshaft meshes with a gearwheel on the camshaft of the internal combustion engine. In the case of these drives, a negative torque of the air presser results when the top dead centre of the air presser piston is reached. This is accompanied by an unpleasant noise. In addition, the driving torque of the camshaft often has negative fractions. If the negative torque of the air presser is superposed by small or negative torques of the camshaft in the re-expansion phase additionally to the air presser wheel there will be a backward acceleration of the camshaft gear which propagates as impact into the rest of the gear drive. The invention prevents the backward acceleration of the camshaft wheel and minimizes stroke momentum and noise in the mesh of the camshaft wheel.

  19. 78 FR 68784 - Cargo Securing Manuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-15

    .../Circ.) 1352 (``Cargo Stowage and Securing (CSS Code) Annex 14 Guidance on Providing Safe Working... Providing Safe Working Conditions for the Securing of Containers'') of the IMO 2010 CSS Code. A cargo safe.... Indian Tribal Governments K. Energy Effects L. Technical Standards M. Environment I. Public Participation...

  20. 46 CFR 28.885 - Cargo gear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo gear. 28.885 Section 28.885 Shipping COAST GUARD... Aleutian Trade Act Vessels § 28.885 Cargo gear. (a) The safe working load (SWL) for the assembled gear... the load the gear is approved to lift, excluding the weight of the gear itself. (b) All wire rope...

  1. An international multicentre study on the allergenic activity of air-oxidized R-limonene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bråred Christensson, Johanna; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Bruze, Magnus

    2013-01-01

    Background. Limonene is a common fragrance terpene that, in its pure form, is not allergenic or is a very weak allergen. However, limonene autoxidizes on air exposure, and the oxidation products can cause contact allergy. Oxidized R-limonene has previously been patch tested in multicentre studies......, giving 2-3% positive patch test reactions in consecutive patients. Objectives. To investigate whether oxidized R-limonene 3.0% in petrolatum, with a stable concentration of the main haptens, limonene hydroperoxides (Lim-OOHs), could be a useful tool for the detection of contact allergy...... in an international setting. Methods. Oxidized R-limonene 3.0% (Lim-OOHs 0.33%) pet. was tested in 2900 consecutive dermatitis patients in Denmark, the United Kingdom, Singapore, Spain, Sweden, and Australia. Results. Overall, 5.2% (range 2.3-12.1%) of the patients showed a positive patch test reaction to oxidized R...

  2. China’s international trade and air pollution in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jintai; Pan, Da; Davis, Steven J.; Zhang, Qiang; He, Kebin; Wang, Can; Streets, David G.; Wuebbles, Donald J.; Guan, Dabo

    2014-01-01

    China is the world’s largest emitter of anthropogenic air pollutants, and measurable amounts of Chinese pollution are transported via the atmosphere to other countries, including the United States. However, a large fraction of Chinese emissions is due to manufacture of goods for foreign consumption. Here, we analyze the impacts of trade-related Chinese air pollutant emissions on the global atmospheric environment, linking an economic-emission analysis and atmospheric chemical transport modeling. We find that in 2006, 36% of anthropogenic sulfur dioxide, 27% of nitrogen oxides, 22% of carbon monoxide, and 17% of black carbon emitted in China were associated with production of goods for export. For each of these pollutants, about 21% of export-related Chinese emissions were attributed to China-to-US export. Atmospheric modeling shows that transport of the export-related Chinese pollution contributed 3–10% of annual mean surface sulfate concentrations and 0.5–1.5% of ozone over the western United States in 2006. This Chinese pollution also resulted in one extra day or more of noncompliance with the US ozone standard in 2006 over the Los Angeles area and many regions in the eastern United States. On a daily basis, the export-related Chinese pollution contributed, at a maximum, 12–24% of sulfate concentrations over the western United States. As the United States outsourced manufacturing to China, sulfate pollution in 2006 increased in the western United States but decreased in the eastern United States, reflecting the competing effect between enhanced transport of Chinese pollution and reduced US emissions. Our findings are relevant to international efforts to reduce transboundary air pollution. PMID:24449863

  3. Effects of simulated domestic and international air travel on sleep, performance, and recovery for team sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, P; Duffield, R; Vaile, J

    2015-06-01

    The present study examined effects of simulated air travel on physical performance. In a randomized crossover design, 10 physically active males completed a simulated 5-h domestic flight (DOM), 24-h simulated international travel (INT), and a control trial (CON). The mild hypoxia, seating arrangements, and activity levels typically encountered during air travel were simulated in a normobaric, hypoxic altitude room. Physical performance was assessed in the afternoon of the day before (D - 1 PM) and in the morning (D + 1 AM) and afternoon (D + 1 PM) of the day following each trial. Mood states and physiological and perceptual responses to exercise were also examined at these time points, while sleep quantity and quality were monitored throughout each condition. Sleep quantity and quality were significantly reduced during INT compared with CON and DOM (P  0.05). Compared with baseline, physiological and perceptual responses to exercise, and mood states were exacerbated following the INT trial (P sleep disruption during travel and the subsequent exacerbated physiological and perceptual markers of fatigue. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. The JPL Electronic Nose: Monitoring Air in the US Lab on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, M. A.; Manatt, K. S.; Gluck, S.; Shevade, A. V.; Kisor, A. K.; Zhou, H.; Lara, L. M.; Homer, M. L.

    2010-01-01

    An electronic nose with a sensor array of 32 conductometric sensors has been developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) to monitor breathing air in spacecraft habitat. The Third Generation ENose is designed to operate in the environment of the US Lab on the International Space Station (ISS). It detects a selected group of analytes at target concentrations in the ppm regime at an environmental temperature range of 18 - 30 oC, relative humidity from 25 - 75% and pressure from 530 to 760 torr. The monitoring targets are anomalous events such as leaks and spills of solvents, coolants or other fluids. The JPL ENose operated as a technology demonstration for seven months in the U.S. Laboratory Destiny during 2008-2009. Analysis of ENose monitoring data shows that there was regular, periodic rise and fall of humidity and occasional releases of Freon 218 (perfluoropropane), formaldehyde, methanol and ethanol. There were also several events of unknown origin, half of them from the same source. Each event lasted from 20 to 100 minutes, consistent with the air replacement time in the US Lab.

  5. Performance improvement of a hybrid air conditioning system using the indirect evaporative cooler with internal baffles as a pre-cooling unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.E. Kabeel

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, the effects of the indirect evaporative cooler with internal baffle on the performance of the hybrid air conditioning system are numerically investigated. The hybrid air conditioning system contains two indirect evaporative coolers with internal baffle, one is utilized to pre-cool the air inlet to the desiccant wheel and the other is utilized to pre-cool the supply air inlet to the room. The effects of the inlet conditions of the process and reactivation air and working air ratio on the thermal performance of the hybrid air conditioning system have been analyzed. The results of this study show that in the hybrid air conditioning system for using the indirect evaporative cooler with internal baffle as a pre-cooling unit, the supply air temperature reduced by 21% and the coefficient of performance improved by 71% as compared to previous designs of the hybrid air conditioning system at the same inlet conditions. For increasing process air inlet temperature from 25 °C to 45 °C, supply air temperature increases from 12.7 °C to 14.2 °C, thermal COP increases from 1.87 to 2.84, and supply air relative humidity increases from 76.7% to 77.4%. Also, for increasing the reactivation air inlet temperature from 70 °C to 110 °C, supply air temperature dropped from 15.9 °C to 10.9 °C, supply air relative humidity dropped from 82.7% to 71.8%, and thermal COP dropped from 4.5 to 1.7. The recommended optimal air working ratio in the indirect evaporative cooler with internal baffle should be 0.15. Keywords: Desiccant material, Solar air collector, Evaporative cooler, Internal baffles, Air conditioning

  6. Overview of Crane Control Systems and the Related Problems: Analysis of Container Oscillation Using Different Types of Cargoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Eglynas

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Growing international trading increased cargo transportation in containers, therefore the port cranes have higher loads. Increased cargo flows can influence transportation safety. It is therefore necessary to review the crane systems and determine what factors might influence the volatility of the container and its cargo during transportation. The paper includes consideration and analysis of crane control systems and related problems. The authors consider the reasons of problems, probable damage and solution methods. The paper also provides the analysis of the relationship between different container cargoes and container oscillations occurring during handling operations using a container crane prototype. The analysis of the effect of different cargoes in containers on loading process and the results of occurring oscillations are presented.

  7. 75 FR 9915 - Extension of Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB Review: Certified Cargo Screening...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-04

    ...-airport and includes facilties upstream in the air cargo supply chain, such as shippers, manufacturers... Request (ICR), OMB control number 1652-0053, abstracted below to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB... Management and Budget. Comments should be addressed to Desk Officer, Department of Homeland Security/TSA, and...

  8. System for inspection of stacked cargo containers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derenzo, Stephen [Pinole, CA

    2011-08-16

    The present invention relates to a system for inspection of stacked cargo containers. One embodiment of the invention generally comprises a plurality of stacked cargo containers arranged in rows or tiers, each container having a top, a bottom a first side, a second side, a front end, and a back end; a plurality of spacers arranged in rows or tiers; one or more mobile inspection devices for inspecting the cargo containers, wherein the one or more inspection devices are removeably disposed within the spacers, the inspection means configured to move through the spacers to detect radiation within the containers. The invented system can also be configured to inspect the cargo containers for a variety of other potentially hazardous materials including but not limited to explosive and chemical threats.

  9. Design of heavy lift cargo aircraft

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This is the bird of the skies of the future. The heavy lift cargo aircraft which is currently being developed by me has twice the payload capacity of an Antonov...

  10. 46 CFR 98.30-11 - Cargo pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo pumps. 98.30-11 Section 98.30-11 Shipping COAST..., ARRANGEMENT, AND OTHER PROVISIONS FOR CERTAIN DANGEROUS CARGOES IN BULK Portable Tanks § 98.30-11 Cargo pumps. No person may operate a cargo pump to transfer a product to or from a portable tank unless the pump...

  11. 46 CFR 154.195 - Aluminum cargo tank: Steel enclosure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Aluminum cargo tank: Steel enclosure. 154.195 Section... Equipment Hull Structure § 154.195 Aluminum cargo tank: Steel enclosure. (a) An aluminum cargo tank and its... the aluminum cargo tank must meet the steel structural standards of the American Bureau of Shipping...

  12. 46 CFR 154.562 - Cargo hose: Hydrostatic test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo hose: Hydrostatic test. 154.562 Section 154.562 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY... Hose § 154.562 Cargo hose: Hydrostatic test. Each cargo hose must pass a hydrostatic pressure test at...

  13. Cargo Release from Polymeric Vesicles under Shear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingying Guo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we study the release of cargo from polymeric nano-carriers under shear. Vesicles formed by two star block polymers— A 12 B 6 C 2 ( A B C and A 12 B 6 A 2 ( A B A —and one linear block copolymer— A 14 B 6 ( A B , are investigated using dissipative particle dynamics (DPD simulations. A - and C -blocks are solvophobic and B -block is solvophilic. The three polymers form vesicles of different structures. The vesicles are subjected to shear both in bulk and between solvophobic walls. In bulk shear, the mechanisms of cargo release are similar for all vesicles, with cargo travelling through vesicle membrane with no preferential release location. When sheared between walls, high cargo release rate is only observed with A B C vesicle after it touches the wall. For A B C vesicle, the critical condition for high cargo release rate is the formation of wall-polymersome interface after which the effect of shear rate in promoting cargo release is secondary. High release rate is achieved by the formation of solvophilic pathway allowing cargo to travel from the vesicle cavity to the vesicle exterior. The results in this paper show that well controlled target cargo release using polymersomes can be achieved with polymers of suitable design and can potentially be very useful for engineering applications. As an example, polymersomes can be used as carriers for surface active friction reducing additives which are only released at rubbing surfaces where the additives are needed most.

  14. Container cargo simulation modeling for measuring impacts of infrastructure investment projects in Pearl River Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jia-Qi; Shibasaki, Ryuichi; Li, Bo-Wei

    2010-03-01

    In the Pearl River Delta (PRD), there is severe competition between container ports, particularly those in Hong Kong, Shenzhen, and Guangzhou, for collecting international maritime container cargo. In addition, the second phase of the Nansha terminal in Guangzhou’s port and the first phase of the Da Chang Bay container terminal in Shenzhen opened last year. Under these circumstances, there is an increasing need to quantitatively measure the impact these infrastructure investments have on regional cargo flows. The analysis should include the effects of container terminal construction, berth deepening, and access road construction. The authors have been developing a model for international cargo simulation (MICS) which can simulate the movement of cargo. The volume of origin-destination (OD) container cargo in the East Asian region was used as an input, in order to evaluate the effects of international freight transportation policies. This paper focuses on the PRD area and, by incorporating a more detailed network, evaluates the impact of several infrastructure investment projects on freight movement.

  15. Assessment of the potential for international dissemination of Ebola virus via commercial air travel during the 2014 west African outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogoch, Isaac I; Creatore, Maria I; Cetron, Martin S; Brownstein, John S; Pesik, Nicki; Miniota, Jennifer; Tam, Theresa; Hu, Wei; Nicolucci, Adriano; Ahmed, Saad; Yoon, James W; Berry, Isha; Hay, Simon I; Anema, Aranka; Tatem, Andrew J; MacFadden, Derek; German, Matthew; Khan, Kamran

    2015-01-03

    The WHO declared the 2014 west African Ebola epidemic a public health emergency of international concern in view of its potential for further international spread. Decision makers worldwide are in need of empirical data to inform and implement emergency response measures. Our aim was to assess the potential for Ebola virus to spread across international borders via commercial air travel and assess the relative efficiency of exit versus entry screening of travellers at commercial airports. We analysed International Air Transport Association data for worldwide flight schedules between Sept 1, 2014, and Dec 31, 2014, and historic traveller flight itinerary data from 2013 to describe expected global population movements via commercial air travel out of Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone. Coupled with Ebola virus surveillance data, we modelled the expected number of internationally exported Ebola virus infections, the potential effect of air travel restrictions, and the efficiency of airport-based traveller screening at international ports of entry and exit. We deemed individuals initiating travel from any domestic or international airport within these three countries to have possible exposure to Ebola virus. We deemed all other travellers to have no significant risk of exposure to Ebola virus. Based on epidemic conditions and international flight restrictions to and from Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone as of Sept 1, 2014 (reductions in passenger seats by 51% for Liberia, 66% for Guinea, and 85% for Sierra Leone), our model projects 2.8 travellers infected with Ebola virus departing the above three countries via commercial flights, on average, every month. 91,547 (64%) of all air travellers departing Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone had expected destinations in low-income and lower-middle-income countries. Screening international travellers departing three airports would enable health assessments of all travellers at highest risk of exposure to Ebola virus infection

  16. A cargo-sorting DNA robot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thubagere, Anupama J; Li, Wei; Johnson, Robert F; Chen, Zibo; Doroudi, Shayan; Lee, Yae Lim; Izatt, Gregory; Wittman, Sarah; Srinivas, Niranjan; Woods, Damien; Winfree, Erik; Qian, Lulu

    2017-09-15

    Two critical challenges in the design and synthesis of molecular robots are modularity and algorithm simplicity. We demonstrate three modular building blocks for a DNA robot that performs cargo sorting at the molecular level. A simple algorithm encoding recognition between cargos and their destinations allows for a simple robot design: a single-stranded DNA with one leg and two foot domains for walking, and one arm and one hand domain for picking up and dropping off cargos. The robot explores a two-dimensional testing ground on the surface of DNA origami, picks up multiple cargos of two types that are initially at unordered locations, and delivers them to specified destinations until all molecules are sorted into two distinct piles. The robot is designed to perform a random walk without any energy supply. Exploiting this feature, a single robot can repeatedly sort multiple cargos. Localization on DNA origami allows for distinct cargo-sorting tasks to take place simultaneously in one test tube or for multiple robots to collectively perform the same task. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  17. Specialization and Flexibility in Port Cargo Handling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakkı KİŞİ

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Cargo handling appears to be the fundamental function of ports. In this context, the question of type of equipment and capacity rate need to be tackled with respect to cargo handling principles. The purpose of this study is to discuss the types of equipment to be used in ports, relating the matter to costs and capacity. The question is studied with a basic economic theoretical approach. Various conditions like port location, size, resources, cargo traffic, ships, etc. are given parameters to dictate the type and specification of the cargo handling equipment. Besides, a simple approach in the context of cost capacity relation can be useful in deciding whether to use specialized or flexible equipment. Port equipment is sometimes expected to be flexible to handle various types of cargo as many as possible and sometimes to be specialized to handle one specific type of cargo. The cases that might be suitable for those alternatives are discussed from an economic point of view in this article. Consequently, effectiveness and efficiency criteria play important roles in determining the handling equipment in ports.

  18. [Recent history: 12th International Conference on Cancer, Buenos Aires, Argentina, 1978].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinelli, Hugo

    2014-04-01

    Using the approaches of history of the present, this article recovers the discussions surrounding the 12th International Conference on Cancer carried out in Buenos Aires in 1978, in reaction to which Georges Périès organized a "counter-conference" in Paris. In order to understand this discussion, the political situation of the time is described, as is the state of human rights at the time in Argentina, the role of the media - in particular the newspapers La Nación and Clarín and the magazine Gente - and the institutional position adopted by the National Academy of Medicine, as expressed in a letter sent to the presidents of the primary scientific societies of the world. The letter is reprinted in this text as a documentary source, taken from Memoria: Año 1978 (Presidencia de Dr. José E. Rivarola) [Acta: Year 1978 (Presidency of Dr. José E. Rivarola)]. The framework of the discussion makes reference to science's social policy versus science's supposed neutrality and the role of scientific societies.

  19. Effect of air flow, panel curvature, and internal pressurization on field-incidence transmission loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koval, L. R.

    1976-01-01

    In the context of sound transmission through aircraft fuselage panels, equations for the field-incidence transmission loss (TL) of a single-walled panel are derived that include the effects of external air flow, panel curvature, and internal fuselage pressurization. Flow is shown to provide a modest increase in TL that is uniform with frequency up to the critical frequency. The increase is about 2 dB at Mach number M = 0.5, and about 3.5 dB at M = 1. Above the critical frequency where TL is damping controlled, the increase can be slightly larger at certain frequencies. Curvature is found to stiffen the panel, thereby increasing the TL at low frequencies, but also to introduce a dip at the 'ring frequency' of a full cylinder having the same radius as the panel. Pressurization appears to produce a slight decrease in TL throughout the frequency range, and also slightly shifts the dips at the critical frequency and at the ring frequency.

  20. Microbiological detection of bacteria in animal products seized in baggage of international air passengers to Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Melo, Cristiano Barros; de Sá, Marcos Eielson Pinheiro; Sabino, Valéria Mourão; de Fatima Boechat-Fernandes, Maria; Santiago, Marco Túlio; Schwingel, Fábio Fraga; Freitas, Cleverson; Magioli, Carlos Alberto; Cabral-Pinto, Sergio; McManus, Concepta; Seixas, Luiza

    2015-01-01

    Airline travel favours the transmission of diseases, given the short time it takes to travel long distances. In this study, animal products without health certificates seized in international air passengers' baggage at Guarulhos (GRU) and Galeão (GIG) airports in Brazil underwent a microbiological evaluation. Analyses (1610) were carried out on 322 seizures to test for the presence of total and thermotolerant coliforms, as well as Staphylococcus aureus counts and the presence of Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella. Most seizures analysed showed coliform contamination and coliforms were present above acceptable limits in 83.4% (40/48) of the products that had some type of contamination. The second most prevalent microorganism found was L. monocytogenes in 22.9% (11/48) and S. aureus was cultivated in 14.58% (7/48) of seizures. Among the items seized in the present work, Salmonella was found in one seizure of pig sausage. Contamination of animal products with microbiological pathogens of importance to public health and indicators of the bad quality of the food were shown in the present study. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Characterizing X-ray Attenuation of Containerized Cargo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birrer, N. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Divin, C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Glenn, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Martz, H. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Wang, G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-08-02

    X-ray inspection systems can be used to detect radiological and nuclear threats in imported cargo. In order to better understand performance of these systems, the attenuation characteristics of imported cargo need to be determined. This project focused on developing image processing algorithms for segmenting cargo and using x-ray attenuation to quantify equivalent steel thickness to determine cargo density. These algorithms were applied to over 450 cargo radiographs. The results are summarized in this report.

  2. Air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gugele, B.; Scheider, J.; Spangl, W.

    2001-01-01

    In recent years several regulations and standards for air quality and limits for air pollution were issued or are in preparation by the European Union, which have severe influence on the environmental monitoring and legislation in Austria. This chapter of the environmental control report of Austria gives an overview about the legal situation of air pollution control in the European Union and in specific the legal situation in Austria. It gives a comprehensive inventory of air pollution measurements for the whole area of Austria of total suspended particulates, ozone, volatile organic compounds, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, heavy metals, benzene, dioxin, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and eutrophication. For each of these pollutants the measured emission values throughout Austria are given in tables and geographical charts, the environmental impact is discussed, statistical data and time series of the emission sources are given and legal regulations and measures for an effective environmental pollution control are discussed. In particular the impact of fossil-fuel power plants on the air pollution is analyzed. (a.n.)

  3. A MATHEMATICAL MODEL OF THE MILITARY TRANSPORT AIRCRAFT MOVEMENT AT CARGO ITEM DROP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The controllability of military transport aircraft deteriorates at heavy single piece landing. To solve this problem and a specific methodology for pilotage of the pre-emption, and automation tools are being developed. Preliminary study ofpilotage technique and authomatic control algorythm demand a reliable mathematical model of aircraft dynamics at cargo item drop. Such model should take into account significant change in the position of the aircraft center of mass and aircraft inertia tensor. Simplified models were based on modeling the movement of the center of mass and rotation around the cen- ter of mass of the aircraft. Such models do not take into account the inertial forces and moments of moving a cargo item. This circumstance does not allow to obtain reliable results in the simulation. The article presents the description of the complete mathematical model of the movement of military transport aircraft in landing of a cargo item. Examines the com- plex material system of solids and a detailed description of the properties of its components. The equations of motion of the aircraft as a system carrier (aircraft without a cargo item and wear (of moving a cargo item bodies to reflect the changes in the inertia tensor. The functioning of the power plant, steering actuators, flight control system, an exhaust chute, the sen- sors of the primary information are taken into account. The equations of motion for systems of bodies projected on the air- craft reference plane are being recorded. This approach takes into account changes of the inertia tensor and the position of the main central axes of inertia in the process of landing of a cargo item. It allows us to simulate the condition of the air- craft at all speeds of the pitch, normal overload, and masses of single piece and placement, as evidenced by the high con- vergence of modeling results with data from flight tests.

  4. Cargo Security Initiatives in the EU and the USA, their Impact on Business Operations and Mutual Recognition with Focus on AEO and C-TPAT

    OpenAIRE

    Szelp, Attila

    2010-01-01

    The terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 had a tremendous impact on international trade policy. The USA was the first country to introduce cargo security and facilitation measures as a counteraction. The EU and international organizations also established new security programs in order to better secure cargo movements across borders. This thesis gives an overview of security initiatives introduced by international organizations, the EU and the USA, with an emphasis on the tr...

  5. Evidence that an internal carbonic anhydrase is present in 5% CO2-grown and air-grown Chlamydomonas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moroney, J.V.; Togasaki, R.K.; Husic, H.D.; Tolbert, N.E.

    1987-01-01

    Inorganic carbon (C/sub i/) uptake was measured in wild-type cells of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, and in cia-3, a mutant strain of C. reinhardtii that cannot grow with air levels of CO 2 . Both air-grown cells, that have a CO 2 concentrating system, and 5% CO 2 -grown cells that do not have this system, were used. When the external pH was 5.1 or 7.3, air-grown, wild-type cells accumulated inorganic carbon (C/sub i/) and this accumulation was enhanced when the permeant carbonic anhydrase inhibitor, ethoxyzolamide, was added. When the external pH was 5.1, 5% CO 2 -grown cells also accumulated some C/sub i/, although not as much as air-grown cells and this accumulation was stimulated by the addition of ethoxyzolamide. At the same time, ethoxyzolamide inhibited CO 2 fixation by high CO 2 -grown, wild-type cells at both pH 5.1 and 7.3. These observations imply that 5% CO 2 -grown, wild-type cells, have a physiologically important internal carbonic anhydrase, although the major carbonic anhydrase located in the periplasmic space is only present in air-grown cells. Inorganic carbon uptake by cia-3 cells supported this conclusion. This mutant strain, which is thought to lack an internal carbonic anhydrase, was unaffected by ethoxyzolamide at pH 5.1. Other physiological characteristics of cia-3 resemble those of wild-type cells that have been treated with ethoxyzolamide. It is concluded that an internal carbonic anhydrase is under different regulatory control than the periplasmic carbonic anhydrase

  6. Characterizing Complexity of Containerized Cargo X-ray Images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Guangxing; Martz, Harry; Glenn, Steven; Divin, Charles; Birrer, Nat

    2016-01-01

    X-ray imaging can be used to inspect cargos imported into the United States. In order to better understand the performance of X-ray inspection systems, the X-ray characteristics (density, complexity) of cargo need to be quantified. In this project, an image complexity measure called integrated power spectral density (IPSD) was studied using both DNDO engineered cargos and stream-of-commerce (SOC) cargos. A joint distribution of cargo density and complexity was obtained. A support vector machine was used to classify the SOC cargos into four categories to estimate the relative fractions.

  7. Characterizing Complexity of Containerized Cargo X-ray Images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Guangxing [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Martz, Harry [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Glenn, Steven [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Divin, Charles [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Birrer, Nat [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-08-19

    X-ray imaging can be used to inspect cargos imported into the United States. In order to better understand the performance of X-ray inspection systems, the X-ray characteristics (density, complexity) of cargo need to be quantified. In this project, an image complexity measure called integrated power spectral density (IPSD) was studied using both DNDO engineered cargos and stream-of-commerce (SOC) cargos. A joint distribution of cargo density and complexity was obtained. A support vector machine was used to classify the SOC cargos into four categories to estimate the relative fractions.

  8. Delivery of Cargo to Lysosomes Using GNeosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamill, Kristina M; Wexselblatt, Ezequiel; Tong, Wenyong; Esko, Jeffrey D; Tor, Yitzhak

    2017-01-01

    Liposomes have been used to improve the intracellular delivery of a variety of cargos. Encapsulation of cargos in liposomes leads to improved plasma half-lives and minimized degradation. Here, we present a method for improving the selective delivery of liposomes to the lysosomes using a guanidinylated neomycin (GNeo) transporter. The method for synthesizing GNeo-lipids, incorporating them into liposomes, and the enhanced lysosomal delivery of encapsulated cargo are presented. GNeo-liposomes, termed GNeosomes, are capable of delivering a fluorescent dye to the lysosomes of Chinese hamster ovary cells as shown using confocal microscopy. GNeosomes can also be used to deliver therapeutic quantities of lysosomal enzymes to fibroblasts isolated from patients with a lysosomal storage disorder.

  9. New radiological examination for tumor in the internal auditory canal by combination of air CT cisternography and target imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yagishita, A.; Shiga, I.; Kanzaki, H. (Keio Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1982-07-01

    A 56-year-old man was admitted to the hospital because of progressive right hearing disturbance and tinnitus. An x-ray film of the skull demonstrated dilatation of the right internal auditory canal. Intravcnously enhanced CT didn't reveal any tumor in the right cerebellopontine angle. An intracanalicular tumor was demonstrated by air CT cisternography with target imaging, and confirmed by surgery. This method is useful for the radiological evaluation of the intracanalicular tumors.

  10. At the Fulcrum of Air Force Identity: Balancing the Internal and External Pressures of Image and Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    internally oriented understanding (labeled culture).10 Their model is an organizational abstraction of George Mead’s 1934 charac- terization of...fundamental shift in the societal structure of the day. Norman Cantor indicates that “the main social consequence of the Black Death was not the...FILE APPROACH TO THE US AIR FORCE IDENTITY 50 In a move eerily reminiscent of George Orwell’s “Ministry of Truth,” Mose- ley declared, “Our new

  11. A new radiological examination for tumor in the internal auditory canal by combination of air CT cisternography and target imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yagishita, Akira; Shiga, Itsuo; Kanzaki, Hitoshi

    1982-01-01

    A 56-year-old man was admitted to the hospital because of progressive right hearing disturbance and tinnitus. An x-ray film of the skull demonstrated dilatation of the right internal auditory canal. Intravcnously enhanced CT didn't reveal any tumor in the right cerebellopontine angle. An intracanalicular tumor was demonstrated by air CT cisternography with target imaging, and confirmed by surgery. This method is useful for the radiological evaluation of the intracanalicular tumors. (author)

  12. New radiological examination for tumor in the internal auditory canal by combination of air CT cisternography and target imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yagishita, A; Shiga, I; Kanzaki, H [Keio Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine

    1982-07-01

    A 56-year-old man was admitted to the hospital because of progressive right hearing disturbance and tinnitus. An x-ray film of the skull demonstrated dilatation of the right internal auditory canal. Intravcnously enhanced CT didn't reveal any tumor in the right cerebellopontine angle. An intracanalicular tumor was demonstrated by air CT cisternography with target imaging, and confirmed by surgery. This method is useful for the radiological evaluation of the intracanalicular tumors.

  13. The model for calculation of emission and imisson of air pollutants from vehicles with internal combustion engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tashevski, Done; Dimitrovski, Mile

    1994-01-01

    The model for calculation of emission and immision of air pollutants from vehicles with internal combustion engine on the crossroads in urban environments, with substitution of a great number of exhaust-pipes with one chimney in the centre of the crossroad has been made. The whole calculation of the pollution sources mentioned above is, in the fact, the calculation of the emission and imisson of pollutants from point sources of pollution. (author)

  14. 76 FR 13313 - Hazardous Materials: Cargo Tank Motor Vehicle Loading and Unloading Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-11

    ...-the-job complacency. As a result, PHMSA expects a reduction in the number of loading and unloading... monitoring of internal tank pressure and cargo temperature. C. CSB Accident Investigations CSB has... unloading practices is impractical. ATA states that, ``[i]t is critically important that PHMSA not choose a...

  15. Port Security: Container Cargo Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladivoj Vlaković

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available illicittrafficking of threat materials, especially explosives, chemicalsubstances and radioactive or nuclear material. The transportof the threat materials by using sea routes is an advantageto te"orists especially because of the possible use of ship containers.The container is the basis of world trade. It is assumed thatthe world total movement in containers is about 200 millionTEUs ("20-foot equivalent units" per year. The list of materialstransported by containers which should be subject to inspectionwith the aim of reducing the acts of te"orism includes explosives,narcotics, chemical weapons, hazardous chemicalsand radioactive materials.Of special interest is nuclear te"orism. The risk of nuclearte"orism carried out by sub-national groups should be considerednot only in the construction and/or use of nuclear device,but also in possible radioactive contamination of large urbanareas.The system of ship containers control is an essential componentof «smart border» concept. Modem personnel, parcel,vehicle and cargo inspection systems are non-invasive imagingtechniques based on the use of nuclear analytical techniques.The inspection systems use penetrating radiations: hard x-rays(300 keV or more or gamma-rays from radioactive sources(137Cs and 60Co with energies from 600 to 1300 keV that producea high resolution radiograph of the load. Unfortunately,this information is "non-specific" in that it gives no informationon the nature of objects that do not match_ the travel documentsand are not recognized by a visual analysis of the radiographicpicture. Moreover, there are regions of the containerwherex and gamma-ray systems are "blind" due to the high averageatomic number of the objects i"adiated that appear asblack spots in the radiographic image.The systems being developed are based on the use of fast, 14Me V, neutrons with detection of associated a-particle from nuclearreactionbywhichneutrons are produced (d+t>a+n.Jnsuch a way the possibility to

  16. Determining Cargo Flow for Air Mobility Command’s Channel Cargo System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-03-01

    1.78 2.08 EDAR LICZ 0.18 0,36 0.54 0.72 0.90 1.08 1.26 EDAR LIRN 0.18 0.37 0.55 0.73 0.92 1.10 1.28 EDAR OEDR 0.85 1.69 2.54 3.39 4.23 5.08 5.93 EGUN ...KNGU 0.78 1.56 2.34 3.12 3.90 4.68 5.46 EGUN LTAG 1.68- 3.36 5.04 6.72 8.40 10.08 11.76 KCHS EDAF 0.16 0.20 0.22 0.46 0.75 1.01 1.24 KDOV LGIR 0.31...AMC study (Robinson, 22 Sep 92). BIKF CYQX EDAF EDAR EGUN EXXX FTTJ FZAA GLRB GOOY HKNA HSSS KCHS KDOV KNGU KSUU KTIK KWRI KXXX LCRA LERT LETO LGIR LICZ

  17. Assessment of internal contamination problems associated with bioregenerative air/water purification systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Anne H.; Bounds, B. Keith; Gardner, Warren

    1990-01-01

    The emphasis is to characterize the mechanisms of bioregenerative revitalization of air and water as well as to assess the possible risks associated with such a system in a closed environment. Marsh and aquatic plants are utilized for purposes of wastewater treatment as well as possible desalinization and demineralization. Foliage plants are also being screened for their ability to remove toxic organics from ambient air. Preliminary test results indicate that treated wastewater is typically of potable quality with numbers of pathogens such as Salmonella and Shigella significantly reduced by the artificial marsh system. Microbiological analyses of ambient air indicate the presence of bacilli as well as thermophilic actinomycetes.

  18. Foreign Internal Defense. Does Air Force Special Operations Have What it Takes?,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-12-01

    anything in the air or on the ground. However, while the desert conditions in areas of Peru and Chile are similarly without rain, their surrounding...example, during CABANAS 89, a joint/combined exercise, Honduran officials did not allow the use of CASA -212 aircraft in the. exercise because of...correctly understood while flying en route to Desert One on the Iranian hostage rescue mission. The experience is described by Col James H. Kyle, US Air Force

  19. Marine cargo imports and forest pest introductions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank H. Koch

    2009-01-01

    A major pathway for the introduction of nonindigenous forest pests is accidental transport on cargo imported from overseas. Diseases may be brought into the United States via commercial trade of nursery stock or other live plant material, as has been suggested for Phytophthora ramorum, the pathogen that causes sudden oak death (Ivors and others 2006). Insects may...

  20. An illustrative application example: cargo state monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, C.; Diaz, V.C.; Kotian, R.; del Toro Matamoros, R.; Papp, Z.; Rieter-Barrel, Y.; Papp, Z.; Exarchakos, G.

    2016-01-01

    This chapter describes a real self-adaptive system carried out using the DEMANES tool chain. This chapter focuses on the design and implementation stages of a real use case development. The use case under study is a subsystem, called Cargo Monitoring System (CMS) , that monitors the state of the

  1. An Analysis of Air Transportation in Nigeria | Ladan | Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Air Transportation is the transportation of passengers and cargo by aircraft and helicopters. An efficient air transport contributes to economic growth and development. However in Nigeria,lt ... Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT

  2. 46 CFR 154.560 - Cargo hose: Prototype test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo hose: Prototype test. 154.560 Section 154.560... Hose § 154.560 Cargo hose: Prototype test. (a) Each cargo hose must be of a type that passes a prototype test at a pressure of at least five times its maximum working pressure at or below the minimum...

  3. 46 CFR 153.440 - Cargo temperature sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo temperature sensors. 153.440 Section 153.440 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SHIPS... Temperature Control Systems § 153.440 Cargo temperature sensors. (a) Except as prescribed in paragraph (c) of...

  4. 46 CFR 154.1850 - Entering cargo handling spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., compressors, and compressor motors. (2) Gas-dangerous cargo control spaces. (3) Other spaces containing cargo... cargo handling spaces. (a) The master shall ensure that the ventilation system under § 154.1200 is in... ventilation system, is posted outside of each space under paragraph (a) of this section. (c) The master shall...

  5. 46 CFR 154.1816 - Cargo location plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo location plan. 154.1816 Section 154.1816 Shipping... FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Operations § 154.1816 Cargo location plan. The master shall ensure that: (a) A cargo location plan is prepared that gives: (1) The location and...

  6. 29 CFR 1918.87 - Ship's cargo elevators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ship's cargo elevators. 1918.87 Section 1918.87 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR LONGSHORING Handling Cargo § 1918.87 Ship's cargo elevators. (a) Safe working load. The safe workin...

  7. 46 CFR 151.25-2 - Cargo handling space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo handling space. 151.25-2 Section 151.25-2 Shipping... BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Environmental Control § 151.25-2 Cargo handling space. Pump rooms, compressor rooms, refrigeration rooms, heating rooms, instrument rooms or other closed spaces...

  8. 46 CFR 154.1814 - Cargo information cards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo information cards. 154.1814 Section 154.1814... cards. (a) No person may operate a vessel unless a cargo information card for each cargo being... accessible to the person in charge of the watch. (b) When a vessel is moored at a terminal, the master shall...

  9. Multirole cargo aircraft options and configurations. [economic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner, D. W.; Vaughan, J. C., III

    1979-01-01

    A future requirements and advanced market evaluation study indicates derivatives of current wide-body aircraft, using 1980 advanced technology, would be economically attractive through 2008, but new dedicated airfreighters incorporating 1990 technology, would offer little or no economic incentive. They would be economically attractive for all payload sizes, however, if RD and T costs could be shared in a joint civil/military arrangement. For the 1994-2008 cargo market, option studies indicate Mach 0.7 propfans would be economically attractive in trip cost, aircraft price and airline ROI. Spanloaders would have an even lower price and higher ROI but would have a relatively high trip cost because of aerodynamic inefficiencies. Dedicated airfreighters using propfans at Mach 0.8 cruise, laminar flow control, or cryofuels, would not provide any great economic benefits. Air cushion landing gear configurations are identified as an option for avoiding runway constraints on airport requirements and/or operational constraints are noted.

  10. International system of units traceable results of Hg mass concentration at saturation in air from a newly developed measurement procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quétel, Christophe R; Zampella, Mariavittoria; Brown, Richard J C; Ent, Hugo; Horvat, Milena; Paredes, Eduardo; Tunc, Murat

    2014-08-05

    Data most commonly used at present to calibrate measurements of mercury vapor concentrations in air come from a relationship known as the "Dumarey equation". It uses a fitting relationship to experimental results obtained nearly 30 years ago. The way these results relate to the international system of units (SI) is not known. This has caused difficulties for the specification and enforcement of limit values for mercury concentrations in air and in emissions to air as part of national or international legislation. Furthermore, there is a significant discrepancy (around 7% at room temperature) between the Dumarey data and data calculated from results of mercury vapor pressure measurements in the presence of only liquid mercury. As an attempt to solve some of these problems, a new measurement procedure is described for SI traceable results of gaseous Hg concentrations at saturation in milliliter samples of air. The aim was to propose a scheme as immune as possible to analytical biases. It was based on isotope dilution (ID) in the liquid phase with the (202)Hg enriched certified reference material ERM-AE640 and measurements of the mercury isotope ratios in ID blends, subsequent to a cold vapor generation step, by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The process developed involved a combination of interconnected valves and syringes operated by computer controlled pumps and ensured continuity under closed circuit conditions from the air sampling stage onward. Quantitative trapping of the gaseous mercury in the liquid phase was achieved with 11.5 μM KMnO4 in 2% HNO3. Mass concentrations at saturation found from five measurements under room temperature conditions were significantly higher (5.8% on average) than data calculated from the Dumarey equation, but in agreement (-1.2% lower on average) with data based on mercury vapor pressure measurement results. Relative expanded combined uncertainties were estimated following a model based approach. They ranged from 2

  11. Columbus stowage optimization by cast (cargo accommodation support tool)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasano, G.; Saia, D.; Piras, A.

    2010-08-01

    A challenging issue related to the International Space Station utilization concerns the on-board stowage, implying a strong impact on habitability, safety and crew productivity. This holds in particular for the European Columbus laboratory, nowadays also utilized to provide the station with logistic support. The volume exploitation has to be maximized, in compliance with the given accommodation rules. At each upload step, the stowage problem must be solved quickly and efficiently. This leads to the comparison of different scenarios to select the most suitable one. Last minute upgrades, due to possible re-planning, may, moreover arise, imposing the further capability to rapidly readapt the current solution to the updated status. In this context, looking into satisfactory solutions represents a very demanding job, even for experienced designers. Thales Alenia Space Italia has achieved a remarkable expertise in the field of cargo accommodation and stowage. The company has recently developed CAST, a dedicated in-house software tool, to support the cargo accommodation of the European automated transfer vehicle. An ad hoc version, tailored to the Columbus stowage, has been further implemented and is going to be used from now on. This paper surveys the on-board stowage issue, pointing out the advantages of the proposed approach.

  12. Recommended radiological air sampling and internal contamination control at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rich, B.L.; Ritter, P.D.; Martz, D.E.

    1984-01-01

    It has long been recognized by the NRC Technical Staffs that estimating the quantity of radioactivity inhaled by an individual worker involved large uncertainties. General air samples usually produce concentrations lower than those in the workers Breathing Zone (BZ). NRC guides have recognized this problem by specifying air monitoring programs which sample the Breathing Zone or concentrations known to be higher than that actually inhaled. In addition the availability of suitable samplers to obtain BZ samples and the practicality of requiring their use was somewhat in question to the NRC technical staff. AN NRC development contract was issued to provide a detailed review of the technical aspects of the problems and recommendations for practical upgrade of federal guidance. This project accomplished a review of the nuclear industry experience and knowledge through a literature search, site visits to representative licensed facilities, telephone surveys of many others, laboratory testing of personal air samplers (lapel samplers) and aerosol diffusion experiments to verify key conclusions and assumptions

  13. Assessment of policy options with regard to air pollution from international shipping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deutsch, F.; Veldeman, N.; Lodewijks, P.; Duuerinck, J.; Janssen, L.; Campling, P.; Janssen, S.; Vanherle, K.

    2011-01-01

    Recently, a study has been carried out for DG Environment of the European Commission titled 'Market-based instruments for Reducing Air Pollution. Assessment of Policy Options to reducing air pollution from shipping'. Within this study it was decided to study the environmental impact of two legally possible trading systems: a voluntary emissions trading system for all sea areas belonging to the European Union and a mandatory emissions trading system for the ports and territorial waters of EU Member States. If the emissions in ports and coastal waters will be made part of such a trading system it can result in lower environmental exposure for the population. [nl

  14. The relevance of national and international initiatives on toxic substances to the management of hazardous air pollutants in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buccini, J.

    2001-03-30

    The Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment (CCME), seeking guidance on current and emerging national and international initiatives, activities, and programs that could impact on the management of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) in Canada, commissioned the author to prepare this document. In this report, HAPs are defined as toxic substances subject to airborne transport as a significant route of environmental distribution and/or exposure. Heavy metals and persistent organic pollutants (POPs) were included in this definition. A model, known as toxics cycle, represented the four distinct stages of the process of selecting substances for risk assessment and management: problem identification and priority setting, risk assessment, risk management, and monitoring and evaluation. A large number of international activities were reviewed, such as research, hazard and risk assessment, risk management, and monitoring and surveillance programs. The present report only deals with the programs that had been identified in the National Air Issues Coordinating Committee-Other Air Issues (NAICC-A) of the CCME report published in 1999 and which had recent or foreseen impacts. Five bi-lateral and multi-lateral agreements on persistent toxic substances, as well as national, regional and global programs, activities, and initiatives concerning the assessment of the hazards and risks of chemicals and actions were reviewed. It was recommended that initiatives at all levels continue to be monitored and that Environment Canada continue to be the conduit of information at the international level. Issues and opportunities must be identified by all jurisdictions with regard to risk management. It was suggested by the author that risk assessment be conducted by Environment Canada and the attention of the HAP group be drawn on specific topics as required. 2 tabs., 1 fig.

  15. Wendy J. Goodson, Microbiomes of Military Cargo Aircraft and their Connection to Biocorrosion

    OpenAIRE

    Schriml, Lynn

    2017-01-01

    Wendy J. Goodson, Air Force Research Laboratory Microbiomes of Military Cargo Aircraft and their Connection to BiocorrosionOn October 10-12th, 2017 the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation and The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering and Medicine co-hosting MoBE 2017 (Microbiology of the Built Environment Research and Applications Symposium) at the National Academy of Sciences Building to present the current state-of-the-science in understanding the formation and function of microbial communitie...

  16. Duct System Flammability and Air Sealing Fire Separation Assemblies in the International Residential Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudd, A.; Prahl, D.

    2014-12-01

    IBACOS identified two barriers that limit the ability of builders to cost-effectively achieve higher energy efficiency levels in housing. These are (1) the use of duct system materials that inherently achieve airtightness and are appropriately sized for low-load houses and (2) the ability to air seal fire separation assemblies. The issues identified fall into a gray area of the codes.

  17. 76 FR 77856 - International Mail Price Change for Inbound Air Parcel Post

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-14

    ... Commission is noticing a recently-filed Postal Service request to change rates for Inbound Air Parcel Post at....\\2\\ Notice at 2. \\1\\ Notice of the United States Postal Service of Filing Changes in Rates Not of..., 2011 (Notice). \\2\\ See Docket Nos. MC2010-11 and CP2010-11, Request of the United States Postal Service...

  18. Proceedings of the International Symposium on Air Pollution and Climate Change Effects on Forest Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrzej Bytnerowicz; Michael J. Arbaugh; Susan L. Schilling

    1998-01-01

    Industrial air pollution has been identified as one of the primary causes of severe damage to forests of central Europe in the past 30 to 40 years. The mountain forest ecosystems have been affected considerably, resulting in extensive areas of severely deteriorated forest stands (e.g., the Krusne Hory of the Czech Republic or the Izerske and Sudety Mountains along the...

  19. Duct System Flammability and Air Sealing Fire Separation Assemblies in the International Residential Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudd, A. [ABT Systems, LLC, Annville, PA (United States); Prahl, D. [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2014-12-01

    IBACOS identified two barriers that limit the ability of builders to cost-effectively achieve higher energy efficiency levels in housing. These are the use of duct system materials that inherently achieve airtightness and are appropriately sized for low-load houses and the ability to air seal fire separation assemblies. The issues identified fall into a gray area of the codes.

  20. Influence of PAHs in ambient air on chromosomal aberrations in exposed subjects: International study - EXPAH

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Židzik, J.; Kalina, I.; Šalagovič, J.; Šrám, Radim; Rössner st., Pavel; Popov, T.; Farmer, P. B.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 620, - (2007), s. 41-48 ISSN 0027-5107 Grant - others:EU(GB) 2000 -00091 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Source of funding: R - rámcový projekt EK Keywords : air pollution * DNA damage * occupational exposure Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 4.159, year: 2007

  1. REPORT TO CONGRESS: ASSESSMENT OF INTERNATIONAL AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL TECHNOLOGY VOLUME 1. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of a study that identifies new and innovative air pollution prevention and/or control technologies, of selected industrialized countries, that are not currently used extensively in the U.S. The technologies may be entirely new to the U.S., or they may be ...

  2. 78 FR 6673 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-30

    ..., Energy and Economic Impacts A. What are the air quality impacts? B. What are the cost impacts? C. What... will assist in stabilizing the grid during periods of instability, preventing electrical blackouts and... important programs that protect the reliability and stability of the national electric service grid. The use...

  3. International Space Station Common Cabin Air Assembly Condensing Heat Exchanger Hydrophilic Coating Operation, Recovery, and Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balistreri, Steven F.; Steele, John W.; Caron, Mark E.; Laliberte, Yvon J.; Shaw, Laura A.

    2013-01-01

    The ability to control the temperature and humidity of an environment or habitat is critical for human survival. These factors are important to maintaining human health and comfort, as well as maintaining mechanical and electrical equipment in good working order to support the human and to accomplish mission objectives. The temperature and humidity of the International Space Station (ISS) United States On-orbit Segment (USOS) cabin air is controlled by the Common Cabin Air Assembly (CCAA). The CCAA consists of a fan, a condensing heat exchanger (CHX), an air/water separator, temperature and liquid sensors, and electrical controlling hardware and software. The CHX is the primary component responsible for control of temperature and humidity. The CCAA CHX contains a chemical coating that was developed to be hydrophilic and thus attract water from the humid influent air. This attraction forms the basis for water removal and therefore cabin humidity control. However, there have been several instances of CHX coatings becoming hydrophobic and repelling water. When this behavior is observed in an operational CHX in the ISS segments, the unit s ability to remove moisture from the air is compromised and the result is liquid water carryover into downstream ducting and systems. This water carryover can have detrimental effects on the ISS cabin atmosphere quality and on the health of downstream hardware. If the water carryover is severe and widespread, this behavior can result in an inability to maintain humidity levels in the USOS. This paper will describe the operation of the five CCAAs within the USOS, the potential causes of the hydrophobic condition, and the impacts of the resulting water carryover to downstream systems. It will describe the history of this behavior and the actual observed impacts to the ISS USOS. Information on mitigation steps to protect the health of future CHX hydrophilic coatings as well as remediation and recovery of the full heat exchanger will be

  4. The absolute risk of venous thrombosis after air travel: a cohort study of 8,755 employees of international organisations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saskia Kuipers

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The risk of venous thrombosis is approximately 2- to 4-fold increased after air travel, but the absolute risk is unknown. The objective of this study was to assess the absolute risk of venous thrombosis after air travel. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a cohort study among employees of large international companies and organisations, who were followed between 1 January 2000 and 31 December 2005. The occurrence of symptomatic venous thrombosis was linked to exposure to air travel, as assessed by travel records provided by the companies and organisations. A long-haul flight was defined as a flight of at least 4 h and participants were considered exposed for a postflight period of 8 wk. A total of 8,755 employees were followed during a total follow-up time of 38,910 person-years (PY. The total time employees were exposed to a long-haul flight was 6,872 PY. In the follow-up period, 53 thromboses occurred, 22 of which within 8 wk of a long-haul flight, yielding an incidence rate of 3.2/1,000 PY, as compared to 1.0/1,000 PY in individuals not exposed to air travel (incidence rate ratio 3.2, 95% confidence interval 1.8-5.6. This rate was equivalent to a risk of one event per 4,656 long-haul flights. The risk increased with exposure to more flights within a short time frame and with increasing duration of flights. The incidence was highest in the first 2 wk after travel and gradually decreased to baseline after 8 wk. The risk was particularly high in employees under age 30 y, women who used oral contraceptives, and individuals who were particularly short, tall, or overweight. CONCLUSIONS: The risk of symptomatic venous thrombosis after air travel is moderately increased on average, and rises with increasing exposure and in high-risk groups.

  5. PAT-2 (Plutonium Air Transportable Model 2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, J.

    1981-01-01

    The PAT-2 (Plutonium Air Transportable Model 2) package is designed for the safe transport of plutonium and/or uranium in small quantities, especially as used in international safeguards activities, and especially as transported by air. The PAT-2 package is resistant to severe accidents, including that of a high-speed jet aircraft crash, and is designed to withstand such environments as extreme impact, crushing, puncturing and slashing loads, severe hydrocarbon-fueled fires, and deep underwater immersion, with no escape of contents. The accident environments may be imposed upon the package singly or seqentially. The package meets the requirements of 10 CFR 71 for Fissile Class I packages with a cargo of 15 grams of Pu-239, or other isotopic forms described herein, not to exceed 2 watts of thermal activity. Packaging, operational features, and contents of package, are discussed

  6. Trace detection of explosive materials in air cargo containers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jezierska, M.M.; Spreen, J.S.; Ruiter, J.C. de; Koomen, G.C.M.; Slegt, M.

    2011-01-01

    At the request of the National Coordinator for Counterterrorism in the Netherlands a research project called “Security through innovation - risk-oriented detection in a drive-through set-up” has been carried out by TNO Defense, Security and Safety (TNO) and by Dutch Customs. In 2009 and 2010, a

  7. Internal Barriers to Implementing Diversity Management in the Air Force: Four Conversations We Must Have

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bean, Debra

    2000-01-01

    .... Unfortunately, there is little evidence that the internal environment is as well understood; and this lack of knowledge about barriers and facilitators of change is problematic for program developers...

  8. Tracking 800-year-old Shipments: An Archaeological Investigation of the Mado Shipwreck Cargo, Taean, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minkoo; Moon, Whan Suk

    2011-12-01

    This paper examines cargo from an 800-year-old shipwreck and discusses its implications in relation to the exchange networks and maritime transportation of the Goryeo period (A.D. 918-1392) in Korea. In 2007, two local fishermen fortuitously discovered porcelain vessels from a Goryeo-period shipwreck off the mid-western coast of the Korean peninsula. Underwater excavation conducted by the National Research Institute of Maritime Cultural Heritage (NRIMCH) revealed that the ship was carrying a myriad of cargoes destined for Gaegyeong, the capital of the Goryeo dynasty. Excavation indicates that the main body of the cargo was porcelain vessels produced in the southern part of the peninsula. Archaeobotanical investigation of the wreck deposits revealed that the ship was carrying crops such as rice ( Oryza sativa L.), broomcorn millet ( Panicum miliaceum L.), foxtail millet ( Setaria italica (L.) P. Beauv.), and buckwheat ( Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) bound for the capital. Among the recovered objects were 73 wooden cargo tags with Chinese letters. These tags, equivalent to the modern day air bill, contained detailed information about the senders, recipients, and shipped goods. These findings indicate that during the Goryeo period maritime transportation played an important role in the interpersonal exchange of products over long distances.

  9. Scanning Cargo Containers with Tagged Neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viesti, G.; Botosso, C.; Fabris, D.; Lunardon, M.; Moretto, S.; Nebbia, G.; Pesente, S.; Zenoni, A.; Donzella, A.; Perot, B.; Carasco, C.; Bernard, S.; Mariani, A.; Szabo, J.-L.; Sannie, G.; Valkovic, V.; Sudac, D.; Nad, K.; Peerani, P.; Sequeira, V.

    2007-01-01

    A new Tagged Neutron Inspection System (TNIS) able to detect illicit materials such as explosives and narcotics in cargo containers has been developed within the EURopean Illicit TRAfficing Countermeasures Kit (EURITRACK) project. After the R and D phase, the inspection portal has been installed and commissioned at the Rijeka seaport in Croatia, where it has been operated in connection with the existing X-ray scanner for a first two-month demonstration campaign. Results obtained are presented and discussed in this paper

  10. An International Project on Indoor Air Quality Design and Control in Low Energy Residential Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Carsten; Abadie, Marc; Qin, Menghao

    2016-01-01

    focal points to limiting energy consumption for thermally conditioning the indoor environment will be to possibly reducing the ventilation rate, or making it in a new way demand controlled. However, this must be done such that it does not have adverse effects on indoor air quality (IAQ). Annex 68......In order to achieve nearly net zero energy use, both new and energy refurbished existing buildings will in the future need to be still more efficient and optimized. Since such buildings can be expected to be already well insulated, airtight, and have heat recovery systems installed, one of the next......, Indoor Air Quality Design and Control in Low Energy Residential Buildings, is a project under IEA’s Energy Conservation in Buildings and Communities Program (EBC), which will endeavor to investigate how future residential buildings are able to have very high energy performance whilst providing...

  11. Self-Supporting Nanoclay as Internal Scaffold Material for Direct Printing of Soft Hydrogel Composite Structures in Air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yifei; Liu, Chengcheng; Chai, Wenxuan; Compaan, Ashley; Huang, Yong

    2017-05-24

    Three dimensional (3D) bioprinting technology enables the freeform fabrication of complex constructs from various hydrogels and is receiving increasing attention in tissue engineering. The objective of this study is to develop a novel self-supporting direct hydrogel printing approach to extrude complex 3D hydrogel composite structures in air without the help of a support bath. Laponite, a member of the smectite mineral family, is investigated to serve as an internal scaffold material for the direct printing of hydrogel composite structures in air. In the proposed printing approach, due to its yield-stress property, Laponite nanoclay can be easily extruded through a nozzle as a liquid and self-supported after extrusion as a solid. Its unique crystal structure with positive and negative charges enables it to be mixed with many chemically and physically cross-linked hydrogels, which makes it an ideal internal scaffold material for the fabrication of various hydrogel structures. By mixing Laponite nanoclay with various hydrogel precursors, the hydrogel composites retain their self-supporting capacity and can be printed into 3D structures directly in air and retain their shapes before cross-linking. Then, the whole structures are solidified in situ by applying suitable cross-linking stimuli. The addition of Laponite nanoclay can effectively improve the mechanical and biological properties of hydrogel composites. Specifically, the addition of Laponite nanoclay results in a significant increase in the Young's modulus of each hydrogel-Laponite composite: 1.9-fold increase for the poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA)-Laponite composite, 7.4-fold increase for the alginate-Laponite composite, and 3.3-fold increase for the gelatin-Laponite composite.

  12. Measurement of 131I activity in air indoor Polish nuclear medical hospital as a tool for an internal dose assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brudecki, K; Szczodry, A; Mróz, T; Kowalska, A; Mietelski, J W

    2018-03-01

    This paper presents results of 131 I air activity measurements performed within nuclear medical hospitals as a tool for internal dose assessment. The study was conducted at a place of preparation and administration of 131 I ("hot room") and at a nurse station. 131 I activity measurements were performed for 5 and 4 consecutive working days, at the "hot room" and nurse station, respectively. Iodine from the air was collected by a mobile HVS-30 aerosol sampler combined with a gas sampler. Both the gaseous and aerosol fractions were measurement. The activities in the gaseous fraction ranged from (28 ± 1 Bq m -3 ) to (492 ± 4) Bq m -3 . At both sampling sites, the activity of the gaseous iodine fraction trapped on activated charcoal was significantly higher than that of the aerosol fraction captured on Petrianov filter cloth. Based on these results, an attempt has been made to estimate annual inhalation effective doses, which were found to range from 0.47 mSv (nurse female) to 1.3 mSv (technician male). The highest annual inhalation equivalent doses have been found for thyroid as 32, 27, 13, and 11 mSv, respectively, for technician male, technical female, nurse male, and nurse female. The method presented here allows to fill the gaps in internal doses measurements. Moreover, because method has been successful used for many years in radioactive contamination monitoring of air in cases of serious nuclear accidents, it should also be used in nuclear medicine.

  13. Thermodynamic analysis of an absorption refrigeration system used to cool down the intake air in an Internal Combustion Engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novella, R.; Dolz, V.; Martín, J.; Royo-Pascual, L.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Enough power in the exhaust gases is available to operate the absorption cycle. • Three engine operating points are presented in the article. • Improvement potential up to 4% is possible in the engine indicated efficiency. • Engine indicated efficiency benefit was experimentally confirmed by direct testing. - Abstract: This paper deals with the thermodynamic analysis of an absorption refrigeration cycle used to cool down the temperature of the intake air in an Internal Combustion Engine using as a heat source the exhaust gas of the engine. The solution of ammonia-water has been selected due to the stability for a wide range of operating temperatures and pressures and the low freezing point. The effects of operating temperatures, pressures, concentrations of strong and weak solutions in the absorption refrigeration cycle were examined to achieve proper heat rejection to the ambient. Potential of increasing Internal Combustion Engine efficiency and reduce pollutant emissions was estimated by means of theoretical models and experimental tests. In order to provide boundary conditions for the absorption refrigeration cycle and to simulate its effect on engine performance, a 0D thermodynamic model was used to reproduce the engine performance when the intake air is cooled. Furthermore, a detailed experimental work was carried out to validate the results in real engine operation. Theoretical results show how the absorption refrigeration system decreases the intake air flow temperature down to a temperature around 5 °C and even lower by using the bottoming waste heat energy available in the exhaust gases in a wide range of engine operating conditions. In addition, the theoretical analysis estimates the potential of the strategy for increasing the engine indicated efficiency in levels up to 4% also at the operating conditions under evaluation. Finally, this predicted benefit in engine indicated efficiency has been experimentally confirmed by direct

  14. Proceedings, Air Quality and Aviation: An International Conference, 16-18 October 1978, Reston, Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-11-01

    measurements: depth of mixing layer (acous- ing the five air quality monitoring stations as tic sounder), solar insolation, atmc-spheric turbu- solid...reactive tion of solar zenith angle, hydrocarbon emissions in the San Francisco Bay Area may be non-anthropogenic.(10,12) Nonetheless, we have...ppm (7.4 mg/ 1985-1995 3.4 0.41 0.4 nM3 ) at the South Ramp; this occurred on July 6 when the winds were from the south-southeast. Diaper - stability

  15. Performance Evaluation of the Operational Air Quality Monitor for Water Testing Aboard the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, William T.; Limero, Thomas F.; Gazda, Daniel B.; Minton, John M.; Macatangay, Ariel V.; Dwivedi, Prabha; Fernandez, Facundo M.

    2014-01-01

    Real-time environmental monitoring on ISS is necessary to provide data in a timely fashion and to help ensure astronaut health. Current real-time water TOC monitoring provides high-quality trending information, but compound-specific data is needed. The combination of ETV with the AQM showed that compounds of interest could be liberated from water and analyzed in the same manner as air sampling. Calibration of the AQM using water samples allowed for the quantitative analysis of ISS archival samples. Some calibration issues remain, but the excellent accuracy of DMSD indicates that ETV holds promise for as a sample introduction method for water analysis in spaceflight.

  16. Promoting International Energy Security. Volume 1: Understanding Potential Air Force Roles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    obtain additional information, contact Distribution Services: Telephone: (310) 451 -7002; Fax: (310) 451 -6915; Email: order@rand.org Library of...raise the temperature of one pound of water one degree Fahrenheit ) DoD Department of Defense EIA U.S. Energy Information Administration IEA International

  17. 75 FR 44794 - Rendezvous International v.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-29

    ... FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION [Docket No. 10-07] Rendezvous International v. Chief Cargo Services, Inc., Kaiser Apparel, Inc., Edco Logistics, Inc., Oriental Logistics, Inc., and Razor Enterprise... Federal Maritime Commission (``Commission'') by Rendezvous International (``Rendezvous''), hereinafter...

  18. Further study of the intrinsic safety of internally shorted lithium and lithium-ion cells within methane-air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubaniewicz, Thomas H; DuCarme, Joseph P

    2014-11-01

    National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) researchers continue to study the potential for lithium and lithium-ion battery thermal runaway from an internal short circuit in equipment for use in underground coal mines. Researchers conducted cell crush tests using a plastic wedge within a 20-L explosion-containment chamber filled with 6.5% CH 4 -air to simulate the mining hazard. The present work extends earlier findings to include a study of LiFePO 4 cells crushed while under charge, prismatic form factor LiCoO 2 cells, primary spiral-wound constructed LiMnO 2 cells, and crush speed influence on thermal runaway susceptibility. The plastic wedge crush was a more severe test than the flat plate crush with a prismatic format cell. Test results indicate that prismatic Saft MP 174565 LiCoO 2 and primary spiral-wound Saft FRIWO M52EX LiMnO 2 cells pose a CH 4 -air ignition hazard from internal short circuit. Under specified test conditions, A123 systems ANR26650M1A LiFePO 4 cylindrical cells produced no chamber ignitions while under a charge of up to 5 A. Common spiral-wound cell separators are too thin to meet intrinsic safety standards provisions for distance through solid insulation, suggesting that a hard internal short circuit within these cells should be considered for intrinsic safety evaluation purposes, even as a non-countable fault. Observed flames from a LiMnO 2 spiral-wound cell after a chamber ignition within an inert atmosphere indicate a sustained exothermic reaction within the cell. The influence of crush speed on ignitions under specified test conditions was not statistically significant.

  19. Resuscitation of asphyxiated newborn infants with room air or oxygen: an international controlled trial: the Resair 2 study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saugstad, O D; Rootwelt, T; Aalen, O

    1998-07-01

    Birth asphyxia represents a serious problem worldwide, resulting in approximately 1 million deaths and an equal number of serious sequelae annually. It is therefore important to develop new and better ways to treat asphyxia. Resuscitation after birth asphyxia traditionally has been carried out with 100% oxygen, and most guidelines and textbooks recommend this; however, the scientific background for this has never been established. On the contrary, theoretic considerations indicate that resuscitation with high oxygen concentrations could have detrimental effects. We have performed a series of animal studies as well as one pilot study indicating that resuscitation can be performed with room air just as efficiently as with 100% oxygen. To test this more thoroughly, we organized a multicenter study and hypothesized that room air is superior to 100% oxygen when asphyxiated newborn infants are resuscitated. In a prospective, international, controlled multicenter study including 11 centers from six countries, asphyxiated newborn infants with birth weight >999 g were allocated to resuscitation with either room air or 100% oxygen. The study was not blinded, and the patients were allocated to one of the two treatment groups according to date of birth. Those born on even dates were resuscitated with room air and those born on odd dates with 100% oxygen. Informed consent was not obtained until after the initial resuscitation, an arrangement in agreement with the new proposal of the US Food and Drug Administration's rules governing investigational drugs and medical devices to permit clinical research on emergency care without the consent of subjects. The protocol was approved by the ethical committees at each participating center. Entry criterion was apnea or gasping with heart rate Apgar score at 5 minutes, heart rate at 90 seconds, time to first breath, time to first cry, duration of resuscitation, arterial blood gases and acid base status at 10 and 30 minutes of age, and

  20. Survey of RFID and Its Application to International Ocean/Air Container Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, Minoru; Nakada, Hiroshi; Hayashi, Hitoshi; Shimizu, Masashi

    “Internet of Things” (IoT) requires information to be collected from “anything”, “anytime”, and “anywhere”. In order to achieve this, wireless devices are required that have (1) automatic data acquisition capability, (2) small size, (3) long life, and (4) long range communication capability. One way to meet these requirements is to adopt active Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) systems. Active RFID is more advantageous than passive RFID and enables higher data reading performance over longer distances. This paper surveys active RFID systems, the services they currently promise to provide, technical problems common to these services, and the direction in which research should head in the future. It also reports the results of EPCglobal (EPC: Electronic Product Code) pilot tests conducted on global logistics for tracking ocean/air container transportation using active RFID systems for which we developed several new types of active RFID tags. The test results confirm that our active RFID tags have sufficient capability and low power consumption to well support ocean/air transportation and logistics service.

  1. The use of x-ray imaging technology in cargo inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palgan, Renato D.

    2009-01-01

    The aftermath of the September 11,2001 terrorist attack in the United States has brought a significant change in the conduct of trade and commerce among nations. The introduction on non-intrusive cargo inspection equipment, most x-ray and gamma ray scanners, among customs administrations worldwide has been widely employed and incorporated in their respective cargo examination procedures as part of their security initiative to deter terrorist threats. In compliance with our international commitment and agreement passed by the World Customs Organization which required the use of modern technology in cargo inspection, the Bureau of Customs had acquired 30 units of container x-ray scanners in 2006 from China that became operational in 2007 and the acquisition of which was guided by the following objectives: maximize collection of government revenues,facilitate trade and commerce, prevent smuggling, and safeguard the public and environment against the entry of hazardous and harmful substance. In this light, this paper discusses the brief background of the non-intrusive container inspection system project of the Bureau of Customs, an overview of the technical features of x-ray imaging technology acquired, the procedures in the application of x-ray inspection in containerized cargo, the radiation safety infrastructures and considerations, and a review of some major accomplishments after its two years of existence. (author)

  2. Internal combustion engine cylinder-to-cylinder balancing with balanced air-fuel ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Ralph E.; Bourn, Gary D.; Smalley, Anthony J.

    2006-01-03

    A method of balancing combustion among cylinders of an internal combustion engine. For each cylinder, a normalized peak firing pressure is calculated as the ratio of its peak firing pressure to its combustion pressure. Each cylinder's normalized peak firing pressure is compared to a target value for normalized peak firing pressure. The fuel flow is adjusted to any cylinder whose normalized peak firing pressure is not substantially equal to the target value.

  3. Aspek Internal dan Eksternal Kualitas Produksi Depot Air Minum Isi Ulang: Studi Kualitatif di Kota Bandung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ardini Saptaningsih Raksanagara

    2018-03-01

    Internal and External Aspects Related to Quality of Refill Water Station Production: Qualitative Study in Bandung City The quality of water production in drinking water refill station (DWRS has recently been decreasing. Maintaining the quality of DWRS is not only the responsibility of the owners because the government should also playe an active role as the external supervisor. However, few information is available on the obstacles in monitoring the quality of DWRS. This study aimed to explore the internal and external aspects related to quality of drinking water production in DWRS. It was a qualitative study using phenomenology approach with constructivism paradigm. Data were collected through observation, indepth interviews, and document study. Data were analyzed using theme analysis. The place of study was Bandung City Health Office, Trade Service Unit, Primary Health Centers, and some DWRSs with inadequate water quality during May-August 2017. The result showed that internal aspects that related to drinking water quality were human resources, proper processing, appropiate equipments, and hygienic environment.  Inadequate human resource can cause unstandardized process production. External aspects included government supervision, sanctions, and law enforcement as well as collaboration between owner and local government. In conducting DWRS supervisory activities, the government has obstacles such as lack of human resources, lack of funding allocation, and multiple workloads. In addition, the absence of strict sanctions and the lack of cross-sectoral cooperation also contribute to the quality of refill drinking water, making it inadequate. New innovation should be developed to increase the quality of DWRS, particularly development of integrated supervison system which iincludes not only the local government but also the commmunity and consumers. Key words: Drinking water refill station, external aspect, internal aspect

  4. Cargo distributions differentiate pathological axonal transport impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Cassie S; Lee, Robert H

    2012-05-07

    Axonal transport is an essential process in neurons, analogous to shipping goods, by which energetic and cellular building supplies are carried downstream (anterogradely) and wastes are carried upstream (retrogradely) by molecular motors, which act as cargo porters. Impairments in axonal transport have been linked to devastating and often lethal neurodegenerative diseases, such as Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, Huntington's, and Alzheimer's. Axonal transport impairment types include a decrease in available motors for cargo transport (motor depletion), the presence of defective or non-functional motors (motor dilution), and the presence of increased or larger cargos (protein aggregation). An impediment to potential treatment identification has been the inability to determine what type(s) of axonal transport impairment candidates that could be present in a given disease. In this study, we utilize a computational model and common axonal transport experimental metrics to reveal the axonal transport impairment general characteristics or "signatures" that result from three general defect types of motor depletion, motor dilution, and protein aggregation. Our results not only provide a means to discern these general impairments types, they also reveal key dynamic and emergent features of axonal transport, which potentially underlie multiple impairment types. The identified characteristics, as well as the analytical method, can be used to help elucidate the axonal transport impairments observed in experimental and clinical data. For example, using the model-predicted defect signatures, we identify the defect candidates, which are most likely to be responsible for the axonal transport impairments in the G93A SOD1 mouse model of ALS. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT OF TRANSPORT CARGO COMPLEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Okorokov

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Making the qualitative administrative decisions defining strategy and tactics of transport cargo complexes development, and also its subsystems, is possible only in the presence of flexible optimization model. This model has to consider multiparametricity and multicriteriality of the given task, uncertainty and vagueness of input information, and also to provide process automation of searching the best parameters of the given production facility. The purpose of the research is to develop procedures for the strategic management of complex with view of the most important factors and their stochastic nature, which will execute the improvement of technical equipment of TCC. Methodology. The problem of strategic management is based on solving the complex of issues of the optimal number of shunting locomotives, optimal processing capability of handling the front and rational capacity of warehouses. The problem is solved on the basis of the proposed optimality criterion – the specific set of profit per unit of capital assets of freight industry. The listed problems are solved using simulation modeling of the freight industry. Findings. The use of developed procedure allows one to improve the technical equipment of the freight stations and complexes. Originality. For the first time it was developed the procedure of strategic management of development. This procedure allows taking into account the probabilistic nature of demand for services of transport freight complexes and technological processes of client services on the complex stations. The proposed procedure can be applied during when planning the investments in the creation of transport freight complexes. Practical value. Use as a basic tool of simulation models of complex cargo operation allows estimating the effectiveness of the capital investments, the level of operating costs, as well as the quality of meeting the demands of potential customers in transportations at the stage of

  6. Numerical simulation of nanosecond pulsed DBD in lean methane–air mixture for typical conditions in internal engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takana, Hidemasa; Nishiyama, Hideya

    2014-01-01

    Detailed two-dimensional numerical simulations of a high energy loading nanosecond dc pulse DBD in a lean methane–air mixture were conducted for plasma-assisted combustion by integrating individual models of plasma chemistry, photoionization and energy loading. The DBD streamer propagation process with radical productions was clarified at 10 atm and 600 K as under the condition of actual internal engines at ignition. Energy is loaded to the streamer first by the formation of plasma channel and then ceased due to the self-shielding effect. Because of the inversed electric field in a discharge space during decrease in applied voltage, energy is loaded to the discharge again. It was found that higher energy is loaded to the DBD streamer for larger dielectric constant even at lower applied voltage, and higher number density of oxygen radical is produced at almost the same radical production efficiency. (paper)

  7. 46 CFR 308.521 - Application for Open Cargo Policy, Form MA-301.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Application for Open Cargo Policy, Form MA-301. 308.521... RISK INSURANCE War Risk Cargo Insurance Ii-Open Policy War Risk Cargo Insurance § 308.521 Application for Open Cargo Policy, Form MA-301. The standard form of application for a War Risk Open Cargo Policy...

  8. Local Air Quality Conditions and Forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Monitor Location Archived Maps by Region Canada Air Quality Air Quality on Google Earth Links A-Z About AirNow AirNow International Air Quality Action Days / Alerts AirCompare Air Quality Index (AQI) ...

  9. Final report on international comparison CCQM-K83: Halocarbons in dry whole air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoderick, George; Guenther, Franklin; Duewer, David; Lee, Jeongsoon; Moon, Dongmin; Lee, Jinbok; Lim, Jeongsik; Seog Kim, Jin

    2014-01-01

    The growing awareness of climate change/global warming and continuing concerns regarding stratospheric ozone depletion will require future measurements and standards for many compounds, in particular halocarbons that are linked to these issues. In order to track and control the emissions of these species globally in the atmosphere, it is necessary to demonstrate measurement equivalence at the highest levels of accuracy for assigned values of standards. This report describes the results of a key comparison for several of the more important halocarbons at atmospheric concentration levels. The comparison includes the chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) dichlorodifluoromethane (CFC 12), trichlorofluoromethane (CFC 11), and 1,1,2 trichlorotrifluoroethane (CFC 113); the hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) chlorodifluoromethane (HCFC 22) and 1-chloro-1,1-difluoroethane (HCFC 142b); and the hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) 1,1,1,2 tetrafluoroethane (HFC 134a), all in a dried whole air sample. The objective of this key comparison is to compare the measurement capabilities of the participants for these halocarbons at trace atmospheric levels. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCQM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  10. 9 CFR 3.114 - Primary conveyances (motor vehicle, rail, air and marine).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., rail, air and marine). 3.114 Section 3.114 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... conveyances (motor vehicle, rail, air and marine). (a) The animal cargo space of primary conveyances used in.... (e) The interiors of animal cargo spaces in primary conveyances must be kept clean. (f) Live marine...

  11. Influence of forced internal air circulation on airflow distribution and heat transfer in a gas double-dynamic solid-state fermentation bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hongzhang; Qin, Lanzhi; Li, Hongqiang

    2014-02-01

    Internal air circulation affects the temperature field distribution in a gas double-dynamic solid-state fermentation bioreactor (GDSFB). To enhance heat transfer through strengthening internal air circulation in a GDSFB, we put an air distribution plate (ADP) into the bioreactor and studied the effects of forced internal air circulation on airflow, heat transfer, and cellulase activity of Trichoderma viride L3. Results showed that ADP could help form a steady and uniform airflow distribution, and with gas-guide tubes, air reversal was formed inside the bioreactor, thus resulting in a smaller temperature difference between medium and air by enhancing convective heat transfer inside the bioreactor. Using an ADP of 5.35 % aperture ratio caused a 1 °C decrease in the average temperature difference during the solid-state fermentation process of T. viride L3. Meanwhile, the cellulase activity of T. viride L3 increased by 13.5 %. The best heat-transfer effect was attained when using an ADP of 5.35 % aperture ratio and setting the fan power to 125 V (4.81 W) in the gas double-dynamic solid-state fermentation (GDSF) process. An option of suitable aperture ratio and fan power may be conducive to ADPs' industrial amplification.

  12. Combustion Velocity of Benzine-Benzol-Air Mixtures in High-Speed Internal-Combustion Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnauffer, Kurt

    1932-01-01

    The present paper describes a device whereby rapid flame movement within an internal-combustion engine cylinder may be recorded and determined. By the aid of a simple cylindrical contact and an oscillograph the rate of combustion within the cylinder of an airplane engine during its normal operation may be measured for gas intake velocities of from 30 to 35 m/s and for velocities within the cylinder of from 20 to 25 m/s. With it the influence of mixture ratios, of turbulence, of compression ratio and kind of fuel on combustion velocity may be determined. Besides the determination of the influence of the above factors on combustion velocity, the degree of turbulence may also be determined. As a unit of reference in estimating the degree of turbulence, the intake velocity of the charge is chosen.

  13. Evaluation of COSMO-ART in the Framework of the Air Quality Model Evaluation International Initiative (AQMEII)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, Lea; Brunner, Dominik; Im, Ulas; Galmarini, Stefano

    2014-05-01

    The Air Quality Model Evaluation International Initiative (AQMEII) coordinated by the EC-JRC and US-EPA, promotes since 2008 research on regional air quality model evaluation across the atmospheric modelling communities of Europe and North America. AQMEII has now reached its Phase 2 that is dedicated to the evaluation of on-line coupled chemistry-meteorology models as opposed to Phase 1 where only off-line models were considered. At European level, AQMEII collaborates with the COST Action "European framework for on-line integrated air quality and meteorology modelling" (EuMetChem). All European groups participating in AQMEII performed simulations over the same spatial domain (Europe at a resolution of about 20 km) and using the same simulation strategy (e.g. no nudging allowed) and the same input data as much as possible. The initial and boundary conditions (IC/BC) were shared between all groups. Emissions were provided by the TNO-MACC database for anthropogenic emissions and the FMI database for biomass burning emissions. Chemical IC/BC data were taken from IFS-MOZART output, and meteorological IC/BC from the ECWMF global model. Evaluation data sets were collected by the Joint Research Center (JRC) and include measurements from surface in situ networks (AirBase and EMEP), vertical profiles from ozone sondes and aircraft (MOZAIC), and remote sensing (AERONET, satellites). Since Phase 2 focuses on on-line coupled models, a special effort is devoted to the detailed speciation of particulate matter components, with the goal of studying feedback processes. For the AQMEII exercise, COSMO-ART has been run with 40 levels of vertical resolution, and a chemical scheme that includes the SCAV module of Knote and Brunner (ACP 2013) for wet-phase chemistry and the SOA treatment according to VBS (volatility basis set) approach (Athanasopoulou et al., ACP 2013). The COSMO-ART evaluation shows that, next to a good performance in the meteorology, the gas phase chemistry is well

  14. Evaluation of internal and external doses from $^{11}C$ produced in the air in high energy proton accelerator tunnels

    CERN Document Server

    Endo, A; Kanda, Y; Oishi, T; Kondo, K

    2001-01-01

    Air has been irradiated with high energy protons at the 12 GeV proton synchrotron to obtain the following parameters essential for the internal dose evaluation from airborne /sup 11/C produced through nuclear spallation reactions: the abundance of gaseous and particulate /sup 11/C, chemical forms, and particle size distribution. It was found that more than 98% of /sup 11/C is present as gas and the rest is aerosol. The gaseous components were only /sup 11/CO and /sup 11/CO/sub 2/ and their proportions were approximately 80% and 20%, respectively. The particulate /sup 11/C was found to be sulphate and/or nitrate aerosols having a log-normal size distribution; the measurement using a diffusion battery showed a geometric mean radius of 0.035 mu m and a geometric standard deviation of 1.8 at a beam intensity of 6.8*10/sup 11/ proton.pulse /sup -1/ and an irradiation time of 9.6 min. By taking the chemical composition and particle size into account, effective doses both from internal and from external exposures pe...

  15. Development of a Numerical Approach to Simulate Compressed Air Energy Storage Subjected to Cyclic Internal Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song-Hun Chong

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the long-term response of unlined energy storage located at shallow depth to improve the distance between a wind farm and storage. The numerical approach follows the hybrid scheme that combined a mechanical constitutive model to extract stress and strains at the first cycle and polynomial-type strain accumulation functions to track the progressive plastic deformation. In particular, the strain function includes the fundamental features that requires simulating the long-term response of geomaterials: volumetric strain (terminal void ratio and shear strain (shakedown and ratcheting, the strain accumulation rate, and stress obliquity. The model is tested with a triaxial strain boundary condition under different stress obliquities. The unlined storage subjected to cyclic internal stress is simulated with different storage geometries and stress amplitudes that play a crucial role in estimating the long-term mechanical stability of underground storage. The simulations present the evolution of ground surface, yet their incremental rate approaches towards a terminal void ratio. With regular and smooth displacement fields for the large number of cycles, the inflection point is estimated with the previous surface settlement model.

  16. The effect of control and display lag on unmanned air system internal pilot manual landing performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Marshall Everett

    An important characteristic of UASs is lag because it can become a considerable challenge to successful human-in-the-loop control. As such, UASs are designed and configured to minimize system lag, though this can increase acquisition and operation costs considerably. In an effort to cut costs, an organization may choose to accept greater risk and deploy a UAS with high system lag. Before this risk can be responsibly accepted, it must be quantified. While many studies have examined system lag, very few have been able to quantify the risk that various levels of lag pose to an internally piloted, manually landed UAS. This study attempted to do so by evaluating pilot landing performance in a simulator with 0 ms, 240 ms, and 1000 ms of additional lag. Various measures were used, including a novel coding technique. Results indicated that 1000 ms of lag was unsafe by all measures. They also indicate that 240 ms of lag degrades performance, but participants were able to successfully land the simulated aircraft. This study showed the utility of using several measures to evaluate the effect of lag on landing performance and it helped demonstrate that while 1000 ms poses a high risk, 240 ms of lag may be a much more manageable risk. Future research suggested by this research includes: investigating lag between 240 ms and 1000 ms, introducing different weather phenomena, developing system lag training techniques for operators, and investigating the effect of aides such as predictive displays and autopilot-assisted recovery.

  17. GHGs and air pollutants embodied in China's international trade: Temporal and spatial index decomposition analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhengyan; Mao, Xianqiang; Song, Peng

    2017-01-01

    Temporal index decomposition analysis and spatial index decomposition analysis were applied to understand the driving forces of the emissions embodied in China's exports and net exports during 2002-2011, respectively. The accumulated emissions embodied in exports accounted for approximately 30% of the total emissions in China; although the contribution of the sectoral total emissions intensity (technique effect) declined, the scale effect was largely responsible for the mounting emissions associated with export, and the composition effect played a largely insignificant role. Calculations of the emissions embodied in net exports suggest that China is generally in an environmentally inferior position compared with its major trade partners. The differences in the economy-wide emission intensities between China and its major trade partners were the biggest contribution to this reality, and the trade balance effect played a less important role. However, a lower degree of specialization in pollution intensive products in exports than in imports helped to reduce slightly the emissions embodied in net exports. The temporal index decomposition analysis results suggest that China should take effective measures to optimize export and supply-side structure and reduce the total emissions intensity. According to spatial index decomposition analysis, it is suggested that a more aggressive import policy was useful for curbing domestic and global emissions, and the transfer of advanced production technologies and emission control technologies from developed to developing countries should be a compulsory global environmental policy option to mitigate the possible leakage of pollution emissions caused by international trade.

  18. Air pollution simulation and geographical information systems (GIS) applied to Athens International Airport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theophanides, Mike; Anastassopoulou, Jane

    2009-07-01

    This study presents an improved methodology for analysing atmospheric pollution around airports using Gaussian-plume numerical simulation integrated with Geographical Information Systems (GIS). The new methodology focuses on streamlining the lengthy analysis process for Airport Environmental Impact Assessments by integrating the definition of emission sources, simulating and displaying the results in a GIS environment. One of the objectives of the research is to validate the methodology applied to the Athens International Airport, "Eleftherios Venizelos", to produce a realistic estimate of emission inventories, dispersion simulations and comparison to measured data. The methodology used a combination of the Emission Dispersion and Modelling System (EDMS) and the Atmospheric Dispersion and Modelling system (ADMS) to improve the analysis process. The second objective is to conduct numerical simulations under various adverse conditions (e.g. scenarios) and assess the dispersion in the surrounding areas. The study concludes that the use of GIS in environmental assessments provides a valuable advantage for organizing data and entering accurate geographical/topological information for the simulation engine. Emissions simulation produced estimates within 10% of published values. Dispersion simulations indicate that airport pollution will affect neighbouring cities such as Rafina and Loutsa. Presently, there are no measured controls in these areas. In some cases, airport pollution can contribute to as much as 40% of permissible EU levels in VOCs.

  19. GHGs and air pollutants embodied in China's international trade: Temporal and spatial index decomposition analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengyan Liu

    Full Text Available Temporal index decomposition analysis and spatial index decomposition analysis were applied to understand the driving forces of the emissions embodied in China's exports and net exports during 2002-2011, respectively. The accumulated emissions embodied in exports accounted for approximately 30% of the total emissions in China; although the contribution of the sectoral total emissions intensity (technique effect declined, the scale effect was largely responsible for the mounting emissions associated with export, and the composition effect played a largely insignificant role. Calculations of the emissions embodied in net exports suggest that China is generally in an environmentally inferior position compared with its major trade partners. The differences in the economy-wide emission intensities between China and its major trade partners were the biggest contribution to this reality, and the trade balance effect played a less important role. However, a lower degree of specialization in pollution intensive products in exports than in imports helped to reduce slightly the emissions embodied in net exports. The temporal index decomposition analysis results suggest that China should take effective measures to optimize export and supply-side structure and reduce the total emissions intensity. According to spatial index decomposition analysis, it is suggested that a more aggressive import policy was useful for curbing domestic and global emissions, and the transfer of advanced production technologies and emission control technologies from developed to developing countries should be a compulsory global environmental policy option to mitigate the possible leakage of pollution emissions caused by international trade.

  20. 19 CFR 4.62 - Accounting for inward cargo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Accounting for inward cargo. 4.62 Section 4.62 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY VESSELS IN FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC TRADES Foreign Clearances § 4.62 Accounting for inward cargo...

  1. 33 CFR 401.76 - In-transit cargo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false In-transit cargo. 401.76 Section... TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Toll Assessment and Payment § 401.76 In-transit cargo... the Seaway Transit Declaration Form, but is deemed to be ballast and not subject to toll assessment. ...

  2. Column generation approaches to ship scheduling with flexible cargo sizes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønmo, Geir; Nygreen, Bjørn; Lysgaard, Jens

    We present a Dantzig-Wolfe procedure for the ship scheduling problem with flexible cargo sizes. This problem is similar to the well-known pickup and delivery problem with time windows, but the cargo sizes are defined by an interval instead of a fixed value. We show that the introduction of flexible...

  3. A matheuristic for the Cargo Mix Problem with Block Stowage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jonas Mark; Pacino, Dario

    2017-01-01

    The cargo-mix problem aims at selecting the amount of containers of a given type to load on a vessel. In this article we present an extended definition that includes the analysis of a circular route with draft restrictions, limitations on expected cargo and the use of a block stowage strategy...

  4. Modal Testing of Seven Shuttle Cargo Elements for Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappus, Kathy O.; Driskill, Timothy C.; Parks, Russel A.; Patterson, Alan (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    From December 1996 to May 2001, the Modal and Control Dynamics Team at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) conducted modal tests on seven large elements of the International Space Station. Each of these elements has been or will be launched as a Space Shuttle payload for transport to the International Space Station (ISS). Like other Shuttle payloads, modal testing of these elements was required for verification of the finite element models used in coupled loads analyses for launch and landing. The seven modal tests included three modules - Node, Laboratory, and Airlock, and four truss segments - P6, P3/P4, S1/P1, and P5. Each element was installed and tested in the Shuttle Payload Modal Test Bed at MSFC. This unique facility can accommodate any Shuttle cargo element for modal test qualification. Flexure assemblies were utilized at each Shuttle-to-payload interface to simulate a constrained boundary in the load carrying degrees of freedom. For each element, multiple-input, multiple-output burst random modal testing was the primary approach with controlled input sine sweeps for linearity assessments. The accelerometer channel counts ranged from 252 channels to 1251 channels. An overview of these tests, as well as some lessons learned, will be provided in this paper.

  5. A simplified tether model for molecular motor transporting cargo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang-Zhen, Li; Li-Chun, Jiang

    2010-01-01

    Molecular motors are proteins or protein complexes which function as transporting engines in biological cells. This paper models the tether between motor and its cargo as a symmetric linear potential. Different from Elston and Peskin's work for which performance of the system was discussed only in some limiting cases, this study produces analytic solutions of the problem for general cases by simplifying the transport system into two physical states, which makes it possible to discuss the dynamics of the motor–cargo system in detail. It turns out that the tether strength between motor and cargo should be greater than a threshold or the motor will fail to transport the cargo, which was not discussed by former researchers yet. Value of the threshold depends on the diffusion coefficients of cargo and motor and also on the strength of the Brownian ratchets dragging the system. The threshold approaches a finite constant when the strength of the ratchet tends to infinity. (general)

  6. Design of an experiment to measure the fire exposure of radioactive materials packages aboard container cargo ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koski, J.A.

    1997-11-01

    The test described in this paper is intended to measure the typical accident environment for a radioactive materials package in a fire aboard a container cargo ship. A stack of nine used standard cargo containers will be variously loaded with empty packages, simulated packages and combustible cargo and placed over a large hydrocarbon pool fire of one hour duration. Both internal and external fire container fire environments typical of on-deck stowage will be measured as well as the potential for container to container fire spread. With the use of the inverse heat conduction calculations, the local heat transfer to the simulated packages can be estimated from thermocouple data. Data recorded will also provide information on fire durations in each container, fire intensity and container to container fire spread characteristics

  7. Sulina and Danube-Black Sea Channels: Competitors or Allies on Cargo Transport in South-Eastern Europe?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionica Soare

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The two river channels which connect the Black Sea to the inland Romanian area, have constituted since the beginning of their building two very important transport routes for the cargo and passenger traffic (Sulina that have connected Black Sea to the internal ports of Romania, thus representing ”transport highways” of the Romanian economy. The present study tries to present the chronological evolution of these two shipping routes, regarding their importance to the cargo traffic, as well as the financial policy imposed by the administration of these channels. We will present and analyze retrospectively the major elements regarding the administration of these channels, a comparative analysis of the role of these two channels in the river cargo transport, consequently trying to predict a future evolution of these two river communication routes.

  8. International dispersal of dengue through air travel: importation risk for Europe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan C Semenza

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The worldwide distribution of dengue is expanding, in part due to globalized traffic and trade. Aedes albopictus is a competent vector for dengue viruses (DENV and is now established in numerous regions of Europe. Viremic travellers arriving in Europe from dengue-affected areas of the world can become catalysts of local outbreaks in Europe. Local dengue transmission in Europe is extremely rare, and the last outbreak occurred in 1927-28 in Greece. However, autochthonous transmission was reported from France in September 2010, and from Croatia between August and October 2010.We compiled data on areas affected by dengue in 2010 from web resources and surveillance reports, and collected national dengue importation data. We developed a hierarchical regression model to quantify the relationship between the number of reported dengue cases imported into Europe and the volume of airline travellers arriving from dengue-affected areas internationally.In 2010, over 5.8 million airline travellers entered Europe from dengue-affected areas worldwide, of which 703,396 arrived at 36 airports situated in areas where Ae. albopictus has been recorded. The adjusted incidence rate ratio for imported dengue into European countries was 1.09 (95% CI: 1.01-1.17 for every increase of 10,000 travellers; in August, September, and October the rate ratios were 1.70 (95%CI: 1.23-2.35, 1.46 (95%CI: 1.02-2.10, and 1.35 (95%CI: 1.01-1.81, respectively. Two Italian cities where the vector is present received over 50% of all travellers from dengue-affected areas, yet with the continuing vector expansion more cities will be implicated in the future. In fact, 38% more travellers arrived in 2013 into those parts of Europe where Ae. albopictus has recently been introduced, compared to 2010.The highest risk of dengue importation in 2010 was restricted to three months and can be ranked according to arriving traveller volume from dengue-affected areas into cities where the vector is

  9. International dispersal of dengue through air travel: importation risk for Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semenza, Jan C; Sudre, Bertrand; Miniota, Jennifer; Rossi, Massimiliano; Hu, Wei; Kossowsky, David; Suk, Jonathan E; Van Bortel, Wim; Khan, Kamran

    2014-12-01

    The worldwide distribution of dengue is expanding, in part due to globalized traffic and trade. Aedes albopictus is a competent vector for dengue viruses (DENV) and is now established in numerous regions of Europe. Viremic travellers arriving in Europe from dengue-affected areas of the world can become catalysts of local outbreaks in Europe. Local dengue transmission in Europe is extremely rare, and the last outbreak occurred in 1927-28 in Greece. However, autochthonous transmission was reported from France in September 2010, and from Croatia between August and October 2010. We compiled data on areas affected by dengue in 2010 from web resources and surveillance reports, and collected national dengue importation data. We developed a hierarchical regression model to quantify the relationship between the number of reported dengue cases imported into Europe and the volume of airline travellers arriving from dengue-affected areas internationally. In 2010, over 5.8 million airline travellers entered Europe from dengue-affected areas worldwide, of which 703,396 arrived at 36 airports situated in areas where Ae. albopictus has been recorded. The adjusted incidence rate ratio for imported dengue into European countries was 1.09 (95% CI: 1.01-1.17) for every increase of 10,000 travellers; in August, September, and October the rate ratios were 1.70 (95%CI: 1.23-2.35), 1.46 (95%CI: 1.02-2.10), and 1.35 (95%CI: 1.01-1.81), respectively. Two Italian cities where the vector is present received over 50% of all travellers from dengue-affected areas, yet with the continuing vector expansion more cities will be implicated in the future. In fact, 38% more travellers arrived in 2013 into those parts of Europe where Ae. albopictus has recently been introduced, compared to 2010. The highest risk of dengue importation in 2010 was restricted to three months and can be ranked according to arriving traveller volume from dengue-affected areas into cities where the vector is present. The

  10. Transporting "exceptional cargo" on the CERN sites

    CERN Multimedia

    EN Department

    2012-01-01

    When the Transport Service is managing "exceptional cargo", the driver and the escort are often in charge of an operation involving equipment worth many hundred thousand francs. Equipment that may well be irreplaceable for a facility or an experiment.   The members of the Transport Service who carry out these tasks are very professional and are – needless to say – highly concentrated on the job. They count on your understanding and support in the traffic on site. Their convoys are – for good reasons – moving slowly. Kindly do not overtake, do not cut in in front of them and do not drive too closely. Respect the escort and do not position yourself between the truck and the escort vehicles. The EN department counts on your courtesy on the road.  

  11. Determination of Fire Enviroment in Stacked Cargo Containers with Radioactive Materials Packages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arviso, M.; Bobbe, J.G.; Dukart, R.D.; Koski, J.A.

    1999-05-01

    Results from a Fire Test with a three-by-three stack of standard 6 m long International Standards Organization shipping containers containing combustible fuels and empty radioactive materials packages are reported and discussed. The stack is intended to simulate fire conditions that could occur during on-deck stowage on container cargo ships. The fire is initated by locating the container stack adjacent to a 9.8 x 6 m pool fire. Temperatures of both cargoes (empty and simulated radioactive materials packages) and containers are recorded and reported. Observations on the duration, intensity and spread of the fire are discussed. Based on the results, models for simulation of fire exposure of radioactive materials packages in such fires are suggested.

  12. Justification of the project a network of freight terminals unitized cargo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilesaliev D.I.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we consider the question of Uzbekistan in promoting the development of international transport in supply chains. The development of transport infrastructure to ensure timely delivery of goods is one of the main tasks in supply chain management. The aim is to study of the project network terminal unitized cargo Uzbekistan in supply chains. Methods the study is based on analysis of existing methods and techniques of Russian scientists in the field of place-ment of objects. The method of searching the most rational location of logistics facility in the supply chain. Also pre-justified the project network terminal unitized cargo in Uzbekistan. Given the state of the problems and prospects of transport logistics of Uzbekistan, the developed method can be used by experts when performing the supporting calcula-tions location of logistic objects.

  13. On the development of the new harmonised damage stability regulations for dry cargo and passenger ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papanikolaou, Apostolos; Eliopoulou, Eleftheria

    2008-01-01

    This paper outlines the methodological background and presents a summary of the main results of a series of undertaken international, IMO-led studies, on the harmonisation of the new probabilistic, risk-based regulations with the currently in-force regulatory provisions for assessing the damage stability of dry cargo and passenger ships. It reviews the historical development of the new regulations, to be applied to all new buildings on January 1, 2009, and the anticipated impact of the new rules on the design and indirect operation of various subcategories of dry cargo and passenger ships. It identifies certain loopholes in the existing regulations that appear cured by the new ones, though certain compromises adopted in the development of the new regulations, particularly those related to large passenger ships' survivability, have left some open issues to be addressed in the near future

  14. AICE Survey of USSR Air Pollution Literature, Volume 12: Technical Papers from the Leningrad International Symposium on the Meteorological Aspects of Atmospheric Pollution, Part I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuttonson, M. Y.

    Twelve papers dealing with the meteorological aspects of air pollution were translated. These papers were initially presented at an international symposium held in Leningrad during July 1968. The papers are: Status and prospective development of meteorological studies of atmospheric pollution, Effect of the stability of the atmosphere on the…

  15. Reading for All; Proceedings of the IRA (International Reading Association) World Congress on Reading (4th, Buenos Aires, Argentina, August 3-5, 1972).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlin, Robert, Ed.

    This book contains papers presented at the Fourth International Reading Association World Congress on Reading in Buenos Aires, Argentina, in August 1972. The contents of the book are divided into three parts: "Literacy and Literature" includes papers on libraries, books, and reading by Jorge Borges, the future of reading by Theodore Harris, the…

  16. Semi-rechargeable Aluminum-Air Battery with a TiO2 Internal Layer with Plain Salt Water as an Electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Ryohei

    2016-07-01

    To develop a semi-rechargeable aluminum-air battery, we attempted to insert various kinds of ceramic oxides between an aqueous NaCl electrolyte and an aluminum anode. From cyclic voltammetry experiments, we found that some of the ceramic oxide materials underwent an oxidation-reduction reaction, which indicates the occurrence of a faradaic electrochemical reaction. Using a TiO2 film as an internal layer, we successfully prepared an aluminum-air battery with secondary battery behavior. However, cell impedance increased as the charge/discharge reactions proceeded probably because of accumulation of byproducts in the cell components and the air cathode. Results of quantum calculations and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy suggest the possibility of developing an aluminum rechargeable battery using TiO2 as an internal layer.

  17. Internal migration and urbanization in China: impacts on population exposure to household air pollution (2000-2010).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aunan, Kristin; Wang, Shuxiao

    2014-05-15

    Exposure to fine particles ≤ 2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5) from incomplete combustion of solid fuels in household stoves, denoted household air pollution (HAP), is a major contributor to ill health in China and globally. Chinese households are, however, undergoing a massive transition to cleaner household fuels. The objective of the present study is to establish the importance of internal migration when it comes to the changing household fuel use pattern and the associated exposure to PM2.5 for the period 2000 to 2010. We also estimate health benefits of the fuel transition in terms of avoided premature deaths. Using China Census data on population, migration, and household fuel use for 2000 and 2010 we identify the size, place of residence, and main cooking fuel of sub-populations in 2000 and 2010, respectively. We combine these data with estimated exposure levels for the sub-populations and estimate changes in population exposure over the decade. We find that the population weighted exposure (PWE) for the Chinese population as a whole was reduced by 52 (36-70) μg/m(3) PM2.5 over the decade, and that about 60% of the reduction can be linked to internal migration. During the same period the migrant population, in total 261 million people, was subject to a reduced population weighted exposure (ΔPWE) of 123 (87-165) μg/m(3) PM2.5. The corresponding figure for non-migrants is 34 (23-47) μg/m(3). The largest ΔPWE was estimated for rural-to-urban migrants (138 million people), 214 (154-283) μg/m(3). The estimated annual health benefit associated with the reduced exposure in the total population is 31 (26-37) billion USD, corresponding to 0.4% of the Chinese GDP. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Military Readiness: Air Transport Capability Falls Short of Requirements

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2000-01-01

    ..., For example, during fiscal years 1997 through 1999, on average only 55 percent of the C-5 fleet, the Air Force's largest cargo aircraft, was mission capable-significantly short of the 75 percent expected for wartime...

  19. 7th annual report 1998. UN ECE convention on long-range transboundary air pollution. International cooperative programme on integrated monitoring of air pollution effects on ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleemola, S.; Forsius, M. [eds.

    1998-11-01

    The Integrated Monitoring Programme (ICP IM) is part of the Effects Monitoring Strategy under the UN ECE Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution Convention. The main aim of ICP IM is to provide a framework to observe and understand the complex changes occurring in the external environment. The monitoring and prediction of complex ecosystem effects on undisturbed reference areas require a continuous effort to improve the collection and assessment of data on the international scale. At the 1997 Task Force meeting it was decided that future annual reports from ICP IM would have a more technical character. The report could include some scientific material but also short technical descriptions of recent national activities and publications. Scientific articles should preferably be published in recognised scientific journals. The responsibility for producing annual reports would still lie on the Programme Centre, but more contributions from National Focal Points were welcomed. The content of the present Annual Report reflects the decisions of the Task Force meeting. The report gives a general overview of the ICP IM activities, the present content of the ICP IM database, and presents results from assessment activities carried out by several collaborating institutes and the ICP IM Programme Centre during the programme year 1997/98. The resources of the Programme Centre have been targeted to the revision of the Programme Manual and the EU/LIFE-project `Development of Assessment and Monitoring Techniques at Integrated Monitoring Sites in Europe`, which has limited the possibilities to carry out additional evaluations of ICP IM data. Section 1 is a short status report of the ICP IM activities, content of the IM database, including the contents of the GIS database, and the present geographical coverage of the monitoring network. Section 2 contains a report on multivariate gradient analysis applied to relate chemical and biological observations (prepared by D. de Zwart, RIVM

  20. EPA's Air Quality Rules for Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines (RICE) and their Application to CHP (Webinar) – June 24, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    This webinar discusses the effect of EPA's air quality regulations on CHP facilities and stationary RICE, and describes how CHP systems can comply with air quality regulations by using stationary RICE.

  1. Relationships between Cargo, Cell Penetrating Peptides and Cell Type for Uptake of Non-Covalent Complexes into Live Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea-Anneliese Keller

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Modulating signaling pathways for research and therapy requires either suppression or expression of selected genes or internalization of proteins such as enzymes, antibodies, nucleotide binding proteins or substrates including nucleoside phosphates and enzyme inhibitors. Peptides, proteins and nucleotides are transported by fusing or conjugating them to cell penetrating peptides or by formation of non-covalent complexes. The latter is often preferred because of easy handling, uptake efficiency and auto-release of cargo into the live cell. In our studies complexes are formed with labeled or readily detectable cargoes for qualitative and quantitative estimation of their internalization. Properties and behavior of adhesion and suspension vertebrate cells as well as the protozoa Leishmania tarentolae are investigated with respect to proteolytic activity, uptake efficiency, intracellular localization and cytotoxicity. Our results show that peptide stability to membrane-bound, secreted or intracellular proteases varies between different CPPs and that the suitability of individual CPPs for a particular cargo in complex formation by non-covalent interactions requires detailed studies. Cells vary in their sensitivity to increasing concentrations of CPPs. Thus, most cells can be efficiently transduced with peptides, proteins and nucleotides with intracellular concentrations in the low micromole range. For each cargo, cell type and CPP the optimal conditions must be determined separately.

  2. Kajian Kinerja Pelayanan General Cargo Terminal Jamrud Di Pelabuhan Tanjung Perak Surabaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayu Fajar Ulfany

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Terminal Jamrud is a busy terminal among three others terminals run by PT. Pelabuhan Indonesia III branch of Tanjung Perak that serving general goods cargoes and dry bulk both dosmetically and internationally. The source of the problem to increase terminal performance are capacity building, efficiency, productivity and environment. The objectives of this study were to identify the existing performance of loading and unloading of general cargo and to arrange strategies for the development of Terminal Jamrud at Tanjung Perak Port using SWOT analysis. Based on secondary data: 1 the best operational performance of service is the productivity of loading and unloading of general cargo, 2 the best performance is the approach time (AT, 3 the waiting time (TW has not fulfilled the expected achievement as it is stil below the standard, 4 attributes of utility services, non-container terminal dock facilities, SOR and YOR still needs to be improved. The development strategies of Terminal Jamrud at kuadran I i.e grapid rowth strategy.

  3. Vps33B is required for delivery of endocytosed cargo to lysosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galmes, Romain; ten Brink, Corlinda; Oorschot, Viola; Veenendaal, Tineke; Jonker, Caspar; van der Sluijs, Peter; Klumperman, Judith

    2015-12-01

    Lysosomes are the main degradative compartments of eukaryotic cells. The CORVET and HOPS tethering complexes are well known for their role in membrane fusion in the yeast endocytic pathway. Yeast Vps33p is part of both complexes, and has two mammalian homologues: Vps33A and Vps33B. Vps33B is required for recycling of apical proteins in polarized cells and a causative gene for ARC syndrome. Here, we investigate whether Vps33B is also required in the degradative pathway. By fluorescence and electron microscopy we show that Vps33B depletion in HeLa cells leads to significantly increased numbers of late endosomes that together with lysosomes accumulate in the perinuclear region. Degradation of endocytosed cargo is impaired in these cells. By electron microscopy we show that endocytosed BSA-gold reaches late endosomes, but is decreased in lysosomes. The increase in late endosome numbers and the lack of internalized cargo in lysosomes are indicative for a defect in late endosomal-lysosomal fusion events, which explains the observed decrease in cargo degradation. A corresponding phenotype was found after Vps33A knock down, which in addition also resulted in decreased lysosome numbers. We conclude that Vps33B, in addition to its role in endosomal recycling, is required for late endosomal-lysosomal fusion events. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Cargo/Weapons Elevator Land Based Engineering Site

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Cargo and Weapons Facility consists of a suite of full scale and component test facilities contiguously located in building 77H. The site was constructed in 1987...

  5. 19 CFR 4.33 - Diversion of cargo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the result of a strike or other emergency at a United States port for which inward foreign cargo is... substituted for the domestic port of discharge. If the application is approved, it shall be handled in the...

  6. 46 CFR 153.436 - Heat transfer fluids: compatibility with cargo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Heat transfer fluids: compatibility with cargo. 153.436... Equipment Cargo Temperature Control Systems § 153.436 Heat transfer fluids: compatibility with cargo. A heat transfer fluid separated from the cargo by only one wall (for example, the heat transfer fluid in a coil...

  7. 46 CFR 153.491 - Waiver of certain equipment for dedicated cargo tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... and endorses a ship's Certificate of Inspection or Certificate of Compliance allowing a cargo tank to carry a single, specific NLS cargo and no other cargo if the ship's owner— (1) Requests a waiver... DANGEROUS CARGOES SHIPS CARRYING BULK LIQUID, LIQUEFIED GAS, OR COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Design...

  8. Reducing Aerodynamic Drag on Empty Open Cargo Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, James C.; Storms, Bruce L.; Dzoan, Dan

    2009-01-01

    Some simple structural modifications have been demonstrated to be effective in reducing aerodynamic drag on vehicles that have empty open cargo bays. The basic idea is to break up the airflow in a large open cargo bay by inserting panels to divide the bay into a series of smaller bays. In the case of a coal car, this involves inserting a small number (typically between two and four) of vertical full-depth or partial-depth panels.

  9. The Conference Proceedings of the 2001 Air Transport Research Society (ATRS) of the WCTR Society. Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yeong-Heok (Editor); Bowen, Brent D. (Editor); Tarry, Scott E. (Editor)

    2001-01-01

    The ATRS held its 5th Annual conference at the City University of Hong Kong Campus in July 2001. The conference was a success with nearly 140 participants including 70 presenters. Titles that comprise Volume 2 include: Intelligent Airport Gate Assignment System; A Study on the Effects of the Personality Compatibility to the Job Performance; ITS/CVO Application for Air cargo Transportation in Korea; An Airport as a Logistics and Economic Hub: The Case of Incheon International Airport; The Impact Of Aviation Safety over the Consumer's Behavior; The Integration of China and Taiwan Air Networks for Direct Air Cargo Services; Quality perception and carrier choice in Civil Aviation; Future Trends in Business Travel Decision Making; Cooperation Among German Airports in Europe; Inbound and Outbound Air Passenger Traffic Forecasting between the United States and Selected Asian countries; An Evaluation of Alternative Facilities for Airport Redevelopment using Fuzzy Linguistic Approach; Economic Analysis of Airline Alliances; The Aviation Cooperation between the two Koreas Preparing for the Reunification of the Peninsula; and A Study on the Air Transport Cooperation in Northeast Asia between China, Japan and Korea.

  10. Internal short circuit and accelerated rate calorimetry tests of lithium-ion cells: Considerations for methane-air intrinsic safety and explosion proof/flameproof protection methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubaniewicz, Thomas H; DuCarme, Joseph P

    2016-09-01

    Researchers with the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) studied the potential for lithium-ion cell thermal runaway from an internal short circuit in equipment for use in underground coal mines. In this third phase of the study, researchers compared plastic wedge crush-induced internal short circuit tests of selected lithium-ion cells within methane (CH 4 )-air mixtures with accelerated rate calorimetry tests of similar cells. Plastic wedge crush test results with metal oxide lithium-ion cells extracted from intrinsically safe evaluated equipment were mixed, with one cell model igniting the chamber atmosphere while another cell model did not. The two cells models exhibited different internal short circuit behaviors. A lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO 4 ) cell model was tolerant to crush-induced internal short circuits within CH 4 -air, tested under manufacturer recommended charging conditions. Accelerating rate calorimetry tests with similar cells within a nitrogen purged 353-mL chamber produced ignitions that exceeded explosion proof and flameproof enclosure minimum internal pressure design criteria. Ignition pressures within a 20-L chamber with 6.5% CH 4 -air were relatively low, with much larger head space volume and less adiabatic test conditions. The literature indicates that sizeable lithium thionyl chloride (LiSOCl 2 ) primary (non rechargeable) cell ignitions can be especially violent and toxic. Because ignition of an explosive atmosphere is expected within explosion proof or flameproof enclosures, there is a need to consider the potential for an internal explosive atmosphere ignition in combination with a lithium or lithium-ion battery thermal runaway process, and the resulting effects on the enclosure.

  11. Detection of fissionable materials in cargoes using monochromatic photon radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danagoulian, Areg; Lanza, Richard; O'Day, Buckley; LNSP Team

    2015-04-01

    The detection of Special Nuclear Materials (e.g. Pu and U) and nuclear devices in the commercial cargo traffic is one of the challenges posed by the threat of nuclear terrorism. Radiography and active interrogation of heavily loaded cargoes require ~ 1 - 10MeV photons for penetration. In a proof-of-concept system under development at MIT, the interrogating monochromatic photon beam is produced via a 11B(d , nγ) 12C reaction. To achieve this, a boron target is used along with the 3 MeV d+ RFQ accelerator at MIT-Bates. The reactions results in the emission of very narrow 4.4 MeV and 15.1 MeV gammas lines. The photons, after traversing the cargo, are detected by an array of NaI(Tl) detectors. A spectral analysis of the transmitted gammas allows to independently determine the areal density and the atomic number (Z) of the cargo. The proposed approach could revolutionize cargo inspection, which, in its current fielded form has to rely on simple but high dose bremsstrahlung sources. Use of monochromatic sources would significantly reduce the necessary dose and allow for better determination of the cargo's atomic number. The general methodology will be described and the preliminary results from the proof-of-concept system will be presented and discussed. Supported by NSF/DNDO Collaborative Research ARI-LA Award ECCS-1348328.

  12. South Coast Air Quality Management District Truck Testing | Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research | NREL South Coast Air Quality Management District Truck Evaluation South Coast Air Quality Management District Truck Evaluation Photo of heavy-duty truck cab. Electric drayage truck Cargo Transportation project, conducted in partnership with the South Coast Air Quality Management

  13. Detection of nuclear material by photon activation inside cargo containers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gmar, Mehdi; Berthoumieux, Eric; Boyer, Sébastien; Carrel, Frédérick; Doré, Diane; Giacri, Marie-Laure; Lainé, Frédéric; Poumarède, Bénédicte; Ridikas, Danas; Van Lauwe, Aymeric

    2006-05-01

    Photons with energies above 6 MeV can be used to detect small amounts of nuclear material inside large cargo containers. The method consists in using an intense beam of high-energy photons (bremsstrahlung radiation) in order to induce reactions of photofission on actinides. The measurement of delayed neutrons and delayed gammas emitted by fission products brings specific information on localization and quantification of the nuclear material. A simultaneous measurement of both of these delayed signals can overcome some important limitations due to matrix effects like heavy shielding and/or the presence of light elements as hydrogen. We have a long experience in the field of nuclear waste package characterization by photon interrogation and we have demonstrated that presently the detection limit can be less than one gram of actinide per ton of package. Recently we tried to extend our knowledge to assess the performance of this method for the detection of special nuclear materials in sea and air freights. This paper presents our first results based on experimental measurements carried out in the SAPHIR facility, which houses a linear electron accelerator with the energy range from 15 MeV to 30 MeV. Our experiments were also modeled using the full scale Monte Carlo techniques. In addition, and in a more general frame, due to the lack of consistent data on photonuclear reactions, we have been working on the development of a new photonuclear activation file (PAF), which includes cross sections for more than 600 isotopes including photofission fragment distributions and delayed neutron tables for actinides. Therefore, this work includes also some experimental results obtained at the ELSA electron accelerator, which is more adapted for precise basic nuclear data measurements.

  14. International

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    This rubric reports on 10 short notes about international economical facts about nuclear power: Electricite de France (EdF) and its assistance and management contracts with Eastern Europe countries (Poland, Hungary, Bulgaria); Transnuclear Inc. company (a 100% Cogema daughter company) acquired the US Vectra Technologies company; the construction of the Khumo nuclear power plant in Northern Korea plays in favour of the reconciliation between Northern and Southern Korea; the delivery of two VVER 1000 Russian reactors to China; the enforcement of the cooperation agreement between Euratom and Argentina; Japan requested for the financing of a Russian fast breeder reactor; Russia has planned to sell a floating barge-type nuclear power plant to Indonesia; the control of the Swedish reactor vessels of Sydkraft AB company committed to Tractebel (Belgium); the renewal of the nuclear cooperation agreement between Swiss and USA; the call for bids from the Turkish TEAS electric power company for the building of the Akkuyu nuclear power plant answered by three candidates: Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL), Westinghouse (US) and the French-German NPI company. (J.S.)

  15. 46 CFR 308.517 - Open Cargo Policy, Form MA-300.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Open Cargo Policy, Form MA-300. 308.517 Section 308.517... Risk Cargo Insurance Ii-Open Policy War Risk Cargo Insurance § 308.517 Open Cargo Policy, Form MA-300. The standard form of War Risk Open Cargo, Form MA-300, may be obtained from the American War Risk...

  16. The effect of air flow, panel curvature, and internal pressurization on field-incidence transmission loss. [acoustic propagation through aircraft fuselage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koval, L. R.

    1975-01-01

    In the context of sound transmission through aircraft fuselage panels, equations for the field-incidence transmission loss (TL) of a single-walled panel are derived that include the effects of external air flow, panel curvature, and internal fuselage pressurization. These effects are incorporated into the classical equations for the TL of single panels, and the resulting double integral for field-incidence TL is numerically evaluated for a specific set of parameters.

  17. Tracer-based laser-induced fluorescence measurement technique for quantitative fuel/air-ratio measurements in a hydrogen internal combustion engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blotevogel, Thomas; Hartmann, Matthias; Rottengruber, Hermann; Leipertz, Alfred

    2008-12-10

    A measurement technique for the quantitative investigation of mixture formation processes in hydrogen internal combustion engines (ICEs) has been developed using tracer-based laser-induced fluorescence (TLIF). This technique can be employed to fired and motored engine operation. The quantitative TLIF fuel/air-ratio results have been verified by means of linear Raman scattering measurements. Exemplary results of the simultaneous investigation of mixture formation and combustion obtained at an optical accessible hydrogen ICE are shown.

  18. The absolute risk of venous thrombosis after air travel: a cohort study of 8,755 employees of international organisations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, Saskia; Cannegieter, Suzanne C.; Middeldorp, Saskia; Robyn, Luc; Buller, Harry R.; Rosendaal, Frits R.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The risk of venous thrombosis is approximately 2- to 4-fold increased after air travel, but the absolute risk is unknown. The objective of this study was to assess the absolute risk of venous thrombosis after air travel. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a cohort study among employees

  19. Failure of cargo aileron’s actuator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Zucca

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available During a ferry flight, in a standard operation condition and at cruising level, a military cargo experienced a double hydraulic system failure due to a structural damage of the dual booster actuator. The booster actuator is the main component in mechanism of aileron’s deflection. The crew was able to arrange an emergency landing thanks to the spare oil onboard: load specialists refilled the hydraulic reservoirs. Due to safety concerns and in order to prevent the possibility of other similar incidents, a technical investigation took place. The study aimed to carry out the analysis of root causes of the actuator failure. The Booster actuator is composed mainly by the piston rod and its aluminum external case (AA7049. The assembly has two bronze caps on both ends. These are fixed in position by means of two retainers. At one end of the actuator case is placed a trunnion: a cylindrical protrusion used as a pivoting point on the aircraft. The fracture was located at one end of the case, on the trunnion side, in correspondence to the cap and over the retainer. One of the two fracture surfaces was found separated to the case and with the cap entangled inside. The fracture surfaces of the external case indicated fatigue crack growth followed by ductile separation. The failure analysis was performed by means of optical, metallographic, digital and electronic microscopy. The collected evidences showed a multiple initiation fracture mechanism. Moreover, 3D scanner reconstruction and numerical simulation demonstrated that dimensional non conformances and thermal loads caused an abnormal stress concentration. Stress concentration was located along the case assy outer surface where the fatigue crack originated. The progressive rupture mechanism grew under cyclical axial load due to the normal operations. Recommendations were issued in order to improve dimensional controls and assembly procedures during production and overhaul activities.

  20. Spectroscopic neutron radiography for a cargo scanning system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahon, Jill [Department of Nuclear Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Ave, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Danagoulian, Areg, E-mail: aregjan@mit.edu [Department of Nuclear Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Ave, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); MacDonald, Thomas D. [Department of Nuclear Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Ave, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Hartwig, Zachary S. [Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Ave, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Lanza, Richard C. [Department of Nuclear Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Ave, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Detection of cross-border smuggling of illicit materials and contraband is a challenge that requires rapid, low-dose, and efficient radiographic technology. The work we describe here is derived from a technique which uses monoenergetic gamma rays from low energy nuclear reactions, such as {sup 11}B(d,nγ){sup 12}C, to perform radiographic analysis of shipping containers. Transmission ratios of multiple monoenergetic gamma lines resulting from several gamma producing nuclear reactions can be employed to detect materials of high atomic number (Z), the details of which will be described in a separate paper. Inherent in this particular nuclear reaction is the production of fast neutrons which could enable neutron radiography and further characterization of the effective-Z of the cargo, especially within the range of lower Z. Previous research efforts focused on the use of total neutron counts in combination with X-ray radiography to characterize the hydrogenous content of the cargo. We present a technique of performing transmitted neutron spectral analysis to reconstruct the effective Z and potentially the density of the cargo. This is made possible by the large differences in the energy dependence of neutron scattering cross-sections between hydrogenous materials and those of higher Z. These dependencies result in harder transmission spectra for hydrogenous cargoes than those of non-hydrogenous cargoes. Such observed differences can then be used to classify the cargo based on its hydrogenous content. The studies presented in this paper demonstrate that such techniques are feasible and can provide a contribution to cargo security, especially when used in concert with gamma radiography.

  1. Test Report - StoveTeam International, Ecocina Stove with Wood Fuel - Air Pollutant Emissions and Fuel Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Test results were obtained in accordance with ISO (International Organization for Standardization) IWA (International Workshop Agreement) 11:2012 that was unanimously affirmed by more than 90 stakeholders at the ISO International Workshop on Cookstoves on February 28-29, 2012 in ...

  2. Domestic and International Best Practice Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-02-01

    Air transportation plays a vital role in the Texas economy. Air passenger/cargo traffic is projected to continue to increase considerably at many of the state's large airports. Ground access to airports is an important function that must be provided ...

  3. Air to fuel ratio sensor for internal combustion engine control system; Nainen kikan no nensho seigyoyo kunen hi sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuzuki, M.; Kawai, T.; Yamada, T.; Nishio [NGK Spark Plug Co. Ltd., Aichi (Japan)

    1998-06-01

    Air to fuel ratio sensor is used for emission control system of three-way catalyst, and constitutes the important functional part of combustion control system. For further precise combustion control application, universal air to fuel ratio heated exhaust gas oxygen sensor (UEGO sensor) has been developed. This paper introduces heater control system for constant element temperature of UEGO sensor. By the heater wattage feedback control of sensing cell impedance, the change of sensor element temperature is decreased. 9 refs., 13 figs.

  4. Effect of the internal rib structure of the inclusions on the two-dimensional phononic crystal composed of periodic slotted tubes in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Kunpeng; Chen Tianning; Wang Xiaopeng; Zhou Anan

    2012-01-01

    Using a finite element method based on the Bloch theorem, a new phononic crystal composed of periodic slotted tubes with internal rib structure in air is investigated. Two parallel plates with slit are introduced into the inclusion as the internal rib structure and its effect on band gaps is studied. The band structure and acoustic modes of the PC are calculated. Results show that the starting frequency of the first band gap is rather lower than that of slotted tubes without rib structure. The internal rib structure plays an important role in both the lower and upper edges of the first band gap. Some rib structural parameters are also studied for their effects on the first band gap. Results show that the first gap can be modulated widely by these parameters and the Helmholtz resonator theory can be used to explain the relationship between the band gap and the parameters.

  5. Analysis of containerized cargo in the ship container terminal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obhodas, Jasmina, E-mail: jobhodas@irb.h [Ruder Boskovic Institute, Bijenicka c. 54, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Sudac, Davorin [Ruder Boskovic Institute, Bijenicka c. 54, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Valkovic, Vladivoj [A.C.T.d.o.o., Prilesje 4, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Baricevic, Martina [Ruder Boskovic Institute, Bijenicka c. 54, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Franulovic, Andrej [Croatian Custom, Alexandera von Humboldta 4, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Perot, Bertrand; Carasco, Cedric; Alain, Mariani; Anne-Cecile, Raoux; El Kanawati, Wassila [CEA, DEN, Cadarache, Nuclear Measurement Laboratory, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    2010-07-21

    The container scanning system based on the elemental analysis of suspect cargo by use of fast 14 MeV neutrons with detection of associated alpha particle has been recently developed under the EU-FP6 'EURITRACK' project. The system is currently set-up in port of Rijeka, Croatia, to be tested and upgraded under the EU-JLS ERITR-C project. Here we present results of analysis performed on 152 screened containers selected by the Croatian Custom and detail descriptive statistical analysis of their shipping manifests. Statistics such as distribution functions of container types, type of packages, type of cargos and average cargo densities were obtained in order to establish the properties of standard cargo traffic. The analyses by using multivariate statistical approach that included principal component analysis (PCA) and between group analysis (BGA) have shown that cargo matrices can be classified as metallic (Fe, Al, Cu, Zn, Ni...), ceramic-glass (Si, O) and organic (C, O, N). In this paper the organic matrices have been analysed in more detail since they are identified as most difficult because of their potential interference with main elements contained in threat materials such as explosives or drugs. Density as a discriminating factor has been included for better recognition of different types of goods.

  6. THE ANALYSIS OF WAYS TO IMPROVE ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT AND TRADE ORGANIZATION OF TRANSPORTATION ON AIR TRANSPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Ivanov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In transport system of Russia air transport is one of main types of passenger and cargo transport. Demand for air transportation constantly increases that allows to consider reasonably improvement of transportations on air transport as the priority direction of development in civil aviation. The article considers issues of development of the branch air transport.

  7. METHODS OF DIAGNOSTIC EFFECTIVENESS ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGES IN CARGO MOTOR TRANSPORTATION ORGANIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Sergeevich Antipov

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article propose methods of diagnostic effectiveness organizational changes in cargo motor transportation organizations. The article contain the main results approbation of the developed methods of diagnostic effectiveness organizational changes in cargo motor transportation organizations in 37 cargo motor transportation organizations of Saint-Petersburg and the Leningrad Region. Constructed diagrams of conformity specific weights resulting from organizational changes in cargo motor transportation organizations. Presents diagrams effectiveness organizational changes in cargo motor transportation organizations at every stages of the life cycle. The goal of the present paper is to development methods of diagnostic effectiveness organizational changes in cargo motor transportation organizations.

  8. Hydrogel Walkers with Electro-Driven Motility for Cargo Transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chao; Wang, Wei; Yao, Chen; Xie, Rui; Ju, Xiao-Jie; Liu, Zhuang; Chu, Liang-Yin

    2015-08-28

    In this study, soft hydrogel walkers with electro-driven motility for cargo transport have been developed via a facile mould-assisted strategy. The hydrogel walkers consisting of polyanionic poly(2-acrylamido-2-methylpropanesulfonic acid-co-acrylamide) exhibit an arc looper-like shape with two "legs" for walking. The hydrogel walkers can reversibly bend and stretch via repeated "on/off" electro-triggers in electrolyte solution. Based on such bending/stretching behaviors, the hydrogel walkers can move their two "legs" to achieve one-directional walking motion on a rough surface via repeated "on/off" electro-triggering cycles. Moreover, the hydrogel walkers loaded with very heavy cargo also exhibit excellent walking motion for cargo transport. Such hydrogel systems create new opportunities for developing electro-controlled soft systems with simple design/fabrication strategies in the soft robotic field for remote manipulation and transportation.

  9. Versatile Loading of Diverse Cargo into Functional Polymer Capsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Joseph J; Maina, James W; Ejima, Hirotaka; Hu, Ming; Guo, Junling; Choy, Mei Y; Gunawan, Sylvia T; Lybaert, Lien; Hagemeyer, Christoph E; De Geest, Bruno G; Caruso, Frank

    2015-02-01

    Polymer microcapsules are of particular interest for applications including self-healing coatings, catalysis, bioreactions, sensing, and drug delivery. The primary way that polymer capsules can exhibit functionality relevant to these diverse fields is through the incorporation of functional cargo in the capsule cavity or wall. Diverse functional and therapeutic cargo can be loaded into polymer capsules with ease using polymer-stabilized calcium carbonate (CaCO 3 ) particles. A variety of examples are demonstrated, including 15 types of cargo, yielding a toolbox with effectively 500+ variations. This process uses no harsh reagents and can take less than 30 min to prepare, load, coat, and form the hollow capsules. For these reasons, it is expected that the technique will play a crucial role across scientific studies in numerous fields.

  10. Experimental ship fire measurements with simulated radioactive cargo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koski, J.A.; Arviso, M.; Bobbe, J.G.; Wix, S.D.; Cole, J.K.; Hohnstreiter, G.F.; Beene, D.E. Jr.

    1997-10-01

    Results from a series of eight test fires ranging in size from 2.2 to 18.8 MW conducted aboard the Coast Guard fire test ship Mayo Lykes at Mobile, Alabama are presented and discussed. Tests aboard the break bulk type cargo ship consisted of heptane spray fires simulating engine room and galley fires, wood crib fires simulating cargo hold fires, and pool fires staged for comparison to land based regulatory fire results. Primary instrumentation for the tests consisted of two pipe calorimeters that simulated a typical package shape for radioactive materials packages

  11. Experimental ship fire measurements with simulated radioactive cargo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koski, J.A.; Arvisol, M.; Bobbe, J.G.; Wix, S.D.; Cole, J.K.; Hohnstreiter, G.F.; Wix, S.D.; Beene, D.E.; Keane, M.P.

    1998-01-01

    Results from a series of eight test fires ranging in size from 2.2 to 18.8 MW conducted aboard the Coast Guard fire test ship Mayo Lykes at Mobile, Alabama are presented and discussed. Tests aboard the break-bulk type cargo ship consisted of heptane spray fires simulating engine room and galley fires, wood crib fires simulating cargo hold fires, and pool fires staged for comparison to land-based regulatory fire results. Primary instrumentation for the tests consisted of two pipe calorimeters that simulated a typical package shape for radioactive materials packages. (authors)

  12. A Ship Cargo Hold Inspection Approach Using Laser Vision Systems

    OpenAIRE

    SHEN Yang; ZHAO Ning; LIU Haiwei; MI Chao

    2013-01-01

    Our paper represents a vision system based on the laser measurement system (LMS) for bulk ship inspection. The LMS scanner with 2-axis servo system is installed on the ship loader to build the shape of the ship. Then, a group of real-time image processing algorithms are implemented to compute the shape of the cargo hold, the inclination angle of the ship and the relative position between the ship loader and the cargo hold. Based on those computed inspection data of the ship, the ship loader c...

  13. Power unit-cargo space link in transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radmilović Zoran R.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with transportation technology regarding links between power unit and cargo space. These links can be divided into two groups: rigid and flexible. Rigid link, established between power unit and cargo space, is dominant in maritime and road transport (sea ships and trucks, and occasionally in transport on inland waterways (self- propelled barges. Flexible link is used in the railroad transport (systems with trailers and semi trailers, and in inland waterway transport (push - towing and pulling systems, and combinations of the systems. The main goal of this research is determination of possible link types and organization of the means of transportation.

  14. Cosmic Ray Background Analysis For A Cargo Container Counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ensslin, Norbert; Geist, W.H.; Lestone, J.P.; Mayo, D.R.; Menlove, Howard O.

    2001-01-01

    We have developed a new model for calculating the expected yield of cosmic-ray spallation neutrons in a Cargo Container Counter, and we have benchmarked the model against measurements made with several existing large neutron counters. We also developed two versions of a new measurement uncertainty prediction code based on Microsoft Excel spreadsheets. The codes calculate the minimum detectability limit for the Cargo Container Counter for either neutron singles or doubles counting, and also propagate the uncertainties associated with efficiency normalization flux monitors and cosmic ray flux monitors. This paper will describe the physics basis for this analysis, and the results obtained for several different counter designs.

  15. Scanning of Cargo Containers by Gamma-Ray and Fast Neutron Radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yousri, A.M.; Bashter, I.I.; Megahid, M.R.; Osman, A.M.; Kansouh, W.A.; Reda, A.M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the combined systems which were installed and tested to detect contraband smuggled in cargo containers. These combined systems are based on radiographers work by gamma-rays emitted from point source 60 Co with 0.5 Ci activity and neutrons emitted from point isotopic sources of Pu-α-Be as well as 14 MeV neutrons emitted from sealed tube neutron generator. The transmitted gamma ray through the inspected object was measured by gamma detection system with NaI(Tl) detector while the transmitted fast neutron beam was measured by a neutron gamma detection system with stilbene organic scintillator. The later possess the capability of discrimination between between gamma and neutron pulses using a discrimination system based on pulse shape discrimination method. The measured intensities of primary incident and transmitted beams of gamma-rays and fast neutrons were used to construct 2D cross-sectional images of the inspected objects hidden directly within benign materials of the container and for object screened by high dense material to stop object detection by gamma or X-rays. The constructed images for the inspected objects show the good capability and effectiveness of the installed gamma and neutron radiographers to detect illicit materials hidden in air cargo containers and sea containers of med size. They have also indicated that the developed scanning systems possess the ease of mobility and low cost of scanning

  16. Assessment of policy options with regard to air pollution from international shipping; Beoordeling beleidsopties luchtvervuiling internationale scheepvaart

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deutsch, F.; Veldeman, N.; Lodewijks, P.; Duuerinck, J.; Janssen, L.; Campling, P.; Janssen, S. [Vlaamse Instelling voor Technologisch Onderzoek VITO, Mol (Belgium); Vanherle, K. [Transport and Mobility Leuven, Kessel-Lo, Leuven (Belgium)

    2011-10-15

    Recently, a study has been carried out for DG Environment of the European Commission titled 'Market-based instruments for Reducing Air Pollution. Assessment of Policy Options to reducing air pollution from shipping'. Within this study it was decided to study the environmental impact of two legally possible trading systems: a voluntary emissions trading system for all sea areas belonging to the European Union and a mandatory emissions trading system for the ports and territorial waters of EU Member States. If the emissions in ports and coastal waters will be made part of such a trading system it can result in lower environmental exposure for the population. [Dutch] Recent is een studie uitgevoerd voor DG Environment van de Europese Commissie met de titel 'Market-based instruments for reducing air pollution. Assessment of policy options to reduce air pollution from shipping'. Binnen deze studie is er voor gekozen om de milieu-impact van twee juridisch mogelijke handelssystemen te bestuderen: een vrijwillig emissiehandelssysteem voor alle zeegebieden behorende tot de Europese Unie en een verplicht emissiehandelssysteem voor de havens en de territoriale wateren van de EU-lidstaten. Als de emissies in havens en kustwateren in een handelssysteem meedraaien, kan dat tot lagere blootstelling van de bevolking leiden.

  17. International Energy Agency Building Energy Simulation Test and Diagnostic Method for Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Equipment Models (HVAC BESTEST); Volume 1: Cases E100-E200

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neymark, J.; Judkoff, R.

    2002-01-01

    This report describes the Building Energy Simulation Test for Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Equipment Models (HVAC BESTEST) project conducted by the Tool Evaluation and Improvement International Energy Agency (IEA) Experts Group. The group was composed of experts from the Solar Heating and Cooling (SHC) Programme, Task 22, Subtask A. The current test cases, E100-E200, represent the beginning of work on mechanical equipment test cases; additional cases that would expand the current test suite have been proposed for future development.

  18. 20th annual report 2011. Convention on long-range transboundary air pollution. International cooperative programme on integrated monitoring of air pollution effects on ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleemola, S.; Forsius, M. (eds.)

    2011-07-01

    The Integrated Monitoring Programme (ICP IM) is part of the effect-oriented activities under the 1979 Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution, which covers the region of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE). The main aim of ICP IM is to provide a framework to observe and understand the complex changes occurring in natural/semi natural ecosystems. This report summarizes the work carried out by the ICP IM Programme Centre and several collaborating institutes. The emphasis of the report is in the work done during the programme year 2010/2011 including: A short summary of previous data assessments, a status report of the ICP IM activities, content of the IM database, and geographical coverage of the monitoring network, a review of published vegetation results from ICP IM and preliminary analyses of collected vegetation data, a report on updated heavy metal budgets and critical loads at ICP IM sites, report on benefits of LTER collaboration (Long Term Ecological Research network, www.lter-europe.net), National Reports on ICP IM activities are presented as annexes. (orig.)

  19. 22nd annual report 2013. Convention on long-range transboundary air pollution. International cooperative programme on integrated monitoring of air pollution effects on ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleemola, S.; Forsius, M. (eds.)

    2013-09-01

    The Integrated Monitoring Programme (ICP IM) is part of the effect-oriented activities under the 1979 Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution, which covers the region of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE). The main aim of ICP IM is to provide a framework to observe and understand the complex changes occurring in natural/semi natural ecosystems. This report summarizes the work carried out by the ICP IM Programme Centre and several collaborating institutes. The emphasis of the report is in the work done during the programme year 2012/2013 including: A short summary of previous data assessments; A status report of the ICP IM activities, content of the IM database, and geographical coverage of the monitoring network; A final report on relations between vegetation changes and nitrogen Critical Load exceedance; A progress report on base line heavy metal approach, estimation of the extent of metal turnover in European forest catchments over the last decades; A final report on sulphur and nitrogen input-output budgets at ICP IM sites in Europe; National Reports on ICP IM activities are presented as annexes.

  20. A Numerical Analysis of the Air Distribution System for the Ventilation of the Crew Quarters on board of the International Space Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bode Florin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Quality of life on the International Space Station (ISS has become more and more important, since the time spent by astronauts outside the terrestrial atmosphere has increased in the last years. The actual concept for the Crew Quarters (CQ have demonstrated the possibility of a personal space for sleep and free time activities in which the noise levels are lower, but not enough, compared to the noisy ISS isle way. However, there are several issues that needs to be improved to increase the performance of CQ. Our project QUEST is intended to propose a new concept of CQ in which we will correct these issues, like the noise levels will be lower, more space for astronaut, increased thermal comfort, reduce the CQ total weight, higher efficiency for the air distribution, personalized ventilation system in CQ for the crew members in order to remove CO2 from the breathing zone. This paper presents a CFD study in which we are comparing the actual and a proposed ventilation solution for introducing the air in CQ. A preliminary numerical model of the present configuration of the air distribution system of the Crew Quarters on board of the ISS, shows the need for an improved air distribution inside these enclosures. Lower velocity values at the inlet diffuser, distributed over a larger surface, as well as diffusers with improved induction would appear to be a better choice. This was confirmed through the development of a new model including linear diffusers with a larger discharge surface. In this new configuration, the regions of possible draught are dramatically reduced. The overall distributions of the velocity magnitudes displaying more uniform, lower values, in the same time with more uniform temperatures. All these observations allow us to consider a better mixing of the air inside the enclosure.

  1. A Numerical Analysis of the Air Distribution System for the Ventilation of the Crew Quarters on board of the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bode, Florin; Nastase, Ilinca; Croitoru, Cristiana Verona; Sandu, Mihnea; Dogeanu, Angel

    2018-02-01

    Quality of life on the International Space Station (ISS) has become more and more important, since the time spent by astronauts outside the terrestrial atmosphere has increased in the last years. The actual concept for the Crew Quarters (CQ) have demonstrated the possibility of a personal space for sleep and free time activities in which the noise levels are lower, but not enough, compared to the noisy ISS isle way. However, there are several issues that needs to be improved to increase the performance of CQ. Our project QUEST is intended to propose a new concept of CQ in which we will correct these issues, like the noise levels will be lower, more space for astronaut, increased thermal comfort, reduce the CQ total weight, higher efficiency for the air distribution, personalized ventilation system in CQ for the crew members in order to remove CO2 from the breathing zone. This paper presents a CFD study in which we are comparing the actual and a proposed ventilation solution for introducing the air in CQ. A preliminary numerical model of the present configuration of the air distribution system of the Crew Quarters on board of the ISS, shows the need for an improved air distribution inside these enclosures. Lower velocity values at the inlet diffuser, distributed over a larger surface, as well as diffusers with improved induction would appear to be a better choice. This was confirmed through the development of a new model including linear diffusers with a larger discharge surface. In this new configuration, the regions of possible draught are dramatically reduced. The overall distributions of the velocity magnitudes displaying more uniform, lower values, in the same time with more uniform temperatures. All these observations allow us to consider a better mixing of the air inside the enclosure.

  2. Streamlining air import operations by trade facilitation measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri da Cunha Ferreira

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Global operations are subject to considerable uncertainties. Due to the Trade Facilitation Agreement that became effective in February 2017, the study of measures to streamline customs controls is urgent. This study aims to assess the impact of trade facilitation measures on import flows. An experimental study was performed in the largest cargo airport in South America through discrete-event simulation and design of experiments. Operation impacts of three trade facilitation measures are assessed on import flow by air. We shed light in the following trade facilitation measures: the use of X-ray equipment for physical inspection; increase of the number of qualified companies in the trade facilitation program; performance targets for customs officials. All trade facilitation measures used indicated potential to provide more predictability, cost savings, time reduction, and increase in security in international supply chain.

  3. 78 FR 50134 - Altus Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Blackhawk Capital Group BDC, Inc., Cargo Connection Logistics...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-16

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [File No. 500-1] Altus Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Blackhawk Capital Group BDC, Inc., Cargo Connection Logistics Holding, Inc., Diapulse Corporation of America, Globus... lack of current and accurate information concerning the securities of Cargo Connection Logistics...

  4. 75 FR 6092 - Special Conditions: Model C-27J Airplane; Class E Cargo Compartment Lavatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-08

    ... envision that a lavatory would be installed inside a Class E cargo compartment. Lavatories, including the... envision that a lavatory would be installed in a Class E cargo compartment. Therefore, special conditions...

  5. 49 CFR 178.348 - Specification DOT 412; cargo tank motor vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Specification DOT 412; cargo tank motor vehicle... SPECIFICATIONS FOR PACKAGINGS Specifications for Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.348 Specification DOT 412; cargo tank motor vehicle. ...

  6. 49 CFR 178.347 - Specification DOT 407; cargo tank motor vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Specification DOT 407; cargo tank motor vehicle... SPECIFICATIONS FOR PACKAGINGS Specifications for Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.347 Specification DOT 407; cargo tank motor vehicle. ...

  7. 49 CFR 178.346 - Specification DOT 406; cargo tank motor vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Specification DOT 406; cargo tank motor vehicle... SPECIFICATIONS FOR PACKAGINGS Specifications for Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.346 Specification DOT 406; cargo tank motor vehicle. ...

  8. Air-water exchange of anthropogenic and natural organohalogens on International Polar Year (IPY) expeditions in the Canadian Arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Fiona; Jantunen, Liisa M; Pućko, Monika; Papakyriakou, Tim; Staebler, Ralf M; Stern, Gary A; Bidleman, Terry F

    2011-02-01

    Shipboard measurements of organohalogen compounds in air and surface seawater were conducted in the Canadian Arctic in 2007-2008. Study areas included the Labrador Sea, Hudson Bay, and the southern Beaufort Sea. High volume air samples were collected at deck level (6 m), while low volume samples were taken at 1 and 15 m above the water or ice surface. Water samples were taken within 7 m. Water concentration ranges (pg L(-1)) were as follows: α-hexachlorocyclohexane (α-HCH) 465-1013, γ-HCH 150-254, hexachlorobenzene (HCB) 4.0-6.4, 2,4-dibromoanisole (DBA) 8.5-38, and 2,4,6-tribromoanisole (TBA) 4.7-163. Air concentration ranges (pg m(-3)) were as follows: α-HCH 7.5-48, γ-HCH 2.1-7.7, HCB 48-71, DBA 4.8-25, and TBA 6.4 - 39. Fugacity gradients predicted net deposition of HCB in all areas, while exchange directions varied for the other chemicals by season and locations. Net evasion of α-HCH from Hudson Bay and the Beaufort Sea during open water conditions was shown by air concentrations that averaged 14% higher at 1 m than 15 m. No significant difference between the two heights was found over ice cover. The α-HCH in air over the Beaufort Sea was racemic in winter (mean enantiomer fraction, EF = 0.504 ± 0.008) and nonracemic in late spring-early summer (mean EF = 0.476 ± 0.010). This decrease in EF was accompanied by a rise in air concentrations due to volatilization of nonracemic α-HCH from surface water (EF = 0.457 ± 0.019). Fluxes of chemicals during the southern Beaufort Sea open water season (i.e., Leg 9) were estimated using the Whitman two-film model, where volatilization fluxes are positive and deposition fluxes are negative. The means ± SD (and ranges) of net fluxes (ng m(-2) d(-1)) were as follows: α-HCH 6.8 ± 3.2 (2.7-13), γ-HCH 0.76 ± 0.40 (0.26-1.4), HCB -9.6 ± 2.7 (-6.1 to -15), DBA 1.2 ± 0.69 (0.04-2.0), and TBA 0.46 ± 1.1 ng m(-2) d(-1) (-1.6 to 2.0).

  9. Intentional cargo disruption by nefarious means: Examining threats, systemic vulnerabilities and securitisation measures in complex global supply chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGreevy, Conor; Harrop, Wayne

    2015-01-01

    Global trade and commerce requires products to be securely contained and transferred in a timely way across great distances and between national boundaries. Throughout the process, cargo and containers are stored, handled and checked by a range of authorities and authorised agents. Intermodal transportation involves the use of container ships, planes, railway systems, land bridges, road networks and barges. This paper examines the the nefarious nature of intentional disruption and nefarious risks associated with the movement of cargo and container freight. The paper explores main threats, vulnerabilities and security measures relevant to significant intermodal transit risk issues such as theft, piracy, terrorism, contamination, counterfeiting and product tampering. Three risk and vulnerability models are examined and basic standards and regulations that are relevant to safe and secure transit of container goods across international supply networks are outlined.

  10. 29 CFR 1918.85 - Containerized cargo operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...” (activated) container gantry crane lifting beams or attached devices are used as anchorage points, the... maximum cargo weight, in pounds. (b) Container weight. No container shall be hoisted by any lifting... of loading or discharging, or every crane or other hoisting equipment operator and signalman, that...

  11. Investigating Block-Copolymer Micelle Dynamics for Tunable Cargo Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiuli; Kidd, Bryce; Cooksey, Tyler; Robertson, Megan; Madsen, Louis

    Block-copolymer micelles (BCPMs) can carry molecular cargo in a nanoscopic package that is tunable using polymer structure in combination with cargo properties, as well as with external stimuli such as temperature or pH. For example, BCPMs can be used in targeted anticancer drug delivery due to their biocompatibility, in vivo degradability and prolonged circulation time. We are using NMR spectroscopy and diffusometry as well as SANS to investigate BCPMs. Here we study a diblock poly(ethylene oxide)-b-(caprolactone) (PEO-PCL) that forms spherical micelles at 1% (w/v) in the mixed solvent D2O/THF-d8. We quantify the populations and diffusion coefficients of coexisting micelles and free unimers over a range of temperatures and solvent compositions. We use temperature as a stimulus to enhance unimer exchange and hence trigger cargo release, in some cases at a few degrees above body temperature. We present evidence for dominance of the insertion-expulsion mechanism of unimer exchange in these systems, and we map phase diagrams versus temperature and solvent composition. This study sheds light on how intermolecular interactions fundamentally affect cargo release, unimer exchange, and overall micelle tunability.

  12. 46 CFR Table II to Part 150 - Grouping of Cargoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... solution Potassium oleate Potassium salt of polyolefin acid Propyl acetate Propylene carbonate Propylene... lignosulfonate solution Sodium polyacrylate solution 2 Sodium salt of Ferric hydroxyethylethylenediamine... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Grouping of Cargoes II Table II to Part 150 Shipping...

  13. 46 CFR 105.20-3 - Cargo tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) Construction and Materials. (1) The cargo tanks must be constructed of iron, steel, copper, nickel alloy... inches and gage number 2,3 Nickel copper B127, hot rolled sheet or plate 0.107 (USSG 12). Copper nickel 1... sheet and plate iron and steel. The letters “AWG” stand for “American Wire Gage” (or Brown and Sharpe...

  14. Screening Cargo Containers to Remove a Terrorist Threat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazi, A

    2005-01-01

    Each year some 48 million cargo containers move between the world's ports. More than 6 million of these enter the U.S., but only about 2 percent are opened and inspected when they arrive at U.S. seaports. The West Coast ports of Los Angeles-Long Beach, Oakland, and Seattle alone process 11,000 containers per day, or about 8 containers per minute. Because of this high traffic volume, U.S. seaports are especially vulnerable to a terrorist attack. Illicit radioactive materials could be hidden in any one of the cargo-filled containers that arrive at U.S. ports. Yet, searching every shipment would be bring legitimate commercial activities to a halt. Improving security at U.S. ports is thus one of the nation's most difficult technical and practical challenges because the systems developed for screening cargo must operate in concert with ongoing seaport activities. Working at this intersection of commerce and national security, Lawrence Livermore researchers are applying their expertise in radiation science and detection to develop improved technologies for detecting hidden radioactive materials. One new technology being designed and tested at the Laboratory is a neutron interrogation system for cargo containers. This system will quickly screen incoming shipments to ensure that nuclear materials such as plutonium and highly enriched uranium (HEU) are not smuggled into the U.S

  15. Mars Hybrid Propulsion System Trajectory Analysis. Part II; Cargo Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Patrick R.; Merrill, Raymond G.; Qu, Min

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Human Spaceflight Architecture Team is developing a reusable hybrid transportation architecture in which both chemical and electric propulsion systems are used to send crew and cargo to Mars destinations such as Phobos, Deimos, the surface of Mars, and other orbits around Mars. By combining chemical and electrical propulsion into a single spaceship and applying each where it is more effective, the hybrid architecture enables a series of Mars trajectories that are more fuel-efficient than an all chemical architecture without significant increases in flight times. This paper shows the feasibility of the hybrid transportation architecture to pre-deploy cargo to Mars and Phobos in support of the Evolvable Mars Campaign crew missions. The analysis shows that the hybrid propulsion stage is able to deliver all of the current manifested payload to Phobos and Mars through the first three crew missions. The conjunction class trajectory also allows the hybrid propulsion stage to return to Earth in a timely fashion so it can be reused for additional cargo deployment. The 1,100 days total trip time allows the hybrid propulsion stage to deliver cargo to Mars every other Earth-Mars transit opportunity. For the first two Mars surface mission in the Evolvable Mars Campaign, the short trip time allows the hybrid propulsion stage to be reused for three round-trip journeys to Mars, which matches the hybrid propulsion stage's designed lifetime for three round-trip crew missions to the Martian sphere of influence.

  16. 46 CFR 154.1872 - Cargo emergency jettisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... shall ensure that cargo is not jettisoned in a U.S. port. (d) When ethylene oxide is carried, the master.... Sulfur dioxide IG Yes Dry T C 154.660 (b) (3), 154.1345 (c), (d), 154.1400 (c), 154.1405, 154.1410, 154...

  17. Technical means overview of the oversize cargoes customs control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dukhnitskiy P.S.

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available this article focuses on the technical means used by the customs authorities when they control oversize cargoes. Customs inspection efficiency improvement as one of the main forms of customs control during the implementation of sampling is possible by the use of technical means of customs control.

  18. Technical means overview of the oversize cargoes customs control

    OpenAIRE

    Dukhnitskiy P.S.

    2016-01-01

    this article focuses on the technical means used by the customs authorities when they control oversize cargoes. Customs inspection efficiency improvement as one of the main forms of customs control during the implementation of sampling is possible by the use of technical means of customs control.

  19. 46 CFR 153.975 - Preparation for cargo transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... system to have a fire protection system. (b) Any electrical bonding of the tankship to the transfer... plugged. (m) Smoking is limited to safe places. (n) Fire fighting and safety equipment is ready. (o) He is... or continue cargo transfer unless the following conditions are met: (a) No fires or open flames are...

  20. Bicaudal-D: Switching motors, cargo and direction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.D. Splinter (Daniël)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractScope of this thesis Transport of vesicles and organelles is an essential cellular process. Proteins like Rab GTPases, specialized adaptor proteins and motor proteins are involved in targeting and movement of cargos to their destination. This thesis describes the function of the

  1. Study on Alternative Cargo Launch Options from the Lunar Surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheryl A. Blomberg; Zamir A. Zulkefli; Spencer W. Rich; Steven D. Howe

    2013-07-01

    In the future, there will be a need for constant cargo launches from Earth to Mars in order to build, and then sustain, a Martian base. Currently, chemical rockets are used for space launches. These are expensive and heavy due to the amount of necessary propellant. Nuclear thermal rockets (NTRs) are the next step in rocket design. Another alternative is to create a launcher on the lunar surface that uses magnetic levitation to launch cargo to Mars in order to minimize the amount of necessary propellant per mission. This paper investigates using nuclear power for six different cargo launching alternatives, as well as the orbital mechanics involved in launching cargo to a Martian base from the moon. Each alternative is compared to the other alternative launchers, as well as compared to using an NTR instead. This comparison is done on the basis of mass that must be shipped from Earth, the amount of necessary propellant, and the number of equivalent NTR launches. Of the options, a lunar coil launcher had a ship mass that is 12.7% less than the next best option and 17 NTR equivalent launches, making it the best of the presented six options.

  2. 46 CFR 154.650 - Cargo tank and process pressure vessel welding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo tank and process pressure vessel welding. 154.650... Equipment Construction § 154.650 Cargo tank and process pressure vessel welding. (a) Cargo tank and process pressure vessel welding must meet Subpart 54.05 and Part 57 of this chapter. (b) Welding consumables used...

  3. 46 CFR 153.1000 - Special operating requirements for cargoes reactive with water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Special operating requirements for cargoes reactive with water. 153.1000 Section 153.1000 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED... MATERIALS Operations Special Cargo Procedures § 153.1000 Special operating requirements for cargoes reactive...

  4. Safety evaluation for packaging transport of LSA-II liquids in MC-312 cargo tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlstrom, R.F.

    1996-09-11

    This safety evaluation for packaging authorizes the onsite transfer of bulk LSA-II radioactive liquids in the 222-S Laboratory Cargo Tank and Liquid Effluent Treatment Facility Cargo Tanks (which are U.S. Department of Transportation MC-312 specification cargo tanks) from their operating facilities to tank farm facilities.

  5. 46 CFR 153.976 - Transfer of packaged cargo or ship's stores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transfer of packaged cargo or ship's stores. 153.976 Section 153.976 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SHIPS CARRYING BULK LIQUID, LIQUEFIED GAS, OR COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Operations Cargo Transfer Procedures § 153.976 Transfer of...

  6. 46 CFR 105.25-7 - Ventilation systems for cargo tank or pumping system compartment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ventilation systems for cargo tank or pumping system... Requirements-When Cargo Tanks Are Installed Below Decks § 105.25-7 Ventilation systems for cargo tank or pumping system compartment. (a) Each compartment shall be provided with a mechanical exhaust system...

  7. Investigate existing non-intrusive (NII) technologies for port cargo inspections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    "The quantity of cargo handled by United States ports has increased significantly in recent years. Based on : 2004 data, almost 2.7 billion tons of cargo passed through the ports in one year. To protect the U.S., all of this : cargo must be inspected...

  8. 77 FR 36008 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection: Cargo Theft Incident Report...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-15

    ... Collection Activities; Proposed Collection: Cargo Theft Incident Report, Revision of a Currently Approved... collection: Revision of a currently approved collection. (2) The title of the form/collection: Cargo Theft... enforcement agencies. Brief Abstract: This collection is needed to collect information on cargo theft...

  9. 49 CFR 173.33 - Hazardous materials in cargo tank motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hazardous materials in cargo tank motor vehicles... Transportation § 173.33 Hazardous materials in cargo tank motor vehicles. (a) General requirements. (1) No person may offer or accept a hazardous material for transportation in a cargo tank motor vehicle except as...

  10. 46 CFR 308.524 - Application for cancellation of Open Cargo Policy, Form MA-304.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Application for cancellation of Open Cargo Policy, Form... § 308.524 Application for cancellation of Open Cargo Policy, Form MA-304. The standard form of application for cancellation of an Open Cargo Policy Form MA-304 may be obtained from the American War Risk...

  11. 46 CFR 308.523 - Application for revision of Open Cargo Policy, Form MA-303.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Application for revision of Open Cargo Policy, Form MA... Application for revision of Open Cargo Policy, Form MA-303. An application for the revision of an Open Cargo Policy shall be filed in duplicate with the Underwriting Agent on a form which may be obtained from the...

  12. Safety evaluation for packaging (Onsite) transport of LSA-II liquids in MC-312 cargo tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlstrom, R.F.

    1996-01-01

    This safety evaluation for packaging authorizes the onsite transfer of bulk LSA-II radioactive liquids in the 222-S Laboratory Cargo Tank and Liquid Effluent Treatment Facility Cargo Tanks (which are U.S. Department of Transportation MC-312 specification cargo tanks) from their operating facilities to tank farm facilities

  13. Geospatial relationships of air pollution and acute asthma events across the Detroit-Windsor international border: study design and preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemke, Lawrence D; Lamerato, Lois E; Xu, Xiaohong; Booza, Jason C; Reiners, John J; Raymond Iii, Delbert M; Villeneuve, Paul J; Lavigne, Eric; Larkin, Dana; Krouse, Helene J

    2014-07-01

    The Geospatial Determinants of Health Outcomes Consortium (GeoDHOC) study investigated ambient air quality across the international border between Detroit, Michigan, USA and Windsor, Ontario, Canada and its association with acute asthma events in 5- to 89-year-old residents of these cities. NO2, SO2, and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were measured at 100 sites, and particulate matter (PM) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) at 50 sites during two 2-week sampling periods in 2008 and 2009. Acute asthma event rates across neighborhoods in each city were calculated using emergency room visits and hospitalizations and standardized to the overall age and gender distribution of the population in the two cities combined. Results demonstrate that intra-urban air quality variations are related to adverse respiratory events in both cities. Annual 2008 asthma rates exhibited statistically significant positive correlations with total VOCs and total benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene (BTEX) at 5-digit zip code scale spatial resolution in Detroit. In Windsor, NO2, VOCs, and PM10 concentrations correlated positively with 2008 asthma rates at a similar 3-digit postal forward sortation area scale. The study is limited by its coarse temporal resolution (comparing relatively short term air quality measurements to annual asthma health data) and interpretation of findings is complicated by contrasts in population demographics and health-care delivery systems in Detroit and Windsor.

  14. Logistics: DoD International Personal Property Shipment Rates

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2002-01-01

    ... all or most of the cargo space available on U.S.-flag vessels and subsequently resold the space at an inflated price to selected freight forwarders that participated in the DoD International Personal Property Program...

  15. Measurement of {sup 131}I activity in air indoor Polish nuclear medical hospital as a tool for an internal dose assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brudecki, K.; Mietelski, J.W. [Polish Academy of Sciences, Institute of Nuclear Physics, Krakow (Poland); Szczodry, A.; Kowalska, A. [Department of Endocrinology and Nuclear Medicine Holycross Cancer Center, Kielce (Poland); Mroz, T. [Pedagogical University in Cracow, Krakow (Poland)

    2018-03-15

    This paper presents results of {sup 131}I air activity measurements performed within nuclear medical hospitals as a tool for internal dose assessment. The study was conducted at a place of preparation and administration of {sup 131}I (''hot room'') and at a nurse station. {sup 131}I activity measurements were performed for 5 and 4 consecutive working days, at the ''hot room'' and nurse station, respectively. Iodine from the air was collected by a mobile HVS-30 aerosol sampler combined with a gas sampler. Both the gaseous and aerosol fractions were measurement. The activities in the gaseous fraction ranged from (28 ± 1 Bq m{sup -3}) to (492 ± 4) Bq m{sup -3}. At both sampling sites, the activity of the gaseous iodine fraction trapped on activated charcoal was significantly higher than that of the aerosol fraction captured on Petrianov filter cloth. Based on these results, an attempt has been made to estimate annual inhalation effective doses, which were found to range from 0.47 mSv (nurse female) to 1.3 mSv (technician male). The highest annual inhalation equivalent doses have been found for thyroid as 32, 27, 13, and 11 mSv, respectively, for technician male, technical female, nurse male, and nurse female. The method presented here allows to fill the gaps in internal doses measurements. Moreover, because method has been successful used for many years in radioactive contamination monitoring of air in cases of serious nuclear accidents, it should also be used in nuclear medicine. (orig.)

  16. The bacterial carbon-fixing organelle is formed by shell envelopment of preassembled cargo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna H Chen

    Full Text Available Cyanobacteria play a significant role in the global carbon cycle. In Synechococcuselongatus, the carbon-fixing enzyme ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBisCO is concentrated into polyhedral, proteinaceous compartments called carboxysomes.Using live cell fluorescence microscopy, we show that carboxysomes are first detected as small seeds of RuBisCO that colocalize with existing carboxysomes. These seeds contain little or no shell protein, but increase in RuBisCO content over several hours, during which time they are exposed to the solvent. The maturing seed is then enclosed by shell proteins, a rapid process that seals RuBisCO from the cytosol to establish a distinct, solvent-protected microenvironment that is oxidizing relative to the cytosol. These closure events can be spatially and temporally coincident with the appearance of a nascent daughter RuBisCO seed.Carboxysomes assemble in a stepwise fashion, inside-to-outside, revealing that cargo is the principle organizer of this compartment's biogenesis. Our observations of the spatial relationship of seeds to previously formed carboxysomes lead us to propose a model for carboxysome replication via sequential fission, polymerization, and encapsulation of their internal cargo.

  17. The radon gas at the context of legislation on the quality of internal air in buildings - the Portuguese experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinto, Paulo G.A.N.; Pereira, Alcides J.S.C.; Neves, Luis J.P.F.

    2011-01-01

    Radon gas has been recognized as an important environmental risk factor, especially when found in high concentrations inside buildings, and is currently classified by the World Health Organization as a carcinogen type 1. In this context, there is legislation in Portugal since 2006 that sets limits to its concentration in indoor air. The aim of this work was to synthesize the existing legislation with focus on the sampling and analysis. Some statistical data about the measurements obtained in the Natural Radioactivity Laboratory, of the Department of Earth Sciences, of the University of Coimbra are presented, and discussed in the context of the National Energy Certification of Buildings System

  18. International Pacific Air and Space Technology Conference and Aircraft Symposium, 29th, Gifu, Japan, Oct. 7-11, 1991, Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    Various papers on air and space technology are presented. Individual topics addressed include: media selection analysis: implications for training design, high-speed challenge for rotary wing aircraft, high-speed VSTOL answer to congestion, next generation in computational aerodynamics, acrobatic airship 'Acrostat', ducted fan VTOL for working platform, Arianespace launch of Lightsats, small particle acceleration by minirailgun, free-wake analyses of a hovering rotor using panel method, update of the X-29 high-angle-of-attack program, economic approach to accurate wing design, flow field around thick delta wing with rounded leading edge, aerostructural integrated design of forward-swept wing, static characteristics of a two-phase fluid drop system, simplfied-model approach to group combustion of fuel spray, avionics flight systems for the 21st century. Also discussed are: Aircraft Command in Emergency Situations, spectrogram diagnosis of aircraft disasters, shock interaction induced by two hemisphere-cylinders, impact response of composite UHB propeller blades, high-altitude lighter-than-air powered platform, integrated wiring system, auxiliary power units for current and future aircraft, Space Shuttle Orbiter Auxiliary Power Unit status, numerical analysis of RCS jet in hypersonic flights, energy requirements for the space frontier, electrical system options for space exploration, aerospace plane hydrogen scramjet boosting, manual control of vehicles with time-varying dynamics, design of strongly stabilizing controller, development of the Liquid Apogee Propulsion System for ETS-VI

  19. International Pacific Air and Space Technology Conference and Aircraft Symposium, 29th, Gifu, Japan, Oct. 7-11, 1991, Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    Various papers on air and space technology are presented. Individual topics addressed include: media selection analysis: implications for training design, high-speed challenge for rotary wing aircraft, high-speed VSTOL answer to congestion, next generation in computational aerodynamics, acrobatic airship 'Acrostat', ducted fan VTOL for working platform, Arianespace launch of Lightsats, small particle acceleration by minirailgun, free-wake analyses of a hovering rotor using panel method, update of the X-29 high-angle-of-attack program, economic approach to accurate wing design, flow field around thick delta wing with rounded leading edge, aerostructural integrated design of forward-swept wing, static characteristics of a two-phase fluid drop system, simplfied-model approach to group combustion of fuel spray, avionics flight systems for the 21st century. Also discussed are: Aircraft Command in Emergency Situations, spectrogram diagnosis of aircraft disasters, shock interaction induced by two hemisphere-cylinders, impact response of composite UHB propeller blades, high-altitude lighter-than-air powered platform, integrated wiring system, auxiliary power units for current and future aircraft, Space Shuttle Orbiter Auxiliary Power Unit status, numerical analysis of RCS jet in hypersonic flights, energy requirements for the space frontier, electrical system options for space exploration, aerospace plane hydrogen scramjet boosting, manual control of vehicles with time-varying dynamics, design of strongly stabilizing controller, development of the Liquid Apogee Propulsion System for ETS-VI.

  20. Work life balance up in the air: Does gender make a difference between female and male international business travelers?

    OpenAIRE

    Kollinger-Santer, Iris; Fischlmayr, Iris C.

    2013-01-01

    Managing work-life balance (WLB) has become an issue for both employees and HR departments since WLB tensions may reduce performance, overall job satisfaction and finally, increase the fluctuation rate. Having a balance between job and non-work is a particular challenge for international business travelers, but research on this topic is still in its very infancy. The aim of this article and its underlying qualitative study was to discover factors that influence WLB of those employees, and to ...

  1. Long-range cargo transport on crowded microtubules: The motor jamming mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Lucas W.; Radtke, Paul K.; Goldman, Carla

    2014-05-01

    The hopping model for cargo transport by molecular motors introduced in Goldman and Sena (2009), Goldman (2010) is extended here in order to incorporate the movement of cargo-motor complexes (C-MC). Hopping processes in this context express the possibility for cargo to be exchanged between neighboring motors at a microtubule where the transport takes place. Jamming of motors is essential for cargos to execute long-range movement in this way. Results from computer simulations accompanied by a mean-field analysis of the extended model confirm our previous analytical results and suggests that an interplay between cargo hopping and the movement of the C-MC’s would control the efficiency of cargo transfer and cargo delivery in these model systems.

  2. Selection of Air Terminal Device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.

    This paper discusses the selection of the air terminal device for the experiments and numerical prediction in the International Energy Agency Annex 20 work: Air Flow Pattern within Buildings,......This paper discusses the selection of the air terminal device for the experiments and numerical prediction in the International Energy Agency Annex 20 work: Air Flow Pattern within Buildings,...

  3. Estimation of the in-cylinder air/fuel ratio of an internal combustion engine by the use of pressure sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tunestaal, Per

    2000-03-01

    This thesis investigates the use of cylinder pressure measurements for estimation of the in-cylinder air/fuel ratio in a spark ignited internal combustion engine. An estimation model which uses the net heat release profile for estimating the cylinder air/fuel ratio of a spark ignition engine is developed. The net heat release profile is computed from the cylinder pressure trace and quantifies the conversion of chemical energy of the reactants in the charge into thermal energy. The net heat release profile does not take heat- or mass transfer into account. Cycle-averaged air/fuel ratio estimates over a range of engine speeds and loads show an RMS error of 4.1% compared to measurements in the exhaust. A thermochemical model of the combustion process in an internal combustion engine is developed. It uses a simple chemical combustion reaction, polynominal fits of internal energy as function of temperature, and the first law of thermodynamics to derive a relationship between measured cylinder pressure and the progress of the combustion process. Simplifying assumptions are made to arrive at an equation which relates the net heat release to the cylinder pressure. Two methods for estimating the sensor offset of a cylinder pressure transducer are developed. Both methods fit the pressure data during the pre-combustion phase of the compression stroke to a polytropic curve. The first method assumes a known polytropic exponent, and the other estimates the polytropic exponent. The first method results in a linear least-squares problem, and the second method results in a nonlinear least-squares problem. The nonlinear least-squares problem is solved by separating out the nonlinear dependence and solving the single-variable minimization problem. For this, a finite difference Newton method is derived. Using this method, the cost of solving the nonlinear least-squares problem is only slightly higher than solving the linear least-squares problem. Both methods show good statistical

  4. The International Atomic Energy Agency circulation of laboratory air standards for stable isotope comparisons: Aims, preparation and preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allison, C.E.; Francey, R.J.; Steele, L.P.

    2002-01-01

    Ten air standards in high-pressure aluminium cylinders were prepared, covering a specified range of CO 2 concentration and δ 13 C and δ 18O isotopic composition, to be used for laboratory intercomparisons with the primary aim of merging global atmospheric CO 2 δ 13 C data sets. After establishing the stability of the standards, five were circulated between four laboratories with established high precision global monitoring networks to quantify differences between the measurement scales used in the laboratories. Measurements of CO 2 concentration in three of the four laboratories showed agreement to better than 0.2 ppm for the five standards. Measurements of N 2 O concentration reported by three of the laboratories agreed to better than 3 ppb after correction for known scaling factor differences, but a fourth laboratory reported results for two cylinders lower by about 20 ppb, contributing a δ 13 C uncertainty of about 0.012 per mille for these two cylinders. The reported measurements of the δ 13 C and δ 18O of CO 2 extracted from the air in the five standards showed large offsets between the laboratories of up to 0.1 per mille in δ 13 C and up to 1 per mille in δ 18O . Analysis of the results shows that about 40% of the offsets arises from differences in the procedures used in each laboratory to calculate the δ 13 C and δ 18 O values from the raw measurements and that the remainder arises from the pre-concentration step. Using one of the circulated standards to 'normalise' the others removes most of the inter-laboratory differences but there remains a non-linear response in one or more laboratories. The differences in δ 13 C that remain after normalisation are larger than the target precision of 0.01 per mille. (author)

  5. Modeling intercontinental transport of ozone in North America with CAMx for the Air Quality Model Evaluation International Initiative (AQMEII) Phase 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nopmongcol, Uarporn; Liu, Zhen; Stoeckenius, Till; Yarwood, Greg

    2017-08-01

    Intercontinental ozone (O3) transport extends the geographic range of O3 air pollution impacts and makes local air pollution management more difficult. Phase 3 of the Air Quality Modeling Evaluation International Initiative (AQMEII-3) is examining the contribution of intercontinental transport to regional air quality by applying regional-scale atmospheric models jointly with global models. We investigate methods for tracing O3 from global models within regional models. The CAMx photochemical grid model was used to track contributions from boundary condition (BC) O3 over a North American modeling domain for calendar year 2010 using a built-in tracer module called RTCMC. RTCMC can track BC contributions using chemically reactive tracers and also using inert tracers in which deposition is the only sink for O3. Lack of O3 destruction chemistry in the inert tracer approach leads to overestimation biases that can exceed 10 ppb. The flexibility of RTCMC also allows tracking O3 contributions made by groups of vertical BC layers. The largest BC contributions to seasonal average daily maximum 8 h averages (MDA8) of O3 over the US are found to be from the mid-troposphere (over 40 ppb) with small contributions (a few ppb) from the upper troposphere-lower stratosphere. Contributions from the lower troposphere are shown to not penetrate very far inland. Higher contributions in the western than the eastern US, reaching an average of 57 ppb in Denver for the 30 days with highest MDA8 O3 in 2010, present a significant challenge to air quality management approaches based solely on local or US-wide emission reductions. The substantial BC contribution to MDA8 O3 in the Intermountain West means regional models are particularly sensitive to any biases and errors in the BCs. A sensitivity simulation with reduced BC O3 in response to 20 % lower emissions in Asia found a near-linear relationship between the BC O3 changes and surface O3 changes in the western US in all seasons and across

  6. Modeling intercontinental transport of ozone in North America with CAMx for the Air Quality Model Evaluation International Initiative (AQMEII Phase 3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Nopmongcol

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Intercontinental ozone (O3 transport extends the geographic range of O3 air pollution impacts and makes local air pollution management more difficult. Phase 3 of the Air Quality Modeling Evaluation International Initiative (AQMEII-3 is examining the contribution of intercontinental transport to regional air quality by applying regional-scale atmospheric models jointly with global models. We investigate methods for tracing O3 from global models within regional models. The CAMx photochemical grid model was used to track contributions from boundary condition (BC O3 over a North American modeling domain for calendar year 2010 using a built-in tracer module called RTCMC. RTCMC can track BC contributions using chemically reactive tracers and also using inert tracers in which deposition is the only sink for O3. Lack of O3 destruction chemistry in the inert tracer approach leads to overestimation biases that can exceed 10 ppb. The flexibility of RTCMC also allows tracking O3 contributions made by groups of vertical BC layers. The largest BC contributions to seasonal average daily maximum 8 h averages (MDA8 of O3 over the US are found to be from the mid-troposphere (over 40 ppb with small contributions (a few ppb from the upper troposphere–lower stratosphere. Contributions from the lower troposphere are shown to not penetrate very far inland. Higher contributions in the western than the eastern US, reaching an average of 57 ppb in Denver for the 30 days with highest MDA8 O3 in 2010, present a significant challenge to air quality management approaches based solely on local or US-wide emission reductions. The substantial BC contribution to MDA8 O3 in the Intermountain West means regional models are particularly sensitive to any biases and errors in the BCs. A sensitivity simulation with reduced BC O3 in response to 20 % lower emissions in Asia found a near-linear relationship between the BC O3 changes and surface O3 changes in the

  7. Implementation of cargo MagLev in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, Chris R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Peterson, Dean E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Leung, Eddie M [MAGTEC ENGINEERING

    2008-01-01

    Numerous studies have been completed in the United States, but no commercial MagLev systems have been deployed. Outside the U.S., MagLev continues to attract funding for research, development and implementation. A brief review of recent global developments in MagLev technology is given followed by the status of MagLev in the U.S. The paper compares the cost of existing MagLev systems with other modes of transport, notes that the near-term focus of MagLev development in the U.S. should be for cargo, and suggests that future MagLev systems should be for very high speed cargo. The Los Angeles to Port of Los Angeles corridor is suggested as a first site for implementation. The benefits of MagLev are described along with suggestions on how to obtain funding.

  8. Fixing Trailer Hitch for Roof Rack of Cargos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darina Matisková

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a new technical solution of fixing trailer hitch which serves as a connection between single track vehicle and cargo, mainly light trailer. They are manufactured from steel girder and nets which are constructed by point welding. They are designed to indicate the necessary solidity and the required load bearing capacity of the cargo. The application of roof racks is universal and these products are in great demand in the field of game management. There are a lot of trailer hitches which the manufacturers tailor to customers´ demands. The stated technical solution is subject of published industrial utility model at the Industrial property office of the Slovak republic.

  9. SIMULATION OF CARGO CONTAINER INTERROGATION BY D-D NEUTRONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lou, Tak Pui; Antolak, Arlyn

    2007-01-01

    High fidelity, three-dimensional computer models based on a CAD drawing of an intermodal cargo container, representative payload objects, and detector array panels were developed to simulate the underlying physical events taking place during active interrogation. These computer models are used to assess the performance of interrogation systems with different sources and detection schemes. In this presentation, we will show that the use oversimplified models, such as analyzing homogenized payloads only, can lead to errors in determining viable approaches for interrogation

  10. Exit-strategies - smart ways to release phospholipid vesicle cargo

    OpenAIRE

    Mellal Denia; Zumbuehl Andreas

    2014-01-01

    This highlight describes recent trends in fundamental phospholipid research towards possible future drug delivery technology. In particular it focuses on synthetic phospholipids and their vesicular constructs and describes selected “smart” ways to release cargo from liposomes. Various chemical and physical release triggers are discussed such as temperature changes, application of ultrasound, enzyme degradation, changes in pH, redox reactions, photochemical reactions, as well as the effects of...

  11. Air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2008-01-01

    Air pollution has accompanied and developed with the industrial age, since its beginnings. This very complete review furnishes the toxicological data available for the principal pollutants and assesses the epidemiologic studies thus far conducted. It also describes European regulations and international commitments for the reduction of emissions. (author)

  12. Applications and Challenges for Use of Cell-Penetrating Peptides as Delivery Vectors for Peptide and Protein Cargos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mie Kristensen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The hydrophilic nature of peptides and proteins renders them impermeable to cell membranes. Thus, in order to successfully deliver peptide and protein-based therapeutics across the plasma membrane or epithelial and endothelial barriers, a permeation enhancing strategy must be employed. Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs constitute a promising tool and have shown applications for peptide and protein delivery into cells as well as across various epithelia and the blood-brain barrier (BBB. CPP-mediated delivery of peptides and proteins may be pursued via covalent conjugation of the CPP to the cargo peptide or protein or via physical complexation obtained by simple bulk-mixing of the CPP with its cargo. Both approaches have their pros and cons, and which is the better choice likely relates to the physicochemical properties of the CPP and its cargo as well as the route of administration, the specific barrier and the target cell. Besides the physical barrier, a metabolic barrier must be taken into consideration when applying peptide-based delivery vectors, such as the CPPs, and stability-enhancing strategies are commonly employed to prolong the CPP half-life. The mechanisms by which CPPs translocate cell membranes are believed to involve both endocytosis and direct translocation, but are still widely investigated and discussed. The fact that multiple factors influence the mechanisms responsible for cellular CPP internalization and the lack of sensitive methods for detection of the CPP, and in some cases the cargo, further complicates the design and conduction of conclusive mechanistic studies.

  13. Results from an International Measurement Round Robin of III-V Triple Junction Solar Cells under Air Mass Zero

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Phillip; Scheiman, Chris; Goodbody, Chris; Baur, Carsten; Sharps, Paul; Imaizumi, Mitsuru; Yoo, Henry; Sahlstrom, Ted; Walters, Robert; Lorentzen, Justin; hide

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports the results of an international measurement round robin of monolithic, triple-junction, GaInP/GaAs/Ge space solar cells. Eight laboratories representing national labs, solar cell vendors and space solar cell consumers, measured cells using in-house reference cells and compared those results to measurements made where each lab used the same set of reference cells. The results show that most of the discrepancy between laboratories is likely due to the quality of the standard cells rather than the measurement system or solar simulator used.

  14. K-Rankine systems for piloted and cargo Mars missions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, J.C.; Rovang, R.D.; Johnson, G.A.

    1992-03-01

    Studies are performed to demonstrate the attractiveness of potassium-Rankine (K-Rankine) nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) systems for both piloted and cargo Mars missions. The key results of the piloted mission study are that a full-up piloted mission can be accomplished with a trip time of less than 390 days with an attractive initial mass in low earth orbit (IMLEO) of 700 metric tons. This is achieved by coupling two advanced cermet fuel reactors (1550 K outlet temperature) to K-Rankine power-conversion systems to produce the 46 MWe needed to power advanced ion engines. This design approach offers an alternative to a more risky split-sprint mission where comparable trip times and IMLEO can be achieved with a nearer-term reactor (SP-100 at 1350 K outlet temperature) technology. The results of the cargo-mission study indicate that a lower-power K-Rankine system (5.5 MWe) operating at SP-100 reactor conditions would best perform a representative Mars cargo transport. A round-trip mission (480 days outbound; 600 day return) to Mars requires only 225 metric tons IMLEO and permit possible system reuse. 6 refs

  15. Calcium and cargoes as regulators of myosin 5a activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sellers, James R.; Thirumurugan, Kavitha; Sakamoto, Takeshi; Hammer, John A.; Knight, Peter J.

    2008-01-01

    Myosin 5a is a two-headed actin-dependent motor that transports various cargoes in cells. Its enzymology and mechanochemistry have been extensively studied in vitro. It is a processive motor that takes multiple 36 nm steps on actin. The enzymatic activity of myosin 5 is regulated by an intramolecular folding mechanism whereby its lever arms fold back against the coiled-coil tail such that the motor domains directly bind the globular tail domains. We show that the structure seen in individual folded molecules is consistent with electron density map of two-dimensional crystals of the molecule. In this compact state, the actin-activated MgATPase activity of the molecule is markedly inhibited and the molecule cannot move processively on surface bound actin filaments. The actin-activated MgATPase activity of myosin 5a is activated by increasing the calcium concentration or by binding of a cargo-receptor molecule, melanophilin, in vitro. However, calcium binding to the calmodulin light chains results in dissociation of some of the calmodulin which disrupts the ability of myosin 5a to move on actin filaments in vitro. Thus we propose that the physiologically relevant activation pathway in vivo involves binding of cargo-receptor proteins

  16. Recent advances in fast neutron radiography for cargo inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sowerby, B.D.; Tickner, J.R.

    2007-01-01

    Fast neutron radiography techniques are attractive for screening cargo for contraband such as narcotics and explosives. Neutrons have the required penetration, they interact with matter in a manner complementary to X-rays and they can be used to determine elemental composition. Compared to neutron interrogation techniques that measure secondary radiation (neutron or gamma-rays), neutron radiography systems are much more efficient and rapid and they are much more amenable to imaging. However, for neutron techniques to be successfully applied to cargo screening, they must demonstrate significant advantages over well-established X-ray techniques. This paper reviews recent developments and applications of fast neutron radiography for cargo inspection. These developments include a fast neutron and gamma-ray radiography system that utilizes a 14 MeV neutron generator as well as fast neutron resonance radiography systems that use variable energy quasi-monoenergetic neutrons and pulsed broad energy neutron beams. These systems will be discussed and compared with particular emphasis on user requirements, sources, detector systems, imaging ability and performance

  17. Compressed Sensing Techniques Applied to Ultrasonic Imaging of Cargo Containers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri Álvarez López

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the key issues in the fight against the smuggling of goods has been the development of scanners for cargo inspection. X-ray-based radiographic system scanners are the most developed sensing modality. However, they are costly and use bulky sources that emit hazardous, ionizing radiation. Aiming to improve the probability of threat detection, an ultrasonic-based technique, capable of detecting the footprint of metallic containers or compartments concealed within the metallic structure of the inspected cargo, has been proposed. The system consists of an array of acoustic transceivers that is attached to the metallic structure-under-inspection, creating a guided acoustic Lamb wave. Reflections due to discontinuities are detected in the images, provided by an imaging algorithm. Taking into consideration that the majority of those images are sparse, this contribution analyzes the application of Compressed Sensing (CS techniques in order to reduce the amount of measurements needed, thus achieving faster scanning, without compromising the detection capabilities of the system. A parametric study of the image quality, as a function of the samples needed in spatial and frequency domains, is presented, as well as the dependence on the sampling pattern. For this purpose, realistic cargo inspection scenarios have been simulated.

  18. Summary of the Fourth Conference of the Parties to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change and of the Activities of The International Nuclear Forum in Buenos Aires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt-Kuster, W.J.

    1999-01-01

    The Fourth Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Convention on Climate Change was concluded on 14 November 1998 in Buenos Aires, Argentina. Unlike Kyoto in 1997, this conference was on a smaller scale and was convened as a technical work session, its aim being to produce a plan of action and a timetable for a programme of work for the next two years. This paper summarizes the main outcomes of the conference and looks at the way in which the International Nuclear Forum organized the nuclear industry's representation. In particular, the paper assesses the impact of the nuclear industry's message regarding the avoidance of greenhouse gas emissions, and goes on to consider what lessons can be reached for raising the industry's profile at future climate change conferences. (author)

  19. Efficiency Comparison between Conventional and Modern Port Operation System for Small-Scale Dry Bulk Cargo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiara Aulia

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the launching of Sea Toll Road Program in 2015, the improvement in ports’ operation systems has become Indonesia’s foremost necessity. This improvement commonly leads to equipment modernization, while realistically, modern equipment does not always amount to a productive performance, especially in the context of small-scale ports. Instead, it is prone to creating wasteful capital and maintenance cost as well as making the planning time ineffective. This study compares two options of port operation systems in a small port, which is conventional and technologically-advanced method for dry bulk cargo. It results in thin gaps between each option’s financial assessment variables, which are Internal Rate of Return, Benefit/Cost Ratio and Payback Period, regardless of a stark difference between each option’s equipment cost. This study concludes that with the right approach, the conventional operation system is still the most efficient option compared to its contemporary opposite.

  20. Investigation of Spark Ignition and Autoignition in Methane and Air Using Computational Fluid Dynamics and Chemical Reaction Kinetics. A numerical Study of Ignition Processes in Internal Combustion Engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordrik, R.

    1993-12-01

    The processes in the combustion chamber of internal combustion engines have received increased attention in recent years because their efficiencies are important both economically and environmentally. This doctoral thesis studies the ignition phenomena by means of numerical simulation methods. The fundamental physical relations include flow field conservation equations, thermodynamics, chemical reaction kinetics, transport properties and spark modelling. Special attention is given to the inclusion of chemical kinetics in the flow field equations. Using his No Transport of Radicals Concept method, the author reduces the computational efforts by neglecting the transport of selected intermediate species. The method is validated by comparison with flame propagation data. A computational method is described and used to simulate spark ignition in laminar premixed methane-air mixtures and the autoignition process of a methane bubble surrounded by hot air. The spark ignition simulation agrees well with experimental results from the literature. The autoignition simulation identifies the importance of diffusive and chemical processes acting together. The ignition delay times exceed the experimental values found in the literature for premixed ignition delay, presumably because of the mixing process and lack of information on low temperature reactions in the skeletal kinetic mechanism. Transient turbulent methane jet autoignition is simulated by means of the KIVA-II code. Turbulent combustion is modelled by the Eddy Dissipation Concept. 90 refs., 81 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. Hypertension and 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in Air Force Veterans of the Vietnam War

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dwyer, James H; Jackson, William G; Michalek, Joel E

    2006-01-01

    .... We included a Comparison group of other Air Force veterans who flew or serviced C-130 cargo aircraft in Southeast Asia during the same calendar period that the Ranch Hand unit was active in Vietnam (1962-1971...

  2. Electrically controlled fuel injection device for internal combustion engines with air quantity meter. Elektrisch gesteuerte Kraftstoffeinspritzeinrichtung fuer Brennkraftmaschinen mit Luftmengenmesser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraus, B; Soell, W

    1980-12-11

    The invention concerns an electrically controlled preferably intermittently working fuel injection device for internal combustion engines with a throttle valve, a solenoid operated injection valve and a transistor circuit, which supplies electrical pulses used to open the injection valve synchronously to the revolution of the crankshaft. The invention is characterized by the fact that an electrical control device is provided, which extends the individual opening pulses in thrust operation (with the throttle valve closed or nearly closed and with a working speed above the speed). The extension produced by the control device decreases from a value at about 20% for the maximum speed to a value of 0 for the tickover speed. Details of the transistor control are made clear by detailed circuit diagrams and 5 patent claims.

  3. Final Report, Next-Generation Mega-Voltage Cargo-Imaging System for Cargo Conainer Inspection, March 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. James Clayton, Ph.D., Varian Medical Systems-Security & Inspection Products; Dr. Emma Regentova, Ph.D, University of Nevada Las Vegas; Dr. Evangelos Yfantis, Ph.D., University of Nevada, Las Vegas

    2007-03-27

    The UNLV Research Foundation, as the primary award recipient, teamed with Varian Medical Systems-Security & Inspection Products and the University of Nevada Las Vegas (UNLV) for the purpose of conducting research and engineering related to a "next-generation" mega-voltage imaging (MVCI) system for inspection of cargo in large containers. The procurement and build-out of hardware for the MVCI project has been completed. The K-9 linear accelerator and an optimized X-ray detection system capable of efficiently detecting X-rays emitted from the accelerator after they have passed through the device is under test. The Office of Science financial assistance award has made possible the development of a system utilizing a technology which will have a profound positive impact on the security of U.S. seaports. The proposed project will ultimately result in critical research and development advances for the "next-generation" Linatron X-ray accelerator technology, thereby providing a safe, reliable and efficient fixed and mobile cargo inspection system, which will very significantly increase the fraction of cargo containers undergoing reliable inspection as the enter U.S. ports. Both NNSA/NA-22 and the Department of Homeland Security's Domestic Nuclear Detection Office are collaborating with UNLV and its team to make this technology available as soon as possible.

  4. Final Report, Next-Generation Mega-Voltage Cargo-Imaging System for Cargo Container Inspection, March 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dr. James Clayton, Ph.D., Varian Medical Systems-Security and Inspection Products; Dr. Emma Regentova, Ph.D, University of Nevada Las Vegas; Dr. Evangelos Yfantis, Ph.D., University of Nevada, Las Vegas

    2007-01-01

    The UNLV Research Foundation, as the primary award recipient, teamed with Varian Medical Systems-Security and Inspection Products and the University of Nevada Las Vegas (UNLV) for the purpose of conducting research and engineering related to a ''next-generation'' mega-voltage imaging (MVCI) system for inspection of cargo in large containers. The procurement and build-out of hardware for the MVCI project has been completed. The K-9 linear accelerator and an optimized X-ray detection system capable of efficiently detecting X-rays emitted from the accelerator after they have passed through the device is under test. The Office of Science financial assistance award has made possible the development of a system utilizing a technology which will have a profound positive impact on the security of U.S. seaports. The proposed project will ultimately result in critical research and development advances for the ''next-generation'' Linatron X-ray accelerator technology, thereby providing a safe, reliable and efficient fixed and mobile cargo inspection system, which will very significantly increase the fraction of cargo containers undergoing reliable inspection as the enter U.S. ports. Both NNSA/NA-22 and the Department of Homeland Security's Domestic Nuclear Detection Office are collaborating with UNLV and its team to make this technology available as soon as possible

  5. How molecular motors are arranged on a cargo is important for vesicular transport.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert P Erickson

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The spatial organization of the cell depends upon intracellular trafficking of cargos hauled along microtubules and actin filaments by the molecular motor proteins kinesin, dynein, and myosin. Although much is known about how single motors function, there is significant evidence that cargos in vivo are carried by multiple motors. While some aspects of multiple motor function have received attention, how the cargo itself--and motor organization on the cargo--affects transport has not been considered. To address this, we have developed a three-dimensional Monte Carlo simulation of motors transporting a spherical cargo, subject to thermal fluctuations that produce both rotational and translational diffusion. We found that these fluctuations could exert a load on the motor(s, significantly decreasing the mean travel distance and velocity of large cargos, especially at large viscosities. In addition, the presence of the cargo could dramatically help the motor to bind productively to the microtubule: the relatively slow translational and rotational diffusion of moderately sized cargos gave the motors ample opportunity to bind to a microtubule before the motor/cargo ensemble diffuses out of range of that microtubule. For rapidly diffusing cargos, the probability of their binding to a microtubule was high if there were nearby microtubules that they could easily reach by translational diffusion. Our simulations found that one reason why motors may be approximately 100 nm long is to improve their 'on' rates when attached to comparably sized cargos. Finally, our results suggested that to efficiently regulate the number of active motors, motors should be clustered together rather than spread randomly over the surface of the cargo. While our simulation uses the specific parameters for kinesin, these effects result from generic properties of the motors, cargos, and filaments, so they should apply to other motors as well.

  6. Analysis of specific absorption rate and internal electric field in human biological tissues surrounding an air-core coil-type transcutaneous energy transmission transformer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiba, Kenji; Zulkifli, Nur Elina Binti; Ishioka, Yuji

    2017-06-01

    In this study, we analyzed the internal electric field E and specific absorption rate (SAR) of human biological tissues surrounding an air-core coil transcutaneous energy transmission transformer. Using an electromagnetic simulator, we created a model of human biological tissues consisting of a dry skin, wet skin, fat, muscle, and cortical bone. A primary coil was placed on the surface of the skin, and a secondary coil was located subcutaneously inside the body. The E and SAR values for the model representing a 34-year-old male subject were analyzed using electrical frequencies of 0.3-1.5 MHz. The transmitting power was 15 W, and the load resistance was 38.4 Ω. The results showed that the E values were below the International Commission on Non-ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) limit for the general public exposure between the frequencies of 0.9 and 1.5 MHz, and SAR values were well below the limit prescribed by the ICNIRP for the general public exposure between the frequencies of 0.3 and 1.2 MHz.

  7. Numerical study with experimental comparison of pressure waves in the air intake system of an internal combustion engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falcao, Carlos E.G.; Vielmo, Horacio A. [Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Mechanical Engineering Dept.], E-mails: vielmoh@mecanica.ufrgs.br; Hanriot, Sergio M. [Pontifical Catholic University of Minas Gerais (PUC-Minas), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Mechanical Engineering Dept.], E-mail: hanriot@pucminas.br

    2010-07-01

    The work investigates the pressure waves behavior in the intake system of an internal combustion engine. For the purpose of examining this problem, it was chosen an experimental study in order to validate the results of the present simulation. At the literature there are several experimental studies, and some numerical simulations, but the most of the numerical studies treat the problem only in one dimension in practical problems, or two dimensions in specific problems. Using a CFD code it is possible to analyze more complex systems, including tridimensional effects. The pulsating phenomenon is originated from the periodic movement of the intake valve, and produces waves that propagate within the system. The intake system studied was composed by a straight pipe connected to a 1000 cc engine with a single operating cylinder. The experiments were carried out in a flow bench. In the present work, the governing equations was discretized by Finite Volumes Method with an explicit formulation, and the time integration was made using the multi-stage Runge-Kutta time stepping scheme. The solution is independent of mesh or time step. The numerical analysis presents a good agreement with the experimental results. (author)

  8. GHGs and air pollutants embodied in China’s international trade: Temporal and spatial index decomposition analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhengyan; Mao, Xianqiang; Song, Peng

    2017-01-01

    Temporal index decomposition analysis and spatial index decomposition analysis were applied to understand the driving forces of the emissions embodied in China’s exports and net exports during 2002–2011, respectively. The accumulated emissions embodied in exports accounted for approximately 30% of the total emissions in China; although the contribution of the sectoral total emissions intensity (technique effect) declined, the scale effect was largely responsible for the mounting emissions associated with export, and the composition effect played a largely insignificant role. Calculations of the emissions embodied in net exports suggest that China is generally in an environmentally inferior position compared with its major trade partners. The differences in the economy-wide emission intensities between China and its major trade partners were the biggest contribution to this reality, and the trade balance effect played a less important role. However, a lower degree of specialization in pollution intensive products in exports than in imports helped to reduce slightly the emissions embodied in net exports. The temporal index decomposition analysis results suggest that China should take effective measures to optimize export and supply-side structure and reduce the total emissions intensity. According to spatial index decomposition analysis, it is suggested that a more aggressive import policy was useful for curbing domestic and global emissions, and the transfer of advanced production technologies and emission control technologies from developed to developing countries should be a compulsory global environmental policy option to mitigate the possible leakage of pollution emissions caused by international trade. PMID:28441399

  9. A Cabin Air Separator for EVA Oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, John C.

    2011-01-01

    Presently, the Extra-Vehicular Activities (EVAs) conducted from the Quest Joint Airlock on the International Space Station use high pressure, high purity oxygen that is delivered to the Space Station by the Space Shuttle. When the Space Shuttle retires, a new method of delivering high pressure, high purity oxygen to the High Pressure Gas Tanks (HPGTs) is needed. One method is to use a cabin air separator to sweep oxygen from the cabin air, generate a low pressure/high purity oxygen stream, and compress the oxygen with a multistage mechanical compressor. A main advantage to this type of system is that the existing low pressure oxygen supply infrastructure can be used as the source of cabin oxygen. ISS has two water electrolysis systems that deliver low pressure oxygen to the cabin, as well as chlorate candles and compressed gas tanks on cargo vehicles. Each of these systems can feed low pressure oxygen into the cabin, and any low pressure oxygen source can be used as an on-board source of oxygen. Three different oxygen separator systems were evaluated, and a two stage Pressure Swing Adsorption system was selected for reasons of technical maturity. Two different compressor designs were subjected to long term testing, and the compressor with better life performance and more favorable oxygen safety characteristics was selected. These technologies have been used as the basis of a design for a flight system located in Equipment Lock, and taken to Preliminary Design Review level of maturity. This paper describes the Cabin Air Separator for EVA Oxygen (CASEO) concept, describes the separator and compressor technology trades, highlights key technology risks, and describes the flight hardware concept as presented at Preliminary Design Review (PDR)

  10. Scientific opinion on the evaluation of substances as acceptable previous cargoes for edible fats and oils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Annette

    Shipping of edible fats and oils into Europe is permitted in bulk tanks, provided that the previous cargo is included in a positive list. The European Commission requested EFSA to evaluate the acceptability as previous cargoes for fats and oils the substances calcium lignosulphonate, methyl acetate...... the criteria for acceptability as previous cargoes. Due to uncertainties, mainly with regard to the composition and toxicity of the low molecular mass fraction, and the fact that the toxicological database is limited to the 40–65 grade and does not cover all grades of calcium lignosulphonate shipped...... as previous cargoes, the EFSA Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM Panel) concluded that calcium lignosulphonate does not meet the criteria for acceptability as a previous cargo. Only food-grade ammonium sulphate meets the criteria for acceptability as a previous cargo due to uncertainties about...

  11. Regulations and control of in-transit fumigated containers as well as of fumigated cargo ships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Anthony; Hüsing, Ulf-Peter; Preisser, Alexandra; Baur, Xaver

    2003-01-01

    According to IMO's international regulations, e.g. "Recommendations on the safe use of pesticides in ships", fumigated containers and ship cargoes must be labeled giving specifications about dates of fumigation and the fumigation gas used. Furthermore, appropriate certificates are necessary and these records have to be forwarded to the Port Health Authorities without their explicitly asking for them. According to IMO (DSC/Circ.8.24.7.2001) a recent inspection of containers unloaded in ports showed that some were under fumigation, but not declared as such and in a few cases these ventilated containers arrive with "Degas Certificates" stating that fumigant has been removed, but still have a high fumigant concentration inside when opened. There are similar reports from The Netherlands, where 21% of the fumigated containers had missing or false declarations and contained measurable amounts of toxic gas. In England 6% were mentioned to be allegedly false. Reports exist of a number of other incidents with containers under fumigation arriving in English ports with no accompanying documents on the ship or at the port of discharge as to the type of cargo. In one case several people were hospitalized after exposure to phosphine gas because the fumigant tablets were not yet totally decomposed before the ship arrived at its destination port. In Bavaria, Germany, a bad accident recently occurred through a non declared fumigated container (see press release). Our sample: a large container ship in the Port of Hamburg where 27 of the cargo's containers were found fumigated with 27 non/incomplete/false declarations. These examples show that missing/false labelling is frequent. Clearance of in-transit fumigated containers in ports is complicated and time-consuming for the captain and shipping company. The above mentioned accident and also the results of our spot check prove, as do the experiences in The Netherlands and England, that false declarations of fumigated containers seem

  12. Development of sup 6 sup 0 Co cargo train inspection system

    CERN Document Server

    Wu Zhi Fang

    2002-01-01

    The author introduces the research and development of sup 6 sup 0 Co cargo train inspection system. With the use of radiography principle, every car image is acquired when the cargo train runs through the inspection channel. It is evaluated whether the cargo in car matches the corresponding customs declaration information with digital image processing techniques. The system has been installed in railway port at Manzhouli Customs

  13. Compressed air energy storage system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrens, Frederick W.; Kartsounes, George T.

    1981-01-01

    An internal combustion reciprocating engine is operable as a compressor during slack demand periods utilizing excess power from a power grid to charge air into an air storage reservoir and as an expander during peak demand periods to feed power into the power grid utilizing air obtained from the air storage reservoir together with combustible fuel. Preferably the internal combustion reciprocating engine is operated at high pressure and a low pressure turbine and compressor are also employed for air compression and power generation.

  14. X-ray scan detection for cargo integrity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valencia, Juan; Miller, Steve

    2011-04-01

    The increase of terrorism and its global impact has made the determination of the contents of cargo containers a necessity. Existing technology allows non-intrusive inspections to determine the contents of a container rapidly and accurately. However, some cargo shipments are exempt from such inspections. Hence, there is a need for a technology that enables rapid and accurate means of detecting whether such containers were non-intrusively inspected. Non-intrusive inspections are most commonly performed utilizing high powered X-ray equipment. The challenge is creating a device that can detect short duration X-ray scans while maintaining a portable, battery powered, low cost, and easy to use platform. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has developed a methodology and prototype device focused on this challenge. The prototype, developed by PNNL, is a battery powered electronic device that continuously measures its X-ray and Gamma exposure, calculates the dose equivalent rate, and makes a determination of whether the device has been exposed to the amount of radiation experienced during an X-ray inspection. Once an inspection is detected, the device will record a timestamp of the event and relay the information to authorized personnel via a visual alert, USB connection, and/or wireless communication. The results of this research demonstrate that PNNL's prototype device can be effective at determining whether a container was scanned by X-ray equipment typically used for cargo container inspections. This paper focuses on laboratory measurements and test results acquired with the PNNL prototype device using several X-ray radiation levels.

  15. Photonuclear-based Detection of Nuclear Smuggling in Cargo Containers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, J. L.; Haskell, K. J.; Hoggan, J. M.; Norman, D. R.; Yoon, W. Y.

    2003-08-01

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) and the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) have performed experiments in La Honda, California and at the Idaho Accelerator Center in Pocatello, Idaho to assess and develop a photonuclear-based detection system for shielded nuclear materials in cargo containers. The detection system, measuring photonuclear-related neutron emissions, is planned for integration with the ARACOR Eagle Cargo Container Inspection System (Sunnyvale, CA). The Eagle Inspection system uses a nominal 6-MeV electron accelerator and operates with safe radiation exposure limits to both container stowaways and to its operators. The INEEL has fabricated custom-built, helium-3-based, neutron detectors for this inspection application and is performing an experimental application assessment. Because the Eagle Inspection system could not be moved to LANL where special nuclear material was available, the response of the Eagle had to be determined indirectly so as to support the development and testing of the detection system. Experiments in California have successfully matched the delayed neutron emission performance of the ARACOR Eagle with that of the transportable INEEL electron accelerator (i.e., the Varitron) and are reported here. A demonstration test is planned at LANL using the Varitron and shielded special nuclear materials within a cargo container. Detector results are providing very useful information regarding the challenges of delayed neutron counting near the photofission threshold energy of 5.5 - 6.0 MeV, are identifying the possible utilization of prompt neutron emissions to allow enhanced signal-to-noise measurements, and are showing the overall benefits of using higher electron beam energies.

  16. Analytical solution of the problem of acceleration of cargo by a bridge crane with constant acceleration at elimination of swings of a cargo rope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korytov, M. S.; Shcherbakov, V. S.; Titenko, V. V.

    2018-01-01

    Limitation of the swing of the bridge crane cargo rope is a matter of urgency, as it can significantly improve the efficiency and safety of the work performed. In order to completely dampen the pendulum swing after the break-up of a bridge or a bridge-crane freight cart to maximum speed, it is necessary, in the normal repulsion control of the electric motor, to split the process of dispersion into a minimum of three gaps. For a dynamic system of swinging of a bridge crane on a flexible cable hanger in a separate vertical plane, an analytical solution was obtained to determine the temporal dependence of the cargo rope angle relative to the gravitational vertical when the cargo suspension point moves with constant acceleration. The resulting analytical dependence of the cargo rope angle and its first derivative can break the process of dispersing the cargo suspension point into three stages of dispersal and braking with various accelerations and enter maximum speed of movement of the cargo suspension point. In doing so, the condition of eliminating the swings of the cargo rope relative to the gravitational vertical is fulfilled. Provides examples of the maximum speed output constraints-to-time when removing the rope swing.

  17. Public announcement of guidelines for the packing and safe stowing of cargo in freight containers and vehicles for ocean transport (Container Stowage Guidelines)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The IMO and ILO guidelines are given, which help to meet the requirements of the Maritime Safety Ordinance and the Ordinance on Ocean Transport of Dangerous Goods. The guidelines explain the principles of safe packing and stowing of cargo in freight containers and vehicles for ocean transports. Further information and practical hints are given in international publications referred to in the annex. The guidelines are also meant for training purposes. (orig./HSCH) [de

  18. Determinants of Operational Efficiency at Chemical Cargo Terminals

    OpenAIRE

    T.A. Gúlcan; S. Esmer; Y. Zorba; G. Şengónúl

    2014-01-01

    In today’s globalized world, one of the requirements of global supply chains is efficient transportation systems. Approximately 80 per cent of world merchandise trade carried by sea and handled by ports worldwide. For this reason, maritime transport has the strategic economic importance. Loading of oil and gas has the biggest share (%30) in commodities carried by sea and 2.9 billion tons oil and gas loaded to ship in 2013. This study is focus on chemical cargo terminals which is a special ter...

  19. Automatic continuous monitoring system for dangerous sites and cargoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnov, S.N.

    2009-01-01

    The problems of creation of automatic comprehensive continuous monitoring system for nuclear and radiation sites and cargoes of Rosatom Corporation, which carries out data collecting, processing, storage and transmission, including informational support to decision-making, as well as support to modelling and forecasting functions, are considered. The system includes components of two levels: site and industry. Currently the system is used to monitor over 8000 integrated parameters, which characterise the status of nuclear and radiation safety on Rosatom sites, environmental and fire safety

  20. The legal and documentary aspects of sale of oil cargoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bassindale, J.

    1993-01-01

    The paper is divided into three main sections. The first part discusses a number of specific areas where sale contracts in the oil markets differ from traditional CIF or FOB contracts in other trades and where difficulties have therefore arisen which are peculiar to the oil trade. The second part deals with the passing of ownership and risk in oil cargoes. Finally it looks at certain documentary aspects of oil trading transactions, again concentrating on areas such as letters of indemnity, where the oil markets differ from the traditional commodity markets. (author)

  1. Safety of Oversize Cargo in Ports and in the Sea Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslaw Chmielinski

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Author of the paper analyzes problems related to the safety of the oversize cargo in ports and in the sea transport. Various modes of transport are used to carry oversized units that often include maritime transport. Transport of oversized cargo includes non-standard large and heavy pieces of cargo, such as electric transformers, reactor vessels, wind turbines, airplane fuselage or nuclear power plant components. The above paper is based on results of research oversized cargo in the Elpo Service Company and Pol-Mare Ltd. forwarding consulting agency.

  2. Proceedings of the Combined 20th International Workshop on Expressiveness in Concurrency and 10th Workshop on Structural Operational Semantics (EXPRESS/SOS 2013, Buenos Aires, Argentina, August 26, 2013)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borgström, J.; Luttik, B.

    2013-01-01

    This volume contains the proceedings of the Combined 20th International Workshop on Expressiveness in Concurrency and the 10th Workshop on Structural Operational Semantics (EXPRESS/SOS 2013) which was held on 26th August, 2013 in Buenos Aires, Argentina, as an affiliated workshop of CONCUR 2013, the

  3. Dynamic Analysis of Product Lifecycle and Sea/Air Modal Choice: Evidence of Export from Japan1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideki Murakami

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Here, we test the hypothesis that commodities at their peak valuation are transported by air, while those at their inception and maturity are shipped by sea, as well as the theory that shippers choose air to transport high-valued commodities. We empirically investigated how the product lifecycle of commodities is reflected by shippers’ choices of air over seaborne transportation. We also assumed that commodities that achieved substantial innovation in their lifecycles would be moved by air transportation so that these commodities could reach targeted markets as quickly as possible to avoid the opportunity costs that might be generated by missed business chances. We constructed two sets of unbalanced panel data of 14 commodities for 24 years drawn from Japan's customs, demographic, and international statistics. By estimating structural equation systems that consisted of commodity-specific export and export air ratio functions, we found that the product lifecycle of cargo outgoing from Japan exactly matched the upward and downward movement of the air ratio.

  4. Support for and reported compliance among smokers with smoke-free policies in air-conditioned hospitality venues in Malaysia and Thailand: findings from the International Tobacco Control Southeast Asia Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Hua-Hie; Foong, Kin; Borland, Ron; Omar, Maizurah; Hamann, Stephen; Sirirassamee, Buppha; Fong, Geoffrey T; Fotuhi, Omid; Hyland, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    This study examined support for and reported compliance with smoke-free policy in air-conditioned restaurants and other similar places among adult smokers in Malaysia and Thailand. Baseline data (early 2005) from the International Tobacco Control Southeast Asia Survey (ITC-SEA), conducted face-to-face in Malaysia and Thailand (n = 4005), were used. Among those attending venues, reported total smoking bans in indoor air-conditioned places such as restaurants, coffee shops, and karaoke lounges were 40% and 57% in Malaysia and Thailand, respectively. Support for a total ban in air-conditioned venues was high and similar for both countries (82% Malaysian and 90% Thai smokers who believed there was a total ban), but self-reported compliance with bans in such venues was significantly higher in Thailand than in Malaysia (95% vs 51%, P air-conditioned venues was associated with a greater support for a ban in such venues in both countries.

  5. Achieving integrated convoys: cargo unmanned ground vehicle development and experimentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zych, Noah; Silver, David; Stager, David; Green, Colin; Pilarski, Thomas; Fischer, Jacob

    2013-05-01

    The Cargo UGV project was initiated in 2010 with the aim of developing and experimenting with advanced autonomous vehicles capable of being integrated unobtrusively into manned logistics convoys. The intent was to validate two hypotheses in complex, operationally representative environments: first, that unmanned tactical wheeled vehicles provide a force protection advantage by creating standoff distance to warfighters during ambushes or improvised explosive device attacks; and second, that these UGVs serve as force multipliers by enabling a single operator to control multiple unmanned assets. To assess whether current state-of-the-art autonomous vehicle technology was sufficiently capable to permit resupply missions to be executed with decreased risk and reduced manpower, and to assess the effect of UGVs on customary convoy tactics, the Marine Corps Warfighting Laboratory and the Joint Ground Robotics Enterprise sponsored Oshkosh Defense and the National Robotics Engineering Center to equip two standard Marine Corps cargo trucks for autonomous operation. This paper details the system architecture, hardware implementation, and software modules developed to meet the vehicle control, perception, and planner requirements compelled by this application. Additionally, the design of a custom human machine interface and an accompanying training program are described, as is the creation of a realistic convoy simulation environment for rapid system development. Finally, results are conveyed from a warfighter experiment in which the effectiveness of the training program for novice operators was assessed, and the impact of the UGVs on convoy operations was observed in a variety of scenarios via direct comparison to a fully manned convoy.

  6. Relocatable cargo x-ray inspection systems utilizing compact linacs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sapp, W. Wade; Adams, William L.; Callerame, Joseph; Grodzins, Lee; Rothschild, Peter J.; Schueller, Richard; Mishin, Andrey V.; Smith, Gerald J.

    2001-01-01

    Magnetron-powered, X-band linacs with 3-4 MeV capability are compact enough to be readily utilized in relocatable high energy cargo inspection systems. Just such a system is currently under development at AS and E trade mark sign using the commercially available ISOSearch trade mark sign cargo inspection system as the base platform. The architecture permits the retention of backscatter imaging, which has proven to be an extremely valuable complement to the more usual transmission images. The linac and its associated segmented detector will provide an additional view with superior penetration and spatial resolution. The complete system, which is housed in two standard 40 ' ISO containers, is briefly described with emphasis on the installation and operating characteristics of the portable linac. The average rf power delivered by the magnetron to the accelerator section can be varied up to the maximum of about 1 kW. The projected system performance, including radiation dose to the environment, will be discussed and compared with other high energy systems

  7. The salvaging of the Mont Louis cargo ship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vastel, D.

    1985-01-01

    On Saturday the 25th of August 1984, at 2:20 P.M., the German car ferry Olau Britannia with 800 passengers aboard rammed the rear starboard side of the French cargo ship Mont Louis. The collision occurred in the English Channel at a point 18 kilometers north of Ostend. At 7:00 P.M. the Mont Louis sank to a depth of 15 meters at a distance of several miles by rail from Antwerp. Half the ship's hull lay uncovered at low tide. The cargo included 30 type 48-Y containers, each filled with 12 tons of UF 6 , and 22 empty type 30-B containers for return of the enriched uranium. The UF 6 was to be enriched to 4% in the Soviet Union for use as fuel in nuclear power plants. The table below details the nature of the UF 6 . After salvaging operation the containers have been inspected and no damage or leaks have been detected. The accident involved no risk of radioactive or chemical contamination of the sea water. The systematic misinformation campaign by Greenpeace and news media is briefly described. (orig./HP)

  8. 46 CFR 308.551 - War risk insurance clearing agency agreement for cargo, Form MA-321.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false War risk insurance clearing agency agreement for cargo... EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Cargo Insurance Iv-General § 308.551 War risk insurance... American War Risk Agency or MARAD. ...

  9. The GRIP1/14-3-3 pathway coordinates cargo trafficking and dendrite development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geiger, J.C.; Lipka, Joanna; Hoyer, S.; Schlager, M.A.; Wulf, Phebe; Weinges, S.; Demmers, J.; Hoogenraad, Casper

    2014-01-01

    Regulation of cargo transport via adaptor molecules is essential for neuronal development. However, the role of PDZ scaffolding proteins as adaptors in neuronal cargo trafficking is still poorly understood. Here, we show by genetic deletion in mice that the multi-PDZ domain scaffolding protein

  10. 46 CFR Table I to Part 150 - Alphabetical List of Cargoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... cargo name), see Caustic potash solution 5 2 CPS Potassium oleate 34 POE Potassium salt of polyolefin... Sodium polyacrylate solution 43 2 Sodium salt of Ferric hydroxyethylethylenediaminetriacetic acid... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alphabetical List of Cargoes I Table I to Part 150...

  11. 19 CFR 19.41 - Movement of containerized cargo to a container station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Movement of containerized cargo to a container station. 19.41 Section 19.41 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... THEREIN Container Stations § 19.41 Movement of containerized cargo to a container station. Containerized...

  12. Neutron interrogation system using high gamma ray signature to detect contraband special nuclear materials in cargo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaughter, Dennis R [Oakland, CA; Pohl, Bertram A [Berkeley, CA; Dougan, Arden D [San Ramon, CA; Bernstein, Adam [Palo Alto, CA; Prussin, Stanley G [Kensington, CA; Norman, Eric B [Oakland, CA

    2008-04-15

    A system for inspecting cargo for the presence of special nuclear material. The cargo is irradiated with neutrons. The neutrons produce fission products in the special nuclear material which generate gamma rays. The gamma rays are detecting indicating the presence of the special nuclear material.

  13. Scientific opinion on the evaluation of substances as acceptable previous cargoes for edible fats and oils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knutsen, Helle Katrine; Alexander, Jan; Barregård, Lars; Bignami, Margherita; Brüschweiler, Beat; Ceccatelli, Sandra; Cottrill, Bruce; Dinovi, Michael; Edler, Lutz; Hogstrand, Christer; Hoogenboom, L.A.P.; Nebbia, Carlo; Oswald, Isabelle; Petersen, Annette; Rose, Martin; Roudot, Alain-Claude; Schwerdtle, Tanja; Vollmer, Günter; Wallace, Heather; Grasl-Kraupp, Bettina; Grob, Konrad; Penninks, André; Binaglia, Marco; Roldán Torres, Ruth; Vleminckx, Christiane

    2017-01-01

    Shipping of edible fats and oils into Europe is permitted in bulk tanks, provided that the previous cargo is included in a positive list. The European Commission requested EFSA to evaluate the acceptability as previous cargoes for fats and oils the substances calcium lignosulphonate, methyl acetate,

  14. 14 CFR 25.858 - Cargo or baggage compartment smoke or fire detection systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... detection systems. 25.858 Section 25.858 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... Construction Fire Protection § 25.858 Cargo or baggage compartment smoke or fire detection systems. If... must be met for each cargo or baggage compartment with those provisions: (a) The detection system must...

  15. 46 CFR 308.545 - Facultative cargo policy, Form MA-316.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Facultative cargo policy, Form MA-316. 308.545 Section 308.545 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK... policy, Form MA-316. The standard form of War Risk Facultative Cargo Policy, Form MA-316, may be obtained...

  16. Local synaptic signaling enhances the stochastic transport of motor-driven cargo in neurons

    KAUST Repository

    Newby, Jay; Bressloff, Paul C

    2010-01-01

    The tug-of-war model of motor-driven cargo transport is formulated as an intermittent trapping process. An immobile trap, representing the cellular machinery that sequesters a motor-driven cargo for eventual use, is located somewhere within a

  17. 77 FR 6135 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Cargo Manifest/Declaration, Stow Plan, Container Status...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-07

    ... Activities: Cargo Manifest/ Declaration, Stow Plan, Container Status Messages and Importer Security Filing... the Paperwork Reduction Act: Cargo Manifest/Declaration, Stow Plan, Container Status Messages and.../Declaration, Stow Plan, Container Status Messages and Importer Security Filing. OMB Number: 1651-0001. Form...

  18. Molecular sleds comprising a positively -charged amino acid sequence and a molecular cargo and uses thereof

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mangel, F Walter; Blainey, Paul C; Graziano, Vito; Herrmann, Andreas; McGrath, William J; van Oijen, Antonius Martinus; Xie, Xiaoliang Sunney

    2014-01-01

    The present invention relates to compositions which may comprise a molecular sled linked to cargo and uses thereof. In particular, the present invention relates to a non-naturally occurring or engineered composition which may comprise a molecular sled, linkers and a molecular cargo connected to the

  19. 29 CFR Appendix III to Part 1918 - The Mechanics of Conventional Cargo Gear (Non-mandatory)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false The Mechanics of Conventional Cargo Gear (Non-mandatory.... 1918, App. III Appendix III to Part 1918—The Mechanics of Conventional Cargo Gear (Non-mandatory) Note: This appendix is non-mandatory and provides an explanation of the mechanics in the correct spotting of...

  20. Right of innocent passage of ships carrying ultra-hazardous cargoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sousa Ferro, M.

    2006-01-01

    The analysis carried out in this paper suggests that coastal states would probably fail to persuade an international tribunal of the existence of the right to deny passage of ships carrying ultra-hazardous cargoes through their territorial seas, much less through their exclusive economic zones. The same applies to the obligation to provide (or right to require) prior notification of such passage. This may partly explain why no international litigation concerning these issues has so far taken place, even though there have been a number of conflicts between coastal states and shipping states, widely published in the media. Still, evidence suggests that officers at the head of authorities in several coastal states, often non legal experts, firmly believe in the existence of these rights and obligations, at least insofar as concerns the territorial sea; The gap between the law and practice seems to be widening. At the same time, several states are clearly pursuing a policy of pushing for an evolution of customary law, either by claiming that this evolution has already taken place, or that the letter of this or that treaty already allows for claims. It would not be surprising if this strategy should succeed eventually. For the time being, however, one must not be too hasty to confuse diplomatic concessions with an evolution of the law. (author)

  1. Analysis of Thermal Behavior in a Cargo Hold of LILW Transport Ship

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Unjang; Kim, Dohyung; Lee, Dongkyu; Choi, Kyusup [Korea Nuclear Engineering and Service Corporation, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    With determining Kyongju as a repository site for the low and intermediate-level radioactive waste (LILW), it is time to decide transportation method to bring the waste from NPPs (Nuclear Power Plants) to the site. Now considering transport ship as an alternative, it is important to design cargo compartments in the ship. Especially, it is necessary to ensure thermal criteria in the cargo hold by using natural or forced convection. According to INF Code, there is addressed a technical standard of the cargo that adequate ventilation or refrigeration of enclosed cargo spaces shall be provided so that the average ambient temperature within such spaces does not exceed 55 .deg. C at any time. And many counties which operate LILW transport ships are conformable to the standard, and Ministry of Maritime Affairs and Fisheries of Korea also follows it. In this article analytical study of ventilation system in a cargo hold shows to keep the temperature below 55 .deg. C or not.

  2. 9 CFR 3.15 - Primary conveyances (motor vehicle, rail, air, and marine).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Primary conveyances (motor vehicle, rail, air, and marine). 3.15 Section 3.15 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... conveyances (motor vehicle, rail, air, and marine). (a) The animal cargo space of primary conveyances used to...

  3. 9 CFR 3.138 - Primary conveyances (motor vehicle, rail, air, and marine).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Primary conveyances (motor vehicle, rail, air, and marine). 3.138 Section 3.138 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... (motor vehicle, rail, air, and marine). (a) The animal cargo space of primary conveyances used in...

  4. 9 CFR 3.88 - Primary conveyances (motor vehicle, rail, air, and marine).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Primary conveyances (motor vehicle, rail, air, and marine). 3.88 Section 3.88 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... conveyances (motor vehicle, rail, air, and marine). (a) The animal cargo space of primary conveyances used to...

  5. 9 CFR 3.62 - Primary conveyances (motor vehicle, rail, air, and marine).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Primary conveyances (motor vehicle, rail, air, and marine). 3.62 Section 3.62 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... (motor vehicle, rail, air, and marine). (a) The animal cargo space of primary conveyances used in...

  6. 9 CFR 3.37 - Primary conveyances (motor vehicle, rail, air, and marine).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Primary conveyances (motor vehicle, rail, air, and marine). 3.37 Section 3.37 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... conveyances (motor vehicle, rail, air, and marine). (a) The animal cargo space of primary conveyances used in...

  7. Column generation approaches to ship scheduling with flexible cargo sizes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønmo, Geir; Nygreen, Bjørn; Lysgaard, Jens

    2010-01-01

    consequences for the times used in the ports because both the loading and unloading times depend on the cargo sizes. We found it computationally hard to find exact solutions to the subproblems, so our method does not guarantee to find the optimum over all solutions. To be able to say something about how good...... our solution is, we generate a bound on the difference between the true optimal objective and the objective in our solution. We have compared our method with an a priori column generation approach, and our computational experiments on real world cases show that our Dantzig-Wolfe approach is faster...... than the a priori generation of columns, and we are able to deal with larger or more loosely constrained instances. By using the techniques introduced in this paper, a more extensive set of real world cases can be solved either to optimality or within a small deviation from optimality....

  8. Megavoltage cargo radiography with dual energy material decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shikhaliev, Polad M.

    2018-02-01

    Megavoltage (MV) radiography has important applications in imaging large cargos for detecting illicit materials. A useful feature of MV radiography is the possibility of decomposing and quantifying materials with different atomic numbers. This can be achieved by imaging cargo at two different X-ray energies, or dual energy (DE) radiography. The performance of both single energy and DE radiography depends on beam energy, beam filtration, radiation dose, object size, and object content. The purpose of this work was to perform comprehensive qualitative and quantitative investigations of the image quality in MV radiography depending on the above parameters. A digital phantom was designed including Fe background with thicknesses of 2cm, 6cm, and 18cm, and materials samples of Polyethylene, Fe, Pb, and U. The single energy images were generated at x-ray beam energies 3.5MV, 6MV, and 9MV. The DE material decomposed images were generated using interlaced low and high energy beams 3.5/6MV and 6/9MV. The X-ray beams were filtered by low-Z (Polyethylene) and high-Z (Pb) filters with variable thicknesses. The radiation output of the accelerator was kept constant for all beam energies. The image quality metrics was signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the particular sample over a particular background. It was found that the SNR depends on the above parameters in a complex way, but can be optimized by selecting a particular set of parameters. For some imaging setups increased filter thicknesses, while strongly absorbing the beams, increased the SNR of material decomposed images. Beam hardening due to polyenergetic x-ray spectra resulted in material decomposition errors, but this could be addressed using region of interest decomposition. It was shown that it is not feasible to separate the materials with close atomic numbers using the DE method. Particularly, Pb and U were difficult to decompose, at least at the dose levels allowed by radiation source and safety requirements.

  9. 46 CFR 35.30-10 - Cargo tank hatches, ullage holes, and Butterworth plates-TB/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo tank hatches, ullage holes, and Butterworth plates... OPERATIONS General Safety Rules § 35.30-10 Cargo tank hatches, ullage holes, and Butterworth plates—TB/ALL. No cargo tank hatches, ullage holes, or Butterworth plates shall be opened or shall remain open...

  10. Air Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's air research provides the critical science to develop and implement outdoor air regulations under the Clean Air Act and puts new tools and information in the hands of air quality managers and regulators to protect the air we breathe.

  11. The Development of Jomo Kenyatta International Airport as a Regional Aviation Hub

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irandu, Evaristus M.; Rhoades, Dawna L.

    2006-01-01

    Air transportation plays an important role in the social and economic development of the global system and the countries that seek to participate in it. As Africa seeks to take its place in the global economy, it is increasingly looking to aviation as the primary means of connecting its people and goods with the world. It has been suggested that Africa as a continent needs to move toward a system of hubs to optimize its scarce resources. Jomo Kenyatta International Airport in Nairobi, Kenya, is one of the airports in the eastern region of Africa that is seeking to fill this role. This paper discusses the prospects for success and the challenges that it will need to overcome, including projections through 2020 for the growth in passenger and cargo traffic.

  12. Analysis of the crush environment for lightweight air-transportable accident-resistant containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClure, J.D.; Hartman, W.F.

    1981-12-01

    This report describes the longitudinal dynamic crush environment for a Lightweight Air-Transportable Accident-Resistant Container (LAARC, now called PAT-2) that can be used to transport small quantities of radioactive material. The analysis of the crush environment involves evaluation of the forces imposed upon the LAARC package during the crash of a large, heavily loaded, cargo aircraft. To perform the analysis, a cargo load column was defined which consisted of a longitudinal prism of cargo of cross-sectional area equal to the projected area of the radioactive-material package and length equal to the longitudinal extent of the cargo compartment in a commercial cargo jet aircraft. To bound the problem, two analyses of the cargo load column were performed, a static stability analysis and a dynamic analysis. The results of these analyses can be applied to other packaging designs and suggest that the physical limits or magnitude of the longitudinal crush forces, which are controlled in part by the yield strength of the cargo and the package size, are much smaller than previously estimated

  13. ATMOSPHERE PROTECTION IN CASE OF EMERGENCY DURING TRANSPORTATION OF DANGEROUS CARGO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Berlov

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The paper highlights the development of numerical models for prediction of atmospheric pollution in case of burning of the solid rocket propellant in a railway car, situated near the building on railway territory. These models can be used in predicting the effectiveness of neutralization upon the atmosphere protection for this type of accidents. Methodology.To solve this problem the numerical models based on the use of Navier-Stokes equations, to determine the velocity field of the wind flow near cars and buildings, and contaminants-transfer equations in the atmosphere were developed. For the numerical integration of pollutant transport equation was used implicit «change – triangle» difference scheme. When constructing a difference scheme physical and geometric cleavage of the transfer equation is carried out in four steps. Unknown value of pollutant concentration at each step of cleavage is determined by the explicit scheme – the method of «point-to-point computation». For the numerical integration of the Navier-Stokes equations are used implicit difference schemes. When carrying out computing experiment also takes into account: the velocity profile of wind flow; interaction between the building and the wind flow and flame jet of solid rocket propellant; the presence of a railroad car; inside which there is a source of pollution; instability of pollutant emissions. On the basis of constructed numerical models was performed the computer experiment for assessing the level of air pollution at dangerous cargo rail transportation in case of emergency at railway territory.The application calculations for the timely combustion products neutralization of solid rocket propellant were carried out. Findings. The numerical models that let promptly calculate air contamination in case of emergency during solid rocket propellant transportation, as well as calculate the rational parameters of pollutant neutralization process were developed by

  14. Pharmaceutical micelles featured with singlet oxygen-responsive cargo release and mitochondrial targeting for enhanced photodynamic therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin; Yan, Qi; Naer Mulatihan, Di; Zhu, Jundong; Fan, Aiping; Wang, Zheng; Zhao, Yanjun

    2018-06-01

    The efficacy of nanoparticulate photodynamic therapy is often compromised by the short life time and limited diffusion radius of singlet oxygen as well as uncontrolled intracellular distribution of photosensitizer. It was hypothesized that rapid photosensitizer release upon nanoparticle internalization and its preferred accumulation in mitochondria would address the above problems. Hence, the aim of this study was to engineer a multifunctional micellar nanosystem featured with singlet oxygen-responsive cargo release and mitochondria-targeting. An imidazole-bearing amphiphilic copolymer was employed as the micelle building block to encapsulate triphenylphosphonium-pyropheophorbide a (TPP-PPa) conjugate or PPa. Upon laser irradiation, the singlet oxygen produced by TPP-PPa/PPa oxidized the imidazole moiety to produce hydrophilic urea, leading to micelle disassembly and rapid cargo release. The co-localization analysis showed that the TPP moiety significantly enhanced the photosensitizer uptake by mitochondria, improved mitochondria depolarization upon irradiation, and hence boosted the cytotoxicity in 4T1 cells. The targeting strategy also dramatically reduced the intracellular ATP concentration as a consequence of mitochondria injury. The mitochondria damage was accompanied with the activation of the apoptosis signals (caspase 3 and caspase 9), whose level was directly correlated to the apoptosis extent. The current work provides a facile and robust means to enhance the efficacy of photodynamic therapy.

  15. Air Cargo Development in the Regional Airports of the Baltic Sea Region Through Road Feeder Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beifert Anatoli

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available As issued in the Competition Policy Brief on the new state aid rules for a competitive aviation industry by the Competition Directorate-General of the European Commission in February 20141, it will be more difficult for unprofitable airports, to obtain financial public subsidies on EU, national or regional level. Although the positive impact of small airports on the regional development and general accessibility was mentioned, still the operating aid to the airports shall be cut out over a maximum of 10 years. It has been further stated that the vast majority of small and regional airports experience problems to cover their running operative costs, as a result from an intensive market competition and overlapping of airports’ catchment areas preventing even some promising airports from growth. Public subsidies are mostly used by the airport management for infrastructural investments, to cover operating losses or to attract price-sensitive airlines. Herewith, among other things, the EU Commission is pointing out at the lack of cooperation structures and network strategies among the regional airports and at rather isolated and individual approach during elaboration of the airport development scenarios. However, the Competition Policy Brief permits public aid to regional airports, among other things if there is sufficient transports need to establish transition periods for small airports; the need for more flexibility of the regional airports in the remote areas has been underlined. The EU Commission is expecting herewith not to close the regional airports, but to stimulate them to operate on cost efficient and profitable basis, and that only the most inefficient airports will be closed.

  16. 14 CFR 291.45 - BTS Schedule T-100, U.S. Air Carrier Traffic and Capacity Data by Nonstop Segment and On-Flight...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false BTS Schedule T-100, U.S. Air Carrier... CARGO OPERATIONS IN INTERSTATE AIR TRANSPORTATION Reporting Rules § 291.45 BTS Schedule T-100, U.S. Air... questions about reporting a joint-service operation, contact the BTS Assistant Director—Airline Information...

  17. Stereo imaging and random array stratified imaging for cargo radiation inspecting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jingjin; Zeng Yu

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a Stereo Imaging and Random Array Stratified Imaging for cargo container radiation Inspecting. By using dual-line vertical detector array scan, a stereo image of inspected cargo can be obtained and watched with virtual reality view. The random detector array has only one-row of detectors but distributed in a certain horizontal dimension randomly. To scan a cargo container with this random array detector, a 'defocused' image is obtained. By using 'anti-random focusing', one layer of the image can be focused on the background of all defocused images from other layers. A stratified X-ray image of overlapped bike wheels is presented

  18. A plume-in-grid approach to characterize air quality impacts of aircraft emissions at the Hartsfield–Jackson Atlanta International Airport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Rissman

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the impacts of aircraft emissions during the landing and takeoff cycle on PM2.5 concentrations during the months of June and July 2002 at the Hartsfield–Jackson Atlanta International Airport. Primary and secondary pollutants were modeled using the Advanced Modeling System for Transport, Emissions, Reactions, and Deposition of Atmospheric Matter (AMSTERDAM. AMSTERDAM is a modified version of the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ model that incorporates a plume-in-grid process to simulate emissions sources of interest at a finer scale than can be achieved using CMAQ's model grid. Three fundamental issues were investigated: the effects of aircraft on PM2.5 concentrations throughout northern Georgia, the differences resulting from use of AMSTERDAM's plume-in-grid process rather than a traditional CMAQ simulation, and the concentrations observed in aircraft plumes at subgrid scales. Comparison of model results with an air quality monitor located in the vicinity of the airport found that normalized mean bias ranges from −77.5% to 6.2% and normalized mean error ranges from 40.4% to 77.5%, varying by species. Aircraft influence average PM2.5 concentrations by up to 0.232 μg m−3 near the airport and by 0.001–0.007 μg m−3 throughout the Atlanta metro area. The plume-in-grid process increases concentrations of secondary PM pollutants by 0.005–0.020 μg m−3 (compared to the traditional grid-based treatment but reduces the concentration of non-reactive primary PM pollutants by up to 0.010 μg m−3, with changes concentrated near the airport. Examination of subgrid-scale results indicates that median aircraft contribution to grid cells is higher than median puff concentration in the airport's grid cell and outside of a 20 km × 20 km square area centered on the airport, while in a 12 km × 12 km square ring centered on the airport, puffs have median concentrations over an order of magnitude higher than aircraft

  19. 22 CFR 228.22 - Air transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Air transportation. 228.22 Section 228.22... for USAID Financing § 228.22 Air transportation. (a) The eligibility of air transportation is... U.S. flag air carriers for all international air travel and transportation, unless such service is...

  20. Work Plan for the Evaluation of Soil Vapor Extraction Using Internal Combustion Engine Technology at Site SS-42 Luke Air Force Base, Arizona

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1996-01-01

    ...). Luke AFB is one of several Air Force installations identified as prospective test sites to demonstrate the ICE system with advanced emission controls as part of a low-cost soil vapor extraction (SVE...

  1. Advanced Solar-propelled Cargo Spacecraft for Mars Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auziasdeturenne, Jacqueline; Beall, Mark; Burianek, Joseph; Cinniger, Anna; Dunmire, Barbrina; Haberman, Eric; Iwamoto, James; Johnson, Stephen; Mccracken, Shawn; Miller, Melanie

    1989-01-01

    Three concepts for an unmanned, solar powered, cargo spacecraft for Mars support missions were investigated. These spacecraft are designed to carry a 50,000 kg payload from a low Earth orbit to a low Mars orbit. Each design uses a distinctly different propulsion system: A Solar Radiation Absorption (SRA) system, a Solar-Pumped Laser (SPL) system and a solar powered magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) arc system. The SRA directly converts solar energy to thermal energy in the propellant through a novel process. In the SPL system, a pair of solar-pumped, multi-megawatt, CO2 lasers in sunsynchronous Earth orbit converts solar energy to laser energy. The MPD system used indium phosphide solar cells to convert sunlight to electricity, which powers the propulsion system. Various orbital transfer options are examined for these concepts. In the SRA system, the mother ship transfers the payload into a very high Earth orbit and a small auxiliary propulsion system boosts the payload into a Hohmann transfer to Mars. The SPL spacecraft and the SPL powered spacecraft return to Earth for subsequent missions. The MPD propelled spacecraft, however, remains at Mars as an orbiting space station. A patched conic approximation was used to determine a heliocentric interplanetary transfer orbit for the MPD propelled spacecraft. All three solar-powered spacecraft use an aerobrake procedure to place the payload into a low Mars parking orbit. The payload delivery times range from 160 days to 873 days (2.39 years).

  2. Simulation for assessment of bulk cargo berths number

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsov, A. L.; Kirichenko, A. V.; Slitsan, A. E.

    2017-10-01

    The world trade volumes of mineral resources have been growing constantly for decades, notwithstanding any economical crises. At the same time, the proximity of the bulk materials as products to the starting point of the integrated value added or logistic supply chain makes their unit price relatively low. This fact automatically causes a strong economic sensitivity of the supply chain to the level of operational expenses in every link. The core of the integrated logistic supply chain is its maritime segment, with the fleet and terminals (i.e. the cargo transportation system) serving as the base platform for it. In its turn, the terminal berths play a role of the interface between the fleet and the land-transportation sub-system. Current development of the maritime transportation technologies, ships and terminal specialization, vessel size growth, rationalization of route patterns, regionalization of trade etc., has made conventional calculation methods inadequate. The solution of the problem is in using object oriented simulation. At the same time, this approch usually assumes only ad hoc models. Thus, it does not provide the generality of its conventional analytical predecessors. The time and labor consumpting procedure of simulation results in a very narrow application domain of the model. This article describes a new simulation instrument, combining the generality of the analytical technoques with the efficiency of the object-oriented simulation. The approach implemented as a software module, which validity and adequacy are proved. The software was tested on several sea terminal design projects and confirmed its efficiency.

  3. The complex network of global cargo ship movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaluza, Pablo; Kölzsch, Andrea; Gastner, Michael T; Blasius, Bernd

    2010-07-06

    Transportation networks play a crucial role in human mobility, the exchange of goods and the spread of invasive species. With 90 per cent of world trade carried by sea, the global network of merchant ships provides one of the most important modes of transportation. Here, we use information about the itineraries of 16 363 cargo ships during the year 2007 to construct a network of links between ports. We show that the network has several features that set it apart from other transportation networks. In particular, most ships can be classified into three categories: bulk dry carriers, container ships and oil tankers. These three categories do not only differ in the ships' physical characteristics, but also in their mobility patterns and networks. Container ships follow regularly repeating paths whereas bulk dry carriers and oil tankers move less predictably between ports. The network of all ship movements possesses a heavy-tailed distribution for the connectivity of ports and for the loads transported on the links with systematic differences between ship types. The data analysed in this paper improve current assumptions based on gravity models of ship movements, an important step towards understanding patterns of global trade and bioinvasion.

  4. Distinct cargo-specific response landscapes underpin the complex and nuanced role of galectin-glycan interactions in clathrin-independent endocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, Mohit P; Donaldson, Julie G

    2018-05-11

    Clathrin-independent endocytosis (CIE) is a form of endocytosis that lacks a defined cytoplasmic machinery. Here, we asked whether glycan interactions, acting from the outside, could be a part of that endocytic machinery. We show that the perturbation of global cellular patterns of protein glycosylation by modulation of metabolic flux affects CIE. Interestingly, these changes in glycosylation had cargo-specific effects. For example, in HeLa cells, GlcNAc treatment, which increases glycan branching, increased major histocompatibility complex class I (MHCI) internalization but inhibited CIE of the glycoprotein CD59 molecule (CD59). The effects of knocking down the expression of galectin 3, a carbohydrate-binding protein and an important player in galectin-glycan interactions, were also cargo-specific and stimulated CD59 uptake. By contrast, inhibition of all galectin-glycan interactions by lactose inhibited CIE of both MHCI and CD59. None of these treatments affected clathrin-mediated endocytosis, implying that glycosylation changes specifically affect CIE. We also found that the galectin lattice tailors membrane fluidity and cell spreading. Furthermore, changes in membrane dynamics mediated by the galectin lattice affected macropinocytosis, an altered form of CIE, in HT1080 cells. Our results suggest that glycans play an important and nuanced role in CIE, with each cargo being affected uniquely by alterations in galectin and glycan profiles and their interactions. We conclude that galectin-driven effects exist on a continuum from stimulatory to inhibitory, with distinct CIE cargo proteins having unique response landscapes and with different cell types starting at different positions on these conceptual landscapes.

  5. Electrostatic assembly/disassembly of nanoscaled colloidosomes for light-triggered cargo release

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Song; Moosa, Basem; Croissant, Jonas G.; Khashab, Niveen M.

    2015-01-01

    the capsules, and greatly limits their applications in large-cargos release. Herein we report nanoscaled colloidosomes designed by the electrostatic assembly of organosilica nanoparticles (NPs) with oppositely charged surfaces (rather than covalent bonds

  6. Safety evaluation for packaging 222-S laboratory cargo tank for onetime type B material shipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, P.M.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this Safety Evaluation for Packaging (SEP) is to evaluate and document the safety of the onetime shipment of bulk radioactive liquids in the 222-S Laboratory cargo tank (222-S cargo tank). The 222-S cargo tank is a US Department of Transportation (DOT) MC-312 specification (DOT 1989) cargo tank, vehicle registration number HO-64-04275, approved for low specific activity (LSA) shipments in accordance with the DOT Title 49, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR). In accordance with the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (RL) Order 5480.1A, Chapter III (RL 1988), an equivalent degree of safety shall be provided for onsite shipments as would be afforded by the DOT shipping regulations for a radioactive material package. This document demonstrates that this packaging system meets the onsite transportation safety criteria for a onetime shipment of Type B contents

  7. Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air pollution is a mixture of solid particles and gases in the air. Car emissions, chemicals from factories, ... Ozone, a gas, is a major part of air pollution in cities. When ozone forms air pollution, it's ...

  8. Civil Air Patrol Proposed Agreements With the Air Force Are Intended to Address Identified Problems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2000-01-01

    The Air Force and Civil Air Patrol relationship is usually cooperative. The Air Force includes the Patrol in its internal budget process to determine what the Patrol needs and how much money will be available to support the Patrol...

  9. Opening Address (by A.M. Bomben) [IRPA12: 12. Congress of the International Radiation Protection Association: Strengthening Radiation Protection Worldwide - Highlights, Global Perspective and Future Trends, Buenos Aires, Argentina, 19-24 October 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bomben, A.M.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Dear colleagues from all over the world. Welcome to Argentina. Welcome to Buenos Aires. Welcome to IRPA12. On behalf of the Argentine Radiation Protection Society (SAR), I would like to share with you the story of a dream that came true. Ten years ago, a few dedicated Argentine scientists started dreaming of having an IRPA International Congress in Argentina - the first time in Latin America. At the IRPA International Congress in Hiroshima, an informal presentation was made, which was only supported by SAR and encouraged by IRPA. There was already a bid for the IRPA International Congress in Madrid, strongly supported by the Argentine Government, through the Minister of Foreign Affairs, the Government of the City of Buenos Aires and national academic institutions. At that moment, many countries supported our proposal, sharing with us our dream. We worked very hard in these four years, but we were not alone. The strong support of authorities and staff of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority in Argentina was essential in the organization of IRPA12. Around the world, the cooperation of the International Atomic Energy Agency, the Pan-American Health Organization and the World Health Organization was also fundamental for fulfilment our dream. I would like to mention each of the national and international institutions and colleagues that are supporting IRPA12 with their work, with their funds or with their sponsorship, but there are so many! So, many thanks to all the national and international institutions that are supporting IRPA12; many, many thanks to all the Argentine colleagues and colleagues from all over the world of the different IRPA12 committees, and especially many thanks to all the authorities and colleagues who are here today, with us, sharing this IRPA12 and making real the motto of the Congress: Strengthening Radiation Protection Worldwide. Many thanks and welcome. (author)

  10. Crystal Structures of the Tetratricopeptide Repeat Domains of Kinesin Light Chains: Insight into Cargo Recognition Mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Haizhong; Lee, Han Youl; Tong, Yufeng; Hong, Bum-Soo; Kim, Kyung-Phil; Shen, Yang; Lim, Kyung Jik; Mackenzie, Farrell; Tempel, Wolfram; Park, Hee-Won (SGC-Toronto); (PPCS); (Toronto)

    2012-10-23

    Kinesin-1 transports various cargos along the axon by interacting with the cargos through its light chain subunit. Kinesin light chains (KLC) utilize its tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) domain to interact with over 10 different cargos. Despite a high sequence identity between their TPR domains (87%), KLC1 and KLC2 isoforms exhibit differential binding properties towards some cargos. We determined the structures of human KLC1 and KLC2 tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) domains using X-ray crystallography and investigated the different mechanisms by which KLCs interact with their cargos. Using isothermal titration calorimetry, we attributed the specific interaction between KLC1 and JNK-interacting protein 1 (JIP1) cargo to residue N343 in the fourth TRP repeat. Structurally, the N343 residue is adjacent to other asparagines and lysines, creating a positively charged polar patch within the groove of the TPR domain. Whereas, KLC2 with the corresponding residue S328 did not interact with JIP1. Based on these finding, we propose that N343 of KLC1 can form 'a carboxylate clamp' with its neighboring asparagine to interact with JIP1, similar to that of HSP70/HSP90 organizing protein-1's (HOP1) interaction with heat shock proteins. For the binding of cargos shared by KLC1 and KLC2, we propose a different site located within the groove but not involving N343. We further propose a third binding site on KLC1 which involves a stretch of polar residues along the inter-TPR loops that may form a network of hydrogen bonds to JIP3 and JIP4. Together, these results provide structural insights into possible mechanisms of interaction between KLC TPR domains and various cargo proteins.

  11. Research on combination forecast of port cargo throughput based on time series and causality analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi Zhang

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to develop a combined model composed of grey-forecast model and Logistic-growth-curve model to improve the accuracy of forecast model of cargo throughput for the port. The authors also use the existing data of a current port to verify the validity of the combined model.Design/methodology/approach: A literature review is undertaken to find the appropriate forecast model of cargo throughput for the port. Through researching the related forecast model, the authors put together the individual models which are significant to study further. Finally, the authors combine two individual models (grey-forecast model and Logistic-growth-curve model into one combined model to forecast the port cargo throughput, and use the model to a physical port in China to testify the validity of the model.Findings: Test by the perceptional data of cargo throughput in the physical port, the results show that the combined model can obtain relatively higher forecast accuracy when it is not easy to find more information. Furthermore, the forecast made by the combined model are more accurate than any of the individual ones.Research limitations/implications: The study provided a new combined forecast model of cargo throughput with a relatively less information to improve the accuracy rate of the forecast. The limitation of the model is that it requires the cargo throughput of the port have an S-shaped change trend.Practical implications: This model is not limited by external conditions such as geographical, cultural. This model predicted the port cargo throughput of one real port in China in 2015, which provided some instructive guidance for the port development.Originality/value: This is the one of the study to improve the accuracy rate of the cargo throughput forecast with little information.

  12. Flashback Flame Arrester Devices for Fuel Cargo Tank Vapor Vents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-03-01

    821711ff’erent fuiel/air mixtures: t pr duca-e f-ames with speedis representative :’ th ’se Or cc fuels that c, aid be carried as bulk car , ab atar -i typical...F w Physical Chemistry , Vol. ,o8, pp. 7-101h, 1977. 1 9 . PAPA/Lewis Research Stafl’, Ba.; i(’ si de tr irot tos ’ ly,]rocarbon Fuels with Air, NACA

  13. Improving customs’ border control by creating a reference database of cargo inspection X-ray images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selina Kolokytha

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Countries’ effective and efficient border security is becoming increasingly important in today’s global world of economy and trade. To ensure these, customs organisations are responsible for the prevention of illicit goods’ transportation across borders, particularly upon entry. The predicament of the customs administrations will soon be aggravated by both the increase of global trade and the trend towards 100% screening. It is therefore a goal to advance inspection methods to enable successful cargo handling, a scope towards which this research was aimed at. This work was carried out as part of the project ACXIS “Automated Comparison of X-ray Images for cargo Scanning” a European research project within the seventh framework programme answering the call SEC-2012.3.4-1: « Research on Automated Comparison of X-ray Images for cargo Scanning », to improve the process with the largest impact to trade flow: the procedures of freight X-ray scanning. As such, this project was focused on to implementing a manufacturer independent reference database for X-ray images of illicit and non-illicit cargo, developing procedures and algorithms in order to uniform X-ray images of different cargo scanners, and developing a training simulator for inspection officers and a toolbox enclosing several assisted and automated identification techniques for potentially illicit cargo.

  14. Nonlinear roll damping of a barge with and without liquid cargo in spherical tanks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenhua Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Damping plays a significant role on the maximum amplitude of a vessel's roll motion, in particular near the resonant frequency. It is a common practice to predict roll damping using a linear radiation–diffraction code and add that to a linearized viscous damping component, which can be obtained through empirical, semi-empirical equations or free decay tests in calm water. However, it is evident that the viscous roll damping is nonlinear with roll velocity and amplitude. Nonlinear liquid cargo motions inside cargo tanks also contribute to roll damping, which when ignored impedes the accurate prediction of maximum roll motions. In this study, a series of free decay model tests is conducted on a barge-like vessel with two spherical tanks, which allows a better understanding of the nonlinear roll damping components considering the effects of the liquid cargo motion. To examine the effects of the cargo motion on the damping levels, a nonlinear model is adopted to calculate the damping coefficients. The liquid cargo motion is observed to affect both the linear and the quadratic components of the roll damping. The flow memory effect on the roll damping is also studied. The nonlinear damping coefficients of the vessel with liquid cargo motions in spherical tanks are obtained, which are expected to contribute in configurations involving spherical tanks.

  15. Towards the year 2000: Critical issues in the global environment. A summary of the 9th World Clean Air Congress of the International Union of Air Pollution Prevention Associations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rector, A.B.

    1992-01-01

    The global impact of environmental issues, such as sustainable development, technology transfer North to South and the link between economics and environmental protection, was a central theme at the 9th World Clean Air Congress. The Congress supported increased cooperation among individuals, organizations, governments and companies by providing a forum to share environmental concerns and problem-solving approaches

  16. 76 FR 8658 - Bulk Solid Hazardous Materials: Harmonization With the International Maritime Solid Bulk Cargoes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-15

    ... CONTACT: If you have questions about this document, contact Mr. Richard Bornhorst at 202-372-1426 or [email protected] . If you have questions about viewing the docket (USCG-2009-0091), call Ms... AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Rule; information collection approval. SUMMARY: On October 19, 2010...

  17. 75 FR 64585 - Bulk Solid Hazardous Materials: Harmonization With the International Maritime Solid Bulk Cargoes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-19

    ...), U.S. Department of Transportation, West Building Ground Floor, Room W12-140, 1200 New Jersey Avenue... is categorically excluded under section 2.B.2, figure 2-1, paragraphs (34)(a) and (d) of the... followed after unloading. 148.115 Report of incidents. Subpart D--Stowage and Segregation 148.120 Stowage...

  18. 75 FR 34573 - Bulk Solid Hazardous Materials: Harmonization With the International Maritime Solid Bulk Cargoes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-17

    ... reduced iron (DRI) as briquettes molded at a temperature of 650 [deg]C or higher that have a density of 5... temperature of 650 [deg]C or higher or had a density of 5.0 g/cm[sup3] or greater. In this proposed rule, we... bulk materials of Hazard Classes 4 through 9. c. One comment recommended that a DCM be required for...

  19. Large area x-ray detectors for cargo radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno, C.; Albagli, D.; Bendahan, J.; Castleberry, D.; Gordon, C.; Hopkins, F.; Ross, W.

    2007-04-01

    Large area x-ray detectors based on phosphors coupled to flat panel amorphous silicon diode technology offer significant advances for cargo radiologic imaging. Flat panel area detectors provide large object coverage offering high throughput inspections to meet the high flow rate of container commerce. These detectors provide excellent spatial resolution when needed, and enhanced SNR through low noise electronics. If the resolution is reduced through pixel binning, further advances in SNR are achievable. Extended exposure imaging and frame averaging enables improved x-ray penetration of ultra-thick objects, or "select-your-own" contrast sensitivity at a rate many times faster than LDAs. The areal coverage of flat panel technology provides inherent volumetric imaging with the appropriate scanning methods. Flat panel area detectors have flexible designs in terms of electronic control, scintillator selection, pixel pitch, and frame rates. Their cost is becoming more competitive as production ramps up for the healthcare, nondestructive testing (NDT), and homeland protection industries. Typically used medical and industrial polycrystalline phosphor materials such as Gd2O2S:Tb (GOS) can be applied to megavolt applications if the phosphor layer is sufficiently thick to enhance x-ray absorption, and if a metal radiator is used to augment the quantum detection efficiency and reduce x-ray scatter. Phosphor layers ranging from 0.2-mm to 1-mm can be "sandwiched" between amorphous silicon flat panel diode arrays and metal radiators. Metal plates consisting of W, Pb or Cu, with thicknesses ranging from 0.25-mm to well over 1-mm can be used by covering the entire area of the phosphor plate. In some combinations of high density metal and phosphor layers, the metal plate provides an intensification of 25% in signal due to electron emission from the plate and subsequent excitation within the phosphor material. This further improves the SNR of the system.

  20. AICE Survey of USSR Air Pollution Literature, Volume 13: Technical Papers from the Leningrad International Symposium on the Meteorological Aspects of Atmospheric Pollution, Part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuttonson, M. Y., Ed.

    Twelve papers were translated from Russian: Automation of Information Processing Involved in Experimental Studies of Atmospheric Diffusion, Micrometeorological Characteristics of Atmospheric Pollution Conditions, Study of theInfluence of Irregularities of the Earth's Surface on the Air Flow Characteristics in a Wind Tunnel, Use of Parameters of…