WorldWideScience

Sample records for internally contracted multireference

  1. Comparison of fully internally and strongly contracted multireference configuration interaction procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivalingam, Kantharuban; Krupicka, Martin; Auer, Alexander A.; Neese, Frank

    2016-08-01

    Multireference (MR) methods occupy an important class of approaches in quantum chemistry. In many instances, for example, in studying complex magnetic properties of transition metal complexes, they are actually the only physically satisfactory choice. In traditional MR approaches, single and double excitations are performed with respect to all reference configurations (or configuration state functions, CSFs), which leads to an explosive increase of computational cost for larger reference spaces. This can be avoided by the internal contraction scheme proposed by Meyer and Siegbahn, which effectively reduces the number of wavefunction parameters to their single-reference counterpart. The "fully internally contracted" scheme (FIC) is well known from the popular CASPT2 approach. An even shorter expansion of the wavefunction is possible with the "strong contraction" (SC) scheme proposed by Angeli and Malrieu in their NEVPT2 approach. Promising multireference configuration interaction formulations (MRCI) employing internal contraction and strong contraction have been reported by several authors. In this work, we report on the implementation of the FIC-MRCI and SC-MRCI methodologies, using a computer assisted implementation strategy. The methods are benchmarked against the traditional uncontracted MRCI approach for ground and excited states of small molecules (N2, O2, CO, CO+, OH, CH, and CN). For ground states, the comparison includes the "partially internally contracted" MRCI based on the Celani-Werner ansatz (PC-MRCI). For the three contraction schemes, the average errors range from 2% to 6% of the uncontracted MRCI correlation energies. Excitation energies are reproduced with ˜0.2 eV accuracy. In most cases, the agreement is better than 0.2 eV, even in cases with very large differential correlation contributions as exemplified for the d-d and ligand-to-metal charge transfer transitions of a Cu [NH 3 ] 4 2 + model complex. The benchmark is supplemented with the

  2. Multireference configuration interaction theory using cumulant reconstruction with internal contraction of density matrix renormalization group wave function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saitow, Masaaki; Kurashige, Yuki; Yanai, Takeshi

    2013-07-28

    We report development of the multireference configuration interaction (MRCI) method that can use active space scalable to much larger size references than has previously been possible. The recent development of the density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) method in multireference quantum chemistry offers the ability to describe static correlation in a large active space. The present MRCI method provides a critical correction to the DMRG reference by including high-level dynamic correlation through the CI treatment. When the DMRG and MRCI theories are combined (DMRG-MRCI), the full internal contraction of the reference in the MRCI ansatz, including contraction of semi-internal states, plays a central role. However, it is thought to involve formidable complexity because of the presence of the five-particle rank reduced-density matrix (RDM) in the Hamiltonian matrix elements. To address this complexity, we express the Hamiltonian matrix using commutators, which allows the five-particle rank RDM to be canceled out without any approximation. Then we introduce an approximation to the four-particle rank RDM by using a cumulant reconstruction from lower-particle rank RDMs. A computer-aided approach is employed to derive the exceedingly complex equations of the MRCI in tensor-contracted form and to implement them into an efficient parallel computer code. This approach extends to the size-consistency-corrected variants of MRCI, such as the MRCI+Q, MR-ACPF, and MR-AQCC methods. We demonstrate the capability of the DMRG-MRCI method in several benchmark applications, including the evaluation of single-triplet gap of free-base porphyrin using 24 active orbitals.

  3. Orbitally invariant internally contracted multireference unitary coupled cluster theory and its perturbative approximation: theory and test calculations of second order approximation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhenhua; Hoffmann, Mark R

    2012-07-07

    A unitary wave operator, exp (G), G(+) = -G, is considered to transform a multiconfigurational reference wave function Φ to the potentially exact, within basis set limit, wave function Ψ = exp (G)Φ. To obtain a useful approximation, the Hausdorff expansion of the similarity transformed effective Hamiltonian, exp (-G)Hexp (G), is truncated at second order and the excitation manifold is limited; an additional separate perturbation approximation can also be made. In the perturbation approximation, which we refer to as multireference unitary second-order perturbation theory (MRUPT2), the Hamiltonian operator in the highest order commutator is approximated by a Mo̸ller-Plesset-type one-body zero-order Hamiltonian. If a complete active space self-consistent field wave function is used as reference, then the energy is invariant under orbital rotations within the inactive, active, and virtual orbital subspaces for both the second-order unitary coupled cluster method and its perturbative approximation. Furthermore, the redundancies of the excitation operators are addressed in a novel way, which is potentially more efficient compared to the usual full diagonalization of the metric of the excited configurations. Despite the loss of rigorous size-extensivity possibly due to the use of a variational approach rather than a projective one in the solution of the amplitudes, test calculations show that the size-extensivity errors are very small. Compared to other internally contracted multireference perturbation theories, MRUPT2 only needs reduced density matrices up to three-body even with a non-complete active space reference wave function when two-body excitations within the active orbital subspace are involved in the wave operator, exp (G). Both the coupled cluster and perturbation theory variants are amenable to large, incomplete model spaces. Applications to some widely studied model systems that can be problematic because of geometry dependent quasidegeneracy, H4, P4

  4. New developments in multireference and complete configuration interaction calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knowles, P.J.; Werner, H.J.

    1987-01-01

    Some recently developed techniques for the calculation of Hamiltonian matrix elements in molecular electronic structure calculations are described. These techniques allow the very rapid calculation, in any desired order, of one particle coupling coefficients between spin symmetry adapted basis functions of arbitrary structure. The matrix elements that are required, for either internally contracted multireference CI calculations, or full CI calculations, are then obtainable from suitable summations over resolutions of the identity, which has been shown previously to be rather efficient; this is especially true on vector computers, since all arithmetic can be formulated as matrix multiplications. These ideas have culminated in the preparation of a new multireference CI program which is capable of handling very large numbers of reference configurations. Application of the new techniques to full CI calculations are also presented

  5. 77 FR 76091 - International Mail Contract

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-26

    ... an expired International Business Reply Service (IBRS) competitive contract.\\1\\ The Postal Service... International Business Reply Service Competitive Contract 1 Negotiated Service Agreement, December 14, 2012... history. The Commission added International Business Reply Service Contract 1 to the competitive product...

  6. 78 FR 11699 - International Mail Contract

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-19

    ... additional International Business Reply Service (IBRS) Competitive Contract 3 negotiated service agreement... International Business Reply Service Competitive Contract 3 Negotiated Service Agreement, February 11, 2013.... 684, Order Approving International Business Reply Service Competitive Contract 3 Negotiated Service...

  7. 77 FR 54937 - International Mail Postal Contract

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-06

    ... recently-filed Postal Service filing addressing a new International Business Reply Service Contract 3. It... contract within the International Business Reply Service (IBRS) Competitive Contract 3 grouping.\\1\\ The... Service Filing of a Functionally Equivalent International Business Reply Service Competitive Contract 3...

  8. 77 FR 16568 - International Mail Contract

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-21

    ...-filed Postal Service request to enter into an additional International Business Reply Service contract... additional International Business Reply Service (IBRS) contract.\\1\\ The Postal Service asserts that the... Service Filing of a Functionally Equivalent International Business Reply Service Competitive Contract 3...

  9. 77 FR 12888 - International Mail Contract

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-02

    ...-filed Postal Service request to enter into an additional International Business Reply Service contract... additional International Business Reply Service (IBRS) contract.\\1\\ The Postal Service asserts that the... Service Filing of a Functionally Equivalent International Business Reply Service Competitive Contract 3...

  10. Analysis of international oil and gas contracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moran, S.

    1992-01-01

    The purposes of this paper are to describe the main types of international petroleum contracts, to give the reader methods for comparing contract qualities and analyzing the profitability of petroleum field models under basic contract terms, to describe methods for assessing tradeoffs between various terms of a contract, to describe briefly U.S. Taxation of international petroleum extraction income, and to discuss certain special considerations that apply to the international arena

  11. Types of international petroleum contracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katz, S.B.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on history and development of International Petroleum Contracts. The emphasis in petroleum exploration has steadily shifted away from the domestic oil patch and toward the international arena. Today an estimated 577.3 billion bbl, or approximately 83% of the world's proven oil reserves, lie outside the western hemisphere. The distribution of these proven oil reserves can be broken down into three major socioeconomic categories - developed market economies, centrally planned economies, and developing countries - indicating that fully 76.7% of the world's proven oil reserves occur in developing countries. As multinational oil companies come into contact with the various host countries around the world, their course of action, and the course of the host country's reaction to them, are unfortunately colored by events that proceeded the initial contact

  12. 78 FR 54687 - International Mail Contract

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-05

    ... Service filing seeking to include a new International Business Reply Service (IBRS) agreement within the... Postal Service seeks to include a new International Business Reply Service (IBRS) agreement (Agreement... a Functionally Equivalent International Business Reply Service Competitive Contract 3 Negotiated...

  13. 77 FR 10577 - International Mail Contract

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-22

    ...-filed Postal Service request to enter into an additional International Business Reply Service contract... additional International Business Reply Service (IBRS) contract.\\1\\ The Postal Service asserts that the... United States Postal Service Filing of a Functionally Equivalent International Business Reply Service...

  14. 77 FR 75200 - New International Mail Contract

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-19

    ... Contract AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is noticing a recently-filed Postal Service request to enter into an additional international mail contract. This... contract (Agreement).\\1\\ The Notice was filed in accordance with 39 CFR 3015.5. Notice at 1. The Postal...

  15. 78 FR 11237 - International Mail Contract

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-15

    ... POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION [Docket No. CP2013-49; Order No. 1654] International Mail Contract... Service filing concerning an additional Global Reseller Expedited Package Contract 1 Negotiated Service... additional Global Reseller Expedited Package Contracts 1 negotiated service agreement (Agreement).\\1\\ It...

  16. 77 FR 70849 - International Mail Contract

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-27

    ... POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION [Docket No. R2013-2; Order No.1550] International Mail Contract... Service filing concerning a Type 2 rate adjustment in conjunction with a mail contract with China Post... Equivalent Agreement, November 15, 2012 (Notice). Contract history and scope. The Agreement is a successor to...

  17. 77 FR 75452 - New International Mail Contract

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-20

    ... Contract AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is noticing a recently-filed Postal Service request to enter into an additional international mail contract. This... contract (Agreement).\\1\\ The Postal Service seeks to have the Agreement included within the GEPS 3 product...

  18. Legal Considerations for International Collaborative Research Contract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, D. S.; Oh, K. B.; Kim, H. J.; Lee, J. H.

    2007-01-01

    Though collaborative research is pure academic activity the research plan and resource allocation for the research are shaped under foam of contract. Thus, legal binding effect and compulsive instrument is adopted at the research contract. This paper aimed at guiding equal collaborative research contract in legal aspect. To reach the goal (1) enforceability and elements of international collaborative contract, (2) damage calculation and related issues with those topics shall be discussed in each section

  19. 77 FR 73699 - International Mail Contract

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-11

    ... POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION [Docket No. CP2013-24; Order No. 1566] International Mail Contract AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is noticing a recent Postal... Service also identifies differences between the two contracts, such as the addition of several articles...

  20. 77 FR 72412 - International Mail Contract

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-05

    ... POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION [Docket No. CP2013-22; Order No. 1557] International Mail Contract AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is noticing a recent Postal... Service also identifies differences between the two contracts, such as the deletion of an article, the...

  1. 77 FR 73062 - International Mail Contract

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-07

    ... POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION [Docket No. CP2013-23; Order No. 1562] International Mail Contract AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is noticing a recent Postal.... The Postal Service also identifies differences between the two contracts, such as revisions to...

  2. To Multireference or not to Multireference: That is the Question?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodney J. Bartlett

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: I present a personal viewpoint on multi-reference coupled-cluster theory, its pros and cons. I also suggest some criteria that should be satisfied by multi-reference CC, not the least of which is to develop a tool that will be (almost! as easy to apply as today’s powerful array of single reference coupled-cluster methods. Some approaches like the equation of motion CC method offers a multi-reference description of some target states, while being entirely single reference in execution. Perhaps it offers a model for further generalization to a wider array of multi-reference problems.

  3. Contracting Parties in the International Successive Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion IORGA

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Sometimes, the carrier, in order to accomplish the task of moving goods to its destination, he appeals to other carriers, for various reasons, concluding another contract of carriage, whichcircumscribes the initial contract and it entrusts the achievement of the entire transportation or only a part of it. Sometimes, there are precise stipulations in the main contract of carriage concerning thisissue. Besides the movement of goods, which we may call traditional, defined as using means of transportation of the same kind, lately we can observe the proliferation of more complex operations, which have the generic name of successive transportation. In such shipments, the multimodal transport plays an important role. Thus, the present approach focuses on some features of the legal relationships which may arise between the contracting carrier, surrogate carrier, consignor and consignee, and also on the results from the analysis of the concerned international conventions.

  4. 76 FR 72452 - International Mail Contract

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-23

    ... POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION [Docket No. R2012-4; Order No. 981] International Mail Contract AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is noticing a recently-filed Postal Service request to enter into an additional bilateral agreement with HongKong Post Group...

  5. International contracts within the business of MSMEs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Cecilia López Fonseca

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose is to explain, in general terms, some of the possibilities for micro, small and medium enterprises (MSMEs to internationalize, taking into consideration, among other aspects, the elaboration of the contract, preferably written. The meaning of international trade comes from the mercantilist, classical and neoclassical currents and from contemporary postulates, such as the theory of competitive advantage, which demonstrate the importance of the exchange of goods and services for economies. International trade relations of any company are based on requirements of importing or exporting raw materials, machinery, final and intermediate goods or services procurement. However, in practice, relations can cover a wider spectrum than the abovementioned operations. This essay mentions some elements that should be considered by the parties when making the negotiation and which will be reflected in the body of the contract.

  6. 77 FR 3288 - International Mail Contract

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-23

    ... as the baseline contract for future functional equivalence analyses of the GREP Contracts 1 product... Classification Schedule language for GREP Contracts 1. The Postal Service identifies general contract terms that... methodology, the relevant characteristics of this GREP contract are similar, if not the same, as the relevant...

  7. 77 FR 71458 - New International Mail Contract

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-30

    ... Contract AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is noticing a... Contracts 1. This document invites public comments on the request and addresses several related procedural... Reseller Expedited Package (GREP) contract (Contracts 1).\\1\\ It seeks to have the instant Contract included...

  8. 77 FR 71642 - New International Mail Contract

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-03

    ... Contract AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is noticing a... Services 3 contract. This document invites public comments on the request and addresses several related... Expedited Package Services (GEPS) 3 contract (Contract).\\1\\ The Notice was filed in accordance with 39 CFR...

  9. 77 FR 26583 - International Mail Contract

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-04

    ... neither the fundamental service that it is offering nor the fundamental structure of the contract. Id. at..., the relevant characteristics of this GREP contract are similar, if not the same, as the relevant characteristics of the contract filed in Docket No. CP2010-36. Id. at 4. The Postal Service concludes that its...

  10. Saving clauses in international contracts concerning the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Virole, J.; Roubin, J.

    1983-01-01

    This paper concerns saving clauses in international contracts relating to the fuel cycle. It deals in particular with economic upheavals affecting those contracts and the usual clauses to protect the financial interests of the co-contractors. The paper also examines such economic upheavals in the context of clauses intended to preserve the contracts. (NEA) [fr

  11. Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods (CISG)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lookofsky, Joseph

    Also sometimes referred to as the Vienna Sales Convention, the Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods (CISG) regulates the rights of buyers and sellers in international sales. The Convention, which first entered into effect in 1988, is the first sales law treaty to win...... with international sales contracts and sales contract disputes will obtain an excellent overview of the Convention, as well as valuable information as to all its 101 Articles, compromising key topic areas such as the following: • Determining when the CISG applies; • Freedom of contract under Article 6...

  12. 78 FR 3477 - International Mail Contracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-16

    ... they share similar cost and market characteristics. Id. at 5. It notes that the pricing formula and...-filed Postal Service request concerning an additional Global Plus 2C contract. This document invites... announcing that it is entering into an additional Global Plus 2C contract (Agreement).\\1\\ The Postal Service...

  13. 78 FR 3478 - International Mail Contracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-16

    ... similar cost and market characteristics. Id. at 5. It notes that the pricing formula and classification...-filed Postal Service request concerning an additional Global Plus 2C contract. This document invites... that it is entering into an additional Global Plus 2C contract (Agreement).\\1\\ The Postal Service seeks...

  14. 77 FR 70850 - International Mail Contract

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-27

    ... three aspects of the Agreement expected to enhance performance: an anticipated revision to accounting... affect either the fundamental service being offered or the fundamental structure of the contracts. Id. at...

  15. Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods (CISG)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lookofsky, Joseph

    Also sometimes referred to as the Vienna Sales Convention, the Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods (CISG) regulates the rights of buyers and sellers in international sales. The Convention, which first entered into effect in 1988, is the first sales law treaty to win....... With this monograph as their guide, lawyers and scholars who deal with international sales contracts and sales contract disputes will obtain an excellent overview of the Convention, as well as valuable information as to all its 101 Articles, compromising key topic areas such as the following: • Determining when...

  16. Development of Xi'an-CI package – applying the hole–particle symmetry in multi-reference electronic correlation calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suo, Bingbing; Lei, Yibo; Han, Huixian; Wang, Yubin

    2018-04-01

    This mini-review introduces our works on the Xi'an-CI (configuration interaction) package using graphical unitary group approach (GUGA). Taking advantage of the hole-particle symmetry in GUGA, the Galfand states used to span the CI space are classified into CI subspaces according to the number of holes and particles, and the coupling coefficients used to calculate Hamiltonian matrix elements could be factorised into the segment factors in the hole, active and external spaces. An efficient multi-reference CI with single and double excitations (MRCISD) algorithm is thus developed that reduces the storage requirement and increases the number of correlated electrons significantly. The hole-particle symmetry also gives rise to a doubly contracted MRCISD approach. Moreover, the internally contracted Gelfand states are defined within the CI subspace arising from the hole-particle symmetry, which makes the implementation of internally contracted MRCISD in the framework of GUGA possible. In addition to MRCISD, the development of multi-reference second-order perturbation theory (MRPT2) also benefits from the hole-particle symmetry. A configuration-based MRPT2 algorithm is proposed and extended to the multi-state n-electron valence-state second-order perturbation theory.

  17. The Effects of the International Contract for Sale of Goods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berlingher Daniel

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The contracts are the indispensable legal instruments for any economic transaction. The international sale contract is the main legal instrument by which international commerce is carried out and through which the movement of goods from producer to consumer is ensured within cross-border relations. The sale contract in international commerce is the legal act by which the parties, the seller and the buyer, belonging to different states, commit each other to transfer the property of a good in return for payment of a price. Regarding the general rules applicable to the contract of international sale of goods, they are regulated by the “United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods from Vienna”. The Convention has adopted uniform rules to govern the international sale of goods contract, if the parties have not chosen expressly for the application of other rules. In this study I present the effects of international sale of goods in the light of the rules of the Vienna Convention of 1980.

  18. CONSIDERATION ON THE LEGAL REGIME APPLICABLE TO INTERNATIONAL TOURISM CONTRACTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serban-Alexandru STANESCU

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Upon conclusion of an international tourism contract, the contracting parties - one of which (the beneficiary acts as the consumer – are facing legal difficulties, which are addressed by this study from the perspective of the interference between the national law and the European Union law. Thus, one of the primary issues considered herein is that concerning the determination of the applicable law based on which the rights and obligations of the contracting parties are to be established. Secondly, this study examines the applicable procedural rules in the case where a Romanian court is requested to settle a dispute arising from an international tourism contract. Finally, the study deals with the hypothesis where a dispute arising from such a contract is settled by a foreign court, and in particular with the effects of the judgment given by the foreign court on the territory of Romania. The above mentioned issues are the grounds behind this research on the legal status of international tourism contracts, in addition to the fact that, despite the rich contractual practice in the field under consideration, the amount of specialized literature on this subject is rather limited.

  19. Sustainability clauses in international supply chain contracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peterkova, Katerina

    2014-01-01

    Our current society is not successful in mitigation of global social and environmental challenges. States lack legal tools, and sometimes also the will, to secure social and environmental interests transnationally and the existing soft and private regulation is criticized for its weak legitimacy...... but also to do business exclusively with socially responsible partners. Unawareness, either intentional or negligent, of unethical behaviour within a company’s supply chain may lead to an assumption that the company is complicit in such a conduct. The paper discusses a hypothesis that sustainability...... contractual clauses (SCCs) in international supply chain agreements may help to overcome the regulatory gap in relation to global sustainability while concurrently protect companies against potential social, economic and legal risks threatening in connection to unethical behaviour of their suppliers. As parts...

  20. International Jurisdiction and Commercial Litigation: uniform rules for contract disputes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. van Lith (Hélène)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThis book deals with judicial jurisdiction of state courts in international disputes, in particular those arising out of transnational commercial contracts entered into between private entities, individuals, and corporations.1 The present study examines whether any common grounds in

  1. The Inclusion of Standard Terms in International Sales Contracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Eiselen

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The problem dealing with the inclusion of standard terms and conditions in contracts is a problem that has engaged most legal systems. The United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods, Vienna 1980 (CISG does not expressly deal with this problem. Accordingly the solution to the issue must be found in an interpretation and application of the general principles found in articles 8, 14 and 18. One of the main objects of the CISG is the harmonisation of international trade law. It is generally recognised that in order to achieve harmonisation it isnecessary that courts should interpret and apply the convention in a consistent and harmonious manner. Unfortunately a number of approaches have emerged from courts around the world in regard to the inclusion of standard terms. German courts have developed a strict approach which requires that the standard terms be madeavailable to the addressee at the time of the conclusion of the contract. They also require that the standard terms be couched in the language of the main contract. In stark contrast an American court has used an approach which is very lax in regard to incorporation, even allowing incorporation after the conclusion of the contract. There is, however a more moderate approach set out in decisions of the Austrian Supreme Court where the court adopted an approach which is more akin to that found in most legal systems, namely that a clear incorporation clause in the contract is sufficient for the effective incorporation of standard terms. The author critically examines the case law, the various approaches and the underlying arguments on which they are based, before reaching the conclusion that the two extreme approaches should be rejected in favour of the more moderate approach. This approach is founded on aproper interpretation of the provisions of the CISG as well as being in step with international trade practice.

  2. 76 FR 10628 - International Product Change-International Business Reply Service Contract

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-25

    ...Postal Service gives notice of filing a request with the Postal Regulatory Commission to add International Business Reply Service Competitive Contract 3 to the Competitive Products List pursuant to 39 U.S.C. 3642.

  3. International Commercial Contracts, by Giuditta Cordero Moss. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2014)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lando, Ole

    2015-01-01

    Review of: Giuditta Cordero Moss, International Commercial Contracts. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2014. XV + 329 pages. ISBN: 9781107684713......Review of: Giuditta Cordero Moss, International Commercial Contracts. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2014. XV + 329 pages. ISBN: 9781107684713...

  4. Contracts for the International Sale of Goods : Recent Developments at the International and European Level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruisinga, Sonja

    2014-01-01

    In the globalizing economy, national borders seem to have disappeared. However, when determining which law will apply to a commercial transaction, the opposite seems true. In 1980, the UN Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods (hereafter the CISG) was specifically drafted to

  5. International contracts - private autonomy and State law: consideration of recent trends with particular attention to their effect on nuclear contracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbone, Sergio

    1981-01-01

    This paper provides a description of several types of international contracts and their clauses, in particular in relation to their limitations which are partly due to compliance with the law of the countries concerned. The actions of private business concerns are increasingly conditioned by the position taken at government level, while States in turn are governed by commitments under Treaties they have concluded, e.g. the International Monetary Fund Treaty and the 1980 Rome Convention relating to contractual obligations. The author also deals with private autonomy and international contracts in the context of the development of international economic relationships. (NEA) [fr

  6. An exponential multireference wave-function Ansatz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanrath, Michael

    2005-01-01

    An exponential multireference wave-function Ansatz is formulated. In accordance with the state universal coupled-cluster Ansatz of Jeziorski and Monkhorst [Phys. Rev. A 24, 1668 (1981)] the approach uses a reference specific cluster operator. In order to achieve state selectiveness the excitation- and reference-related amplitude indexing of the state universal Ansatz is replaced by an indexing which is based on excited determinants. There is no reference determinant playing a particular role. The approach is size consistent, coincides with traditional single-reference coupled cluster if applied to a single-reference, and converges to full configuration interaction with an increasing cluster operator excitation level. Initial applications on BeH 2 , CH 2 , Li 2 , and nH 2 are reported

  7. Bitcoin as an Efficient Method for the International Contract Settlement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diachek Olga Yu.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed to study the functioning of Bitcoin in today’s world. The issue of the nature of Bitcoin and tendencies in its development have been considered. Given the growing spread of Bitcoin, the number of transactions and the size of the blocks in the system will but increase. In order to maintain correct work, according to progressive growth, consideration is given to the dynamics of the increasing role of the virtual currency, the payment channels through digital coins, and the importance of assimilating such platforms. An analysis of the methods for international contract settlements was carried out. The relevance of implementation of cryptocurrency has been substantiated. The features of functioning of Bitcoin compared to the world currencies were considered. The economic properties of the block chain were studied. In turn, cryptocurrency suggests that the true value of technology lies in its growing potential. In order to develop a complete picture of the effect and scope of Bitcoin, stages of its development and the current status both in Ukraine and the world as a whole were examined. Accordingly, recommendations have been made to improve the status of Bitcoin in Ukraine

  8. Analysis of Contracting Processes, Internal Controls, and Procurement Fraud Schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    buyer to answer include the following: 6  Does the organization want to buy or lease a product?  Does the organization want to completely...who as commander of U.S. Army Contracting Command-Korea, took thousands of dollars in bribes from contractors for favorable treatment in contract

  9. Preparation of International Business Contracts in Facing the ASEAN Economic Community Era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahlan Sahlan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews the preparation for composing and formulating the international business contracts in facing the ASEAN Economic Community era. The study used the normative approach by collecting the materials related to the international business contracts. The outcomes of the research indicate that constitutionally, the Indonesian government must provide protection and equitable legal certainty for Indonesian citizens who intend to conduct business transactions within the framework of AEC. Format and writing techniques of international business contracts is compulsory known by the business people and their legal consultants that they do not suffer losses due to errors in the preparing of contract that violates the rules and provisions of international business contract.

  10. Financing the energy renovation of public buildings through Internal Contracting. Infinite Solutions Guidebook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schilken, Peter; Turner, Ian; Kuehnbach, Matthias; Simic, Ivan; Kuharic, Boris; Laranjeira, Celia; Rodrigues, Carlos; Couceiro, Carla; Presotto, Agnese; Mazzeschi, Alessandro; Cleto, Joao

    2017-02-01

    Meeting the European energy and climate policy objectives will require the mobilisation of substantial energy efficiency and renewable energy investments at the local level. Given both the substantial effort necessary to finance the energy transition and restricted municipal budgets, it is clear that these objectives cannot be met through traditional public financing such as grants or direct investment, but by finding a new approach to financing solutions. This Energy Cities guidebook is built upon a comprehensive analysis of Stuttgart's Internal Contracting scheme and a detailed questioning of it by the learning authorities within the INFINITE Solutions project. It is intended to offer guidelines to municipalities as well as universities, hospitals or other institutions interested in applying Internal Contracting to improve their energy consumption and efficiency performance. The approach of this guidebook is developed as follows: The concept of contracting - especially Internal Contracting - is introduced. Universal guidance is offered on how to implement an Internal Contracting scheme and keep it working over the long term. The Internal Contracting scheme is presented in practice. Several cities describe their individual approaches to Internal Contracting and the various ways they have been able to adapt the scheme

  11. The 1980 United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lookofsky, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    On the basis of the central commercial importance of contracts of sale and the impressive and steadily growing list of ratifications (more than 75 States), the CISG Convention must be regarded as the most significant piece of substantive contract legislation in effect at the international level....

  12. The 1980 United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lookofsky, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    On the basis of the central commercial importance of contracts of sale and the impressive and steadily growing list of ratifications (more than 80 States), the CISG Convention must be regarded as the most significant piece of substantive contract legislation in effect at the international level....

  13. Winning PEMEX consulting contracts through international bidding : sharing a Canadian success strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, J.

    1999-01-01

    A series of brief notes and overhead viewgraphs accompanied this presentation which described how Enbridge Technology obtained a contract with Mexico's PEMEX Refining through an international open bid. The scope of the contract was to advise PEMEX on how to modernize and automate their national liquids pipeline system. The value of the contract was US$11.6 million. The time span was from April 1998 to October 1999. A flow chart was included which illustrated the typical international bidding process. Enbridge prepared their bid by paying attention to bid basis details and emphasized their technical qualifications. 1 fig

  14. Book Review: Jus Cogens – International Law and Social Contract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irawati Handayani

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This book is based on the doctoral thesis completed by the author as an International Scholar of the Cambridge Overseas Trust at the University of Cambridge. The main idea of the books lies on the fact that jus cogens still become one of the most complex doctrines in contemporary international law. The legal foundation of jus cogens is still questionable, whether it lies on natural law, positive law or even to higher or divine origin. However, there is general agreement that jus cogens represent the fundamental value in international society or so-called higher norm in international law.

  15. Driven similarity renormalization group: Third-order multireference perturbation theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chenyang; Evangelista, Francesco A

    2017-03-28

    A third-order multireference perturbation theory based on the driven similarity renormalization group (DSRG-MRPT3) approach is presented. The DSRG-MRPT3 method has several appealing features: (a) it is intruder free, (b) it is size consistent, (c) it leads to a non-iterative algorithm with O(N 6 ) scaling, and (d) it includes reference relaxation effects. The DSRG-MRPT3 scheme is benchmarked on the potential energy curves of F 2 , H 2 O 2 , C 2 H 6 , and N 2 along the F-F, O-O, C-C, and N-N bond dissociation coordinates, respectively. The nonparallelism errors of DSRG-MRPT3 are consistent with those of complete active space third-order perturbation theory and multireference configuration interaction with singles and doubles and show significant improvements over those obtained from DSRG second-order multireference perturbation theory. Our efficient implementation of the DSRG-MRPT3 based on factorized electron repulsion integrals enables studies of medium-sized open-shell organic compounds. This point is demonstrated with computations of the singlet-triplet splitting (Δ ST =E T -E S ) of 9,10-anthracyne. At the DSRG-MRPT3 level of theory, our best estimate of the adiabatic Δ ST is 3.9 kcal mol -1 , a value that is within 0.1 kcal mol -1 from multireference coupled cluster results.

  16. Multireference configuration interaction study on spectroscopic properties of low-lying electronic states of As2 molecule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jie-Min; Liu Qiang

    2013-01-01

    The potential energy curves (PECs) of four electronic states (X 1 Σ g + , e 3 Δ u , a 3 Σ u − , and d 3 Π g ) of an As 2 molecule are investigated employing the complete active space self-consistent field (CASSCF) method followed by the valence internally contracted multireference configuration interaction (MRCI) approach in conjunction with the correlation-consistent aug-cc-pV5Z basis set. The effect on PECs by the relativistic correction is taken into account. The way to consider the relativistic correction is to employ the second-order Douglas-Kroll Hamiltonian approximation. The correction is made at the level of a cc-pV5Z basis set. The PECs of the electronic states involved are extrapolated to the complete basis set limit. With the PECs, the spectroscopic parameters (T e , R e , ω e , ω e x e , ω e y e , α e , β e , γ e , and B e ) of these electronic states are determined and compared in detail with those reported in the literature. Excellent agreement is found between the present results and the experimental data. The first 40 vibrational states are studied for each electronic state when the rotational quantum number J equals zero. In addition, the vibrational levels, inertial rotation and centrifugal distortion constants of d 3 Π g electronic state are reported which are in excellent agreement with the available measurements. Comparison with the experimental data shows that the present results are both reliable and accurate. (atomic and molecular physics)

  17. Recent advances in multireference-based perturbation theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakano, Haruyuki; Hirao, Kimihiko

    2003-01-01

    Accurate ab initio computational chemistry has evolved dramatically. In particular, the development of multireference-based approaches has opened up a completely new area, and has had a profound impact on the potential of theoretical chemistry. Multireference-based perturbation theory (MRPT) is an extension of the closed-shell single reference Moeller-Plesset method, and has been successfully applied to many chemical and spectroscopic problems. MRPT has established itself as an efficient technique for treating nondynamical and dynamical correlations. Usually, a complete active space self-consistent field (CASSCF) wave function is chosen as a reference function of MRPT. However, CASSCF often generates too many configurations, and the size of the active space can outgrow the capacity of the present technology. Many attempts have been proposed to reduce the dimension of CASSCF and to widen the range of applications of MRPT. This review focuses on our recent development in MRPT

  18. Electron Correlation from the Adiabatic Connection for Multireference Wave Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pernal, Katarzyna

    2018-01-01

    An adiabatic connection (AC) formula for the electron correlation energy is derived for a broad class of multireference wave functions. The AC expression recovers dynamic correlation energy and assures a balanced treatment of the correlation energy. Coupling the AC formalism with the extended random phase approximation allows one to find the correlation energy only from reference one- and two-electron reduced density matrices. If the generalized valence bond perfect pairing model is employed a simple closed-form expression for the approximate AC formula is obtained. This results in the overall M5 scaling of the computation cost making the method one of the most efficient multireference approaches accounting for dynamic electron correlation also for the strongly correlated systems.

  19. Contract Administration of the Ice Delivery Contract between International American Products, Worldwide Services and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers during the Hurricane Katrina Recovery Effort

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jolliffe, Richard B; Burton, Bruce A; Culp, Deborah L; Wan, Bobbie S; Dutton, Gary B; Steinbauer, Jeffrey L; Herman, Rachel L; Kistler, Jonathan M; Johnson, Meredith H

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Principal Assistant Responsible for Contracting requested a review on the administration of the ice delivery process between International American Products, Worldwide Services and the U.S...

  20. State-selective multireference coupled-cluster theory: In pursuit of property calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghose, K.B.; Piecuch, P.; Pal, S.; Adamowicz, L.

    1996-01-01

    In this work, we examine the efficiency of the recently developed [P. Piecuch et al., J. Chem. Phys. 99, 6732 (1993)] state-selective (SS) multi-reference (MR) coupled-cluster (CC) method for calculation of molecular properties. In our earlier papers, we demonstrated that the SSMRCC method with inclusion of single, double, and internal and semi-internal triple excitations [SSCCSD(T) approach] is capable of providing an accurate description of the ground-state potential energy surfaces. In this paper, we present the dipole moment and polarizability values of the HF molecule at equilibrium and stretched geometries calculated using finite field technique and SSCCSD(T) ansatz. The calculations use double zeta quality basis sets with and without polarization functions. Molecular orbital basis sets include both relaxed and nonrelaxed orbitals. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  1. A Jeziorski-Monkhorst fully uncontracted multi-reference perturbative treatment. I. Principles, second-order versions, and tests on ground state potential energy curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giner, Emmanuel; Angeli, Celestino; Garniron, Yann; Scemama, Anthony; Malrieu, Jean-Paul

    2017-06-01

    The present paper introduces a new multi-reference perturbation approach developed at second order, based on a Jeziorski-Mokhorst expansion using individual Slater determinants as perturbers. Thanks to this choice of perturbers, an effective Hamiltonian may be built, allowing for the dressing of the Hamiltonian matrix within the reference space, assumed here to be a CAS-CI. Such a formulation accounts then for the coupling between the static and dynamic correlation effects. With our new definition of zeroth-order energies, these two approaches are strictly size-extensive provided that local orbitals are used, as numerically illustrated here and formally demonstrated in the Appendix. Also, the present formalism allows for the factorization of all double excitation operators, just as in internally contracted approaches, strongly reducing the computational cost of these two approaches with respect to other determinant-based perturbation theories. The accuracy of these methods has been investigated on ground-state potential curves up to full dissociation limits for a set of six molecules involving single, double, and triple bond breaking together with an excited state calculation. The spectroscopic constants obtained with the present methods are found to be in very good agreement with the full configuration interaction results. As the present formalism does not use any parameter or numerically unstable operation, the curves obtained with the two methods are smooth all along the dissociation path.

  2. Promises from Afar: A Model of International Student Psychological Contract in Business Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordia, Sarbari; Bordia, Prashant; Restubog, Simon Lloyd D.

    2015-01-01

    Despite their significant presence in western business schools, the needs and experiences of international students have not been adequately reflected in the business education literature. We draw upon psychological contract theory--used to understand employer-employee relationships--to develop a novel theoretical model on the international…

  3. International Contracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werlauff, Erik

    When enterprises in different countries enter into an agreement with each other, there is always the question of governing law. One can let automatic functioning provisions regulate this question, in EU normally the Rome I Regulation. Or one can make a choice. Possible suggestions are here: My co...

  4. General Principles and Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods (CISG – Uniformity under an Interpretation Umbrella?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Lassila

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Globalization and digitalization of international sales creates needs to harmonize rules of international commercial contracts. The question is whether the harmonization should be done by binding rules or using soft law tools or through digitalization. In this article I argue on favor of harmonization through international contracts law rules’ international interpretation.The international interpretation principles used in this article are found from on Art. 7(1 of the Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods (CISG which sets three interpretation rules: international character; promoting uniformity; and observance of good faith in international trade. These principles are not only principles of the CISG, but also principles commonly recognized in international commercial practice and also in domestic contract rules. I argue that by adopting an international interpretation umbrella – the meta-principle of international interpretation, cross-border contracts could be interpreted under the same principle no matter applicable substantial law. The meta-principle functions as an interpretation umbrella covering general principles and Articles of the CISG, general principles of international commercial contracts, Lex Mercatoria, and cross-border contract provision under national law.The outcomes points out that arbitral tribunals have interpreted general principles of the CISG and Lex Mercatoria in various ways. General principles and their application in case law is analyzed in connection with the Civil Code of the Russian Federation. Tribunals found that general principles of the CISG are applicable even if the CISG is not. It follows Art.’s 7(2 logic to promote international standard to cross-border contracts where the closes connection is international commercial practice rather than any national jurisdiction.

  5. Multireference adaptive noise canceling applied to the EEG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, C J; Hagan, M T; Jones, R D; Bones, P J; Carroll, G J

    1997-08-01

    The technique of multireference adaptive noise canceling (MRANC) is applied to enhance transient nonstationarities in the electroeancephalogram (EEG), with the adaptation implemented by means of a multilayer-perception artificial neural network (ANN). The method was applied to recorded EEG segments and the performance on documented nonstationarities recorded. The results show that the neural network (nonlinear) gives an improvement in performance (i.e., signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the nonstationarities) compared to a linear implementation of MRANC. In both cases an improvement in the SNR was obtained. The advantage of the spatial filtering aspect of MRANC is highlighted when the performance of MRANC is compared to that of the inverse auto-regressive filtering of the EEG, a purely temporal filter.

  6. The utility of the rescission clause in the settlement of disputes arising from international trade contracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana BĂRBULESCU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Starting from the opportunities that the creditor of an obligation has in order to settle his claims by means of the commercial arbitration, as an alternative to court under common law, with a view to punishing in the most effective way the failure of the obligation by the borrower reveals the necessity to introduce the rescission clause in international commercial contracts governed by a foreign law. This paper aims to emphasize the practical utility of the institution of rescission clause in the light of the new Civil Code regulations, in whose presence the role of the court is entirely removed in as far as the decision statement is concerned.

  7. Characterizations of the α1-adrenoceptor subtypes mediating contractions of the human internal anal sphincter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owaki, Hiroyuki; Sadahiro, Sotaro; Takaki, Miyako

    2015-04-01

    Human internal anal sphincter (IAS) is contracted by α1-adrenoceptor stimulation and thus α1-adrenoceptor agonists may be useful in treating fecal incontinence. This study characterizes the contribution of α1-adrenoceptor subtypes in contraction of human IAS and to investigate the age-related risk of patients with fecal incontinence. IAS and inferior mesenteric artery (IMA), as a predictor of systemic arterial pressure, were obtained from 11 patients. Both muscle strips were assessed by isometric-contraction experiments using phenylephrine, further in IAS, in the presence of various subtype selective α1-adrenoceptor antagonists. Immunohistochemistry and gene expression studies were performed in the same samples. The mean pEC50 values with SEM of phenylephrine in IAS (6.30 ± 0.13) were higher than those of IMA (5.60 ± 0.10). Furthermore, the age-related pEC50 change of IAS was observed between age IAS, rightward shift of the concentration-response curves of phenylephrine was observed with three α1-adrenoceptor antagonists. Each pKB value of silodosin, BMY-7378 and prazosin was 9.36 ± 0.53, 7.28 ± 0.20 and 8.89 ± 0.12, respectively. These pKB values and gene expression studies indicated that α1A-adrenoceptor subtypes predominantly contributed to human IAS contraction. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Nuclear Energy Gradients for Internally Contracted Complete Active Space Second-Order Perturbation Theory: Multistate Extensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlaisavljevich, Bess; Shiozaki, Toru

    2016-08-09

    We report the development of the theory and computer program for analytical nuclear energy gradients for (extended) multistate complete active space perturbation theory (CASPT2) with full internal contraction. The vertical shifts are also considered in this work. This is an extension of the fully internally contracted CASPT2 nuclear gradient program recently developed for a state-specific variant by us [MacLeod and Shiozaki, J. Chem. Phys. 2015, 142, 051103]; in this extension, the so-called λ equation is solved to account for the variation of the multistate CASPT2 energies with respect to the change in the amplitudes obtained in the preceding state-specific CASPT2 calculations, and the Z vector equations are modified accordingly. The program is parallelized using the MPI3 remote memory access protocol that allows us to perform efficient one-sided communication. The optimized geometries of the ground and excited states of a copper corrole and benzophenone are presented as numerical examples. The code is publicly available under the GNU General Public License.

  9. On the rate of return and risk factors to international oil companies in Iran's buy-back service contracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghandi, Abbas; Lin Lawell, C.-Y. Cynthia

    2017-01-01

    We analyze the rate of return (ROR) and risk factors faced by Shell Exploration, an international oil company (IOC), in its Soroosh and Nowrooz buy-back service contract in Iran. In particular, based on our models of cash flow, we analyze the buy-back contract specific risk factors that can contribute to a reduction in the rate of return for the international oil company. Our cash flow models resemble the cash flow of buy-back service contracts before the Iranian government changed the way it determined the capital cost ceiling and pre-defined the oil price in these contracts in 2008–2009. Our actual and contractual cash flow models reveal that Shell Exploration's actual ROR was much lower than the contractual level. Furthermore, we find that among the risk factors that we considered, a capital cost overrun has the greatest negative effect on the IOC's ROR. Moreover, we show that there is a potential for modifying the contracts in order for the IOC to face an actual ROR closer to the contractual ROR even if the contract faces cost overrun or delay, without exceeding the maximum contractual ROR that the National Iranian Oil Company is willing to give. - Highlights: • Buy-back contract specific risk factors can reduce the rate of return. • Shell Exploration's actual ROR was much lower than the contractual level. • A capital cost overrun has the greatest negative effect on the rate of return. • Contracts can be modified to better share the risk.

  10. Public Internal Performance Contracting - Managing and financing energy-efficiency measures in public administrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irrek, Wolfgang; Thomas, Stefan; Attali, Sophie; Benke, Georg; Borg, Nils; Figorski, Arkadiusz; Filipowicz, Mariusz; Labanca, Nicola; Pindar, Andrew; Ochoa, Amalia

    2005-01-01

    Public Internal Performance Contracting (PICO) is a type of in-house 'third-party' financing or energy performance contracting scheme. In theory, once triggered, PICO provides a 'perpetual motion' finance mechanism for public authorities by which energy efficiency savings fund new investments in an upward virtuous cycle. One unit of the public authority, e.g. the technical department, delivers the financial and technical energy efficiency service to another unit of the same public administration. Remuneration takes place through cross payments between these units, according savings made in energy costs. The initial investments require 'seed funds' to kick start the process, after which the cross payments provide sufficient means to fund further measures. How can the PICO mechanism be initiated in times of tight public budgets? What difficulties are faced during the implementation process and how can these be overcome? What kind of energy-efficiency measures is PICO best suited to? And what role can national and European policy play to facilitate implementation? These are the key questions that the EU-funded PICOLight project aimed to tackle. This was done through testing and disseminating the PICO schemes, first used in Germany, in six European countries, developing these further and making the necessary adaptations. PICO schemes were piloted in seven public administrations with the technical focus on energy-efficient lighting retrofits. The experiences gathered in these pilot projects should help to introduce PICO schemes on a larger scale in public administrations in Europe. The paper presents the preliminary results from these pilot projects

  11. Axial contraction in etched optical fiber due to internal stress reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Kok-Sing; Yang, Hang-Zhou; Chong, Wu-Yi; Cheong, Yew-Ken; Lim, Chin-Hong; Ali, Norfizah M; Ahmad, Harith

    2013-02-11

    When an optical fiber is dipped in an etching solution, the internal stress profile in the fiber varies with the fiber diameter. We observed a physical contraction as much as 0.2% in the fiber axial dimension when the fiber was reduced from its original diameter to ~6 µm through analysis using high resolution microscope images of the grating period of an etched FBG at different fiber diameters. This axial contraction is related to the varying axial stress profile in the fiber when the fiber diameter is reduced. On top of that, the refractive index of fiber core increases with reducing fiber diameter due to stress-optic effect. The calculated index increment is as much as 1.8 × 10(-3) at the center of fiber core after the diameter is reduced down to ~6 µm. In comparison with the conventional model that assumes constant grating period and neglects the variation in stress-induced index change in fiber core, our proposed model indicates a discrepancy as much as 3nm in Bragg wavelength at a fiber diameter of ~6 µm.

  12. THE HAGUE PRINCIPLES ON CHOICE OF LAW IN INTERNATIONAL COMMERCIAL CONTRACTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios K. STAMATIADIS

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is dedicated to the one of the most important questions of the International Commercial Law. As a rule, it is widely accepted that the principle of party autonomy has been adopted, in respect of contractual obligations, by practically all national legislations in their provisions for private international law. At the same time, the Principles are silent regarding the option to choose trade usages as lex causae of the contract, and understandably so, since, from a systematic viewpoint, they cannot form a comprehensive set of rules capable of resolving basic issues of contractual obligations. Author believes that the Principles do not add any significant new features to the legal systems that have already developed and adopted the principle of party autonomy, with the exception of the possible application of non-national law before state courts. As a result, there have been formulated several useful conclusions which can be used in the science of the International Commercial Law.PRINCIPIILE DE LA HAGA PRIVIND ALEGEREA LEGILOR ÎN CONTRACTELE COMERCIALE INTERNAŢIONALEAcest articol este consacrat unor dintre cele mai importante probleme ce fac parte din dreptul internaţional comercial. De regulă, principiul autonomiei părţilor în contract este recunoscut ca unul fundamental în dreptul inter­naţional. Totodată, principiile păstrează tăcerea în ceea ce ţine de opţiunea de a alege uzanţele lex causae ale contrac­tului; prin urmare, ele nu pot fi privite ca reguli comprehensive şi susceptibile de a soluţiona problemele principale ale obligaţiilor contractuale. Autorul este de părere că principiile nu conţin nimic nou pentru legislaţiile naţionale în vigoare, deoarece nu au dezvoltat şi nu au adoptat ceva necunoscut pentru principiul autonomiei care este prevăzut în toate legislaţiile, cu excepţia unei posibile aplicări a legii supra-naţionale în instanţele naţionale de judecată. Prin urmare, au fost

  13. Certain Legal Aspects of the Himalaya Clause in the Contract of International Carriage of Goods by Sea A critical perspective on legal challenges raised by the clause under international uniform law and general contract law principles

    OpenAIRE

    Blaskovic, Igor

    2013-01-01

    Description of the Himalaya clause and its benefits; considerations on benefits for third parties over international uniform law; observations on construction of the clause under the model of the contract for the benefit of a third party; remarks on circular indemnity clauses; application of rules of exclusion of liability to Himalaya clause; conclusion.

  14. The Role of International Investment Law in Renewable Energy Investment; focus on Build Operate and Transfer (BOT) Contracts

    OpenAIRE

    Adetiloye, Idowu Adejoke

    2014-01-01

    Renewable energy is one of the ways of reducing greenhouse gas emission. There is need for more investment in this sector. However, lack of stable regulatory framework and change in policy makes it unattractive to investors. International investment laws through its protections in investment agreement can help to mitigate risks considered by investors especially those with Build, Operate and Transfer (BOT) type of contracts.

  15. O(3P) + C2H4 Potential Energy Surface: Study at the Multireference Level

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    West, A. C.; Kretchmer, J. S.; Sellner, B.; Park, K.; Hase, W. L.; Lischka, Hans; Windus, T. L.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 113, č. 45 (2009), s. 12663-12674 ISSN 1089-5639 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : hydrogen combustion * multireference methods * O(3P)+C2H4 reaction Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.899, year: 2009

  16. An Analysis of Internal Controls for DoD Contract Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    alternative control activities to reduce the risk of fraud ( COSO , 2013; GAO, 2014). Also, the Office of Management and Budget (OMB), which contains an...force. Since 1992, the Government Accountability Office (GAO) has identified contract management within the DOD as an area for high risk in fraud...force. Since 1992, the Government Accountability Office (GAO) has identified contract management within the DOD as an area for high risk in fraud

  17. International offshore petroleum contracts: Towards the compatibility of energy need and sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Zhiguo.

    1993-01-01

    The legal and commercial relationships between petroleum producing countries and foreign oil companies have been defined by traditional oil concession agreements before the 1950s, and since then by modern petroleum contracts. The development policies behind the evolution of various arrangements for offshore petroleum exploration are scrutinized. By studying examples of contracts in four developing countries (Thailand, Indonesia, Brazil, and China), the issues of mutuality of interests and environmental sustainability that are reflected in both the structure and substance of modern petroleum contracts are examined. Major findings are that modern petroleum contracts are generally able to achieve and maintain a necessary balance of rights, interests and benefits between the contracting parties, but have failed to produce any balance between the extraction of resources and environmental sustainability. The existing contractual systems have failed in principle to provide adequate environmental regulation and have not addressed the issue of sustainable development at all. Arrangements focusing on economic interests are inappropriate for future energy developments, but through the proper use of contract terms that contain elements favouring sustainable development, economic and environmental interests can nevertheless be accomodated and served at the same time. Future petroleum agreements should recognize explicitly the inherent independence and coexistence between commerciality and sustainable development. 288 refs., 1 fig., 24 tabs

  18. Detailed Wave Function Analysis for Multireference Methods: Implementation in the Molcas Program Package and Applications to Tetracene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plasser, Felix; Mewes, Stefanie A; Dreuw, Andreas; González, Leticia

    2017-11-14

    High-level multireference computations on electronically excited and charged states of tetracene are performed, and the results are analyzed using an extensive wave function analysis toolbox that has been newly implemented in the Molcas program package. Aside from verifying the strong effect of dynamic correlation, this study reveals an unexpected critical influence of the atomic orbital basis set. It is shown that different polarized double-ζ basis sets produce significantly different results for energies, densities, and overall wave functions, with the best performance obtained for the atomic natural orbital (ANO) basis set by Pierloot et al. Strikingly, the ANO basis set not only reproduces the energies but also performs exceptionally well in terms of describing the diffuseness of the different states and of their attachment/detachment densities. This study, thus, not only underlines the fact that diffuse basis functions are needed for an accurate description of the electronic wave functions but also shows that, at least for the present example, it is enough to include them implicitly in the contraction scheme.

  19. Institut Pasteur v. United States: the AIDS patent dispute, the Contract Disputes Act and the international exchange of scientific data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, H L

    1989-01-01

    In the case of Institut Pasteur v. United States, the Institut Pasteur (Pasteur) claimed that the National Cancer Institute (NCI) had breached express and implied contracts to share research on AIDS virus samples provided to NCI by Pasteur. NCI scientists allegedly used the samples to acquire information which allowed NCI to file patent applications for an AIDS blood test kit. The United States Claims Court dismissed the complaint by holding that the Institut Pasteur had not complied with certain administrative procedures required by the Contract Disputes Act before bringing its suit. The United States Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit reversed the decision of the Claims Court by holding that the disputed contracts did not fit within the scope of the Contract Disputes Act. Soon after the Court of Appeals decision, President Reagan and Prime Minister Chirac announced a settlement agreement whereby the lawsuit was to be dropped, American and French scientists were to share credit for having discovered the AIDS virus, and both parties to the suit were to share the patent rights for the AIDS blood test kit. This settlement suggest that international legal disputes involving urgent scientific and medical matters may require dispute resolution techniques that serve as alternatives to national courts.

  20. Proposal for the award of an industrial services contract for civil engineering superstructure and internal construction building work

    CERN Document Server

    2001-01-01

    This document concerns the award of an Industrial Services contract for civil engineering superstructure and internal construction building work. Following a market survey carried out among 112 firms in fifteen Member States, a call for tenders (IT-2546/ST/Rev.) was sent on 12 April 2001 to eleven consortia, four consisting of four firms, three consisting of three firms and four consisting of two firms, in seven Member States. By the closing date, CERN had received tenders from eight consortia in six Member States. The Finance Committee is invited to agree to the negotiation of a contract with the consortium SPIE CITRA SUD-EST(FR)-ANTIRUST TECHNOLOGY (GR), the lowest bidder, for an initial period of three years from 1 January 2002 for an amount not exceeding 15 375 000 Swiss francs, not subject to revision. The contract will include options for two one-year extensions beyond the initial three-year period. The consortium has indicated the following distribution by country of the contract value covered by this ...

  1. The Navy Acquisition Contracting Officer Intern Program: A Past and Present NACO View

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-06-01

    section of a contracting activity is regularly a " sweatshop " that processes nearly alL procurements in the same manner. Thus, a month in a small purchase...this command, I have not been rotated through the other sections of the office. I consider this to be somewhat of a disadvantage ; however, I have

  2. Remedies for Breach Under the United Nations Convention on Contracts for International Sale of Goods (CISG)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lookofsky, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    For every breach of a binding contract, there must be some remedy. The gap-filling remedial structure of the 1980 Vienna Sales Convention (CISG) reflects the fact that all significant forms of remedial relief may be said to fall within three basic courses of action which modern legal systems make...

  3. Types of contracts and contracting procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zijl, N.A. van

    1977-01-01

    Contracting for a nuclear power plant can be carried out in many different ways, from a bilateral agreement between two countries to an international open bidding competition. Also the kind of contracts (turnkey, split-package or multi-contract type) are discussed with their pros and cons as well as the contracting procedures which can be followed to come to the conclusion of a contract. (orig.) [de

  4. The internal career orientation of permanent and contracting information technology staff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilda Havran

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available The primary aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between types of employment (permanent or contracting for two variables: flow and career success orientation in an information technology environment. The study was performed in a sub-division of a large telecommunications company that focuses on software development and implementation. Two questionnaires measuring flow and career success orientation, were administered to groups of 150 permanent and 150 contracting staff respectively. Factor analyses indicated that the career success orientation questionnaire measured two dimensions labeled as ‘work focus’ and ‘self focus’, and the flow questionnaire measured ‘enjoyment’ and ‘control of consciousness’. Contracting and permanent employees were compared with regard to the four dimensions and it was found that contract workers experienced their work more optimally than the permanent workers did, because they obtained higher scores on the ‘control of consciousness scale’. Opsomming Die primêre doel van die ondersoek was om die verwantskap tussen tipes indiensneming (permanent en kontraktering te ondersoek vir twee veranderlikes: vloei en beroepsuksesoriëntasie in ’n inligtingstegnologieomgewing. Die ondersoek is uitgevoer in ’n onderafdeling van ’n groot telekommunikasiemaatskappy wat fokus op programmatuurontwikkeling en -implementering. Twee vraelyste wat vloei en beroepsuksesoriëntasie meet, is toegepas op 150 permanente werknemers en 150 kontrakteurs. Faktorontledings het aangedui dat die beroepsuksesoriënteringsvraelys twee dimensies gemeet het, naamlik ‘werkfokus’ en ‘selffokus’. Die vloei-vraelys het ‘werksgenot’ en ‘bewustsheidbeheer’ gemeet. Kontrakteurs en permanente werknemers is met mekaar vergelyk in terme van die vier dimensies en die uitslae van die bewustheids beheerskaal het aangedui dat kontrakteurs hul werk meer optimaal ervaar in teenstelling met permanente werkers.

  5. Analytically continued Fock space multi-reference coupled-cluster theory: Application to the shape resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pal, Sourav; Sajeev, Y.; Vaval, Nayana

    2006-01-01

    The Fock space multi-reference coupled-cluster (FSMRCC) method is used for the study of the shape resonance energy and width in an electron-atom/molecule collision. The procedure is based upon combining a complex absorbing potential (CAP) with FSMRCC theory. Accurate resonance parameters are obtained by solving a small non-Hermitian eigen-value problem. We study the shape resonances in e - -C 2 H 4 and e - -Mg

  6. A Comparative Study of Legal Terminologies in French and Romanian. The Translation of International Contract Law Terminologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana SFERLE

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Our article is a comparative study investigating the main aspects of legal terminology in French and Romanian. In this context, the analysis aims at translating French - Romanian, Romanian - French, terminologies of international commercial contracts. With this study we intend to improve the knowledge of legal terminology in Romanian. Romania has been faced lately, particularly since January 1st 2007, when it joined the European Union, with a real need for terminological studies, for dictionaries and data bases in all fields relating to translation and interpreting.

  7. Contract W911NF-09-1-0105 (Monterey Institute of International Studies)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-08

    the International Association for Conflict Management , in Tacoma, Washington, June 30, 2013-July 3, 2013. (This version of the paper was provided to...Extraordinary Measure or Business as Usual?” at the 26th Annual Conference of the International Association for Conflict Management , in Tacoma, Washington

  8. CHARACTERISTICS OF THE CARGO INSURANCE CONTRACT IN CASE OF INTERNATIONAL LAND TRANSPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dănilă Ștefan MATEI

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Cargo international transport is an engine for the development of the economic relations between states involving cross-border movement of goods through the crossing of at least one border of a state (international transport or by crossing at least two border crossing points, in which case we are in the presence of an international cargo transit. During the transit the goods transported may be subject to an insurance. The object of the cargo insurance is, thus, represented by the goods, the items expressly listed in the insurance policy, within the territorial limits specified in the insurance policy, both during the transport and during the storage, in the latter case, at the express request of the insured and with the acceptance of the insurer. This paper analyzes the characteristics of the cargo insurance aiming to present the theoretical and practical aspects of interest with regard to the cargo insurance concluded in case of an international land freight transport.

  9. An investigation of structural design methodology for HTGR reactor internals with ceramic materials (Contract research)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumita, Junya; Shibata, Taiju; Nakagawa, Shigeaki; Iyoku, Tatsuo; Sawa, Kazuhiro

    2008-03-01

    To advance the performance and safety of HTGR, heat-resistant ceramic materials are expected to be used as reactor internals of HTGR. C/C composite and superplastic zirconia are the promising materials for this purpose. In order to use these new materials as reactor internals in HTGR, it is necessary to establish a structure design method to guarantee the structural integrity under environmental and load conditions. Therefore, C/C composite expected as reactor internals of VHTR is focused and an investigation on the structural design method applicable to the C/C composite and a basic applicability of the C/C composite to representative structures of HTGR were carried out in this report. As the results, it is found that the competing risk theory for the strength evaluation of the C/C composite is applicable to design method and C/C composite is expected to be used as reactor internals of HTGR. (author)

  10. State-specific Multi-reference Perturbation Theories with Relaxed Coefficients: Molecular Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debashis Mukherjee

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: We present in this paper two new versions of Rayleigh-Schr¨odinger (RS and the Brillouin-Wigner (BW state-specific multi-reference perturbative theories (SSMRPT which stem from our state-specific multi-reference coupled-cluster formalism (SS-MRCC, developed with a complete active space (CAS. They are manifestly sizeextensive and are designed to avoid intruders. The combining coefficients cμ for the model functions φμ are completely relaxed and are obtained by diagonalizing an effective operator in the model space, one root of which is the target eigenvalue of interest. By invoking suitable partitioning of the hamiltonian, very convenient perturbative versions of the formalism in both the RS and the BW forms are developed for the second order energy. The unperturbed hamiltonians for these theories can be chosen to be of both Mφller-Plesset (MP and Epstein-Nesbet (EN type. However, we choose the corresponding Fock operator fμ for each model function φμ, whose diagonal elements are used to define the unperturbed hamiltonian in the MP partition. In the EN partition, we additionally include all the diagonal direct and exchange ladders. Our SS-MRPT thus utilizes a multi-partitioning strategy. Illustrative numerical applications are presented for potential energy surfaces (PES of the ground (1Σ+ and the first delta (1Δ states of CH+ which possess pronounced multi-reference character. Comparison of the results with the corresponding full CI values indicates the efficacy of our formalisms.

  11. Implementation of High-Order Multireference Coupled-Cluster Methods on Intel Many Integrated Core Architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aprà, E; Kowalski, K

    2016-03-08

    In this paper we discuss the implementation of multireference coupled-cluster formalism with singles, doubles, and noniterative triples (MRCCSD(T)), which is capable of taking advantage of the processing power of the Intel Xeon Phi coprocessor. We discuss the integration of two levels of parallelism underlying the MRCCSD(T) implementation with computational kernels designed to offload the computationally intensive parts of the MRCCSD(T) formalism to Intel Xeon Phi coprocessors. Special attention is given to the enhancement of the parallel performance by task reordering that has improved load balancing in the noniterative part of the MRCCSD(T) calculations. We also discuss aspects regarding efficient optimization and vectorization strategies.

  12. A quasiparticle-based multi-reference coupled-cluster method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolik, Zoltán; Kállay, Mihály

    2014-10-07

    The purpose of this paper is to introduce a quasiparticle-based multi-reference coupled-cluster (MRCC) approach. The quasiparticles are introduced via a unitary transformation which allows us to represent a complete active space reference function and other elements of an orthonormal multi-reference (MR) basis in a determinant-like form. The quasiparticle creation and annihilation operators satisfy the fermion anti-commutation relations. On the basis of these quasiparticles, a generalization of the normal-ordered operator products for the MR case can be introduced as an alternative to the approach of Mukherjee and Kutzelnigg [Recent Prog. Many-Body Theor. 4, 127 (1995); Mukherjee and Kutzelnigg, J. Chem. Phys. 107, 432 (1997)]. Based on the new normal ordering any quasiparticle-based theory can be formulated using the well-known diagram techniques. Beyond the general quasiparticle framework we also present a possible realization of the unitary transformation. The suggested transformation has an exponential form where the parameters, holding exclusively active indices, are defined in a form similar to the wave operator of the unitary coupled-cluster approach. The definition of our quasiparticle-based MRCC approach strictly follows the form of the single-reference coupled-cluster method and retains several of its beneficial properties. Test results for small systems are presented using a pilot implementation of the new approach and compared to those obtained by other MR methods.

  13. The Validity of International Sales Contracts: Irrelevance of the 'Validity Exception' in Article 4 Vienna Sales Convention and a Novel Approach to Determining the Convention's Scope

    OpenAIRE

    Schroeter, Ulrich

    2017-01-01

    in: Ingeborg Schwenzer and Lisa Spagnolo (eds.), Boundaries and Intersections: The 5th Annual MAA Schlechtriem CISG Conference, The Hague: Eleven International Publishing (2014), pp. 95-117 Throughout the history of uniform law for international sales, the rules governing the validity of cross-border sales contracts have proven particularly difficult to harmonize because they differ greatly between the various domestic laws. This dilemma inter alia resulted in the "validity exception" in Arti...

  14. Benchmarks for electronically excited states: Time-dependent density functional theory and density functional theory based multireference configuration interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silva-Junior, Mario R.; Schreiber, Marko; Sauer, Stephan P. A.

    2008-01-01

    Time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) and DFT-based multireference configuration interaction (DFT/MRCI) calculations are reported for a recently proposed benchmark set of 28 medium-sized organic molecules. Vertical excitation energies, oscillator strengths, and excited-state dipole...

  15. Towards large-scale calculations with State-Specific Multireference Coupled Cluster methods: Studies on dodecane, naphthynes, and polycarbenes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brabec, Jiří; Bhaskaran-Neir, K.; Kowalski, K.; Pittner, Jiří; van Dam, H. J. J.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 542, 23 July (2012), s. 128-133 ISSN 0009-2614 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP208/11/2222 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : multireference Coupled Cluster (MRCC) methods * molecular systems * polycarbenes Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.145, year: 2012

  16. The accuracy of molecular bond lengths computed by multireference electronic structure methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shepard, Ron; Kedziora, Gary S.; Lischka, Hans; Shavitt, Isaiah; Mueller, Thomas; Szalay, Peter G.; Kallay, Mihaly; Seth, Michael

    2008-01-01

    We compare experimental R e values with computed R e values for 20 molecules using three multireference electronic structure methods, MCSCF, MR-SDCI, and MR-AQCC. Three correlation-consistent orbital basis sets are used, along with complete basis set extrapolations, for all of the molecules. These data complement those computed previously with single-reference methods. Several trends are observed. The SCF R e values tend to be shorter than the experimental values, and the MCSCF values tend to be longer than the experimental values. We attribute these trends to the ionic contamination of the SCF wave function and to the corresponding systematic distortion of the potential energy curve. For the individual bonds, the MR-SDCI R e values tend to be shorter than the MR-AQCC values, which in turn tend to be shorter than the MCSCF values. Compared to the previous single-reference results, the MCSCF values are roughly comparable to the MP4 and CCSD methods, which are more accurate than might be expected due to the fact that these MCSCF wave functions include no extra-valence electron correlation effects. This suggests that static valence correlation effects, such as near-degeneracies and the ability to dissociate correctly to neutral fragments, play an important role in determining the shape of the potential energy surface, even near equilibrium structures. The MR-SDCI and MR-AQCC methods predict R e values with an accuracy comparable to, or better than, the best single-reference methods (MP4, CCSD, and CCSD(T)), despite the fact that triple and higher excitations into the extra-valence orbital space are included in the single-reference methods but are absent in the multireference wave functions. The computed R e values using the multireference methods tend to be smooth and monotonic with basis set improvement. The molecular structures are optimized using analytic energy gradients, and the timings for these calculations show the practical advantage of using variational wave

  17. The accuracy of molecular bond lengths computed by multireference electronic structure methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepard, Ron [Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)], E-mail: shepard@tcg.anl.gov; Kedziora, Gary S. [High Performance Technologies Inc., 2435 5th Street, WPAFB, OH 45433 (United States); Lischka, Hans [Institute for Theoretical Chemistry, University of Vienna, Waehringerstrasse 17, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Shavitt, Isaiah [Department of Chemistry, University of Illinois, 600 S. Mathews Avenue, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Mueller, Thomas [Juelich Supercomputer Centre, Research Centre Juelich, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Szalay, Peter G. [Laboratory for Theoretical Chemistry, Institute of Chemistry, Eoetvoes Lorand University, P.O. Box 32, H-1518 Budapest (Hungary); Kallay, Mihaly [Department of Physical Chemistry and Materials Science, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, P.O. Box 91, H-1521 Budapest (Hungary); Seth, Michael [Department of Chemistry, University of Calgary, 2500 University Drive, N.W., Calgary, Alberta, T2N 1N4 (Canada)

    2008-06-16

    We compare experimental R{sub e} values with computed R{sub e} values for 20 molecules using three multireference electronic structure methods, MCSCF, MR-SDCI, and MR-AQCC. Three correlation-consistent orbital basis sets are used, along with complete basis set extrapolations, for all of the molecules. These data complement those computed previously with single-reference methods. Several trends are observed. The SCF R{sub e} values tend to be shorter than the experimental values, and the MCSCF values tend to be longer than the experimental values. We attribute these trends to the ionic contamination of the SCF wave function and to the corresponding systematic distortion of the potential energy curve. For the individual bonds, the MR-SDCI R{sub e} values tend to be shorter than the MR-AQCC values, which in turn tend to be shorter than the MCSCF values. Compared to the previous single-reference results, the MCSCF values are roughly comparable to the MP4 and CCSD methods, which are more accurate than might be expected due to the fact that these MCSCF wave functions include no extra-valence electron correlation effects. This suggests that static valence correlation effects, such as near-degeneracies and the ability to dissociate correctly to neutral fragments, play an important role in determining the shape of the potential energy surface, even near equilibrium structures. The MR-SDCI and MR-AQCC methods predict R{sub e} values with an accuracy comparable to, or better than, the best single-reference methods (MP4, CCSD, and CCSD(T)), despite the fact that triple and higher excitations into the extra-valence orbital space are included in the single-reference methods but are absent in the multireference wave functions. The computed R{sub e} values using the multireference methods tend to be smooth and monotonic with basis set improvement. The molecular structures are optimized using analytic energy gradients, and the timings for these calculations show the practical

  18. Extended multi-configuration quasi-degenerate perturbation theory: the new approach to multi-state multi-reference perturbation theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granovsky, Alexander A

    2011-06-07

    The distinctive desirable features, both mathematically and physically meaningful, for all partially contracted multi-state multi-reference perturbation theories (MS-MR-PT) are explicitly formulated. The original approach to MS-MR-PT theory, called extended multi-configuration quasi-degenerate perturbation theory (XMCQDPT), having most, if not all, of the desirable properties is introduced. The new method is applied at the second order of perturbation theory (XMCQDPT2) to the 1(1)A(')-2(1)A(') conical intersection in allene molecule, the avoided crossing in LiF molecule, and the 1(1)A(1) to 2(1)A(1) electronic transition in cis-1,3-butadiene. The new theory has several advantages compared to those of well-established approaches, such as second order multi-configuration quasi-degenerate perturbation theory and multi-state-second order complete active space perturbation theory. The analysis of the prevalent approaches to the MS-MR-PT theory performed within the framework of the XMCQDPT theory unveils the origin of their common inherent problems. We describe the efficient implementation strategy that makes XMCQDPT2 an especially useful general-purpose tool in the high-level modeling of small to large molecular systems. © 2011 American Institute of Physics

  19. Noniterative Multireference Coupled Cluster Methods on Heterogeneous CPU-GPU Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhaskaran-Nair, Kiran; Ma, Wenjing; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Villa, Oreste; van Dam, Hubertus JJ; Apra, Edoardo; Kowalski, Karol

    2013-04-09

    A novel parallel algorithm for non-iterative multireference coupled cluster (MRCC) theories, which merges recently introduced reference-level parallelism (RLP) [K. Bhaskaran-Nair, J.Brabec, E. Aprà, H.J.J. van Dam, J. Pittner, K. Kowalski, J. Chem. Phys. 137, 094112 (2012)] with the possibility of accelerating numerical calculations using graphics processing unit (GPU) is presented. We discuss the performance of this algorithm on the example of the MRCCSD(T) method (iterative singles and doubles and perturbative triples), where the corrections due to triples are added to the diagonal elements of the MRCCSD (iterative singles and doubles) effective Hamiltonian matrix. The performance of the combined RLP/GPU algorithm is illustrated on the example of the Brillouin-Wigner (BW) and Mukherjee (Mk) state-specific MRCCSD(T) formulations.

  20. Photochemistry of ethylene: A multireference configuration interaction investigation of the excited-state energy surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbatti, M.; Paier, J.; Lischka, H.

    2004-01-01

    Multireference configuration interaction with singles and doubles (MR-CISD) calculations have been performed for the optimization of conical intersections and stationary points on the ethylene excited-state energy surfaces using recently developed methods for the computation of analytic gradients and nonadiabatic coupling terms. Basis set dependence and the effect of various choices of reference spaces for the MR-CISD calculations have been investigated. The crossing seam between the S 0 and S 1 states has been explored in detail. This seam connects all conical intersections presently known for ethylene. Major emphasis has been laid on the hydrogen-migration path. Starting in the V state of twisted-orthogonal ethylene, a barrierless path to ethylidene was found. The feasibility of ethylidene formation will be important for the explanation of the relative yield of cis and trans H 2 elimination

  1. Multireference quantum chemistry through a joint density matrix renormalization group and canonical transformation theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanai, Takeshi; Kurashige, Yuki; Neuscamman, Eric; Chan, Garnet Kin-Lic

    2010-01-14

    We describe the joint application of the density matrix renormalization group and canonical transformation theory to multireference quantum chemistry. The density matrix renormalization group provides the ability to describe static correlation in large active spaces, while the canonical transformation theory provides a high-order description of the dynamic correlation effects. We demonstrate the joint theory in two benchmark systems designed to test the dynamic and static correlation capabilities of the methods, namely, (i) total correlation energies in long polyenes and (ii) the isomerization curve of the [Cu(2)O(2)](2+) core. The largest complete active spaces and atomic orbital basis sets treated by the joint DMRG-CT theory in these systems correspond to a (24e,24o) active space and 268 atomic orbitals in the polyenes and a (28e,32o) active space and 278 atomic orbitals in [Cu(2)O(2)](2+).

  2. Multireference configuration interaction calculations of the first six ionization potentials of the uranium atom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bross, David H.; Parmar, Payal; Peterson, Kirk A., E-mail: kipeters@wsu.edu [Department of Chemistry, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington 99164-4630 (United States)

    2015-11-14

    The first 6 ionization potentials (IPs) of the uranium atom have been calculated using multireference configuration interaction (MRCI+Q) with extrapolations to the complete basis set limit using new all-electron correlation consistent basis sets. The latter was carried out with the third-order Douglas-Kroll-Hess Hamiltonian. Correlation down through the 5s5p5d electrons has been taken into account, as well as contributions to the IPs due to the Lamb shift. Spin-orbit coupling contributions calculated at the 4-component Kramers restricted configuration interaction level, as well as the Gaunt term computed at the Dirac-Hartree-Fock level, were added to the best scalar relativistic results. The final ionization potentials are expected to be accurate to at least 5 kcal/mol (0.2 eV) and thus more reliable than the current experimental values of IP{sub 3} through IP{sub 6}.

  3. Duty to notify the seller of defects in title in contracts for the international sale of goods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fišer-Šobot Sandra S.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The seller must deliver the goods which are free from any right or claim of a third party. If the seller fails to do so he will be liable for the breach of the contract. However, the buyer loses the right to rely on the provisions regulating seller's liability for defects in title if he does not give notice to the seller specifying the nature of the right or claim of the third party. In order to have legal effect, the notice must fulfill conditions regarding content, form and addressee. The buyer must notify the seller in a timely manner i.e. within a reasonable time after he has become aware or, alternatively, ought to have become aware of the right or claim. Breach of the duty to notify the seller of the defects in title is followed by severe consequences for the buyer because he loses the right to rely on the defects. However, in international sales law the buyer can exercise rights arising out of defects in title even when he fails to notify the seller in two specific cases. First, the buyer retains his rights arising out of a breach of Art. 41 and 42 if the seller knew of the right or claim of the third party and the nature of it. And second, pursuant to Art. 44 of the CISG, the buyer may reduce the price in accordance with Art. 50 or claim damages, except for loss of profit, if he has reasonable excuse for his failure to give the required notice.

  4. 48 CFR 716.406 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 716.406 Section 716.406 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Cost Reimbursement Contracts 716.406 Contract clauses. The...

  5. Electrically Stimulated Antagonist Muscle Contraction Increased Muscle Mass and Bone Mineral Density of One Astronaut - Initial Verification on the International Space Station

    OpenAIRE

    Shiba, Naoto; Matsuse, Hiroo; Takano, Yoshio; Yoshimitsu, Kazuhiro; Omoto, Masayuki; Hashida, Ryuki; Tagawa, Yoshihiko; Inada, Tomohisa; Yamada, Shin; Ohshima, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Background Musculoskeletal atrophy is one of the major problems of extended periods of exposure to weightlessness such as on the International Space Station (ISS). We developed the Hybrid Training System (HTS) to maintain an astronaut?s musculoskeletal system using an electrically stimulated antagonist to resist the volitional contraction of the agonist instead of gravity. The present study assessed the system?s orbital operation capability and utility, as well as its preventative effect on a...

  6. Banking contracts

    OpenAIRE

    Durčáková, Klára

    2010-01-01

    Resumé - Bank Contracts Bank Contracts are an integral part of our everyday lives. Citizen and bussines entities used bank contracts very often. Despite this fact we can't find legal definition in the Czech law. Banking contracts understand contracts that are signed by banks in their business activities and obligations under these contracts arise. While the banking contracts have been widely used, in Czech law there is not too much literature and judgements abou this issue. Lack of legislatio...

  7. Communication: Density functional theory model for multi-reference systems based on the exact-exchange hole normalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laqua, Henryk; Kussmann, Jörg; Ochsenfeld, Christian

    2018-03-28

    The correct description of multi-reference electronic ground states within Kohn-Sham density functional theory (DFT) requires an ensemble-state representation, employing fractionally occupied orbitals. However, the use of fractional orbital occupation leads to non-normalized exact-exchange holes, resulting in large fractional-spin errors for conventional approximative density functionals. In this communication, we present a simple approach to directly include the exact-exchange-hole normalization into DFT. Compared to conventional functionals, our model strongly improves the description for multi-reference systems, while preserving the accuracy in the single-reference case. We analyze the performance of our proposed method at the example of spin-averaged atoms and spin-restricted bond dissociation energy surfaces.

  8. Communication: Density functional theory model for multi-reference systems based on the exact-exchange hole normalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laqua, Henryk; Kussmann, Jörg; Ochsenfeld, Christian

    2018-03-01

    The correct description of multi-reference electronic ground states within Kohn-Sham density functional theory (DFT) requires an ensemble-state representation, employing fractionally occupied orbitals. However, the use of fractional orbital occupation leads to non-normalized exact-exchange holes, resulting in large fractional-spin errors for conventional approximative density functionals. In this communication, we present a simple approach to directly include the exact-exchange-hole normalization into DFT. Compared to conventional functionals, our model strongly improves the description for multi-reference systems, while preserving the accuracy in the single-reference case. We analyze the performance of our proposed method at the example of spin-averaged atoms and spin-restricted bond dissociation energy surfaces.

  9. Retractable Contracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Barbanera

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In calculi for modelling communication protocols, internal and external choices play dual roles. Two external choices can be viewed naturally as dual too, as they represent an agreement between the communicating parties. If the interaction fails, the past agreements are good candidates as points where to roll back, in order to take a different agreement. We propose a variant of contracts with synchronous rollbacks to agreement points in case of deadlock. The new calculus is equipped with a compliance relation which is shown to be decidable.

  10. Large-scale parallel uncontracted multireference-averaged quadratic coupled cluster: the ground state of the chromium dimer revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Thomas

    2009-11-12

    The accurate prediction of the potential energy function of the X1Sigmag+ state of Cr2 is a remarkable challenge; large differential electron correlation effects, significant scalar relativistic contributions, the need for large flexible basis sets containing g functions, the importance of semicore valence electron correlation, and its multireference nature pose considerable obstacles. So far, the only reasonable successful approaches were based on multireference perturbation theory (MRPT). Recently, there was some controversy in the literature about the role of error compensation and systematic defects of various MRPT implementations that cannot be easily overcome. A detailed basis set study of the potential energy function is presented, adopting a variational method. The method of choice for this electron-rich target with up to 28 correlated electrons is fully uncontracted multireference-averaged quadratic coupled cluster (MR-AQCC), which shares the flexibility of the multireference configuration interaction (MRCI) approach and is, in addition, approximately size-extensive (0.02 eV in error as compared to the MRCI value of 1.37 eV for two noninteracting chromium atoms). The best estimate for De arrives at 1.48 eV and agrees well with the experimental data of 1.47 +/- 0.056 eV. At the estimated CBS limit, the equilibrium bond distance (1.685 A) and vibrational frequency (459 cm-1) are in agreement with experiment (1.679 A, 481 cm-1). Large basis sets and reference configuration spaces invariably result in huge wave function expansions (here, up to 2.8 billion configuration state functions), and efficient parallel implementations of the method are crucial. Hence, relevant details on implementation and general performance of the parallel program code are discussed as well.

  11. Ultrasound evaluation of muscle thickness changes in the external oblique, internal oblique, and transversus abdominis muscles considering the influence of posture and muscle contraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugaya, Tomoaki; Abe, Yota; Sakamoto, Masaaki

    2014-09-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to investigate muscle thickness changes in the external oblique (EO), internal oblique (IO), and transversus abdominis (TrA) muscles between the neutral position and trunk rotation, under a state of rest without voluntary contractions, and isometric contractions to both sides with resistance of 50% of the maximum trunk rotation strength. [Subjects] The subjects of this study were 21 healthy young men. [Methods] Muscle thickness changes in the EO, IO, and TrA in each position and state were evaluated by ultrasound. The range of motion at maximum trunk rotation and the maximum strength of trunk rotation were measured using a hand-held dynamometer. [Results] In the neutral position and at 50% trunk rotation to the right side, the thicknesses of the IO and TrA significantly increased with resistance. In both states, the thicknesses of the IO and TrA significantly increased at 50% trunk rotation to the right side. [Conclusion] The muscular contractions of the IO and TrA were stronger during ipsilateral rotation than in the neutral position and with resistance than at rest. Moreover, the muscular contraction was strongest in the resistive state during ipsilateral rotation.

  12. Nonorthogonal orbital based N-body reduced density matrices and their applications to valence bond theory. I. Hamiltonian matrix elements between internally contracted excited valence bond wave functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhenhua; Chen, Xun; Wu, Wei

    2013-04-01

    In this series, the n-body reduced density matrix (n-RDM) approach for nonorthogonal orbitals and their applications to ab initio valence bond (VB) methods are presented. As the first paper of this series, Hamiltonian matrix elements between internally contracted VB wave functions are explicitly provided by means of nonorthogonal orbital based RDM approach. To this end, a more generalized Wick's theorem, called enhanced Wick's theorem, is presented both in arithmetical and in graphical forms, by which the deduction of expressions for the matrix elements between internally contracted VB wave functions is dramatically simplified, and the matrix elements are finally expressed in terms of tensor contractions of electronic integrals and n-RDMs of the reference VB self-consistent field wave function. A string-based algorithm is developed for the purpose of evaluating n-RDMs in an efficient way. Using the techniques presented in this paper, one is able to develop new methods and efficient algorithms for nonorthogonal orbital based many-electron theory much easier than by use of the first quantized formulism.

  13. Parallel implementation of multireference coupled-cluster theories based on the reference-level parallelism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brabec, Jiri; Pittner, Jiri; van Dam, Hubertus JJ; Apra, Edoardo; Kowalski, Karol

    2012-02-01

    A novel algorithm for implementing general type of multireference coupled-cluster (MRCC) theory based on the Jeziorski-Monkhorst exponential Ansatz [B. Jeziorski, H.J. Monkhorst, Phys. Rev. A 24, 1668 (1981)] is introduced. The proposed algorithm utilizes processor groups to calculate the equations for the MRCC amplitudes. In the basic formulation each processor group constructs the equations related to a specific subset of references. By flexible choice of processor groups and subset of reference-specific sufficiency conditions designated to a given group one can assure optimum utilization of available computing resources. The performance of this algorithm is illustrated on the examples of the Brillouin-Wigner and Mukherjee MRCC methods with singles and doubles (BW-MRCCSD and Mk-MRCCSD). A significant improvement in scalability and in reduction of time to solution is reported with respect to recently reported parallel implementation of the BW-MRCCSD formalism [J.Brabec, H.J.J. van Dam, K. Kowalski, J. Pittner, Chem. Phys. Lett. 514, 347 (2011)].

  14. Description of odd-mass nuclei by multi-reference energy density functional methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bally, B.

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we are interested in the treatment of odd-mass atomic nuclei in energy density functional (EDF) models. More precisely, the goal of this thesis is to develop and to apply to odd-mass nuclei, the theoretical extensions of the EDF method that are: first, the projection technique, and secondly the configuration mixing by the generator coordinate method (GCM). These two extensions are part of the so-called multi-reference energy density functional (MR-EDF) formalism and allow one to take into account, within an EDF context, the 'beyond-mean-field' correlations between the nucleons forming the nucleus. Until now, the MR-EDF formalism has been applied, in its fully-fledged version, only to the calculation of even-even nuclei. In this thesis, we want to demonstrate the applicability of such a model also for the description of odd-mass nuclei. In the first part of this thesis, we describe the theoretical formalism of the EDF models, giving particular attention to the treatment of symmetries within our approach. In the second part of the manuscript, we apply our model to the nucleus 25 Mg and investigate different aspects of the method (e.g. numerical accuracy, convergence of the configuration mixing, comparison to known experimental data). The results obtained in this work are encouraging and demonstrate the potential of our approach for theoretical nuclear structure calculations. (author)

  15. Multireference second order perturbation theory with a simplified treatment of dynamical correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Enhua; Zhao, Dongbo; Li, Shuhua

    2015-10-13

    A multireference second order perturbation theory based on a complete active space configuration interaction (CASCI) function or density matrix renormalized group (DMRG) function has been proposed. This method may be considered as an approximation to the CAS/A approach with the same reference, in which the dynamical correlation is simplified with blocked correlated second order perturbation theory based on the generalized valence bond (GVB) reference (GVB-BCPT2). This method, denoted as CASCI-BCPT2/GVB or DMRG-BCPT2/GVB, is size consistent and has a similar computational cost as the conventional second order perturbation theory (MP2). We have applied it to investigate a number of problems of chemical interest. These problems include bond-breaking potential energy surfaces in four molecules, the spectroscopic constants of six diatomic molecules, the reaction barrier for the automerization of cyclobutadiene, and the energy difference between the monocyclic and bicyclic forms of 2,6-pyridyne. Our test applications demonstrate that CASCI-BCPT2/GVB can provide comparable results with CASPT2 (second order perturbation theory based on the complete active space self-consistent-field wave function) for systems under study. Furthermore, the DMRG-BCPT2/GVB method is applicable to treat strongly correlated systems with large active spaces, which are beyond the capability of CASPT2.

  16. Excited state characterization of carbonyl containing carotenoids: a comparison between single and multireference descriptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spezia, Riccardo; Knecht, Stefan; Mennucci, Benedetta

    Carotenoids can play multiple roles in biological photoreceptors thanks to their rich photophysics. In the present work, we have investigated six of the most common carbonyl containing carotenoids: Echinenone, Canthaxanthin, Astaxanthin, Fucoxanthin, Capsanthin and Capsorubin. Their excitation properties are investigated by means of a hybrid density functional theory (DFT) and multireference configuration interaction (MRCI) approach to elucidate the role of the carbonyl group: the bright transition is of {\\pi}{\\pi}* character, as expected, but the presence of a C=O moiety reduces the energy of n{\\pi}* transitions which may become closer to the {\\pi}{\\pi}* transition, in particular as the conjugation chain decreases. This can be related to the presence of a low-lying charge transfer state typical of short carbonyl- containing carotenoids. The DFT/MRCI results are finally used to benchmark single- reference time-dependent DFT-based methods: among the investigated functionals, the meta- GGA (and in particular M11L and MN12L) functionals show to perform the best for all six investigated systems.

  17. Contracting for Public Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Carsten

    strategic purchasing understanding markets communicating the contracting decision designing and drafting the contract the role of the consumer the regulation of service provision Illustrated throughout with practitioner case-studies from a range of OECD countries, this book presents an important new......Insightful and comprehensive and covering new subjects like globalization and IT, this text, international in its approach, provides a thorough introduction to the key phases of the contracting process and the skills required by managers in its implementation. These include: policy for contracting...

  18. Terms of payment in the sales contract

    OpenAIRE

    Harmáčková, Iva

    2009-01-01

    This thesis makes an analysis of price and terms of payment in the sales contract. Both elements are conceived in terms of legal framework and in terms of importance for the parties to an international sales contract. The theoretical part deals with the role of the sales contract in business relations, structure and legal norms of the international sales contract. The practical part includes an analysis of specific international sales contract.

  19. Multireference Density Functional Theory with Generalized Auxiliary Systems for Ground and Excited States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zehua; Zhang, Du; Jin, Ye; Yang, Yang; Su, Neil Qiang; Yang, Weitao

    2017-09-21

    To describe static correlation, we develop a new approach to density functional theory (DFT), which uses a generalized auxiliary system that is of a different symmetry, such as particle number or spin, from that of the physical system. The total energy of the physical system consists of two parts: the energy of the auxiliary system, which is determined with a chosen density functional approximation (DFA), and the excitation energy from an approximate linear response theory that restores the symmetry to that of the physical system, thus rigorously leading to a multideterminant description of the physical system. The electron density of the physical system is different from that of the auxiliary system and is uniquely determined from the functional derivative of the total energy with respect to the external potential. Our energy functional is thus an implicit functional of the physical system density, but an explicit functional of the auxiliary system density. We show that the total energy minimum and stationary states, describing the ground and excited states of the physical system, can be obtained by a self-consistent optimization with respect to the explicit variable, the generalized Kohn-Sham noninteracting density matrix. We have developed the generalized optimized effective potential method for the self-consistent optimization. Among options of the auxiliary system and the associated linear response theory, reformulated versions of the particle-particle random phase approximation (pp-RPA) and the spin-flip time-dependent density functional theory (SF-TDDFT) are selected for illustration of principle. Numerical results show that our multireference DFT successfully describes static correlation in bond dissociation and double bond rotation.

  20. Unitary group adapted state specific multireference perturbation theory: Formulation and pilot applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Avijit; Sen, Sangita; Samanta, Pradipta Kumar; Mukherjee, Debashis

    2015-04-05

    We present here a comprehensive account of the formulation and pilot applications of the second-order perturbative analogue of the recently proposed unitary group adapted state-specific multireference coupled cluster theory (UGA-SSMRCC), which we call as the UGA-SSMRPT2. We also discuss the essential similarities and differences between the UGA-SSMRPT2 and the allied SA-SSMRPT2. Our theory, like its parent UGA-SSMRCC formalism, is size-extensive. However, because of the noninvariance of the theory with respect to the transformation among the active orbitals, it requires the use of localized orbitals to ensure size-consistency. We have demonstrated the performance of the formalism with a set of pilot applications, exploring (a) the accuracy of the potential energy surface (PES) of a set of small prototypical difficult molecules in their various low-lying states, using natural, pseudocanonical and localized orbitals and compared the respective nonparallelity errors (NPE) and the mean average deviations (MAD) vis-a-vis the full CI results with the same basis; (b) the efficacy of localized active orbitals to ensure and demonstrate manifest size-consistency with respect to fragmentation. We found that natural orbitals lead to the best overall PES, as evidenced by the NPE and MAD values. The MRMP2 results for individual states and of the MCQDPT2 for multiple states displaying avoided curve crossings are uniformly poorer as compared with the UGA-SSMRPT2 results. The striking aspect of the size-consistency check is the complete insensitivity of the sum of fragment energies with given fragment spin-multiplicities, which are obtained as the asymptotic limit of super-molecules with different coupled spins. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. The Risk of Goods in International Sales. An Approach from the Breach of Contract and Remedies of the Buyer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Vidal Olivares

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article refers to the regime risks in the CISG with the aim of showing that the regime that it is incorporated, is based on functional criteria to the interests of the parties to solve the problems that originated in the loss and prior to the transfer of risk to the buyer will have recourse to remedies system and thus achieve the connection with the breach of contract. In its development we used the dogmatic method, from the systematic analysis of the rules of the CISG, doctrine and case law.

  2. Radical O-O coupling reaction in diferrate-mediated water oxidation studied using multireference wave function theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurashige, Yuki; Saitow, Masaaki; Chalupský, Jakub; Yanai, Takeshi

    2014-06-28

    The O-O (oxygen-oxygen) bond formation is widely recognized as a key step of the catalytic reaction of dioxygen evolution from water. Recently, the water oxidation catalyzed by potassium ferrate (K2FeO4) was investigated on the basis of experimental kinetic isotope effect analysis assisted by density functional calculations, revealing the intramolecular oxo-coupling mechanism within a di-iron(vi) intermediate, or diferrate [Sarma et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2012, 134, 15371]. Here, we report a detailed examination of this diferrate-mediated O-O bond formation using scalable multireference electronic structure theory. High-dimensional correlated many-electron wave functions beyond the one-electron picture were computed using the ab initio density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) method along the O-O bond formation pathway. The necessity of using large active space arises from the description of complex electronic interactions and varying redox states both associated with two-center antiferromagnetic multivalent iron-oxo coupling. Dynamic correlation effects on top of the active space DMRG wave functions were additively accounted for by complete active space second-order perturbation (CASPT2) and multireference configuration interaction (MRCI) based methods, which were recently introduced by our group. These multireference methods were capable of handling the double shell effects in the extended active space treatment. The calculations with an active space of 36 electrons in 32 orbitals, which is far over conventional limitation, provide a quantitatively reliable prediction of potential energy profiles and confirmed the viability of the direct oxo coupling. The bonding nature of Fe-O and dual bonding character of O-O are discussed using natural orbitals.

  3. Perturbational treatment of spin-orbit coupling for generally applicable high-level multi-reference methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mai, Sebastian; Marquetand, Philipp; González, Leticia [Institute of Theoretical Chemistry, University of Vienna, Währinger Str. 17, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Müller, Thomas, E-mail: th.mueller@fz-juelich.de [Institute for Advanced Simulation, Jülich Supercomputing Centre, Forschungszentrum Jülich, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Plasser, Felix [Interdisciplinary Center for Scientific Computing, University of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 368, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Lischka, Hans [Institute of Theoretical Chemistry, University of Vienna, Währinger Str. 17, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas 79409-1061 (United States)

    2014-08-21

    An efficient perturbational treatment of spin-orbit coupling within the framework of high-level multi-reference techniques has been implemented in the most recent version of the COLUMBUS quantum chemistry package, extending the existing fully variational two-component (2c) multi-reference configuration interaction singles and doubles (MRCISD) method. The proposed scheme follows related implementations of quasi-degenerate perturbation theory (QDPT) model space techniques. Our model space is built either from uncontracted, large-scale scalar relativistic MRCISD wavefunctions or based on the scalar-relativistic solutions of the linear-response-theory-based multi-configurational averaged quadratic coupled cluster method (LRT-MRAQCC). The latter approach allows for a consistent, approximatively size-consistent and size-extensive treatment of spin-orbit coupling. The approach is described in detail and compared to a number of related techniques. The inherent accuracy of the QDPT approach is validated by comparing cuts of the potential energy surfaces of acrolein and its S, Se, and Te analoga with the corresponding data obtained from matching fully variational spin-orbit MRCISD calculations. The conceptual availability of approximate analytic gradients with respect to geometrical displacements is an attractive feature of the 2c-QDPT-MRCISD and 2c-QDPT-LRT-MRAQCC methods for structure optimization and ab inito molecular dynamics simulations.

  4. Perturbational treatment of spin-orbit coupling for generally applicable high-level multi-reference methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mai, Sebastian; Marquetand, Philipp; González, Leticia; Müller, Thomas; Plasser, Felix; Lischka, Hans

    2014-01-01

    An efficient perturbational treatment of spin-orbit coupling within the framework of high-level multi-reference techniques has been implemented in the most recent version of the COLUMBUS quantum chemistry package, extending the existing fully variational two-component (2c) multi-reference configuration interaction singles and doubles (MRCISD) method. The proposed scheme follows related implementations of quasi-degenerate perturbation theory (QDPT) model space techniques. Our model space is built either from uncontracted, large-scale scalar relativistic MRCISD wavefunctions or based on the scalar-relativistic solutions of the linear-response-theory-based multi-configurational averaged quadratic coupled cluster method (LRT-MRAQCC). The latter approach allows for a consistent, approximatively size-consistent and size-extensive treatment of spin-orbit coupling. The approach is described in detail and compared to a number of related techniques. The inherent accuracy of the QDPT approach is validated by comparing cuts of the potential energy surfaces of acrolein and its S, Se, and Te analoga with the corresponding data obtained from matching fully variational spin-orbit MRCISD calculations. The conceptual availability of approximate analytic gradients with respect to geometrical displacements is an attractive feature of the 2c-QDPT-MRCISD and 2c-QDPT-LRT-MRAQCC methods for structure optimization and ab inito molecular dynamics simulations

  5. Parallel multireference configuration interaction calculations on mini-β-carotenes and β-carotene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinschmidt, Martin; Marian, Christel M.; Waletzke, Mirko; Grimme, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    We present a parallelized version of a direct selecting multireference configuration interaction (MRCI) code [S. Grimme and M. Waletzke, J. Chem. Phys. 111, 5645 (1999)]. The program can be run either in ab initio mode or as semiempirical procedure combined with density functional theory (DFT/MRCI). We have investigated the efficiency of the parallelization in case studies on carotenoids and porphyrins. The performance is found to depend heavily on the cluster architecture. While the speed-up on the older Intel Netburst technology is close to linear for up to 12-16 processes, our results indicate that it is not favorable to use all cores of modern Intel Dual Core or Quad Core processors simultaneously for memory intensive tasks. Due to saturation of the memory bandwidth, we recommend to run less demanding tasks on the latter architectures in parallel to two (Dual Core) or four (Quad Core) MRCI processes per node. The DFT/MRCI branch has been employed to study the low-lying singlet and triplet states of mini-n-β-carotenes (n =3, 5, 7, 9) and β-carotene (n =11) at the geometries of the ground state, the first excited triplet state, and the optically bright singlet state. The order of states depends heavily on the conjugation length and the nuclear geometry. The B1u+ state constitutes the S1 state in the vertical absorption spectrum of mini-3-β-carotene but switches order with the 2 A1g- state upon excited state relaxation. In the longer carotenes, near degeneracy or even root flipping between the B1u+ and B1u- states is observed whereas the 3 A1g- state is found to remain energetically above the optically bright B1u+ state at all nuclear geometries investigated here. The DFT/MRCI method is seen to underestimate the absolute excitation energies of the longer mini-β-carotenes but the energy gaps between the excited states are reproduced well. In addition to singlet data, triplet-triplet absorption energies are presented. For β-carotene, where these transition

  6. Parallel multireference configuration interaction calculations on mini-beta-carotenes and beta-carotene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinschmidt, Martin; Marian, Christel M; Waletzke, Mirko; Grimme, Stefan

    2009-01-28

    We present a parallelized version of a direct selecting multireference configuration interaction (MRCI) code [S. Grimme and M. Waletzke, J. Chem. Phys. 111, 5645 (1999)]. The program can be run either in ab initio mode or as semiempirical procedure combined with density functional theory (DFT/MRCI). We have investigated the efficiency of the parallelization in case studies on carotenoids and porphyrins. The performance is found to depend heavily on the cluster architecture. While the speed-up on the older Intel Netburst technology is close to linear for up to 12-16 processes, our results indicate that it is not favorable to use all cores of modern Intel Dual Core or Quad Core processors simultaneously for memory intensive tasks. Due to saturation of the memory bandwidth, we recommend to run less demanding tasks on the latter architectures in parallel to two (Dual Core) or four (Quad Core) MRCI processes per node. The DFT/MRCI branch has been employed to study the low-lying singlet and triplet states of mini-n-beta-carotenes (n=3, 5, 7, 9) and beta-carotene (n=11) at the geometries of the ground state, the first excited triplet state, and the optically bright singlet state. The order of states depends heavily on the conjugation length and the nuclear geometry. The (1)B(u) (+) state constitutes the S(1) state in the vertical absorption spectrum of mini-3-beta-carotene but switches order with the 2 (1)A(g) (-) state upon excited state relaxation. In the longer carotenes, near degeneracy or even root flipping between the (1)B(u) (+) and (1)B(u) (-) states is observed whereas the 3 (1)A(g) (-) state is found to remain energetically above the optically bright (1)B(u) (+) state at all nuclear geometries investigated here. The DFT/MRCI method is seen to underestimate the absolute excitation energies of the longer mini-beta-carotenes but the energy gaps between the excited states are reproduced well. In addition to singlet data, triplet-triplet absorption energies are

  7. Implementation of the multireference Brillouin-Wigner and Mukherjee's coupled cluster methods with non-iterative triple excitations utilizing reference-level parallelism

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bhaskaran-Nair, Kiran; Brabec, Jiří; Apra, E.; van Dam, H. J. J.; Pittner, Jiří

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 137, č. 9 (2012), 094112 ISSN 0021-9606 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP208/11/2222 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : multireference methods * molecular applications * Brillouin-Wogner Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.164, year: 2012

  8. Polymorphic Contracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belo, João Filipe; Greenberg, Michael; Igarashi, Atsushi; Pierce, Benjamin C.

    Manifest contracts track precise properties by refining types with predicates - e.g., {x : Int |x > 0 } denotes the positive integers. Contracts and polymorphism make a natural combination: programmers can give strong contracts to abstract types, precisely stating pre- and post-conditions while hiding implementation details - for example, an abstract type of stacks might specify that the pop operation has input type {x :α Stack |not ( empty x )} . We formalize this combination by defining FH, a polymorphic calculus with manifest contracts, and establishing fundamental properties including type soundness and relational parametricity. Our development relies on a significant technical improvement over earlier presentations of contracts: instead of introducing a denotational model to break a problematic circularity between typing, subtyping, and evaluation, we develop the metatheory of contracts in a completely syntactic fashion, omitting subtyping from the core system and recovering it post facto as a derived property.

  9. Application of the United Nations convention on contracts for TEH international sale of goods when the rules of private international law lead to the application of the law of a contracting state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Marko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the problems with respect to the application of the UN Sales Convention (CISG by virtue of its Article 1(1(b. To that effect, the author analyzes the legal nature of this provision, describes the prerequisites for its application and explains the relevance of different rules of private international law for the application of the CISG. A special attention is given to the effects of Article 95 reservation. The author presents arguments against a widely spread opinion that the Article 1(1(b is in itself a conflict-of-laws rule, suggests that this provision is suitable to be applied both by courts and arbitral tribunals and explains the importance of the rules on classification and renvoi for the application of the CISG. With respect to the effect of Article 95 reservation, the author gives precedence to the position of the applicable law, rather than the law of the forum, concerning this reservation.

  10. Administrative contracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukićević-Petković Milica

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Administrative contracts are a special type of contract where usually one of the contracting parties is a public law body and which is concluded for the performance of public service and the realization of a public interest. They go a long way since its inception to its eventual final acceptance of all the legal systems. One of the enduring characteristics of this type of contract is their disquised or unnoticed existence. This is why only monitoring their development may lead to a complete understanding of the importance and essence of this institution as well as the need for its complete legal regulation.

  11. Electrical contracting

    CERN Document Server

    Neidle, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Electrical Contracting, Second Edition is a nine-chapter text guide for the greater efficiency in planning and completing installations for the design, installation and control of electrical contracts. This book starts with a general overview of the efficient cabling and techniques that must be employed for safe wiring design, as well as the cost estimation of the complete electrical contract. The subsequent chapters are devoted to other electrical contracting requirements, including electronic motor control, lighting, and electricity tariffs. A chapter focuses on the IEE Wiring Regulations an

  12. Administrative contracts

    OpenAIRE

    Vukićević-Petković Milica

    2015-01-01

    Administrative contracts are a special type of contract where usually one of the contracting parties is a public law body and which is concluded for the performance of public service and the realization of a public interest. They go a long way since its inception to its eventual final acceptance of all the legal systems. One of the enduring characteristics of this type of contract is their disquised or unnoticed existence. This is why only monitoring their development may lead to a complete u...

  13. 48 CFR 745.106 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 745.106 Section 745.106 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT CONTRACT MANAGEMENT GOVERNMENT PROPERTY General 745.106 Contract clauses. (a) The contracting officer shall insert the...

  14. 48 CFR 747.507 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 747.507 Section 747.507 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TRANSPORTATION Ocean Transportation by U.S.-Flag Vessels 747.507 Contract clauses. Contracting...

  15. Are both symmetric and buckled dimers on Si(100) minima? Density functional and multireference perturbation theory calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Yousung; Shao, Yihan; Gordon, Mark S.; Doren, Douglas J.; Head-Gordon, Martin

    2003-01-01

    We report a spin-unrestricted density functional theory (DFT) solution at the symmetric dimer structure for cluster models of Si(100). With this solution, it is shown that the symmetric structure is a minimum on the DFT potential energy surface, although higher in energy than the buckled structure. In restricted DFT calculations the symmetric structure is a saddle point connecting the two buckled minima. To further assess the effects of electron correlation on the relative energies of symmetric versus buckled dimers on Si(100), multireference second order perturbation theory (MRMP2) calculations are performed on these DFT optimized minima. The symmetric structure is predicted to be lower in energy than the buckled structure via MRMP2, while the reverse order is found by DFT. The implications for recent experimental interpretations are discussed

  16. Spent nuclear fuel reprocessing and international law. Germany's obligations under international law in matters of spent fuel reprocessing and the relevant contracts concluded with France and the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heintschel v Heinegg, W.

    1999-01-01

    The review presented is an excerpt from an expert opinion written by the author in December last year, in response to changes in nuclear energy policy announced by the new German government. The reprocessing of spent nuclear fuels from German power reactors in the reprocessing facilities of France (La Hague) and the UK (Sellafield) is not only based on contracts concluded by the German electric utilities and the French COGEMA or the British BNFL, but has been agreed as well by an exchange of diplomatic notes between the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs and the German ambassador in Paris, the German Foreign Ministry and the French ambassador as well as the British ambassador in Bonn. The article therefore first examines from the angle of international law the legal obligations binding the states involved, and Germany in particular, in matters of spent fuel reprocessing contracts. The next question arising in this context and discussed by the article is that of whether and how much indemnification can be demanded by the reprocessing companies, or their governments, resp., if Germany should discontinue spent fuel reprocessing and thus might be made liable for breach of the bilateral agreements. (orig/CB) [de

  17. Contract & agency labour: beyond self-regulation?

    OpenAIRE

    Cotton, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    A paper about the regulation of contract labour. Academic and legal aspects as well as case studies of global union federation work to organise and regulate contract labour in Thailand, Pakistan, Colombia, South Korea and at international level.

  18. International

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    This rubric reports on 10 short notes about international economical facts about nuclear power: Electricite de France (EdF) and its assistance and management contracts with Eastern Europe countries (Poland, Hungary, Bulgaria); Transnuclear Inc. company (a 100% Cogema daughter company) acquired the US Vectra Technologies company; the construction of the Khumo nuclear power plant in Northern Korea plays in favour of the reconciliation between Northern and Southern Korea; the delivery of two VVER 1000 Russian reactors to China; the enforcement of the cooperation agreement between Euratom and Argentina; Japan requested for the financing of a Russian fast breeder reactor; Russia has planned to sell a floating barge-type nuclear power plant to Indonesia; the control of the Swedish reactor vessels of Sydkraft AB company committed to Tractebel (Belgium); the renewal of the nuclear cooperation agreement between Swiss and USA; the call for bids from the Turkish TEAS electric power company for the building of the Akkuyu nuclear power plant answered by three candidates: Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL), Westinghouse (US) and the French-German NPI company. (J.S.)

  19. Obtainment of internal labelling operators as broken Casimir operators by means of contractions related to reduction chains in semisimple Lie algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campoamor-Stursberg, R

    2008-01-01

    We show that the Inoenue-Wigner contraction naturally associated to a reduction chain s implies s' of semisimple Lie algebras induces a decomposition of the Casimir operators into homogeneous polynomials, the terms of which can be used to obtain additional mutually commuting missing label operators for this reduction. The adjunction of these scalars that are no more invariants of the contraction allow to solve the missing label problem for those reductions where the contraction provides an insufficient number of labelling operators.

  20. 48 CFR 242.302 - Contract administration functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) Contractor estimating systems (see FAR 15.407-5); and (B) Contractor material management and accounting... report identifying significant accounting system or related internal control deficiencies. (9) For... SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE CONTRACT MANAGEMENT CONTRACT ADMINISTRATION AND AUDIT SERVICES Contract...

  1. Contract Renewal Information - all Contracts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — Multifamily Portfolio datasets (section 8 contracts) - The information has been compiled from multiple data sources within FHA or its contractors. HUD oversees more...

  2. Contract theory and EU Contract Law

    OpenAIRE

    Hesselink, M.W.; Twigg-Flesner, C.

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between contract theory and European contract law. In particular, it confronts the leading contract law theories with the main characteristics of EU contract law. The conclusion is that the two do not match well. In particular, monist normative contract theories are largely irreconcilable with the contract law of the EU. The paper further addresses the main implications of this mismatch, both for contract theory and for EU contract law. It suggests that in...

  3. Multireference configuration interaction treatment of potential energy surfaces: symmetric dissociation of H/sub 2/O in a double-zeta basis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, F B; Shavitt, I; Shepard, R

    1984-03-23

    Multiconfiguration self-consistent fields (SCF) and multireference configurational interaction (CI) calculations have been performed for the H/sub 2/O molecule in a double-zeta basis for four symmetric geometries, for comparison with full CI results. Unlike single-reference results, the energy errors are almost independent of geometry, allowing unbiased treatments of potential energy surfaces. 35 references, 1 figure, 2 tables.

  4. State-specific Brillouin-Wigner Multireference Coupled Cluster Study of the F.sub.2./sub. Molecule: Assessment of the a Posteriori Size-extensivity Correction

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pittner, Jiří; Šmydke, Jan; Čársky, Petr; Hubač, I.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 547, - (2001), s. 239-244 ISSN 0166-1280 R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC D9.10; GA ČR GA203/99/D009 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4040901 Keywords : potential curve * spectroscopic constants of F2 * multireference coupled clusters Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 0.919, year: 2001

  5. The multi-reference retaining the excitation degree perturbation theory: A size-consistent, unitary invariant, and rapidly convergent wavefunction based ab initio approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fink, Reinhold F.

    2009-01-01

    The retaining the excitation degree (RE) partitioning [R.F. Fink, Chem. Phys. Lett. 428 (2006) 461(20 September)] is reformulated and applied to multi-reference cases with complete active space (CAS) reference wave functions. The generalised van Vleck perturbation theory is employed to set up the perturbation equations. It is demonstrated that this leads to a consistent and well defined theory which fulfils all important criteria of a generally applicable ab initio method: The theory is proven numerically and analytically to be size-consistent and invariant with respect to unitary orbital transformations within the inactive, active and virtual orbital spaces. In contrast to most previously proposed multi-reference perturbation theories the necessary condition for a proper perturbation theory to fulfil the zeroth order perturbation equation is exactly satisfied with the RE partitioning itself without additional projectors on configurational spaces. The theory is applied to several excited states of the benchmark systems CH 2 , SiH 2 , and NH 2 , as well as to the lowest states of the carbon, nitrogen and oxygen atoms. In all cases comparisons are made with full configuration interaction results. The multi-reference (MR)-RE method is shown to provide very rapidly converging perturbation series. Energy differences between states of similar configurations converge even faster

  6. Agile Contracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pries-Heje, Jan; Pries-Heje, Lene

    2014-01-01

    with “endless” re-negotiation of the requirements; you need a more flexible way to develop IS. A new way of coping with many changes is to use an agile development approach and a fixed budget and resources contract. This paper presents an example case. We analyse the case and design a guideline for how......When you have stable and non-ambiguous requirements then a classic contract for IS between a supplier and a public sector institution based on a requirements specification may be well suited. However, if you have to accept many changes or have ambiguous requirements then you may end up...... to implement a fixed budget and resources contract in the public sector. The guideline includes elements to cope with challenges in a tender process such as transparency, criteria for supplier selection, and live assessment of resource skills and capabilities, as well as achieving the flexibility for change...

  7. Turnkey contracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langetepe, G.

    1977-01-01

    To make energy available economically and in sufficient quantity is a main point for the future of an industrial and more for a developing country. The investment costs and the availability of a power plant and in particular for a nuclear power plant are the most significant factors in the economic operation of the plant. In the phase before signing the contract the essential decisions are made with high influence in the economic operation and the availability of the plant. A turn-key contract offers good possibilities to minimize the risks referring a) the plant quality and functionality, b) the plant investment cost, c) the plant completion date, d) the handling of the licensing procedures, e) the availability of the operation. The lecture mentions the points which are of high influence for a successful erection and operation period and which must be clarified before signing the contract between the buyer and supplier of the plant. (orig./HP) [de

  8. A spin-adapted size-extensive state-specific multi-reference perturbation theory. I. Formal developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Shuneng; Cheng, Lan; Liu, Wenjian; Mukherjee, Debashis

    2012-01-01

    We present in this paper a comprehensive formulation of a spin-adapted size-extensive state-specific multi-reference second-order perturbation theory (SA-SSMRPT2) as a tool for applications to molecular states of arbitrary complexity and generality. The perturbative theory emerges in the development as a result of a physically appealing quasi-linearization of a rigorously size-extensive state-specific multi-reference coupled cluster (SSMRCC) formalism [U. S. Mahapatra, B. Datta, and D. Mukherjee, J. Chem. Phys. 110, 6171 (1999), 10.1063/1.478523]. The formulation is intruder-free as long as the state-energy is energetically well-separated from the virtual functions. SA-SSMRPT2 works with a complete active space (CAS), and treats each of the model space functions on the same footing. This thus has the twin advantages of being capable of handling varying degrees of quasi-degeneracy and of ensuring size-extensivity. This strategy is attractive in terms of the applicability to bigger systems. A very desirable property of the parent SSMRCC theory is the explicit maintenance of size-extensivity under a variety of approximations of the working equations. We show how to generate both the Rayleigh-Schrödinger (RS) and the Brillouin-Wigner (BW) versions of SA-SSMRPT2. Unlike the traditional naive formulations, both the RS and the BW variants are manifestly size-extensive and both share the avoidance of intruders in the same manner as the parent SSMRCC. We discuss the various features of the RS as well as the BW version using several partitioning strategies of the hamiltonian. Unlike the other CAS based MRPTs, the SA-SSMRPT2 is intrinsically flexible in the sense that it is constructed in a manner that it can relax the coefficients of the reference function, or keep the coefficients frozen if we so desire. We delineate the issues pertaining to the spin-adaptation of the working equations of the SA-SSMRPT2, starting from SSMRCC, which would allow us to incorporate essentially

  9. SparseMaps—A systematic infrastructure for reduced-scaling electronic structure methods. III. Linear-scaling multireference domain-based pair natural orbital N-electron valence perturbation theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Yang; Sivalingam, Kantharuban; Neese, Frank, E-mail: Frank.Neese@cec.mpg.de [Max Planck Institut für Chemische Energiekonversion, Stiftstr. 34-36, D-45470 Mülheim an der Ruhr (Germany); Valeev, Edward F. [Department of Chemistry, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 24014 (United States)

    2016-03-07

    Multi-reference (MR) electronic structure methods, such as MR configuration interaction or MR perturbation theory, can provide reliable energies and properties for many molecular phenomena like bond breaking, excited states, transition states or magnetic properties of transition metal complexes and clusters. However, owing to their inherent complexity, most MR methods are still too computationally expensive for large systems. Therefore the development of more computationally attractive MR approaches is necessary to enable routine application for large-scale chemical systems. Among the state-of-the-art MR methods, second-order N-electron valence state perturbation theory (NEVPT2) is an efficient, size-consistent, and intruder-state-free method. However, there are still two important bottlenecks in practical applications of NEVPT2 to large systems: (a) the high computational cost of NEVPT2 for large molecules, even with moderate active spaces and (b) the prohibitive cost for treating large active spaces. In this work, we address problem (a) by developing a linear scaling “partially contracted” NEVPT2 method. This development uses the idea of domain-based local pair natural orbitals (DLPNOs) to form a highly efficient algorithm. As shown previously in the framework of single-reference methods, the DLPNO concept leads to an enormous reduction in computational effort while at the same time providing high accuracy (approaching 99.9% of the correlation energy), robustness, and black-box character. In the DLPNO approach, the virtual space is spanned by pair natural orbitals that are expanded in terms of projected atomic orbitals in large orbital domains, while the inactive space is spanned by localized orbitals. The active orbitals are left untouched. Our implementation features a highly efficient “electron pair prescreening” that skips the negligible inactive pairs. The surviving pairs are treated using the partially contracted NEVPT2 formalism. A detailed

  10. A multi-reference filtered-x-Newton narrowband algorithm for active isolation of vibration and experimental investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chun-yu; He, Lin; Li, Yan; Shuai, Chang-geng

    2018-01-01

    In engineering applications, ship machinery vibration may be induced by multiple rotational machines sharing a common vibration isolation platform and operating at the same time, and multiple sinusoidal components may be excited. These components may be located at frequencies with large differences or at very close frequencies. A multi-reference filtered-x Newton narrowband (MRFx-Newton) algorithm is proposed to control these multiple sinusoidal components in an MIMO (multiple input and multiple output) system, especially for those located at very close frequencies. The proposed MRFx-Newton algorithm can decouple and suppress multiple sinusoidal components located in the same narrow frequency band even though such components cannot be separated from each other by a narrowband-pass filter. Like the Fx-Newton algorithm, good real-time performance is also achieved by the faster convergence speed brought by the 2nd-order inverse secondary-path filter in the time domain. Experiments are also conducted to verify the feasibility and test the performance of the proposed algorithm installed in an active-passive vibration isolation system in suppressing the vibration excited by an artificial source and air compressor/s. The results show that the proposed algorithm not only has comparable convergence rate as the Fx-Newton algorithm but also has better real-time performance and robustness than the Fx-Newton algorithm in active control of the vibration induced by multiple sound sources/rotational machines working on a shared platform.

  11. Valence universal multireference coupled cluster calculations of the properties of indium in its ground and excited states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Madhulita; Chaudhuri, Rajat K; Chattopadhyay, Sudip; Sinha Mahapatra, Uttam

    2011-01-01

    In view of its importance in high precision spectroscopy, the valence universal multireference coupled cluster (VU-MRCC) method with four-component relativistic spinors has been applied to compute ionization potential (IP) and excitation energies (EEs) of the indium atom (In I). The effect of electron correlations on the ground and excited state properties is investigated using different levels of CC approximations and basis sets. This study reveals that for a given basis, the linearized VU-MRCC method tends to underestimate the IP, EEs and other one-electron properties such as magnetic hyperfine constant (A) compared to the full blown VU-MRCC method. Our computed results have been compared with available theoretical and experimental data. The IP, EEs, A and oscillator strengths (f) determined at the VU-MRCC level are in excellent agreement with the experimental results. The properties reported here further demonstrate that a basis set with at least h-type of orbitals is ubiquitous to achieve converged results.

  12. Contract theory and EU Contract Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselink, M.W.; Twigg-Flesner, C.

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between contract theory and European contract law. In particular, it confronts the leading contract law theories with the main characteristics of EU contract law. The conclusion is that the two do not match well. In particular, monist normative contract theories

  13. Muscle Contraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, H Lee; Hammers, David W

    2018-02-01

    SUMMARYMuscle cells are designed to generate force and movement. There are three types of mammalian muscles-skeletal, cardiac, and smooth. Skeletal muscles are attached to bones and move them relative to each other. Cardiac muscle comprises the heart, which pumps blood through the vasculature. Skeletal and cardiac muscles are known as striated muscles, because the filaments of actin and myosin that power their contraction are organized into repeating arrays, called sarcomeres, that have a striated microscopic appearance. Smooth muscle does not contain sarcomeres but uses the contraction of filaments of actin and myosin to constrict blood vessels and move the contents of hollow organs in the body. Here, we review the principal molecular organization of the three types of muscle and their contractile regulation through signaling mechanisms and discuss their major structural and functional similarities that hint at the possible evolutionary relationships between the cell types. Copyright © 2018 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  14. Contract design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, P.

    2006-01-01

    The current state of the electric power industry in Ontario was discussed with particular reference to the procurement of contracts and why the Ontario Power Authority (OPA) must be contracting to resolve many of Ontario's electricity issues. As Ontario increasingly relies on imports and natural gas-fired generation, the price of electricity continues to rise given that supply is at a low level. In addition to the generation gap, there are also several transmission constrained areas in Ontario, particularly in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA). The OPA announced 2 projects totalling 1900 MW to relieve congestion. According to the Independent Electricity System Operator (IESO), the total potential opportunity for new generation by 2015 is about 5,000 to 7,000 megawatts. OPA is expected to launch procurement processes for up to 1000 MW of cogeneration, 250 MW of province-wide conservation initiatives, 1900 MW of generation in the western part of the GTA, and 600 MW of generation in downtown Toronto. New nuclear capacity is also anticipated in addition to renewables and conservation/demand management (CDM) initiatives. The OPA's competitive procurement processes will include requests for expressions of interest, requests for qualifications and requests for proposals. The challenge of balancing the technical complexities and realities of procuring generation assets with the need for a fair procurement process was discussed. Contracts will be designed to react to market signals and will include 3 styles: tariff style, tolling style and standard offer contract. OPA will make every effort to balance generator and ratepayer interests. 6 figs

  15. Electrically Stimulated Antagonist Muscle Contraction Increased Muscle Mass and Bone Mineral Density of One Astronaut - Initial Verification on the International Space Station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiba, Naoto; Matsuse, Hiroo; Takano, Yoshio; Yoshimitsu, Kazuhiro; Omoto, Masayuki; Hashida, Ryuki; Tagawa, Yoshihiko; Inada, Tomohisa; Yamada, Shin; Ohshima, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Musculoskeletal atrophy is one of the major problems of extended periods of exposure to weightlessness such as on the International Space Station (ISS). We developed the Hybrid Training System (HTS) to maintain an astronaut's musculoskeletal system using an electrically stimulated antagonist to resist the volitional contraction of the agonist instead of gravity. The present study assessed the system's orbital operation capability and utility, as well as its preventative effect on an astronaut's musculoskeletal atrophy. HTS was attached to the non-dominant arm of an astronaut staying on the ISS, and his dominant arm without HTS was established as the control (CTR). 10 sets of 10 reciprocal elbow curls were one training session, and 12 total sessions of training (3 times per week for 4 weeks) were performed. Pre and post flight ground based evaluations were performed by Biodex (muscle performance), MRI (muscle volume), and DXA (BMD, lean [muscle] mass, fat mass). Pre and post training inflight evaluations were performed by a hand held dynamometer (muscle force) and a measuring tape (upper arm circumference). The experiment was completed on schedule, and HTS functioned well without problems. Isokinetic elbow extension torque (Nm) changed -19.4% in HTS, and -21.7% in CTR. Isokinetic elbow flexion torque changed -23.7% in HTS, and there was no change in CTR. Total Work (Joule) of elbow extension changed -8.3% in HTS, and +0.3% in CTR. For elbow flexion it changed -23.3% in HTS and -32.6% in CTR. Average Power (Watts) of elbow extension changed +22.1% in HTS and -8.0% in CTR. For elbow flexion it changed -6.5% in HTS and -4.8% in CTR. Triceps muscle volume according to MRI changed +11.7% and that of biceps was +2.1% using HTS, however -0.1% and -0.4% respectively for CTR. BMD changed +4.6% in the HTS arm and -1.2% for CTR. Lean (muscle) mass of the arm changed only +10.6% in HTS. Fat mass changed -12.6% in HTS and -6.4% in CTR. These results showed the orbital operation

  16. Electrically Stimulated Antagonist Muscle Contraction Increased Muscle Mass and Bone Mineral Density of One Astronaut - Initial Verification on the International Space Station.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoto Shiba

    Full Text Available Musculoskeletal atrophy is one of the major problems of extended periods of exposure to weightlessness such as on the International Space Station (ISS. We developed the Hybrid Training System (HTS to maintain an astronaut's musculoskeletal system using an electrically stimulated antagonist to resist the volitional contraction of the agonist instead of gravity. The present study assessed the system's orbital operation capability and utility, as well as its preventative effect on an astronaut's musculoskeletal atrophy.HTS was attached to the non-dominant arm of an astronaut staying on the ISS, and his dominant arm without HTS was established as the control (CTR. 10 sets of 10 reciprocal elbow curls were one training session, and 12 total sessions of training (3 times per week for 4 weeks were performed. Pre and post flight ground based evaluations were performed by Biodex (muscle performance, MRI (muscle volume, and DXA (BMD, lean [muscle] mass, fat mass. Pre and post training inflight evaluations were performed by a hand held dynamometer (muscle force and a measuring tape (upper arm circumference.The experiment was completed on schedule, and HTS functioned well without problems. Isokinetic elbow extension torque (Nm changed -19.4% in HTS, and -21.7% in CTR. Isokinetic elbow flexion torque changed -23.7% in HTS, and there was no change in CTR. Total Work (Joule of elbow extension changed -8.3% in HTS, and +0.3% in CTR. For elbow flexion it changed -23.3% in HTS and -32.6% in CTR. Average Power (Watts of elbow extension changed +22.1% in HTS and -8.0% in CTR. For elbow flexion it changed -6.5% in HTS and -4.8% in CTR. Triceps muscle volume according to MRI changed +11.7% and that of biceps was +2.1% using HTS, however -0.1% and -0.4% respectively for CTR. BMD changed +4.6% in the HTS arm and -1.2% for CTR. Lean (muscle mass of the arm changed only +10.6% in HTS. Fat mass changed -12.6% in HTS and -6.4% in CTR.These results showed the orbital

  17. Multireference theoretical investigation on selectivity of the bond fissions in photodissociation of acetyl cyanide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Hong-Yan; Liu, Ya-Jun; Fang, Wei-Hai

    2007-12-01

    The selectivity of the C -CH3 and C-CN bond fissions upon excitation of acetyl cyanide at 193nm has been investigated at the theoretical level of multistate complete active space self-consistent field second order perturbation. The calculated results indicated that the initially excited S3 state relaxes to S2 via ultrafast internal conversion. The S2 state could dissociate via two pathways. One, adiabatically dissociates to CH3CO(X˜)+CN(Ã). The other one internally converts to S1 before S1 intersystem crossing to T1. The T1 state subsequently dissociates to two groups of products: CH3(X˜)+OCCN(X˜) and CH3CO(X˜)+CN(X˜). The experimentally observed preference branching of CN elimination over CH3 one and bond selectivity are the results of the competition between the adiabatic and nonadiabatic dynamics of the S2 state.

  18. Contracting and Performance in Agencies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnholt, Bente; Houlberg Salomonsen, Heidi; Rennison, Betina Wolfgang

    As part of New Public Management (NPM), contracting represents a supplement to the traditional hierarchical and rule-based managing of relations between actors in order to improve performance (Fortin and van Hassel 2000; Greve and Ejersbo 2002; Drewry et al. 2005; Verhoest 2005). To various degrees...... higher goal attainment when agency head experience that the department balance dialogue and autonomy with some element of control in the process of internal contracting (Bjørnholt and Salomonsen 2011). This implies, that effective steering include a combination of decentralized management...... and how a balanced use of internal contracting leads to a better performance. These findings are then theoretically interpreted based upon a combination of literature on agencification as well as public management. We compare contracting across all Danish agencies based on a combination of survey...

  19. Calculations of non-adiabatic couplings within equation-of-motion coupled-cluster framework: Theory, implementation, and validation against multi-reference methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraji, Shirin; Matsika, Spiridoula; Krylov, Anna I.

    2018-01-01

    We report an implementation of non-adiabatic coupling (NAC) forces within the equation-of-motion coupled-cluster with single and double excitations (EOM-CCSD) framework via the summed-state approach. Using illustrative examples, we compare NAC forces computed with EOM-CCSD and multi-reference (MR) wave functions (for selected cases, we also consider configuration interaction singles). In addition to the magnitude of the NAC vectors, we analyze their direction, which is important for the calculations of the rate of non-adiabatic transitions. Our benchmark set comprises three doublet radical-cations (hexatriene, cyclohexadiene, and uracil), neutral uracil, and sodium-doped ammonia clusters. When the characters of the states agree among different methods, we observe good agreement between the respective NAC vectors, both in the Franck-Condon region and away. In the cases of large discrepancies between the methods, the disagreement can be attributed to the difference in the states' character, which, in some cases, is very sensitive to electron correlation, both within single-reference and multi-reference frameworks. The numeric results confirm that the accuracy of NAC vectors depends critically on the quality of the underlying wave functions. Within their domain of applicability, EOM-CC methods provide a viable alternative to MR approaches.

  20. The Danish Contracting System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonke, Sten; Levring, Peter

    The paper is mainly concerned with the institutional framework of the Danish construction industry, describing structures, rules and actors' roles within a perspective of nationally defined procedural guidelines on construction projects. These aspects are treated under the concept of a "contracting...... system". After a short introduction to the structure and activities of the industry the post-war development is reviewed, in particular emphasising the importance of the early industrialisation process which in an international perspective represents quite unique features. Furthermore the most recent...

  1. Principles of European Contract Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lando, Ole; Beale, Hugh

    This text provides a comprehensive guide to the principles of European contract law. They have been drawn up by an independent body of experts from each Member State of the EU, under a project supported by the European Commission and many other organizations. The principles are stated in the form...... of articles, with a detailed commentary explaining the purpose and operation of each article and its relation to the remainder. Each article also has extensive comparative notes surveying the national laws and other international provisions on the topic. "The Principles of European Contract Law Parts I &...... in developing a common European legal culture. The European Parliament has twice called for the creation of a European Civil Code. The principles of European contract law are essential steps in these projects. This text provides a comprehensive guide to the Principles of European contract law. They have been...

  2. Can the second order multireference perturbation theory be considered a reliable tool to study mixed-valence compounds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastore, Mariachiara; Helal, Wissam; Evangelisti, Stefano; Leininger, Thierry; Malrieu, Jean-Paul; Maynau, Daniel; Angeli, Celestino; Cimiraglia, Renzo

    2008-05-07

    In this paper, the problem of the calculation of the electronic structure of mixed-valence compounds is addressed in the frame of multireference perturbation theory (MRPT). Using a simple mixed-valence compound (the 5,5(') (4H,4H('))-spirobi[ciclopenta[c]pyrrole] 2,2('),6,6(') tetrahydro cation), and the n-electron valence state perturbation theory (NEVPT2) and CASPT2 approaches, it is shown that the ground state (GS) energy curve presents an unphysical "well" for nuclear coordinates close to the symmetric case, where a maximum is expected. For NEVPT, the correct shape of the energy curve is retrieved by applying the MPRT at the (computationally expensive) third order. This behavior is rationalized using a simple model (the ionized GS of two weakly interacting identical systems, each neutral system being described by two electrons in two orbitals), showing that the unphysical well is due to the canonical orbital energies which at the symmetric (delocalized) conformation lead to a sudden modification of the denominators in the perturbation expansion. In this model, the bias introduced in the second order correction to the energy is almost entirely removed going to the third order. With the results of the model in mind, one can predict that all MRPT methods in which the zero order Hamiltonian is based on canonical orbital energies are prone to present unreasonable energy profiles close to the symmetric situation. However, the model allows a strategy to be devised which can give a correct behavior even at the second order, by simply averaging the orbital energies of the two charge-localized electronic states. Such a strategy is adopted in a NEVPT2 scheme obtaining a good agreement with the third order results based on the canonical orbital energies. The answer to the question reported in the title (is this theoretical approach a reliable tool for a correct description of these systems?) is therefore positive, but care must be exercised, either in defining the orbital

  3. Conformity of goods in international sales governed by CISG article 35: caveat venditor, caveat emptor and contract law as background law and as a competing set of rules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henschel, Rene Franz

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this article is twofold: namely to analyse the battle between the principles of caveat venditor and caveat emptor and to analyse the relationship between Article 35 and the contract law as background law and as a competing set of rules. The aim is to illustrate whether or not Article...... as an independent concept. Following this, the battle between caveat venditor and caveat emptor is described through an analysis of Art. 35(2)(a) and Article 35(3). Finally, the paper ends up concluding that the Article 35 operates in an area of tension between differing doctrines and rules of the law...

  4. Analysis of international and European policy instruments: pollution swapping . Task 2 Service contract "Integrated measures in agriculture to reduce ammonia emissions"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oenema, O.; Velthof, G.L.

    2007-01-01

    This Report describes the results of Task 2 ‘Analysis of International and European policy instruments’. The aim of this task is to analyze the existing International and European policy instruments aiming at reducing emissions of ammonia, nitrous oxide and methane to the atmosphere and nitrate to

  5. Economic and Social Aspects of the Old Assyrian Loan Contract

    OpenAIRE

    Michel , Cécile

    2013-01-01

    International audience; 1. Loan contracts and other types of investments2. Creditors, debtors and family firms3. Relationships between Assyrians and Anatolians through loan contracts during the 19th and 18th centuries B.C.

  6. Incomplete contract and divisional structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bao, T.; Wang, Y.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we want to analyze the internal divisional structure within an organi- zation in the framework of incomplete contract theory. We use the framework of Aghion and Tirole (1997) and define the managerial control structure as \\sequence of search". A key feature of this paper which

  7. TraceContract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavelund, Klaus; Barringer, Howard

    2012-01-01

    TraceContract is an API (Application Programming Interface) for trace analysis. A trace is a sequence of events, and can, for example, be generated by a running program, instrumented appropriately to generate events. An event can be any data object. An example of a trace is a log file containing events that a programmer has found important to record during a program execution. Trace - Contract takes as input such a trace together with a specification formulated using the API and reports on any violations of the specification, potentially calling code (reactions) to be executed when violations are detected. The software is developed as an internal DSL (Domain Specific Language) in the Scala programming language. Scala is a relatively new programming language that is specifically convenient for defining such internal DSLs due to a number of language characteristics. This includes Scala s elegant combination of object-oriented and functional programming, a succinct notation, and an advanced type system. The DSL offers a combination of data-parameterized state machines and temporal logic, which is novel. As an extension of Scala, it is a very expressive and convenient log file analysis framework.

  8. Final Report on the Audit of the Administration of the Contract Closeout Process at the Defense Contract Management Region, Dallas

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-09-18

    This is our final report on the Audit of the Administration of the Contract Closeout Process at the Defense Contract Management Region, Dallas (DCMR... audit was made from January to October 1989. The objectives of the audit were to determine the timeliness of the contract closeout process, the validity...As part of the audit , we also evaluated internal controls over the contract closeout process. As of December 31, 1988, the Contract Administration

  9. 22 CFR 226.47 - Contract administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Contract administration. 226.47 Section 226.47 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION OF ASSISTANCE AWARDS TO U.S. NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-award Requirements Procurement Standards § 226.47 Contract administration. A...

  10. 22 CFR 226.48 - Contract provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Contract provisions. 226.48 Section 226.48 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION OF ASSISTANCE AWARDS TO U.S. NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-award Requirements Procurement Standards § 226.48 Contract provisions. The...

  11. Communication: spin-orbit splittings in degenerate open-shell states via Mukherjee's multireference coupled-cluster theory: a measure for the coupling contribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mück, Leonie Anna; Gauss, Jürgen

    2012-03-21

    We propose a generally applicable scheme for the computation of spin-orbit (SO) splittings in degenerate open-shell systems using multireference coupled-cluster (MRCC) theory. As a specific method, Mukherjee's version of MRCC (Mk-MRCC) in conjunction with an effective mean-field SO operator is adapted for this purpose. An expression for the SO splittings is derived and implemented using Mk-MRCC analytic derivative techniques. The computed SO splittings are found to be in satisfactory agreement with experimental data. Due to the symmetry properties of the SO operator, SO splittings can be considered a quality measure for the coupling between reference determinants in Jeziorski-Monkhorst based MRCC methods. We thus provide numerical insights into the coupling problem of Mk-MRCC theory. © 2012 American Institute of Physics

  12. Contract engineers cut costs, and flexibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhargava, V.M.

    1991-01-01

    Today's rapid expansion of technology is an important reason for considering hiring contract engineering labor for your power plant because technical specialization is an important aspect of the contract engineering industry. This paper reports that another reason is addressing peak work loads. Any amount of technical assistance is available to assist in meeting schedules. Although a typical human resources department of a utility or architect/engineer may contain a few hundred active resumes, a contract engineering firm may have upwards of 40,000 resumes on file from all parts of the country. Because contract workers know that contract agencies keep abreast of client needs, they are more apt to forward updated resumes to such agencies. Used properly, a contract engineering company's services will augment the efforts of a human resources group and, in the case of some smaller companies, actually take the place of all internal recruiting efforts

  13. Laplace-transformed multi-reference second-order perturbation theories in the atomic and active molecular orbital basis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helmich-Paris, B.; Knecht, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    In the present article, we show how to formulate the partially contracted n-electron valence second-order perturbation theory (NEVPT2) energies in the atomic and active molecular orbital basis by employing the Laplace transformation of orbital-energy denominators (OEDs). As atomic-orbital (AO) basis

  14. 48 CFR 750.7110-5 - Contract files.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract files. 750.7110-5 Section 750.7110-5 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT CONTRACT... Interests of the United States 750.7110-5 Contract files. The fully executed action memorandum indicating...

  15. 22 CFR Appendix A to Part 226 - Contract Provisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION OF ASSISTANCE AWARDS TO U.S. NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS Pt. 226, App. A Appendix A to Part 226—Contract Provisions All contracts, awarded by... Organizations and Small Business Firms Under Government Grants, Contracts and Cooperative Agreements,” and any...

  16. 76 FR 43892 - Modifications of Certain Derivative Contracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-22

    ... obligations under the derivative contract and the party to which the rights and obligations are transferred or... assigning its rights and obligations under the contract and the party to which the rights and obligations... Modifications of Certain Derivative Contracts AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Final...

  17. 76 FR 51878 - Modifications of Certain Derivative Contracts; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-19

    ...) * * * (1) Both the party transferring or assigning its rights and obligations under the derivative contract... Modifications of Certain Derivative Contracts; Correction AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury... temporary regulations (TD 9538) that address when a transfer or assignment of certain derivative contracts...

  18. Reviving Ulysses contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spellecy, Ryan

    2003-12-01

    Ulysses contracts have faced paternalism objections since they first were proposed. Since the contracts are designed to override a present request from a legally competent patient in favor of a past request made by that patient, enforcement of these contracts was argued to be unjustifiable strong paternalism. Recent legal developments and new theories of practical reasoning suggest that the discussion of Ulysses contracts should be revived. This paper argues that with a proper understanding of the future-directed planning embodied in Ulysses contracts, the charge of strong paternalism can be answered, and the enforcement of some Ulysses contracts may be justified under the rubric of weak paternalism.

  19. ADMINISTRATIVE CONTRACTS. DELIMITATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liana Teodora PASCARIU

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Article examines whether all contracts of public persons are administrative contracts; in other words, if the administration may conclude contracts that, according to their legal nature, are not administrative. If we start from the definition of administrative contracts as it appears in Law no. 554/2004, these include contracts by public authorities which concern the enhancement of public property execution of works of public interest, public services, public procurement and other administrative contracts provided by special laws and subject to the jurisdiction of the administrative courts.

  20. Lovkommentar i Karnovs Lovsamling af Lovbekendtgørelse 2014-11-21 nr. 1224 International købelov (CISG: Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lookofsky, Joseph

    2018-01-01

    CISG er en international konvention, som indeholder regler om købsaftaler i international handel. CISG regulerer blandt andet, hvornår en international købsaftale er indgået, købers og sælgers rettigheder, forpligtelser samt misligholdelsesbeføjelser mm. CISG finder anvendelse, dels når såvel...... sælgers som købers hjemland har tiltrådt konventionen, dels når international privatrets regler fører til anvendelsen af en kontraherende stats ret. CISG trådte i kraft 1988-01-01. Den danske ratifikation skete 1989-02-04. CISG er ratificeret af godt 85 andre lande (2017). Som et led i den danske...

  1. Poppet valve control of throat stability bypass to increase stable airflow range of a Mach 2.5. inlet with 60 percent internal contraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, G. A.; Sanders, B. W.

    1975-01-01

    The throat of a Mach 2.5 inlet with a coldpipe termination was fitted with a stability-bypass system. System variations included several stability bypass entrance configurations. Poppet valves controlled the bypass airflow. The inlet stable airflow range achieved with each configuration was determined for both steady state conditions and internal pulse transients. Results are compared with those obtained without a stability bypass system. Transient results were also obtained for the inlet with a choke point at the diffuser exit and for the inlet with large and small stability bypass plenum volumes. Poppet valves at the stability bypass exit provided the inlet with a stable airflow range of 20 percent or greater at all static and transient conditions.

  2. Terminal-shock and restart control of a Mach 2.5, axisymmetric, mixed compression inlet with 40 percent internal contraction. [wind tunnel tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumbick, R. J.

    1974-01-01

    Results of experimental tests conducted on a supersonic, mixed-compression, axisymmetric inlet are presented. The inlet is designed for operation at Mach 2.5 with a turbofan engine (TF-30). The inlet was coupled to either a choked orifice plate or a long duct which had a variable-area choked exit plug. Closed-loop frequency responses of selected diffuser static pressures used in the terminal-shock control system are presented. Results are shown for Mach 2.5 conditions with the inlet coupled to either the choked orifice plate or the long duct. Inlet unstart-restart traces are also presented. High-response inlet bypass doors were used to generate an internal disturbance and also to achieve terminal-shock control.

  3. Contractibility of curves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Charatonik

    1991-11-01

    Full Text Available Results concerning contractibility of curves (equivalently: of dendroids are collected and discussed in the paper. Interrelations tetween various conditions which are either sufficient or necessary for a curve to be contractible are studied.

  4. Determinants for Labour Contract Length: A French Microeconometric Study

    OpenAIRE

    Ben Halima, Mohamed; Ben Halima, Bassem

    2008-01-01

    International audience; Two types of analyses are conducted to explain the determinants of labour contracts length. The first analysis emphasizes on the contracting costs and the level of uncertainty. The second analysis focuses on the incentive and selection effect of the contract length. This paper test the determinants for contract duration by means of econometric duration models. The estimates are carried out from French data (TDE). An econometric treatment of the endogeneity of the labou...

  5. Concept of contracting authority

    OpenAIRE

    Kasiliauskaitė, Vitalija

    2016-01-01

    Concept of Contracting Authority Law on Public Procurement the procurement concept implies the conclusion that public procurement be declared only such purchases are carried out by the contracting authority. The contracting authorities can be a subject of state and municipal management institutes, whose assignment authority is determined by a functional approach. Also, contracting authorities may be public and legal entities, but that the public interest and operates non-commercial activities...

  6. Inflation Forecast Contracts

    OpenAIRE

    Gersbach, Hans; Hahn, Volker

    2012-01-01

    We introduce a new type of incentive contract for central bankers: inflation forecast contracts, which make central bankers’ remunerations contingent on the precision of their inflation forecasts. We show that such contracts enable central bankers to influence inflation expectations more effectively, thus facilitating more successful stabilization of current inflation. Inflation forecast contracts improve the accuracy of inflation forecasts, but have adverse consequences for output. On balanc...

  7. Teaching about Contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froman, Michael; Kosnoff, Kathy

    1978-01-01

    Presents teaching strategies for introducing high school students to contract law. Offers as a case study a contract agreement between pro football players and team owners. Stresses basic elements of contracts (offer, acceptance, consideration, and understanding the bargaining process). Journal available from the American Bar Association, 1155…

  8. Contract law as fairness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klijnsma, J.

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the implications for contract law of Rawls' theory of justice as fairness. It argues that contract law as an institution is part of the basic structure of society and as such subject to the principles of justice. Discussing the basic structure in relation to contract law is

  9. 3 CFR - Government Contracting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... contract oversight could reduce such sums significantly. Government outsourcing for services also raises... a risk that taxpayer funds will be spent on contracts that are wasteful, inefficient, subject to... mission. In such cases, the agency must ensure that the risks associated with noncompetitive contracts are...

  10. Contracting for nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuessler, C.M.

    1981-10-01

    This paper deals with uranium sales contracts, i.e. with contractual arrangements in the first steps of the fuel cycle, which cover uranium production and conversion. The various types of contract are described and, where appropriate, their underlying business philosophy and their main terms and conditions. Finally, the specific common features of such contracts are reviewed. (NEA) [fr

  11. Other enrichment related contracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, J.C.

    1978-01-01

    In addition to long-term enrichment contracts, DOE has other types of contracts: (1) short-term, fixed-commitment enrichment contract; (2) emergency sales agreement for enriched uranium; (3) feed material lease agreement; (4) enriched uranium storage agreement; and (5) feed material usage agreement

  12. Duration in Production Contracts

    OpenAIRE

    MacDonald, James M.; Korb, Penelope J.

    2006-01-01

    We use 2003 and 2004 ARMS data to analyze variations in contract duration among growers of broilers who hold production contracts. Most contracts cover just a single flock, but many extend for 1-2 years, and a significant minority of broiler contracts specify lengths of 5, 10, and even 15 years. We find that grower debt and production volume are inversely related to the choice of a short term (a year or less) contract, while lengthy prior experience with the contractor promotes short term con...

  13. Negotiating Efficient PPP Contracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvarnø, Christina D.

    . An opportunity the member states should consider using when procuring a PPP. This paper looks at the negotiation and contracting of a PPP in an economic theoretical and EU public procurement perspective and discusses how to establish an efficient PPP contract under a strong public law doctrine. Governments......This paper concerns Public Private Partnership (PPP) contracts in concern to the coming new 2014/24IEU public procurement directive. The new EU public procurement directive gives the public authority the opportunity to negotiate PPPs much more when they are implemented in national law...... procurement law. Furthermore, the paper seeks to establish a connection between public law, private law and the efficient PPP contract by drawing upon economic theory and empirical contract data from UK, US and Danish partnering contracts from the construction industry and the aim of contracting joint utility...

  14. Understanding and negotiating the power contract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, S.G.

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a historical overview of power contracts in Canada and the United States, with attention to typical types of power contracts as well as the applications and trends of power contracts. The power industry has been leaning toward industry standard agreements that encourage certainty, streamline trading arrangements between parties, and increased liquidity in power markets. The most commonly used agreements in North America are the Western Systems Power Pool (WSPP), the Edison Electric Institute (EEI), and the International Swaps and Derivatives Association (ISDA) agreements. The trend is for additional consolidation among these agreements, and power transactions in the future will probably be included in master commodity trading agreements. In addition, international standard commodity trading agreements are appearing which could alter the way commodities and their derivatives are contracted in North America. The provisions that require special attention include events of default, credit provisions, force majeure, and transaction procedures. 13 refs

  15. UNIDROITED POSITION AS A SOURCE OF CONTRACT LAW IN THE FUTURE OF INDONESIAN CONTRACT LAW AMANDEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Ike Kusmiati

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available [Unidroited Position As A Source Of Contract Law In The Future Of Indonesian Contract Law Amandement] Business transaction often faced the issue of ensuring that the rights and obligation are fulfilled as the agreement as agreed, especially when facing the difficulties of the rights and obligation of the parties due to different legal system between countries. Thereore, to answer the problems  the parties will seek legal sources, namely book III of the Civil Code in addition to studying and understanding the principles of internasional commercial contract law, namely UNIDROIT which contains principles that can be adopted as one of the works that seek Standarization of contract law to encourage the harmonization of commercial law international efforts to bring together different business actors between countries, so that the same legal basis is required in the coming renewal of Indonesia contract law. Keyword : Position, UNIDROIT, Law, Contract, Indonesia.

  16. Construction contract revenue recording comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana Bohušová

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Publicly traded companies prepare their consolidated accounts in conformity with the international accounting standards (IAS/IFRS in accordance with the Regulation No. 1606/2002. This is obliged for all publicly traded joint-stock companies in the Czech Republic. Other companies prepare financial statements in accordance with national accounting standards. There are Accounting Act No. 563/1991 of Coll. and Regulation No. 500/2002 of Coll., Czech Accounting Standards in the Czech Republic. Both systems are based on different principles so there are many differences. The Czech Accounting System (CAS is based on the rules while IAS/IFRS are based on principles (Kovanicová, 2005. These differences are mainly caused by the different philosophy. CAS prefers the fiscal policy to the economic substance while IAS/IFRS prefere the economic substance. One of the most significant dif­fe­ren­ces is in the field of revenue recording. There are two standards concerning the revenues recording (IAS 18 − Revenue, IAS 11 – Construction Contracts in IAS/IFRS. CAS 019 – Expenses and Revenue are dealing with the revenue recording in the Czech Republic. The paper is aimed at the comparison of the methodical approaches for revenue recording used by IAS/IFRS and by CAS. The most important differences are caused by the different approach to the long term contracts (construction contracts, software development contracts revenues recording.

  17. Contract formation and mistake in European contract law : a genetic comparison of transnational model rules / Nils Jansen, Reinhard Zimmermann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jansen, Nils

    2011-01-01

    Euroopa lepinguõiguse normide analüüs ja võrdlus. PECL - The Principles of European Cntract Law ; CISG - United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods ; DCFR - Draft Common Frame of Reference ; UNIDROIT - Principles of International Commercial Contracts

  18. Free electrons and ionic liquids: study of excited states by means of electron-energy loss spectroscopy and the density functional theory multireference configuration interaction method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regeta, Khrystyna; Bannwarth, Christoph; Grimme, Stefan; Allan, Michael

    2015-06-28

    The technique of low energy (0-30 eV) electron impact spectroscopy, originally developed for gas phase molecules, is applied to room temperature ionic liquids (IL). Electron energy loss (EEL) spectra recorded near threshold, by collecting 0-2 eV electrons, are largely continuous, assigned to excitation of a quasi-continuum of high overtones and combination vibrations of low-frequency modes. EEL spectra recorded by collecting 10 eV electrons show predominantly discrete vibrational and electronic bands. The vibrational energy-loss spectra correspond well to IR spectra except for a broadening (∼0.04 eV) caused by the liquid surroundings, and enhanced overtone activity indicating a contribution from resonant excitation mechanism. The spectra of four representative ILs were recorded in the energy range of electronic excitations and compared to density functional theory multireference configuration interaction (DFT/MRCI) calculations, with good agreement. The spectra up to about 8 eV are dominated by π-π* transitions of the aromatic cations. The lowest bands were identified as triplet states. The spectral region 2-8 eV was empty in the case of a cation without π orbitals. The EEL spectrum of a saturated solution of methylene green in an IL band showed the methylene green EEL band at 2 eV, indicating that ILs may be used as a host to study nonvolatile compounds by this technique in the future.

  19. A Rapid Identification Method for Calamine Using Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Based on Multi-Reference Correlation Coefficient Method and Back Propagation Artificial Neural Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yangbo; Chen, Long; Huang, Bisheng; Chen, Keli

    2017-07-01

    As a mineral, the traditional Chinese medicine calamine has a similar shape to many other minerals. Investigations of commercially available calamine samples have shown that there are many fake and inferior calamine goods sold on the market. The conventional identification method for calamine is complicated, therefore as a result of the large scale of calamine samples, a rapid identification method is needed. To establish a qualitative model using near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy for rapid identification of various calamine samples, large quantities of calamine samples including crude products, counterfeits and processed products were collected and correctly identified using the physicochemical and powder X-ray diffraction method. The NIR spectroscopy method was used to analyze these samples by combining the multi-reference correlation coefficient (MRCC) method and the error back propagation artificial neural network algorithm (BP-ANN), so as to realize the qualitative identification of calamine samples. The accuracy rate of the model based on NIR and MRCC methods was 85%; in addition, the model, which took comprehensive multiple factors into consideration, can be used to identify crude calamine products, its counterfeits and processed products. Furthermore, by in-putting the correlation coefficients of multiple references as the spectral feature data of samples into BP-ANN, a BP-ANN model of qualitative identification was established, of which the accuracy rate was increased to 95%. The MRCC method can be used as a NIR-based method in the process of BP-ANN modeling.

  20. New staff contract policy

    CERN Document Server

    HR Department

    2006-01-01

    Following discussion at TREF and on the recommendation of the Finance Committee, Council approved a new staff contract policy, which became effective on 1 January 2006. Its application is covered by a new Administrative Circular No. 2 (Rev. 3) 'Recruitment, appointment and possible developments regarding the contractual position of staff members'. The revised circular replaces the previous Circulars No. 9 (Rev. 3) 'Staff contracts' and No. 2 (Rev. 2) 'Guidelines and procedures concerning recruitment and probation period for staff members'. The main features of the new contract policy are as follows: The new policy provides chances for long-term employment for all staff recruits staying for four years without distinguishing between those assigned to long-term or short-term activities when joining CERN. In addition, it presents a number of simplifications for the award of ICs. There are henceforth only 2 types of contract: Limited Duration (LD) contracts for all recruitment and Indefinite Contracts (IC) for...

  1. New transport and handling contract

    CERN Multimedia

    SC Department

    2008-01-01

    A new transport and handling contract entered into force on 1.10.2008. As with the previous contract, the user interface is the internal transport/handling request form on EDH: https://edh.cern.ch/Document/TransportRequest/ To ensure that you receive the best possible service, we invite you to complete the various fields as accurately as possible and to include a mobile telephone number on which we can reach you. You can follow the progress of your request (schedule, completion) in the EDH request routing information. We remind you that the following deadlines apply: 48 hours for the transport of heavy goods (up to 8 tonnes) or simple handling operations 5 working days for crane operations, transport of extra-heavy goods, complex handling operations and combined transport and handling operations in the tunnel. For all enquiries, the number to contact remains unchanged: 72202. Heavy Handling Section TS-HE-HH 72672 - 160319

  2. Copyright Preemption of Contracts

    OpenAIRE

    Bohannan, Christina

    2008-01-01

    This Article argues that both courts and scholars are wrong in their categorical approaches to preemption of contracts under the Copyright Act, and proposes an intermediate approach that recognizes the importance of both contract rights and federal policy in preemption analysis. First, it argues that both courts and scholars have misapplied preemption law to breach of contract claims. Although the two sides tend to favor opposite results, they take equally categorical approaches. Categori...

  3. Smart contracts sobre Bitcoin

    OpenAIRE

    Andreu Alemany, Josep Miquel

    2016-01-01

    El present treball final de màster realitza una introducció als smart contracts. El treball introdueix el concepte de contracte intel·ligent, els seus usos i alguns exemples existents. Seguidament proporciona les nocions necessàries de les transaccions del protocol Bitcoin per poder implementar un contracte intel·ligent, usant la blockchain que ofereix el protocol. Per últim, s'explica la implementació d'un contracte intel·ligent usant bitcoin: un canal de micropagaments. El presente traba...

  4. 76 FR 76201 - International Mail Contract

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-06

    ... Service states that the projected financial performance of the Canada Post 2012 Agreement is provided in...-filed Postal Service request to enter into an additional bilateral agreement with Canada Post... ( http://www.prc.gov ) or by directly accessing the Commission's Filing Online system at https://www.prc...

  5. 78 FR 70600 - International Mail Contract

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-26

    .... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Table of Contents I. Introduction II. The Postal Service's Filings III. Commission Action IV. Ordering Paragraphs I. Introduction Background. On November 15, 2013, the Postal Service filed...), filed separately; \\2\\ and a redacted Excel file with supporting financial documentation. Notice at 2...

  6. 78 FR 48728 - International Mail Contract

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-09

    ... INFORMATION: Table of Contents I. Introduction II. Contents of Filing III. Commission Action IV. Ordering Paragraphs I. Introduction On August 2, 2013, the Postal Service filed notice, pursuant to 39 CFR 3015.5... includes redacted and unredacted versions of supporting financial documents. III. Commission Action The...

  7. 78 FR 70601 - International Mail Contract

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-26

    ... 202-789-6820. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Table of Contents I. Introduction II. The Postal Service's Filings III. Commission Action IV. Ordering Paragraphs I. Introduction Background. On November 15, 2013... financial documentation. Notice at 1-2. The Postal Service also filed unredacted copies of the Agreement and...

  8. 77 FR 75678 - International Mail Contract

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-21

    ... INFORMATION: Table of Contents I. Introduction II. Contents of Filing III. Commission Action IV. Ordering Paragraphs I. Introduction Notice of filing. On December 14, 2012, the Postal Service filed a notice...' Decision, the new rates and related financial information. Id. at 3. The Postal Service filed redacted...

  9. 77 FR 74032 - International Mail Contract

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-12

    .... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Table of Contents I. Introduction II. Notice of Filing III. Ordering Paragraphs I. Introduction Background. On December 4, 2012, the Postal Service filed notice, pursuant to 39 CFR 3010.40 et... Agreement and unredacted supporting financial documentation. Id. at 3. Attachment 2 is a copy of the...

  10. 77 FR 70852 - International Mail Contract

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-27

    ... criteria: whether the agreement (1) improves the Postal Service's net financial position or enhances the... consists of the unredacted text of the Agreement and unredacted supporting financial documentation. Id. at... the supporting financial documentation. Id. \\2\\ The Application was filed pursuant to 39 CFR 3007.21...

  11. 78 FR 57419 - International Mail Contract

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-18

    ... review are whether the Agreement (1) improves the Postal Service's net financial position or enhances... supporting financial documentation. Notice at 3. The Postal Service also filed unredacted copies of the Agreement and the supporting financial documentation under seal. Id. The Agreement is the most recent in a...

  12. Democratic contract law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselink, M.W.

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the normative relationship between contract law and democracy. In particular, it argues that in order to be legitimate contract law needs to have a democratic basis. Private law is not different in this respect from public law. Thus, the first claim made in this article will

  13. Contract Teachers in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Sangeeta; Pandey, Priyanka

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we use non-experimental data from government schools in Uttar Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh, two of the largest Indian states, to present average school outcomes by contract status of teachers. We find that contract teachers are associated with higher effort than civil service teachers with permanent tenures, before as well as after…

  14. Whither Performance Contracting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Norman S.

    This report describes briefly performance contracts; discusses their shortcomings, pitfalls, and advantages; and gives some insight into the future development of this new concept. Two shortcomings of performance contracting include (1) teaching to the test and (2) board abdication of its responsibility for making final decisions about educational…

  15. Comparing contracting performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindholst, Andrej Christian

    . Hypotheses are suggested for the role of culture, competition, contracts, capabilities and collaboration for contracting performance between and across the countries. Arguments are tested against data from on four comparable national surveys of private delivery of park and road maintenance services in local...

  16. BOT Outsourcing Contracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørberg Jensen, Peter D.; Petersen, Bent

    2012-01-01

    Build-operate-transfer (BOT) contracting has been widely usen in the engineering and construction industry, but has only recently been introduced in services industry domains. Notably, service provider firms from emerging markets have recently started offering BOT outsourcing contracts. In this p...

  17. Drilling contracts and incentives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osmundsen, Petter; Sorenes, Terje; Toft, Anders

    2008-01-01

    Shortages of rigs and personnel have encouraged discussion of designing incentive contracts in the drilling sector. However, for the drilling contracts, there are not a large variety of contract types in use. This article describes and analyses incentives for drilling contractors. These are directly represented by the compensation formats utilised in the present and in the consecutive drilling contracts. Indirectly, incentives are also provided by the evaluation criteria that oil companies use for awarding drilling assignments. Changes in contract format pose a number of relevant questions relating to resource management, and the article takes an in-depth look at some of these. Do evaluation criteria for awarding drilling assignments encourage the development of new technology and solutions? How will a stronger focus on drilling efficiency influence reservoir utilisation?

  18. Drilling contract issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davison, G.B.; Worden, D.R.; Borbridge, G.K.D.

    1997-01-01

    Some selected issues which are facing both operators and contractors in drilling for oil and gas, such as the allocation of risk by contract and by statute and the implementation of new technologies, were discussed. There are three varieties of written drilling contracts used in Canada: (1) day work and meterage contracts, (2) master drilling agreements, and (3) contracts that are used in construction projects that do not specifically relate to drilling. Issues relevant to the contractual allocation of risk, to implementing new drilling technologies, to reconciling contract and statute liability, and the formation of strategic alliances for mutual benefit, and the factors contributing to the success of such alliances were explored. 12 refs

  19. THE PSYCHOLOGICAL CONTRACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca Giorgiana GRAMA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The psychological contract became known as a research paradigm within corporate research, providing a broad framework which explains the employee-company relations. Despite all this, there are still many debates on the concept and a series of criticism were expressed that led to the necessity of some more rigorous theoretical and empirical analysis. The psychological contract refers to the unwritten, implicit expectations that employees have from the company and vice versa; it is that which defines the things the employee expects from the employer. Consequently, each of the parties involved in the contract may have different perceptions on these commitments and obligations. Thus the psychological contract may be regarded as an exchange relation between the employer and the employee. Breaking the psychological contract affects the performance, the morale, and the motivation of the staff in a negative manner. The information presented in this paper is intended to contribute to the theoretical and methodological development of the concept.

  20. Incomplete Contract and Divisional Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Bao, T.; Wang, Y.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we want to analyze the internal divisional structure within an organi- zation in the framework of incomplete contract theory. We use the framework of Aghion and Tirole (1997) and define the managerial control structure as \\sequence of search". A key feature of this paper which differentiate it from other works in the literature is that we add add an ex post bargaining phase in which the managers can agree on the project which maximize their joint private benefit. Our model shows...

  1. Small Business Administration Section 8 (A) Support Services Contracts at the Ballistic Missile Defense Organization

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1994-01-01

    ...%flc objectives were to determine whether the contract administration process and applicable internal controls were effective and whether costs charged to the contracts were allowable, reasonable, and allocable. In addition, we reviewed anonymous allegations sent to Senator David Pryor of fraud, waste, and abuse on CTI contracts with BMDO. We also reviewed internal controls applicable to the audit objectives.

  2. Automated evaluation of matrix elements between contracted wavefunctions: A Mathematica version of the FRODO program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angeli, C.; Cimiraglia, R.

    2013-02-01

    A symbolic program performing the Formal Reduction of Density Operators (FRODO), formerly developed in the MuPAD computer algebra system with the purpose of evaluating the matrix elements of the electronic Hamiltonian between internally contracted functions in a complete active space (CAS) scheme, has been rewritten in Mathematica. New version : A program summaryProgram title: FRODO Catalogue identifier: ADV Y _v2_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADVY_v2_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 3878 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 170729 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Mathematica Computer: Any computer on which the Mathematica computer algebra system can be installed Operating system: Linux Classification: 5 Catalogue identifier of previous version: ADV Y _v1_0 Journal reference of previous version: Comput. Phys. Comm. 171(2005)63 Does the new version supersede the previous version?: No Nature of problem. In order to improve on the CAS-SCF wavefunction one can resort to multireference perturbation theory or configuration interaction based on internally contracted functions (ICFs) which are obtained by application of the excitation operators to the reference CAS-SCF wavefunction. The previous formulation of such matrix elements in the MuPAD computer algebra system, has been rewritten using Mathematica. Solution method: The method adopted consists in successively eliminating all occurrences of inactive orbital indices (core and virtual) from the products of excitation operators which appear in the definition of the ICFs and in the electronic Hamiltonian expressed in the second quantization formalism. Reasons for new version: Some years ago we published in this journal a couple of papers [1, 2

  3. Intersystem-crossing and phosphorescence rates in fac-Ir{sup III}(ppy){sub 3}: A theoretical study involving multi-reference configuration interaction wavefunctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleinschmidt, Martin; Marian, Christel M., E-mail: Christel.Marian@hhu.de [Institute of Theoretical and Computational Chemistry, Heinrich-Heine-University Düsseldorf, Universitätsstraße 1, 40225 Düsseldorf (Germany); Wüllen, Christoph van [Fachbereich Chemie and Forschungszentrum OPTIMAS, Technical University of Kaiserslautern, Erwin-Schrödinger-Straße 52, 67663 Kaiserslautern (Germany)

    2015-03-07

    We have employed combined density functional theory and multi-reference configuration interaction methods including spin–orbit coupling (SOC) effects to investigate the photophysics of the green phosphorescent emitter fac-tris-(2-phenylpyridine)iridium (fac-Ir(ppy){sub 3}). A critical evaluation of our quantum chemical approaches shows that a perturbational treatment of SOC is the method of choice for computing the UV/Vis spectrum of this heavy transition metal complex while multi-reference spin–orbit configuration interaction is preferable for calculating the phosphorescence rates. The particular choice of the spin–orbit interaction operator is found to be of minor importance. Intersystem crossing (ISC) rates have been determined by Fourier transformation of the time correlation function of the transition including Dushinsky rotations. In the electronic ground state, fac-Ir(ppy){sub 3} is C{sub 3} symmetric. The calculated UV/Vis spectrum is in excellent agreement with experiment. The effect of SOC is particularly pronounced for the metal-to-ligand charge transfer (MLCT) band in the visible region of the absorption spectrum which does not only extend its spectral onset towards longer wavelengths but also experiences a blue shift of its maximum. Pseudo-Jahn-Teller interaction leads to asymmetric coordinate displacements in the lowest MLCT states. Substantial electronic SOC and a small energy gap make ISC an ultrafast process in fac-Ir(ppy){sub 3}. For the S{sub 1}↝T{sub 1} non-radiative transition, we compute a rate constant of k{sub ISC} = 6.9 × 10{sup 12} s{sup −1} which exceeds the rate constant of radiative decay to the electronic ground state by more than six orders of magnitude, in agreement with the experimental observation of a subpicosecond ISC process and a triplet quantum yield close to unity. As a consequence of the geometric distortion in the T{sub 1} state, the T{sub 1} → S{sub 0} transition densities are localized on one of the

  4. Contract Award Decisions Resulting in Contract Termination for Default

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1996-01-01

    .... Specifically, the audit focused on contracts terminated either for default or convenience and determined whether the contract terminations could have been averted based on information available before contract award...

  5. Shape of Multireference, Equation-of-Motion Coupled-Cluster, and Density Functional Theory Potential Energy Surfaces at a Conical Intersection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gozem, Samer; Melaccio, Federico; Valentini, Alessio; Filatov, Michael; Huix-Rotllant, Miquel; Ferré, Nicolas; Frutos, Luis Manuel; Angeli, Celestino; Krylov, Anna I; Granovsky, Alexander A; Lindh, Roland; Olivucci, Massimo

    2014-08-12

    We report and characterize ground-state and excited-state potential energy profiles using a variety of electronic structure methods along a loop lying on the branching plane associated with a conical intersection (CI) of a reduced retinal model, the penta-2,4-dieniminium cation (PSB3). Whereas the performance of the equation-of-motion coupled-cluster, density functional theory, and multireference methods had been tested along the excited- and ground-state paths of PSB3 in our earlier work, the ability of these methods to correctly describe the potential energy surface shape along a CI branching plane has not yet been investigated. This is the focus of the present contribution. We find, in agreement with earlier studies by others, that standard time-dependent DFT (TDDFT) does not yield the correct two-dimensional (i.e., conical) crossing along the branching plane but rather a one-dimensional (i.e., linear) crossing along the same plane. The same type of behavior is found for SS-CASPT2(IPEA=0), SS-CASPT2(IPEA=0.25), spin-projected SF-TDDFT, EOM-SF-CCSD, and, finally, for the reference MRCISD+Q method. In contrast, we found that MRCISD, CASSCF, MS-CASPT2(IPEA=0), MS-CASPT2(IPEA=0.25), XMCQDPT2, QD-NEVPT2, non-spin-projected SF-TDDFT, and SI-SA-REKS yield the expected conical crossing. To assess the effect of the different crossing topologies (i.e., linear or conical) on the PSB3 photoisomerization efficiency, we discuss the results of 100 semiclassical trajectories computed by CASSCF and SS-CASPT2(IPEA=0.25) for a PSB3 derivative. We show that for the same initial conditions, the two methods yield similar dynamics leading to isomerization quantum yields that differ by only a few percent.

  6. ENFORCEMENT OF MORTGAGE CONTRACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alisa A. BELU

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A chattel mortgage contract is the expression of a real guarantee that gives the creditor precedence over other creditors, in addition to the general pledge upon the belongings of the debtor. It refers to the sale of mortgaged movable assets, exclusively or prioritized in favor of the mortgaging creditor, in case the debtor does not comply with his / her commitments, under the signed mortgage contract. Beginning from this purpose, shared by both sides (as the chattel mortgage contract is synallagmatic, in case the debtor is unable to fulfill his / her commitments, the sides reach a situation of enforcement of the signed chattel mortgage contract. Given the legal status of the chattel mortgage contract [Art. 2387-2477 Noul Cod Civil , Universul Juridic, Bucureşti, 2016, ISBN 978-606-673-792-0], the principle of binding force of the contract and the principle according to which signed legal conventions will entail legal effects, the Romanian law maker developed the proper legal framework for the enforcement of the chattel mortgage contract. [art. 622 si urm. Noul Cod de Procedură Civilă, ed. Hamangiu, Bucureşti, 2016, ISBN 978-606-27-0459-9].

  7. JURIDICAL WILL IN CONTRACTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilian CIONGARU

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In the business law, almost all judicial relationships of private law are obligational juridical relationships which are made up of legal acts and facts. The most important legal act is the contract since it is the basis of the social life in any community meaning that it represents the most important economic and juridical instrument for the participants to a contract. The persons are free and equal in society and, consequently, no power is valid and fundamental unless it relies on their consent, namely on a contract. So, the existence of a civil contract relies on the principles of consensualism, a perception based on moral rules to observe one’s promises, to have good faith and to observe the interests of your fellow creature. The exterior manifestation, the expression or declaration of the juridical will constitutes the consent of such person in making the structure of contract. The declared will must correspond to the person’s real will and the adoption and declaration of the juridical will must take place consciously. Any contract that does not derive from juridical will is null and the civilizing character is inexistent. The principles giving sense to consensualism is the one of agreement between parties so as to produce legal effects by itself and it is enough for the conclusion of a contract, regardless of the form in which it is exteriorized, a principle expressed by the Latin adagio pacta sunt servanda.

  8. Bottlenecks and contracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The report surveys the central points in the literature about contracts on geographical price differences and transmission rights in the power market. It is commonly believed that such contracts may reduce market power and contribute to better network investments. The theoretical debate is in part unfinished and largely based on very stylised assumptions. There is some indication that such contracts may not be very useful in practice. But they may be useful in some cases, perhaps in particular when power is transported outside limited surplus areas and for certain investment decisions where there is no systems operator with a natural responsibility

  9. Contract management survey 2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppszallern, Suzanna

    2002-10-01

    Spending on clinical contracts continues to outpace spending on business services, but may be leveling off. The 12th annual Contract Management Survey shows that the performance of clinical vendors is now comparable to business service vendors in meeting savings targets. Both business and clinical vendors are receiving higher marks from hospital leaders, but execs quickly respond to low marks by bringing the service back in-house of changing vendors. This report examines trends in outsourcing, satisfaction levels, the decision-making process, contract features and performance, and spending.

  10. 2001 contract management survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-10-01

    For the second year running, hospitals are spending more on clinical outsourcing than on business services. The Eleventh Annual Contract Services Survey shows that, in clinical areas, executives use outsourcing to acquire specialized expertise with cost savings secondary. Reducing costs and FTEs are the primary reasons for outsourcing business operations. Business service contracts are more likely to meet expectations for cost savings. Overall, satisfaction levels are up, but in some areas there's still a lot of room for improvement. This report examines current trends in outsourcing, strategies for the future, satisfaction levels, the decisionmaking process, contract features, and costs.

  11. The contract - introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loeffler, G.

    1975-01-01

    The contract is the last and final step of project planning and the first step of project implementation. The contract has to specify in detail and to the point, as concisely as possible, the complete scope of supplies and work, define all technical particulars and requirements, put forward the conditions of legal, regulatory, administrative and financial procedure, prepare for operating and maintenance instructions to be issued after commissioning. In short, the contract is expected to be a reliable instrument during the manufacturing and construction period as well as a guide-book to assist the owner afterwards in the operation and maintenance of the plant. (orig./FW) [de

  12. Administration of Resale Stock Merchandise Contracts at the Defense Commissary Agency

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Young, Shelton

    1995-01-01

    ... and complied with, and to evaluate the effectiveness of related internal controls. Contract administration functions for the resale stock merchandise contracts were segregated among the service centers, regions, and commissary stores...

  13. Establishing contract periods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huffman, F.C.

    1978-01-01

    The lead time for executing the Adjustable Fixed-Commitment (AFC) contract and exceptions which may be considered are discussed. The initial delivery period is also discussed. Delays, deferrals, and schedule adjustment charges are finally considered

  14. Industrial Services Contracts

    CERN Document Server

    2006-01-01

    This document gives an overview of Industrial Services contracts at CERN, including the probable expenditure in 2006 and the estimated expenditure for 2007. The Finance Committee is invited: - to take note of the revised amount in 2006 for Industrial Services contracts referred to in this document of 138.02 MCHF at 2006 prices compared to the previously anticipated amount of 122.67 MCHF at 2005 prices; - to take note that the estimated amount in 2007 for the contracts referred to in this document will be 112.54 MCHF at 2006 prices; - for the reasons set out in this document, the Finance Committee is also invited to approve the requests for the contracts presented and highlighted in the Annexes.

  15. Temporary labour contracts

    CERN Document Server

    2001-01-01

    At its September 2000 meeting, the Finance Committee approved a second one-year extension of the four existing temporary labour contracts (L020/PE, L021/PE, L022/PE, L023/PE) until 31 December 2001 for a total amount not exceeding 6 000 000 Swiss francs at 2000 prices. The Finance Committee is invited: - to take note that the estimated annual expenditure on temporary labour in 2001 will amount to approximately 4 500 000 Swiss francs against the previously estimated 6 000 000 Swiss francs; - to approve the extension of the four existing contracts by six months to 30 June 2002 for an overall amount not exceeding 1 500 000 Swiss francs; - to take note that new contracts for the Swiss part of the CERN site will be submitted for adjudication in December 2001 and that new contracts for the French part of the CERN site will be submitted for adjudication in the course of 2002.

  16. Temporary labour contracts

    CERN Document Server

    1999-01-01

    The five contracts for Temporary Labour assignments on the CERN site (L020/PE, L021/PE, L022/PE, L023/PE and L024/PE) approved by the Finance Committee in March 1996 (CERN/FC/3857) will reach the end of their initial three-year contractual period at the end of December 1999. Following the satisfactory execution of these contracts during this period, CERN requests approval to extend them from January 2000 for the first of the two years foreseen in the original adjudication. The Finance Committee is invited: - to take note that the three-year expenditure for Temporary Labour contracts from 1997 to 1999 will not exceed 19 100 000 Swiss francs, compared to the 18 900 000 Swiss francs estimated at the time of the adjudication in March 1996; - to approve an extension of the present Temporary Labour contracts for the year 2000 for a total amount not exceeding 6 000 000 Swiss francs.

  17. Governanças híbridas complementares aos contratos no comércio justo citrícola internacional Hybrid governances complementary to contracts in international fair trade orange juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melise Dantas Machado Bouroullec

    2010-12-01

    in transactions between legally independent organizations that chose to coordinate part of their joint activities. The sector chosen was the chain of fair trade orange juice (traditional and organic, and the main actors involved are Brazilian orange growers' organizations, European buyers, and international certifiers of fair trade. Particular emphasis was given to the coordination mechanisms that are complementary to contracts and which were firstly highlighted by Menard (2004. Those mechanisms of coordination are assured by a private certifier that is accepted voluntarily by the actors involved. This certifier authority, which can be more or less formal, coordinates several factors involved in transactions involving a mixed type of governance that includes control and incentives.

  18. Corrupt Relational Contracting

    OpenAIRE

    Johann Graf Lambsdorff; Sitki Utku Teksoz

    2002-01-01

    Because corruption must be hidden from the public and is not enforced by courts it entails transaction costs, which are larger than those from legal exchange. This suggests that corrupt contracts are primarily relational contracts where legal exchange serves as a basis for sealing and enforcing corrupt agreements. Legal exchange not only provides for corrupt opportunities, but for the necessary enforcement mechanisms. Examples of such legal exchange are long-term business exchange, belonging ...

  19. Contracting as a Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-30

    disconfirmation of expectations theory to examine customer satisfaction in the procuring contracting officer (PCO)–program manager (PM) relationship in...marketing terms, finding that disconfirmed expectations lead to consumer satisfaction or dissatisfaction. The former approach presents the idea that if an...individual exerts effort, the expectation is that successful performance will occur leading to a desired result. In contracting, the theory might be

  20. Expansionary fiscal contractions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergman, Ulf Michael; Hutchison, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The Expansionary Fiscal Contraction (EFC) hypothesis predicts that a major fiscal consolidation leads to an economic expansion under certain circumstances. We test this hypothesis, and the implied non-linear responses of the economy to large and small changes in fiscal policy, using data from...... that the exogenous fiscal contraction in Denmark was a credible regime shift and, together with other reforms undertaken at the time, increased both private consumption and aggregate output....

  1. An unsatisfactory contract policy

    CERN Multimedia

    Association du personnel

    2012-01-01

    For the last 15 years contract policy has been one of the top priorities of CERN staff, as expressed in successive surveys initiated by the Staff Association. In one’s professional life, having some forward vision of one’s career prospects is the key to loyalty and motivation. On the contrary, instability about the future is always at the root of anxiety, conflicts, or even health problems. A good employer must therefore balance the needs of the Company and those of its employees. CERN’s current contract policy, as described in the Administrative Circular No 2, states that staff members should first obtain a limited duration (LD) contract of up to five years. Then, if they want to stay in the Organization, staff members must apply, usually once a year, and before the end of their LD contract, for an indefinite contract (IC) post. All candidates for an IC post are considered by the Review Board for the award of indefinite contracts (Review Board) which will choose the most suita...

  2. 26 CFR 1.72-6 - Investment in the contract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Investment in the contract. 1.72-6 Section 1.72... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Items Specifically Included in Gross Income § 1.72-6 Investment in the contract. (a) General rule. (1) For the purpose of computing the “investment in the contract”, it is first...

  3. "Financial Emergency" and the Faculty Furlough: A Breach of Contract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Mary Sanders

    1984-01-01

    The power of the university to breach faculty contracts in order to meet its temporary cash-flow problems and the rights of faculty when this breach occurs are discussed. To avoid litigation, a university must have established internal guidelines which can be incorporated into an employment contract. (MLW)

  4. International cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    In 1995, Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic (NRA SR) ensured foreign cooperation particularly in the frame of the Slovak Republic is membership in the IAEA, as well as cooperation with the Nuclear Energy Agency of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD NEA), cooperation with European Union in the frame of PHARE programmes, and intergovernmental cooperation and cooperation among nuclear regulatory authorities. With respect to an international importance, prestige and a wide-scope possibilities of a technical assistance , either a direct one (expert assessments, technology supplies, work placement, scientific trips, training courses) or indirect one (participation at various conferences, seminars, technical committees, etc), the most important cooperation with the IAEA in Vienna. In 1994, the Slovak Republic, was elected to the Board Governors, the represent the group of Eastern European countries. The Slovak Government entrusted the NRA SR's Chairman with representing the Slovak Republic in the Board of Governors. Owing to a good name of Slovakia was elected to the one of two Vice-Chairmen of the Board of Governors at the 882-nd session on the Board. IAEA approved and developed 8 national projects for Slovakia in 1995. Generally, IAEA is contracting scientific contracts with research institutes, nuclear power plants and other organizations. Slovak organizations used these contracts as complementary funding of their tasks. In 1995, there were 12 scientific contracts in progress, or approved respectively. Other international activities of the NRA SR, international co-operations as well as foreign affairs are reported

  5. Choreographies and Behavioural Contracts on the Way to Dynamic Updates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Bravetti

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available We survey our work on choreographies and behavioural contracts in multiparty interactions. In particular theories of behavioural contracts are presented which enable reasoning about correct service composition (contract compliance and service substitutability (contract refinement preorder under different assumptions concerning service communication: synchronous address or name based communication with patient non-preemptable or impatient invocations, or asynchronous communication. Correspondingly relations between behavioural contracts and choreographic descriptions are considered, where a contract for each communicating party is, e.g., derived by projection. The considered relations are induced as the maximal preoders which preserve contract compliance and global traces: we show maximality to hold (permitting services to be discovered/substituted independently for each party when contract refinement preorders with all the above asymmetric communication means are considered and, instead, not to hold if the standard symmetric CCS/pi-calculus communication is considered (or when directly relating choreographies to behavioral contracts via a preorder, no matter the communication mean. The obtained maximal preorders are then characterized in terms of a new form of testing, called compliance testing, where not only tests must succeed but also the system under test (thus relating to controllability theory, and compared with classical preorders such as may/must testing, trace inclusion, etc. Finally, recent work about adaptable choreographies and behavioural contracts is presented, where the theory above is extended to update mechanisms allowing choreographies/contracts to be modified at run-time by internal (self-adaptation or external intervention.

  6. Global LNG - characteristics, clients and contracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauquis, P.R.

    1997-01-01

    Total's liquefied natural gas (LNG) holdings were described. Other topics discussed included an overview of gas consumption and internationally traded gas in 1995, a primer on the history of LNG, Japan's average import prices in 1996, Europe's border gas prices and consumption in 1995, Canada/US regional price differences in 1995 and 1996, and world gas markets and prices in 1996. The projected LNG supply and demand in Europe and Asia , especially in Japan, China and India, was also discussed. General concepts of LNG pricing, the general structure of a gas sales contract, and the different categories of LNG contracts were also reviewed. 24 figs

  7. INDEFINITE CONTRACT REVIEW 2000

    CERN Multimedia

    Division des ressources humaines

    2000-01-01

    The Director-General has decided to review staff members in professional categories 2 to 5 satisfying the criteria for consideration for the award of an indefinite contract, in accordance with Article R II 1.20 of the Staff Regulations. Staff members holding a fixed-term contract which it has been decided not to renew will not be considered. The following stages are foreseen:1.\tCandidates qualifying for review in accordance with Article R II 1.20 of the Staff Regulations and the Administrative Circular N° 9 will be contacted by Human Resources Division. 2.\tThe criteria as to when staff members qualify for review are described in Administrative Circular N° 9. These include the following:staff members who are in their fourth year of service on a fixed-term contract;in addition, for staff members having three years or more of previous relevant service in the Organization on a contract of limited duration (or term-contract) and upon proposal by the division leader concerned, consid...

  8. INDEFINITE CONTRACT REVIEW 2001

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2001-01-01

    The Director-General has decided to review staff members in professional categories 2 to 5 satisfying the criteria for consideration for the award of an indefinite contract, in accordance with Article R II 1.20 of the Staff Regulations. Staff members holding a fixed-term contract which it has been decided not to renew will not be considered. The following stages are foreseen: 1. Candidates qualifying for review in accordance with Article R II 1.20 of the Staff Regulations and the Administrative Circular N° 9 will be contacted by Human Resources Division. 2. The criteria as to when staff members qualify for review are described in Administrative Circular N° 9. These include the following: staff members who are in their fourth year of service on a fixed-term contract; in addition, for staff members having three years or more of previous relevant service in the Organization on a contract of limited duration (or term-contract) and upon proposal by the division leader concerned, consideration fo...

  9. Temporary labour contracts

    CERN Document Server

    2000-01-01

    The five contracts for Temporary Labour assignments on the CERN site (L020/PE, L 021/PE, L 022/PE, L 023/PE and L 024/PE) approved by the Finance Committee in March 1996 (CERN/FC/3857) reached the end of their initial three-year contractual period at the end of December 1999. At CERN?s request, in September 1999 the Finance Committee approved an extension of these contracts for the year 2000 for a total amount not exceeding 6 000 000 Swiss francs (CERN/FC/4196). In December 1999, one of the five contractors, FIRCROFT, withdrew from its contract for 2000. Following the satisfactory execution of the four remaining contracts during 2000, CERN requests approval to extend them from January 2001 for the second of the two optional years provided for in the original adjudication. The Finance Committee is invited to approve the extension of the existing contracts until 31 December 2001 for a total amount not exceeding 6 000 000 Swiss francs at 2000 prices.

  10. Networks and informal contract law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tjong Tjin Tai, Eric; Brownsword, Roger; van Gestel, Rob A.J.; Micklitz, Hans-W.

    2017-01-01

    It is often argued that formal contract law cannot treat networks correctly. An analysis of networks in an informal contract law system shows that informal contract law is no panacea. Remaining problems require a different approach to legal regulation and contract practice.

  11. Assigning the Cerium Oxidation State for CH2CeF2 and OCeF2 Based on Multireference Wave Function Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooßen, Oliver; Dolg, Michael

    2016-06-09

    -C and Ce-O stretching frequencies at the DFT, CASSCF, second-order Rayleigh-Schrödinger perturbation theory (RS2C), multireference configuration interaction (MRCI), as well as single, doubles, and perturbative triples coupled cluster (CCSD(T)) level are reported and compared to experimental infrared absorption data in a Ne and Ar matrix.

  12. Contract Management: Organisational and Legal Form of Hotel Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Burak Tatyana V.

    2013-01-01

    Hotel business has been the most dynamic and profitable segment of economy, which is characterised with a high degree of internationalisation of capital and international character, during the recent decades. We clearly observe development of national and international hotel networks at this stage. Management contract is one of the methods of development and creation of hotel networks. The article describes theoretical basis of introduction of the contract management into the hotel business, ...

  13. Capitation, contracts, and control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McIsaac, L.H.

    1987-01-01

    The radiology business manager in today's environment must become proficient in contract evaluations and negotiations. Health care is focusing on preventive medicine. Third-party payers are offering plans and programs to provide ''well-patient'' care. For prepaid (HMO-IPA-PTO) plans to succeed, demands for reduced fees and other entrepreneurial contractual arrangements are developed. This presentation will focus on specific items contained in most contracts. The issues of withhold, billing procedures, prompt-payment rewards, medical liability, capitation determinations, and modified capitation plans will be discussed. It is the intent of this presentation to share with the audience methods of evaluating contracts, the importance of negotiating specific terms, and an approach to determination of capitation amounts

  14. PROCUREMENT AND CONTRACT MANAGEMENT

    CERN Multimedia

    Training & Development Group; Linda Orr-Easo; Tel. 72460; Nathalie Dumeaux; Tel. 78144

    2001-01-01

    We are pleased to announce the launch of a new training on: Procurement and Contract Management (This seminar will be run by CERN experts in French or in English) Level 1 The aim is to raise awareness of the key issues involved. Date : 8 June 2001 This level is open to everyone. Participants should register via our Web page as soon as possible. Level 2 To develop the skills needed to effectively manage contracts, from the Technical, Commercial and Legal aspects. Dates : Three days, Autumn 2001 This Level is open to those who are/will be more directly responsible for procurement and contract management. Participants should have followed Level 1. For a description of the seminar, please consult:   Level 1: http://training.web.cern.ch/Training/MANCO/P9798/9-cm_e.htm Level 2: http://training.web.cern.ch/Training/MANCO/P9798/9-cm2_e.htm

  15. Amending Contracts for Choreographies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Bocchi

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Distributed interactions can be suitably designed in terms of choreographies. Such abstractions can be thought of as global descriptions of the coordination of several distributed parties. Global assertions define contracts for choreographies by annotating multiparty session types with logical formulae to validate the content of the exchanged messages. The introduction of such constraints is a critical design issue as it may be hard to specify contracts that allow each party to be able to progress without violating the contract. In this paper, we propose three methods that automatically correct inconsistent global assertions. The methods are compared by discussing their applicability and the relationships between the amended global assertions and the original (inconsistent ones.

  16. Panel discussion : contract design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vallas, A. [Sempra Energy Trading, Toronto, ON (Canada); Vegh, G. [MacLeod Dixon, Toronto, ON (Canada); McGee, M. [Energy Profiles Ltd., Etobicoke, ON (Canada); Zaremba, T. [Direct Energy Marketing, Calgary, AB (Canada); Seshan, A. [Larson and Toubro Information Technology, Toronto, ON (Canada); Harricks, P. [Gowlings, Toronto, ON (Canada); Bertoldi, L. [Borden Ladner Gervais, Toronto, ON (Canada); Taylor, R. [Hydro One Networks Inc., Markham, ON (Canada)

    2003-05-01

    This session presented highlights of the comments of 8 panelists who discussed the issue of contract design. The new electricity market in Ontario has introduced the energy trader, who enters into a contract with the consumer, based on the spot price set by the Independent Electricity Market Operator. Every contract has a fixed price payer as well as floating-price payers. If the floating price for a given amount of energy is higher than the fixed price, then the consumer gets the difference. Confusion, however, arises with the purchase of retail physical power in the market, particularly in deciding a fixed rate that the consumer will be paying. Different billing options were also discussed with emphasis on mid to large retail customers that have portfolios in the tens of MW and up to 100 MW or more. figs.

  17. Panel discussion : contract design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vallas, A.; Vegh, G.; McGee, M.; Zaremba, T.; Seshan, A.; Harricks, P.; Bertoldi, L.; Taylor, R.

    2003-01-01

    This session presented highlights of the comments of 8 panelists who discussed the issue of contract design. The new electricity market in Ontario has introduced the energy trader, who enters into a contract with the consumer, based on the spot price set by the Independent Electricity Market Operator. Every contract has a fixed price payer as well as floating-price payers. If the floating price for a given amount of energy is higher than the fixed price, then the consumer gets the difference. Confusion, however, arises with the purchase of retail physical power in the market, particularly in deciding a fixed rate that the consumer will be paying. Different billing options were also discussed with emphasis on mid to large retail customers that have portfolios in the tens of MW and up to 100 MW or more. figs

  18. Adding Concurrency to Smart Contracts

    OpenAIRE

    Dickerson, Thomas; Gazzillo, Paul; Herlihy, Maurice; Koskinen, Eric

    2017-01-01

    Modern cryptocurrency systems, such as Ethereum, permit complex financial transactions through scripts called smart contracts. These smart contracts are executed many, many times, always without real concurrency. First, all smart contracts are serially executed by miners before appending them to the blockchain. Later, those contracts are serially re-executed by validators to verify that the smart contracts were executed correctly by miners. Serial execution limits system throughput and fails ...

  19. Is Contract Law Necessary?

    OpenAIRE

    SCHWARTZ, Alan

    2010-01-01

    This lecture was delivered on 17 March 2010. Alan Schwartz, Sterling Professor of Law; Professor of Management, Yale University This Lecture argues that much of the contract law in the cases (the US, the UK and Canada) and in the codes (Europe and Latin America) is unnecessary. To say that a law is unnecessary is to say that it does not perform a useful social function. The argument below thus sets out the functions that contract laws today are thought to serve, and then shows that many of...

  20. Culture and Contract Laws

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lando, Ole

    2007-01-01

    In the article it is argued that the wish to preserve the cultural values of national law should not prevent the EU from preparing a Code or an Optional Instrument. The no-code countries on the British Isles and in Scandinavia are the most ardent opponents to the idea of unifying European Contract...... Law by way of a code on Contracts. In both these regions however the absence of a code causes problems. In England a prominent writer has found that the major weakness of the judge-made law is its immense diffusion and the consequent difficulty of access to it and the Nordic countries face the same...

  1. Do contracts help?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tumennasan, Norovsambuu

    Economists perceive moral hazard as an undesirable problem because it undermines efficiency. Carefully designed contracts can mitigate the moral hazard problem, but this assumes that a team is already formed. This paper demonstrates that these contracts are sometimes the reason why teams do...... transfers, then moral hazard affects stability positively in a large class of games. For example, a stable team structure exists if teams produce public goods or if the quota is two. However, these existence results no longer hold if efforts are verifiable....

  2. Statutes and contracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trosborg, Anna

    1995-01-01

    and commissive acts. The findings show that the language of the law characteristically selects patterns of regulative distinct from, for example, the patterns typically selected in everyday conversational English. The characteristics of the language of the law can be interpreted within the adherence to legal......This paper is concerned with the language used in legal speech acts in legislative texts and contracts in the field of English Contract Law. The central objects of study are regulative functions with a particular view to establishing realization patterns of the rhetorical functions of directive...

  3. Consensus, contracts, and committees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, J D

    1991-08-01

    Following a brief account of the puzzle that ethics committees present for the Western Philosophical tradition, I will examine the possibility that social contract theory can contribute to a philosophical account of these committees. Passing through classical as well as contemporary theories, particularly Rawls' recent constructivist approach, I will argue that social contract theory places severe constraints on the authority that may legitimately be granted to ethics committees. This, I conclude, speaks more about the suitability of the theory to this level of analysis than about the ethics committee phenomenon itself.

  4. The regulation of peculiarities of electronic contracting: comparative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Наталія Юліївна Філатова

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Contract formation by electronic means nowadays is a widespread phenomenon. Nevertheless electronic contracting has been thoroughly explored by scholars all over the world and regulated both internationally and domestically, there still remain some issues which need to be carefully analyzed. In our view, the most essential question raised by electronic contracting is whether there is a need to amend substantial contract law provisions with regard to peculiarities of contracts concluded by electronic means. Seeking the answer to this question several approaches have been formulated, but none of them seems to be completely appropriate. In this paper the answer is also attempted to be found. For this purpose a comparative analysis of doctrine, legislation and judicial practice of certain states is performed. Particularly, offer, acceptance and moment of electronic contract formation are explored. On the basis of this research the following conclusion is done: amendments to substantial contract law provisions are not always necessary to improve the regulation of electronic contracting. Nevertheless the provisions of law should be applied correctly to the disputes arising from electronic contract formation taking into account the peculiarities of such contracts.

  5. Partnering and contracting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohnstedt, Kristian Ditlev

    2014-01-01

    Purpose - Partnering is often, by economists, and construction managerial literature related to more incomplete contracts. This can be explained by seeing partnering as something that neutralizes opportunism. The aim is to uncover whether partnering neutralizes opportunism when there is an incomp...

  6. Cognition and Incomplete Contracts

    OpenAIRE

    Tirole, Jean

    2008-01-01

    Thinking about contingencies, designing covenants, and seeing through their implications is costly. Parties to a contract accordingly use heuristics and leave it incomplete. The paper develops a model of limited cognition and examines its consequences for contractual design. (JEL D23, D82, D86, L22)

  7. Validating Timed Component Contracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le Guilly, Thibaut; Liu, Shaoying; Olsen, Petur

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a technique for testing software components with contracts that specify functional behavior, synchronization, as well as timing behavior. The approach combines elements from unit testing with model-based testing techniques for timed automata. The technique is implemented...... in an online testing tool, and we demonstrate its use on a concrete use case....

  8. Turn key contracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feretic, D.

    1975-01-01

    The aim of this summary is to point out some specific areas which have to be covered in a turn-key contract and which are of primarily interest to the buyer of a nuclear plant. It will be assumed that the buyer is utility company in a developing country and a plant supplier a company in an industrial country. (orig./FW) [de

  9. Startpoints via weak contractions

    OpenAIRE

    Agyingi, Collins Amburo; Gaba, Yaé Ulrich

    2018-01-01

    Startpoints (resp. endpoints) can be defined as "oriented fixed points". They arise naturally in the study of fixed for multi-valued maps defined on quasi-metric spaces. In this article, we give a new result in the startpoint theory for quasi-pseudometric spaces. The result we present is obtained via a generalized weakly contractive set-valued map.

  10. Copyright or Contract?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okerson, Ann

    1997-01-01

    Most authors and publishers of electronic information believe that current copyright law does not address technical capabilities or reader uses and have turned to contracts or licenses to define the rights of owners and users. Discusses copyrights, fair use, and licenses and highlights licensing's unresolved issues: use and users; archiving;…

  11. Quebec-USA electricity export contracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labbe, J.-F.

    1993-06-01

    Electricity exports from Hydro-Quebec to utilities in the USA significantly affects the economy and environment of Quebec. These exports may be arranged under interconnection agreements to sell excess capacity and production during off-peak periods or under firm sales contracts. Hydro-Quebec exports could also replace power plants that would otherwise be needed in the USA. The economic environment for Hydro-Quebec exports to the USA is reviewed along with the regulatory environment applicable to international trade (General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, Canada-USA Free Trade Agreement, North American Free Trade Agreement), Quebec (Canadian federal and provincial law), and the USA (federal and state law). A jurisdictional analysis of power export contracts is then presented, citing examples of contracts already signed by Hydro-Quebec with utilities in New York and New England. Contract law and contract provisions are discussed, including common clauses and particular clauses. Suggestions are made for new clauses that would improve the electricity trade. 215 refs., 13 figs., 3 tabs

  12. 26 CFR 1.471-10 - Applicability of long-term contract methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Applicability of long-term contract methods. 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Inventories § 1.471-10 Applicability of long-term contract methods. See § 1.460-2 for rules providing for the application of the long-term contract methods to...

  13. A critical review of Iran's buyback contracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groenendaal, Willem J.H. van; Mazraati, Mohammad

    2006-01-01

    Iran's oil and gas industry requires investments of US$ 15 billion in the short term and over US$70 billion in the medium term. Iran tries to interest international oil companies (IOC) in investing in Iran's oil and gas business by offering buyback contracts. Under a buyback contract an IOC invests and when production starts, the field is handed over to the National Iranian Oil Company (NIOC) or one of its representatives. The IOC gets its costs and an agreed upon profit paid out of the oil and/or gas gross profits, assuming the field produces as agreed upon and the international energy prices are high enough. According to the Iranian government, the buyback contract contains sufficient incentives for an IOC to invest in Iran. The IOCs, however, disagree. They claim that they solely bare the risks in a buyback contract, whereas the Iranian counterpart receives all windfall profits. Furthermore, the IOCs claim that the utilisation of Iran's oil and gas reserves will be sub-optimal if they are not involved in optimising long-term recovery. In this paper, we investigate these claims and show that they are partly correct. Given Iran's need for investment capital, Iran might have to change its policy

  14. Employee contract issues for dermatologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Christopher E; Indest, George F

    2013-12-01

    Employees and employers routinely face negotiating and preparing physician employment contracts. It is important for both sides to know and understand the basic information on what a comprehensive employment contract for a dermatologist should contain. There are various employment contract provisions from both the employee's perspective and the employer's perspective that must be considered when preparing physician employment contracts. This article provides basic advice and recommendations on requirements that should be included in such contracts. It suggests legal pitfalls that can be avoided through various contract clauses.

  15. Reconciling Contracts and Relational Governance through Strategic Contracting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Bent; Østergaard, Kim

    2018-01-01

    on contract types, such as strategic versus conventional, may reconcile the enduring research controversy between the substitution and complements perspectives. Practical implications: Today, formal contracts with foreign distributors tend to resemble “prenuptial agreements”. The opportunity for relational...

  16. 26 CFR 1.631-2 - Gain or loss upon the disposal of timber under cutting contract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... cutting contract. 1.631-2 Section 1.631-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... loss upon the disposal of timber under cutting contract. (a) In general. (1) If an owner disposes of... deemed to be the date such timber is cut. However, if payment is made to the owner under the contract for...

  17. Contracting with the Enemy: The Contracting Officer’s Dilemma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    contracting command xv KO contracting officer KTR contractor LSC lead service component MGAA Mesopotamia Group Atlas Apache NAT National Afghanistan...and Contract Authority Understanding the roles of contracting versus command authority and command relationships is a fundamental that must be...Audit 12-7 (2012) described the CENTCOM-JTSCC (C- JTSCC) formation and command relationship : In April 2010, CENTCOM issued a fragmentary order to

  18. Contracting in a Foreign Country

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rodeschin, Darrin

    1997-01-01

    .... This thesis investigates and compares the different contracting structures of the U.S. Army, the UN, and Apple as well as the duties and responsibilities of the contracting individuals within these organizations...

  19. Utility Energy Services Contracts Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-09-01

    The UESC Guide is a compilation of samples and templates developed as a resource to help contracting officers implement task orders for UESCs under existing U.S. General Services Administration areawide contracts.

  20. Automatic Conflict Detection on Contracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenech, Stephen; Pace, Gordon J.; Schneider, Gerardo

    Many software applications are based on collaborating, yet competing, agents or virtual organisations exchanging services. Contracts, expressing obligations, permissions and prohibitions of the different actors, can be used to protect the interests of the organisations engaged in such service exchange. However, the potentially dynamic composition of services with different contracts, and the combination of service contracts with local contracts can give rise to unexpected conflicts, exposing the need for automatic techniques for contract analysis. In this paper we look at automatic analysis techniques for contracts written in the contract language mathcal{CL}. We present a trace semantics of mathcal{CL} suitable for conflict analysis, and a decision procedure for detecting conflicts (together with its proof of soundness, completeness and termination). We also discuss its implementation and look into the applications of the contract analysis approach we present. These techniques are applied to a small case study of an airline check-in desk.

  1. Water and Muscle Contraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Grazi

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The interaction between water and the protein of the contractile machinery as well as the tendency of these proteins to form geometrically ordered structures provide a link between water and muscle contraction. Protein osmotic pressure is strictly related to the chemical potential of the contractile proteins, to the stiffness of muscle structures and to the viscosity of the sliding of the thin over the thick filaments. Muscle power output and the steady rate of contraction are linked by modulating a single parameter, a viscosity coefficient. Muscle operation is characterized by working strokes of much shorter length and much quicker than in the classical model. As a consequence the force delivered and the stiffness attained by attached cross-bridges is much larger than usually believed.

  2. Energy contracting in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muggli, C.

    2000-01-01

    The article discusses the status of energy contracting in Switzerland and compares it with the situation in USA, Germany and France, where it has been standard practice for many years. The fact that this financing and operating instrument is not widely used in Switzerland in spite of its benefits for users and suppliers is discussed, as are the obstacles placed in its way. The results of a study made by the Federal Office of Energy are presented, whereby some 220 existing contracting arrangements with a total investment volume of around CHF 200 million were noted and a further potential of around CHF 1.1 billion estimated. The author notes that in order to utilise this potential, great efforts must be made by all parties involved

  3. 48 CFR 937.7040 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 937.7040... CONTRACTING SERVICE CONTRACTING Protective Services Contracting 937.7040 Contract clauses. The contracting... services” in all protective services solicitations and contracts involving DOE-owned facilities requiring...

  4. Contracting for Complex Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    asymmetries, and barriers to market entry and exit (e.g., Mankiw , et al., 2002). Goods may be non-rivalrous or non-excludable so that transferable property...investments. Expenditures are asset specific to the extent they have no economic value outside the product being produced (Williamson, 2005). For...example, some research in the US space program produced economic value outside the contract (e.g., Tang), while other research produced little value

  5. Contract types - turnkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loeffler, G.

    1975-01-01

    Turnkey or the turnkey type of contract refers to a system of management according to which one organization accepts total responsibility for completing all parts and all phases of a project. In the case of a power project the turnkey contractor undertakes to design the plant, supply or procure and erect the equipment, build the station and put it into operation. (orig./FW) [de

  6. Between Status and Contract?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thorsten Keiser

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This contribution deals with unfree labour in Germany from the early modern age until the beginning of the 20th century. It presents the main conclusions of a book published in 2013 on this subject in German. Unfree labour is not identified in the first place with slavery or any other labour relationship based on status. Instead, this study aims at an analysis of freedom and coercion in contractual labour relationships. It will be argued that in Germany contractual labour relationships before 1800 were embedded in a legal system that strongly restricted contractual autonomy and aimed at the suppression of free labour markets. The scope of this legislation was to guarantee efficient labour performance, which was not only perceived as being in the personal interest of an employer, but as a fundamental element of the common good. After 1800 the system changed to more incentive-based legislation that established freedom of contract for labour relations. Nevertheless, coercion in order to perform the contractual duties of a work contract remained important for many groups of workers, especially farmhands and industrial workers. The last criminal sanctions for breaches of labour contracts were only abolished in the revolution of 1919. This development shows the difficulties German law had in extending the principles of private law to workers. When a system of free labour was fully established, the issue of unemployment and economic problems, especially in the Weimar Republic, required a new system of protective rules. The history of free market based labour contracts in Germany was therefore very short, with state intervention shi ing from control and coercion to social assistance.

  7. The interpretation of administrative contracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătălin-Silviu SĂRARU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the principles of interpretation for administrative contracts, in French law and in Romanian law. In the article are highlighted derogations from the rules of contract interpretation in common law. Are examined the exceptions to the principle of good faith, the principle of common intention (willingness of the parties, the principle of good administration, the principle of extensive interpretation of the administrative contract. The article highlights the importance and role of the interpretation in administrative contracts.

  8. Exit from contract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oren Bar-Gill

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective to study the procedure of exiting the contract its costs and benefits. Methods statistical method comparative analysis. Results free exit from contract is one of the most powerful tools for the consumer rights protection. The procedure frees consumers from bad deals and keeps businesses honest. Yet consumers often choose transactions with lockin provisions trading off exit rights for other perks. This article examines the costs and benefits of free exit as compared to the lockin alternative. According to the authors the present regulation of exit penalties in the USA is poorly tailored to address concerns about lockin particularly in light of increasingly ubiquitous marketbased solutions. The article also calls regulatory attention to loyalty rewards which are shown to be as powerful as exit penalties and equally detrimental. Scientific novelty the article reveals a paradoxical state of the law exit regulations in the USA are used most where they are needed least. Termination penalties present an obvishyous target for regulatory intervention while loyalty programs seem benign not warranting any regulatory attention. Practical significance the article is of interest for the Russian juridical science and lawmaking authorities as in Russia the issue of exiting the contract is as topical as in the USA and requires solution which would impair neither the rights of consumers nor the rights of the sellers ofnbspproducts and services. nbsp

  9. CONTRACT FOLLOW UP TRAINING

    CERN Multimedia

    Technical Training; Tel. 74460

    2001-01-01

    SPL is organizing Training Sessions on the Contract Follow Up application. CFU is a Web based tool, developped and supported by the Administrative Information Services. It allows the creation of Divisional Requests and the follow up of their processing, from the Market Survey to the Invitation to Tender or Price Enquiry, approval by the Finance Committee, up to the actual signature of a Contract, acccording to the CERN Purchasing procedures. It includes a document management component. It also provides link with other AIS applications such as BHT and EDH. The course is primarily intended for DPOs, Contract Technical responsibles in the division and their assistants, but is beneficial to anybody involved in the follow up of such Purchasing Procedures. This course is free of charge, but application is necessary. The details of the course may be found at http://training.web.cern.ch/Training/ENSTEC/P2001/Bureautique/cfu4_f.htm General information of CFU may be found at http://ais.cern.ch/apps/cfu/ The dates of t...

  10. Non-turnkey contract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimoyama, Shunji

    1975-01-01

    A turnkey contract is recommended to such a country which is in the initial stage of nuclear power development with respect to a few plants being constructed earlier. The prime contractor may not necessarily be a reactor supplier. In some cases an architect engineering company may be a contractor. If this arrangement is not possible and the contract had to be a non-turnkey type, there might be some advantage to such a developing country capable of undertaking some major portions of the project works. Even if she might face with troubles and difficulties during construction of the first nuclear power station, she might have chance of aquiring technical kowledge and experience which would later enable her to make the plant of her own manufacture. In such a case it is advisable to limit the number of main contracts as small as possible and to utilize an organization to assist the owner in project management or to assume this function in his behalf. (orig./FW) [de

  11. Non-turnkey contract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimoyama, S

    1975-01-01

    A turnkey contract is recommended to such a country which is in the initial stage of nuclear power development with respect to a few plants being constructed earlier. The prime contractor may not necessarily be a reactor supplier. In some cases an architect engineering company may be a contractor. If this arrangement is not possible and the contract had to be a non-turnkey type, there might be some advantage to such a developing country capable of undertaking some major portions of the project works. Even if she might face troubles and difficulties during construction of the first nuclear power station, she might have a chance of aquiring technical kowledge and experience which would later enable her to make the plant of her own manufacture. In such a case it is advisable to limit the number of main contracts as small as possible and to utilize an organization to assist the owner in project management or to assume this function in his behalf.

  12. Practical guide on contract of technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Chiho

    1991-12-01

    This book gives descriptions of practical guide on contract of technology, which deals with basic of contract like meaning, function term, singing and sealing, contract and stamp tax, common things on contract of research like keeping secret and prevention and treat of dispute, compensation for damages, notice, expiration date of contract and measurement at end of contract, contract of joint research such as meaning and necessity, note at contract, check list at contract, and return of the research product.

  13. Why radiologists lose their hospital contracts: is your contract secure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muroff, Lawrence R

    2010-03-01

    Previously, a hospital contract meant tenure for the incumbent group of radiologists; however, those days are long gone. Exclusive contracts have morphed into exclusive contracts with carve-outs. Turf erosion has become a fact of life for radiology practices. Now radiologists are losing their hospital contracts in record numbers. Group size, though helpful for a variety of reasons, does not ensure that a practice will be secure in its hospital setting. The reasons that groups lose their hospital contracts are varied, and in this paper, the author discusses the most common ones. Suggestions to help practices avoid this unfortunate fate are presented.

  14. Contracting between firms: empirical evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iyer, R.; Sautner, Z.

    2014-01-01

    We analyse 185 contracts signed between a buyer and 89 suppliers to test how moral-hazard and hold-up problems affect contract design. Our data allow us to study both static and dynamic effects. If a supplier’s products are more critical to the buyer, contracts contain more clauses that address

  15. Static Verification for Code Contracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fähndrich, Manuel

    The Code Contracts project [3] at Microsoft Research enables programmers on the .NET platform to author specifications in existing languages such as C# and VisualBasic. To take advantage of these specifications, we provide tools for documentation generation, runtime contract checking, and static contract verification.

  16. Transnational Law of Public Contracts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Audit, M.; Schill, S.W.

    2016-01-01

    Public contracts were traditionally conceived as instruments of domestic public law and used within markets confined to the territory of the state party to the contract. Globalization, however, subjects public contracting to an increasing number of processes that take place at a transnational level

  17. Service quality in contracted facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabbani, Fauziah; Pradhan, Nousheen Akber; Zaidi, Shehla; Azam, Syed Iqbal; Yousuf, Farheen

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore the readiness of contracted and non-contracted first-level healthcare facilities in Pakistan to deliver quality maternal and neonatal health (MNH) care. A balanced scorecard (BSC) was used as the assessment framework. Using a cross-sectional study design, two rural health centers (RHCs) contracted out to Aga Khan Health Service, Pakistan were compared with four government managed RHCs. A BSC was designed to assess RHC readiness to deliver good quality MNH care. In total 20 indicators were developed, representing five BSC domains: health facility functionality, service provision, staff capacity, staff and patient satisfaction. Validated data collection tools were used to collect information. Pearson χ2, Fisher's Exact and the Mann-Whitney tests were applied as appropriate to detect significant service quality differences among the two facilities. Contracted facilities were generally found to be better than non-contracted facilities in all five BSC domains. Patients' inclination for facility-based delivery at contracted facilities was, however, significantly higher than non-contracted facilities (80 percent contracted vs 43 percent non-contracted, p=0.006). The study shows that contracting out initiatives have the potential to improve MNH care. This is the first study to compare MNH service delivery quality across contracted and non-contracted facilities using BSC as the assessment framework.

  18. Limits to Party Autonomy in International Commercial Arbitration

    OpenAIRE

    Giuditta Cordero-Moss

    2014-01-01

    International contracts are often written in a standardised manner and without taking into consideration the applicable law. This may create the illusion that the contract is the only basis for the parties' rights and obligations, especially when the contract contains an arbitration clause. Using two typical contract clauses as an illustration (force majeure clause and entire agreement clause), this article analyses the extent to which an international contract, eventhough it contains an arbi...

  19. The advantages of cost plus award fee contracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keathley, William C.

    1994-01-01

    A Cost Plus Award Fee contract is the best procurement vehicle for the high-tech, one-of-a-kind, development projects that constitute most of NASA'S projects. The use of this type of contract requires more government and contractor effort than any other forms of contracts. An award fee contract is described as an arrangement whereby the government periodically awards a fee consistent with the cost, schedule and technical performance that is achieved by a contractor during a preset period with preset award fee pools. It's the only contracting method where both the government and contractor goals are closely linked. It also has a built-in mechanism to conveniently alter and emphasize program events in order to current external and internal situations. The award fee process also demands good communication between government and contractor participants.

  20. Contracting in vivo research: what are the issues?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, Wendy J

    2007-07-01

    As a result of increasing internal and external pressures, research institutions are using contract research organizations for the conduct of in vivo research. Many issues arise when contracting animal research, including concern regarding animal health and welfare. Each sponsor institution should develop a program for outsourced in vivo research that evaluates and ensures appropriate care and use of research animals. Each sponsoring institution should consider establishing a policy and procedure for how outsourced in vivo studies will be approved, conducted, and monitored. An approved list of contract facilities can be established on the basis of accepted standards for animal care and use. Written contracts should include confidentiality agreements, the delineation of animal ownership, and the expectation to comply with all applicable regulations and guidelines for research animal care and use. Finally, a process for communication of adverse study or animal welfare events should be established. Thorough evaluation of contract organizations will help ensure appropriate research animal care and use.

  1. Analysis of foreign petroleum contracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moran, S.S.

    1991-01-01

    Most foreign exploration and production contracts are of two basic types: Production-Sharing contracts in which a portion of oil revenues, 'cost oil,' is available to the contractor for recoupment of exploration and production costs with the remainder, 'profit oil,' being shared according to an agreed-upon formula, and the familiar Tax-Royalty contract in which a share of petroleum revenues goes to the host country 'off the top' as royalties, and operating profits are taxed at the going rate. Bottom line splits of profits between host governments and contractors, which are approximately 50-50 in the United States, are typically in the 60-40 to 85-15 range elsewhere, with lower profit shares being offset by the higher volume potential and lower costs that may be associated with less mature exploration areas. Foreign contract qualities can be grossly compared by walking typical field models through the contracts to arrive at the bottom line profit splits. Variations within the contract forms include government participation, sliding scale contract elements, special taxes related to rates of return, etc. Often, contract terms are subject to negotiation and the tradeoffs between contract elements must be understood. Contract life, amortization schedules, fund repatriation, currency exchange rates, and the interaction of foreign and United States tax regimens are among the other factors that must be considered. Final decisions on foreign ventures must combine consideration of contracts, economic projections, hydrocarbon volumes, exploration cost estimates, and the estimated probability of success into an overall project assessment

  2. The Lanthanide Contraction Revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seitz, Michael; Oliver, Allen G.; Raymond, Kenneth N.

    2007-04-19

    A complete, isostructural series of lanthanide complexes (except Pm) with the ligand TREN-1,2-HOIQO has been synthesized and structurally characterized by means of single-crystal X-ray analysis. All complexes are 1D-polymeric species in the solid state, with the lanthanide being in an eight-coordinate, distorted trigonal-dodecahedral environment with a donor set of eight unique oxygen atoms. This series constitutes the first complete set of isostructural lanthanide complexes with a ligand of denticity greater than two. The geometric arrangement of the chelating moieties slightly deviates across the lanthanide series, as analyzed by a shape parameter metric based on the comparison of the dihedral angles along all edges of the coordination polyhedron. The apparent lanthanide contraction in the individual Ln-O bond lengths deviates considerably from the expected quadratic decrease that was found previously in a number of complexes with ligands of low denticity. The sum of all bond lengths around the trivalent metal cation, however, is more regular, showing an almost ideal quadratic behavior across the entire series. The quadratic nature of the lanthanide contraction is derived theoretically from Slater's model for the calculation of ionic radii. In addition, the sum of all distances along the edges of the coordination polyhedron show exactly the same quadratic dependency as the Ln-X bond lengths. The universal validity of this coordination sphere contraction, concomitant with the quadratic decrease in Ln-X bond lengths, was confirmed by reexamination of four other, previously published, almost complete series of lanthanide complexes. Due to the importance of multidentate ligands for the chelation of rare-earth metals, this result provides a significant advance for the prediction and rationalization of the geometric features of the corresponding lanthanide complexes, with great potential impact for all aspects of lanthanide coordination.

  3. Muscle contraction and force

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brüggemann, Dagmar Adeline; Risbo, Jens; Pierzynowski, Stefan G.

    2008-01-01

    Muscle contraction studies often focus solely on myofibres and the proteins known to be involved in the processes of sarcomere shortening and cross-bridge cycling, but skeletal muscle also comprises a very elaborate ancillary network of capillaries, which not only play a vital role in terms...... of nutrient delivery and waste product removal, but are also tethered to surrounding fibres by collagen "wires". This paper therefore addresses aspects of the ancillary network of skeletal muscle at both a microscopic and functional level in order to better understand its role holistically as a considerable...

  4. Bunker purchasing with contracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plum, Christian Edinger Munk; Neergaard Jensen, Peter; Pisinger, David

    2014-01-01

    The cost for bunker fuel represents a major part of the daily running costs of liner shipping vessels. The vessels, sailing on a fixed roundtrip of ports, can lift bunker at these ports, having differing and fluctuating prices. The stock of bunker on a vessel is subject to a number of operational...... optimally to reduce overall costs. The Bunker Purchasing with Contracts Problem has been formulated as a mixed integer programme, which has been Dantzig-Wolfe decomposed. To solve it, a novel column generation algorithm has been developed. The algorithm has been run on a series of real-world instances...

  5. Contractions from grading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Chethan; Raju, Avinash

    2018-04-01

    We note that large classes of contractions of algebras that arise in physics can be understood purely algebraically via identifying appropriate Zm-gradings (and their generalizations) on the parent algebra. This includes various types of flat space/Carroll limits of finite and infinite dimensional (A)dS algebras, as well as Galilean and Galilean conformal algebras. Our observations can be regarded as providing a natural context for the Grassmann approach of Krishnan et al. [J. High Energy Phys. 2014(3), 36]. We also introduce a related notion, which we call partial grading, that arises naturally in this context.

  6. Tendering specification and contracting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, E. von

    1975-01-01

    The lecture tendering, specification and contracting is prepared in two parts: This first part deals with technical aspects while part two features the commercial and legal situation in the partnership of two: the supplier of the fuel bundles and the utility. In this lecture a look is given on the way how a supplier can offer its fuel and some certain points are mentioned which are important to compare the bid of one competitor to the other. The major points are summarized which are or at least should be in an offer so as to find out which offer is the best. (orig./FW) [de

  7. Context matters in NGO-government contracting for health service delivery: a case study from Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidi, Shehla; Mayhew, Susannah H; Cleland, John; Green, Andrew T

    2012-10-01

    Contracting non-governmental organizations (NGOs) for health service provision is gaining increasing importance in low- and middle-income countries. However, the role of the wider context in influencing the effectiveness of contracting is not well studied and is of relevance given that contracting has produced mixed results so far. This paper applies a policy analysis approach to examine the influence of policy and political factors on contracting origin, design and implementation. Evidence is drawn from a country case study of Pakistan involving extensive NGO contracting for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention services supported by international donor agencies. A multilevel study was conducted using 84 in-depth interviews, 22 semi-structured interviews, document review and direct observation to examine the national policy design, provincial management of contracting and local contract implementation. There were three main findings. First, contracting origin and implementation was an inherently political process affected by the wider policy context. Although in Pakistan a combination of situational events successfully managed to introduce extensive and sophisticated contracting, it ran into difficulties during implementation due to ownership and capacity issues within government. Second, wide-scale contracting was mis-matched with the capacity of local NGOs, which resulted in sub-optimal contract implementation challenging the reliance on market simulation through contracting. Third, we found that contracting can have unintended knock-on effects on both providers and purchasers. As a result of public sector contracts, NGOs became more distanced from their grounded attributes. Effects on government purchasers were more unpredictable, with greater identification with contracting in supportive governance contexts and further distancing in unsupportive contexts. A careful approach is needed in government contracting of NGOs, taking into account acceptance of

  8. Profiling Smart Contracts Interactions with Tensor Decomposition and Graph Mining

    OpenAIRE

    Charlier , Jérémy; Lagraa , Sofiane; State , Radu; Francois , Jerome

    2017-01-01

    International audience; Smart contracts, computer protocols designed for autonomous execution on predefined conditions, arise from the evolution of the Bit-coin's crypto-currency. They provide higher transaction security and allow economy of scale through the automated process. Smart contracts provides inherent benefits for financial institutions such as investment banking, retail banking, and insurance. This technology is widely used within Ethereum, an open source block-chain platform, from...

  9. IPP fuel contracts - creating certain contracts for uncertain times

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coddington, I. [Coddington International Pty. Ltd., Milsons Point, NSW (Australia)

    1998-12-31

    Coal contracts for the new Asian Independent Power Producers (IPPs) are examined. Since most IPPs will be selling to state electricity utilities, often in competition with power plant using other fuels, coal based IPPs must negotiate advantageous coal supply contracts several years before the commissioning of a plant, and must ensure security of supply for at least the life of the construction loan. A more recent trend in the developed world is the Merchant IPP, where there is no guaranteed electricity sale. Lenders are wary of IPPs relying an imported coal, and insist on binding fuel contracts, while coal companies are wary of the quantity of information demanded by these lenders. A full understanding of the risks involved is needed; and a method of price indexation for the contracts. Contracts must also specify security of supply, coal quality, freight contracts and other details. 2 figs.

  10. Characteristics of nuclear contracts. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanchard, R.

    1976-01-01

    While the object of nuclear contracts is specific, these contracts are concluded according to proven techniques based on general regulations on contracts. Following a review of contract classification, they are differentiated according to the nature of the co-contracting parties, the purpose of the contract itself, the procedure for drawing up the contracts, and payment. The operations prior to the contract vary in that they may include a call for tenders, an option for delays or a letter of intent. (NEA) [fr

  11. 48 CFR 315.371 - Contract preparation and award.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Source Selection 315.371 Contract... the contract until the finance office certifies that the funds are available for obligation. ...

  12. Contracts in Public Administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka GRZESIOK-HOROSZ

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The present makes a contribution to the discussion on contracts in administration under Polish law. It concentrates on theoretical issues, but ones of considerable practical significance. Prior Work though relatively poorly explored, field. This paper is a result of academic considerations on the classical institution of civil law, namely a bilateral juridical act significance of this area may be demonstrated by the fact that one scientific conference and a collection of papers have been devoted to contracts in administration. as research method, the analysis of jurisprudence and doctrinal writings referring to law currently in force. The paper discusses as well the draft of the administrative law, and includes comparative remarks. put forward certain comments pertainin legislation. The authors formulate as well outline theses interesting but complicated matters. As a voice in the doctrinal dispute it can als useful for law students. Value composition. Starting from gener the binding law and proposed amendments. The functioning in foreign countries and proposals of regulatory solutions.

  13. UKAEA'S evolving contract philosophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicol, R. D.

    2003-01-01

    The United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA) has gone through fundamental change over the last ten years. At the heart of this change has been UKAEA's relationship with the contracting and supply market. This paper describes the way in which UKAEA actively developed the market to support the decommissioning programme, and how the approach to contracting has evolved as external pressures and demands have changed. UKAEA's pro-active approach to industry has greatly assisted the development of a healthy, competitive market for services supporting decommissioning in the UK. There have been difficult changes and many challenges along the way, and some retrenchment was necessary to meet regulatory requirements. Nevertheless, UKAEA has sustained a high level of competition - now measured in terms of competed spend as a proportion of competable spend - with annual out-turns consistently over 80%. The prime responsibility for market development will pass to the new Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA) in 2005, as the owner, on behalf of the Government, of the UK's civil nuclear liabilities. The preparatory work for the NDA indicates that the principles established by UKAEA will be carried forward. (author)

  14. 48 CFR 1316.406 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 1316.406 Section 1316.406 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Incentive Contracts 1316.406 Contract clauses. Insert a clause...

  15. 48 CFR 916.307 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 916.307 Section 916.307 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Cost-Reimbursement Contracts 916.307 Contract clauses. (g) Insert the...

  16. 48 CFR 732.111 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 732.111... CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT FINANCING General 732.111 Contract clauses. (a) [Reserved] (b) USAID may... Agency-specific indefinite quantity contracts that are a combination of contract types. Rather than using...

  17. 48 CFR 935.071 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 935.071... CONTRACTING RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT CONTRACTING 935.071 Contract clause. The contracting officer must insert the clause at 952.235-71, Research Misconduct, in contracts, including management and operating...

  18. Report on Quality Control Review of Defense Contract Audit Agency and KPMG LLP Office of Management and Budget Circular A-133 Audit Report of SRI International, Fiscal Year Ended December 25, 1999

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2002-01-01

    ...), DoD, performed a quality control review to determine whether the FY 1999 report that SRI International submitted to the Single Audit Clearinghouse met the applicable reporting standards and OMB Circular A-133...

  19. Compositional specification of commercial contracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jesper; Elsborg, Ebbe; Henglein, Fritz

    2006-01-01

    -definable analysis of their state before, during and after execution. We provide several realistic examples of commercial contracts and their analyses. A variety of (real) contracts can be expressed in such a fashion as to support their integration, management and analysis in an operational environment......We present a declarative language for compositional specification of contracts governing the exchange of resources. It extends Eber and Peyton Jones’s declarative language for specifying financial contracts (Jones et al. in The Fun of Programming. 2003) to the exchange of money, goods and services...... amongst multiple parties and complements McCarthy’s Resources, Events and Agents (REA) accounting model (McCarthy in Account Rev. LVII(3), 554–578, 1982) with a view- independent formal contract model that supports definition of user-defined contracts, automatic monitoring under execution and user...

  20. Corrective justice and contract law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín Hevia

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This article suggests that the central aspects of contract law in various jurisdictions can be explained within the idea of corrective justice. The article is divided into three parts. The first part distinguishes between corrective justice and distributive justice. The second part describes contract law. The third part focuses on actions for breach of contract and within that context reflects upon the idea of corrective justice.

  1. Incentive contracts and time use

    OpenAIRE

    Tor Viking Eriksson; Jaime Ortega

    2011-01-01

    Empirical studies on incentive contracts have primarily been concerned with the effects on employees’ productivity and earnings. The productivity increases associated with such contracts may, however, come at the expense of quality of life at or outside work. In this paper we study the effect on the employees’ non-work activities, testing whether incentive contracts lead to a change in the allocation of time across work and non-work activities. In doing so, we distinguish between two effects,...

  2. Methodological remarks on contraction theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jouffroy, Jerome; Slotine, Jean-Jacques E.

    Because contraction analysis stems from a differential and incremental framework, the nature and methodology of contraction-based proofs are significantly different from those of their Lyapunov-based counterparts. This paper specifically studies this issue, and illustrates it by revisiting some c...... classical examples traditionally addressed using Lyapunov theory. Even in these cases, contraction tools can often yield significantly simplified analysis. The examples include adaptive control, robotics, and a proof of convergence of the deterministic Extended Kalman Filter....

  3. Judges, commerce and contract law

    OpenAIRE

    Gava, John

    2010-01-01

    John Gava, Reader at Adelaide Law School, considers the question how should judges decide commercial cases, in particular, contract cases? He looks at the circumstances and impact of the use of contract law, with attention on common law contract and market needs. Published in Amicus Curiae – Journal of the Society for Advanced Legal Studies at the Institute of Advanced Legal Studies. The Journal is produced by SALS at the IALS (Institute of Advanced Legal Studies, School of Advanced Study, Un...

  4. On Permuting Cut with Contraction

    OpenAIRE

    Borisavljevic, Mirjana; Dosen, Kosta; Petric, Zoran

    1999-01-01

    The paper presents a cut-elimination procedure for intuitionistic propositional logic in which cut is eliminated directly, without introducing the multiple-cut rule mix, and in which pushing cut above contraction is one of the reduction steps. The presentation of this procedure is preceded by an analysis of Gentzen's mix-elimination procedure, made in the perspective of permuting cut with contraction. It is also shown that in the absence of implication, pushing cut above contraction doesn't p...

  5. Corrective justice and contract law

    OpenAIRE

    Martín Hevia

    2010-01-01

    This article suggests that the central aspects of contract law in various jurisdictions can be explained within the idea of corrective justice. The article is divided into three parts. The first part distinguishes between corrective justice and distributive justice. The second part describes contract law. The third part focuses on actions for breach of contract and within that context reflects upon the idea of corrective justice.

  6. A global perspective on foreign contract labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, J E; Casco, R R

    1988-01-01

    This paper provides a general overview on foreign contract labor. The growth in the use of foreign contract labor is described with reference to other types of international labor movements such as 1) illegal, undocumented, or irregular migration; 2) free migration; and 3) permanent settlement migration. Within this general context, the various national advantages and disadvantages of contract labor are outlined. Particular issues like the role of trade unions and the likely future international labor circulation are noted. The 1984 World Labour Report estimates a global stock of almost 22 million foreign workers. Despite lack of reliable data, the size of irregular labor flows is considerable. More than 4 million undocumented workers, primarily Mexicans, can be found in the US alone. Other major flows of illegal labor go from China to Hong Kong, Malaysia to Singapore, Columbia to Venezuela, and poor Arab countries to oil-exporting countries in the Middle East. Laws are often poorly enforced and contradictory. Employers often actively recruit illegal migrants. While permanent migration was formerly the primary source of foreign workers, the numbers migrating in this manner are decreasing significantly. In absolute terms, host countries gain considerably more through the use of contract labor than sending countries. The pervasive commitment of national governments to economic growth is a prime consideration in the decision to import foreign labor. In general, trade unions have created an environment wherein the use of foreign labor in the formal as opposed to the informal labor market is more difficult. The disadvantages of labor export include the costs of family separation, worker exploitation, and cultural alienation. Remittances constitute the most tangible return of labor export. In many countries they have made a very considerable impact on the balance of payments deficit.

  7. Forthcoming indefinite contract review procedure

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Department

    2011-01-01

    The vacancy notices for posts opened with a view to the award of an indefinite contract will be published in early April 2011. In the meantime, the list of posts to be opened this spring is available at the following address: Indefinite contract posts - spring 2011 A second exercise will take place in autumn 2011 and, as of 2012, the indefinite contract award procedure will only be held once a year, in autumn. For more information please consult: https://hr-recruit.web.cern.ch/hr-recruit/staff/IndefiniteContracts.asp  

  8. Work and minor work contracts

    CERN Document Server

    1999-01-01

    The Work and Minor Work contracts are all of the result-oriented type. The work is specified by CERN and the contractor is given full responsibility for its performance. The contracts are thus very similar to supply contracts. The re-tendering of the existing contracts is almost complete, except for some building maintenance contracts. A new cycle of re-tendering for some activities will be launched in the next twelve months. The total estimated expenditure in the year 2000 for the contracts referred to in this document is 27 750 000 Swiss francs at 1999 prices. The Finance Committee is invited: - to approve the proposed expenditure for the extension of contracts for which the estimated amount for the year 2000 exceeds 750 000 Swiss francs, namely those under references 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 8, 9 and 23, highlighted in Table I; - to take note that all Work and Minor Work contracts have been tendered since 1 January 1994, except the small contracts shown under references 12 and 16 in Table I; - to take note that the ...

  9. URGENSI STUDI TENTANG PROCUREMENT CONTRACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohanes Sogar Simamora

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Contractualization is kind of goverment activity in acquiring goods, services and infrastructure as well. Procurement contract has several important function especially in enhancing economic development in a state. In Indonesia, this kind of contract also has function in empowering micro economic scale. Since the aim of procurement study is to provide equal protection between public fund interest in one hand and privat sector in the other hand, general principle of contract law must be taken into consideration together with transparency as the most important principle in government contract.

  10. Unfair contract terms in B2C contracts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselink, M.W.; Loos, M.B.M.

    2012-01-01

    Because of its textual similarity to the Unfair Terms Directive 1993, Chapter 8 of the proposed CESL, on ‘Unfair contract terms’, can benefit from two decades of interpretative experience which is likely to provide a comparably high degree of instant legal certainty to contracting parties.

  11. The Relationship between the Employment Contract and other Civil Contracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Răzvan Radu Popescu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The employment relationship is a contractual one and as such must have all the basic elements of an enforceable contract to make it legally binding. In strict contractual terms, the offer is made by the employer and formally accepted by the employee. Once the acceptance has taken place, there is a legally binding agreement and an action will lie against the party who breaches that agreement, even though it may only just have come into existence. An employment contract, however, is unlike most other contracts. Although the parties will have negotiated the main terms, we shall see that a large number of terms will be implied into the agreement from all sorts of different sources and will not have been individually negotiated by the parties at all. This is what makes an employment contract so different from other contracts. We think this article is an important step in the disclosure of the problem eraised by these two concepts.

  12. Pressure drop in contraction flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Henrik Koblitz

    This note is a supplement to Dynamic of Polymeric Liquids (DPL) page 178. DPL gives an equation for the pressure drop in a tapered (and circular) contraction, valid only at low angles. Here the general definition of contraction flow (the Bagley correction) and a more general method to find...

  13. Contract Mining versus Owner Mining

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Owner

    mining companies can concentrate on their core businesses while using specialists for ... 2 Definition of Contract and Owner. Mining ... equipment maintenance, scheduling and budgeting ..... No. Region. Amount Spent on. Contract Mining. ($ billion). Percent of. Total. 1 ... cost and productivity data based on a large range.

  14. Army Contract Writing System (ACWS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    2016 Major Automated Information System Annual Report Army Contract Writing System (ACWS) Defense Acquisition Management Information Retrieval...Information 4 Responsible Office 4 References 4 Program Description 5 Business Case 5 Program Status 6 Schedule 7 Performance...Program Information Program Name Army Contract Writing System (ACWS) DoD Component Army Responsible Office Program Manager References MAIS

  15. CONTRACT ADMINISTRATIVE TRACKING SYSTEM (CATS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Contract Administrative Tracking System (CATS) was developed in response to an ORD NHEERL, Mid-Continent Ecology Division (MED)-recognized need for an automated tracking and retrieval system for Cost Reimbursable Level of Effort (CR/LOE) Contracts. CATS is an Oracle-based app...

  16. On CNC Commuting Contractive Tuples

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The characteristic function has been an important tool for studying completely non-unitary contractions on Hilbert spaces. In this note, we consider completely non-coisometric contractive tuples of commuting operators on a Hilbert space H . We show that the characteristic function, which is now an operator-valued analytic ...

  17. Alternative staffing services. Contract transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessier, C

    1992-03-01

    Contract medical transcription services can be of great assistance in meeting the demands for transcription, without jeopardizing patient, physician, or institutional confidentiality. You simply must require the contract service to provide at least the same degree of protection and preservation of confidentiality that you should require inhouse. To achieve this you must make these requirements explicit, comprehensive, comprehensible, believable, and enforceable. Discuss the requirements with prospective contractors. Review them at least annually with existing contractors and when contracts are due for renewal. Be sure to specify the consequence of breaching confidentiality, and if there are breaches, enforce the terms of the contract. Consult your institution's legal counsel both in developing the contract and in enforcing its provisions. Take into consideration your department's and institution's policies, AHIMA's statement on confidentiality, as well as local, state, and federal laws. Above all, never lose sight of the patient. Ultimately, it is not patient information that you are obligated to protect. It is the patient.

  18. Choreography Synthesis as Contract Agreement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Lange

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We propose a formal model for distributed systems, where each participant advertises its requirements and obligations as behavioural contracts, and where multiparty sessions are started when a set of contracts allows to synthesise a choreography. Our framework is based on the CO2 calculus for contract-oriented computing, and borrows concepts and results from the session type literature. It supports sessions where the number of participants is not determined beforehand, and keeps CO2's ability to rule out participants that are culpable if contracts are not fulfilled at runtime. We show that we have progress and session fidelity in CO2, as a result of the honesty of participants — i.e., their ability to always adhere to their contracts.

  19. A Dictionary of Acquisition and Contracting Terms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-06-01

    No Comment 0 (0 %) C_ Responses: The following comments were used to revise the definition: - Not necessarily binding; may be non-binding. (3) - I agree with your definition; however, if I’m not mistaken, there may be some instances wherein the arbitration decision is not binding. (4) 10 - I would consider deleting the word "most." While the ADR process is the current buzzword, the word "arbitration" has been around a lot longer and to a lot of folks extends to processes for handling issues of personnel matter, international contracting,

  20. Standard form contracts and a smart contract future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin B. Cornelius

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available With a budding market of widespread smart contract implementation on the horizon, there is much conversation about how to regulate this new technology. Discourse on standard form contracts (SFCs and how they have been adopted in a digital environment is useful toward predicting how smart contracts might be interpreted. This essay provides a critical review of the discourse surrounding digitised SFCs and applies it to issues in smart contract regulation. An exploration of the literature surrounding specific instances SFCs finds that it lacks a close examination of the textual and documentary aspects of SFCs, which are particularly important in a digital environment as a shift in medium prompts a different procedural process. Instead, common perspectives are either based on outdated notions of paper versions of these contracts or on ideologies of industry and business that do not sufficiently address the needs of consumers/users in the digital age. Most importantly, noting the failure of contract law to address the inequities of SFCs in this environment can help prevent them from being codified further with smart contracts.

  1. [Ulysses contract in psychiatry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daverio, Andrea; Piazzi, Gioia; Saya, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Over the last twenty years we have witnessed a growing focus on the rights of the ill people. The debate on informed consent and a new redefinition of the therapeutic relationship is constantly evolving. With this article, we propose a critical literature review of the so-called "Ulysses contract" or "psychiatric advance directives". It refers to the will that a subject expresses in writing, or orally, about the treatments he or she wishes or does not wish to be subject to if the time comes when it may be impossible to express his/her consent. This can especially occur in those with psychiatric disorders with serious clinical involvement and remitting-relapse (typically bipolar disorder, but also chronic delusional disorders and schizophrenia). In this context, the question is whether during intercritical periods the patient may or may not leave instructions to their care-givers. This aspect opens up to a series of interdisciplinary problems. In this article, we want to show the complexity of this debate from a clinical, ethical, legal and psychodynamic point of view, emphasizing the strengths and the major criticisms of the psychiatric advance directives for each area.

  2. Landsat 6 contract signed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggs, William Ward

    A new agreement provides $220 million for development and construction of the Landsat 6 remote sensing satellite and its ground systems. The contract, signed on March 31, 1988, by the Department of Commerce (DOC) and the Earth Observation Satellite (EOSAT) Company of Lanham, Md., came just days after approval of DOC's Landsat commercialization plan by subcommittees of the House and Senate appropriations committees.The Landsat 6 spacecraft is due to be launched into orbit on a Titan II rocket in June 1991 from Vandenburg Air Force Base, Calif. The satellite will carry an Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM) sensor, an instrument sensitive to electromagnetic radiation in seven ranges or bands of wavelengths. The satellite's payload will also include the Sea Wide Field Sensor (Sea-WiFS), designed to provide information on sea surface temperature and ocean color. The sensor is being developed in a cooperative effort by EOSAT and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). A less certain passenger is a proposed 5-m resolution, three-band sensor sensitive to visible light. EOSAT is trying to find both private financing for the device and potential buyers of the high-resolution imagery that it could produce. The company has been actively courting U.S. television networks, which have in the past used imagery from the European Système Probatoire d'Observation de la Terre (SPOT) satellite for news coverage.

  3. INFINITY construction contract signed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Key state and community leaders celebrated April 6 with the signing of a construction contract for the state-of-the-art INFINITY Science Center planned near John C. Stennis Space Center in south Mississippi. Gulfport Mayor George Schloegel (l to r), chair of non-profit INFINITY Science Center Inc., was joined for the signing ceremony at the Hancock Bank in Gulfport by Virginia Wagner, sister of late Hancock Bank President Leo Seal Jr.; and Roy Anderson III, president and CEO of Roy Anderson Corp. Seal was the first chair of INFINITY Science Center Inc., which has led in development of the project. Roy Anderson Corp. plans to begin construction on the 72,000-square-foot, $28 million science and education center in May. The Mississippi Department of Transportation (MDOT) also is set to begin construction of a $2 million access road to the new center. The April 6 ceremony was attended by numerous officials, including former Stennis Space Center Directors Jerry Hlass and Roy Estess; Mississippi Senate President Pro Tempore Billy Hewes, R-Gulfport; Mississippi Rep. Diane Peranich, D-Pass Christian; and MDOT Southern District Commissioner Wayne Brown.

  4. A third generation of performance contracting in danish central government?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Mads Bøge

    2017-01-01

    This paper compares the content of performance contracts in Danish central government over time in order to identify whether – and if so, how – it develops. The analysis is conducted as a two-step, mixed methods study. First, a quantitative study was carried out based on a study of all performance...... contracts in Danish central government in 2002, 2006, 2009, 2012 and 2014. For each year, all performance contracts have been coded according to the number and type of targets included in them. A range of qualitative interviews was then carried out, and Ministry of Finance recommendations were consulted...... of outcomes has increased, activity-oriented targets have decreased, and targets for internal management decreased in the mid-2000s before again increasing more recently. On this basis, performance contracting in Danish central government is argued to have entered a third generation....

  5. Harmonizing formal requirements for cross-border sales contracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Winship

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Legal systems have different traditions about how to “prove” a contract for the sale of personal property. Most legal systems today permit the contract to be proved by any means but some States require that the agreement be concluded in or evidenced by writing. The United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods adopts a freedom-of-form rule but authorizes a State to declare that the rule does not apply when the seller or buyer has its place of business in that State. This essay studies the consequences of such a declaration. The Convention text does not expressly state the consequences. The Convention’s travaux préparatoires suggest that this silence was deliberate. Doctrine and court opinions are divided on whether the writing formalities of the declaring State always apply or the formalities, if any, of the law applicable by virtue of the rules of private international law govern. In the absence of a consensus, this essay argues that the writing formalities of the declaring State apply. The argument is based on the policies implicit in the decision of non-declaring Contracting States to adhere to a Convention that allows certain Contracting States to opt out of the freedom-of-form rule. The result is consistent with recent private international law treaties that, while providing liberal rules that favor freedom of form, direct application of the fundamental policies not only of the forum but also of other jurisdictions.

  6. 7 CFR 631.14 - Contract violations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE LONG TERM CONTRACTING GREAT PLAINS CONSERVATION PROGRAM Contracts § 631.14 Contract violations. Contract violations, determinations and appeals will be handled in accordance with the terms of the... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Contract violations. 631.14 Section 631.14 Agriculture...

  7. 48 CFR 46.314 - Transportation contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transportation contracts... MANAGEMENT QUALITY ASSURANCE Contract Clauses 46.314 Transportation contracts. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 52.246-14, Inspection of Transportation, in solicitations and contracts for freight...

  8. 24 CFR 891.560 - HAP contract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false HAP contract. 891.560 Section 891... Assistance § 891.560 HAP contract. (a) HAP contract. The housing assistance payments contract sets forth.... (b) HAP contract execution. (1) Upon satisfactory completion of the project, the Borrower and HUD...

  9. 48 CFR 926.7104 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 926.7104... 1993. 926.7104 Contract clause. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 48 CFR (DEAR) 952.226-74, Displaced Employee Hiring Preference, in contracts (except for contracts for commercial items...

  10. 48 CFR 837.403 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 837.403... OF CONTRACTING SERVICE CONTRACTING Nonpersonal Health Care Services 837.403 Contract clause. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 852.237-7, Indemnification and medical liability insurance, in...

  11. 48 CFR 822.305 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 822.305... PROGRAMS APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS Contract Work Hours and Safety Standards Act 822.305 Contract clause. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 852.222-70, Contract Work...

  12. 48 CFR 811.503 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 811.503... ACQUISITION PLANNING DESCRIBING AGENCY NEEDS Liquidated Damages 811.503 Contract clause. When the contracting... contracting officer must include the clause in 852.211-74, Liquidated damages, in the contract. ...

  13. Ontologies for commitment-based smart contracts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Kruijff, Joost; Weigand, Hans; Panetto, H; Debruyne, C.; Gaaloul, W.; Papazoglou, M.; Paschke, A.; Ardagna, C.A.; Meersman, R.

    2017-01-01

    Smart contracts gain rapid exposure since the inception of blockchain technology. Yet there is no unified ontology for smart contracts. Being categorized as coded contracts or substitutes of conventional legal contracts, there is a need to reduce the conceptual ambiguity of smart contracts. We

  14. Analysis of the 314th Contracting Squadrons Contract Management Capability Using the Contract Management Maturity Model (CMMM)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jackson, Jr, Carl J

    2007-01-01

    .... The purpose of this research project is to analyze the 314th Contracting Squadron contracting processes and requirement target areas for improvement efforts by the application of the Contract Management Maturity Model (CMMM...

  15. Food and drink serving contract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veselinović Janko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Food and drink catering service is almost as old as the civilization itself. Even though this vocation is a part of the catering activity, Serbian law does not foresee this contract section as personalized. Key legal sources for this kind of contract are business customs. Food and drink serving contract is a mixed-type contract and its legal nature is very interesting due to its complexity. Specific for this contract is the fact that it is not an ordinary service, but also an activity which requires a degree of culinary skills, knowledge of customs of other nations, as well as other skills. The very category of a good professional in business economy / hospitality industry is very dynamic, as it needs to be evaluated according to all given circumstances, which may be rather unpredictable. By considering the legal nature, but also the rights and obligations of the contracting parties, we tried to point to the questions that require a special attention. Legal sources that indirectly refer to food and drink serving contracts were taken into account. Apart from the Law on Obligatory Relations, we also considered here the Law on Tourism also pointing to the comparative law and jurisprudence.

  16. nth roots of normal contractions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duggal, B.P.

    1992-07-01

    Given a complex separable Hilbert space H and a contraction A on H such that A n , n≥2 some integer, is normal it is shown that if the defect operator D A = (1 - A * A) 1/2 is of the Hilbert-Schmidt class, then A is similar to a normal contraction, either A or A 2 is normal, and if A 2 is normal (but A is not) then there is a normal contraction N and a positive definite contraction P of trace class such that parallel to A - N parallel to 1 = 1/2 parallel to P + P parallel to 1 (where parallel to · parallel to 1 denotes the trace norm). If T is a compact contraction such that its characteristics function admits a scalar factor, if T = A n for some integer n≥2 and contraction A with simple eigen-values, and if both T and A satisfy a ''reductive property'', then A is a compact normal contraction. (author). 16 refs

  17. Physics of muscle contraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruel, M.; Truskinovsky, L.

    2018-03-01

    In this paper we report, clarify and broaden various recent efforts to complement the chemistry-centered models of force generation in (skeletal) muscles by mechanics-centered models. The physical mechanisms of interest can be grouped into two classes: passive and active. The main passive effect is the fast force recovery which does not require the detachment of myosin cross-bridges from actin filaments and can operate without a specialized supply of metabolic fuel (ATP). In mechanical terms, it can be viewed as a collective folding-unfolding phenomenon in the system of interacting bi-stable units and modeled by near equilibrium Langevin dynamics. The active force generation mechanism operates at slow time scales, requires detachment and is crucially dependent on ATP hydrolysis. The underlying mechanical processes take place far from equilibrium and are represented by stochastic models with broken time reversal symmetry implying non-potentiality, correlated noise or multiple reservoirs. The modeling approaches reviewed in this paper deal with both active and passive processes and support from the mechanical perspective the biological point of view that phenomena involved in slow (active) and fast (passive) force generation are tightly intertwined. They reveal, however, that biochemical studies in solution, macroscopic physiological measurements and structural analysis do not provide by themselves all the necessary insights into the functioning of the organized contractile system. In particular, the reviewed body of work emphasizes the important role of long-range interactions and criticality in securing the targeted mechanical response in the physiological regime of isometric contractions. The importance of the purely mechanical micro-scale modeling is accentuated at the end of the paper where we address the puzzling issue of the stability of muscle response on the so called ‘descending limb’ of the isometric tetanus.

  18. Physics of muscle contraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruel, M; Truskinovsky, L

    2018-03-01

    In this paper we report, clarify and broaden various recent efforts to complement the chemistry-centered models of force generation in (skeletal) muscles by mechanics-centered models. The physical mechanisms of interest can be grouped into two classes: passive and active. The main passive effect is the fast force recovery which does not require the detachment of myosin cross-bridges from actin filaments and can operate without a specialized supply of metabolic fuel (ATP). In mechanical terms, it can be viewed as a collective folding-unfolding phenomenon in the system of interacting bi-stable units and modeled by near equilibrium Langevin dynamics. The active force generation mechanism operates at slow time scales, requires detachment and is crucially dependent on ATP hydrolysis. The underlying mechanical processes take place far from equilibrium and are represented by stochastic models with broken time reversal symmetry implying non-potentiality, correlated noise or multiple reservoirs. The modeling approaches reviewed in this paper deal with both active and passive processes and support from the mechanical perspective the biological point of view that phenomena involved in slow (active) and fast (passive) force generation are tightly intertwined. They reveal, however, that biochemical studies in solution, macroscopic physiological measurements and structural analysis do not provide by themselves all the necessary insights into the functioning of the organized contractile system. In particular, the reviewed body of work emphasizes the important role of long-range interactions and criticality in securing the targeted mechanical response in the physiological regime of isometric contractions. The importance of the purely mechanical micro-scale modeling is accentuated at the end of the paper where we address the puzzling issue of the stability of muscle response on the so called 'descending limb' of the isometric tetanus.

  19. Contraction ionization waves in the argon contracted discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golubovskij, Yu.B.; Kulikov, V.V.; Nekutchaev, V.O.

    1985-01-01

    An investigation of ionization waves in the argon contracted discharge and a definition of their arising propagation mechanism accounting for the specificity of elementary pocesses characteristic of argon are presented. (author)

  20. Defense Threat Reduction Agency > Contracts > Contract Award Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Integration Command Senior Enlisted Leader Media News News Archive Strategic Plan Videos Mission Research Support Center Contact Us FAQ Sheet Links Success Stories Contracts Business Opportunities Current Justifications & Approvals Careers Who We Are Our Values Strategic Recruiting Programs Professional

  1. Is contracting out of public services still the great panacea?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Ole Helby; hjelmar, ulf; Vrangbæk, Karsten

    2018-01-01

    This article presents the results of a systematic review of international studies on economic and quality effects of contracting out published in the period from 2000 to 2014. We conducted a comprehensive search of the literature and identified 49 relevant studies. There are three main findings...... of the systematic review: (1) cost savings documented in international contracting out literature have been decreasing over time; (2) cost savings have been much greater in technical services than in social services; and (3) economic effects have been twice as large in Anglo-Saxon countries compared with other...... countries. With regard to measuring the effect of contracting out on service quality, which is a vital component of any service delivery arrangement, very few studies assess this issue in a comprehensive manner. There is also a significant lack of studies that include measures of transaction costs, thereby...

  2. Information System for Nuclear Materials Assay Techniques. Final Report on Work Performed for the International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, Austria under Contract No. 995/TC (Jan. 1, 1971 - Jan. 1, 1972)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beyster, J. R.; Kull, L. A.

    1972-07-01

    During the last several years, Safeguards programs in the U.S. and abroad have generated increasing amounts of information relating to non-destructive measurements and assay techniques for fissionable isotopes. This barrage of data, including ideas for new techniques, prototype design information, operating experience, and critical technical evaluations, has been stimulated by the concerned interest of a number of national and international agencies over the effectiveness of controls for the flow of nuclear materials in the fuel cycle. In anticipation of an international community which will depend increasingly on nuclear energy to satisfy its power requirements, responsible agencies have diverted resources, time, and talent into the development of more accurate measurements techniques - since good measurements are one of the cornerstones of effective materials control. This paper concerns itself with a data management problem which is beginning to appear concomitant with the increase in the production rate of Safeguards information. The problem can be broken down into three parts: 1. The collection of all available data. 2. The condensation and arrangement of the data into a general format to form a data base. 3. The development of a retrieval system which provides convenient access to the data base for users with specific information requirements. This additional effort, is required in order that the information being generated can be readily put to use in the variety of tasks for which it was originally intended. Administrators of government research programs, plant operators' and engineers, technical people working in the measurement field, and national and international inspectors charged with enforcement of existing Safeguards regulations and agreements - all can easily be shown to benefit from a complete but condensed record of Safeguards experience. (author)

  3. The Relationship between the Employment Contract and other Civil Contracts

    OpenAIRE

    Răzvan Radu Popescu

    2015-01-01

    The employment relationship is a contractual one and as such must have all the basic elements of an enforceable contract to make it legally binding. In strict contractual terms, the offer is made by the employer and formally accepted by the employee. Once the acceptance has taken place, there is a legally binding agreement and an action will lie against the party who breaches that agreement, even though it may only just have come into existence. An employment contract, however, is...

  4. The North Sea contracting industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, P.J.C.

    1996-09-01

    The North Sea Contracting Industry provides in-depth profiles of major contracting organisations including manpower, facilities, expertise, future directions and financial details. It addresses key issues such as: how will the role of operators and contractors change toward 2000 and beyond?; how will the contractor-operator relationship develop?; will the contractors take a more speculative role in projects such as leasing and contract to produce?; does the future belong to broad skilled providers or small specialised niche players, or both?; and how will rapid technological improvements affect the industry? (author)

  5. 48 CFR 542.1107 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... MANAGEMENT CONTRACT ADMINISTRATION AND AUDIT SERVICES Production Surveillance and Reporting 542.1107 Contract... clause may be used in indefinite-delivery definite-quantity contracts for Stock or Special Order Program...

  6. 42 CFR 422.504 - Contract provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) MEDICARE PROGRAM MEDICARE ADVANTAGE PROGRAM Application Procedures and Contracts for Medicare Advantage... determinations of amounts payable under the contract. (iv) Properly reflect all direct and indirect costs claimed..., contracts, and subcontracts. (vi) Franchise, marketing, and management agreements. (vii) Schedules of...

  7. Bottomland Hardwood Planting: Example Contract Specifications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Humprey, Monica

    2002-01-01

    This technical note provides an example of contract specifications that can be used as a template by USACE biologists, engineers, or contracting officers for contracting the planting of bottomland hardwood (BLH) seedlings...

  8. Utility Energy Services Contracts: Enabling Documents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-05-01

    Utility Energy Services Contracts: Enabling Documents provides materials that clarify the authority for Federal agencies to enter into utility energy services contracts (UESCs), as well as sample documents and resources to ease utility partnership contracting.

  9. 24 CFR 983.206 - HAP contract amendments (to add or substitute contract units).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false HAP contract amendments (to add or... Contract § 983.206 HAP contract amendments (to add or substitute contract units). (a) Amendment to substitute contract units. At the discretion of the PHA and subject to all PBV requirements, the HAP contract...

  10. 23 CFR 635.121 - Contract time and contract time extensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... TRAFFIC OPERATIONS CONSTRUCTION AND MAINTENANCE Contract Procedures § 635.121 Contract time and contract time extensions. (a) The STD should have adequate written procedures for the determination of contract... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Contract time and contract time extensions. 635.121...

  11. Price management mechanisms and the gas contract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickson, D.J.

    1996-01-01

    Pricing objectives and risk management strategies that can be achieved through the proper use of the standard gas contract, were discussed. Main topics of discussion were: (1) gas sales contract and convertible pricing, (2) gas contract and imbedded hedging, gas contracts and exchange traded instruments, (4) gas contracts fixed for floating swaps, and OTC options and exotics, (5) options and exotic price structures, and (6) advantages and disadvantages of using the gas contract versus the swap agreement

  12. Framework for Structuring Procurement Contracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena Borg

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to propose a new framework for structuring contract types and payment methods. Concerning procurement contracts, the first important new feature of this framework is a stepwise structure with three main steps in the contract design: (1 what will be procured—should the contract only include construction, or should it include both construction and operation/maintenance (2 who will do the detailed design of the premise and (3 how many contractors will the client use? The second important new feature of this framework is that both step 2 and step 3 include a continuum of alternatives. Concerning payment methods, the new framework is primarily based on how the specific risks of the project are shared. These frameworks can be useful for policy formulation in that they can help to avoid some problematic ways of formulating policies.

  13. Contract Reform Self Assessment Report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1997-01-01

    The primary objective of this self assessment is to report on the Department of Energy's progress in implementing the Contract Reform initiative launched in February 1994 and to discuss remaining challenges...

  14. Contraction of the solar nebula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rawal, J.J.

    1984-01-01

    The concept of Roche limit is applied to the Laplacian theory of the origin of the solar system to study the contraction of a spherical gas cloud (solar nebula). In the process of contraction of the solar nebula, it is assumed that the phenomenon of supersonic turbulent convection is operative and brings about the halt at various stages of contraction. It is found that the radius of the contracting solar nebula follows the Titius-Bode law. The consequences of the relation are also discussed. The aim is to attempt to explain, on the basis of the concept of Roche limit, the distribution of planets in the solar system and try to understand the physics underlying it. (Auth.)

  15. Construction contracts law and management

    CERN Document Server

    Hughes, Will; Murdoch, John

    2015-01-01

    The fifth edition of this bestselling textbook has been thoroughly revised to provide the most up-to-date and comprehensive coverage of the legislation, administration and management of construction contracts. It now includes comparisons of working with JCT, NEC3, and FIDIC contracts throughout. Introducing this topic at the core of construction law and management, this book provides students with a one-stop reference on construction contracts. Significant new material covers: procurement tendering developments in dispute settlement commentary on all key legislation, case law and contract amendments In line with new thinking in construction management research, this authoritative guide is essential reading for every construction undergraduate and an extremely useful source of reference for practitioners.

  16. Multifamily Assistance Section 8 Contracts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — he information regarding the Multifamily Assistance and Section 8 contracts, and properties is being furnished for the convenience of interested parties. The...

  17. Non-renewal of contracts

    CERN Multimedia

    Association du personnel

    2007-01-01

    A new illegal practice is appearing in certain sectors of the Organization: the non-renewal of renewable three-year limited-duration (LD) contracts, despite a more than satisfactory performance and an obvious commitment to the Organization.

  18. Contractions of quantum algebraic structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doikou, A.; Sfetsos, K.

    2010-01-01

    A general framework for obtaining certain types of contracted and centrally extended algebras is reviewed. The whole process relies on the existence of quadratic algebras, which appear in the context of boundary integrable models. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  19. Next Indefinite Contract review exercise

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    Dear Colleagues, We are pleased to inform you that the 2013 LD2IC exercise (selection process for the conversion of limited-duration contracts to indefinite contracts) was officially launched last week.  The vacancy notices for posts opened with a view to the award of indefinite contracts will be published on 9 August 2013 for a period of four weeks (until 8 September 2013). The CERN Contract Review Boards (candidate interviews) will be held between the end of September and mid-November. The LD to IC procedure, Frequently Asked Questions and a calendar for the exercise are now available in the Admin e-guide. In addition, general information sessions on the procedure will be organised for candidates on the following dates: Information on the location of these sessions will be provided in due course on the CERN announcements page. HR Department

  20. Contractions of affine spherical varieties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arzhantsev, I V

    1999-01-01

    The language of filtrations and contractions is used to describe the class of G-varieties obtainable as the total spaces of the construction of contraction applied to affine spherical varieties, which is well-known in invariant theory. These varieties are local models for arbitrary affine G-varieties of complexity 1 with a one-dimensional categorical quotient. As examples, reductive algebraic semigroups and three-dimensional SL 2 -varieties are considered

  1. Phase Zero Contracting Operations-Strategic and Integrative Planning for Contingency and Expeditionary Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    Annex W plan may utilize strength, weakness, opportunity, threat ( SWOT ) and capability gap analysis techniques. The SWOT method allows the IPE to...accountability and performance, the authors contend that international military organizations will benefit by incorporating Phase Zero Contracting Operations...analytical areas, such as OPLAN analysis , logistics assessments, contracting, and similar professional disciplines. Of note, most organizations do

  2. Analysis of Developed Country's Export Contract and Contract Risk and Development of Sample Contract and Guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, D. S.; Oh, K. B.; Chung, W. S.; Lee, K. S.; Yun, S. W.; Lee, J. H.; Lee, B. W.; Kim, H. J.; Yang, M. H.

    2008-10-01

    This paper aimed at developing legal support for the non nuclear power plant industry's export. This study aids establishing government policy and promoting export of non nuclear power plant industry. This paper treated analysis of contractual risk and caution before entering into contract. To promote continuing export result, governmental and legal aids and guide will be required continuously. This study showed risks related with export contract and explained export control acts and procedures

  3. Review on Overseas Contracts of a Nuclear Research Institute in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Myung Ho; Lee, Eui Jin

    2010-01-01

    Since its establishment, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) has made various contracts in research, design, engineering and consultation with a lot of foreign counterparts all over the world, including international organizations. As one of the global nuclear energy research leaders, KAERI can make a large scale contract because it has already procured a turnkey EPC (Engineering, Procurement, Construction) contract for a research and training reactor in the spring of 2010 by forming a consortium with a construction and engineering company. A contract in nuclear business industries is to be made under the limited control of regulatory authorities because the contractors must ensure nuclear safety and follow the international nuclear non-proliferation guidelines to secure the peaceful use of nuclear energy at an international level. The export and import of strategic technologies, products or materials (including nuclear materials) must be directly controlled by the authorities in accordance with the applicable law. In 2009, KAERI organized a new team to manage the overseas contracts and to make the limited control reflected in the contract documentation. In large scale project contracts, more attention shall be given to the contracts to prevent claims and also to the consideration of the regulatory requirements. In this context, the nature of the past KAERI contracts was reviewed. The conditions of several recent KAERI contracts were also individually reviewed based on the FIDIC (Federation Internationale des Ingenieurs-Conseils) model service agreement, which is generally accepted by service contractors. Ways to increase the quality of future contracts and to improve the standard model agreement which is used to prepare the draft contract were also considered

  4. Review on Overseas Contracts of a Nuclear Research Institute in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Myung Ho; Lee, Eui Jin [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-10-15

    Since its establishment, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) has made various contracts in research, design, engineering and consultation with a lot of foreign counterparts all over the world, including international organizations. As one of the global nuclear energy research leaders, KAERI can make a large scale contract because it has already procured a turnkey EPC (Engineering, Procurement, Construction) contract for a research and training reactor in the spring of 2010 by forming a consortium with a construction and engineering company. A contract in nuclear business industries is to be made under the limited control of regulatory authorities because the contractors must ensure nuclear safety and follow the international nuclear non-proliferation guidelines to secure the peaceful use of nuclear energy at an international level. The export and import of strategic technologies, products or materials (including nuclear materials) must be directly controlled by the authorities in accordance with the applicable law. In 2009, KAERI organized a new team to manage the overseas contracts and to make the limited control reflected in the contract documentation. In large scale project contracts, more attention shall be given to the contracts to prevent claims and also to the consideration of the regulatory requirements. In this context, the nature of the past KAERI contracts was reviewed. The conditions of several recent KAERI contracts were also individually reviewed based on the FIDIC (Federation Internationale des Ingenieurs-Conseils) model service agreement, which is generally accepted by service contractors. Ways to increase the quality of future contracts and to improve the standard model agreement which is used to prepare the draft contract were also considered

  5. International co-operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    In this part the are reviewed: Co-operation with IAEA; Participation of the Slovakia on the 41 st session of the General Conference; The comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization; Co-operation with the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development; co-operation with the European Commission; Fulfillment of obligations resulting from the international contracting documents

  6. Psychological contracts of hospice nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Audrey Elizabeth; Sambrook, Sally

    2010-12-01

    Psychological contracts have been described as individuals' beliefs regarding the obligations, expectations, and contributions that exist between them and their employer. They can be influenced by the organization's culture and philosophy, through human resources policies, and through the employee's personality and characteristics. Owing to the recent economic crisis, hospices in the UK are currently in a transitional phase and are being expected to demonstrate efficiencies that might be more in line with a business model than a health-care environment. This may conflict with the philosophical views of hospice nurses. To support nurses through this transition, it might be helpful to understand the antecedents of hospice nurses' behaviour and how they construct their psychological contracts. Failure to offer adequate support might lead to negative outcomes such as a desire to leave the organisation, poorer quality work, or disruptive behaviour. This study used a modified grounded theory approach involving in-depth interviews to explore the context and content of the psychological contracts of hospice nurses in the UK. Four main themes emerged: the types of psychological contracts formed, how the contracts are formed, their contents, and the breaches and potential violations the nurses perceive.

  7. Next Indefinite Contract review exercise

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    Dear Colleagues, We are pleased to inform you that the 2015 LD2IC exercise (selection process for the conversion of limited-duration contracts into indefinite contracts) has been officially launched. The vacancy notices for posts opened with a view to the award of indefinite contracts will be published on 3 August 2015 for a period of four weeks (until 31 August 2015). The CERN Contract Review Boards (candidate interviews) will be held between the end of September and mid-November. The LD to IC procedure, Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) and a calendar for the exercise are now available in the Admin e-guide. In addition, general information sessions on the procedure will be organised for candidates on the following dates: We would like to remind you that all staff members holding a limited-duration contract who have successfully completed their probation period at the time of application and who meet the eligibility criteria in the vacancy notices (VNs) are eligible to apply for posts for the awa...

  8. Next Indefinite Contract review exercise

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2015-01-01

    Dear Colleagues, We are pleased to inform you that the 2015 LD2IC exercise (selection process for the conversion of limited-duration contracts into indefinite contracts) has been officially launched. The vacancy notices for posts opened with a view to the award of indefinite contracts will be published on 3 August 2015 for a period of four weeks (until 31 August 2015). The CERN Contract Review Boards (candidate interviews) will be held between the end of September and mid-November. The LD to IC procedure, Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) and a calendar for the exercise are now available in the Admin e-guide. In addition, general information sessions on the procedure will be organised for candidates on the following dates: We would like to remind you that all staff members holding a limited-duration contract who have successfully completed their probation period at the time of application and who meet the eligibility criteria in the vacancy notices (VNs) are eligible to apply for posts for the award of a...

  9. Termination of Commercial Contracts by giving Notice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edlund, Hans Henrik

    2008-01-01

    Some long-term contracts are brought to an end if one of the parties gives notice. Usually, such a step is not considered a breach of contract. It causes the contract to end in accordance with the contract. When no express rules cover the situation, it is often not entirely clear whether or not t...

  10. 24 CFR 242.52 - Construction contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...; a construction management contract with a guaranteed maximum price, the final costs of which are... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Construction contracts. 242.52... MORTGAGE INSURANCE FOR HOSPITALS Construction § 242.52 Construction contracts. (a) Awarding of contract. A...

  11. 48 CFR 39.107 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., in solicitations and contracts for information technology which require security of information technology, and/or are for the design, development, or operation of a system of records using commercial... CONTRACTING ACQUISITION OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY General 39.107 Contract clause. The contracting officer...

  12. 48 CFR 904.7201 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 904.7201... MATTERS Public Affairs 904.7201 Contract clause. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 952.204-75, Public Affairs, in solicitations and contracts that require the contractor to release...

  13. 48 CFR 803.7001 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 803.7001... Practices 803.7001 Contract clause. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 852.203-71, Display of Department of Veterans Affairs Hotline poster, in solicitations and contracts expected to equal or...

  14. 48 CFR 819.7009 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 819.7009... Acquisition Program 819.7009 Contract clauses. The contracting officer shall insert VAAR clause 852.219-10... Veteran-Owned Small Business Set-Aside in solicitations and contracts for acquisitions under this subpart. ...

  15. 48 CFR 846.710 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 846.710 Section 846.710 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS CONTRACT MANAGEMENT QUALITY ASSURANCE Warranties 846.710 Contract clauses. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at...

  16. 48 CFR 903.971 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 903.971... Contract clause. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 952.203-70, Whistleblower Protection for Contractor Employees, in contracts that involve work to be done on behalf of DOE directly related...

  17. 48 CFR 871.212 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 871.212... Rehabilitation and Employment Service 871.212 Contract clauses. Contracting officers must use the following clauses, as appropriate, in solicitations and contracts for vocational rehabilitation and employment...

  18. 48 CFR 53.111 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 53.111... AND FORMS FORMS General 53.111 Contract clause. Contracting officers shall insert the clause at 52.253-1, Computer Generated Forms, in solicitations and contracts that require the contractor to submit...

  19. 48 CFR 833.215 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 833.215 Section 833.215 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PROTESTS, DISPUTES, AND APPEALS Disputes and Appeals 833.215 Contract clause. The contracting...

  20. 48 CFR 947.7002 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 947.7002 Section 947.7002 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TRANSPORTATION Foreign Travel 947.7002 Contract clause. When foreign travel may be required under the contract...

  1. 48 CFR 811.404 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 811.404... ACQUISITION PLANNING DESCRIBING AGENCY NEEDS Delivery or Performance Schedules 811.404 Contract clause. When delivery is required by or on a particular date for f.o.b. destination contracts, the contracting officer...

  2. 48 CFR 925.7004 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 925.7004... FOREIGN ACQUISITION Acquisition of Nuclear Hot Cell Services 925.7004 Contract clause. The contracting... solicitations and contracts involving nuclear hot cell services. This clause does not flow down to second-tier...

  3. 48 CFR 22.610 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... PROGRAMS APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS Walsh-Healey Public Contracts Act 22.610... Contracts Act, in solicitations and contracts covered by the Act (see 22.603, 22.604, and 22.605). [61 FR... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 22.610...

  4. 48 CFR 970.1504 - Contract pricing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract pricing. 970.1504 Section 970.1504 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY AGENCY SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Contracting by Negotiation 970.1504 Contract pricing. ...

  5. 48 CFR 432.412 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 432.412 Section 432.412 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT FINANCING Advance Payments for Non-Commercial Items 432.412 Contract clause. The decision...

  6. Author’s contract in the Albanian copyright law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oltion Spiro

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The relation between the author and his/her artistic creation is very specific and at the same time a strong one. Such relation defies any property and affective connection that an individual may have with an object (Caron, 2011, 25. Copyright constitutes precisely the legal embodiment of the author’s intimate relationship with his/her work. Copyright is a plurality of legal provisions that belongs to the author of the work, in order to protect his/her ownership and eventually the commercial exploitation of such work. In this context, the author, through legal provisions and international conventions duly ratified by Albania, enjoys a relevant legal arsenal in order to defend his/her artistic works so that such works may have a live of its own (Vivant & Bruguière 2009, 23. One of these legal measures is the contract, which in legal doctrine is well known as the author’s contract. By means of such contract, the author has the right to distribute, reproduce, license or certify rights related to his/her artistic work. In this regard, the contract is an irreplaceable tool in the hands of the author to distribute the work and to give it an undeniable value, turning it into one of the most valuable intangible assets in civil circulation. The contract of the author, as the name indicates it, is a contract that obeys to the rules of civil law with respect to the quality of the parties, the characteristics of the object of the contract, its conclusion, the determination of remuneration and the term of duration. On the other hand, it is undeniable that the contract of the author contains rules which are not specifically contemplated by the Civil Code, such as rules relating to the form, interpretation and existence of some sui generis contracts provided in Law 9380 / 2005 “On copyright and related rights” (hereinafter referred to as “Law 9380/2005” or “Law on Copyright” as well as in the Draft Law On Authors Rights (hereinafter referred

  7. Incentive contracts for development projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finley, David T.; Smith, Byron; DeGroff, B.

    2012-09-01

    Finding a contract vehicle that balances the concerns of the customer and the contractor in a development project can be difficult. The customer wants a low price and an early delivery, with as few surprises as possible as the project progresses. The contractor wants sufficient cost and schedule to cover risk. Both want to clearly define what each party will provide. Many program offices do not want to award cost plus contracts because their funding sources will not allow it, their boards do not want an open ended commitment, and they feel like they lose financial control of the project. A fixed price incentive contract, with a mutually agreed upon target cost, provides the owner with visibility into the project and input into the execution of the project, encourages both parties to save costs, and stimulates a collaborative atmosphere by aligning the respective interests of customers and contractors.

  8. Claims in civil engineering contracts

    CERN Document Server

    Speirs, N A

    1999-01-01

    This paper considers claims arising during civil engineering construction contracts. The meaning of the word 'claim' is considered and its possible implications for additional cost and time to completion. The conditions of the construction contract selected will influence the risk apportionment between contractor and client and the price offered by the contractor for the work. Competitive bidding constraints and profit margins in the construction industry, however, may also influence the price offered. This in turn can influence the likelihood of claims arising. The client from his point of view is concerned to complete the work within an agreed time and budget. The circumstances under which claims may arise are reviewed in relation to typical conditions of contract. These circumstances are then related to the CERN LHC civil works. Ways of avoiding claims, where this is possible, are considered. Finally, the means of evaluation of claims and their settlement are considered.

  9. Transition state theory thermal rate constants and RRKM-based branching ratios for the N((2)D) + CH(4) reaction based on multi-state and multi-reference ab initio calculations of interest for the Titan's chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouk, Chanda-Malis; Zvereva-Loëte, Natalia; Scribano, Yohann; Bussery-Honvault, Béatrice

    2012-10-30

    Multireference single and double configuration interaction (MRCI) calculations including Davidson (+Q) or Pople (+P) corrections have been conducted in this work for the reactants, products, and extrema of the doublet ground state potential energy surface involved in the N((2)D) + CH(4) reaction. Such highly correlated ab initio calculations are then compared with previous PMP4, CCSD(T), W1, and DFT/B3LYP studies. Large relative differences are observed in particular for the transition state in the entrance channel resolving the disagreement between previous ab initio calculations. We confirm the existence of a small but positive potential barrier (3.86 ± 0.84 kJ mol(-1) (MR-AQCC) and 3.89 kJ mol(-1) (MRCI+P)) in the entrance channel of the title reaction. The correlation is seen to change significantly the energetic position of the two minima and five saddle points of this system together with the dissociation channels but not their relative order. The influence of the electronic correlation into the energetic of the system is clearly demonstrated by the thermal rate constant evaluation and it temperature dependance by means of the transition state theory. Indeed, only MRCI values are able to reproduce the experimental rate constant of the title reaction and its behavior with temperature. Similarly, product branching ratios, evaluated by means of unimolecular RRKM theory, confirm the NH production of Umemoto et al., whereas previous works based on less accurate ab initio calculations failed. We confirm the previous findings that the N((2)D) + CH(4) reaction proceeds via an insertion-dissociation mechanism and that the dominant product channels are CH(2)NH + H and CH(3) + NH. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Outsourcing Contract Success: A Quality Management Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Vanita Yadav; B.A. Metri

    2010-01-01

    Despite the phenomenal growth in outsourcing of various business functions like Enterprise Systems outsourcing, IT outsourcing, and Business Process outsourcing, there has been relatively less attention given to the high-risk area of outsourcing contracts. In this regard, contract has been the conventional medium for governing outsourcing relationships. This study aims to bring forward the importance of quality in the entire contracting process, involving contract planning, pre-contract negot...

  11. A survey of formal languages for contracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvitved, Tom

    2010-01-01

    In this short paper we present the current status on formal languages and models for contracts. By a formal model is meant an unambiguous and rigorous representation of contracts, in order to enable their automatic validation, execution, and analysis — activates that are collectively referred...... to as contract lifecycle management (CLM). We present a set of formalism requirements, which represent features that any ideal contract model should support, based on which we present a comparative survey of existing contract formalisms....

  12. The Contracting Parties' Ability To Conclude The Employment Contract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Constantina NENU

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study's main objective is to analyze certain effects produced by the changes of the Labor Code and by the entry into force of the current Romanian Civil Code. These effects refer to one of the fundamental conditions for the valid conclusion of the individual employment contract, that is, to the legal capacity of employers and employees. Thus, a complete analysis of legal regulations and of the correlations between different provisions on the legal capacity of parties to the individual employment contract is required to identify the existing noncompliance and to propose solutions. The research demonstrated that the current regulatory framework governing the legal capacity of the parties to an individual employment contract does not entirely correspond to the social reality. Therefore, only the employer benefits from a relatively comprehensive statutory regulation on the legal capacity to conclude an individual employment contract. The employee, however, does not benefit from the same attention from legislature. Considering the above, the study represents a significant scientific contribution, whose value lies in the proposed changes to modify legislature, so that the legal capacity of job holders would benefit from fair regulation, in accordance with the principle of legal protection of employee rights.

  13. Forthcoming indefinite contract review procedure

    CERN Document Server

    HR Department

    2011-01-01

    The vacancy notices for posts opened with a view to the award of an indefinite contract will be published as from the last week of September.  In the meantime, the list of posts to be opened is available at the following address: https://hr-recruit.web.cern.ch/hr-recruit/staff/Autumn_2011_listofslots.pdf Information sessions for candidates are being organised for 26 and 27 September 2011. For more information please consult:  https://hr-recruit.web.cern.ch/hr-recruit/staff/IndefiniteContracts.asp

  14. Some ancestors of contraction analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jouffroy, Jerome

    2005-01-01

    Contraction analysis is a recent tool for analyzing the convergence behavior of nonlinear systems in state-space form (see Lohmiller and Slotine [16] for the main reference). However, it seems that earlier results derived by mathematicians in the 1950s closely match some of the results of contrac......Contraction analysis is a recent tool for analyzing the convergence behavior of nonlinear systems in state-space form (see Lohmiller and Slotine [16] for the main reference). However, it seems that earlier results derived by mathematicians in the 1950s closely match some of the results...

  15. Team incentives in relational contracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kvaloey, Ola

    2003-01-01

    Incentive schemes for teams are compared. I ask: under which conditions are relational incentive contracts based on joint performance evaluation, relative performance evaluation and independent performance evaluation self-enforceable. The framework of Che and Yoo (2001) on team incentives is combined with the framework of Baker, Gibbons and Murphy (2002) on relational contracts. In a repeated game between one principal and two agents, I find that incentives based on relative or independent performance are expected to dominate when the productivity of effort is high, while joint performance evaluation dominates when productivity is low. Incentives based on independent performance are more probable if the agents own critical assets. (author)

  16. Debt renegotiation with incomplete contract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo de Melo Jorge Neto

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available A debt contract usually does not include a provision about renegotiation. The right to seize the borrower’s asset and the rules of this process are usually stipulated in the contract. Such a promise not to renegotiate is not credible since renegotiation can mitigate the dead-weight loss of liquidating insolvent borrowers. Once the initial contract may not consider the renegotiation procedure and renegotiation may occur, this paper investigates why a complete contract is not offered. It shows that the lender does not need to stipulate the renegotiation procedure on the initial contract because he is indifferent about committing or not to the terms of a contract. This indicates that a complete contract gives the lender the same expected return as an incomplete contract, in which the renegotiation process is determined after the occurrence of default.Um contrato de débito geralmente não inclui uma cláusula sobre renegociação. O direito de liquidar os ativos do tomador e as regras do processo são habitualmente estipuladas no contrato. Tal promessa de não renegociar não é crível, já que a renegociação pode mitigar a perda bruta de se liquidar tomadores insolventes. Uma vez que o contrato inicial pode não considerar os procedimentos de renegociação, e esta pode, de fato, vir a ocorrer, este artigo investiga a razão de um contrato completo não ser ofertado. Mostra-se que o emprestador não precisa estipular os procedimentos de renegociação no contrato inicial porque ele é indiferente entre se comprometer ou não aos termos do contrato. Isto indica que um contrato completo dá ao emprestador o mesmo retorno esperado de um contrato incompleto, no qual os procedimentos de renegociação são determinados após a declaração de default.

  17. Accounting aspects of contracts for the operation of public water supply assets in WSS operators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nedyalka Alexandrova

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates and analyses the nature of the Contracts for exploitation of WSS assets concluded between the Water Supply and Sewerage Associations and operators under the Water Act in order to outline the opportunities for accounting of the assets and liabilities resulting from these contracts. The contracts, as well as the WSS Associations, are new and unique for Bulgarian practice phenomena, affecting the entire water supply sector and their reporting poses considerable difficulties in practice. The article is based on an analysis of the normative requirements of the Water Act, a study of the clauses of the contracts, as well as their comparison with the concession contracts. Based on the analysis of their economic nature and under the requirements of the International Accounting Standards, a model of accounting for the assets and liabilities arising from these contracts is proposed, including their presentation and valuation in the financial statements of the operators.

  18. 29 CFR 4.122 - Contracts for operation of postal contract stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Application of the McNamara-O'Hara Service Contract Act Specific Exclusions § 4.122 Contracts for operation of postal contract stations. The Act, in paragraph (7) of section 7, exempts from its provisions “any... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Contracts for operation of postal contract stations. 4.122...

  19. The impact of competition on gas contracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saga, B.P.

    1994-01-01

    This article looks at the impact of third-party access on non-European contract structures and possible lessons for Europe. For a number of years now, a debate has gone on in Europe about creating an internal market for energy, in which increased competition, both between different fuels and between different suppliers of the same fuel, has been put forward as an important feature. There is every possibility that pressure in the direction of liberalisation and introduction of more competition into European energy markets will continue. In the gas sector, introduction of third-party access (TPA) has been considered, at least by the European Commission, as a prerequisite for increased competition. (author)

  20. SSC Test Operations Contract Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleim, Kerry D.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the Test Operations Contract at the Stennis Space Center (SSC). There are views of the test stands layouts, and closer views of the test stands. There are descriptions of the test stand capabilities, some of the other test complexes, the Cryogenic propellant storage facility, the High Pressure Industrial Water (HPIW) facility, and Fluid Component Processing Facility (FCPF).

  1. Jazzing up the Psychological Contract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, Nell Tabor

    2010-01-01

    Helping students and practitioners to understand and utilize the Psychological Contract is often a difficult task. Unlike fault-finding research, this paper presents the PC as a positive, vibrant and valuable tool. In an effort to make the concept less elusive, the paper draws upon the metaphor of jazz. The metaphor is an accepted tool of…

  2. The Strange Notion of Contract

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lock, G.E.

    2007-01-01

    The notion of contract is not as unproblematic as might at first sight appear. Its theoretical basis in particular is very difficult to decipher. It is arguable that whereas the Middle Ages and 16th century produced an exceptionally subtle foundational account, the rise of modernity largely

  3. Informal Institutions and Intergenerational Contracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, David Dreyer; Lilleør, Helene Bie

    This paper carries out a theoretical and empirical investigation of the role of informal institutions in facilitating intergenerational contracts governing investments in schooling and payments of pensions in the form of remittances. We show, using detailed household level data from rural Tanzania...

  4. Forestry contracting in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Khosa, M

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available of their workers directly to a contractor system. For example, forest contractors are now hired to carry out planting, tending and silvicultural operations. Sappi Forests, Mondi Forests and Safcol are all contracting certain work out and are currently assisting...

  5. Supply contract and portfolio insurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runsheng Yin; Bob Izlar

    2001-01-01

    The long-term growth of institutional timberland investments depends on the ability of timberland investment management organizations (TIMO) to deal effectively with securitization, leveraging, arbitraging, supply contracting, portfolio insurance, tax efficiency enhancement, and other issues. Financial engineering holds great promise for many of these issues. This...

  6. AGILE DRAFTING OF OUTSOURCING CONTRACTS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlichter, Bjarne Rerup; Storgaard, Kristian

    2015-01-01

    and in several parallel tracks using different competencies. By the use of an illustrative case-study, this paper explores how scrum can be applied to enhance the process of drafting outsourcing contracts. The analysis indicates that the use of an agile method, such as Scrum, can be beneficial in this context...

  7. Towards Certified Management of Financial Contracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahr, Patrick; Berthold, Jost; Elsman, Martin

    2014-01-01

    . The seminal work by Peyton-Jones and Eber on financial contracts shows how an algebraic approach to contract specification can be used for valuation of contracts (when combined with a model of the underlying observables) and for managing how contracts evolve under so-called fixings and decision......-taking, with the contracts eventually evaporating into the empty contract, for which no party have further obligations. The ideas have emerged into Eber's company LexiFi, which has become a leading software provider for a range of financial institutions, with all contract management operations centralised around a domain......Banks and financial institutions nowadays often use domain-specific languages (DSLs) for describing complex financial contracts, in particular, for specifying how asset transfers for a specific contract depend on underlying observables, such as interest rates, currency rates, and stock prices...

  8. Financial Management: Reopening of Contracts in the Mechanization of Contract Administration Services System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Granetto, Paul

    2003-01-01

    .... In anticipation of transitioning to the new contract payment system, the Defense Finance and Accounting Service and the Defense Contract Management Agency were attempting to close out as many contracts as possible...

  9. Iterative Contracts as Proactive Law Instruments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henschel, René Franz

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to analyse the use of proactive law in contracts illustrated by the use of a particular type of contract within the IT industry, the so-called iterative contract. This type of contract has its root in a special software development process called iterative and incre...... the potential to create more business success. However, empirical research still needs to be done in order to confirm that these types of contracts are better at securing business success than traditional contract forms....

  10. Long-term contracts for European gas supply - an empirical analysis of the changing nature of pipeline and LNG-contracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neumann, Anne

    2005-01-01

    As the structure of the European natural gas market is evolving towards more competition and more diverse market structures than before, the nature of the long-term contracts for European natural gas supply is also undergoing change. Experience from other liberalization processes, such as in the U.S. or the UK, suggests that the importance of long-term contracts diminishes over time, but that they remain an important element of supply. In Europe long-term contracts are still considered as a firm basis for investment and financing of capital-intensive infrastructure with a high degree of asset and relationship-specificity. Literature on institutional economics also suggests that long-term contracts act as a device to overcome the ''hold-up'' problem of relationship-specific investments in infrastructure (Klein, Crawford, and Alchian, 1987; Williamson, 1975, 1985). On the other hand, Hartley and Brito (2002) show that more flexible markets also imply a lower degree of asset specificity, thus requiring less fixed contracts. This paper explores the changing nature of long-term contracts for European natural gas supply, with a particular focus on differences between contracts for pipeline gas and liquefied natural gas (LNG). Traditionally, Europe relied on very long-term contracts for pipeline gas (Russia, Norway, Algeria). More recently, increasing LNG supplies are contemplated as a more flexible source of natural gas: The international LNG market is becoming more flexible, LNG can be sourced from a variety of sellers, and the cost of LNG supplies and infrastructure is coming down rapidly (Jensen, 2004). Thus, the evaluation of investing in LNG infrastructure (and the so bought flexibility and possibility of arbitraging profits) may be higher than committing to fixed/predetermined flows of pipeline gas. We ask whether this is reflected in the observed contracts. The paper is based on standard contract theory (Bolton and Dewatripont, 2005). We apply a microeconomic

  11. 77 FR 12353 - U.S. Department of State Advisory Committee on Private International Law (ACPIL): Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-29

    ... Judgments, and (2) Choice of Law in International Commercial Contracts The Office of the Assistant Legal..., which meets April 17-20. Choice of law in international commercial contracts: A working group composed...-binding principles relevant to the choice of law in international commercial contracts. The draft...

  12. Contract Design, Supply Chain Complexity, and Accountability in Federal Contracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-30

    both the extent to which there is a risk of disruption within the supply chain and external to the supply chain as well. We suggest that the formal...governance mechanisms that are favored under different conditions of endogenous and exogenous supply chain risk reflect the risk management...share risk by agreeing to incentive contracts. Introduction Supply chains are complex in at least two fundamental aspects—the complexity or

  13. Mandatory rules and public policy in international contract law

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pauknerová, Monika

    -, č. 11 (2010), s. 29-43 ISSN 1612-3093 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA407/08/0188 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70680506 Keywords : mandatory rules * public policy * Rome Convention Subject RIV: AG - Legal Sciences

  14. Contracting Processes, Internal Controls, and Procurement Fraud: A Knowledge Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-30

    entails the tone at the top. Management’s integrity and ethical behavior sets the tone for the organization (COSO, 2013). A weak control environment can...the collusion category of fraud schemes are kickbacks, bribery , and deliberate split purchases. Kickbacks involve government officials receiving...something of value such as money from a contractor for personal gain in exchange for providing a favor such as submitting false invoices. Bribery

  15. Defense Procurement: An Analysis of Contract Management Internal Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-22

    management to discuss what could go wrong within the organization and how to best mitigate any potential risks , including fraud risks ( COSO , 2013...knowledge management system supporting its governance of processes and practices (Power, 1996, p. 289). Organizations’ increased concern for risk ...meeting the organizational goals set by management ( COSO , 2013). If any controls need to be updated, changed, removed, or added, management can

  16. Best intentions: Lessons learned on international partnering and alliance contracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrell, S.; McDermott, J.R.; Ramsay, A.; Watzke, J.

    1996-01-01

    Although the energy industry is still in the early stages of partnering and alliancing, there is enough accumulated experience to be worth sharing information on what has worked and what has not. This paper explores the lessons learned in six agreements in the UK, the US, and the Middle East. It concludes that not all projects are potential candidates for partnering or alliances. Those likely to be successful will contain common characteristics of complexity, uncertainty, technology and duration. Management structure is moving towards integrated teams, although projects currently fall along a broad spectrum before becoming truly integrated. The risk/reward structure is becoming more complex over time, although it is unclear that tinkering with percentage sharing schemes will actually change the behavior of project participants and result in additional cost savings. The use of team building techniques and facilitators may well enhance the alliance implementation, but the choice of both company and individual members is fundamental to success. The overriding success factor, however, is the setting of fair and achievable targets. All of the managers surveyed stated that their projects benefited from the use of a partnering or alliance structure. Three of the projects were far enough along to cite significant cost savings. Although some in the industry are still doubtful that alliances can make a true difference to a project's outcome, those who have participated are convinced they have achieved results which would have been unattainable in a traditional structure. They would add, however, that partnering and alliancing is not easy, and not for all projects. The industry must share practical information if significant learning is to occur

  17. Defense Contract Management: DOD's Lack of Adherence to Key Contracting Principles on Iraq Oil Contract Put Government Interests at Risk

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hutton, John P; Ahearn, Marie; Augustine, Penny B; Campbell, Greg; James, Jr., Arthur; Lesonsky, Eric; Lord, Stephen; McDonough-Hughes, Anne; McKelvey, Janet; Patton, Kenneth

    2007-01-01

    .... The contract was also used to ensure adequate fuel supplies inside Iraq. RIO I was a cost-plus-award-fee type contract that provided for payment of the contractor's costs, a fixed fee determined at inception of the contract, and a potential award fee...

  18. 78 FR 21633 - International Mail Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-11

    ... POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION [Docket No. CP2013-58; Order No. 1691] International Mail Product... have the Agreement included within the existing IBRS Competitive Contract 3 product on grounds of... Contract 3 product in Docket No. CP2012-17, and is on behalf of the same customer as in Docket No. CP2012...

  19. 78 FR 21171 - International Mail Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-09

    ... POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION [Docket No. CP2013-57; Order No. 1690] International Mail Product... have the Agreement included within the existing IBRS Competitive Contract 3 product on grounds of... Contract 3 product in Docket No. CP2012-18. Id. at 3. [[Page 21172

  20. Dynamic contracting mechanism for pavement maintenance management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demirel, H.C.; De Ridder, H.A.J.

    2013-01-01

    Technological advances, financial possibilities and changes of demands have increasingly affected the pavement maintenance environment for outsourcing in recent years. This induces complexity in the contracting methods of pavement maintenance activities. Despite the fact that current contracting

  1. 48 CFR 23.804 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... refrigerant, such as air conditioners, including motor vehicles, refrigerators, chillers, or freezers. [61 FR... Equipment and Air Conditioners, in solicitations and contracts for services when the contract includes the...

  2. 7 CFR 1780.75 - Contract provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) WATER AND WASTE LOANS AND GRANTS Planning, Designing, Bidding, Contracting... including the manner by which it will be effected and the basis for settlement. In addition, such contracts...

  3. Defense Contract Audit Agency Compensation Audits

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1999-01-01

    .... The Defense Contract Audit Agency (DCAA) assists the administrative contracting officer in accomplishing that responsibility by determining whether the contractor's compensation system is sound, reliable, consistently applied, and results...

  4. 48 CFR 19.808 - Contract negotiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract negotiation. 19.808 Section 19.808 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION SOCIOECONOMIC....808 Contract negotiation. ...

  5. Linkage between Psychological Contract and Employee Retention

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GRACE

    strengthened by clearly stating expectations during recruitment and ... Impact of psychological contract in a work environment vis-à-vis employee retention, ..... psychological contract that will incite a faithful, fruitful and fulfilled work team.

  6. The Public Sector and Obligation to Contract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Karsten Naundrup; Indén, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    The paper concerns the situation where public sector bodies are forced to enter into contracts. These obligations to contract are analysed from two angles. First, the paper offers an analysis of the reasons for imposing such obligations to contract under Swedish and Danish law. Secondly the paper...... discusses some consequences of the public entities’ obligations to contract, more specific consequences for the use of rules that usually regulate contracts and the fact that obligations to contract imposed on public entities establish a new market and at the same time the obligations deprive the entities...... of the freedom to contract which is a fundamental to market behaviour. Finally attention is drawn to the fact that obligations to contract are also imposed on private entities. The paper takes Swedish and Danish regulations as a point of departure and provides an insight into regulations from these two countries...

  7. Renewable Energy Contract Development Best Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page provides information on how available resources can help organizations effectively navigate the solar contract development process with the goal of RFP and contract transparency, completeness, and accountability of all involved parties.

  8. Contract Training: Progress and Policy Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deegan, William L.; Drisko, Ronald

    1985-01-01

    Provides results of a national survey of community college contract training programs, including data on the extent of the colleges' involvement, centralization/decentralization of contract training, problems and benefits, and future trends. Discusses future policy trends. (HB)

  9. Utility Energy Services Contracts: Enabling Documents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Karen; Vasquez, Deb

    2017-01-01

    The Federal Energy Management Program's 'Utility Energy Service Contracts: Enabling Documents' provide legislative information and materials that clarify the authority for federal agencies to enter into utility energy service contracts, or UESCs.

  10. corporate social responsibility and psychological contract

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Global Journal

    2017-07-04

    Jul 4, 2017 ... KEYWORDS: Corporate social responsibilities, Psychological contract, Nigeria, Niger delta, ... The concept of Corporate Social ... CSR initiatives rather than mere financial ..... fundamental idea in such a contract (PC) is the.

  11. Value Relevance of Embedded Value and IFRS 4 Insurance Contracts

    OpenAIRE

    Rebecca Chung-Fern Wu; Audrey Wen-Hsin Hsu

    2011-01-01

    In light of the recent exodus of foreign insurers from Taiwan and the local insurers’ outcries against the International Financial Reporting Standard (IFRS) 4 Insurance Contracts, we examine the value relevance of financial statements for life insurance firms, with particular interests to the embedded value (EV) disclosure. We find that the EV of equity has an incremental information role for book value of equity, which indicates that the accounting mismatching problem in the insurance indust...

  12. Accounting for derivative contracts in an energy environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewthwaite, T.; Majid, H.; Swingler, N.

    1999-01-01

    This chapter reviews the latest developments in the accounting for derivative contracts in the energy environment, covering the US accounting and disclosure requirements and the Statement of Financial Accounting Standards (SFAS) 133 Accounting for Derivative Instruments and Hedging Activities, and the Emerging Issues Task Force Consensus (EITF) 98-10 accounting for energy trading and risk management activities. UK accounting and disclosure requirements and the international point of view are discussed. Three different types of hedges are described

  13. Accounting for derivative contracts in an energy environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewthwaite, T.; Majid, H.; Swingler, N. [Arthur Andersen (United Kingdom)

    1999-07-01

    This chapter reviews the latest developments in the accounting for derivative contracts in the energy environment, covering the US accounting and disclosure requirements and the Statement of Financial Accounting Standards (SFAS) 133 Accounting for Derivative Instruments and Hedging Activities, and the Emerging Issues Task Force Consensus (EITF) 98-10 accounting for energy trading and risk management activities. UK accounting and disclosure requirements and the international point of view are discussed. Three different types of hedges are described.

  14. Energy service contracting in DOD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahle, D.E.

    1993-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) annually consumes about $3 Billion in energy to operate facilities at military installations worldwide, representing about 80% of utility operating expense for all Federal facilities. Recent legislation and a Presidential Executive Order have directed DOD by Fiscal Year 2000 to reduce facility energy consumption by 20%, from the level of energy used in Fiscal Year 1985. To achieve this goal it is estimated that energy efficiency improvement investments between $2-3 billion would be required. Considering the competition for resources within DOD as it experiences downsizing and restructuring, DOD will need to seek opportunities to tap alternative investment strategies through energy service contracting to leverage Federal resources. Shared Energy Savings and Operations and Maintenance Energy Services contracting activities in the Department of the Navy will be used to address how such acquisition methods can contribute to achieving DOD energy efficiency goals

  15. Russian Contract Law for Foreigners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Shirvindt

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The book by Maria Efremova, Svetlana Yakovleva and Jane Henderson aims to serve as a short introduction to Russian contract law for a foreign lawyer. Assuming that the target readership are mainly English lawyers the book’s second aim, expressly stated by the authors (pp. i, 1, is to make lawyers from common law countries familiar with codified law, with Russian law being just an example. The book covers most of the general law of obligations as well as some questions of formation and invalidity of contracts that belong to the general part of the Civil Сode, with this preceded by a brief introduction into the Russian law dealing with its history, federal structure and state agencies of Russia, its court system, sources of law and legal profession.

  16. The NYMEX electricity futures contract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer-Huggins, D.

    1998-01-01

    Members of the New York Mercantile Exchange (NYMEX) include bankers, industry (such as refiners, producers, and electricity marketers) brokerage houses, and individuals. NYMEX is the largest physical commodity futures exchange in the world. The primary economic role of the commodity exchange industry was discussed, with special emphasis on open interest, volume, and liquidity. Hedge dynamics were also reviewed. A hedge was described as a financial instrument used to lock in prices, costs, and profit margins. Futures contracts in general, and electricity futures contracts in particular were defined ('a firm commitment to deliver or to receive a specified quantity or grade of commodity at a specific location within a designated month'). Results expected from hedging, - cost control, predictable margins, securing a certain market share, price stabilization - , the nature of options trading, and its benefits were also reviewed. 1 tab., 4 figs

  17. Contractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Careers Archives Health Topics Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ... Report Cards Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ...

  18. Optimal Contracting under Adverse Selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenells, Jonatan; Stea, Diego; Foss, Nicolai Juul

    2015-01-01

    We study a model of adverse selection, hard and soft information, and mentalizing ability--the human capacity to represent others' intentions, knowledge, and beliefs. By allowing for a continuous range of different information types, as well as for different means of acquiring information, we dev...... of that information. This strategy affects the properties of the optimal contract, which grows closer to the first best. This research provides insights into the implications of mentalizing for agency theory....

  19. Strategic Inventories in Vertical Contracts

    OpenAIRE

    Krishnan Anand; Ravi Anupindi; Yehuda Bassok

    2008-01-01

    Classical reasons for carrying inventory include fixed (nonlinear) production or procurement costs, lead times, nonstationary or uncertain supply/demand, and capacity constraints. The last decade has seen active research in supply chain coordination focusing on the role of incentive contracts to achieve first-best levels of inventory. An extensive literature in industrial organization that studies incentives for vertical controls largely ignores the effect of inventories. Does the ability to ...

  20. Determinants of Service Contract Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-30

    5–24. Armstrong, J. S., & Overton, T. S. (1977). Estimating nonresponse bias in mail surveys. Journal of Marketing Research , 14(3), 396–402. Ausink...for developing better measures of marketing constructs. Journal of Marketing Research , 16(1), 64–73. Coalition of Service Industries (CSI). (2007...with unobservable variables and measurement error. Journal of Marketing Research , 18, 39–50. GAO. (2001a, May). Contract management: Trends and

  1. Custom, contract, and kidney exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, Kieran; Krawiec, Kimberly D

    2012-01-01

    In this Essay, we examine a case in which the organizational and logistical demands of a novel form of organ exchange (the nonsimultaneous, extended, altruistic donor (NEAD) chain) do not map cleanly onto standard cultural schemas for either market or gift exchange, resulting in sociological ambiguity and legal uncertainty. In some ways, a NEAD chain resembles a form of generalized exchange, an ancient and widespread instance of the norm of reciprocity that can be thought of simply as the obligation to “pay it forward” rather than the obligation to reciprocate directly with the original giver. At the same time, a NEAD chain resembles a string of promises and commitments to deliver something in exchange for some valuable consideration--that is, a series of contracts. Neither of these salient "social imaginaries" of exchange--gift giving or formal contract--perfectly meets the practical demands of the NEAD system. As a result, neither contract nor generalized exchange drives the practice of NEAD chains. Rather, the majority of actual exchanges still resemble a simpler form of exchange: direct, simultaneous exchange between parties with no time delay or opportunity to back out. If NEAD chains are to reach their full promise for large-scale, nonsimultaneous organ transfer, legal uncertainties and sociological ambiguities must be finessed, both in the practices of the coordinating agencies and in the minds of NEAD-chain participants. This might happen either through the further elaboration of gift-like language and practices, or through a creative use of the cultural form and motivational vocabulary, but not necessarily the legal and institutional machinery, of contract.

  2. Government Contract Law (9th Edition)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-04-01

    This Ninth Edition, like its predecessors, will serve as the textbook for the Government Contract Law taught at the School of Systems and Logistics...drawn from Government Contract Law -Cases, 1987 edition, for a rounded approach to the subject. This edition of the text includes coverage of the...Government Contract Law complements the Federal Acquisition Regulation and provides a preventive law treatment for contracting personnel. While it may

  3. Manipulation of Cash-Settled Futures Contracts.

    OpenAIRE

    Pirrong, Craig

    2001-01-01

    Replacement of delivery settlement of futures contracts with cash settlement is frequently proposed to reduce the frequency of market manipulation. This article shows that it is always possible to design a delivery-settled futures contract that is less susceptible to cornering by a large long than any given cash-settled contract. Such a contract is more susceptible to manipulation by large shorts, however. Therefore, cash settlement does not uniformly dominate delivery settlement as a means o...

  4. Optimal Long-term Contracting with Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Jianfeng Yu; Bin Wei; Zhiguo He

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces profitability uncertainty into an infinite-horizon variation of the classic Holmstrom and Milgrom (1987) model, and studies optimal dynamic contracting with endogenous learning. The agent's potential belief manipulation leads to the hidden information problem, which makes incentive provisions intertemporally linked in the optimal contract. We reduce the contracting problem into a dynamic programming problem with one state variable, and characterize the optimal contract w...

  5. Optional forward contracts for electric power markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gedra, T.W.

    1994-01-01

    This paper extends the idea of callable forward contracts, which are potentially useful as demand-side (interruptible-load) contracts, to their supply-side analogues. Together, these contracts allow market participants to take advantage of flexibility in generation or consumption to obtain a monetary benefit, while simultaneously removing the risk of market price fluctuations. This paper also considers the effects of strategic behavior on the part of market participants in their contract sales/purchase decisions

  6. Contract Dynamics : Lessons from Empirical Analyses

    OpenAIRE

    Magali Chaudey

    2010-01-01

    Working paper GATE 2010-35; The recognition that contracts have a time dimension has given rise to a very abundant literature since the end of the 1980s. In such a dynamic context, the contract may take place over several periods and develop repeated interactions. Then, the principal topics of the analysis are commitment, reputation, memory and the renegotiation of the contract. Few papers have tried to apply the predictions of dynamic contract theory to data. The examples of applications int...

  7. A Contract That Manages Itself: The Time Has Arrived

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    technology inspires contracting. The Smart Contract The paradigm of a contract as a static document is about to change. The days of a contract being read...efficiency is of paramount importance in order for an organization to perform its mission. The Smart Contract as an Object In discussions about...the contract object ( smart contract ) exists, the contract will be able to interact with other objects. That will enable the contract to know how

  8. Periodic review in natural resource contracts | Mandelbaum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Periodic contract review mechanisms, which are provisions in contracts that formally require parties to meet at particular intervals to review the terms of the contract, are mechanisms that may facilitate the process of negotiating contractual changes to accommodate changing circumstances over the term of extractive ...

  9. 48 CFR 2432.908 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Section 2432.908 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT FINANCING Prompt Payment 2432.908 Contract clauses. (c)(1) The... other than the submission of an invoice or voucher, e.g., directly from proceeds of property sales. [71...

  10. 48 CFR 619.808 - Contract negotiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract negotiation. 619.808 Section 619.808 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF STATE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Contracting with the Small Business Administration (The 8(a) Program) 619.808 Contract negotiation...

  11. 77 FR 5280 - Service Contracts Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-02

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [NRC-2012-0023] Service Contracts Inventory AGENCY: Nuclear...) is providing for public information its Inventory of Contracts for Services for Fiscal Year (FY) 2011. The inventory includes service contract actions over $25,000 that were awarded in FY 2011. ADDRESSES...

  12. 75 FR 82095 - Service Contracts Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-29

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [NRC-2010-0394] Service Contracts Inventory AGENCY: U.S. Nuclear...) is providing for public information its Inventory of Contracts for Services for Fiscal Year (FY) 2010. The inventory includes service contract actions over $25,000 that were awarded in FY 2010. ADDRESSES...

  13. 78 FR 10642 - Service Contracts Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-14

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [NRC-2013-0029] Service Contracts Inventory AGENCY: Nuclear...) is providing for public information its Inventory of Contracts for Services for Fiscal Year (FY) 2012. The inventory includes service contract actions over $25,000 that were awarded in FY 2012. ADDRESSES...

  14. 48 CFR 2439.107 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Departmental automated information systems or applications as they are defined in the clause. (b) The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 48 CFR 2452.239-71, Information Technology Virus Security, in... SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING ACQUISITION OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY 2439.107 Contract clauses. (a) The...

  15. 24 CFR 232.605 - Contract requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT MORTGAGE AND LOAN INSURANCE PROGRAMS UNDER NATIONAL HOUSING ACT AND OTHER AUTHORITIES MORTGAGE INSURANCE FOR NURSING HOMES, INTERMEDIATE CARE FACILITIES, BOARD AND CARE HOMES, AND ASSISTED... Fire Safety Equipment Form of Contract § 232.605 Contract requirements. (a) The contract between the...

  16. 14 CFR 145.217 - Contract maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Contract maintenance. 145.217 Section 145...) SCHOOLS AND OTHER CERTIFICATED AGENCIES REPAIR STATIONS Operating Rules § 145.217 Contract maintenance. (a) A certificated repair station may contract a maintenance function pertaining to an article to an...

  17. 48 CFR 923.103 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 923.103... Contract clauses. Insert the clause at 952.223-78, Sustainable Acquisition Program, or its Alternate I, in all contracts under which the contractor operates Government-owned facilities or Government-owned...

  18. 78 FR 55124 - Domestic Mail Contract

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-09

    ... Contract AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is noticing a recent Postal Service filing seeking to add Parcel Select Contract 7 to the competitive product list. This... Postal Service filed a formal request and associated supporting information to add Parcel Select Contract...

  19. 48 CFR 704.404 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 704.404... ADMINISTRATIVE MATTERS Safeguarding Classified Information Within Industry 704.404 Contract clause. If the contract involves access to classified (“Confidential”, “Secret”, or “Top Secret”), or administratively...

  20. 42 CFR 93.204 - Contract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract. 93.204 Section 93.204 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH EFFECTS... MISCONDUCT Definitions § 93.204 Contract. Contract means an acquisition instrument awarded under the HHS...

  1. 48 CFR 819.709 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 819.709... PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS The Small Business Subcontracting Program 819.709 Contract clause. The contracting officer shall insert VAAR clause 852.219-9, Small Business Subcontracting Plan Minimum...

  2. Contraction theorems in fuzzy metric space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farnoosh, R.; Aghajani, A.; Azhdari, P.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the results on fuzzy contractive mapping proposed by Dorel Mihet will be proved for B-contraction and C-contraction in the case of George and Veeramani fuzzy metric space. The existence of fixed point with weaker conditions will be proved; that is, instead of the convergence of subsequence, p-convergence of subsequence is used.

  3. 48 CFR 923.7003 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 923.7003... Efficiency, Renewable Energy Technologies, and Occupational Safety Programs 923.7003 Contract clauses. (a) A decision to include or not include environmental, safety and health clauses in DOE contracts shall be made...

  4. 32 CFR 21.625 - Contract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Contract. 21.625 Section 21.625 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DoD GRANT AND AGREEMENT REGULATIONS DoD GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS-GENERAL MATTERS Definitions § 21.625 Contract. See the definition for procurement contract in this...

  5. Contraction of graded su(2) algebra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patra, M.K.; Tripathy, K.C.

    1989-01-01

    The Inoenu-Wigner contraction scheme is extended to Lie superalgebras. The structure and representations of extended BRS algebra are obtained from contraction of the graded su(2) algebra. From cohomological consideration, we demonstrate that the graded su(2) algebra is the only superalgebra which, on contraction, yields the full BRS algebra. (orig.)

  6. Psychological Contracts: Are They Still Relevant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguire, Heather

    2002-01-01

    Empirical evidence from a banking organization illustrated how change has an impact on psychological contracts. Concluded that maintenance of contracts makes an important contribution to relationships but organizations need to adjust psychological contracts to meet the needs of the work force. (Contains 58 references.) (JOW)

  7. 28 CFR 810.2 - Accountability contract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Accountability contract. 810.2 Section... COLUMBIA COMMUNITY SUPERVISION: ADMINISTRATIVE SANCTIONS § 810.2 Accountability contract. (a) Your CSO will... accountability contract with CSOSA. (b) The CSO is responsible for monitoring your compliance with the conditions...

  8. 48 CFR 32.908 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., Prompt Payment for Fixed-Price Architect-Engineer Contracts, in solicitations and contracts that contain the clause at 52.232-10, Payments Under Fixed-Price Architect-Engineer Contracts. (1) As authorized in... specify a period longer than 7 days for constructive acceptance or constructive approval, if required to...

  9. 48 CFR 11.701 - Supply contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... DESCRIBING AGENCY NEEDS Variation in Quantity 11.701 Supply contracts. (a) A fixed-price supply contract may authorize Government acceptance of a variation in the quantity of items called for if the variation is... items in a fixed-price contract, within allowable variations, if any. If a contractor delivers a...

  10. 10 CFR 603.1300 - Procurement contract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Used in this Part § 603.1300 Procurement contract. A Federal Government procurement contract. It is a... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Procurement contract. 603.1300 Section 603.1300 Energy... Government and a State, a local government, or other non-government entity when the principal purpose of the...

  11. 32 CFR 37.1330 - Procurement contract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Definitions of Terms Used in This Part § 37.1330 Procurement contract. A Federal Government procurement contract. It is a legal instrument which, consistent with 31 U.S... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Procurement contract. 37.1330 Section 37.1330...

  12. 48 CFR 12.210 - Contract financing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract financing. 12.210... financing. Customary market practice for some commercial items may include buyer contract financing. The contracting officer may offer Government financing in accordance with the policies and procedures in part 32. ...

  13. Incentive contracts with unobservable competence levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davis, Jerome; Keiding, Hans

    2008-01-01

    about the competence of the agent to fulfill the obligations of the contract. The agent offers a choice of contracts to the principal, thereby signalling agent competence to the principal, and there is no alternative reputation mechanism to the contract for the principal's bargaining strategy. It turns...

  14. Effort and Selection Effects of Incentive Contracts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwens, J.F.M.G.; van Lent, L.A.G.M.

    2003-01-01

    We show that the improved effort of employees associated with incentive contracts depends on the properties of the performance measures used in the contract.We also find that the power of incentives in the contract is only indirectly related to any improved employee effort.High powered incentive

  15. 48 CFR 17.204 - Contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    .... (f) Contracts may express options for increased quantities of supplies or services in terms of (1... identified as the option. (g) Contracts may express extensions of the term of the contract as an amended... on the purchase of additional supplies or services, or the overall duration of the term of the...

  16. 48 CFR 244.403 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 244.403... OF DEFENSE CONTRACT MANAGEMENT SUBCONTRACTING POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Subcontracts for Commercial Items and Commercial Components 244.403 Contract clause. (1) 252.225-7009, Restriction on Acquisition of...

  17. Co-operation and conflict under hard and soft contracting regimes: case studies from England and Wales

    OpenAIRE

    Hughes, David; Allen, Pauline; Doheny, Shane; Petsoulas, Christina; Vincent-Jones, Peter

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This paper examines NHS secondary care contracting in England and Wales in a period which saw increasing policy divergence between the two systems. At face value, England was making greater use of market levers and utilising harder-edged service contracts incorporating financial penalties and incentives, while Wales was retreating from the 1990 s internal market and emphasising cooperation and flexibility in the contracting process. But there were also cross-border spill-overs inv...

  18. Army Contract Specialists’ Lack of Desire to Become Contracting Officers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    response to question 2 was 1 or 2, choose all the responses that support the reasoning for your answer. B ). N o t en o u g h w el l tr ai n ed...contracting specialist set the goal of becoming a contracting officer? ACC 20 Contracting officer burnout Consider contracting officer rotations every 2 to

  19. 48 CFR 227.7009-3 - Additional clauses-contracts except running royalty contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...-contracts except running royalty contracts. 227.7009-3 Section 227.7009-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations...—contracts except running royalty contracts. The following clauses are examples for use in patent release and settlement agreements, and license agreements not providing for payment by the Government of a running...

  20. 75 FR 65566 - Revised Regulations Concerning Section 403(b) Tax-Sheltered Annuity Contracts; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 [TD 9340] RIN 1545-BB64 Revised Regulations Concerning Section 403(b) Tax-Sheltered Annuity Contracts; Correction AGENCY: Internal Revenue... additional rules relating to annuities payable from a retirement income account. * * * * * 0 Par. 4. Section...