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Sample records for internally contaminated persons

  1. Current approaches to the management of internally contaminated persons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voelz, G.L.

    1979-01-01

    Appropriate treatment for internal depositions of some radionuclides can reduce the radiation doses by as much as factors of two to ten. While at first thought that may seem a relatively small therapeutic effect, it is a useful gain for the patient in reducing the dose and may be a significant help in preventing late effects from the radiation. The list of important available treatments include agents that reduce gastrointestinal absorption, blocking and diluting compounds, mobilizing agents, and chelating drugs. Wound irrigation or excision and lung lavage are mechanical techniques that can reduce radionuclide depositions. Successful treatment depends on early application of these drugs and techniques following exposure. This must be done usually on the basis of very limited exposure information, which emphasizes the need for preplanning the medical emergency program if internal radioactive contamination is possible. In most cases, the risks of treatment are well identified. Since the exposure risks are often poorly understood when the decision for treatment must be made, the omission of treatment can be more serious than proceeding with a low or no risk therapeutic regimen

  2. Metabolism and toxicology of plutonium-239 - evaluation of the internal contamination of persons professionally exposed (1963)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henry, Ph.

    1963-01-01

    After reviewing the main metabolic and toxicological properties of plutonium 239 as well as the professional norms now in force, the report considers the difficult problem of the evaluation of the internal contamination of persons professionally exposed. This evaluation is dependent on the practical organisation of the supervision involved: - systematic supervision by periodic analysis of urinary Pu and special supervision in the case of incidents by an examination adapted to each case. A simple interpretation of the systematic analyses, as well as the evaluation methods used in the main cases of occidental contamination are outlined. (author) [fr

  3. Guidelines on the medical therapy of persons accidentally overexposed to ionizing radiations. Internal contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Trano, J.L.; Perez, M.R.; Gisone, P.

    1999-01-01

    This work represent a guide for the treatment of accidental intakes of radionuclides. The different phases of radioactive contamination, the transfer and non-transfer of radioisotopes, the general principles in the treatment of internal contamination and the follow-up are determined. The in vivo monitoring and the evaluation of activity level are specified in this document. The applied treatment depends on the via of intake, that is: inhalation, ingestion, and through skin. The decontamination procedures that reduce the radionuclide transfer are specified. The different drugs, used to enhance radionuclides elimination, are enumerated in this work. Considerations about the iodine prophylaxis in radiologic als accidents are considered. (author)

  4. Development of a personalized dosimetric tool for radiation protection in case of internal contamination and targeted radiotherapy in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiavassa, S.

    2005-12-01

    Current internal dosimetric estimations are based on the M.I.R.D. formalism and used standard mathematical models. These standard models are often far from a given patient morphology and do not allow to perform patient-specific dosimetry. The aim of this study was to develop a personalized dosimetric tool, which takes into account real patient morphology, composition and densities. This tool, called O.E.D.I.P.E., a French acronym of Tool for the Evaluation of Personalized Internal Dose, is a user-friendly graphical interface. O.E.D.I.P.E. allows to create voxel-based patient-specific geometries and associates them with the M.C.N.P.X. Monte Carlo code. Radionuclide distribution and absorbed dose calculation can be performed at the organ and voxel scale. O.E.D.I.P.E. can be used in nuclear medicine for targeted radiotherapy and in radiation protection in case of internal contamination. (author)

  5. Metabolism and toxicology of plutonium-239 - evaluation of the internal contamination of persons professionally exposed (1963); Metabolisme et toxicologie du plutonium 239 - evaluation de la contamination interne des personnes professionnellement exposees (1963)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henry, Ph. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Centre de Production de Plutonium, Marcoule (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1963-07-01

    After reviewing the main metabolic and toxicological properties of plutonium 239 as well as the professional norms now in force, the report considers the difficult problem of the evaluation of the internal contamination of persons professionally exposed. This evaluation is dependent on the practical organisation of the supervision involved: - systematic supervision by periodic analysis of urinary Pu and special supervision in the case of incidents by an examination adapted to each case. A simple interpretation of the systematic analyses, as well as the evaluation methods used in the main cases of occidental contamination are outlined. (author) [French] Apres avoir passe en revue les principales proprietes metaboliques et toxicologiques du plutonium 239, ainsi que les normes professionnelles actuellement en vigueur, le rapport aborde le probleme difficile de l'evaluation de la contamination interne des personnes professionnellement exposees. Cette evaluation est fonction de l'organisation pratique de la surveillance: - surveillance systematique par des analyses periodiques de Pu urinaire et surveillance speciale en cas d'incidents par des examens appropries a chaque cas. Une interpretation simple des analyses systematiques, ainsi que des methodes d'evaluation utilisables dans les principaux cas de contamination accidentelle sont exposees. (auteur)

  6. Management of internal contamination accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipsztein, J.L.; Melo, D.R.

    1997-01-01

    This paper concerns with the techniques for intakes assessment which depend on the mode and level of intake, the type of energy of the radiation emitted, the biokinetic of the contaminant, and the sensitivity and availability of measurement facilities. In vivo and in vitro techniques are used to quantify internal contaminations

  7. Organization of internal contamination monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badreddine, A.

    1986-07-01

    The nuclear energy takes a big part in the world's energy production. The nuclear techniques are used in most fields of life. Nevertheless the use of radioactive materials may cause prejudice to human beings by radiation contamination. The International Commission on Radiological Protection gives the general rules and regulations to avoid this danger. In the publication No. 30, the ICRP gives a metabolic model for the respiratory system and values of Annual Limit of Intake. The ALI for inhalation supposes a standard AMAD (Activity Median Aerodynamic Diameter) of 1 um. We have measured the AMAD in a laboratory under different conditions of functioning in order to show its variation. Then we have analysed the effect of this variation on the internal contamination monitoring. Thus we have calculated the Effective Committed Dose (ECD), the ALI, then the Derived Investigation Level (DIL) for different values of AMAD for Whole-Body Counting (WBC)

  8. Does modifying personal responsibility moderate the mental contamination effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Tinisha S; Simonds, Laura M

    2017-12-01

    Mental contamination is the psychological sense of internal dirtiness that arises in the absence of physical contact with a perceived contaminant. Mental contamination can be evoked through imagining perpetrating a moral transgression. This study experimentally evoked mental contamination by asking men to imagine perpetrating a non-consensual kiss. It explored whether reducing sense of personal responsibility for the kiss moderated the mental contamination effect. Male students (N = 60) imagined giving either a consensual or non-consensual kiss. Personal responsibility for the kiss was manipulated in one of two non-consensual kiss conditions by way of the inclusion of social influence information. Feelings of mental contamination were assessed by self-report and through a behavioural index. Mental contamination was successfully induced in the two non-consensual kiss conditions. There was evidence to support the hypothesis that reducing personal responsibility might moderate specific components of mental contamination (shame, dirtiness and urge to cleanse). The effect of responsibility modification was evident in the self-report measures, but not in the behavioural index. The sample comprised male university students which limits generalizability of the findings. The behavioural assessment of mental contamination was limited to a proxy measure. Imagined moral violations are associated with increases in indices of mental contamination. Further research should investigate whether feelings of shame, dirtiness and urge to cleanse are particularly responsive to responsibility modifications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Internally displaced persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leus, X; Wallace, J; Loretti, A

    2001-01-01

    There were estimated to be over 20 million internally displaced persons (IDPs) at the end of 1999, a number that surpasses global estimates of refugees. Displacement exposes IDPs to new hazards and accrued vulnerability. These dynamics result in greater risk for the development of illness and death. Often, access of IDPs to health care and humanitarian assistance is excluded deliberately by conflicting parties. Furthermore, the arrival of IDPs into another community or region strains local health systems, and the host population ends up sharing the sufferings of the internally displaced. Health outcomes are dismaying. From a health perspective, the best option is to avoid human displacement. WHO contributes to the prevention of displacement by working for sustainable development. Placing health high on the political agenda helps maintain stability, and thereby, reduce the likelihood for displacement. Primary responsibility for assisting IDPs, irrespective of the cause, rests with the national government. However, where the government is unwilling or unable to provide the necessary aid, the international humanitarian community must step in, with WHO playing a major role in the health sector. There is consensus among the partners of the World Health Organization (WHO) that, in emergencies, the WHO must: 1) take the lead in rapid health assessment, epidemiological and nutritional surveillance, epidemic preparedness, essential drugs management, control of communicable diseases, and physical and psychosocial rehabilitation; and 2) provide guidelines and advice on nutritional requirements and rehabilitation, immunisation, medical relief items, and reproductive health. If the vital health needs of IDPs--security, food, water, shelter, sanitation and household items--are not satisfied, the provision of health services alone cannot save lives. Community participation is essential, and community participation implies bolstering the assets and capacities of the beneficiaries.

  10. Development of a personalized dosimetric tool for radiation protection in case of internal contamination and targeted radiotherapy in nuclear medicine; Developpement d'un outil dosimetrique personnalise pour la radioprotection en contamination interne et la radiotherapie vectorisee en medecine nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiavassa, S

    2005-12-15

    Current internal dosimetric estimations are based on the M.I.R.D. formalism and used standard mathematical models. These standard models are often far from a given patient morphology and do not allow to perform patient-specific dosimetry. The aim of this study was to develop a personalized dosimetric tool, which takes into account real patient morphology, composition and densities. This tool, called O.E.D.I.P.E., a French acronym of Tool for the Evaluation of Personalized Internal Dose, is a user-friendly graphical interface. O.E.D.I.P.E. allows to create voxel-based patient-specific geometries and associates them with the M.C.N.P.X. Monte Carlo code. Radionuclide distribution and absorbed dose calculation can be performed at the organ and voxel scale. O.E.D.I.P.E. can be used in nuclear medicine for targeted radiotherapy and in radiation protection in case of internal contamination. (author)

  11. Methodical approach to reconstruct individual internal doses for persons residing in areas of Belarus contaminated as a result of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skryabin, Anatoly; Belsky, Yuri

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The studies on the risk to population of low-level exposure following the Chernobyl accident require the estimation of the individual doses. The most difficult aspect is the estimation of internal exposure (IAED int ). Level of individual internal exposure due to ingestion of long-lived caesium isotopes defines by individual 'food habits' (IFH) of the person. Non-standard methodical approach is suggested to evaluate internal doses taking into IFH: 1) IFH are generally conservative by food characteristic and steady in time; 2) IFH of the person determines his dose which can be calculated using data of personal interview and the special table of conformity establishing connection between IFH and corresponding percentile interval in a variation line of doses in given settlement; 3) IAED int (1986-2005) is calculated as the sum of annual doses of the individual for all period of exposure and in all settlements of residing. To develop the model, WBC measurements data (around 1.5 millions) collected in 1987-2005 for population of around 1000 Belarusian settlements were used. The input data for IAEA int calculation include consumption of dose-significant products, duration, and place of residence obtained by mean of individual questionnaire; WBC measurements data; table of conformity (IFH → IAED int ). (author)

  12. Improvement of personalized Monte Carlo-aided direct internal contamination monitoring: optimization of calculation times and measurement methodology for the establishment of activity distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farah, Jad

    2011-01-01

    To optimize the monitoring of female workers using in vivo spectrometry measurements, it is necessary to correct the typical calibration coefficients obtained with the Livermore male physical phantom. To do so, numerical calibrations based on the use of Monte Carlo simulations combined with anthropomorphic 3D phantoms were used. Such computational calibrations require on the one hand the development of representative female phantoms of different size and morphologies and on the other hand rapid and reliable Monte Carlo calculations. A library of female torso models was hence developed by fitting the weight of internal organs and breasts according to the body height and to relevant plastic surgery recommendations. This library was next used to realize a numerical calibration of the AREVA NC La Hague in vivo counting installation. Moreover, the morphology-induced counting efficiency variations with energy were put into equation and recommendations were given to correct the typical calibration coefficients for any monitored female worker as a function of body height and breast size. Meanwhile, variance reduction techniques and geometry simplification operations were considered to accelerate simulations. Furthermore, to determine the activity mapping in the case of complex contaminations, a method that combines Monte Carlo simulations with in vivo measurements was developed. This method consists of realizing several spectrometry measurements with different detector positioning. Next, the contribution of each contaminated organ to the count is assessed from Monte Carlo calculations. The in vivo measurements realized at LEDI, CIEMAT and KIT have demonstrated the effectiveness of the method and highlighted the valuable contribution of Monte Carlo simulations for a more detailed analysis of spectrometry measurements. Thus, a more precise estimate of the activity distribution is given in the case of an internal contamination. (author)

  13. Contamination vs. Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Matters Information on Specific Types of Emergencies Contamination vs. exposure Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... contaminate their surroundings and personal property. Types of Contamination Internal Contamination Internal contamination occurs when people swallow ...

  14. Th biodistribution in internal contamination of animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciubotariu, M.; Danis, A.; Dumitrescu, G.; Cucu, M.

    1999-01-01

    Fissionable elements (U,Th) internal contamination have been studied using the fission track method as analysis method of the U and/or Th contaminant elements and Wistar-London breed rats as experiment animals. Different ways to obtain internal contaminations have been investigated: ingestion, inhalation, absorption by skin and through wounds. After the U internal contamination study was carried out, in this stage the Th internal contamination by ingestion is in progress. Using the identical aliquot parts of a solution calibrated in Th, corresponding to an Annual Limit Intake, three Wistar-London breed rats were contaminated. They were kept in normal life conditions and under permanent medical surveillance up to their sacrification. The animals were sacrificed at different time intervals after their contamination: 2 days, 7 days and 14 days, respectively. After the sacrification, their vital organs were sampled, weighed, calcined, re-weighed and finally analysed by track detection using the fission track micro-mappings technique. Also, their evacuations were sampled every 24 hours weighed, calcined and analysed in the same way as the vital organs. The Th fission track micro-mappings technique was used in the following conditions: - mica-muscovite as track detector pre-etched for fossil tracks 18 h in HF-40 per cent at room temperature; - the neutron irradiations were performed in the nuclear reactor VVR-S Bucharest at the neutron fluences of 3.10 15 - 2.10 16 fast neutrons/c m 2 ; - the visualization of the Th induced fission tracks were obtained by chemical etching in HF-40 per cent, 3 h at room temperature; - the Th track micro-mappings obtained in track detectors were studied by optical microscopy using a stereo microscope WILD M7S for ensemble study (X6-X31) and a binocular ZEISS JENA microscope for qualitative and quantitative studies (X150). The biological reference materials calibrated in Th were prepared in our laboratory using the calcined organs and the

  15. Simulation of internal contamination screening with dose rate meters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, T. C. F.; Mendes, B. M.; Hunt, J. G.

    2017-11-01

    Assessing the intake of radionuclides after an accident in a nuclear power plant or after the intentional release of radionuclides in public places allows dose calculations and triage actions to be carried out for members of the public and for emergency response teams. Gamma emitters in the lung, thyroid or the whole body may be detected and quantified by making dose rate measurements at the surface of the internally contaminated person. In an accident scenario, quick measurements made with readily available portable equipment are a key factor for success. In this paper, the Monte Carlo program Visual Monte Carlo (VMC) and MCNPx code are used in conjunction with voxel phantoms to calculate the dose rate at the surface of a contaminated person due to internally deposited radionuclides. A whole body contamination with 137Cs and a thyroid contamination with 131I were simulated and the calibration factors in kBq per μSv/h were calculated. The calculated calibration factors were compared with real data obtained from the Goiania accident in the case of 137Cs and the Chernobyl accident in terms of the 131I. The close comparison of the calculated and real measurements indicates that the method may be applied to other radionuclides. Minimum detectable activities are discussed.

  16. Fixation of Radiological Contamination; International Collaborative Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rick Demmer

    2013-03-01

    A cooperative international project was conducted by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and the United Kingdom’s National Nuclear Laboratory (NNL) to integrate a capture coating with a high performance atomizing process. The initial results were promising, and lead to further trials. The somewhat longer testing and optimization process has resulted in a product that could be demonstrated in the field to reduce airborne radiological dust and contamination.

  17. NORM and the Risk of Internal Contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syaifudin, Mukh; Iin Kurnia; Yanti Lusiyanti; Siti Nurhayati; Iwiq Indrawati

    2003-01-01

    The earth and its atmosphere contain various natural radioactive materials known as NORM (naturally occurring radioactive materials) as sources of external and internal radiation exposures to human. The main radionuclides of NORM are uranium and thorium chairs and their progenies. In this paper, it will be discussed briefly about effects of internal contamination these elements which could enter into the body through inhalation and ingestion as well as absorption on the skin. The distribution, excretion and decontamination methods of the radionuclide incorporated in the body are also discussed. (author)

  18. Considerations of selection suggested for internal contamination monitoring in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz S, R.; Lopez B, G.; Placeres V, C.; Arado L, J.; Jova S, L.

    1996-01-01

    A method for calculating effective risk of radionuclide intake and hypothetical annual dose that will receive a person who works with unsealed sources is proposed. Calculated committed dose equivalent and metabolic characteristic of radionuclides permit to select the type of monitoring 'in vivo' and/or 'in vitro'. The method was applied to 396 workers from 28 institutions, where 20 radionuclides in 124 different products for 266 applications are used. From this study 62% of the workers had to be monitored for internal contamination, meanly by 'in vitro' monitoring. In practices of Nuclear Medicine and other medical uses 75% of the workers had to be monitored. These results permitted to corroborate the criteria for internal contamination monitoring program carried out by Center for Hygiene and Radiation Protection and permitted to identify needs for control of radionuclides intakes. (authors).5 refs., 3 figs

  19. Implementation guide of internal contamination control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balter, Henia; Savio, Eduardo; Souto, Beatriz

    1994-01-01

    A review of current methods of contamination control for radioisotopes 131I, 125I and 99mTc, periodic control of personnel exposed to radiation.Maximum permissible body burden (Mpbb) for each radionuclide,radiotoxicity as danger of internal contamination directly related with Let, type of radiation,Ali values for various radionuclides and external irradiation as an opposed factor.Effective half life,examples, 99mTc in urine,iodine in thyroid caption, 99m Tc absorption by skin and mouth. Procedure of control and calculation by measurement of urine samples in a gamma spectrometer. Iodine thyroid caption by monitoring of thyroid with a solid NaI(TI)scintillator taking as background radiation the activity of upper leg muscle. Standard solutions are prepared to fill a thyroid phantoms.Results must not be higher than Mpbb of corresponding radionuclide.Bibliography

  20. Requirements for internal contamination monitoring units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werner, E.; Beyer, D.; Doerfel, H.; Erlenbach, H.; Fischbach, G.; Henrichs, K.; Keller, K.D.; Koenig, K.; Riedel, W.; Scheler, R.; Schieferdecker, H.

    1994-01-01

    For the evaluation of internal contamination by officially authorized monitoring units according to section 63 (6) of the German radiation protection ordinance, a directive will be prepared in order to define uniform requirements for the laboratories in charge of incorporation monitoring by appointment of the relevant authorities. These requirements refer to equipment, to performance of measurements, to interpretation of measured values, to quality control as well as to documentation and to delivery of results. The duties of such laboratories comprise measurements of radioactivity, evaluation of intakes of radionuclides and of the resulting internal radiation dose, but also transmission of results to the employer, to the central dose registry, and under certain circumstances to the authorities. Among the requirements to be met by the laboratory for incorporation control are a sufficient measuring efficiency, the implementation of in-house checks, and the participation in intercomparison programs. For the accomplishment of such duties the laboratory needs appropriate apparatus, rooms, facilities, and staffing. (orig.) [de

  1. Medical effects of internal contamination with uranium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duraković, A

    1999-03-01

    The purpose of this work is to present an outline of the metabolic pathways of uranium isotopes and compounds, medical consequences of uranium poisoning, and an evaluation of the therapeutic alternatives in uranium internal contamination. The chemical toxicity of uranium has been recognized for more than two centuries. Animal experiments and human studies are conclusive about metabolic adverse affects and nephro- toxicity of uranium compounds. Radiation toxicity of uranium isotopes has been recognized since the beginning of the nuclear era, with well documented evidence of reproductive and developmental toxicity, as well as mutagenic and carcinogenic consequences of uranium internal contamination. Natural uranium (238U), an alpha emitter with a half-life of 4.5x10(9) years, is one of the primordial substances of the universe. It is found in the earth's crust, combined with 235U and 234U, alpha, beta, and gamma emitters with respective half-lives of 7.1x10(8) and 2.5x10(5) years. A special emphasis of this paper concerns depleted uranium. The legacy of radioactive waste, environmental and health hazards in the nuclear industry, and, more recently, the military use of depleted uranium in the tactical battlefield necessitates further insight into the toxicology of depleted uranium. The present controversy over the radiological and chemical toxicity of depleted uranium used in the Gulf War warrants further experimental and clinical investigations of its effects on the biosphere and human organisms.

  2. Contamination measurements on persons after a nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maushart, R.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of contamination measurements after accidents is threefold: to detect and localize contaminations; to determine the level of contamination as a base for medical decisions; and to check the scope and efficiency of the decontamination measures. Persons involved in accidents should never measure their contamination themselves. The radiation protection personnel, whether it belongs to the medical team or to the disaster control squads, must be familiar with the measuring instruments and experienced in handling these instruments. A high priority has to be placed on training and constant practice. The monitors used must meet the special requirements of an emergency situation. This includes resistance against environmental factors - temperature, humidity, vibrations - as well as the simplicity of handling the instrument, and the clear presentation of the results. (author)

  3. Emergency preparedness and internal contamination monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahola, T.; Suomela, M.

    2000-01-01

    After the radiation accidents in Chernobyl, Ukraina in 1986 and in Goiania, Brasil in 1987, much resource have been spent on improving emergency preparedness. Especially regarding transfer of information using the most recent techniques and establishment of 24 hour emergency service of radiation safety experts the development has been fast. The very first measures in a possible emergency situation have been trained nationally and internationally. Less attention has been paid to measures in a somewhat later phase. To be able to react fast enough in an emergency situation it is essential to have well documented plans, written instructions and suitable measurement equipment ready for use. Equally important is that there is trained staff prepared to do measurements without delay. In the first phase of a nuclear accident radioactive iodine is of primary concern regarding internal contamination. After the Chernobyl accident the number of childhood thyroidea cancer clearly exceeded the expected number. Reliable direct measurements of I-131 in the thyroidea in Ukraina, Russia and Belarussia were done only to a limited number of children. Many uncertainties are involved in the data used for dose estimation. Later the body burdens of radiocesium or other radionuclides might be of most importance. Normal whole-body counting instruments can be used if only small groups need to be measured. For large groups of people in an emergency situation faster methods are needed. Different types of monitors installed at places where radiation workers are controlled for internal contamination as well as gamma cameras at hospitals can be used. Rapid field measurements of the whole-body and especially of the thyroid can been done with less sophisticated instruments. In the acute phase of a nuclear accident such measurements should be done without delay. Instruments and staff trained to use them should be available and plans for which groups of people to measure prepared. The detection level

  4. Internal contamination as a problem of radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loessner, V.

    1978-01-01

    An overview is given of the most important problems associated with internal contamination. Topics discussed include the various routes of entry into the body and the metabolism of radionuclides, methods for assessing internal doses and specifying maximum permissible values for internal contamination as well as direct and indirect methods for detecting incorporated radionuclides. The material should be of value to participants in radiation protection courses. (author)

  5. IDEAS international contamination database: a compilation of published internal contamination cases. A tool for the internal dosimetry community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurtgen, C.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the IDEAS project was to develop General Guidelines for the Assessment of Internal Dose from Monitoring Data. The project was divided into 5 Work Packages for the major tasks. Work Package 1 entitled Collection of incorporation cases was devoted to the collection of data by means of bibliographic research (survey of the open literature), contacting and collecting data from specific organisations and using information from existing databases on incorporation cases. To ensure that the guidelines would be applicable to a wide range of practical situations, a database of cases of internal contamination including monitoring data suitable for dose assessment was compiled. The IDEAS Bibliography database and the IDEAS Internal Contamination database were prepared and some reference cases were selected for use in Work Package 3. The other Work packages of the IDEAS Project (WP-2 Preparation of evaluation software, WP-3 Evaluation of incorporation cases, WP-4 Development of the general guidelines and WP-5 Practical testing of general guidelines) have been described in detail elsewhere and can be found on the IDEAS website. A search for reference from the open literature, which contained information on cases of internal contamination from which intake and committed doses could be assessed, has been compiled into a database. The IDEAS Bibliography Database includes references to papers which might (but were not certain to) contain such information, or which included references to papers which contained such information. This database contains the usual bibliographical information: authors' name(s), year of publication, title of publication and the journal or report number. Up to now, a comprehensive Bibliography Database containing 563 references has been compiled. Not surprisingly more than half of the references are from Health Physics and Radiation Protection Dosimetry Journals.The next step was for the partners of the IDEAS project to obtain the references

  6. Internal contamination monitoring in the German Democratic Republic. Report on the experience of twelve years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poulheim, K.F.; Arndt, D.; Klucke, H.; Loessner, V.; Scheler, R.; Schlueter, W.

    1979-01-01

    After a short explanation of the organization for monitoring internal contamination in the German Democratic Republic, an estimation of working places is presented. Criteria are given for selecting persons to be subjected to a direct or indirect measurement of internal contamination. While, in the National Board of Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection, examinations for internal contamination had formerly been made by groups of persons selected on the basis of special aspects of their work, such monitoring has for several years had a systematic character. From among all persons exposed to unsealed radionuclides, a group of persons to be subjected to monitoring has been established. The selection was made by calculating on the basis of model concepts and topical working-place data an individual incorporation risk which is specific for a given working area. The central and peripheral measuring devices of the monitoring system are presented. The central, very effective devices consist of a pair of whole-body counters. The methods of measuring internal contamination directly are supplemented by methods for measuring biological samples and exhaled breath. The monitoring system is complemented by smaller peripheral devices. Monitoring results obtained over a period of about 12 years are discussed. (author)

  7. Internal contamination with leech in a turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Bahmani

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Leech enters to mouth and nose through water. Nose and nasopharynx mucosa are the most preferred places for leech attachment with epistaxis and respiratory distress symptoms. But the leeches may rarely stick deeper to trachea or esophagus which could cause hematemesis, hemoptysis and severe respiratory distress. Leech infestation can cause gastrointestinal, respiratory and genital bleeding in rare cases. Various animals such as ruminants, single-toed and carnivores, are easily infected with leeches. In May 2014, a 2-year-old turkey infected with leeches through the contaminated drinking water was referred to a veterinarian with respiratory distress symptoms, anxiety, bleeding from the mouth in Maze-Abdali Village located at 17 km from Dehloran City of Ilam Province in the west of Iran. After physical observations, a moving dark green particle was seen. Limnatis nilotica were detected after separation from the oral cavity of turkey. Respiratory distress and oral cavity bleeding should be regarded in the areas where spring and flooded water were infested with leeches. Untreated and contaminated waters consumption should be prohibited.

  8. Domestic and personal determinants of the contamination of individuals by household radon daughters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stebbings, J.H.; Kardatzke, D.R.; Toohey, R.E.; Essling, M.E.; Pagnamenta, A.

    1986-01-01

    Radon daughters were counted by gamma spectroscopy from 180 adult residents of eastern Pennsylvania during the winter of 1983-84. Body radon daughter contamination is an index of relative individual respiratory exposures to radon daughters. These can be related to household radon levels, and to personal risk factors such as sex and tobacco smoking. Over 75% of this Pennsylvania population appeared to have environmentally enhanced radon daughter contamination; 59% had counting rates greater than 2 s.d. above background. House radon levels were the major determinants of radon daughters contamination in the 112 subjects for which both sets of measurements were available (p<.001). Both sex (<.02) and cigarette smoking (p<.005) were found to significantly modify that relationship, after nonlinear adjustment for travel times. Using a logarithmic model, for a given radon level body contamination by radon daughters in females was 2-3.5x higher than in males. Nonsmokers had 2-4x higher levels of contamination than smokers. For female nonsmokers relative to male smokers (which in general corresponds to the population of major concern relative to the population from which risk estimates have been derived), the excesses multiply. These results are for total contamination, both internal and external

  9. Natural uranium toxicology - evaluation of internal contamination in man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chalabreysse, J.

    1968-01-01

    After reminding the physical and chemical properties of natural uranium which might affect its toxicology, a comprehensive investigation upon natural uranium metabolism and toxicity and after applying occupational exposure standards to this particular poison, it has been determined, from accident reports and human experience reported in the related literature, a series of formulae obtained by theoretical mathematical development giving principles for internal contamination monitoring and disclosure by determining uranium in the urine of occupationally exposed individuals. An assay is performed to determine individual internal contamination according to the various contamination cases. The outlined purposes, mainly practical, required some options and extrapolations. The proposed formula allows a preliminary approach and also to determine shortly a contamination extent or to discuss the systematical urinalysis results as compared with individual radio-toxicology monitoring professional standards. (author) [fr

  10. International Space Station External Contamination Environment for Space Science Utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Carlos E.; Mikatarian, Ronald R.; Steagall, Courtney A.; Huang, Alvin Y.; Koontz, Steven; Worthy, Erica

    2014-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is the largest and most complex on-orbit platform for space science utilization in low Earth orbit. Multiple sites for external payloads, with exposure to the associated natural and induced environments, are available to support a variety of space science utilization objectives. Contamination is one of the induced environments that can impact performance, mission success and science utilization on the vehicle. The ISS has been designed, built and integrated with strict contamination requirements to provide low levels of induced contamination on external payload assets. This paper addresses the ISS induced contamination environment at attached payload sites, both at the requirements level as well as measurements made on returned hardware, and contamination forecasting maps being generated to support external payload topology studies and science utilization.

  11. Personal security a guide for international travelers

    CERN Document Server

    Spencer, Tanya

    2013-01-01

    Personal Security: A Guide for International Travelers provides the perfect mix of lessons-learned, tools, and recommendations from experts so that readers can personalize their own approach to managing travel risks. If followed, the information provided will allow readers to get out and experience the local culture while still traveling safely.-Bernie Sullivan, Director Global Security, Hanesbrands Inc....a must-have for any traveler. Having worked in South and Southeast Asia, I know the advice provided in the book holds the key to keeping safe, avoiding dangerous situations, and managing threats when they occur. The book's methodological framework, combined with the author's extensive experience and hands-on knowledge, provide very practical and useful advice.-Kathrine Alexandrowiz, Independent consultant at Kathalyst, former coordinator for the "Regional Risk Management Project for NGOs in Asia Pacific" (ECHO)... a go-to guide for all travelers irrespective of mission or purpose. An excellent piece of work...

  12. Assessment and treatment of external and internal radionuclide contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-04-01

    The most serious problems arise from accidents involving radionuclide contamination. This was demonstrated by experience from the Chernobyl and Goiania accidents, where large groups of people were externally and internally contaminated and which demanded significant management efforts from the health and other authorities. It is important that radionuclide contamination be minimized, not only by preventive measures, but also by good medical management when an exposure has occurred. This is an updated Technical Document based upon the IAEA Safety Series No. 88 ''Medical Handling of Accidentally Exposed Individuals'' and IAEA-TECDOC-366 ''What the General Practitioner (MD) Should Know about Medical Handling of Overexposed Individuals''. 26 refs, 3 figs, 2 tabs

  13. Ten years' experience in determining internal contamination among plutonium laboratory workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deworm, J.; Fieuw, G.

    1976-01-01

    Glove boxes in plutonium laboratories are fitted with ''sniffers'' (air samplers), which evaluate atmospheric contamination. The results of the measurements over a ten-year period of operation are available, and cases of detection in this way of air contamination exceeding the maximum permissible concentrations are exceptional. During contamination aerodynamic particle diameters of 1 - 4 μm were measured. The concentration and characteristics of the aerosol have made it possible to ascertain the inhalable fraction and to estimate the pulmonary and systemic burden in workers. The workers exposed in the laboratories undergo a urine test each month. The results obtained show that there is little risk of internal contamination without the person concerned being aware of an abnormal situation. In the majority of cases it is possible to take proper precautions and to collect the data necessary for evaluating the body burden. Three cases of specific contamination are examined in detail: contamination by plutonium and americium from a non-identified source, detected by routine urine analysis; contamination by inhalation of plutonium; an injury to the left forefinger, accompanied by plutonium contamination. (author)

  14. Remediation of contaminated areas. An overview of international guidance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedemann Jensen, Per

    1999-05-01

    The work described in this report has been performed as a part of the RESTRAT Project FI4P-CT95-0021a (PL 950128) co-funded by the Nuclear Fission Safety Programme of the European Commission. The RESTRAT project has the overall objective of developing generic methodologies for ranking restoration techniques as a function of contamination and site characteristics. The project includes analyses of existing remediation methodologies and contaminated sites, and is structured in the following steps: characterisation of relevant contaminated sites; identification and characterisation of relevant restoration techniques; assessment of the radiological impact; development and application of a selection methodology for restoration options; formulation of generic conclusions and development of a manual. The project is intended to apply to situations in which sites with nuclear installations have been contaminated with radioactive materials as a result of the operation of these installations. The areas considered for remedial measures include contaminated land areas, rivers and sediments in rivers, lakes, and sea areas. Criteria for clean-up of contaminated land and criteria for protection of the public against chronic exposure are being developed by Advisory Groups and Task Groups within the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). This work has been reviewed and a status as of the beginning of 1998 is given. For illustrative purposes , the basic radiation protection principles of justification and optimisation have been applied to derive generic action levels for clean-up of residential areas contaminated with radioactive materials. These generic action levels are based upon cost-benefit analyses that include avertable doses and monetary costs of clean-up. (au)

  15. Behavioural Changes in Rats Internally Contaminated with Caesium-137

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramboiu, S.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: The effect of low doses of 137 Cs on the exercise performances, behavioural and learning processes in rats is analysed. The experiments were performed on albino male and female Wistar rats. The animals were divided as follows: two groups, M 1 and F 1 (males and females) internally contaminated with 490 Bq 137 Cs by milk ingestion during 34 days, groups M 2 and F 2 , internally contaminated with 283 Bq by ingestion of milk during 38 days and two control groups. The duration of forced swimming, the active avoidance reaction and the total latency time in the shuttle-box and the score of aggressive behaviour were analysed. The following results were obtained: (1) the duration of forced swimming decreased significantly in the contaminated groups as compared with controls. (2) The active avoidance reaction in the shuttle-box increased in female groups and decrease in male groups. (3) The total latency time of the same reaction was lower in animals internally contaminated with 137 Cs in the first day of learning. (4) The score of aggressive behavioural rise significantly, especially in female groups. The results can be explained by neurotoxic action of the caesium on several central neural areas including monoaminergic and endocrine mechanisms and sex dependence of caesium accumulation in the organism. (author)

  16. Internal radioactive contamination in selected groups of CRNL employees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, D.W.S.

    1975-10-01

    This report details the development and execution of a 30 month program designed to characterize the magnitude and distribution of internal radioactive contaminaton amongst selected groups of employees at Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories, using a shadow shield whole-body counter. The results show that the levels of contamination in these employees are very low, and no contaminant was present in amounts exceeding 10% of the maximum permissible body burden, with the exception of a medically administered radionuclide (selenium-75). Details of the time course of some of the body burdens are also furnished. (author)

  17. CFD Simulation of Personal Exposure to Contaminant Sources in Ventilated Rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brohus, Henrik

    In this study Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is used to predict the personal exposure to contaminant sources in a ventilated room. A CFD model of a person is located in a displacement ventilated room as well as in a mixing ventilated room. The personal exposure to different contaminant sources...... is simulated, taking both the concentration gradients and the local influence of the person into account....

  18. The relation between attachment, personality, internalizing, and externalizing dimensions in adolescents with borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Vera; Canta, Guilherme; de Castro, Filipa; Leal, Isabel

    2016-01-01

    The relation between attachment and personality features is an important field to explore in adolescent borderline personality disorder (BPD), and previous research has shown that personality features may be conceptualized within latent internalizing and externalizing dimensions. This cross-sectional study used a structural equation model to examine the association between the BPD participants' perception of attachment and personality features, mediated by the underlying internalizing/externalizing personality dimensions. Data were analyzed for 60 adolescents, ages 15 to 18 years, diagnosed with BPD who completed attachment and personality self-report measures. The authors' results showed a good fit of the model, suggesting a significant association between attachment and the internalizing/externalizing dimensions, which simultaneously congregate and influence personality traits. The perception of attachment anxiety was positively related to the internalizing dimension and at the same time negatively related to the externalizing dimension. However, the perception of attachment avoidance was not related to internalizing or externalizing personality dimensions.

  19. Internal Contamination Program in hospital and biomedical research institutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tellez de Cepeda, M.; Macias, M.T.; Plaza, R.; Martinez Hidalgo, C.

    1992-01-01

    Program and the criteria for establishing such program to control the internal contamination from a point of view, not yet systematized and standardized in Hospital and Biomedical Research centers. The main purpose of this work is to review our own situation, to establish and systematize an operative program with variable means (instruments) and the use of external means if need. This program will be established taking into account the new recommendations of I.C.R.P. and the new criteria A.L.I. (author)

  20. CFD Simulations of Contaminant Transport between two Breathing Persons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Erik; Nielsen, Peter V.

    Experiments have shown that exhalation from one person is able to penetrate the breathing zone of another person at a distance. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is used to investigate the dependency of the personal exposure on some physical parameters, namely: Pulmonary ventilation rate...

  1. Human genetics: international projects and personalized medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apellaniz-Ruiz, Maria; Gallego, Cristina; Ruiz-Pinto, Sara; Carracedo, Angel; Rodríguez-Antona, Cristina

    2016-03-01

    In this article, we present the progress driven by the recent technological advances and new revolutionary massive sequencing technologies in the field of human genetics. We discuss this knowledge in relation with drug response prediction, from the germline genetic variation compiled in the 1000 Genomes Project or in the Genotype-Tissue Expression project, to the phenome-genome archives, the international cancer projects, such as The Cancer Genome Atlas or the International Cancer Genome Consortium, and the epigenetic variation and its influence in gene expression, including the regulation of drug metabolism. This review is based on the lectures presented by the speakers of the Symposium "Human Genetics: International Projects & New Technologies" from the VII Conference of the Spanish Pharmacogenetics and Pharmacogenomics Society, held on the 20th and 21st of April 2015.

  2. Logistics: DoD International Personal Property Shipment Rates

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2002-01-01

    ... all or most of the cargo space available on U.S.-flag vessels and subsequently resold the space at an inflated price to selected freight forwarders that participated in the DoD International Personal Property Program...

  3. Legal Personality as a Fundamental Concept of International Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brölmann, C.; Nijman, J.

    2017-01-01

    Legal personality is generally understood as the capability to be - in traditional anthropomorphic terms - ‘the bearer of legal rights and obligations’. Legal personality is a structuring tool in legal systems, not least that of international law, as it indicates who are the participants. This paper

  4. Twelve years of follow up of cases with old 241Am internal contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malátová, Irena; Vrba, Tomás; Becková, Vera; Pospísilová, Helena

    2010-10-01

    A group of workers internally contaminated with Am have been followed for about 12 years. The source of contamination was AmO2 powder used for production of AmBe neutron sources and other applications. The production of some radionuclide sources included chemical treatment of the original material, which transformed the americium into the nitrate, but mostly powder metallurgy was used for production of sources for smoke detectors. In vivo measurement of the workers was performed with two LEGe detectors placed near the head of the measured person. Calibration was performed with four different physical skull phantoms of different origin and a voxel phantom with Monte Carlo simulation, which was developed to fit the head sizes of individual persons. Samples of urine and feces were analyzed by means of radiochemical separation followed by alpha-spectrometry. Separation of 241Am from mineralized excreta was performed by combined anion exchange and extraction chromatographic techniques. As a tracer, 243Am was used. When the measured data (83 data on skeletal activity, activity in 389 bioassay samples) were compared with International Commission on Radiological Protection's and Leggett's biokinetic models of americium, it was found that in most cases, after more than 15 y since the intake, the excretion rate was lower (or skeletal activity higher) than predicted. On the other hand, the ratio of excreted activity in urine and feces agrees well with model predictions.

  5. Uranium: properties and biological effects after internal contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souidi, M.; Tissandie, E.; Racine, R.; Ben Soussan, H.; Rouas, C.; Grignard, E.; Dublineau, I.; Gourmelon, P.; Lestaevel, P.; Gueguen, Y.

    2009-01-01

    Uranium is a radionuclide present in the environment since the origin of the Earth. In addition to natural uranium, recent deposits from industrial or military activities are acknowledged. Uranium's toxicity is due to a combination of its chemical (heavy metal) and radiological properties (emission of ionizing radiations). Acute toxicity induces an important weight loss and signs of renal and cerebral impairment. Alterations of bone growth, modifications of the reproductive system and carcinogenic effects are also often seen. On the contrary, the biological effects of a chronic exposure to low doses are unwell known. However, results from different recent studies suggest that a chronic contamination with low levels of uranium induces subtle but significant levels. Indeed, an internal contamination of rats for several weeks leads to detection of uranium in many cerebral structures, in association with an alteration of short-term memory and an increase of anxiety level. Biological effects of uranium on the metabolisms of xenobiotics, steroid hormones and vitamin D were described in the liver, testis and kidneys. These recent scientific data suggest that uranium could participate to increase of health risks linked to environmental pollution. (authors)

  6. A case of internal contamination with plutonium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breuer, F.; Clemente, G.F.; Strambi, E.; Testa, C.

    1980-01-01

    A case is described of internal contamination caused by the accidental explosion of a glove box, whereby a technician was wounded in his right cheek and inhaled insoluble PuO 2 . Immediate washing of the wound with a DTPA solution and the performance of a small surgical toilet reduced the wound contamination a hundred times. Intravenous injection of DPTA was started and continued for nine days. The ''in vivo'' determination of plutonium and Am-241 lung content was performed immediately after the accident and several other times thereafter. Plutonium was determined periodically in urine and fecal samples for five months. The large Esub(f)/Esub(u) ratio and the steep slope of the Esub(f) curve in the first days indicated that the inhaled material was very insoluble and that the suspended powder particles were large. This conclusion was confirmed by the lung clearance ''in vivo'' during the first few days. The initial lung burden, calculated by the fecal excretion of plutonium in the first five days, was in very good agreement with the direct measurement of the lung content; the residual lung burden and the systemic burden were derived respectively U by the fecal and urinary excretion 100 days after the intake. The committed doses to lungs, bone, liver and kidneys were calculated and were found to be considerably lower than the maximum permissible levels. (H.K.)

  7. Distribution of contaminants in the occupied zone of a room with personalized and displacement ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cermak, Radim; Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Forejt, L.

    2004-01-01

    A distribution of contaminants from floor covering, exhaled air and human bioeffluents was examined in a mock-up of a typical two-person office by means of tracer-gases. The distribution was studied with two types of air terminal device for personalized ventilation combined with displacement...

  8. Monitoring of the internal contamination of occupationally exposure personnel in services of nuclear medicine through the use of gamma cameras; Monitoreo de la contaminacion interna de personal ocupacionalmente expuesto en servicios de medicina nuclear mediante el uso de gamma camaras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teran, M.; Paolino, A.; Savio, E. [Catedra de Radioquimica, Facultad de Quimica, Montevideo (Uruguay); Hermida, J.C. [Centro de Medicina Nuclear, Hospital de Clinicas, Facultad de Medicina, Montevideo (Uruguay); Dantas, B.M. [Laboratorio de Medidas In vivo, Instituto da Radioprotecao e Dosimetria, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2006-07-01

    The radionuclides incorporation can happen as a result of diverse activities; these include the work associated with the different stadiums of the nuclear fuel cycle, the use of radioactive sources in medicine, the scientific research, the agriculture and the industry. In Uruguay the main activities linked to the manipulation of open sources correspond those of Nuclear Medicine and from 2004, in the mark of the Project Arcal RLA 049 and being based on the Safety Guides of the IAEA it is implementing a program of internal monitoring in combined form the Nuclear Medicine Center of the Hospital of and the Radiochemistry class of the Faculty of Chemistry. In accordance with the publication of the ICRP 75 the emphasis of any monitoring program should be in the formal study of the doses in the workers to who are considered commendable of to receive in routine form an outstanding fraction of the dose limits or who work in areas where the exposures can be significant in the accident event. From April 2004, to the date has started a pilot plan by means of in that were established appropriate conditions of procedures and of safety in a reduced group of workers of the Nuclear Medicine area. In that period the first work limits, equipment adjustment, calibrations and registration systems were determined. The monitoring system implemented until the moment is carried out with a thyroid caption equipment. However these measurements are carried out in the university hospital embracing 40% of the involved workers of our country, with the purpose of reaching the covering of the biggest quantity of occupationally exposed personnel of private clinics. Also it was developed a new work proposal that allows to have an alternative measure method, in the event of not having the equipment habitually used. Among the conclusions of this work are that for the before exposed are considered the measure conditions but appropriate the following ones: Gamma Camera without collimator; Measurement

  9. Chemical Agents: Personal Cleaning and Disposal of Contaminated Clothing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What CDC is Doing Blog: Public Health Matters Chemical Agents: Facts About Personal Cleaning and Disposal of ... on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Some kinds of chemical accidents or attacks may cause you to come ...

  10. Emergency preparedness in Finland with special emphasis on internal contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahola, Tua; Suomela, Matti

    1999-01-01

    Rapid development in the field of emergency preparedness has taken place during recent years. The very first measures in a possible emergency situation have been trained nationally and internationally. Less attention has been paid to measures in a later phase. To be able to react fast enough in an emergency situation it is essential to have well documented plans, written instructions and suitable measurement equipment ready for use. In the first phase of a nuclear accident iodine is of primary concern. The Finnish radiation protection authority - STUK has already some instruments calibrated for thyroidea measurements in field conditions outside the laboratory. In a Nordic project experts on internal contamination measurements will be trained to make rapid measurements with relatively simple instruments on large groups of people. The general public knows that it is possible to do direct measurements on people and will not accept prognoses based only on external radiation and foodstuff measurements. In the future it will be necessary to do also direct measurements on people for reassurance of the general public even if such measurement would not be necessary from a strict radiation protection point of view. (au)

  11. Space station contamination control study: Internal combustion, phase 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggeri, Robert T.

    1987-01-01

    Contamination inside Space Station modules was studied to determine the best methods of controlling contamination. The work was conducted in five tasks that identified existing contamination control requirements, analyzed contamination levels, developed outgassing specification for materials, wrote a contamination control plan, and evaluated current materials of offgassing tests used by NASA. It is concluded that current contamination control methods can be made to function on the Space Station for up to 1000 days, but that current methods are deficient for periods longer than about 1000 days.

  12. Internal and atmospheric contamination measurament by means of whole body counter performed up to 31.21.1986 by Bologna ENEA-PAS following the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melandri, C.; Castellani, C.M.; Calamosca, M.; Torroni, G.; Formignani, M.; De Zaiacomo, T.

    1987-01-01

    Internal contamination and atmospheric sampling data obtained at ENEA PAS-FIBI-AEROSOL Laboratory in Bologna (Italy), following the accident at the nuclear reactor in Chernobyl, are presented. Internal contamination data are related to persons coming from European countries (mainly the USSR) and Italy, measured in Bologna in the period May-Dicember 1986, while the atmospheric contamination samplings were performed in Bologna during the first decade of May. Descriptions of the measurement methods, data analysis and the evaluation of the committed dose equivalent due to both inhalation and ingestion of radioactive contaminants are given. The last chapter reports an estimation of the possible trend of internal contamination due to Cs-134 and Cs-137 up to 1991

  13. Guidelines on the medical therapy of persons accidentally overexposed to ionizing radiations. External contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, M.R.; Di Trano, J.L.; Gisone, P.

    1998-01-01

    The document represents a guide for the external decontamination of persons accidentally radio contaminated due to the use, production or transport of radioactive materials. The general conditions, from the medical point of view, to be kept in mind, in the event of accidental overexposures as decontamination treatment and the handling of samples are detailed throughout report. The external contamination without injury in skin or with wound its considered. The distribution of measures and responsibilities for the therapy of the irradiated patients with radioactive materials are enumerated. The preparations of decontaminate solutions are detailed in this work. Moreover, forms for the reception, physical evaluation of the patient and external contamination are presented. (author)

  14. Requirements for internal contamination monitoring units; Anforderungen an Inkorporationsmessstellen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werner, E. [GSF, Inst. fuer Biophysikalische Strahlenforschung, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Beyer, D. [Forschungszentrum Juelich, Abt. ASS (Germany); Doerfel, H. [Hauptabteilung Sicherheit, Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe (Germany); Erlenbach, H. [Zentralstelle fuer Sicherheitstechnik NRW, Duesseldorf (Germany); Fischbach, G. [Siemens Brennelementewerk, Hanau (Germany); Henrichs, K. [Siemens AG, Muenchen (Germany); Keller, K.D. [Radiologische Universitaetsklinik, Tuebingen (Germany); Koenig, K. [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, ISH, Neuherberg (Germany); Riedel, W. [Freie Univ. Berlin, Klinikum Steglitz (Germany); Scheler, R. [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, FB Strahlenschutz, Berlin (Germany); Schieferdecker, H. [Hauptabteilung Sicherheit, Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe (Germany)

    1994-12-31

    For the evaluation of internal contamination by officially authorized monitoring units according to section 63 (6) of the German radiation protection ordinance, a directive will be prepared in order to define uniform requirements for the laboratories in charge of incorporation monitoring by appointment of the relevant authorities. These requirements refer to equipment, to performance of measurements, to interpretation of measured values, to quality control as well as to documentation and to delivery of results. The duties of such laboratories comprise measurements of radioactivity, evaluation of intakes of radionuclides and of the resulting internal radiation dose, but also transmission of results to the employer, to the central dose registry, and under certain circumstances to the authorities. Among the requirements to be met by the laboratory for incorporation control are a sufficient measuring efficiency, the implementation of in-house checks, and the participation in intercomparison programs. For the accomplishment of such duties the laboratory needs appropriate apparatus, rooms, facilities, and staffing. (orig.) [Deutsch] Zur Ermittlung der Koerperdosen nach Paragraph 63 StrlSchV sind fuer die gemaess Abs. 6 von der zustaendigen Behoerde zu bestimmenden Messstellen in einer Richtlinie einheitliche Anforderungen festzulegen. Diese beziehen sich auf deren Ausstattung, die Durchfuehrung der Messungen, Auswertungen und Qualitaetskontrollen sowie die Aufzeichnung und Uebermittlung der Ergebnisse. Die Aufgaben der Messstellen umfassen die Messungen der Radioaktivitaet im Koerper bzw. in Koerperausscheidungen, die Ermittlung der Zufuhr an Radionukliden sowie der daraus resultierenden Koerperdosis und die Weiterleitung der Ergebnisse an den Auftraggeber, an das zentrale Dosisregister und in bestimmten Faellen an die Behoerde. Zu den von einer Messstelle zu erfuellenden Anforderungen gehoeren eine ausreichende Messeffektivitaet, die Durchfuehrung von Eigenkontrollen

  15. Diagnosis of internal radionuclide contamination by mobile laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castagnet, X.; Amabile, J. C.; Cazoulat, A.; Lecompte, Y.; De Carbonnieres, H.; Laroche, P.

    2007-01-01

    To support patient management of possible radiation casualties in case of a radiological or a nuclear event, the Defence Radiation Protection Service (SPRA) is able, 24 h a day, to supply intervention means in France and overseas if requested by military authorities or civilian institutions. SPRA has developed mobile laboratories for the diagnosis of internal radionuclide contamination. The mission of this mobile unit is to study health and environment risks linked to radiological hazards for exposed people: workers, soldiers and also civilians. The mobile laboratories are able to be deployed in all types of nuclear or radiological events, and give the results of analysis to physicians and authorities in a short time. The vehicles are fully equipped to detect and to survey exposure to alpha, beta and gamma emitters for the supervision of people exposed to ionising radiation, by whole body counting or analysis of biological samples. Environmental survey by analysis of wipes, soil, water, vegetation or air filters can also be achieved. (authors)

  16. Radiation contamination monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Tsutomu; Iba, Hiroshi; Sato, Hiroshi

    1999-01-01

    To make sure of no contamination on people, used articles and working uniforms coming out of the radiation controlled area, nuclear power plants are equipped with radioactive contamination monitors. This paper outlines the basic specifications and advantages of our personnel surface contamination monitors to inspect whole-body surface contamination of people coming out, article surface contamination monitors to inspect the surface and inside contamination of used articles brought out, laundry monitors to inspect surface contamination of working uniforms used in the area before and after a wash, and whole-body counters to inspect and measure the internal contamination of a person out of the area. (author)

  17. International Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disability: Disability Inclusive Development and International Development Cooperation

    OpenAIRE

    Kozue Kay Nagata

    2007-01-01

    The adoption of the International Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities is a historical momentum for disabled persons and their associates, as well as ODA workers in the development cooperation field all over the world. For the last two decades, persons with disabilities, their associates and professionals working in this field have promoted their human rights, equality, nondiscrimination and full participation. This Convention is beyond the concept of non-discrimination, and ...

  18. The education investment dimension of international personal remittances in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunofiwa Tsaurai

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The study investigated the relationship between personal international remittances received and gross enrolment ratio in Colombia. There are three hypotheses explaining the relationship between personal international remittances and education (human capital development. These are (1 remittances-led education hypothesis, (2 education-led remittances hypothesis and (3 neutrality hypothesis that says there is no relationship at all between these two variables. Although majority of the empirical studies support the remittances-led education hypothesis, the subject is still attracting contradicting findings and not yet conclusive. It is on the backdrop of such lack of consensus in the literature that the author investigated the relationship between personal remittances received and gross enrolment ratio primary and secondary (% in Colombia. The study used the auto-regressive distributive lag (ARDL bounds co-integration testing technique with annual time series data ranging between 1978 and 2010 to determine the existence of a long run relationship between personal remittances and education in Colombia. The ARDL F-bounds co-integration test revealed that personal remittances received and gross enrolment ratio for both primary and secondary schools in Colombia are not co-integrated or they do not have any long run relationship, thus supporting the neutrality hypothesis. This conclusion was arrived at using either personal remittances or gross enrolment ratio as a dependent variable. These results imply that personal remittances received in Colombia were directed more towards consumption and not invested in education. The study therefore urges the Colombian authorities to concientise the recipients of the personal remittances to invest in the children’s education rather than spending the remittances on consumption purposes.

  19. An Internal Dose Assessment Associated with Personal Food Intake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Joeun; Jae, Moosung [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Wontae [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    ICRP (International Commission on Radiological Protection), Therefore, had recommended the concept of 'Critical Group'. Recently the ICRP has recommended the use of 'Representative Person' on the new basic recommendation 103. On the other hand the U.S. NRC (Nuclear Regulatory Commission) has adopted more conservative concept, 'Maximum Exposed Individuals (MEI)' of critical Group. The dose assessment in Korea is based on MEI. Although dose assessment based on MEI is easy to receive the permission of the regulatory authority, it is not efficient. Meanwhile, the internal dose by food consumption takes an important part. Therefore, in this study, the internal dose assessment was performed in accordance with ICRP's new recommendations. The internal dose assessment was performed in accordance with ICRP's new recommendations. It showed 13.2% decreased of the annual internal dose due to gaseous effluents by replacing MEI to the concept of representative person. Also, this calculation based on new ICRP's recommendation has to be extended to all areas of individual dose assessment. Then, more accurate and efficient values might be obtained for dose assessment.

  20. Persistence and internalization of Salmonella on/in organic spinach sprout: exploring the contamination route

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purpose: The effects of contamination route, including seed and water, on the persistence and internalization of Salmonella in organic spinach cultivars- Lazio, Space, Emilia and Waitiki were studied. Methods: Seeds (1g) were contaminated with S. Newport using 10 ml of S. Newport-water suspension ov...

  1. Development of radionuclide parameter database on internal contamination in nuclear emergencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Li; Xu Cuihua; Li Wenhong; Su Xu

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To develop a radionuclide parameter database on internal contamination in nuclear emergencies. Methods: By researching the radionuclides composition discharged from different nuclear emergencies, the radionuclide parameters were achieved on physical decay, absorption and metabolism in the body from ICRP publications and some other publications. The database on internal contamination for nuclear incidents was developed by using MS Visual Studio 2005 C and MS Access programming language. Results: The radionuclide parameter database on internal contamination in nuclear emergency was established. Conclusions: The database may be very convenient for searching radionuclides and radionuclide parameter data discharged from different nuclear emergencies, which would be helpful to the monitoring and assessment and assessment of internal contamination in nuclear emergencies. (authors)

  2. Personality disorders and criminal law: an international perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparr, Landy F

    2009-01-01

    At the International War Crimes Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (ICTY), a detention camp guard, charged with acts of murder and torture, advanced a plea of diminished responsibility. Defense psychiatrists testified that he had a personality disorder that influenced his ability to control his behavior, but a prosecution expert testified that the guard did not meet Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) criteria. Thus, the unresolved question of how the law defines a mental disease or defect for purposes of mitigation or excuse was transposed to an international setting. It has been argued in a variety of jurisdictions and national legal systems that exculpatory mental disorders must be serious, and personality disorders should not qualify. In fact, it has been proposed that the volitional aspect of excuse defenses be eliminated, and definitions of mental disease or defect narrowed. Others have argued that such exclusions are too restrictive and arbitrary. This article examines the criminal defense at ICTY and traces its origin in national jurisdictions. Mental incapacity defenses based on personality disorders are more often used in The Netherlands, England, Germany and Belgium, but seldom in Canada and rarely in the United States and Sweden.

  3. A consideration on internal dose evaluation and intervention based on a surface contamination concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasuda, H.

    1997-01-01

    Long-term radiation doses received by the inhabitants after the Chernobyl accident have been evaluated according to the surface contamination levels on the ground surface. The health effects have also been discussed by comparison between the surface-contaminated area and the uncontaminated control area. Selected protective measures were carried out in accordance with the contamination level of surface soil. These have been based on the 'surface contamination concept' which assumes that the radiation risk to inhabitants is proportional to the level of ground-surface contamination. The observations collected in regions around Chernobyl, however, show that the internal radiation doses to the inhabitants poorly correlate with the surface contamination level. This fact poses a question on the suitability of dose evaluations and interventions based on this concept

  4. Development of international criteria for the cleanup of contaminated areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedemann-Jensen, P.; Barraclough, I.; Meck, R.; Gnugnoli, G.; Stegnar, P.

    1999-01-01

    IAEA TECDOC-987, Application of radiation protection principles to the cleanup of contaminated areas, provides a coherent framework and consistent guidance needed for approaches to cleanup that encompass the entire range of contamination situations. A major goal of cleanup is usually to re-establish that the environment can acceptably support habitation and use. Difficult situations include chronic exposures due to radioactivity associated with the discovery of contamination from a previously discontinued practice and post-accident situations. and post-accident situations. The concepts of justification, optimization, and limitation can be applied to cleanup from 'trivial' to 'intolerable' situations by taking into account not only radiological risk, but the entire range of social values including the ability of the society to feed and shelter itself and to sustain a productive economy. TECDOC-987 proposes six ranges, or bands, of doses that correspond to trivial, acceptable, tolerable - clean-up unlikely (unless constrained), tolerable - clean-up likely, unacceptable, and intolerable risks. Remedial actions may vary from 'none' to elaborate decontamination or restricted or prohibited use. (author)

  5. Internal contamination: what challenges for tomorrow? Proceedings of the Research and Health Section technical day

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berard, Philippe; Lecoix, Geraldine; Menetrier, Florence; Menetrier, Florence; Leiterer, Alexandra; Gremy, Olivier; Mougnard, Philippe; Gonin, Michele; Paquet, Francois; Davesne, Estelle; Bertho, Jean-Marc; Metivier, Henri; Abergel, Rebecca

    2015-10-01

    The Research and Health Section of the French Society of Radiation Protection (SFRP) organized a technical meeting on the radiation protection aspects of dismantlement, from the dismantling work to the risk, the measurement of body contamination, the potentially harmful health effects, the available medical treatments, the actual needs and the developments in progress. This document brings together the abstracts and the presentations (slides) of the different talks given at the meeting: 1 - Situation: what radionuclides, what situations? (Philippe BERARD, CEA); 2 - Dismantling workplace experience feedback with internal contamination hazard (Philippe MOUGNARD, AREVA); 3 - Experience feedback on internal exposure monitoring at power plants in France (Michele GONIN, EDF); 4 - Evolution of routine and intervention measurement methods (Geraldine LECOIX, CEA); 5 - Evolution of radiation dose calculation models (Francois PAQUET, IRSN); 6 - Taking uncertainties into account in internal contamination monitoring protocols (Estelle DAVESNE, IRSN); 7 - Radionuclides behaviour and effects in men (Florence MENETRIER, CEA); 8 - The plutonium case (Henri METIVIER, SFRP); 9 - Cesium-137 and internal contamination: status and perspectives (Jean-Marc BERTHO, IRSN); 10 - Iodine and thyroid (Florence MENETRIER, CEA); 11 - Actual treatments and research pathways (Alexandra LEITERER, CEA); 12 - Radionuclide contamination treatment: new developments in the US (Rebecca ABERGEL, Berkeley USA); 13 - Internal contaminations treatment: French recent effort for its improvement (Olivier GREMY, CEA)

  6. Foreign experience in determining the status of refugees and internally displaced persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Popok

    2017-06-01

    The authors conclude that European countries actively integrate the provisions of the international law governing the legal status of refugees and internally displaced persons into their domestic law.

  7. Does a Student's Personality Influence Global Attentiveness and Internationalism in an International Business Course?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiun-Shiu; Stevens, Jeffery; Cox, Susie S.; Tudor, Thomas R.

    2016-01-01

    Learning outcomes for international business (IB) courses are designed to do more than simply impart IB knowledge. However, past studies have had mixed results on the impact of learning in IB courses. This study examines whether a student's personality may affect learning outcomes. The results suggest that after completing an IB course, students…

  8. Remediation of contaminated areas. An overview of international guidance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Per Hedemann

    1999-01-01

    The work described in this report has been performed as a part of the RESTRAT Project FI4P-CT95-0021a (PL 950128) co-funded by the Nuclear Fission Safety Programme of the European Commission. The RESTRAT project has the overall objective of developinggeneric methodologies for ranking restoration......, the basic radiation protection principles of justification and optimisation have been applied to derive generic action levels for clean-up of residential areas contaminated with radioactive materials. These generic action levels are based uponcost-benefit analyses that include avertable doses and monetary...

  9. Improvement of personalized Monte Carlo-aided direct internal contamination monitoring: optimization of calculation times and measurement methodology for the establishment of activity distribution; Amelioration des mesures anthroporadiametriques personnalisees assistees par calcul Monte Carlo: optimisation des temps de calculs et methodologie de mesure pour l'etablissement de la repartition d'activite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farah, Jad

    2011-10-06

    To optimize the monitoring of female workers using in vivo spectrometry measurements, it is necessary to correct the typical calibration coefficients obtained with the Livermore male physical phantom. To do so, numerical calibrations based on the use of Monte Carlo simulations combined with anthropomorphic 3D phantoms were used. Such computational calibrations require on the one hand the development of representative female phantoms of different size and morphologies and on the other hand rapid and reliable Monte Carlo calculations. A library of female torso models was hence developed by fitting the weight of internal organs and breasts according to the body height and to relevant plastic surgery recommendations. This library was next used to realize a numerical calibration of the AREVA NC La Hague in vivo counting installation. Moreover, the morphology-induced counting efficiency variations with energy were put into equation and recommendations were given to correct the typical calibration coefficients for any monitored female worker as a function of body height and breast size. Meanwhile, variance reduction techniques and geometry simplification operations were considered to accelerate simulations. Furthermore, to determine the activity mapping in the case of complex contaminations, a method that combines Monte Carlo simulations with in vivo measurements was developed. This method consists of realizing several spectrometry measurements with different detector positioning. Next, the contribution of each contaminated organ to the count is assessed from Monte Carlo calculations. The in vivo measurements realized at LEDI, CIEMAT and KIT have demonstrated the effectiveness of the method and highlighted the valuable contribution of Monte Carlo simulations for a more detailed analysis of spectrometry measurements. Thus, a more precise estimate of the activity distribution is given in the case of an internal contamination. (author)

  10. 4. International Symposium and Exhibition on Environmental Contamination in Central and Eastern Europe. Symposium Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The Fourth International Symposium and Exhibition on Environmental Contamination in Central and Eastern Europe was part of an on-going series of symposia which focus on the environmental problems of Central and Eastern Europe. The presentations concerned radiological contamination, hazardous waste management, environmental monitoring, modeling and computer applications for environmental studies, site remediation. Many works presented human health effects of environmental pollution by heavy metals, radionuclides and other xenobiotics

  11. Air contamination measurements for the evaluation of internal dose to workers in nuclear medicine departments

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Massimi, B.; Bianchini, D.; Sarnelli, A.; D'Errico, V.; Marcocci, F.; Mezzenga, E.; Mostacci, D.

    2017-11-01

    Radionuclides handled in nuclear medicine departments are often characterized by high volatility and short half-life. It is generally difficult to monitor directly the intake of these short-lived radionuclides in hospital staff: this makes measuring air contamination of utmost interest. The aim of the present work is to provide a method for the evaluation of internal doses to workers in nuclear medicine, by means of an air activity sampling detector, to ensure that the limits prescribed by the relevant legislation are respected. A continuous air sampling system measures isotope concentration with a Nal(TI) detector. Energy efficiency of the system was assessed with GEANT4 and with known activities of 18F. Air is sampled in a number of areas of the nuclear medicine department of the IRST-IRCCS hospital (Meldola- Italy). To evaluate committed doses to hospital staff involved (doctors, technicians, nurses) different exposure situations (rooms, times, radionuclides etc) were considered. After estimating the intake, the committed effective dose has been evaluated, for the different radionuclides, using the dose coefficients mandated by the Italian legislation. Error propagation for the estimated intake and personal dose has been evaluated, starting from measurement statistics.

  12. Principles governing medical first aid to workers exposed to internal contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jammet, H.; Nenot, J.C.

    1976-01-01

    The growing use of radionuclides, whether at hospital, laboratory or nuclear facility level, increases the risk of internal contamination. Not only that, some particularly dangerous elements are being handled more and more frequently. Hence the importance of therapeutic concepts based on the general principles governing action to be taken in cases of internal contamination. These principles should be applicable without the nature of the contaminant having to be taken into account, and irrespective of whether it is transferable and of the route of entry, i.e. healthy skin, wound or bronchial tree. The basic principle is the concept of urgency: ''blind'' treatment should be applied merely on the supposition of internal contamination. It is desirable, moreover, that the first aid should be given at the site of the accident. Hence, the product used should be non-toxic under normal conditions of use and should be simple to apply, as, for example, the administration of an aerosol. It is not until later that the doctor should undertake treatment in the proper sense of the term, the emergency treatment having afforded him sufficient time to carry out the preliminary examination required to gain an exact idea of the internal contamination. (author)

  13. External Contamination Control of Attached Payloads on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Carlos E.; Mikatarian, Ronald R.; Olsen, Randy L.; Huang, Alvin Y.; Steagall, Courtney A.; Schmidl, William D.; Wright, Bruce D.; Koontz, Steven

    2012-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is an on-orbit platform for science utilization in low Earth orbit with multiple sites for external payloads with exposure to the natural and induced environments. Contamination is one of the induced environments that can impact performance, mission success and science utilization on the vehicle. This paper describes the external contamination control requirements and integration process for externally mounted payloads on the ISS. The external contamination control requirements are summarized and a description of the integration and verification process is detailed to guide payload developers in the certification process of attached payloads on the vehicle. A description of the required data certification deliverables covers the characterization of contamination sources. Such characterization includes identification, usage and operational data for each class of contamination source. Classes of external contamination sources covered are vacuum exposed materials, sources of leakage, vacuum venting and thrusters. ISS system level analyses are conducted by the ISS Space Environments Team to certify compliance with external contamination control requirements. This paper also addresses the ISS induced contamination environment at attached payload sites, both at the requirements level as well as measurements made on ISS.

  14. Performance of International Space Station Alpha Trace Contaminant Control Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, J. L.

    2016-01-01

    The analysis presented herein was conducted during the early transitional period between the Space Station Freedom and the International Space Station programs as part of an effort to evaluate key design specifications and standards used by the United States and Russia. The analysis was originally documented under NASA cover letter ED62(36-94) dated August 16, 1994. The analysis was revised and rereleased under NASA cover letter ED62(51-94) dated November 14, 1994. These cover letters are provided here to guide programmatic context for the reader.

  15. Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs): a review on environmental contamination in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jin-Lin; Wong, Ming-Hung

    2013-09-01

    Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) which contain diverse organic groups, such as antibiotics, hormones, antimicrobial agents, synthetic musks, etc., have raised significant concerns in recently years for their persistent input and potential threat to ecological environment and human health. China is a large country with high production and consumption of PPCPs for its economic development and population growth in recent years. This may result in PPCP contamination in different environmental media of China. This review summarizes the current contamination status of different environment media, including sewage, surface water, sludge, sediments, soil, and wild animals, in China by PPCPs. The human body burden and adverse effects derived from PPCPs are also evaluated. Based on this review, it has been concluded that more contamination information of aquatic environment and wildlife as well as human body burden of PPCPs in different areas of China is urgent. Studies about their environmental behavior and control technologies need to be conducted, and acute and chronic toxicities of different PPCP groups should be investigated for assessing their potential ecological and health risks. © 2013.

  16. Flame-retardant contamination of firefighter personal protective clothing - A potential health risk for firefighters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Barbara M; Baxter, C Stuart

    2016-09-01

    There is a high incidence of cardiovascular disease and certain cancers in firefighters that may be related to their occupational exposure to hazardous substances. Exposure may result from contaminated personal protective gear, as well as from direct exposure at fire scenes. This study characterized flame-retardant contamination on firefighter personal protective clothing to assess exposure of firefighters to these chemicals. Samples from used and unused firefighter protective clothing, including gloves, hoods and a coat wristlet, were extracted with methylene chloride and analyzed by EPA method 8270D Specific Ion Method (SIM) for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Until recently PBDEs were some of the most common flame-retardant chemicals used in the US. Fifteen of the seventeen PBDEs for which analysis was performed were found on at least one clothing swatch. Every clothing sample, including an unused hood and all three layers of an unused glove, held a detectable concentration of at least one PBDE. These findings, along with previous research, suggest that firefighters are exposed to PBDE flame retardants at levels much higher than the general public. PBDEs are found widely dispersed in the environment and still persist in existing domestic materials such as clothing and furnishings. Firefighter exposure to flame retardants therefore merits further study.

  17. International Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disability: Disability Inclusive Development and International Development Cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozue Kay Nagata

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The adoption of the International Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities is a historical momentum for disabled persons and their associates, as well as ODA workers in the development cooperation field all over the world. For the last two decades, persons with disabilities, their associates and professionals working in this field have promoted their human rights, equality, nondiscrimination and full participation. This Convention is beyond the concept of non-discrimination, and it is very comprehensive in its structure, scope and coverage, promoting developmental activities too in order to realize disabled people’s socio-economic rights. Furthermore it calls for international and regional development cooperation. Prior to its adoption, in September 2000 at the Millennium Summit the Member States of the Untied Nations issued the Millennium Declaration, committing themselves to a series of development targets, most of which are to be achieved by 2015. Known as the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs, they represent a framework for achieving sustainable and "just" human development through broadening the benefits of development for all categories individuals, women and men, the poor and the rich, the disabled and the non-disabled. The very first goal of the MDG is the eradication of extreme poverty and hunger. Poverty is both a cause and consequence of disability. Poverty and disability reinforce one another. Thus, it is necessary to ensure that persons with disabilities be an integral part of efforts to achieve MDGs, particularly in the areas of poverty alleviation, primary education, gender, employment and international development cooperation. In the Asian and Pacific region, the United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP has proclaimed two decades of disabled persons 1993-2002, and 2003-2013 (to which Iran became a signatory in 1994, and promoted the inclusive, barrier-free and rights

  18. Depleted uranium internal contamination of US soldiers deployed in Samawah, Iraq during operation Iraqi freedom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asaf Durakovic; Isaac Zimmerman; Axel Gerdes

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to analyze the concentration and precise isotopic composition and ratios of four uranium isotopes ( 234 U, 235 U, 236 U, and 238 U) in the urine of United States soldiers deployed in Samawah, Iraq during the second Gulf War. Methods: Seven active duty US soldiers deployed as military police unit 442 presenting with non-specific symptoms of intractable headaches, excessive fatigue, intermittent fevers, musculoskeletal pains, respiratory impairment, affect changes, urinary tract symptoms, and neurological alterations were clinically evaluated. Each soldier signed a consent form to participate in our study. The collection of 24-hour urine samples of each subject was performed under controlled conditions. The urine samples were personally carried to the laboratory of the Institute of Geochemistry, JW Goethe University, Frankfurt, Germany. Each sample was analyzed in duplicate by multicollector inductively coupled plasma ionization mass spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS). Control samples consisting of an internal urine standard were also analyzed by the same procedure. The analytical methodology included pre-concentration of the urine samples using evaporation, oxidation of organic matter, uranium purification by ion-exchange chromatography, and analysis by mass spectrometry. The final analysis of the specimens was performed by using a double-focusing Thermo Finnigan Neptune multicollector ICP-MS equipped with retarding potential quadrupole lens and a secondary electron multiplier for ion counting. Results: The mean concentration of total uranium was 3.6±1.3 ng/L. The average 238 U/ 235 U ratio was 146.2±10.2. The ratio of 238 U/ 235 U, being considered as the single most important parameter in determining the quantitative state of depletion of the natural uranium ratio, demonstrates a significant internal contamination with depleted uranium in four soldiers. The 234 U/ 238 U ratio was 6.5 x 10 -5 ±5.7 x 10 -6 . The 236 U/ 238 U ratio was

  19. Bioassay of 210Po in human urine and internal contamination of man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, F.P.; Oliveira, J.M.

    2009-01-01

    The deliberate poisoning of A. Litvinenko in London in late 2006 with 210 Po, attracted attention to the difficulties in identifying internal contamination with alpha emitting radionuclides and to the limited knowledge available on the cycling of many naturally occurring radioisotopes in the body and their baseline concentration values in humans. To cope with the emergency caused by the spread of high 210 Po activity, which contaminated several people and places in London, we were called upon to analyze urine samples in potentially contaminated people. A reference group of adult humans was also selected for determination of baseline 210 Po values to be used for comparative purposes. Concentrations of 210 Po in urine samples from three Portuguese citizens that have been at contaminated places, in London, ranged from 2.3 to 4.1 mBq x L -1 while in the reference group 210 Po concentrations ranged from 0.5 to 4.8 mBq x L -1 . Analytical quality of results was ensured through participation in an international inter laboratory comparison exercise on 210 Po determination in aqueous samples. Results indicated that people potentially exposed to 210 Po in London were not internally contaminated with the radionuclide used as a poisoning agent, and the levels of this radionuclide measured in the urine were similar to the naturally occurring levels in the reference group. Polonium levels in urine and in man are discussed in the light of 210 Po levels in the human diet. (author)

  20. The State of refugees and internally displaced persons in Nigeria: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These persons who are in either situations refugees or internally displaced persons (IDPs) are vulnerable economically, socially, psychologically and politically. The national and international communities are confronted with the monumental task of ensuring protection for these groups of persons. The question has been ...

  1. Statistical evaluation of internal contamination data in the man following the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarroni, G.; Battisti, P.; Melandri, C.; Castellani, C.M.; Formignani, M.

    1989-01-01

    The main implications of the general interest derived from the statistical analysis of the internal human contamination data obtained by ENEA-PAS with Whole Body Counter mesurements performed in Bologna in consequence of the Chernobyl accident are presented. In particular the trend with time of the individual body activity of members of a homogeneous group, the variability of individual contamination in ralation to the mean contamination, the statistical distribution of the data, the significance of mean values concerning small, homogeneous groups of subjects, the difference between subjects of different sex and its trend with time, are examined. Finally, the substantial independence of the individual committed dose equivalent evaluation due to the Chernobyl contamination on the Whole from the hypothesized values of the metabolic parameters is pointed out when the evaluation is performed on the basis of direct measurements with a Whole Body Counter

  2. Detection system qualification for direct measurement of thyroid internal contamination by radioiodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiberi, V.; Battisti, P.; Gualdrini, G.

    1999-01-01

    The work deals with a detection system qualification for direct measurements of thyroid internal contamination by radioiodine. The isotopes 131 I and 125 I are the most frequently used in nuclear medicine. Because of their volatility they are very dangerous for thyroid contamination by inhalation. The system has been projected to be easily and fast used and above all transportable where the control is necessary. These characteristic make it able to realise supervision programs of internal contamination by radioiodine. In fact due the very high control frequencies (each 15 days for 131 I), these programs are usually very expensive and demanding when they are executed in external measurement laboratories. The following steps are described: devices presentation, calculation of energy and efficiency parameters, minimum detectable activity, time system reliability, best operative conditions in the measurements. At the end an application example of the system is reported [it

  3. CONTEMPORARY ISSUES OF LEGAL PERSONALITY IN INTERNATIONAL LAW. FACTUAL AND NORMATIVE PROBLEMS

    OpenAIRE

    MATEJ SAVIĆ

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the author deals with current theoretical issues of international legal personality. Special attention is paid to the growing conflict between the factual and normative dimensions of general legal capacity of subjects of international law. Contemporary trends and respective theoretical concepts are analyzed, especially regarding actual processes and challenges that are imposed in the definition of legal personality in international law.

  4. Selective international migration by social position, health behaviour and personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silventoinen, Karri; Hammar, Niklas; Hedlund, Ebba; Koskenvuo, Markku; Rönnemaa, Tapani; Kaprio, Jaakko

    2008-04-01

    Immigrants is an important minority in many countries, but little is known how they are self-selected. We analysed differences in psycho-social and health behavioural factors between international migrants and non-migrants prior to migration in a large cohort of Finnish twins. A questionnaire was sent to Finnish twins in 1975 (response rate 89%, N = 26555 twin individuals). Follow-up data on migration and mortality were derived from population registries in Finland and Sweden up to 31 March 2002. In 1998, another questionnaire was sent to Finnish twins migrated to Sweden and their co-twins (response rate 71%, N = 1534 twin individuals). The data were analysed using Cox and conditional logistic regression models. Life dissatisfaction, higher alcohol use and smoking at baseline predicted future migration. In men additionally, unemployment, neuroticism and extroversion increased the probability to migrate. Similar associations were found for alcohol use in men and smoking in men and women within twin pairs discordant for migration. Twins also reported retrospectively that prior to migration the migrated twin had been less satisfied with his/her educational institution or job and was generally less satisfied with life, used more alcohol (men) and smoked more (women) than the co-twin stayed in Finland. Migrants are self-selected by health behavioural and personality factors, which may compromise their health. The special requirements of migrants should be recognized in health care.

  5. Studies on the Th biodistribution in internal contamination by the fission track method using animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciubotariu, M.; Danis, A.; Dumitrescu, G.; Cucu, M.

    1998-01-01

    In our previous studies on the U internal contamination, qualitative and quantitative results were obtained by using the fission track methods. In order to obtain complete data on the fissionable element internal contamination using animals, we started a similar study using Th as contaminating element and Wistar London breed rats as laboratory animals. Different ways to obtain internal contaminations were investigated: ingestion, inhalation, absorption by skin and through wounds. In this stage, Wistar-London breed rats of the same sex, weight and age were internal contaminated by 1 ml Th solution ingestion for each rat corresponding to an Annual Limit Intake.The animals were kept in normal life conditions and under permanent medical surveillance up to their sacrifice. Also, their evacuations where sampled every 24 hours. They were sacrificed at different time intervals after their contamination: 2 days (RAT 1), 7 days (RAT 2) and 14 days (RAT 3). After sacrifice, their vital organs were sampled, weighed, calcined, reweighed and finally analysed by track detection using the fission track micromapping technique. This technique was used in the following conditions: - mica-muscovite as track detector pre-etched for fossil tracks 18 h in HF; - the neutron irradiations were performed in the nuclear reactor VVR-S Bucharest at the neutron fluences of 3x10 15 - 2x10 16 fast neutrons/cm 2 . In order to check whether there is any U contribution to the fission track densities obtained in track detectors, U existing in the rat body due to food and water, the neutron irradiations of the ensembles were performed with and without 1 mm Cd shielding; - the visualization of the Th induced fission tracks were obtained by chemical etching in HF, 3 h at room temperature; - the Th track micromappings obtained in track detectors were studied by optical microscopy using a stereomicroscope WILD M7S for ensemble study (X6-X31) and a binocular ZEISS JENA microscope for qualitative and

  6. Analysis of grease contamination influence on the internal radial clearance of ball bearings by thermographic inspection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mišković Žarko Z.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important factors influencing ball bearings service life is its internal radial clearance. However, this parameter is also very complex because it depends on applied radial load and ball bearings dimensions, surface finish and manufacturing materials. Thermal condition of ball bearings also significantly affects internal radial clearance. Despite many researches performed in order to find out relevant facts about different aspects of ball bearings thermal behaviour, only few of them are dealing with the real working conditions, where high concentration of solid contaminant particles is present. That’s why the main goal of research presented in this paper was to establish statistically significant correlation between ball bearings temperatures, their working time and concentration of contaminant particles in their grease. Because of especially difficult working conditions, the typical conveyor idlers bearings were selected as representative test samples and appropriate solid particles from open pit coal mines were used as artificial contaminants. Applied experimental methodology included thermographic inspection, as well as usage of custom designed test rig for ball bearings service life testing. Finally, by obtained experimental data processing in advanced software, statistically significant mathematical correlation between mentioned bearings characteristics was determined and applied in commonly used internal radial clearance equation. That is the most important contribution of performed research - the new equation and methodology for ball bearings internal clearance determination which could be used for eventual improvement of existing bearings service life equations. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR35029 i br. TR14033

  7. Application of secondary ions mass spectrometry (SIMS) in studies of internal contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amaral, Ademir; Galle, Pierre; Colas-Linhart, Nicole

    2000-01-01

    Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) permits the detection of stable and radioactive nuclides. Based on the ablation of specimens by ion bombardment this mass spectrometry method allows a rapid assessment of trace elements in biological samples. Its resolving mass power provides an efficient analytical method and, in particular, it makes possible accurate isotopic ratio determination. In this work, the application of SIMS has been investigated in studies of internal contamination. In vivo studies were carried out using duodenal tissue sections from rats contaminated with cerium. Tests were performed to localize this element as a result of the contamination. In this report, analytical procedures and the potential of SIMS in biological research are presented and discussed. (author)

  8. A Study on the Method to Discriminate Between the Internal and External Radioactive Contamination Using Whole Body Counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong, T. Y.; Kim, H. G.; Yang, H. Y.; Kang, D. W.; Lim, S. N.; Kim, H. J.; Jin, H. H.; Lee, S. G.; Park, S. C.

    2006-01-01

    Whole Body Counter (WBC) is used to identify and measure the radioactivity in the body of human beings in a nuclear power plants (NPPs). In domestic NPPs, it is prescribed that all workers should take a whole body counting after radiation works if the possibilities of radioactive contamination exist or the radioactivity is detected by a portal monitoring. It is, however, found that the external skin contamination is occasionally estimated as the internal radioactive contamination. In this case, the worker assumed to be detected is recommended to take showers for the decontamination of skin and take a whole body counting again. Although the detected radioactivity is reduced remarkably after several decontaminations, confirmed as the external skin contamination, it is determined finally as an internal exposure if the radioactivity is still detected in the body of worker. The amount of detected radioactivity can be much higher than that of the expected for this mistaken contamination since the radioisotopes attached to skin come to be close to the detectors of WBC. Finally, this makes the misjudgment of the external skin contamination as well as the excessively conservative estimation of radioactive contamination. In this study, several experiments were carried out to discriminate between the internal and external radioactive contamination using the humanoid phantom and WBC. Preliminary experimental results indicated that the use of front and backside counts could be applied to the discrimination of the external skin contamination and the difference of detected radioactivities between front and backside counts was less than about factor 2 for the internal contamination

  9. Analysis methodology and development of a statistical tool for biodistribution data from internal contamination with actinides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamart, Stephanie; Griffiths, Nina M; Tchitchek, Nicolas; Angulo, Jaime F; Van der Meeren, Anne

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this work was to develop a computational tool that integrates several statistical analysis features for biodistribution data from internal contamination experiments. These data represent actinide levels in biological compartments as a function of time and are derived from activity measurements in tissues and excreta. These experiments aim at assessing the influence of different contamination conditions (e.g. intake route or radioelement) on the biological behavior of the contaminant. The ever increasing number of datasets and diversity of experimental conditions make the handling and analysis of biodistribution data difficult. This work sought to facilitate the statistical analysis of a large number of datasets and the comparison of results from diverse experimental conditions. Functional modules were developed using the open-source programming language R to facilitate specific operations: descriptive statistics, visual comparison, curve fitting, and implementation of biokinetic models. In addition, the structure of the datasets was harmonized using the same table format. Analysis outputs can be written in text files and updated data can be written in the consistent table format. Hence, a data repository is built progressively, which is essential for the optimal use of animal data. Graphical representations can be automatically generated and saved as image files. The resulting computational tool was applied using data derived from wound contamination experiments conducted under different conditions. In facilitating biodistribution data handling and statistical analyses, this computational tool ensures faster analyses and a better reproducibility compared with the use of multiple office software applications. Furthermore, re-analysis of archival data and comparison of data from different sources is made much easier. Hence this tool will help to understand better the influence of contamination characteristics on actinide biokinetics. Our approach can aid

  10. Trace Contaminant Control During the International Space Station's On-Orbit Assembly and Outfitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, J. L.

    2017-01-01

    analysis. During the International Space Station's (ISS's) on-orbit assembly and outfitting, a series of engineering analyses were conducted to evaluate how effective the passive TCC methods were relative to providing adequate operational margin for the active TCC equipment's capabilities aboard the ISS. These analyses were based on habitable module and cargo vehicle offgassing test results. The offgassing test for a fully assembled module or cargo vehicle is an important preflight spacecraft evaluation method that has been used successfully during all crewed spacecraft programs to provide insight into how effectively the passive contamination control methods limit the equipment offgassing component of the overall trace contaminant generation load. The progression of TCC assessments beginning in 1998 with the ISS's first habitable element launch and continuing through the final pressurized element's arrival in 2010 are presented. Early cargo vehicle flight assessments between 2008 and 2011 are also presented as well as a discussion on predictive methods for assessing cargo via a purely analytical technique. The technical approach for TCC employed during this 13-year period successfully maintained the cabin atmospheric quality within specified parameters during the technically challenging ISS assembly and outfitting stages. The following narrative provides details on the important role of spacecraft offgassing testing, trace contaminant performance requirements, and flight rules for achieving the ultimate result-a cabin environment that enables people to live and work safely in space.

  11. Development of the Discrimination Programs between the Internal and External Radioactive Contamination of Workers Using a Whole Body Counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong, T. Y.; Kim, H. G.; Lim, S. N.; Kim, H. J.; Jin, H. H.; Lee, S. G.; Park, S. C.

    2006-01-01

    A whole body counter (WBC) is used to identify and measure the radioactivity in the body of human beings in a nuclear power plant (NPP). In domestic NPPs, several whole body counters are in operation to monitor the internal radioactive contamination of workers. All workers take a whole body counting after radiation works if there is high possibility of radioactive contamination or the radioactivity is detected by portal monitoring. It is, however, found that the external contamination is occasionally estimated as the internal radioactive contamination. In this case, the worker is recommended to take showers for the decontamination of skin and take a whole body counting again. Although the detected radioactivity is reduced remarkably after several decontaminations, confirmed as the external contamination, it is determined finally as an internal contamination if the radioactivity is still detected in the body of worker. The amount of detected radioactivity can be much higher than that of the expected for this mistaken contamination since the radioisotopes attached to skin come to be close to the detectors of WBC. Finally, this makes not only the misjudgment of the external contamination as the internal contamination, but also the excessively conservative estimation of radioactive contamination. In this study, several experiments were carried out to set up the discrimination program between the internal and external radioactive contamination using the humanoid phantom and a whole body counter. After the analysis of experimental results, we found that the use of front and backside counts could be applied to the discrimination of the external contamination and the ratio of detected radioactivities between front and backside counts was more than about factor 2 for the external contamination

  12. Rapid monitoring of large groups of internally contaminated people following a radiation accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-05-01

    In the management of an emergency, it is necessary to assess the radiation exposures of people in the affected areas. An essential component in the programme is the monitoring of internal contamination. Existing fixed installations for the assessment of incorporated radionuclides may be of limited value in these circumstances because they may be inconveniently sited, oversensitive for the purpose, or inadequately equipped and staffed to cope with the large numbers referred to them. The IAEA considered it important to produce guidance on rapid monitoring of large groups of internally contaminated people. The purpose of this document is to provide Member States with an overview on techniques that can be applied during abnormal or accidental situations. Refs and figs

  13. Evaluation of surface contamination based on certifiably traceable, internationally accreditable measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitlock, G.D.

    1992-01-01

    National Accreditation and Measurement Service (NAMAS) adopted by the EUROMET agreement requires that the calibration of monitoring instruments be traceable internationally with the objective that radiation hazard assessment be improved. This objective is achieved for Tritium surface contamination by employing calibration sources and evaluation methods which comply with ISO standards including the measurement of activity removable by Volatilization as well as dust. Consideration should be given to organic binding of tritium in the skin with its implications in the event of litigation. (author)

  14. 50 CFR 23.74 - How can I trade internationally in personal sport-hunted trophies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... personal sport-hunted trophies? 23.74 Section 23.74 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE... trade internationally in personal sport-hunted trophies? (a) U.S. and foreign general provisions. Except as provided for personal and household effects in § 23.15, the import, export, or re-export of sport...

  15. Internal contamination in nurses attending patients, that received therapeutic amounts of radioiodine-131

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Termorshuizen, W.; Gerritsen, A.J.M.

    1988-01-01

    The most frequent and often very successful used unsealed source in Nuclear Medicine and Radiotherapy is the radioiodine-131 for the treatment of thyroid carcinoma and hyperthyroidism. Always there is a great concern about the health physics of radioiodine and possible internal contamination involved in high level 131-I thyroid therapy cases, in particular to the thyroid as target and limiting organ. This report deals with 131-I air concentrations and internal contamination in nurses attending these patients under two different conditions. During the past three years a change took place from the old building, where we had an unventilated two-bed nursing room, to a new building were we have rooms with forced ventilation and air-conditioning (refreshment five times per hour). From both external exposure caused by radioiodine treated patients and internal contamination due to ingestion and inhalation of 131-I, we calculated the dose-equivalent to the thyroid and the effective dose-equivalent to our health care personnel

  16. Trafficking in Persons: The U.S. and International Response

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Miko, Francis T

    2006-01-01

    Trafficking in people for prostitution and forced labor is one of the most prolific areas of international criminal activity and is of significant concern to the United States and the international community...

  17. Psychometric Properties of the International Personality Item Pool Big-Five Personality Questionnaire for the Greek population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ypofanti, Maria; Zisi, Vasiliki; Zourbanos, Nikolaos; Mouchtouri, Barbara; Tzanne, Pothiti; Theodorakis, Yannis; Lyrakos, Georgios

    2015-09-30

    Goldberg's International Personality Item Pool (IPIP) big-five personality factor markers currently lack validating evidence. The structure of the 50-item IPIP was examined in two different adult samples (total N=811), in each case justifying a 5-factor solution, with only minor discrepancies. Age differences were comparable to previous findings using other inventories. One sample (N=193) also completed additionally another personality measure (the TIPI Short Form). Conscientiousness, extraversion and emotional stability/neuroticism scales of the IPIP were highly correlated with those of the TIPI (r=0.62 to 0.65, P=0.01). Agreeableness and Intellect/Openness scales correlated less strongly (r=0.54 and 0.58 respectively, P=0.01). The IPIP scales have good internal consistency (a=0.88) and relate strongly to major dimensions of personality assessed by the two questionnaires.

  18. Psychometric properties of the International Personality Item Pool Big-Five personality questionnaire for the Greek population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Ypofanti

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Goldberg’s International Personality Item Pool (IPIP big-five personality factor markers currently lack validating evidence. The structure of the 50-item IPIP was examined in two different adult samples (total N=811, in each case justifying a 5-factor solution, with only minor discrepancies. Age differences were comparable to previous findings using other inventories. One sample (N=193 also completed additionally another personality measure (the TIPI Short Form. Conscientiousness, extraversion and emotional stability/ neuroticism scales of the IPIP were highly correlated with those of the TIPI (r=0.62 to 0.65, P=0.01. Agreeableness and Intellect/Openness scales correlated less strongly (r=0.54 and 0.58 respectively, P=0.01. The IPIP scales have good internal consistency (a=0.88 and relate strongly to major dimensions of personality assessed by the two questionnaires.

  19. Outbreaks of Acute Gastroenteritis Transmitted by Person-to-Person Contact, Environmental Contamination, and Unknown Modes of Transmission--United States, 2009-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wikswo, Mary E; Kambhampati, Anita; Shioda, Kayoko; Walsh, Kelly A; Bowen, Anna; Hall, Aron J

    2015-12-11

    Acute gastroenteritis (AGE) is a major cause of illness in the United States, with an estimated 179 million episodes annually. AGE outbreaks propagated through direct person-to-person contact, contaminated environmental surfaces, and unknown modes of transmission were not systematically captured at the national level before 2009 and thus were not well characterized. 2009-2013. The National Outbreak Reporting System (NORS) is a voluntary national reporting system that supports reporting of all waterborne and foodborne disease outbreaks and all AGE outbreaks resulting from transmission by contact with contaminated environmental sources, infected persons or animals, or unknown modes. Local, state, and territorial public health agencies within the 50 U.S. states, the District of Columbia (DC), five U.S. territories, and three Freely Associated States report outbreaks to CDC via NORS using a standard online data entry system. A total of 10,756 AGE outbreaks occurred during 2009-2013, for which the primary mode of transmission occurred through person-to-person contact, environmental contamination, and unknown modes of transmission. NORS received reports from public health agencies in 50 U.S. states, DC, and Puerto Rico. These outbreaks resulted in 356,532 reported illnesses, 5,394 hospitalizations, and 459 deaths. The median outbreak reporting rate for all sites in a given year increased from 2.7 outbreaks per million population in 2009 to 11.8 outbreaks in 2013. The etiology was unknown in 31% (N = 3,326) of outbreaks. Of the 7,430 outbreaks with a suspected or confirmed etiology reported, norovirus was the most common, reported in 6,223 (84%) of these outbreaks. Other reported suspected or confirmed etiologies included Shigella (n = 332) and Salmonella (n = 320). Outbreaks were more frequent during the winter, with 5,716 (53%) outbreaks occurring during December-February, and 70% of the 7,001 outbreaks with a reported setting of exposure occurred in long

  20. Predicting multicultural effectiveness of international students : the Multicultural Personality Questionnaire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Oudenhoven, J.P.; Van der Zee, K.I.

    2002-01-01

    The present study considered the reliability and validity of the 78-item revised version of the Multicultural Personality Questionnaire, a multidimensional instrument aimed at measuring multicultural effectiveness of expatriate employees and students. The questionnaire includes scales for cultural

  1. Predicting multicultural effectiveness of international students : The Multicultural Personality Questionnaire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Oudenhoven, Jan Pieter; Van der Zee, K.I.

    2002-01-01

    The present study considered the reliability and validity of the 78-item revised version of the Multicultural Personality Questionnaire, a multidimensional instrument aimed at measuring multicultural effectiveness of expatriate employees and students. The questionnaire includes scales for cultural

  2. The Influence of the Concept of International Legal Personality on the Drafting of the PCIJ Statute

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldgaard-Pedersen, Astrid

    2014-01-01

    In 1920, when the Advisory Committee of Jurists was appointed by the Council of the League of Nations to be responsible for the development of a Permanent Court of International Justice (PCIJ), it was conventional wisdom among scholars that only states could possess international legal personality......), and 2) the establishment of a High Court of International Justice with jurisdiction over international crimes. Rather than doctrinal quandaries relating to the concept of international legal personality, the conclusions of the vast majority of members of the Advisory Committee appear to have turned upon...

  3. Impact of the internal contamination monitoring for national and international regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaburo, J.C.; Sordi, G.M.

    1996-01-01

    An evaluation of the internal radiation dose received by workers between 1984 and 1994 was performed, after a brief description of IPEN facility. The National and International Recommendation aims to reduce the workers' doses below 1/10 of the annual limits. The routine monitoring should be eliminated, if the individual annual dose is below 3/10 of the annual limits. In this case, only the operational monitoring should be maintained. In principle, the concept of restricted area should be reviewed, because, according to Publication 26 of ICRP, 1977, it should be a supervised area instead. The new concept of restricted area recommended by the Publication 60, ICRP 1991, should be adjusted accordingly. Thus, the classification used by the Commission-controlled areas and supervised areas will be with the foreseeable dose and not with the actual dose. When the individual annual dose is kept below 1/10 of the annual limits, the routine monitoring is not necessary, and only operational monitoring is needed. Finally, the future possible activities of the Individual Internal Dosimetry Laboratory at IPEN are discussed, after the elimination of individual monitoring. (authors). 8 refs

  4. Internal Consistency and Bias Considerations of the Goodenough-Harris Draw-A-Person Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strommen, Erik F.; Smith, Jeffrey K.

    1987-01-01

    The internal consistency of the Goodenough-Harris Draw-A-Person Test was examined using 150 children, aged 5-8. The 72-item full scales showed good internal consistency at all ages, with no sex differences. Administration of a 42-item short form resulted in sex effects and differential internal consistency. (Author/GDC)

  5. Absorption and backscatter of internal conversion electrons in the measurements of surface contamination of 137Cs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yunoki, A.; Kawada, Y.; Yamada, T.; Unno, Y.; Sato, Y.; Hino, Y.

    2013-01-01

    We measured 4π and 2π counting efficiencies for internal conversion electrons (ICEs), gross β-particles and also β-rays alone with various source conditions regarding absorber and backing foil thickness using e-X coincidence technique. Dominant differences regarding the penetration, attenuation and backscattering properties among ICEs and β-rays were revealed. Although the abundance of internal conversion electrons of 137 Cs- 137 Ba is only 9.35%, 60% of gross counts may be attributed to ICEs in worse source conditions. This information will be useful for radionuclide metrology and for surface contamination monitoring. - Highlights: • Counting efficiencies for internal conversion electrons from 137 Cs were measured, and compared with those for β-rays. • Electron-X coincidence technique was employed. • A thin NaI(Tl) scintillation detector was used for X-ray detection. • Backscattering fractions of electrons and beta particles were studied by similar experiments

  6. The "contaminating agent" UNRRA, displaced persons, and venereal disease in Germany, 1945-1947.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haushofer, Lisa

    2010-06-01

    World War II created a large group of persecuted, homeless or stateless people who came to be united under the term "displaced persons" (DPs). The United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration (UNRRA) was charged with the care of these individuals in various camps in Germany, although the military governments of the respective zones of occupation had ultimate authority over them. Among the various public health efforts directed toward DPs was a campaign against venereal disease during which compulsory examinations were particularly stressed by the military governments. The controversy resulting from this campaign opens a new window on the complex context of an international organization working under the roof of a national authority to achieve common-or differing-public health goals.

  7. Guide for the putting int practice the control of internal contamination due to I-131 in hospitals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The generalized use of radioactive installations in different branches of the Economy and Medicine makes essential the existence of a radiological surveillance systems that guarantees that exposure are kept within the limits established. Nuclear medicine workers in hospitals that handle I-131 constitutes a professional group that can be internally contaminated the aim of this guide is to give the entity the general instructions and the necessary methodology to fulfill the control of the internal contamination by this radionuclide

  8. Testing the protective efficiency of personal respiratory protection devices in radiologically contaminated environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajić Dušan S.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of ammunition primed with depleted uranium is one of the hallmarks of modern combat operations, resulting in environmental contamination by particles of depleted uranium and uranium oxide, scattered around in the form of submicron-scale aerosols. This paper examined the protective effectiveness of the Serbian military's M3 protective face mask in relation to the presence of airborne depleted uranium and its by-products. Sodium chloride in solid aerosol form was used as a test substance and adequate physical simulator of such radioactive aerosols because its granulometric (particle size distribution met the requirements of suitability as a simulator. Determination of aerosol concentration was carried out by flame photometry method, whilst granulometric distribution was determined by an electric particles analyzer. It was established that the total internal leakage of the M3 protective mask was as much a function of the penetration of particles through the combined M3 filter as of the leaks along the fitting line of the user's face mask and the inhalation valve. In terms of its protective effect against aerosols of depleted uranium and associated oxides, the Serbian M3 protective mask was determined to be of high efficiency and physiological suitability. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR34034

  9. REIDAC. A software package for retrospective dose assessment in internal contamination with radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurihara, Osamu; Kanai, Katsuta; Takada, Chie; Takasaki, Koji; Ito, Kimio; Momose, Takumaro; Hato, Shinji; Ikeda, Hiroshi; Oeda, Mikihiro; Kurosawa, Naohiro; Fukutsu, Kumiko; Yamada, Yuji; Akashi, Makoto

    2007-01-01

    For cases of internal contamination with radionuclides, it is necessary to perform an internal dose assessment to facilitate radiation protection. For this purpose, the ICRP has supplied the dose coefficients and the retention and excretion rates for various radionuclides. However, these dosimetric quantities are calculated under typical conditions and are not necessarily detailed enough for dose assessment situations in which specific information on the incident or/and individual biokinetic characteristics could or should be taken into account retrospectively. This paper describes a newly developed PC-based software package called Retrospective Internal Dose Assessment Code (REIDAC) that meets the needs of retrospective dose assessment. REIDAC is made up of a series of calculation programs and a package of software. The former calculates the dosimetric quantities for any radionuclide being assessed and the latter provides a user with the graphical user interface (GUI) for executing the programs, editing parameter values and displaying results. The accuracy of REIDAC was verified by comparisons with dosimetric quantities given in the ICRP publications. This paper presents the basic structure of REIDAC and its calculation methods. Sensitivity analysis of the aerosol size for 239 Pu compounds and provisional calculations for wound contamination with 241 Am were performed as examples of the practical application of REIDAC. (author)

  10. The pattern of Campylobacter contamination on broiler farms; external and internal sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battersby, T; Whyte, P; Bolton, D J

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to apply the most sensitive molecular techniques in combination with culture-based methods to characterize broiler farms in terms of the timeline ('appearance' and 'pattern') of Campylobacter contamination prior to and post detection in the birds. Faecal and environmental samples were collected from three broiler farms (two flocks per farm). Real-time PCR was used to test for the presence of Campylobacter. Culture-based methods (enrichment and direct plating) were also applied and isolates were subject to a range of confirmatory tests before speciation (multiplex PCR). All flocks were colonized by Campylobacter before first thin and a similar pattern of Campylobacter contamination was observed; (day -1) a range of external and internal samples real-time PCR positive but culture negative; (day 0) chicks negative; (6-9 days pre-detection in the birds) internal samples (feeders, drinkers, barrier and/or bird weigh) culture positive and (post broiler infection) increasing concentrations of Campylobacter in internal samples but also on the tarmac apron and anteroom. It was concluded that; (i) vertical transmission did not occur; (ii) the environment was a potential source of Campylobacter; (iii) testing areas frequented by all birds (e.g. feeders and drinkers), may offer an opportunity for early Campylobacter detection and (iv) once the broilers are infected with Campylobacter, these bacteria are spread from the birds, through the anteroom to the areas surrounding the broiler house, highlighting the need for improved biosecurity. This study has established the pattern of Campylobacter contamination on broiler farms, identified an early detection opportunity, highlighted the need to better understand the role of viable but nonculturable Campylobacter in the ecology of Campylobacter on broiler farms and demonstrated the need for improved biosecurity to prevent the spread of Campylobacter from within the house to the surrounding environment.

  11. Human Factors Risk Analyses of a Doffing Protocol for Ebola-Level Personal Protective Equipment: Mapping Errors to Contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumma, Joel M; Durso, Francis T; Ferguson, Ashley N; Gipson, Christina L; Casanova, Lisa; Erukunuakpor, Kimberly; Kraft, Colleen S; Walsh, Victoria L; Zimring, Craig; DuBose, Jennifer; Jacob, Jesse T

    2018-03-05

    Doffing protocols for personal protective equipment (PPE) are critical for keeping healthcare workers (HCWs) safe during care of patients with Ebola virus disease. We assessed the relationship between errors and self-contamination during doffing. Eleven HCWs experienced with doffing Ebola-level PPE participated in simulations in which HCWs donned PPE marked with surrogate viruses (ɸ6 and MS2), completed a clinical task, and were assessed for contamination after doffing. Simulations were video recorded, and a failure modes and effects analysis and fault tree analyses were performed to identify errors during doffing, quantify their risk (risk index), and predict contamination data. Fifty-one types of errors were identified, many having the potential to spread contamination. Hand hygiene and removing the powered air purifying respirator (PAPR) hood had the highest total risk indexes (111 and 70, respectively) and number of types of errors (9 and 13, respectively). ɸ6 was detected on 10% of scrubs and the fault tree predicted a 10.4% contamination rate, likely occurring when the PAPR hood inadvertently contacted scrubs during removal. MS2 was detected on 10% of hands, 20% of scrubs, and 70% of inner gloves and the predicted rates were 7.3%, 19.4%, 73.4%, respectively. Fault trees for MS2 and ɸ6 contamination suggested similar pathways. Ebola-level PPE can both protect and put HCWs at risk for self-contamination throughout the doffing process, even among experienced HCWs doffing with a trained observer. Human factors methodologies can identify error-prone steps, delineate the relationship between errors and self-contamination, and suggest remediation strategies.

  12. INTERNATIONAL LEGAL LAWS FOR THE PROTECTION AND REALIZATION OF RIGHTS OF PERSONS WITH MENTAL DISORDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedžad Milanović

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The legal regulation of the persons with mental disabilities their support primarily finds in international legal acts of which provisions each state by their free determination incorporate into their regulations and coordinate them with the national legal norms. The persons with the mental disabilities are the persons with some degree of mental retardation who in greater or lesser extent are not able to independently take care of the realization and protection of their rights. Bosnia and Herzegovina, though it is a signatory of a great number of the international legal acts for the protection of the persons with mental disabilities, contrary to the international modern standards, has a very few institutes in which are placed in the aforementioned persons, in order to be treated, rehabilitated and engaged in the social life.

  13. Autonomy-connectedness and internalizing-externalizing personality psychopathology, among outpatients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bachrach, N.; Bekker, M.H.J.; Croon, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The aims of this research were to investigate gender differences in levels of autonomy-connectedness, Axis I Psychopathology, and higher order factors of internalizing and externalizing personality psychopathology and, second, to investigate the association between these variables. Design

  14. International Service-Learning: Students' Personal Challenges and Intercultural Competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickols, Sharon Y.; Rothenberg, Nancy J.; Moshi, Lioba; Tetloff, Meredith

    2013-01-01

    International service-learning offers students a complex cluster of educational opportunities that include cultural competency acquisition combined with professional development. An interdisciplinary program in a remote area of Tanzania revealed that the journey toward competence can be an arduous one. Drawing from students' reflections in…

  15. Management of Internally Displaced Persons in Africa: Comparing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DrNneka

    management of internal displacement in Africa with focus on Nigeria and neighbouring. Cameroon. The study adopts ..... Added to this is that at certain periods when there was delay in supply, the management ... systems, logistics, communication and training should be designed to develop response capacity and ensure ...

  16. Chinese International Students' Personal and Sociocultural Stressors in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Kun; Berliner, David C.

    2013-01-01

    To date, no empirical research has focused solely upon understanding the personal and sociocultural stressors of Chinese international students in the United States. This qualitative inquiry examined what the most stressful aspects of their personal and social lives in the United States are, how they characterize their stress, and what conditions…

  17. Understanding Personal Learning Environment Perspectives of Thai International Tourism and Hospitality Higher Education Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanyong, Siriwan; Sharafuddin, Mohamed Ali

    2016-01-01

    This paper is part of a periodic research conducted in developing a personal learning environment for Thailand's higher education students with English as medium of instruction. The objective of the first phase in this research was to understand the personal learning environment perspectives of Thai International tourism and hospitality higher…

  18. Contamination limits for real and personal property. Progress report, January--June 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Healy, J.W.; Wenzel, W.J.

    1976-09-01

    Progress is reported on the plutonium in soils limit and on the surface contamination study. The report on the soils limit is being typed in draft form for review at other ERDA facilities. A model for surface contamination was derived and programmed but parametric studies have not yet been done

  19. Personality traits and appearance-ideal internalization: Differential associations with body dissatisfaction and compulsive exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Shelby J; Racine, Sarah E

    2017-12-01

    Thin-ideal internalization is a robust risk factor for body dissatisfaction and eating pathology. Conversely, athletic-ideal internalization is often unrelated to body dissatisfaction, but predicts compulsive exercise (i.e., rigid, rule-driven exercise that is continued despite adverse consequences). Distinct personality traits could relate to internalization of different appearance ideals, which may be associated with divergent eating disorder outcomes. Past research has shown that neuroticism is related to body dissatisfaction, whereas extraversion and conscientiousness have been associated with regular and problematic exercise. The current study examined associations among personality traits (i.e., neuroticism, extraversion, conscientiousness), appearance-ideal internalization (i.e., thin- and athletic-ideal), and eating disorder cognitions/behaviors (i.e., body dissatisfaction, compulsive exercise) among 531 college men and women. Moreover, we tested whether appearance-ideal internalization mediated the relationships between personality traits with body dissatisfaction and compulsive exercise. As expected, body dissatisfaction was positively related to neuroticism, and compulsive exercise was positively associated with extraversion. Thin-ideal internalization positively correlated with neuroticism, athletic-ideal internalization positively correlated with conscientiousness, and both thin- and athletic-ideal internalization were positively related to extraversion. After controlling for gender, body mass index, the other appearance-ideal internalization, and the remaining personality traits, the indirect effects of both neuroticism and extraversion on body dissatisfaction through thin-ideal internalization were significant. Extraversion and conscientiousness were indirectly related to compulsive exercise through athletic-ideal internalization, whereas the indirect effect of neuroticism was dependent on covariates. As such, personality traits may be related to

  20. Report on international round table conference 'Accidental radiation contamination of food of animal origin'. Vol. I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The World Association of Veterinary Food Hygienists (WAVFH) held an international round table conference in Stockholm, Sweden, January 26-29, 1987. The topic of the conference was 'Accidental Radiation Contamination of Food of Animal Origin'. The agenda was divided into three major topic areas: 1. Ecological Science; 2. Veterinary Science - Live Animals; and 3. Veterinary Science - Food of Animal Origin. Experts and delegates from member countries presented papers, participated in discussions and workshops and produced a multidisciplinary report covering the topic areas. The recent accidental release of radioactive substances into the environment from the Chernobyl accident, demonstrated the need for veterinary, ecological, physical and medical sciences to be prepared to respond to an incident in order to protect the environment, food chain, other agricultural assets and humans from the adverse effects of radionuclides. Several presentations suggested that even with the best technologies, national and regional commitment, and relatively unrestricted resource levels, nuclear incidents can cross international boundaries and can contaminate the environment to the extent that the integrity of various food and water supplies can be at risk. Speakers and subsequent discussers tended to concentrate on the issues associated with lessening future environmental impacts if similar types of incidents should occur again

  1. Trafficking in Persons: The U.S. and International Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-07-07

    lucrative business of international trafficking; ! the high demand, worldwide, for trafficked women and children as sex workers, cheap sweatshop labor, and...into sweatshop labor and domestic servitude. The rest are forced into prostitution and the sex industry, or in the case of young children, kidnaped and...definition of involuntary servitude, criminalize a broader range of actions constituting involuntary servitude, and increase the penalties for placing people

  2. Program of individual monitoring of the internal contamination and their implementation in the Republic the Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez Bejerano, Gladys M.; Capote Ferrera, Eduardo; Fernandez Gomez, Isis M.; Acosta Rodriguez, Nancy; Carrazana Gonzalez, Jorge A.; Cruz Suarez, Rodolfo

    2008-01-01

    Full text: In different Cuban institutions linked fundamentally to the medical practice of nuclear medicine and the investigations, it is worked with sources open of ionizing radiations, that which makes indispensable the existence of a system of radiological surveillance that includes the control radiological individual of the received doses as a result of the occupational, such exhibition that is guaranteed that the exhibition of the Hard-working Exposed Occupationally, stay inside the recommended limits, in the International Basic Norms of Protection against the Ionizing radiations and safe-deposit of the Sources of Radiation (NBIS) and in turn adopted in the Norma Cuban. From the year 1986 in the Center of Protection and Hygiene of the Radiations is carried out in way centralized this control; but with the inconvenience of not being able to carry out the same one to workers from the domestic interior when not being feasible the transfer of these toward its headquarters, reason why the doses were ignored received in an important number of these. In and of itself the Laboratory of Internal Contamination of this institution in these years has developed managed works to define firstly, for each institution, the program of monitoring of the internal contamination of its workers using for it the methodology recommended by the OIEA where the potential doses are evaluated that for incorporation these they receive and whose results suggested the introduction of a program of individual monitoring as behavior to continue in most of the institutions. In correspondence with it was designed and established a program that included the study of feasibility of the existent equipment in the institutions to carry out the monitoring of the internal contamination using technical of measuring in vivo and in vitro, as it corresponds, their calibration, the establishment of procedures that respond to the requirements of a System of Quality for the Norma ISO/IEC 17025 and

  3. Whole-body counting installation for assessment of internal contamination in workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, C.A.N.; Cunha, P.G.; Lipsztein, J.L.; Bertelli, L.N.; Fonseca, A.M.G.; Ramalho, A.T.

    1985-01-01

    A whole-body counting installation for assessment of internal contamination in workers has recently been added to the Bioassay Division of the Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria, Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (IRD/CNEN). For the last two years the laboratory has been monitoring personnel involved in uranium mining and milling activities, monazite industry workers and nuclear medicine staff dealing with iodine-131 and technetium-99. Uptakes of radionuclides by the different organs and also dose equivalents are evaluated through the use of mathematical models. The IRD whole-body counter unit was specially designed to detect a variety of internally deposited radionuclides which emit photons in the energy range of 15 keV to 3 MeV. It consists of a monitoring room (2.5x2.5x2.5 m internal dimension), with 0.15 m thick steel walls, internally lined with 0.3 cm lead, 0.15 cm cadmium and 0.05 cm thick copper sheets. The facility is equipped with three different size NaI(T1) detectors and three 12.7 cm diameter phoswich detectors. (author)

  4. The Role of Multicultural Personality in Predicting University Adjustment of International Students in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagnici, Dilek Yelda

    2012-01-01

    The study examined how particular demographic and multicultural personality variables might predict university adjustment of international students in Turkey. One hundred and twenty-one international students from five geographical regions, including Middle Central Asia, the Balkans, the Middle East, the Kafkasia Region, and the Russian…

  5. Threat and Guilt Aspects of Internalized Antilesbian and Gay Prejudice: An Application of Personal Construct Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi, Bonnie; van den Berg, Jacob J.; Epting, Franz R.

    2009-01-01

    Building on G. A. Kelly's (1991a, 1991b) personal construct theory, this study introduced concepts of threat and guilt as different manifestations of internalized antilesbian and gay prejudice. Results with 102 lesbian and gay participants indicated that internalized threat and guilt each accounted for unique variance in global internalized…

  6. Natural uranium toxicology - evaluation of internal contamination in man; Toxicologie de l'uranium naturel - essai d'evaluation de la contamination interne chez l'homme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chalabreysse, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Pierrelatte (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-07-01

    After reminding the physical and chemical properties of natural uranium which might affect its toxicology, a comprehensive investigation upon natural uranium metabolism and toxicity and after applying occupational exposure standards to this particular poison, it has been determined, from accident reports and human experience reported in the related literature, a series of formulae obtained by theoretical mathematical development giving principles for internal contamination monitoring and disclosure by determining uranium in the urine of occupationally exposed individuals. An assay is performed to determine individual internal contamination according to the various contamination cases. The outlined purposes, mainly practical, required some options and extrapolations. The proposed formula allows a preliminary approach and also to determine shortly a contamination extent or to discuss the systematical urinalysis results as compared with individual radio-toxicology monitoring professional standards. (author) [French] Apres le rappel des caracteristiques physiques et des proprietes chimiques de l'uranium naturel pouvant avoir une influence sur sa toxicologie, l'etude detaillee de son metabolisme et de sa toxicite, puis l'application des normes professionnelles d'exposition au cas particulier de ce toxique, il est etabli, a partir des comptes rendus d'accidents et de l'experimentation humaine rapportes dans la litterature, une serie de formules obtenues par developpement mathematique theorique qui posent les principes de la surveillance et de la mise en evidence de la contamination interne par la recherche et le dosage de l'uranium dans les urines d'individus professionnellement exposes. Un essai d'evaluation de la contamination interne individuelle suivant les differents cas de contamination est effectue. Le formulaire propose permet de faire une premiere approximation et d'apprecier rapidement l'importance d

  7. Personal and household hygiene, environmental contamination, and health in undergraduate residence halls in New York City, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miko, Benjamin A; Cohen, Bevin; Haxall, Katharine; Conway, Laurie; Kelly, Nicole; Stare, Dianne; Tropiano, Christina; Gilman, Allan; Seward, Samuel L; Larson, Elaine

    2013-01-01

    While several studies have documented the importance of hand washing in the university setting, the added role of environmental hygiene remains poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to characterize the personal and environmental hygiene habits of college students, define the determinants of hygiene in this population, and assess the relationship between reported hygiene behaviors, environmental contamination, and health status. 501 undergraduate students completed a previously validated survey assessing baseline demographics, hygiene habits, determinants of hygiene, and health status. Sixty survey respondents had microbiological samples taken from eight standardized surfaces in their dormitory environment. Bacterial contamination was assessed using standard quantitative bacterial culture techniques. Additional culturing for coagulase-positive Staphylococcus and coliforms was performed using selective agar. While the vast majority of study participants (n = 461, 92%) believed that hand washing was important for infection prevention, there was a large amount of variation in reported personal hygiene practices. More women than men reported consistent hand washing before preparing food (p = .002) and after using the toilet (p = .001). Environmental hygiene showed similar variability although 73.3% (n = 367) of subjects reported dormitory cleaning at least once per month. Contamination of certain surfaces was common, with at least one third of all bookshelves, desks, refrigerator handles, toilet handles, and bathroom door handles positive for >10 CFU of bacteria per 4 cm(2) area. Coagulase-positive Staphylococcus was detected in three participants' rooms (5%) and coliforms were present in six students' rooms (10%). Surface contamination with any bacteria did not vary by frequency of cleaning or frequency of illness (p>.05). Our results suggest that surface contamination, while prevalent, is unrelated to reported hygiene or health in the university setting

  8. Personal and Household Hygiene, Environmental Contamination, and Health in Undergraduate Residence Halls in New York City, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haxall, Katharine; Conway, Laurie; Kelly, Nicole; Stare, Dianne; Tropiano, Christina; Gilman, Allan; Seward, Samuel L.; Larson, Elaine

    2013-01-01

    Background While several studies have documented the importance of hand washing in the university setting, the added role of environmental hygiene remains poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to characterize the personal and environmental hygiene habits of college students, define the determinants of hygiene in this population, and assess the relationship between reported hygiene behaviors, environmental contamination, and health status. Methods 501 undergraduate students completed a previously validated survey assessing baseline demographics, hygiene habits, determinants of hygiene, and health status. Sixty survey respondents had microbiological samples taken from eight standardized surfaces in their dormitory environment. Bacterial contamination was assessed using standard quantitative bacterial culture techniques. Additional culturing for coagulase-positive Staphylococcus and coliforms was performed using selective agar. Results While the vast majority of study participants (n = 461, 92%) believed that hand washing was important for infection prevention, there was a large amount of variation in reported personal hygiene practices. More women than men reported consistent hand washing before preparing food (p = .002) and after using the toilet (p = .001). Environmental hygiene showed similar variability although 73.3% (n = 367) of subjects reported dormitory cleaning at least once per month. Contamination of certain surfaces was common, with at least one third of all bookshelves, desks, refrigerator handles, toilet handles, and bathroom door handles positive for >10 CFU of bacteria per 4 cm2 area. Coagulase-positive Staphylococcus was detected in three participants' rooms (5%) and coliforms were present in six students' rooms (10%). Surface contamination with any bacteria did not vary by frequency of cleaning or frequency of illness (p>.05). Conclusions Our results suggest that surface contamination, while prevalent, is unrelated to

  9. Inactivation of internalized and surface contaminated enteric viruses in green onions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirneisen, Kirsten A; Kniel, Kalmia E

    2013-09-02

    With increasing outbreaks of gastroenteritis associated with produce, it is important to assess interventions to reduce the risk of illness. UV, ozone and high pressure are non-thermal processing technologies that have potential to inactivate human pathogens on produce and allow the retention of fresh-like organoleptic properties. The objective of this study was to determine if UV, ozone, and high pressure are effective technologies compared to traditional chlorine spray on green onions to reduce enteric viral pathogens and to determine the effect of location of the virus (surface or internalized) on the efficacy of these processes. Mature green onion plants were inoculated with murine norovirus (MNV), hepatitis A virus (HAV) and human adenovirus type 41 (Ad41) either on the surface through spot inoculation or through inoculating contaminated hydroponic solution allowing for uptake of the virus into the internal tissues. Inoculated green onions were treated with UV (240 mJ s/cm(2)), ozone (6.25 ppm for 10 min), pressure (500 MPa, for 5 min at 20°C), or sprayed with calcium hypochlorite (150 ppm, 4°C). Viral inactivation was determined by comparing treated and untreated inoculated plants using cell culture infectivity assays. Processing treatments were observed to greatly affect viral inactivation. Viral inactivation for all three viruses was greatest after pressure treatment and the lowest inactivation was observed after chlorine and UV treatment. Both surface inoculated viruses and viruses internalized in green onions were inactivated to some extent by these post-harvest processing treatments. These results suggest that ozone and high pressure processes aimed to reduce the level of microbial contamination of produce have the ability to inactivate viruses if they become localized in the interior portions of produce. © 2013.

  10. Paul Ricoeur and international law: beyond 'the end of the subject': towards a reconceptualisation of international legal personality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijman, J.E.; Johns, F.

    2010-01-01

    The enquiry into international legal personality in the following article is both descriptive and prescriptive in nature. On the one hand, the phenomenon of the (legal) subject is described and explained, in order to offer a better reflection on, and analysis of, its existence. This holds for both

  11. Impact of airflow interaction on inhaled air quality and transport of contaminants in rooms with personalized and total volume ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Cermak, Radim; Kovar, O.

    2003-01-01

    The impact of airflow interaction on inhaled air quality and transport of contaminants between occupants was studied in regard to pollution from floor covering, human bioeffluents and exhaled air, with combinations of two personalized ventilation systems (PV) with mixing and displacement...... ventilation. In total, 80 L/s of clean air supplied at 20°C was distributed between the ventilation systems at different combinations of personalized airflow rate. Two breathing thermal manikins were used to simulate occupants in a full-scale test room. Regardless of the airflow interaction, the inhaled air...... quality with personalized and mixing ventilation was higher or at least similar compared to mixing ventilation alone. In the case of PV combined with displacement ventilation, the interaction caused mixing of the room air, an increase in the transport of bioeffluents and exhaled air between occupants and...

  12. Proceedings with participation of foreign persons in international procedural law of Russia and Kazakhstan

    OpenAIRE

    Natalia Erpyleva

    2013-01-01

    This article is dedicated to one of the most interesting aspects of International Procedural Law – litigation with participation of foreign persons. Author focused on a comparative analysis of Russian and Kazakh legislation concerning the regulation of international procedural relations. Article includes two paragraphs: the first one considers international jurisdiction of Russian arbitrazh courts and Kazakh economic courts on commercial matters; the second one examines the recognition and en...

  13. Contamination and release of nanomaterials associated with the use of personal protective clothing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Candace Su-Jung

    2015-05-01

    We investigated nanomaterial release associated with the contamination of protective clothing during manipulation of clothing fabrics contaminated with nanoparticles. Nanomaterials, when released as airborne nanoparticles, can cause inhalation exposure which is the route of exposure of most concern to cause adverse health effects. Measurement of such nanoparticle re-suspension has not yet been conducted. Protective clothing can be contaminated with airborne nanoparticles during handling and operating processes, typically on the arms and front of the body. The contaminated clothing could release nanoparticles in the general room while performing other activities and manipulating the clothing after work. The exposures associated with three different fabric materials of contaminated laboratory coats (cotton, polyester, and Tyvek), including the magnitude of contamination and particle release, were investigated in this study by measuring the number concentration increase and the weight change on fabric pieces. This study simulated real life occupational exposure scenarios and was performed in both regular and clean room environments to investigate the effect of background aerosols on the measurements. Concentration were measured using particle spectrometers for diameters from 10nm to 10 µm. Collected aerosol particles and contaminated fabric surfaces were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and elemental composition analysis. The magnitude of particle release from contaminated lab coat fabric was found to vary by the type of fabric material; cotton fabric showed the highest level of contamination and particle release, followed by Tyvek and polyester fabrics. The polyester lab coat material was found to have the lowest particle release to deposition (R/D) ratio. The particle release number concentrations were in a range of 768-119 particles cm(-3) and 586-187 particles cm(-3) in regular and clean rooms

  14. Contamination limits for real and personal property. Progress report, January--June 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wenzel, W.J.; Healy, J.W.

    1975-10-01

    Data for the movement of various contaminants ( 89 Sr, 131 I, 32 P) from several different laboratory surface materials and textiles were examined and the fractional amount removed per unit time fitted to an arbitrary scale of level of action. Both the nature of the contaminant and the nature of the surface appear to affect the fractional removal although data are not available to define the dependence in any detail

  15. Study on the Dynamically Changing Law of Trace Contaminants for the 2-person-30-day Integrated CELSS Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Shuangsheng

    A 2-person-30-day Integrated CELSS Test was carried out recently, and more than 30 kinds of trace contaminants including formaldehyde, benzene and ammonia were measured and analyzed dynamically. The results showed that the kinds and quantities of trace contaminants presented a continuously fluctuating state during the experimental period, but all of them didn’t exceed the SMAC. The results of the pre-test (with 2 persons without plants for 3 days) and the formal test (with 2 persons and 4 kinds of plants for 30 days) showed that there are some notable differences for the compositions of the trace contaminants; the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) such as toluene, hexane and acetamide were searched out in the pre-test, but couldn’t be found in the formal test. Moreover, the concentrations of the trace gases such as acetic benzene, formaldehyde and ammonia decreased greatly in the formal test more than them in the pre-test, which means that the plants can purified these gases efficiently. In addition, the VOCs such as carbon monoxide, cyclopentane and dichloroethylene were checked out in the formal test but none in the pre-test, which means that these materials might be from cabin facilities or human metabolites. Additionally, the ethylene released specially by plants accumulated in the later period and its concentration reached nearly 10 times of MAC (50ppb), which must have promoted the earlier wane of plants. It’s hoped that the work can play a referring function for future more CELSS integrating test with more persons, longer time and higher material closure.

  16. Review of chemical and radiotoxicological properties of polonium for internal contamination purposes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ansoborlo, Eric [Atomic Energy Commission (France); Berard, Philippe [Atomic Energy Commission (France); Den Auwer, Christophe [Atomic Energy Commission (France); Leggett, Richard Wayne [ORNL; Menetrier, Florence [Atomic Energy Commission (France); Younes, Ali [SUBATECH Laboratory (France); Montavon, Gilles [SUBATECH Laboratory (France); Moisy, Phillipe [Atomic Energy Commission (France)

    2012-01-01

    The discovery of polonium (Po) was first published in July 1898 by P. and M. Curie. It was the first element to be discovered by the radiochemical method. Polonium can be considered as a famous but neglected element: only a few studies of polonium chemistry have been published, mostly between 1950 and 1990. The recent (2006) event in which 2106 Po evidently was used as a poison to kill A. Litvinenko has raised new interest in polonium. 2011 being the 100th 8 anniversary of Marie Curie Nobel Prize in Chemistry, the aim of this paper is to review several aspect of polonium linked to its chemical properties and its radiotoxicity, including : i) its radiochemistry and interaction with matter; ii) its main sources and uses; iii) its physico-chemical properties; iv) its main analytical methods; v) its background exposure risk in water, food, and other environmental media; vi) its biokinetics and distribution following inhalation, ingestion and wound contamination; vii) its dosimetry and viii) treatments available (decorporation) in case of internal contamination.

  17. International Nuclear Model personal computer (PCINM): Model documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-08-01

    The International Nuclear Model (INM) was developed to assist the Energy Information Administration (EIA), U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) in producing worldwide projections of electricity generation, fuel cycle requirements, capacities, and spent fuel discharges from commercial nuclear reactors. The original INM was developed, maintained, and operated on a mainframe computer system. In spring 1992, a streamlined version of INM was created for use on a microcomputer utilizing CLIPPER and PCSAS software. This new version is known as PCINM. This documentation is based on the new PCINM version. This document is designed to satisfy the requirements of several categories of users of the PCINM system including technical analysts, theoretical modelers, and industry observers. This document assumes the reader is familiar with the nuclear fuel cycle and each of its components. This model documentation contains four chapters and seven appendices. Chapter Two presents the model overview containing the PCINM structure and process flow, the areas for which projections are made, and input data and output reports. Chapter Three presents the model technical specifications showing all model equations, algorithms, and units of measure. Chapter Four presents an overview of all parameters, variables, and assumptions used in PCINM. The appendices present the following detailed information: variable and parameter listings, variable and equation cross reference tables, source code listings, file layouts, sample report outputs, and model run procedures. 2 figs

  18. Distribution of Exhaled Contaminants and Personal Exposure in a Room using Three Different Air Distribution Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olmedo, Inés; Nielsen, Peter V.; Adana, M. Ruiz de

    2012-01-01

    The level of exposure to human exhaled contaminants in a room depends not only on the air distribution system but also on people’s different positions, the distance between them, people’s activity level and height, direction of exhalation, and the surrounding temperature and temperature gradient....... Human exhalation is studied in detail for different distribution systems: displacement and mixing ventilation as well as a system without mechanical ventilation. Two thermal manikins breathing through the mouth are used to simulate the exposure to human exhaled contaminants. The position and distance...

  19. Contamination limits for real and personal property. Progress report, July--December 1974

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Healy, J.W.; Wenzel, W.J.

    1975-05-01

    Studies during this period were primarily devoted to the derivation of a simplified conceptual model of radiation doses resulting from contaminated objects. A four-part model consisting of sections on use, actions, pathways, and radiation dose is described. This model will permit study of the quantitative features for each part. (U.S.)

  20. Optimization of internal contamination monitoring programmes by studying uncertainties linked to dosimetric assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davesne, Estelle

    2010-01-01

    To optimise the protection of workers against ionizing radiations, the International Commission on Radiological Protection recommends the use of dose constraint and limits. To verify the compliance of the means of protection with these values when a risk of internal contamination exists, monitoring programmes formed of periodic bioassay measurements are performed. However, uncertainty in the dose evaluation arises from the variability of the activity measurement and from the incomplete knowledge of the exposure conditions. This uncertainty was taken into account by means of classical, Bayesian and possibilist statistics. The developed methodology was applied to the evaluation of the potential exposure during nuclear fuel preparation or mining; and to the analysis of the monitoring programme of workers purifying plutonium in AREVA NC La Hague reprocessing plant. From the measurement decision threshold, the minimum dose detectable (MDD) by the programme with a given confidence level can be calculated through the software OPSCI. It is shown to be a useful support in the optimisation of monitoring programmes when seeking a compromise between their sensitivity and their costs. (author)

  1. Higher Storage Temperature Causes Greater Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Internal Penetration of Artificially Contaminated, Commercially Available, Washed Free Range Eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiley, Alice; Fallowfield, Howard; Ross, Kirstin; McEvoy, Vanessa; Whiley, Harriet

    2016-07-01

    Foodborne salmonellosis is a major public health concern, with contaminated eggs identified as a significant source of infection. In Australia, the most prevalent cause of salmonellosis from eggs is Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium. This study explored the effect of temperature after 1, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days of storage on commercially available washed free range eggs, artificially contaminated with Salmonella Typhimurium on the external surface. At each time point, the external surface of the egg, the crushed eggshell, and the internal egg yolk and albumen were analyzed for Salmonella. After 28 days of storage, 25% of eggs stored at 4°C, 50% of eggs stored at 14°C, and 100% of eggs stored at 23 and 35°C were internally contaminated with Salmonella. After 1 day of storage, more than 50% of all eggs had Salmonella present in the crushed shell after the external surface had been disinfected with ethanol. This is the first study to demonstrate that refrigeration reduced the potential for Salmonella Typhimurium to penetrate the eggshell membrane and internally contaminate table eggs commercially available in Australia. It also suggests that the processes of cracking eggs may be a source of cross-contamination within the kitchen.

  2. Recruiting Internally Displaced Persons into Civil Militias: The Case of Northern Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Janmyr, Maja

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the state-sanctioned recruitment of internally displaced persons (IDPs) into civil militias in northern Uganda between 1996 and 2006. Drawing upon international and Ugandan domestic law, as well as empirical research in Uganda, it provides an illustrative case study of the circumstances in which IDPs were mobilised into an array of civil militias. By applying a framework elaborated by the UN Commission on Human Rights, it discusses, and subsequently determ...

  3. Conducting the personal subsidiary plot at the territory, contaminated with radioactive substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borovikov, A.N.; Kulazhenko, V.G.; Kovalev, S.D.; Milyuta, B.I.; Basalaeva, Z.N.

    1993-01-01

    As a result of Chernobyl NPP accident large amount of radioactive substances fell at agricultural areas and its production became the source of additional irradiation of population. One of the task is to get food with the content of radionuclides not exceeding the fixed norms. The rules of working hygiene which provide safe living of population at the territories with different level of contamination are described. Recommendations for processing the fruit and market gardens are given, suitable from the point of view of accumulation of radionuclides vegetables and fruits, kinds and sorts cultures are presented. The rules of keeping and feeding the animals, bees and fur-bearing animals are developed. The rules for primary processing of products of plant-growing and stock-breeding, which permit to decrease radioactive contamination 2-10 and more times are presented. Methods of using the products of forest - material and fuel wood, meet of wild animals, mushrooms and berries - are proposed. 5 tabs

  4. Plasticizer contamination of firefighter personal protective clothing--a potential factor in increased health risks in firefighters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacey, Steven; Alexander, Barbara M; Baxter, C Stuart

    2014-01-01

    Chemical exposures may be responsible for firefighters' elevated incidences of cancer and cardiovascular disease. This study characterized semivolatile chemical contamination on firefighter personal protective clothing to assess exposure of firefighters to these chemicals. Samples from used firefighter protective clothing, including gloves, hood, and one coat wristlet, were extracted with methylene chloride and analyzed by EPA method 8270 for semivolatile contaminants, including 20 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and 6 phthalate diesters. Twenty-two of the chemicals of interest were found on at least one clothing swatch. Only di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), a plasticizer, added to polyvinyl chloride (PVC) to increase flexibility, was found on every swatch. DEHP concentrations were the highest of any chemical measured, and were 52 to 875 times higher than any PAH concentration measured. DEHP was also detected on most items of unused firefighter personal protective clothing, although at much lower levels. These findings suggest that firefighters are exposed to high levels of DEHP, a probable human carcinogen, and at levels much higher than PAHs, the semivolatile toxic combustion products most extensively studied historically. Firefighter exposure to DEHP and other phthalate diesters therefore merits further study.

  5. New miniaturized alpha/beta spectrometric system for the surface contamination monitoring and radon personal dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streil, T.; Oeser, V.; Holfeld, G.

    1998-01-01

    The heart of the new miniaturized alpha/beta spectroscopic system is a Smart Card MCA having a 12 bit resolution and a 32 bit memory for each channel with the size of a cheque card. The system consists of a single or up to 12 alpha spectrometers in a battery powered casing with connectors for direct detector/amplifier module plugging. Surface contamination in the order of 1 Bq/cm 2 of 239 Pu can be measured. (M.D.)

  6. Do Chinese International Students' Personalities Change during Cross-National Transitions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kenneth T.; Tian, Lu; Fujiki, Mayo; Bordon, Jennifer J.

    2017-01-01

    Perfectionism is a multidimensional personality construct salient for international students; they are known to be likely high achievers in their home country and face several acculturative challenges after crossing national borders. This study examined whether perfectionist types changed during cross-national transitions in a sample of 227…

  7. The Personal Struggles of "National" Educators Working in "International" Schools: An Intercultural Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savva, Maria

    2017-01-01

    This paper looks at how personal struggles associated with the overseas setting caused changes in the intercultural perspective of 30 Anglophone educators working in international schools. Situated within a social constructivist framework, interview methods were utilised to build a collective narrative shared by educators. Findings reveal that…

  8. Maternal and Child Health of Internally Displaced Persons in Ukraine: A Qualitative Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nidzvetska, S.; Rodriguez-Llanes, J.M.; Aujoulat, I.; Cuesta, J. Gil; Tappis, H.; Loenhout, J.A.F. van; Guha-Sapir, D.

    2017-01-01

    Due to the conflict that started in spring 2014 in Eastern Ukraine, a total of 1.75 million internally displaced persons (IDPs) fled the area and have been registered in government-controlled areas of the country. This paper explores perceived health, barriers to access to healthcare, caring

  9. Evaluating the Internal Structure of the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire: Objective Criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmes, Edward

    1989-01-01

    Objective criteria for evaluating the Eysenck Personality Inventory's internal structure are discussed. An approach based on targeted rotations and the test's scoring key is proposed as a means of providing common criteria. Data from earlier structure and test results for 195 undergraduates support the utility of 3 criteria developed. (SLD)

  10. Millon's Contributions to the International Society for the Study of Personality Disorders (ISSPD)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Erik; Kongerslev, Mickey

    2015-01-01

    In this article we highlight the pivotal role of Dr. Theodore Millon in the founding of the International Society for the Study of Personality Disorders (ISSPD). This historical outline of Millon's contribution to the ISSPD also contains previously unpublished transcripts of his talks at ISSPD...

  11. An International Comparison of Nutrition Education Standards, Occupational Standards and Scopes of Practice for Personal Trainers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Katelyn; Ball, Lauren; Desbrow, Ben

    2017-12-01

    Personal trainers are well placed to provide nutrition care in line with their recommended scope of practice. However, providing nutrition care beyond their recommended scope of practice has been identified as an industry risk. The International Confederation of Registers for Exercise Professionals (ICREPs) have international standards for nutrition knowledge and skills that are recommended for all fitness professionals, including personal trainers. This study investigates whether the ICREPs standards align with i) national nutrition education standards and ii) national nutrition occupational standards and scopes of practice for personal trainers within ICREPs affiliated countries. Content analysis of each standard and/or scope of practice was undertaken to extract nutrition statements. Extracted statements were matched with nutrition components of the ICREPs standards to result in a score based on the number of aligned ICREPs knowledge and skills criteria. Ten countries, with 16 organizations, were identified as being involved in the development of national education standards, occupational standards, or scopes of practice for personal trainers. The educational and occupational standards varied widely among countries and had minimal alignment with the ICREPs standards. As such, the expected role of personal trainers in providing nutrition care appeared to differ between countries. Further work is required to support personal trainers to develop a level of knowledge and skills that enables the provision of safe, consistent, and effective nutrition care.

  12. Personal values, subjective well-being and destination-loyalty intention of international students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamaludin, N L; Sam, D L; Sandal, G M; Adam, A A

    2016-01-01

    What are the factors that predict international students' destination-loyalty intention? This is the main question this paper addresses, using an online survey among 396 (short-term, N = 182) and (long-term, N = 214) international students at a Norwegian university. Structural equation model-AMOS was conducted to examine relationships among personal values, subjective well-being and destination-loyalty intentions. The results showed that: (1) universalism was positively related to subjective well-being for short-term students; and (2) subjective well-being was positively related to destination-loyalty intention for all groups. We found that relatively stable and happy individuals might be important for ensuring destination-loyalty intentions. Results also indicated that personal values that emphasize justice and equity are also important for short-term international students' well-being.

  13. A protocol for the calibration of gamma cameras to estimate internal contamination in emergency situations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dantas, B.M.; Lucena, E.A.; Dantas, A.L.A.; Araujo, F.; Melo, D. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria, CNEN, Av. Salvador Allende s/n, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Rebelo, A.M.O. [University Hospital, Nuclear Medicine Center, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Teran, M.; Paolino, A. [Facultad de Quimica, Montevideo (Uruguay); Hermida, J.C. [Hospital de Clinicas, Facultad de Medicina, Montevideo (Uruguay); Rojo, A.M. [Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Puerta, J.A.; Morales, J. [Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Medellin (Colombia); Bejerano, G.M.L. [Centro de Proteccion e Higiene de las Radiaciones, Ciudad de la Habana (Cuba); Alfaro, M.; Ruiz, M.A. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Ocoyoacac (Mexico); Videla, R.; Pinones, O. [Comision Chilena de Energia Nuclear, Santiago (Chile); Gonzalez, S. [Instituto Peruano de Energia Nuclear, Lima (Peru); Navarro, T. [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas, Madrid (Spain); Cruz-Suarez, R. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria)

    2007-07-01

    The concern about accidents involving radioactive materials has led to the search of alternative methods to quickly identify and quantify radionuclides in workers and in the population. One of the options to face up an eventual demand for mass monitoring of internal contamination is the use of a nuclear medicine diagnostic equipment known as gamma camera, a device used to scan patients who have been administered specific amounts of radioactive materials for medical purposes. Although the gamma camera is used for image diagnosis, it can be calibrated with anthropomorphic phantoms or point sources for the quantification of radionuclide activities in the human body. This work presents a protocol for the calibration of gamma cameras for such application. In order to evaluate the suitability of this type of equipment, a gamma camera available in a public hospital located in Rio de Janeiro was calibrated for the in vivo measurement of {sup 131}I. The calibration includes the determination of detection efficiencies and minimum detectable activities for each radionuclide. The results show that the gamma camera presents enough sensitivity to detect activity levels corresponding to effective doses below 1 mSv. The protocol is the basis to establish a network of Nuclear Medicine Centres, located in public hospitals in eight countries of Latin America (Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, Cuba, Chile, Mexico, Peru and Uruguay) and in Spain that could be requested to collaborate in remediation actions in the event of an accident involving incorporation of radioactive materials. This protocol is one of the most significant outputs of the IAEA-ARCAL Project (RLA/9/049-LXXVIII) aimed to the Harmonization of Internal Dosimetry Procedures. (authors)

  14. The contamination of personal space : boundary construction in a prison environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sibley, David; van Hoven, Bettina

    In this paper, inmates in dormitories in a prison in New Mexico, USA, talk about their everyday lives. We are particularly interested in the ways in which they think about space. Their principal concern appears to be the definition of personal space in an environment where boundaries are weak. The

  15. Trace Contaminant Control for the International Space Station's Node 1- Analysis, Design, and Verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, J. L.

    2017-01-01

    Trace chemical contaminant generation inside crewed spacecraft cabins is a technical and medical problem that must be continuously evaluated. Although passive control through materials selection and active control by adsorption and catalytic oxidation devices is employed during normal operations of a spacecraft, contaminant buildup can still become a problem. Buildup is particularly troublesome during the stages between the final closure of a spacecraft during ground processing and the time that a crewmember enters for the first time during the mission. Typically, the elapsed time between preflight closure and first entry on orbit for spacecraft such as Spacelab modules was 30 days. During that time, the active contamination control systems are not activated and contaminants can potentially build up to levels which exceed the spacecraft maximum allowable concentrations (SMACs) specified by NASA toxicology experts. To prevent excessively high contamination levels at crew entry, the Spacelab active contamination control system was operated for 53 hours just before launch.

  16. Dare to Dream: Personal Values, Life Goals, and International Students in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kaili C; Zhang, Abraham

    2017-10-01

    It has been well identified and supported in the literature that values and life goals are associated with one's general well-being. However, there have been few studies on values and life goals among international students in New Zealand. This study addressed this lack of research by focusing on the life goals and personal values among international students in three tertiary institutes in New Zealand. Based on the literature review, the hypothesis of this study is that international students' intrinsic life goals are positively correlated with their spiritual values. In contrast, extrinsic goals did not have similar effects. The Aspirations Index, which was used to assess life goals, and the Schwartz' value survey, which measured the students' personal values, were both distributed to the participants. Follow-up interviews with 24 of the participants were also conducted. Findings revealed that spiritual values were positively correlated with intrinsic goals and that extrinsic goals did not have similar effects. As the research findings showed that spiritual values were positively correlated with intrinsic goals, helping international students to find meaning and purpose in life may promote their well-being, and the learning and growth of international students can be improved by incorporating spiritual values and cultural aspects in college education. The authors also argue that a holistic approach to college education for international students is needed.

  17. Contamination of persons occupationally exposed to natural radioactivity in a coal fired power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauman, A.; Horvat, D.

    1980-01-01

    Contamination of occupationally exposed subjects with natural radioactivity in a coal fired power plant at levels of 500 mrem/year was detected. The level of 210 Pb in urine varied from 2.29-14.47 pCi/l. These values were arrived at after subtracting a blank value of 1.05 pCi 210 Pb obtained from a control group. Structural chromosomal aberrations, completely missing in the control group, were detected in the exposed subjects. Approximately 6-10% of the metaphases of occupationally exposed subjects were found to have aberrations which were probably radiation induced. These included symmetrical and asymmetrical exchanges and numerical aberrations. In the control aroup aberrations were found in 1.4-4% of the metaphases, but these were only deletions. (H.K.)

  18. Development and internal structure investigation of the Dimensional Clinical Personality Inventory

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho, Lucas de Francisco; Primi, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to develop a dimensional instrument to assess personality disorders based on Millon's theoretical perspective and on DSM-IV-TR diagnoses criteria, and seek validity evidence based on internal structure and reliability indexes of the factors. In order to do that, a self-report test composed of 215 items, the Dimensional Clinical Personality Inventory (DCPI) was developed and applied to 561 respondents aged between 18 and 90 years (M = 28,8; SD = 11.4), with 51.8% females. Expl...

  19. DoReMi workshop on multidisciplinary approaches to evaluating cancer risks associated with low-dose internal contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laurier, D.; Guseva Canu, I.; Bertho, J.M.; Blanchardon, E.; Rage, E.; Baatout, S.; Bouffler, S.; Cardis, E.; Gomolka, M.; Kreuzer, M.; Hall, J.; Kesminiene, A.

    2012-01-01

    A workshop dedicated to cancer risks associated with low-dose internal contamination was organised in March 2011, in Paris, in the framework of the DoReMi (Low Dose Research towards Multidisciplinary Integration) European Network of Excellence. The aim was to identify the best epidemiological studies that provide an opportunity to develop a multidisciplinary approach to improve the evaluation of the cancer risk associated with internal contamination. This workshop provided an opportunity for in-depth discussions between researchers working in different fields including (but not limited to) epidemiology, dosimetry, biology and toxicology. Discussions confirmed the importance of research on the health effects of internal contamination. Several existing epidemiological studies provide a real possibility to improve the quantification of cancer risk associated with internal emitters. Areas for future multidisciplinary collaborations were identified, that should allow feasibility studies to be carried out in the near future. The goal of this paper is to present an overview of the presentations and discussions that took place during this workshop. (authors)

  20. The overview of the status and prospective of internally displaced persons on the territory of the former Yugoslavia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakić Danilo

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the overview of the status and the prospective for the future of internally displaced persons in Serbia and Montenegro, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia and Macedonia is done. The Group 484 is an NGO, which have been supporting refugees since 1995 and internally displaced persons from Kosovo since 1999.

  1. International scientists' priorities for research on pharmaceutical and personal care products in the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudd, Murray A; Ankley, Gerald T; Boxall, Alistair B A; Brooks, Bryan W

    2014-10-01

    's 15 comparisons. There was increasing emphasis on the role of various other stressors relative to PPCPs and on risk prioritization as internal decision making consistency increased. Respondents' consistency in their ranking choices was significantly and positively correlated with SETAC membership, authors' number of publications, and longer survey completion times. Our research highlighted international scientists' research priorities and should help inform decisions about the type of hazard and risk-based research needed to best inform decisions regarding PPCPs in the environment. Disciplinary training of a scientist or engineer appears to strongly influence preferences for research priorities to understand PPCPs in the environment. Selection of participants and the depth and breadth of research prioritization efforts thus have potential effects on the outcomes of research prioritization exercises. Further elucidation of how patterns of research priority vary between academic and government scientists and between scientists and other government and stakeholders would be useful in the future and provide information that helps focus scientific effort on socially relevant challenges relating to PPCPs in the environment. It also suggests the potential for future collaborative research between industry, government, and academia on environmental contaminants beyond PPCPs. © 2014 SETAC.

  2. Usefulness of the International Personality Disorder Examination Screening Questionnaire for borderline and impulsive personality pathology in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magallón-Neri, Ernesto M; Forns, Maria; Canalda, Gloria; De La Fuente, J Eugenio; García, Raquel; González, Esther; Lara, Anais; Castro-Fornieles, Josefina

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the usefulness of the International Personality Disorder Examination Screening Questionnaire (IPDE-SQ) for identifying DSM-IV and ICD-10 Borderline and Impulsive personality disorders (PD) in Spanish adolescents. The DSM-IV and ICD-10 IPDE-SQ screeners were used and compared with the diagnoses obtained with the IPDE semistructured interview in a sample of 125 adolescents treated in a psychiatric department. For primary screening, the cutoff point with the best combination of sensitivity and specificity for ICD-10 impulsive and borderline PDs was obtained with three positive items, whereas for DSM-IV borderline the best PD cut-off was five positive items. For secondary screening, the best option would be one item above the cut-off points proposed for primary screening. The 3-item cut-off point in the IPDE-SQ produces a high proportion of false positives on impulsive and borderline PDs in clinical adolescents. We propose several cut-off points, depending on whether the study is designed to perform primary or secondary screening. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Update Dosimetry Service internal staff Tecnatom; Actualizacion del servicio de dosimetria personal interna de TECNATOM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bravo, B.; Marchena, P.; Alonso, A.; Navarro, E.; Serrano, E.

    2010-07-01

    The beginning of decommissioning of nuclear facilities and other industrial national context conditions have been a very significant increase in the need for such services, which have been almost overwhelmed by the demand. To provide a solution to this situation, Tecnatom decided to run as a new internal dosimetry service indirect measures to complement its renowned capabilities of direct measures. To perform this task, Tecnatom has signed a collaboration agreement with the Laboratory of Radiochemistry of Geocisa, all with the objective of characterizing contamination by alpha emitters or beta different analytical techniques.

  4. Core Self-Evaluations as Personal Factors in the World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health Model: An Application in Persons with Spinal Cord Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaghmanian, Rana; Smedema, Susan Miller; Thompson, Kerry

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate Chan, Gelman, Ditchman, Kim, and Chiu's (2009) revised World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) model using core self-evaluations (CSE) to account for Personal Factors in persons with spinal cord injury (SCI). Method: One hundred eighty-seven adults with SCI were…

  5. Investigation of gas-phase decontamination of internally radioactively contaminated gaseous diffusion process equipment and piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bundy, R.D.; Munday, E.B.

    1991-01-01

    Construction of the gaseous diffusion plants (GDPs) was begun during World War 2 to produce enriched uranium for defense purposes. These plants, which utilized UF 6 gas, were used primarily for this purpose through 1964. From 1959 through 1968, production shifted primarily to uranium enrichment to supply the nuclear power industry. Additional UF 6 -handling facilities were built in feed and fuel-processing plants associated with the uranium enrichment process. Two of the five process buildings at Oak ridge were shut down in 1964. Uranium enrichment activities at Oak Ridge were discontinued altogether in 1985. In 1987, the Department of Energy (DOE) decided to proceed with a permanent shutdown of the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (ORGDP). DOE intends to begin decommissioning and decontamination (D ampersand D) of ORGDP early in the next century. The remaining two GDPs are expected to be shut down during the next 10 to 40 years and will also require D ampersand D, as will the other UF 6 -handling facilities. This paper presents an investigation of gas- phase decontamination of internally radioactively contaminated gaseous diffusion process equipment and piping using powerful fluorinating reagents that convert nonvolatile uranium compounds to volatile UF 6 . These reagents include ClF 3 , F 2 , and other compounds. The scope of D ampersand D at the GDPs, previous work of gas-phase decontamination, four concepts for using gas-phase decontamination, plans for further study of gas-phase decontamination, and the current status of this work are discussed. 13 refs., 15 figs

  6. THE INFLUENCE OF INTERNALLY DISPLACED PERSONS ON THE SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF REGIONS IN UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inna Arakelova

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In terms of the issues aggravation concerning internally displaced persons and the disproportions in the social and economic development of regions as a result of the antiterrorist operation in Ukraine, an analysis of social and economic transformations in regional development under the migration processes influence and the search for their overcoming mechanisms becomes relevant. The purpose of the article is to analyse the impact of internally displaced persons flows on the social and economic development of regions in order to improve the regional development mechanisms in Ukraine. The research methodology includes a set of scientific research methods that provide a systematic approach to investigating the impact of internally displaced persons on the social and economic development of Ukrainian regions, theoretical approaches to state regulation of internal migration flows in conditions of decentralization of power and reform of public administration in the country. In the course of investigations, the following methods are used: statistical analysis and synthesis while determining the indicators of the IDPs burden on the regional social and economic systems of Ukraine; analysis while studying the main problems of internally displaced persons and their directions; logical synthesis and synthesis while drawing conclusions. The information base for the study consists of the legislative acts of the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine, the Decree of the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine, statistical and reporting information of the Ministry of Social Policy of Ukraine, development of the UN Agency for Refugees, the UN ReliefWeb Specialized Service for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs, Inter-Agency Standing Committee, PROMAN, NGO “Labor and Health Social Initiatives”, Ukrainian Helsinki Human Rights Union, research results of domestic and foreign scientists. Results. The article deals with the issues of effective reforming of regional development

  7. Development and internal structure investigation of the Dimensional Clinical Personality Inventory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas de Francisco Carvalho

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to develop a dimensional instrument to assess personality disorders based on Millon's theoretical perspective and on DSM-IV-TR diagnoses criteria, and seek validity evidence based on internal structure and reliability indexes of the factors. In order to do that, a self-report test composed of 215 items, the Dimensional Clinical Personality Inventory (DCPI was developed and applied to 561 respondents aged between 18 and 90 years (M = 28,8; SD = 11.4, with 51.8% females. Exploratory factor analysis and verification of reliability were performed using Cronbach's alpha. Data provided validity evidence based on internal structure of the instrument according to the theory of Millon and DSM-IV-TR.

  8. Internal contamination assessment, with regard to 90Sr, 134Cs, and 137Cs nuclei during nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayad, M.; Hanna, K.M.

    2000-01-01

    In case of nuclear reactor accident leading to the release of some radioactive isotopes in the plume, the sedimentation of its constituents on the ground causes surface contamination which consequently can be observed in the form of an internal contamination in the living biosphere. The migration of the radio nuclei from the soil to the plant root, stem, and the other edible parts is considered the main source for the contaminated foodstuffs used by the general public. In this work we have calculated the total accumulative internal dose for 9 0Sr, 1 34Cs, and 1 37Cs radio contaminants with regard to different public age groups (infant, child, and adult) due to an unexpected nuclear accident. In our calculations we have applied the protective measure inequality for the chosen standard group of foodstuffs, with respect to each age group of the public as well as the three indicated above radio nuclei. Our results indicated that the values of the calculated protective measures with regard to 9 0Sr, 1 37Cs, and 1 34Cs radio nuclei are increasing respectively for all age groups. In addition, we found that the ratio of the total protection measure values of all radio nuclei for different age groups still less than one which requires no intervention level procedures

  9. Effects of Surfactant Contamination on the Next Generation Gas Trap for the ISS Internal Thermal Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leimkuehler, Thomas O.; Lukens, Clark; Reeves, Daniel R.; Holt, James M.

    2004-01-01

    The current dual-membrane gas trap is designed to remove non-condensed gas bubbles from the Internal Thermal Control System (ITCS) coolant on board the International Space Station (ISS). To date it has successfully served its purpose of preventing gas bubbles from causing depriming, overspeed, and shutdown of the ITCS pump. However, contamination in the ITCS coolant has adversely affected the gas venting rate and lifetime of the gas trap, warranting a development effort for a next-generation gas trap. Previous testing has shown that a hydrophobic-only design is capable of performing even better than the current dual-membrane design for both steady-state gas removal and gas slug removal in clean deionized water. This paper presents results of testing to evaluate the effects of surfactant contamination on the steady-state performance of the hydrophobic-only design.

  10. [IMPLEMENTATION OF THE RIGHT FOR HEALTH CARE FOR CHILDREN - INTERNALLY DISPLACED PERSONS (CERTAIN ASPECTS)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buletsa, S; Lazur, Y; Mendzhul, M; Pushkarenko, О

    2017-12-01

    The aim of the article is to do a research on selected issues related to realizing the right for health сare for the children - internally dislocated persons. In order to achieve the given aim statistical data of the quantity of involuntarily dislocated persons including children and also the quantity of children registered with the health-care authority as well as the quantity of their requests for medical care have been analized. It has been determined that in case of involuntary dislocation children are more often exposed to trauma than adults which leads to different emotional disorders. The concepts of «the right for health care» in international legal acts, national legislation of Ukraine and scientific works have been analized. There have been defined three levels of the provision of the right for health care of internally dislocated persons. It has been substantiated that the fact that a child has not been registered with the health-care authority as IRP can't be a ground for limitations in realization of his right on health care. During the research process it has been defined that children IRP need medical care more often than other internally dislocated persons and in realization of the right for health care they come across a number of problems that need urgent solution, including access to free of charge professional medical care, regardless of the fact of medical registration of a child IRP, insufficient funding for provision of the needs of children IRP with medications, absence of obligatory primary medical examination of children IRP, etc.

  11. Assessment of the Risk of Medium-Term Internal Contamination in Minamisoma City, Fukushima, Japan, after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmour, Stuart; Tsubokura, Masaharu; Nomura, Shuhei; Kami, Masahiro; Oikawa, Tomoyoshi; Kanazawa, Yukio; Shibuya, Kenji

    2014-01-01

    Background: The Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear disaster, the first level-7 major nuclear disaster since Chernobyl, raised concerns about the future health consequences of exposure to and intake of radionuclides. Factors determining the risk and level of internal radiation contamination after a nuclear accident, which are a key to understanding and improving current nuclear disaster management, are not well studied. Objective: We investigated both the prevalence and level of internal contamination in residents of Minamisoma, and identified factors determining the risk and levels of contamination. Methods: We implemented a program assessing internal radiation contamination using a whole body counter (WBC) measurement and a questionnaire survey in Minamisoma, between October 2011 and March 2012. Results: Approximately 20% of the city’s population (8,829 individuals) participated in the WBC measurement for internal contamination, of which 94% responded to the questionnaire. The proportion of participants with detectable internal contamination was 40% in adults and 9% in children. The level of internal contamination ranged from 2.3 to 196.5 Bq/kg (median, 11.3 Bq/kg). Tobit regression analysis identified two main risk factors: more time spent outdoors, and intake of potentially contaminated foods and water. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that, with sensible and reasonable precautions, people may be able to live continuously in radiation-affected areas with limited contamination risk. To enable this, nuclear disaster response should strictly enforce food and water controls and disseminate evidence-based and up-to-date information about avoidable contamination risks. Citation: Sugimoto A, Gilmour S, Tsubokura M, Nomura S, Kami M, Oikawa T, Kanazawa Y, Shibuya K. 2014. Assessment of the risk of medium-term internal contamination in Minamisoma City, Fukushima, Japan, after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear accident. Environ Health Perspect 122:587–593;

  12. Impact of an international workplace learning placement on personal and professional development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Kerryn; Curtin, Michael; Robson, Kristy

    2017-04-01

    Workplace learning (WPL) placements are a mandatory part of occupational therapy courses. There is some evidence that suggests WPL placements in international settings are beneficial for students' learning, and personal and professional development. The aim of this study was to explore the impact an international WPL placement in Vietnam had on the perceived personal and professional development of a group of Australian occupational therapy graduates. Interpretative phenomenological analysis was used to explore the perceptions of how participation in the Charles Sturt University School of Community Health's Vietnam placement influenced the personal and professional development of occupational therapy graduates. Individual semi-structured interviews were conducted with nine graduates who participated in the Vietnam placement when they were final year occupational therapy students. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and individually analysed to identify key themes. Two major themes emerged from the analysis: becoming resourceful, resilient and confident, and becoming respectful of difference. The participants indicated that participation in the Vietnam placement had a positive impact on their personal and professional development. Participants indicated that the Vietnam placement enabled them to develop their resourcefulness, resilience, reasoning skills, cultural competence, confidence and independence, beyond what they felt would have achieved on a domestic placement. For these reason these participants found the placement a beneficial and worthwhile experience. © 2016 Occupational Therapy Australia.

  13. Personal-organisational value conflicts and job satisfaction of internal construction stakeholders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babak Panahi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper concerns the issue of value conflicts in construction organizations. This research was conducted in the Malaysian construction industry to fill the gap in the knowledge in areas of organizational behaviour in the construction industry in terms of the possible effects of conflicts on the job satisfaction of internal construction stakeholders. The conflicts considered are those rooted in differences between personal and organizational values. This research targeted professional project consultants identified as architects, engineers, and quantity surveyors as the internal construction stakeholders in Malaysia. The personal-organizational values and the level of job satisfaction of the stakeholders were assessed using a questionnaire survey. To achieve the research objective, comparative and hierarchical regression analyses were performed. The results generated by the analyses indicated a high level of value conflicts in the construction organizations which significantly and negatively affected job satisfaction of the internal stakeholders. Therefore this research, through investigating the potential effect of value conflicts on the stakeholders’ job satisfaction, reveals the importance of the interaction between personal and organizational values in construction organizations which contributes to the extant literature of organizational behaviour in construction.

  14. Relationship between Norm-internalization and Cooperation in N-person Prisoners' Dilemma Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Mitsutaka

    In this paper, I discuss the problems of ``order in social situations'' using a computer simulation of iterated N-person prisoners' dilemma game. It has been claimed that, in the case of the 2-person prisoners' dilemma, repetition of games and the reciprocal use of the ``tit-for-tat'' strategy promote the possibility of cooperation. However, in cases of N-person prisoners' dilemma where N is greater than 2, the logic does not work effectively. The most essential problem is so called ``sanctioning problems''. In this paper, firstly, I discuss the ``sanctioning problems'' which were introduced by Axelrod and Keohane in 1986. Based on the model formalized by Axelrod, I propose a new model, in which I added a mechanism of players' payoff changes in the Axelrod's model. I call this mechanism norm-internalization and call our model ``norm-internalization game''. Second, by using the model, I investigated the relationship between agents' norm-internalization (payoff-alternation) and the possibilities of cooperation. The results of computer simulation indicated that unequal distribution of cooperating norm and uniform distribution of sanctioning norm are more effective in establishing cooperation. I discuss the mathematical features and the implications of the results on social science.

  15. Development of an expert system for the taking into account of uncertainties in the monitoring of internal contaminations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davesne, E.; Blanchardon, E.; Casanova, P.; Chojnacki, E.; Paquet, F.

    2010-01-01

    Internal contaminations may result from professional exposure and they can be monitored by anthropo-radiometric and radio-toxicological measurements which are interpreted in terms of embedded activity and effective dose by means of biokinetic and dosimetric models. In spite of standards, some uncertainties in the dosimetric interpretation of radio-toxicological measurements may remain. The authors report the development of a software (OPSCI code) which takes into account uncertainties related to the worker internal dosimetry, the calculation of the minimum detectable dose related to an exposure, and the development of a data monitoring programme

  16. A review of international coverage and pricing strategies for personalized medicine and orphan drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degtiar, Irina

    2017-12-01

    Personalized medicine and orphan drugs share many characteristics-both target small patient populations, have uncertainties regarding efficacy and safety at payer submission, and frequently have high prices. Given personalized medicine's rising importance, this review summarizes international coverage and pricing strategies for personalized medicine and orphan drugs as well as their impact on therapy development incentives, payer budgets, and therapy access and utilization. PubMed, Health Policy Reference Center, EconLit, Google Scholar, and references were searched through February 2017 for articles presenting primary data. Sixty-nine articles summarizing 42 countries' strategies were included. Therapy evaluation criteria varied between countries, as did patient cost-share. Payers primarily valued clinical effectiveness; cost was only considered by some. These differences result in inequities in orphan drug access, particularly in smaller and lower-income countries. The uncertain reimbursement process hinders diagnostic testing. Payer surveys identified lack of comparative effectiveness evidence as a chief complaint, while manufacturers sought more clarity on payer evidence requirements. Despite lack of strong evidence, orphan drugs largely receive positive coverage decisions, while personalized medicine diagnostics do not. As more personalized medicine and orphan drugs enter the market, registries can provide better quality evidence on their efficacy and safety. Payers need systematic assessment strategies that are communicated with more transparency. Further studies are necessary to compare the implications of different payer approaches. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Social phobia among long-term internally displaced persons: An epidemiological study of adults in two internally displaced person settlements in Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salah, Tarig Taha Mohamed; Ayazi, Touraj; Lien, Lars; Eide, Arne; Hauff, Edvard

    2015-09-01

    Despite the high worldwide prevalence and association with other mental disorders and disability, only few studies are available on social phobia in low-income countries. This study aims to assess the prevalence, socio-demographic correlates and comorbidity of social phobia and its association with disability among long-term internally displaced persons (IDPs) in one urban and one rural area in Central Sudan. This cross-sectional study was implemented in two IDP areas in Central Sudan. Data were collected during face-to-face interviews using structured questionnaires to assess socio-demographic factors and the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) to determine psychiatric diagnoses. A total of 1,876 adults were enrolled from both study areas. The overall lifetime prevalence of social phobia was 14.2%, with higher rates among IDPs in the rural area and among those who were less educated. Social phobia was associated with other mental disorders in both study areas. Disability and prolonged displacement increased the risk of having social phobia in the rural area. Further work needs to be done to improve our understanding and to establish proper interventions in dealing with social phobia, other common mental disorders and disability among long-term IDPs in these impoverished areas. © The Author(s) 2014.

  18. Reduction of high levels of internal radio-contamination by dietary intervention in residents of areas affected by the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear plant disaster: a case series.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaharu Tsubokura

    Full Text Available Maintaining low levels of chronic internal contamination among residents in radiation-contaminated areas after a nuclear disaster is a great public health concern. However, the efficacy of reduction measures for individual internal contamination remains unknown. To reduce high levels of internal radiation exposure in a group of individuals exposed through environmental sources, we performed careful dietary intervention with identification of suspected contaminated foods, as part of mass voluntary radiation contamination screenings and counseling program in Minamisoma Municipal General Hospital and Hirata Central Hospital. From a total of 30,622 study participants, only 9 residents displayed internal cesium-137 (Cs-137 levels of more than 50 Bq/kg. The median level of internal Cs-137 contamination in these residents at the initial screening was 4,830 Bq/body (range: 2,130-15,918 Bq/body and 69.6 Bq/kg (range: 50.7-216.3 Bq/kg. All these residents with high levels of internal contamination consumed homegrown produce without radiation inspection, and often collected mushrooms in the wild or cultivated them on bed-logs in their homes. They were advised to consume distributed food mainly and to refrain from consuming potentially contaminated foods without radiation inspection and local produces under shipment restrictions such as mushrooms, mountain vegetables, and meat of wild life. A few months after the intervention, re-examination of Cs levels revealed remarkable reduction of internal contamination in all residents. Although the levels of internal radiation exposure appear to be minimal amongst most residents in Fukushima, a subset of the population, who unknowingly consumed highly contaminated foodstuffs, experienced high levels of internal contamination. There seem to be similarities in dietary preferences amongst residents with high internal contamination levels, and intervention based on pre- and post-test counseling and dietary advice from

  19. internal radiation dose assessment due to ionizing radio contaminants in some local foodstuffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AbdElKader, F.M.

    1996-01-01

    Over the last 30 years, radioactivity has been monitored in foodstuffs in Egypt. The present work deals with the radioactivity monitored during two years (1990 - 1992) at eight major Egyptian governorates. Sampled food items were selected to cover most foodstuffs eaten by egyptian population according to their habits. The daily food consumption by egyptian population and the constituents of such consumption were estimated according to published international data and knowledge of the different feeding habits of the egyptians. About 1200 samples were collected from the markets of the main city of each governorate and prepared for counting according to the egyptian kitchen habits. The counting systems used in determination and indentification of radionuclides were : a 3 inch HPGe detector attached to 800 channel MCA and PC and a 3 inch phoswich detector attached to an anticoincidence circuit for low beta / gamma counting. The gamma spectroscopy system was calibrated using isotopic solution mixture while the low beta counting system was calibrated using H CI. Counting time for the first system was 20 - 72 hours and for the second system was half to one hour. The main radionuclides identified in foodstuffs were Cs - 137 and K - 40 . The radioactivity concentration of Cs - 137 was found to be in the range between 1.0 Bq / Kg for macaroni and 3.5 Bq / Kg for nile beans. The K - 40 concentration range between 19 Bq / Kg for macaroni to 363 Bq / Kg for nile beans. The population weighted values in case of Cs - 137 was found as 3.56 Bq /d and for K - 40 was 188 Bq /d. The resulted effective dose due to food intake was found be 16 . 4 U Sv /a for Cs-137 and 354 μSv / a for K -40 . This value for Cs - 137 is found in the exemption limit while that of K -40 is twice the published value. This may depend on the egyptian feeding habit which depends mainly on wheat (bread) and nile beans which are very rich in potassium.The resulted collective dose was found to be : 21323 person

  20. Operational Testing of a Combined Hardware-Software Strategy for Triage of Radiologically-Contaminated Persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Edward J

    2015-08-01

    After a radiological dispersal device (RDD) event, it is possible for radionuclides to enter the human body through inhalation, ingestion, and skin and wound absorption. The dominant pathway will be through inhalation. From a health physics perspective, it is important to know the magnitude of the intake to perform dosimetric assessments. From a medical perspective, removal of radionuclides leading to dose (hence risk) aversion is of high importance. The efficacy of medical decorporation strategies is extremely dependent upon the time of treatment delivery after intake. The "golden hour," or more realistically 3-4 h, is imperative when attempting to increase removal of radionuclides from extracellular fluids prior to cellular incorporation. To assist medical first response personnel in making timely decisions regarding appropriate treatment delivery modes, a software tool has been developed which compiles existing radionuclide decorporation therapy data and allows a user to perform simple triage leading to potential appropriate decorporation treatment strategies. Three triage algorithms were included: (1) multi-parameter model (MPM), (2) clinical decision guidance (CDG) model, and (3) annual limit on intake (ALI) model. A radiation triage mask (RTM) has simultaneously been developed to provide a simple and rapid hardware solution for first responders to triage internally exposed personnel in the field. The hardware/software strategy was field tested with a military medical unit and was found by end-users to be relatively simple to learn and use.

  1. Caesium 137: Properties and biological effects resulting of an internal contamination;Cesium 137: proprietes et effets biologiques apres contamination interne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lestaevel, P.; Racine, R.; Bensoussan, H.; Rouas, C.; Gueguen, Y.; Dublineau, I.; Bertho, J.M.; Gourmelon, P.; Jourdain, J.R.; Souidi, M. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, IRSN, laboratoire de radiotoxicologie experimentale, direction de la radioprotection de l' homme, 92 - Fontenay-aux-Roses (France)

    2010-02-15

    Caesium-137 ({sup 137}Cs) is a radionuclide present in the environment mainly as the result of the atmospheric nuclear weapons testing and accidents arising in nuclear power plants like the Chernobyl accident in 1986. Nowadays, the health consequences resulting from a chronic exposure to this radionuclide remain unknown. After absorption, the caesium is distributed relatively homogeneously within the body, with a more important load in children than in adults. The toxicity of {sup 137}Cs is mainly due to its radiological properties. A high dose of {sup 137}Cs is responsible for a medullar dystrophy, disorders of the reproductive function, and effects on liver and renal functions. Disorders of bone mineralization and brain damages were also described in human beings. At lowest dose, {sup 137}Cs induces disturbances of wakefulness-sleep cycle, but not accompanied with behavioural disorders. The cardiovascular system was also perturbed. Biological effects of {sup 137}Cs on the metabolisms of the vitamin D, cholesterol and steroid hormones were described, but do not lead to clinical symptoms. In human beings, {sup 137}Cs leads to an immune deficiency, congenital and foetal deformations, an increased of thyroid cancer, as well as neurological disorders. It seems that children are more sensitive to the toxic effects of caesium than the adults. At present, the only effective treatment for the decorporation of the ingested {sup 137}Cs is the Prussian Blue (Radiogardase). The use of pectin to de-corporate the ingested {sup 137}Cs, in children notably, is sometimes proposed, but its administration still remains an open question. To conclude, the available scientific data suggest that {sup 137}Cs could affect a number of physiological and metabolic functions and consequently, could participate in the health risks associated to the presence of other contaminants in the environment. (authors)

  2. Acts against the freedom of the person in terms of criminal, constitutional and international instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asllan Dogjani

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper was treated by two co – authors and is divided in two parts. First part was prepared by Av. Asllan Dogjani, which addresses the removal of freedom of person under the special provisions of the Criminal Code of the Republic of Albania. Second part of this work is handled by the lecturer Av. Arben V. Priftii, related to defence, restrictions and guarantees of freedom of the person in view of the Constitution and international acts and instruments. The paper aims the analysis and presentation of the offense against a person’s freedom, under special provisions of the Criminal Code, but also the treatment of freedom of person under the provisions of the Constitutional Law and international acts and instruments. The target group of criminal offenses is common; the legal relationship established in the sphere of security of a person’s freedom, specially defended by the Criminal Law of criminal acts or omissions is socially dangerous. We hope that this paper will serve readers and lawyers in the field of Criminal Law, in particular students of the Faculties of Law. On the other hand, we are open to understand any comments, suggestions and valuable qualitative opinion from all colleagues and professors of Criminal Law, friends and colleagues who will read this scientific work.

  3. An Ethical investigation of State and the Management of Internally Displaced Persons in Nigeria

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    Ifeanyichukwu Micheal Abada

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The spontaneous displacement and wandering of men had always been propelled by the forces of nature and other anthropogenic activities. Man, as a rational being had remained strategical for their survival. The upsurge in the activities of Boko Haram in Nigeria, north east occasioned by their clientele interests had necessitated decisions by men to forcefully relocate their places of abode. However, the purpose of the study is to ethically investigate whether the ineffective curtailment of the activities of Boko Haram had implicated the increasing vulnerabilities of internally displaced persons. The study utilized qualitative method in generating its data, while the theoretical framework was adequately anchored on the Marxist theory of the post-colonial state.  The findings of the study had significantly revealed that the ineffective management of Boko Haram menace by the state had implicated the rising vulnerabilities of internally displaced persons. However, the study recommends among other things, the integration of relevant commission and prosecution of personality-cults engage in sabotaging the efforts of the state.

  4. Response of monitors of surface contamination to internal exposition control from 131I in the 'nuclear medicine services'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puerta, Nancy; Rojo, Ana M.; Villella, Adrian; Gossio, Sebastian; Parada, Ines Gomez; Acosta, Norma; Arenas, German

    2013-01-01

    The IAEA, in its publication RS-G-1.2, proposes individual control of workers occupationally exposed with risk of internal exposure when the potential exposure provided by incorporation leads to a value of annual committed effective dose equal to or greater than 1 mSv. Because the radionuclide 131 I is the most important to control internal exposure in Nuclear Medicine Services, it is evaluated if the surface contamination monitors, commonly used in nuclear medicine centers of Argentina, would implement individual control of internal exposure to 131 I. Selected detectors were calibrated with a dummy neck and thyroid with calibrated sources of 131 I and 133 Ba reference. For each detector is was estimated the detection efficiency for 131 I and its detection limit. Each instrument was evaluated for the lowest effective dose possible to detect compromised by individual routine monitoring with different measurement intervals . We analyzed the response of each team for determining conditions that may be effective for the control of internal exposure of 131 I. Finally , we conclude that the daily individual monitoring surface contamination detectors available in the Nuclear Medicine Services is feasible to implement and ensures detection of significant additions of 131 I

  5. Paediatric International Nursing Study: using person-centred key performance indicators to benchmark children's services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCance, Tanya; Wilson, Val; Kornman, Kelly

    2016-07-01

    The aim of the Paediatric International Nursing Study was to explore the utility of key performance indicators in developing person-centred practice across a range of services provided to sick children. The objective addressed in this paper was evaluating the use of these indicators to benchmark services internationally. This study builds on primary research, which produced indicators that were considered novel both in terms of their positive orientation and use in generating data that privileges the patient voice. This study extends this research through wider testing on an international platform within paediatrics. The overall methodological approach was a realistic evaluation used to evaluate the implementation of the key performance indicators, which combined an integrated development and evaluation methodology. The study involved children's wards/hospitals in Australia (six sites across three states) and Europe (seven sites across four countries). Qualitative and quantitative methods were used during the implementation process, however, this paper reports the quantitative data only, which used survey, observations and documentary review. The findings demonstrate the quality of care being delivered to children and their families across different international sites. The benchmarking does, however, highlight some differences between paediatric and general hospitals, and between the different key performance indicators across all the sites. The findings support the use of the key performance indicators as a novel method to benchmark services internationally. Whilst the data collected across 20 paediatric sites suggest services are more similar than different, benchmarking illuminates variations that encourage a critical dialogue about what works and why. The transferability of the key performance indicators and measurement framework across different settings has significant implications for practice. The findings offer an approach to benchmarking and celebrating

  6. Internalizing and externalizing personality and subjective effects in a sample of adolescent cannabis users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Sánchez, Sara; Matalí, Josep Lluís; Martín-Fernández, María; Pardo, Marta; Lleras, Maria; Castellano-Tejedor, Carmina; Haro, Josep Maria

    2016-10-06

    Cannabis is the illicit substance most widely used by adolescents. Certain personality traits such as impulsivity and sensation seeking, and the subjective effects experienced after substance use (e.g. euphoria or relaxation) have been identified as some of the main etiological factors of consumption. This study aims to categorize a sample of adolescent cannabis users based on their most dominant personality traits (internalizing and externalizing profile). Then, to make a comparison of both profiles considering a set of variables related to consumption, clinical severity and subjective effects experienced. From a cross-sectional design, 173 adolescents (104 men and 69 women) aged 13 to 18 asking for treatment for cannabis use disorder in an Addictive Behavior Unit (UCAD) from the hospital were recruited. For the assessment, an ad hoc protocol was employed to register consumption, the Millon Adolescent Clinical Inventory (MACI) and the Addiction Research Center Inventory (ARCI) 49-item short form were also administered. Factor analysis suggested a two-profile solution: Introverted, Inhibited, Doleful, Dramatizing (-), Egotistic (-), Self-demeaning and Borderline tendency scales composed the internalizing profile, and Submissive (-), Unruly, Forceful, Conforming (-) and Oppositional scales composed the externalizing profile. The comparative analysis showed that the internalizing profile has higher levels of clinical severity and more subjective effects reported than the externalizing profile. These results suggest the need to design specific intervention strategies for each profile.

  7. Reliability and cultural applicability of the Greek version of the International Personality Disorders Examination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaprinis G

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The International Personality Disorders Examination (IPDE constitutes the proposal of the WHO for the reliable diagnosis of personality disorders (PD. The IPDE assesses pathological personality and is compatible both with DSM-IV and ICD-10 diagnosis. However it is important to test the reliability and cultural applicability of different IPDE translations. Methods Thirty-one patients (12 male and 19 female aged 35.25 ± 11.08 years, took part in the study. Three examiners applied the interview (23 interviews of two and 8 interviews of 3 examiners, that is 47 pairs of interviews and 70 single interviews. The phi coefficient was used to test categorical diagnosis agreement and the Pearson Product Moment correlation coefficient to test agreement concerning the number of criteria met. Results Translation and back-translation did not reveal specific problems. Results suggested that reliability of the Greek translation is good. However, socio-cultural factors (family coherence, work environment etc could affect the application of some of the IPDE items in Greece. The diagnosis of any PD was highly reliable with phi >0.92. However, diagnosis of non-specfic PD was not reliable at all (phi close to 0 suggesting that this is a true residual category. Dianosis of specific PDs were highly reliable with the exception of schizoid PD. Diagnosis of antisocial and Borderline PDs were perfectly reliable with phi equal to 1.00. Conclusions The Greek translation of the IPDE is a reliable instrument for the assessment of personality disorder but cultural variation may limit its applicability in international comparisons.

  8. An Internal Reference Control Duplex Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction Assay for Detecting Bacterial Contamination in Blood Products.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Ju Zhang

    Full Text Available Real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR enables effective and sensitive screening for infectious risk in the field of blood safety. However, when using RT-PCR to detect bacterial contamination, several intractable points must be considered, one of which is the lack of appropriate quality control. In this study, we developed a simplified RT-PCR assay in which the same primer set and two distinct probes were used to detect both, an internal reference control and the target in a reaction. The copy number of the internal reference control represents the positive detection limit of the assay; therefore, when the threshold-cycle value of the target is less than or equal to that of the internal reference control, the result obtained for the target can be considered to be a true positive. When human gDNA was spiked with Escherichia coli gDNA and the detection limit for the internal reference control was set to five copies, the measured detection limit for E. coli gDNA was two copies. The internal reference control duplex RT-PCR assay showed high efficiency (0.91-1.02, high linearity (R2 > 0.99, and good reproducibility in intra- and inter-assay comparisons. Lastly, when human platelet-rich plasma samples were spiked with E. coli or other bacterial species, all species were detected efficiently, and the results of a two-sample pooled t test showed that the limit of detection for E. coli was 1 cfu/mL. Here, we present a synthetic internal reference control molecule and a new statistical method for improving the reliability of RT-PCR assays when screening for bacterial contamination in blood products.

  9. The use of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health to classify the factors influencing mobility reported by persons with an amputation: An international study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhakrishnan, Seema; Kohler, Friedbert; Gutenbrunner, Christoph; Jayaraman, Arun; Li, Jianin; Pieber, Karin; Schiappacasse, Carolina

    2017-08-01

    Amputation of lower limb results in limitations in mobility which are amenable to multiple rehabilitation interventions. The challenges faced by the persons with lower limb amputation vary internationally. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health provides a common language to describe the function of persons with lower limb amputation across various countries. This article reports the concepts in mobility important to persons with lower limb amputation across six countries using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health. Qualitative study using focus groups and individual interviews. Focus groups and individual interviews of persons with lower limb amputation were organised across six countries to identify the issues faced by patients with an amputation during and after their amputation, subsequent rehabilitation and on an ongoing basis in their daily life. Meaningful concepts were extracted from the responses and linked to suitable second-level and where applicable third-level International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health categories. International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health categorical frequencies were analysed to represent the prevalence and spread of International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health categories by location. A total of 133 patients were interviewed. A large percentage (93%) of the identified concepts could be matched to International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health categories for quantitative analysis. The important concepts in mobility were similar across different countries. The comprehensiveness of International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health as a classification system for human function and its universality across the globe is demonstrated by the large proportion of the concepts contained in the interviews from across the study centres that could be matched to International

  10. Limited internal radiation exposure associated with resettlements to a radiation-contaminated homeland after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaharu Tsubokura

    Full Text Available Resettlement to their radiation-contaminated hometown could be an option for people displaced at the time of a nuclear disaster; however, little information is available on the safety implications of these resettlement programs. Kawauchi village, located 12-30 km southwest of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, was one of the 11 municipalities where mandatory evacuation was ordered by the central government. This village was also the first municipality to organize the return of the villagers. To assess the validity of the Kawauchi villagers' resettlement program, the levels of internal Cesium (Cs exposures were comparatively measured in returnees, commuters, and non-returnees among the Kawauchi villagers using a whole body counter. Of 149 individuals, 5 villagers had traceable levels of Cs exposure; the median detected level was 333 Bq/body (range, 309-1050 Bq/kg, and 5.3 Bq/kg (range, 5.1-18.2 Bq/kg. Median annual effective doses of villagers with traceable Cs were 1.1 x 10(-2 mSv/y (range, 1.0 x 10(-2-4.1 x 10(-2 mSv/y. Although returnees had higher chances of consuming locally produced vegetables, Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel test showed that their level of internal radiation exposure was not significantly higher than that in the other 2 groups (p=0.643. The present findings in Kawauchi village imply that it is possible to maintain internal radiation exposure at very low levels even in a highly radiation-contaminated region at the time of a nuclear disaster. Moreover, the risks for internal radiation exposure could be limited with a strict food control intervention after resettlement to the radiation-contaminated village. It is crucial to establish an adequate number of radio-contaminated testing sites within the village, to provide immediate test result feedback to the villagers, and to provide education regarding the importance of re-testing in reducing the risk of high internal radiation exposure.

  11. The Interactional Effects of the Internal and External University Environment, and the Influence of Personal Values, on Satisfaction among International Postgraduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arambewela, Rodney; Hall, John

    2013-01-01

    The article investigates the interactional effects of internal and external university learning environments, and the influence of personal values, in the satisfaction formation process of international postgraduate students from Asia. Past research on student satisfaction has been narrowly focused on certain aspects of the university internal…

  12. Occurrence of organic wastewater contaminants, pharmaceuticals, and personal care products in selected water supplies, Cape Cod, Massachusetts, June 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Marc J.

    2005-01-01

    In June 2004, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Barnstable County Department of Health and Environment, sampled water from 14 wastewater sources and drinking-water supplies on Cape Cod, Massachusetts, for the presence of organic wastewater contaminants, pharmaceuticals, and personal care products. The geographic distribution of sampling locations does not represent the distribution of drinking-water supplies on Cape Cod. The environmental presence of the analyte compounds is mostly unregulated; many of the compounds are suspected of having adverse ecological and human health effects. Of the 85 different organic analyte compounds, 43 were detected, with 13 detected in low concentrations (less than 1 microgram per liter) from drinking-water supplies thought to be affected by wastewater because of previously detected high nitrate concentrations. (Phenol and d-limonene, detected in equipment blanks at unacceptably high concentrations, are not included in counts of detections in this report.) Compounds detected in the drinking-water supplies included the solvent, tetrachloroethylene; the analgesic, acetaminophen; the antibiotic, sulfamethoxazole; and the antidepressant, carbamazapine. Nitrate nitrogen, an indicator of wastewater, was detected in water supplies in concentrations ranging from 0.2 to 8.8 milligrams per liter.

  13. Relationships between Personal Traits, Emotional Intelligence, Internal Marketing, Service Management, and Customer Orientation in Korean Outpatient Department Nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogyun Kim, MSN, RN

    2016-03-01

    Conclusions: Hospital administrators should support OPD nurses to cultivate sincere and sociable personal traits and emotional intelligence, and to consider employees as internal customers to improve patient-oriented services and satisfaction.

  14. The right to vote of persons with disabilities and, specially, of persons with mental and intellectual disabilities in public international law. Its reception in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Víctor Carlos Pascual Planchuelo

    2016-01-01

    This study describes the different international treaties and instruments, at universal and regional levels, that protect –directly or indirectly- the right to political participation and the right to vote of all persons with all kind of disabilities. Specifically, the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (2006) brings a change in the framework on disability, by proclaiming their right to political participation, and recognizing their legal capacity in equal co...

  15. Oral bioaccessibility of toxic metals in contaminated oysters and relationships with metal internal sequestration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shi; Wang, Wen-Xiong

    2014-12-01

    The Hong Kong oysters Crassostrea hongkongensis are widely farmed in the estuarine waters of Southern China, but they accumulate Cu and Zn to alarmingly high concentrations in the soft tissues. Health risks of seafood consumption are related to contaminants such as toxic metals which are bioaccessible to humans. In the present study, we investigated the oral bioaccessibility of five toxic metals (Ag, Pb, Cd, Cu and Zn) in contaminated oysters collected from different locations of a large estuary in southern China. In all oysters, total Zn concentration was the highest whereas total Pb concentration was the lowest. Among the five metals, Ag had the lowest oral bioaccessibility (38.9-60.8%), whereas Cu and Zn had the highest bioaccessibility (72.3-93.1%). Significant negative correlation was observed between metal bioaccessibility and metal concentration in the oysters for Ag, Cd, and Cu. We found that the oral bioaccessibility of the five metals was positively correlated with their trophically available metal fraction (TAM) in the oyster tissues, and negatively correlated with metal distribution in the cellular debris. Thus, metal partitioning in the TAM and cellular debris controlled the oral bioaccessibility to humans. Given the dependence of oral bioaccessibility on tissue metal contamination, bioaccessibility needs to be incorporated in the risk assessments of contaminated shellfish. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Characterizing pharmaceutical, personal care product, and hormone contamination in a karst aquifer of southwestern Illinois, USA, using water quality and stream flow parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodgen, L K; Kelly, W R; Panno, S V; Taylor, S J; Armstrong, D L; Wiles, K N; Zhang, Y; Zheng, W

    2017-02-01

    Karst aquifers are drinking water sources for 25% of the global population. However, the unique geology of karst areas facilitates rapid transfer of surficial chemicals to groundwater, potentially contaminating drinking water. Contamination of karst aquifers by nitrate, chloride, and bacteria have been previously observed, but little knowledge is available on the presence of contaminants of emerging concern (CECs), such as pharmaceuticals. Over a 17-month period, 58 water samples were collected from 13 sites in the Salem Plateau, a karst region in southwestern Illinois, United States. Water was analyzed for 12 pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs), 7 natural and synthetic hormones, and 49 typical water quality parameters (e.g., nutrients and bacteria). Hormones were detected in only 23% of samples, with concentrations of 2.2-9.1ng/L. In contrast, PPCPs were quantified in 89% of groundwater samples. The two most commonly detected PPCPs were the antimicrobial triclocarban, in 81% of samples, and the cardiovascular drug gemfibrozil, in 57%. Analytical results were combined with data of local stream flow, weather, and land use to 1) characterize the extent of aquifer contamination by CECs, 2) cluster sites with similar PPCP contamination profiles, and 3) develop models to describe PPCP contamination. Median detection in karst groundwater was 3 PPCPs at a summed concentration of 4.6ng/L. Sites clustered into 3 subsets with unique contamination models. PPCP contamination in Cluster I sites was related to stream height, manganese, boron, and heterotrophic bacteria. Cluster II sites were characterized by groundwater temperature, specific conductivity, sodium, and calcium. Cluster III sites were characterized by dissolved oxygen and barium. Across all sites, no single or small set of water quality factors was significantly predictive of PPCP contamination, although gemfibrozil concentrations were strongly related to the sum of PPCPs in karst groundwater

  17. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the M5-50: An Implementation of the International Personality Item Pool Item Set

    Science.gov (United States)

    Socha, Alan; Cooper, Christopher A.; McCord, David M.

    2010-01-01

    Goldberg's International Personality Item Pool (IPIP; Goldberg, 1999) provides researchers with public-domain, free-access personality measurement scales that are proxies of well-established published scales. One of the more commonly used IPIP sets employs 50 items to measure the 5 broad domains of the 5-factor model, with 10 items per factor. The…

  18. Computational dosimetry and risk assessment of radioinduced cancer: studies in mammary glands radiotherapy, radiopharmaceuticals and internal contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendes, Bruno Melo

    2017-01-01

    The use of Ionizing radiation (IR) in medicine has increased considerably. The benefits generated by diagnostic and therapy techniques with IR are proven. Nevertheless, the risks arising from these uses should not be underestimated. Justification, a basic radiation protection, states that the benefits from exposures must outweigh detriment. The cancer induction is one of the detriment components. Thus, the study of the benefit/detriment ratio should take into account cancer incidence and mortality estimations resulting from a given diagnosis or therapy radiological technique. The risk of cancer induction depends on the absorbed doses in the irradiated organs and tissues. Thus, IR dosimetry is essential to evaluate the benefit/detriment ratio. The present work aims to perform computational dosimetric evaluations and estimations of cancer induction risk after ionizing radiation exposure. The investigated situations cover nuclear medicine, radiological contamination and radiotherapy fields. Computational dosimetry, with MCNPx Monte Carlo Code, was used as a tool to calculate the absorbed dose in the interest organs of the voxelized human models. The simulations were also used to obtain calibration factors and optimization of in vivo monitoring systems for internal contamination dosimetry. A breast radiotherapy (RT) standard protocol was simulated using the MCNPx code. The calculation of the radiation-induced cancer risk was adapted from the BEIR VII methodology for the Brazilian population. The absorbed doses used in the risk calculations were obtained through computational simulations of different exposure scenarios. During this work, two new computational phantoms, DM B RA and VW, were generated from tomographic images. Additional twelve voxelized phantoms, including the reference phantoms, RCP A M and RCP A F, and the child, baby, and fetus models were adapted to run on MCNP. Internal Dosimetry Protocols (IDP) for radiopharmaceuticals and for internal contamination

  19. Effect of Some Therapeutic Agents on the Radionuclides Excretion from Internally Contaminated Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aziz, M.; Mangood, Sh.A.; Sohsah, M.A.

    2009-01-01

    The present work was oriented to investigate the effectiveness of Prussian blue (PB), vermiculite and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (CaDTPA) as therapeutic agents for the elimination of either 134 Cs or 60 Co from contaminated rats after intake of one of the isotopes. The study was performed by using 48 adult rats divided into 8 identical groups each of six rats having approximately the same body weight. The groups included a reference group, without isotope or therapeutic agent administration, four groups given one of the isotopes and four groups given the isotopes and treated with different therapeutic regimes. The isotope content of the treated and untreated contaminated rats were followed by daily whole body radiometric counting for three weeks. On plotting log % radionuclide retained as a function of time, elapsed between radionuclide administration and radiometric counting, straight lines were obtained. The results indicate that excretion can mostly be represented by two stages; the first is fast followed by a second slow stage. The % radionuclide excreted, the corresponding rate constant and the biological half-life of each stage was estimated. It was found that the application of PB + vermiculite is more efficient, to remove 134 Cs, from contaminated rats, than PB only and CaDTPA is more efficient to remove 60Co. Therefore, it is recommended to use the three therapeutic agents to remove both isotopes when taken simultaneously

  20. Comparative study of internal contamination of different radiators in skeleton on induction of mutagenic effect in bone marrow cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Shoupeng; Wang Liuyi; Yang Weidong

    1990-10-01

    The purpose of the present study was to ascertain comparative retention of 134 Cs or 147 Pm in skeleton on induction of chromosome aberrations and PCE's micronucleus formation in bone marrow cells. Results indicated that after iv signal nuclide 134 Cs, through 7 weeks observation, the retention data in skeleton could be well described by an exponential expression. Experiments indicated that the retention value and the absorption dose of 147 Pm in skeleton were significantly higher in comparison with 134 Cs. Both internal contamination of 134 Cs or 147 Pm could induce chromosome aberrations and PCE's micronucleus formation in bone marrow cells. Among the type of chromosome aberrations of bone marrow cells induced by 134 Cs or 147 Pm included gap, chromatid breakage, chromosome breakage and translocation. Moreover, the chromosome aberration rates were elevated when the intake of radioactivity of 134 Cs or 147 Pm were enlarged. At the same time, chromosome fragment of bone marrow cells also induced by 134 Cs or 147 Pm only through high radioactive contamination. Studies showed that chromosome translocation was appeared only through high radioactivity of 147 Pm contamination. By comparing with 1 '4 7 Pm, however, the induction of chromosome aberrations and PCE's micronucleus formation rates on bone marrow cells induced by 134 Cs was quite low

  1. Consensus statement of the International Summit on Intellectual Disability and Dementia on valuing the perspectives of persons with intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watchman, Karen; Janicki, Matthew P; Udell, Leslie; Hogan, Mary; Quinn, Sam; Beránková, Anna

    2018-01-01

    The International Summit on Intellectual Disability and Dementia covered a range of issues related to dementia and intellectual disability, including the dearth of personal reflections of persons with intellectual disability affected by dementia. This article reflects on this deficiency and explores some of the personal perspectives gleaned from the literature, from the Summit attendees and from the experiences of persons with intellectual disability recorded or scribed in advance of the two-day Summit meeting. Systemic recommendations included reinforcing the value of the involvement of persons with intellectual disability in (a) research alongside removing barriers to inclusion posed by institutional/ethics review boards, (b) planning groups that establish supports for dementia and (c) peer support. Practice recommendations included (a) valuing personal perspectives in decision-making, (b) enabling peer-to-peer support models, (c) supporting choice in community-dwelling arrangements and (d) broadening availability of materials for persons with intellectual disability that would promote understanding of dementia.

  2. A Temporal-Causal Network Model for the Internal Processes of a Person with a Borderline Personality Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoțoiu, Maria; Tavella, Federico; Treur, Jan

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents a computational network model for a person with a Borderline Personality Disorder. It was designed according to a Network-Oriented Modeling approach as a temporal-causal network based on neuropsychological background knowledge. Some example simulations are discussed. The model

  3. The right to vote of persons with disabilities and, specially, of persons with mental and intellectual disabilities in public international law. Its reception in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Carlos Pascual Planchuelo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the different international treaties and instruments, at universal and regional levels, that protect –directly or indirectly- the right to political participation and the right to vote of all persons with all kind of disabilities. Specifically, the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (2006 brings a change in the framework on disability, by proclaiming their right to political participation, and recognizing their legal capacity in equal conditions to the rest of the people. The consequence of this analysis is that Spain must guarantee the right to vote of all persons with disabilities regardless the type of disability (physical, intellectual, mental o sensory, being necessary the adaptation of its domestic laws to international engagements and obligations; therefore, the Spanish authorities are obliged to remove or reform of the article 3 of Electoral General Organic Law.

  4. Ceiling personalized ventilation combined with desk fans for reduced direct and indirect cross-contamination and efficient use of office space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habchi, Carine; Ghali, Kamel; Ghaddar, Nesreen; Chakroun, Walid; Alotaibi, Sorour

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Cross-infection occurs by direct inhalation and contact of contaminated surfaces. • Mixing ventilation performance is degraded at reduced distance between occupants. • Ceiling personalized ventilation reduces significantly cross-contamination. • The optimized system induces large energy savings compared to mixing ventilation. • The optimized system improves the occupation density from 12 to 8 m 2 per occupant. - Abstract: Crowded offices with short distances separating workers’ stations increase the probability of respiratory cross-infection via two different paths. One path is the contaminant transmission through air by direct inhalation and the other is through the body contact of contaminated surfaces and walls. Mixed ventilation principles used today reduces the probability of cross contamination by increasing the distance between the stations challenging the efficient use of the space or by supplying more fresh air in the space which is energy inefficient. In this work, new cooling and ventilation configuration is studied by modeling using computational fluid dynamics with consideration of space occupancy density while providing good indoor air quality. The configuration considers a ceiling personalized ventilation system equipped with desk fans. The ability of the computational fluid dynamics model in computing the thermal, velocity and concentration fields was validated by experiments and published data. The main objective of the performed experiments was to ensure that the developed computational fluid dynamics model can capture the effect of the desk fan flow rate on particle behavior. The studied system is found to provide acceptable indoor air quality at shorter distance between the occupants compared to the mixing system at considerable energy savings. By optimizing the design of the proposed personalized ventilation system, the occupancy density in an office is enhanced to 8 m 2 per occupant compared to 12 m 2 per occupant for

  5. Non cancerous diseases following a chronic intern contamination by caesium 137: cataracts and cardiac arrhythmias

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landon, G.

    2008-07-01

    This work of thesis joins within the framework of an analysis of the sanitary consequences of the nuclear accident of Chernobylsk. Since 2005, the I.R.S.N. is interested in the not cancerous pathologies (cataracts, and cardiac arrhythmias) observed among the children living on the contaminated territories after the fallout of Chernobylsk and has in this aim implemented a research programme called E.P.I.C.E. (Evaluation of the pathologies induced by a chronicle contamination by cesium) whom objective is to show an eventual link between the chronicle ingestion of contaminated food and these pathologies emergence. An exploitation of the results of the pilot study,first phase of the E.P.I.C.E. program was realized. The analysis was completed by two bibliographical reviews relative to the knowledge available on these diseases. The results of this pilot study suggest: on one hand, an absence of link between the activity in cesium 137 at the level of the heart, of the whole body and the emergence of disorder of the heart rhythm; on the other hand, for the cases of cataract, a link between the load in cesium 137 at the neck level and the emergence of the disease in 40 % of the cases. However, these results must be considered with caution because several limits and, in particular, a way of selection affect this study. concerning the scientific literature, this one stays rather poor because only thee articles make reference to a relationship between cesium 137 and the emergence of these non cancerous pathologies. After having exposed the context, this thesis draws up the situation of knowledge relative to cataracts and to cardiac arrhythmias and their possible relationship with ionizing radiations, collect the results stemming from the analysis of the pilot study and envisages future epidemiological studies. (N.C.)

  6. Labour Law for Persons with Disability in Iran: From First International Efforts to Decent Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Reza Abadi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Analysis and Matching the legal system of Work for Persons with disability in Iran with Standards of International Labor Organization concerning to Decent Work. Materials & Methods: In this descriptive – Analytic study , after studying International efforts around Labor law for Persons With Disability , in the context of general and special Human rights documents and ILO ‘s Standards, the present Legal system for the work of persons with disability in Iran, Include Laws and Regulations has been considered by Using the Library – documentation method. Results: In the scope of fundamental Rights, Iranian legal system 1- About Disabled compulsory Work has enough guarantees like other workers, and there is not any deficiency. 2- About Freedom of syndicalism: there is not any deficiency too, and there is not any limitation for Disabled workers and employers membership in present associations. 3- In subject of equal remuneration, despite of non-ratification any special approval, but the Base Wage has determined the same for disabled workers (like the others in article 41 of the Labor Law. 4- About nondiscrimination, also based on present legal foundations, any kind of discrimination because of disability has been prohibited, and in field of employment, by ratification the comprehensive law recently in 2004 and by joining to convention for persons with disability in 2008 has taken serious steps too. Specially the significant gap of facilities presented in various areas of rationing public sector employment, Direct and Indirect Educational services for entering the labor market , and self –employment between war reterans and other groups of disability has been narrowed. Conclusion: Based on results of present comparative research, legal principles for fundamental Rights of vocation for people with disabilities in Iran attempt to meet the basic standards of Decent Work and thus it seems that the crucial issue, besides the passing the

  7. Measurement of the radioactive internal contamination and interpretation of the results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colard, J.F.

    1983-01-01

    After a reminder of the purpose of these measurements and of the instrumentation used for direct assessment of radioactive contamination in man, performances of a Ge(Li) and a NaI detector of usual dimensions are compared. Afterwards evolution of ICRP concepts and recommendations are discussed, since ICRP publication 2 in 1959, till publication 30 in 1979; recommended norms are applied for three particular radioelements: I 131, Cs 137, Pu 239. The difficulty to determine derived investigation levels to which results of direct measurements should be compared is pointed out. (author)

  8. Radiation protection - Monitoring of workers occupationally exposed to a risk of internal contamination with radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    In the course of employment, individuals might work with radioactive materials that, under certain circumstances, could be taken into the body. Protecting workers against risks of incorporated radionuclides requires the monitoring of potential intakes and/or the quantification of actual intakes and exposures. The selection of measures and programmes for this purpose requires decisions concerning methods, techniques, frequencies etc. for measurements and dose assessment. The criteria permitting the evaluation of the necessity of such a monitoring programme or for the selection of methods and frequencies of monitoring usually depend upon the legislation, the purpose of the radiation protection programme, the probabilities of potential radionuclide intakes, and the characteristics of the materials handled. This International Standard offers guidance for the decision whether a monitoring programme is required and how it should be designed. Its intention is to optimise the efforts for such a monitoring programme consistent with legal requirements and with the purpose of the radiation protection programme. Recommendations of international expert bodies and international experience with the practical application of these recommendations in radiation protection programmes have been considered in the development of this International Standard. Its application facilitates the exchanges of information between authorities, supervisory institutions and employers. The International Standard is not a substitute for legal requirements. In the International Standard, the word 'shall' is used to denote a requirement and no deviation is allowed. The word 'should' is used to denote a recommendation from which justified deviations are allowed. The word 'may' is used to denote permission

  9. Treatment of plutonium contaminations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lafuma, J.

    1983-01-01

    Three kinds of plutonium contaminations were considered: skin contamination; contaminated wounds; contamination by inhalation. The treatment of these contaminations was studied for insoluble (oxide and metal forms) and soluble plutonium (complexes). The use of DTPA and therapeutic problems encountered with stable plutonium complexes were analyzed. The new possibilities of internal decontamination using Puchel and LICAM were evaluated [fr

  10. Factors associated with malnutrition among children in internally displaced person's camps, northern Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olwedo, Mary Abwola; Mworozi, Edison; Bachou, Hanifa; Orach, Christopher Garimoi

    2008-12-01

    Since mid 1990s, Uganda has had an estimated 1.6 million internally displaced persons (IDPs) in the northern and eastern districts. A major cause of morbidity and mortality amongst children in displaced settings is protein energy malnutrition. To estimate the prevalence of and describe the risk factors for protein energy malnutrition among under five years old children living in internally displaced persons camps in Omoro county Gulu district. This was a cross sectional study undertaken among internally displaced people's in Omoro county, Gulu district during 13 - 23(rd) September 2006. Anthropometric measurements of 672 children aged 3 - 59 months were undertaken and all their caretakers interviewed. The anthropometric measurements were analyzed using z-scores of height-for-age (H/A) and weight-for-height (W/H) indices. Qualitative data were collected through 6 focus group discussions, key informant interviews and observation. Data were captured using Epi Data version 3.0 and analyzed using EPI-INFO version 3.3.2 and SPSS version 12.0 computer packages respectively. ResultsThe prevalence of global stunting was found to be 52.4% and of global acute malnutrition 6.0%. Male children are at risk of being stunted Adjusted OR 1.57 95% CI 1.15-2.13; p value=0.004. Children in the age group 3 - 24 months were at risk of acute malnutrition Adjusted OR 2.78 95% CI 1.26-6.15; p value=0.012 while de-worming was protective Adjusted OR 0.44 95% CI 0.22-0.88; p value=0.018. The main sources of foodstuff for IDPs include food rations distributed by WFP, cultivation and purchase. There is high prevalence of protein energy malnutrition (stunting) among children in the internally displaced people's camps in Gulu district. Male children are at an increased risk of stunting while children aged between 3 - 24 months are at an increased risk of suffering from acute malnutrition. Stakeholders including local government and relief organizations should intensify efforts to improve the

  11. Structural contingency theory and individual differences: examination of external and internal person-team fit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollenbeck, John R; Moon, Henry; Ellis, Aleksander P J; West, Bradley J; Ilgen, Daniel R; Sheppard, Lori; Porter, Christopher O L H; Wagner, John A

    2002-06-01

    This article develops and tests a structurally based, integrated theory of person-team fit. The theory developed is an extension of structural contingency theory and considers issues of external fit simultaneously with its examination of internal fit at the team level. Results from 80 teams working on an interdependent team task indicate that divisional structures demand high levels of cognitive ability on the part of teammembers. However, the advantages of high cognitive ability in divisional structures are neutralized when there is poor external fit between the structure and the environment. Instead, emotional stability becomes a critical factor among teammembers when a divisional structure is out of alignment with its environment. Individual differences seem to play little or no role in functional structures, regardless of the degree of external fit.

  12. Personality Predicts Mortality Risk: An Integrative Data Analysis of 15 International Longitudinal Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Eileen K; Rutsohn, Joshua P; Turiano, Nicholas A; Bendayan, Rebecca; Batterham, Philip J; Gerstorf, Denis; Katz, Mindy J; Reynolds, Chandra A; Sharp, Emily S; Yoneda, Tomiko B; Bastarache, Emily D; Elleman, Lorien G; Zelinski, Elizabeth M; Johansson, Boo; Kuh, Diana; Barnes, Lisa L; Bennett, David A; Deeg, Dorly J H; Lipton, Richard B; Pedersen, Nancy L; Piccinin, Andrea M; Spiro, Avron; Muniz-Terrera, Graciela; Willis, Sherry L; Schaie, K Warner; Roan, Carol; Herd, Pamela; Hofer, Scott M; Mroczek, Daniel K

    2017-10-01

    This study examined the Big Five personality traits as predictors of mortality risk, and smoking as a mediator of that association. Replication was built into the fabric of our design: we used a Coordinated Analysis with 15 international datasets, representing 44,094 participants. We found that high neuroticism and low conscientiousness, extraversion, and agreeableness were consistent predictors of mortality across studies. Smoking had a small mediating effect for neuroticism. Country and baseline age explained variation in effects: studies with older baseline age showed a pattern of protective effects (HRstudies showed a pattern of protective effects for extraversion. This study demonstrated coordinated analysis as a powerful approach to enhance replicability and reproducibility, especially for aging-related longitudinal research.

  13. An Assessment of the Interindividual Variability of Internal Dosimetry during Multi-Route Exposure to Drinking Water Contaminants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Valcke

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate inter-individual variability in absorbed and internal doses after multi-route exposure to drinking water contaminants (DWC in addition to the corresponding variability in equivalent volumes of ingested water, expressed as liter-equivalents (LEQ. A multi-route PBPK model described previously was used for computing the internal dose metrics in adults, neonates, children, the elderly and pregnant women following a multi-route exposure scenario to chloroform and to tri- and tetra-chloroethylene (TCE and PERC. This scenario included water ingestion as well as inhalation and dermal contact during a 30-min bathroom exposure. Monte Carlo simulations were performed and distributions of internal dose metrics were obtained. The ratio of each of the dose metrics for inhalation, dermal and multi-route exposures to the corresponding dose metrics for the ingestion of drinking water alone allowed computation of LEQ values. Mean BW-adjusted LEQ values based on absorbed doses were greater in neonates regardless of the contaminant considered (0.129–0.134 L/kg BW, but higher absolute LEQ values were obtained in average adults (3.6–4.1 L, elderly (3.7–4.2 L and PW (4.1–5.6 L. LEQ values based on the parent compound’s AUC were much greater than based on the absorbed dose, while the opposite was true based on metabolite-based dose metrics for chloroform and TCE, but not PERC. The consideration of the 95th percentile values of BW-adjusted LEQ did not significantly change the results suggesting a generally low intra-subpopulation variability during multi-route exposure. Overall, this study pointed out the dependency of the LEQ on the dose metrics, with consideration of both the subpopulation and DWC.

  14. Big Five Personality Traits and Eating Attitudes in Intensively Training Dancers: The Mediating Role of Internalized Thinness Norms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphanie Scoffier-Mériaux, Charlène Falzon, Peter Lewton-Brain, Edith Filaire, Fabienne d’Arripe-Longueville

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Dancers are at high risk of developing disordered eating attitudes, notably because of internalized thinness norms. Although the big five personality traits have been shown to be associated with eating attitudes in daily life, in dancers where eating issues and thinness norms internalization could be salient little is known about these associations and the role of the internalization of thinness norms in this relationship. The main objectives of this study were thus to examine the relationships between the personality traits defined in the big five model and the self-regulation of eating attitudes, and to assess the role of internalized thinness norms in this association. The study included 180 intensively training dancers with an average age of 15.6 years (SD = 2.8. Dancers completed questionnaires measuring the big five personality traits, internalization of thinness norms and self-regulation of eating attitudes in sport. Bootstrapped mediation analyses showed that neuroticism was negatively associated with self-regulation of eating attitudes, both directly and indirectly through the mediating role of internalized thinness norms. This study suggested that: (a neuroticism is a vulnerability factor for self-regulation of eating attitudes in dancers, as already evidenced in the general population, and (b the internalization of thinness norms is a pathway through which neuroticism affects self-regulation of eating attitudes. The big five model is therefore partially related to the internalization of thinness norms and eating attitudes in dancers.

  15. Assessment of intake and internal radiation dose for exposed persons to iodine 131 by uptake technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kharita, M. H.; Maghrabi, M.; Aaba, A.; Doubal, W.

    2010-11-01

    Workers who prepare and inject iodine I 131 at the medical centers in Syria are potentially exposed to the radioactive intake by ingestion or inhalation during preparation or injection processes, the received amount of the radioactive intake differs according to: First: The amount of theI 131 that released during the preparation or injection processes. Second: the work conditions and the applying ways of the radiation protection principles. Because of this radioactive intake the thyroid gland may expose to amounts of I 131 which may negatively affect the health of the workers. This work presents the development of in vivo (direct thyroid measurement by using thyroid gland counting) and in vitro bioassay techniques (urine sample measurement by using gamma spectrometry) aimed to quantify incorporation of radionuclide used in Nuclear Medicine and other radioisotopes center in Syrian Arab republic, we have done comparison between two methods and we arrived the necessity of dependant on vivo method because its easy for applying and gave a good and more reliable results from the results get them in vitro method. The results of assessment intake and yearly internal dose for workers in atomic energy commission and other medical centers show that some workers results were lower than 1 mSv, there is no risk and no need for routine monitoring programme, prefer in this case registration the results, the results of other workers were between (1 mSv-6 mSv), workers classified as low risk, prefer making of collective monitoring which include three matters (shows some workers to do individual monitoring, airborne activities by means of fixed monitors or simple procedures such as nose blow samples may be regarded as sufficient, monitoring of surface contamination), and the results of yearly internal dose for some workers was exceed 7 mSv, this worker classified as high risk must be monitored individually, allowing a reliable estimation of the annual exposure and ensuring that the

  16. Towards internationally acceptable standards for food additives and contaminants based on the use of risk analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huggett, A.; Petersen, B.J.; Walker, R.; Fisher, C.E.; Notermans, S.H.W.; Rombouts, F.M.; Abbott, P.; Debackere, M.; Hathaway, S.C.; Hecker, E.F.F.; Knaap, A.G.A.; Kuznesof, P.M.; Meyland, I.; Moy, G.; Narbonne, J.-F.; Paakkanen, J.; Smith, M.R.; Tennant, D.; Wagstaffe, P.; Wargo, J.; Würtzen, G.

    1998-01-01

    Internationally acceptable norms need to incorporate sound science and consistent risk management principles in an open and transparent manner, as set out in the Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (the SPS Agreement). The process of risk analysis provides a procedure

  17. Evaluation of sensitivity evaluation of a contamination monitor for use in monitoring of internal exposure of workers in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dantas, Bernando Maranhao; Assis, Janima Cruz de; Oliveira, Salomao Marques de; Dantas, Ana Leticia Almeida

    2014-01-01

    In practice of nuclear medicine, expert personnel routinely handle radiopharmaceuticals for diagnosis and radiotherapy. The control of intakes of radionuclides by workers can be performed through internal dosimetry techniques, as an integral part of the radiation protection program of the installation. The use of radiopharmaceuticals for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes in vivo and in vitro in Brazil is regulated by CNEN-NE Standards and 3:05 CNEN-NN 3.01. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) recommends the establishment of an internal monitoring program on workers, especially those subject to possible exposure to annual effective doses greater than 1 mSv. Note that, currently, in Brazil, are not available qualified laboratories to provide internal monitoring services in all regions in the country, if it were applied by CNEN, the requirement for internal monitoring of workers. This paper presents the development of a simple and low-cost methodology for in vivo monitoring of 131 I in the thyroid. The proposed methodology is the use of portable monitor of surface contamination, equipment available and routinely used in all nuclear medicine services in Brazil. The monitor is calibrated with neck-thyroid simulator developed at the Laboratory of In Vivo Monitoring of IRD/CNEN-RJ. The equipment tested is suitable for application in in vivo occupational monitoring thyroid. This conclusion is based on the fact that the detection system has sufficient sensitivity for monitoring up to seven days after the incorporation of the radionuclide and guarantees 131 I detection in values that result in effective doses below 1 mSv for the exposure scenarios adopted

  18. Personality assessment inventory internalizing and externalizing structure in veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder: associations with aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Voorhees, Elizabeth E; Dennis, Paul A; Elbogen, Eric B; Clancy, Carolina P; Hertzberg, Michael A; Beckham, Jean C; Calhoun, Patrick S

    2014-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with aggressive behavior in veterans, and difficulty controlling aggressive urges has been identified as a primary postdeployment readjustment concern. Yet only a fraction of veterans with PTSD commit violent acts. The goals of this study were to (1) examine the higher-order factor structure of Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) scales in a sample of U.S. military veterans seeking treatment for PTSD; and (2) to evaluate the incremental validity of higher-order latent factors of the PAI over PTSD symptom severity in modeling aggression. The study sample included male U.S. Vietnam (n = 433) and Iraq/Afghanistan (n = 165) veterans who were seeking treatment for PTSD at an outpatient Veterans Affairs (VA) clinic. Measures included the Clinician Administered PTSD Scale, the PAI, and the Conflict Tactics Scale. The sample was randomly split into two equal subsamples (n's = 299) to allow for cross-validation of statistically derived factors. Parallel analysis, variable clustering analysis, and confirmatory factor analyses were used to evaluate the factor structure, and regression was used to examine the association of factor scores with self-reports of aggression over the past year. Three factors were identified: internalizing, externalizing, and substance abuse. Externalizing explained unique variance in aggression beyond PTSD symptom severity and demographic factors, while internalizing and substance abuse did not. Service era was unrelated to reports of aggression. The constructs of internalizing versus externalizing dimensions of PTSD may have utility in identifying characteristics of combat veterans in the greatest need of treatment to help manage aggressive urges. Published 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. How residents and interns utilise and perceive the personal digital assistant and UpToDate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lim Tow

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In this era of evidence-based medicine, doctors are increasingly using information technology to acquire medical knowledge. This study evaluates how residents and interns utilise and perceive the personal digital assistant (PDA and the online resource UpToDate. Methods This is a questionnaire survey of all residents and interns in a tertiary teaching hospital. Results Out of 168 doctors, 134 (79.8% responded to the questionnaire. Only 54 doctors (40.3% owned a PDA. Although these owners perceived that the PDA was most useful for providing drug information, followed by medical references, scheduling and medical calculators, the majority of them did not actually have medical software applications downloaded on their PDAs. The greatest concerns highlighted for the PDA were the fear of loss and breakage, and the preference for working with desktop computers and paper. Meanwhile, only 76 doctors (56.7% used UpToDate, even though the hospital had an institutional subscription for it. Although 93.4% of these users would recommend UpToDate to a colleague, only 57.9% stated that the use of UpToDate had led to a change in their management of patients. Conclusion Although UpToDate and various PDA software applications were deemed useful by some of the residents and interns in our study, both digital tools were under-utilised. More should be done to facilitate the use of medical software applications on PDAs, to promote awareness of tools for evidence-based medicine such as UpToDate, and to facilitate the application of evidence-based medicine in daily clinical practice.

  20. How residents and interns utilise and perceive the personal digital assistant and UpToDate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phua, Jason; Lim, Tow Keang

    2008-07-14

    In this era of evidence-based medicine, doctors are increasingly using information technology to acquire medical knowledge. This study evaluates how residents and interns utilise and perceive the personal digital assistant (PDA) and the online resource UpToDate. This is a questionnaire survey of all residents and interns in a tertiary teaching hospital. Out of 168 doctors, 134 (79.8%) responded to the questionnaire. Only 54 doctors (40.3%) owned a PDA. Although these owners perceived that the PDA was most useful for providing drug information, followed by medical references, scheduling and medical calculators, the majority of them did not actually have medical software applications downloaded on their PDAs. The greatest concerns highlighted for the PDA were the fear of loss and breakage, and the preference for working with desktop computers and paper. Meanwhile, only 76 doctors (56.7%) used UpToDate, even though the hospital had an institutional subscription for it. Although 93.4% of these users would recommend UpToDate to a colleague, only 57.9% stated that the use of UpToDate had led to a change in their management of patients. Although UpToDate and various PDA software applications were deemed useful by some of the residents and interns in our study, both digital tools were under-utilised. More should be done to facilitate the use of medical software applications on PDAs, to promote awareness of tools for evidence-based medicine such as UpToDate, and to facilitate the application of evidence-based medicine in daily clinical practice.

  1. A study of internal contamination levels resulting from 90Sr and 137Cs environmental pollution. The influence of different factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garnier, A.

    1970-01-01

    This study includes two parts. The purpose of the former one is to try and evaluate the amounts of 90 Sr and 137 Cs dietary intakes as a function of age with a view to assessing internal exposure doses and estimating the critical age, and to study the relative significance of the several factors it depends on. The data used are both the results of dietary surveys made in 11 districts of the European community from which the evolution of the consumed amounts of 13 groups of foodstuffs, as a function of age was derived, and the mean factors of contamination pathways. The variability of some factors is very large and an attempt is made to assess their significance on the whole contamination; also, the influence of the various diets has been emphasized. The purpose of the second part is to assess, doses as a function of age in the case of protracted exposure on the basis of the aforesaid results and radiobiological factors derived from bibliographic states of the arts. An assessment is made of body burdens and mean doses (either to the skeleton or the whole body according to the radionuclides) originating either from a direct unitary exposure or from situations implying both modes of exposure. As assumed only the diets vary with the districts, thus the results reflect their significance which should be corrected, for a more accurate assessment of the dose variability, by the significance of human and transfer factors. (author) [fr

  2. Report on international round table conference 'Accidental radiation contamination of food of animal origin'. Vol.II (Working papers)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The World Association of Veterinary Food Hygienists (WAVFH) held an international round table conference in Stockholm, Sweden, January 26-29, 1987. The topic of the conference was 'Accidental Radiation Contamination of Food of Animal Origin'. The agenda was divided into three major topic areas: 1. Ecological Science; 2. Veterinary Science - Live Animals; and 3. Veterinary Science - Food of Animal Origin. Experts and delegates from member countries presented papers, participated in discussions and workshops and produced a multidisciplinary report covering the topic areas. Two volumes were produced; one a collection of all papers presented, and the other a compilation of the proceedings from each of the topic workshops. In order to rapidly distribute the Association's information to members, papers and other information were collated and disseminated as presented to the conference participants

  3. Results of the internal contamination measurements performed after Chernobyl accident by means of Casaccia whole body counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rampa, E.; Santoni, G.; Di Pietro, S.

    1987-01-01

    Direct measurements of internal contamination were carried out in human subjects following the nuclear accident of Chernobyl. The Whole Body Counter facility operated by Dipartimento Protezione Ambientale e Salute dell'Uomo, Divisione Scienze Ambientali, Centro Ricerche Energia - C.R.E. - Casaccia (Rome) was utilized. This investigation was continued until December 31, 1986. The subjects were either resident of the Rome metropolitan area or Italian citizens returning from East European Countries. The report present the data regarding 131 I in the thyroid and 134 Cs and 137 Cs in the whole body. An ingestion or inhalation of these radionuclides is also calculated. The results of this study should contribute to a better evaluation of the theoretical models for the transfer of radionuclides from the environment to man

  4. Proposal for optimization of bioanalysis data interpretation of workers exposed to internal contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertelli Neto, Luiz

    1990-01-01

    The use of dosimetric systems related to the evaluation of internal exposures to radiation contributes to the security of occupational activities with a potential for the intake of radionuclides. In these cases 'in vivo' and 'in vitro' bioassay methods are used to detect and quantify intakes. A critical review was performed on the literature referring to the existing methodologies. A new and complete methodology was proposed, including the development of a mathematical method for calculation of activities in body organs and excreta with possibilities for computational applications. Simulations of intake of different types of radioisotopes have indicated that this method is more realistic but do not violate the conservatism adopted internationally with respect to the interpretations of experimental results.This work aimed to support and optimize programs of control of intakes of radionuclides for any type of radioactive facility. (author)

  5. First Italian intercomparison on methodologies for dose assessment from internal contamination. Results and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castellani, C.M.; Battisti, P.; Tarroni, G.

    1998-01-01

    In the frame of the MIDIA activities (coordination of whole body counters operating in Italy) an intercomparison on dose evaluation methods was promoted and carried out between October 1995 and March 1996 by 5 WBC centres. The main results related to the estimation of Intake and effective dose equivalent on the four case studies are reported. A comparison with European preliminary results is also presented. Finally perspectives related to the quality assurance of internal dosimetry estimates are indicated [it

  6. Microbial contamination of cosmetics and personal care items in Egypt--eye shadows, mascaras and face creams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelaziz, A A; Ashour, M S; Hefni, H; el-Tayeb, O M

    1989-02-01

    We examined a total of 150 samples, including 27 eye shadows, 27 mascaras and 96 face creams, for their microbial contents. Mascaras were generally more contaminated than eye shadows. More than 75% of the examined eye shadows contained fewer than 100 c.f.u./g aerobic bacterial count compared to 63% of the mascaras examined. Viable bacteria were not recovered from 61% and 48% of the eye shadows and mascaras respectively. While 4% of the eye shadows were heavily contaminated (contained more than 10(4) c.f.u./g), 15% of the mascaras were as heavily contaminated (with more than 10(4) c.f.u./ml of bacteria). Face creams were generally more heavily contaminated than eye shadows and mascaras. More than 70% of the examined creams contained more than 100 c.f.u./g of bacteria compared to 23% and 37% of eye shadows and mascaras respectively. Only 5% of the face creams were heavily contaminated. However, 27% of the creams were contaminated with more than 10(3)-10(4) c.f.u./g of bacteria compared to none in this range for both eye shadows and mascaras. Qualitative tests for detection of hazardous bacteria showed that none of the eye shadows were contaminated with any of those micro-organisms. Out of nine items of a specific brand of mascara, three isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, one isolate of Citrobacter freundii and one isolate of Klebsiella pneumonia were detected. Among the creams, two brands showed the highest contamination levels with more than 85% of the tested samples containing more than 10(3) c.f.u./g fungi and at least 10(4) c.f.u./g bacteria.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. Room-temperature semiconductor detectors for in vivo monitoring of internal contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genicot, J L

    1997-01-01

    In vivo monitoring of low-energy X-ray and gamma-ray emitters has always been a difficult task, primarily because of lack of accuracy and the high detection limits of classical techniques. Various types of PIN diodes (diodes with a large intrinsic zone) were tested in the Radiation Protection Department of the Studie Centrum voor Kernenergie, Centre d'étude de l'Energie Nucléaire (Mol, Belgium) in the measurement of radioactive body burden by direct methods. Current research is oriented toward the use of room-temperature diodes for the detection of low-energy photons escaping the body. In this paper, a new counting technique that involves a portable jacket containing the diodes is described. The system uses silicon diodes and is used out of shielding room in order to be near the contamination. With this method rapid analysis and long counting times are possible, stress is reduced, and medical treatment can be optimized. CdZnTe detectors were also evaluated for this measurement technique but this type of detector is better adapted for counting inside a shielding room. The improvement of the accuracy of the measurement, taking into account the effect of the ribs, is described here, as well the associated electronics necessary for this type of counting. Images Figure 1. PMID:9467055

  8. THE EFFECT OF PERSON-ORGANIZATION FIT ON JOB STRESSANDCONFLICT: AN APPLICATION ON EMPLOYEES OF BUSINESSESINDALAMAN INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet ULUTAŞ

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Person-organization fit, which is generally described as a degree of compatibilityor similarity between the person’s values and theorganization’s values, is one ofthe base factors required for an organization’s success. Organizations shouldaccomplish person-organization fit in their organizations by using employeeselection and hiring process which is congruence-based in cultural values or byapplying socialization tactics. We proposed findinga correlation in this studybetween person-organization fit and job stress andconflict. In this context, wehave reached some findings about person-organization fit and its outcomes byconducting a survey on employees of Dalaman International Airport. The findingsshowed us there is a statistically negative correlation between person-organization fit and job stress and conflict.

  9. COULD MUSHROOMS ACT AS CONCENTRATION PATHWAYS TO INTERNAL CONTAMINA-TION OF SOME MARGINALIZED COMMUNITIES BY 137CS IN SLOVAKIA?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juraj Miššík

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to obtain some preliminary data necessary for the assessment of the possible existence of small-area local sources of contaminated mushrooms in forested areas with comparatively low inventory of man-made 137Cs. On the study plot near Čierne-Svrčinovec (North-western Slovakia 31 samples were collected during periodic sampling in the years 2012-2013 and analysed by gamma-spectrometry. Activities 137Cs in mushrooms from entire sampling plot followed the lognormal distribution with extremely high variation and high positive skew, with projected three-sigma (99.75% range from 0.49 Bq.kg-1 to 1537 Bq.kg-1 (dry weight, d.w. and with geometrical average of 27.4 Bq.kg-1 (d.w.. Another 11 samples were collected or bought from roadside vendors living in Roma slums near villages Richnava and Kluknava (Spiš region, eastern Slovakia. Obtained edible wild mushrooms were in a good shape despite prolonged drought indicating existence of well hidden forested sites in slum surroundings. Highest activity of 137Cs in this set was recorded in Boletus edulis (263.3 ± 20.3 Bq.kg-1 (d.w.. Both geometric mean (49.0 Bq.kg-1 and expectation value (91.2 Bq.kg-1 d.w. of lognormal distribution were higher than that of the study plot on NW Slovakia. No sample exceeded the legal radiohygienic limit for radiocesium contamination. The limited extent of presented study only slightly indicates the possibility of slow changes in spatial redistribution of bioavailable 137Cs in forest ecosystem. However, available data on this subject from different sources suggest that there is no reason for massive occurrence of highly contaminated fruiting bodies in small areas surrounding settlements, where some critical groups of individuals, who are used to consume large amounts of mushrooms from limited geographical area could in such case develop significant internal contamination.

  10. Measuring the internalized stigma of parents of persons with a serious mental illness: the factor structure of the parents' internalized stigma of mental illness scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zisman-Ilani, Yaara; Levy-Frank, Itamar; Hasson-Ohayon, Ilanit; Kravetz, Shlomo; Mashiach-Eizenberg, Michal; Roe, David

    2013-03-01

    Research has revealed that approximately one third of persons with a serious mental illness (SMI) experience elevated internalized stigma, which is associated with a large number of negative outcomes. Family members of persons with SMI are also often subject to stigma, but the degree to which these experiences are internalized and lead to self-stigma has rarely been studied. The present study investigated the factor structure of a modification of the Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness (ISMI) scale by Ritsher, Otilingam, and Grajales (Psychiatry Res 121:31-49, 2003). A central assumption of this investigation was that the factor structure of the Parents' Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness (PISMI) scale would be similar to the factor structure of the ISMI scale. A total of 194 parents of persons with SMI completed the PISMI scale. The results revealed that the PISMI scale has high internal consistency and that it is made up of three distinctive factors: discrimination experience, social withdrawal and alienation, and stereotype endorsement. These factors are similar, but not identical, to the factors that underlie the ISMI scale. This study's findings also indicate that parents' prominent reaction to self-stigma is stereotype endorsement.

  11. Recommended radiological air sampling and internal contamination control at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rich, B.L.; Ritter, P.D.; Martz, D.E.

    1984-01-01

    It has long been recognized by the NRC Technical Staffs that estimating the quantity of radioactivity inhaled by an individual worker involved large uncertainties. General air samples usually produce concentrations lower than those in the workers Breathing Zone (BZ). NRC guides have recognized this problem by specifying air monitoring programs which sample the Breathing Zone or concentrations known to be higher than that actually inhaled. In addition the availability of suitable samplers to obtain BZ samples and the practicality of requiring their use was somewhat in question to the NRC technical staff. AN NRC development contract was issued to provide a detailed review of the technical aspects of the problems and recommendations for practical upgrade of federal guidance. This project accomplished a review of the nuclear industry experience and knowledge through a literature search, site visits to representative licensed facilities, telephone surveys of many others, laboratory testing of personal air samplers (lapel samplers) and aerosol diffusion experiments to verify key conclusions and assumptions

  12. An exploration of social determinants of health amongst internally displaced persons in northern Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geissler Wenzel

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Social determinants of health describe the conditions in which people are born, grow, live, work and age and their influence on health. These circumstances are shaped by the distribution of money, power and resources at global, national and local levels, which are themselves influenced by policy choices. Armed conflict and forced displacement are important influences on the social determinants of health. There is limited evidence on the social determinants of health of internally displaced persons (IDPs who have been forced from their homes due to armed conflict but remain within the borders of their country. The aim of this study was to explore the social determinants of overall physical and mental health of IDPs, including the response strategies used by IDPs to support their health needs. Northern Uganda was chosen as a case-study, and 21 face-to-face semi-structured interviews with IDPs were conducted in fifteen IDP camps between November and December 2006. The findings indicated a number of key social determinants. Experiencing traumatic events could cause "over thinking" which in turn could lead to "madness" and physical ailments. Respondents also attributed "over thinking" to the spirit (cen of a killed person returning to disturb its killer. Other social determinants included overcrowding which affected physical health and contributed to an emotional sense of loss of freedom; and poverty and loss of land which affected physical health from lack of food and income, and mental health because of worry and uncertainty. Respondents also commented on how the conflict and displacement and led to changes in social and cultural norms such as increased "adultery", "defilement", and "thieving". Response strategies included a combination of biopsychosocial health services, traditional practices, religion, family and friends, and isolating. This study supports work exploring the political, environmental, economic, and socio

  13. Rapid establishment of an internally displaced persons disease surveillance system after an earthquake --- Haiti, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-06

    On January 12, 2010, a 7.0-magnitude earthquake in Haiti disrupted infrastructure and displaced approximately 2 million persons, causing increased risk for communicable diseases from overcrowding and poor living conditions. Hundreds of nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) established health-care clinics in camps of internally displaced persons (IDPs). To monitor conditions of outbreak potential identified at NGO camp clinics, on February 18, the Haiti Ministry of Public Health and Population (MSPP), the Pan-American Health Organization (PAHO), and CDC implemented the IDP Surveillance System (IDPSS). The Inter-Agency Standing Committee (IASC) "cluster approach" was used to coordinate the Haiti humanitarian response. One of 11 clusters, the Global Health Cluster (GHC), builds global capacity, whereas the country-level cluster (in this case, the Haitian Health Cluster [HHC], led by PAHO) responds locally. During the Haiti response, HHC engaged NGOs serving large camps, established IDPSS, followed trends of reportable conditions, undertook epidemiologic and laboratory investigations, and fostered implementation of control measures. This report describes the design and implementation of IDPSS in the post-earthquake period. The primary challenges to implementing IDPSS were communication difficulties with an ever-changing group of NGO partners and limitations to the utility of IDPSS data because of lack of reliable camp population denominator estimates. The IDPSS experience reinforces the need to improve local communication and coordination strategies. Improving future humanitarian response requires advance development and distribution of easily adaptable standard surveillance tools, development of an interdisciplinary strategy for an early and reliable population census, and development of communication strategies using locally available Internet and cellular networks.

  14. Internal contamination by natural uranium: monitoring by analysis of urine of individuals exposed by occupational inhalation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramalho, A.T.

    1982-01-01

    Urine samples from men working at Usina Santo Amaro (USAM - State of Sao Paulo), a monazite refinery, were analysed for uranium concentration, using fluorometric analysis and alpha spectrometry. All samples analysed presented uranium concentration below the lower limit of detection. Theoretical values were calculated for uranium concentration in urine samples from workers at the annual limit of intake (ALI) for inhalation of natural uranium, recommended in Publication 30 of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP, 1979). The two different methods used for analysis of natural uranium concentration in the urine samples were compared: fluorimetry and alpha spectrometry. (author)

  15. Internal dose assessment due to large area contamination: Main lessons drawn from the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrasi, A.

    1997-01-01

    The reactor accident at Chernobyl in 1986 beside its serious and tragic consequences provided also an excellent opportunity to check, test and validate all kind of environmental models and calculation tools which were available in the emergency preparedness systems of different countries. Assessment of internal and external doses due to the accident has been carried out for the population all over Europe using different methods. Dose predictions based on environmental model calculation considering various pathways have been compared with those obtained by more direct monitoring methods. One study from Hungary and one from the TAEA is presented shortly. (orig./DG)

  16. Internal dose assessment due to large area contamination: Main lessons drawn from the Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrasi, A. [KFKI Atomic Energy Research Inst., Budapest (Hungary)

    1997-03-01

    The reactor accident at Chernobyl in 1986 beside its serious and tragic consequences provided also an excellent opportunity to check, test and validate all kind of environmental models and calculation tools which were available in the emergency preparedness systems of different countries. Assessment of internal and external doses due to the accident has been carried out for the population all over Europe using different methods. Dose predictions based on environmental model calculation considering various pathways have been compared with those obtained by more direct monitoring methods. One study from Hungary and one from the TAEA is presented shortly. (orig./DG)

  17. Big Five Personality Traits and Eating Attitudes in Intensively Training Dancers: The Mediating Role of Internalized Thinness Norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scoffier-Mériaux, Stéphanie; Falzon, Charlène; Lewton-Brain, Peter; Filaire, Edith; d'Arripe-Longueville, Fabienne

    2015-09-01

    Dancers are at high risk of developing disordered eating attitudes, notably because of internalized thinness norms. Although the big five personality traits have been shown to be associated with eating attitudes in daily life, in dancers where eating issues and thinness norms internalization could be salient little is known about these associations and the role of the internalization of thinness norms in this relationship. The main objectives of this study were thus to examine the relationships between the personality traits defined in the big five model and the self-regulation of eating attitudes, and to assess the role of internalized thinness norms in this association. The study included 180 intensively training dancers with an average age of 15.6 years (SD = 2.8). Dancers completed questionnaires measuring the big five personality traits, internalization of thinness norms and self-regulation of eating attitudes in sport. Bootstrapped mediation analyses showed that neuroticism was negatively associated with self-regulation of eating attitudes, both directly and indirectly through the mediating role of internalized thinness norms. This study suggested that: (a) neuroticism is a vulnerability factor for self-regulation of eating attitudes in dancers, as already evidenced in the general population, and (b) the internalization of thinness norms is a pathway through which neuroticism affects self-regulation of eating attitudes. The big five model is therefore partially related to the internalization of thinness norms and eating attitudes in dancers. Key pointsThe big five model relates to the internalization of thinness norms and eating attitudes in dancers.Neuroticism is negatively related to the self-regulation of eating attitudes.The internalization of thinness norms is correlated to the relationship between neuroticism and self-regulation of eating attitudes.

  18. Rapid removal of sodium isotopes from the body following accidental internal contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, H.E.

    1975-01-01

    The extensive use of liquid sodium as the primary coolant for fast breeder reactors presents human safety hazards from both the chemical toxicity of the sodium oxide and the radioactive toxicity of the large quantities of 24 Na and 22 Na in case of a rupture in the liquid sodium piping. Although the effects of the chemical toxicity are expected to be very immediate and more severe, the radioactive toxicity is also of significant concern. Other sources of radioactive sodium contamination exist in the nuclear industry. This paper describes some procedures which can significantly reduce the radiation dose to the body from 24 Na and 22 Na which might be accidentally inhaled or ingested. Studies with rats indicate that the retention time of the sodium isotopes which have exchanged with the body sodium pool can be reduced by a factor of 10 by ingestion of high levels of stable sodium. In addition, the ingestion of a sodium salt at the time or immediately after the inhalation incident could result in at least 60 percent or more of the inhaled radioactive sodium to be excreted before it exchanges with the body sodium pool. The combined effects of both immediate and sustained sodium ingestion in rats can result in a radiation dose from 22 Na of only 4 percent or less of that which would result if no additional salt is administered. The dose reduction for 24 Na would not be as much as that for 22 Na but would be significant. The tolerance for high levels of stable sodium intake in humans will be discussed and optimum intakes will be suggested which will provide the maximum radioactive sodium excretion with minimum harm to the physiological processes of the body

  19. Caesium 137: Properties and biological effects resulting of an internal contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lestaevel, P.; Racine, R.; Bensoussan, H.; Rouas, C.; Gueguen, Y.; Dublineau, I.; Bertho, J.M.; Gourmelon, P.; Jourdain, J.R.; Souidi, M.

    2010-01-01

    Caesium-137 ( 137 Cs) is a radionuclide present in the environment mainly as the result of the atmospheric nuclear weapons testing and accidents arising in nuclear power plants like the Chernobyl accident in 1986. Nowadays, the health consequences resulting from a chronic exposure to this radionuclide remain unknown. After absorption, the caesium is distributed relatively homogeneously within the body, with a more important load in children than in adults. The toxicity of 137 Cs is mainly due to its radiological properties. A high dose of 137 Cs is responsible for a medullar dystrophy, disorders of the reproductive function, and effects on liver and renal functions. Disorders of bone mineralization and brain damages were also described in human beings. At lowest dose, 137 Cs induces disturbances of wakefulness-sleep cycle, but not accompanied with behavioural disorders. The cardiovascular system was also perturbed. Biological effects of 137 Cs on the metabolisms of the vitamin D, cholesterol and steroid hormones were described, but do not lead to clinical symptoms. In human beings, 137 Cs leads to an immune deficiency, congenital and foetal deformations, an increased of thyroid cancer, as well as neurological disorders. It seems that children are more sensitive to the toxic effects of caesium than the adults. At present, the only effective treatment for the decorporation of the ingested 137 Cs is the Prussian Blue (Radiogardase). The use of pectin to de-corporate the ingested 137 Cs, in children notably, is sometimes proposed, but its administration still remains an open question. To conclude, the available scientific data suggest that 137 Cs could affect a number of physiological and metabolic functions and consequently, could participate in the health risks associated to the presence of other contaminants in the environment. (authors)

  20. Psychiatric disorders among a sample of internally displaced persons in South Darfur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhabiby, Mahmoud M; Radwan, Doaa N; Okasha, Tarek A; El-Desouky, Eman D

    2015-06-01

    The violent armed conflict in Darfur has been ongoing for years getting the attention of human rights activists and mental health professionals. The aim of this study was to assess psychiatric disorders in a sample of internally displaced persons (IDPs) in South Darfur. A cross-sectional observational study, as a part of the 'Darfur Campaign' organized by Arab Federation of Psychiatrists, assessing psychiatric disorders in a sample of internally displaced women using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID-I) (clinical version). Up to 25.7% of participants had lost a close family member or more in the violent clashes. Psychiatric diagnoses were found in 62.2% of the participants. The most frequently reported was post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) reaching 14.9%, followed by depression 13.5% (among which 2.7% with psychotic features), while comorbid PTSD and depression reached 8.1% of participants. Patients with psychiatric diagnoses had an older age (36.6 years) (p = .024). Suffering from a psychiatric disorder was found to be associated with losing a family member in the conflict (p = .015), being 35.6% in patients with psychiatric diagnoses compared to 10.3% in those without losing a family member in the conflict (odds ratio (OR) =  .7, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.25-18.28). This study used a standardized tool for diagnosing psychiatric morbidity among refugees in Darfur to give as much as possible an actual description of the problems and psychiatric morbidity caused by human-made disasters. This study can help to lead to a more detailed and specific mental health service program much needed by this population. © The Author(s) 2014.

  1. Evaluation of the Relationship between Current Internal 137Cs Exposure in Residents and Soil Contamination West of Chernobyl in Northern Ukraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Yuko; Okubo, Yuka; Hayashida, Naomi; Takahashi, Jumpei; Gutevich, Alexander; Chorniy, Sergiy; Kudo, Takashi; Takamura, Noboru

    2015-01-01

    After the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident, the residents living around the Chernobyl were revealed to have been internally exposed to 137Cs through the intake of contaminated local foods. To evaluate the current situation of internal 137Cs exposure and the relationship between the 137Cs soil contamination and internal exposure in residents, we investigated the 137Cs body burden in residents who were living in 10 selected cities from the northern part of the Zhitomir region, Ukraine, and collected soil samples from three family farms and wild forests of each city to measured 137Cs concentrations. The total number of study participants was 36,862, of which 68.9% of them were female. After 2010, the annual effective doses were less than 0.1 mSv in over 90% of the residents. The 137Cs body burden was significantly higher in autumn than other seasons (p Chernobyl accident, the internal exposure doses to residents living in contaminated areas of northern Ukraine is limited but still related to 137Cs soil contamination. Furthermore, the consumption of local foods is considered to be the cause of internal exposure.

  2. An association between urinary cadmium and urinary stone disease in persons living in cadmium-contaminated villages in northwestern Thailand: A population study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swaddiwudhipong, Witaya; Mahasakpan, Pranee; Limpatanachote, Pisit; Krintratun, Somyot

    2011-01-01

    Excessive urinary calcium excretion is the major risk of urinary stone formation. Very few population studies have been performed to determine the relationship between environmental cadmium exposure and urinary stone disease. This population-based study examined an association between urinary cadmium excretion, a good biomarker of long-term cadmium exposure, and prevalence of urinary stones in persons aged 15 years and older, who lived in the 12 cadmium-contaminated villages in the Mae Sot District, Tak Province, northwestern Thailand. A total of 6748 persons were interviewed and screened for urinary cadmium and urinary stone disease in 2009. To test a correlation between urinary excretion of cadmium and calcium, we measured urinary calcium content in 1492 persons, who lived in 3 villages randomly selected from the 12 contaminated villages. The rate of urinary stones significantly increased from 4.3% among persons in the lowest quartile of urinary cadmium to 11.3% in the highest quartile. An increase in stone prevalence with increasing urinary cadmium levels was similarly observed in both genders. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed a positive association between urinary cadmium levels and stone prevalence, after adjusting for other co-variables. The urinary calcium excretion significantly increased with increasing urinary cadmium levels in both genders, after adjusting for other co-variables. Elevated calciuria induced by cadmium might increase the risk of urinary stone formation in this environmentally exposed population. - Research highlights: → Excessive calciuria is the major risk of urinary stone formation. → We examine cadmium-exposed persons for urinary cadmium, calcium, and stones. → The rate of urinary stones increases with increasing urinary cadmium. → Urinary calcium excretion increases with increasing urinary cadmium. → Elevated calciuria induced by cadmium may increase the risk of urinary stones.

  3. Opening Address [International Conference on Remediation of Land Contaminated by Radioactive Material Residues, Astana (Kazakhstan), 18-22 May 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsstroem, H.

    2014-01-01

    This conference creates a good opportunity to discuss the relevant issues relating to the environmental remediation of radioactively contaminated sites. It follows on from the environmental remediation conference that took place 10 years ago in Arlington, USA, and will allow discussion of the achievements, the successes, the failures and the lessons learned, as well as the new challenges that have emerged since that time. The conference will also provide a forum for discussions on: financing mechanisms and support for the international or multilateral organization of environmental remediation programmes; regulatory and safety issues; mature and innovative technologies; life cycle planning; and non-technical issues in environmental remediation. As a result, it is expected that the conference will encourage and assist the establishment of different partnerships, reveal synergies that can help in the full implementation of environmental remediation projects and provide a forum for improved coordination among the international organizations that support environmental remediation programmes, especially in this region. Finally, the conference will allow the IAEA to collect ideas for its programme and for the assistance it gives to its Member States

  4. Effects of Special Olympics International on social competence in persons with mental retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dykens, E M; Cohen, D J

    1996-02-01

    To evaluate the social and emotional goals of Special Olympics International, specifically whether Special Olympics facilitates social competence and self-esteem in persons with mental retardation. Findings were "triangulated" across three studies on the social competence, adaptation, and self-perceptions of 104 athletes from 1993 Team USA (mean age = 22 years; mean IQ = 59). Study 1 related behavior to athletes' length of time in Special Olympics. Study 2 compared Team USA to an appropriately matched group of non-Special Olympians. Study 3 assessed Team USA before and 4 months after their participation in the World Games held in Salzburg, Austria. Relative to age and IQ, length of time in Special Olympics was the most powerful predictor of social competence. Special Olympics athletes had higher social competence scores and more positive self-perceptions than the comparison group. Team USA's behavioral data remained stable over time, suggesting that high pre-Game scores were not simply a function of parental or athlete pre-Game excitement. Based on the most conservative meaning of triangulation, more support was found linking Special Olympics to social competence than to remaining behavioral domains.

  5. CELEBRATED APRIL 2nd – INTERNATIONAL DAY OF PERSONS WITH AUTISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela KRCHANOSKA

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available On April 2nd, the Macedonian Scientific Society for Autism, for the fourth time organized an event on the occasion of the International Day of Persons with Autism. The event with cultural and artistic character was held at the Museum of the Macedonian Struggle under the motto “They are not alone, we are with them”. The huge number of citizens only confirmed the motto. It seemed that the hall of the Museum of the Macedonian Struggle is too small for the warm hearts of the audience. More than 300 guests were present in the hall, among which there were children with autism and their families, prominent professors, doctors, special educators and rehabilitators, psychologists, students and other citizens with glad heart and will who decided to enrich the event with their presence. The event was opened by the violinist Plamenka Trajkovska, which performed one song. After her, the President of the Macedonian Scientific Society for Autism, PhD. Vladimir Trajkovski delivered his speech. The professor told the parents of autistic children, who were present in large number, not to lose hope, to fight for their children, and that the Macedonian Scientific Society for Autism will provide tremendous support and assistance in this struggle.

  6. Role of event centrality and emotion regulation in posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms among internally displaced persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chukwuorji, JohnBosco Chika; Ifeagwazi, Chuka Mike; Eze, John E

    2017-11-01

    Event centrality and emotion regulation in relation to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have been documented in various global samples especially in Western cultures; but internally displaced persons (IDPs) still constitute an underrepresented population in psychotraumatology literature. This study tested the roles of event centrality and emotion regulation strategies (cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression) in PTSD symptoms among IDPs in Nigeria. The multi-group cross-sectional design was adopted. Tiv language versions of the Centrality of Events Scale, Emotion Regulation Questionnaire, and Harvard Trauma Questionnaire were completed by 859 IDPs in two camps located in Benue State, North-central region of Nigeria. Hierarchical multiple linear regression results indicated that event centrality positively predicted PTSD symptoms. Cognitive reappraisal was a negative predictor of PTSD symptoms while expressive suppression was a positive predictor of PTSD symptoms. Bonferroni corrections indicated that expressive suppression was the strongest predictor of total PTSD symptoms, avoidance/numbing symptoms, and hyper-arousal symptoms; but event centrality was the most robust predictor of PTSD intrusion/re-experiencing symptoms. The findings underscore recent developments in psychotraumatology indicating that the extent to which individual differences impact the development of PTSD is essential in clinical psychology research and practice.

  7. Maternal and Child Health of Internally Displaced Persons in Ukraine: A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svitlana Nidzvetska

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the conflict that started in spring 2014 in Eastern Ukraine, a total of 1.75 million internally displaced persons (IDPs fled the area and have been registered in government-controlled areas of the country. This paper explores perceived health, barriers to access to healthcare, caring practices, food security, and overall financial situation of mothers and young children displaced by the conflict in Ukraine. This is a qualitative study, which collected data through semi-structured in-depth interviews with nine IDP mothers via Skype and Viber with a convenience sample of participants selected through snowball technique. Contrary to the expectations, the perceived physical health of mothers and their children was found not to be affected by conflict and displacement, while psychological distress was often reported. A weak healthcare system, Ukraine’s proneness to informal payments, and heavy bureaucracy to register as an IDP were reported in our study. A precarious social safety net to IDP mothers in Ukraine, poor dietary diversity, and a generalized rupture of vaccine stocks, with halted or delayed vaccinations in children were identified. Increasing social allowances and their timely delivery to IDP mothers might be the most efficient policy measure to improve health and nutrition security. Reestablishment and sustainability of vaccine stocks in Ukraine is urgent to avoid the risks of a public health crisis. Offering psychological support for IDP mothers is recommended.

  8. Medical management after contamination and incorporation of americium in occupational exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gensicke, F.; Stopp, G.; Scheler, R.; Klucke, H.; Czarwinski, R.; Naumann, M.; Hoelzer, F.; Ott, R.; Schmidt, I.

    1990-01-01

    In handling with an ampule of 241 Am-nitrate solution one person received an contamination of the body surface, especially the face and the hairs, and an internal contamination of americium. The paper presents the results obtained in medical management to reduced the contamination of the skin and of the incorporated radionuclide. The radioactivity of the body surface could be reduced up to small local areas. After treatment with DTPA (Ditripentat) the internal exposure decrease about 83%. (orig.) [de

  9. Risk Factors for Borderline Personality Disorder in Treatment Seeking Patients with a Substance Use Disorder : An International Multicenter Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wapp, Manuela; van de Glind, Geurt; van Emmerik-van Oortmerssen, Katelijne; Dom, Geert; Verspreet, Sofie; Carpentier, Pieter Jan; Ramos-Quiroga, Josep Antoni; Skutle, Arvid; Bu, Eli-Torlid; Franck, Johan; Konstenius, Maija; Kaye, Sharlene; Demetrovics, Zsolt; Barta, Csaba; Fatseas, Melina; Auriacombe, Marc; Johnson, Brian; Faraone, Stephen V.; Levin, Frances R.; Allsop, Steve; Carruthers, Susan; Schoevers, Robert A.; Koeter, Maarten W. J.; van den Brink, Wim; Moggi, Franz

    2015-01-01

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) and substance use disorders (SUDs) often co-occur, partly because they share risk factors. In this international multicenter study, risk factors for BPD were examined for SUD patients. In total, 1,205 patients were comprehensively examined by standardized

  10. Resident Advisor General Intelligence, Emotional Intelligence, Personality Dimensions, and Internal Belief Characteristics as Predictors of Rated Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Max B.; Stemler, Steven

    2008-01-01

    Resident Advisors (RAs) have a significant hand in helping students adjust and thrive in college life. Given the importance of selecting high-performing RAs, this study sought to examine how well various measures of intelligence (e.g., general, emotional) in addition to personality and additional "internal belief" characteristics predict…

  11. THE MANIFESTATION OF THE EUROPEAN CENTRAL BANK’S LEGAL PERSONALITY AT NATIONAL, EUROPEAN AND INTERNATIONAL LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MONICA ŞAGUNA

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The European Central Bank is one of the world’ s most important central banks, responsible for the monetary policy covering the 17 member States of the Eurozone. Established by the European Union in 1998, it was given the exclusive right to authorize the issue of banknotes within the European Union. The European Central Bank has legal personality under public international law. As article 282, paragraph 3 of the Treaty on functioning of the European Union and article 9, paragraph 1 of the Statute of the European System of Central Banks and of the European Central Bank states, the European Central Bank and the National Central Banks enjoy their own legal personality. The European Central Bank, given its important role in the economic integration, is the single institution of the European Union which has legal personality. This is a premise for it to fulfill its objectives. In this framework, the purpose of my paper is to analyze the effects of the European Central Bank’s legal personality from a complete perspective: at national, European and international level. Therefore the objectives of my study are: an introspection in the concept of legal personality, the identification of the reason why it was entrusted to a single institution of the European Union and a detailed analyze of the effects of the European Central Bank’ s legal personality.

  12. Internal dosimetry contamination: update of revision of the dose coefficients for intakes of radionuclides by workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez Parada, I.; Rojo, A.M.; Sanguineti, R.

    1995-01-01

    ICRP publication 60 introduces new biological information related to the detriment associated with radiation exposures. The International Commission on Radiological Protection has also issued, in publications 57, 67 y 69, new biokinetic models for selected radionuclides since the issue of publication 30. In publication 66 the new human respiratory tract model for radiological protection is described. The aim of the present paper is to compare values of dose coefficients for workers calculated using the new tissue weighting factors, biokinetic models and lung model with those given in publication 30.The software package LUPED 1.1 was used to calculate dose coefficients for inhalation and ingestion. When possible, some changes in the biokinetic models were made trying to incorporate new parameters. The following radionuclides were analysed: 60 Co, 90 Sr, 99m Tc, 131 I, 137 Cs, 239 Pu y 241 Am. Most of the inhalation dose coefficients calculated with the new assumptions are within a factor of three of those calculated using the ICRP 30 lung and biokinetic models. Generally, the inhalation dose coefficients calculated with the new respiratory tract model and assuming a 5μm AMAD are lower than those calculated using the ICRP 30 model and parameters. The inhalation dose coefficients are generally within 10-90 % of the corresponding Publication 61 values, the difference tending to increase for relative insoluble compounds. (author). 10 refs., 4 tabs

  13. International Financial Reporting Standards vs. homo sovieticus personality the case of Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Tobór-Osadnik, Ph.D

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper attempts to answer the question of whether the personality traits of Polish people predispose them to perform accounting tasks correctly, according to IFRS. The issue is worth considering, especially in the context of the syndrome (phenomenon of homo sovieticus. Homo sovieticus personality features ('Z' personality are present in Polish society to a great extent. From the conducted questionnaire survey, the conclusion can be drawn that the 'Z' personality often appears, but does not dominate, among Polish accountants. In the surveyed group consisting of 157 people, as many as 24% showed distinct (although with different intensity features of a worker with 'Z' personality (homo sovieticus.

  14. New method of measurement IN VIVO Combination internal whole body with high-resolution germanium detectors. Rapid response in cross-contamination v; Nuevo metodo de medida in vivo de la combinacion interna en cuerpo entero con detectores de germanio de alta resolucion. respuesta rapida en contaminaciones cruzadas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navarro Amaro, J. F.; Perez Lopez, B.; Lopez Ponte, M. A.; Navarro Bravo, T.

    2013-07-01

    This test method is a substantial improvement on the current capacities of the Personal Internal Dosimetry Service CIEMAT, as it will in a very short time make accurate measurements in vivo, excellent resolution and low background radiation environment in geometry whole body. The method will complement the existing laboratory [3] and may be used in emergencies or radiological accident in which the complexity of measuring spectra (cross contamination, multipicos interference) require a higher spectral resolution. (Author)

  15. Performance of personalized ventilation in a room with an underfloor air distribution system: transport of contaminants between occupants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cermak, Radim; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2003-01-01

    Studies have documented that personalized ventilation, which provides clean air at each office workplace, is able to improve substantially the quality of air inhaled by occupants. However, the interaction between the airflow generated by personalized ventilation and the airflow pattern outside...... two occupants was examined using a tracer-gas. Two breathing thermal manikins were used to simulate occupants. The results show that the tested combination of personalized and underfloor ventilation was not able to decrease concentration of the human-produced airborne pollutants in air inhaled...

  16. CELEBRATION OF DECEMBER 3RD, INTERNATIONAL DAY OF PERSONS WITH DISABILITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja FILIPOVSKA

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available On December 2nd 2016 in the main amphitheater at the Faculty of Philosophy in Skopje, was held the celebration of December 3rd, the International Day of Persons with Disabilities, in organization of the Institute of Special Education and Rehabilitation. The official part of the program was started with a speech by Goran Ajdinski, PhD, the Dean of the Faculty of Philosophy in Skopje. The guests at the celebration were also greeted by the Rector of the University “Ss. Cyril and Methodius” – Skopje, Nikola Jankulovski, PhD and the Minister of Labor and Social Policy of Republic of Macedonia, Frosina Tashevska-Remenski, PhD. After the speeches, which highlighted the current efforts and future commitment to inclusion and accessibility of persons with disabilities, two awards were presented by the Humanitarian foundation “Prof. d-r Ljupco Ajdinski”. The first award was given to Simona Kostadinova as the student with achieved highest grade point average of 9.65 in the generation 2011/12 during the studies of Special education and rehabilitation. The second award was intended for the highest ranked student at the university admission in 2016/2017. This award belonged to Nadica Gjerasimova who had 97.70 points on the official rank list. Beside the awards, two acknowledgements for humanity were also given by the Foundation “Prof. d-r Ljupco Ajdinski”. For the longstanding human activity in preparation of special education and rehabilitation staff and education and rehabilitation of persons with disabilities, the first acknowledgement was given to the Institute of Special education and rehabilitation. The second acknowledgement was meant for Kiril Temkov, PhD, about his numerous initiated and organized human activities, especially for the published paper on the ethical dimensions of special education and rehabilitation and introduction of Ethics in the education system in Republic of Macedonia. The last part of the program was intended for

  17. A review of the health problems of the internally displaced persons in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owoaje, Eme T; Uchendu, Obioma C; Ajayi, Tumininu O; Cadmus, Eniola O

    2016-01-01

    Globally, over 40 million people were displaced as a result of wars and violence due to religious and ethnic conflicts in 2015 while 19.2 million were displaced by natural disasters such as famine and floods. In Africa, 12 million people were displaced by armed conflict and violence and there were hundreds of thousands of people displaced by natural disasters. Despite these large numbers of internally displaced persons (IDPs) in Sub-Saharan African countries and the potentially negative impact of displacement on the health of these populations, there is limited information on the health problems of IDPs in the region. The previous studies have mainly focused on the health problems of refugees and single disease entities among IDPs. However, a more comprehensive picture is required to inform the provision of adequate healthcare services for this vulnerable population. The objective of this review was to fill this knowledge gap. Bibliographic databases were searched and screened, and nine studies were selected and reviewed. The major physical health problems and symptoms were fever/malaria (85% in children and 48% in adults), malnutrition in children (stunting 52% and wasting 6%), malnutrition in adult males (24%), diarrhoea (62% in children and 22% in adults) and acute respiratory infections (45%). The prevalent mental health problems were post-traumatic stress disorder (range: 42%-54%) and depression (31%-67%). Most of the studies reviewed focused on mental health problems. Limited evidence suggests that IDPs experience various health problems but more research is required to inform the provision of adequate and comprehensive healthcare services for this group of individuals.

  18. Occurrence and suitability of pharmaceuticals and personal care products as molecular markers for raw wastewater contamination in surface water and groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Ngoc Han; Li, Jinhua; Hu, Jiangyong; Ong, Say Leong

    2014-03-01

    This study aimed to provide the first and comprehensive data on the occurrence of 17 target pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in urban water environment in Singapore. Meanwhile, this study also verified the suitability of these PPCPs as specific markers of raw wastewater contamination in receiving water bodies in highly urbanized areas where both surface water and groundwater are not impacted by the discharge of treated wastewater effluents. Analytical results of wastewater showed that among 17 target PPCPs examined, only 5 PPCPs were detected in 100 % of raw wastewater samples, including acetaminophen (ACT), carbamazepine (CBZ), caffeine (CF), diethyltoluamide (DEET), and salicylic acid (SA). Similarly, these PPCPs were found in most surface water and groundwater. Interestingly, the three PPCPs (ACT, CBZ, and SA) were only detected in surface water and groundwater in the sampling sites close to relatively older sewer systems, while they were absent in background samples that were collected from the catchment with no known wastewater sources. This suggests that ACT, CBZ, and SA can be used as specific molecular markers of raw wastewater in surface water and groundwater. This study also confirmed that CF and DEET were not really associated with wastewater sources, thus cannot serve well as specific molecular markers of wastewater contamination in receiving water bodies. To the best knowledge of the authors, the use of ACT and SA as specific molecular markers of raw wastewater contamination in urban surface waters and groundwater was first reported. Further studies on the use of ACT, CBZ, and SA along with other chemical/microbial markers are recommended to identify and differentiate contamination sources of surface waters/groundwater.

  19. Performance of personalized ventilation combined with chilled ceiling in an office room: inhaled air quality and contaminant distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lipczynska, Aleksandra; Kaczmarczyk, Jan; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2014-01-01

    . Breathing thermal manikins were used to resemble two occupants at workstations. Room air temperature was kept at 26ºC and 28°C. Personalized ventilation supplied air at 25°C. Supplied total flow rate ranged from 26 to 82 L/s. Heat gains of 66-72 W/m2 were simulated. Tracer gases simulated pollution from...... people (exhaled air, bioeffluents) and building materials (wall painting). Personalized ventilation combined with chilled ceiling ensured highest air quality at the workstation under all conditions. Pollutant concentration in the occupied zone away from the workstations did not differ substantially...... between the tested systems. Chilled ceiling combined with personalized ventilation working as the only air supplying system may be optimal solution in many buildings....

  20. Performance of personalized ventilation combined with chilled ceiling in an office room: inhaled air quality and contaminant distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lipczynska, Aleksandra; Kaczmarczyk, Jan; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2014-01-01

    . Breathing thermal manikins were used to resemble two occupants at workstations. Room air temperature was kept at 26ºC and 28°C. Personalized ventilation supplied air at 25°C. Supplied total flow rate ranged from 26 to 82 L/s. Heat gains of 66-72 W/m2 were simulated. Tracer gases simulated pollution from...... people (exhaled air, bioeffluents) and building materials (wall painting). Personalized ventilation combined with chilled ceiling ensured highest air quality at the workstation under all conditions. Pollutant concentration in the occupied zone away from the workstations did not differ substantially...

  1. Internal dosimetry technical basis manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-20

    The internal dosimetry program at the Savannah River Site (SRS) consists of radiation protection programs and activities used to detect and evaluate intakes of radioactive material by radiation workers. Examples of such programs are: air monitoring; surface contamination monitoring; personal contamination surveys; radiobioassay; and dose assessment. The objectives of the internal dosimetry program are to demonstrate that the workplace is under control and that workers are not being exposed to radioactive material, and to detect and assess inadvertent intakes in the workplace. The Savannah River Site Internal Dosimetry Technical Basis Manual (TBM) is intended to provide a technical and philosophical discussion of the radiobioassay and dose assessment aspects of the internal dosimetry program. Detailed information on air, surface, and personal contamination surveillance programs is not given in this manual except for how these programs interface with routine and special bioassay programs.

  2. Internal dosimetry technical basis manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The internal dosimetry program at the Savannah River Site (SRS) consists of radiation protection programs and activities used to detect and evaluate intakes of radioactive material by radiation workers. Examples of such programs are: air monitoring; surface contamination monitoring; personal contamination surveys; radiobioassay; and dose assessment. The objectives of the internal dosimetry program are to demonstrate that the workplace is under control and that workers are not being exposed to radioactive material, and to detect and assess inadvertent intakes in the workplace. The Savannah River Site Internal Dosimetry Technical Basis Manual (TBM) is intended to provide a technical and philosophical discussion of the radiobioassay and dose assessment aspects of the internal dosimetry program. Detailed information on air, surface, and personal contamination surveillance programs is not given in this manual except for how these programs interface with routine and special bioassay programs

  3. [Accepted Manuscript] Mental health care utilisation among internally displaced persons in Ukraine: results from a nation-wide survey.

    OpenAIRE

    Roberts, B.; Makhashvili, N.; Javakhishvili, J.; Karachevskyy, A.; Kharchenko, N.; Shpiker, M.; Richardson, E.

    2017-01-01

    Aims There are an estimated 1.5 million internally displaced persons (IDPs) in Ukraine because of the armed conflict in the east of the country. The aim of this paper is to examine utilisation patterns of mental health and psychosocial support (MHPSS) care among IDPs in Ukraine. A cross-sectional survey design was used. Data were collected from 2203 adult IDPs throughout Ukraine between March and May 2016. Data on mental health care utilisation were collected, along with outcomes including po...

  4. Measurement Invariance and the Five-Factor Model of Personality: Asian International and Euro American Cultural Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollock, David; Lui, P Priscilla

    2016-10-01

    This study examined measurement invariance of the NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI), assessing the five-factor model (FFM) of personality among Euro American (N = 290) and Asian international (N = 301) students (47.8% women, Mage = 19.69 years). The full 60-item NEO-FFI data fit the expected five-factor structure for both groups using exploratory structural equation modeling, and achieved configural invariance. Only 37 items significantly loaded onto the FFM-theorized factors for both groups and demonstrated metric invariance. Threshold invariance was not supported with this reduced item set. Groups differed the most in the item-factor relationships for Extraversion and Agreeableness, as well as in response styles. Asian internationals were more likely to use midpoint responses than Euro Americans. While the FFM can characterize broad nomothetic patterns of personality traits, metric invariance with only the subset of NEO-FFI items identified limits direct group comparisons of correlation coefficients among personality domains and with other constructs, and of mean differences on personality domains. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. Personal Digital Assistant-Based Self-Work Sampling Study of Pediatric Interns Quantifies Workday and Educational Value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Joyce K; Ortiz, Michael V; Ottolini, Mary C; Birch, Sarah; Agrawal, Dewesh

    2017-04-01

    Optimizing clinical proficiency and education of residents has become more important with restricted residency duty hours. Our objective was to investigate how interns spend their time on inpatient rotations and the perceived educational value of workday activities. We performed a descriptive self-work sampling study using a personal digital assistant (PDA) to randomly query interns on inpatient rotations in real time regarding their activity and the perceived educational value of that activity on a 4-point Likert scale. A total of 31 interns participated on 88 workdays over a 5-month period, generating 2082 samples from which the average workday was modeled. Time spent using the electronic health record (EHR) accounted for 33% of intern time, communicating with the health care team 23%, educational activities 17%, and time with patients and families 12%. Time with patients and families was perceived to be the most educational part of clinical service. Time spent using the EHR was perceived as the least educational. Interns perceived clinical service as excellent or good 37% of the time, while planned educational activities were perceived as excellent or good 81% of the time. Interns spend the majority of their time using the EHR and communicating with the health care team. Interns perceive time spent in planned educational activities has more educational value than time spent in clinical service. The distribution of daily activities is discordant with the perceived educational value of those activities. Copyright © 2016 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Correlations of urinary cadmium with hypertension and diabetes in persons living in cadmium-contaminated villages in northwestern Thailand: A population study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swaddiwudhipong, Witaya; Mahasakpan, Pranee; Limpatanachote, Pisit; Krintratun, Somyot

    2010-01-01

    Risk for hypertension and diabetes has not been conclusively found to be a result of cadmium exposure. A population-based study was conducted in 2009 to examine the correlations of urinary cadmium, a good biomarker of long-term cadmium exposure, with hypertension and diabetes in persons aged 35 years and older who lived in the 12 cadmium-contaminated rural villages in northwestern Thailand. A total of 5273 persons were interviewed and screened for urinary cadmium, hypertension, and diabetes. The geometric mean level of urinary cadmium for women (2.4±2.3 μg/g creatinine) was significantly greater than that for men (2.0±2.2 μg/g creatinine). Hypertension was presented in 29.8% of the study population and diabetes was detected in 6.6%. The prevalence of hypertension significantly increased from 25.0% among persons in the lowest tertile of urinary cadmium to 35.0% in the highest tertile. In women, the rate of hypertension significantly increased with increasing urinary cadmium levels in both ever and never smokers, after adjusting for age, alcohol consumption, body mass index, and diabetes. In men, such association was less significantly found in never smokers. The study revealed no significant association between urinary cadmium and diabetes in either gender. Our study supports the hypothesis that environmental exposure to cadmium may increase the risk of hypertension. Risk for diabetes in relation to cadmium exposure remains uncertain in this exposed population.

  7. Correlations of urinary cadmium with hypertension and diabetes in persons living in cadmium-contaminated villages in northwestern Thailand: A population study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swaddiwudhipong, Witaya, E-mail: swaddi@hotmail.com [Department of Community and Social Medicine, Mae Sot General Hospital, Tak 63110 (Thailand); Mahasakpan, Pranee [Department of Community and Social Medicine, Mae Sot General Hospital, Tak 63110 (Thailand); Limpatanachote, Pisit; Krintratun, Somyot [Department of Internal Medicine, Mae Sot General Hospital, Tak (Thailand)

    2010-08-15

    Risk for hypertension and diabetes has not been conclusively found to be a result of cadmium exposure. A population-based study was conducted in 2009 to examine the correlations of urinary cadmium, a good biomarker of long-term cadmium exposure, with hypertension and diabetes in persons aged 35 years and older who lived in the 12 cadmium-contaminated rural villages in northwestern Thailand. A total of 5273 persons were interviewed and screened for urinary cadmium, hypertension, and diabetes. The geometric mean level of urinary cadmium for women (2.4{+-}2.3 {mu}g/g creatinine) was significantly greater than that for men (2.0{+-}2.2 {mu}g/g creatinine). Hypertension was presented in 29.8% of the study population and diabetes was detected in 6.6%. The prevalence of hypertension significantly increased from 25.0% among persons in the lowest tertile of urinary cadmium to 35.0% in the highest tertile. In women, the rate of hypertension significantly increased with increasing urinary cadmium levels in both ever and never smokers, after adjusting for age, alcohol consumption, body mass index, and diabetes. In men, such association was less significantly found in never smokers. The study revealed no significant association between urinary cadmium and diabetes in either gender. Our study supports the hypothesis that environmental exposure to cadmium may increase the risk of hypertension. Risk for diabetes in relation to cadmium exposure remains uncertain in this exposed population.

  8. The whole body counting experience on the internal contamination of radionuclides at IPEN/CNEN-SP, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardoso, Joaquim C.S.; Xavier, Marcos

    2017-01-01

    The intake of radioactive material by workers can occur in the radiopharmaceuticals production, during the handling of these in the medical fields (nuclear medicine) and in biological and research laboratories. The workers who work in areas where exposures are significant are routinely monitored to demonstrate that the workers are receiving adequate protection from internal contamination. Direct measurements of whole-body and thyroid contents provide an estimate of the activity of these radionuclides in the potentially exposed workers. The whole-body measurements of the workers, trainees and visitors are routinely performed by the In Vivo Monitoring Laboratory (LMIV) of the Energy and Nuclear Research Institute (IPEN/CNEN-SP). The frequency of measurements is defined by the Radioprotection Service (SRP) and the Dose Calculation Group of IPEN. For this purpose LMIV has two counters whole body. NalTl ( 8 x 4″), and thyroid one, NaITl (3 x 3″). The system was calibrated in energy and efficiency, with calibration sources of Eu-152, Am-241 and Co-60 with gamma emissions between 59.54 and 1408.08 keV, positioned within Alderson Research Labs. anthropomorphic phantom. The background measures were obtained of worker's spectrum that was not exposed occupationally yet. The concepts adopted in the HPS N13.30 Standard and proposed in ISO documents for standardization were used for activity measurements. During the period January 2012 to December 2016, approximately 3800 measurements had been carried in workers who develop tasks related to the production and research. The activities of the radionuclides and the workers' tasks relationship had been evaluated. (author)

  9. The whole body counting experience on the internal contamination of radionuclides at IPEN/CNEN-SP, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardoso, Joaquim C.S.; Xavier, Marcos, E-mail: jcardoso@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    The intake of radioactive material by workers can occur in the radiopharmaceuticals production, during the handling of these in the medical fields (nuclear medicine) and in biological and research laboratories. The workers who work in areas where exposures are significant are routinely monitored to demonstrate that the workers are receiving adequate protection from internal contamination. Direct measurements of whole-body and thyroid contents provide an estimate of the activity of these radionuclides in the potentially exposed workers. The whole-body measurements of the workers, trainees and visitors are routinely performed by the In Vivo Monitoring Laboratory (LMIV) of the Energy and Nuclear Research Institute (IPEN/CNEN-SP). The frequency of measurements is defined by the Radioprotection Service (SRP) and the Dose Calculation Group of IPEN. For this purpose LMIV has two counters whole body. NalTl ( 8 x 4″), and thyroid one, NaITl (3 x 3″). The system was calibrated in energy and efficiency, with calibration sources of Eu-152, Am-241 and Co-60 with gamma emissions between 59.54 and 1408.08 keV, positioned within Alderson Research Labs. anthropomorphic phantom. The background measures were obtained of worker's spectrum that was not exposed occupationally yet. The concepts adopted in the HPS N13.30 Standard and proposed in ISO documents for standardization were used for activity measurements. During the period January 2012 to December 2016, approximately 3800 measurements had been carried in workers who develop tasks related to the production and research. The activities of the radionuclides and the workers' tasks relationship had been evaluated. (author)

  10. Internalizing Symptoms and Safe Sex Intentions among Adolescents in Mental Health Treatment: Personal Factors as Mediators

    OpenAIRE

    Joppa, Meredith C.; Rizzo, Christie J.; Brown, Larry K.; Hadley, Wendy; Dattadeen, Jodi-Ann; Donenberg, Geri; DiClemente, Ralph

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about why some adolescents with internalizing symptoms engage in sexual behaviors that increase their risk for HIV. This study tested a mediation model of internalizing symptoms and safe sex intentions among adolescents receiving mental health treatment. Self-efficacy for HIV prevention, HIV knowledge, and worry about HIV were hypothesized to mediate associations between internalizing symptoms and safe sex intentions among sexually active and non-active adolescents receiving m...

  11. Internalizing Symptoms and Safe Sex Intentions among Adolescents in Mental Health Treatment: Personal Factors as Mediators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joppa, Meredith C; Rizzo, Christie J; Brown, Larry K; Hadley, Wendy; Dattadeen, Jodi-Ann; Donenberg, Geri; DiClemente, Ralph

    2014-11-01

    Little is known about why some adolescents with internalizing symptoms engage in sexual behaviors that increase their risk for HIV. This study tested a mediation model of internalizing symptoms and safe sex intentions among adolescents receiving mental health treatment. Self-efficacy for HIV prevention, HIV knowledge, and worry about HIV were hypothesized to mediate associations between internalizing symptoms and safe sex intentions among sexually active and non-active adolescents receiving mental health treatment ( N = 893, M age = 14.9). Significant indirect effects from internalizing symptoms to safe sex intentions varied according sexual experience: for sexually non-active adolescents, HIV worry and knowledge mediated this link, whereas for sexually active adolescents, HIV self-efficacy was the significant mediator. Increasing both HIV knowledge and self-efficacy for HIV prevention are important targets for HIV prevention with adolescents with internalizing symptoms, and careful attention should be paid towards targeting these interventions to sexually experienced and inexperienced youth.

  12. CITY BRAND PERSONALITY – AN INTERNATIONAL CONCEPT WITH REGIONAL APPLIANCE IN THE TOURISM DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana Tugulea

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The personality of a city is an important concept to be created and evaluated by local administrators as this should be part of the touristic strategic approach. The aim of this paper is to create a research instrument that allows researchers to define the brand personality of a Romanian city. In order to use one instrument in a specific geographical area, the instrument has to be created using a qualitative research. Three focus groups were conducted in order to identify items to create the research instrument which is presented at the end of the paper. This research is a preliminary step for a future quantitative research that is intended to measure the city brand personality of the city of Iasi. The created instrument can be applied to any Romanian city.

  13. First evidence of a prospective relation between avoidance of internal states and borderline personality disorder features in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Carla; Kalpakci, Allison; Mellick, William; Venta, Amanda; Temple, Jeff R

    2015-03-01

    At least two leading developmental models of borderline personality disorder (BPD) emphasize the role of accurate reflection and understanding of internal states as significant to the development of BPD features (Fonagy, Int J Psycho-Anal 72:639-656, 1991; Linehan, Cognitive-behavioral treatment of borderline personality disorder, 1993). The current study used the construct of experiential avoidance (EA) to operationalize avoidance of internal states and sought to examine (1) the concurrent relations between EA and borderline features in a large and diverse community sample; and (2) the prospective relation between EA and borderline features over a 1-year follow-up, controlling for baseline levels of borderline features. N = 881 adolescents recruited from public schools in a large metropolitan area participated in baseline assessments and N = 730 completed follow-up assessments. Two main findings were reported. First, EA was associated with borderline features, depressive, and anxiety symptoms at the bivariate level, but when all variables were considered together, depression and anxiety no longer remained significantly associated with borderline features, suggesting that the relations among these symptom clusters may be accounted for by EA as a cross-cutting underlying psychological process. Second, EA predicted levels of borderline symptoms at 1-year follow-up, controlling for baseline levels of borderline symptoms, and symptoms of anxiety and depression. Results are interpreted against the background of developmental theories of borderline personality disorder.

  14. EMERGING TECHNOLOGY BULLETIN: PROCESS FOR THE TREATMENT OF VOLATILE ORGANIC CARBON AND HEAVY-METAL- CONTAMINATED SOIL - INTERNATIONAL TECHNOLOGY CORPORATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The batch steam distillation and metal extraction treatment process is a two-stage system that treats soils contaminated with organics and inorganics. This system uses conventional, readily available process equipment, and does not produce hazardous combustion products. Hazar...

  15. International workshop on scientific bases for decision making after a radioactive contamination of an urban environment. Book of abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    This workshop aims to discuss the most important aspects of scientific bases for decision making after a radioactive contamination in urban environment and to identify some scientific, social and economic open questions. Papers explaining in more details the principles of intervention, computational capabilities and measurements after a contamination of urban areas are presented. A review on practical experiences from Chernobyl and Goiania accidents is also included.

  16. International workshop on scientific bases for decision making after a radioactive contamination of an urban environment. Book of abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This workshop aims to discuss the most important aspects of scientific bases for decision making after a radioactive contamination in urban environment and to identify some scientific, social and economic open questions. Papers explaining in more details the principles of intervention, computational capabilities and measurements after a contamination of urban areas are presented. A review on practical experiences from Chernobyl and Goiania accidents is also included

  17. The State of refugees and internally displaced persons in Nigeria: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nnamdi Azikiwe University Journal of International Law and Jurisprudence. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 3 (2012) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  18. 3 CFR 8462 - Proclamation 8462 of December 2, 2009. International Day of Persons With Disabilities, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... disabilities still experience discrimination in the workplace and in their communities. In developing nations... are all too often subjected to deep discrimination. If we are to move forward as a people, both at... Persons with Disabilities.” We must continue to embrace diversity and reject discrimination in all its...

  19. Fostering Personal Meaning and Self-Relevance: A Self-Determination Theory Perspective on Internalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Aelterman, Nathalie; De Muynck, Gert-Jan; Haerens, Leen; Patall, Erika; Reeve, Johnmarshall

    2018-01-01

    Central to self-determination theory (SDT) is the notion that autonomously motivated learning relates to greater learning benefits. While learners' intrinsic motivation has received substantial attention, learners also display volitional learning when they come to endorse the personal meaning or self-relevance of the learning task. In Part I of…

  20. Borderline personality disorder co-morbidity: relationship to the internalizing-externalizing structure of common mental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, N R; Krueger, R F; Keyes, K M; Skodol, A E; Markon, K E; Grant, B F; Hasin, D S

    2011-05-01

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) shows high levels of co-morbidity with an array of psychiatric disorders. The meaning and causes of this co-morbidity are not fully understood. Our objective was to investigate and clarify the complex co-morbidity of BPD by integrating it into the structure of common mental disorders. We conducted exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses on diagnostic interview data from a representative US population-based sample of 34 653 civilian, non-institutionalized individuals aged ≥18 years. We modeled the structure of lifetime DSM-IV diagnoses of BPD and antisocial personality disorder (ASPD), major depressive disorder, dysthymic disorder, panic disorder with agoraphobia, social phobia, specific phobia, generalized anxiety disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, alcohol dependence, nicotine dependence, marijuana dependence, and any other drug dependence. In both women and men, the internalizing-externalizing structure of common mental disorders captured the co-morbidity among all disorders including BPD. Although BPD was unidimensional in terms of its symptoms, BPD as a disorder showed associations with both the distress subfactor of the internalizing dimension and the externalizing dimension. The complex patterns of co-morbidity observed with BPD represent connections to other disorders at the level of latent internalizing and externalizing dimensions. BPD is meaningfully connected with liabilities shared with common mental disorders, and these liability dimensions provide a beneficial focus for understanding the co-morbidity, etiology and treatment of BPD.

  1. Personality characteristics and attributes of international medical graduates in general practice training: Implications for supporting this valued Australian workforce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurence, Caroline O; Eley, Diann S; Walters, Lucie; Elliott, Taryn; Cloninger, Claude Robert

    2016-10-01

    To describe the personality profiles of International Medical Graduates (IMGs) undertaking General Practice (GP) training in Australia. A better understanding of the personal characteristics of IMGs may inform their training and enhance support for their vital contribution to the Australian rural workforce. Cross-sectional self-report questionnaires. Independent variables included socio-demographics, prior training, the Temperament and Character Inventory, and the Resilience Scale. GP registrars (IMGs = 102; AMGs = 350) training in the Australian General Practice Training rural and general pathway and the Australian College of Rural and Remote Medicine independent pathway. Univariate analysis explored the differences in levels of traits between IMG and AMG registrars. Compared to the general population both groups have moderately high resilience, and well-organised characters with high Self-directedness, high Cooperativeness and low Self-transcendence, supported by temperaments which were high in Persistence and Reward Dependence. IMGs were different than AMGs in two temperament traits, Novelty Seeking and Persistence and two character traits, Self-directedness and Cooperativeness. Factors such as cultural and training backgrounds, personal and professional expectations, and adjustments necessary to assimilate to a new lifestyle and health system are likely to be responsible for differences found between groups. Understanding the personality profiles of IMGs provides opportunities for targeted training and support which may in turn impact on their retention in rural areas. © 2016 National Rural Health Alliance Inc.

  2. Surface and internalized Escherichia coli O157:H7 on field-grown spinach and lettuce treated with spray-contaminated irrigation water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Marilyn C; Webb, Cathy C; Diaz-Perez, Juan Carlos; Phatak, Sharad C; Silvoy, John J; Davey, Lindsey; Payton, Alison S; Liao, Jean; Ma, Li; Doyle, Michael P

    2010-06-01

    Numerous field studies have revealed that irrigation water can contaminate the surface of plants; however, the occurrence of pathogen internalization is unclear. This study was conducted to determine the sites of Escherichia coli O157:H7 contamination and its survival when the bacteria were applied through spray irrigation water to either field-grown spinach or lettuce. To differentiate internalized and surface populations, leaves were treated with a surface disinfectant wash before the tissue was ground for analysis of E. coli O157:H7 by direct plate count or enrichment culture. Irrigation water containing E. coli O157:H7 at 10(2), 10(4), or 10(6) CFU/ml was applied to spinach 48 and 69 days after transplantation of seedlings into fields. E. coli O157:H7 was initially detected after application on the surface of plants dosed at 10(4) CFU/ml (4 of 20 samples) and both on the surface (17 of 20 samples) and internally (5 of 20 samples) of plants dosed at 10(6) CFU/ml. Seven days postspraying, all spinach leaves tested negative for surface or internal contamination. In a subsequent study, irrigation water containing E. coli O157:H7 at 10(8) CFU/ml was sprayed onto either the abaxial (lower) or adaxial (upper) side of leaves of field-grown lettuce under sunny or shaded conditions. E. coli O157:H7 was detectable on the leaf surface 27 days postspraying, but survival was higher on leaves sprayed on the abaxial side than on leaves sprayed on the adaxial side. Internalization of E. coli O157:H7 into lettuce leaves also occurred with greater persistence in leaves sprayed on the abaxial side (up to 14 days) than in leaves sprayed on the adaxial side (2 days).

  3. Contamination sources and distribution patterns of pharmaceuticals and personal care products in Alpine rivers strongly affected by tourism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandaric, Ladislav; Diamantini, Elena; Stella, Elisa; Cano-Paoli, Karina; Valle-Sistac, Jennifer; Molins-Delgado, Daniel; Bellin, Alberto; Chiogna, Gabriele; Majone, Bruno; Diaz-Cruz, M Silvia; Sabater, Sergi; Barcelo, Damia; Petrovic, Mira

    2017-07-15

    Knowledge regarding the impact of tourism on the emergence of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in Alpine river waters is limited and scarce. Therefore, a study on the occurrence patterns and spatiotemporal variability of 105 PPCPs in an Alpine river basin located in the Trentino-Alto Adige region (North-Eastern Italy) has been conducted. We observed that the total concentration of analyzed PPCPs was generally higher in all sampling sites during winter than in the summer. The analysis of tourist data revealed that during both sampling campaigns the number of tourists was lower in the downstream sites in comparison with the upstream area of the basin (Val di Sole). Particularly, sampling sites located near important tourist resorts have shown the highest abundance of the PPCPs during winter, being analgesics/anti-inflammatories, antihypertensives and antibiotics the most abundant pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs). Diclofenac showed the highest concentration amongst PhACs, reaching concentrations up to 675ngL -1 in the sampling site situated downstream of the Tonale wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). Antihypertensives were found at concentrations >300ngL -1 , while antibiotics were quantified up to 196ngL -1 , respectively. Amongst personal care products (PCPs), the most abundant compound was octyl-dimethyl-p-aminobenzoic acid (ODPABA) with concentrations reaching up to 748ngL -1 in the sampling site situated within the Rotaliana district. In general, concentrations and detection frequencies were higher in water than in the sediment samples. The most frequently detected PhACs in sediments from both sampling campaigns were antibiotics, while amongst PCPs in sediments, octocrylene (OC) showed the highest concentration in both sampling campaigns. As a result, this study highlights the potential impact of tourism on the water quality of the Alpine aquatic ecosystems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Relationships between Personal Traits, Emotional Intelligence, Internal Marketing, Service Management, and Customer Orientation in Korean Outpatient Department Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bogyun; Lee, Jia

    2016-03-01

    Current increase and complexity of medical tests and surgical procedures at outpatient department (OPD) require OPD nurses to have customer orientation focusing on various customers' interests and needs. The purpose of this study was to identify the factors associated with customer orientation in nurses working at OPD of hospitals. The study used a descriptive correlational design with cross-sectional survey. The study settings were four general hospitals in Seoul and its metropolitan area. Data were collected from 138 OPD nurses from general hospitals. Study variables were personal traits, emotional intelligence, internal marketing, service management and customer orientation. Factors associated with customer orientation were identified as conscientiousness from personal traits (β = .37, p customers to improve patient-oriented services and satisfaction. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Writing for international publication in nursing journals: a personal perspective (part 1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rassool, G Hussein

    2006-01-01

    The number of printed and electronic (Internet) academic nursing publications in Brazil and around the world highlights the importance attached to publishing in the field of nursing. Internationally, journals are ranked according to their professional merits and peer review orientations. Financial institutions increasingly value publications in renowned journals as one criterion for granting funds for research. One important reason why many scientific articles do not meet the requirements from international journal reviewers, especially those submitted English, is the result of poor and literal translation of the text. The challenge we are facing in Latin America is to encourage the development of articles for publication in internationally reviewed journals. Co-authorship is a potentially stimulating model for researchers and postgraduate students to publish. This task can be undertaken through the help of international supervisors and researchers, supervisors or postgraduate students with good command of the English language. This article aims to demystify the publication process and present some guidelines on how to publish in international journals.

  6. To the issue of the root of the matter of «internally displaced persons»: public policy and regional practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. M. Malykha

    2015-06-01

    The adoption of the Law of Ukraine «On protection of rights and freedoms of internally displaced persons» was a positive solution, however, it requires further work on implementation of the stated rules.

  7. Internalized and externalized continuing bonds in bereaved parents: their relationship with grief intensity and personal growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholtes, Dianna; Browne, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Continuing bonds (CBs) expression appears especially prevalent among bereaved parents. This study examined the relationship between CBs and grief outcomes for this population. A customized CB scale for use with bereaved parents was derived from the literature. Three hundred fifty-four participants (10 male) recruited from online support groups completed an internet questionnaire. A 3-factor dimensional structure of CB (internalized, externalized, and transference) was supported. Structural equation modeling showed clear links between internalized bonds and a more positive grief status; externalized bonds showing an opposite relationship. Weaker effects were found for child's age, time since death, and type of death.

  8. International Emergency Psychiatry Challenges: Disaster Medicine, War, Human Trafficking, Displaced Persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaung, Michael; Jani, Suni; Banu, Sophia; Mackey, Joy M

    2017-09-01

    Mental health disorders are a major cause of morbidity and a growing burden in low-income and middle-income countries; but there is little existing literature on the detailed epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment in low-resource settings. Special situations with vulnerable populations, such as those created by international humanitarian emergencies, refugees or internally displaced people, and victims of human trafficking, are increasing in prevalence. These victims are often resettled in developed countries and come to the emergency department seeking care. To better care for these populations, knowledge of specialized psychosocial and cultural considerations should inform the comprehensive psychiatric assessment and treatment plan. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. A Facet Theory Model for Integrating Contextual and Personal Experiences of International Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackett, Paul M. W.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to use a facet theory research approach to provide a clear, coherent, and integrated model of international students' experiences based upon the findings of psychological research into students when studying abroad. In research that employs a facet theory approach events are classified in terms of their constituent…

  10. Modeling and Mapping Personal Learning Environment of Thai International Higher Education Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharafuddin, Mohamed Ali; Sawad, Buncha Panacharoen; Wongwai, Sarun

    2018-01-01

    This research article is part of a periodic study conducted to understand, model, map and to develop an integrated approach for effective and interactive self-learning phases of Thai International Hospitality and Tourism higher education students. Questionnaire containing both qualitative and quantitative questions was distributed at the beginning…

  11. New Trends and Directions in Ethnic Identity among Internationally Transracially Adopted Persons: Summary of Special Issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosnati, Rosa; Pinderhughes, Ellen E.; Baden, Amanda L.; Grotevant, Harold D.; Lee, Richard M.; Mohanty, Jayashree

    2015-01-01

    The collective findings of the six articles in this special issue highlight the importance of ethnic-racial socialization and ethnic identity among international transracial adoptees (ITRAs). A multidimensional developmental phenomenon, ethnic identity intersects with other identities, notably adoptive identity. Family, peers, community, and host…

  12. Personal radiotoxicological (first aid) kit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gachalyi, Andras; Gyulai, Gabor

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, with the spread of nuclear industrial activities, and the widespread use of radioactive materials and products the possibility of radionuclide contamination of humans and animals has significantly increased. During nuclear tests or reactor accidents, a large amount of radioactive materials may enter the environment which can contaminate the living environment (air, water, vegetation, soil), for a long period. This contamination may enter living organisms by inhalation, intake and ingestion, causing severe biological damage. As an example the Chernobyl reactor accident can be mentioned, where there was no possibility for the decorporation of isotopes, as there were no products available such as the 'RADISTOP'. To achieve appropriate decorporating (and decontaminating) treatment which is effective, it is highly recommendable to use a personal Radiotoxicological First Aid Kit (PRK) within the shortest possible time after internal contamination. This unit provides effective treatment to decorporate the most common incorporated fission products. (author)

  13. Treatment with Ca-DTPA of internal contaminations by plutonium and americium: Recommendations for writing protocols in Cea and AREVA centers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grappin, L.; Legoff, J.P.; Andre, F.; Carbone, L.; Agrinier, A.L.; Courtay, C.; Aninat, M.; Amabile, J.C.; Florin, A.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide physicians working in a B.N.F. (Basic Nuclear Facility) with recommendations for the drafting of Ca-DTPA treatment protocols for internal contamination by actinides. These recommendations are based on the results of injections carried out by Cea and AREVA doctors in a working group, with the collaboration of the Army Radiation Protection Service. The study focused on Ca-DTPA IV injection. Other dosage forms, routes of administration as well as adjuvant treatments are also mentioned. For cases of contaminated wounds and inhalation, indicators for treatment with Ca-DTPA, particularly its initialization, the dosage, duration, frequency of administration, the criteria for ending the treatment, then its efficiency and dosimetry gain are covered. A guide for the prescription of the radio toxicological monitoring necessary for the treatment and the dosimetric evaluation is proposed. (authors)

  14. Fifth international conference on radioactive waste management and environmental remediation -- ICEM '95: Proceedings. Volume 2: Management of low-level waste and remediation of contaminated sites and facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slate, S.; Baker, R.; Benda, G.

    1995-01-01

    The objective of this conference is the broad international exchange of information on technologies, operations, management approaches, economics, and public policies in the critical areas of radioactive waste management and environmental remediation. The ICEM '95 technical program includes four parallel program tracks: Low/intermediate-level waste management; High-level waste, spent fuel, nuclear material management; Environmental remediation and facility D and D; and Major institutional issues in environmental management. Volume 2 contains approximately 200 papers divided into the following topical sections: Characterization of low and intermediate level waste; Treatment of low and intermediate level waste; LLW disposal and near-surface contaminant migration; Characterization and remediation of contaminated sites; and Decontamination and decommissioning technologies and experience. Papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base

  15. Decontamination of radioactively contaminated surfaces - Method for testing and assessing the ease of decontamination (International Standard Publication ISO 8690:1988)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanik, J.

    2001-01-01

    The specifications laid down in this International Standard apply to the testing of surfaces which may become contaminated by radioactive materials. Decontaminability data obtained using this test method are not applicable to technical systems where layers of contaminating materials are formed as a result of long-term application of higher temperatures and pressures (for example primary circuits of nuclear reactors). The purpose of the test is to assess the ease of decontamination of surfaces under laboratory conditions. In practical applications, it may be important to consider other qualities, such as chemical, mechanical and radiation resistance and long-term stability in the selection of the materials to be used. It should be recognized that further decontamination tests under simulated service conditions may be needed

  16. Targeting the pains of food insecurity and malnutrition among internally displaced persons with nutrient synergy and analgesics in organ meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayemi, Peter O; Muchenje, Voster; Yetim, Hasan; Ahhmed, Abdulatef

    2018-02-01

    Living with pain is one of the distressing effects of food insecurity and malnutrition among millions of internally displaced persons (IDPs) worldwide. Vulnerability to emotional pain, metabolic imbalance, chronic illnesses and non-communicable diseases by IDPs are associated with stressed livelihood and restricted access to balanced diets in their camps. Tackling the complexity of issues related to internal displacement is challenging as 45% are globally trapped in protracted conditions. In this review, a diet-based intervention is proposed considering the potential benefits of nutrient synergy and analgesic constituents in organ meat. Providing an affordable, value added and well packaged nutrient dense diet is suggested to meet daily protein and micronutrient requirements from organ meat. Also, unlocking health-promoting bioactive substances and analgesics in restructured organ meat product is proposed as personalized dietary remedy to exert opioid bioactivity in food matrix. Exploiting the nutrient synergy of this animal by-product will not only improve the nutritional status or wellbeing but also raise the composite score of dietary diversity or food security index among IDPs by 2030. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Umbilical cord blood banking: from personal donation to international public registries to global bioeconomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrini, Carlo

    2014-01-01

    The procedures for collecting voluntarily and freely donated umbilical cord blood (UCB) units and processing them for use in transplants are extremely costly, and the capital flows thus generated form part of an increasingly pervasive global bioeconomy. To place the issue in perspective, this article first examines the different types of UCB biobank, the organization of international registries of public UCB biobanks, the optimal size of national inventories, and the possibility of obtaining commercial products from donated units. The fees generally applied for the acquisition of UCB units for transplantation are then discussed, and some considerations are proposed regarding the social and ethical implications raised by the international network for the importation and exportation of UCB, with a particular emphasis on the globalized bioeconomy of UCB and its commerciality or lack thereof.

  18. Umbilical cord blood banking: from personal donation to international public registries to global bioeconomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrini C

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Carlo Petrini Italian National Institute of Health, Rome, Italy Abstract: The procedures for collecting voluntarily and freely donated umbilical cord blood (UCB units and processing them for use in transplants are extremely costly, and the capital flows thus generated form part of an increasingly pervasive global bioeconomy. To place the issue in perspective, this article first examines the different types of UCB biobank, the organization of international registries of public UCB biobanks, the optimal size of national inventories, and the possibility of obtaining commercial products from donated units. The fees generally applied for the acquisition of UCB units for transplantation are then discussed, and some considerations are proposed regarding the social and ethical implications raised by the international network for the importation and exportation of UCB, with a particular emphasis on the globalized bioeconomy of UCB and its commerciality or lack thereof. Keywords: cord blood banking, economy, ethics, stem cells, transplantation

  19. Personalized dosimetry in internal radiotherapy with the help of voxelised phantoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiavassa, S.; Bardies, M.; Martin, S.; Aubineau-Laniece, I.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this communication is to present a evaluation tool of the personalised internal dose that associated a Monte Carlo code to a voxelised representation of the patient for a personalised dosimetry evaluation in vectorized radiotherapy. the developments realised to reach a whole body dosimetry at tissue scale in a reasonable calculation time ( about a day) and some functionalities of the software are exposed. (N.C.)

  20. Erratum: Apparent prevalence of beef carcasses contaminated with mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis sampled from danish slaughter cattle (Veterinary Medicine International)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okura, Hisako; Toft, Nils; Pozzato, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    A tabulation error appeared in Table 1. The fecal contamination data for Age 2 years were incorrectly recorded into the table. Whereas the numbers in the table were transposed incorrectly, the actual statistical analyses remain correct.The revised table is reproduced below....

  1. Heavy Metal Contamination in the Sediments of Anzali International Wetland, Northern Iran Based on Type Regional Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Ganjali

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The most important factors and problems threatening the Anzali Wetland are the contaminant load and sediments entering the wetland, as well as lack of an integrated management plan for this wetland. The main objectives of the current research were to explore whether there are significant differences in concentrations of Zn, Cd, and Pb in surface sediments among different sites (based on type region development of the Anzali Wetland, Northern Iran. Methods: Through a field study, samples were collected from 10 stations based on the type of regional development and contaminant source inputs of Anzali Wetland in 2015. Using a hot-block digester, the sediment samples were digested with a 4:1 combination of nitric acid (HNO3 and perchloric acid (HCLO4 for one hour at 40 °C, followed by 3 h at 140 °C. Afterwards, samples were filtered with Whatman 42, filter paper and the filtrate was kept in polyethylene containers at 4 °C, until analysis by atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS. Results: Mean ± SD levels of metals in the sediments of different stations were 26.7 ± 3.49 (lead, 4.36 ± 0.47 (cadmium, and 88.44 ± 10.06 (zinc μg g-1 dw. There was a significant difference between the stations of the wetland (P < 0.05. This difference could be due to the variations in the input of contaminant sources into the Anzali Wetland. Conclusions: The areas, affected by urban and industrial developments, had the highest level of contamination while the agricultural and less-developed areas had the lowest level of contamination, and therefore, protective plans must be implemented in developed areas in order to lower the level of heavy metals.

  2. Medical management after contamination and incorporation of americium in occupational exposure. Medizinische Massnahmen nach Kontamination und Inkorporation von Americium bei beruflicher Strahlenexposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gensicke, F.; Stopp, G.; Scheler, R.; Klucke, H.; Czarwinski, R.; Naumann, M.; Hoelzer, F.; Ott, R.; Schmidt, I. (Staatliches Amt fuer Atomsicherheit und Strahlenschutz, Berlin (Germany, F.R.). Abt. Strahlenschutzmedizin)

    1990-10-01

    In handling with an ampule of {sup 241}Am-nitrate solution one person received an contamination of the body surface, especially the face and the hairs, and an internal contamination of americium. The paper presents the results obtained in medical management to reduced the contamination of the skin and of the incorporated radionuclide. The radioactivity of the body surface could be reduced up to small local areas. After treatment with DTPA (Ditripentat) the internal exposure decrease about 83%. (orig.).

  3. Personality, acculturation, and psychosocial adjustment of Chinese international students in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingyu; Mandl, Heinz; Wang, Erping

    2010-10-01

    The effect of personality traits and acculturation variables on crosscultural adjustment were investigated in 139 Chinese students in Germany (52% girls; M age = 25.3 yr., SD = 2.9). Participants were surveyed by house visits to their dormitories. Several scales were administered: (a) Big Five Inventory; (b) Vancouver Index of Acculturation; (c) sociocultural adjustment, general and academic; and (d) psychological adjustment, i.e., depression, self-esteem, and life satisfaction. Results showed that Neuroticism and Openness were two shared predictors of sociocultural adjustment. Agreeableness and mainstream acculturation were only related to general adjustment, while Conscientiousness was only related to academic adjustment. All facets of psychological adjustment were related to Neuroticism and Consciousness, while positive components (self-esteem and life satisfaction) were also related to Extraversion and Openness. No influence of heritage acculturation was found. The findings are discussed in light of measurement issues and the shared and unique individual predictors of the different facets of adjustment.

  4. Mihail M. Cernea - A Remarkable Personality of the National and International Scientific World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorin M. Rădulescu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Keeping in line with the need to acknowledge and preserve a nation's truly valuable contributions, the ACADEMY is the most important and prestigious institution, bringing together the most prominent personalities of the cultural and scientific world. The award of the title of academician (corresponding member is in fact the clearest validation of a person's capacity of "creator" of values and "founder" of perennial traditions in various relevant fields. Along the years, very few sociologists (only 16, to our knowledge reached such a peak of scientific prestige and some of them, Virgil T. Madgearu or Petre Andrei for example, were no longer alive so that they could enjoy this honour that was conferred to them post mortem in 1990, and 1991, respectively. Since 1990, three new full members (Henri H. Stahl and Roman Moldovan - elected in 1990, Vladimir Trebici - 1992 and only two corresponding members (Mihail M. Cernea - and Cătălin Zamfir - who were conferred this title in 1991 were elected to the Romanian Academy from among the sociologists. On October 24th, 2012, the Romanian Academy organised new elections for members, as a result of which professor Mihail M. Cernea was promoted from corresponding member to full member of the prestigious forum. Therefore, given the regrettable passing of the other abovementioned sociologists of the Academy, only Mihail M. Cernea - as full member of the Academy - and Cătălin Zamfir - as corresponding member - continue to be today the representatives of our field of study in the Romanian Academy. Our journal, which has benefited on countless occasions of the support offered by our colleague, professor Cernea, one of the most active members of the editorial team, takes this opportunity to recount the most significant moments in the life and activity of the reputed professor, in order to once again express its admiration and praise for his important contribution to the development of contemporary sociology

  5. Personalized Monte Carlo dosimetry for the planning and evaluation of internal radiotherapy treatments: development and application to selective internal radiotherapy (SIRT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petitguillaume, Alice

    2014-01-01

    Medical techniques in full expansion arousing high therapeutic expectations, targeted radionuclide therapies (TRT) consist of administering a radiopharmaceutical to selectively treat tumors. Nowadays, the activity injected to the patient is generally standardized. However, in order to establish robust dose-effect relationships and to optimize treatments while sparing healthy tissues at best, a personalized dosimetry must be performed, just like actual clinical practice in external beam radiotherapy. In that context, this PhD main objective was to develop, using the OEDIPE software, a methodology for personalized dosimetry based on direct Monte Carlo calculations. The developed method enables to calculate the tridimensional distribution of absorbed doses depending on the patient anatomy, defined from CT or MRI data, and on the patient-specific activity biodistribution, defined from SPECT or PET data. Radiobiological aspects, such as differences in radiosensitivities and repair time constants between tumoral and healthy tissues, have also been integrated through the linear-quadratic model. This methodology has been applied to the selective internal radiation therapy (SIRT) which consists in the injection of 90 Y-microspheres to selectively treat unresectable hepatic cancers. Distributions of absorbed doses and biologically effective doses (BED) along with the equivalent uniform biologically effective doses (EUD) to hepatic lesions have been calculated from 99m Tc-MAA activity distributions obtained during the evaluation step for 18 patients treated at Hopital Europeen Georges Pompidou. Those results have been compared to classical methods used in clinics and the interest of accurate and personalized dosimetry for treatment planning has been investigated. On the one hand, the possibility to increase the activity in a personalized way has been highlighted with the calculation of the maximal activity that could be injected to the patient while meeting tolerance criteria

  6. Non cancerous diseases following a chronic intern contamination by caesium 137: cataracts and cardiac arrhythmias; Pathologies non cancereuses potentiellement consecutives a une contamination interne chronique par le cesium 137: cataractes et arythmies cardiaques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landon, G

    2008-07-15

    This work of thesis joins within the framework of an analysis of the sanitary consequences of the nuclear accident of Chernobylsk. Since 2005, the I.R.S.N. is interested in the not cancerous pathologies (cataracts, and cardiac arrhythmias) observed among the children living on the contaminated territories after the fallout of Chernobylsk and has in this aim implemented a research programme called E.P.I.C.E. (Evaluation of the pathologies induced by a chronicle contamination by cesium) whom objective is to show an eventual link between the chronicle ingestion of contaminated food and these pathologies emergence. An exploitation of the results of the pilot study,first phase of the E.P.I.C.E. program was realized. The analysis was completed by two bibliographical reviews relative to the knowledge available on these diseases. The results of this pilot study suggest: on one hand, an absence of link between the activity in cesium 137 at the level of the heart, of the whole body and the emergence of disorder of the heart rhythm; on the other hand, for the cases of cataract, a link between the load in cesium 137 at the neck level and the emergence of the disease in 40 % of the cases. However, these results must be considered with caution because several limits and, in particular, a way of selection affect this study. concerning the scientific literature, this one stays rather poor because only thee articles make reference to a relationship between cesium 137 and the emergence of these non cancerous pathologies. After having exposed the context, this thesis draws up the situation of knowledge relative to cataracts and to cardiac arrhythmias and their possible relationship with ionizing radiations, collect the results stemming from the analysis of the pilot study and envisages future epidemiological studies. (N.C.)

  7. Distortion of office information in activity staff of bodies of internal affairs: professional and personal factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryin M.I.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article adduces a research of psychological characteristics of information security of adolescents with deviant and normative behavior. 46 people from two Moscow schools were examined with a complex of four methods, one of which was the “Information Security Questionnaire" - is used for the first time. In addition, two experimental subgroups viewed videos about Internet security rules and then it was assessed how much it had influenced the responses of adolescents to spam mailing. A conclusion based on the obtained results was made, that adolescents with deviant behavior are less likely (in comparison with adolescents with normative behavior to be exposed to negative information because of their personal characteristics and distrust of others. However, for the same reason, they are less susceptible to persuasive educational impact, including those related to information security on the Internet. Thus, it is teenagers with normative behavior who are the ones who need information security education, and the effectiveness of such education should be tested with various psychological methods.

  8. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF PERSONALITY OF INTERNATIONAL VOLLEYBALL PLAYERS OF BRAZIL AND INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Govind Kadam

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The main objective was to study the personality of the volleyball players of India. All the players of Indian team and the players of Brazil team, who came for FIVB Men Volleyball World Championship held at Pune in August 2009, were selected for the study. They were administered the Cattell’s 16 PF questionnaire. The results wereanalyzed with the help of ‘t’ test which showed that there are significant differences found between Indian volleyball players and Brazilian Volleyball players on seven factors but not on nine factors of 16 PF Questionnaire. Indian players scored high on factor ‘F’, factor ‘I’ and factor ‘M’ whereas Brazilian players have scored high on factor ‘B’, factor ‘G’, factor ‘H’ and factor ‘L’. Indian players scored low on Factor B which means that they tend to be slow to learn and grasp and they were dull as compared with Brazilian team, and gives concrete and literal interpretation. This dullness simply represents poor functioning.

  9. Improving the Spiritual Dimension of Whole Person Care: Reaching National and International Consensus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitillo, Robert; Hull, Sharon K.; Reller, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Two conferences, Creating More Compassionate Systems of Care (November 2012) and On Improving the Spiritual Dimension of Whole Person Care: The Transformational Role of Compassion, Love and Forgiveness in Health Care (January 2013), were convened with the goals of reaching consensus on approaches to the integration of spirituality into health care structures at all levels and development of strategies to create more compassionate systems of care. The conferences built on the work of a 2009 consensus conference, Improving the Quality of Spiritual Care as a Dimension of Palliative Care. Conference organizers in 2012 and 2013 aimed to identify consensus-derived care standards and recommendations for implementing them by building and expanding on the 2009 conference model of interprofessional spiritual care and its recommendations for palliative care. The 2013 conference built on the 2012 conference to produce a set of standards and recommended strategies for integrating spiritual care across the entire health care continuum, not just palliative care. Deliberations were based on evidence that spiritual care is a fundamental component of high-quality compassionate health care and it is most effective when it is recognized and reflected in the attitudes and actions of both patients and health care providers. PMID:24842136

  10. Application of international recommendations and guidance on low level radioactive waste management and remediation of contaminated land at the national level: Experience of regulatory support in Northwest Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sneve, M.; Smith, G.M.; Kerrigan, E

    2005-01-01

    This paper notes the developments in international recommendations on radioactive waste management and remediation of contaminated land and considers their implementation in the context of the Norwegian Plan of Action to improve nuclear safety in North West Russia. Summary information is provided on projects to implement waste management activities (so-called Industrial Projects) and on projects to support regulatory supervision of waste management activities (so-called Regulatory Support Projects). The links between international recommendations and national practice are discussed and it is concluded that, in practice, the details of national standards differ both among themselves and, in some respects, from the recommendations of the ICRP and IAEA. Examples of further potential collaboration projects are listed. While separate responsibilities among organisations have to clear and maintained, combined involvement of operators and regulators is recognised as a prioritised area in future cooperation between NRPA and Russia. (author)

  11. Psycho-Trauma, Psychosocial Adjustment, and Symptomatic Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder among Internally Displaced Persons in Kaduna, Northwestern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh, Taiwo Lateef; Mohammed, Abdulaziz; Agunbiade, Samuel; Ike, Joseph; Ebiti, William N; Adekeye, Oluwatosin

    2014-01-01

    In April 2011, a post election violent conflict in Northern Nigeria led to resettlement of internally displaced persons (IDPs) in a camp in Kaduna, the worst affected state. We set out to determine prevalence and socio-demographic factors associated with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among IDPs. We also determined types of psycho-trauma experienced by the IDPs and their psychosocial adjustment. Cross-sectional systematic random sampling was used to select 258 adults IDPs. We used Harvard trauma questionnaire to diagnose "symptomatic PTSD," composite international diagnostic interview (CIDI) for diagnosis of depression, and communal trauma event inventory to determine exposure to psycho-trauma. We assessed social adjustment using social provision scale. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to determine independent predictors of PTSD. Of the 258 IDPs, 109 (42.2%) had a diagnosis of PTSD, 204 (79.1%) had poor living conditions, and only 12 (4.7%) had poor social provision. The most frequent psycho-traumas were destruction of personal property (96.1%), been evacuated from their town (96%) and witnessing violence (88%). More than half (58%) of IDPs had experienced 11-15 of the 19 traumatic events. Independent predictors of PTSD among respondents were having a CIDI diagnosis of depression (adjusted odds ratios 3.5, 95% confidence interval 1.7-7.5; p = 0.001) and witnessing death of a family member (3.7, 1.2-11.5; p = 0.0259). We concluded that exposure to psycho-trauma among IDPs in Kaduna led to post conflict PTSD. Death of a family member and co-morbid depression were independent predictors of PTSD among IDPs. Though their living condition was poor, the IDPs had good psychosocial adjustment. We recommended a structured psychosocial intervention among the IDP targeted at improving living condition and dealing with the psychological consequences of psycho-trauma.

  12. Detection system qualification for direct measurement of thyroid internal contamination by radioiodine; Qualificazione di un sistema di rilevazione trasportabile per misure dirette di contaminazione interna di radioiodio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiberi, V.; Battisti, P.; Gualdrini, G. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Ezio Clementel, Bologna (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente

    1999-07-01

    The work deals with a detection system qualification for direct measurements of thyroid internal contamination by radioiodine. The isotopes {sup 131}I and {sup 125}I are the most frequently used in nuclear medicine. Because of their volatility they are very dangerous for thyroid contamination by inhalation. The system has been projected to be easily and fast used and above all transportable where the control is necessary. These characteristic make it able to realise supervision programs of internal contamination by radioiodine. In fact due the very high control frequencies (each 15 days for {sup 131}I), these programs are usually very expensive and demanding when they are executed in external measurement laboratories. The following steps are described: devices presentation, calculation of energy and efficiency parameters, minimum detectable activity, time system reliability, best operative conditions in the measurements. At the end an application example of the system is reported. [Italian] Il presente lavoro consiste nella qualificazione di un sistema di rivelazione per misure dirette di contaminazione interna da radioiodio in tiroide, progettato per essere maneggevole, di semplice e rapido impiego e trasportabile sul luogo dove e' richiesta la misura. Il sistema e' stato studiato per la realizzazione di programmi di sorveglianza della contaminazione interna da radioiodio che, richiedendo frequenze di controllo elevate (quindicinali per lo {sup 131}I), sono estremamente impegnativi ed onerosi, soprattutto se i controlli vengono effettuati in centri di misura esterni. Dopo la determinazione dei parametri della calibrazione in energia ed efficienza, la minima attivita' rivelabile, l'affidabilita' del sistema nel tempo e le condizioni operative ottimali da adottare in sede di misura, viene verificata la piena affidabilita' del sistema in un programma di sorveglianza della contaminazione interna da radioiodio.

  13. Children and young people who are refugees, internally displaced persons or survivors or perpetrators of war, mass violence and terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drury, John; Williams, Richard

    2012-07-01

    This article draws upon articles published since 2009 to identify research evidence about the psychosocial aspects of children and young people's responses to their exposure to war, collective violence and terrorism. Recent research describes children's distress and the disorders they may develop consequent on their direct and indirect exposure to war. This article covers general responses as well as those that affect refugees, displaced children, and child soldiers. Dose of exposure is the main predictor of their degree of distress. Often, loss of parental support predicts distress or disorder. Research on children who are refugees and internally displaced persons has found that they cope better with the distressing events surrounding their flight if their parents accompany them. Studies of child soldiers show that they suffer from guilt as well as experiencing many violent distressing events. Research has identified the factors that contribute to their resilience, which include their acceptance by the communities to which they return. There are personal and social sources of resilience, including emotion regulation, parenting, and social support, for children who are exposed to war. Much of the recent research confirms earlier findings, which demonstrate that their exposure to war and collective violence leads to distress for many children and/or mental disorders for a smaller but substantial minority of them. The literature shows interest in identifying and measuring protective factors. The emphasis in the articles we reviewed on social as well as personal factors that confer psychosocial resilience reflects the broad interest in the two canons of literature on children's development and disasters. The findings point powerfully to people's needs for holistic and community-level interventions.

  14. The role of sex and autonomy-connectedness in internalizing and externalizing personality pathology, coping and axis-I pathology: among psychiatric and healthy elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachrach, Nathan; Croon, Marcel; Bekker, Marrie

    2017-06-01

    In the current study we investigated the relationship of sex and autonomy-connectedness with internalizing and externalizing personality disorder symptoms (PDS), coping and axis-I pathology in older age. A path model was tested which was based on neo-analytical object relation, attachment- and primary-personality theory, among 100 clinical and 106 non-clinical elderly. In line with our model, autonomy-connectedness (self-awareness and capacity of managing new situations) was strongly associated to internalizing PDS in both groups. In both groups, neither sex nor autonomy-connectedness predicted externalizing PDS. Sex, internalizing as well as externalizing PDS and reactive defensive coping were associated to axis-I psychopathology. We conclude that sex and autonomy-connectedness were, similarly as in adult populations, associated to internalizing PDS and axis-I pathology. Treatment of elderly with internalizing PDS and axis-I psychopathology should therefore focus on enhancing autonomy-connectedness.

  15. MIHAIL M. CERNEA – A REMARKABLE PERSONALITY OF THE NATIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL SCIENTIFIC WORLD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prof. univ. Sorin M. Rădulescu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Recognizing the need to acknowledge and preserve a nation’s truly valuable contributions, the Romanian Academy is the most important and prestigious institution in Romania, bringing together the most prominent personalities of the cultural and scientific world. The award of the title of academician (corresponding member is in fact the clearest validation of a person’s capacity of “creator” of values and “founder” of perennial traditions in various relevant fields. Over the years, very few sociologists (only 16, to our knowledge reached sucha peak of scientific prestige and some of them, such as Virgil T. Madgearu or Petre Andrei, were no longer alive so that they could enjoy this honour that was conferred to them post mortem in 1990, and 1991, respectively. Since 1990, three new full members (Henri H. Stahl and Roman Moldovan – elected in 1990, and Vladimir Trebici – 1992 and only two corresponding members (Mihail M. Cernea – and Cătălin Zamfir – who were conferred this title in 1991 were elected to the Romanian Academy from among the sociologists. On October 24th, 2012, the Romanian Academy organised new elections for members, as a result of which professor Mihail M. Cernea was promoted from corresponding member to full member of the prestigious forum. Therefore, given the regrettable passing away of the other above mentioned sociologists of the Academy, only Mihail M. Cernea – as full member of the Academy – and Cătălin Zamfir – as corresponding member – continue to be today the representatives of our field of study in the Romanian Academy. Our journal, which has benefited on countless occasions from the support offered by our colleague, professor Cernea, one of the most active members of the editorial team, takes this opportunity to recount the most significant moments in the life and activity of the reputed professor, in order to once again express its admiration and praise for his important contribution to

  16. Ergonomic guidelines for using notebook personal computers. Technical Committee on Human-Computer Interaction, International Ergonomics Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, S; Piccoli, B; Smith, M J; Sotoyama, M; Sweitzer, G; Villanueva, M B; Yoshitake, R

    2000-10-01

    In the 1980's, the visual display terminal (VDT) was introduced in workplaces of many countries. Soon thereafter, an upsurge in reported cases of related health problems, such as musculoskeletal disorders and eyestrain, was seen. Recently, the flat panel display or notebook personal computer (PC) became the most remarkable feature in modern workplaces with VDTs and even in homes. A proactive approach must be taken to avert foreseeable ergonomic and occupational health problems from the use of this new technology. Because of its distinct physical and optical characteristics, the ergonomic requirements for notebook PCs in terms of machine layout, workstation design, lighting conditions, among others, should be different from the CRT-based computers. The Japan Ergonomics Society (JES) technical committee came up with a set of guidelines for notebook PC use following exploratory discussions that dwelt on its ergonomic aspects. To keep in stride with this development, the Technical Committee on Human-Computer Interaction under the auspices of the International Ergonomics Association worked towards the international issuance of the guidelines. This paper unveils the result of this collaborative effort.

  17. The mental health of internally displaced persons: an epidemiological study of adults in two settlements in Central Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salah, Tarig Taha Mohamed; Abdelrahman, Abdallah; Lien, Lars; Eide, Arne Henning; Martinez, Priscilla; Hauff, Edvard

    2013-12-01

    There is a scarcity of data on mental health problems among Sudanese internally displaced persons (IDPs). This study aims to assess the prevalence of mental disorders of IDPs in Sudan, and to determine and compare the association between mental disorders and socio-demographic variables between the rural and urban long-term IDP populations. This cross-sectional study was implemented in two IDP areas in Central Sudan. Data were collected during face-to-face interviews using structured questionnaires to assess socio-demographic factors and the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) to determine psychiatric diagnoses. A total of 1,876 adults were enrolled from both study areas. The overall prevalence of having any mental health disorder in the IDP population was 52.9%. The most common disorders were major depressive disorder (24.3%), generalized anxiety disorder (23.6%), social phobia (14.2%) and post-traumatic stress disorder (12.3%). Years of displacement and education were associated with different mental disorders between the two areas, and there were no gender differences in prevalence of mental disorders in either area. This study shows high prevalence rates of mental disorders in both urban and rural IDP populations in Sudan, indicating a need to explore the circumstances for these high rates and to develop appropriate responses.

  18. Interaction between the Process Used to Introduce Change and the Personality of Organizational Members: An International Test

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Riddle, Terry W., Jr

    2005-01-01

    .... Drawing from literature in the areas of organizational change and personality characteristics, this study seeks to uncover the influence personality has on an individual's readiness for change...

  19. Pb isotope evidence for contaminant-metal dispersal in an international river system: The lower Danube catchment, Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bird, Graham; Brewer, Paul A.; Macklin, Mark G.; Nikolova, Mariyana; Kotsev, Tsvetan; Mollov, Mihail; Swain, Catherine

    2010-01-01

    Lead isotope signatures ( 207 Pb/ 206 Pb, 208 Pb/ 206 Pb, 208 Pb/ 204 Pb, 206 Pb/ 204 Pb), determined by magnetic sector ICP-MS in river channel sediment, metal ores and mine waste, have been used as geochemical tracers to quantify the delivery and dispersal of sediment-associated metals in the lower Danube River catchment. Due to a diverse geology and range of ore-body ages, Pb isotope signatures in ore-bodies within the lower Danube River catchment show considerable variation, even within individual metallogenic zones. It is also possible to discriminate between the Pb isotopic signatures in mine waste and river sediment within river systems draining individual ore bodies. Lead isotopic data, along with multi-element data; were used to establish the provenance of river sediments and quantify sedimentary contributions to mining-affected tributaries and to the Danube River. Data indicate that mining-affected tributaries in Serbia and Bulgaria contribute up to 30% of the river channel sediment load of the lower Danube River. Quantifying relative sediment contributions from mining-affected tributaries enables spatial patterns in sediment-associated metal and As concentrations to be interpreted in terms of key contaminant sources. Combining geochemical survey data with that regarding the provenance of contaminated sediments can therefore be used to identify foci for remediation and environmental management strategies.

  20. Drivers of contaminant levels in surface water of China during 2000-2030: Relative importance for illustrative home and personal care product chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ying; Price, Oliver R; Kilgallon, John; Qi, Yi; Tao, Shu; Jones, Kevin C; Sweetman, Andrew J

    2018-03-21

    Water pollution are among the most critical problems in China and emerging contaminants in surface water have attracted rising attentions in recent years. There is great interest in China's future environmental quality as the national government has committed to a major action plan to improve surface water quality. This study presents methodologies to rank the importance of socioeconomic and environmental drivers to the chemical concentration in surface water during 2000-2030. A case study is conducted on triclosan, a home and personal care product (HPCP) ingredient. Different economic and discharge flow scenarios are considered. Urbanization and wastewater treatment connection rates in rural and urban areas are collected or projected for 2000-2030 for counties across China. The estimated usage increases from ca. 86 to 340 t. However, emissions decreases from 76 to 52 t during 2000-2030 under a modelled Organisation for Economic Co-operation (OECD) economic scenario because of the urbanization, migration and development of wastewater treatment plants/facilities (WWTPs). The estimated national median concentration of triclosan ranges 1.5-8.2 ng/L during 2000-2030 for different scenarios. It peaks in 2009 under the OECD and three of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), A2, B1 and B2 economic scenarios, but in 2025 under A1 economic scenario. Population distribution and surface water discharge flow rates are ranked as the top two drivers to triclosan levels in surface water over the 30 years. The development of urban WWTPs was the most important driver during 2000-2010 and the development of rural works is projected to be the most important in 2011-2030. Projections suggest discharges of ingredients in HPCPs - controlled by economic growth - should be balanced by the major expenditure programme on wastewater treatment in China. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Scoring method of a Situational Judgment Test: influence on internal consistency reliability, adverse impact and correlation with personality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Leng, W E; Stegers-Jager, K M; Husbands, A; Dowell, J S; Born, M Ph; Themmen, A P N

    2017-05-01

    Situational Judgment Tests (SJTs) are increasingly used for medical school selection. Scoring an SJT is more complicated than scoring a knowledge test, because there are no objectively correct answers. The scoring method of an SJT may influence the construct and concurrent validity and the adverse impact with respect to non-traditional students. Previous research has compared only a small number of scoring methods and has not studied the effect of scoring method on internal consistency reliability. This study compared 28 different scoring methods for a rating SJT on internal consistency reliability, adverse impact and correlation with personality. The scoring methods varied on four aspects: the way of controlling for systematic error, and the type of reference group, distance and central tendency statistic. All scoring methods were applied to a previously validated integrity-based SJT, administered to 931 medical school applicants. Internal consistency reliability varied between .33 and .73, which is likely explained by the dependence of coefficient alpha on the total score variance. All scoring methods led to significantly higher scores for the ethnic majority than for the non-Western minorities, with effect sizes ranging from 0.48 to 0.66. Eighteen scoring methods showed a significant small positive correlation with agreeableness. Four scoring methods showed a significant small positive correlation with conscientiousness. The way of controlling for systematic error was the most influential scoring method aspect. These results suggest that the increased use of SJTs for selection into medical school must be accompanied by a thorough examination of the scoring method to be used.

  2. The internal/external issue what is an outer object? Another person as object and as separate other in object relations models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachrisson, Anders

    2013-01-01

    The question of what we mean by the term outer object has its roots in the epistemological foundation of psychoanalysis. From the very beginning, Freud's view was Kantian, and psychoanalysis has kept that stance, as it seems. The author reviews the internal/external issue in Freud's thinking and in the central object relations theories (Klein, Winnicott, and Bion). On this background he proposes a simple model to differentiate the concept of object along one central dimension: internal object, external object, and actual person. The main arguments are: (1) there is no direct, unmediated perception of the actual person--the experience of the other is always affected by the perceiver's subjectivity; (2) in intense transference reactions and projections, the perception of the person is dominated by the qualities of an inner object--and the other person "becomes" an external object for the perceiver; (3) when this distortion is less dominating, the other person to a higher degree remains a separate other--a person in his or her own right. Clinical material illustrates these phenomena, and a graphical picture of the model is presented. Finally with the model as background, the author comments on a selection of phenomena and concepts such as unobjectionable transference, "the third position," mourning and loneliness. The way that the internal colours and distorts the external is of course a central preoccupation of psychoanalysis generally. (Spillius et al., 2011, p. 326)

  3. Predisplacement and postdisplacement factors associated with mental health of refugees and internally displaced persons: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Matthew; Haslam, Nick

    2005-08-03

    The global refugee crisis requires that researchers, policymakers, and clinicians comprehend the magnitude of the psychological consequences of forced displacement and the factors that moderate them. To date, no empirical synthesis of research on these issues has been undertaken. To meta-analytically establish the extent of compromised mental health among refugees (including internally displaced persons, asylum seekers, and stateless persons) using a worldwide study sample. Potential moderators of mental health outcomes were examined, including enduring contextual variables (eg, postdisplacement accommodation and economic opportunity) and refugee characteristics. Published studies (1959-2002) were obtained using broad searches of computerized databases (PsycINFO and PILOTS), manual searches of reference lists, and interviews with prominent authors. Studies were selected if they investigated a refugee group and at least 1 nonrefugee comparison group and reported 1 or more quantitative group comparison on measures of psychopathology. Fifty-six reports met inclusion criteria (4.4% of identified reports), yielding 59 independent comparisons and including 67,294 participants (22,221 refugees and 45,073 nonrefugees). Data on study and report characteristics, study participant characteristics, and statistical outcomes were extracted using a coding manual and subjected to blind recoding, which indicated high reliability. Methodological quality information was coded to assess potential sources of bias. Effect size estimates for the refugee-nonrefugee comparisons were averaged across psychopathology measures within studies and weighted by sample size. The weighted mean effect size was 0.41 (SD, 0.02; range, -1.36 to 2.91 [SE, 0.01]), indicating that refugees had moderately poorer outcomes. Postdisplacement conditions moderated mental health outcomes. Worse outcomes were observed for refugees living in institutional accommodation, experiencing restricted economic opportunity

  4. Psycho-trauma, psychosocial adjustment and symptomatic Post-traumatic stress disorder among internally displaced persons in Kaduna, Northwestern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taiwo Lateef Sheikh

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background In April 2011, a post election violent conflict in Northern Nigeria led to resettlement of internally displaced persons (IDPs in a camp in Kaduna, the worst affected state. We set out to determine prevalence and socio-demographic factors associated with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD among IDPs. We also determined types of psycho-trauma experienced by the IDPs and their psychosocial adjustment.MethodsCross-sectional systematic random sampling was used to select 258 adults IDPs. We used Harvard trauma questionnaire to diagnose symptomatic PTSD, composite international diagnostic interview for diagnosis of depression, and communal trauma event inventory to determine exposure to psycho-trauma. We assessed social adjustment using social provision scale. Multiple logistic regression was used to determine independent predictors of PTSD. Results Of the 258 IDPs, 109 (42.2% had a diagnosis of PTSD, 204 (79.1% had poor living conditions, and only12 (4.7% had poor social provision. The most frequent psycho-traumas were destruction of personal property (96.1%, been evacuated from their town (96% and witnessing violence (88%. More than half (58% of IDPs had experienced 11 – 15 of the 19 traumatic events. Independent predictors of PTSD among respondents were, having a CIDI diagnosis of depression (Adjusted Odd Ratio [AOR]3.5, 95% CI 1.7 – 7.5; p= 0.001 and witnessing death of a family member ( 3.7, 1.2 – 11.5; p=0.0259.ConclusionWe concluded that exposure to psycho-trauma among IDPs in Kaduna led to post conflict PTSD. Death of a family member and co-morbid depression were independent predictors of PTSD among IDPs. Though their living condition was poor, the IDPs had good psychosocial adjustment. We recommended a structured psychosocial intervention among the IDP targeted at improving living condition and dealing with the psychological consequences of psycho-trauma.Key words Post traumatic stress disorder, psychosocial adjustment

  5. Root Cause Assessment of Pressure Drop Rise of a Packed Bed of Lithium Hydroxide in the International Space Station Trace Contaminant Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilera, Tatiana; Perry, Jay L.

    2009-01-01

    The trace contaminant control system (TCCS) located in the International Space Station s (ISS) U.S. laboratory module employs physical adsorption, thermal catalytic oxidation, and chemical adsorption to remove trace chemical contamination produced by equipment offgassing and anthropogenic sources from the cabin atmosphere. The chemical adsorption stage, consisting of a packed bed of granular lithium hydroxide (LiOH), is located after the thermal catalytic oxidation stage and is designed to remove acid gas byproducts that may be formed in the upstream oxidation stage. While in service on board the ISS, the LiOH bed exhibited a change in flow resistance that leading to flow control difficulties in the TCCS. Post flight evaluation revealed LiOH granule size attrition among other changes. An experimental program was employed to investigate mechanisms hypothesized to contribute to the change in the packed bed s flow resistance. Background on the problem is summarized, including a discussion of likely mechanisms. The experimental program is described, results are presented, and implications for the future are discussed.

  6. Controls of internal contamination from gamma-emitting radionuclides performed whole-body counter measures on children's population from Bjelorussia, Russia and Ucraina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarroni, G.; Battisti, P.; Castellani, C.M.; Formignani, M.; Rampa, E.; Ticconi, R.

    1994-12-01

    This report summarizes the results obtained in 9 measurement campaigns, performed at the ENEA (Italian Agency for New Technologies, Energy and the Environment) centres of Bologna and Roma-Casaccia from April 1991 to September 1992, for the assessment of internal contamination from gamma-emitting radionuclides. Homogeneous samples were selected for the controls, each one representing the children's population from given area. 15 areas were investigated and 24 examined; 20 of them were from Bjelorussia. 266 children, 124 male and 142 female subjects, were controlled. The instruments were intercalibrated according to the body size, from 20.25 kg to 81 kg. Body contamination only from 1 37 Cs and 1 34 Cs was detected. Evaluations were performed in order to test appropriate use of ICRP caesium biokynetic model for children aged 8 to 15 years. Statistical distribution of body activity data were carefully analyzed. It is demonstrated that the data are well fitted by lognormal distribution and a difference between sexes in terms of activity. A significant difference between sexes was found in terms of activity intake

  7. Treatment with Ca-DTPA of internal contaminations by plutonium and americium: Recommendations for writing protocols in Cea and AREVA centers; Traitement par le Ca-DTPA des contaminations internes par le plutonium et l'americium: recommandations pour la redaction de protocoles dans les centres CEA et AREVA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grappin, L. [CEA Cadarache, DEN, Service de Sante au Travail, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Legoff, J.P.; Andre, F. [CEA Valduc, Service de Sante au Travail, 21 - Is-sur-Tille (France); Carbone, L.; Agrinier, A.L. [CEA Marcoule, DEN, Service de Sante au Travail, 30 (France); Courtay, C.; Aninat, M. [AREVA, Service de Sante au Travail, La Hague, 50 - Beaumont-Hague (France); Amabile, J.C. [SPRA, HIA Percy, 92 - Clamart (France); Florin, A. [CEA Saclay, SDM Service de Sante au Travail, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2009-10-15

    The purpose of this document is to provide physicians working in a B.N.F. (Basic Nuclear Facility) with recommendations for the drafting of Ca-DTPA treatment protocols for internal contamination by actinides. These recommendations are based on the results of injections carried out by Cea and AREVA doctors in a working group, with the collaboration of the Army Radiation Protection Service. The study focused on Ca-DTPA IV injection. Other dosage forms, routes of administration as well as adjuvant treatments are also mentioned. For cases of contaminated wounds and inhalation, indicators for treatment with Ca-DTPA, particularly its initialization, the dosage, duration, frequency of administration, the criteria for ending the treatment, then its efficiency and dosimetry gain are covered. A guide for the prescription of the radio toxicological monitoring necessary for the treatment and the dosimetric evaluation is proposed. (authors)

  8. Contamination, misuse and abuse of the global oceans leading to ecosystem damage and destruction, health consequences and international conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    Unregulated uses of the oceans may threaten the global ecological balance, alter plant and animal life and significantly impact the global climatic systems. Recent plans to locate large scale structures on the oceans and to exploit the mineral riches of the seas pose even greater risk to the ecological system. Finally, increasing use of the oceans for large scale transport greatly enhances the probability of collision, polluting spills and international conflict.

  9. Valdose program: methodologies for dose assessment in internal contamination, 1997 census; Programma valdose: metodologie di valutazione della dose da contaminazione interna, censimento 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castellani, C.M.; Battisti, P.; Tarroni, G. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche `Ezio Clementel`, Bologna (Italy). Dip. Ambiente

    1998-12-31

    Dose assessment in internal dosimetry needs computational and interpretative tools that allow carrying out, as a first step, an evaluation of intake on the base of bioassay measurements or WBC measurements, and as a second step, dose evaluation on the base of estimated intake. In the frame of the MIDIA Co-ordination (WBC operating in Italy), in the first months of 1997 a census on methodologies for dose evaluation in internal contamination has been proposed. A technical form has been sent to all the WBC Centres allowing an accurate description of modalities used in each centre. 9 out of 17 centres sent the answers to the technical form in time. In this paper all the forms filled in are reported. A careful comparative evaluation of the answers has been made both for routine monitoring and for special monitoring. The various radionuclides present in the Italian reality, calculation methodologies both for intake and dose, hypotheses adopted for date, path and modalities of contaminations are also presented. Proposals for conforming to the methodology in Italy after the introduction of the models following ICRP 60 publication that are the base of the Euratom 96/29 Directive are also discussed. [Italiano] La valutazione di dose in contaminazione interna necessita di strumenti interpretativi che permettano di effettuare in una prima la valutazione dell`intake sulla base delle misure dei campioni biologici o del corpo intero (WBC), ed in una seconda fase la valutazione della dose sulla base dell`intake. All`interno del coordinamento MIDIA dei WBC operanti in Italia e` stato proposto, nel primo trimestre del 1997, un censimento sulle metodologie di valutazione di dose da contaminazione interna. Ai diversi centri e` stato inviato una scheda tecnica che, mediante un particolareggiato schema di domande, aiutava i diversi centri nella esposizione delle modalita` di valutazione di dose che ogni centro segue. 9 au 17 centri WBC operanti al momemnto in Italia hanno inviato la

  10. Providing mentoring for orphans and vulnerable children in internally displaced person camps: The case of northern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan H. Chiroma

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The challenge of orphans and vulnerable children (OVC has become central to the response of many organisations (UN, UNHCR, AONN, UNAIDS, UNFPA, UNICEF, etc. today. The number of OVC throughout northern Nigeria is growing as a result of the Boko Haram pandemic. Mostly, this is caused by the death of parents who have been killed by the insurgents. It has been estimated that by 2015, 200 000 children under the age of 18 had been orphaned by the Boko Haram insurgents. As the number of OVC is growing, it is becoming more and more difficult for their communities to address all their needs, including their need for positive role models and mentors. This article discusses the role that mentoring can play in the development of OVC affected by violence in northern Nigeria, specifically those in internally displaced person (IDP camps. This article argued that one approach to improve the holistic care of OVC in IDP camps in northern Nigeria is through the use of mentors.

  11. Providing mentoring for orphans and vulnerable children in internally displaced person camps: The case of northern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan H. Chiroma

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The challenge of orphans and vulnerable children (OVC has become central to the response of many organisations (UN, UNHCR, AONN, UNAIDS, UNFPA, UNICEF, etc. today. The number of OVC throughout northern Nigeria is growing as a result of the Boko Haram pandemic. Mostly, this is caused by the death of parents who have been killed by the insurgents. It has been estimated that by 2015, 200 000 children under the age of 18 had been orphaned by the Boko Haram insurgents. As the number of OVC is growing, it is becoming more and more difficult for their communities to address all their needs, including their need for positive role models and mentors. This article discusses the role that mentoring can play in the development of OVC affected by violence in northern Nigeria, specifically those in internally displaced person (IDP camps. This article argued that one approach to improve the holistic care of OVC in IDP camps in northern Nigeria is through the use of mentors.

  12. The role of sex and autonomy-connectedness in internalizing and externalizing personality pathology, coping and axis-I pathology : Among psychiatric and healthy elderly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bachrach, N.; Croon, M.A.; Bekker, M.H.J.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: In the current study we investigated the relationship of sex and autonomy-connectedness with internalizing and externalizing personality disorder symptoms (PDS), coping and axis-I pathology in older age. Method: A path model was tested which was based on neo-analytical object relation,

  13. Role of International Study Experiences in the Personal and Professional Development of University Lecturers in the Humanities and Social Sciences Fields in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaowiwattanakul, Sukanya

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the role of international experience on personal and professional development of university academic staff in the Humanities and Social Sciences fields in Thailand. The participants were 23 lecturers from nine universities in Thailand. A semi-structured face-to-face interviewing method was employed. The findings reveal that…

  14. Radiocesium contamination and estimated internal exposure doses in edible wild plants in Kawauchi Village following the Fukushima nuclear disaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rimi Tsuchiya

    Full Text Available Kawauchi Village, in Fukushima Prefecture, is located within a 30-km radius of the nuclear disaster site of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP. "Sansai" (edible wild plants in this village have been evaluated by gamma spectrometry after the residents had returned to their homes, to determine the residents' risk of internal exposure to artificial radionuclides due to consumption of these plants. The concentrations of radiocesium (cesium-134 and cesium-137 were measured in all 364 samples collected in spring 2015. Overall, 34 (9.3% samples exceeded the regulatory limit of 100 Bq/kg established by Japanese guidelines, 80 (22.0% samples registered between 100 Bq/kg and 20 Bq/kg, and 250 (68.7% registered below 20 Bq/kg (the detection limit. The internal effective doses from edible wild plants were sufficiently low (less than 1 mSv/y, at 3.5±1.2 μSv/y for males and 3.2±0.9 μSv/y for females (2.7±1.5 μSv/y for children and 3.7±0.7 μSv/y for adults in 2015. Thus, the potential internal exposure doses due to consumption of these edible wild plants were below the applicable radiological standard limits for foods. However, high radiocesium levels were confirmed in specific species, such as Eleutherococcus sciadophylloides ("Koshiabura" and Osmunda japonica (Asian royal fern, "Zenmai". Consequently, a need still might exist for long-term follow-up such as environmental monitoring, physical and mental support to avoid unnecessary radiation exposure and to remove anxiety about adverse health effects due to radiation. The customs of residents, especially the "satoyama" (countryside culture of ingesting "sansai," also require consideration in the further reconstruction of areas such as Kawauchi Village that were affected by the nuclear disaster.

  15. Radiocesium contamination and estimated internal exposure doses in edible wild plants in Kawauchi Village following the Fukushima nuclear disaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchiya, Rimi; Orita, Makiko; Fukushima, Yoshiko; Endo, Yuukou; Yamashita, Shunichi; Takamura, Noboru

    2017-01-01

    Kawauchi Village, in Fukushima Prefecture, is located within a 30-km radius of the nuclear disaster site of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP). “Sansai” (edible wild plants) in this village have been evaluated by gamma spectrometry after the residents had returned to their homes, to determine the residents’ risk of internal exposure to artificial radionuclides due to consumption of these plants. The concentrations of radiocesium (cesium-134 and cesium-137) were measured in all 364 samples collected in spring 2015. Overall, 34 (9.3%) samples exceeded the regulatory limit of 100 Bq/kg established by Japanese guidelines, 80 (22.0%) samples registered between 100 Bq/kg and 20 Bq/kg, and 250 (68.7%) registered below 20 Bq/kg (the detection limit). The internal effective doses from edible wild plants were sufficiently low (less than 1 mSv/y), at 3.5±1.2 μSv/y for males and 3.2±0.9 μSv/y for females (2.7±1.5 μSv/y for children and 3.7±0.7 μSv/y for adults in 2015). Thus, the potential internal exposure doses due to consumption of these edible wild plants were below the applicable radiological standard limits for foods. However, high radiocesium levels were confirmed in specific species, such as Eleutherococcus sciadophylloides (“Koshiabura”) and Osmunda japonica (Asian royal fern, “Zenmai”). Consequently, a need still might exist for long-term follow-up such as environmental monitoring, physical and mental support to avoid unnecessary radiation exposure and to remove anxiety about adverse health effects due to radiation. The customs of residents, especially the “satoyama” (countryside) culture of ingesting “sansai,” also require consideration in the further reconstruction of areas such as Kawauchi Village that were affected by the nuclear disaster. PMID:29240794

  16. Radiocesium contamination and estimated internal exposure doses in edible wild plants in Kawauchi Village following the Fukushima nuclear disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchiya, Rimi; Taira, Yasuyuki; Orita, Makiko; Fukushima, Yoshiko; Endo, Yuukou; Yamashita, Shunichi; Takamura, Noboru

    2017-01-01

    Kawauchi Village, in Fukushima Prefecture, is located within a 30-km radius of the nuclear disaster site of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP). "Sansai" (edible wild plants) in this village have been evaluated by gamma spectrometry after the residents had returned to their homes, to determine the residents' risk of internal exposure to artificial radionuclides due to consumption of these plants. The concentrations of radiocesium (cesium-134 and cesium-137) were measured in all 364 samples collected in spring 2015. Overall, 34 (9.3%) samples exceeded the regulatory limit of 100 Bq/kg established by Japanese guidelines, 80 (22.0%) samples registered between 100 Bq/kg and 20 Bq/kg, and 250 (68.7%) registered below 20 Bq/kg (the detection limit). The internal effective doses from edible wild plants were sufficiently low (less than 1 mSv/y), at 3.5±1.2 μSv/y for males and 3.2±0.9 μSv/y for females (2.7±1.5 μSv/y for children and 3.7±0.7 μSv/y for adults in 2015). Thus, the potential internal exposure doses due to consumption of these edible wild plants were below the applicable radiological standard limits for foods. However, high radiocesium levels were confirmed in specific species, such as Eleutherococcus sciadophylloides ("Koshiabura") and Osmunda japonica (Asian royal fern, "Zenmai"). Consequently, a need still might exist for long-term follow-up such as environmental monitoring, physical and mental support to avoid unnecessary radiation exposure and to remove anxiety about adverse health effects due to radiation. The customs of residents, especially the "satoyama" (countryside) culture of ingesting "sansai," also require consideration in the further reconstruction of areas such as Kawauchi Village that were affected by the nuclear disaster.

  17. Atmospheric contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruetter, Juerg

    1997-01-01

    It is about the levels of contamination in center America, the population's perception on the problem, effects of the atmospheric contamination, effects in the environment, causes of the atmospheric contamination, possibilities to reduce the atmospheric contamination and list of Roeco Swisscontac in atmospheric contamination

  18. Dose estimate for effective internal contamination in the occupationally exposed workers(OEW) that handling open sources for thyroid therapy using 131 I (3779)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lecuna, J.A.; Carrizales, L.I.; Dantas, B.M.

    2013-01-01

    Handling of a variety of unsealed sources in Nuclear Medicine has led a significant risk of internal exposure of workers. 131 I stands out among the radionuclides of frequent use due its wide application in diagnosis and treatment of thyroid diseases. The increasing radionuclide use for medical purposes and treatment of diseases creates a need for capable methodologies of controlling the internal contamination of work. Currently, in Venezuela, there are about 17 Nuclear Medicine Services between public and private, of which 5 are operating; however, individual monitoring is still limited in the control of internal exposure. This work presents the development of bioassay techniques 'in vivo', in order to quantify the incorporation of 131 I used in Nuclear Medicine. It also presents the research results of internal exposure of a group of workers involved in handling of therapeutic dose of 131 I . The 'in vivo' detection system was calibrated with the thyroid simulator developed at the Institute of Radiologic Protection and Dosimetry (IRD, Rio de Janeiro - Brazil) and which also has the UTN-IVIC (Caracas - Venezuela). The results showed that the bioassay method developed in this work has sufficient sensitivity for its use in routine intake survey of workers in Nuclear Medicine. Between the two workers controlled in this study, both had measurable results in terms of incorporation. Therefore, it is important to keep control of it and also gives us the possibility to evaluate the incorporations in suspected accident. The highest estimate of the effective dose was 1,28x10 -5 Sv by inhalation and 1,27x10 -5 Sv by ingestion

  19. The effect of personal and group discrimination on the subjective well-being of people with mental illness: the role of internalized stigma and collective action intention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Garín, Daniel; Molero, Fernando; Bos, Arjan E R

    2017-04-01

    The goal of this study is to test a model in which personal discrimination predicts internalized stigma, while group discrimination predicts a greater willingness to engage in collective action. Internalized stigma and collective action, in turn, are associated to positive and negative affect. A cross-sectional study with 213 people with mental illness was conducted. The model was tested using path analysis. Although the data supported the model, its fit was not sufficiently good. A respecified model, in which a direct path from collective action to internalized stigma was added, showed a good fit. Personal and group discrimination appear to impact subjective well-being through two different paths: the internalization of stigma and collective action intentions, respectively. These two paths, however, are not completely independent, as collective action predicts a lower internalization of stigma. Thus, collective action appears as an important tool to reduce internalized stigma and improve subjective well-being. Future interventions to reduce the impact of stigma should fight the internalization of stigma and promote collective action are suggested.

  20. [Psychiatric examination of accused for the "United Nations International Tribunal for the prosecution of persons responsible for serious violations of International Humanitarian Law committed in the territory of the former Yugoslavia" (ICTY)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soyka, M

    2002-02-01

    Psychiatric examination of accused for the International Tribunal is a new and challenging task for expert medical witness and forensic psychiatry. After a brief description of a case report relevant aspects of psychiatric evaluation of persons responsible for war crimes are outlined and possible implications for forensic research are discussed.

  1. A comparison of polymerase chain reaction and international organization for standardization methods for determination of Enterobacter sakazakii contamination of infant formulas from Chinese mainland markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Yingwang; Wu, Qingping; Yao, Lin; Dong, Xiaohui; Wu, Kui; Zhang, Jumei

    2009-12-01

    Enterobacter sakazakii is an emerging foodborne pathogen associated with meningitis, necrotizing enterocolitis, and sepsis in infants. One of the main transmission vehicles is the commercially available infant formulas. To provide efficient options and direction for detecting E. sakazakii in infant formulas, evaluation of different polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays targeting the 16S-23S rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS), the ompA gene, and the alpha-1,4-glucosidase gene (gluA) of this organism, were compared to the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) method for detecting E. sakazakii in the 243 commercial infant formula samples. Twelve samples were found to be positive for E. sakazakii by all the PCR assays used, followed by sequencing of PCR products. Ten samples were found to be positive by the ISO method, and all 10 gave positive signals for all the PCR amplifications. In contrast, four false-positive results were generated by single-PCR of the ITS region and one false-positive result targeting the ompA gene, while two false-negative results occurred with the ISO method. Combined with selective enrichment step(s), duplex-PCR targeting ITS and ompA and targeting ompA and gluA genes or single-PCR of the gluA gene can be used to test for contamination by E. sakazakii in infant formulas before they enter the market. PCR techniques will be helpful for routine monitoring and risk assessment for large-scale screenings.

  2. The Influence of Personal Well-Being on Learning Achievement in University Students Over Time: Mediating or Moderating Effects of Internal and External University Engagement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Yu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The current study examined the relationship between students' personal well-being and their learning achievement during university study, and whether such relationship would be mediated or moderated by university engagement. A total of 434 university students from one public university in Hong Kong participated in the study. The participants completed an online survey consisting of personal well-being (cognitive behavioral competence and general positive youth development, university engagement, and learning achievement measures (personal growth, and accumulated GPA as academic achievement at four time points with a 1-year interval. Results showed that personal well-being measured at the beginning of university study positively predicted students' personal growth and academic achievement after 3 years' study. While the internal dimensions of university engagement (academic challenge and learning with peers showed longitudinal significant mediational effect, the external dimensions (experience with faculty and campus environment did not have significant longitudinal moderating effect. Nevertheless, external dimensions of student engagement also showed direct effect on personal growth and academic achievement. The long-standing positive effects of personal well-being on university engagement and subsequently, learning achievement during university years call for more attention to the promotion of holistic development among university students in Hong Kong.

  3. Pharmaceuticals, hormones, personal-care products, and other organic wastewater contaminants in water resources: Recent research activities of the U.S. Geological Survey's toxic substances hydrology program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Focazio, Michael J.; Kolpin, Dana W.; Buxton, Herbert T.

    2003-01-01

    Recent decades have brought increasing concerns for potential contamination of water resources that could inadvertently result during production, use, and disposal of the numerous chemicals offering improvements in industry, agriculture, medical treatment, and even common household products. Increasing knowledge of the environmental occurrence or toxicological behavior of these contaminants from various studies in Europe, United States, and elsewhere has resulted in increased concern for potential adverse environmental and human health effects (Daughton and Ternes, 1999). Ecologists and public health experts often have incomplete understandings of the toxicological significance of many of these contaminants, particularly long-term, low-level exposure and when they occur in mixtures with other contaminants (Daughton and Ternes, 1999; Kümmerer, 2001). In addition, these ‘emerging contaminants’ are not typically monitored or assessed in ambient water resources. The need to understand the processes controlling the transport and fate of these contaminants in the environment, and the lack of knowledge of the significance of long-term exposures have increased the need to study environmental occurrence down to trace (nanogram per liter) levels. Furthermore, the possibility that mixtures of environmental contaminants may interact synergistically or antagonistically has increased the need to characterize the types of mixtures that are found in our waters. The U.S. Geological Survey’s Toxic Substances Hydrology Program (Toxics Program) is developing information and tools on emerging water-quality issues that will be used to design and improve water-quality monitoring and assessment programs of the USGS and others, and for proactive decision-making by industry, regulators, the research community, and the public (http://toxics.usgs.gov/regional/emc.html). This research on emerging water-quality issues includes a combination of laboratory work to develop new analytical

  4. Correlates of depression among internally displaced persons after post-election violence in Kaduna, North Western Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh, Taiwo Lateef; Abdulaziz, Mohammed; Agunbiade, Samuel; Joseph, Ike; Ebiti, Bill; Adekeye, Oluwatosin

    2015-01-01

    In April 2011, a post-election violent conflict in northern Nigeria led to resettlement of internally displaced persons (IDPs) in a camp in Kaduna, the worst affected state. We set out to determine the prevalence of depression among the IDPs. We also determined socio-demographic and other correlates of depression among the IDPs. Cross-sectional systematic random sampling was used to select 258 adults IDPs. We used the Hopkins symptom checklist to diagnose probable depression, composite international diagnostic interview for diagnosis of definite depression and communal trauma event inventory to determine exposure to psycho-trauma. We assessed social adjustment using social provision scale and Harvard trauma questionnaire to diagnose "symptomatic PTSD". Multiple logistic regression was used to determine independent predictors of depression. Of the 258 IDPs, 154 (59.7%) had probable depression, and 42 (16.3%) had definite depression. Females were more likely to have probable depression (1.68, 95% CI 1.02-2.78; p=0.04) and definite depression (2.69, 1.31-5.54; p= 0.006). IDPs with co-morbid PTSD were more likely to have probable depression (16.9, 8.15-35.13; pdepression (3.79,1.86-7.71; pPTSD (AOR 16.6, 7.2-38.6; ppsycho-trauma of getting beaten (AOR 2.7, 1.1-6.7; p=0.004) remained as independent predictors of probable depression among the IDPs. The male gender remained a protective factor against probable depression (AOR 0.3, 0.1-0.7; p= 0.006). This study was conducted 2 years post-conflict and only IDPs living in the camps were studied. IDPs living in Hajj camp in Kaduna, northern Nigeria developed post-conflict probable depression and definite depression. Female gender, experienced beating and comorbid diagnosis of PTSD were independent predictors of probable depression among the IDPs, while IDPs that were unemployed or retired had more of definitive depression. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Concurrent outbreaks of cholera and peripheral neuropathy associated with high mortality among persons internally displaced by a volcanic eruption.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Rosewell

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In October 2004, Manam Island volcano in Papua New Guinea erupted, causing over 10 000 villagers to flee to internally displaced person (IDP camps, including 550 from Dugulaba village. Following violence over land access in March 2010, the IDPs fled the camps, and four months later concurrent outbreaks of acute watery diarrhea and unusual neurological complaints were reported in this population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective case-control study was conducted to identify the risk factors for peripheral neuropathy. Rectal swabs were collected from cases of acute watery diarrhea. Hair and serum metals and metalloids were analyzed by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS. RESULTS: There were 17 deaths among the 550 village inhabitants during the outbreak period at a crude mortality rate 21-fold that of a humanitarian crisis. Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor Ogawa was confirmed among the population. Access to community-level rehydration was crucial to mortality. Peripheral neuropathy was diagnosed among cases with neurological symptoms. A balanced diet was significantly protective against neuropathy. A dose-response relationship was seen between peripheral neuropathy and a decreasing number of micronutrient- rich foods in the diet. Deficiencies in copper, iron, selenium and zinc were identified among the cases of peripheral neuropathy. CONCLUSIONS: Cholera likely caused the mostly preventable excess mortality. Peripheral neuropathy was not caused by cholera, but cholera may worsen existing nutritional deficiencies. The peripheral neuropathy was likely caused by complex micronutrient deficiencies linked to non-diversified diets that potentially increased the vulnerability of this population, however a new zinc-associated neuropathy could not be ruled out. Reoccurrence can be prevented by addressing the root cause of displacement and ensuring access to arable land and timely resettlement.

  6. Incarceration and exposure to internally displaced persons camps associated with reproductive rights abuses among sex workers in northern Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Margaret; Goldenberg, Shira M; Akello, Monica; Muzaaya, Godfrey; Nguyen, Paul; Birungi, Josephine; Shannon, Kate

    2017-07-01

    While female sex workers (FSWs) face a high burden of violence and criminalisation, coupled with low access to safe, non-coercive care, little is known about such experiences among FSWs in conflict-affected settings, particularly as they relate to sexual and reproductive health (SRH) and rights. We explored factors associated with lifetime abortions among FSWs in northern Uganda; and separately modelled the independent effect of lifetime exposures to incarceration and living in internally displaced persons (IDP) camps on coerced and unsafe abortions. Analyses are based on a community-based cross-sectional research project in Gulu District, northern Uganda (2011-2012) with The AIDS Support Organization (TASO) Gulu, FSWs, and other community organisations. We conducted questionnaires, sex worker/community-led outreach to sex work venues, and voluntary HIV testing by TASO. Of 400 FSWs, 62 had ever accessed an abortion. In a multivariable model, gendered violence, both childhood mistreatment/or abuse at home [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 1.96; 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.99-3.90] and workplace violence by clients (AOR 3.57; 95% CI 1.31-9.72) were linked to increased experiences of abortion. Lifetime exposure to incarceration retained an independent effect on increased odds of coerced abortion (AOR 5.16; 95% CI 1.39-19.11), and living in IDP camps was positively associated with unsafe abortion (AOR 4.71; 95% CI 1.42-15.61). These results suggest a critical need for removal of legal and social barriers to realising the SRH rights of all women, and ensuring safe, voluntary access to reproductive choice for marginalised and criminalised populations of FSWs. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  7. Concurrent outbreaks of cholera and peripheral neuropathy associated with high mortality among persons internally displaced by a volcanic eruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosewell, Alexander; Clark, Geoff; Mabong, Paul; Ropa, Berry; Posanai, Enoch; Man, Nicola W Y; Dutta, Samir R; Wickramasinghe, Wasa; Qi, Lixia; Ng, Jack C; Mola, Glen; Zwi, Anthony B; MacIntyre, C Raina

    2013-01-01

    In October 2004, Manam Island volcano in Papua New Guinea erupted, causing over 10 000 villagers to flee to internally displaced person (IDP) camps, including 550 from Dugulaba village. Following violence over land access in March 2010, the IDPs fled the camps, and four months later concurrent outbreaks of acute watery diarrhea and unusual neurological complaints were reported in this population. A retrospective case-control study was conducted to identify the risk factors for peripheral neuropathy. Rectal swabs were collected from cases of acute watery diarrhea. Hair and serum metals and metalloids were analyzed by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). There were 17 deaths among the 550 village inhabitants during the outbreak period at a crude mortality rate 21-fold that of a humanitarian crisis. Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor Ogawa was confirmed among the population. Access to community-level rehydration was crucial to mortality. Peripheral neuropathy was diagnosed among cases with neurological symptoms. A balanced diet was significantly protective against neuropathy. A dose-response relationship was seen between peripheral neuropathy and a decreasing number of micronutrient- rich foods in the diet. Deficiencies in copper, iron, selenium and zinc were identified among the cases of peripheral neuropathy. Cholera likely caused the mostly preventable excess mortality. Peripheral neuropathy was not caused by cholera, but cholera may worsen existing nutritional deficiencies. The peripheral neuropathy was likely caused by complex micronutrient deficiencies linked to non-diversified diets that potentially increased the vulnerability of this population, however a new zinc-associated neuropathy could not be ruled out. Reoccurrence can be prevented by addressing the root cause of displacement and ensuring access to arable land and timely resettlement.

  8. The mental health, quality of life and life satisfaction of internally displaced persons living in Nakuru County, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getanda, Elijah Mironga; Papadopoulos, Chris; Evans, Hala

    2015-08-06

    Internally displaced persons (IDPs) are among the most vulnerable people in the world today. Previous research highlights that conflict-induced forced displacement can cause problems with mental health and wellbeing. This study aimed to contribute to this body of knowledge by investigating the mental health, quality of life, and life satisfaction among IDPs living in Nakuru, Kenya. A questionnaire that included the General Health Questionnaire-12, Satisfaction with Life Scale, and a modified version of the WHO Quality of Life-BREF tool was used for data collection. The questionnaire also included an open-ended question inviting qualitative responses about their experience as an IDP. The questionnaire was distributed through a three-stage sampling approach across four refugee camps from four regions of the Nakuru County in Kenya. One hundred IDPs participated in this study. All participants scored substantially higher than the applied GHQ-12 threshold for caseness (mean GHQ-12 score = 28.7, SD = 3.6). Quality of life and life satisfaction scores were also very poor (M = 10.24, SD = 1.9; M = 6.82, SD = 1.5 respectively). The qualitative results reflected these findings with statements reflecting suicidal thoughts, unhappiness with the government, lack of support, and fear for themselves and their children. Significantly higher GHQ-12 scores were found among older IDPs (rho = .202, sig = .046), widowers compared to married IDPs (mean difference = -2.41, SE = .885, sig = .027), while lower scores were found among IDPs who reported having friends as a source of support (U = 834, sig = .045), while quality of life scores were higher among IDPs who reported receiving governmental support (U = 248, sig = .018). The findings revealed poor levels of mental health, quality of life and life satisfaction. Older, widowed IDPs and those who did not perceive support from friends or the government were found to be at the highest risk of poor health and wellbeing.

  9. Predicting positive mental health in internally displaced persons in Indonesia: the roles of economic improvement and exposure to violent conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saragih Turnip, Sherly; Sörbom, Dag; Hauff, Edvard

    2016-01-01

    Positive mental health, rather than just the absence of mental illness, is rarely investigated among the internally displaced persons (IDPs) affected by violent conflict in low-income countries. The purpose of this study was to investigate a model that could explain the interrelationship between factors contributing to positive mental health in displaced populations. In a longitudinal study we examine poverty, exposure to traumatic events and the change of material well-being after one year. We collected data in two consecutive years (2005 and 2006) from a community-based sample of IDPs in Ambon, Indonesia, through face-to-face structured interviews with consenting adults. Participants of this study were IDPs lived in Ambon during the violent conflict period. We interviewed 471 IDPs in the first year and reinterviewed 399 (85%) of the same subjects in the second year. The IDPs possessed good sense of coherence and subjective well-being. Our final model, which was generated by the use of structural equation modeling, fits the data well (χ(2) = 52.51, df = 45, p = .21, CFI = .99, RMSEA = .019). Exposure to violent conflict had a negative impact on IDPs' mental health initially and better economic conditions improved it (r = -.30 and .29 respectively). Mental health status one year previously was a strong predictor of future mental health, followed by individual economic growth in the past year (r = .43 and .29 respectively). On a group level the IDPs were resilient and adaptive to survive in adverse living conditions after devastating violent conflict, and the economic improvement contributed to it.

  10. A vast range of opportunities for feeding the world in 2050: trade-off between diet, N contamination and international trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billen, Gilles; Lassaletta, Luis; Garnier, Josette

    2015-02-01

    Through a detailed analysis of the FAO database, we have constructed a generalized representation of the nitrogen transfers characterizing the current agro-food system (GRAFS) of 12 macro-regions of the world in terms of functional relationships between crop farming, livestock breeding and human nutrition. Based on this model, and maintaining the current cropland areas and the performance of cropping and livestock systems in each region, we have assessed the possibilities of meeting the protein requirements of the estimated world population in 2050, according to various combinations of three critical drivers namely human diet (total amount of protein consumed and share of animal protein in this total), regional livestock production and crop fertilization intensity, in each region. The results show that feeding the projected 2050 world population would generally imply higher levels of inter-regional trade and of environmental nitrogen contamination than the current levels, but that the scenarios with less recourse to inter-regional trade generally produce less N losses to the environment. If an equitable human diet (in terms of protein consumption) is to be established globally (the same in all regions of the world), the fraction of animal protein should not exceed 40% of a total ingestion of 4 kgN capita-1 yr-1, or 25% of a total consumption of 5 kgN capita-1 yr-1. Our results show that slightly improving the agronomical performance in the most deficient regions (namely Maghreb, the Middle East, sub-Saharan Africa, and India) would make it possible not only to meet the global protein requirements with much less international trade (hence more food sovereignty), but also to reduce N environmental contamination the most efficiently.

  11. A vast range of opportunities for feeding the world in 2050: trade-off between diet, N contamination and international trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billen, Gilles; Lassaletta, Luis; Garnier, Josette

    2015-01-01

    Through a detailed analysis of the FAO database, we have constructed a generalized representation of the nitrogen transfers characterizing the current agro-food system (GRAFS) of 12 macro-regions of the world in terms of functional relationships between crop farming, livestock breeding and human nutrition. Based on this model, and maintaining the current cropland areas and the performance of cropping and livestock systems in each region, we have assessed the possibilities of meeting the protein requirements of the estimated world population in 2050, according to various combinations of three critical drivers namely human diet (total amount of protein consumed and share of animal protein in this total), regional livestock production and crop fertilization intensity, in each region. The results show that feeding the projected 2050 world population would generally imply higher levels of inter-regional trade and of environmental nitrogen contamination than the current levels, but that the scenarios with less recourse to inter-regional trade generally produce less N losses to the environment. If an equitable human diet (in terms of protein consumption) is to be established globally (the same in all regions of the world), the fraction of animal protein should not exceed 40% of a total ingestion of 4 kgN capita −1 yr −1 , or 25% of a total consumption of 5 kgN capita −1 yr −1 . Our results show that slightly improving the agronomical performance in the most deficient regions (namely Maghreb, the Middle East, sub-Saharan Africa, and India) would make it possible not only to meet the global protein requirements with much less international trade (hence more food sovereignty), but also to reduce N environmental contamination the most efficiently. (letter)

  12. Monitoring of the internal contamination of occupationally exposure personnel in services of nuclear medicine through the use of gamma cameras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teran, M.; Paolino, A.; Savio, E.; Hermida, J.C.; Dantas, B.M.

    2006-01-01

    The radionuclides incorporation can happen as a result of diverse activities; these include the work associated with the different stadiums of the nuclear fuel cycle, the use of radioactive sources in medicine, the scientific research, the agriculture and the industry. In Uruguay the main activities linked to the manipulation of open sources correspond those of Nuclear Medicine and from 2004, in the mark of the Project Arcal RLA 049 and being based on the Safety Guides of the IAEA it is implementing a program of internal monitoring in combined form the Nuclear Medicine Center of the Hospital of and the Radiochemistry class of the Faculty of Chemistry. In accordance with the publication of the ICRP 75 the emphasis of any monitoring program should be in the formal study of the doses in the workers to who are considered commendable of to receive in routine form an outstanding fraction of the dose limits or who work in areas where the exposures can be significant in the accident event. From April 2004, to the date has started a pilot plan by means of in that were established appropriate conditions of procedures and of safety in a reduced group of workers of the Nuclear Medicine area. In that period the first work limits, equipment adjustment, calibrations and registration systems were determined. The monitoring system implemented until the moment is carried out with a thyroid caption equipment. However these measurements are carried out in the university hospital embracing 40% of the involved workers of our country, with the purpose of reaching the covering of the biggest quantity of occupationally exposed personnel of private clinics. Also it was developed a new work proposal that allows to have an alternative measure method, in the event of not having the equipment habitually used. Among the conclusions of this work are that for the before exposed are considered the measure conditions but appropriate the following ones: Gamma Camera without collimator; Measurement

  13. Personality disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... personality disorder Borderline personality disorder Dependent personality disorder Histrionic personality disorder Narcissistic personality disorder Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder Paranoid ...

  14. Training and deployment of lay refugee/internally displaced persons to provide basic health services in camps: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John E. Ehiri

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Training of lay refugees/internally displaced persons (IDPs and deploying them to provide basic health services to other women, children, and families in camps is perceived to be associated with public health benefits. However, there is limited evidence to support this hypothesis. Objectives: To assess the effects of interventions to train and deploy lay refugees and/or IDPs for the provision of basic health service to other women, children, and families in camps. Methods: PubMed, Science and Social Science Citation Indices, PsycINFO, EMBASE, POPLINE, CINAHL, and reference lists of relevant articles were searched (from inception to June 30, 2014 with the aim of identifying studies that reported the effects of interventions that trained and deployed lay refugees and/or IDPs for the provision of basic health service to other women, children, and families in camps. Two investigators independently reviewed all titles and abstracts to identify potentially relevant articles. Discrepancies were resolved by repeated review, discussion, and consensus. Study quality assessment was undertaken using standard protocols. Results: Ten studies (five cross-sectional, four pre-post, and one post-test only conducted in Africa (Guinea and Tanzania, Central America (Belize, and Asia (Myanmar were included. The studies demonstrated some positive impact on population health associated with training and deployment of trained lay refugees/IDPs as health workers in camps. Reported effects included increased service coverage, increased knowledge about disease symptoms and prevention, increased adoption of improved treatment seeking and protective behaviors, increased uptake of services, and improved access to reproductive health information. One study, which assessed the effect of peer refugee health education on sexual and reproductive health, did not demonstrate a marked reduction in unintended pregnancies among refugee/IDP women. Conclusion: Although

  15. Training and deployment of lay refugee/internally displaced persons to provide basic health services in camps: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehiri, John E.; Gunn, Jayleen K.L.; Center, Katherine E.; Li, Ying; Rouhani, Mae; Ezeanolue, Echezona E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Training of lay refugees/internally displaced persons (IDPs) and deploying them to provide basic health services to other women, children, and families in camps is perceived to be associated with public health benefits. However, there is limited evidence to support this hypothesis. Objectives To assess the effects of interventions to train and deploy lay refugees and/or IDPs for the provision of basic health service to other women, children, and families in camps. Methods PubMed, Science and Social Science Citation Indices, PsycINFO, EMBASE, POPLINE, CINAHL, and reference lists of relevant articles were searched (from inception to June 30, 2014) with the aim of identifying studies that reported the effects of interventions that trained and deployed lay refugees and/or IDPs for the provision of basic health service to other women, children, and families in camps. Two investigators independently reviewed all titles and abstracts to identify potentially relevant articles. Discrepancies were resolved by repeated review, discussion, and consensus. Study quality assessment was undertaken using standard protocols. Results Ten studies (five cross-sectional, four pre-post, and one post-test only) conducted in Africa (Guinea and Tanzania), Central America (Belize), and Asia (Myanmar) were included. The studies demonstrated some positive impact on population health associated with training and deployment of trained lay refugees/IDPs as health workers in camps. Reported effects included increased service coverage, increased knowledge about disease symptoms and prevention, increased adoption of improved treatment seeking and protective behaviors, increased uptake of services, and improved access to reproductive health information. One study, which assessed the effect of peer refugee health education on sexual and reproductive health, did not demonstrate a marked reduction in unintended pregnancies among refugee/IDP women. Conclusion Although available evidence

  16. Mental health care utilisation among internally displaced persons in Ukraine: results from a nation-wide survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, B; Makhashvili, N; Javakhishvili, J; Karachevskyy, A; Kharchenko, N; Shpiker, M; Richardson, E

    2017-07-27

    Aims There are an estimated 1.5 million internally displaced persons (IDPs) in Ukraine because of the armed conflict in the east of the country. The aim of this paper is to examine utilisation patterns of mental health and psychosocial support (MHPSS) care among IDPs in Ukraine. A cross-sectional survey design was used. Data were collected from 2203 adult IDPs throughout Ukraine between March and May 2016. Data on mental health care utilisation were collected, along with outcomes including post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression and anxiety. Descriptive and multivariate regression analyses were used. PTSD prevalence was 32%, depression prevalence was 22%, and anxiety prevalence was 17%. Among those that likely required care (screened positive with one of the three disorders, and also self-reporting a problem) there was a large treatment gap, with 74% of respondents who likely required MHPSS care over the past 12 months not receiving it. For the 26% (N = 180) that had sought care, the most common sources of services/support were pharmacies, family or district doctor/paramedic (feldsher), neurologist at a polyclinic, internist/neurologist at a general hospital, psychologists visiting communities, and non-governmental organisations/volunteer mental health/psychosocial centres. Of the 180 respondents who did seek care, 163 could recall whether they had to pay for their care. Of these 163 respondents, 72 (44%) recalled paying for the care they received despite government care officially being free in Ukraine. The average costs they paid for care was US$107 over the previous 12 months. All 180 respondents reported having to pay for medicines and the average costs for medicines was US$109 over the previous 12 months. Among the 74% had not sought care despite likely needing it; the principal reasons for not seeking care were: thought that they would get better by using their own medications, could not afford to pay for health services or medications, no awareness

  17. Draft principles, policy, and acceptance criteria for decommissioning of U.S. Department of Energy contaminated surplus facilities and summary of international decommissioning programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, B.K.

    1994-12-01

    Decommissioning activities enable the DOE to reuse all or part of a facility for future activities and reduce hazards to the general public and any future work force. The DOE Office of Environment, Health and Safety has prepared this document, which consists of decommissioning principles and acceptance criteria, in an attempt to establish a policy that is in agreement with the NRC policy. The purpose of this document is to assist individuals involved with decommissioning activities in determining their specific responsibilities as identified in Draft DOE Order 5820.DDD, ''Decommissioning of US Department of Energy Contaminated Surplus Facilities'' (Appendix A). This document is not intended to provide specific decommissioning methodology. The policies and principles of several international decommissioning programs are also summarized. These programs are from the IAEA, the NRC, and several foreign countries expecting to decommission nuclear facilities. They are included here to demonstrate the different policies that are to be followed throughout the world and to allow the reader to become familiar with the state of the art for environment, safety, and health (ES and H) aspects of nuclear decommissioning

  18. Advancing the Use of Passive Sampling in Risk Assessment and Management of Sediments Contaminated with Hydrophobic Organic Chemicals: Results of an International Ex Situ Passive Sampling Interlaboratory Comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonker, Michiel T O; van der Heijden, Stephan A; Adelman, Dave; Apell, Jennifer N; Burgess, Robert M; Choi, Yongju; Fernandez, Loretta A; Flavetta, Geanna M; Ghosh, Upal; Gschwend, Philip M; Hale, Sarah E; Jalalizadeh, Mehregan; Khairy, Mohammed; Lampi, Mark A; Lao, Wenjian; Lohmann, Rainer; Lydy, Michael J; Maruya, Keith A; Nutile, Samuel A; Oen, Amy M P; Rakowska, Magdalena I; Reible, Danny; Rusina, Tatsiana P; Smedes, Foppe; Wu, Yanwen

    2018-03-20

    This work presents the results of an international interlaboratory comparison on ex situ passive sampling in sediments. The main objectives were to map the state of the science in passively sampling sediments, identify sources of variability, provide recommendations and practical guidance for standardized passive sampling, and advance the use of passive sampling in regulatory decision making by increasing confidence in the use of the technique. The study was performed by a consortium of 11 laboratories and included experiments with 14 passive sampling formats on 3 sediments for 25 target chemicals (PAHs and PCBs). The resulting overall interlaboratory variability was large (a factor of ∼10), but standardization of methods halved this variability. The remaining variability was primarily due to factors not related to passive sampling itself, i.e., sediment heterogeneity and analytical chemistry. Excluding the latter source of variability, by performing all analyses in one laboratory, showed that passive sampling results can have a high precision and a very low intermethod variability (sampling, irrespective of the specific method used, is fit for implementation in risk assessment and management of contaminated sediments, provided that method setup and performance, as well as chemical analyses are quality-controlled.

  19. Features of the application of five-factor personality questionnaire in the activities of psychologists of the bodies of internal affairs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrov V.E.

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the study opportunities five-factor personality questionnaire as diagnostic tools for the study of the personality of employees of internal Affairs bodies in different categories. Subject of research – the practice of application of this methodology in the activities of the departmental psychologists. The research urgency is caused by necessity of scientific verification of the questionnaire for the decision of tasks of internal Affairs bodies. The study was conducted by psychological testing and expert evaluation. As the mathematical tools used descriptive statistics (frequency analysis and grouping, criterion *2 and student's t-test. The novelty of this study is to clarify the regulatory indicators questionnaire for categories such as "employee of ATS" (generalized image, "employee commandant's offices", "police", "policeman-driver". Study allows you to expand the scope of the questionnaire (the study of the personality of employees, demonstrating certain types of deviant behavior; individualization of forms and methods of psychological preparation and assistance; prediction of behavior in extreme conditions and professional and personal development.

  20. Legal protection of private persons in the case of acts of foreign states contrary to international law - with special reference to international environmental law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarze, J.

    1986-01-01

    The author describes the basis for claims following to international law for a case like Chernobyl. He examines possibilities of enforcement of private claims, regarding legal protection in courts of the state where the incident occurred, and of the state where the damage was suffered, of the International Court of Justice, and by way of diplomatic protection. Individual guarantees of procedure still can be improved at present. (CW) [de

  1. Radioactive contamination in monitors received for calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias, Paulo S.; Santos, Gilvan C. dos; Brunelo, Maria Antonieta G.; Paula, Tiago C. de; Pires, Marina A.; Borges, Jose C.

    2013-01-01

    The Calibration Laboratory - LABCAL, from the Research Center for Metrology and Testing - METROBRAS, MRA Comercio de Instrumentos Eletronicos Ltda., began activities in October 2008 and, in August 2009, decided to establish a procedure for monitoring tests, external and internal, of all packages received from customers, containing instruments for calibration. The aim was to investigate possible contamination radioactive on these instruments. On July 2011, this procedure was extended to packagings of personal thermoluminescent dosemeters - TLD, received by the newly created Laboratory Laboratorio de Dosimetria Pessoal - LDP . In the monitoring procedure were used monitors with external probe, type pancake, MRA brand, models GP - 500 and MIR 7028. During the 37 months in which this investigation was conducted, were detected 42 cases of radioactive contamination, with the following characteristics: 1) just one case was personal dosimeter, TLD type; 2) just one case was not from a packing from nuclear medicine service - was from a mining company; 3) contamination occurred on packs and instruments, located and/or widespread; 4) contamination values ranged from slightly above the level of background radiation to about a thousand fold. Although METROBRAS has facilities for decontamination, in most cases, especially those of higher contamination, the procedure followed was to store the contaminated material in a room used for storage of radioactive sources. Periodically, each package and/or instrument was monitored, being released when the radiation level matched the background radiation. Every contamination detected, the client and/or owner of the instrument was informed. The Brazilian National Energy Commission - CNEN, was informed, during your public consultation for reviewing the standard for nuclear medicine services, held in mid-2012, having received from METROBRAS the statistical data available at the time. The high frequency of contamination detected and the high

  2. Mortality and health among internally displaced persons in western Kenya following post-election violence, 2008: novel use of demographic surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feikin, Daniel R; Adazu, Kubaje; Obor, David; Ogwang, Sheila; Vulule, John; Hamel, Mary J; Laserson, Kayla

    2010-08-01

    To evaluate mortality and morbidity among internally displaced persons (IDPs) who relocated in a demographic surveillance system (DSS) area in western Kenya following post-election violence. In 2007, 204 000 individuals lived in the DSS area, where field workers visit households every 4 months to record migrations, births and deaths. We collected data on admissions among children or = 5 years (53%) than among regular DSS residents (25-29%) (P < 0.001). Internally displaced children < 5 years of age did not die at higher rates than resident children but were hospitalized at higher rates (RR: 2.95; 95% CI: 2.44-3.58). HIV-infected internally displaced adults in conflict-ridden parts of Africa are at increased risk of HIV-related death. Relief efforts should extend to IDPs who have relocated outside IDP camps, particularly if afflicted with HIV infection or other chronic conditions.

  3. Examining the Relations Among the DSM-5 Alternative Model of Personality, the Five-Factor Model, and Externalizing and Internalizing Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleep, Chelsea E; Hyatt, Courtland S; Lamkin, Joanna; Maples-Keller, Jessica L; Miller, Joshua D

    2017-01-26

    Given long-standing criticisms of the DSM's reliance on categorical models of psychopathology, including the poor reliability and validity of personality-disorder diagnoses, the American Psychiatric Association (APA) published an alternative model (AM) of personality disorders in Section III of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5; APA, 2013), which, in part, comprises 5 pathological trait domains based on the 5-factor model (FFM). However, the empirical profiles and discriminant validity of the AM traits remain in question. We recruited a sample of undergraduates (N = 340) for the current study to compare the relations found between a measure of the DSM-5 AM traits (i.e., the Personality Inventory for DSM-5; PID-5; Krueger, Derringer, Markon, Watson, & Skodol, 2012) and a measure of the FFM (i.e., the International Personality Item Pool; IPIP; Goldberg, 1999) in relation to externalizing and internalizing symptoms. In general, the domains from the 2 measures were significantly related and demonstrated similar patterns of relations with these criteria, such that Antagonism/low Agreeableness and Disinhibition/low Conscientiousness were related to externalizing behaviors, whereas Negative Affectivity/Neuroticism was most significantly related to internalizing symptoms. However, the PID-5 demonstrated large interrelations among its domains and poorer discriminant validity than the IPIP. These results provide additional support that the conception of the trait model included in the DSM-5 AM is an extension of the FFM, but highlight some of the issues that arise due to the PID-5's more limited discriminant validity. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Demonstrations of Agency in Contemporary International Children's Literature: An Exploratory Critical Content Analysis across Personal, Social, and Cultural Dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathis, Janelle B.

    2015-01-01

    International children's literature has the potential to create global experiences and cultural insights for young people confronted with limited and biased images of the world offered by media. The current inquiry was designed to explore, through a critical content analysis approach, international children's literature in which characters…

  5. Accreditation of the Personal Dosimetry internal Service Tecnatom by the National Entity (ENAC); Acreditacion del Servicio de Dosimetria Personal Interna de Tecnatom por la Entidad Nacional de Acreditacion (ENAC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bravo, B.; Marchena, P.

    2014-07-01

    The service of personal Dosimetry internal Tecnatom has made the process of adapting its methodology and quality assurance, requirements technical and management will be required to obtain accreditation from the National Accreditation Entity according to ISO / IEC 170251 standard {sup G}eneral Requirements competence of testing and calibration laboratories. To carry out this process, the laboratory has defined quality criteria set out in their test procedures, based on ISO Standards 27048: 2011; ISO 20553: 2005 and ISO 28218: 2010. This paper describes what has been the methodology used to implement the requirements of different ISO test methods of SDPI Tecnatom. (Author)

  6. International

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    This rubric reports on 10 short notes about international economical facts about nuclear power: Electricite de France (EdF) and its assistance and management contracts with Eastern Europe countries (Poland, Hungary, Bulgaria); Transnuclear Inc. company (a 100% Cogema daughter company) acquired the US Vectra Technologies company; the construction of the Khumo nuclear power plant in Northern Korea plays in favour of the reconciliation between Northern and Southern Korea; the delivery of two VVER 1000 Russian reactors to China; the enforcement of the cooperation agreement between Euratom and Argentina; Japan requested for the financing of a Russian fast breeder reactor; Russia has planned to sell a floating barge-type nuclear power plant to Indonesia; the control of the Swedish reactor vessels of Sydkraft AB company committed to Tractebel (Belgium); the renewal of the nuclear cooperation agreement between Swiss and USA; the call for bids from the Turkish TEAS electric power company for the building of the Akkuyu nuclear power plant answered by three candidates: Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL), Westinghouse (US) and the French-German NPI company. (J.S.)

  7. Induction and repair rate of DNA damage: a unified model for describing effects of external and internal irradiation and contamination with heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastaldo, Jérôme; Viau, Muriel; Bouchot, Michael; Joubert, Aurélie; Charvet, Anne-Marie; Foray, Nicolas

    2008-03-07

    DNA is a key-target for genotoxic stress. Hence, the knowledge of induction and repair rate of DNA damage are crucial to describe and predict the impact of stress situations. Unfortunately, DNA damage induction and repair rates are generally assessed separately whereas they act either concomitantly or transiently in living organisms. Furthermore, the interplay of induction and repair raises the question whether DNA repair adapts to respond to different amounts of DNA damage. In a previous report, we proposed a stochastic interpretation of the repair rate of the major radiation-induced DNA damage. We provided evidence that the repair rate of individual DNA damage is time-independent whereas that of a population of DNA damage is time-dependent (Foray, N., Charvet, A.-M., Duchemin, D., Favaudon, V., Lavalette, D., 2005. The repair rate of radiation-induced DNA damage: a stochastic interpretation based on the gamma function. J. Theor. Biol. 236, 448-458). Here, to better describe situations in which DNA damage induction and repair occur together, our biostatistical model was modified by the introduction of a DNA damage induction parameter. Theoretical and experimental data were compared and discussed by taking concrete experimental situations: X-rays irradiation at different dose-rates, internal irradiation with radioactive compound, contamination with heavy metal and detection of DNA damage by immunofluorescence. By assuming that DNA repair rate is invariant whatever the amount of DNA damage, our model provides good prediction of experimental data suggesting its relevance for the description of complex situations of co-toxicities.

  8. Joint trajectories for social and physical aggression as predictors of adolescent maladjustment: Internalizing symptoms, rule-breaking behaviors, and borderline and narcissistic personality features

    Science.gov (United States)

    UNDERWOOD, MARION K.; BERON, KURT J.; ROSEN, LISA H.

    2011-01-01

    This investigation examined the relation between developmental trajectories jointly estimated for social and physical aggression and adjustment problems at age 14. Teachers provided ratings of children's social and physical aggression in Grades 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7 for a sample of 255 children (131 girls, 21% African American, 52% European American, 21% Mexican American). Participants, parents, and teachers completed measures of the adolescent's adjustment to assess internalizing symptoms, rule-breaking behaviors, and borderline and narcissistic personality features. Results showed that membership in a high and rising trajectory group predicted rule-breaking behaviors and borderline personality features. Membership in a high desister group predicted internalizing symptoms, rule-breaking behaviors, and borderline and narcissistic personality features. The findings suggest that although low levels of social and physical aggression may not bode poorly for adjustment, individuals engaging in high levels of social and physical aggression in middle childhood may be at greatest risk for adolescent psychopathology, whether they increase or desist in their aggression through early adolescence. PMID:21532919

  9. The medical management of high risk individuals. Experiences with persons exposed to chronic internal irradiation; Ueber den aerztlichen Umgang mit Hochrisikopersonen. Erfahrungen bei Personen mit chronischer interner Strahlenexposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaick, G. van; Delorme, S. [Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum, E010 - Radiologie, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2011-12-15

    The medical management and counseling of persons at high risk due to exposure to chemicals or radiation or due to personal disposition, present an additional challenge for physicians and especially radiologists involved. This article is based on own experiences with patients who had been exposed to Thorotrast. They had been injected with the contrast medium Thorotrast, which was in use world-wide until around 1950. Thorotrast caused a chronic alpha irradiation mainly of the liver (up to 0.4 Gy/a), spleen (1.2 Gy/a) and bone marrow (0.1 Gy/a). For the Thorotrast patients and their physicians the most worrying problem was the risk of primary malignant liver tumors which occurred in more than 20% of the exposed persons, i.e. 100 times more frequently than in a non-exposed control group. The medical and especially radiological experiences with the management of these patients summarize a general aspect of the problem and can be referred to when managing other high risk groups. (orig.) [German] Die aerztliche Fuehrung von Personen, die noch nicht erkrankt sind, aber ein deutlich hoeheres Risiko fuer bestimmte Tumorerkrankungen aufgrund exogener oder endogener Ursachen haben, stellt den Arzt und speziell den diagnostischen Radiologen vor neue Herausforderungen. Dem Beitrag zugrunde liegen die Erfahrungen bei der Betreuung und Beratung so genannter Thorotrastpatienten, d. h. Personen, die nach lange zurueckliegender (vor 1950) intravasaler Injektion eines weltweit eingesetzten Roentgenkontrastmittels zeitlebens einer Alphastrahlung v. a. der Leber (bis 0,4 Gy/a), der Milz (1,2 Gy/a) und des Knochenmarks (0,1 Gy/a) ausgesetzt waren. Fuer die Thorotrastpatienten und die Aerzte stand im Vordergrund die Sorge der Entstehung primaerer, maligner Lebertumoren, die bei mehr als 20% der Betroffenen und damit im Vergleich zu einer Kontrollgruppe 100-fach haeufiger auftraten. Die allgemeinen aerztlichen und speziell radiologischen Erfahrungen sind grundsaetzlicher Art und lassen

  10. Narrative Enhancement and Cognitive Therapy: A New Group-Based Treatment for Internalized Stigma among Persons with Severe Mental Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanos, Philip T.; Roe, David; Lysaker, Paul H.

    2011-01-01

    Internalized stigma has been suggested to play a major role in negative changes in identity in severe mental illness. Evidence suggests that roughly one-third of people with severe mental illness show elevated internalized stigma and that it is linked to compromised outcomes in both subjective and objective aspects of recovery. Despite substantial evidence for the impact of internalized stigma, few efforts have been made to develop professionally-led treatment to address this issue. In this article, we discuss our development of a new, group-based approach to the treatment of internalized stigma which we have termed “narrative enhancement and cognitive therapy” (NECT). We describe the treatment approach and offer an illustration of it by way of a case vignette. PMID:21985260

  11. International Nursing: Research on the Correlation Between Empathy and China's Big Five Personality Theory: Implications for Nursing Leaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cong; Wu, Qin; Feng, Mei; Wan, Qunfang; Wu, Xiaoling

    To investigate the characteristics of nurses' empathy and explore the correlation between nurses' empathy and personality, a cross-sectional study with 250 nurses from a general hospital in China was conducted using the Chinese Big Five Personality Inventory (CBF-PI) and the Jefferson Scale of Empathy-Health Professionals (JSE-HP). The total score of the JSE-HP was 110.60 (SD = 11.71). Employment forms and child-rearing situations were the significant predictors of the JSE-HP score. Multiple hierarchical regression analysis indicated that the JSE-HP score was positively correlated with conscientiousness and agreeableness and the contribution of CBF-PI to JSE-HP scale variances was 15.1%. The results demonstrated that nurses' empathy is on the high level. The Big Five Personality model is a significant predictor of nurses' empathy. The findings of the study provide reference for nurses' humanistic care training and education. In addition, training programs emphasizing emotions, psychology, humanistic quality, and healthy personality should be strengthened to promote nurses' empathy.

  12. 50 CFR 23.15 - How may I travel internationally with my personal or household effects, including tourist souvenirs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... personal or household effects, including tourist souvenirs? 23.15 Section 23.15 Wildlife and Fisheries..., including tourist souvenirs? (a) Purpose. Article VII(3) of the Treaty recognizes a limited exemption for... if one of the following applies: (1) The Management Authority of the importing, exporting, or re...

  13. Academic performance and personal experience of local, international, and collaborative exchange students enrolled in an Australian pharmacy program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davey, Andrew K; Grant, Gary D; Anoopkumar-Dukie, Shailendra

    2013-09-12

    To assess the academic performance and experiences of local, international, and collaborative exchange students enrolled in a 4-year Australian bachelor of pharmacy degree program. Survey instruments exploring the demographics, background, and academic and cultural experiences of students during the program were administered in 2005 to students in all 4 years. Additionally, grades from each semester of the program for students (406 local, 70 international, 155 exchange) who graduated between 2002 and 2006 were analyzed retrospectively. The main differences found in the survey responses among the 3 groups were in students' motivations for choosing the degree program and school, with international and collaborative exchange students having put more thought into these decisions than local students. The average grades over the duration of the program were similar in all 3 demographic groups. However, local students slightly outperformed international students, particularly at the start of the year, whereas collaborative exchange students' grades mirrored those of local students during the 2 years prior to leaving their home country of Malaysia but more closely mirrored those of international students in the final 2 years after arriving on campus in Australia. Despite differences in academic backgrounds and culture, international and exchange students can perform well compared to local students in a bachelor of pharmacy program and were actually more satisfied than local students with the overall experience. Studying in a foreign country can negatively influence academic grades to a small extent and this is probably related to adjusting to the new environment.

  14. Representing and organizing information to describe the lived experience of health from a personal factors perspective in the light of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF): a discussion paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geyh, Szilvia; Schwegler, Urban; Peter, Claudio; Müller, Rachel

    2018-03-06

    To discuss the representation and organization of information describing persons' lived experience of health from a personal factors perspective in the light of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health, using spinal cord injury as a case in point for disability. The scientific literature was reviewed, discussion rounds conducted, and qualitative secondary analyses of data carried out using an iterative inductive-deductive approach. Conceptual considerations are explicated that distinguish the personal factors perspective from other components of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health. A representation structure is developed that organizes health-related concepts describing the internal context of functioning. Concepts are organized as individual facts, subjective experiences, and recurrent patterns of experience and behavior specifying 7 areas and 211 concept groups. The article calls for further scientific debate on the perspective of personal factors in the light of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health. A structure that organizes concepts in relation to a personal factors perspective can enhance the comprehensiveness, transparency and standardization of health information, and contribute to the empowerment of persons with disabilities. Implications for rehabilitation The present study collected data from scientific literature reviews, discussion rounds and qualitative secondary analyses in order to develop a representation and organization of information describing persons' lived experience of health from a personal factors perspective in the light of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health. The following representation structure for health-related information from a personal factors perspective was developed: (i) Individuals facts (i.e., socio-demographical factors, position in the immediate social and physical context, personal history

  15. Estimation of the internal radiation dose received by the adult population of Graz due to the contamination with radioactive iodine and cesium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabitsch, H.; Kahr, G.

    1991-07-01

    During the first months following the fallout we have measured the activities of J-131 in some human thyroids. To study the long-term variation of radiocesium with time, we have observed the activity level of Cs-134 and Cs-137 in human muscle tissues over a period of 4 years. Simultaneously we have determined the activities of the naturally occuring potassium-40 in all samples, which were taken at forensic autopsies of persons deceased in the area of Graz. Comparisons of iodine and radiocesium activities measured in the samples with data obtained by other studies after nuclear weapon tests are given. Average individual thyroid dose was calculated to be 556.1 μSv. The main part of this thyroid dose is caused by the inhalation pathway. Effective individual dose equivalents originated by the radiocesium body content were calculated by means of time-integrated activities and the method of absorbed fractions. Dose estimations based on data of the Standard Man and a distribution factor of 0.7 was assumed with regards to the amount of radiocesium and K-40 in muscle mass. From the measurements, we have estimated a mean individual effective dose equivalent of 252.2 μSv due to internal exposure to radiocesium during the 4 years following the fallout. Estimated dose values are compared with predictions and the exposure caused by K-40. (Authors, shortened by Quittner)

  16. The Follow-up IAEA International Mission on Remediation of Large Contaminated Areas Off-Site the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant, Tokyo and Fukushima Prefecture, Japan, 14-21 October 2013. Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    In October 2011, the IAEA conducted an International Mission to Japan to support the remediation of large contaminated areas off-site TEPCO's Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP). In response to the request made by the Government of Japan, in October 2013, the IAEA organized a follow-up International Mission on remediation of large contaminated areas off-site TEPCO's Fukushima Daiichi NPP (hereinafter referred to as the 'Follow-up Mission' or the 'Mission') with the main purpose of evaluating the progress of the on-going remediation works achieved since the previous mission in October 2011. The Follow-up Mission Team involved 13 international experts. Additionally, 3 experts of the Working Group 5 (Subgroup 5.2, Remediation) in charge of preparing the IAEA Report on TEPCO Fukushima Daiichi Accident accompanied the Mission as observers to obtain first-hand information for the report. The Follow-up Mission had the following three objectives: 1. To provide assistance to Japan in assessing the progress made with the remediation of the Special Decontamination Area (not included in the previous mission of 2011) and the Intensive Contamination Survey Areas; 2. To review remediation strategies, plans and works, in view of the advice provided by the previous mission on remediation of large contaminated off-site areas; and 3. To share its findings with the international community as lessons learned. The Mission was conducted through the assessment of information provided to the Team and by means of professional and open discussions with the relevant institutions in Japan, including national, prefectural and local institutions. The Japanese authorities provided comprehensive information on their remediation programme. The Mission Team visited the affected areas, including several sites where activities on remediation were conducted. The Team also visited some temporary storage sites for radioactive waste and soil generated in the remediation activities, as well as a

  17. Personalized dosimetry in internal radiotherapy with the help of voxelised phantoms; Dosimetrie personnalisee en radiotherapie interne a l'aide de fantomes voxelises

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiavassa, S.; Bardies, M.; Martin, S.; Aubineau-Laniece, I. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN/DPHD/SDOS/LEMDI), 92 - Fontenay-aux-Roses (France)

    2003-07-01

    The aim of this communication is to present a evaluation tool of the personalised internal dose that associated a Monte Carlo code to a voxelised representation of the patient for a personalised dosimetry evaluation in vectorized radiotherapy. the developments realised to reach a whole body dosimetry at tissue scale in a reasonable calculation time ( about a day) and some functionalities of the software are exposed. (N.C.)

  18. Analysis of workstation: tritium atmospheric contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rigaud, S.; Lemontey, F.; Lecrique-Gelhay, C.; Chanal, S.; Maynadier, B.; Gaudet, F.; Colas, O.; Raufast, V.

    2012-01-01

    Radioactive contamination, whether it is on the surface or in the atmosphere, could be the reason for individual internal exposure. The Practical Air Contamination Limit values enable the occupational health doctors as well as the 'Personne Competente en Radioprotection' (PCR: competent person in radioprotection) to pre-evaluate the risks resulting from atmospheric contamination. These values are used to determine the course of action regarding the workstation, but also as an optimisation tool for staff protection, within the framework of the application of the ALARA (As Low As Reasonably Achievable) principal. During the analysis of workstations, the PCRs at Pierre Fabre Laboratories were confronted with effective dose values which seemed to be, in their opinion, abnormally high. These values were in contradiction with the results of the urinary radio-toxicological exams, which are done within the framework of the reinforced medical monitoring of the technicians, and which have always been negative (whether the exams were done periodically or from time to time at the end of a radioactive experiment series). This is why it was considered relevant to rent bubble chamber systems, used for low-level concentrations of tritium and carbon-14. The measurements showed insignificant tritium atmospheric contamination levels in the laboratories, in particular for some experimental steps that were considered a priori problematic. This study, carried out within the framework of the workstation, enabled us to decrease the volatility factor value of tritiated compounds intervening in the effective dose calculation. (authors)

  19. Internal contamination monitoring through measurements in vivo at whole body contamination unity of IRD-CNEN, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; Monitoracao da contaminacao interna atraves de medicoes in vivo na Unidade de Contador de Corpo Inteiro do IRD-CNEN, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dantas, Ana Leticia A.; Lucena, Eder A.; Dantas, Bernardo M., E-mail: adantas@ird.gov.b, E-mail: eder@ird.gov.b, E-mail: bmdantas@ird.gov.b [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Monitoracao In Vivo. Servico de Monitoracao Individual Interna

    2011-10-26

    The present work approaches the internal contamination monitoring capacity through measurements performed at the Whole-body Counter Unity of the in-vivo monitoring laboratory (LABMIV) of the IRD-CNEN, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, present thr main parameters related to the monitoring techniques developed, and the the available instrumentation for identification and quantification in vivo of photon emitter radionuclides with energy in the range of 10-3000 keV, incorporated by workers and public individuals

  20. A framework for the first-person internal sensation of visual perception in mammals and a comparable circuitry for olfactory perception in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadakkan, Kunjumon I

    2015-01-01

    Perception is a first-person internal sensation induced within the nervous system at the time of arrival of sensory stimuli from objects in the environment. Lack of access to the first-person properties has limited viewing perception as an emergent property and it is currently being studied using third-person observed findings from various levels. One feasible approach to understand its mechanism is to build a hypothesis for the specific conditions and required circuit features of the nodal points where the mechanistic operation of perception take place for one type of sensation in one species and to verify it for the presence of comparable circuit properties for perceiving a different sensation in a different species. The present work explains visual perception in mammalian nervous system from a first-person frame of reference and provides explanations for the homogeneity of perception of visual stimuli above flicker fusion frequency, the perception of objects at locations different from their actual position, the smooth pursuit and saccadic eye movements, the perception of object borders, and perception of pressure phosphenes. Using results from temporal resolution studies and the known details of visual cortical circuitry, explanations are provided for (a) the perception of rapidly changing visual stimuli, (b) how the perception of objects occurs in the correct orientation even though, according to the third-person view, activity from the visual stimulus reaches the cortices in an inverted manner and (c) the functional significance of well-conserved columnar organization of the visual cortex. A comparable circuitry detected in a different nervous system in a remote species-the olfactory circuitry of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster-provides an opportunity to explore circuit functions using genetic manipulations, which, along with high-resolution microscopic techniques and lipid membrane interaction studies, will be able to verify the structure

  1. Beyond diagnosis: the Core Sets for persons with schizophrenia based on the World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Benito, Juana; Guilera, Georgina; Barrios, Maite; Rojo, Emilio; Pino, Oscar; Gorostiaga, Arantxa; Balluerka, Nekane; Hidalgo, María Dolores; Padilla, José Luis; Benítez, Isabel; Selb, Melissa

    2017-07-30

    Based on the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF), this paper presents the results of the process to develop the Comprehensive and Brief Core Sets for schizophrenia that allow to comprehensively describe functioning in persons with schizophrenia. Twenty health professionals from diverse backgrounds participated in a formal and iterative decision-making process during an international consensus conference to develop these Core Sets. The conference was carried out based on evidence gathered from four preparatory studies (systematic literature review, qualitative study, expert survey, and empirical study). The first step of this decision-making and consensus process comprised of discussions and voting in working groups and plenary sessions to develop the comprehensive version. The categories of the Comprehensive ICF Core Set for schizophrenia served as the basis for the second step -a ranking and cutoff procedure to decide on the brief version. Of the 184 candidate categories identified in the preparatory studies, 97 categories were included in the Comprehensive Core Set for schizophrenia. A total of 25 categories were selected to constitute the Brief Core Set. The formal decision-making and consensus process integrating evidence from four preparatory studies and expert opinion led to the first version of the Core Sets for schizophrenia. Comprehensive and Brief Core Sets for schizophrenia may provide a common language among different health professionals and researchers, and a basic international standard of what to measure, report, and assess the functioning of persons with schizophrenia. Implications for rehabilitation Schizophrenia is a chronic mental disorder that has a tremendous impact on functioning and daily life of persons living with the disorder. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) offers an internationally recognized standard for describing the functioning status of these

  2. Effect of internal contamination with tritiated water on the neoplastic colonies in the lungs, innate anti-tumour reactions, cytokine profile, and haematopoietic system in radioresistant and radiosensitive mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowosielska, Ewa M; Cheda, Aneta; Zdanowski, Robert; Lewicki, Sławomir; Scott, Bobby R; Janiak, Marek K

    2018-04-06

    Tritium is a potentially significant source of internal radiation exposure which, at high levels, can be carcinogenic. We evaluated whether single intraperitoneal injection of BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice with tritiated water (HTO) leading to exposure to low (0.01 or 0.1 Gy) and intermediate (1.0 Gy) cumulative whole-body doses of β radiation is immunosuppressive, as judged by enhancement of artificial tumour metastases, functioning of NK lymphocytes and macrophages, circulating cytokine's levels, and numbers of bone marrow, spleen, and peripheral blood cells. We demonstrate that internal contamination of radiosensitive BALB/c and radioresistant C57BL/6 mice with HTO at all the absorbed doses tested did not affect the development of neoplastic colonies in the lungs caused by intravenous injection of syngeneic cancer cells. However, internal exposure of BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice to 0.1 and 0.01 Gy of β radiation, respectively, up-regulated cytotoxic activity of and IFN-γ synthesis in NK lymphocytes and boosted macrophage secretion of nitric oxide. Internal contamination with HTO did not affect the serum levels of pro- (IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6, TNF-α,) and anti-inflammatory (IL-1Ra, IL-4, IL-10) cytokines. In addition, exposure of mice of both strains to low and intermediate doses from the tritium-emitted β-particles did not result in any significant changes in the numbers of bone marrow, spleen, and peripheral blood cells. Overall, our data indicate that internal tritium contamination of both radiosensitive and radioresistant mice leading to low and intermediate absorbed β-radiation doses is not immunosuppressive but may enhance some but not all components of anticancer immunity.

  3. 31 CFR 594.510 - Official activities of certain international organizations; U.S. person employees of certain...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... governments of states bordering the West Bank or Gaza are authorized to engage in all transactions and... and other entities of the Security Council, General Assembly, Economic and Social Council and Secretariat, specifically including, among others, the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund, the World...

  4. 31 CFR 595.508 - Official activities of certain international organizations; U.S. person employees of certain...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... governments of states bordering the West Bank or Gaza are authorized to engage in all transactions and... and other entities of the Security Council, General Assembly, Economic and Social Council and Secretariat, specifically including, among others, the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund, the World...

  5. Role of curli and contamination level on Escherichia coli O157:H7 internalization into organic spinach plants grown on hydroponics and in soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction: E. coli O157:H7 may be internalized into organic leafy greens via root uptake. Understanding the mechanisms of E. coli O157:H7 internalization into organic leafy greens is important as produce wash treatment may not remove internalized pathogens. Purpose: The internalization potential...

  6. Validez del Cuestionario International Personality Disorder Examination (IPDE en una muestra de población penitenciaria Validity of the International Personality Disorder Examination (IPDE questionnaire in a sample of prison inmates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Álvaro-Brun

    2008-10-01

    instruments, a questionnaire for demographic, prison and toxicological data and a complete interview and IPDE assessment questionnaire (version DSM-IV were utilised as well as a conditional probability study of the IPDE questionnaire with different cut off points based on the use of the IPDE interview as the "gold standard". Results: The cut off point of 3 or more non-coincident answers showed low specificity (2.5% for the presence of one or more personality disorders, and low sensitivity to antisocial (56.7% and borderline (58.8% personality disorders. Discusion: The IPDE questionnaire of little use amongst the studied prison population when the habitual reference standards were applied due to the very high number of false positives that were produced. The best validity indices for identifying one or more personality disorders are obtained with a probable cut off point being equal to 4 or more answers that do not coincide with those expected. The IPDE questionnaire was of no great benefit for the inmates in this study because, even when using the habitual cut off point of 3 or more non-coincident questions, sensibility to antisocial and borderline personality disorders, which are the most common PDs amongst the sample group, was found to be low.

  7. Scoring method of a Situational Judgment Test: influence on internal consistency reliability, adverse impact and correlation with personality?

    OpenAIRE

    Leng, Wendy; Stegers-Jager, Karen; Husbands, A.; Dowell, J.S.; Born, Marise; Themmen, Axel

    2017-01-01

    textabstractSituational Judgment Tests (SJTs) are increasingly used for medical school selection. Scoring an SJT is more complicated than scoring a knowledge test, because there are no objectively correct answers. The scoring method of an SJT may influence the construct and concurrent validity and the adverse impact with respect to non-traditional students. Previous research has compared only a small number of scoring methods and has not studied the effect of scoring method on internal consis...

  8. Removal of trace organic chemical contaminants by a membrane bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinh, T; van den Akker, B; Stuetz, R M; Coleman, H M; Le-Clech, P; Khan, S J

    2012-01-01

    Emerging wastewater treatment processes such as membrane bioreactors (MBRs) have attracted a significant amount of interest internationally due to their ability to produce high quality effluent suitable for water recycling. It is therefore important that their efficiency in removing hazardous trace organic contaminants be assessed. Accordingly, this study investigated the removal of trace organic chemical contaminants through a full-scale, package MBR in New South Wales, Australia. This study was unique in the context of MBR research because it characterised the removal of 48 trace organic chemical contaminants, which included steroidal hormones, xenoestrogens, pesticides, caffeine, pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs). Results showed that the removal of most trace organic chemical contaminants through the MBR was high (above 90%). However, amitriptyline, carbamazepine, diazepam, diclofenac, fluoxetine, gemfibrozil, omeprazole, sulphamethoxazole and trimethoprim were only partially removed through the MBR with the removal efficiencies of 24-68%. These are potential indicators for assessing MBR performance as these chemicals are usually sensitive to changes in the treatment systems. The trace organic chemical contaminants detected in the MBR permeate were 1 to 6 orders of magnitude lower than guideline values reported in the Australian Guidelines for Water Recycling. The outcomes of this study enhanced our understanding of the levels and removal of trace organic contaminants by MBRs.

  9. Light contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cepeda Pena, William Enrique

    1998-01-01

    The article tries on the wrong use of the artificial light, of the main problems of the light contamination, dispersion of the light, noxious effects of the light contamination, ecological effects, effects on the man's biological rhythm, economic effects and effects about the civic and vial security, among other topics

  10. The fate of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs), endocrine disrupting contaminants (EDCs), metabolites and illicit drugs in a WWTW and environmental waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Edward; Petrie, Bruce; Kasprzyk-Hordern, Barbara; Wolfaardt, Gideon M

    2017-05-01

    A large number of emerging contaminants (ECs) are known to persist in surface waters, and create pressure on wastewater treatment works (WWTW) for their effective removal. Although a large database for the levels of these pollutants in water systems exist globally, there is still a lack in the correlation of the levels of these pollutants with possible long-term adverse health effects in wildlife and humans, such as endocrine disruption. The current study detected a total of 55 ECs in WWTW influent surface water, 41 ECs in effluent, and 40 ECs in environmental waters located upstream and downstream of the plant. A list of ECs persisted through the WWTW process, with 28% of all detected ECs removed by less than 50%, and 18% of all ECs were removed by less than 25%. Negative mass balances of some pharmaceuticals and metabolites were observed within the WWTW, suggesting possible back-transformation of ECs during wastewater treatment. Three parental illicit drug compounds were detected within the influent of the WWTW, with concentrations ranging between 27.6 and 147.0 ng L -1 for cocaine, 35.6-120.6 ng L -1 for mephedrone, and 270.9-450.2 ng L -1 for methamphetamine. The related environmental risks are also discussed for some ECs, with particular reference to their ability to disrupt endocrine systems. The current study propose the potential of the pharmaceuticals carbamazepine, naproxen, diclofenac and ibuprofen to be regarded as priority ECs for environmental monitoring due to their regular detection and persistence in environmental waters and their possible contribution towards adverse health effects in humans and wildlife. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. A test of the International Personality Item Pool representation of the Revised NEO Personality Inventory and development of a 120-item IPIP-based measure of the five-factor model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maples, Jessica L; Guan, Li; Carter, Nathan T; Miller, Joshua D

    2014-12-01

    There has been a substantial increase in the use of personality assessment measures constructed using items from the International Personality Item Pool (IPIP) such as the 300-item IPIP-NEO (Goldberg, 1999), a representation of the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO PI-R; Costa & McCrae, 1992). The IPIP-NEO is free to use and can be modified to accommodate its users' needs. Despite the substantial interest in this measure, there is still a dearth of data demonstrating its convergence with the NEO PI-R. The present study represents an investigation of the reliability and validity of scores on the IPIP-NEO. Additionally, we used item response theory (IRT) methodology to create a 120-item version of the IPIP-NEO. Using an undergraduate sample (n = 359), we examined the reliability, as well as the convergent and criterion validity, of scores from the 300-item IPIP-NEO, a previously constructed 120-item version of the IPIP-NEO (Johnson, 2011), and the newly created IRT-based IPIP-120 in comparison to the NEO PI-R across a range of outcomes. Scores from all 3 IPIP measures demonstrated strong reliability and convergence with the NEO PI-R and a high degree of similarity with regard to their correlational profiles across the criterion variables (rICC = .983, .972, and .976, respectively). The replicability of these findings was then tested in a community sample (n = 757), and the results closely mirrored the findings from Sample 1. These results provide support for the use of the IPIP-NEO and both 120-item IPIP-NEO measures as assessment tools for measurement of the five-factor model. (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  12. Emerging contaminants in groundwater

    OpenAIRE

    Lapworth, Dan; Stuart, Marianne; Hart, Alwyn; Crane, Emily; Baran, Nicole

    2011-01-01

    The term ‘emerging contaminants’ (ECs) is used to cover not only newly developed compounds but also includes newly discovered compounds in the environment (often due to analytical developments), and compounds that have been recently categorised as contaminants. ECs include a huge array of different compounds (and their metabolites) that are used by society for a range of purposes and include; pharmaceuticals, pesticides, personal care products, veterinary medicines, engineered nano-materials,...

  13. Bacteriological contamination, dirt, and cracks of eggshells in furnished cages and noncage systems for laying hens: An international on-farm comparison

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reu, de K.; Rodenburg, T.B.; Messens, W.; Heyndrickx, M.; Tuyttens, F.; Sonck, B.; Zoons, J.; Herman, L.

    2009-01-01

    For laying hens, the effects of housing system on bacterial eggshell contamination and eggshell quality is almost exclusively studied in experimental hen houses. The aim of this study was to compare eggshell hygiene and quality under commercial conditions. Six flocks of laying hens in furnished

  14. Missing persons in the semidarkness of the afternoon: private disputes, memory and armed internal conflict in San Miguel (Ayacucho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nory Cóndor Alarcón

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the case of Francisco Buendía, a man of San Miguel, in the province of La Mar (Ayacucho, who was disappeared by Sendero Luminoso in 1984. From Stathis N. Kalyvas’ theoretical offers, it reconstructs the secret microdynamics of the case, which they connected with the armed internal conflict. To find these local dynamics, one resorts to the remembrances and silences of the Buendía’s relatives and to the information that reveal the notarial and judicial documents that the memory tries to hide. This paper shows that the local dynamics contain disputes that they have to see with the process of restructuring of the land that in the locality comes from the 19th century. The disputes finally developed intopolicies, causing the disappearance of Buendía.

  15. Stigmatising attitudes towards persons with mental illness: a survey of medical students and interns from Southern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyce Ohiole Omoaregba

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Stigmatising attitudes towards persons with mental illness are commonly reported among health professionals. Familiarity with mental illness has been reported to improve these attitudes. Very few studies have compared future medical doctors’ attitudes toward types of mental illness, substance use disorders and physical illness. A cross-sectional survey of 5th and 6th year medical students as well as recently graduated medical doctors was conducted in April 2011. The 12-item level of contact report  and the Attitude towards Mental Illness Questionnaire were administered. Participants endorsed stigmatising attitudes towards mental illness; with attitudes more adverse for schizophrenia compared to depression. Stigmatising attitudes were similarly endorsed for substance use disorders. Paradoxically, attitudes towards HIV/AIDS were positive and similar to diabetes mellitus. Increasing familiarity with mental illness was weakly associated with better attitudes towards depression and schizophrenia. Stigmatising attitudes towards depression and schizophrenia are common among future doctors. Efforts to combat stigma are urgently needed and should be promoted among medical students and recent medical graduates.

  16. Hand and foot contamination monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakati, R.K.; Kaptral, R.S.; Ananthkrishnan, T.S.; Pansare, M.G.

    1989-01-01

    In order to make quick measurements of beta and gamma contaminations on hands and feet of personnel working in radioactive environments, hand and foot contamination monitors are widely used. This paper describes such a monitor system designed with Intel 8085 based microcomputer. The monitoring and warning system is designed to perform measurement of activity spread over surface of hands and soles of shoes or feet. Even though the system has many features to aid testing and maintainance operation, it is easy to use for unskilled persons. In order to check the contamination, the person stands on platform and inserts both his hands into detector assemblies thereby actuating the sensing switches. After a preset interval, annunciation of clean or contaminated status is declared by the system. (author)

  17. Personality disorder diagnosis

    OpenAIRE

    WIDIGER, THOMAS A

    2003-01-01

    Every person has a characteristic manner of thinking, feeling, and relating to others. Some of these personality traits can be so dysfunctional as to warrant a diagnosis of personality disorder. The World Health Organization's International Classification of Diseases (ICD- 10) includes ten personality disorder diagnoses. Three issues of particular importance for the diagnosis of personality disorders are their differentiation from other mental disorders, from general persona...

  18. Water Contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Statistics Training & Education Policy & Recommendations Fast Facts Healthy Water Sites Healthy Water Drinking Water Healthy Swimming Global ... type=”submit” value=”Submit” /> Healthy Water Home Water Contamination Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On ...

  19. Radiotoxicological analyses of {sup 239+240}Pu and {sup 241}Am in biological samples by anion-exchange and extraction chromatography: a preliminary study for internal contamination evaluations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ridone, S.; Arginelli, D.; Bortoluzzi, S.; Canuto, G.; Montalto, M.; Nocente, M.; Vegro, M. [Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and the Environment (ENEA), Research Centre of Saluggia, Radiation Protection Institute, Saluggia, VC (Italy)

    2006-07-01

    Many biological samples (urines and faeces) have been analysed by means of chromatographic extraction columns, utilising two different resins (AG 1-X2 resin chloride and T.R.U.), in order to detect the possible internal contamination of {sup 239{sup +}}{sup 240}Pu and {sup 241}Am, for some workers of a reprocessing nuclear plant in the decommissioning phase. The results obtained show on one hand the great suitability of the first resin for the determination of plutonium, and on the other the great selectivity of the second one for the determination of americium.

  20. HIV, Hepatitis C, TB, Harm Reduction, and Persons Deprived of Liberty: What Standards Does International Human Rights Law Establish?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, Gen; Lines, Rick

    2016-12-01

    HIV, hepatitis C virus (HCV), and TB in prisons and other places of detention are serious public health concerns, with prevalence and incidence considerably higher than in the general community because of the overrepresentation of risky behavior, substandard conditions, overcrowding, people who inject drugs, and the wholly inadequate prevention, care, and treatment of these conditions, including the denial of harm reduction services. This is not only a severe public health crisis but also a serious human rights concern. This article works to clarify the standards established by human rights law with regards to HIV, HCV, TB, and harm reduction in prisons by examining international and regional case law, minimum standards on the treatment of prisoners and public health, as well as the work of UN treaty bodies, Special Rapporteurs, and prison monitoring bodies. It is imperative that urgent steps are taken to close the gap between human rights and public health standards on the one hand, and effective implementation in prison settings on the other.

  1. ENFORCED DISAPPEARANCE OF PERSONS UNDER INTERNATIONAL CRIMINAL LAW: THE CASE “GUERRILHA DO ARAGUAIA” IN BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Pires Pinto

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The case “Guerrilha do Araguaia” is well known in Brazil in the view of the disappearances of opponents to the military regime occurred between 1972 and 1974, in the region known as Araguaia. Despite the efforts made by the families of the victims to seek responsibility and redress, few progress has been done. In 1995, Brazil recognized its responsibilities for the deaths and established a Commission to provide compensation to the families of the victims. The Amnesty Law prevented the State to initiate the criminal proceedings related to the responsibilities of those involved in the disappearances, torture and killings. On December 2010, the Inter-American Court of Human Rights decided that Brazil is responsible for the enforced disappearances in the Araguaia's region and, following its previous jurisprudence, determined that the State initiate adequate investigation and criminal proceedings related to the facts that amount to crimes against the humanity. In the view of the determination of criminal responsibilities on the “Guerrilha do Araguaia”'s case, this article will examine the grounds of criminal liability of the alleged offenders under the international criminal law as well as under the Brazilian domestic law, analysing the limitations that arise from both jurisdictions.

  2. Rationale and Methods for Archival Sampling and Analysis of Atmospheric Trace Chemical Contaminants On Board Mir and Recommendations for the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, J. L.; James, J. T.; Cole, H. E.; Limero, T. F.; Beck, S. W.

    1997-01-01

    Collection and analysis of spacecraft cabin air samples are necessary to assess the cabin air quality with respect to crew health. Both toxicology and engineering disciplines work together to achieve an acceptably clean cabin atmosphere. Toxicology is concerned with limiting the risk to crew health from chemical sources, setting exposure limits, and analyzing air samples to determine how well these limits are met. Engineering provides the means for minimizing the contribution of the various contaminant generating sources by providing active contamination control equipment on board spacecraft and adhering to a rigorous material selection and control program during the design and construction of the spacecraft. A review of the rationale and objectives for sampling spacecraft cabin atmospheres is provided. The presently-available sampling equipment and methods are reviewed along with the analytical chemistry methods employed to determine trace contaminant concentrations. These methods are compared and assessed with respect to actual cabin air quality monitoring needs. Recommendations are presented with respect to the basic sampling program necessary to ensure an acceptably clean spacecraft cabin atmosphere. Also, rationale and recommendations for expanding the scope of the basic monitoring program are discussed.

  3. Three-dimensional personalized dosimetry for 188Re liver selective internal radiation therapy based on quantitative post-treatment SPECT studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shcherbinin, S.; Grimes, J.; Bator, A.; Cwikla, J. B.; Celler, A.

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate that accurate patient-specific distributions of microspheres labeled with 188Re and resulting absorbed doses can be obtained from single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) studies performed after 188Re selective internal radiation therapy when accurate correction methods are employed in image reconstruction. Our quantitative image reconstruction algorithm includes corrections for attenuation, resolution degradations and scatter as well as a window-based compensation for contamination. The procedure has been validated using four phantom experiments containing an 18 ml cylindrical source (82-93 MBq of 188Re activity) simulating a liver tumor. In addition, we applied our approach to post-therapy SPECT studies of ten patients with progressive primary or metastatic liver carcinomas. Our quantitative algorithm accurately (within 9%) recovered 188Re activity from four phantom experiments. In addition, for two patients that received three scans, deviations remained consistent between the measured and the reconstructed activities that were determined from studies with differing severity of the dead-time effect. The analysis of absorbed doses for patient studies allowed us to hypothesize that D90 (the minimum dose received by 90% of the tumor volume) may be a reliable metric relating therapy outcomes to the calculated doses. Among several considered metrics, only D90 showed statistically significant correlation with the overall survival.

  4. Molecular inference of sources and spreading patterns of Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasites in internally displaced persons settlements in Myanmar-China border area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Eugenia; Zhou, Guofa; Oo, Winny; Lee, Ming-Chieh; Baum, Elisabeth; Felgner, Philip L; Yang, Zhaoqing; Cui, Liwang; Yan, Guiyun

    2015-07-01

    In Myanmar, civil unrest and establishment of internally displaced persons (IDP) settlement along the Myanmar-China border have impacted malaria transmission. The growing IDP populations raise deep concerns about health impact on local communities. Microsatellite markers were used to examine the source and spreading patterns of Plasmodium falciparum between IDP settlement and surrounding villages in Myanmar along the China border. Genotypic structure of P. falciparum was compared over the past three years from the same area and the demographic history was inferred to determine the source of recent infections. In addition, we examined if border migration is a factor of P. falciparum infections in China by determining gene flow patterns across borders. Compared to local community, the IDP samples showed a reduced and consistently lower genetic diversity over the past three years. A strong signature of genetic bottleneck was detected in the IDP samples. P. falciparum infections from the border regions in China were genetically similar to Myanmar and parasite gene flow was not constrained by geographical distance. Reduced genetic diversity of P. falciparum suggested intense malaria control within the IDP settlement. Human movement was a key factor to the spread of malaria both locally in Myanmar and across the international border. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. A comparison of DSM-5 and ICD-11 PTSD prevalence, comorbidity and disability: an analysis of the Ukrainian Internally Displaced Person's Mental Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevlin, M; Hyland, P; Vallières, F; Bisson, J; Makhashvili, N; Javakhishvili, J; Shpiker, M; Roberts, B

    2018-02-01

    Recently, the American Psychiatric Association (DSM-5) and the World Health Organization (ICD-11) have both revised their formulation of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The primary aim of this study was to compare DSM-5 and ICD-11 PTSD prevalence and comorbidity rates, as well as the level of disability associated with each diagnosis. This study was based on a representative sample of adult Ukrainian internally displaced persons (IDPs: N = 2203). Post-traumatic stress disorder prevalence was assessed using the PTSD Checklist for DSM-5 and the International Trauma Questionnaire (ICD-11). Anxiety and depression were measured using the Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale and the Patient Health Questionnaire-Depression. Disability was measured using the WHO Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0. The prevalence of DSM-5 PTSD (27.4%) was significantly higher than ICD-11 PTSD (21.0%), and PTSD rates for females were significantly higher using both criteria. ICD-11 PTSD was associated with significantly higher levels of disability and comorbidity. The ICD-11 diagnosis of PTSD appears to be particularly well suited to identifying those with clinically relevant levels of disability. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Dosimeter for measuring gaseous contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kring, E.V.; Lautenberger, W.J.

    1980-01-01

    A personal dosimeter for measuring the time-average concentration of a gaseous contaminant in the atmosphere in a manner substantially independent of atmospheric motion relative to the dosimeter is provided. The dosimeter comprises a detector substance capable of chemically or physically combining with the gaseous contaminant disposed tightly between two substantially flat members, at least one of which has a plurality of throughand-through channels. The members have corresponding, meshing shapes such that the channels provide the only communication between the atmosphere and the detector substance, allowing the gaseous contaminant to diffuse through the channels

  7. On the reduction of internal radiation doses due to the ingestion of CS-137 in areas contaminated by the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, P.; Schlager, M.; Vogel, V.; Hille, R.; Nesterenko, A.V.; Nesterenko, V.B.

    2006-01-01

    After the Chernobyl reactor accident wide areas of Belarus have been contaminated with radioactive fallout. The verification and documentation of the long-term development of radiation doses is still going on. A population group of special concern are the children living in contaminated regions. Of the two million Belarussian children, approximately 80000 live in regions contaminated after the Chernobyl accident by a 137 Cs deposition of more than 185 kBq/m. A German-Belarussian project is investigating radiation doses of children in those regions since several years. In a recent paper [1] it has been shown, that the annual dose limit of 1 mSv/a is still exceeded in some cases, essentially due to high body burdens of Cs -137 as indicated by screening measurements with portable incorporation monitors. Means of dose reduction such as remediation of agricultural land had been investigated in the past and generally already contribute to a reduction of food contamination. Also the use of clean food and the control of food contamination has generally proven its effectiveness and the latter is exercised by official authorities and private initiatives. In situations, where this is not sufficient, the clarification of the usefulness of additional means, such as the cure-like application of pectin preparations, makes sense. A dose lowering effect is presumed by Belarussian and Ukrainian scientists. In the framework of the present German-Belarussian project special attention is given to the cure-like application of a Belarussian pectin-preparation (Vitapect). Vitapect consists of apple pectins with added vitamins, mineral nutrients and flavour substances. It is currently in use in Belarus in accordance with legal regulations and licensed by the Belarus authorities. In a placebo-controlled double-blind study, several groups of contaminated children were treated with Vitapect for a two -week period during their stay in a sanatorium. For comparison the same number of control

  8. On the reduction of internal radiation doses due to the ingestion of CS-137 in areas contaminated by the Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, P.; Schlager, M.; Vogel, V.; Hille, R. [Forschungszentrum Julich GmbH, Julich (Germany); Nesterenko, A.V.; Nesterenko, V.B. [BELRAD, Minsk, (Belarus)

    2006-07-01

    After the Chernobyl reactor accident wide areas of Belarus have been contaminated with radioactive fallout. The verification and documentation of the long-term development of radiation doses is still going on. A population group of special concern are the children living in contaminated regions. Of the two million Belarussian children, approximately 80000 live in regions contaminated after the Chernobyl accident by a {sup 137}Cs deposition of more than 185 kBq/m. A German-Belarussian project is investigating radiation doses of children in those regions since several years. In a recent paper [1] it has been shown, that the annual dose limit of 1 mSv/a is still exceeded in some cases, essentially due to high body burdens of Cs -137 as indicated by screening measurements with portable incorporation monitors. Means of dose reduction such as remediation of agricultural land had been investigated in the past and generally already contribute to a reduction of food contamination. Also the use of clean food and the control of food contamination has generally proven its effectiveness and the latter is exercised by official authorities and private initiatives. In situations, where this is not sufficient, the clarification of the usefulness of additional means, such as the cure-like application of pectin preparations, makes sense. A dose lowering effect is presumed by Belarussian and Ukrainian scientists. In the framework of the present German-Belarussian project special attention is given to the cure-like application of a Belarussian pectin-preparation (Vitapect). Vitapect consists of apple pectins with added vitamins, mineral nutrients and flavour substances. It is currently in use in Belarus in accordance with legal regulations and licensed by the Belarus authorities. In a placebo-controlled double-blind study, several groups of contaminated children were treated with Vitapect for a two -week period during their stay in a sanatorium. For comparison the same number of

  9. Airborne radioactive contamination following aerosol ventilation studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackie, A.; Hart, G.C.; Ibbett, D.A.; Whitehead, R.J.S.

    1994-01-01

    Lung aerosol ventilation studies may be accompanied by airborne contamination, with subsequent surface contamination. Airborne contamination has been measured prior to, during and following 59 consecutive 99 Tc m -diethylenetriamine pentaacetate (DTPA) aerosol studies using a personal air sampler. Airborne contamination ranging between 0 and 20 330 kBq m -3 has been measured. Airborne contamination increases with degree of patient breathing difficulty. The effective dose equivalent (EDE) to staff from ingested activity has been calculated to be 0.3 μSv per study. This figure is supported by data from gamma camera images of a contaminated staff member. However, surface contamination measurements reveal that 60% of studies exceed maximum permissible contamination limits for the hands; 16% of studies exceed limits for controlled area surfaces. (author)

  10. Spatial structure of food contamination with 137Cs and estimation of long-term internal dose loads on population of Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krivoruchko, K.

    1997-01-01

    An analysis of 53,207 records of 137 Cs contents in 83 types of food products obtained in 1993 in Belarus was carried out. Internal exposure by eight selected food components has been estimated. To map the non-uniformly distributed data, different types of geostatical approaches are used. The results of spatial analysis of long term internal dose loads on populations under high radiation risk could be used in decision making. (author)

  11. A nursing conceptual model for contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Pauline M; Polk, Laura V

    2012-02-01

    To propose a nursing model of contamination that describes the key features of contamination at a level of abstraction needed for clinical decision making. Relevant literature on contamination, biopreparedness, and classic epidemiologic literature were reviewed and analyzed. A model of contamination was created along with a description of benefits of use in practice, education, and research. The nursing profession is called to respond to contamination incidents on a local, national, and global level. Achieving optimum health outcomes while managing contamination incidents is enhanced by nurses' use of a model that incorporates six elements to identify and name instances of contamination and select suitable outcomes and interventions. © 2011, The Authors. International Journal of Nursing Knowledge © 2011, NANDA International.

  12. Management of persons accidentally contaminated with radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    This book deals primarily with the types of problems that will be encountered at a national laboratory or commercial nuclear facility where large quantities of radioactive material are processed. The average hospital finds the book useful in limited sections: the yellow pages contain quick reference information (this would be better entitled ''summary of radiation accident planning guide''), which would be useful in developing a site specific plan. Appendix A describes the Interagency Radiological Assistance Plan (IRAP) with regional phone numbers. Experts are readily available. And Chapter 3, ''Initial Management of the Patient,'' contains some useful thoughts. The remaining section of this report will be useful to the experts

  13. On the possibility of internal contamination by 137Cs through ingestion of bilberries (Vaccinium Myrtillus) from some parts of Slovakia and of market origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Missik, J.; Puskeiler, L.; Miklas, P.

    2006-01-01

    Samples of bilberries (Vaccinium myrtillus) taken from mountain ranges of Vysoke Javorniky, Turzovska vrchovina, Kysucke Beskydy, Mala Fatra, surroundings of towns Banska Stiavnica and Brezno, from southeastern part of Spis region and one site at Orava region were analysed by HPGe gamma-spectrometry. The most contaminated sample came from Skalka at district Brezno with the activity of 137 Cs (37.6 ± 2.1) Bq · kg -1 . Lower activities than 1 Bq · kg -1 were detected in samples taken from sites at Orava and Kysucke Beskydy. The highest activity of 137 Cs (535.7 ± 29.8) Bq.kg-1 in berries from commercial shops at Slovakia in the year 2005 were found in frozen berries from Romania. (authors)

  14. Groundwater Contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... serious problems. Uncontrolled Hazardous Waste In the U.S. today, there are thought to be over 20,000 ... use personal information for purposes of administering our business activities, providing service and support and making available ...

  15. Evaluation of sensitivity evaluation of a contamination monitor for use in monitoring of internal exposure of workers in nuclear medicine; Avaliacao da sensibilidade de um monitor de contaminacao para aplicacao em monitoracao da exposicao interna de trabalhadores em medicina nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dantas, Bernando Maranhao; Assis, Janima Cruz de; Oliveira, Salomao Marques de; Dantas, Ana Leticia Almeida, E-mail: bmdantas@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Monitoracao In Vivo. Div. de Dosimetria

    2014-07-01

    In practice of nuclear medicine, expert personnel routinely handle radiopharmaceuticals for diagnosis and radiotherapy. The control of intakes of radionuclides by workers can be performed through internal dosimetry techniques, as an integral part of the radiation protection program of the installation. The use of radiopharmaceuticals for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes in vivo and in vitro in Brazil is regulated by CNEN-NE Standards and 3:05 CNEN-NN 3.01. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) recommends the establishment of an internal monitoring program on workers, especially those subject to possible exposure to annual effective doses greater than 1 mSv. Note that, currently, in Brazil, are not available qualified laboratories to provide internal monitoring services in all regions in the country, if it were applied by CNEN, the requirement for internal monitoring of workers. This paper presents the development of a simple and low-cost methodology for in vivo monitoring of {sup 131}I in the thyroid. The proposed methodology is the use of portable monitor of surface contamination, equipment available and routinely used in all nuclear medicine services in Brazil. The monitor is calibrated with neck-thyroid simulator developed at the Laboratory of In Vivo Monitoring of IRD/CNEN-RJ. The equipment tested is suitable for application in in vivo occupational monitoring thyroid. This conclusion is based on the fact that the detection system has sufficient sensitivity for monitoring up to seven days after the incorporation of the radionuclide and guarantees {sup 131}I detection in values that result in effective doses below 1 mSv for the exposure scenarios adopted.

  16. Pilot-scale UV/H2O2 study for emerging organic contaminants decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Xiaona; Xiao, Yan; Hu, Jiangyong; Quek, Elaine; Xie, Rongjin; Pang, Thomas; Xing, Yongjie

    2016-03-01

    Human behaviors including consumption of drugs and use of personal care products, climate change, increased international travel, and the advent of water reclamation for direct potable use have led to the introduction of significant amounts of emerging organic contaminants into the aqueous environment. In addition, the lower detection limits associated with improved scientific methods of chemical analysis have resulted in a recent increase in documented incidences of these contaminants which previously were not routinely monitored in water. Such contaminants may cause known or suspected adverse ecological and/or human health effects at very low concentrations. Conventional drinking water treatment processes may not effectively remove these organic contaminants. Advanced oxidation process (AOP) is a promising treatment process for the removal of most of these emerging organic contaminants, and has been accepted worldwide as a suitable treatment process. In this study, different groups of emerging contaminants were studied for decomposition efficiency using pilot-scale UV/H2O2 oxidation setup, including EDCs, PPCPs, taste and odor (T&O), and perfluorinated compounds. Results found that MP UV/H2O2 AOP was efficient in removing all the selected contaminants except perfluorinated compounds. Study of the kinetics of the process showed that both light absorption and quantum yield of each compound affected the decomposition performance. Analysis of water quality parameters of the treated water indicated that the outcome of both UV photolysis and UV/H2O2 processes can be affected by changes in the feed water quality.

  17. Towards a Long-Term Strategy for Voluntary-Based Internal Radiation Contamination Monitoring: A Population-Level Analysis of Monitoring Prevalence and Factors Associated with Monitoring Participation Behavior in Fukushima, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Shuhei; Tsubokura, Masaharu; Ozaki, Akihiko; Murakami, Michio; Hodgson, Susan; Blangiardo, Marta; Nishikawa, Yoshitaka; Morita, Tomohiro; Oikawa, Tomoyoshi

    2017-04-09

    Following Japan's 2011 Fukushima nuclear incident, we assessed voluntary-based monitoring behavior in Minamisoma City-located 10-40 km from the Fukushima nuclear plant-to inform future monitoring strategies. The monitoring in Minamisoma included occasional free of charge internal-radiation-exposure measurements. Out of around 70,000 individuals residing in the city before the incident, a total of 45,788 residents (female: 52.1%) aged ≥21 were evaluated. The monitoring prevalence in 2011-2012 was only 30.2%, and this decreased to 17.9% in 2013-2014. Regression analyses were performed to estimate factors associated with the monitoring prevalence and participation behavior. The results show that, in comparison with the age cohort of 21-30 years, the cohort of 71-80 and ≥81 years demonstrated significantly lower monitoring prevalence; female residents had higher monitoring prevalence than male residents; those who were living in evacuation zones at the time of the incident had higher monitoring prevalence than those who lived outside any of the evacuation zones; for those living outside Fukushima and neighboring Prefectures post-incident monitoring prevalence decreased significantly in 2013-2014. Our findings inform the discussion on the concepts of radiation risk perception and accessibility to monitoring and societal decision-making regarding the maintenance of the monitoring program with low monitoring prevalence. We also stress the possibility that the monitoring can work both to check that internal contamination levels are within acceptable limits, and as a risk communication tool, alleviating individuals' concern and anxiety over radiation contamination.

  18. The Value of Personal Data

    OpenAIRE

    Lieshout , Marc ,

    2015-01-01

    Part 1: Invited Keynote Papers; International audience; This chapter discusses the value of personal data from two complementary perspectives: the value of personal data for firms and the value of personal data for individuals. The chapter starts with a short introduction into the rise of personal data markets – markets basically driven by the economic exploitation of personal data. Then the chapter discusses how firms asses the value of personal data. This can be done from different angles, ...

  19. Assessment of the risk of salmonellosis from internally contaminated shell eggs following initial storage at 18 °C (65 °F), compared with 7 °C (45 °F).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouillot, R; Hoelzer, K; Ramirez, G A; deGraft-Hanson, J; Dennis, S B

    2014-10-01

    In the U.S., chicken-breeder farms that supply hatcheries typically store and transport eggs intended for broiler production at a temperature of 18.3 °C (65 °F). However, in case of surplus, some of these eggs may be diverted to human consumption. According to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's 'Egg Safety Final Rule,' shell eggs intended for human consumption are required to be held or transported at or below 7.2 °C (45 °F) ambient temperature beginning 36 h after time of lay. We adapted a risk assessment model developed by the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Food Safety Inspection Service, to quantify human exposure to Salmonella Enteritidis and the risk of human salmonellosis if eggs are held and transported at 18.3 °C for up to 5.5 days after time of lay, as has been observed when hatchery eggs are diverted to human consumption, rather than held and transported at 7.2 °C within 36 h after time of lay. Storage at 18.3 °C leads to considerable bacterial growth in internally contaminated eggs. The model predicted that more than 10% of internally contaminated eggs would remain contaminated after in-shell pasteurization resulting in a 5-log10 reduction, and that some bacteria would survive after home-cooking. The model predicted that, alternatively, eggs stored at 7.2 °C after lay would have limited bacterial growth prior to pasteurization, and Salmonella would be very unlikely to be present after pasteurization. The predicted risk of salmonellosis from the consumption of eggs held and transported at 18.3 °C and subsequently diverted to human consumption is 25 times higher than the risk when eggs are held and transported at 7.2 °C. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Boosted selective internal radiation therapy with 90Y-loaded glass microspheres (B-SIRT) for hepatocellular carcinoma patients: a new personalized promising concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garin, E.; Lenoir, L.; Edeline, J.; Laffont, S.; Mesbah, H.; Poree, P.; Sulpice, L.; Boudjema, K.; Mesbah, M.; Guillygomarc'h, A.; Quehen, E.; Pracht, M.; Raoul, J.L.; Clement, B.; Rolland, Y.; Boucher, E.

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of dosimetry based on MAA SPECT/CT for the prediction of response, toxicity and survival, and for treatment planning in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) treated with 90 Y-loaded glass microspheres (TheraSphere registered). TheraSphere registered was administered to 71 patients with inoperable HCC. MAA SPECT/CT quantitative analysis was used for the calculation of the tumour dose (TD), healthy injected liver dose (HILD), and total injected liver dose. Response was evaluated at 3 months using EASL criteria. Time to progression (TTP) and overall survival (OS) were evaluated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Factors potentially associated with liver toxicity were combined to construct a liver toxicity score (LTS). The response rate was 78.8 %. Median TD were 342 Gy for responding lesions and 191 Gy for nonresponding lesions (p 205 Gy (p = 0.0015 and not significant). Among patients with portal vein thrombosis (PVT) (n = 33), the median TTP and OS were 4.5 months (2-7 months) and 5 months (2-8 months), respectively, in patients with TD 205 Gy (p = 0.039 and 0.005). The median OS was 24.5 months (18-28.5 months) in PVT patients with TD >205 Gy and good PVT targeting on MAA SPECT/CT. The LTS was able to detect severe liver toxicity (n = 6) with a sensitivity of 83 % and overall accuracy of 97 %. Dosimetry based on MAA SPECT/CT was able to accurately predict response and survival in patients treated with glass microspheres. This method can be used to adapt the injected activity without increasing liver toxicity, thus defining a new concept of boosted selective internal radiation therapy (B-SIRT). This new concept and LTS enable fully personalized treatment planning with glass microspheres to be achieved. (orig.)

  1. Boosted selective internal radiation therapy with 90Y-loaded glass microspheres (B-SIRT) for hepatocellular carcinoma patients: a new personalized promising concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garin, E; Lenoir, L; Edeline, J; Laffont, S; Mesbah, H; Porée, P; Sulpice, L; Boudjema, K; Mesbah, M; Guillygomarc'h, A; Quehen, E; Pracht, M; Raoul, J L; Clement, B; Rolland, Y; Boucher, E

    2013-07-01

    To evaluate the impact of dosimetry based on MAA SPECT/CT for the prediction of response, toxicity and survival, and for treatment planning in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) treated with (90)Y-loaded glass microspheres (TheraSphere®). TheraSphere® was administered to 71 patients with inoperable HCC. MAA SPECT/CT quantitative analysis was used for the calculation of the tumour dose (TD), healthy injected liver dose (HILD), and total injected liver dose. Response was evaluated at 3 months using EASL criteria. Time to progression (TTP) and overall survival (OS) were evaluated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Factors potentially associated with liver toxicity were combined to construct a liver toxicity score (LTS). The response rate was 78.8%. Median TD were 342 Gy for responding lesions and 191 Gy for nonresponding lesions (p 205 Gy (p = 0.0015 and not significant). Among patients with portal vein thrombosis (PVT) (n = 33), the median TTP and OS were 4.5 months (2-7 months) and 5 months (2-8 months), respectively, in patients with TD 205 Gy (p = 0.039 and 0.005). The median OS was 24.5 months (18-28.5 months) in PVT patients with TD >205 Gy and good PVT targeting on MAA SPECT/CT. The LTS was able to detect severe liver toxicity (n = 6) with a sensitivity of 83% and overall accuracy of 97%. Dosimetry based on MAA SPECT/CT was able to accurately predict response and survival in patients treated with glass microspheres. This method can be used to adapt the injected activity without increasing liver toxicity, thus defining a new concept of boosted selective internal radiation therapy (B-SIRT). This new concept and LTS enable fully personalized treatment planning with glass microspheres to be achieved.

  2. EFFICIENCY OF PROTECTIVE MEASURES TO REDUCE INTERNAL DOSE FROM CAESIUM RADIONUCLIDES FOR THE INHABITANTS OF RADIOACTIVE CONTAMINATION AREA IN THE FIRST YEARS AFTER THE CHERNOBYL ACCIDENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. G. Travnikova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the paper, we use the data on the content of caesium radionuclides in foodstuffs and in Bryansk region adult inhabitant’s body, on their food ration and its changes during the first years after the Chernobyl accident, and on the measures to protect the population from internal exposure. We calculate dynamics of 137Cs intake in the body and its contents therein, while maintaining a traditional diet and while replacing food products for radiationfree ones. The results show that the actual 137Cs content in the body is usually below the one calculated on the basis of the food ration. It was found out that individual 137Cs contents in the body correlate with the rate of meat, dairy and natural food products consumption and with factors of protection from internal exposure. The efficiency of the protective measures to reduce the intake and the content of caesium radionuclides in the body of inhabitants, as well as the average effective dose in the first years after the accident has been quantitatively assessed.

  3. Groundwater contamination and community relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, K.

    2004-01-01

    Westinghouse Electric Company LLC ('Westinghouse') acquired a nuclear fuel processing plant at Hematite, Missouri ('Hematite', the 'Facility', or the 'Plant') in April 2000. The plant has subsequently been closed, and its operations have been relocated to a newer, larger facility. Westinghouse has announced plans to complete its clean-up, decommissioning, and License retirement in a safe, socially responsible, and environmentally sound manner as required by internal policies, as well as those of its parent company, British Nuclear Fuels plc. (BNFL). Preliminary investigations have revealed the presence of environmental contamination in various areas of the facility and grounds, including both radioactive contamination and various other substances related to the nuclear fuel processing operations. Most noteworthy among the areas of contamination are seven private drinking water wells up to 3 000 feet to the southeast, and one private drinking water well approximately 1 000 feet to the northeast, that have been found to contain tetra-chloro-ethylene ('PCE'), trichloroethylene ('TCE'), and other contaminants associated with their environmental degradation. Potential sources of this contamination include approximately 40 large unlined on-site burial pits and 2 evaporation ponds in which previous operators of the facility disposed of uranium contaminated wastes and a variety of other hazardous substances. This paper discusses Westinghouse's response to the discovery of drinking water contamination, and the significance of its community relations program within that response. (author)

  4. Examining the Relationship between Multiple Internalized Oppressions and African American Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Questioning Persons' Self-Esteem and Psychological Distress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymanski, Dawn M.; Gupta, Arpana

    2009-01-01

    Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and questioning (LGBQ) persons come from diverse cultural groups with diverse racial and ethnic identities. However, most research on LGBQ persons has used primarily White samples, and most research on African Americans has used largely heterosexual samples. Thus, research has largely failed to attend to and investigate the…

  5. Towards a Long-Term Strategy for Voluntary-Based Internal Radiation Contamination Monitoring: Representativeness of the Monitoring Results in Fukushima, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Shuhei; Tsubokura, Masaharu; Murakami, Michio; Ono, Kyoko; Nishikawa, Yoshitaka; Oikawa, Tomoyoshi

    2017-06-20

    Following Japan's 2011 Fukushima nuclear incident, voluntary participation, rather than mandatory, was adopted as the default scenario for individual radiation monitoring. We evaluated the representativeness of the internal monitoring results from voluntary participants in Minamisoma City, which is located 10-40 km from the Fukushima nuclear plant. Of approximately 70,000 individuals who were residing in Minamisoma City before the incident, a total of 19,263 residents (aged ≥21 years) participated in the monitoring from 1 October 2011 to 31 March 2015. Based on regression projection techniques with the available data obtained from the voluntary participants, the modeled probabilities of radiocesium (Cs) detection in October 2011 for Cs-137 and Cs-134 were 66.9% and 52.9%, respectively, which declined dramatically within a year following the incident. The rate of decline had stagnated since mid-2012, and the probability was close to zero after mid-2014. Sufficient agreement between the modeled probabilities of Cs detection (for the whole population) versus the measured Cs levels (for voluntary participants) was observed, except for Cs-134 in October 2011, indicating that the voluntary monitoring participant group was a good representative sample. Our findings affirmed the clinical importance of voluntary-based monitoring as a screening and dose-assessment tool in a post-nuclear incident. Our study informs societal decision-making regarding the long-term maintenance of the monitoring program under the current low exposure levels.

  6. Mental contamination: The effects of religiosity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilekli, Ilgun; Inozu, Mujgan

    2018-03-01

    Mental contamination, which occurs in the absence of contact with a contaminant, has a moral element. Previous studies evoked feelings of mental contamination via listening to a scenario, which described a non-consensual kiss. Since mental contamination has a moral element, we tested the effects of the level of religiosity on feelings of mental contamination and related variables in an experimental design. Female undergraduates of high religiosity (n = 48) and low religiosity (n = 44) were randomly assigned to listen to one of two audio recordings involving a consensual or non-consensual kiss from a man described as moral. Mental contamination feelings were evoked successfully in both groups. Effects of scenario condition and religiosity level were seen in mental contamination and related negative feelings. Participants who imagined a non-consensual kiss reported greatest feelings of mental contamination, and internal and external negative feelings. More importantly, high religiosity resulted in greater feelings of mental contamination, internal negative feelings, as well as urges to wash and actual washing behaviors. The current study was conducted on non-clinical Muslim females. This limits the generalization of the findings to the wider population. Mental contamination and related feelings can be seen in different forms at different levels of religiosity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Personal Usability Constructs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertzum, Morten; Clemmensen, Torkil; Hornbæk, Kasper

    2011-01-01

    Whereas the concept of usability is predominantly defined analytically, people relate to systems through personal usability constructs. Based on 48 repertory-grid interviews, this study investigates how such personal constructs are affected by two factors crucial to the international development...

  8. Studies on kidney function in workers exposed to uranium contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bugueno, M.C.; Suarez, J. (Comision Chilena de Energia Nuclear, Santiago)

    1983-11-01

    The values of some kidney function tests in our workers were studied through the media, range and statistical spread, compared with those used abroad and also in our main hospitals. With that purpose, thirty three persons were selected among those without kidney pathology history of uranium internal contamination as revealed by the permanent control of our clinical and radiotoxicological service. Kidney function was explored through the measurement of uremia, ureic nitrogen, albuminuria, endogenous creatinine clearance and the Addis test. Values determined were normal with respect to those used in the international literature, with the exception of the creatinine clearance test. Also a 6% of our workers were abnormal in at least one or two of the five tests employed.

  9. Boosted selective internal radiation therapy with {sup 90}Y-loaded glass microspheres (B-SIRT) for hepatocellular carcinoma patients: a new personalized promising concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garin, E.; Lenoir, L. [Comprehensive Cancer Center, Institute Eugene Marquis, Department of Nuclear Medicine, CS 44229, Rennes (France); University of Rennes 1, Rennes (France); INSERM, U-991, Liver Metabolisms and Cancer, Rennes (France); Edeline, J. [University of Rennes 1, Rennes (France); Comprehensive Cancer Center, Institute Eugene Marquis, Department of Medical Oncology, CS 44229, Rennes (France); Laffont, S. [Comprehensive Cancer Center, Institute Eugene Marquis, Department of Nuclear Medicine, CS 44229, Rennes (France); Mesbah, H.; Poree, P. [Comprehensive Cancer Center, Institute Eugene Marquis, Department of Medical Informatics, CS 44229, Rennes (France); Sulpice, L. [INSERM, U-991, Liver Metabolisms and Cancer, Rennes (France); Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Pontchaillou, Department of Digestive Surgery, Rennes (France); Boudjema, K. [University of Rennes 1, Rennes (France); INSERM, U-991, Liver Metabolisms and Cancer, Rennes (France); Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Pontchaillou, Department of Digestive Surgery, Rennes (France); Mesbah, M. [University of Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris (France); Guillygomarc' h, A. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Pontchaillou, Department of Hepatology, Rennes (France); Quehen, E. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Pontchaillou, Department of Radiology, Rennes (France); Pracht, M. [Comprehensive Cancer Center, Institute Eugene Marquis, Department of Medical Oncology, CS 44229, Rennes (France); Raoul, J.L. [Comprehensive Cancer Center, Institute Paoli Calmette, Department of Medical Oncology, Marseille (France); Clement, B. [INSERM, U-991, Liver Metabolisms and Cancer, Rennes (France); Rolland, Y. [Comprehensive Cancer Center, Institute Eugene Marquis, Department of Medical Imaging, CS 44229, Rennes (France); Boucher, E. [INSERM, U-991, Liver Metabolisms and Cancer, Rennes (France); Comprehensive Cancer Center, Institute Eugene Marquis, Department of Medical Oncology, CS 44229, Rennes (France)

    2013-07-15

    able to accurately predict response and survival in patients treated with glass microspheres. This method can be used to adapt the injected activity without increasing liver toxicity, thus defining a new concept of boosted selective internal radiation therapy (B-SIRT). This new concept and LTS enable fully personalized treatment planning with glass microspheres to be achieved. (orig.)

  10. Radioactive contamination monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Toru; Hashimoto, Tadao; Hashimoto, Manabu

    2007-01-01

    In order to prevent radioactive materials from spreading contamination from nuclear power plants outside the radiation control area, the surface contamination of all material transferred outside from the control area is monitored. This paper presents an overview and describes features of: (1) personnel surface contamination monitoring assemblies for measuring the surface contamination on workers, (2) article surface contamination monitoring assemblies for measuring the surface contamination on articles, (3) laundry monitors for measuring the surface contamination on worker clothes worn inside the control area, and (4) hand-foot-clothing contamination monitors for measuring the surface contamination on hands, feet and clothing. (author)

  11. Radiological risks in an operational environment; Risque radiologique en operation exterieure: prise en charge initiale d'un blesse irradie ou contamine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castagnet, X.; Lafferrerie, C. [Service Medical BCRM de Toulon, Escadrille des sous-marins nucleaires d' attaque, 83 - Toulon (France); Amabile, J.C.; Cazoulat, A.; Laroche, P. [Service de Protection radiologique des armees, 94 - Clamart (France)

    2010-10-15

    A radiological hazard (e. g. a detonating dirty bomb or accidental radionuclide dispersion) leading to a large number of contaminated or irradiated people needing immediate medical assistance is one of the main threats our troops deployed in an operational environment are facing. Immediate first aid anyway shall take precedence over decontamination but the unique nature of these injuries necessitates specific medical knowledge and training. A contaminated victim needs a rapid -clinical physical and biological- medical evaluation which will determine the amount of required medical support. A person with external contamination needs to be rapidly cleansed to limit spreading surface burns as well as limiting the possible contamination internally spreading into the body. A person with internal contamination requires rapid decontamination at the wound point and antidotes to internally cleanse the body. In France, the Military Health Service has developed a centre of expertise at the Percy military hospital near Paris which is geared up to deal with the victims of radiological attacks. It also has a mobile laboratory equipped with full radio toxicology equipment and body dosimeters to enable rapid and effective results when required. (authors)

  12. Emerging organic contaminants in groundwater

    OpenAIRE

    Stuart, Marianne; Lapworth, Dan

    2013-01-01

    Emerging organic contaminants (ECs) are compounds now being found in groundwater from agricultural, urban sources that were previously not detectable, or thought to be significant. ECs include pesticides and degradates, pharmaceuticals, industrial compounds, personal care products, fragrances, water treatment by-products, flame retardants and surfactants, as well as ‘life-style’ compounds such as caffeine and nicotine. ECs may have adverse effects on aquatic ecosystems and human health. Freq...

  13. Internalized stigma and quality of life among persons with severe mental illness: The mediating roles of self-esteem and hope

    OpenAIRE

    Mashiach–Eizenberg, Michal; Hasson-Ohayon, Ilanit; Yanos, Philip T.; Lysaker, Paul H.; Roe, David

    2013-01-01

    Research has revealed the negative consequences of internalized stigma among people with serious mental illness (SMI), including reductions in self-esteem and hope. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relation between internalized stigma and subjective quality of life (QoL) by examining the mediating role of self-esteem and hope. Measures of internalized stigma, self-esteem, QoL, and hope were administrated to 179 people who had a SMI. Linear regression analysis and Struct...

  14. "I Wouldn't Imagine Having to Go through All This and Still Be the Same Person. No Way": Structure, Reflexivity and International Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Blair

    2017-01-01

    International students at universities away from their home context experience a significant change to the way they engage with the world, as they think, reflect and act in response to the new context. Drawing on Archer's concept of reflexivity (2003; 2007; 2012), this paper demonstrates that international students are compelled into reflexive…

  15. Socio-Economic, Environmental and Personal Factors in the Choice of Country and Higher Education Institution for Studying Abroad among International Students in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Manjet Kaur Mehar

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to understand the pull factors that influenced international students' choice of country and institution for their Master's education. Design/Methodology/ Approach: This qualitative study relied upon focus group interviews with 70 international students registered in taught Master programmes at a higher…

  16. Fuel Efficient Stoves for Darfur Camps of Internally DisplacedPersons - Report of Field Trip to North and South Darfur, Nov. 16 -Dec.17, 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galitsky, Christina; Gadgil, Ashok; Jacobs, Mark; Lee, Yoo-Mi

    2006-02-01

    Approximately 2.2 million internally displaced persons (''IDPs'') in Darfur are living in dense camps scattered in arid areas with low fuelwood productivity. Unsustainable harvesting of fuelwood by the IDPs has created ever increasing zones of denudation, that now (in November 2005) have reached several kilometers from the camp boundaries. Leaving the safety of the camps to fetch fuelwood from farther and farther away imposes great risk and hardship on the IDP women. Three different metal fuel efficient stove (''FES'') designs were tested in Darfur IDP camps for their suitability to substantially reduce the fuelwood needs of IDPs. The mud-and-dung ''ITDG'' stoves being promoted under the current FES program were also examined and tested. A modified design of the ITDG mud-and-dung stove, ''Avi'', was developed, built and tested. Systematic informal surveys of IDP households were undertaken in North and South Darfur to understand the household parameters related to family size, food, fuel, cooking habits, cooking pots, expenditure on fuel, and preferences related to alternative ways to spend time/money if fuel could be saved. Surveys found that a significant fraction of families are missing meals for lack of fuel (50% in South Darfur, and 90% in the North Darfur camps visited by the mission). About 60% of women in South Darfur, and about 90% of women in North Darfur camps purchase fuelwood. Selling some of the food rations to purchase fuel to cook meals was significant (40%) in South Darfur and has become common (80%) in North Darfur. The LBNL mission found that two of the metal stoves and the mud-and-dung Avi can significantly reduce fuelwood consumption using the same fuel, pot, cooking methods, and food ingredients used by Darfur IDPs. The most suitable design for Darfur conditions would be a modified ''Tara'' stove. With training of the cooks in tending the fire

  17. EM International. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-07-01

    It is the intent of EM International to describe the Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management`s (EM`s) various roles and responsibilities within the international community. Cooperative agreements and programs, descriptions of projects and technologies, and synopses of visits to international sites are all highlighted in this semiannual journal. Focus on EM programs in this issue is on international collaboration in vitrification projects. Technology highlights covers: in situ sealing for contaminated sites; and remote sensors for toxic pollutants. Section on profiles of countries includes: Arctic contamination by the former Soviet Union, and EM activities with Germany--cooperative arrangements.

  18. Environmental contamination, product contamination and workers exposure using a robotic system for antineoplastic drug preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sessink, Paul J M; Leclercq, Gisèle M; Wouters, Dominique-Marie; Halbardier, Loïc; Hammad, Chaïma; Kassoul, Nassima

    2015-04-01

    Environmental contamination, product contamination and technicians exposure were measured following preparation of iv bags with cyclophosphamide using the robotic system CytoCare. Wipe samples were taken inside CytoCare, in the clean room environment, from vials, and prepared iv bags including ports and analysed for contamination with cyclophosphamide. Contamination with cyclophosphamide was also measured in environmental air and on the technicians hands and gloves used for handling the drugs. Exposure of the technicians to cyclophosphamide was measured by analysis of cyclophosphamide in urine. Contamination with cyclophosphamide was mainly observed inside CytoCare, before preparation, after preparation and after daily routine cleaning. Contamination outside CytoCare was incidentally found. All vials with reconstituted cyclophosphamide entering CytoCare were contaminated on the outside but vials with powdered cyclophosphamide were not contaminated on the outside. Contaminated bags entering CytoCare were also contaminated after preparation but non-contaminated bags were not contaminated after preparation. Cyclophosphamide was detected on the ports of all prepared bags. Almost all outer pairs of gloves used for preparation and daily routine cleaning were contaminated with cyclophosphamide. Cyclophosphamide was not found on the inner pairs of gloves and on the hands of the technicians. Cyclophosphamide was not detected in the stationary and personal air samples and in the urine samples of the technicians. CytoCare enables the preparation of cyclophosphamide with low levels of environmental contamination and product contamination and no measurable exposure of the technicians. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  19. Cross-cultural analysis of Type D (distressed) personality in 6222 patients with ischemic heart disease : A study from the International HeartQoL Project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kupper, N.; Pedersen, S.S.; Höfer, S.; Saner, H.; Oldridge, N.; Denollet, J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Type D (distressed) personality, the conjoint effect of negative affectivity (NA) and social inhibition (SI), predicts adverse cardiovascular outcomes, and is assessed with the 14-item Type D Scale (DS14). However, potential cross-cultural differences in Type D have not been examined yet

  20. International and Regional Institutional Dialogues for Human Rights for LGBT persons: The quest for recognition, anti-discrimination, and marriage in Southeast Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holzhacker, Ronald

    2016-01-01

    There is a rich interplay between civil society organizations and institutions involved in human rights norm diffusion and the ‘ricochet’ of ideas at the regional level across Southeast Asia. There is a broad discussion occurring about human rights for LGBT persons and SOGI rights (Sexual

  1. Direct methods for determining internal contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melandri, C.

    1985-01-01

    The direct methods of investigation on body content of radionuclides emitting gamma rays with energies higher than 100 KeV are described. After a short review of the earlier methods, the main technical charateristics of the present used whole body counters and counting geometries are described together with the calibration methods. Qualitative and quantitative data interpretation are also briefly discussed. The minimum detectable activity and the Derived Investigation Levels at different times from the intake both by ingestion or by inhalation as aerosol are finally compared for some radionuclides of great importance in the health physic survey

  2. International recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindell, Bo

    1986-01-01

    Full text: This short presentation will indicate the general radiation protection background to protective measures against foodstuffs contaminated with radioactive substances. A number of international organizations are involved in various aspects of radiation protection, for example, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), and the World Health Organization (WHO). Two international organizations, however, provide the basic background. These are the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR). UNSCEAR provides the scientific information on radiation levels and effects. It consists of 21 member countries, with truly international coverage. It issues reports to the UN General Assembly, including comprehensive scientific annexes. Its latest comprehensive report was issued in 1982, the next is expected to be published in 1988. That report will include an assessment of the radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident. The ICRP is a non-governmental organization. It has issued recommendations on radiation protection since 1928. The postulated biological basis for radiation protection recommendations involves two types of biological effects. The so-called non-stochastic effects, mainly due to cell death, appear only when the radiation doses exceed a certain threshold value. These effects, therefore, can only appear after high accidental exposures. After the Chernobyl accident, they only affected about 200 individuals involved in fire extinction and rescue work at the damaged nuclear power plant. Stochastic effects, with some simplification, may be seen as the result of initial changes in the genetic code of some surviving cells. If these cells are germ cells, this may lead to hereditary harm. If they are somatic cells, the result could be cancer

  3. Internalized stigma and quality of life among persons with severe mental illness: the mediating roles of self-esteem and hope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashiach-Eizenberg, Michal; Hasson-Ohayon, Ilanit; Yanos, Philip T; Lysaker, Paul H; Roe, David

    2013-06-30

    Research has revealed the negative consequences of internalized stigma among people with serious mental illness (SMI), including reductions in self-esteem and hope. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relation between internalized stigma and subjective quality of life (QoL) by examining the mediating role of self-esteem and hope. Measures of internalized stigma, self-esteem, QoL, and hope were administrated to 179 people who had a SMI. Linear regression analysis and structural equation modeling (SEM) were used to analyze the cross-sectional data. Self-esteem mediated the relation between internalized stigma and hope. In addition, hope partially mediated the relationship between self-esteem and QoL. The findings suggest that the effect of internalized stigma upon hope and QoL may be closely related to levels of self-esteem. This may point to the need for the development of interventions that target internalized stigma as well as self-esteem. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Long-term assessment of contaminated articles from the Chernobyl reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhomashi, N; Monged, M H E

    2015-06-01

    The Chernobyl accident caused a release of radioactive materials from the reactor into the environment. This event contaminated people, their surroundings and their personal property, especially in the zone around the reactor. Among the affected individuals were British students who were studying in Minsk and Kiev at the time of the Chernobyl accident. These students were exposed to external and internal radiation, and the individuals' articles of clothing were contaminated. The primary objective of this study was to analyze a sample of this contaminated clothing 20 years after the accident using three different detectors, namely, a BP4/4C scintillation detector, a Min-Con Geiger-Müller tube detector and a high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector. The clothing articles were initially assessed and found not to be significantly contaminated. However, there were several hot spots of contamination in various regions of the articles. The net count rates for these hot spots were in the range of 10.00 ± 3.16 c/s to 41.00 ± 6.40 c/s when the BP4/4C scintillation detector was used. The HPGe detector was used to identify the radionuclides present in the clothing, and the results indicated that the only active radionuclide was (137)Cs because of this isotope's long half-life. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Harvesting contaminants from liquid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, John T.; Hunter, Scott R.

    2016-05-31

    Disclosed are examples of apparatuses for evaporative purification of a contaminated liquid. In each example, there is a vessel for storing the contaminated fluid. The vessel includes a surface coated with a layer of superhydrophobic material and the surface is at least partially in contact with the contaminated liquid. The contaminants do not adhere to the surface as the purified liquid evaporates, thus allowing the contaminants to be harvested.

  6. Food contamination assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coulon, R.

    1992-01-01

    This article explains the different modes of contamination transfer from the atmosphere, from the soil and from the water to plants, animals, aquatic organisms and food. The importance of food contamination depends on radionuclide, contamination mode and time. The author analyses the contamination levels according to the sources: natural radioactivity, nuclear explosion fallout, radioactive effluents of nuclear facilities and Chernobyl accident. Until today, the food contamination has always been limited and has never set sanitary problems. 8 figs

  7. [The coordination of the forensic medical service with the medical criminology subdivisions of internal affairs organs in the personal identification of unidentified corpses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pashinian, G A; Tuchik, E S

    1997-01-01

    In order to improve the cooperation between medical criminology departments of the organs of home affairs and forensic medical service in personality identification of unidentified corpses, the authors propose amendments to the routine procedure regulated by documents of the Ministry of Home Affairs of the Russian Federation, for these documents are in need of serious correction and revision, so that they conform to the judicial legislation and other documents.

  8. International and Regional Institutional Dialogues for Human Rights for LGBT persons: The quest for recognition, anti-discrimination, and marriage in Southeast Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Holzhacker, Ronald

    2016-01-01

    There is a rich interplay between civil society organizations and institutions involved in human rights norm diffusion and the ‘ricochet’ of ideas at the regional level across Southeast Asia. There is a broad discussion occurring about human rights for LGBT persons and SOGI rights (Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity) including recognition, non-discrimination in employment, education, and housing, and partnership recognition and same-sex marriage. We focus on four countries, Thailand, Viet...

  9. When the Reading Room Meets the Team Room: Resident Perspectives From Radiology and Internal Medicine on the Effect of Personal Communication After Implementing a Resident-Led Radiology Rounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klobuka, Andrew J; Lee, John; Buranosky, Raquel; Heller, Matthew

    2018-02-13

    Current radiology and internal medicine (IM) residents have trained to varying degrees depending on program in the post picture archiving and communication systems implementation era and thus have largely missed out on the benefits of in-person, 2-way communication between radiologists and consulting clinicians. The purpose of this study is to broadly explore resident perspectives from these groups on the desire for personal contact between radiologists and referring physicians and the effect of improved contact on clinical practice. A radiology rounds was implemented in which radiology residents travel to the IM teaching service teams to discuss their inpatients and review ordered imaging biweekly. Surveys were given to both cohorts following 9 months of implementation. A total of 23/49 diagnostic radiology (DR) and 72/197 IM residents responded. In all, 83% of DR and 96% of IM residents desired more personal contact between radiologists and clinicians. Of all, 92% of DR residents agree that contact with referring clinicians changes their approach to a study, 96% of IM residents agree that personal contact with a radiologist has changed patient management in a way that they otherwise would not have done having simply read a report, 85% of DR residents report that more clinician contact will improve resource use, and 96% report that it will improve care quality. Furthermore, 99% of IM residents report that increased access to a radiologist would make selecting the most appropriate imaging study easier in various clinical scenarios. A majority of IM residents prefer radiology reports that provide specific next-step recommendations and that include arrows/key-image series. We conclude that the newest generation of physicians is already attuned to the value of a radiologist who plays an active, in-person role in the clinical decision-making process. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Status on contamination monitoring in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gou Quanlu [China Institute for Radiation Protection, Taiyuan (China)

    1997-06-01

    The air contaminated by radioactive materials in nuclear enterprises and radioactive workplaces and forming radioactive aerosol and the leakage of radioactive materials in operation cause internal exposure damage in workers. It is necessary and important to monitor air and surface contaminations for the health of public and workers, and for protecting environment. At present, many institutes engage in the studies on surface contamination monitoring in China, and the government has formulated the control limits of surface contamination in the Regulations of Radiation Protection. The monitors for surface contamination monitoring are almost home-made. The methods being used often are smear test and placing surface sample test. Scintillation counters, semiconductor detectors and G-M counters have been used for detecting alpha surface contamination. Plastic scintillator meters and thin wall/window G-M counters are used for beta surface contamination. Special detectors have been designed for monitoring low energy nuclides. The status of airborne contamination monitoring in China is reported. As the studies for future, the development of the surface contamination monitor for low energy beta nuclides, especially H-3, the monitoring methods for the special shapes of surfaces, the technology of decontamination and the calibration method and device for on-line radioactive aerosol continuous monitors are taken up. (K.I.)

  11. Internal dose assessment for environmental monitoring in nuclear power plant accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mianji Fereidoun A.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A method for exploiting human's internal contamination data for radioactive release estimation in nuclear power plant accidents is proposed. Nevertheless, such data is often very rough and uncertain; it is accessible even in toughest situations when most of the active and passive monitors are damaged by the accident. These data can be used in combination with other collectable data for estimating the event scale in severe nuclear power plan accidents. The rationale behind the method is that nuclear power plant accidents are often associated with internal contamination of radiation workers involved in the early stages of emergency response activities mainly due to the release of 131I in atmosphere. The proposed inverse analytical approach uses the 131I intake of contaminated workers, their working conditions, chronology of events, and applied personal safety measures during the first hours or days of the emergency response activities to estimate the magnitude of 131I concentration in the air.

  12. Piloting and psychometric properties of a patient-reported outcome instrument for young people with achondroplasia based on the International Classification of Functioning Disability and Health: the Achondroplasia Personal Life Experience Scale (APLES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloemeke, Janika; Sommer, Rachel; Witt, Stefanie; Dabs, Michaela; Badia, Francisco Javier; Bullinger, Monika; Quitmann, Julia

    2018-03-08

    This study describes the psychometric testing of the Achondroplasia Personal Life Experience Scale (APLES): a new disease- and functioning-specific health-related quality of life instrument for young people with achondroplasia, which was developed based on the International Classification of Functioning-Children and Youth Version. The qualitative analysis of focus group statements from German patients and parents using the International Classification of Functioning-Children and Youth Version yielded 59 items, which after cognitive debriefing were included in a pilot-test. Psychometric performance was cross-culturally examined in a field- and re-test in Germany and Spain. Cognitive debriefing and pilot-test results suggested to reduce the 59-APLES version to a 35-items version. Field-test data showed acceptable reliability and validity, which further improved after the APLES was shortened to 21 items. Developing a disease-specific instrument within the framework of the International Classification of Functioning allows the universal assessment and comparison of perceived health. Psychometric analysis showed that the APLES fulfills psychometric quality standards and provides a way to assess health-related quality of life from self- and observer report in young persons with achondroplasia. Further studies may use the instrument in clinical research and practice to understand perceived burden and to optimize care. Implications for Rehabilitation Health-related quality of life instruments are useful tools to include in clinical research and/or practice to evaluate treatment effects directly from the patient's perspective. Cross-culturally developed health-related quality of life measures that are based on the International Classification of Functioning Disability and Health provide the opportunity to assess the health status in a standardized language and to compare it across countries and health professions. All four components of the International Classification of

  13. Rehabilitation of the contaminated territories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ageets, V.Yu.; Kenigsberg, Ya.Eh.; Skurat, V.V.; Tikhonova, L.E.; Shevchuk, V.E.; Ipat'ev, V.A.; Klimova, T.A.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of the activity is development of the scientific reasonable projects of socio-economic and social-psychological rehabilitation of specific areas and populated localities on the contaminated territories of the both Gomel and Mogilev Regions. The results of economic researches allow to decrease expenses for realization of protective measures, to increase feedback of counter-measures, to speed up process of development of the plans and their realization, to decrease the labour input of planning of the rehabilitation measures, to increase quantity of considered alternative variants of strategy of the contaminated regions rehabilitation. On the basis of the sociological and psychological researches the recommendations for the most effective formation of adaptation strategies of behaviour of the people on the contaminated territories, formation of post accidental culture and active life image at teenagers, ways of fastening of youth in these areas, more address specialized social support and protection of the irradiated persons, perfection of social demographic policy on rehabilitated territories are offered. In the report are described following directions: scientific ground and development of the complex programmes of rehabilitation of administrative regions on the contaminated territories; development of administration system of the social economical development of the territories having suffered after the Chernobyl accident; social support and socio-psychological rehabilitation of the population of Belarus

  14. Multimethod Assessment of Psychopathy in Relation to Factors of Internalizing and Externalizing from the Personality Assessment Inventory: The Impact of Method Variance and Suppressor Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blonigen, Daniel M.; Patrick, Christopher J.; Douglas, Kevin S.; Poythress, Norman G.; Skeem, Jennifer L.; Lilienfeld, Scott O.; Edens, John F.; Krueger, Robert F.

    2010-01-01

    Research to date has revealed divergent relations across factors of psychopathy measures with criteria of "internalizing" (INT; anxiety, depression) and "externalizing" (EXT; antisocial behavior, substance use). However, failure to account for method variance and suppressor effects has obscured the consistency of these findings…

  15. Investigating the Impact of Personality Factors on Perceived Communication Mobility of Non-Native English Speaking Thai Professionals in International Companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marina, Olga A.; Rajprasit, Krich

    2014-01-01

    Communication mobility has been suggested as an element of the complex construct of professional communicative competence, with a shared core of English in the oral mode, for professional international communication. This study aims (1) to investigate the possible correlation between the perceived level of communication mobility, and the influence…

  16. Asian International Students' College Experiences at Universities in the United States: Relationship between Perceived Quality of Personal Contact and Self-Reported Gains in Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bista, Krishna K.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined associations between Asian international students' perceived quality of contact with faculty, administrative personnel and other students, and self-reported gains in areas identified in "College Students Experience Questionnaire." The sample included 705 Asian students from 25 research universities across the United…

  17. RADIATION CONTAMINATION INCIDENT AT ISOLDE

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    On 27 June 2000 three specialists were investigating a problem with the extraction electrode of the high-resolution separator (HRS) in Isolde. Whilst using an endoscope in order to have a closer look at the interior, they came into contact with radioactive dust and became contaminated. The level of contamination was low and the radiation dose received by the 3 persons was far below the effective dose limit given in the CERN Radiation Safety Manual and in the regulations of the Host States.According to the usual procedure, the Director General has set up a Fact-Finding Group and an Accident Board in order to advise him on the steps and decisions tobe taken following this incident and in particular to avoid a recurrence.

  18. Radioactive contamination in metal recycling industry - an environmental issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agarwal, S.P.

    2012-01-01

    Metal recycling has become an important industrial activity worldwide; it is seen as being socially and environmentally beneficial because it conserves natural ore resources and saves energy. However, there have been several accidents over the past decades involving orphan radioactive sources or other radioactive material that were inadvertently collected as metal scrap that was destined for recycling. The consequences of these accidents have been serious with regard to the protection of people and the environment from the harmful effects of ionizing radiation as well as from an economic point of view. India produces and exports steel products to various countries. In the recent years there were rejection and return of steel products as they were found to be contaminated with trace quantities of radioactive materials. During investigation of incidents of radioactive contamination in steel products exported from India, it was observed that steel products are contaminated with low level radioactivity. Though radioactivity level in steel products is found to be too low to pose any significant hazards to the handling personnel or to the users or the public at large, its presence is undesirable and need to be probed as to how it has entered in the steel products. Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB) has investigated the incidents of such nature in the recent past and it is gathered that the steel products are made out of steel produced in a foundry where metal scrap containing radioactive material has been used. In this talk, incidents of radioactive contamination, its roots cause, and its radiological impact on person, property and environment, lessons learnt, remedial measures and international concerns will be discussed

  19. Resistively-Heated Microlith-based Adsorber for Carbon Dioxide and Trace Contaminant Removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roychoudhury, S.; Walsh, D.; Perry, J.

    2005-01-01

    An integrated sorber-based Trace Contaminant Control System (TCCS) and Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly (CDRA) prototype was designed, fabricated and tested. It corresponds to a 7-person load. Performance over several adsorption/regeneration cycles was examined. Vacuum regenerations at effective time/temperature conditions, and estimated power requirements were experimentally verified for the combined CO2/trace contaminant removal prototype. The current paper details the design and performance of this prototype during initial testing at CO2 and trace contaminant concentrations in the existing CDRA, downstream of the drier. Additional long-term performance characterization is planned at NASA. Potential system design options permitting associated weight, volume savings and logistic benefits, especially as relevant for long-duration space flight, are reviewed. The technology consisted of a sorption bed with sorbent- coated metal meshes, trademarked and patented as Microlith by Precision Combustion, Inc. (PCI). By contrast the current CO2 removal system on the International Space Station employs pellet beds. Preliminary bench scale performance data (without direct resistive heating) for simultaneous CO2 and trace contaminant removal was reviewed in SAE 2004-01-2442. In the prototype, the meshes were directly electrically heated for rapid response and accurate temperature control. This allowed regeneration via resistive heating with the potential for shorter regeneration times, reduced power requirement, and net energy savings vs. conventional systems. A novel flow arrangement, for removing both CO2 and trace contaminants within the same bed, was demonstrated. Thus, the need for a separate trace contaminant unit was eliminated resulting in an opportunity for significant weight savings. Unlike the current disposable charcoal bed, zeolites for trace contaminant removal are amenable to periodic regeneration.

  20. Radioactive contamination in monitors received for calibration; Contaminacao em monitores de radiacao recebidos para calibracao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dias, Paulo S.; Santos, Gilvan C. dos; Brunelo, Maria Antonieta G.; Paula, Tiago C. de; Pires, Marina A.; Borges, Jose C. [MRA Comercio de Instrumentos Eletronicos Ltda., Jardinopolis, SP (Brazil). Centro de Ensaios e Pesquisas em Metrologia (METROBRAS)

    2013-10-01

    The Calibration Laboratory - LABCAL, from the Research Center for Metrology and Testing - METROBRAS, MRA Comercio de Instrumentos Eletronicos Ltda., began activities in October 2008 and, in August 2009, decided to establish a procedure for monitoring tests, external and internal, of all packages received from customers, containing instruments for calibration. The aim was to investigate possible contamination radioactive on these instruments. On July 2011, this procedure was extended to packagings of personal thermoluminescent dosemeters - TLD, received by the newly created Laboratory Laboratorio de Dosimetria Pessoal - LDP . In the monitoring procedure were used monitors with external probe, type pancake, MRA brand, models GP - 500 and MIR 7028. During the 37 months in which this investigation was conducted, were detected 42 cases of radioactive contamination, with the following characteristics: 1) just one case was personal dosimeter, TLD type; 2) just one case was not from a packing from nuclear medicine service - was from a mining company; 3) contamination occurred on packs and instruments, located and/or widespread; 4) contamination values ranged from slightly above the level of background radiation to about a thousand fold. Although METROBRAS has facilities for decontamination, in most cases, especially those of higher contamination, the procedure followed was to store the contaminated material in a room used for storage of radioactive sources. Periodically, each package and/or instrument was monitored, being released when the radiation level matched the background radiation. Every contamination detected, the client and/or owner of the instrument was informed. The Brazilian National Energy Commission - CNEN, was informed, during your public consultation for reviewing the standard for nuclear medicine services, held in mid-2012, having received from METROBRAS the statistical data available at the time. The high frequency of contamination detected and the high

  1. Radiocesium contamination of roe-deers kidneys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sepulchre-De Bie, C.; Collin, B.; Ronneau, C.; Cara, J.

    1988-01-01

    Radiocesium ( 137 Cs and 134 Cs) have been measured in kidneys of 48 roe-deers shot in November 1986 on several Belgian game reserves. A large variability of the contamination levels was observed from one site to another due to significant differences in radioactive deposits after the Chernobyl accident. As direct deposit measurements are lacking, the radioactivity accumulated in bramble leaves could be a good indicator of internal roe-deer contamination. (Author)

  2. The music therapy clinical intern: performance skills, academic knowledge, personal qualities, and interpersonal skills necessary for a student seeking clinical training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookins, L M

    1984-01-01

    The music therapy curriculum consists of two distinct parts: the academic phase and the internship. The music therapy student must apply for a clinical internship during the last year of the academic phase, and the student is expected to evolve from student to professional music therapist during the internship phase. The present study sought to determine the skills, knowledge, and qualities clinical training directors considered most important for a prospective intern to possess. The sample population of the survey consisted of 25 clinical training directors from the Great Lakes Region. Results of the survey indicated that piano skills, knowledge of psychology, emotional maturity, and the ability to express needs and feelings were considered most important for the prospective intern to possess.

  3. Guide and Position of the International Society of Nutrigenetics/Nutrigenomics on Personalized Nutrition: Part 2 - Ethics, Challenges and Endeavors of Precision Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohlmeier, Martin; De Caterina, Raffaele; Ferguson, Lynnette R; Görman, Ulf; Allayee, Hooman; Prasad, Chandan; Kang, Jing X; Nicoletti, Carolina Ferreira; Martinez, J Alfredo

    2016-01-01

    Nutrigenetics considers the influence of individual genetic variation on differences in response to dietary components, nutrient requirements and predisposition to disease. Nutrigenomics involves the study of interactions between the genome and diet, including how nutrients affect the transcription and translation process plus subsequent proteomic and metabolomic changes, and also differences in response to dietary factors based on the individual genetic makeup. Personalized characteristics such as age, gender, physical activity, physiological state and social status, and special conditions such as pregnancy and risk of disease can inform dietary advice that more closely meets individual needs. Precision nutrition has a promising future in treating the individual according to their phenotype and genetic characteristics, aimed at both the treatment and prevention of disease. However, many aspects are still in progress and remain as challenges for the future of nutrition. The integration of the human genotype and microbiome needs to be better understood. Further advances in data interpretation tools are also necessary, so that information obtained through newer tests and technologies can be properly transferred to consumers. Indeed, precision nutrition will integrate genetic data with phenotypical, social, cultural and personal preferences and lifestyles matters to provide a more individual nutrition, but considering public health perspectives, where ethical, legal and policy aspects need to be defined and implemented. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Personality Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Personality disorders are a group of mental illnesses. They involve long-term patterns of thoughts and behaviors that ... serious problems with relationships and work. People with personality disorders have trouble dealing with everyday stresses and problems. ...

  5. Writing for international publication in nursing journals: a personal perspective (part 1 Como escribir para publicacion en enfermeria: una perspectiva personal (parte 1 Como escrever para publicação internacional em enfermagem: uma perspectiva pessoal (parte 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Hussein Rassool

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The number of printed and electronic (Internet academic nursing publications in Brazil and around the world highlights the importance attached to publishing in the field of nursing. Internationally, journals are ranked according to their professional merits and peer review orientations. Financial institutions increasingly value publications in renowned journals as one criterion for granting funds for research. One important reason why many scientific articles do not meet the requirements from international journal reviewers, especially those submitted English, is the result of poor and literal translation of the text. The challenge we are facing in Latin America is to encourage the development of articles for publication in internationally reviewed journals. Co-authorship is a potentially stimulating model for researchers and postgraduate students to publish. This task can be undertaken through the help of international supervisors and researchers, supervisors or postgraduate students with good command of the English language. This article aims to demystify the publication process and present some guidelines on how to publish in international journals.El número de medios de divulgación académica impresos y electrónicos (Internet de enfermería de alcance nacional e internacional destaca la importancia de publicar entre enfermeros. Alrededor del mundo, las revistas están siendo categorizadas con relación a sus méritos para la profesión y evaluación de los pares. Cada vez más, las instituciones de financiamiento de investigación prestan atención a la publicación en revistas de prestigio académico como uno de los criterios para la concesión del mismo. Un factor importante a ser considerado entre los motivos por los cuales muchos artículos científicos fallan en cumplir los requisitos de evaluación de los revisores de revistas internacionales, principalmente aquellas de lengua inglesa, es la traducción pobre y de manera literal

  6. Writing for international publication in nursing journals: a personal perspective (Part 2 Como escribir para publicacion en enfermeria: una perspectiva personal (Parte 2 Como escrever para publicação internacional em enfermagem: uma perspectiva pessoal (Parte 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Hussein Rassool

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The number of printed and electronic (Internet academic nursing publications in Brazil and around the world highlight the importance attached to publishing in the field of nursing. Internationally, journals are ranked according to their professional merits and peer review orientations. Financial institutions increasingly value publications in renowned journals as one criterion for granting funds for research. One important reason why many scientific articles do not meet the requirements from international journal reviewers, especially those submitted English, is the result of poor and literal translation of the text. The challenge we are facing in Latin America is to encourage the development of articles for publication in internationally reviewed journals. Co-authorship is a potentially stimulating model for researchers and postgraduate students to publish. This task can be undertaken through the help of international supervisors and researchers, supervisors or postgraduate students with good command of the English language. This article aims to demystify the publication process and present some guidelines on how to publish in international journals.El número de medios de divulgación académica impresos y electrónicos (Internet de enfermería de alcance nacional e internacional destaca la importancia de publicar entre enfermeros. Alrededor del mundo, las revistas están siendo categorizadas con relación a sus méritos para la profesión y evaluación de los pares. Cada vez más, las instituciones de financiamiento de investigación prestan atención a la publicación en revistas de prestigio académico como uno de los criterios para la concesión del mismo. Un factor importante a ser considerado entre los motivos por los cuales muchos artículos científicos fallan en cumplir los requisitos de evaluación de los revisores de revistas internacionales, principalmente aquellas de lengua inglesa, es la traducción pobre y de manera literal

  7. Contaminated Sites in Iowa

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Sites contaminated by hazardous materials or wastes. These sites are those administered by the Contaminated Sites Section of Iowa DNR. Many are sites which are...

  8. Center for Contaminated Sediments

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Center for Contaminated Sediments serves as a clearinghouse for technology and expertise concerned with contaminated sediments. The...

  9. Personality, biographical characteristics, and job interview success: a longitudinal study of the mediating effects of interviewing self-efficacy and the moderating effects of internal locus of causality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, Cheryl; Ang, Soon; Van Dyne, Linn

    2006-03-01

    In this study, the authors developed and tested a model of performance in job interviews that examines the mediating role of interviewing self-efficacy (I-SE; job applicants' beliefs about their interviewing capabilities) in linking personality and biographical background with interview success and the moderating role of locus of causality attributions in influencing the relationship between interview success and subsequent I-SE. The authors tested their model (over 5 months' duration) with matched data from 229 graduating seniors, firms, and university records. Hierarchical regression analyses demonstrated I-SE mediated the effects of Extraversion, Conscientiousness, and leadership experience on interview success. Locus of causality attributions for interview outcomes moderated the relationship between interview success and subsequent I-SE. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

  10. Urban atmospheric contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldasano Jose, M.

    1997-01-01

    The problems of contamination are not only limited to this century, pale pathology evidences of the effects of the contamination of the air exist in interiors in the health of the old ones; the article mention the elements that configure the problem of the atmospheric contamination, atmospheric pollutants and emission sources, orography condition and effects induced by the urbanization process

  11. Restoration of contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miranda J, Jose Eduardo

    2009-01-01

    A great variety of techniques are used for the restoration of contaminated soils. The contamination is present by both organic and inorganic pollutants. Environmental conditions and soil characteristics should take into account in order to implement a remedial technique. The bioremediation technologies are showed as help to remove a variety of soil contaminants. (author) [es

  12. Contaminação de produtos de higiene e cosméticos por n-nitrosaminas Contamination of cosmetics and personal care products by n-nitrosamines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Rath

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available N-nitrosamines are carcinogenic compounds that have been found during the last three decades in a variety of consumer products, including cosmetic and personal care products, and their raw materials. These compounds are formed from amine precursors and nitrosating agents present in the formulations. This paper reviews the formation and occurrence of N-nitrosamines in cosmetic products, as well as presents considerations about analytical, toxicological and regulatory aspects.

  13. Personal Branding

    OpenAIRE

    Climent i Martí, Jordi

    2017-01-01

    Proyecto Fin de Grado leído en la Universidad Rey Juan Carlos en el curso académico 2013/2014. Director: Cristina Ayala del Pino Con este Trabajo Fin de Grado he querido aproximar el concepto del Personal Branding y de marca personal como la herramienta para diferenciarse en el entorno profesional. Partiendo con la definición del concepto, su construcción, el panorama actual, compaginar empleo con marca personal y acabando con la visión personal de un gurú de la Marca Person...

  14. Environmental radioactive contamination and its control for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Zhongqi; Qu Jingyuan; Cui Yongli

    1998-01-01

    The environmental radioactive releases and exposure to human being due to operation of nuclear power plants in the world and in China, environmental contamination and consequences caused by severe nuclear power plant accidents in the history, control of the radioactive contamination in China, and some nuclear laws on the radioactive contamination control established by international organizations and USA etc. are described according to literature investigation and research. Some problems and comments in radioactive contamination control for nuclear power plants in China are presented. Therefore, perfecting laws and regulations and enhancing surveillances on the contamination control are recommended

  15. Response of monitors of surface contamination to internal exposition control from {sup 131}I in the 'nuclear medicine services'; Respuesta de monitores de contaminacion superficial para el control de la exposicion interna a {sup 131}I en servicios de medicina nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puerta, Nancy; Rojo, Ana M.; Villella, Adrian; Gossio, Sebastian; Parada, Ines Gomez, E-mail: info@arn.gov.br [Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear (ARN), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Acosta, Norma; Arenas, German, E-mail: nacosta@fuesmen.edu.ar [Fundacion Escuela de Medina Nuclear (FUESMEN), Mendoza (Argentina)

    2013-11-01

    The IAEA, in its publication RS-G-1.2, proposes individual control of workers occupationally exposed with risk of internal exposure when the potential exposure provided by incorporation leads to a value of annual committed effective dose equal to or greater than 1 mSv. Because the radionuclide {sup 131}I is the most important to control internal exposure in Nuclear Medicine Services, it is evaluated if the surface contamination monitors, commonly used in nuclear medicine centers of Argentina, would implement individual control of internal exposure to {sup 131}I. Selected detectors were calibrated with a dummy neck and thyroid with calibrated sources of {sup 131}I and {sup 133}Ba reference. For each detector is was estimated the detection efficiency for {sup 131}I and its detection limit. Each instrument was evaluated for the lowest effective dose possible to detect compromised by individual routine monitoring with different measurement intervals . We analyzed the response of each team for determining conditions that may be effective for the control of internal exposure of {sup 131}I. Finally , we conclude that the daily individual monitoring surface contamination detectors available in the Nuclear Medicine Services is feasible to implement and ensures detection of significant additions of {sup 131}I.

  16. Personal dosimetry in Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khvoshnyanskaya, I.R.; Vdovichenko, V.G.; Lozbin, A.Yu.

    2003-01-01

    KATEP-AE Radiation Laboratory is the first organization in Kazakhstan officially licensed by the Kazakhstan Atomic Energy Committee to provide individual dosimetry services. The Laboratory was established according to the international standards. Nowadays it is the largest company providing personal dosimetry services in the Republic of Kazakhstan. (author)

  17. Personality and personal network type

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doeven-Eggens, Lilian; De Fruyt, Filip; Hendriks, A. A. Jolijn; Bosker, Roel J.; Van der Werf, Margaretha P. C.

    2008-01-01

    The association between personality and personal relationships is mostly studied within dyadic relationships. We examined these variables within the context of personal network types. We used Latent Class Analysis to identify groups Of Students with similar role relationships with three focal

  18. International Technical Communication: Beyond Translation, Localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Fred

    1993-01-01

    Offers a personal view of international technical communication. Discusses computer-assisted translation, machine translation, machine interpreting, and the future of international technical communication. (SR)

  19. Personality: Description, Classification and Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Taymur

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Many descriptions and classifications of personality have been made to understand and acknowledge human being through out the history. During the developmental process of psychiatry, almost every school defined and assessed personality regarding to their own perspective. As DSM (Diagnostical and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders and ICD (International Classification of Diseases being available to common usage, scientists conducted studies to set a common terminology for personality. Categorical and dimensional approaches are the most fundamentally different assessment strategies in the research and clinical aspects about personality. While categorical approach views the personality as dichotomies which consists of different groups, dimensional approach aims to describe the personality on the basis of dimensions, thus suggests that the personality is a structure formed by definite dimensions. Several advantages and disadvantages can be noticed when descriptions of personality and tools for the evaluation of personality are reviewed. When the section making suggestions about personality disorder in DSM-5 is evaluated, it is seen that it aims to restructure the personality disorder diagnostic group according to new findings and critiques. In this article, the description of personality throughout the history, dimensional, categorical and cognitive approaches to personality, the features of the tools that are used to assess and measure the personality are reviewed.

  20. Contaminant mass estimation of powder contaminated surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Timothy J.; Messinger, David W.

    2017-05-01

    How can we determine the physical characteristics of a mixture of multiple materials within a single pixel? Intimate mixing occurs when different materials within the region encompassed by a pixel interact with each other prior to reaching the sensor. For powder contaminated surfaces, nonlinear mixing is unavoidable. The Nonconventional Exploitation Factors Data System (NEFDS) Contamination Model can make longwave hyperspectral mixture signatures, but only for a small subset of their spectral library. In addition, the model uses percent coverage as its only physical property input despite it not being informative to the contaminants physical properties. Through a complex parameter inversion, the NEFDS contamination model can be used to derive various physical properties. These physical characteristics were estimated by using empirically measured data of varying contaminant amounts using a Designs and Prototypes Fourier transform infrared spectrometer. Once estimated parameters are found, the mixture spectra was recreated and compared to the measured data. The estimated areal coverage density is used to derive a total deposited mass on the surface based on the area of contaminated surface. This is compared to the known amount deposited that was measured during the experimental campaign. This paper presents some results of those measurements and model estimates.

  1. International collaboration to protect health workers from infectious diseases in Ecuador Colaboración internacional para proteger al personal sanitario de las enfermedades infecciosas en Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Claude Lavoie

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The Healthy Hospital Project, an international collaboration, aimed to strengthen Ecuador's capacity to promote healthier and safer hospitals by reducing occupational transmission of infectious diseases. Team members conducted a needs assessment to identify workplace hazards and health risks in three hospitals. A survey of health care workers' knowledge and practices of occupational health (OH and infection control (IC revealed positive practices such as a medical waste disposal program and widespread dissemination of health information. Challenges identified included a high frequency of recapping needles and limited resources for workers to apply consistent IC measures. The survey revealed underreporting of needlestick injuries and limited OH and safety (OHS training. Therefore, project collaborators organized a training workshop for health care workers that aimed to overcome the identified obstacles by integrating interdisciplinary local, national, and international stakeholders to build capacity and institutionalize work-related infection prevention and control measures. The knowledge transferred and experience gained led to useful hospital-based projects and serves as a basis for implementation of other OHS projects nationwide. International interdisciplinary, interinstitutional collaboration in OHS and IC can build capacity to address OHS concerns in health care.El objetivo del Proyecto Hospitales Saludables, resultado de una colaboración internacional, fue fortalecer la capacidad del Ecuador de promover hospitales más saludables y seguros al reducirse la transmisión ocupacional de las enfermedades infecciosas. Los miembros del equipo realizaron una evaluación en tres hospitales para detectar los peligros y los riesgos para la salud en el lugar de trabajo. Tras llevar a cabo una encuesta de conocimientos y prácticas de los trabajadores sanitarios en lo que se refiere a salud ocupacional y control de infecciones, se encontraron aspectos

  2. Personality Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman Ozdemir

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Personality is the integration of characteristics acquired or brought by birth which separate the individual from others. Personality involves aspects of the individual's mental, emotional, social, and physical features in continuum. Several theories were suggested to explain developmental processes of personality. Each theory concentrates on one feature of human development as the focal point, then integrates with other areas of development in general. Most theories assume that childhood, especially up to 5-6 years, has essential influence on development of personality. The interaction between genetic and environmental factors reveals a unique personality along growth and developmental process. It could be said that individual who does not have any conflict between his/her basic needs and society's, has well-developed and psychologically healthy personality.

  3. International programme on the health effects of the Chernobyl accident (IPHECA). 'Epidemiological registry' Pilot project. Reconstruction of absorbed doses from external exposure of the population living in areas of Russia contaminated as a result of the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitkevic, V.A.; Duba, V.V.; Ivanov, V.K.; Tsyb, A.F.

    1994-01-01

    In order to carry out epidemiological research on the influence of radiation factors on the health of people living in centres of population areas contaminated as a result of the Chernobyl accident, a knowledge of the amount of external and internal exposure to the thyroid gland and the whole body is crucial. After seven years of the Chernobyl accident, an attempt was made to reconstruct the complete dynamic picture of radioactive contamination of Russian territory, taking into consideration current data on the temporal behavior of the source of accidental radionuclide emissions from the reactor where the accident occurred, meteorological conditions at the time, detailed measurements of cesium 137 fall-out density on CIS territory, air exposure dose rate measurements. Such an approach will enable to determine absorbed doses in centers of population, where radiation parameters were not measured at all. 17 refs, 6 figs, 6 tabs, 1 map

  4. Personal use of countermeasures seen in a coping perspective. Could the development of expedient countermeasures as a repertoire in the population, optimise coping and promote positive outcome expectancies, when exposed to a contamination threat?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toennessen, A.; Skuterud, L.; Strand, P.; Panova, J.; Travnikova, I.G.; Balonov, M.I.

    1996-01-01

    The appraisal and use of countermeasures in a rural district of Russia with quite high deposition after the Chernobyl accident is studied from a coping perspective. The field work was done during the summer of 1994, in the Bryansk region. There are important methodological shortages in the study, the sample of respondents is not a random sample and therefore not necessarily representative for the villages covered, and in some parts of the questionnaire the frequency of 'don't know/missing' responses is too high. With these limitations in mind the current study tries to expand the knowledge about reactions to diffuse environmental threats by studying populations as they continue their daily lives living in a contaminated area. The data from interviews with the final net sample of 163 respondents shows that about one in four were users of countermeasures such as, refraining from consumption of natural foods, or radiometric inspection of the food. Of the different countermeasures that were included in the questionnaire, the renunciation of natural products was most frequently employed. Findings indicate that the respondents who used countermeasures had lower levels of radiocaesium content in their bodies, they felt more able to influence possible health effects of the accident, and at the same time answered that they were more afraid of possible health effects than the non-users of countermeasures. This higher emotional concern is seen in a perspective of 'realistic anxiety', and the use of countermeasures is related to perceived control and outcome expectancies. (author)

  5. Using Item Response Theory to Develop a 60-Item Representation of the NEO PI-R Using the International Personality Item Pool: Development of the IPIP-NEO-60.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maples-Keller, Jessica L; Williamson, Rachel L; Sleep, Chelsea E; Carter, Nathan T; Campbell, W Keith; Miller, Joshua D

    2017-10-31

    Given advantages of freely available and modifiable measures, an increase in the use of measures developed from the International Personality Item Pool (IPIP), including the 300-item representation of the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO PI-R; Costa & McCrae, 1992a ) has occurred. The focus of this study was to use item response theory to develop a 60-item, IPIP-based measure of the Five-Factor Model (FFM) that provides equal representation of the FFM facets and to test the reliability and convergent and criterion validity of this measure compared to the NEO Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI). In an undergraduate sample (n = 359), scores from the NEO-FFI and IPIP-NEO-60 demonstrated good reliability and convergent validity with the NEO PI-R and IPIP-NEO-300. Additionally, across criterion variables in the undergraduate sample as well as a community-based sample (n = 757), the NEO-FFI and IPIP-NEO-60 demonstrated similar nomological networks across a wide range of external variables (r ICC = .96). Finally, as expected, in an MTurk sample the IPIP-NEO-60 demonstrated advantages over the Big Five Inventory-2 (Soto & John, 2017 ; n = 342) with regard to the Agreeableness domain content. The results suggest strong reliability and validity of the IPIP-NEO-60 scores.

  6. Catalyst Substrates Remove Contaminants, Produce Fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    A spacecraft is the ultimate tight building. We don t want any leaks, and there is very little fresh air coming in, says Jay Perry, an aerospace engineer at Marshall Space Flight Center. As a result, there is a huge potential for a buildup of contaminants from a host of sources. Inside a spacecraft, contaminants can be introduced from the materials that make spacecraft components, electronics boxes, or activities by the crew such as food preparation or cleaning. Humans also generate contaminants by breathing and through the body s natural metabolic processes. As part of the sophisticated Environmental Control and Life Support System on the International Space Station (ISS), a trace contaminant control system removes carbon dioxide and other impurities from the cabin atmosphere. To maintain healthy levels, the system uses adsorbent media to filter chemical contaminant molecules and a high-temperature catalytic oxidizer to change the chemical structure of the contaminants to something more benign, usually carbon dioxide and water. In the 1990s, while researching air quality control technology for extended spaceflight travel, Perry and others at Marshall were looking for a regenerable process for the continuous removal of carbon dioxide and trace chemical contaminants on long-duration manned space flights. At the time, the existing technology used on U.S. spacecraft could only be used once, which meant that a spacecraft had to carry additional spare parts for use in case the first one was depleted, or the spacecraft would have to return to Earth to exchange the components.

  7. International outbreak of multiple Salmonella serotype infections linked to sprouted chia seed powder - USA and Canada, 2013-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, R R; Heiman Marshall, K E; Burnworth, L; Hamel, M; Tataryn, J; Cutler, J; Meghnath, K; Wellman, A; Irvin, K; Isaac, L; Chau, K; Locas, A; Kohl, J; Huth, P A; Nicholas, D; Traphagen, E; Soto, K; Mank, L; Holmes-Talbot, K; Needham, M; Barnes, A; Adcock, B; Honish, L; Chui, L; Taylor, M; Gaulin, C; Bekal, S; Warshawsky, B; Hobbs, L; Tschetter, L R; Surin, A; Lance, S; Wise, M E; Williams, I; Gieraltowski, L

    2017-06-01

    Salmonella is a leading cause of bacterial foodborne illness. We report the collaborative investigative efforts of US and Canadian public health officials during the 2013-2014 international outbreak of multiple Salmonella serotype infections linked to sprouted chia seed powder. The investigation included open-ended interviews of ill persons, traceback, product testing, facility inspections, and trace forward. Ninety-four persons infected with outbreak strains from 16 states and four provinces were identified; 21% were hospitalized and none died. Fifty-four (96%) of 56 persons who consumed chia seed powder, reported 13 different brands that traced back to a single Canadian firm, distributed by four US and eight Canadian companies. Laboratory testing yielded outbreak strains from leftover and intact product. Contaminated product was recalled. Although chia seed powder is a novel outbreak vehicle, sprouted seeds are recognized as an important cause of foodborne illness; firms should follow available guidance to reduce the risk of bacterial contamination during sprouting.

  8. JPL Contamination Control Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakkolb, Brian

    2013-01-01

    JPL has extensive expertise fielding contamination sensitive missions-in house and with our NASA/industry/academic partners.t Development and implementation of performance-driven cleanliness requirements for a wide range missions and payloads - UV-Vis-IR: GALEX, Dawn, Juno, WFPC-II, AIRS, TES, et al - Propulsion, thermal control, robotic sample acquisition systems. Contamination control engineering across the mission life cycle: - System and payload requirements derivation, analysis, and contamination control implementation plans - Hardware Design, Risk trades, Requirements V-V - Assembly, Integration & Test planning and implementation - Launch site operations and launch vehicle/payload integration - Flight ops center dot Personnel on staff have expertise with space materials development and flight experiments. JPL has capabilities and expertise to successfully address contamination issues presented by space and habitable environments. JPL has extensive experience fielding and managing contamination sensitive missions. Excellent working relationship with the aerospace contamination control engineering community/.

  9. Contamination analysis unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregg, H.R.; Meltzer, M.P.

    1996-01-01

    The portable Contamination Analysis Unit (CAU) measures trace quantities of surface contamination in real time. The detector head of the portable contamination analysis unit has an opening with an O-ring seal, one or more vacuum valves and a small mass spectrometer. With the valve closed, the mass spectrometer is evacuated with one or more pumps. The O-ring seal is placed against a surface to be tested and the vacuum valve is opened. Data is collected from the mass spectrometer and a portable computer provides contamination analysis. The CAU can be used to decontaminate and decommission hazardous and radioactive surfaces by measuring residual hazardous surface contamination, such as tritium and trace organics. It provides surface contamination data for research and development applications as well as real-time process control feedback for industrial cleaning operations and can be used to determine the readiness of a surface to accept bonding or coatings. 1 fig

  10. Direitos Humanos e gênero no cenário da migração e do tráfico internacional de pessoas Human Rights and gender in the scenario of migration and international trafficking in persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Este texto apresenta algumas observações sobre as violações de direitos humanos que têm lugar na migração internacional e no tráfico de pessoas a partir dos relatos de mulheres migrantes abordadas pela equipe do Posto de Atendimento Humanizado aos/às Migrantes, no aeroporto internacional de Guarulhos. A apresentação desses casos mostra a violação de direitos nesse contexto e a importância de se discutir o enfrentamento ao Tráfico de Pessoas a partir de uma perspectiva de gênero e Direitos Humanos.This paper presents some comments about violations of human rights taking place in international migration and human trafficking from the reports of migrant women gathered by the team of the Posto de Atendimento Humanizado aos/às Migrantes, in the International Airport of Guarulhos. The presentation of these cases shows the violation of rights in that context and the importance of discussing the confrontation with Trafficking in Persons from a perspective of gender and Human Rights.

  11. Personal Reflections

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education. Personal Reflections. Articles in Resonance – Journal of Science Education. Volume 6 Issue 3 March 2001 pp 90-93 Personal Reflections. Why did I opt for Career in Science? Jayant V Narlikar · More Details Fulltext PDF. Volume 9 Issue 8 August 2004 pp 89-89 ...

  12. Mystery Person

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Tom

    2011-01-01

    This article features a mathematical game called "Mystery Person." The author describes how the Mystery Person game was tried with first-graders [age 6]. The Mystery games involve the generation of key questions, the coordination of information--often very complex information--and the formulation of consequences based on this…

  13. External Contamination Environment at ISS Included: Selected Results from Payloads Contamination Mapping Delivery 3 Package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Randy; Huang, Alvin; Steagall, Courtney; Kohl, Nathaniel; Koontz, Steve; Worthy, Erica

    2017-01-01

    The International Space Station is the largest and most complex on-orbit platform for space science utilization in low Earth orbit. Multiple sites for external payloads, with exposure to the associated natural and induced environments, are available to support a variety of space science utilization objectives. Contamination is one of the induced environments that can impact performance, mission success and science utilization on the vehicle. The ISS has been designed, built and integrated with strict contamination requirements to provide low levels of induced contamination on external payload assets.

  14. Analysis of food contaminants

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gilbert, John

    1984-01-01

    ... quantification methods used in the analysis of mycotoxins in foods - Confirmation and quantification of trace organic food contaminants by mass spectrometry-selected ion monitoring - Chemiluminescence...

  15. Contamination of the minnow Rastrineobola argenta , through ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Setting: Fish landing sites and retail markets in Homa Bay County Subject: Studies on fish contamination are critical for the acceptance of fish food locally and in international markets. In this study, Rastrineobola argentea were examined for microbial loads. Results: Samples indicated high levels of coliforms and Escherichia ...

  16. Lesions in Broiler Chicks Following Experimental Contamination ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of feed contamination with battery waste on the performance, organs weights as well as the histology of some internal organs of broiler chicks. A total of 120 1- d old broiler chicks were allotted to four dietary treatments in a completely randomized design.

  17. ENHANCED REMOVAL OF CRU Bacillus subtilis CONTAMINATED ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    userpc

    by hydrocarbon. Soil samples were obta screened for crude oil utilizing bacterial isolates recovered from the contaminated cerrus 2 (25%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa ..... 3412. Deepika, P.M and Rajalakshmi, G. (2013). Biodegradation of. Petroleum. Hydrocarbons Pollutants in Soil Using. Microbial Consortium. International.

  18. Monitored Natural Recovery at Contaminated Sediment Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    Pohlman, T. Demetriades-Shah, and M. Slenska. 2000. Source reduction effect on creosote PAH bioremediation in marsh sediments. Second International...Jacobson. 1994. Ecological risk assessment for river sediments contaminated by creosote . Environ. Toxicol. Reible, D., and L. Thibodeaux. 1999. Using... creosote ; ongoing releases from upland sources No Ecology Human health Physical isolation Chemical transformation Capping, dredging, EMNR 495

  19. Personal monitoring during fluoroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faulkner, K. (Newcastle General Hospital (United Kingdom))

    1992-12-01

    In general the radiation dose received by staff in diagnostic radiology is usually a small fraction of the average dose to a typical member of the population from all sources in a year. However, the introduction of interventional radiology procedures involving extended fluoroscopy times has led to higher staff doses. A review of radiation dose levels to staff for various fluoroscopy and inverventional radiology procedures is presented, together with an assessment of the implications for personal monitoring. The impact of the latest recommendations from the International Commission on Radiological Protection on personal monitoring in fluoroscopy and interventional radiology is described. (Author).

  20. Contamination of living environment and human organism with plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benes, J.

    1981-01-01

    The applicability of 239 Pu in nuclear power is discussed. The radiotoxic properties of plutonium, its tissue distribution and the effects of internal and external contamination are described. The contamination of the atmosphere, water, and soil with plutonium isotopes is discussed. Dosimetry is described of plutonium in the living and working environments as is plutonium determination in the human organism. (H.S.)