WorldWideScience

Sample records for internalizing difficulties future

  1. Achievements, difficulties and future challenges for the FARMING network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nisbet, A.F.; Mercer, J.A.; Rantavaara, A.; Hanninen, R.; Vandecasteele, C.; Carle, B.; Hardeman, F.; Ioannides, K.G.; Papachristodoulou, C.; Tzialla, C.; Ollagnon, H.; Jullien, T.; Pupin, V.

    2005-01-01

    The EC FARMING network (Food and Agriculture Restoration Management Involving Networked Groups) was set up to bring together the many and diverse stakeholders who would be involved in intervention following wide scale radioactive contamination of the food chain, so that acceptable strategies can be developed for maintaining agricultural production and safe food supply. The network comprises stakeholder panels in the UK, Finland, Belgium, France and Greece that have met regularly since 2001 to debate, discuss and exchange opinion on the acceptability, constraints and impact of various countermeasure options and strategies. The objectives of this paper are to consolidate the main achievements of the FARMING project over the period 2000-2004, to highlight the various difficulties that were encountered and to discuss the challenges for engaging stakeholders in off-site emergency management and long-term rehabilitation in the future

  2. Internal dosimetry, past and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, J.R.

    1989-03-01

    This paper is a review of the progress in the dosimetry of internally deposited radionuclides (internal dosimetry) since World War II. Previous to that, only naturally occurring radionuclides were available and only a limited number of studies of biokinetics and dosimetry were done. The main radionuclides studied were 226 Ra, 228 Ra, and 224 Ra but natural uranium was also studied mainly because of its toxic effect as a heavy metal, and not because it was radioactive. The effects of 226 Ra in bone, mainly from the radium dial painters, also formed the only bases for the radiotoxicity of radionuclides in bone for many years, and it is still, along with 224 Ra, the main source of information on the effects of alpha emitters in bone. The publications of the International Commission on Radiological Protection that have an impact on internal dosimetry are used as mileposts for this review. These series of publications, more than any other, represent a broad consensus of opinion within the radiation protection community at the time of their publication, and have formed the bases for radiation protection practice throughout the world. This review is not meant to be exhaustive; it is meant to be a personnel view of the evolution of internal dosimetry, and to present the author's opinion of what the future directions in internal dosimetry will be. 39 refs., 2 tabs

  3. THE FUTURE OF INTERNAL AUDIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    COSMIN DUMITRU MATIȘ

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Over the years, the purpose of internal audit has continued to evolve and expand, managing to successfully transition from its traditional function of monitoring financial statements to the strategic and operational efforts of checking the organization’s compliance at all levels. Regarding the future, it is assumed that the internal audit will play an important advisory role, becoming an important catalyst of business development, focusing organizations on emerging risks. This transformation of the whole internal system, consisting in both control and audit, which seeks to promote a risk-centered organizational culture, is in the process of evolution, but it complexity, the conflicts of interest, the little understanding of most companies when it comes to implementing such a system as well as various issues of credibility, limit the pace of development for now. Our belief, however, is that this slow evolution is favorable for the alternative purpose of building the functions of the new internal control and audit on a more credible and relevant foundation for the organizational management.

  4. Are externalizing and internalizing difficulties of young children with spelling impairment related to their ADHD symptoms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rietz, Chantal Sabrina; Hasselhorn, Marcus; Labuhn, Andju Sara

    2012-08-01

    Children with literacy difficulties often suffer from a variety of co-occurring externalizing and internalizing difficulties, as well as comorbid ADHD. Therefore, these externalizing and internalizing problems might be more related to comorbid ADHD, rather than being a correlate of literacy difficulties per se. In the present study, we investigated the occurrence of externalizing and internalizing difficulties in elementary school children (third grade) with and without spelling impairment. Taking the high rate of comorbidity between literacy difficulties and ADHD into account, we investigated whether co-occurring difficulties are associated with spelling impairment per se or with comorbid ADHD symptoms. Results indicated that these young children with spelling impairment showed more co-occurring difficulties compared with children without spelling impairment. Hierarchical regression analysis indicated that occurrence of externalizing symptoms is more strongly related to comorbid ADHD symptoms than to spelling impairment per se. The pattern of results concerning internalizing problems was not as distinct but showed a similar trend. Preferably, carers and educators should be aware of co-occurring socio-emotional and behavioural problems in children with spelling impairment. Particularly children with spelling impairment and comorbid ADHD symptoms seem to have an increased risk of encountering further co-occurring difficulties. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. International Semiotics: Item Difficulty and the Complexity of Science Item Illustrations in the PISA-2009 International Test Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solano-Flores, Guillermo; Wang, Chao; Shade, Chelsey

    2016-01-01

    We examined multimodality (the representation of information in multiple semiotic modes) in the context of international test comparisons. Using Program of International Student Assessment (PISA)-2009 data, we examined the correlation of the difficulty of science items and the complexity of their illustrations. We observed statistically…

  6. Future issues in international safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakkila, E.A.; Markin, J.T.; Mullen, M.F.

    1991-01-01

    The introduction of large bulk-handling facilities into the internationally safeguarded, commercial nuclear fuel cycle, increased concerns for radiation exposure, and the constant level of resources available to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) are driving new and innovative approaches to international safeguards. Inspector resources have traditionally been allocated on a facility-type basis. Approaches such as randomization of inspections either within a facility or across facilities in a State or the application of a fuel-cycle approach within a State are being considered as means of conserving resources. Large bulk-handling facilities require frequent material balance closures to meet IAEA timeliness goals. Approaches such as near-real-time accounting, running book inventories, and adjusted running book inventories are considered as means to meet these goals. The automated facilities require that safeguards measures also be automated, leading to more reliance on operator-supplied equipment that must be authenticated by the inspectorate. New Non-Proliferation Treaty signatory States with advanced nuclear programs will further drain IAEA resources. Finally, the role of special inspections in IAEA safeguards may be expanded. This paper discusses these issues in terms of increasing safeguards effectiveness and the possible impact on operators. 14 refs

  7. Reducing Future International Chemical and Biological Dangers.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haddal, Chad [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bull, Diana L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hernandez, Patricia Marie [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Foley, John T. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-12-01

    The International Biological and Chemical Threat Reduction Program at Sandia National Laboratories is developing a 15 - year technology road map in support the United States Government efforts to reduce international chemical and biological dangers . In 2017, the program leadership chartered an analysis team to explore dangers in the future international chemical and biological landscape through engagements with national security experts within and beyond Sandia to gain a multidisciplinary perspective on the future . This report offers a hi gh level landscape of future chemical and biological dangers based upon analysis of those engagements and provides support for further technology road map development.

  8. African American Youths with Internalizing Difficulties: Relation to Social Support and Activity Involvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolin, Sylvia

    2006-01-01

    Social support and positive activity involvement are considered protective factors that can help offset the risks for youths living in impoverished areas. This study investigated whether insufficient social support and activity involvement are related to internalizing difficulties, such as depression, anxiety, loneliness, and low self-esteem.…

  9. Cyber Bullying and Internalizing Difficulties: Above and beyond the Impact of Traditional Forms of Bullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonanno, Rina A.; Hymel, Shelley

    2013-01-01

    Although recent research has demonstrated significant links between involvement in cyber bullying and various internalizing difficulties, there exists debate as to whether these links are independent of involvement in more traditional forms of bullying. The present study systematically examined the association between involvement in cyber…

  10. The Use of the Ombudsman's Services for Alleviating International Students' Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsara, Ourania

    2015-01-01

    This article offers some suggestions regarding the development of a support strategy by ombudsmen in order to alleviate international students' difficulties when studying in host universities. It is also shown how the Organisational Justice Theory can be used as a framework for understanding the role of ombudsman in higher education settings and…

  11. Roles of Mobile Devices Supporting International Students to Overcome Intercultural Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaoyin; Li, Xiuyan

    2017-01-01

    Sociocultural theory emphasises the mediational role of tools in learning. International students usually find themselves in a vicious cycle, experiencing difficulties when engaging with local people and culture which might provide the mediation necessary to develop their intercultural communicative competence. Yang (2016) further points out that…

  12. Academic Reading Difficulties Encountered by International Graduate Students in a Malaysian University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alghail, Ali Abdullah Ali; Mahfoodh, Omer Hassan Ali

    2016-01-01

    This study examines how international graduate students in a Malaysian public university perceive and overcome academic reading difficulties. The target population included all graduate students from Yemen, an Arab country, studying at Universiti Sains Malaysia. Data were collected using questionnaires, focus group interviews, and journal writing.…

  13. Designing future products: what difficulties do designers encounter and how can their creative process be supported?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnardel, Nathalie

    2012-01-01

    To remain competitive, companies must regularly offer new products to consumers. A major challenge for designers is therefore to come up with design solutions and define products that are both new and adapted to future users and usages. Although classic methods and ergonomic recommendations are useful in most run-of-the-mill design contexts, they are of limited benefit when the design situation requires greater creativity. This paper therefore addresses issues related to product design by pursuing a triple objective: (1) highlight the difficulties encountered by designers in imagining and conceiving new products, (2) find out which conditions could help designers come up with creative ideas for innovative products, and (3) suggest methods and tools to support designers' creative process and help them take other stakeholders' needs and expectations into consideration.

  14. International nuclear energy law - present and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrie, G.N.

    1988-01-01

    International nuclear energy law, as discussed in this article, is the law relating to the global, peaceful uses of nuclear science and technology. The position of nuclear law in the wide realm of law itself as well as the present status of nuclear legislation is assessed. This article also covers the development of international nuclear energy law, from the first nuclear law - the New Zealand Atomic Energy Act of 1945-, the present and the future. National and international organizations concerned with nuclear energy and their contribribution to nuclear law are reviewed

  15. Internal dosimetry monitoring equipment: Present and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selby, J.; Carbaugh, E.H.; Lynch, T.P.; Strom, D.J.; Lardy, M.M.

    1993-09-01

    We have attempted to characterize the current and future status of in vivo and in vitro measurement programs coupled with the associated radioanalytical methods and workplace monitoring. Developments in these areas must be carefully integrated by internal dosimetrists, radiochemists and field health physicists. Their goal should be uniform improvement rather than to focus on one specific area (e.g., dose modeling) to the neglect of other areas where the measurement capabilities are substantially less sophisticated and, therefore, the potential source of error is greatest

  16. Chromosomocentric approach to overcoming difficulties in implementation of international project Human Proteome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Archakov

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The international project Human Proteome (PHP, being a logical continuation of the project Human Genome, was started on September 23, 2010. In correspondence with the genocentric approach, the PHP aim is to prepare a catalogue of all human proteins and to decipher a network of their interactions. The PHP implementation difficulties arise because the research subject itself – proteome – is much more complicated than genome. The major problem is the insufficient sensitivity of proteome methods that does not allow detecting low- and ultralow-copy proteins. Bad reproducibility of proteome methods and the lack of so-called “gold standard” is the second major complicacy in PHP implementation. The third problem is the dynamic character of proteome, its instabili­ty in time. The paper deals with possible variants of overcoming these complicacies, preventing from successful implementation of PHP.

  17. Parental reflective functioning as a moderator of child internalizing difficulties in the context of child sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensink, Karin; Bégin, Michaël; Normandin, Lina; Fonagy, Peter

    2017-11-01

    The objective was to examine pathways from child sexual abuse (CSA) and maternal mentalizing to child internalizing and externalizing difficulties and to test a model of MRF as a moderator of the relationships between CSA and child difficulties. The sample was comprised of 154 mothers and children aged 2-12 where 64 children had experienced CSA. To assess parental mentalizing the Parental Development Interview was rated with the Parental Reflective Functioning Scale. Child internalizing and externalizing difficulties were assessed with the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). Results indicate that there were significant inverse relationships between maternal mentalizing and child internalizing and externalizing difficulties. When maternal mentalizing was considered together with CSA, only maternal mentalizing was a significant predictor of child difficulties. Furthermore, maternal mentalizing moderated the relationship between CSA and child internalizing difficulties. These findings provide evidence of the importance of the parents' mentalizing stance for psychiatric symptoms of children aged 2-12, as well as children's recovery from CSA. The clinical implications of the findings are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The Relationship between Older Adults' Risk for a Future Fall and Difficulty Performing Activities of Daily Living.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamikonian-Zarpas, Ani; Laganá, Luciana

    2015-12-01

    Functional status is often defined by cumulative scores across indices of independence in performing basic and instrumental activities of daily living (ADL/IADL), but little is known about the unique relationship of each daily activity item with the fall outcome. The purpose of this retrospective study was to examine the level of relative risk for a future fall associated with difficulty with performing various tasks of normal daily functioning among older adults who had fallen at least once in the past 12 months. The sample was comprised of community-dwelling individuals 70 years and older from the 1984-1990 Longitudinal Study of Aging by Kovar, Fitti, and Chyba (1992). Risk analysis was performed on individual items quantifying 6 ADLs and 7 IADLs, as well as 10 items related to mobility limitations. Within a subsample of 1,675 older adults with a history of at least one fall within the past year, the responses of individuals who reported multiple falls were compared to the responses of participants who had a single fall and reported 1) difficulty with walking and/or balance (FRAIL group, n = 413) vs. 2) no difficulty with walking or dizziness (NDW+ND group, n = 415). The items that had the strongest relationships and highest risk ratios for the FRAIL group (which had the highest probabilities for a future fall) included difficulty with: eating (73%); managing money (70%); biting or chewing food (66%); walking a quarter of a mile (65%); using fingers to grasp (65%); and dressing without help (65%). For the NDW+ND group, the most noteworthy items included difficulty with: bathing or showering (79%); managing money (77%); shopping for personal items (75%); walking up 10 steps without rest (72%); difficulty with walking a quarter of a mile (72%); and stooping/crouching/kneeling (70%). These findings suggest that individual items quantifying specific ADLs and IADLs have substantive relationships with the fall outcome among older adults who have difficulty with walking

  19. The Relationship between Older Adults’ Risk for a Future Fall and Difficulty Performing Activities of Daily Living

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamikonian-Zarpas, Ani; Laganá, Luciana

    2016-01-01

    Functional status is often defined by cumulative scores across indices of independence in performing basic and instrumental activities of daily living (ADL/IADL), but little is known about the unique relationship of each daily activity item with the fall outcome. The purpose of this retrospective study was to examine the level of relative risk for a future fall associated with difficulty with performing various tasks of normal daily functioning among older adults who had fallen at least once in the past 12 months. The sample was comprised of community-dwelling individuals 70 years and older from the 1984–1990 Longitudinal Study of Aging by Kovar, Fitti, and Chyba (1992). Risk analysis was performed on individual items quantifying 6 ADLs and 7 IADLs, as well as 10 items related to mobility limitations. Within a subsample of 1,675 older adults with a history of at least one fall within the past year, the responses of individuals who reported multiple falls were compared to the responses of participants who had a single fall and reported 1) difficulty with walking and/or balance (FRAIL group, n = 413) vs. 2) no difficulty with walking or dizziness (NDW+ND group, n = 415). The items that had the strongest relationships and highest risk ratios for the FRAIL group (which had the highest probabilities for a future fall) included difficulty with: eating (73%); managing money (70%); biting or chewing food (66%); walking a quarter of a mile (65%); using fingers to grasp (65%); and dressing without help (65%). For the NDW+ND group, the most noteworthy items included difficulty with: bathing or showering (79%); managing money (77%); shopping for personal items (75%); walking up 10 steps without rest (72%); difficulty with walking a quarter of a mile (72%); and stooping/crouching/kneeling (70%). These findings suggest that individual items quantifying specific ADLs and IADLs have substantive relationships with the fall outcome among older adults who have difficulty with

  20. Cyber bullying and internalizing difficulties: above and beyond the impact of traditional forms of bullying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonanno, Rina A; Hymel, Shelley

    2013-05-01

    Although recent research has demonstrated significant links between involvement in cyber bullying and various internalizing difficulties, there exists debate as to whether these links are independent of involvement in more traditional forms of bullying. The present study systematically examined the association between involvement in cyber bullying, as either a victim or a bully, and both depressive symptomatology and suicidal ideation. Self-report data were collected from 399 (57% female) Canadian adolescents in grades 8-10 (mean age = 14.2 years, SD = .91 years). Results indicated that involvement in cyber bullying, as either a victim or a bully, uniquely contributed to the prediction of both depressive symptomatology and suicidal ideation, over and above the contribution of involvement in traditional forms of bullying (physical, verbal, relational). Given the ever increasing rate of accessibility to technology in both schools and homes, these finding underscore the importance of addressing cyber bullying, with respect to both research and intervention, as a unique phenomenon with equally unique challenges for students, parents, school administrators and researchers alike.

  1. International Business Research: Past, Present and Future

    OpenAIRE

    David A Ricks

    1985-01-01

    The Editors of the Journal of International Business Studies (JIBS) always try to publish the best international business research. Unfortunately, there will probably never be a simple response to the question, What constitutes excellent international business research? We might make some progress, however, if we first attempt to define international business research and then identify several noteworthy examples.© 1985 JIBS. Journal of International Business Studies (1985) 16, 1–4

  2. Cultivate Africa's Future - Phase 2 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Does an international organisation headquartered outside eligible countries but legally registered to operate in an eligible ... An International Organisation that is legally registered to operate in an eligible country can apply as an ... Knowledge.

  3. Future high school teachers' difficulties and alternatives found to planning electromagnetism activities designed for visual handicapped students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eder Pires de Camargo

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available We report here partial outcomes of a study aimed to verify future High School teachers' performance when, during the development of a called "Teaching Practice" undergraduate course, were asked to plan, elaborate and teach, in classroom situations, electromagnetism topics to a students class which included visual handicapped pupils. Data analyzed show that the main difficulties presented by the future Physics High School teachers are related to the approach to know physics phenomena as dependent of vision and to break with some elements of the traditional pedagogy. By other hand, as alternatives, future teachers showed creativity in order to surpass passive aptitudes related to this educational problem, working out methodological strategies deprived of the relation knowing/seeing, as well as, the work with orality in a physics education context.

  4. The Impact of Academic Self-Efficacy, Acculturation Difficulties, and Language Abilities on Procrastination Behavior in Chinese International Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowinger, Robert Jay; He, Zhaomin; Lin, Miranda; Chang, Mei

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the role of academic self-efficacy, acculturation difficulties, and language abilities on procrastination behavior using a convenience sample of 264 Chinese international students studying at three public universities in the United States. While there were no significant mean gender differences on any of the measures, results…

  5. Positive narratives: the stories young people with Social, Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties (SEBD) tell about their futures

    OpenAIRE

    Tellis-James, Charlie; Fox, Mark

    2016-01-01

    This research drew on positive psychology in order to offer an optimistic way of\\ud conceptualising the lives of young people who are often described as having ‘SEBD’\\ud (Social, emotional, behaviour difficulties), now SEMH (Social, emotional, mental\\ud health) in the new SEND Code of Practice (2014). Positive psychology places emphasis\\ud on: the future, strengths, resources and potential, and suggests that negative\\ud experiences can build positive qualities. A life path tool was used in or...

  6. Nuclear insurance in the future Internal Market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller-Stein, J.

    1991-01-01

    Summarizing, it is prognosticated that nuclear insurance practice will not drastically change on account of the Internal Market. This assumption is based on the unanimous estimation of the nuclear energy risk by the international insurance industry, as is documented by their traditional good cooperation in pools. (orig.) [de

  7. International Higher Education in Australia: Unplanned Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Mahsood; Nair, Chenicheri Sid

    2011-01-01

    International education is the third largest export industry in Australia and is worth almost A$20 billion. The last ten years have witnessed significant growth in both onshore and offshore enrolments of international students in Australian universities. The offshore component of all Australian universities has been subject to scrutiny by the…

  8. The future of the international energy market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Said, A.

    1980-01-01

    Are we heading for a world energy cisis. There is not really a need or a disastrous culmination of the world energy supply situation to occur because, globally speakng, a large reservoir of energy resources is available. The problem rather lies in the structure of consumption in the industrialized countries, which is bound to lead to difficulties of supply soon, if the consumption of energy continues to rise. Changes in structure must be effected both on the supply and on the demand sides. (orig.) [de

  9. The future of morality and international justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakić Vojin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this paper will be on the issue of justice, specifically in international relations. In that context, a number of existing theories of international justice will be briefly reviewed. Afterwards, I will turn to the question of what justice actually is. The assertion that justice is based on the idea of freedom will be substantiated. I will attempt to support my position with Doyle's and Kant's argumentation. It will be concluded that there are robust arguments in favor of the thesis that our historical development is marked by a gradual expansion of freedom and justice. Furthermore, we have strong reasons to aspire liberal internationalism based on the idea of humanity's gradual approximation of some form of global state because such a conception might be the best warrant of justice in international relations.

  10. Preparing future space leaders - International Space University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Barbara A.; Van Reeth, George P.

    1992-01-01

    The International Space University (ISU) concept of developing a cadre of space professionals that will lead the universities and industries into space is discussed. ISU is an innovative, permanent worldwide organization for training and academic instruction in all aspects of space studies. ISU's major goal is to provide the young professional academic instruction in technical and nontechnical areas of modern space exploration and research, and a forum to exchange ideas and develop both personal and professional ties at an international level.

  11. The attitudes of future special educators towards persons with developmental difficulties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brojčin Branislav

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In line with the change of the society attitudes towards persons with disabilities there is increased interest in examining the atitudes twards them. Because of the role in the treatment, education and inclusion of such persons in wider social community, the attitudes of the students of special education become especially relevant. The aim of the research was to determine the attitudes of the future special educators towards persons with disabilities, the level of discomfort they feel in interaction with them, as well as the frequency of fontacts of students of special education with such persons. 103 students of the first cycle of the study program Special Education at the Faculty of Medicine in Foča. In the research we used the Scale for evaluating attitudes towards persons with disabilities, the Scale of interactions with persons with disabilities, and the Scale for assessing the frequency of contacts with persons with disabilities. Special education students on average have mildly positive attitudes towards persons with disabilities and feel somewhat comfortable in direct interactions with them, but the contacts with them are relatively rare. Among the examined variables significant relation was found between the year of study of the examinees and the frequency of their contacts with persons with disabilities. The obtained results indicate the need for a more significant shift of focus from medical to a social model of disability in the education of students of special education.

  12. Globalization: prospects of future international cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinu, I.P.

    2001-01-01

    As the world is moving into a new millennium, its energy needs are increasing. Next to nuclear generation alternative there is no power that creates more concern because of the many global and public issues and because of a large impact over the future. There is much discussion about globalization at this end of millenium, when human kind has already experienced atomic bomb and Chernobyl is haunting our dreams. But many benefits of nuclear in all area of life leads us to idea we have to assess before to choose, apply individual by local needs and policy and - most important - not impede the future generation to choose, its turn. (author)

  13. Future Tasks of the International Calvin Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. H. Neuser

    1998-12-01

    The first answer includes both a review of the previous six Congresses as well as a glance at recent Calvin literature; the second answer will be developed in the overview which follows, titled The future tasks of Calvin research.

  14. Advantages and difficulties of implementation of the international GNA standards in sustainable mining development. (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masaitis, A.

    2013-12-01

    Conflicts in the development of mining projects are now common between the mining proponents, NGO's and communities. These conflicts can sometimes be alleviated by early development of modes of communication, and a formal discussion format that allows airing of concerns and potential resolution of problems. One of the methods that can formalize this process is to establish a Good Neighbor Agreement (GNA), which deals specifically with challenges in relationships between mining operations and the local communities. It is a new practice related to mining operations that are oriented toward social needs and concerns of local communities that arise during the normal life of a mine, which can achieve sustainable mining practices in both developing and developed countries. The GNA project being currently developed at the University of Nevada, Reno in cooperation with the Newmont Mining Corporation has a goal to create an open company/community dialog that is based on the international standards and that will help identify and address sociological and environmental concerns associated with mining, as well as find methods for communication and conflict resolution. GNA standards should be based on trust doctrine, open information access, and community involvement in the decision making process. It should include the following components: emergency response and community communications; environmental issues, including air and water quality standards; reclamation and recultivation; socio-economic issues: transportation, safety, training, and local hiring; and financial issues, particularly related to mitigation offsets and community needs. The GNA standards help identify and evaluate conflict criteria in mining/community relationships; determine the status of concerns; focus on the local political and government systems; separate the acute and the chronic concerns; determine the role and responsibilities of stakeholders; analyze problem resolution feasibility; maintain the

  15. International Space Station Future Correlation Analysis Improvements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laible, Michael R.; Pinnamaneni, Murthy; Sugavanam, Sujatha; Grygier, Michael

    2018-01-01

    Ongoing modal analyses and model correlation are performed on different configurations of the International Space Station (ISS). These analyses utilize on-orbit dynamic measurements collected using four main ISS instrumentation systems: External Wireless Instrumentation System (EWIS), Internal Wireless Instrumentation System (IWIS), Space Acceleration Measurement System (SAMS), and Structural Dynamic Measurement System (SDMS). Remote Sensor Units (RSUs) are network relay stations that acquire flight data from sensors. Measured data is stored in the Remote Sensor Unit (RSU) until it receives a command to download data via RF to the Network Control Unit (NCU). Since each RSU has its own clock, it is necessary to synchronize measurements before analysis. Imprecise synchronization impacts analysis results. A study was performed to evaluate three different synchronization techniques: (i) measurements visually aligned to analytical time-response data using model comparison, (ii) Frequency Domain Decomposition (FDD), and (iii) lag from cross-correlation to align measurements. This paper presents the results of this study.

  16. Globalization: prospects for future international cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinu, I.P.

    2000-01-01

    When I say 'globalization', I think to that golden beginning when President Eisenhower gave his historical speech, 'Atomic Power for Peace,' to the General Assembly of U.N.O. in 1953. He proposed, for the first time, an international cooperation for sustaining the peaceful application of nuclear energy. Years later, the global nuclear dream was shaken by Chernobyl. Humankind had seen the reverse of globalization: any lack in project, execution, or operation of an NPP has global consequences. Still, why globalization? Globalization because global urbanization trends are an important factor for energy planners and this debate is vital for fueling the bigger cities of tomorrow. (author)

  17. The future scenario for international labour migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tassello, G

    1989-01-01

    The study of migration helps us to grasp the social evolution and the political and economic strategies required to meet the new economic trends. The issue of permanent or temporary migration, long debated in the 1960s, now tends to disappear. Migrants are compared more to commuters on the international labor markets. Besides the economic out-migration flows, there are also the refugee migrations or the ever present phenomenon of persons uprooted from their home country as a result of natural disasters and famine. The worldwide economic crisis in the 1970s, the recession affecting some industrialized countries which used to be traditional labor-importing countries have barred many potential immigrant workers from entering these countries. If, on 1 hand, the persistent high rate of unemployment due to the transformation of industry and the computerization process has caused the dismissal of numerous unskilled--mainly immigrants--on the other hand, it has created the exigency of highly qualified personnel. The children of the indigenous population are therefore favored because of their better scholastic training. A 2nd generation is now condemned to remain marginal even though they have been brought up to the ideals of social improvement and integration into higher standards of living. A highly dissatisfied category of young people is now an integral part of many labor-importing countries. Many industrial countries are flirting with zero population growth. Considering the demographic, economic, social, and political imbalances which exist and tend to grow, the world now has all the prerequisites for huge and prolonged migration flows originating from the South and moving almost exclusively toward the megacities and the industrial countries in the North. As long as technological as well as social inequalities persist, inner and international migration flows will continue. It is evident that the aim of many highly industrialized countries is the total ceasing of all

  18. The Future Control of Food: A Guide to International Negotiations ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2008-02-05

    Feb 5, 2008 ... The Future Control of Food: A Guide to International Negotiations and Rules on Intellectual ... New funding opportunity to fight antimicrobial resistance ... IDRC and key partners will showcase critical work on adaptation and ...

  19. Convergence Between Kazakhstan’S Financial Systemand International Standards: Overcoming Difficulties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uvarova Natalya

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the convergence of the Kazakh financial system with international standards in light of the new, enhanced agreement with the European Union on partnership and cooperation (January 19, 2015. Based on this research, the approaches used by the Kazakh financial system to converge with the European Union (EU and the mechanism of implementing international standards in the national regulatory framework are determined. In practice, the study provides justification for the necessity of arranging the systematization of existing rules and regulations covering financial activity in the Republic, eliminating discrepancies between the national regulatory framework and international standards, and determining clear security guarantees for foreign investors’ financial activity in the Republic. The research results are primarily focused on the development of public finance management theory. Theories and conclusions present in the study can be used in the educational processes of economic and legal institutions and in the policymaking activity of public finance management bodies.

  20. Social Skills Difficulty: Model of Culture Shock for International Graduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapdelaine, Raquel Faria; Alexitch, Louise R.

    2004-01-01

    This study expanded and tested Furnham and Bochner's (1982) model of culture shock, employing a sample of 156 male international students in a Canadian university. Path analysis was used to assess the effects of cultural differences, size of co-national group, family status, cross-cultural experience, and social interaction with hosts on culture…

  1. DIFFICULTIES IN INTERNATIONAL TRAVELLING FOR RESIDENTS OF AREAS WITH UNDEFINED POLITICAL STATUS. CASE STUDY: CRIMEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ștefan Constantin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In March 2014 a change took place on Europe's political map. The Crimean Peninsula became part of Russia, switching sovereignty after more than 20 years during which it was part of Ukraine. This took place following a Russian military intervention and a referendum. A majority of the world's countries however, do not recognize the Russian control of Crimea and still consider it a part of Ukraine, rendering the territory an area with undefined political status. Shortly after the sovereignty change, the region and its population started experiencing all kinds of hardships. An often neglected type of hardship Crimeans are experiencing is the difficulty of obtaining visas. Following the referendum, many diplomatic missions in Russia have instituted a policy of not issuing visas to residents of Crimea who apply with Russian-issued documents. This article shall make a summary of EU and Schengen countries' positions regarding this issue, as these are the biggest groups of countries that requires both Russians and Ukrainians to obtain visas before travelling there. This research was made mostly directly, by requesting each country's diplomatic mission in Moscow to give an official position. The research had the purpose of verifying the information that certain countries do issue visas to Crimeans with Russian documents and also to give a more general and complex picture on the matter of visas for residents of Crimea. This theme is important as a policy of not issuing visas has significant repercussions on the region's economy and on the freedom of movement of its citizens.

  2. International cooperation in planetary exploration - Past success and future prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosendhal, Jeffrey D.

    1987-01-01

    A review is given of the ways in which the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has participated in international efforts to explore the solar system. Past examples of successful international cooperative programs are described. Prospects for future cooperative efforts are discussed with emphasis placed on current events, issues, and trends which are likely to affect possibilities for cooperation over the next 5 to 10 years. Key factors which will play a major role in shaping future prospects for cooperation include the move towards balancing the budget in the United States and the impact of the Challenger accident on the NASA program.

  3. Future directions in international financial integration research - A crowdsourced perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Lucey, B.M.; Vigne, S.A.; Ballester, L.; Barbopoulos, L.; Brzeszczynski, J.; Carchano, O.; Dimic, N.; Fernandez, V.; Gogolin, F.; González-Urteaga, A.; Goodell, J.W.; Helbing, P.; Ichev, R.; Kearney, F.; Laing, E.

    2018-01-01

    This paper is the result of a crowdsourced effort to surface perspectives on the present and future direction of international finance. The authors are researchers in financial economics who attended the INFINITI 2017 conference in the University of Valencia in June 2017 and who participated in the crowdsourcing via the Overleaf platform. This paper highlights the actual state of scientific knowledge in a multitude of fields in finance and proposes different directions for future research.

  4. Current assessment and future potential of the international nuclear market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassidy, P.R.

    1983-01-01

    This is a study of the current and future situation of the international nuclear market. This paper highlights the projections as seen not only by Bechtel Power Corporation, but also by the international nuclear community. It covers in particular the electric power growth projection; the percentage of probable nuclear power generation; operating services for existing nuclear power plants; and the nuclear fuel cycle. (NEA) [fr

  5. The effect of question format and task difficulty on reasoning strategies and diagnostic performance in Internal Medicine residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heemskerk, Laura; Norman, Geoff; Chou, Sophia; Mintz, Marcy; Mandin, Henry; McLaughlin, Kevin

    2008-11-01

    Previous studies have suggested an association between reasoning strategies and diagnostic success, but the influence on this relationship of variables such as question format and task difficulty, has not been studied. Our objective was to study the association between question format, task difficulty, reasoning strategies and diagnostic success. Study participants were 13 Internal Medicine residents at the University of Calgary. Each was given eight problem-solving questions in four clinical presentations and were randomized to groups that differed only in the question format, such that a question presented as short answer (SA) to the first group was presented as extended matching (EM) to the second group. There were equal numbers of SA/EM questions and straightforward/difficult tasks. Participants performed think-aloud during diagnostic reasoning. Data were analyzed using multiple logistic regression. Question format was associated with reasoning strategies; hypothetico-deductive reasoning being used more frequently on EM questions and scheme-inductive reasoning on SA questions. For SA question, non-analytic reasoning alone was used more frequently to answer straightforward cases than difficult cases, whereas for EM questions no such association was observed. EM format and straightforward task increased the odds of diagnostic success, whereas hypothetico-deductive reasoning was associated with reduced odds of success. Question format and task difficulty both influence diagnostic reasoning strategies and studies that examine the effect of reasoning strategies on diagnostic success should control for these effects. Further studies are needed to investigate the effect of reasoning strategies on performance of different groups of learners.

  6. Future Control and Automation : Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Future Control and Automation

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    This volume Future Control and Automation- Volume 1 includes best papers selected from 2012 2nd International Conference on Future Control and Automation (ICFCA 2012) held on July 1-2, 2012, Changsha, China. Future control and automation is the use of control systems and information technologies to reduce the need for human work in the production of goods and services. This volume can be divided into five sessions on the basis of the classification of manuscripts considered, which is listed as follows: Identification and Control, Navigation, Guidance and Sensor, Simulation Technology, Future Telecommunications and Control

  7. The International Space Station: A Pathway to the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitmacher, Gary H.; Gerstenmaier, William H.; Bartoe, John-David F.; Mustachio, Nicholas

    2004-01-01

    Nearly six years after the launch of the first International Space Station element, and four years after its initial occupation, the United States and our 16 international partners have made great strides in operating this impressive Earth orbiting research facility. This past year we have done so in the face of the adversity of operating without the benefit of the Space Shuttle. In his January 14, 2004, speech announcing a new vision for America's space program, President Bush affirmed the United States' commitment to completing construction of the International Space Station by 2010. The President also stated that we would focus our future research aboard the Station on the longterm effects of space travel on human biology. This research will help enable human crews to venture through the vast voids of space for months at a time. In addition, ISS affords a unique opportunity to serve as an engineering test bed for hardware and operations critical to the exploration tasks. NASA looks forward to working with our partners on International Space Station research that will help open up new pathways for future exploration and discovery beyond low Earth orbit. This paper provides an overview of the International Space Station Program focusing on a review of the events of the past year, as well as plans for next year and the future.

  8. THE FUTURE OF INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS AS A STUDY FIELD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Amatucci

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The field of International Business lies at a crossroads of analytical levels, themes and theoretical traditions, and it will probably remain at this point in the near future. This work follows five years (2001-2006 of the Journal of International Business Studies (JIBS to analyse the scope and evolution of themes, methodologies and theoretical traditions in 199 articles. After this phase, it discusses, with the help of colleagues gathered in two workshops, the future of the area in terms of two hypotheses: the convergence hypothesis of the dominance of a theoretical and thematic mainstream, and the divergence hypothesis of a “theoretical quilt” configuration of the field. It concludes that the editorial preferences of JIBS favour traditional approaches to the field and that the second “future” is the most likely to occur, leading International Business to evolve as a social reference more than an epistemological entity.

  9. Future Control and Automation : Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Future Control and Automation

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    This volume Future Control and Automation- Volume 2 includes best papers from 2012 2nd International Conference on Future Control and Automation (ICFCA 2012) held on July 1-2, 2012, Changsha, China. Future control and automation is the use of control systems and information technologies to reduce the need for human work in the production of goods and services. This volume can be divided into six sessions on the basis of the classification of manuscripts considered, which is listed as follows: Mathematical Modeling, Analysis and Computation, Control Engineering, Reliable Networks Design, Vehicular Communications and Networking, Automation and Mechatronics.

  10. Ninth international conference on CANDU fuel, 'fuelling a clean future'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The Canadian Nuclear Society's 9th International Conference on CANDU fuel took place in Belleville, Ontario on September 18-21, 2005. The theme for this year's conference was 'Fuelling a Clean Future' bringing together over 80 delegates ranging from: designers, engineers, manufacturers, researchers, modellers, safety specialists and managers to share the wealth of their knowledge and experience. This international event took place at an important turning point of the CANDU technology when new fuel design is being developed for commercial application, the Advanced CANDU Reactor is being considered for projects and nuclear power is enjoying a renaissance as the source energy for our future. Most of the conference was devoted to the presentation of technical papers in four parallel sessions. The topics of these sessions were: Design and Development; Fuel Safety; Fuel Modelling; Fuel Performance; Fuel Manufacturing; Fuel Management; Thermalhydraulics; and, Spent Fuel Management and Criticalty

  11. Saltsjoebaden V - Taking international air pollution policies into the future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-10-15

    24-26 June 2013, 130 leading international policy makers, scientists, experts and others met at an international workshop in Gothenburg, Sweden, in order to discuss and outline future directions in air pollution science and policy. The workshop, which was organised in close collaboration with the Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution and the European Commission, involved several themes such as linkages to climate change including SLCP, nitrogen, global governance and effects to health and environment. The output is a series of recommendations for further actions with respect to effects to health, ecosystems and near-term climate actions. Recommendations were also given with respect to heavy metals and POPs. The recommendations are directed towards several international organisations and initiatives such as CLRTAP, European Commission, Climate and Clean Air Coalition and the Arctic Council. (Author)

  12. Romantic Ideals, Mate Preferences, and Anticipation of Future Difficulties in Marital Life: A comparative study of young adults in India and America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathrine eBejanyan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have established that Indians tend to be greater in collectivism and gender role traditionalism than Americans. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether these differences explained further cultural differences in romantic beliefs, traditional mate preferences, and anticipation of future difficulties in marital life. Results revealed that Indians reported greater collectivism than Americans and, in turn, held stronger romantic beliefs. Additionally, Indians’ greater collectivism and endorsement of more traditional gender roles in part predicted their preferences for a marital partner possessing traditional characteristics, and fully accounted for their heightened concerns about encountering future difficulties in marital life. These results shed light on the processes underlying cultural differences in relationship attitudes and preferences, and point to culture-specific therapies to enhance marital functioning.

  13. Romantic ideals, mate preferences, and anticipation of future difficulties in marital life: a comparative study of young adults in India and America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejanyan, Kathrine; Marshall, Tara C.; Ferenczi, Nelli

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have established that Indians tend to be greater in collectivism and gender role traditionalism than Americans. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether these differences explained further cultural differences in romantic beliefs, traditional mate preferences, and anticipation of future difficulties in marital life. Results revealed that Indians reported greater collectivism than Americans and, in turn, held stronger romantic beliefs. Additionally, Indians' greater collectivism and endorsement of more traditional gender roles in part predicted their preferences for a marital partner possessing traditional characteristics, and fully accounted for their heightened concerns about encountering future difficulties in marital life. These results shed light on the processes underlying cultural differences in relationship attitudes and preferences, and point to culture-specific therapies to enhance marital functioning. PMID:25520681

  14. The Effect of Question Format and Task Difficulty on Reasoning Strategies and Diagnostic Performance in Internal Medicine Residents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heemskerk, Laura; Norman, Geoff; Chou, Sophia; Mintz, Marcy; Mandin, Henry; McLaughlin, Kevin

    2008-01-01

    Background: Previous studies have suggested an association between reasoning strategies and diagnostic success, but the influence on this relationship of variables such as question format and task difficulty, has not been studied. Our objective was to study the association between question format, task difficulty, reasoning strategies and…

  15. Economics and Comparative and International Education: Past, Present, Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charl Wolhuter

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to map this place of economics in the field of study of Comparative and International Education. Interrelationship between economy and education is concerned, two broad lines of enquiry lie within the scope of Comparative and International Education: economy as shaping force of education systems and the effect of education on the economy. In the interwar “factors and forces” stage of Comparative Education, the economy as a shaping force of national education systems came to the fore. In the social science phase of the 1960s the focus shifted to a study of the effect of education on the economy. This was reversed again in the 1970s, when socio-economic reproduction theories assigned a deterministic place to socio-economic stratification of society. In recent years neo-liberal economics dictated the research agenda of Comparative Education. In conclusion recommendations for a future research agenda in the field are made.

  16. Episodic memory and episodic future thinking impairments in high-functioning autism spectrum disorder: an underlying difficulty with scene construction or self-projection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Sophie E; Williams, David M; Bowler, Dermot M; Peel, Anna

    2014-01-01

    There appears to be a common network of brain regions that underlie the ability to recall past personal experiences (episodic memory) and the ability to imagine possible future personal experiences (episodic future thinking). At the cognitive level, these abilities are thought to rely on "scene construction" (the ability to bind together multimodal elements of a scene in mind--dependent on hippocampal functioning) and temporal "self-projection" (the ability to mentally project oneself through time--dependent on prefrontal cortex functioning). Although autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by diminished episodic memory, it is unclear whether episodic future thinking is correspondingly impaired. Moreover, the underlying basis of such impairments (difficulties with scene construction, self-projection, or both) is yet to be established. The current study therefore aimed to elucidate these issues. Twenty-seven intellectually high-functioning adults with ASD and 29 age- and IQ-matched neurotypical comparison adults were asked to describe (a) imagined atemporal, non-self-relevant fictitious scenes (assessing scene construction), (b) imagined plausible self-relevant future episodes (assessing episodic future thinking), and (c) recalled personally experienced past episodes (assessing episodic memory). Tests of narrative ability and theory of mind were also completed. Performances of participants with ASD were significantly and equally diminished in each condition and, crucially, this diminution was independent of general narrative ability. Given that participants with ASD were impaired in the fictitious scene condition, which does not involve self-projection, we suggest the underlying difficulty with episodic memory/future thinking is one of scene construction.

  17. The Future of Electricity Distribution Regulation. Lessons from International Experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nillesen, P.H.L.

    2008-12-03

    This thesis contains five essays on the regulation of electricity distribution networks, each presenting a different point of view. Two essays use US data to demonstrate that incentive-based regulation has valuable application within a management setting and can lead to gaming behaviour within a regulatory setting. One essay discusses the lessons that can be drawn from the failed first electricity distribution price control review in the Netherlands. One essay presents the views of 75 international regulation managers and gives recommendations on ways to improve the regulatory quality and process. The final essay analyses the economic consequences of the forced ownership unbundling of the electricity distribution networks in 1998 in New Zealand, and draws lessons for future structural remedies that may be sought in other countries.

  18. The Future of Electricity Distribution Regulation. Lessons from International Experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nillesen, P.H.L.

    2008-01-01

    This thesis contains five essays on the regulation of electricity distribution networks, each presenting a different point of view. Two essays use US data to demonstrate that incentive-based regulation has valuable application within a management setting and can lead to gaming behaviour within a regulatory setting. One essay discusses the lessons that can be drawn from the failed first electricity distribution price control review in the Netherlands. One essay presents the views of 75 international regulation managers and gives recommendations on ways to improve the regulatory quality and process. The final essay analyses the economic consequences of the forced ownership unbundling of the electricity distribution networks in 1998 in New Zealand, and draws lessons for future structural remedies that may be sought in other countries

  19. International conference on past, present and future climate. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heikinheimo, P [ed.

    1996-12-31

    This publications contains the proceedings of the International Conference on Past, Present and Future Climate, held in Helsinki, Finland, on 22-25 August 1995. Conference was organized to serve at least two purposes. First, it was the fourth meeting in a series of Nordic climate conferences. Earlier Nordic meetings had been held in Copenhagen (1978), Stockholm (1983) and Tromsoe (1990). Secondly, the conference formed part of the integration activities of the Finnish Research Programme on Climate Change (SILMU). Four central themes were selected for the conference: (1) climatic changes since the last glaciation inferred from proxy data,(2) detection of climate change from the instrumental record,(3) changes in atmospheric composition, (4) predicting future climate. The Finnish Research Programme on Climate Change was in its sixth and final year at the time of the conference. One of the aims of the meeting was to foster the communication of SlLMU`s results to the scientific community at large. On the other hand, feedback from overseas colleagues was expected to be beneficial for the final reporting of the results of the research programme. Altogether 117 scientific contributions were submitted and more than 140 scientists attended the conference

  20. International conference on past, present and future climate. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heikinheimo, P. [ed.

    1995-12-31

    This publications contains the proceedings of the International Conference on Past, Present and Future Climate, held in Helsinki, Finland, on 22-25 August 1995. Conference was organized to serve at least two purposes. First, it was the fourth meeting in a series of Nordic climate conferences. Earlier Nordic meetings had been held in Copenhagen (1978), Stockholm (1983) and Tromsoe (1990). Secondly, the conference formed part of the integration activities of the Finnish Research Programme on Climate Change (SILMU). Four central themes were selected for the conference: (1) climatic changes since the last glaciation inferred from proxy data,(2) detection of climate change from the instrumental record,(3) changes in atmospheric composition, (4) predicting future climate. The Finnish Research Programme on Climate Change was in its sixth and final year at the time of the conference. One of the aims of the meeting was to foster the communication of SlLMU`s results to the scientific community at large. On the other hand, feedback from overseas colleagues was expected to be beneficial for the final reporting of the results of the research programme. Altogether 117 scientific contributions were submitted and more than 140 scientists attended the conference

  1. International Scoping Study of a Future Accelerator Neutrino Complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zisman, Michael S.

    2006-01-01

    The International Scoping Study (ISS), launched at NuFact05 to evaluate the physics case for a future neutrino facility, along with options for the accelerator complex and detectors, is laying the foundations for a subsequent conceptual-design study. It is hosted by Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL) and organized by the international community, with participants from Europe, Japan, and the U.S. Here we cover the work of the Accelerator Working Group. For the 4-MW proton driver, linacs, synchrotrons, and Fixed-Field Alternating Gradient (FFAG) rings are considered. For targets, issues of both liquid-metal and solid materials are examined. For beam conditioning, (phase rotation, bunching, and ionization cooling), we evaluate schemes both with and without cooling, the latter based on scaling-FFAG rings. For acceleration, we examine scaling FFAGs and hybrid systems comprising linacs, dogbone RLAs, and non-scaling FFAGs. For the decay ring, we consider racetrack and triangular shapes, the latter capable of simultaneously illuminating two different detectors at different long baselines. Comparisons are made between various technical approaches to identify optimum design choices

  2. Internal gelation at PSI. The past and the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pouchon, Manuel A.; Ingold, Franz

    2009-01-01

    The Paul Scherrer Institute used to be very active in fuel fabrication R and D using the internal gelation process, which is a promising production method for spherical nuclear fuel. Such fuel kernels can be directly packed in a cylindrical cladding (a sphere-pac pin), or they can be coated in the TRISO concept. The internal gelation offers several advantages, as it is aqueous up to the forming of the sphere. Consequently, the process is almost dustless, with lower risk of incorporation. The production does not require mechanical and maintenance intensive equipment, as for example presses and grinding machines necessary for pellet type fuel. Especially for low decontaminated fuel coming from aqueous reprocessing, this offers a great advantage, because the production line can easily be handled remotely in a hot cell. In the past, many different fuel matrices were produced and tested at PSI (carbide, nitride and oxide fuels). The paper summarizes the past activities, and some important findings. Furthermore, future perspectives of this concept are shown. These are especially seen in context of Generation IV nuclear systems such as the sodium cooled fast reactor (SFR), the very high temperature reactor (VHTR), and the gas cooled fast reactor (GFR). The paper describes the former production line, which was a classical internal gelation process. Some advantages and disadvantages of this system will be illustrated which lead to a new project at PSI. A silicon oil-free system will be developed over the next years. The oil as a heat carrier is replaced by a cavity, where microwaves act on falling drops and lead to the desired gelation before the spheres drop into a washing solution. The idea of a microwave gelation has already been tested at several laboratories in the past. The paper gives an overview of these activities. Finally the concept of the new production at PSI is introduced. (author)

  3. Symposium on International Safeguards: Preparing for Future Verification Challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the symposium is to foster dialogue and information exchange involving Member States, the nuclear industry and members of the broader nuclear non-proliferation community to prepare for future verification challenges. Topics addressed during the 2010 symposium include the following: - Supporting the global nuclear non-proliferation regime: Building support for strengthening international safeguards; Enhancing confidence in compliance with safeguards obligations; Legal authority as a means to enhance effectiveness and efficiency; Verification roles in support of arms control and disarmament. - Building collaboration and partnerships with other international forums: Other verification and non-proliferation regimes; Synergies between safety, security and safeguards regimes. - Improving cooperation between IAEA and States for safeguards implementation: Strengthening State systems for meeting safeguards obligations; Enhancing safeguards effectiveness and efficiency through greater cooperation; Lessons learned: recommendations for enhancing integrated safeguards implementation. - Addressing safeguards challenges in an increasingly interconnected world: Non-State actors and covert trade networks; Globalization of nuclear information and technology. - Preparing for the global nuclear expansion and increasing safeguards workload: Furthering implementation of the State-level concept and integrated safeguards; Information-driven safeguards; Remote data-driven safeguards inspections; Safeguards in States without comprehensive safeguards agreements. - Safeguarding advanced nuclear facilities and innovative fuel cycles: Proliferation resistance; Safeguards by design; Safeguards approaches for advanced facilities. - Advanced technologies and methodologies: For verifying nuclear material and activities; For detecting undeclared nuclear material and activities; For information collection, analysis and integration. - Enhancing the development and use of safeguards

  4. Present and future activities of the IAEA on internal dosimetry: Lessons learned from international intercomparisons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz Suarez, R.; Gustafsson, M.; Mrabit, K.

    2003-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) conducts safety activities to support the assessment of occupational exposure due to intakes of radionuclides; a comprehensive set of safety documents will soon be completed. In recent years, extensive improvements in measurement techniques, phantoms and computational tools have been made. Thus, it is important for laboratories involved in internal dosimetry to undergo performance testing procedures to demonstrate the correctness of the methods applied and also to determine the consistency of their results with those obtained by other laboratories. Several intercomparisons were organised, and they revealed significant differences among laboratories in their approaches, methods and assumptions, and consequently in their results. This paper presents the current and future IAEA activities in support of assessment of occupational exposure due to intakes of radionuclides in the IAEA Member States, as well as the lessons learned from several intercomparison exercises in the last 5 years. (author)

  5. Astrobiology: guidelines and future missions plan for the international community

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, L.; Miller, D.

    The search for extra-terrestrial life has been going on ever since humans realized there was more to the Universe than just the Earth. These quests have taken many forms including, but not limited to: the quest for understanding the biological origins of life on Earth; the deployment of robotic probes to other planets to look for microbial life; the analysis of meteorites for chemical and fossil remnants of extra - terrestrial life; and the search of the radio spectrum for signs of extra-solar intelligence. These searches so far have yielded hints, but no unambiguous proof of life with origins from off Earth. The emerging field of astrobiology studies the origin, distribution, and future of life in the Universe. Technical advances and new, though not conclusive, evidence of extinct microbial life on Mars have created a new enthusiasm for astrobiology in many nations. However, the next steps to take are not clear, and should a positive result be returned, the follow-on missions are yet to be defined. This paper reports on the results of an eight-week study by the students of the International Space University during the summer of 2002. The study created a source book that can be used by mission designers and policy makers to chart the next steps in astrobiology. In particular, the study addresses the following questions:1.What is the full set of dimensions along which we can search forextra-terrestrial life?2.What activities are currently underway by the internationalcommunity along each of these dimensions?3.What are the most effective next steps that can be taken by theinternational space community in order to further this search (from a policy,sociological and mission point of view)?4.What are the proper steps for eliminating possible contaminationof the Earth's biosphere?5.What are the issues with planetary quarantine with regards tounwanted contamination of other biospheres with terrestrial organisms? Integrating all the considerations affecting the search for

  6. Studies of the Future Aged. An International Symposium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friis, Henning; Sheppard, Harold L., Ed.

    These six papers report on future-oriented studies of the situation of the elderly. "Changing Elderly in a Changing Society: Danish Elderly in the Next Century" (Henning Friis) reports on research dealing with preferences of the future elderly for their life when they grow older. "Aging Effectively: Meeting the Challenge of an Aging…

  7. Regulating sadness and fear from outside and within: mothers' emotion socialization and adolescents' parasympathetic regulation predict the development of internalizing difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastings, Paul D; Klimes-Dougan, Bonnie; Kendziora, Kimberly T; Brand, Ann; Zahn-Waxler, Carolyn

    2014-11-01

    Multilevel models of developmental psychopathology implicate both characteristics of the individual and their rearing environment in the etiology of internalizing problems and disorders. Maladaptive regulation of fear and sadness, the core of anxiety and depression, arises from the conjoint influences of ineffective parasympathetic regulation of emotion and ineffective emotion socialization experiences. In 171 youths (84 female, M = 13.69 years, SD = 1.84), we measured changes of respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) in response to sadness- and fear-inducing film clips and maternal supportive and punitive responses to youths' internalizing emotions. Youths and mothers reported on youths' internalizing problems and anxiety and depression symptoms concurrently and 2 years later at Time 2. Maternal supportive emotion socialization predicted fewer, and punitive socialization predicted more, mother-reported internalizing problems at Time 2 only for youths who showed RSA suppression to fear-inducing films. More RSA suppression to sadness-inducing films predicted more youth-reported internalizing problems at Time 2 in girls only. In addition, less supportive emotion socialization predicted more youth-reported depression symptoms at Time 2 only for girls who showed more RSA suppression to sadness. RSA suppression to sadness versus fear might reflect different patterns of atypical parasympathetic regulation of emotional arousal, both of which increase the risk for internalizing difficulties in youths, and especially girls, who lack maternal support for regulating emotions.

  8. Economics and Comparative and International Education: Past, Present, Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolhuter, Charl

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to map this place of economics in the field of study of Comparative and International Education. Interrelationship between economy and education is concerned, two broad lines of enquiry lie within the scope of Comparative and International Education: economy as shaping force of education systems and the effect of education…

  9. International Terrorism and Mental Health: Recent Research and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Peter; Ai, Amy L.

    2008-01-01

    International terrorism has become a major global concern. Several studies conducted in North America and Europe in the aftermath of terrorist attacks reveal that international terrorism represents a significant short-term and long-term threat to mental health. In the present article, the authors clarify the concept and categories of terrorism and…

  10. Measurement Equivalence in ADL and IADL Difficulty Across International Surveys of Aging: Findings From the HRS, SHARE, and ELSA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasper, Judith D.; Brandt, Jason; Pezzin, Liliana E.

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To examine the measurement equivalence of items on disability across three international surveys of aging. Method. Data for persons aged 65 and older were drawn from the Health and Retirement Survey (HRS, n = 10,905), English Longitudinal Study of Aging (ELSA, n = 5,437), and Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE, n = 13,408). Differential item functioning (DIF) was assessed using item response theory (IRT) methods for activities of daily living (ADL) and instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) items. Results. HRS and SHARE exhibited measurement equivalence, but 6 of 11 items in ELSA demonstrated meaningful DIF. At the scale level, this item-level DIF affected scores reflecting greater disability. IRT methods also spread out score distributions and shifted scores higher (toward greater disability). Results for mean disability differences by demographic characteristics, using original and DIF-adjusted scores, were the same overall but differed for some subgroup comparisons involving ELSA. Discussion. Testing and adjusting for DIF is one means of minimizing measurement error in cross-national survey comparisons. IRT methods were used to evaluate potential measurement bias in disability comparisons across three international surveys of aging. The analysis also suggested DIF was mitigated for scales including both ADL and IADL and that summary indexes (counts of limitations) likely underestimate mean disability in these international populations. PMID:22156662

  11. How do international medical graduates and colleagues perceive and deal with difficulties in everyday collaboration? A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skjeggestad, Erik; Norvoll, Reidun; Sandal, Gro M; Gulbrandsen, Pål

    2017-06-01

    Many medical doctors work outside their countries of origin. Consequently, language barriers and cultural differences may result in miscommunication and tension in the workplace, leading to poor performance and quality of treatment and affecting patient safety. However, there is little information about how foreign doctors and their colleagues perceive their collaboration and handle situations that can affect the quality of health services. Individual, semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with two groups of informants: 16 doctors who had recently started working in Norway and 12 unrelated Norwegian-born healthcare providers who had extensive experience of working with doctors from foreign countries. The interviews were analysed according to the systematic text condensation method. The foreign doctors described themselves as newcomers and found it difficult to speak with their colleagues about their shortcomings because they wanted to be seen as competent. Their Norwegian colleagues reported that many new foreign doctors had demanding work schedules and therefore they were reluctant to give them negative feedback. They also feared that foreign doctors would react negatively to criticism. All participants, both the new foreign doctors and their colleagues, reported that they took responsibility for the prevention of misunderstandings and errors; nevertheless, they struggled to discuss such issues with each other. Silence was the coping strategy adopted by both the foreign doctors and native healthcare professionals when facing difficulties in their working relationships. In such situations, many foreign doctors are socialized into a new workplace in which uncertainty and shortcomings are not discussed openly. Effective leadership and procedures to facilitate communication may alleviate this area of concern.

  12. Back to the Future: International Education in Public Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommerness, Martin D.; Beaman, Ronda

    1994-01-01

    Finds few offerings of university courses emphasizing international public relations across the United States, despite global trends underlining increased internationalization. Argues that individuals and organizations must take account of those trends to stay abreast of the changing environment. (SR)

  13. Digital Economy: The Future of International Taxation of Business Income

    OpenAIRE

    Baumann, Anton

    2017-01-01

    The subject of the thesis is to make an assessment on the situation of the international taxation of business income in a digitalized economy. It has long been obvious that existing international tax rules, especially the Permanent Establishment, is outdated and unfit to allocate taxation right between states in the digital economic era. As economic development has continued, tax development has stagnated. The question of the thesis becomes: what are the possible solutions to this issue? The ...

  14. Assuring nuclear energy's future through international co-operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upson, P.

    1999-01-01

    It is invited lecture as the introduction to the sixt international meeting entitled Nuclear Energy in Central Europe. Good commercial operation, public information and education are needed to win the confidence of the public, and to attract young people to take over the industry's founding generation. Stimulating international co-operation and transfer of best practices can assure this happens across the whole of the Europian nuclear industry

  15. Academic general internal medicine: a mission for the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Katrina; Keating, Nancy L; Landry, Michael; Crotty, Bradley H; Phillips, Russell S; Selker, Harry P

    2013-06-01

    After five decades of growth that has included advances in medical education and health care delivery, value cohesion, and integration of diversity, we propose an overarching mission for academic general internal medicine to lead excellence, change, and innovation in clinical care, education, and research. General internal medicine aims to achieve health care delivery that is comprehensive, technologically advanced and individualized; instills trust within a culture of respect; is efficient in the use of time, people, and resources; is organized and financed to achieve optimal health outcomes; maximizes equity; and continually learns and adapts. This mission of health care transformation has implications for the clinical, educational, and research activities of divisions of general internal medicine over the next several decades.

  16. External and internal radiation therapy: Past and future directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadeghi Mahdi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the modern world. Treatment modalities comprise radiation therapy, surgery, chemotherapy and hormonal therapy. Radiation therapy can be performed by using external or internal radiation therapy. However, each method has its unique properties which undertakes special role in cancer treatment, this question is brought up that: For cancer treatment, whether external radiation therapy is more efficient or internal radiation therapy one? To answer this question, we need to consider principles and structure of individual methods. In this review, principles and application of each method are considered and finally these two methods are compared with each other.

  17. Challenges and future research needs towards international freight transport modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meersman, H.; Ehrler, C.C.; Bruckmann, D.; Chen, T.M.; Francke, J.; Hill, P.; Jackson, C.; Klauenberg, J.; Kurowski, M.; Seidel, S.; Vierth, I.

    2016-01-01

    The advanced internationalisation of markets and production processes continuously adds to the complexity of supply chains. At the same time improving the sustainability of the related international freight transport processes and optimising their efficiency is becoming a topic of central relevance.

  18. The Future Control of Food: A Guide to International Negotiations ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    5 févr. 2008 ... This is the best single summary of the political choices facing food and agriculture policymakers that has been written in this decade. Pat Mooney, Executive Director, the ETC Group An excellent resource for those mapping the increasing control of our food chain by international players. Suman Sahai ...

  19. International Youth Nuclear Congress 2000: Youth, Future, Nuclear. Transactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-04-01

    The publication has been set up as abstracts of the meeting dealing with different nuclear problems. In the work of the International Youth Nuclear Congress 2000 participated more than 200 young scientific works from 28 countries. The address discusses the following issues: Nuclear education and transfer of know-how; Nuclear technology; Political aspects; Environment and safety; Communication and public perception; Economics; Nuclear programs and technical cooperation; Fuel Cycle Challenges.

  20. International Youth Nuclear Congress 2000: Youth, Future, Nuclear. Transactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-04-01

    The publication has been set up as abstracts of the meeting dealing with different nuclear problems. In the work of the International Youth Nuclear Congress 2000 participated more than 200 young scientific works from 28 countries. The address discusses the following issues: Nuclear education and transfer of know-how; Nuclear technology; Political aspects; Environment and safety; Communication and public perception; Economics; Nuclear programs and technical cooperation; Fuel Cycle Challenges

  1. International nuclear safeguards 1994: Vision for the future. V.1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Since the last IAEA symposium on this subject, held eight years ego in 1986, the world of safeguards has experienced a number of momentous changes which have opened a new period of intensive development in safeguards. The important events were: The discoveries in Iraq during activities under United Nations Security Council resolutions, South Africa's decision to become a party to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT), the IAEA-Argentina-Brazil-ABACC Quadripartite Safeguards Agreement, the break-up of the former USSR into newly independent States, and the problems encountered in the implementation of NPT safeguards in the Democratic People's Republic of Korea. The consequences for international safeguards of these events were presented in papers at this symposium, with special emphasis on verification of a State's declaration as well as on detection of undeclared activities. Other fundamental changes stem from converging relationships between nuclear arms reductions and the civil use of plutonium, and the international debate on the associated issues. Furthermore, the review and extension of the NPT is due in 1995. Events have opened the possibility for ambitious new concepts for verification regimes. These matters were addressed at the symposium in the opening session and in the closing panel discussion. Refs, figs and tabs

  2. International landfill gas conference: best practice and future opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This International Landfill Gas Conference, the third to be organised by ETSU on behalf of the Department of Trade and Industry (DTI) and the former Department of Energy has been jointly sponsored by the DTI, the International Energy Agency, the Altener Programme of the European Union (EU), the Environment Agency and the Institution of Diesel and Gas Turbine Engineers. The Conference coincides with the publication of the new Government guidance document, Landfill Gas Development Guidelines, prepared by ETSU for the DTI with co-sponsorship from the EU ALTENER Programme. The aim of the new Guidelines is to promote more widespread use of landfill gas (LFG) as an energy source by helping to reduce remaining perceived barriers to project development. The document is intended for a broad readership and is designed to allow easy access to a wide range of information. Essentially it is a ''hub'' document providing links to a variety of more specialised or detailed materials. For this reason, the emphasis is placed on breadth rather than on detail. The new Guidelines are certain to become the standard reference for all those with an interest in LFG technology. (Author)

  3. PRESENT AND FUTURE PERSPECTIVES IN INTERNATIONAL MEDICAL ASSISTANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Stadoleanu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Paneuropean development of patients’ rights represent a relatively recent concern, the legislative norms of which aim at granting to patients real-time access to all sorts of medical services. To this end, the European Union implemented a unitary normative professional and juridical background: Directive 2011/24/U.E. on the rights of patients to international treatments. Consequently, the patients are free to choose themselves the suppliers of medical services which do not include hospitalization, without a previous authorisation (country, doctor and medical institution while, in the case of long-term treatments, a principial authorisation will be necessary. In both cases, the carrier of the therapeutic service receives the payment for his actions at the level of those established at national level, the difference being usually payed by the patient.

  4. Future axion searches with the International Axion Observatory (IAXO)

    CERN Document Server

    Irastorza, I G; Cantatore, G; Carmona, J M; Caspi, S; Cetin, S A; Christensen, F E; Dael, A; Dafni, T; Davenport, M; Derbin, A V; Desch, K; Diago, A; Döbrich, B; Dudarev, A; Eleftheriadis, C; Fanourakis, G; Ferrer-Ribas, E; Galán, J; García, J A; Garza, J.G; Geralis, T; Gimeno, B; Giomataris, I; Gninenko, S; Gómez, H; Guendelman, E; Hailey, C J; Hiramatsu, T; Hoffmann, D H H; Horns, D; Iguaz, F J; Isern, J; Jakobsen, A C; Jaeckel, J; Jakovčić, K; Kaminski, J; Kawasaki, M; Krčmar, M; Krieger, C; Lakić, B; Lindner, A; Liolios, A; Luzón, G; Ortega, I; Papaevangelou, T; Pivovaroff, M J; Raffelt, G; Redondo, J; Ringwald, A; Russenschuck, S; Ruz, J; Saikawa, K; Savvidis, I; Sekiguchi, T; Shilon, I; Sikivie, P; Silva, H; Kate, H ten; Tomas, A; Troitsky, S; Vafeiadis, T; Bibber, K van; Vedrine, P; Villar, J A; Vogel, J K; Walckiers, L; Wester, W; Yildiz, S C; Zioutas, K

    2013-01-01

    The International Axion Observatory (IAXO) is a new generation axion helioscope aiming at a sensitivity to the axion-photon coupling of gaγ few × 10−12 GeV−1, i.e. 1–1.5 orders of magnitude beyond the one achieved by CAST, currently the most sensitive axion helioscope. The main elements of IAXO are an increased magnetic field volume together with extensive use of x-ray focusing optics and low background detectors, innovations already successfully tested in CAST. Additional physics cases of IAXO could include the detection of electron-coupled axions invoked to explain the white dwarf cooling, relic axions, and a large variety of more generic axion-like particles (ALPs) and other novel excitations at the low-energy frontier of elementary particle physics.

  5. 9th International Conference on Multimedia and Ubiquitous Engineering and the 10th International Conference on Future Information Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Chao, Han-Chieh; Arabnia, Hamid; Yen, Neil; Advanced Multimedia and Ubiquitous Engineering : Future Information Technology; MUE-15; FutureTech 2015

    This volume brings together contributions representing the state-of-the-art in new multimedia and future technology information research, currently a major topic in computer science and electronic engineering. Researchers aim to interoperate multimedia frameworks, transforming the way people work and  interact with multimedia data. This book covers future information technology topics including digital and multimedia convergence, ubiquitous and pervasive computing, intelligent computing and applications, embedded systems, mobile and wireless communications, bio-inspired computing, grid and cloud computing, semantic web, human-centric computing and social networks, adaptive and context-aware computing, security and trust computing and related areas.  Representing the combined proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Multimedia and Ubiquitous Engineering (MUE-15) and the 10th International Conference on Future Information Technology (FutureTech 2015), this book aims to provide a complete coverage of...

  6. The international Argo data infrastructure; past, present, and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, J. J. H.; Pouliquen, S.; Thresher, A.; Schmechtig, C.; Ignaszewski, M.; Carval, T.; Scanderbeg, M.; Frost, M.

    2016-12-01

    The Argo array is composed of over 3,000 autonomous profiling floats that measure the temperature and salinity of the upper 2,000 m of the global deep ocean every ten days. Argo is a key component of the global ocean observing system and the data addresses crucial questions such as quantifying the heat content of the upper ocean and steric sea level change. Further to this data are routinely assimilated into operational ocean forecast models. Argo is underpinned by an international data system that was founded in the year 2,000 at the first meeting of the Argo data management team. The Argo data system is built on principles of open data and supplying data to both operational ocean models and research communities within 24 hours of collection. The data system served as a template for the established international OceanSITES community and the emerging Everyones Glider Observatories initiative. The Argo data system is composed of national Data Assembly Centers (DAC) that supply data to two mirrored Global Data Assembly Centres (GDAC). GDAC data exchanges are based on File Transfer Protocol (FTP). A significant recent data system development is the assignment of a single dynamic DOI to GDAC holdings enabling time dependent unambiguous data citation at a monthly granularity. The on-going evolution of Argo to address new global questions requires deeper data, shallower data, biogeochemical sampling and increased spatial coverage. These enhancements are increasing data complexity and volumes necessitating significant recent data format adaptation. The challenge and achievement was to preserve data formats and quality for existing established users while still allowing the integration of new data streams. The implementation of these adaptations is currently in progress within DACs. Argo data have been traditionally delivered via FTP protocol with developments are on-going to facilitate new users and emerging expectations on data delivery mechanisms. These experimental

  7. Future directions for international safeguards - ESARDA WG on integrated safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rezniczek, A.

    2013-01-01

    Reducing IAEA inspection effort does not mean that the overall safeguards effort will be reduced. There will be compensation and additional effort spent by states and SSACs (State Systems of Accounting and Control). State and/or regional authorities take very serious their responsibilities to safeguard the nuclear material. Enhanced cooperation between all players should be more seriously considered by the IAEA. A more effective implementation of the principle 'one job - one person' and sub-delegation of verification tasks should be taken into account for future evolution. At present, the state level approach is still based on a bottom up approach and not developed top down. The basis is still an aggregation of the facility specific safeguards approaches with some minor adjustments by state specific factors. The touchstone for a true state level approach would be a top-down development process with the result that safeguards effort spent in a state is no longer strongly correlated to the amount and quality of nuclear material in that state. The limitation of the Physical Model is that only the technical aspects are reflected. To actually perform a proliferation, the technical capability is a necessary but insufficient condition. Besides the pure technical capabilities, one has to consider the feasibility for a state to actually implement a proliferation action in its given environment. Factors to be considered are for example institutional factors, ownership of facilities and social and political structures in the state. The help a purely technical assessment can provide is also limited in cases where states have a well developed fuel cycle and thus have at their disposal all required technical capabilities. The paper is followed by the slides of the presentation. (authors)

  8. The concept “international arbitration” in the context of professional training of future arbitration lawyers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Оlga Nagorna

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available International arbitration is an effective alternative mechanism for dispute resolution between the parties to the treaty in the context of globalization. Nowadays there is a demand for optimal organization of education and training specialists, capable to realize arbitration practice in the international arena. Professional training of future arbitration lawyers is carried out within master programs. In addition to professional disciplines, the curriculum includes the study of Business English as a component of professional competence of future arbitration lawyers and a tool for their professional interaction. To create reliable conditions for high-quality foreign language training, a lecturer has to obtain certain another sphere knowledge, in particular to understand the essence of the concept “international arbitration”.Key words: international arbitration, professional training, future arbitration lawyer, master program, Business English

  9. Infants Prospectively Control Reaching Based on the Difficulty of Future Actions: To What Extent Can Infants' Multiple-Step Actions Be Explained by Fitts' Law?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottwald, Janna M.; De Bortoli Vizioli, Aurora; Lindskog, Marcus; Nyström, Pär; L. Ekberg, Therese; von Hofsten, Claes; Gredebäck, Gustaf

    2017-01-01

    Prospective motor control, a key element of action planning, is the ability to adjust one's actions with respect to task demands and action goals in an anticipatory manner. The current study investigates whether 14-month-olds can prospectively control their reaching actions based on the difficulty of the subsequent action. We used a reach-to-place…

  10. An under-active or over-active internal world? An exploration of parallel dynamics within psyche and soma, and the difficulty of internal regulation, in patients with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Myalgic Encephalomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driver, Christine

    2005-04-01

    This paper explores the dynamics brought into analytic work when there is a symmetric fusion between psyche and soma within the patient. It will consider how such a fusion may emerge from reverberations between physical constitution and a lack of maternal attunement, containment and reflective function. I will describe the work with a patient, Jane, who was diagnosed with Myalgic Encephalomyelitis (ME) during the course of her analysis. The dynamic of her physical symptoms within the analytic work, and the impact of her internal affects and internal 'objects' within the transference and countertransference, indicated a difficulty in finding an homeostatic balance resulting in overactivity and underactivity at both somatic and psychological levels. Using the clinical work with Jane this paper will also examine the interrelationship between mother-infant attachment, an inadequate internalized maternal reflective function, affect dysregulation, unconscious fusion, the lack of psyche-soma differentiation and the impact of the latter in relation to internal regulation systems, or lack of, in patients with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) and Myalgic Encephalomyelitis (ME). I will draw on similar work carried out by Holland (1997), Simpson (1997) and Simpson et al. (1997). The paper will also employ the concept of the reflective function (Fonagy 2001; Knox 2003), and consider Matte-Blanco's (1999) concepts of generalization and unconscious symmetry in relation to the patient's internal world. I go on to consider how analysis provides a point outside the 'fusion' that can enable the 'deadlock' to be broken.

  11. 11th International Conference on Multimedia and Ubiquitous Engineering & 12th International Conference on Future Information Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Shu-Ching; Choo, Kim-Kwang

    2017-01-01

    This book presents the proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Multimedia and Ubiquitous Engineering (MUE2017) and the 12th International Conference on Future Information Technology (FutureTech2017), held in Seoul, South Korea on May 22–24, 2017. These two conferences provided an opportunity for academic and industrial professionals to discuss recent advances in the area of multimedia and ubiquitous environments including models and systems, new directions, and novel applications associated with the utilization and acceptance of ubiquitous computing devices and systems. The resulting papers address the latest technological innovations in the fields of digital convergence, multimedia convergence, intelligent applications, embedded systems, mobile and wireless communications, bio-inspired computing, grid and cloud computing, semantic web, user experience, HCI, and security and trust computing. The book offers a valuable resource for a broad readership, including students, academic researchers, and...

  12. Estimates of Future Supply of International Greenhouse Gas Offsets: A Critical Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erickson, Peter; Lazarus, Michael (Stockholm Environment Inst. (United States)), e-mail: mlaz@sei-us.org; Kelly, Alexia (World Resources Inst., (United States))

    2010-07-01

    This report reviews estimates of the projected availability (i.e., supply) of international offsets, evaluates the various methods used and outlines factors that should be incorporated into future analyses of international offset supply and quality. U.S. policymakers have relied on offsets from developing countries as a primary form of cost containment in proposed cap-and-trade legislation. These legislative proposals allow for emitters to use up to 1.5 billion tons CO{sub 2}e of offsets from developing countries to meet their annual compliance obligations. In this paper, we review estimates of the projected availability (i.e., supply) of international offsets, and evaluate the various methods used. We find that: (1) Estimates of supply of international offsets to global markets vary widely, with estimates differing by billions of tons CO{sub 2}e annually in 2020; (2) Despite the variation, existing studies suggest that by 2020 gross international offset supply will likely exceed U.S. demand for international offsets under current Congressional cap-and-trade designs; (3) Competition with governments and entities with emission reduction obligations (e.g. the EU), as well as with policies and measures undertaken by developing countries as part of their own mitigation contributions, could reduce the net offset supply available to U.S. entities; and (4) Several important offset program design and market factors that are central to future offset markets and credit issuance (e.g., sources of offset supply, program stringency and crediting methods, establishment of international governance and market structures) have yet to be systematically considered in offset supply assessments. This paper outlines factors that should be incorporated into future analyses of international offset supply and quality. 7 Such analyses could prove particularly germane as policy makers continue to deliberate on the role of international offsets, including whether and how to recognize credits

  13. Study of SUSY particles properties at the future International Linear Collider with the International Large Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wichmann, K.

    2009-01-01

    Recently, Letters of Intent (LoI) for experiments at the International Linear Collider (ILC) have been submitted. Among the three proposals is the International Large Detector (ILD) concept which is at the focus of these studies. From various subjects addressed in the LoI, a wide spectrum of studies of SUSY particle properties is presented here. Most of them are benchmark reactions for the ILC and can be used both in physics studies and in work on detector design and optimization, respectively. All studies were performed with a full detector simulation using GEANT4, which is a great improvement compared to the previous results with much less detailed, so called f ast , simulation (SIMDET). The importance of this improved simulation is reflected in the results. The presented analyzes have been chosen to be the most challenging for the detector to study its performance and guide the detector development. Additionally an important problem of unavoidable beam induced backgrounds at linear colliders is addressed and ways of reducing its impact on physics studies are shown for an example SUSY analysis. (author)

  14. International Nuclear Technology Forum: Future prospects of nuclear power plants and Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The document includes 19 papers presented at the 'International Nuclear Technology Forum: Future Prospects of Nuclear Power Plants in Turkey', held between 12-15 October 1993 in Ankara (Turkey). A separate abstract was prepared for each paper prepared for each paper

  15. Episodic Memory and Episodic Future Thinking Impairments in High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder: An Underlying Difficulty With Scene Construction or Self-Projection?

    OpenAIRE

    Lind, Sophie E.; Williams, David M.; Bowler, Dermot M.; Peel, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Objective: There appears to be a common network of brain regions that underlie the ability to recall\\ud past personal experiences (episodic memory) and the ability to imagine possible future personal\\ud experiences (episodic future thinking). At the cognitive level, these abilities are thought to rely on\\ud “scene construction” (the ability to bind together multimodal elements of a scene in mind—\\ud dependent on hippocampal functioning) and temporal “self-projection” (the ability to mentally\\...

  16. Assessing the role of internal climate variability in Antarctica's contribution to future sea-level rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, C. Y.; Forest, C. E.; Pollard, D.

    2017-12-01

    The Antarctic ice sheet (AIS) has the potential to be a major contributor to future sea-level rise (SLR). Current projections of SLR due to AIS mass loss remain highly uncertain. Better understanding of how ice sheets respond to future climate forcing and variability is essential for assessing the long-term risk of SLR. However, the predictability of future climate is limited by uncertainties from emission scenarios, model structural differences, and the internal variability that is inherently generated within the fully coupled climate system. Among those uncertainties, the impact of internal variability on the AIS changes has not been explicitly assessed. In this study, we quantify the effect of internal variability on the AIS evolutions by using climate fields from two large-ensemble experiments using the Community Earth System Model to force a three-dimensional ice sheet model. We find that internal variability of climate fields, particularly atmospheric fields, among ensemble members leads to significantly different AIS responses. Our results show that the internal variability can cause about 80 mm differences of AIS contribution to SLR by 2100 compared to the ensemble-mean contribution of 380-450 mm. Moreover, using ensemble-mean climate fields as the forcing in the ice sheet model does not produce realistic simulations of the ice loss. Instead, it significantly delays the onset of retreat of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet for up to 20 years and significantly underestimates the AIS contribution to SLR by 0.07-0.11 m in 2100 and up to 0.34 m in the 2250's. Therefore, because the uncertainty caused by internal variability is irreducible, we seek to highlight a critical need to assess the role of internal variability in projecting the AIS loss over the next few centuries. By quantifying the impact of internal variability on AIS contribution to SLR, policy makers can obtain more robust estimates of SLR and implement suitable adaptation strategies.

  17. International exchange of radiological information in the event of a nuclear accident - future perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De-Cort, M.; De-Vries, G.; Breitenbach, L.; Leeb, H.; Weiss, W.

    1996-01-01

    Immediately after the Chernobyl accident most European countries established or enhanced their national radioactivity monitoring and information systems. The large transboundary effect of the radioactive release also triggered the need for bilateral and international agreements on the exchange of radiological information in case of a nuclear accident. Based on the experiences gained from existing bi- and multilateral data exchange the Commission of the European Communities has made provision for and is developing technical systems to exchange information of common interest. Firstly the existing national systems and systems based on bilateral agreements are summarized. The objectives and technical realizations of the EC international information exchange systems ECURIE and EURDEP, are described. The experiences gained over the past few years and the concepts for the future, in which central and eastern European countries will be included, are discussed. The benefits that would result from improving the international exchange of radiological information in the event of a future nuclear accident are further being described

  18. The effectiveness of the Inspiring Futures parenting programme in improving behavioural and emotional outcomes in primary school children with behavioural or emotional difficulties: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick Axford

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a need to build the evidence base of early interventions promoting children’s health and development in the UK. Malachi Specialist Family Support Services (‘Malachi’ is a voluntary sector organisation based in the UK that delivers a therapeutic parenting group programme called Inspiring Futures to parents of children identified as having behavioural and emotional difficulties. The programme comprises two parts, delivered sequentially: (1 a group-based programme for all parents for 10–12 weeks, and (2 one-to-one sessions with selected parents from the group-based element for up to 12 weeks. Methods/design A randomised controlled trial will be conducted to evaluate Malachi’s Inspiring Futures parenting programme. Participants will be allocated to one of two possible arms, with follow-up measures at 16 weeks (post-parent group programme and at 32 weeks (post-one-to-one sessions with selected parents. The sample size is 248 participants with a randomisation allocation ratio of 1:1. The intervention arm will be offered the Inspiring Futures programme. The control group will receive services as usual. The aim is to determine the effectiveness of the Inspiring Futures programme on the primary outcome of behavioural and emotional difficulties of primary school children identified as having behavioural or emotional difficulties. Discussion This study will further enhance the evidence for early intervention parenting programmes for child behavioural and emotional problems in the UK. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN32083735. Retrospectively registered 28 October 2014.

  19. Protecting the environment for future generations. Principles and actors in international environmental law

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Proelss, Alexander (ed.) [Trier Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Environmental and Technology Law

    2017-08-01

    This book compiles the written versions of presentations held at the occasion of an international symposium entitled ''Protecting the Environment for Future Generations - Principles and Actors in International Environmental Law''. The symposium was organized by the Institute of Environmental and Technology Law of Trier University (IUTR) on the basis of a cooperation scheme with the Environmental Law Institute of the Johannes Kepler University Linz, Austria, and took place in Trier on 29-30 October 2015. It brought together a distinguished group of experts from Europe and abroad to address current issues of international and European environmental law. The main objective of the symposium was to take stock of the actors and principles of international and European environmental law, and to analyze how and to what extent these principles have been implemented on the supranational and domestic legal levels.

  20. 28th International Conference on CAD/CAM, Robotics and Factories of the Future

    CERN Document Server

    Syan, Chanan

    2016-01-01

    This volume is based on the proceedings of the 28th International Conference on CAD/CAM, Robotics and Factories of the Future. This book specially focuses on the positive changes made in the field of robotics, CAD/CAM and future outlook for emerging manufacturing units. Some of the important topics discussed in the conference are product development and sustainability, modeling and simulation, automation, robotics and handling systems, supply chain management and logistics, advanced manufacturing processes, human aspects in engineering activities, emerging scenarios in engineering education and training. The contents of this set of proceedings will prove useful to both researchers and practitioners.

  1. The control of nuclear proliferation: future challenges. Swedish Institute of International Affairs, Stockholm, 23 April 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ElBaradei, M.

    1998-01-01

    The document reproduces the text of the conference given by the Director General of the IAEA at the Swedish Institute of International Affairs in Stockholm on 23 April 1998. After a short presentation of the Agency's current verification activities, particularly in Iraq and Democratic People's Republic of Korea, the Director General focuses on the present and future role of the IAEA in the control of nuclear proliferation through its strengthened safeguards system, in the prevention of nuclear terrorism, and future challenges of controlling nuclear proliferation from both political and technical point of view

  2. Norwegian gas sale in an international perspective - future-directed organization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saga, B.P.

    1996-01-01

    This paper deals with future organization of the Norwegian gas sale. The author gives at first a brief review of the Norwegian gas sale, and then a discussion on which type of criteria being based on by evaluation of models for the Norwegian gas sale. A comparison on which type of criteria used in other gas supplying countries is discussed. The author discusses tendencies of development in the international market including Europe, and is questioning if the existing system of gas sale is prepared to meet future challenges. Several types of proposals are presented to solve these challenges. 5 figs

  3. International negotiations of natural resources on the moon and other celestial bodies : future cooperation or conflict?

    OpenAIRE

    Eymork, Tania Patricia

    2012-01-01

    This thesis aims to assess the degree to which one can expect conflict or cooperation over the natural resources on the Moon and other celestial bodies in the future. By describing and exploring how the emerging global space industry may benefit humankind, it covers existing international space treaties and how fairer administration may help to eradicate poverty by, amongst other things, providing a clean source of environmentally friendly energy. This sixtyyear young industry is redeployi...

  4. Past Expectations, Current Experiences, and Imagined Futures: Narrative Accounts of Chinese International Students in Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Zhihua

    2017-01-01

    The internationalization of higher education has led to the influx of Chinese international students in Canada. The literature on these students usually addresses the factors that drive them to Canada, their learning experiences, and the impact of the stereotypical constructions of “Chinese learners” on their language learning. But the literature does not connect the current learning experiences of these students to their past back in China and the futures in their imagination. This narrative...

  5. MASTERING EFFECTIVE BUSINESS COMMUNICATION WRITING SKILLS BY FUTURE INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS PROFESSIONALS

    OpenAIRE

    Vasylyshyna, N. M.

    2016-01-01

    The article under consideration is related to the problem of mastering writing skills by future international relations professionals. The problem is that for the last ten years its performance has declined in comparison with other foreign сommunication skills at all key stages. In our investigation, the history of teaching-of-writing approaches over the last 50 years was characterised by five phases, some elements of which have been and continue to be concurrent in the best practice. Modern ...

  6. Women's perceived internal control of future pregnancy outcomes and its related factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maleki, Azam; Mazloomzadeh, Saeideh

    2013-03-01

    With regards to the importance of women's beliefs in improving pregnancy outcomes, this study was performed to determine the perceived internal control on future pregnancy outcomes and its related factors in women who participated in pre-marital counseling. In a cross-sectional study, women's perceived internal control was investigated. The study population comprised the women in reproductive age of whom 400 were selected by random sampling. Data collection instrument was a questionnaire consisting of demographic, pre-conceptional care, and internal control questions. Two categories of favorite and not favorite levels of internal control were defined based on the total score. The validity of the questionnaire was determined via content validity method by use of experts' opinion and its reliability was evaluated through the calculation of Cronbach's alpha coefficient which was 0.76. Data were analyzed through frequency tables, correlation coefficient, and Chi-square test at the confidence level of 0.95. Two hundred sixty-five (65%) women had a good perceived internal control and it was significantly associated with the age, educational level, and hearing about pre-conceptional care. The internal control score also showed a positive and significant correlation with both age and the subject knowledge about folic acid (r = 0.19 and r = 0.15, respectively). The majority of women had a favorite perceived internal control. Since age and educational level were the affecting factors on the perceived internal control of women, promoting the level of internal control in young women and those with low education in pre-marital counseling classes seems necessary.

  7. Viewpoints of the interns on their future career in Qazvin University of Medical Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Asefzadeh

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Background The imbalance between the public needs and the number of the medical graduates has created problems in recruitment of young physicians who are trained to provide medical and health services in the country. Purpose To assess the attitudes of interns at Qazvin University of Medical Sciences toward'i their future profession in 200I-2002. Methods This descriptive study assesses the viewpoints of all I20 interns through a self-administered questionnaire. Results The findings indicated that 77.5% of the students were in the age range of 22 to 27 with the average of 26. ./ years. of all cases 67.5% wished to continue their training to become a specialist and 6.7% decided to work as a general practitioner. of all students, 95.8% expected their future income to be low, to an extent which will not provide a comfortable life for them. of all cases. 89.2% believed that the present system of medical education does not give them the necessary capabilities and skills to practice efficiently in the future. Conclusion. The students• viewpoints on fulfillment of their economic needs and provision of a comfortable life for them and their families were negative; however, regarding fulfillment of their mental and emotional needs and participation in a scientific field, they were positive. Key word: intern, Medical profession

  8. 17th International Workshop on Neutrino Factories and Future Neutrino Facilities Search

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    NuFact15 is the seventeenth in a series that started in 1999 as an important yearly workshop with emphasis on future neutrino projects. This will be the first edition in Latin America, showing the scientific growth of this field. The main goals of the workshop are to review the progress on studies of future facilities able to improve on measurements of the properties of neutrinos and charged lepton flavor violation as well as new phenomena searches beyond the capabilities of presently planned experiments. Since such progress in the neutrino sector could require innovation in neutrino beams, the role of a neutrino factory within future HEP initiatives will be addressed. The workshops are not only international but also interdisciplinary in that experimenters, theorists and accelerator physicists from the Asian, American and European regions share expertise with the common goal of designing the next generation of experiments.

  9. Update of the International Consensus on Palliative Radiotherapy Endpoints for Future Clinical Trials in Bone Metastases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chow, Edward, E-mail: Edward.Chow@sunnybrook.ca [Department of Radiation Oncology, Odette Cancer Centre, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Hoskin, Peter [Mount Vernon Centre for Cancer Treatment, Mount Vernon Hospital, Northwood, Middlesex (United Kingdom); Mitera, Gunita; Zeng Liang [Department of Radiation Oncology, Odette Cancer Centre, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Lutz, Stephen [Department of Radiation Oncology, Blanchard Valley Regional Cancer Center, Findlay, OH (United States); Roos, Daniel [Department of Radiation Oncology, Royal Adelaide Hospital, Adelaide, South Australia (Australia); Hahn, Carol [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Linden, Yvette van der [Radiotherapeutic Institute Friesland, Leeuwarden (Netherlands); Hartsell, William [Department of Radiation Oncology, Advocate Good Samaritan Cancer Center, Downers Grove, IL (United States); Kumar, Eshwar [Department of Oncology, Atlantic Health Sciences Cancer Centre, Saint John Regional Hospital, Saint John, NB (Canada)

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: To update the international consensus on palliative radiotherapy endpoints for future clinical trials in bone metastases by surveying international experts regarding previous uncertainties within the 2002 consensus, changes that may be necessary based on practice pattern changes and research findings since that time. Methods and Materials: A two-phase survey was used to determine revisions and new additions to the 2002 consensus. A total of 49 experts from the American Society for Radiation Oncology, the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology, the Faculty of Radiation Oncology of the Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists, and the Canadian Association of Radiation Oncology who are directly involved in the care of patients with bone metastases participated in this survey. Results: Consensus was established in areas involving response definitions, eligibility criteria for future trials, reirradiation, changes in systemic therapy, radiation techniques, parameters at follow-up, and timing of assessments. Conclusion: An outline for trials in bone metastases was updated based on survey and consensus. Investigators leading trials in bone metastases are encouraged to adopt the revised guideline to promote consistent reporting. Areas for future research were identified. It is intended for the consensus to be re-examined in the future on a regular basis.

  10. Update of the International Consensus on Palliative Radiotherapy Endpoints for Future Clinical Trials in Bone Metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chow, Edward; Hoskin, Peter; Mitera, Gunita; Zeng Liang; Lutz, Stephen; Roos, Daniel; Hahn, Carol; Linden, Yvette van der; Hartsell, William; Kumar, Eshwar

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To update the international consensus on palliative radiotherapy endpoints for future clinical trials in bone metastases by surveying international experts regarding previous uncertainties within the 2002 consensus, changes that may be necessary based on practice pattern changes and research findings since that time. Methods and Materials: A two-phase survey was used to determine revisions and new additions to the 2002 consensus. A total of 49 experts from the American Society for Radiation Oncology, the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology, the Faculty of Radiation Oncology of the Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists, and the Canadian Association of Radiation Oncology who are directly involved in the care of patients with bone metastases participated in this survey. Results: Consensus was established in areas involving response definitions, eligibility criteria for future trials, reirradiation, changes in systemic therapy, radiation techniques, parameters at follow-up, and timing of assessments. Conclusion: An outline for trials in bone metastases was updated based on survey and consensus. Investigators leading trials in bone metastases are encouraged to adopt the revised guideline to promote consistent reporting. Areas for future research were identified. It is intended for the consensus to be re-examined in the future on a regular basis.

  11. Current and Future Decadal Trends in the Oceanic Carbon Uptake Are Dominated by Internal Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongmei; Ilyina, Tatiana

    2018-01-01

    We investigate the internal decadal variability of the ocean carbon uptake using 100 ensemble simulations based on the Max Planck Institute Earth system model (MPI-ESM). We find that on decadal time scales, internal variability (ensemble spread) is as large as the forced temporal variability (ensemble mean), and the largest internal variability is found in major carbon sink regions, that is, the 50-65°S band of the Southern Ocean, the North Pacific, and the North Atlantic. The MPI-ESM ensemble produces both positive and negative 10 year trends in the ocean carbon uptake in agreement with observational estimates. Negative decadal trends are projected to occur in the future under RCP4.5 scenario. Due to the large internal variability, the Southern Ocean and the North Pacific require the most ensemble members (more than 53 and 46, respectively) to reproduce the forced decadal trends. This number increases up to 79 in future decades as CO2 emission trajectory changes.

  12. A Global Civilian Power? The Future Role of the European Union in International Politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bedrudin Brljavac

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Questions about the future of the European Union as an international actor continue to puzzle students of international relations and particularly students of EU foreign policy. What kind of predictions can we make about the future role of the EU in international politics? While the question is often framed in terms of military versus normative and/or global civilian power Europe, there are indications that ambitions in both directions may very well coincide. However, despite the EU’s development towards deepened defense integration since the 1990s, such developments are by far outweighed by developments pointing in the direction of the EU consolidating its role as a global civilian power. In this article, we analyze the union’s civilian policies and contrast the findings of our analysis with developments in the field of Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP. Based on our analysis of EU enlargement policy, external aid, global environmental policy and the union’s commitment to multilateralism, our conclusion is that the EU’s international role in the next decades will continue to be best described in terms of a global civilian power.

  13. The Future of Comparative and International Education in a Globalised World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, David N.

    2003-03-01

    This article examines the history and future prospects of comparative and international education with particular reference to the impact of globalisation and Information and Communications Technologies (ICTs). Connections and interactions between comparative educationists and the technologies of printing and electronic communications are examined in a historical context. The global nature of communications in comparative and international education is demonstrated both spatially and historically, using information from all regions of the world. The changing nature of technologies is noted to have broadened the audience for comparative insights. The development of textbooks, journals, conferences, international agencies, the Internet, web-based communications, and professional comparative education societies is related to the themes of communications and globalisation.

  14. The role of sleep difficulties in the vasomotor menopausal symptoms and depressed mood relationships: an international pooled analysis of eight studies in the InterLACE consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Hsin-Fang; Pandeya, Nirmala; Dobson, Annette J; Kuh, Diana; Brunner, Eric J; Crawford, Sybil L; Avis, Nancy E; Gold, Ellen B; Mitchell, Ellen S; Woods, Nancy F; Bromberger, Joyce T; Thurston, Rebecca C; Joffe, Hadine; Yoshizawa, Toyoko; Anderson, Debra; Mishra, Gita D

    2018-02-12

    Many women experience both vasomotor menopausal symptoms (VMS) and depressed mood at midlife, but little is known regarding the prospective bi-directional relationships between VMS and depressed mood and the role of sleep difficulties in both directions. A pooled analysis was conducted using data from 21 312 women (median: 50 years, interquartile range 49-51) in eight studies from the InterLACE consortium. The degree of VMS, sleep difficulties, and depressed mood was self-reported and categorised as never, rarely, sometimes, and often (if reporting frequency) or never, mild, moderate, and severe (if reporting severity). Multivariable logistic regression models were used to examine the bi-directional associations adjusted for within-study correlation. At baseline, the prevalence of VMS (40%, range 13-62%) and depressed mood (26%, 8-41%) varied substantially across studies, and a strong dose-dependent association between VMS and likelihood of depressed mood was found. Over 3 years of follow-up, women with often/severe VMS at baseline were more likely to have subsequent depressed mood compared with those without VMS (odds ratios (OR) 1.56, 1.27-1.92). Women with often/severe depressed mood at baseline were also more likely to have subsequent VMS than those without depressed mood (OR 1.89, 1.47-2.44). With further adjustment for the degree of sleep difficulties at baseline, the OR of having a subsequent depressed mood associated with often/severe VMS was attenuated and no longer significant (OR 1.13, 0.90-1.40). Conversely, often/severe depressed mood remained significantly associated with subsequent VMS (OR 1.80, 1.38-2.34). Difficulty in sleeping largely explained the relationship between VMS and subsequent depressed mood, but it had little impact on the relationship between depressed mood and subsequent VMS.

  15. Proceedings of the international symposium on future of accelerator-driven system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugawara, Takanori

    2012-11-01

    The international Symposium on “Future of Accelerator-Driven System” was held on 29th February, 2012 at Gakushi-Kaikan, Tokyo, Japan hosted by Nuclear Science and Engineering Directorate, JAEA (Japan Atomic Energy Agency) and J-PARC (Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex) Center. The objectives of the symposium were to make participants acquainted with the current status and future plans for research and development of ADS in the world and to discuss an international collaboration for ADS and P and T (Partitioning and Transmutation) technology. About 100 scientists participated in the symposium from Belgium, China, France, India, Italy, Japan, Korea and Mongol. In the morning session, current R and D activities of ADS in Japan were reported. In the afternoon session, current R and D activities were reported from China, Korea, India, Belgium and EU. A panel discussion took place with regards to the international collaboration for ADS at the final session. Two keynote speakers presented their outlooks on the topics and seven panelists and audience discussed those topics. (author)

  16. Workshops of the Fifth International Brain-Computer Interface Meeting: Defining the Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huggins, Jane E; Guger, Christoph; Allison, Brendan; Anderson, Charles W; Batista, Aaron; Brouwer, Anne-Marie A-M; Brunner, Clemens; Chavarriaga, Ricardo; Fried-Oken, Melanie; Gunduz, Aysegul; Gupta, Disha; Kübler, Andrea; Leeb, Robert; Lotte, Fabien; Miller, Lee E; Müller-Putz, Gernot; Rutkowski, Tomasz; Tangermann, Michael; Thompson, David Edward

    2014-01-01

    The Fifth International Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) Meeting met June 3-7 th , 2013 at the Asilomar Conference Grounds, Pacific Grove, California. The conference included 19 workshops covering topics in brain-computer interface and brain-machine interface research. Topics included translation of BCIs into clinical use, standardization and certification, types of brain activity to use for BCI, recording methods, the effects of plasticity, special interest topics in BCIs applications, and future BCI directions. BCI research is well established and transitioning to practical use to benefit people with physical impairments. At the same time, new applications are being explored, both for people with physical impairments and beyond. Here we provide summaries of each workshop, illustrating the breadth and depth of BCI research and high-lighting important issues for future research and development.

  17. Non-governmental organizations in international health: past successes, future challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gellert, G A

    1996-01-01

    Non-governmental organizations, or NGOs, are increasingly instrumental to the implementation of international health programs. Following an overview of current conditions in global health and the problems that could be targeted by NGOs, this article describes the activities and philosophies of several representative approaches in this sector. The attributes of NGOs that increase their potential effectiveness are discussed, including ability to reach areas of severe need, promotion of local involvement, low cost of operations, adaptiveness and innovation, independence, and sustainability. A summary is provided of major future challenges in international health that may be addressed by NGOs, with particular emphasis on tobacco-related disease, communicable diseases and the AIDS epidemic, maternal mortality and women's health, injury prevention and control, and the need to secure durable financial support.

  18. Existing and future international standards for the safety of radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linsley, G.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper the essential features of the current international safety standards are summarised and the issues being raised for inclusion in future standards are discussed. The safety standards of the IAEA are used as the basis for the review and discussion. The IAEA has established a process for establishing international standards of safety for radioactive waste management through its Radioactive Waste Safety Standards (RADWASS) programme. The RADWASS documents are approved by a comprehensive process involving regulatory and other experts from all concerned IAEA Member States. A system of committees for approving the IAEAs safety standards has been established. For radioactive waste safety the committee for review and approval is the Waste Safety Standards Advisory Committee (WASSAC). In 1995 the IAEA published 'The Principles of Radioactive Waste Management' as the top level document in the RADWASS programme. The report sets out the basis principles which most experts believe are fundamental to the safe management of radioactive wastes

  19. The International Gravity Field Service (IGFS): Present Day Activities And Future Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barzaghi, R.; Vergos, G. S.

    2016-12-01

    IGFS is a unified "umbrella" IAG service that coordinates the servicing of the geodetic and geophysical community with gravity field related data, software and information. The combined data of the IGFS entities will include global geopotential models, terrestrial, airborne, satellite and marine gravity observations, Earth tide data, GPS/levelling data, digital models of terrain and bathymetry, as well as ocean gravity field and geoid from satellite altimetry. The IGFS structure is based on the Gravity Services, the "operating arms" of IGFS. These Services related to IGFS are: BGI (Bureau Gravimetrique International), Toulouse, France ISG (International Service for the Geoid), Politecnico di Milano, Milano, Italy IGETS (International Geodynamics and Earth Tides Service), EOST, Strasbourg, France ICGEM (International Center for Global Earth Models), GFZ, Potsdam, Germany IDEMS (International Digital Elevation Model Service), ESRI, Redlands, CA, USA The Central Bureau, hosted at the Aristotle Thessaloniki University, is in charge for all the interactions among the services and the other IAG bodies, particularly GGOS. In this respect, connections with the GGOS Bureaus of Products and Standards and of Networks and Observations have been recently strengthened in order to align the Gravity services to the GGOS standards. IGFS is also strongly involved in the most relevant projects related to the gravity field such as the establishment of the new Global Absolute Gravity Reference System and of the International Height Reference System. These projects, along with the organization of Geoid Schools devoted to methods for gravity and geoid estimate, will play a central role in the IGFS future actions in the framework of GGOS.

  20. The international thermonuclear experimental reactor and the future of nuclear fusion energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Chuanhong

    2010-01-01

    Energy shortage and environmental problems are now the two largest challenges for human beings. Magnetic confinement nuclear fusion, which has achieved great progress since the 1990's, is anticipated to be a way to realize an ideal source of energy in the future because of its abundance, environmental compatibility, and zero carbon release. Exemplified by the construction of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), the development of nuclear fusion energy is now in its engineering phase, and should be realized by the middle of this century if all objectives of the ITER project are met. (author)

  1. International conference. Mental health consequences of the Chernobyl disaster: current state and future prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyagu, A.I.

    1995-01-01

    Proceedings of the International Conference on the mental health consequences of the Chernobyl disaster: current state and future prospects was introduced.The questions connected with: 1. Mental health disorders biological basis after ionizing radiation influence; 2. Psychiatric aspects of the Chernobyl disaster; 3. Social stress following contradictory information: ways for its overcoming; 4. Rehabilitation and prophylactic measures for mental and nervous disorders. Psycho social rehabilitation of survivors; 5. Psychosomatic effects and somato-neurological consequences of the Chernobyl disaster; 6. Psychosomatic health of children and adolescents survivors of the Chernobyl disaster; 7. Brain damage as result of prenatal irradiation

  2. Monitoring the International Monetary System: Its Development in the West, and Future in the East

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd J. Barry

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The “gold standard” is frequently mentioned in text books, but few without an economics background can fully understand it. This paper thus begins in 1896, when U.S. Presidential candidate William Jennings Bryan declared, “You shall not crucify mankind on a cross of gold.” Since going back to the middle ages, the world has had numerous monetary systems, which are here explained in comprehensible terms. A modern reoccurring idea is to return to some form of the gold standard, while some argue for switching to the Chinese yuan or another international reserve currency, which the International Monetary Fund (IMF will adopt in their Special Drawing Rights starting in October, 2016. This paper is normative in that it comments on the current international structure, but uses economic principles to support its argument in favor of an internationally strong dollar. It thus traces the history of a topically contentious subject, with a basic regression indicating important predictive factors for the future. It offers that a new gold standard would not be in the world’s interest, interfering with monetary policy, while emerging market countries would be best to import more and financially deepen, which the regression shows was why the Chinese yuan was adopted by the IMF, then looking ahead to other parts of Asia and towards bitcoins.

  3. Current status and future direction of INPRO (International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omoto, Akira; Moriwaki, Masanao; Sugimoto, Jun; Nakai, Ryodai

    2007-01-01

    INPRO is an international forum to consider jointly the international and national actions required to achieve desired innovations in nuclear reactors and fuel cycles so as to ensure that nuclear energy is available to contribute to a sustainable development of the human, and IAEA becomes the secretariat for INPRO. The number of the members counts 28 by recent participation of Japan and U.S.A. now, and it is a unique forum to bring together both technology users and technology holders, that includes 5 countries which do not still have nuclear power generation. Until now it was phase I, and focused its activities to make clear the desired characteristics of nuclear energy system toward the future, and to develop methodology to evaluate various nuclear energy systems, but it shifted to phase II from July, 2006, and it planned three areas of activities such as improvement of evaluation methodology, institutional/infrastructure oriented activities and a collaborative project of technology development. Current status and future direction of INPRO was presented to encourage Japan in significant contributions of these three areas. (T. Tanaka)

  4. 16th International Workshop on Neutrino Factories and Future Neutrino Beam Facilities

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    These proceedings present the written contributions from participants of the 16th International Workshop on Neutrino Factories and Future Neutrino Beam Facilities (NUFACT 2014) that was held at the University of Glasgow (Glasgow, Scotland, United Kingdom) from 25-30 August 2014. This edition of the NUFACT annual meetings, which started in 1999, consisted of 24 plenary and 92 parallel talks and various poster sessions, with the participation of 124 delegates. Furthermore, the International Neutrino Summer School 2014 was held from 10-22 August 2014 at St Andrews, Scotland, in the two weeks before NUFACT 2014. It was intended for young scientists with an interest in neutrino physics in such a way that they would be able to participate and contribute to the NUFACT workshop as well. The objectives of the NUFACT workshops are to review progress on different studies for future accelerator-based neutrino oscillation facilities, with the goal to discover the mass hierarchy of neutrinos, CP violation in the leptonic s...

  5. International coal and the future of nuclear power in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, M.J.

    1987-01-01

    The future international price of coal is a central issue in the economic comparison of coal-fired and nuclear power stations. However, this is very difficult to estimate as prices are uncertain and subject to wide margins of error. Recent trends are discussed. The increase in the seaborne steam coal trade is one trend. Although only about 5% of steam coal is traded, this is mainly in the Far East and in Western Europe. It is steam coal prices which are relevant in considering nuclear economies. The structure of the international steam coal market is explained. An assessment of future prices of steam coal considers both demand and supply. The delivered cost of steam coal to N.W. Europe in 1986 is shown - the main suppliers being Australia, Colombia, South Africa and the USA. China and Poland are also exporters of steam coal. Currently, there is an over-supply which is keeping the price low. However, as demand increases prices are likely to rise in the 1990s but with upper limits depending on the total volume of trade. Thirteen graphs or maps illustrate the figures on which the discussion and conclusions are based. (UK)

  6. International research and development projects in nuclear energy: Experience and future prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strohl, P.

    1983-01-01

    From the very beginning nuclear energy appeared as a fruitful field for international co-operation and particularly for international projects and joint ventures. By pooling scientific, technical and financial resources, the participating countries sought to promote the development of technology and the transition of nuclear energy to the industrial stage. Governments and therefore intergovernmental organizations were the driving force behind the establishment of joint projects in various R and D sectors, often in association with industry and private research institutes. The situation changed considerably from the end of the 1960s onwards. Despite some remarkable technical achievements, international co-operation did not develop to the extent predicted at the outset. Industry took over in the exploitation of proven technologies, and industrial co-operation agreements have become an important feature in some key areas of nuclear energy. This trend raises questions as to the future of joint R and D projects organized through intergovernmental co-operation. Although such projects are still very useful, they tend to be concentrated in those few sectors which continue to be of direct interest to the Governments; for instance, fundamental research, radioactive waste management and nuclear safety. The position of nuclear energy has changed, and the benefits to be drawn from this form of international co-operation must be critically re-assessed accordingly. While advantage to be gained from international projects for countries which are the most advanced in the development of nuclear energy is not the same as it was at the beginning, the transfer of experience and knowledge to less advanced countries is still the main concern of projects dealing with safety and regulatory matters. The experience thus gained provides a very useful insight into the legal and institutional framework of joint projects

  7. [International trends of applied ecology and its future development in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qixing; Sun, Shunjiang

    2002-07-01

    Internationally applied ecology was born around 25-40 years ago in order to adapt and serve the needs of mitigating increasingly environmental pollution and ecological destroy in developed western countries at that time. All the times applied ecological principles thus underpin most efforts at solving increasingly deterioration of natural resources and serious eco-environmental problems as its keystone and researching kernel with the development of the subject. At the advent of the 21st century, human beings enter into the age of applied ecology. There are five international features of applied ecology, including more attention to many-sided applications, special emphasis on the intersection with engineering, strongly keeping on mutual links with basic ecology, omnidirectional adoption of new methods and new technology, and side-by-side trends of microcosmic mechanisms and macroscopical regulation. Although we must connect with international applied ecology and absorb distillates from the subject in developed western countries, development of applied ecology in China in the future, in particular, at the beginnings of the 21st century should not deviate from aiming at the solution of increasingly environmental pollution and ecological destroy that is one of the most important basic situations of the country.

  8. Report on the international symposium on radiological issues for Fukushima's revitalized future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Nobuhiro

    2015-12-01

    On May 30 - 31, 2015, the fourth and last convention entitled 'International Symposium on Radiological Issues for Fukushima's Revitalized Future' was held in Iizaka Onsen, Fukushima city, under auspices of Institute of Environmental Radioactivity at Fukushima University and other organizations. The following four subjects were the main topics of this symposium: Decontamination/radioactive waste; Environmental radiation/external exposure; Marine/agricultural products, food, internal exposure; and Issues at the Fukushima Daiichi NPP site. The program included 2 invited lectures by overseas guest speakers, 12 oral presentations, 80 poster presentations, and 2 panel discussion sessions, in which over 600 participants consisting of researchers, experts, community dwellers, and young students had lively discussion in a warm and friendly atmosphere. It is noteworthy that several poster presentations were given by high school and junior college students in Fukushima in this international symposium. This report is a collection of the presentation slides and the transcriptions of Q and A sessions for oral lectures as well as the transcriptions of the panel discussion sessions. (J.P.N.)

  9. International cooperation in advanced nuclear systems. An option for the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dee, J.B.; Kupitz, J.; O'Hara, F.

    1986-10-01

    Long-term energy problems are shared by all countries through world trade, and only a global solution can alleviate the anticipated future energy supply shortages for all. The only non-polluting, technologically-proven future energy supply options are offered by advanced nuclear power systems that utilize uranium and thorium as fertile fuel materials. For this reason, every major country with a nuclear power industry has a development programme for fast breeder and/or advanced converter nuclear power reactors. In these programmes international ventures have become the rule rather that the exception. The development of special district heating reactor systems is progressing as a CMEA collaboration. In the field of fast breeder reactors such ventures include the SNR-300, the FBTF, the Superphenix, and also the commercialization programmes BN-800/1600 (COMECON) and the Superphenix-II (ARGO group). The basic objective of the IAEA is to enlarge the contribution of atomic energy to peace, health and prosperity around the world. For those Member States with development programmes the Agency promotes status and planning, to share experience on prototype plant operation, and to cooperate in identifying critical development issues. For Member States without major programmes, the Agency compiles authoritative and objective world-wide plant data, publishes reports on world-wide development status, coordinates small exploratory research programmes and provides technical assistance through expert services and equipment procurement. By providing the only existing global forum for promoting East-West and North-South inter-communication these IAEA activities encourage cooperation between countries engaged in development and inform countries interested to know more about the role of advanced reactors for meeting their future energy needs, which will become today's energy needs in the not-too-distant future

  10. Modelling Question Difficulty in an A Level Physics Examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crisp, Victoria; Grayson, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    "Item difficulty modelling" is a technique used for a number of purposes such as to support future item development, to explore validity in relation to the constructs that influence difficulty and to predict the difficulty of items. This research attempted to explore the factors influencing question difficulty in a general qualification…

  11. Establishing Internationally-Competent Leaders for the Future: Promoting an Agenda for Social Justice, Equity, and Intercultural Sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbert-Johnson, Carolyn

    2009-01-01

    To be successful in a global economy, U.S. candidates must possess international knowledge, intercultural communication skills, and global perspectives to effectively teach diverse student populations. Unfortunately, teacher education programs have not prepared candidates to be internationally competent leaders for the future. Schools of education…

  12. 27th International Conference on CADCAM, Robotics and Factories of the Future 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamanoglu, Mehmet; Yang, Xin-She; Zivanovic, Aleksandar; Smith, Martin; Loureiro, Rui

    2014-07-01

    It is a great pleasure to welcome you to the 27th International Conference on CADCAM, Robotics and Factories of the Future, sponsored by the International Society for Productivity Enhancement, Middlesex University, Festo Limited GB, National Instruments UK & Ireland, the Sector Skills Council for Science, Engineering and Manufacturing Technologies and our proceedings publisher Institute of Physics Publications. This is the second time Middlesex University has played host to this longstanding international conference, last time being the 12th edition in 1996. The subject content of the conference remains current, focusing on cutting edge developments in research. The conference themes this year are divided into seven themes, Product Development and Sustainability, Modelling and Simulation, Automation, Robotics and Handling Systems, Advanced Quality Systems Tools and Quality Management, Human Aspects in Engineering Activities, Emerging Scenarios in Engineering Education and Training, and Emerging Technologies in Factories of the Future. The conference is organised into seven sessions running in parallel over three days, providing a platform to speakers from 16 different countries. The programme also features four eminent keynote speakers and a hands-on workshop organised by National Instruments. Organising an event such as this would not be possible without the help of many colleagues. I am grateful to the members of the Organising Committee, the International Scientific Committee, our sponsors and all those colleagues who helped in the review of many abstracts and consequently full papers. This required meticulous attention to detail and strict adherence to very tight deadlines. However large or small a conference is, the effort required to make the local arrangements work for all is not insignificant. The conference organisers acknowledge the particular efforts of Miss Mita Vaghi in providing her expertise in event management and her diligent support and Anete

  13. 27th International Conference on CADCAM, Robotics and Factories of the Future 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karamanoglu, Mehmet; Yang, Xin-She; Zivanovic, Aleksandar; Smith, Martin; Loureiro, Rui

    2014-01-01

    It is a great pleasure to welcome you to the 27th International Conference on CADCAM, Robotics and Factories of the Future, sponsored by the International Society for Productivity Enhancement, Middlesex University, Festo Limited GB, National Instruments UK and Ireland, the Sector Skills Council for Science, Engineering and Manufacturing Technologies and our proceedings publisher Institute of Physics Publications. This is the second time Middlesex University has played host to this longstanding international conference, last time being the 12th edition in 1996. The subject content of the conference remains current, focusing on cutting edge developments in research. The conference themes this year are divided into seven themes, Product Development and Sustainability, Modelling and Simulation, Automation, Robotics and Handling Systems, Advanced Quality Systems Tools and Quality Management, Human Aspects in Engineering Activities, Emerging Scenarios in Engineering Education and Training, and Emerging Technologies in Factories of the Future. The conference is organised into seven sessions running in parallel over three days, providing a platform to speakers from 16 different countries. The programme also features four eminent keynote speakers and a hands-on workshop organised by National Instruments. Organising an event such as this would not be possible without the help of many colleagues. I am grateful to the members of the Organising Committee, the International Scientific Committee, our sponsors and all those colleagues who helped in the review of many abstracts and consequently full papers. This required meticulous attention to detail and strict adherence to very tight deadlines. However large or small a conference is, the effort required to make the local arrangements work for all is not insignificant. The conference organisers acknowledge the particular efforts of Miss Mita Vaghi in providing her expertise in event management and her diligent support and Anete

  14. International Cooperation in the Field of International Space Station Payload Safety: Overcoming Differences and Working for Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Yasuhiro; Ozawa, Masayuki; Takeyasu, Yoshioka; Griffith, Gerald; Goto, Katsuhito; Mitsui, Masami

    2010-09-01

    The importance of international cooperation among the International Space Station(ISS) Program participants is ever increasing as the ISS nears assembly complete. In the field of payload safety assurance, NASA and JAXA have enhanced their cooperation level. The authors describe the evolution of cooperation between the two agencies and the challenges encountered and overcame. NASA and JAXA have been working toward development of a NASA Payload Safety Review Panel(PSRP) franchise panel at JAXA for several years. When the JAXA Safety Review Panel(SRP) becomes a fully franchised panel of the NASA PSRP, the JAXA SRP will have the authority review and approve all JAXA ISS payloads operated on USOS and JEM, although NASA and JAXA joint reviews may be conducted as necessary. A NASA PSRP franchised panel at JAXA will streamline the conventional review process. Japanese payload organizations will not have to go through both JAXA and NASA payload safety reviews, while NASA will be relieved of a certain amount of review activities. The persistent efforts have recently born fruit. For the past two years, NASA and JAXA have increased emphasis on efforts to develop a NASA PSRP Franchised Panel at JAXA with concrete results. In 2009, NASA and JAXA signed Charter and Joint Development Plan. At the end of 2009, NASA PSRP transferred some review responsibility to the JAXA SRP under the franchising charter. Although JAXA had long history of reviewing payloads by their own panel prior to NASA PSRP reviews, it took several years for JAXA to receive NASA PSRP approval for delegation of franchised review authority to JAXA. This paper discusses challenges JAXA and NAXA faced. Considerations were required in developing a franchise at JAXA for history and experiences of the JAXA SRP as well as language and cultural differences. The JAXA panel, not only had its own well-established processes and supporting organizational structures which had some differences from its NASA PSRP counterparts

  15. Designing a Sustainable Future through Creation of North America’s only International Wildlife Refuge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A. Zarull

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In 2001, the Detroit River International Wildlife Refuge was established based on the principles of conservation and sustainability. The refuge has grown from 49.1 ha in 2001 to over 2,300 ha in 2010. Agreement on a compelling vision for a sustainable future was necessary to rally stakeholders and move them forward together. Project examples include: lake sturgeon and common tern restoration; soft shoreline engineering; ecotourism; sustainable redevelopment of a brownfield; and indicator reporting. Key success factors include: a consensus long-term vision; a multi-stakeholder process that achieves cooperative learning; strong coupling of monitoring/research programs with management; implementing actions consistent with adaptive management; measuring and celebrating successes; quantifying benefits; building capacity; and developing the next generation of sustainability practitioners and entrepreneurs.

  16. Self-organization in Complex Systems The Past, Present, and Future of Synergetics : International Symposium

    CERN Document Server

    Pelster, Axel

    2016-01-01

    This proceedings volume contains talks and poster presentations from the International Symposium "Self-Organization in Complex Systems: The Past, Present, and Future of Synergetics", which took place at Hanse-Wissenschaftskolleg, an Institute of Advanced Studies, in Delmenhorst, Germany, during the period November 13 - 16, 2012. The Symposium was organized in honour of Hermann Haken, who celebrated his 85th birthday in 2012. With his fundamental theory of Synergetics he had laid the mathematical-physical basis for describing and analyzing self-organization processes in a diversity of fields of research. The quest for common and universal principles of self-organization in complex systems was clearly covered by the wide range of interdisciplinary topics reported during the Symposium. These extended from complexity in classical systems and quantum systems over self-organisation in neuroscience even to the physics of finance. Moreover, by combining a historical view with a present status report the Symposium con...

  17. A Priority-Based View of Future Challenges in International Nuclear Safeguards.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matteucci, Kayla [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-06-01

    The international nuclear safeguards community is faced with a host of challenges in the coming years, many of which have been outlined but have not been described in terms of their urgency. Literature regarding safeguards challenges is either broad and devoid of any reference to prioritization or tailored to a specific problem and removed from the overall goals of the safeguards community. For example, developing new methods of environmental sampling, improving containment and surveillance (C/S) technologies to increase efficiency and decrease inspection time, advancing nuclear material accountancy (NMA) techniques, and planning safeguards approaches for new types of nuclear facilities are all important. They have not, however, been distinctly prioritized at a high level within the safeguards community. Based on a review of existing literature and interviews with experts on these upcoming challenges, this paper offers a high-level summary of present and future priorities in safeguards, with attention both to what is feasible and to what is most imperative. In doing so, the paper addresses the potential repercussions for failing to prioritize, with a focus on the risk of diversion of nuclear material. Within the context of shifts in the American political landscape, and keeping in mind that nonproliferation issues may take a backseat to others in the near future, a prioritized view of safeguards objectives will be vital. In the interest of expanding upon this work, the paper offers several potential conceptual models for prioritization which can be explored in greater depth upon further research.

  18. Contributions of internal climate variability to mitigation of projected future regional sea level rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, A.; Bates, S. C.

    2017-12-01

    Observations indicate that the global mean surface temperature is rising, so does the global mean sea level. Sea level rise (SLR) can impose significant impacts on island and coastal communities, especially when SLR is compounded with storm surges. Here, via analyzing results from two sets of ensemble simulations from the Community Earth System Model version 1, we investigate how the potential SLR benefits through mitigating the future emission scenarios from business as usual to a mild-mitigation over the 21st Century would be affected by internal climate variability. Results show that there is almost no SLR benefit in the near term due to the large SLR variability due to the internal ocean dynamics. However, toward the end of the 21st century, the SLR benefit can be as much as a 26±1% reduction of the global mean SLR due to seawater thermal expansion. Regionally, the benefits from this mitigation for both near and long terms are heterogeneous. They vary from just a 11±5% SLR reduction in Melbourne, Australia to a 35±6% reduction in London. The processes contributing to these regional differences are the coupling of the wind-driven ocean circulation with the decadal scale sea surface temperature mode in the Pacific and Southern Oceans, and the changes of the thermohaline circulation and the mid-latitude air-sea coupling in the Atlantic.

  19. The IAEA international project on innovative nuclear reactors and fuel cycles (INPRO): current and future activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kupitz, J.; Depisch, F.; Kuznetsov, V.

    2004-01-01

    Upon resolutions of the IAEA General Conference in 2000, the IAEA initiated International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO). The objective of INPRO, which comprises two phases, is to support sustainable deployment and use of nuclear technology to meet the global energy needs in the next 50 years and beyond. During Phase I, work is subdivided into two sub phases. Phase 1A focused on determining user requirements in the areas of economics, environment, safety, proliferation resistance, and recommendations in the area of so-called crosscutting issues, which are legal, institutional, and infrastructure issues accompanying the deployment of nuclear power, and is targeted at developing a methodology and guidelines for the assessment of various nuclear reactor and fuel cycle concepts and approaches. Phase 1A was finalised in June 2003 with its results now available as IAEA TECDOC-1362. Phase 1B has started in July 2003. During this phase interested Member States are performing case studies to validate the INPRO methodology and, later on, to assess selected innovative nuclear energy systems using the updated INPRO methodology. In accordance with the INPRO Terms of Reference, after successful completion of Phase I, Phase II may be initiated to examine the feasibility of commencing international projects on innovative nuclear energy systems. The paper contains a description of the current and future activities of INPRO and summarizes the outcome of the project.(author)

  20. Residents in difficulty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mette Krogh; O'Neill, Lotte; Hansen, Dorthe Høgh

    2016-01-01

    Background The majority of studies on prevalence and characteristics of residents in difficulty have been conducted in English-speaking countries and the existing literature may not reflect the prevalence and characteristics of residents in difficulty in other parts of the world such as the Scand...... in a healthcare system. From our perspective, further sociological and pedagogical investigations in educational cultures across settings and specialties could inform our understanding of and knowledge about pitfalls in residents’ and doctors’ socialization into the healthcare system....

  1. Futures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Michael Haldrup

    2017-01-01

    Currently both design thinking and critical social science experience an increased interest in speculating in alternative future scenarios. This interest is not least related to the challenges issues of global sustainability present for politics, ethics and design. This paper explores the potenti......Currently both design thinking and critical social science experience an increased interest in speculating in alternative future scenarios. This interest is not least related to the challenges issues of global sustainability present for politics, ethics and design. This paper explores...... the potentials of speculative thinking in relation to design and social and cultural studies, arguing that both offer valuable insights for creating a speculative space for new emergent criticalities challenging current assumptions of the relations between power and design. It does so by tracing out discussions...... of ‘futurity’ and ‘futuring’ in design as well as social and cultural studies. Firstly, by discussing futurist and speculative approaches in design thinking; secondly by engaging with ideas of scenario thinking and utopianism in current social and cultural studies; and thirdly by showing how the articulation...

  2. Nuclear systems of the future. Stakes, R and D strategy, and international cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    As demonstrated by prospective studies, nuclear energy will represent a decisive contribution in the future energy mix. The long-term strategy of development of nuclear energy requires to foresee a new generation of nuclear systems, named generation 4. The goal of these new systems is to optimize the use of nuclear fuels, to minimize the generation of wastes and to enlarge the field of applications of nuclear energy to other applications like: hydrogen and synthetic fuels generation, heat generation for the industry etc. This document presents the French R and D strategy on nuclear systems of 4. generation that has been approved by the public authorities. This strategy follows three axes: a priority research on fast neutron systems with fuel recycle (sodium fast reactors (SFR) and gas fast reactors (GFR)), a research on key-technologies for the supply of very high temperature heat (very high temperature reactor (VHTR), fast and thermal neutron reactors, and water decomposition processes), and a continuation of researches on PWR reactors improvement. An integral recycling of all actinides in fast neutron reactors requires the development of new fuel reprocessing and fuel re-fabrication processes. A reference scenario for the progressive renewal of French nuclear facilities foresees the simultaneous development of fast neutron systems and the start-up of a new spent fuel reprocessing plant. France in involved in the development of the SFR, GFR and VHTR systems thanks to its participation to the Generation 4 international forum and to bilateral cooperation with other big nuclear partners like Russia and China. One of the main stakes of the French nuclear industry is to be able to invest in the R and D of future nuclear systems in order to valorize the experience gained so far in sodium FBR systems and in fuel cycle processes. (J.S.)

  3. ED51: Using International Networks to Develop the Future Global Geoscience Workforce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco, E. E.; Pangman, P.; Jacobs, R. L.

    2011-12-01

    Developed nations face the immediate need to replace the current wave of retiring geoscientists at the same time developing nations need to build an infrastructure to train future geoscientists. But what does a successful geoscientist look like? Recruiters seem to favor candidates from respected universities that pair applied book knowledge with excellent communication skills and the ability to take a multidisciplinary approach to challenges. Students should be global thinking, business minded, and socially aware. The Society of Exploration Geophysicists as a successful global society addresses the needs of a growing diverse membership through an international approach. Student membership has doubled over the past five years to almost 10,000. The Society is building momentum through targeted, yet diverse programs. Students are eager to participate in the unique SEG/Chevron Student Leadership Symposium, SEG/ExxonMobil Student Education Program, Challenge Bowls, Student Expositions, Honorary Lecturer presentations and related events. These are transformative educational opportunities that provide the impetus for expanded and very effective international networking and transfer of knowledge. As SEG's students build on these relationships and newly acquired leadership skills, they affect the scope and breadth of SEG Student Chapter activities. There has been a resulting increase in multi-country field camps. The Geoscientists Without Borders° humanitarian program provides cross-cultural field opportunities that demonstrate how applied geoscience can make a difference in the global society, while providing students with valuable workforce skills that employers seek. These collaborative efforts are facilitated by social media and on-line communities that cause boundaries to dissolve and time zones to become irrelevant.

  4. Developing the International Business Curriculum: Results and Implications of a Delphi Study on the Futures of Teaching and Learning in International Business

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zettinig, Peter; Vincze, Zsuzsanna

    2008-01-01

    This article presents the results of a Delphi study concerning the futures of teaching and learning in International Business (IB), a topic that has been receiving a lot of discussion during recent years. Based on our findings we identify two dimensions which may be at the core and instrumental for developing the value proposition of IB. The first…

  5. Cochrane Rehabilitation Methodology Committee: an international survey of priorities for future work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levack, William M; Meyer, Thorsten; Negrini, Stefano; Malmivaara, Antti

    2017-10-01

    Cochrane Rehabilitation aims to improve the application of evidence-based practice in rehabilitation. It also aims to support Cochrane in the production of reliable, clinically meaningful syntheses of evidence related to the practice of rehabilitation, while accommodating the many methodological challenges facing the field. To this end, Cochrane Rehabilitation established a Methodology Committee to examine, explore and find solutions for the methodological challenges related to evidence synthesis and knowledge translation in rehabilitation. We conducted an international online survey via Cochrane Rehabilitation networks to canvass opinions regarding the future work priorities for this committee and to seek information on people's current capabilities to assist with this work. The survey findings indicated strongest interest in work on how reviewers have interpreted and applied Cochrane methods in reviews on rehabilitation topics in the past, and on gathering a collection of existing publications on review methods for undertaking systematic reviews relevant to rehabilitation. Many people are already interested in contributing to the work of the Methodology Committee and there is a large amount of expertise for this work in the extended Cochrane Rehabilitation network already.

  6. After the Hague, Bonn and Marrakech: uncertainties on the future international market of emission permits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitous, A.; Criqui, P.; Blanchard, O.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to present an economic assessment, step by step, of the successive developments of the negotiation on weather changes since the Kyoto protocol in 1997 until the agreement achieved in Marrakech during the seventh Conference of the Parties (COP 7) in November 2001. The analysis covers the international market of emission rights, a key mechanism of the Protocol, the purpose of which is to facilitate the Parties' compliance with their undertakings, by introducing flexibility to improve the economic efficiency of emission reduction. However, it now appears that despite the Marrakech agreement in November 2001, the system is weakened by the withdrawal of the USA decided by President G.W. Bush in March 2001, following COP 6 in The Hague, and by a potential excess of permits due to the economic recession of transition countries since the early nineties (hot air). As things stands, the establishment of the market between the countries taking part in the process will undoubtedly require some management of this hot air between transition countries (Eastern Europe and Ex USSR) and the other Parties of appendix B still involved in the process. The uncertainties weighing on the future market of emission permits strengthen the strategic significance of the implementation of effective reduction policies within those regions and particularly within Europe. (authors)

  7. DTU international energy report 2013. Energy storage options for future sustainable energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hvidtfeldt Larsen, H.; Soenderberg Petersen, L. (eds.)

    2013-11-01

    One of the great challenges in the transition to a non-fossil energy system with a high share of fluctuating renewable energy sources such as solar and wind is to align consumption and production in an economically satisfactory manner. Energy storage could provide the necessary balancing power to make this possible. This energy report addresses energy storage from a broad perspective: It analyses smaller stores that can be used locally in for example heat storage in the individual home or vehicle, such as electric cars or hydrogen cars. The report also addresses decentralized storage as flywheels and batteries linked to decentralized energy systems. In addition it addresses large central storages as pumped hydro storage and compressed air energy storage and analyse this in connection with international transmission and trading over long distances. The report addresses electrical storage, thermal storage and other forms of energy storage, for example conversion of biomass to liquid fuel and conversion of solar energy directly into hydrogen, as well as storage in transmission, grid storage etc. Finally, the report covers research, innovation and the future prospects and addresses the societal challenges and benefits of the use of energy storage. (Author)

  8. Fissile material management, an international approach of the future of plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michel, A.; Schryvers, V.; Vanderborck, Y.

    2000-01-01

    Plutonium management is a crucial issue in any discussion on the future of nuclear energy: plutonium is indeed a normal by-product of nuclear electricity generation. As a result of long-term reprocessing strategies and recent decisions on the dismantling of nuclear weapons, separated plutonium stockpiles are increasing. Observing this situation, the Belgian Nuclear Society decided that the turn of the century was the right time to invite all the parties involved in decision making on this question to confront their decisions or the absence of it. As an international program committee was created, interested companies and institutions delegated high level experts to it and a comprehensive program was put together. This program covers: - Prospects for nuclear energy; - Public perception of plutonium; - The civil plutonium cycle; - The management of surplus military plutonium; - Non-proliferation and safeguards; - The reasons to improve the plutonium fuels performance. The conference is not scientific but strategic. It does not cover too many technical aspects but looks at the managerial questions. It is devoted to the reasons why things are done much more than how things are done. It allows to confront opinions with a mind open to all and a desire to make strategies transparent, even to the least informed public. The present paper has been written before the conference takes place in early October 2000 and describes the orientations prepared by the Programme committee. The oral presentation to Atalante 2000 will report in full over the Pu 2000 conference. (authors)

  9. Guardando al futuro del Sistema Monetario Internazionale (Looking to the Future International Monetary System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo D'Adda

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Questo articolo passa brevemente in rassegna diversi argomenti che riguardano il funzionamento del Sistema Monetario Internazionale dopo il 1971, quali cambi flessibili e cambi fissi, aree monetarie ottime, crescenti movimenti di capitali, volatilità dei cambi, crisi valutarie, disavanzo esterno degli Stati Uniti. Pur in assenza di un disegno a priori, la successione di questi problemi ha preparato la strada alla recente proposta di Mundell e Cooper per una moneta mondiale.Questa proposta non costituisce una semplice via d’uscita dalle odierne preoccupazioni. Nondimeno essa lascia intravedere la possibilità di un futuro migliore.     This article briefly reviews various issues concerning the functioning of the International Monetary System after 1971, such as flexible exchange rates and fixed exchange rates, optimal currency areas, increasing capital movements, exchange rate volatility, currency crises, external deficit of the United States. Even in the absence of an a priori design, the sequence of these problems has paved the way to the recent proposal of Mundell and Cooper for a world currency. This proposal is not a simple way out of today's concerns. Nevertheless, it suggests the possibility of a better future.  JEL Codes: F30, F33Keywords: Sistema Monetario Internazionale, Mundell, Cooper, moneta mondiale.

  10. Internally generated hippocampal sequences as a vantage point to probe future-oriented cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezzulo, Giovanni; Kemere, Caleb; van der Meer, Matthijs A A

    2017-05-01

    Information processing in the rodent hippocampus is fundamentally shaped by internally generated sequences (IGSs), expressed during two different network states: theta sequences, which repeat and reset at the ∼8 Hz theta rhythm associated with active behavior, and punctate sharp wave-ripple (SWR) sequences associated with wakeful rest or slow-wave sleep. A potpourri of diverse functional roles has been proposed for these IGSs, resulting in a fragmented conceptual landscape. Here, we advance a unitary view of IGSs, proposing that they reflect an inferential process that samples a policy from the animal's generative model, supported by hippocampus-specific priors. The same inference affords different cognitive functions when the animal is in distinct dynamical modes, associated with specific functional networks. Theta sequences arise when inference is coupled to the animal's action-perception cycle, supporting online spatial decisions, predictive processing, and episode encoding. SWR sequences arise when the animal is decoupled from the action-perception cycle and may support offline cognitive processing, such as memory consolidation, the prospective simulation of spatial trajectories, and imagination. We discuss the empirical bases of this proposal in relation to rodent studies and highlight how the proposed computational principles can shed light on the mechanisms of future-oriented cognition in humans. © 2017 New York Academy of Sciences.

  11. Effect of Experience of Internal Medicine Residents during Infectious Disease Elective on Future Infectious Disease Fellowship Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-04

    Experience of !ntcrnal Medicine Residents during Infectious Disease Elective on Future lntCctious Di~casc Fcllo\\vship Application Sb. GRANT N_UMBER...undefined. Since 2008 at our institution. internal medicine (!!vi) residents have been required to do a four-\\\\’eek inpatient !D rotation as an intern... Medicine Residents during Infectious Disease Elective on Fut ure Infectious Disease Fellowship Application ~ Poeter# 1440 .,...._,: OVfil"S~ ti

  12. Energy taxation difficulties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landsberg, H.H.

    1993-01-01

    This paper assesses what may be the underlying reasons for the Clinton administration's recent failure to pass the Btu Tax on energy sources and the current difficulties that this Administration is experiencing in acquiring nation wide consensus on a gasoline tax proposal. Two difficulties stand out - regional differences in climate and thus winter heating requirements, and the differences from state to state in transportation system preferences. The paper cites the positive aspects of energy taxation by noting the petroleum industry's efforts to develop a new less polluting reformulated gasoline

  13. Difficulty scaling through incongruity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lankveld, van G.; Spronck, P.; Rauterberg, G.W.M.; Mateas, M.; Darken, C.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we discuss our work on using the incongruity measure from psychological literature to scale the difficulty level of a game online to the capabilities of the human player. Our approach has been implemented in a small game called Glove.

  14. Breathing difficulty - lying down

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... other conditions that lead to it) Panic disorder Sleep apnea Snoring Home Care Your health care provider may recommend self-care measures. For example, weight loss may be suggested if you are obese. When to Contact a Medical Professional If you have any unexplained difficulty in breathing ...

  15. Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG), Space Science's Past, Present and Future Aboard the International Space Station (ISS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spivey, Reggie; Spearing, Scott; Jordan, Lee

    2012-01-01

    The Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) is a double rack facility aboard the International Space Station (ISS), which accommodates science and technology investigations in a "workbench' type environment. The MSG has been operating on the ISS since July 2002 and is currently located in the US Laboratory Module. In fact, the MSG has been used for over 10,000 hours of scientific payload operations and plans to continue for the life of ISS. The facility has an enclosed working volume that is held at a negative pressure with respect to the crew living area. This allows the facility to provide two levels of containment for small parts, particulates, fluids, and gases. This containment approach protects the crew from possible hazardous operations that take place inside the MSG work volume and allows researchers a controlled pristine environment for their needs. Research investigations operating inside the MSG are provided a large 255 liter enclosed work space, 1000 watts of dc power via a versatile supply interface (120, 28, + 12, and 5 Vdc), 1000 watts of cooling capability, video and data recording and real time downlink, ground commanding capabilities, access to ISS Vacuum Exhaust and Vacuum Resource Systems, and gaseous nitrogen supply. These capabilities make the MSG one of the most utilized facilities on ISS. MSG investigations have involved research in cryogenic fluid management, fluid physics, spacecraft fire safety, materials science, combustion, and plant growth technologies. Modifications to the MSG facility are currently under way to expand the capabilities and provide for investigations involving Life Science and Biological research. In addition, the MSG video system is being replaced with a state-of-the-art, digital video system with high definition/high speed capabilities, and with near real-time downlink capabilities. This paper will provide an overview of the MSG facility, a synopsis of the research that has already been accomplished in the MSG, and an

  16. Architectures of intergenerational justice : Human dignity, international law, and duties to future generations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riley, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    This article draws attention to the constitutive requirements of intergenerational justice and exposes the limitations of regulative arguments based on international human rights law. Intergenerational justice demands constraining the regulative freedom of the international community, and it is

  17. Short-Term International Internship Experiences for Future Teachers and Other Child Development Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Kari Knutson; Gonzalez, Amber M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines outcomes associated with participation in short-term, international internship experiences. Results suggest short-term international internship experiences contribute to rich personal and professional development outcomes. Findings highlight participant challenges associated with initial internship experiences, professional…

  18. Development assistance for health: past trends, associations, and the future of international financial flows for health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieleman, Joseph L; Schneider, Matthew T; Haakenstad, Annie; Singh, Lavanya; Sadat, Nafis; Birger, Maxwell; Reynolds, Alex; Templin, Tara; Hamavid, Hannah; Chapin, Abigail; Murray, Christopher J L

    2016-06-18

    Disbursements of development assistance for health (DAH) have risen substantially during the past several decades. More recently, the international community's attention has turned to other international challenges, introducing uncertainty about the future of disbursements for DAH. We collected audited budget statements, annual reports, and project-level records from the main international agencies that disbursed DAH from 1990 to the end of 2015. We standardised and combined records to provide a comprehensive set of annual disbursements. We tracked each dollar of DAH back to the source and forward to the recipient. We removed transfers between agencies to avoid double-counting and adjusted for inflation. We classified assistance into nine primary health focus areas: HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, malaria, maternal health, newborn and child health, other infectious diseases, non-communicable diseases, Ebola, and sector-wide approaches and health system strengthening. For our statistical analysis, we grouped these health focus areas into two categories: MDG-related focus areas (HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, malaria, child and newborn health, and maternal health) and non-MDG-related focus areas (other infectious diseases, non-communicable diseases, sector-wide approaches, and other). We used linear regression to test for structural shifts in disbursement patterns at the onset of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs; ie, from 2000) and the global financial crisis (impact estimated to occur in 2010). We built on past trends and associations with an ensemble model to estimate DAH through the end of 2040. In 2015, US$36·4 billion of DAH was disbursed, marking the fifth consecutive year of little change in the amount of resources provided by global health development partners. Between 2000 and 2009, DAH increased at 11·3% per year, whereas between 2010 and 2015, annual growth was just 1·2%. In 2015, 29·7% of DAH was for HIV/AIDS, 17·9% was for child and newborn health, and 9·8

  19. Veganism: Motivations and Difficulties

    OpenAIRE

    Beck, Mathilde Therese Claudine; Harvey, John Carr; Trauth, Christina

    2017-01-01

    An increasing number of people are adopting a vegan lifestyle, which means to stop consuming products, that are made from or based on animals, like meat, dairy or eggs. However, the number of research concerning veganism is limited. As the existing research is mainly concentrating on the process of adopting a vegan lifestyle and the view of vegans, these findings shall be examined further with the question, What are the motivation and difficulties about adopting a plant based vegan diet in We...

  20. Idiopathic chondrolysis - diagnostic difficulties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozlowski, K.; Scougall, J.; Royal Alexandra Hospital for Children, Sydney

    1984-01-01

    Four cases of idiopathic chondrolysis of the hip in three white girls and one Maori girl are reported. The authors stress the causes why a disease with characteristic clinical and radiographic appearances and normal biochemical findings presents diagnostic difficulties. It is suspected that idiopathic chondrolysis is a metabolic disorder of chondrocytes, triggered by environment circumstances in susceptible individuals. Idiopathic chondrolysis is probably one of the most common causes of coxarthrosis in women. (orig.)

  1. Ethical principles in international nuclear trade and the role of international treaties and agreements in their implementation. Reflections on the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavalanti, C. de A.

    1992-01-01

    The growing importance of nuclear energy (on the threshold of the twenty-first century) and of its ethical uses is considered, including major political events in recent years, their social and economic consequences in the world scene. International Nuclear Law is seen as the most adequate instrument to promote the ethical uses of nuclear energy on a worldwide basis, so that mankind can benefit safely and properly and improving their living conditions in general. Problems associated with access to nuclear technology, plants, equipments and materials are addressed. Basic principles of international agreements ruling nuclear trade, ethical aspects are also covered. The different markets involved in international nuclear trade and their specific requirements are described. Certain international treaties on the peaceful uses of nuclear energy are discussed such as the Non-Proliferation Treaty and the Tlatelolco Treaty as are international conventions on matters related to the use of nuclear energy, such as the environment and protection of personnel. The author concludes by debating whether ethical uses of nuclear energy are a possible reality or merely utopia. Prospects on the future of international nuclear trade are considered. (author)

  2. Materials International Space Station Experiment (MISSE): Overview, Accomplishments and Future Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    deGroh, Kim K.; Jaworske, Donald A.; Pippin, Gary; Jenkins, Philip P.; Walters, Robert J.; Thibeault, Sheila A.; Palusinski, Iwona; Lorentzen, Justin R.

    2014-01-01

    Materials and devices used on the exterior of spacecraft in low Earth orbit (LEO) are subjected to environmental threats that can cause degradation in material properties, possibly threatening spacecraft mission success. These threats include: atomic oxygen (AO), ultraviolet and x-ray radiation, charged particle radiation, temperature extremes and thermal cycling, micrometeoroid and debris impacts, and contamination. Space environmental threats vary greatly based on spacecraft materials, thicknesses and stress levels, and the mission environment and duration. For more than a decade the Materials International Space Station Experiment (MISSE) has enabled the study of the long duration environmental durability of spacecraft materials in the LEO environment. The overall objective of MISSE is to test the stability and durability of materials and devices in the space environment in order to gain valuable knowledge on the performance of materials in space, as well as to enable lifetime predictions of new materials that may be used in future space flight. MISSE is a series of materials flight experiments, which are attached to the exterior of the International Space Station (ISS). Individual experiments were loaded onto suitcase-like trays, called Passive Experiment Containers (PECs). The PECs were transported to the ISS in the Space Shuttle cargo bay and attached to, and removed from, the ISS during extravehicular activities (EVAs). The PECs were retrieved after one or more years of space exposure and returned to Earth enabling post-flight experiment evaluation. MISSE is a multi-organization project with participants from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the Department of Defense (DoD), industry and academia. MISSE has provided a platform for environmental durability studies for thousands of samples and numerous devices, and it has produced many tangible impacts. Ten PECs (and one smaller tray) have been flown, representing MISSE 1 through MISSE

  3. NGO participation in international lawmaking and democratic legitimacy : The debate and its future

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beijerman, M.

    2016-01-01

    Over the last few decades, scholars - mainly in the field of law and international relations - have argued that NGOs are indispensable in making international law more democratically legitimate. This study refers to this as the ‘NGO democratic legitimacy thesis’. The thesis is presented as a

  4. Burmese nuclear ambitions and their international implications: a look to the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, I.

    2010-01-01

    The prospect of a nuclear-capable Burma merits debate within the scientific and international strategic communities. Irving Lewis looks at the effect it would have on South-East Asia, and Asia in general, the major security problems that would arise and the considerable impact it would have upon international security

  5. Chinese International Students' Perspective and Strategies in Preparing for Their Future Employability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Rong; Turner, Rebecca; Chen, Qian

    2014-01-01

    Graduate employability and the contribution graduates make to the UK economy have been widely debated by policy-makers; however, little attention has been paid to the employability of international students. Given the growing significance of international students to the UK economy this is an interesting oversight; this article addresses this…

  6. Proceedings from an international consensus meeting on posttransplantation diabetes mellitus : recommendations and future directions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sharif, A.; Hecking, M.; de Vries, A. P. J.; Porrini, E.; Hornum, M.; Rasoul-Rockenschaub, S.; Berlakovich, G.; Krebs, M.; Kautzky-Willer, A.; Schernthaner, G.; Marchetti, P.; Pacini, G.; Ojo, A.; Takahara, S.; Larsen, J. L.; Budde, K.; Eller, K.; Pascual, J.; Jardine, A.; Bakker, S. J. L.; Valderhaug, T. G.; Jenssen, T. G.; Cohney, S.; Saeemann, M. D.

    A consensus meeting was held in Vienna on September 8-9, 2013, to discuss diagnostic and therapeutic challenges surrounding development of diabetes mellitus after transplantation. The International Expert Panel comprised 24 transplant nephrologists, surgeons, diabetologists and clinical scientists,

  7. Proceedings from an international consensus meeting on posttransplantation diabetes mellitus: recommendations and future directions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharif, A.; Hecking, M.; de Vries, A.P.

    2014-01-01

    A consensus meeting was held in Vienna on September 8-9, 2013, to discuss diagnostic and therapeutic challenges surrounding development of diabetes mellitus after transplantation. The International Expert Panel comprised 24 transplant nephrologists, surgeons, diabetologists and clinical scientist...

  8. International psychology and scientific psychology: at the crossroads for the future of psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Robert, J.

    2014-01-01

    The discipline of psychology as a science and the newly emerging field of international psychology are at a crossroads in terms of a conflict that has developed in their views. By means of comparative analysis, this article examines how the proponents of international psychology describe their area, how that description conflicts with the concept of psychology as a science, and what that conflict means for the development of psychology as an overall discipline. The analysis reveals weaknesses...

  9. Future of international cooperative activity for graduate school education in nuclear field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obara, Toru

    2008-01-01

    Further improvement of graduate school education in nuclear field is one of the important issues in universities in nuclear field. The COE-INES program has performed international cooperative activities for graduate school education with foreign universities in nuclear field. There are a lot of possibilities in international cooperation with foreign universities for graduate school education. The use of Internet can be a strong tool for the activities. (author)

  10. Difficulties in Initial Algebra Learning in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jupri, Al; Drijvers, Paul; van den Heuvel-Panhuizen, Marja

    2014-01-01

    Within mathematics curricula, algebra has been widely recognized as one of the most difficult topics, which leads to learning difficulties worldwide. In Indonesia, algebra performance is an important issue. In the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) 2007, Indonesian students' achievement in the algebra domain was…

  11. Difficulties in initial algebra learning in Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jupri, Al; Drijvers, Paulus; van den Heuvel - Panhuizen, Marja

    2014-01-01

    Within mathematics curricula, algebra has been widely recognized as one of the most difficult topics, which leads to learning difficulties worldwide. In Indonesia, algebra performance is an important issue. In the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) 2007, Indonesian

  12. Mathematics difficulties & classroom leadership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Maria Christina Secher

    2016-01-01

    This article investigates possible links between inclusion, students, for whom mathematics is extensively difficult, and classroom leadership through a case study on teaching strategies and student participation in four classrooms at two different primary schools in Denmark. Three sets of results...... are presented: 1) descriptions of the teachers’ classroom leadership to include all their students in the learning community, 2) the learning community produced by stated and practiced rules for teaching and learning behavior, 3) the classroom behavior of students who experience difficulties with mathematics....... The findings suggest that the teachers’ pedagogical choices and actions support an active learning environment for students in diverse learning needs, and that the teachers practise dimensions of inclusive classroom leadership that are known to be successful for teaching mathematics to all students. Despite...

  13. The constitutionality of current legal barriers to telemedicine in the United States: analysis and future directions of its relationship to national and international health care reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Amar; Sao, Deth

    2011-01-01

    The current health care crisis in the United States compels a consideration of the crucial role that telemedicine could play towards deploying a pragmatic solution. The nation faces rising costs and difficulties in access to and quality of medical services. Telemedicine can potentially help to overcome these challenges, as it can provide new cost-effective and efficient methods of delivering health care across geographic distances. The full benefits and future potential of telemedicine, however, are constrained by overlapping, inconsistent, and inadequate legal and regulatory frameworks, as well as the repertoire of standards imposed by state governments and professional organizations. Proponents of these barriers claim that they are necessary to protect public health and safety, and that the U.S. Constitution gives states exclusive authority over health and safety concerns. This Article argues that such barriers not only fail to advance these public policy goals, but are unconstitutional when they restrict the practice of telemedicine across state and national borders. Furthermore, the interstate and international nature of telemedicine calls for increasing the centralized authority of the federal government; this position is consistent with the U.S. Constitution and other governing principles. Finally, this Article observes that the U.S. experience bears some similarities to that of other nations, and represents a microcosm of the international community's need and struggle to develop a uniform telemedicine regime. Just as with state governments in the U.S., nations are no longer able to view health care as a traditional domestic concern and must consider nontraditional options to resolve the dilemmas of rising costs and discontent in the delivery of health care to their people.

  14. Papers of the 1997 CERI international petrochemical conference : transformation, growth and future direction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-06-01

    A global overview of the current state of the petrochemical industry, a forecast of future developments, and Alberta's place in the petrochemical industry were the principal themes of this conference. Main topics explored included: (1) global opportunities for petrochemical producers, (2) natural gas and feedstock supplies, (3) chemical industry environment, (4) pipeline implications and transportation systems for the petrochemical industry, (5) partnerships, (6) investment cycles, and (7) forces and future directions for the Canadian industry. The Proceedings volume includes complete text of some of the papers, and speaking notes and copies of overhead slides for others, as submitted by individual speakers. refs., tabs., figs

  15. Political Cataclysms at the Start of the Century and the Future of the International Relations System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei V. Korobkov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Crises in Ukraine and the Middle East indicate the existence of deep shifts in the global international relations system. These shifts are much more serious than the widely discussed erosion of the US international monopoly and are related to the global transfer of the world economic and political power center from North Atlantic to the Pacific Basin. Thus quickly collapsing is the world Eurocentric system that has ruled the world since the end of the Fifteenth century. Meanwhile, the Western, and especially the European elites refuse to recognize the scale and the potential consequences of these processes. In particular, their actions are pushing Russia towards China. Retaining stability of the international system would require the recognition by the Global North of the reality of these changes, the return to the acceptance of the state sovereignty concept, and the abandonment of attempts to impose its will on the others under.

  16. Uncertainties in Future Regional Sea Level Trends: How to Deal with the Internal Climate Variability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, M.; Karpytchev, M.; Hu, A.; Deser, C.; Lennartz-Sassinek, S.

    2017-12-01

    Today, the Climate models (CM) are the main tools for forecasting sea level rise (SLR) at global and regional scales. The CM forecasts are accompanied by inherent uncertainties. Understanding and reducing these uncertainties is becoming a matter of increasing urgency in order to provide robust estimates of SLR impact on coastal societies, which need sustainable choices of climate adaptation strategy. These CM uncertainties are linked to structural model formulation, initial conditions, emission scenario and internal variability. The internal variability is due to complex non-linear interactions within the Earth Climate System and can induce diverse quasi-periodic oscillatory modes and long-term persistences. To quantify the effects of internal variability, most studies used multi-model ensembles or sea level projections from a single model ran with perturbed initial conditions. However, large ensembles are not generally available, or too small, and computationally expensive. In this study, we use a power-law scaling of sea level fluctuations, as observed in many other geophysical signals and natural systems, which can be used to characterize the internal climate variability. From this specific statistical framework, we (1) use the pre-industrial control run of the National Center for Atmospheric Research Community Climate System Model (NCAR-CCSM) to test the robustness of the power-law scaling hypothesis; (2) employ the power-law statistics as a tool for assessing the spread of regional sea level projections due to the internal climate variability for the 21st century NCAR-CCSM; (3) compare the uncertainties in predicted sea level changes obtained from a NCAR-CCSM multi-member ensemble simulations with estimates derived for power-law processes, and (4) explore the sensitivity of spatial patterns of the internal variability and its effects on regional sea level projections.

  17. Reflections on a future international convention on safety in radioactive waste management - September 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arias Canete, A.

    1995-01-01

    This probably is a suitable moment for work to begin on an international Convention in this area, although it is a difficult task. Generally speaking, the RADWASS (Radioactive Waste Safety Standards) Programme has achieved sufficient consensus, and might serve as an important basis for work in relation to the Convention. The Convention should not go into highly technical details since consensus at this level is more difficult at the present moment, although this will undoubtedly be achieved in the medium term. An important element of the Convention should be the regulation of movements of radioactive wastes at international level. (orig./HP)

  18. Australian intern pharmacists’ perceived preparedness for practice, and their expectations and experiences of the internship year and future career intentions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mak VSL

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Vivienne SL Mak,1,2 Geoff March,2 Alice Clark,2 Andrew L Gilbert21Department of Pharmacy Practice, School of Pharmacy, International Medical University, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; 2Quality Use of Medicines and Pharmacy Research Centre, Sansom Institute for Health Research, School of Pharmacy and Medical Sciences, University of South Australia, Adelaide, SA, AustraliaBackground: A key objective of Australia's health care reform is a skilled, flexible, and well-trained workforce. To meet these requirements, the training of health professionals, including pharmacists, needs to be focused on patient care processes, and students must develop competencies in the delivery of patient care. Pharmacy graduates need to be well prepared for new and alternative career pathways through their education and training, to be a part of the future workforce. This study explores Australian intern pharmacists' perceived preparedness for practice, the match between their expectations and experience to meet the requirements of health professionals in Australia's health care reforms, and their future career intentions.Methods: Two questionnaires were sent by post to all 136 intern pharmacists in South Australia; one was sent early in their internship and the second follow-up questionnaire was sent near the completion of their internship.Results: Pharmacy graduates felt prepared for patient care, medicines information, and primary health care roles. A mismatch between expectations and actual experiences was found. By the end of the internship, 45% agree/strongly agree that they wanted to do something else other than being a practicing pharmacist.Conclusion: The current internship model no longer meets the needs and expectations of knowledgeable and skilled pharmacy graduates. An alternative internship model, which considers the expectations of graduates, is required.Keywords: intern pharmacist, preparedness, expectations, experiences, internship, future career

  19. Optimistic Outlooks: Latest Views on the Global Future by a Galaxy of International Experts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feather, Frank, Ed.; Mayur, Rashmi, Ed.

    Eighteen international futurists present their views concerning separate major world issues. The book includes a prologue which discusses the optimistic nature of most futurists; an introduction which describes the book's contents; 14 chapters arranged into 3 major parts; an epilogue; and conclusion. In part I, which examines the basic necessities…

  20. Back to the UK Future: Trends in Internationalism and Cross-Border Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olcott, Don

    2009-01-01

    Globalisation is transforming the international marketplace and accelerating unprecedented socio-economic, cultural, social, political and educational change across the globe. This global transformation has served as a catalyst for increasing deliberation, dialogue and consensus among government, business and higher education to create, attract…

  1. Ultrasound for internal medicine physicians: the future of the physical examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulohery, Megan M; Stoven, Samantha; Kurklinsky, Andrew K; Kurklinksy, Andrew; Halvorsen, Andrew; McDonald, Furman S; Bhagra, Anjali

    2014-06-01

    With the advent of compact ultrasound (US) devices, it is easier for physicians to enhance their physical examinations through the use of US. However, although this new tool is widely available, few internal medicine physicians have US training. This study sought to understand physicians' baseline knowledge and skill, provide education in US principles, and demonstrate that proper use of compact US devices is a skill that can be quickly learned. Training was performed at the Mayo Clinic in June 2010 and June 2011. The participants consisted of internal medicine residents. The workshop included didactics and hands-on US experiences with human and cadaver models in a simulation center. Pretests and posttests of residents' knowledge, attitudes, and skills with US were completed. We reassessed the 2010 group in the spring of 2012 with a long-term retention survey for knowledge and confidence in viewing images. A total of 136 interns completed the workshop. Thirty-nine residents completed the long-term retention survey. Posttest assessments showed a statistically significant improvement in the knowledge of US imaging, confidence in identifying structures, image identification, and image acquisition (P internal medicine training and practice. © 2014 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  2. Sustainability of International Branch Campuses in the United Arab Emirates: A Vision for the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Angela; Alzouebi, Khadeegha

    2014-01-01

    The United Arab Emirates is developing higher education institutions that will contribute to an educational sector providing premium degree programs. There was a belief that the recognition and achievements these institutions attained over decades in their native land would be transferable in the implementation of international branch campuses.…

  3. The Future of the International Criminal Court. On Critique, Legalism and Strengthening the ICC's Legitimacy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Hoon, Marieke

    2017-01-01

    While the International Criminal Court (icc) strives for justice for atrocity crimes throughout the world, increasingly, its legitimacy is undermined: powerful states refuse to join, African states prepare to leave, victims do not feel their needs for justice are met. This article argues that this

  4. IPUMS International: A review and future prospects of a unique global statistical cooperation programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Alphonse L

    2016-01-01

    At the invitation of the University of Minnesota Population Center (MPC) the author carried out an assessment of the IPUMS International integrated census microdata programme during January - March 2016. The terms of reference included the assessment of the measures taken by the MPC to safe guard the security of the microdata, the quality and adequacy of services provided, characteristics of users and satisfaction with IPUMS, use of available microdata, support to participating developing country National Statistical Offices (NSOs) and adequacy of a proposed Remote Data Center (RDC). The conclusions of the review are that IPUMS International is a unique, flexible, successful and secure programme for managing access to anonymized, harmonised and integrated microdata to academic users and policy makers. While currently the user base is predominantly in developed countries, steps are being taken to expand usage by researchers world-wide. The physical, methodological and technical arrangements for safeguarding the security and confidentiality of the data files are excellent; the possibilities of breaches are minimal. Data users have very positive opinions of the quality of the data, scope of services and expertise of staff but desire more detailed, up-to-date microdata. NSOs rate IPUMS International and its services positively but request advanced methodological training for staff and regular information on the use of their country's data. IPUMS International planned activities are presented and their contributions to census methodology are highlighted.

  5. International consensus on use of focused ultrasound for painful bone metastases : Current status and future directions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, Merel; ter Haar, Gail; Napoli, Alessandro; Hananel, Arik; Ghanouni, Pejman; Lövey, György; Nijenhuis, Robbert J; van den Bosch, Maurice A A J; Rieke, Viola; Majumdar, Sharmila; Marchetti, Luca; Pfeffer, Raphael M; Hurwitz, Mark D

    2015-01-01

    Focused ultrasound surgery (FUS), in particular magnetic resonance guided FUS (MRgFUS), is an emerging non-invasive thermal treatment modality in oncology that has recently proven to be effective for the palliation of metastatic bone pain. A consensus panel of internationally recognised experts in

  6. Educational Cooperation between Thailand and Cambodia: Outcomes on Human Development, International Understanding and Future Prospect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kijtorntham, Wichuda; Ruangdej, Phumjit; Saisuwan, Chatchanog

    2015-01-01

    Thailand and Cambodia set up educational cooperation since 1996, before signed a Memorandum of Understanding on Cooperation in the Promotion of Education in 2003. This research aimed to investigate outcomes of educational cooperation projects on Cambodia human development and international understanding, process of participatory learning and…

  7. Student difficulties with Gauss' law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanim, Stephen

    2000-09-01

    Many students in introductory courses have difficulty solving Gauss' law problems. Through interviews with students and analysis of solutions to homework and examination questions we have identified some specific conceptual difficulties that often contribute to students' inability to solve quantitative Gauss' law problems. We give examples of common difficulties and discuss instructional implications.

  8. International attitudes of early adopters to current and future robotic technologies in pediatric surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cundy, Thomas P; Marcus, Hani J; Hughes-Hallett, Archie; Najmaldin, Azad S; Yang, Guang-Zhong; Darzi, Ara

    2014-10-01

    Perceptions toward surgical innovations are critical to the social processes that drive technology adoption. This study aims to capture attitudes of early adopter pediatric surgeons toward robotic technologies in order to clarify 1) specific features that are driving appeal, 2) limiting factors that are acting as diffusion barriers, and 3) future needs. Electronic surveys were distributed to pediatric surgeons with personal experience or exposure in robotic surgery. Participants were classified as experts or nonexperts for subgroup analysis. Coded Likert scale responses were analyzed using the Friedman or Mann-Whitney test. A total of 48 responses were received (22 experts, 26 nonexperts), with 14 countries represented. The most highly rated benefits of robot assistance were wristed instruments, stereoscopic vision, and magnified view. The most highly rated limitations were capital outlay expense, instrument size, and consumables/maintenance expenses. Future technologies of greatest interest were microbots, image guidance, and flexible snake robots. Putative benefits and limitations of robotic surgery are perceived with widely varied weightings. Insight provided by these responses will inform relevant clinical, engineering, and industry groups such that unambiguous goals and priorities may be assigned for the future. Pediatric surgeons seem most receptive toward technology that is smaller, less expensive, more intelligent and flexible. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. International Youth Nuclear Congress 2000: Youth, Future, Nuclear. Proceedings and Multimedia Presentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The publication on CD-ROM and includes 145 presentations delivered at the congress. In the work of the International Youth Nuclear Congress 2000 participated 288 young scientific works from over 30 countries. The address discusses the following sessions: Young Generation Session Nuclear Education and Transfer of Know-How; Nuclear Technology I; Political Aspects; Nuclear Technology II; Environment and Safety; Communication and Public Perception I; Communication and Public Perception II; Nuclear Programs and Technical Cooperation; Economics; Fuel Cycle Challenges. Each paper has been indexed separately. Before of full papers the first CD contains next chapters: Introduction (in 19 languages); General Information; Day by Day; Y-Notes Session Results; Sponsors; Media Album, and Conclusions. The second CD-ROM contains 28 minutes of video-film about programme of International Youth Nuclear Congress 2000

  10. International standards for optical wireless communications: state-of-the-art and future directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marciniak, Marian

    2017-10-01

    As the number of active OWC installations is growing fast, the standards for compatibility of co-existing neighbouring systems are being developed. The paper addresses the Laser Safety (IEC standards), ITU-T Study Group 15 standards (G.640 Co-location longitudinally compatible interfaces for free space optical systems), ITU-Radiocommunication Sector standards (P.1817-1 Propagation data required for the design of terrestrial free-space optical links), and the IEEE Work in Progress - standardization activity on Visible Light Communications. International standards of FSO communications have been reviewed and discussed. ITU, IEC, and IEEE International standards for Free-Space Optical links have been reviewed. The system reliability and availability as well as security issues will be addressed as well in the talk.

  11. International Collaboration in Crop Improvement Research: Current Status and Future Prospects

    OpenAIRE

    Traxler, Greg; Pingali, Prabhu L.

    1999-01-01

    Investments over the past 35 years have created a system of national and international research centers that has revolutionized the supply of improved cereal varieties to developing country farmers. The newly created scientific ability to exploit genetic resources has been the engine of productivity growth in much of world agriculture. But the success that has been attained in building research institutions has not touched all countries or farmers, nor can it be considered permanent. The fina...

  12. Integration of REDD into the international carbon market: Implications for future commitments and market regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Dixon, Alistair; Anger, Niels; Holden, Rachel; Livengood, Erich

    2008-01-01

    Integrating reduced emissions from deforestation and degradation (REDD) into a post-Kyoto intergovernmental carbon market could significantly decrease global carbon prices and the costs of mitigating climate change. We investigate this impact by simulating the impact of the supply of REDD units on the international carbon market in 2020 under unlimited and restricted exchange conditions. We find restricting supply or demand of REDD credits reduces such price impacts, but comes at the cost of ...

  13. Hydrology under difficulties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1964-08-15

    An unusual hydrological investigation is being carried out in Kenya by IAEA, at Lake Chala, a volcanic crater with no visible inlet or outlet. The problem is to determine whether the lake has any connection with a number of springs near Taveta, some six miles distant: this relationship is important in assessing the possibility of expanding the Taveta irrigation scheme. Questions of water rights and utilization are involved, since the lake is situated on the Tanganyikan border. The method adopted is that of labelling the waters of the lake with small quantities of water containing radioactive hydrogen (tritium). There are some special features in this instance, one being the difficulty of access. The lake is entirely surrounded by steep cliffs. A track was cut by British Army engineers, and the boat and all supplies were taken down by this route. Another problem was presented by the depth of the lake, which amounts to 300 feet. It is necessary to ensure the regular mixing of the tritium throughout. This has been done by means of hundreds of plastic bottles, which were dropped from the boat at regular intervals as it made a series of carefully-plotted traverses. Each bottle had a weight attached, and was perforated by two small holes. By this means, as the bottle sank the contents were progressively released until it reached the bottom, thus ensuring an even diffusion of tritium throughout the lake.

  14. [The confrontation of sexuality in the professional practice of future physicians: the viewpoint of medical interns].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas Urbina, Addis Abeba; Jarillo Soto, Edgar Carlos

    2013-03-01

    The subject of sexuality in academic and service institutions is perceived through predominantly biological conceptual perspectives, blurring the subjective component that is imbued in social and cultural processes. The meanings that medical staff construct around sexuality have implications in their professional development and practice. This work presents results from a qualitative study into the meaning of sexuality among medical interns from the Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Xochimilco. In-depth interviews were conducted with students during their community service. This group was selected because they had finished their studies and were performing an independent and autonomous professional practice. The results, which were analyzed based on Grounded Theory, revealed three dichotomies: biology vs. social construction, individual vs. professional and theoretical learning vs. experiences in the community. The most relevant aspect revealed was the antagonism found between a medical intern's biology-centered academic knowledge and the challenge posed by their patients' reproductive and sexual health needs. The interns recognize that they lack the necessary skills to face issues of sexuality in their professional practice.

  15. [Difficulties in learning mathematics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebollo, M A; Rodríguez, A L

    2006-02-13

    To discuss our concern for some aspects of mathematics learning disorders related to the nomenclature employed and their diagnosis; these aspects refer to the term 'dyscalculia' and to its diagnosis (especially syndromatic diagnosis). We also intend to propose a classification that could help to define the terminology. Lastly we are going to consider the different aspects of diagnosis and to determine which of them are indispensable in the diagnosis of primary and secondary disorders. As far as the nomenclature is concerned, we refer to the term 'dyscalculia'. The origins of the term are analysed along with the reasons why it should not be used in children with difficulties in learning mathematics. We propose a classification and denominations for the different types that should undoubtedly be discussed. With respect to the diagnosis, several problems related to the syndromatic diagnosis are considered, since in our country there are no standardised tests with which to study performance in arithmetic and geometry. This means that criterion reference tests are conducted to try to establish current and potential performance. At this stage of the diagnosis pedagogical and psychological studies must be conducted. The important factors with regard to the topographical and aetiological diagnoses are prior knowledge, results from the studies that have been carried out and findings from imaging studies. The importance of a genetic study must be defined in the aetiological diagnosis. We propose a nomenclature to replace the term 'dyscalculia'. Standardised tests are needed for the diagnosis. The need to establish current and potential performance is hierarchized. With regard to the topographical diagnosis, we highlight the need for more information about geometry, and in aetiological studies the analyses must be conducted with greater numbers of children.

  16. International safeguards in nuclear weapon states - Status and look into the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jorant, C.

    2013-01-01

    This paper shall recall the framework for the application of international safeguards in the 5 Nuclear Weapons States (USA, Russia, China, United-Kingdom and France) and give an overview on their implementation. It shall then discuss some reasons for an evolution of those States and IAEA's commitments to apply its safeguards and suggests ideas for an increased but efficient involvement of IAEA in those States fully taking into account the specificities of those States within the State Level Approach.The paper is followed by the slides of the presentation. (author)

  17. International Conference 'Twenty Years after Chernobyl Accident. Future Outlook'. Abstracts proceeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2006-01-01

    This conference concludes a series of events dedicated to the 20 anniversary of the Chernobyl accident and promote an effective implementation of the accumulated international experience in the following areas: Radiation protection of the population and emergency workers, and the environmental consequences of Chernobyl accident; Medical and public health response to radiation emergencies; Strengthening radiological emergency management of radiation accidents; Economic and legal aspects of radioactive waste management and nuclear power plants decommissioning; Radioactive waste management: Chernobyl experience; Nuclear power plant decommissioning: Chernobyl NPP; Transformation of the Chernobyl Sarcophagus into an ecologically safe system

  18. A future of living machines?: International trends and prospects in biomimetic and biohybrid systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott, Tony J.; Lepora, Nathan; Vershure, Paul F. M. J.

    2014-03-01

    Research in the fields of biomimetic and biohybrid systems is developing at an accelerating rate. Biomimetics can be understood as the development of new technologies using principles abstracted from the study of biological systems, however, biomimetics can also be viewed from an alternate perspective as an important methodology for improving our understanding of the world we live in and of ourselves as biological organisms. A biohybrid entity comprises at least one artificial (engineered) component combined with a biological one. With technologies such as microscale mobile computing, prosthetics and implants, humankind is moving towards a more biohybrid future in which biomimetics helps us to engineer biocompatible technologies. This paper reviews recent progress in the development of biomimetic and biohybrid systems focusing particularly on technologies that emulate living organisms—living machines. Based on our recent bibliographic analysis [1] we examine how biomimetics is already creating life-like robots and identify some key unresolved challenges that constitute bottlenecks for the field. Drawing on our recent research in biomimetic mammalian robots, including humanoids, we review the future prospects for such machines and consider some of their likely impacts on society, including the existential risk of creating artifacts with significant autonomy that could come to match or exceed humankind in intelligence. We conclude that living machines are more likely to be a benefit than a threat but that we should also ensure that progress in biomimetics and biohybrid systems is made with broad societal consent.

  19. National cultural values: reflections on the formation process of future leaders in international economic cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIJA NIKOLIC

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The trend towards foreign investments in Serbia has been in rapid progress in recent years. The biggest and most valuable numbers of investments are coming from Italy. The authors’ expectation is that the trend of Italian investments in future will continue; therefore it is of high importance for the representatives of both countries’ business sectors to understand and accept differences and similarities to the other country’s business culture. Research of cultural differences between two nations , which are considered like a frame of business culture, helps avoiding possible misunderstandings and improving business cooperation between two countries. Having in mind students of economics and management, on one hand like future leaders of Italian and Serbian business and on other like representatives of the current education value system in the field of economics and management, this study consists of an application of the 7-D Hofstede Model. The application of the model takes place through the administration of two surveys done by students of Serbian Megatrend University, in Belgrade, and Italian Università degli Studi Gabriele d’Annunzio, in Pescara.

  20. Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) Space Science's Past, Present, and Future on the International Space Station (ISS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spivey, Reggie A.; Spearing, Scott F.; Jordan, Lee P.; McDaniel S. Greg

    2012-01-01

    The Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) is a double rack facility designed for microgravity investigation handling aboard the International Space Station (ISS). The unique design of the facility allows it to accommodate science and technology investigations in a "workbench" type environment. MSG facility provides an enclosed working area for investigation manipulation and observation in the ISS. Provides two levels of containment via physical barrier, negative pressure, and air filtration. The MSG team and facilities provide quick access to space for exploratory and National Lab type investigations to gain an understanding of the role of gravity in the physics associated research areas. The MSG is a very versatile and capable research facility on the ISS. The Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) on the International Space Station (ISS) has been used for a large body or research in material science, heat transfer, crystal growth, life sciences, smoke detection, combustion, plant growth, human health, and technology demonstration. MSG is an ideal platform for gravity-dependent phenomena related research. Moreover, the MSG provides engineers and scientists a platform for research in an environment similar to the one that spacecraft and crew members will actually experience during space travel and exploration. The MSG facility is ideally suited to provide quick, relatively inexpensive access to space for National Lab type investigations.

  1. Units of measurement past, present and future international system of units

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, S V

    2010-01-01

    It is for the first time that the subject of quantities and their respective units is dealt this much in detail a glimpse of units of measurements of base quantities of length, time, mass and volume is given for ancient India three and four dimensional systems of measurement units are critically examined establishment of the fact that only four base units are needed to describe a system of units the basics to arrive at the unit of a derived quantity are explained basic, derived and dimensionless quantities including quantity calculus are introduced life history of scientists concerned with measurements units are presented to be inspiring to working metrologists and students. The International System of Units including, Metre Convention Treaty and its various organs including International National of Weights and Measure are described. The realisation of base units is given in detail. Classes of derived units within the SI, units permitted for time to come, units outside SI but used in special fields of measur...

  2. The International Space Station: Operations and Assembly - Learning From Experiences - Past, Present, and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Sean; Dillon, William F.

    2006-01-01

    As the Space Shuttle continues flight, construction and assembly of the International Space Station (ISS) carries on as the United States and our International Partners resume the building, and continue to carry on the daily operations, of this impressive and historical Earth-orbiting research facility. In his January 14, 2004, speech announcing a new vision for America s space program, President Bush ratified the United States commitment to completing construction of the ISS by 2010. Since the launch and joining of the first two elements in 1998, the ISS and the partnership have experienced and overcome many challenges to assembly and operations, along with accomplishing many impressive achievements and historical firsts. These experiences and achievements over time have shaped our strategy, planning, and expectations. The continual operation and assembly of ISS leads to new knowledge about the design, development and operation of systems and hardware that will be utilized in the development of new deep-space vehicles needed to fulfill the Vision for Exploration and to generate the data and information that will enable our programs to return to the Moon and continue on to Mars. This paper will provide an overview of the complexity of the ISS Program, including a historical review of the major assembly events and operational milestones of the program, along with the upcoming assembly plans and scheduled missions of the space shuttle flights and ISS Assembly sequence.

  3. Maximizing Science Return from Future Rodent Experiments on the International Space Station (ISS): Tissue Preservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, S. Y.; Lai, S.; Klotz, R.; Popova, Y.; Chakravarty, K.; Beegle, J. E.; Wigley, C. L.; Globus, R. K.

    2014-01-01

    To better understand how mammals adapt to long duration habitation in space, a system for performing rodent experiments on the ISS is under development; Rodent Research-1 is the first flight and will include validation of both on-orbit animal support and tissue preservation. To evaluate plans for on-orbit sample dissection and preservation, we simulated conditions for euthanasia, tissue dissection, and prolonged sample storage on the ISS, and we also developed methods for post-flight dissection and recovery of high quality RNA from multiple tissues following prolonged storage in situ for future science. Mouse livers and spleens were harvested under conditions that simulated nominal, on-orbit euthanasia and dissection operations including storage at -80 C for 4 months. The RNA recovered was of high quality (RNA Integrity Number, RIN(is) greater than 8) and quantity, and the liver enzyme contents and activities (catalase, glutathione reductase, GAPDH) were similar to positive controls, which were collected under standard laboratory conditions. We also assessed the impact of possible delayed on-orbit dissection scenarios (off-nominal) by dissecting and preserving the spleen (RNAlater) and liver (fast-freezing) at various time points post-euthanasia (from 5 min up to 105 min). The RNA recovered was of high quality (spleen, RIN (is) greater than 8; liver, RIN (is) greater than 6) and liver enzyme activities were similar to positive controls at all time points, although an apparent decline in select enzyme activities was evident at the latest time (105 min). Additionally, various tissues were harvested from either intact or partially dissected, frozen carcasses after storage for approximately 2 months; most of the tissues (brain, heart, kidney, eye, adrenal glands and muscle) were of acceptable RNA quality for science return, whereas some tissues (small intestine, bone marrow and bones) were not. These data demonstrate: 1) The protocols developed for future flight

  4. Nuclear systems of the future. Stakes, R and D strategy, and international cooperation; Les systemes nucleaires du futur. Enjeux, strategie de recherche et developpement, et cooperation internationale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    As demonstrated by prospective studies, nuclear energy will represent a decisive contribution in the future energy mix. The long-term strategy of development of nuclear energy requires to foresee a new generation of nuclear systems, named generation 4. The goal of these new systems is to optimize the use of nuclear fuels, to minimize the generation of wastes and to enlarge the field of applications of nuclear energy to other applications like: hydrogen and synthetic fuels generation, heat generation for the industry etc. This document presents the French R and D strategy on nuclear systems of 4. generation that has been approved by the public authorities. This strategy follows three axes: a priority research on fast neutron systems with fuel recycle (sodium fast reactors (SFR) and gas fast reactors (GFR)), a research on key-technologies for the supply of very high temperature heat (very high temperature reactor (VHTR), fast and thermal neutron reactors, and water decomposition processes), and a continuation of researches on PWR reactors improvement. An integral recycling of all actinides in fast neutron reactors requires the development of new fuel reprocessing and fuel re-fabrication processes. A reference scenario for the progressive renewal of French nuclear facilities foresees the simultaneous development of fast neutron systems and the start-up of a new spent fuel reprocessing plant. France in involved in the development of the SFR, GFR and VHTR systems thanks to its participation to the Generation 4 international forum and to bilateral cooperation with other big nuclear partners like Russia and China. One of the main stakes of the French nuclear industry is to be able to invest in the R and D of future nuclear systems in order to valorize the experience gained so far in sodium FBR systems and in fuel cycle processes. (J.S.)

  5. Fuel R and D international programmes, a way to demonstrate future fuel performances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanderborck, Y.; Mertens, L.; Dekeyser, J.; Sannen, L.

    1997-01-01

    As a MOX fuel manufacturer, BELGONUCLEAIRE have spent more than 15 years promoting and managing International R and D Programmes, many of them in close cooperation with SCK''centrdot'' CEN. Such programmes dedicated to MOX versus UO 2 fuel behaviour are most of the time based on irradiation in research reactors in which the investigated fuel is submitted to power variations and to ramp testing or are performed in commercial reactors. This paper is focused on recent programmes concerned by high and medium burn-up in BWR and PWR conditions for MOX fuel. It will present also the new opportunities for new programmes. The goals, the programmes descriptions and the expected data being part of these R and D programmes is presented. (author)

  6. A dozen years of American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM) International Mini-Fellowship: program evaluation and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioachimescu, Octavian C; Wickwire, Emerson M; Harrington, John; Kristo, David; Arnedt, J Todd; Ramar, Kannan; Won, Christine; Billings, Martha E; DelRosso, Lourdes; Williams, Scott; Paruthi, Shalini; Morgenthaler, Timothy I

    2014-03-15

    Sleep medicine remains an underrepresented medical specialty worldwide, with significant geographic disparities with regard to training, number of available sleep specialists, sleep laboratory or clinic infrastructures, and evidence-based clinical practices. The American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM) is committed to facilitating the education of sleep medicine professionals to ensure high-quality, evidence-based clinical care and improve access to sleep centers around the world, particularly in developing countries. In 2002, the AASM launched an annual 4-week training program called Mini-Fellowship for International Scholars, designed to support the establishment of sleep medicine in developing countries. The participating fellows were generally chosen from areas that lacked a clinical infrastructure in this specialty and provided with training in AASM Accredited sleep centers. This manuscript presents an overview of the program, summarizes the outcomes, successes, and lessons learned during the first 12 years, and describes a set of programmatic changes for the near-future, as assembled and proposed by the AASM Education Committee and recently approved by the AASM Board of Directors. Ioachimescu OC; Wickwire EM; Harrington J; Kristo D; Arnedt JT; Ramar K; Won C; Billings ME; DelRosso L; Williams S; Paruthi S; Morgenthaler TI. A dozen years of American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM) international mini-fellowship: program evaluation and future directions.

  7. Enhancing the Quantitative Representation of Socioeconomic Conditions in the Shared Socio-economic Pathways (SSPs) using the International Futures Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothman, D. S.; Siraj, A.; Hughes, B.

    2013-12-01

    The international research community is currently in the process of developing new scenarios for climate change research. One component of these scenarios are the Shared Socio-economic Pathways (SSPs), which describe a set of possible future socioeconomic conditions. These are presented in narrative storylines with associated quantitative drivers. The core quantitative drivers include total population, average GDP per capita, educational attainment, and urbanization at the global, regional, and national levels. At the same time there have been calls, particularly by the IAV community, for the SSPs to include additional quantitative information on other key social factors, such as income inequality, governance, health, and access to key infrastructures, which are discussed in the narratives. The International Futures system (IFs), based at the Pardee Center at the University of Denver, is able to provide forecasts of many of these indicators. IFs cannot use the SSP drivers as exogenous inputs, but we are able to create development pathways that closely reproduce the core quantitative drivers defined by the different SSPs, as well as incorporating assumptions on other key driving factors described in the qualitative narratives. In this paper, we present forecasts for additional quantitative indicators based upon the implementation of the SSP development pathways in IFs. These results will be of value to many researchers.

  8. Activities and future plans of the international commission on non-ionizing radiation protection (ICNIRP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernhardt, J.H.

    2000-01-01

    ICNIRP is an independent scientific organisation chartered by IRPA in May 1992. At that time ICNIRP took over the responsibility for Non-Ionizing Radiation (NIR) protection from its predecessor, the International Non-Ionizing Radiation Committee (INIRC) of IRPA, that commenced its work in 1977. ICNIRP was established for the purpose of advancing non-ionizing radiation protection for the benefit of people and the environment and in particular to provide guidance and recommendations on protection from non-ionising radiation exposure. Membership of ICNIRP comprises a Chairman, Vice-Chairman and up to twelve additional members. In addition, ICNIRP is served by four standing committees on Epidemiology, Biology, Physics and Optics. Members are selected on the basis of their independence, specialist expertise and geographical distribution. More information and a list of publications are available through ICNIRP's web page (http://www.icnirp.de). A revision of the Laser Guidelines were published in Health Physics in October 96, a confirmation of the UV-Guidelines in 12/96; guidelines on visible and infrared radiation in 9/97 and Guidelines on limiting exposure to electric, magnetic, and electromagnetic fields in 4/98. A revision of the Laser Guidelines is under consideration. Statements on health issues on radiotelephones and base transmitters were published in 4/96; about the Global Solar UV Index in 1/95 and on Laser pointers in 8/99. Statements on Light Emitting Diodes and on Pulsed Magnetic Fields are under consideration. A document on a General Approach to Protection against NIR will be finalized in 4/2000. Cooperation with International Organisations. The national societies of IRPA are involved in the review process of the draft ICNIRP guidelines. WHO is one of the most important INCIRP partners. Main issues are the WHO EMF Project and INTERSUN project and the collaboration in health risk assessment of exposure to NIR: Symposia on static, low and high frequency EMF

  9. International Scoping Study (ISS) for a future neutrino factory and Super-Beam facility. Detectors and flux instrumentation for future neutrino facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, T; Aihara, H; Andreopoulos, C; Ankowski, A; Badertscher, A; Battistoni, G; Blondel, A; Bouchez, J; Bross, A; Ellis, M; Bueno, A; Camilleri, L; Campagne, J E; Cazes, A; Cervera-Villanueva, A; De Lellis, G; Di Capua, F; Ereditato, A; Esposito, L S

    2009-01-01

    This report summarises the conclusions from the detector group of the International Scoping Study of a future Neutrino Factory and Super-Beam neutrino facility. The baseline detector options for each possible neutrino beam are defined as follows: 1. A very massive (Megaton) water Cherenkov detector is the baseline option for a sub-GeV Beta Beam and Super Beam facility. 2. There are a number of possibilities for either a Beta Beam or Super Beam (SB) medium energy facility between 1-5 GeV. These include a totally active scintillating detector (TASD), a liquid argon TPC or a water Cherenkov detector. 3. A 100 kton magnetized iron neutrino detector (MIND) is the baseline to detect the wrong sign muon final states (golden channel) at a high energy (20-50 GeV) neutrino factory from muon decay. A 10 kton hybrid neutrino magnetic emulsion cloud chamber detector for wrong sign tau detection (silver channel) is a possible complement to MIND, if one needs to resolve degeneracies that appear in the δ-θ 13 parameter space.

  10. International space station accomplishments update: Scientific discovery, advancing future exploration, and benefits brought home to earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thumm, Tracy; Robinson, Julie A.; Alleyne, Camille; Hasbrook, Pete; Mayo, Susan; Buckley, Nicole; Johnson-Green, Perry; Karabadzhak, George; Kamigaichi, Shigeki; Umemura, Sayaka; Sorokin, Igor V.; Zell, Martin; Istasse, Eric; Sabbagh, Jean; Pignataro, Salvatore

    2014-10-01

    Throughout the history of the International Space Station (ISS), crews on board have conducted a variety of scientific research and educational activities. Well into the second year of full utilization of the ISS laboratory, the trend of scientific accomplishments and educational opportunities continues to grow. More than 1500 investigations have been conducted on the ISS since the first module launched in 1998, with over 700 scientific publications. The ISS provides a unique environment for research, international collaboration and educational activities that benefit humankind. This paper will provide an up to date summary of key investigations, facilities, publications, and benefits from ISS research that have developed over the past year. Discoveries in human physiology and nutrition have enabled astronauts to return from ISS with little bone loss, even as scientists seek to better understand the new puzzle of “ocular syndrome” affecting the vision of up to half of astronauts. The geneLAB campaign will unify life sciences investigations to seek genomic, proteomic and metabolomics of the effect of microgravity on life as a whole. Combustion scientists identified a new “cold flame” phenomenon that has the potential to improve models of efficient combustion back on Earth. A significant number of instruments in Earth remote sensing and astrophysics are providing new access to data or nearing completion for launch, making ISS a significant platform for understanding of the Earth system and the universe. In addition to multidisciplinary research, the ISS partnership conducts a myriad of student led research investigations and educational activities aimed at increasing student interest in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM). Over the past year, the ISS partnership compiled new statistics of the educational impact of the ISS on students around the world. More than 43 million students, from kindergarten to graduate school, with more than 28

  11. Future Mars geophysical observatories for understanding its internal structure, rotation, and evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehant, Veronique; Banerdt, Bruce; Lognonné, Philippe; Grott, Matthias; Asmar, Sami; Biele, Jens; Breuer, Doris; Forget, François; Jaumann, Ralf; Johnson, Catherine; Knapmeyer, Martin; Langlais, Benoit; Le Feuvre, Mathieu; Mimoun, David; Mocquet, Antoine; Read, Peter; Rivoldini, Attilio; Romberg, Oliver; Schubert, Gerald; Smrekar, Sue; Spohn, Tilman; Tortora, Paolo; Ulamec, Stephan; Vennerstrøm, Susanne

    2012-08-01

    Our fundamental understanding of the interior of the Earth comes from seismology, geodesy, geochemistry, geomagnetism, geothermal studies, and petrology. For the Earth, measurements in those disciplines of geophysics have revealed the basic internal layering of the Earth, its dynamical regime, its thermal structure, its gross compositional stratification, as well as significant lateral variations in these quantities. Planetary interiors not only record evidence of conditions of planetary accretion and differentiation, they exert significant control on surface environments. We present recent advances in possible in-situ investigations of the interior of Mars, experiments and strategies that can provide unique and critical information about the fundamental processes of terrestrial planet formation and evolution. Such investigations applied on Mars have been ranked as a high priority in virtually every set of European, US and international high-level planetary science recommendations for the past 30 years. New seismological methods and approaches based on the cross-correlation of seismic noise by two seismic stations/landers on the surface of Mars and on joint seismic/orbiter detection of meteorite impacts, as well as the improvement of the performance of Very Broad-Band (VBB) seismometers have made it possible to secure a rich scientific return with only two simultaneously recording stations. In parallel, use of interferometric methods based on two Earth-Mars radio links simultaneously from landers tracked from Earth has increased the precision of radio science experiments by one order of magnitude. Magnetometer and heat flow measurements will complement seismic and geodetic data in order to obtain the best information on the interior of Mars. In addition to studying the present structure and dynamics of Mars, these measurements will provide important constraints for the astrobiology of Mars by helping to understand why Mars failed to sustain a magnetic field, by

  12. Future oil supply: The changing stance of the International Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, Richard G.

    2011-01-01

    The IEA was established in 1974 with a mandate to promote energy security amongst its members, namely the states of the OECD, and to advise those members on sound energy policy. Its recent forecasts of the medium and long term prospects for oil supply, however, have wavered, alternating from optimistic to pessimistic and back again. For policy-makers, such inconsistency is difficult to deal with. Firstly we examine whether the changing outlooks seen in IEA forecasts made between 2007 and 2010 truly reflect a demonstrable, underlying change in the known facts, and we can find no such factual changes reported by the IEA. Secondly we examine whether the serious criticisms of the forecast made by other analysts have yet been addressed, and we conclude that they have not. Thirdly we consider the possible effects of the current economic downturn upon the IEA's assumptions and upon future oil supply. We conclude that all the forecasts made by the IEA appear to be too optimistic throughout this period. - Research highlights: → IEA forecasts of oil supply have changed from optimistic to pessimistic and back. → The reasons for the changes are listed, examined and found wanting. → The most appropriate IEA forecast is nevertheless the most pessimistic one. → Some criticisms of the forecast methodology and assumptions are described.

  13. Challenges for embedded electronics in systems used in future facilities dedicated to international physics programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flament, O.; Bazzoli, S.; Girard, S.; Raimbourg, J.; Sauvestre, J. E. [CEA, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France); Baggio, J. [CEA, CESTA, F33830, Le Barp (France); Leray, J. L. [CEA, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2009-07-01

    The implementation of equipment with embedded electronic to monitor, control, measure and operate future large facilities dedicated to high energy physics or nuclear fusion are necessary. Reliable operation of these equipment will be achieved through availability and reliability analysis. In several cases, the equipment selection or development approach has to be done by considering a harsh environment in terms of radiations. In order to implement these systems in such environments shielding, location and distance from the source must be considered to reduce, to protect and to avoid radiation effects. People in charge of the choice of the equipment have to take into account and mitigate radiation effects from subsystem to system level. It is beyond the scope of this paper to address all the radiation effects: the electromagnetic effects are not dealt with. This paper is organised as follows: we describe the electronics and semiconductor trends in today applications, then we present the radiation effects and their impact on the device response and eventually we review different ways to mitigate these impacts

  14. Challenges for embedded electronics in systems used in future facilities dedicated to international physics programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flament, O.; Bazzoli, S.; Girard, S.; Raimbourg, J.; Sauvestre, J. E.; Baggio, J.; Leray, J. L.

    2009-01-01

    The implementation of equipment with embedded electronic to monitor, control, measure and operate future large facilities dedicated to high energy physics or nuclear fusion are necessary. Reliable operation of these equipment will be achieved through availability and reliability analysis. In several cases, the equipment selection or development approach has to be done by considering a harsh environment in terms of radiations. In order to implement these systems in such environments shielding, location and distance from the source must be considered to reduce, to protect and to avoid radiation effects. People in charge of the choice of the equipment have to take into account and mitigate radiation effects from subsystem to system level. It is beyond the scope of this paper to address all the radiation effects: the electromagnetic effects are not dealt with. This paper is organised as follows: we describe the electronics and semiconductor trends in today applications, then we present the radiation effects and their impact on the device response and eventually we review different ways to mitigate these impacts

  15. Revision of the International Pharmaceutical Federation's Basel Statements on the future of hospital pharmacy: From Basel to Bangkok.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeulen, Lee C; Moles, Rebekah J; Collins, Jack C; Gray, Andy; Sheikh, Abdul Latif; Surugue, Jacqueline; Moss, Robert J; Ivey, Marianne F; Stevenson, James G; Takeda, Yasuo; Ranjit, Eurek; Chaar, Betty; Penm, Jonathan

    2016-07-15

    The processes used to revise the 2008 Basel Statements on the future of hospital pharmacy are summarized, and the revised statements are presented. The process for revising the Basel Statements followed an approach similar to that used during their initial development. The Hospital Pharmacy Section (HPS) of the International Pharmaceutical Federation (FIP) revised the 2008 FIP Basel Statements in four phases, including a survey of hospital pharmacists worldwide, an internal review, online forums, and a face-to-face "World Café" workshop in Bangkok, Thailand. The global survey on the initial Basel Statements included input from 334 respondents from 62 countries. The majority of respondents agreed that most of the initial Basel Statements were acceptable as written and did not require revision. In total, 11 statements were judged by more than 10% of respondents as needing revision or deletion. The FIP HPS executive committee used the survey results to develop 69 initial revised draft statements. After an online discussion with the international hospital pharmacy community, including individuals from 28 countries representing all six World Health Organization regions, a final set of draft statements was prepared for the live discussion involving participants from 20 countries. The final 65 revised Basel Statements were voted on and accepted. Systematic revision of the FIP Basel Statements resulted in an updated reflection of aspirational goals for the future of hospital pharmacy practice. While this revision reflects the development of new goals for hospital pharmacy practice, the core principles of the Basel Statements remain an essential foundation for the discipline. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The Mount Sinai international enhancement of social work leadership program: The past and the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Elisa; Green, Karen; Whitwam, Louisa; Epstein, Irwin; Bernstein, Susan

    2018-07-01

    Developed in 1988, the Mount Sinai International Enhancement of Social Work Leadership Program brings 4-6 social workers from several countries each year to the Mount Sinai Hospital in New York City, where they meet with leaders from the hospital, community based organizations and graduate schools of social work, to enhance their leadership ability, strengthen management and research skills, and build upon global social work relationships. This article reviews the results of a survey conducted in 2016 to assess whether the visiting scholars met established learning objectives of the Program. Survey outcomes, presented in quantitative and qualitative terms, show positive results, and the scholars reported that the Program was extremely beneficial. The Program is viewed through the lens of two select adult learning theories: Social Learning Theory, which incorporates collaboration and learning from others, and Transformative Learning Theory, which is comprised of self-reflection and individualized learning. The inclusion of these theories in the implementation of the Program will be discussed. An analysis of the survey's outcomes, through pre- and post-Program participation and learning, facilitates assessment of potential programmatic adjustments to help evaluate long-term viability of the Program and potential duplication by other academic medical centers.

  17. Sustaining a Mature Risk Management Process: Ensuring the International Space Station for a Vibrant Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raftery, Michael; Carter-Journet, Katrina

    2013-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) risk management methodology is an example of a mature and sustainable process. Risk management is a systematic approach used to proactively identify, analyze, plan, track, control, communicate, and document risks to help management make risk-informed decisions that increase the likelihood of achieving program objectives. The ISS has been operating in space for over 14 years and permanently crewed for over 12 years. It is the longest surviving habitable vehicle in low Earth orbit history. Without a mature and proven risk management plan, it would be increasingly difficult to achieve mission success throughout the life of the ISS Program. A successful risk management process must be able to adapt to a dynamic program. As ISS program-level decision processes have evolved, so too has the ISS risk management process continued to innovate, improve, and adapt. Constant adaptation of risk management tools and an ever-improving process is essential to the continued success of the ISS Program. Above all, sustained support from program management is vital to risk management continued effectiveness. Risk management is valued and stressed as an important process by the ISS Program.

  18. ISOFIC/ISSNP 2014: International Symposium on Future I and C for Nuclear Power Plants/International Symposium on Symbiotic Nuclear Power Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-08-01

    This proceedings contains articles of ISOFIC/ISSNP 2014: International Symposium on Future I and C for Nuclear Power Plants/International Symposium on Symbiotic Nuclear Power Systems. It was held on Aug. 24-28, 2014 in Jeju. This proceedings is comprised of 14 sessions. The subject titles of I and C session are sensor, modern control, diagnostics and surveillance, digital upgrades, software V and V, cyber security, safety and reliability of digital systems, risk and safety evaluation, etc. The subject titles of HMI session are Human factors engineering, human performance, human reliability assessment, control room design, operator support systems, etc. The subject titles of ISSNP session are Safety and risk studies from social, environmental and economic aspects, other general nuclear engineering (ex. Reactor physics, thermal-hydraulics, reactor core and plant behavior, nuclear fuel behavior, etc.) and integrated aspects of energy systems (ex. Multipurpose utilization of nuclear energy, nuclear fuel cycle, plant decommissioning, comparative study of nuclear energy with other energy technologies, etc.)

  19. ISOFIC/ISSNP 2014: International Symposium on Future I and C for Nuclear Power Plants/International Symposium on Symbiotic Nuclear Power Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-08-15

    This proceedings contains articles of ISOFIC/ISSNP 2014: International Symposium on Future I and C for Nuclear Power Plants/International Symposium on Symbiotic Nuclear Power Systems. It was held on Aug. 24-28, 2014 in Jeju. This proceedings is comprised of 14 sessions. The subject titles of I and C session are sensor, modern control, diagnostics and surveillance, digital upgrades, software V and V, cyber security, safety and reliability of digital systems, risk and safety evaluation, etc. The subject titles of HMI session are Human factors engineering, human performance, human reliability assessment, control room design, operator support systems, etc. The subject titles of ISSNP session are Safety and risk studies from social, environmental and economic aspects, other general nuclear engineering (ex. Reactor physics, thermal-hydraulics, reactor core and plant behavior, nuclear fuel behavior, etc.) and integrated aspects of energy systems (ex. Multipurpose utilization of nuclear energy, nuclear fuel cycle, plant decommissioning, comparative study of nuclear energy with other energy technologies, etc.)

  20. The difficulties of Biocommunication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borrelli Eugenio

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Communicating modern biotechnologies is certainly no easy task. To tackle such a complex and future-oriented assignment, help may arrive, paradoxically, from the past, from ancient rhetorical tradition, and in particular from Aristotle, the most renowned rhetoric teacher of all time. In his Rhetoric, Aristotle suggested that to be persuasive speakers should make use of widely accepted opinions (endoxa, i.e. the common sense shared by all. Common sense is expressed in common truths and value-laden maxims. Common sense, however, is not flat but dialectical, in that it includes contrasting subjects. While reasoning, orators do not just passively report a conception of an unchanging world, but they reproduce the contrasting conceptions included in common sense. In the case of the debate about Biotechnologies, the contrasting conceptions can be found in the Natural/Artificial dualism, in the dichotomy between an attitude marked by obscurantism and suspicion of scientific and technological innovation and that of a scientistic attitude

  1. NIDDK international conference report on diabetes and depression: current understanding and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Richard I G; de Groot, Mary; Lucki, Irwin; Hunter, Christine M; Sartorius, Norman; Golden, Sherita H

    2014-08-01

    Comorbid diabetes and depression are a major clinical challenge as the outcomes of each condition are worsened by the other. This article is based on the presentations and discussions during an international meeting on diabetes and depression convened by the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) in collaboration with the National Institute of Mental Health and the Dialogue on Diabetes and Depression. While the psychological burden of diabetes may contribute to depression in some cases, this explanation does not sufficiently explain the relationship between these two conditions. Shared biological and behavioral mechanisms, such as hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activation, inflammation, autonomic dysfunction, sleep disturbance, inactive lifestyle, poor dietary habits, and environmental and cultural risk factors, are important to consider in understanding the link between depression and diabetes. Both individual psychological and pharmacological depression treatments are effective in people with diabetes, but the current range of treatment options is limited and has shown mixed effects on glycemic outcomes. More research is needed to understand what factors contribute to individual differences in vulnerability, treatment response, and resilience to depression and metabolic disorders across the life course and how best to provide care for people with comorbid diabetes and depression in different health care settings. Training programs are needed to create a cross-disciplinary workforce that can work in different models of care for comorbid conditions. © 2014 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  2. NASA International Year of Astronomy 2009 Programs: Impacts and Future Plans (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, H.; Smith, D.; Stockman, S. A.

    2009-12-01

    The opportunity offered by the International Year of Astronomy (IYA) 2009 to increase the exposure of the public and students to NASA discoveries in astronomy resulted in several innovative programs which have reached audiences far and wide. Some examples of the impact of these programs and building on the success of these programs beyond 2009 will be discussed in this talk. The spectacular success of the traveling exhibit of NASA images to public libraries around the country prompted NASA to extend it to include more libraries. As a part of the IYA Cornerstone project From Earth To The Universe, NASA images were displayed at non-traditional sites such as airports, parks, and music festivals, exposing them to an audience which would otherwise have been unaware of them. The NASA IYA Student Ambassadors engaged undergraduate and graduate students throughout the U.S. in outreach programs they created to spread NASA astronomy to their local communities. NASA’s Afterschool Universe provided IYA training to community-based organizations, while pre-launch teacher workshops associated with the Kepler and WISE missions were designed to engage educators in the science of these missions. IYA activities have been associated with several missions launched this year. These include the Hubble Servicing Mission 4, Kepler, Herschel/Planck, LCROSS. NASA’sIYA website and Go Observe! feature remain popular. The associated IYA Discovery Guides and Observing with NASA MicroObservatory activities have guided the public and students to perform their own observations of the night sky and to interpret them. NASA intends to work with its Science Education and Public Outreach Forums (SEPOF) to develop a strategy to take forward the best of its IYA2009 plans forward so as to build on the momentum generated by IYA2009 and continue to keep the public and students engaged in the scientific exploration of the universe.

  3. The International year of soils: thoughts on future directions for experiments in soil erosion research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Nikolaus J.

    2015-04-01

    The 2015 UN Year of Soils (IYS), implemented by the FAO, aims to increase awareness and understanding of the importance of soil for food security and essential ecosystem functions. The IYS has six specific objectives, ranging from raising the awareness among civil society and decision makers about the profound importance of soils, to the development of policies supporting the sustainable use of the non-renewable soil resource. For scientists and academic teachers using experiments to study soil erosion processes, two objectives appear of particular relevance. First is need for the rapid capacity enhancement for soil information collection and monitoring at all levels (global, regional and national). While at first glance, this objective appears to relate mostly to traditional mapping, sampling and monitoring, the threat of large-scale soil loss, at least with regards to their ecosystem services, illustrates the need for approaches of studying soils that avoids such irreversible destruction. Relying on often limited data and their extrapolation does not cover this need for soil information because rapid change of the drivers of change itself carry the risk of unprecedented soil reactions not covered by existing data sets. Experiments, on the other hand, offer the possibility to simulate and analyze future soil change in great detail. Furthermore, carefully designed experiments may also limit the actual effort involved in collecting the specific required information, e.g. by applying tests designed to study soil system behavior under controlled conditions, compared to field monitoring. For rainfall simulation, experiments should therefore involve the detailed study of erosion processes and include detailed recording and reporting of soil and rainfall properties. The development of a set of standardised rainfall simulations would widen the use data collected by such experiments. A second major area for rainfall simulation lies in the the education of the public about

  4. The TMT International Observatory: A quick overview of future opportunities for planetary science exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, Christophe; Dawson, Sandra; Otarola, Angel; Skidmore, Warren; Squires, Gordon; Travouillon, Tony; Greathouse, Thomas K.; Li, Jian-Yang; Lu, Junjun; Marchis, Frank; Meech, Karen J.; Wong, Michael H.

    2015-11-01

    The construction of the Thirty-Meter-Telescope International Observatory (TIO) is scheduled to take about eight years, with first-light currently planned for the horizon 2023/24, and start of science operations soon after. Its innovative design, the unequalled astronomical quality of its location, and the scientific capabilities that will be offered by its suite of instruments, all contribute to position TIO as a major ground-based facility of the next decade.In this talk, we will review the expected observing performances of the facility, which will combine adaptive-optics corrected wavefronts with powerful imaging and spectroscopic capabilities. TMT will enable ground-based exploration of our solar system - and planetary systems at large - at a dramatically enhanced sensitivity and spatial resolution across the visible and near-/thermal- infrared regimes. This sharpened vision, spanning the study of planetary atmospheres, ring systems, (cryo-)volcanic activity, small body populations (asteroids, comets, trans-Neptunian objects), and exoplanets, will shed new lights on the processes involved in the formation and evolution of our solar system, including the search for life outside the Earth, and will expand our understanding of the physical and chemical properties of extra-solar planets, complementing TIO's direct studies of planetary systems around other stars.TIO operations will meet a wide range of observing needs. Observing support associated with "classical" and "queue" modes will be offered (including some flavors of remote observing). The TIO schedule will integrate observing programs so as to optimize scientific outputs and take into account the stringent observing time constraints often encountered for observations of our solar system such as, for instance, the scheduling of target-of-oportunity observations, the implementation of short observing runs, or the support of long-term "key-science" programmes.Complementary information about TIO, and the

  5. Are Canadian General Internal Medicine training program graduates well prepared for their future careers?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snell Linda

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background At a time of increased need and demand for general internists in Canada, the attractiveness of generalist careers (including general internal medicine, GIM has been falling as evidenced by the low number of residents choosing this specialty. One hypothesis for the lack of interest in a generalist career is lack of comfort with the skills needed to practice after training, and the mismatch between the tertiary care, inpatient training environment and "real life". This project was designed to determine perceived effectiveness of training for 10 years of graduates of Canadian GIM programs to assist in the development of curriculum and objectives for general internists that will meet the needs of graduates and ultimately society. Methods Mailed survey designed to explore perceived importance of training for and preparation for various aspects of Canadian GIM practice. After extensive piloting of the survey, including a pilot survey of two universities to improve the questionnaire, all graduates of the 16 universities over the previous ten years were surveyed. Results Gaps (difference between importance and preparation were demonstrated in many of the CanMEDS 2000/2005® competencies. Medical problems of pregnancy, perioperative care, pain management, chronic care, ambulatory care and community GIM rotations were the medical expert areas with the largest gaps. Exposure to procedural skills was perceived to be lacking. Some procedural skills valued as important for current GIM trainees and performed frequently (example ambulatory ECG interpretation had low preparation ratings by trainees. Other areas of perceived discrepancy between training and practice included: manager role (set up of an office, health advocate (counseling for prevention, for example smoking cessation, and professional (end of life issues, ethics. Conclusion Graduates of Canadian GIM training programs over the last ten years have identified perceived gaps

  6. TEDS-M 2008 User Guide for the International Database. Supplement 3: Variables Derived from the Educator and Future Teacher Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brese, Falk, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    This supplement contains documentation on all the derived variables contained in the TEDS-M educator and future teacher data files. These derived variables were used to report data in the TEDS-M international reports. The variables that constitute the scales and indices are made available as part of the TEDS-M International Database to be used in…

  7. Workshops of the Sixth International Brain–Computer Interface Meeting: brain–computer interfaces past, present, and future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huggins, Jane E.; Guger, Christoph; Ziat, Mounia; Zander, Thorsten O.; Taylor, Denise; Tangermann, Michael; Soria-Frisch, Aureli; Simeral, John; Scherer, Reinhold; Rupp, Rüdiger; Ruffini, Giulio; Robinson, Douglas K. R.; Ramsey, Nick F.; Nijholt, Anton; Müller-Putz, Gernot; McFarland, Dennis J.; Mattia, Donatella; Lance, Brent J.; Kindermans, Pieter-Jan; Iturrate, Iñaki; Herff, Christian; Gupta, Disha; Do, An H.; Collinger, Jennifer L.; Chavarriaga, Ricardo; Chase, Steven M.; Bleichner, Martin G.; Batista, Aaron; Anderson, Charles W.; Aarnoutse, Erik J.

    2017-01-01

    The Sixth International Brain–Computer Interface (BCI) Meeting was held 30 May–3 June 2016 at the Asilomar Conference Grounds, Pacific Grove, California, USA. The conference included 28 workshops covering topics in BCI and brain–machine interface research. Topics included BCI for specific populations or applications, advancing BCI research through use of specific signals or technological advances, and translational and commercial issues to bring both implanted and non-invasive BCIs to market. BCI research is growing and expanding in the breadth of its applications, the depth of knowledge it can produce, and the practical benefit it can provide both for those with physical impairments and the general public. Here we provide summaries of each workshop, illustrating the breadth and depth of BCI research and highlighting important issues and calls for action to support future research and development. PMID:29152523

  8. Workshops of the Sixth International Brain-Computer Interface Meeting: brain-computer interfaces past, present, and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huggins, Jane E; Guger, Christoph; Ziat, Mounia; Zander, Thorsten O; Taylor, Denise; Tangermann, Michael; Soria-Frisch, Aureli; Simeral, John; Scherer, Reinhold; Rupp, Rüdiger; Ruffini, Giulio; Robinson, Douglas K R; Ramsey, Nick F; Nijholt, Anton; Müller-Putz, Gernot; McFarland, Dennis J; Mattia, Donatella; Lance, Brent J; Kindermans, Pieter-Jan; Iturrate, Iñaki; Herff, Christian; Gupta, Disha; Do, An H; Collinger, Jennifer L; Chavarriaga, Ricardo; Chase, Steven M; Bleichner, Martin G; Batista, Aaron; Anderson, Charles W; Aarnoutse, Erik J

    2017-01-01

    The Sixth International Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) Meeting was held 30 May-3 June 2016 at the Asilomar Conference Grounds, Pacific Grove, California, USA. The conference included 28 workshops covering topics in BCI and brain-machine interface research. Topics included BCI for specific populations or applications, advancing BCI research through use of specific signals or technological advances, and translational and commercial issues to bring both implanted and non-invasive BCIs to market. BCI research is growing and expanding in the breadth of its applications, the depth of knowledge it can produce, and the practical benefit it can provide both for those with physical impairments and the general public. Here we provide summaries of each workshop, illustrating the breadth and depth of BCI research and highlighting important issues and calls for action to support future research and development.

  9. Greenland as a self-governing sub-national territory in international relations: past, current and future perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ackrén, Maria; Jakobsen, Uffe

    2015-01-01

    Greenland was used by the US as a platform and as an extended arm within its security and foreign policy during the World War II and the cold war. After this things changed, although Greenland remained important in Danish-US relations under the umbrella of NATO. Nowadays, the geostrategic position...... of Greenland between North America and Europe is gaining fresh prominence in the race for natural resources in the Arctic. Many issues arise from the prospective opening of the Arctic, all of which may have fateful impacts on future development in the region. Climate change, claims related to the extension....... This article reviews developments from the World War II to the present regarding international relations from a Greenlandic perspective. As a self-governing sub-national territory within the realm of Denmark, Greenland does not have the ultimate decision-making power within foreign and security policy. The new...

  10. INFORMAS (International Network for Food and Obesity/non-communicable diseases Research, Monitoring and Action Support): summary and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumanyika, S

    2013-10-01

    This supplement presents the foundational elements for INFORMAS (International Network for Food and Obesity/non-communicable diseases Research, Monitoring and Action Support). As explained in the overview article by Swinburn and colleagues, INFORMAS has a compelling rationale and has set forth clear objectives, outcomes, principles and frameworks for monitoring and benchmarking key aspects of food environments and the policies and actions that influence the healthiness of food environments. This summary highlights the proposed monitoring approaches for the 10 interrelated INFORMAS modules: public and private sector policies and actions; key aspects of food environments (food composition, labelling, promotion, provision, retail, prices, and trade and investment) and population outcomes (diet quality). This ambitious effort should be feasible when approached in a step-wise manner, taking into account existing monitoring efforts, data sources, country contexts and capacity, and when adequately resourced. After protocol development and pilot testing of the modules, INFORMAS aims to be a sustainable, low-cost monitoring framework. Future directions relate to institutionalization, implementation and, ultimately, to leveraging INFORMAS data in ways that will bring key drivers of food environments into alignment with public health goals. © 2013 The Authors. Obesity Reviews published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of the International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  11. A national survey of residents in combined Internal Medicine and Dermatology residency programs: educational experience and future plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostaghimi, Arash; Wanat, Karolyn; Crotty, Bradley H; Rosenbach, Misha

    2015-10-16

    In response to a perceived erosion of medical dermatology, combined internal medicine and dermatology programs (med/derm) programs have been developed that aim to train dermatologists who take care of medically complex patients. Despite the investment in these programs, there is currently no data with regards to the potential impact of these trainees on the dermatology workforce. To determine the experiences, motivations, and future plans of residents in combined med/derm residency programs. We surveyed residents at all United States institutions with both categorical and combined training programs in spring of 2012. Respondents used visual analog scales to rate clinical interests, self-assessed competency, career plans, and challenges. The primary study outcomes were comfort in taking care of patients with complex disease, future practice plans, and experience during residency. Twenty-eight of 31 med/derm residents (87.5%) and 28 of 91 (31%) categorical residents responded (overall response rate 46%). No significant differences were seen in self-assessed dermatology competency, or comfort in performing inpatient consultations, cosmetic procedures, or prescribing systemic agents. A trend toward less comfort in general dermatology was seen among med/derm residents. Med/derm residents were more likely to indicate career preferences for performing inpatient consultation and taking care of medically complex patients. Categorical residents rated their programs and experiences more highly. Med/derm residents have stronger interests in serving medically complex patients. Categorical residents are more likely to have a positive experience during residency. Future work will be needed to ascertain career choices among graduates once data are available.

  12. Denying humanitarian access as an international crime in times of non-international armed conflict: the challenges to prosecute and some proposals for the future

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartels, R.

    2015-01-01

    Impeding humanitarian access and the starving of civilians is prohibited under international humanitarian law in times of both international and non-international armed conflicts. Such conduct is criminalised under the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court (ICC Statute) when committed

  13. Difficulty Swallowing After Stroke (Dysphagia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stroke Heroes Among Us Difficulty Swallowing After Stroke (Dysphagia) Updated:Nov 15,2016 Excerpted and adapted from "Swallowing Disorders After a Stroke," Stroke Connection Magazine July/August ...

  14. Workplace bullying and sleep difficulties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Åse Marie; Hogh, Annie; Garde, Anne Helene

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aims of the present study were to investigate whether being subjected to bullying and witnessing bullying at the workplace was associated with concurrent sleep difficulties, whether frequently bullied/witnesses have more sleep difficulties than occasionally bullied....../witnesses, and whether there were associations between being subjected to bullying or witnessing bullying at the workplace and subsequent sleep difficulties. METHODS: A total of 3,382 respondents (67 % women and 33 % men) completed a baseline questionnaire about their psychosocial work environment and health....... The overall response rate was 46 %. At follow-up 2 years later, 1671 of those responded to a second questionnaire (49 % of the 3,382 respondents at baseline). Sleep difficulties were measured in terms of disturbed sleep, awakening problems, and poor quality of sleep. RESULTS: Bullied persons and witnesses...

  15. Blink activity and task difficulty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Y; Yamaoka, K

    1993-08-01

    This study investigated the relationship between task difficulty and blink activity, which includes blink rate, blink amplitude, and blink duration. Two kinds of tasks established two levels of difficulty. In Exp. 1, a mental arithmetic task was used to examine the relationship. Analysis showed that blink rate for a difficult task was significantly higher than that for an easier one. In Exp. 2, a letter-search task (hiragana Japanese alphabet) was used while the other conditions were the same as those in Exp. 1; however, the results of this experiment were not influenced by the difficulty of the task. As results indicate that blink rate is related to not only difficulty but also the nature of the task, the nature of the task is probably dependent on a mechanism in information processing. The results for blink amplitude and blink duration showed no systematic change during either experiment.

  16. Desirable difficulties in vocabulary learning

    OpenAIRE

    Bjork, RA; Kroll, JF

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 by the Board of Trustees of the University of Illinois. In this article we discuss the role of desirable difficulties in vocabulary learning from two perspectives, one having to do with identifying conditions of learning that impose initial challenges to the learner but then benefit later retention and transfer, and the other having to do with the role of certain difficulties that are intrinsic to language processes, are engaged during word learning, and reflect how language is underst...

  17. The future Jules Horowitz material testing reactor: An opportunity for developing international collaborations on a major European irradiation infrastructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parrat, D.; Bignan, G.; Maugard, B.; Gonnier, C.; Blandin, C.

    2015-01-01

    and extremely favourable situation for which future end-users can express very early their needs, thanks to either participation to the JHR Consortium, or to international programs or through bilateral collaborations. A general presentation of this research infrastructure and associated experimental capability has been made at the 9th WWER Fuel Performance Meeting in 2011. Current paper updates in a first part the facility building status and the current design work carried out on irradiation hosting systems for nuclear materials and nuclear fuels and on non-destructive examination benches. Then expected main performances are reviewed and collaborations set up around each study are also underlined, as they often correspond to an “in-kind” contribution of a Consortium member. Finally, recent developments in the international co-operation around the facility are highlighted, such as for example the CEA candidacy for the IAEA designation as an ICERR (International Center based on Research Reactors) or the numerous staff of secondees working on-site. Keywords: CEA, Material Testing Reactor, Jules Horowitz Reactor, Irradiation device, JHR Consortium, ICERR

  18. Adolescent Bullying and Sleep Difficulties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon C. Hunter

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated whether adolescents who report having been bullied, being bullies, or report both being a bully and being bullied experience more sleep difficulties than children uninvolved in bullying. The study drew upon cognitive theories of insomnia, investigating whether the extent to which young people report worrying about bullying can moderate associations between victimization and sleep difficulties. Participants were 5420 adolescents who completed a self-report questionnaire. Pure Victims (OR = 1.72, 95% CI [1.07, 2.75], Pure Bullies (OR = 1.80, 95% CI [1.16, 2.81], and Bully-Victims (OR = 2.90, 95% CI [1.17, 4.92] were all more likely to experience sleep difficulties when compared to uninvolved young people. The extent to which young people reported worrying about being bullied did not moderate the links between victimization and sleep difficulties. In this way, bullying is clearly related to sleep difficulties among adolescents but the conceptual reach of the cognitive model of insomnia in this domain is questioned.

  19. Exploration-Related Research on the International Space Station: Connecting Science Results to the Design of Future Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhatigan, Jennifer L.; Robinson, Julie A.; Sawin, Charles F.; Ahlf, Peter R.

    2005-01-01

    In January, 2004, the US President announced a vision for space exploration, and charged NASA with utilizing the International Space Station (ISS) for research and technology targeted at supporting the US space exploration goals. This paper describes: 1) what we have learned from the first four years of research on ISS relative to the exploration mission, 2) the on-going research being conducted in this regard, 3) our current understanding of the major exploration mission risks that the ISS can be used to address, and 4) current progress in realigning NASA s research portfolio for ISS to support exploration missions. Specifically, we discuss the focus of research on solving the perplexing problems of maintaining human health on long-duration missions, and the development of countermeasures to protect humans from the space environment, enabling long duration exploration missions. The interchange between mission design and research needs is dynamic, where design decisions influence the type of research needed, and results of research influence design decisions. The fundamental challenge to science on ISS is completing experiments that answer key questions in time to shape design decisions for future exploration. In this context, exploration-relevant research must do more than be conceptually connected to design decisions-it must become a part of the mission design process.

  20. Recent Successes and Future Plans for NASA's Space Communications and Navigation Testbed on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhart, Richard C.; Sankovic, John M.; Johnson, Sandra K.; Lux, James P.; Chelmins, David T.

    2014-01-01

    Flexible and extensible space communications architectures and technology are essential to enable future space exploration and science activities. NASA has championed the development of the Space Telecommunications Radio System (STRS) software defined radio (SDR) standard and the application of SDR technology to reduce the costs and risks of using SDRs for space missions, and has developed an on-orbit testbed to validate these capabilities. The Space Communications and Navigation (SCaN) Testbed (previously known as the Communications, Navigation, and Networking reConfigurable Testbed (CoNNeCT)) is advancing SDR, on-board networking, and navigation technologies by conducting space experiments aboard the International Space Station. During its first year(s) on-orbit, the SCaN Testbed has achieved considerable accomplishments to better understand SDRs and their applications. The SDR platforms and software waveforms on each SDR have over 1500 hours of operation and are performing as designed. The Ka-band SDR on the SCaN Testbed is NASAs first space Ka-band transceiver and is NASA's first Ka-band mission using the Space Network. This has provided exciting opportunities to operate at Ka-band and assist with on-orbit tests of NASA newest Tracking and Data Relay Satellites (TDRS). During its first year, SCaN Testbed completed its first on-orbit SDR reconfigurations. SDR reconfigurations occur when implementing new waveforms on an SDR. SDR reconfigurations allow a radio to change minor parameters, such as data rate, or complete functionality. New waveforms which provide new capability and are reusable across different missions provide long term value for reconfigurable platforms such as SDRs. The STRS Standard provides guidelines for new waveform development by third parties. Waveform development by organizations other than the platform provider offers NASA the ability to develop waveforms itself and reduce its dependence and costs on the platform developer. Each of these

  1. International Nuclear Technology Forum: Future prospects of nuclear power plants and Turkey; Uluslararasi Nukleer Teknoloji Kurultayi: Nukleer guc santrallarinin gelecegi ve Turkiye

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    The document includes 19 papers presented at the `International Nuclear Technology Forum: Future Prospects of Nuclear Power Plants in Turkey`, held between 12-15 October 1993 in Ankara (Turkey). A separate abstract was prepared for each paper prepared for each paper.

  2. Summary of high level international symposium on ''the role of the IAEA: future directions and challenges'' Hofburg, Vienna, 20 October 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-02-01

    On the occasion of the 40th anniversary of the International Atomic Energy Agency, the Austrian Federal Government, in collaboration with the Agency, convened a Symposium on the Agency's future at which a number of distinguished speakers took part in a panel discussion in the presence of an invited audience. This brochure contains a summary overview of the event

  3. Common Factors Among Family Medicine Residents Who Encounter Difficulty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binczyk, Natalia M; Babenko, Oksana; Schipper, Shirley; Ross, Shelley

    2018-04-01

    Residents in difficulty are costly to programs in both time and resources, and encountering difficulty can be emotionally harmful to residents. Approximately 10% of residents will encounter difficulty at some point in training. While there have been several studies looking at common factors among residents who encounter difficulty, some of the findings are inconsistent. The objective of this study was to determine whether there are common factors among the residents who encounter difficulty during training in a large Canadian family medicine residency program. Secondary data analysis was performed on archived resident files from a Canadian family medicine residency program. Residents who commenced an urban family medicine residency program between the years of 2006 and 2014 were included in the study. Five hundred nine family medicine residents were included in data analysis. Residents older than 30 years were 2.33 times (95% CI: 1.27-4.26) more likely to encounter difficulty than residents aged 30 years or younger. Nontransfer residents were 8.85 times (95% CI: 1.17-66.67) more likely to encounter difficulty than transfer residents. The effects of sex, training site, international medical graduate status, and rotation order on the likelihood of encountering difficulty were nonsignificant. Older and nontransfer residents may be facing unique circumstances and may benefit from additional support from the program.

  4. Early Identification of Reading Difficulties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Mads; Nielsen, Anne-Mette Veber; Juul, Holger

    2017-01-01

    Early screening for reading difficulties before the onset of instruction is desirable because it allows intervention that is targeted at prevention rather than remediation of reading difficulties. However, early screening may be too inaccurate to effectively allocate resources to those who need...... them. The present study compared the accuracy of early screening before the onset of formal reading instruction with late screening six months into the first year of instruction. The study followed 164 Danish students from the end of Grade 0 to the end of Grade 2. Early screening included measures...... of phonemic awareness, rapid naming, letter knowledge, paired associate learning, and reading. Late screening included only reading. Results indicated that reading measures improved substantially as predictors over the first six months of Grade 1, to the point where late reading measures alone provided...

  5. Libyan cochlear implant programme: achievements, difficulties, and future goals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samya El-Ogbi

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Cochlear implantation has become established worldwide as a safe and effective method of auditory rehabilitation of selected severely and profound deaf children and adults. Over 100,000 patients have received cochlear implants worldwide with the paediatric population proving to be the main beneficiaries. The Libyan cochlear implant programme was set up in 2004. Data relating to the patients who received cochlear implantation at Tripoli Medical Centre between October 2007 and February 2010 were analysed. Implant operations were performed on 37 patients. All patients received Med-El SONATATI 100 devices. Thirty-four (91.9% of these patients were children, whilst three (8.1% were adults. Combined, congenital hearing loss (56.8% and perinatal/neonatal (29.7% were the two main aetiological factors in children. Seventeen patients (45.9% had a positive family history of deafness. Sixteen patients (43.2% were born to blood-related parents. The overall rate of minor and major complications was 16.2%, which is comparable to previous studies.

  6. Libyan cochlear implant programme: achievements, difficulties, and future goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamat, Ali; Esriti, Anwer; Ehtuish, Asia; El-Ogbi, Samya

    2011-01-01

    Cochlear implantation has become established worldwide as a safe and effective method of auditory rehabilitation of selected severely and profound deaf children and adults. Over 100,000 patients have received cochlear implants worldwide with the paediatric population proving to be the main beneficiaries. The Libyan cochlear implant programme was set up in 2004. Data relating to the patients who received cochlear implantation at Tripoli Medical Centre between October 2007 and February 2010 were analysed. Implant operations were performed on 37 patients. All patients received Med-El SONATA(TI) (100) devices. Thirty-four (91.9%) of these patients were children, whilst three (8.1%) were adults. Combined, congenital hearing loss (56.8%) and perinatal/neonatal (29.7%) were the two main aetiological factors in children. Seventeen patients (45.9%) had a positive family history of deafness. Sixteen patients (43.2%) were born to blood-related parents. The overall rate of minor and major complications was 16.2%, which is comparable to previous studies.

  7. Nuclear systems of the future: international forum generation 4 and research and development projects at the Cea; Systemes nucleaires du futur: forum international generation 4 et projets de R et D du CEA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carre, F

    2003-07-01

    To advance nuclear energy to meet future energy needs, ten countries have agreed to develop a future generation of nuclear energy systems, known as Generation 4. A technology road map to guide the Generation 4 effort was begun. This document presents the goals for these nuclear systems and the research programs of the Cea on the gas technology, GT-MHR, VHTR and GFR and the other systems as sodium Fast Neutron reactors, supercritical water and space nuclear. (A.L.B.)

  8. Starworld: Preparing Accountants for the Future: A Case-Based Approach to Teach International Financial Reporting Standards Using ERP Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragan, Joseph M.; Savino, Christopher J.; Parashac, Paul; Hosler, Jonathan C.

    2010-01-01

    International Financial Reporting Standards now constitute an important part of educating young professional accountants. This paper looks at a case based process to teach International Financial Reporting Standards using integrated Enterprise Resource Planning software. The case contained within the paper can be used within a variety of courses…

  9. University Management, Present and Future: How and by Whom? Report of the International Workshop on University Reform, 2011. RIHE International Seminar Reports. No.18

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research Institute for Higher Education, Hiroshima University, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The Research Institute for Higher Education (RIHE) at Hiroshima University, through special funding by the Ministry of Education and Science in 2008, has been implementing a research project on the reform of higher education in the knowledge-based society of the 21st century. Research into the design of the future higher education system,…

  10. Ghosts, Troubles, Difficulties, and Challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raahauge, Kirsten Marie

    2016-01-01

    not consider ‘ghosts’ or ‘haunting’ as a possible explanation. This causes difficulties when they narrate and contextualise their experience, and typically they present ambiguous narratives and stress their disbelief at and bewilderment with the experiences. Still, as I will try to show in my article......, their bewilderment and the way they use the notions ‘ghost’ and ‘haunting’ point to possible reinterpretations of these notions, so that the narrative mediation shapes not only the experience but also the ways that ‘ghosts’ and ‘haunting’ are reinterpreted in contemporary Denmark....

  11. International

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    This rubric reports on 10 short notes about international economical facts about nuclear power: Electricite de France (EdF) and its assistance and management contracts with Eastern Europe countries (Poland, Hungary, Bulgaria); Transnuclear Inc. company (a 100% Cogema daughter company) acquired the US Vectra Technologies company; the construction of the Khumo nuclear power plant in Northern Korea plays in favour of the reconciliation between Northern and Southern Korea; the delivery of two VVER 1000 Russian reactors to China; the enforcement of the cooperation agreement between Euratom and Argentina; Japan requested for the financing of a Russian fast breeder reactor; Russia has planned to sell a floating barge-type nuclear power plant to Indonesia; the control of the Swedish reactor vessels of Sydkraft AB company committed to Tractebel (Belgium); the renewal of the nuclear cooperation agreement between Swiss and USA; the call for bids from the Turkish TEAS electric power company for the building of the Akkuyu nuclear power plant answered by three candidates: Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL), Westinghouse (US) and the French-German NPI company. (J.S.)

  12. Nuclear systems of the future: international forum generation 4 and research and development projects at the Cea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carre, F.

    2003-01-01

    To advance nuclear energy to meet future energy needs, ten countries have agreed to develop a future generation of nuclear energy systems, known as Generation 4. A technology road map to guide the Generation 4 effort was begun. This document presents the goals for these nuclear systems and the research programs of the Cea on the gas technology, GT-MHR, VHTR and GFR and the other systems as sodium Fast Neutron reactors, supercritical water and space nuclear. (A.L.B.)

  13. Ensino de conceitos físicos de termologia para alunos com deficiência visual: dificuldades e alternativas encontradas por licenciandos para o planejamento de atividades Future high school teachers' difficulties and alternatives found to planning thermology activities designed for students with visual impairments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eder Pires de Camargo

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Relatamos aqui resultados parciais de um estudo que analisou o desempenho de futuros professores quando, durante o desenvolvimento de uma disciplina de Prática de Ensino de Física, foram solicitados a planejar, elaborar e ministrar, em situações reais de sala de aula, tópicos de ensino de termologia a uma turma de estudantes, dentre os quais se incluíam alunos com deficiência visual. Os dados coletados mostram que as principais dificuldades apresentadas pelos futuros professores referem-se à abordagem do conhecer fenômenos físicos como dependente do ver. Por outro lado, como alternativas, os futuros professores mostraram criatividade em superar atitudes passivas relativas à problemática educacional considerada e a elaboração de estratégias metodológicas destituídas da relação conhecer/ver.The present article reports partial outcomes of a study that aimed to verify future High School teachers' performance. A group of undergraduates were taking a course called "Teaching Practice" where they were required to plan, elaborate and teach, in classroom settings, topics relating to thermology to a class which included students with visual impairments. Data that was collected showed that, on the one hand, the main difficulties presented by future Physics High School teachers were related to the approach to understanding phenomena in physics in a visually dependent way. On the other hand, these future teachers demonstrated creativity in overcoming passive attitudes relative to this educational problem and were able to develop methodological strategies unhindered by the knowing/seeing relation.

  14. Emissions from international shipping. Pt. 2: Impact of future technologies - scenarios for the years 2020 and 2050

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eyring, V.; Lauer, A.; Lemper, B.

    2004-01-01

    We use the today's fleet-average emission factors of the most important ship exhausts to calculate emission scenarios for the future. To develop plausible future scenarios we first discuss upcoming regulations and compliance with future regulations through technological improvements. We present geographically resolved emission inventory forecast scenarios for the years 2020 and 2050. The scenarios are based on some very strict assumptions of future ship traffic demand and technological improvements. The future ship traffic demand scenario is mainly determined by the economic growth and the growth in world seaborne trade and distinguishes between different ship types. The annual growth rates of sea trade volumes and expected vessel traffic density is assumed to be smaller for today's most frequently sailed routes (in particular east-west-trades) than for those that are currently less frequently sailed (in particular south-north-trades). This leads to an adjustment of the number of ships sailing the different shipping routes in 2020 and even stronger in 2050. For the future technology scenarios we assume a diesel-only fleet in 2020 resulting in an estimated fuel consumption of 422 million metric tons (Mt) and 1226 Tg CO 2 emissions. For 2050 one scenario for fuel consumption assumes that 25% of the fuel consumed by a diesel-only fleet can be saved by using future alternative propulsion plants, resulting in a fuel consumption of 422 Mt and 1339 Tg CO 2 emissions in 2050. The other scenario is a business-as-usual scenario for a diesel-only fleet even in 2050 and gives an estimate of 646 Mt and 1783 Tg CO 2 emissions in 2050. Dependent on how rapid technology improvements for diesel engines are introduced we present four different technology scenarios. (orig.)

  15. Player Modeling Using HOSVD towards Dynamic Difficulty Adjustment in Videogames

    OpenAIRE

    Anagnostou , Kostas; Maragoudakis , Manolis

    2012-01-01

    Part 3: Second International Workshop on Computational Intelligence in Software Engineering (CISE 2012); International audience; In this work, we propose and evaluate a Higher Order Singular Value Decomposition (HOSVD) of a tensor as a means to classify player behavior and adjust game difficulty dynamically. Applying this method to player data collected during a plethora of game sessions resulted in a reduction of the dimensionality of the classification problem and a robust classification of...

  16. International co-operation and the future of nuclear power. European Nuclear Congress '98, Nice, 26 October 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ElBaradei, M.

    1998-01-01

    The document reproduces the text of the conference given by the Director General of the IAEA at the joint Opening Session of the European Nuclear Congress'98 (ENC) and RECOD in Nice, France, on 26 october 1998. The conference emphasized the importance of strengthened international co-operation in all areas relevant to the safe and peaceful use of nuclear energy, especially for power generation. As the only intergovernmental global organization dedicated to nuclear science and technology, the role of the IAEA is to serve as the international focal point for standard setting, independent analysis, technology transfer and oversight and verification

  17. International Workshop on Exotic Hadronic Atoms, Deeply Bound Kaonic Nuclear States and Antihydrogen : Present Results, Future Challenges

    CERN Document Server

    Widmann, E; Curceanu, C; Trento 2006; Trento06

    2006-01-01

    These are the miniproceedings of the workshop "Exotic hadronic atoms, deeply bound kaonic nuclear states and antihydrogen: present results, future challenges," which was held at the European Centre for Theoretical Nuclear Physics and Related Studies (ECT*), Trento (Italy), June 19-24, 2006. The document includes a short presentation of the topics, the list of participants, and a short contribution from each speaker.

  18. Impact of SAMMPRIS on the future of intracranial atherosclerotic disease management: polling results from the ICAD symposium at the International Stroke Conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidat, Osama O; Castonguay, Alicia C; Nguyen, Thanh N; Becker, Kyra J; Derdeyn, Colin P; Nelson, Peter K; Amarenco, Pierre; Brott, Thomas G

    2014-04-01

    There are few data regarding the effect of the Stenting and Aggressive Medical Management for Preventing Recurrent Stroke in Intracranial Stenosis (SAMMPRIS) trial results on the management of intracranial atherosclerotic disease (ICAD). We sought to understand the impact of the SAMMPRIS trial on current ICAD clinical practices and future trial design. During the ICAD symposium at the 2012 International Stroke Conference, electronic data were collected regarding attendees' clinical management of ICAD and opinions on the feasibility of future trials post-SAMMPRIS. 217 attendees from different specialties, including neurologists (57%), neurointerventionalists (9%) and neurosurgeons (5%), participated in the session. The majority of respondents (77%) indicated that the results of SAMMPRIS have impacted their consideration for intracranial stenting. Post-SAMMPRIS, 84% selected 'SAMMPRIS-style' medical management for the treatment of ICAD. For patients with ICAD who failed aggressive medical therapy, 82% would consider an alternative approach to continuing medical therapy (30% considered clinical trial enrollment, 28% suggested angioplasty and stenting and 24% angioplasty). The majority of participants (85%) were willing to randomize patients with symptomatic ICAD in future trials. For the next ICAD trial, 29% indicated that angioplasty alone should be compared with aggressive medical therapy. Our polling results suggest that the SAMMPRIS trial has had an impact on the current treatment of ICAD. Treatment of patients who failed medical therapy varied widely from aggressive medical therapy to balloon angioplasty, stenting or enrollment in future clinical trials. The willingness to continue clinical trials and randomize patients supports the need for future ICAD studies.

  19. International Festival of Student Films as the Innovative Means of Legal Education and Multimedia Training of Future Lawyers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garmaev, Yury Petrovich; Chumakova, Lydia Petrovna

    2016-01-01

    The main purpose of the article is to ensure further modernization of the educational activities in law universities based on the use of multimedia technologies as well as development of tools for legal education through implementation of the project of international student film festivals. The methodology is based on the concept and methods of…

  20. Workshops of the Sixth International Brain–Computer Interface Meeting : brain–computer interfaces past, present, and future

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huggins, Jane E.; Guger, Christoph; Ziat, Mounia; Zander, Thorsten O.; Taylor, Denise; Tangermann, Michael; Soria-Frisch, Aureli; Simeral, John; Scherer, Reinhold; Rupp, Rüdiger; Ruffini, Giulio; Robinson, Douglas K.R.; Ramsey, Nick F.; Nijholt, Anton; Müller-Putz, Gernot R.; McFarland, Dennis J.; Mattia, Donatella; Lance, Brent J.; Kindermans, Pieter-Jan; Iturrate, Iñaki; Herff, Christian; Gupta, Disha; Do, An H.; Collinger, Jennifer L.; Chavarriaga, Ricardo; Chasey, Steven M.; Bleichner, Martin G.; Batista, Aaron; Anderson, Charles W.; Aarnoutse, Erik J.

    2017-01-01

    The Sixth International Brain–Computer Interface (BCI) Meeting was held 30 May–3 June 2016 at the Asilomar Conference Grounds, Pacific Grove, California, USA. The conference included 28 workshops covering topics in BCI and brain–machine interface research. Topics included BCI for specific

  1. Integrating Foreign Languages and Cultures into U.S. International Business Programs: Best Practices and Future Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacco, Steven J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the importance of foreign languages and cultures and their integration into U.S. international business programs. The author juxtaposes globalization strategies of European and American business schools and highlights pre-university foreign language study in Europe and the U.S. The paper goes on to describe model U.S.…

  2. Measuring the Effect of In-Country Recruitment Activities on Future International Enrollment at a Large Canadian University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltice, John G.

    2016-01-01

    There are many recruitment methods and tactics an institution can choose to pursue diversification of international student enrollment goals. Return on investment in a choice of tactic can take up to three or more years to determine thus initial choice is vital. Just as important though is in our ability to measure the return. If we can not…

  3. ANALYSIS OF INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE WITH A NEW CONCEPT OF POROUS MEDIUM COMBUSTION FOR THE FUTURE CLEAN ENGINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok A Dhale

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available At present, the emissions of internal combustion engine can only be improved by catalytic treatments of the exhaust gases. Such treatments, however, result in high costs and relatively low conversion efficiency. This suggests that a new combustion technique should be developed to yield improved primary combustion processes inside the engine with drastically reduced exhaust gas emissions. To fulfill all requirements, Dr. Franz Drust has proposed a new combustion concept to perform homogenous combustion in internal combustion engines. This concept used the porous medium combustion technique and is called "PM-engine". It is shown that the PM combustion technique can be applied to internal combustion engines. Theoretical considerations are presented for internal combustion engines, indicating that an overall improvement in thermal efficiency can be achieved for the PM-engine. This is explained and general performance of the new PM-engines is demonstrated for a single cylinder, water cooled, direct injection diesel engine. Verification of experiments at primary stage is described that were carried out as a part of the present study.

  4. [Increasing difficulties for scientific publication in Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, Elena

    2014-03-01

    A very important increase in the costs of the edition of scientific journals has taken place in Venezuela, due to difficulties in obtaining imported free acid paper and other materials used for handling documents. Like other journals, Investigaci6n Clinica has been considering switching completely to a digital publication format; however there are several reasons that prevent us to doing it at this time: the journal is distributed in printed form to many national institutions, which do not have immediate access to digital information. In addition, there exists a commitment of shipment of printed issues for some international indices and in exchange with other national and foreign journals, whose printed format we receive. Another important aspect is that our University maintains a weak technological platform that makes difficult the immediacy required for the interchange with authors and consulted referees of received papers; and there is a latent danger of limitations in the use of digital technologies, due to current national politic problems. Consequently, we need to continue with the printed format, but must reduce the amount of printed issues, so as not to limit the number of papers published in each edition. Nevertheless, there is an ever increasing number of contributions from foreign researches and Investigaci6n Clinica has been recently included in two new international indices, the SEIIC from Argentina and the Infobase Index from India, reasons that obligate us to maintain our levels of excellence and commitment to our authors and readers.

  5. The socioeconomic impact of international aid: a qualitative study of healthcare recovery in post-earthquake Haiti and implications for future disaster relief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kligerman, Maxwell; Walmer, David; Bereknyei Merrell, Sylvia

    2017-05-01

    We assessed healthcare provider perspectives of international aid four years after the Haiti Earthquake to better understand the impact of aid on the Haitian healthcare system and learn best practices for recovery in future disaster contexts. We conducted 22 semi-structured interviews with the directors of local, collaborative, and aid-funded healthcare facilities in Leogane, Haiti. We coded and analysed the interviews using an iterative method based on a grounded theory approach of data analysis. Healthcare providers identified positive aspects of aid, including acute emergency relief, long-term improved healthcare access, and increased ease of referrals for low-income patients. However, they also identified negative impacts of international aid, including episodes of poor quality care, internal brain drain, competition across facilities, decrease in patient flow to local facilities, and emigration of Haitian doctors to abroad. As Haiti continues to recover, it is imperative for aid institutions and local healthcare facilities to develop a more collaborative relationship to transition acute relief to sustainable capacity building. In future disaster contexts, aid institutions should specifically utilise quality of care metrics, NGO Codes of Conduct, Master Health Facility Lists, and sliding scale payment systems to improve disaster response.

  6. Nuclear energy in Italy between utopia and reality: Perspectives for the future within the framework of the European Internal Market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mezzetti, L.

    1991-01-01

    The decision to do without nuclear energy has been made without there being an equivalent, realistic, and convincing alternative. The whole experience with the plebiscites of 1987 seems to be characterized by problematic elements from a political as well as a judicial point of view. With the Internal Market of 1992 coming nearer, the following becomes acute: Italian 'energy mechanisms' have to be adopted quickly to those of other member states. This means that the differences which characterize the internal situation have to be continuously decreased by coordinating the Italian energy policy along the lines of the latest targets of European energy policy. This can only be achieved if there are changes in the field of governmental intervention. (orig./HSCH) [de

  7. International tourism in the Caribbean area: currentstatusand future prospects Le tourisme international dans la Caraïbe : état des lieux et perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Dehoorne

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In the past the Caribbean was restricted to offering elitist tourist activities, but over the last three decades it has to a large extent opened its doors to international tourism.  The advent of mass tourism has been accompanied by a redistribution of the tourism functions and flows within the region.  The significant growth in tourism, although essential to the economies of the Caribbean islands, has given rise to a number of issues, the first being the necessity to examine the multiplier effect from tourism revenue within these externally-dependent economies.  Next there is both the question of access to resources and the closing of tourist sites in a context where local communities are focusing on coastlines to develop their own numerous tourism and recreational activities.  These developments will inevitably require us to consider environmental issues and the sustainability of today’s predominant tourism activities.Longtemps limité à des pratiques touristiques élitistes, l’espace caribéen s’est largement ouvert au tourisme international au cours des trois dernières décennies. L’avènement du tourisme de masse s’est accompagné d’une redistribution des flux et de fonctions touristiques dans cette région. Les enjeux, qui  accompagnent l’importance croissante du fait touristique, essentiel pour les économies des îles caribéennes, sont de plusieurs ordres : tout d’abord, il convient de s’interroger sur les effets d’entraînement des revenus du tourisme dans le cadre de ces économies extraverties. Se pose également la question de l’accès aux ressources et de la fermeture des lieux touristiques, dans un contexte où les sociétés locales développent aussi leurs propres pratiques touristiques et récréatives ; autant d’usages qui se polarisent sur des ressources littorales et doivent nous interpeller sur les enjeux environnementaux et la durabilité des pratiques touristiques qui prévalent aujourd’hui

  8. Functional Annotation of All Salmonid Genomes (FAASG): an international initiative supporting future salmonid research, conservation and aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macqueen, Daniel J; Primmer, Craig R; Houston, Ross D; Nowak, Barbara F; Bernatchez, Louis; Bergseth, Steinar; Davidson, William S; Gallardo-Escárate, Cristian; Goldammer, Tom; Guiguen, Yann; Iturra, Patricia; Kijas, James W; Koop, Ben F; Lien, Sigbjørn; Maass, Alejandro; Martin, Samuel A M; McGinnity, Philip; Montecino, Martin; Naish, Kerry A; Nichols, Krista M; Ólafsson, Kristinn; Omholt, Stig W; Palti, Yniv; Plastow, Graham S; Rexroad, Caird E; Rise, Matthew L; Ritchie, Rachael J; Sandve, Simen R; Schulte, Patricia M; Tello, Alfredo; Vidal, Rodrigo; Vik, Jon Olav; Wargelius, Anna; Yáñez, José Manuel

    2017-06-27

    We describe an emerging initiative - the 'Functional Annotation of All Salmonid Genomes' (FAASG), which will leverage the extensive trait diversity that has evolved since a whole genome duplication event in the salmonid ancestor, to develop an integrative understanding of the functional genomic basis of phenotypic variation. The outcomes of FAASG will have diverse applications, ranging from improved understanding of genome evolution, to improving the efficiency and sustainability of aquaculture production, supporting the future of fundamental and applied research in an iconic fish lineage of major societal importance.

  9. [Central diabetes insipidus: diagnostic difficulties].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matoussi, N; Aissa, K; Fitouri, Z; Hajji, M; Makni, S; Bellagha, I; Ben Becher, S

    2008-06-01

    Central diabetes insipidus is rare in children. Characteristic features include polyuria and polydipsia due to arginine vasopressin deficiency. The differential diagnosis of polyuric states may be difficult. Etiologic diagnosis of central diabetes insipidus may be an equally difficult task. To specify the difficulties encountered in the diagnosis of central diabetes insipidus and to point out features of the etiologic work-up and of long-term follow-up of children with idiopathic central diabetes insipidus. A retrospective study of 12 children admitted with a polyuria/polydipsia syndrome to the pediatric - consultation and emergency unit of the children's hospital of Tunis between 1988 and 2005. Children with acquired nephrogenic central diabetes insipidus were excluded. Fourteen-hour fluid restriction test and/or desmopressin test were used without plasma vasopressin measurement. Eight patients were classified as having central diabetes insipidus, which was severe in seven children and partial in one girl. One patient was classified as having primary polydipsia. The diagnosis remains unclear in three patients. The etiological work-up in eight patients with central diabetes insipidus enabled the identification of Langerhan's-cell histiocytosis in two patients and neurosurgical trauma in one. The cause was considered idiopathic in five patients. The median follow-up of the five patients with idiopathic central diabetes insipidus was five years two months plus or minus six years seven months (range five months, 14.5 years). During this follow-up, neither brain magnetic resonance imaging scans findings nor anterior pituitary function have changed. Fluid restriction and desmopressin tests did not enable an accurate distinction between partial diabetes insipidus and primary polydipsia. Regular surveillance is warranted in patients with idiopathic central diabetes insipidus to identify potential etiologies.

  10. Update on fertility preservation from the Barcelona International Society for Fertility Preservation-ESHRE-ASRM 2015 expert meeting: indications, results and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Francisca

    2017-09-01

    What progress has been made in fertility preservation (FP) over the last decade? FP techniques have been widely adopted over the last decade and therefore the establishment of international registries on their short- and long-term outcomes is strongly recommended. FP is a fundamental issue for both males and females whose future fertility may be compromised. Reproductive capacity may be seriously affected by age, different medical conditions and also by treatments, especially those with gonadal toxicity. There is general consensus on the need to provide counselling about currently available FP options to all individuals wishing to preserve their fertility. An international meeting with representatives from expert scientific societies involved in FP was held in Barcelona, Spain, in June 2015. Twenty international FP experts belonging to the American Society of Reproductive Medicine, ESHRE and the International Society of Fertility Preservation reviewed the literature up to June 2015 to be discussed at the meeting, and approved the final manuscript. At the time this manuscript was being written, new evidence considered relevant for the debated topics was published, and was consequently included. Several oncological and non-oncological diseases may affect current or future fertility, either caused by the disease itself or the gonadotoxic treatment, and need an adequate FP approach. Women wishing to postpone maternity and transgender individuals before starting hormone therapy or undergoing surgery to remove/alter their reproductive organs should also be counselled accordingly. Embryo and oocyte cryopreservation are first-line FP methods in postpubertal women. Metaphase II oocyte cryopreservation (vitrification) is the preferred option. Cumulative evidence of restoration of ovarian function and spontaneous pregnancies after ART following orthotopic transplantation of cryopreserved ovarian tissue supports its future consideration as an open clinical application. Semen

  11. The Future of Foreign Direct Liability? Exploring the International Relevance of the Dutch Shell Nigeria Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liesbeth Enneking

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In January 2013, The Hague District Court in the Netherlands rendered a groundbreaking verdict in a civil liability suit against Royal Dutch Shell and its Nigerian subsidiary (SPDC. The lawsuit had been brought before it by four Nigerian farmers and the Dutch NGO Milieudefensie, in response to a number of oil-spill incidents from SPDC-operated pipelines in the Nigerian Niger Delta. Although the majority of the claims were dismissed, the district court in its ruling did grant one claim that related to spills from an abandoned wellhead, ordering SPDC to pay compensation for the resulting loss. This judgment has international relevance, as this Dutch Shell Nigeria case forms part of a worldwide trend towards foreign direct liability cases. Growing numbers of similar lawsuits have been brought before the courts in other Western societies, but judgments on the merits have so far remained scarce. The relevance of the case has further increased with the US Supreme Court’s April 2013 ruling in the case of Kiobel v. Royal Dutch Petroleum Co., which has significantly limited the scope of the Alien Tort Statute. This article explores The Hague District Court’s decision in the Dutch Shell Nigeria case, and places the case within the socio-legal context of the contemporary trend towards foreign direct liability cases, the international debates on corporate accountability and business & human rights, and the Supreme Court's judgment in the Kiobel case.

  12. Abstracts of the Canadian Society for Civil Engineering annual conference including the general conference, the 1. international structural specialty conference, the 1. international construction specialty conference, and the 1. specialty conference on disaster mitigation : towards a sustainable future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Badry, M.; Loov, R.E.; Ruwanpura, J.; El-Hacha, R.; Kroman, J.; Rankin, J.

    2006-01-01

    This conference provided a forum for national and international practicing engineers, researchers and technical experts to discuss sustainable solutions to infrastructure development. Discussions focused on recent developments in new technologies for building more economic and sustainable infrastructure, while improving the safety of buildings, bridges, roads, water supply and sewage treatment systems. The conference was held in conjunction with associated specialty conferences, including a first international structures specialty conference, a first international construction specialty conference, and a first specialty conference on disaster mitigation. This book of abstracts highlights all the specialty conferences and accompanies a CD-ROM that has the full text of all the papers. Manuscripts of the full papers submitted to the specialty conferences were peer-reviewed by international scientific committees. The general conference provided a forum to learn about new technologies and future directions in various areas of civil engineering. It included a special theme session on sustainable development and a special session on innovation and information technology. Other technical sessions focused on topics such as civil engineering history and education; infrastructure management and renewal; asset management; risk assessment and management; engineering materials and mechanics; environmental engineering and science; hydrotechnical engineering; cold region engineering; and, transportation engineering. The general conference featured 88 presentations, of which 15 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database

  13. AlSi17Cu5Mg alloy as future material for castings of pistons for internal combustion engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Piątkowski

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents chosen properties and microstructure of AlSi17Cu5Mg alloy as future material for casting pistons in automotive industry. Tests were conducted to elaborate technology of preparation, assessment of crystallisation parameters and shaping the primary structure of the silumin with the aim to improve the working parameters and the functioning efficiency in cylinder-piston system. Refinement of Si crystals, achieved due to overheating above the temperature Tliq. causes that the alloy reaches satisfactory properties in working chamber of the engine are optimised. Such condition of material characteristics causes that hypereutectic silumins, for chosen applications in transport, may serve as an alternative to Al - Si alloys of hypoeutectic and near - eutectic type.

  14. End-of-life vehicle recycling and international cooperation between Japan, China and Korea: Present and future scenario analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che, Jia; Yu, Jeong-Soo; Kevin, Roy Serrona

    2011-06-01

    In the area of end-of-life vehicle (ELV) recycling, Japan passed the Automobile Recycling Law in January 2005, the first in Asia. Korea followed suit with the passage of the resource circulation method in 2009. China is expected make a new recycling law in 2011. In contribution to these initiatives, Tohoku University made a comparative analysis of ELV recycling laws, advance dismantling experiments and scenario analysis to promote international cooperation. This is envisioned to introduce ELV recycling system in Japan, China and Korea and in developing countries as well. Copyright © 2011 The Research Centre for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Meeting the demand of the future: a curriculum to stimulate interest in careers in primary care internal medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawthorne, Mary R; Dinh, An

    2017-01-01

    There is a growing need for primary care physicians, but only a small percentage of graduating medical students enter careers in primary care. To assess whether a Primary Care Intraclerkship within the Medicine clerkship can significantly improve students' attitudes by analyzing scores on pre- and post-tests. Students on the Medicine clerkship at the University of Massachusetts Medical School participated in full-day 'intraclerkships',to demonstrate the importance of primary care and the management of chronic illness in various primary care settings. Pre-and post-tests containing students' self-reported, five-point Likert agreement scale evaluations to 26 items (measuring perceptions about the roles of primary care physicians in patient care and treatment) were collected before and after each session. Eleven intraclerkships with 383 students were held between June 2010 and June 2013. Responses were analyzed using the GLM Model Estimate. Results from the survey analysis showed significantly more positive attitudes toward primary care in the post-tests compared to the pre-tests. Students who were satisfied with their primary care physicians were significantly more likely to show an improvement in post-test attitudes toward primary care in the areas of physicians improving the quality of patient care, making a difference in overall patient health, finding primary care as an intellectually challenging field, and in needing to collaborate with specialists. Older students were more likely than younger students to show more favorable answers on questions concerning the relative value of primary care vs. specialty care. A curriculum in Primary Care Internal Medicine can provide a framework to positively influence students' attitudes toward the importance of primary care, and potentially to influence career decisions to enter careers in Primary Care Internal Medicine. Ensuring that medical students receive excellent primary care for themselves can also positively influence

  16. The difficulties of systematic reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westgate, Martin J; Lindenmayer, David B

    2017-10-01

    The need for robust evidence to support conservation actions has driven the adoption of systematic approaches to research synthesis in ecology. However, applying systematic review to complex or open questions remains challenging, and this task is becoming more difficult as the quantity of scientific literature increases. We drew on the science of linguistics for guidance as to why the process of identifying and sorting information during systematic review remains so labor intensive, and to provide potential solutions. Several linguistic properties of peer-reviewed corpora-including nonrandom selection of review topics, small-world properties of semantic networks, and spatiotemporal variation in word meaning-greatly increase the effort needed to complete the systematic review process. Conversely, the resolution of these semantic complexities is a common motivation for narrative reviews, but this process is rarely enacted with the rigor applied during linguistic analysis. Therefore, linguistics provides a unifying framework for understanding some key challenges of systematic review and highlights 2 useful directions for future research. First, in cases where semantic complexity generates barriers to synthesis, ecologists should consider drawing on existing methods-such as natural language processing or the construction of research thesauri and ontologies-that provide tools for mapping and resolving that complexity. These tools could help individual researchers classify research material in a more robust manner and provide valuable guidance for future researchers on that topic. Second, a linguistic perspective highlights that scientific writing is a rich resource worthy of detailed study, an observation that can sometimes be lost during the search for data during systematic review or meta-analysis. For example, mapping semantic networks can reveal redundancy and complementarity among scientific concepts, leading to new insights and research questions. Consequently

  17. Respiratory difficulties and breathing disorders in achondroplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afsharpaiman, S; Saburi, A; Waters, Karen A

    2013-12-01

    Respiratory difficulties and breathing disorders in achondroplasia are thought to underlie the increased risk for sudden infant death and neuropsychological deficits seen in this condition. This review evaluates literature regarding respiratory dysfunctions and their sequelae in patients with achondroplasia. The limited number of prospective studies of respiratory disease in achondroplasia means that observational studies and case series provide a large proportion of the data regarding the spectrum of respiratory diseases in achondroplasia and their treatments. Amongst clinical respiratory problems described, snoring is the commonest observed abnormality, but the reported incidence of obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) shows wide variance (10% to 75%). Reported treatments of OSA include adenotonsillectomy, the use of CPAP, and surgical improvement of the airway, including mid-face advancement. Otolaryngologic manifestations are also common. Respiratory failure due to small thoracic volumes is reported, but uncommon. Mortality rate at all ages was 2.27 (CI: 1.7-3.0) with age-specific mortality increased at all ages. Sudden death was most common in infants and children. Cardiovascular events are the main cause of mortality in adults. Despite earlier recognition and treatment of respiratory complications of achondroplasia, increased mortality rates and other complications remain high. Future and ongoing evaluation of the prevalence and impact of respiratory disorders, particularly OSA, in achondroplasia is recommended. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Proceedings of the 2006 International Meeting on LWR fuel performance 'Nuclear Fuel: Addressing the future' - TopFuel 2006 Transactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    From 22-26 October, 340 researchers, nuclear engineers and scientists from across Europe and beyond congregated in the ancient university city of Salamanca, Spain, to discuss the challenges facing the developers and manufacturers of new high-performance nuclear fuels-fuels that will help meet current and future energy demand and reduce man's over dependence upon CO 2 -emitting fossil fuels. TopFuel is an annual topical meeting organised by ENS, the American Nuclear Society and the Atomic Energy Society of Japan. This year it was co-sponsored by the IAEA, the OECD/NEA and the Spanish Nuclear Society (SNE). TopFuel's primary objective was to bring together leading specialists in the field from around the world to analyse advances in nuclear fuel management technology and to use the findings of the latest cutting-edge research to help manufacture the high performance nuclear fuels of today and tomorrow. The TopFuel 2006 agenda revolved around ten technical sessions dedicated to priority issues such as security of supply, new fuel and reactor core designs, fuel cycle strategies and spent fuel management. Among the many topics under discussion were new developments in fuel performance modelling, advanced fuel assembly design and the improved conditioning and processing of spent fuel. During the week, a poster exhibition also gave delegates the opportunity to display and discuss the results of their latest work and to network with fellow professionals. One important statement to emerge from TopFuel 2006 was that the world has enough reserves of uranium to support the large-scale and long-term production of nuclear energy. The OECD/NEA and the IAEA recently published a report entitled Uranium 2005: Resources, Production and Demand (the Red Book). The report, which makes a comprehensive assessment of uranium supplies and projected demand up until the year 2025, concludes by saying 'the uranium resource base is adequate to meet projected future requirements'. With the

  19. Summary of International Waste Management Programs (LLNL Input to SNL L3 MS: System-Wide Integration and Site Selection Concepts for Future Disposition Options for HLW)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenberg, Harris R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Blink, James A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Halsey, William G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Sutton, Mark [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2011-08-11

    The Used Fuel Disposition Campaign (UFDC) within the Department of Energy’s Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE) Fuel Cycle Technology (FCT) program has been tasked with investigating the disposal of the nation’s spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level nuclear waste (HLW) for a range of potential waste forms and geologic environments. This Lessons Learned task is part of a multi-laboratory effort, with this LLNL report providing input to a Level 3 SNL milestone (System-Wide Integration and Site Selection Concepts for Future Disposition Options for HLW). The work package number is: FTLL11UF0328; the work package title is: Technical Bases / Lessons Learned; the milestone number is: M41UF032802; and the milestone title is: “LLNL Input to SNL L3 MS: System-Wide Integration and Site Selection Concepts for Future Disposition Options for HLW”. The system-wide integration effort will integrate all aspects of waste management and disposal, integrating the waste generators, interim storage, transportation, and ultimate disposal at a repository site. The review of international experience in these areas is required to support future studies that address all of these components in an integrated manner. Note that this report is a snapshot of nuclear power infrastructure and international waste management programs that is current as of August 2011, with one notable exception. No attempt has been made to discuss the currently evolving world-wide response to the tragic consequences of the earthquake and tsunami that devastated Japan on March 11, 2011, leaving more than 15,000 people dead and more than 8,000 people missing, and severely damaging the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power complex. Continuing efforts in FY 2012 will update the data, and summarize it in an Excel spreadsheet for easy comparison and assist in the knowledge management of the study cases.

  20. II International Conference: Radiation Protection Training. Future Strategies. Ciemat, 17-19 September, 2003. Book of Papers and Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Safety in the use of ionising radiation and protection against potential risks due to exposure to radiation sources are not static concepts, rather their evolution runs parallel with an increased knowledge of the technologies and basic concepts employed. Education and training, which are inherently tied to with research, are the means to disseminate the advances made to the scientists and professionals working with ionising radiation. At present, Radiation Protection (RP) training is considered to be the best means to promote a safety culture and to improve the competence of exposed workers. Indeed, progress in both RP teaching and training, which form part of this transfer of technology and specialized knowledge, are fields that are in continuous motion. The first conference on Radiation Protection training was celebrated in Saclay (France) under the slogan Radiation Protection: What are the Future Training needs?. It can be considered as the first such meeting dedicated to the community of professionals, from a wide range of scientific and technological backgrounds, related in some way to Radiation Protection training. (Author)

  1. Climate change and biometeorology, the International Society of Biometeorology and its journal: a perspective on the past and a framework for the future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beggs, Paul John

    2014-01-01

    Anthropogenic climate change is inherently a biometeorological issue. As such, it would be reasonably expected that the International Society of Biometeorology (ISB) and its journal, International Journal of Biometeorology ( IJB), would have had climate change feature prominently in their activities, articles etc., and to therefore have made a substantial and valuable contribution to the science of the issue. This article presents an analysis of climate change science in ISB and IJB. The analysis focusses on climate-change-related publications by ISB Presidents found through searches of Thomson Reuters Web of Science; contributions to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's (IPCC's) Working Group II (WGII) by ISB Presidents; and climate change-related publications in IJB found through searches of Thomson Reuters Web of Science. The results demonstrate that the ISB, as represented by its recent, current, and future Presidents, is actively engaged in climate change research and the production of scholarly climate change publications. For example, ISB Presidents have contributed as authors to all four IPCC WGII Assessment Reports, with some Presidents having contributed to more than one Assessment Report or several chapters of the one report. Similarly, it is evident that the IJB is increasingly attracting and publishing climate-change-related articles, with such articles generally having greater impact (as indicated by citations) than other IJB articles. Opportunities for the ISB to provide an internal framework for, and showcase, its climate change work are described. Such opportunities, if enacted, would complement the recent creation of two IJB climate change Field Editor positions.

  2. Massive Cherenkov neutrino facilities?their evolution, their future: Twenty-five years at these International Neutrino Conferences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulak, Lawrence R.

    2005-01-01

    This review traces the evolution of massive water Cherenkov tracking calorimeters. Pioneering concepts, first presented in this conference a quarter of a century ago, have led to 1) IMB, the first large detector (10kT), which was designed primarily to search for proton decay, and secondarily to be sensitive to supernova neutrinos and atmospheric oscillations, and 2) Dumand, an attempt to initiate the search for TeV astrophysical neutrinos with a prototype for a 1 km 3 telescope. The concepts and initial work on IMB influenced subsequent detectors: Kamiokande, Super-K, SNO, and, in part, Kamland. These detectors have to their credit the elucidation of the physics of atmospheric, solar, reactor and supernova neutrinos. With the advent of the K2K beam, controlled accelerator neutrinos confirm the atmospheric studies. The path breaking developments of Dumand now are incorporated in the high-volume Amanda and Antares detectors, as well as their sequels, IceCube and the proposed Cubic Kilometer detector. The future (ultimate?) facilities have new physics challenges: A high-resolution megaton detector, eventually coupled with an intense accelerator neutrino source, is critical for precision studies of neutrino oscillation parameters and for the potential discovery of CP violation in the lepton sector. The Gigaton TeV neutrino telescopes (IceCube and Cubic Kilometer) seek to open high-energy neutrino astronomy, still an elusive goal. (Amanda, IceCube, and UNO, as well as Minos, Icarus and other large neutrino facilities using non-Cherenkov technologies, are treated in other contributions to this volume.)

  3. Particle Engulfment and Pushing (PEP): Past Micro-Gravity Experiments and Future Experimental Plan on the International Space Station (ISS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Subhayu; Stefanescu, Doru M.; Catalina, A. V.; Juretzko, F.; Dhindaw, B. K.; Curreri, P. A.; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The interaction of an insoluble particle with a growing solid-liquid interface (SLI) has been a subject of investigation for the four decades. For a metallurgist or a material scientist understanding the fundamental physics of such an interaction is relevant for applications that include distribution of reinforcement particles in metal matrix composites, inclusion management in castings, and distribution of Y2Ba1Cu1O5 (211) precipitates (flux pinning sites) in Y1Ba2Cu3O7 (123) superconducting crystals. The same physics is also applicable to other areas including geological applications (frost heaving in soils) and preservation of biological cells. Experimentally this interaction can be quantified in terms of a critical growth velocity, Vcr, of the SLI below which particles are pushed ahead of the advancing interface, and above which the particles are engulfed. Past experimental evidence suggests that this Vcr is an inverse function of the particle radius, R. In order to isolate the fundamental physics that governs such a relationship it is necessary to minimize natural convection at the SLI that is inherent in ground based experiments. Hence for the purpose of producing benchmark data (Vcr vs. R) PEP is a natural candidate for micro-gravity experimentation. Accordingly, experiments with pure Al containing a dispersion of ZrO2 particles and an organic analogue, succinonitrile (SCN) containing polystyrene particles have been performed on the LMS and USMP-4 mission respectively. In this paper we will summarize the experimental data that was obtained during these two micro-gravity missions and show that the results differ compared to terrestrial experiments. We will also discuss the basic elements of our analytical and numerical model and present a comparison of the predictions of these models against micro-gravity experimental data. Finally. we will discuss our future experimental plan that includes the ISS glovebox and MSRRl.

  4. The future Jules Horowitz material test reactor: A major European research infrastructure for sustaining the international irradiation capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parrat, D.; Bignan, G.; Chauvin, J.; Gonnier, C.

    2011-01-01

    Multipurpose experimental reactors are now key infrastructures, in complement of prediction capabilities gained thanks to progresses in the modelling, for supporting nuclear energy in terms of safety, ageing management, innovation capacity, economical performances and training. However the European situation in this field is characterized by ageing large infrastructures, which could face to operational issues in the coming years and could jeopardize the knowledge acquisition and the nuclear product qualification. Moreover some specific supplies related to the public demand could be strongly affected (e.g. radiopharmaceutical targets). To avoid a lack in the experimental capacity offer at the European level, the CEA has launched the Jules Horowitz material test reactor (JHR) international program, in the frame of a Consortium gathering EDF (FR), AREVA (FR), the European Commission (EU), SCK.CEN (BE), VTT (FI), CIEMAT (SP), VATTENFALL (SE), UJV (CZ), JAEA (JP) and the DAE (IN). The JHR will be a 100 MW tank pool reactor and will have several experimental locations either inside the reactor core or outside the reactor tank in a reflector constituted by beryllium blocks. Excavation works started mid-2007 on the CEA Cadarache site in the southeast of France. After the construction permit delivery gained in September 2007, building construction began at the beginning of 2009. Reactor start-up is scheduled in 2016. The JHR is designed to offer up-to-date irradiation experimental capabilities for studying nuclear material and fuel behaviour under irradiation in a modern safety frame, mainly due to: 1) High values of fast and thermal neutron fluxes in the core and high thermal neutron flux in the reflector (producing typically twice more material damages per year than available today in European MTRs); 2) A large variety of experimental devices capable to reproduce environment conditions of mainly light water reactors (LWRs) and sodium fast reactors; 3) Several equipment

  5. Future perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    International involvement in particle physics is what the International Committee for Future Accelerators (ICFA) is all about. At the latest Future Perspectives meeting at Brookhaven from 5-10 October (after a keynote speech by doyen Viktor Weisskopf, who regretted the emergence of 'a nationalistic trend'), ICFA reviewed progress and examined its commitments in the light of the evolving world particle physics scene. Particular aims were to review worldwide accelerator achievements and plans, to survey the work of the four panels, and to discuss ICFA's special role in future cooperation in accelerator construction and use, and in research and development work for both accelerators and for detectors

  6. Postoperative Feeding Difficulties after Repair of Congenital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Of these, 24 (37.5%) developed feeding difficulties in the immediate post operative period. The causes of the feeding difficulties were Gastro-oesophageal reflux (GOR) 9, Recurrent diaphragmatic hernia 8, Adhesive intestinal obstruction 4, Poor intestinal motility 2, Campylobacter enteritis, 1, Hypertrophic pyloric stenosis, 1.

  7. Students’ difficulties in probabilistic problem-solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arum, D. P.; Kusmayadi, T. A.; Pramudya, I.

    2018-03-01

    There are many errors can be identified when students solving mathematics problems, particularly in solving the probabilistic problem. This present study aims to investigate students’ difficulties in solving the probabilistic problem. It focuses on analyzing and describing students errors during solving the problem. This research used the qualitative method with case study strategy. The subjects in this research involve ten students of 9th grade that were selected by purposive sampling. Data in this research involve students’ probabilistic problem-solving result and recorded interview regarding students’ difficulties in solving the problem. Those data were analyzed descriptively using Miles and Huberman steps. The results show that students have difficulties in solving the probabilistic problem and can be divided into three categories. First difficulties relate to students’ difficulties in understanding the probabilistic problem. Second, students’ difficulties in choosing and using appropriate strategies for solving the problem. Third, students’ difficulties with the computational process in solving the problem. Based on the result seems that students still have difficulties in solving the probabilistic problem. It means that students have not able to use their knowledge and ability for responding probabilistic problem yet. Therefore, it is important for mathematics teachers to plan probabilistic learning which could optimize students probabilistic thinking ability.

  8. Researching Learning Difficulties: A Guide for Practitioners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Jill; Lacey, Penny

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this book is to provide a source for teachers and other professionals working with children and adults with learning difficulties and disabilities that will enable them to: (1) access selected recent and relevant research in the field of learning difficulties, drawn from a range of disciplines and groups of people; (2) reflect on…

  9. Psychosocial difficulties from the perspective of persons with neuropsychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coenen, Michaela; Cabello, Maria; Umlauf, Silvia; Ayuso-Mateos, José Luis; Anczewska, Marta; Tourunen, Jouni; Leonardi, Matilde; Cieza, Alarcos

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to determine whether persons with neuropsychiatric disorders experience a common set of psychosocial difficulties using qualitative data from focus groups and individual interviews. The study was performed in five European countries (Finland, Italy, Germany, Poland and Spain) using the focus groups and individual interviews with persons with nine neuropsychiatric disorders (dementia, depression, epilepsy, migraine, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia, stroke and substance dependence). Digitally recorded sessions were analysed using a step-by-step qualitative and quantitative methodology resulting in the compilation of a common set of psychosocial difficulties using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) as a framework. Sixty-seven persons participated in the study. Most persons with neuropsychiatric disorders experience difficulties in emotional functions, sleeping, carrying out daily routine, working and interpersonal relationships in common. Sixteen out of 33 psychosocial difficulties made up the common set. This set includes mental functions, pain and issues addressing activities and participation and provides first evidence for the hypothesis of horizontal epidemiology of psychosocial difficulties in neuropsychiatric disorders. This study provides information about psychosocial difficulties that should be covered in the treatment and rehabilitation of persons with neuropsychiatric disorders regardless of clinical diagnoses. Emotional problems, work and sleep problems should be addressed in all the treatments of neuropsychiatric disorders regardless of their specific diagnosis, etiology and severity. Personality issues should be targeted in the treatment for neurological disorders, whereas communication skill training may also be useful for mental disorders. The effects of medication and social environment on patient's daily life should be considered in all the

  10. Do dyslexics have auditory input processing difficulties?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Mads

    2011-01-01

    Word production difficulties are well documented in dyslexia, whereas the results are mixed for receptive phonological processing. This asymmetry raises the possibility that the core phonological deficit of dyslexia is restricted to output processing stages. The present study investigated whether....... The finding suggests that input processing difficulties are associated with the phonological deficit, but that these difficulties may be stronger above the level of phoneme perception.......Word production difficulties are well documented in dyslexia, whereas the results are mixed for receptive phonological processing. This asymmetry raises the possibility that the core phonological deficit of dyslexia is restricted to output processing stages. The present study investigated whether...... a group of dyslexics had word level receptive difficulties using an auditory lexical decision task with long words and nonsense words. The dyslexics were slower and less accurate than chronological age controls in an auditory lexical decision task, with disproportionate low performance on nonsense words...

  11. Stress and suicidal ideation among adolescents having academic difficulty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priti Arun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Academically typically achieving adolescents were compared with students having academic difficulty on stress and suicidal ideas. Materials and Methods: In a cross-sectional study, 75 academically typically achieving adolescents were compared with 105 students with academic difficulty and 52 students with specific learning disability (SLD. Academic functioning was assessed using teacher's screening instrument, intelligence quotient, and National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences index for SLD. Stress and suicidal ideas were assessed using general health questionnaire, suicide risk-11, and Mooney Problem Checklist (MPC. Appropriate statistical methods were applied. Results: Three groups were comparable on age, gender, mother's working status, being only child, nuclear family, self-reported academic decline, and type of school. About half of adolescents reported psychological problems on General Health Questionnaire (mean score >3 in all the groups. Academically typically achieving adolescents showed higher stressors in peer relationships, planning for future and suicidal ideation compared to adolescents with academic difficulty. Adolescents face stress regarding worry about examinations, family not understanding what child has to do in school, unfair tests, too much work in some subjects, afraid of failure in school work, not spending enough time in studies, parental expectations, wanting to be more popular, worried about a family member, planning for the future, and fear of the future. Significant positive correlation was seen between General Health Questionnaire scores and all four subscales of MPC. Suicidal ideas showed a negative correlation with MPC. Interpretations and Conclusions: Adolescents experience considerable stress in multiple areas irrespective of their academic ability and performance. Hence, assessment and management of stress among adolescents must extend beyond academic difficulties.

  12. The future of international banking regulations in response to the financial crisis of 2007/2009: After Basel iii then what next?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph E. Isebor

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The financial crisis 2007-2009 will not be forgotten in a hurry because of its impact on the global financial system almost replicating the Great Depression. Major and causal factors contributed to the financial crisis, and this prompted the establishment of Basel III to contain the crisis. Basel III introduced improved capital and liquidity rules, but still could not contain the crisis. This leaves regulators with questions of how to prevent another financial crisis in the future. Evidences suggest that the financial market is evolving because of its complex and changing nature, and so are the international banking regulations (Basel I, Basel II and Basel III that support the system in terms of maintaining economic and financial stability. It is clear that Basel III will not stop the next financial crisis even though the Basel accords continue to evolve in response to maintaining economic and financial stability, with the core purpose of preventing another financial crisis. Uncertainties lies ahead, and regulators cannot be sure of what will likely cause the next crisis, but indications suggest that the financial markets and international banking regulations in the form of Basel accords will continue to evolve

  13. Excess heat from kraft pulp mills: Trade-offs between internal and external use in the case of Sweden-Part 2: Results for future energy market scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joensson, Johanna; Svensson, Inger-Lise; Berntsson, Thore; Moshfegh, Bahram

    2008-01-01

    In this paper the trade-off between internal and external use of excess heat from a kraft pulp mill is investigated for four different future energy market scenarios. The work follows the methodology described in Svensson et al. [2008. Excess heat from kraft pulp mills: trade-offs between internal and external use in the case of Sweden-Part 1: methodology. Energy Policy, submitted for publication], where a systematic approach is proposed for investigating the potential for profitable excess heat cooperation. The trade-off is analyzed by economic optimization of an energy system model consisting of a pulp mill and an energy company (ECO). In the model, investments can be made, which increase the system's energy efficiency by utilization of the mill's excess heat, as well as investments that increase the electricity production. The results show that the trade-off depends on energy market prices, the district heating demand and the type of existing heat production. From an economic point of view, external use of the excess heat is preferred for all investigated energy market scenarios if the mill is studied together with an ECO with a small heat load. For the cases with medium or large district heating loads, the optimal use of excess heat varies with the energy market price scenarios. However, from a CO 2 emissions perspective, external use is preferred, giving the largest reduction of global emissions in most cases

  14. Mastoidectomy: anatomical parameters x surgical difficulty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pereira Júnior, Anastácio Rodrigues

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The lowered temporal meninges and/ or anterior sigmoid sinus are contiditions that can determine surgical difficulties in performing mastoidectomy. Objective: To correlate in the tomography the extent of the prolapse of the sigmoid sinus and of temporal meninges with the surgical difficulty in the mastoidectomy. Method: The tomographic measurements of prolapse sigmoid and of temporal meninges were correlated with the presence or non-presence of the surgical difficulty observed during the mastoidectomy procedure in patients with ostomatoiditis chronic (n=30. Form of study: Contemporary cohort transverse. Results: In 10 patients were observed surgical difficulty distributed as: due to prolapse of the sigmoid sinus (n = 2 or temporal meninges prolapse (n = 7 or both (n = 1. In patients in which the surgical difficulty was due to sigmoid sinus prolapse, the tomography distance of the anterior border of the sigmoid sinus to posterior wall of external auditory canal was lower than 9 mm. In patients in which surgical difficulty was due to temporal meninges prolapse, the tomographic distance to the upper plane of the petrous bone was 7 mm. Conclusion: The computerized tomography distance between the temporal meninges and the upper plane of the petrous bone 7 mm and the distance of the anterior border of the sigmoid sinus to posterior wall of external auditory canal was lower than 9 mm are predictive to the surgical difficulties to perform mastoidectomy.

  15. Motor and Coordination Difficulties in Children with Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Elisabeth; Pratt, Michelle L; Kanji, Zara; Bartoli, Alice Jones

    2017-01-01

    To date, very few studies have explored the incidence of motor impairment amongst children with social, emotional and behavioural difficulties (social, emotional and mental health (SEMH); formerly SEBD in England). Following research that suggests an increase in motor difficulties in young children and adolescents with SEMH difficulties, this…

  16. Nuclear power: A look at the future. International Conference on Fifty Years of Nuclear Power: The Next Fifty Years, 27 June 2004, Moscow, Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ElBaradei, M.

    2004-01-01

    This statement touches on a few aspects of the evolving global scenario for nuclear power - briefly reviewing the current picture, outlining a number of key issues, and discussing what the International Atomic Energy Agency is doing to ensure that nuclear power remains a safe, secure and viable option for supplying energy needs. Of the 442 nuclear plants currently operating, fewer than 10% are located in developing countries. Many industrialized nations generate substantial portions of their electricity from nuclear fission: including: France, at 78%; Belgium, at 55%; Germany, at 28%; Japan, at 25%; the United States, at 20%; and Russia, at 17%. By contrast, for large developing countries such as Brazil, India and China, the percentages are only 3.7%, 3.3% and 2.2%, respectively. Current expansion and growth prospects for nuclear power are centred in Asia. Although the focus of this international effort was on improving safety, the secondary benefit was a steady increase in nuclear plant availability and productivity. In 1990, nuclear plants on average were generating electricity 71% of the time. As of 2003, that figure stood at 84% - an improvement in productivity equal to adding more than 34 new 1000 megawatt nuclear plants - all at relatively minimal cost. Overall, the current picture remains mixed, and projections for the future of nuclear power vary widely depending on what assumptions are made. The IAEA's current 'low' (or conservative) projection - which assumes that today's nuclear plants will retire on schedule, and assumes no new construction beyond what is already firmly planned - would envision the total amount of nuclear electricity generated dropping off after about 2020. The IAEA 'high' projection, which includes additional scenarios for new nuclear plant construction, would envision nuclear power generating 70% more electricity in 2030 than at present, but still tapering off in its global share of electricity, due to even more rapid expansion in

  17. Psychological difficulties among children and adolescents with ethnic Danish, immigrant or refugee background

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth, Ingrid; Niclasen, Janni; Ryding, Else

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study investigated and compared the prevalence of psychological difficulties among Danish, immigrant, and refugee children. Methods: We enrolled 332 children between the ages of 8 and 18 years (148 Danish children, 81 immigrant children, and 67 children with refugee backgrounds....... No significant differences with regard to age or gender were found among the groups. Conclusions: Our data suggest that, although immigrant children had higher levels of conduct problems than ethnic Danish children, they did not suffer from higher levels of internalizing psychological difficulties. However......, refugee children were at higher risk for psychological difficulties associated with both externalizing and internalizing....

  18. LEARNING DIFFICULTIES: AN ANALYSIS BASED ON VIGOTSKY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriane Cenci

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available We aimed, along the text, to bring a reflection upon learning difficulties based on Socio-Historical Theory, relating what is observed in schools to what has been discussed about learning difficulties and the theory proposed by Vygotsky in the early XX century. We understand that children enter school carrying experiences and knowledge from their cultural group and that school ignores such knowledge very often. Then, it is in such disengagement that emerges what we started to call learning difficulties. One cannot forget to see a child as a whole – a student is a social being constituted by culture, language and specific values to which one must be attentive.

  19. FAIR 1.0 (Framework to Assess International Regimes for differentiation of commitments). An interactive model to explore options for differentiation of future commitments in international climate policy making. User documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Den Elzen, M.G.J.; Berk, M.M.; Both, S.; Faber, A.; Oostenrijk, R.

    2001-02-01

    This report contains the model documentation and user instructions of the FAIR model (Framework to Assess International Regimes for differentiation of commitments). FAIR is an interactive - scanner-type - computer model to quantitatively explore a range of alternative climate policy options for international differentiation of future commitments and link these to targets for global climate protection. The model includes three different approaches for evaluating international commitment regimes: (1) Increasing participation: in this mode the number of parties involved and their level of commitment gradually increase according to participation and differentiation rules, such as per capita income, per capita emissions, or contribution to global warming; (2) Convergence: in this mode all parties participate in the burden-sharing regime, with emission rights converging to equal per capita levels over time; (3) Triptych: different burden sharing rules are applied for different sectors (e.g. convergence of per capita emissions in the domestic sector, efficiency and de-carbonisation targets for the industry sector and the power generation sector). The first two modes are representatives of top-down methodologies, so from global emission ceilings to regional emission budgets, whereas the triptych approach is more bottom-up in character, although it can be combined with specific emission targets (as illustrated in the case of the EU). In order to construct and evaluate global emission profiles, the FAIR model also has the mode: Scenario construction. In this mode the impacts in terms of the main climate indicators can be scanned of a constructed or well-defined global emissions profile

  20. Psychosocial interventions for social communication, repetitive, and emotional-behavioral difficulties in children and young people with spectrum disorders: an update on effectiveness and the role of caregivers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Steensel, F.J.A.; Magiati, I.; Essau, C.A.; Allen, J.L.

    2015-01-01

    A number of time-limited psychosocial interventions targeting social skills, internalizing and externalizing difficulties have been developed for children and young people with ASD. Increasingly more evidence is emerging that such interventions are effective in reducing difficulties and improving

  1. Player Modeling for Intelligent Difficulty Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missura, Olana; Gärtner, Thomas

    In this paper we aim at automatically adjusting the difficulty of computer games by clustering players into different types and supervised prediction of the type from short traces of gameplay. An important ingredient of video games is to challenge players by providing them with tasks of appropriate and increasing difficulty. How this difficulty should be chosen and increase over time strongly depends on the ability, experience, perception and learning curve of each individual player. It is a subjective parameter that is very difficult to set. Wrong choices can easily lead to players stopping to play the game as they get bored (if underburdened) or frustrated (if overburdened). An ideal game should be able to adjust its difficulty dynamically governed by the player’s performance. Modern video games utilise a game-testing process to investigate among other factors the perceived difficulty for a multitude of players. In this paper, we investigate how machine learning techniques can be used for automatic difficulty adjustment. Our experiments confirm the potential of machine learning in this application.

  2. Difficulties in Learning English Faced By Visually Impaired Students at Center of Language Development (P2B in State Islamic University (UIN Sunan Kalijaga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widya Aryanti

    2014-12-01

    The result shows that there are some difficulties faced by VIS. These difficulties can be put into two different categories: internal and external difficulties. Internal difficulties come from the VIS themselves which relates to VIS’ sight conditions and their learning strategies. External difficulties come from the learning environment including difficulties from the lecturer, friends, materials and the facilities.VIS have different learning strategies. The lecturer should discuss some classroom adaptations such as seating arrangement, friends’ assistance and peer teaching, adapted facilities and exam accommodation, for instance exam assistance, longer exam time, inclusive examination and larger print for low vision students. Finally, the lecturer should choose appropriate teaching strategies, media and teaching aids.

  3. Students’ difficulties in solving linear equation problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wati, S.; Fitriana, L.; Mardiyana

    2018-03-01

    A linear equation is an algebra material that exists in junior high school to university. It is a very important material for students in order to learn more advanced mathematics topics. Therefore, linear equation material is essential to be mastered. However, the result of 2016 national examination in Indonesia showed that students’ achievement in solving linear equation problem was low. This fact became a background to investigate students’ difficulties in solving linear equation problems. This study used qualitative descriptive method. An individual written test on linear equation tasks was administered, followed by interviews. Twenty-one sample students of grade VIII of SMPIT Insan Kamil Karanganyar did the written test, and 6 of them were interviewed afterward. The result showed that students with high mathematics achievement donot have difficulties, students with medium mathematics achievement have factual difficulties, and students with low mathematics achievement have factual, conceptual, operational, and principle difficulties. Based on the result there is a need of meaningfulness teaching strategy to help students to overcome difficulties in solving linear equation problems.

  4. Numerical Magnitude Representation in Children With Mathematical Difficulties With or Without Reading Difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobia, Valentina; Fasola, Anna; Lupieri, Alice; Marzocchi, Gian Marco

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the spatial numerical association of response codes (SNARC), the flanker, and the numerical distance effects in children with mathematical difficulties. From a sample of 720 third, fourth, and fifth graders, 60 children were selected and divided into the following three groups: typically developing children (TD; n = 29), children with mathematical difficulties only (MD only; n = 21), and children with mathematical and reading difficulties (MD+RD; n = 10). Children were tested with a numerical Eriksen task that was built to assess SNARC, numerical distance, and flanker (first and second order congruency) effects. Children with MD only showed stronger SNARC and second order congruency effects than did TD children, whereas the numerical distance effects were similar across the three groups. Finally, the first order congruency effect was associated with reading difficulties. These results showed that children with mathematical difficulties with or without reading difficulties were globally more impaired when spatial incompatibilities were presented. © Hammill Institute on Disabilities 2014.

  5. Preoperative Y-90 microsphere selective internal radiation treatment for tumor downsizing and future liver remnant recruitment: a novel approach to improving the safety of major hepatic resections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulec, Seza A; Pennington, Kenneth; Hall, Michael; Fong, Yuman

    2009-01-08

    Extended liver resections are being performed more liberally than ever. The extent of resection of liver metastases, however, is restricted by the volume of the future liver remnant (FLR). An intervention that would both accomplish tumor control and induce compensatory hypertrophy, with good patient tolerability, could improve clinical outcomes. A 53-year-old woman with a history of cervical cancer presented with a large liver mass. Subsequent biopsy indicated poorly differentiated carcinoma with necrosis suggestive of squamous cell origin. A decision was made to proceed with pre-operative chemotherapy and Y-90 microsphere SIRT with the intent to obtain systemic control over the disease, downsize the hepatic lesion, and improve the FLR. A surgical exploration was performed six months after the first SIRT (three months after the second). There was no extrahepatic disease. The tumor was found to be significantly decreased in size with central and peripheral scarring. The left lobe was satisfactorily hypertrophied. A formal right hepatic lobectomy was performed with macroscopic negative margins. Selective internal radiation treatment (SIRT) with yttrium-90 (Y-90) microspheres has emerged as an effective liver-directed therapy with a favorable therapeutic ratio. We present this case report to suggest that the portal vein radiation dose can be substantially increased with the intent of inducing portal/periportal fibrosis. Such a therapeutic manipulation in lobar Y-90 microsphere treatment could accomplish the end points of PVE with avoidance of the concern regarding tumor progression.

  6. Working Memory in Students with Mathematical Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nur, I. R. D.; Herman, T.; Ningsih, S.

    2018-04-01

    Learning process is the activities that has important role because this process is one of the all factors that establish students success in learning. oftentimes we find so many students get the difficulties when they study mathematics. This condition is not only because of the outside factor but also it comes from the inside. The purpose of this research is to analyze and give the representation how students working memory happened in physical education students for basic statistics subjects which have mathematical difficulties. The subjects are 4 students which have a mathematical difficulties. The research method is case study and when the describe about students working memory are explanated deeply with naturalistic observation. Based on this research, it was founded that 4 students have a working memory deficit in three components. The components are phonological loop, visuospatial sketchpad, dan episodic buffer.

  7. Tinnitus and Sleep Difficulties After Cochlear Implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierzycki, Robert H; Edmondson-Jones, Mark; Dawes, Piers; Munro, Kevin J; Moore, David R; Kitterick, Pádraig T

    To estimate and compare the prevalence of and associations between tinnitus and sleep difficulties in a sample of UK adult cochlear implant users and those identified as potential candidates for cochlear implantation. The study was conducted using the UK Biobank resource, a population-based cohort of 40- to 69-year olds. Self-report data on hearing, tinnitus, sleep difficulties, and demographic variables were collected from cochlear implant users (n = 194) and individuals identified as potential candidates for cochlear implantation (n = 211). These "candidates" were selected based on (i) impaired hearing sensitivity, inferred from self-reported hearing aid use and (ii) impaired hearing function, inferred from an inability to report words accurately at negative signal to noise ratios on an unaided closed-set test of speech perception. Data on tinnitus (presence, persistence, and related distress) and on sleep difficulties were analyzed using logistic regression models controlling for gender, age, deprivation, and neuroticism. The prevalence of tinnitus was similar among implant users (50%) and candidates (52%; p = 0.39). However, implant users were less likely to report that their tinnitus was distressing at its worst (41%) compared with candidates (63%; p = 0.02). The logistic regression model suggested that this difference between the two groups could be explained by the fact that tinnitus was less persistent in implant users (46%) compared with candidates (72%; p reported difficulties with sleep were similar among implant users (75%) and candidates (82%; p = 0.28), but participants with tinnitus were more likely to report sleep difficulties than those without (p explanation is supported by the similar prevalence of sleep problems among implant users and potential candidates for cochlear implantation, despite differences between the groups in tinnitus persistence and related emotional distress. Cochlear implantation may therefore not be an appropriate intervention

  8. NEW CONTRIBUTIONS TO READING DIFFICULTIES INTERVENTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VÍCTOR SANTIUSTE BERMEJO

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a synthesis of the intervention programs and strategies to treat reading difficulties. The synthesisincludes a review of the last published articles on the issue, both in Spanish and English. It also presents the visits todifferent Language Rehabilitation Centers in the Community of Madrid including the approaches applied in thesecenters. Besides the description of the general intervention strategies applied to reading problems, some of theprograms to treat specific difficulties of words decoding and recognizing are explained, and the programs to treatreading comprehension and fluidity.

  9. The multiple sclerosis work difficulties questionnaire: translation and cross-cultural adaptation to Turkish and assessment of validity and reliability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahraman, Turhan; Özdoğar, Asiye Tuba; Honan, Cynthia Alison; Ertekin, Özge; Özakbaş, Serkan

    2018-05-09

    To linguistically and culturally adapt the Multiple Sclerosis Work Difficulties Questionnaire-23 (MSWDQ-23) for use in Turkey, and to examine its reliability and validity. Following standard forward-back translation of the MSWDQ-23, it was administered to 124 people with multiple sclerosis (MS). Validity was evaluated using related outcome measures including those related to employment status and expectations, disability level, fatigue, walking, and quality of life. Randomly selected participants were asked to complete the MSWDQ-23 again to assess test-retest reliability. Confirmatory factor analysis on the MSWDQ-23 demonstrated a good fit for the data, and the internal consistency of each subscale was excellent. The test-retest reliability for the total score, psychological/cognitive barriers, physical barriers, and external barriers subscales were high. The MSWDQ-23 and its subscales were positively correlated with the employment, disability level, walking, and fatigue outcome measures. This study suggests that the Turkish version of MSWDQ-23 has high reliability and adequate validity, and it can be used to determine the difficulties faced by people with multiple sclerosis in workplace. Moreover, the study provides evidence about the test-retest reliability of the questionnaire. Implications for rehabilitation Multiple sclerosis affects young people of working age. Understanding work-related problems is crucial to enhance people with multiple sclerosis likelihood of maintaining their job. The Multiple Sclerosis Work Difficulties Questionnaire-23 (MSWDQ-23) is a valid and reliable measure of perceived workplace difficulties in people with multiple sclerosis: we presented its validation to Turkish. Professionals working in the field of vocational rehabilitation may benefit from using the MSWDQ-23 to predict the current work outcomes and future employment expectations.

  10. The Nuclear Energy Agency Mentoring a Future Generation of Female Leaders in Science and Engineering. Report on the International Mentoring Workshop in Science and Engineering in Chiba, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    Despite progress over the past decades, women remain under-represented in executive positions in science, technology, engineering and mathematics. Female students tend to do very well in math and science early in their academic careers but often take other career paths. Many countries are working to close the gender gap and are developing policies to reverse this trend. However, considering the increasing demand worldwide for skilled workers in all areas of science and technology, including in the nuclear energy sector, more advocacy is needed to encourage the next generation and to capture their interest in these fields. Efforts to motivate young women to pursue careers in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM fields), and to develop policies that support their progression, are worthwhile. Today, many NEA member countries are challenged in stimulating their youth to study in STEM fields. The looming shortfall has serious implications for the future. As part of its overall strategy and mission, the NEA has stated its support to members in their efforts to secure qualified human resources, nuclear skills capability building and the development of a new generation of nuclear experts. It is essential to ensure that all young people, including young women, have the opportunity to explore careers in science and technology. The NEA encourages its membership to explore ways of attracting, recruiting and retaining youth, in particular girls, in science and technology, as well as enhancing the conditions and prospects for women and girls at every stage of their careers and education. It is in this spirit that the NEA partnered with Japan's National Institutes for Quantum and Radiological Science and Technology (QST) to organise a mentoring workshop on July 25-26, 2017 in Chiba, Japan. This International Mentoring Workshop in Science and Engineering was a positive step, offering young Japanese women what was, for some, a life-changing experience. Seven

  11. Communication difficulties between radiobiologists and radiotherapists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Revesz, L.

    1977-01-01

    The communication difficulties between radiobiologists and radiotherapists are attributable to the existence of two cultures in radiology, separated by different philosophies, values, standards and attitudes. Integrated education in the separate branches of science and joint experimental ventures are proposed in order to develop unifying concepts. (author)

  12. Fractions Learning in Children with Mathematics Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jing; Siegler, Robert S.

    2017-01-01

    Learning fractions is difficult for children in general and especially difficult for children with mathematics difficulties (MD). Recent research on developmental and individual differences in fraction knowledge of children with MD and typically achieving (TA) children has demonstrated that U.S. children with MD start middle school behind their TA…

  13. Infrared difficulties with thermal quantum field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grandou, T.

    1997-01-01

    Reviewing briefly the two main difficulties encountered in thermal quantum field theories at finite temperature when dealing with the Braaten-Pisarski (BP) resummation program, the motivation is introduced of an analysis relying on the bare perturbation theory, right from the onset. (author)

  14. Binomial test models and item difficulty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Linden, Willem J.

    1979-01-01

    In choosing a binomial test model, it is important to know exactly what conditions are imposed on item difficulty. In this paper these conditions are examined for both a deterministic and a stochastic conception of item responses. It appears that they are more restrictive than is generally

  15. Time Estimation Deficits in Childhood Mathematics Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurks, Petra P. M.; van Loosbroek, Erik

    2014-01-01

    Time perception has not been comprehensively examined in mathematics difficulties (MD). Therefore, verbal time estimation, production, and reproduction were tested in 13 individuals with MD and 16 healthy controls, matched for age, sex, and intellectual skills. Individuals with MD performed comparably to controls in time reproduction, but showed a…

  16. Students' Difficulties with Vector Calculus in Electrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollen, Laurens; van Kampen, Paul; De Cock, Mieke

    2015-01-01

    Understanding Maxwell's equations in differential form is of great importance when studying the electrodynamic phenomena discussed in advanced electromagnetism courses. It is therefore necessary that students master the use of vector calculus in physical situations. In this light we investigated the difficulties second year students at KU Leuven…

  17. Difficulties in Learning Inheritance and Polymorphism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberman, Neomi; Beeri, Catriel; Kolikant, Yifat Ben-David

    2011-01-01

    This article reports on difficulties related to the concepts of inheritance and polymorphism, expressed by a group of 22 in-service CS teachers with an experience with the procedural paradigm, as they coped with a course on OOP. Our findings are based on the analysis of tests, questionnaires that the teachers completed in the course, as well as on…

  18. Learning Difficulties and Nutrition: Pills or Pedagogy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Roy

    1999-01-01

    Examines the efforts to find effective ameliorative measures for literacy difficulties such as dyslexia and dyspraxia, focusing on noneducational techniques found in holistic medicine, complementary therapies, and nutritional supplements. Maintains that dyslexia has become big business for drug companies and that the appropriate research regarding…

  19. Mathematics Difficulties: Does One Approach Fit All?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gifford, Sue; Rockliffe, Freda

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews the nature of learning difficulties in mathematics and, in particular, the nature and prevalence of dyscalculia, a condition that affects the acquisition of arithmetical skills. The evidence reviewed suggests that younger children (under the age of 10) often display a combination of problems, including minor physical…

  20. Quantization and hall effect: necessities and difficulties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed Bouketir; Hishamuddin Zainuddin

    1999-01-01

    The quantization procedure is a necessary tool for a proper understanding of many interesting quantum phenomena in modern physics. In this note, we focus on geometrical framework for such procedures, particularly the group-theoretic approach and their difficulties. Finally we look through the example of Hall effect as a quantized macroscopic phenomenon with group-theoretic quantization approach. (author)

  1. Pupils' Difficulties: What Can the Teacher Do?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, C. J.

    1978-01-01

    Discusses how the teacher can deal with difficulties pupils of varying ages have in understanding certain chemical ideas. The article does not support using a Piagetian model for science courses in secondary schools. It suggests that Ausubel's learning theory is of much more use to the practicing teacher. (HM)

  2. Older Adults Have Difficulty in Decoding Sarcasm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Louise H.; Allen, Roy; Bull, Rebecca; Hering, Alexandra; Kliegel, Matthias; Channon, Shelley

    2015-01-01

    Younger and older adults differ in performance on a range of social-cognitive skills, with older adults having difficulties in decoding nonverbal cues to emotion and intentions. Such skills are likely to be important when deciding whether someone is being sarcastic. In the current study we investigated in a life span sample whether there are…

  3. Early Identification of Reading Comprehension Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catts, Hugh W.; Nielsen, Diane Corcoran; Bridges, Mindy Sittner; Liu, Yi-Syuan

    2016-01-01

    Most research on early identification of reading disabilities has focused on word reading problems and little attention has been given to reading comprehension difficulties. In this study, we investigated whether measures of language ability and/or response to language intervention in kindergarten uniquely predicted reading comprehension…

  4. Measuring Difficulty in English-Chinese Translation: Towards a General Model of Translation Difficulty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Sanjun

    2012-01-01

    Accurate assessment of a text's level of translation difficulty is critical for translator training and accreditation, translation research, and the language industry as well. Traditionally, people rely on their general impression to gauge a text's translation difficulty level. If the evaluation process is to be more effective and the…

  5. Memory Abilities in Children with Mathematical Difficulties: Comorbid Language Difficulties Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimann, Giselle; Gut, Janine; Frischknecht, Marie-Claire; Grob, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated cognitive abilities in children with difficulties in mathematics only (n = 48, M = 8 years and 5 months), combined mathematical and language difficulty (n = 27, M = 8 years and 1 month) and controls (n = 783, M = 7 years and 11 months). Cognitive abilities were measured with seven subtests, tapping visual perception,…

  6. International Criminalization of International Terrorizm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Grigoryevich Volevodz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis and studying of the terrorism in all its facets is a complex entangled problem with less clear legal regulation that it might seem at first glance, especially after its transformation from local phenomenon into a world threat. Hitherto terrorism and actions connected to it have been criminalized by the majority of states. There are in modern criminal law whole systems of rules on criminal liability for terrorism which differs considerably from country to country. Terrorism has been criminalized in numerous international regional and universal antiterrorist legal instruments. The author notes that differences in definitions that are enshrined in them hinders international cooperation in criminal matters with respect to terrorist cases. Difficulties reside in the necessity to meet the dual criminality requirement and in the political offense exception. These difficulties can only be overcome through elaboration of a universally recognized definition of the notion of international terrorism and making it legally binding via its inclusion into a universal convention. The issue of definition of international terrorism is an important part of an efficient mutual assistance among states in fight against this crime. In this article the author accounts of actual ways of tackling by the international community of the issue of criminalization of international terrorism and of factors influencing them.

  7. Communication difficulties in teenagers with health impairments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samokhvalova, Anna G.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary psychological and pedagogical studies pay special attention to the socialization of physically impaired children, inclusive education and methods of providing such children with a safe environment to assist in their development. However, difficulties in interpersonal communication experienced by children with health impairments have remained beyond the research scope. The authors conducted a comparative analysis of communication difficulties in typically developed teenagers aged 12-13 years (n = 100 and the problems faced by their peers with visual (n = 30, auditory (n = 30, speech (n = 25 and motor (n = 15 impairments. Actual communication difficulties in teenagers were studied in two ways: the subjective component of impaired communication was registered through a content analysis of a sentence completion test and the objective manifestations of impaired communication were identified through expert evaluation of children’s communicative behavior (educators and psychologists who had been in close contact with the teenagers acted as experts. First, the authors identified typical standard communication problems that were characteristic of teenagers aged 12-13 years, that is, problems with aggression, tolerance, the ability to admit wrongdoing and make concessions, empathy, self-control, self-analysis and self-expression in communication. Second, typical communication difficulties characteristic of physically impaired children were revealed: failure to understand meaning; feelings of awkwardness and shame of oneself; expectations of a negative attitude toward oneself; gelotophobia; and manifestations of despotism, petulance and egotism as defensive reactions in situations of impaired communication. Third, the authors described specific communication difficulties in teenagers with auditory, visual, speech and motor impairments.

  8. Non-nutritive anticarcinogens in foods : state of the art and future developments : a report of the international workshop held on March 26 - 27 1990 in Wageningen, The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hertog, M.G.L.; Hollman, P.C.H.

    1990-01-01

    On March 26-27 1990 an international workshop on non-nutritive anticarcinogens in foods was organised in Wageningen, The Netherlands. Aim of the workshop was to review progress in the research on natural occurring non-nutritive anticarcinogens and to set priorities for future analytica! and

  9. 20 Years of Achievement and Future Challenge for International Capacity Building Regarding Safeguards and SSAC at Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senzaki, M.; Naoi, Y.; Kuribayashi, T.; Okumura, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Developing human resources in the fields of nuclear non-proliferation and safeguards is critical to promote the peaceful use of nuclear energy. The shortfall of human resources in such fields presents a serious challenge. It has, therefore, become important to urgently develop human resources and thereby to ensure. With a long experience in practicing Japan's nuclear non-proliferation policy, JAEA has been contributing since the 1990s to international human-resource development. More than 300 people from about 40 countries have joined the training courses organized by the Integrated Support Center for Nuclear Non-proliferation and Nuclear Security (ISCN) of JAEA. These courses use lectures, workshops, group discussions, and facility tours to teach knowledge of the basic concepts of IAEA safeguards, SSAC requirements, and safeguards tools to government officials who are responsible for safeguards implementation and to operators who are engaged in nuclear-material accounting and control. Based on Japan's statement at the 2010 Nuclear Security Summit, ISCN was established in December 2010. ISCN places top priority on providing support for the development of future leaders, the development of legal and regulatory infrastructure, and the fostering of nuclear non-proliferation culture. For further advancement, ISCN also examines the current situations of the Asian nations that ISCN supports, based on discussions made between the Japanese government and the IAEA. It works on formulating new training courses that focus on specific themes, such as NDA training and table-top exercises for CA under the AP, identified through needs surveys. ISCN is committed to the development of human resources in the field of safeguards and work closely with governmental organizations in Japan and with other Asian countries, the IAEA, US DOE, European Commission, FNCA, and APSN. (author)

  10. Future Talks,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Defeyt

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available La conservation des matériaux modernes et les difficultés qui la caractérisent étaient l’objet du colloque international Future Talks, organisé par Die Neue Sammlung, The International Design Museum, les 22 et 23 octobre 2009 à Munich. Conservateurs-restaurateurs spécialisés, représentants des  institutions muséales les plus prestigieuses d’Europe et d’outre-Atlantique ainsi que chercheurs en sciences appliquées y ont présenté leurs travaux et recherches. En matière de design, d’art moderne e...

  11. Guiding People to Interpret Their Experienced Difficulty as Importance Highlights Their Academic Possibilities and Improves Their Academic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyserman, Daphna; Elmore, Kristen; Novin, Sheida; Fisher, Oliver; Smith, George C.

    2018-01-01

    Does experiencing difficulty bolster or undermine future self-images, strategies to get there and actual performance? We build on four insights from prior research to predict that accessible interpretation-of-experienced-difficulty mindset shapes identity and performance. First, people have two different interpretation-of-experienced-difficulty mindsets available in memory; their difficulty-as-impossibility mindset focuses attention on difficulty as implying low odds and their difficulty-as-importance mindset focuses attention on difficulty as implying high value. Second, people are sensitive to contextual cues as to which mindset to apply to understand their experienced difficulty. Third, people apply the mindset that comes to mind unless they have reason to question why it is “on-the-mind.” Fourth, social class can be thought of as a chronic context influencing how much people endorse each interpretation-of-experienced-difficulty mindset. We used subtle primes to guide participants’ attention toward either a difficulty-as-importance or a difficulty-as-impossibility mindset (N = 591). Participants guided toward a difficulty-as-importance mindset performed better on difficult academic tasks (Studies 1, 2) than participants guided toward a difficulty-as-impossibility mindset; whether they had more school-focused possible identities and linked strategies depended on sample (Studies 3, 4). For college students, the effect of guided interpretation-of-experienced-difficulty mindset was not moderated by how much participants agreed with that mindset (Studies 1, 3, 4). College students mostly disagreed with a difficulty-as-impossibility mindset, but making that mindset accessible undermined their performance and sometimes their possible identities anyway. In contrast, middle school students (a younger and lower social class sample) were more likely to agree with a difficulty-as-impossibility mindset. In this sample (Study 2), we found an effect of mindset

  12. How specific are specific comprehension difficulties?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønberg, Louise Flensted-Jensen; Petersen, Dorthe Klint

    2016-01-01

    as measured on a phonological coding measure. However, the proportion was smaller than the often reported 10-15 % and even smaller when average sight word recognition was also set as a criterion for word reading ability. Compared to average comprehenders, the poor comprehenders’ sight word recognition......This study explores the occurrence of poor comprehenders, i.e., children identified with reading comprehension difficulties in spite of age-appropriate word reading skills. It supports the findings that some children do show poor reading comprehension in spite of age-appropriate word reading...... and daily reading of literary texts were significantly below that of average readers. This study indicates that a lack of reading experience and, likewise, a lack of fluent word reading may be important factors in understanding nine-year-old poor comprehenders’ difficulties....

  13. EXPLORING STUDENTS‟ DIFFICULTIES IN READING ACADEMIC TEXTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ira Ernawati

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Academic texts play an important role for university students. However, those texts are considered difficult. This study is intended to investigate students‘ difficulties in reading academic texts. The qualitative approach was employed in this study. The design was a case study. The participants were ten students from fifth semester of CLS: EE (Classroom Language and Strategy: Explaining and Exemplifying class who were selected by using purposive sampling. The data were gathered from students‘ journal reflections, observation, and interview. The finding shows that the students encountered reading difficulties in area of textual factors, namely vocabulary, comprehending specific information, text organization, and grammar and human factors including background knowledge, mood, laziness, and time constraint.

  14. Difficulties in radiodiagnosis of children's tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolinova, E.; Zitkova, M.; Suchmova, M.; Jirasek, M.

    1984-01-01

    Some problems of current radiodiagnosis in pediatric oncology are discussed. The main cause of errors in diagnosis and of difficulties barring timely correct diagnosis is the relatively small number of tumors in children and the ensuing lack of knowledge and experience in diagnosis. The situation can only be improved by the disciplined observance of purposeful diagnostic procedures and the centralization of these procedures at specialized departments. (author)

  15. ERRORS AND DIFFICULTIES IN TRANSLATING LEGAL TEXTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camelia, CHIRILA

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays the accurate translation of legal texts has become highly important as the mistranslation of a passage in a contract, for example, could lead to lawsuits and loss of money. Consequently, the translation of legal texts to other languages faces many difficulties and only professional translators specialised in legal translation should deal with the translation of legal documents and scholarly writings. The purpose of this paper is to analyze translation from three perspectives: translation quality, errors and difficulties encountered in translating legal texts and consequences of such errors in professional translation. First of all, the paper points out the importance of performing a good and correct translation, which is one of the most important elements to be considered when discussing translation. Furthermore, the paper presents an overview of the errors and difficulties in translating texts and of the consequences of errors in professional translation, with applications to the field of law. The paper is also an approach to the differences between languages (English and Romanian that can hinder comprehension for those who have embarked upon the difficult task of translation. The research method that I have used to achieve the objectives of the paper was the content analysis of various Romanian and foreign authors' works.

  16. DIFFICULTY OF AMENDMENT AND INTERPRETATIVE CHOICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Coan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The extreme difficulty of amending the U.S. Constitution plays a central but largely unexamined role in theoretical debates over interpretive choice. In particular, conventional wisdom assumes that the extreme difficulty of Article V amendment weakens the case for originalism. This view might ultimately be correct, but it is not the freestanding argument against originalism it is often presumed to be. Rather, it depends on contestable normative and empirical premises that require defense. If those premises are wrong, the stringency of Article V might actually strengthen the case for originalism. Or Article V might have no impact on that case one way or another. This “complexity thesis” highlights and clarifies the role that difficulty of amendment plays across a range of significant interpretive debates, including those surrounding writtenness, John Hart Ely’s representation-reinforcement theory, interpretive pluralism, and originalism as a theory of positive law. It also has important implications for the under-studied relations between statutory and constitutional interpretation and federal and state constitutional interpretation.

  17. Feeding Difficulties in Children with Esophageal Atresia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, Lisa; Rosen, Rachel

    2016-06-01

    The current available literature evaluating feeding difficulties in children with esophageal atresia was reviewed. The published literature was searched through PubMed using a pre-defined search strategy. Feeding difficulties are commonly encountered in children and adults with repaired esophageal atresia [EA]. The mechanism for abnormal feeding includes both esophageal and oropharyngeal dysphagia. Esophageal dysphagia is commonly reported in patients with EA and causes include dysmotility, anatomic lesions, esophageal outlet obstruction and esophageal inflammation. Endoscopic evaluation, esophageal manometry and esophograms can be useful studies to evaluate for causes of esophageal dysphagia. Oropharyngeal dysfunction and aspiration are also important mechanisms for feeding difficulties in patients with EA. These patients often present with respiratory symptoms. Videofluoroscopic swallow study, salivagram, fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing and high-resolution manometry can all be helpful tools to identify aspiration. Once diagnosed, management goals include reduction of aspiration during swallowing, reducing full column reflux into the oropharynx and continuation of oral feeding to maintain skills. We review specific strategies which can be used to reduce aspiration of gastric contents, including thickening feeds, changing feeding schedule, switching formula, trialing transpyloric feeds and fundoplication. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Burmese nuclear ambitions and their international implications: a look to the future; Ambitions nucleaires du Myanmar et implications internationales: une analyse prospective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, I. [Universite Laval, Quebec (Canada)

    2010-12-15

    The prospect of a nuclear-capable Burma merits debate within the scientific and international strategic communities. Irving Lewis looks at the effect it would have on South-East Asia, and Asia in general, the major security problems that would arise and the considerable impact it would have upon international security

  19. Do age-related word retrieval difficulties appear (or disappear) in connected speech?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavé, Gitit; Goral, Mira

    2017-09-01

    We conducted a comprehensive literature review of studies of word retrieval in connected speech in healthy aging and reviewed relevant aphasia research that could shed light on the aging literature. Four main hypotheses guided the review: (1) Significant retrieval difficulties would lead to reduced output in connected speech. (2) Significant retrieval difficulties would lead to a more limited lexical variety in connected speech. (3) Significant retrieval difficulties would lead to an increase in word substitution errors and in pronoun use as well as to greater dysfluency and hesitation in connected speech. (4) Retrieval difficulties on tests of single-word production would be associated with measures of word retrieval in connected speech. Studies on aging did not confirm these four hypotheses, unlike studies on aphasia that generally did. The review suggests that future research should investigate how context facilitates word production in old age.

  20. Male professional footballers' experiences of mental health difficulties and help-seeking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Susan; Harrison, Lesley K; Kucharska, Jo

    2017-05-01

    Male professional footballers (soccer) represent an at-risk population of developing mental health difficulties and not accessing professional support. One in four current footballers report mental health difficulties. Higher prevalence is reported after retirement. This qualitative study aimed to provide in-depth insight into male professional footballers' lived experiences of mental health difficulties and help-seeking. Seven participants were interviewed. Data were analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis. One superordinate theme emerged; 'Survival'. This related to survival in the professional football world, of mental health difficulties and after transition into the 'real world'. Six subordinate themes are explored alongside literature pertaining to male mental health, identity, injury, transition, and emotional development. Shame, stigma, fear and level of mental health literacy (knowledge of mental health and support) were barriers to help-seeking. Support for professional footballers' mental wellbeing requires improvement. Recommendations are made for future research, mental health education and support.

  1. On the study and difficulties of mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    De Morgan, Augustus

    2005-01-01

    One of the twentieth century's most eminent mathematical writers, Augustus De Morgan enriched his expositions with insights from history and psychology. On the Study and Difficulties of Mathematics represents some of his best work, containing points usually overlooked by elementary treatises, and written in a fresh and natural tone that provides a refreshing contrast to the mechanical character of common textbooks.Presuming only a knowledge of the rules of algebra and Euclidean theorems, De Morgan begins with some introductory remarks on the nature and objects of mathematics. He discusses the

  2. NECCESITY AND DIFFICULTY OF R D PERFORMANCEMEASUREMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MariaFekete-Farkas

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available We are living in a globalized world with increasing population which is facingsevere global economic and financial crises as well as serious environmentalproblems. The possibilities to overcome these difficulties can be interpreted asthe need for sustainable development calling for innovation, increased R Dspending with increased R D effectiveness and efficiency. Besides greaterattentionforthe need of deeper understanding of the innovation process and therole of R D in it, this paper has discussed the many analytical problems thatconfront a researcher in this area, and additionally calls for research oncollaboration between universities and industry. Among other conclusions thispaper also provides a new way of thinking for policy makers and performancemonitoring committees.

  3. [IgE myeloma. Laboratory typing difficulties].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovone, Nora S; Fuente, María Cristina; Gastiazoro, Ana María; Alfonso, Graciela; Freitas, María Josefina

    2014-01-01

    The IgE multiple myeloma is a rare neoplasm of plasma cell accounting for 0.01% of all plasma cell dyscrasias. They are generally of more aggressive development and to date there are no more than 50 cases published in current literature. Laboratory studies are, in these cases, essential for the classification of the monoclonal component in serum and urine. The aim of this presentation is to report a patient diagnosed with IgE myeloma and to point out that the laboratory difficulties noted in these rare cases can lead to an erroneous report.

  4. Integrating Diverse Data Systems for International Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Peter

    2014-05-01

    International collaborations, especially ones that arise with little or no financial resources, still face challenges in opening up data collections via a wide variety of differing and often non-interoperable means. In turn, this hampers the collaborative process, slows or even prevents scientific exchange. Early efforts that proposed a centralized, and project specific data archive encountered many difficulties, ranging from little or no adoption, to the inability to provide required documentation and metadata to make the datasets findable or usable. In time, virtualized approaches appeared to gain traction, for e.g. virtual observatories. In this contribution, we report on several international collaboration case studies with distributed data systems; their needs, successes, challenges and failures and synthesize a set of suggested practices to inform future international collaboration efforts.

  5. Intervention program efficacy for spelling difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampaio, Maria Nobre; Capellini, Simone Aparecida

    2014-01-01

    To develop an intervention procedure for spelling difficulties and to verify the effectiveness of the intervention program in students with lower spelling performance. We developed an intervention program for spelling difficulties, according to the semiology of the errors. The program consisted of three modules totaling 16 sessions. The study included 40 students of the third to fifth grade of public elementary education of the city of Marilia (SP), of both genders, in aged of eight to 12 years old, being distributed in the following groups: GI (20 students with lower spelling performance) and GII (20 students with higher spelling performance). In situation of pre and post-testing, all groups were submitted to the Pro-Orthography. The results statistically analyzed showed that, in general, all groups had average of right that has higher in post-testing, reducing the types of errors second semiologycal classification, mainly related to natural spelling errors. However, the results also showed that the groups submitted to the intervention program showed better performance on spelling tests in relation to not submitted. The intervention program developed was effective once the groups submitted showed better performance on spelling tests in relation to not submitted. Therefore, the intervention program can help professionals in the Health and Education to minimize the problems related to spelling, giving students an intervention that is effective for the development of the spelling knowledge.

  6. The Effects of Locus of Control and Task Difficulty on Procrastination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Tracy; Carton, John S

    1999-12-01

    The authors investigated the effects of locus of control expectancies and task difficulty on procrastination. Forty-two college students were administered an academic locus of control scale and a task that was similar to a typical college homework assignment. The students were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 task difficulty levels. Although none of the results involving task difficulty was significant, several results involving locus of control were significant. Specifically, analyses revealed that students with internal locus of control expectancies tended to begin working on the assignment sooner than students with external locus of control expectancies. In addition, students with internal locus of control completed and returned the assignment sooner than students with external locus of control. The results are discussed within the context of J. B. Rotter's (1966, 1975, 1982) social learning theory.

  7. International human cooperation in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiba, Koreyuki; Kaieda, Keisuke; Makuuchi, Keizo; Takada, Kazuo; Nomura, Masayuki

    1997-01-01

    Rearing of talented persons in the area of nuclear energy is one of the important works in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. In this report, the present situations and future schedules of international human cooperation in this area wsere summarized. First, the recent activities of International Nuclear Technology Center were outlined in respect of international human cooperation. A study and training course which was started in cooperation with JICA and IAEA from the middle of eighties and the international nuclear safety seminar aiming at advancing the nuclear safety level of the world are now being put into practice. In addition, a study and training for rearing talented persons was started from 1996 to improve the nuclear safety level of the neighbouring countries. The activities of the nuclear research interchange system by Science and Technology Agency established in 1985 and Bilateral Co-operation Agreement from 1984 were explained and also various difficulties in the international cooperation were pointed out. (M.N.)

  8. Rural mental health workforce difficulties: a management perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, T; Sutton, K; Maybery, D

    2010-01-01

    organisations. Interviewees indicated that these issues make it difficult for organisations to support personnel in ways that enhance personal and professional satisfaction and so retention and, in turn, the capacity to recruit new employees. Participants also highlighted issues internal to the organisation. The tensions that flow from the systemic forces require highly creative leadership to negotiate the numerous policy changes, diverse sources of funding, training regimens, worker cohorts and models of care. Managers must nurture the capacity of their own organisation to respond flexibly to the demands, by establishing a responsive culture and structure. They must also encourage the collaboration of their other organisations in their sub-regional grouping and the development of a regional sensibility. The approach taken by the study, particularly its focus on a management perspective, revealed that the difficulties experienced are the product of a core tension between a growing demand for mental health care, emerging specialities and technological advances in the field, and a diminished systemic capacity to support organisations in meeting the demand. Resolving this core tension is a key to the maintenance of a sustainable and effective workforce in Gippsland, and the role of management is crucial to that resolution.

  9. The Influence of Problems Faced during Internships on Interns' Views of Their Profession and Their Intention to Work in the Tourism Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasli, Mehmet; Ilban, Mehmet Oguzhan

    2013-01-01

    Problem Statement: The problem of this research is identifying the difficulties that undergraduate students experience during their internships and assessing their future intention to work in the tourism industry. Purpose of Study: This research aims to identify the problems undergraduate students encounter as interns in tourism programs and to…

  10. Parents' difficulties with decisions about childhood immunisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Helen; Campion-Smith, Charles; Thomas, Sarah; Ward, William

    2008-10-01

    Uptake of childhood immunisation fluctuates in the UK. Convenience, access and parents' relationships with professionals influence uptake. This study explores the decision-making by parents about their children's immunisation through focus groups with analysis to identify categories of concern. Issues raised in focus groups included fear, risk, anger, worry and guilt, confusion, difficulty of decision-making and trust of professionals. The parents of completely and incompletely immunised children shared areas of concern, but there were also significant differences. There was a subset of parents of incompletely immunised children who had decided that their children would not have full immunisation, and this group had little trust in information provided by healthcare professionals. Simply providing more information is unlikely to change their decision.

  11. Regulatory difficulties in a developing country

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobs, W.R. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    The regulatory agency assigned the task of regulating the initial entry into the field of nuclear power generation by a developing country has a very difficult job. Based on the authors' experience during the start-up and initial operation of Ko-Ri Unit I, the first power reactor in the Republic of Korea, observations on regulatory difficulties and recommendations for improved regulatory effectiveness are offered. The problem areas can be loosely grouped into three general categories: (1) Lack of adequate technical knowledge which is the basis for all effective regulation; (2) Difficulties with understanding and utilization of the required regulatory documentation; (3) Failure to establish the proper regulatory environment. Examples are cited from actual experience during the Ko-Ri Unit I start-up to demonstrate the impact that regulatory activities can have on a plant construction and testing programme. The problems encountered are not unique to developing countries but also exist in the United States of America. Recommendations are offered which should be beneficial to either newly formed regulatory agencies or agencies wishing to improve their abilities and effectiveness. These include: (1) Additional training of regulatory inspectors in plant operations; (2) Additional experience gained by participation in regulatory activities in other countries; (3) Increased attention given to regulatory documents, especially plant technical specifications; (4) Establishment of formal lines of communication between the utility and the regulatory agency; (5) Clear definition of regulatory responsibilities to avoid areas of overlapping jurisdiction; (6) Active participation by the regulatory staff very early in the project. It is hoped that these and other recommendations offered will greatly improve regulatory effectiveness and at the same time demonstrate that when the decision is made to 'go nuclear', a strong commitment must be made to develop and support a technically

  12. International collaboration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    In the wake of the demise of the US Superconducting Supercollider (SSC) project last year which empoverished both US and world science, some rapid scene shifting is going on. The SSC may be dead, but the underlying physics quest lives on. In the US, the 'future vision' subpanel of the High Energy Physics Advisory Board (HEPAP) is at work formulating its recommendations. On the international front, the International Committee for Future Accelerators (ICFA) at a special meeting in Vancouver in January drafted a statement

  13. Radioactive Waste Management and Constructing Memory for Future Generations. Proceedings of the International Conference and Debate, 15-17 September 2014, Verdun, France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroeder, Jantine; Botez, Radu; Formentini, Marine

    2015-01-01

    The Preservation of Records, Knowledge and Memory (RK and M) across Generations initiative was launched by the Nuclear Energy Agency in 2011 to foster international reflection and progress towards this goal and to meet increasing demands by waste management specialists and other interested parties for viable and shared strategies. The RK and M initiative is now in its second phase, which is to last until 2017. Phase I culminated on 15-17 September 2014 with the organisation of an international conference and debate on 'Constructing Memory' held in Verdun, France. The conference was attended by approximately 200 participants from 17 countries and 3 international organisations. Participants included specialists from the radioactive waste management area and beyond, academics in the fields of archaeology, communications, cultural heritage, geography and history, as well as artists, archivists and representatives from local heritage societies and from communities that could host a radioactive waste repository. (authors)

  14. Models of technology and change in higher education: an international comparative survey on the current and future use of ICT in higher education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Collis, Betty; van der Wende, Marijk

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate which scenarios are emerging with respect to the use of ICT in higher education and how future developments can be predicted and strategic choices can be based on that. It seeks to answer the following questions: What strategic responses do institutions make

  15. Report on the 7th International Conference on Autonomous Infrastructure, Management, and Security (AIMS 2013): Emerging Management Mechanisms for the Future Internet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doyen, Guillaume; Waldburger, Martin; Sperotto, Anna; Celeda, Pavel; Gorricho, Juan-Luis; Schaaf, Thomas; Serrat, Joan

    2014-01-01

    This article contains the report on AIMS 2013, which was held on June 25–28, 2013 at the Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya (UPC), Spain and was driven by the theme “Emerging Management Mechanisms for the Future Internet”. It covers the three main parts that formed the event program: the keynote

  16. "I Want to Feel Like a Full Man": Conceptualizing Gay, Bisexual, and Heterosexual Men's Sexual Difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonagh, Lorraine K; Nielsen, Elly-Jean; McDermott, Daragh T; Davies, Nathan; Morrison, Todd G

    2018-01-01

    Current understandings of sexual difficulties originate from a model that is based on the study of heterosexual men and women. Most research has focused on sexual difficulties experienced by heterosexual men incapable of engaging in vaginal penetration. To better understand men's perceptions and experiences of sexual difficulties, seven focus groups and 29 individual interviews were conducted with gay (n = 22), bisexual (n = 5), and heterosexual (n = 25) men. In addition, the extent to which difficulties reported by gay and bisexual men differ from heterosexual men was explored. Data were analyzed using thematic analysis applying an inductive approach. Two intercorrelated conceptualizations were identified: penis function (themes: medicalization, masculine identity, psychological consequences, coping mechanisms) and pain (themes: penile pain, pain during receptive anal sex). For the most part, gay, bisexual, and heterosexual men reported similar sexual difficulties; differences were evident regarding alternative masculinity, penis size competition, and pain during receptive anal sex. The results of this study demonstrate the complexity of men's sexual difficulties and the important role of sociocultural, interpersonal, and psychological factors. Limitations and suggested directions for future research are outlined.

  17. Finite element analysis of ageing reinforced and prestressed concrete structures in nuclear plant - An international review of current capabilities and priorities for future developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    Nuclear plants contain a variety of concrete structures whose structural performance is essential to the safety of the plant. There is a requirement to demonstrate the robustness of these structures during normal operating and extreme accident conditions, throughout their life. During this time, the concrete may degrade due to the effects of ageing. This degradation must be accounted for during the assessment of their performance. Finite Element Analysis (FEA) techniques have tremendous potential for providing valuable insight into the behaviour of these aged concrete structures under a range of different loading conditions. Advanced FEA techniques currently enjoy widespread use within the nuclear industry for the non-linear analysis of concrete. Many practitioners within the nuclear industry are at the forefront of the industrial application of these methods. However, in some areas, the programs that are commercially available lag behind the best information available from research. This document is an international review of current capabilities and priorities for future development relating to non-linear finite element analysis of reinforced and prestressed concrete in the nuclear industry in the various member states. Particular attention is paid to the analysis of degraded or ageing structures. This report: 1. Summarises the needs for FEA of aged concrete nuclear structures; 2. Details the existing capabilities, not just in terms of what the software is capable of, but also in terms of the current practices employed by those in industry; 3. Looks at how engineers, within the nuclear industry, working in this field would like to see methods improved, and identifies the factors that are limiting current practice; 4. Summarises ongoing research that may provide beneficial technological advances; 5. Assigns priorities to the different development requests; 6. Selects those developments that are felt to be of greatest benefit to industry and provides a qualitative

  18. The structure and use of the teacher and parent Maltese Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmel Cefai

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ (Goodman, 1997 is one of the most commonly used measures of mental health in children and young people and has been translated into more than forty languages. This paper discusses the translation of the SDQ in Maltese and explores the structure and use of the teacher and parent Maltese translations. 4797 school teachers and 2865 parents completed the Maltese teacher and parent SDQ respectively. The results indicate that the Maltese SDQ, particularly the teacher version, meets the basic psychometric properties which make it a useful index of social, emotional and behaviour difficulties and prosocial behaviour amongst Maltese children and young people. Exploratory factor analysis suggests that the Maltese version clearly discriminates between difficulty and prosocial behaviour, and that it may be closer in fit to a three factor model, namely internalized difficulties, externalized difficulties and prosocial behaviour. While there are a number of variations, which may be explained by the local educational and socio-cultural context, Maltese mean scores are quite comparable with international SDQ norms. In view of a number of limitations, however, the use of the Maltese SDQ needs to be used with caution and further research into its psychometric properties is suggested.

  19. Report on corrections and future considerations for Appendices II–VIII of the International Code of Nomenclature for Algae, Fungi, and Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    For the first time, the main text and Appendices II–VIII of the International Code of Nomenclature were separately published following decisions of the Melbourne Nomenclature Section, which contributed to subsequent development of an online resource capable of producing the Appendices in real time. ...

  20. Facing the Future: The Two-Year College, the Technician & the Entrepreneur. An International Symposium. Report from the Conference (Orlando, Florida, 1996).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regional Technology Strategies, Inc., Carrboro, NC.

    This document reports on the proceedings of an international 2-day conference in Orlando, Florida that was supported by the National Science Foundation. At the conference, practitioners, employers, policymakers, and researchers raised and debated issues surrounding two-year colleges. The themes of the conference reflected increasing demands by…

  1. Breakout Session: International Treaties, Copyright Law, and the Future of the U.S.A. Presented by Kenneth D. Crews, attorney, Gipson Hoffman and Pancione.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Posie Aagaard

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Nearly every nation in the world enacts laws that explicitly govern domestic copyright, dictating rights reserved for authors and specifying other important legal terms. Both geographical borders and the less well-defined borders of the internet affect determinations of copyright. On a global scale, nations enact international copyright treaties to achieve harmonization of certain aspects of copyright law that would otherwise create challenges or conflicts in enforcement of policies between individual nations. However, member nations may need to adjust domestic laws to bring them into alignment with the terms of the international treaties. International law expert Dr. Kenneth Crews discussed the evolution of copyright law and described how precedents set by some nations historically influenced geographic and sociopolitical peers. He also discussed how existing international copyright treaties address issues that continue to reveal weaknesses or compelling needs that cannot easily be served through existing copyright law. Lastly, Dr. Crews provided an update on the landmark 2013 Marrakesh VIP Treaty, which establishes special copyright provisions to accommodate individuals with print disabilities, and reported on his work commissioned by WIPO to study the status of copyright law exceptions in nations around the world.

  2. [Children with developmental coordination disorder have difficulty with action representation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbard, Carl; Cacola, Priscila

    The study of children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) has emerged as a vibrant line of inquiry over the last two decades. The literature indicates quite clearly that children with DCD display deficits with an array of perceptual-motor and daily living skills. The movements of children with DCD are often described as clumsy and uncoordinated and lead to difficulties with performing many of the activities of daily living and sports that typically developing children perform easily. It has been hypothesized, based on limited research, that an underlying problem is a deficit in generating and/or monitoring an action representation termed the internal modeling deficit hypothesis. According to the hypothesis, children with DCD have significant limitations in their ability to accurately generate and utilize internal models of motor planning and control. The focus of this review is on one of the methods used to examine action representation-motor imagery, which theorists argue provides a window into the process of action representation. Included are research methods and possible brain structures involved. An addition, a paradigm unique with this population-estimation of reachability (distance) via motor imagery, will be described.

  3. Status of Muslim Immigrants' Children with Learning Difficulties in Vienna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohsin, M. Naeem; Shabbir, Muhammad; Saeed, Wizra; Mohsin, M. Saleem

    2013-01-01

    The study was conducted to know the status of Muslim immigrants' children with learning difficulties and importance of parents' involvement for the education whose children are with learning difficulties, and the factors responsible for the learning difficulties among immigrants' children. There were 81 immigrant children with learning…

  4. Keldysh theory of strong field ionization: history, applications, difficulties and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    V Popruzhenko, S

    2014-01-01

    The history and current status of the Keldysh theory of strong field ionization are reviewed. The focus is on the fundamentals of the theory, its most important applications and those aspects which still raise difficulties and remain under discussion. The Keldysh theory is compared with other nonperturbative analytic methods of strong field atomic physics and its important generalizations are discussed. Among the difficulties, the gauge invariance problem, the tunneling time concept, the conditions of applicability and the application of the theory to ionization of systems more complex than atoms, including molecules and dielectrics, are considered. Possible prospects for the future development of the theory are also discussed. (review article)

  5. Factor Structure and Initial Validation of a Multidimensional Measure of Difficulties in the Regulation of Positive Emotions: The DERS-Positive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Nicole H; Gratz, Kim L; Lavender, Jason M

    2015-05-01

    Emotion regulation difficulties are a transdiagnostic construct relevant to numerous clinical difficulties. Although the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS) is a multidimensional measure of maladaptive ways of responding to emotions, it focuses on difficulties with the regulation of negative emotions and does not assess emotion dysregulation in the form of problematic responding to positive emotions. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a measure of clinically relevant difficulties in the regulation of positive emotions (DERS-Positive). Findings revealed a three-factor structure and supported the internal consistency and construct validity of the total and subscale scores. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. Nuclear power: Preparing for the future. International conference on nuclear power for the 21st century, 21 March 2005, Paris, France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ElBaradei, M.

    2005-01-01

    This statement discusses a few aspects of the evolving global scenario for nuclear power. All indicators show that an increased level of emphasis on subjects such as fast growing energy demands, security of energy supply, and the risk of climate change are driving a re-consideration, in some quarters, of the need for greater investment in nuclear power. The decisions that emerge from this debate will have long range implications, and require a degree of planning that looks at least several decades into the future. This morning I would like to offer a brief review of the current picture, and to outline a number of issues that, in my view, will be crucial in determining the contribution of nuclear power to the future global energy mix

  7. Future Internet Including 5G and Beyond: Presentation held at ICTP 2015, 1st IEEE International Conference on Telecommunications and Photonics, BUET, Dhaka, 26 - 28 December 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Khondoker, Rahamatullah

    2015-01-01

    The aim of Future Internet is to provide 24/7/365 satisfactory secure connectivity for everyone and everything which will bring changes in the society and industry. To achieve this goal, researchers are working to improve existing Radio, Core, and Management technologies and adding new concepts and technologies like Software Defined Networking (SDN), Network Function Virtualization (NFV), Cloud Computing, Fog Computing / Internet of Things (IoT), Cyberphysical Systems, Industrial Internet (fo...

  8. FAMILY BUSINESSES AND THE DIFFICULTIES ENCOUNTERED BY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Martins

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available There are few family owned businesses that survive to the next generation. In general, 30% of these businesses are passed on to second generation families and less than 15% survive to third generation families. There has been little research done on third generation family businesses. Therefore the main purpose of this paper is to identify the principal difficulties of passing on managerial skills to the third generation owners. This study uses a case study of a Brazilian family organization composed of twelve enterprises. The instrument to collect data was an individually guided recorded interview with all of the family managers (1ª, 2ª e 3ª generation. The technique applied, was suggested for Miles & Huberman (1994 to group the data in analytical categories to facilitate the analyzed speeches contained in the 49 blocks of responses. As a result, the transition the business to the third generation owners has been strongly associated with the relation between family and business by the following factors: a the succession process influenced by emotional and family values; b conflicts, rivalries and divergences of strategic visions and business goals between the family generations; c lack of professional criteria to hire relatives; and d fragility of communication and consequent asymmetry of information among the family members.

  9. Fractions Learning in Children With Mathematics Difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jing; Siegler, Robert S

    Learning fractions is difficult for children in general and especially difficult for children with mathematics difficulties (MD). Recent research on developmental and individual differences in fraction knowledge of children with MD and typically achieving (TA) children has demonstrated that U.S. children with MD start middle school behind their TA peers in fraction understanding and fall further behind during middle school. In contrast, Chinese children, who like the MD children in the United States score in the bottom one third of the distribution in their country, possess reasonably good fraction understanding. We interpret these findings within the framework of the integrated theory of numerical development. By emphasizing the importance of fraction magnitude knowledge for numerical understanding in general, the theory proved useful for understanding differences in fraction knowledge between MD and TA children and for understanding how knowledge can be improved. Several interventions demonstrated the possibility of improving fraction magnitude knowledge and producing benefits that generalize to fraction arithmetic learning among children with MD. The reasonably good fraction understanding of Chinese children with MD and several successful interventions with U.S. students provide hope for the improvement of fraction knowledge among American children with MD.

  10. Multidisciplinary intervention for childhood feeding difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Jeanne; Hill, Rebecca J; Ware, Robert S; Ziviani, Jenny; Dodrill, Pamela

    2015-05-01

    The aim of the study was to determine whether operant conditioning (OC) or systematic desensitization (SysD) intervention resulted in more improvements in dietary variety/intake, and more reductions in difficult mealtime behaviors. Children 2 to 6 years with autism spectrum disorder or with a nonmedically complex history were recruited. Feeding difficulties were confirmed based on clinical assessment. Participants were randomized to receive 10 OC or SysD sessions (parents could opt for intervention once per week, or intensively within a week). Immersive parent education was delivered across both arms. A 3-month review was provided to measure outcomes postintervention. In total, 68 participants (87%) completed the study. There were no significant differences in outcome measures between the OC and SysD intervention groups from baseline to 3-month review. When the data were combined across both groups, however, significant improvements in primary outcome measures were observed (P education, these 2 intervention approaches are effective. Further research is required in exploring these interventions across other subgroups, and examining outcomes for longer periods.

  11. [Difficulties in psychology and sexual behavior].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    After an introduction by S. Kepes (Fertilite Orthogenie 4(4): 174-177,1972) the participants and audience discussed general topics such as the physician-patient relationship, unconscious motives, attitudes of male partners and physicians, and treatment of minors. Resistance by male partners toward contraception was considered due to fear of inadequacy in the face of female sexuality or to adherence to a double moral standard for wives. A gynecologist claimed that high school students are more likely to request contraception and use it effectively than they were 5 years ago; a midwife said that less privileged adolescents frequently become pregnant. Opinions were expressed that it is inappropriate to consider contraception from a psychological viewpoint, since it is part of a revolution toward a better life; that some psychological difficulties come from the doctor having preferences for certain methods; that the pill does not cause frigidity but is often blamed for preexisting problems; that the press frightens women away from taking the pill; that physicians should prescribe contraception to minors without seeking parental consent (unlawful in France).

  12. The planning of Mechanics and Modern Physics teaching activities for blind students: difficulties and alternatives.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eder Pires de Camargo

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available We report here partial outcomes of a study aimed to verify future High School teachers performance when, during the development of a called “TeachingPractice” undergraduate course, were asked to plan Mechanics and Modern Physics topics to a students class which included visual handicapped pupils. Data analyzed show that the main difficulties presented by the future Physics High School teachers are related to the approach to know physics phenomena as dependent of vision. By other hand, as alternatives, future teachers showed creativity in order to surpass passive aptitudes related to this educational problem and working out methodological strategies deprived of the relation knowing/seeing.

  13. Proposals for regulating future humanitarian interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raičević Nebojša

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the legality of approved humanitarian intervention is undisputable in the positive international law, this legal institute should be further regulated in order to remove certain legal ambiguity and difficulties in its application. The future regulation of humanitarian intervention may be carried out in one of the three ways: by adopting a special international treaty, by entering amendments in the UN Charter, or by embarking on the factual revision of the UN Charter. Due to the limiting effects of Article 103 of the UN Charter as well as the problematic status of UN member states which would not ratify the international agreements on humanitarian intervention, the regulation of future humanitarian intervention seems to be the least likely option. Formal revision of the UN Charter is not a viable option either because, thus far, the major world powers have been against introducing any substantial changes to this treaty. For this reason, the factual revision of the UN Charter is currently the most appropriate way of regulating future humanitarian interventions. When it comes to substantive rules governing humanitarian intervention, it is necessary to focus on the problem of humanitarian intervention decision-making as well as on the conditions and criteria for the approval and carrying out a humanitarian intervention. The UN Security Council must retain the right to decide on approving such an intervention but it is also necessary to establish an independent expert body whose task would be to determine the presence of serious and mass violations of human rights in a specific country and notify the Security Council about such occurrences. The specification of conditions and criteria for undertaking a humanitarian intervention should strengthen its legitimacy and prevent unreasonable disruption of states' territorial integrity and political independence.

  14. International conference. Mental health consequences of the Chernobyl disaster: current state and future prospects; Mezhdunarodnaya konferentsiya `Aktual`nye i prognoziruemye narusheniya psikhicheskogo zdorov`ya posle yadernoj katastrofy v Chernobyle`

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nyagu, A I [eds.

    1996-12-31

    Proceedings of the International Conference on the mental health consequences of the Chernobyl disaster: current state and future prospects was introduced.The questions connected with: 1. Mental health disorders biological basis after ionizing radiation influence; 2. Psychiatric aspects of the Chernobyl disaster; 3. Social stress following contradictory information: ways for its overcoming; 4. Rehabilitation and prophylactic measures for mental and nervous disorders. Psycho social rehabilitation of survivors; 5. Psychosomatic effects and somato-neurological consequences of the Chernobyl disaster; 6. Psychosomatic health of children and adolescents survivors of the Chernobyl disaster; 7. Brain damage as result of prenatal irradiation.

  15. International Conference 'Twenty Years after Chernobyl Accident. Future Outlook'. Abstracts proceeding; Myizhnarodna konferentsyiya 'Dvadtsyat' rokyiv Chornobil's'koyi katastrofi. Poglyad u majbutnje'. Zbyirka tez

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon,

    2006-07-01

    This conference concludes a series of events dedicated to the 20 anniversary of the Chernobyl accident and promote an effective implementation of the accumulated international experience in the following areas: Radiation protection of the population and emergency workers, and the environmental consequences of Chernobyl accident; Medical and public health response to radiation emergencies; Strengthening radiological emergency management of radiation accidents; Economic and legal aspects of radioactive waste management and nuclear power plants decommissioning; Radioactive waste management: Chernobyl experience; Nuclear power plant decommissioning: Chernobyl NPP; Transformation of the Chernobyl Sarcophagus into an ecologically safe system.

  16. The new philosophy of psychiatry: its (recent) past, present and future: a review of the Oxford University Press series International Perspectives in Philosophy and Psychiatry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banner, Natalie F; Thornton, Tim

    2007-01-01

    There has been a recent growth in philosophy of psychiatry that draws heavily (although not exclusively) on analytic philosophy with the aim of a better understanding of psychiatry through an analysis of some of its fundamental concepts. This 'new philosophy of psychiatry' is an addition to both analytic philosophy and to the broader interpretation of mental health care. Nevertheless, it is already a flourishing philosophical field. One indication of this is the new Oxford University Press series International Perspectives in Philosophy and Psychiatry seven volumes of which (by Bolton and Hill; Bracken and Thomas; Fulford, Morris, Sadler, and Stanghellini; Hughes, Louw, and Sabat; Pickering; Sadler; and Stanghellini) are examined in this critical review.

  17. Can improving working memory prevent academic difficulties? A school based randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Gehan; Quach, Jon; Gold, Lisa; Anderson, Peter; Rickards, Field; Mensah, Fiona; Ainley, John; Gathercole, Susan; Wake, Melissa

    2011-06-20

    Low academic achievement is common and is associated with adverse outcomes such as grade repetition, behavioural disorders and unemployment. The ability to accurately identify these children and intervene before they experience academic failure would be a major advance over the current 'wait to fail' model. Recent research suggests that a possible modifiable factor for low academic achievement is working memory, the ability to temporarily store and manipulate information in a 'mental workspace'. Children with working memory difficulties are at high risk of academic failure. It has recently been demonstrated that working memory can be improved with adaptive training tasks that encourage improvements in working memory capacity. Our trial will determine whether the intervention is efficacious as a selective prevention strategy for young children at risk of academic difficulties and is cost-effective. This randomised controlled trial aims to recruit 440 children with low working memory after a school-based screening of 2880 children in Grade one. We will approach caregivers of all children from 48 participating primary schools in metropolitan Melbourne for consent. Children with low working memory will be randomised to usual care or the intervention. The intervention will consist of 25 computerised working memory training sessions, which take approximately 35 minutes each to complete. Follow-up of children will be conducted at 6, 12 and 24 months post-randomisation through child face-to-face assessment, parent and teacher surveys and data from government authorities. The primary outcome is academic achievement at 12 and 24 months, and other outcomes include child behaviour, attention, health-related quality of life, working memory, and health and educational service utilisation. A successful start to formal learning in school sets the stage for future academic, psychological and economic well-being. If this preventive intervention can be shown to be efficacious, then

  18. Can improving working memory prevent academic difficulties? a school based randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Peter

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low academic achievement is common and is associated with adverse outcomes such as grade repetition, behavioural disorders and unemployment. The ability to accurately identify these children and intervene before they experience academic failure would be a major advance over the current 'wait to fail' model. Recent research suggests that a possible modifiable factor for low academic achievement is working memory, the ability to temporarily store and manipulate information in a 'mental workspace'. Children with working memory difficulties are at high risk of academic failure. It has recently been demonstrated that working memory can be improved with adaptive training tasks that encourage improvements in working memory capacity. Our trial will determine whether the intervention is efficacious as a selective prevention strategy for young children at risk of academic difficulties and is cost-effective. Methods/Design This randomised controlled trial aims to recruit 440 children with low working memory after a school-based screening of 2880 children in Grade one. We will approach caregivers of all children from 48 participating primary schools in metropolitan Melbourne for consent. Children with low working memory will be randomised to usual care or the intervention. The intervention will consist of 25 computerised working memory training sessions, which take approximately 35 minutes each to complete. Follow-up of children will be conducted at 6, 12 and 24 months post-randomisation through child face-to-face assessment, parent and teacher surveys and data from government authorities. The primary outcome is academic achievement at 12 and 24 months, and other outcomes include child behaviour, attention, health-related quality of life, working memory, and health and educational service utilisation. Discussion A successful start to formal learning in school sets the stage for future academic, psychological and economic well-being. If

  19. CONCEPTUAL DIFFICULTIES AND THE FEASIBILITY OF POLICIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feleaga Liliana

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Goodwill represents a financial indicator which serves as an evaluation tool for the quality of the company’s production structures. The evaluation and the recognition of the Goodwill raises may controversies, as for example: Is the Goodwill an asset or not? Is it kept within the assets part or is it subtracted out of the company owner’s equity? Is it depreciated or it is sufficient to be included in the provisions? Therefore, the stakes for choosing one solution, or the other, should not be neglected. It is necessary to analyse the factors that influence the managerial decisions, when choosing a way to record the Goodwill. In this analysis we may use the theory of the Contract Costs. In its own path to eliminate the manipulation options for the published information, the international referential has supported within the past years, numerous revises and modifications regarding the Goodwill accounting treatment. Goodwill in the context of the international accounting convergence processes.

  20. Measurement of functional task difficulty during motor learning: What level of difficulty corresponds to the optimal challenge point?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akizuki, Kazunori; Ohashi, Yukari

    2015-10-01

    The relationship between task difficulty and learning benefit was examined, as was the measurability of task difficulty. Participants were required to learn a postural control task on an unstable surface at one of four different task difficulty levels. Results from the retention test showed an inverted-U relationship between task difficulty during acquisition and motor learning. The second-highest level of task difficulty was the most effective for motor learning, while learning was delayed at the most and least difficult levels. Additionally, the results indicate that salivary α-amylase and the performance dimension of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration-Task Load Index (NASA-TLX) are useful indices of task difficulty. Our findings suggested that instructors may be able to adjust task difficulty based on salivary α-amylase and the performance dimension of the NASA-TLX to enhance learning. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Energy futures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treat, J.E.

    1990-01-01

    This book provides fifteen of the futures industry's leading authorities with broader background in both theory and practice of energy futures trading in this updated text. The authors review the history of the futures market and the fundamentals of trading, hedging, and technical analysis; then they update you with the newest trends in energy futures trading - natural gas futures, options, regulations, and new information services. The appendices outline examples of possible contracts and their construction

  2. People with Hemianopia Report Difficulty with TV, Computer, Cinema Use, and Photography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costela, Francisco M; Sheldon, Sarah S; Walker, Bethany; Woods, Russell L

    2018-05-01

    Our survey found that participants with hemianopia report more difficulties watching video in various formats, including television (TV), on computers, and in a movie theater, compared with participants with normal vision (NV). These reported difficulties were not as marked as those reported by people with central vision loss. The aim of this study was to survey the viewing experience (e.g., frequency, difficulty) of viewing video on TV, computers and portable visual display devices, and at the cinema of people with hemianopia and NV. This information may guide vision rehabilitation. We administered a cross-sectional survey to investigate the viewing habits of people with hemianopia (n = 91) or NV (n = 192). The survey, consisting of 22 items, was administered either in person or in a telephone interview. Descriptive statistics are reported. There were five major differences between the hemianopia and NV groups. Many participants with hemianopia reported (1) at least "some" difficulty watching TV (39/82); (2) at least "some" difficulty watching video on a computer (16/62); (3) never attending the cinema (30/87); (4) at least some difficulty watching movies in the cinema (20/56), among those who did attend the cinema; and (5) never taking photographs (24/80). Some people with hemianopia reported methods that they used to help them watch video, including video playback and head turn. Although people with hemianopia report more difficulty with viewing video on TV and at the cinema, we are not aware of any rehabilitation methods specifically designed to assist people with hemianopia to watch video. The results of this survey may guide future vision rehabilitation.

  3. Self-reported learning difficulties and dietary intake in Norwegian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Øverby, Nina Cecilie; Lüdemann, Eva; Høigaard, Rune

    2013-11-01

    The academic performance of children impacts future educational attainment which may increase socioeconomic status which again influences their health. One of several factors that might affect academic performance is the diet. The aim of this study was to investigate the cross sectional relation between diet and self-reported reading-, writing-, and mathematical difficulties in Norwegian adolescents. In total, 475 ninth- and tenth-grade students out of 625 eligible ones from four different secondary schools in three different municipalities in Vest-Agder County, Norway, participated, giving a participation rate of 77%. The students filled in a questionnaire with food frequency questions of selected healthy and unhealthy food items, questions of meal frequency and different learning difficulties. Regular breakfast was significantly associated with decreased odds of both writing and reading difficulties (OR: 0.44 (0.2-0.8), p = 0.01) and mathematical difficulties (OR: 0.33 (0.2-0.6), p ≤ 0.001). In addition, having lunch, dinner and supper regularly were associated with decreased odds of mathematical difficulties. Further, a high intake of foods representing a poor diet (sugar-sweetened soft drinks, sweets, chocolate, savory snacks, pizza and hot dogs) was significantly associated with increased odds of mathematical difficulties. Having a less-frequent intake of unhealthy foods and not skipping meals are associated with decreased odds of self-reported learning difficulties in Norwegian adolescents in this study. The results of this study support the need for a larger study with a more representative sample.

  4. The future of scientific, technical and industrial information to Third World users - A donors view. The experience of the International Development Research Centre (IDRC), Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broadbent, K.P.; Lafond, R.

    1990-05-01

    Access to scientific information by poorer countries, sometimes referred to as the ''South'', is limited in contrast to the countries in the ''North''. The South lacks the infrastructure, management and technical expertise to develop and support the range of services now commonplace in the information rich industrial countries of the ''North''. The programme of support to information systems and services in poorer countries by the International Development Research Centre (IDRC) is described with specific examples drawn from its industry and technology information programme. Third world countries are in a difficult position and need help to keep on the cutting edge of new information-communication technologies. Any help, however must focus on such factors as persistence, impact and sustainability of information systems and services. (author). 5 refs

  5. The future of scientific, technical and industrial information to Third World users - A donors view. The experience of the International Development Research Centre (IDRC), Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broadbent, K P [International Development Research Centre, Ottawa (Canada). Science and Technology Information; Lafond, R [International Development Research Centre, Ottawa (Canada). Industry and Technology Programme

    1990-05-01

    Access to scientific information by poorer countries, sometimes referred to as the ``South``, is limited in contrast to the countries in the ``North``. The South lacks the infrastructure, management and technical expertise to develop and support the range of services now commonplace in the information rich industrial countries of the ``North``. The programme of support to information systems and services in poorer countries by the International Development Research Centre (IDRC) is described with specific examples drawn from its industry and technology information programme. Third world countries are in a difficult position and need help to keep on the cutting edge of new information-communication technologies. Any help, however must focus on such factors as persistence, impact and sustainability of information systems and services. (author). 5 refs.

  6. Motor performance and learning difficulties in schoolchildren aged 7 to 10 years old

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Silva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The general objective of this study was to evaluate the motor performance of children with and without learning difficulty indicatives. Took part in the study 406 students aged 7 to 10 years old, being 231 girls (56.9% and 175 (43.1% boys enrolled in a municipal public school in São José, Santa Catarina, Brazil. The indicative of learning difficulties was verified through the TDE, while motor performance was evaluated with the MABC. Boys without learning difficulties had better performance in the majority of the abilities evaluated, beyond an association between the indicative of motor problems with learning difficulties towards writing, arithmetic, reading, and in general. On the other hand, female students of the sample with and without any indicative of learning difficulties did not differentiate themselves as to motor abilities evaluated, with an association merely between the indicative of motor problems and reading problems. Based on the differences identified between girls and boys, results call attention to the need for future research in this area, considering gender as a differential variable in this relationship.

  7. Dual earners’ willingness to accept an international assignment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Velde, E.G.; Bossink, C.J.H.; Jansen, P.G.W.

    2005-01-01

    Multinational organisations experience difficulties in finding managers willing to accept international assignments. This study has therefore focused on factors that can predict males' and females' willingness to accept international assignments, or to follow their partners on international

  8. Futuring for Future Ready Librarians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, Miguel A.

    2018-01-01

    Futurists and foresight professionals offer several guiding principles for thinking about the future. These principles can help people to think about the future and become more powerful players in shaping the preferred futures they want for themselves and their communities. The principles also fit in well as strategies to support the Future Ready…

  9. Realistic Goals and Processes for Future Space Astronomy Portfolio Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Jon

    2015-08-01

    It is generally recognized that international participation and coordination is highly valuable for maximizing the scientific impact of modern space science facilities, as well as for cost-sharing reasons. Indeed, all large space science missions, and most medium and small missions, are international, even if one country or space agency has a clear leadership role and bears most of the development costs. International coordination is a necessary aspect of future mission planning, but how that coordination is done remains debatable. I propose that the community's scientific vision is generally homogeneous enough to permit international coordination of decadal-scale strategic science goals. However, the timing and budget allocation/funding mechanisms of individual countries and/or space agencies are too disparate for effective long-term strategic portfolio planning via a single international process. Rather, I argue that coordinated space mission portfolio planning is a natural consequence of international collaboration on individual strategic missions. I review the process and outcomes of the U.S. 2010 decadal survey in astronomy & astrophysics from the perspective of a government official who helped craft the survey charter and transmitted guidance to the scientific community on behalf of a sponsoring agency (NASA), while continuing to manage the current portfolio that involved ongoing negotiations with other space agencies. I analyze the difficulties associated with projecting long-term budgets, obtaining realistic mission costs (including the additional cost burdens of international partnerships), and developing new (possibly transformational) technologies. Finally, I remark on the future role that privately funded space science missions can have in accomplishing international science community goals.

  10. Creating a supportive learning environment for students with learning difficulties

    OpenAIRE

    Grah, Jana

    2013-01-01

    Co-building of supporting learning environment for the learners with learning difficulties is one of the 21st century inclusive school’s elements. Since the physical presence of learners with learning difficulties in the classroom does not self-evidently lead to an effective co-operation and implementation of 21st century inclusive school, I have dedicated my doctor thesis to the establishment of supporting learning environment for the learners with learning difficulties in primary school wit...

  11. Prediction and Stability of Mathematics Skill and Difficulty

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Rebecca B.; Cirino, Paul T.; Barnes, Marcia A.; Ewing-Cobbs, Linda; Fuchs, Lynn S.; Stuebing, Karla K.; Fletcher, Jack M.

    2012-01-01

    The present study evaluated the stability of math learning difficulties over a 2-year period and investigated several factors that might influence this stability (categorical vs. continuous change, liberal vs. conservative cut point, broad vs. specific math assessment); the prediction of math performance over time and by performance level was also evaluated. Participants were 144 students initially identified as having a math difficulty (MD) or no learning difficulty according to low achievem...

  12. Difficulties in emotion regulation in patients with eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruscitti, Catherine; Rufino, Katrina; Goodwin, Natalie; Wagner, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    A defining characteristic of eating disorders (EDs) is difficulty with emotion regulation (ER). Previous research indicates that ED subtypes demonstrate differing ER difficulties. Specifically, individuals with Anorexia Nervosa (AN) or Bulimia Nervosa (BN) show greater impairment in their ability to regulate emotions in areas such as achieving goals while upset, reacting impulsively to distress, and effectively using coping strategies, as compared to those with Binge Eating Disorder (BED). However, limited research includes the diagnostic category of Eating Disorder, Not Otherwise Specified (EDNOS). The aim of this study was to better understand ER difficulties for all ED diagnoses, especially EDNOS. It was hypothesized that patients with EDs will demonstrate similar ER difficulties as psychiatric patients without EDs and that patients with EDNOS will be similar in their total level of ER difficulties but will differ in their specific types of difficulties in ER as compared to patients with other EDs. Participants included 404 adults presenting to an inpatient psychiatric hospital. Psychiatric diagnoses, including EDs, were determined using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM Disorders. Differences in specific and overall difficulties with ER were examined across psychiatric patients using the multidimensional Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale. Results of this study indicate that individuals with EDs have greater ER difficulties in most domains of ER and that those with BED and EDNOS demonstrate the most significant differences in ER as compared to psychiatric patients without EDs. Additionally, it was found that ED subtypes typically did not differ in terms of specific difficulties in ER. One exception emerged indicating that individuals with BED demonstrated significantly greater difficulty on the Limited Access to Emotion Regulation Strategies subscale as compared to those with EDNOS. Researchers were able to clarify difficulties in ER across ED

  13. Grammatical Templates: Improving Text Difficulty Evaluation for Language Learners

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Shuhan; Andersen, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Language students are most engaged while reading texts at an appropriate difficulty level. However, existing methods of evaluating text difficulty focus mainly on vocabulary and do not prioritize grammatical features, hence they do not work well for language learners with limited knowledge of grammar. In this paper, we introduce grammatical templates, the expert-identified units of grammar that students learn from class, as an important feature of text difficulty evaluation. Experimental clas...

  14. Late Emerging Reading Difficulties in English Language Learners

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia, Nicole Marie

    2015-01-01

    Research has identified a group of students who do not begin to exhibit reading difficulties until fourth or fifth grade, suggesting late-emerging reading difficulties. Considering that these students do not show signs of reading difficulties in early grades, attempting to identify these students early becomes problematic. Additionally, little is known regarding the characteristics of late-emerging reading deficits within English language learner (ELL) populations. The purpose of this study w...

  15. Predictors of what smokers say they will do in response to future price increases. Findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Four Country Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Hana; Blecher, Evan; Yan, Lili; Cummings, K Michael

    2011-06-01

    Given the impact of higher tobacco prices on smoking cessation, we studied the role of future cigarette prices on forming expectation about smoking behavior. Using a random sample of 9,058 adult cigarette smokers from the United States, Canada, Australia, and the United Kingdom collected in 2002, we examined predictors of what smokers say they will do in response to a hypothetical 50% increase in the price they paid for their last cigarette purchase. A series of regression analyses examined factors associated with intentions that have a positive impact on health, that is, intentions to quit and/or to consume fewer cigarettes. The quit and/or smoke less intentions were more pronounced among those who lived in areas with higher average cigarette prices and who paid higher prices for their brand of choice during the last purchase. The magnitude of the price increase is a more important predictor of an intention to quit/smoke less compared with the average cigarette price. The availability of alternative (cheaper) cigarette sources may reduce but would not eliminate the impact of higher prices/taxes on smokers' expected behavior that has been linked to actual quit intentions and quitting in follow-up surveys.

  16. A non-destructive, ultrasonic method for the determination of internal pressure and gas composition in an LWR fuel rod on-going and future programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrandis, J.; Leveque, G.; Villard, J.

    2006-01-01

    Several possible non-destructive methods have been investigated in the past to measure the internal gas pressure e.g., measurement of 85 Kr directly, or after accumulation in the plenum by freezing with liquid nitrogen. However no satisfactory resolution to the problem has been found, so at present there is no rapid and accurate method of determining the fission gas pressure in a fuel rod without puncturing the cladding. This procedure is time-consuming and expensive and as a consequence a relatively small number of measurements are generally made compared with the number of fuel rods irradiated. In this paper it is proposed a new method for the measurement of pressure that is: Non-destructive; Non-invasive (i.e., allows re-irradiation of the measured rod); Easy to operate - directly in the reactor pool; Can be used on the critical path; Is inexpensive compared with the methods currently in use. This method is also being adapted to the on line measurement of fission gas release on fuel irradiation in research reactors. This method is based on the application of acoustic technology

  17. Future accelerators (?)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Womersley

    2003-08-21

    I describe the future accelerator facilities that are currently foreseen for electroweak scale physics, neutrino physics, and nuclear structure. I will explore the physics justification for these machines, and suggest how the case for future accelerators can be made.

  18. Difficulties in emotion regulation and risky driving among Lithuanian drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šeibokaitė, Laura; Endriulaitienė, Auksė; Sullman, Mark J M; Markšaitytė, Rasa; Žardeckaitė-Matulaitienė, Kristina

    2017-10-03

    Risky driving is a common cause of traffic accidents and injuries. However, there is no clear evidence of how difficulties in emotion regulation contribute to risky driving behavior, particularly in small post-Soviet countries. The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between difficulties in emotion regulation and self-reported risky driving behavior in a sample of Lithuanian drivers. A total of 246 nonprofessional Lithuanian drivers participated in a cross-sectional survey. Difficulties in emotion regulation were assessed using the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS; Gratz and Roemer 2004), and risky driving behavior was assessed using the Manchester Driver Behaviour Questionnaire (DBQ; Lajunen et al. 2004). Males scored higher than females in aggressive violations and ordinary violations. Females scored higher for the nonacceptance of emotional responses, whereas males had more difficulties with emotional awareness than females. More difficulties in emotion regulation were positively correlated with driving errors, lapses, aggressive violations, and ordinary violations for both males and females. Structural equation modeling showed that difficulties in emotion regulation explained aggressive and ordinary violations more clearly than lapses and errors. When controlling for interactions among the distinct regulation difficulties, difficulties with impulse control and difficulties engaging in goal-directed behavior predicted risky driving. Furthermore, nonacceptance of emotional responses and limited access to emotion regulation strategies were related to less violations and more driving errors. Emotion regulation difficulties were associated with the self-reported risky driving behaviors of Lithuanian drivers. This provides useful hints for improving driver training programs in order to prevent traffic injuries.

  19. JHR Project: a future Material Testing Reactor working as an International user Facility: The key-role of instrumentation in support to the development of modern experimental capacity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bignan, G. [CEA, DEN, DER, JHR user Facility Interface Manager' , Cadarache, F-13108 St-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Gonnier, C. [CEA, DEN, DER, SRJH Jules Horowitz Reactor Service, Cadarache, F-13108 St-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Lyoussi, A.; Villard, J.F.; Destouches, C. [CEA, DEN, DER, Instrumentation Sensors and Dosimetry Laboratory, Cadarache, F-13108 St-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Chauvin, J.P. [CEA,DEN, DER, SPEX, Experimental Physics Service, Cadarache, F-13108 St-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Maugard, B. [CEA, DEN, DER, Reactor Department Studies, Cadarache, F-13108 St-Paul-Lez-Durance (France)

    2015-07-01

    Research and development on fuel and material behaviour under irradiation is a key issue for sustainable nuclear energy in order to meet specific needs by keeping the best level of safety. These needs mainly deal with a constant improvement of performances and safety in order to optimize the fuel cycle and hence to reach nuclear energy sustainable objectives. A sustainable nuclear energy requires a high level of performances in order to meet specific needs such as: - Pursuing improvement of the performances and safety of present and coming water cooled reactor technologies. This will require a continuous R and D support following a long-term trend driven by the plant life management, safety demonstration, flexibility and economics improvement. Experimental irradiations of structure materials are necessary to anticipate these material behaviours and will contribute to their optimisation. - Upgrading continuously nuclear fuel technology in present and future nuclear power plants to achieve better performances and to optimise the fuel cycle keeping the best level of safety. Fuel evolution for generation II, III and III+ is a key stake requiring developments, qualification tests and safety experiments to ensure the competitiveness and safety: experimental tests exploring the full range of fuel behaviour determine fuel stability limits and safety margins, as a major input for the fuel reliability analysis. To perform such accurate and innovative progress and developments, specific and ad hoc instrumentation, irradiation devices, measurement methods are necessary to be set up inside or beside the material testing reactor (MTR) core. These experiments require beforehand in situ and on line sophisticated measurements to accurately determine different key parameters such as thermal and fast neutron fluxes and nuclear heating in order to precisely monitor and control the conducted assays. The new Material Testing Reactor JHR (Jules Horowitz Reactor) currently under

  20. Proceedings from the Third National Institutes of Health International Congress on Advances in Uterine Leiomyoma Research: comprehensive review, conference summary and future recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segars, James H.; Parrott, Estella C.; Nagel, Joan D.; Guo, Xiaoxiao Catherine; Gao, Xiaohua; Birnbaum, Linda S.; Pinn, Vivian W.; Dixon, Darlene

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Uterine fibroids are the most common gynecologic tumors in women of reproductive age yet the etiology and pathogenesis of these lesions remain poorly understood. Age, African ancestry, nulliparity and obesity have been identified as predisposing factors for uterine fibroids. Symptomatic tumors can cause excessive uterine bleeding, bladder dysfunction and pelvic pain, as well as associated reproductive disorders such as infertility, miscarriage and other adverse pregnancy outcomes. Currently, there are limited noninvasive therapies for fibroids and no early intervention or prevention strategies are readily available. This review summarizes the advances in basic, applied and translational uterine fibroid research, in addition to current and proposed approaches to clinical management as presented at the ‘Advances in Uterine Leiomyoma Research: 3rd NIH International Congress’. Congress recommendations and a review of the fibroid literature are also reported. METHODS This review is a report of meeting proceedings, the resulting recommendations and a literature review of the subject. RESULTS The research data presented highlights the complexity of uterine fibroids and the convergence of ethnicity, race, genetics, epigenetics and environmental factors, including lifestyle and possible socioeconomic parameters on disease manifestation. The data presented suggest it is likely that the majority of women with uterine fibroids will have normal pregnancy outcomes; however, additional research is warranted. As an alternative to surgery, an effective long-term medical treatment for uterine fibroids should reduce heavy uterine bleeding and fibroid/uterine volume without excessive side effects. This goal has not been achieved and current treatments reduce symptoms only temporarily; however, a multi-disciplined approach to understanding the molecular origins and pathogenesis of uterine fibroids, as presented in this report, makes our quest for identifying novel

  1. Improving the accuracy of blood pressure measurement: the influence of the European Society of Hypertension International Protocol (ESH-IP) for the validation of blood pressure measuring devices and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stergiou, George S; Asmar, Roland; Myers, Martin; Palatini, Paolo; Parati, Gianfranco; Shennan, Andrew; Wang, Jiguang; O'Brien, Eoin

    2018-03-01

    The European Society of Hypertension (ESH) International Protocol (ESH-IP) for the validation of blood pressure (BP) measuring devices was published in 2002, with the main objective of simplifying the validation procedures, so that more BP monitors would be subjected to independent validation. This article provides an overview of the international impact of the ESH-IP and of the lessons learned from its use, to be able to justify further developments in validation protocols. A review of published (PubMed) validation studies from 2002 to 2017 was performed. One hundred and seventy-seven validation studies using the ESH-IP, 59 using the British Hypertension Society protocol, 46 using the Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation (AAMI) standard and 23 using the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) standard were identified. Lists of validated office-clinic, home and ambulatory BP monitors are provided. Of the ESH-IP studies, 93% tested oscillometric devices, 80% upper arm, 71% home, 25% office and 7% ambulatory monitors (some had more than one function). The original goal of the ESH-IP has been fulfilled in that in the last decade the number of published validation studies has more than doubled. It is now recognized that the provision of accurate devices would be best served by having a universal protocol. An international initiative has been put in place by AAMI, ESH and ISO experts aiming to reach consensus for a universal validation protocol to be accepted worldwide, which will allow a more thorough evaluation of the accuracy and performance of future BP monitors.

  2. 6th international symposium on finite volumes for complex applications

    CERN Document Server

    Halama, Jan; Herbin, Raphaèle; Hubert, Florence; Fort, Jaroslav; FVCA 6; Finite Volumes for Complex Applications VI : Problems and perspectives

    2011-01-01

    Finite volume methods are used for various applications in fluid dynamics, magnetohydrodynamics, structural analysis or nuclear physics. A closer look reveals many interesting phenomena and mathematical or numerical difficulties, such as true error analysis and adaptivity, modelling of multi-phase phenomena or fitting problems, stiff terms in convection/diffusion equations and sources. To overcome existing problems and to find solution methods for future applications requires many efforts and always new developments. The goal of The International Symposium on Finite Volumes for Complex Applica

  3. Emotional Intelligence, Personality Traits and Career Decision Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Fabio, Annamaria; Palazzeschi, Letizia

    2009-01-01

    This study aims to take an in-depth look at the role of emotional intelligence and personality traits in relation to career decision difficulties. The Italian version of the Career Decision Difficulties Questionnaire (CDDQ), the Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inventory: Short (Bar-On EQ-i: S), and the Big Five Questionnaire (BFQ) were administered to…

  4. Learner's Learning Experiences & Difficulties towards (ESL) among UKM Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maarof, Nooreiny; Munusamy, Indira Malani A/P

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to investigate the learners learning experiences and difficulties of ESL among the UKM undergraduates. This study will be focusing on identifying the factors behind Malaysian undergraduate's experiences and also their difficulties in the English as Second Language (ESL) classroom. This paper discusses some of the issues of English…

  5. The role of sensorimotor difficulties in autism spectrum conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penelope Hannant

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available AbstractIn addition to difficulties in social communication, current diagnostic criteria for autism spectrum conditions (ASC also incorporate sensorimotor difficulties; repetitive motor movements and atypical reactivity to sensory input (APA, 2013. This paper explores whether sensorimotor difficulties are associated with the development and maintenance of symptoms in ASC. Firstly, studies have shown difficulties coordinating sensory input into planning and executing movement effectively in ASC. Secondly, studies have shown associations between sensory reactivity and motor coordination with core ASC symptoms, suggesting these areas each strongly influence the development of social and communication skills. Thirdly, studies have begun to demonstrate that sensorimotor difficulties in ASC could account for reduced social attention early in development, with a cascading effect on later social, communicative and emotional development. These results suggest that sensorimotor difficulties not only contribute to non-social difficulties such as narrow circumscribed interests, but also to the development of social behaviours such as effectively coordinating eye contact with speech and gesture, interpreting others’ behaviour and responding appropriately. Further research is needed to explore the link between sensory and motor difficulties in ASC, and their contribution to the development and maintenance of ASC.

  6. Assessment of Pragmatic Difficulties and Socioemotional Adjustment in Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Marion; Oliver, Alice

    2005-01-01

    Background: In professional practice, psychologists and other professionals such as therapists and teachers receive referrals of many children who present with social, emotional and behavioural difficulties that are difficult to understand and assess. The problems of some of these children may stem from pragmatic difficulties in communication.…

  7. A Theoretical Framework towards Understanding of Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulou, Maria S.

    2014-01-01

    Children's emotional and behavioural difficulties are the result of multiple individual, social and contextual factors working in concert. The current paper proposes a theoretical framework to interpret students' emotional and behavioural difficulties in schools, by taking into consideration teacher-student relationships, students'…

  8. Graphical modeling for item difficulty in medical faculty exams

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . Conclusion: The ... difficulty criteria. Key words: Item difficulty, quality control, statistical process control, variable control charts ..... assumed that 68% of the values fall in the interval ± 1.S; .... The balance of the construction of items of exam has ...

  9. Early Writing Deficits in Preschoolers with Oral Language Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puranik, Cynthia S.; Lonigan, Christopher J.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether preschool children with language impairments (LI), a group with documented reading difficulties, also experience writing difficulties. In addition, a purpose was to examine if the writing outcomes differed when children had concomitant cognitive deficits in addition to oral language problems. A…

  10. School Success for Kids with Dyslexia and Other Reading Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunson, Walter E.

    2012-01-01

    "School Success for Kids With Dyslexia and Other Reading Difficulties" provides parents and teachers with goals that will meet the needs of students who are struggling with reading, leading them to work through their difficulties and enjoy reading. It includes information, assessments, and techniques that parents, teachers, and school…

  11. Learning Difficulty and Learner Identity: A Symbiotic Relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Eliana

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on a longitudinal case study of an adult EFL learner who perceived himself as having difficulty learning English. Both learning difficulty and learner identity are viewed as being constructed in discursive interactions throughout one's life and, hence, amenable to reconstruction. Data collected from classroom interactions,…

  12. The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) in Africa: a scoping review of its application and validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoosen, Nikhat; Davids, Eugene Lee; de Vries, Petrus J; Shung-King, Maylene

    2018-01-01

    Child and adolescent mental health in Africa remains largely neglected. Quick and cost-effective ways for early detection may aid early intervention. The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) is globally used to screen for mental health problems, but little is known about its use in Africa. We set out to perform a scoping review to examine existing studies that have used the SDQ in Africa. A comprehensive scoping review methodology was used to identify all peer-reviewed studies ever published that have used the SDQ in Africa. Data were extracted and analysed to assess the countries, languages and SDQ versions used, the purpose of the SDQ studies, psychometric properties of the SDQ, and to consider knowledge gaps for future in-country and cross-country studies. Fifty-four studies from 12 African countries were identified, most from South Africa. Many different languages were used, but authorized SDQs in those languages were not always available on the SDQinfo website. Authors frequently commented on challenges in the translation and backtranslation of mental health terminology in African languages. The SDQ was typically used to investigate internalisation/externalization disorders in different clinical populations, and was most frequently used in the evaluation of children and adolescents affected by HIV/AIDS. Sixteen studies (29.6%) administered the SDQ to participants outside the intended age range, only 4 (7.4%) used triangulation of all versions to generate assessments, and eight studies (14.8%) used only subscales of the SDQ. Only one study conducted thorough psychometric validation of the SDQ, including examination of internal consistency and factor analysis. Where 'caseness' was defined in studies, UK cut-off scores were used in all but one of the studies. The SDQ may be a very useful tool in an African setting, but the scoping review suggested that, where it was used in Africa researchers did not always follow instrument guidelines, and highlighted

  13. Asian International Students’ Perceptions of their University Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cody J. Perry

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Asian students make up the largest proportion of international students who study in the United States. Seeking a degree in higher education can be challenging for any student, but Asian students often encounter more obstacles to completion than many other international and domestic students. Culture, family and health concerns, and safety are some of the largest concerns that this study found among Asian students in the US. The study found that East-Asian international students had more issues than students from other parts of Asia and difficulty with the English language was of major importance to respondents. In addition, safety is an issue that Asian students were concerned with while studying in the US. The study was exploratory in nature and informs the field on future avenues of research.

  14. Determining Which Introductory Physics Topics Pre-Service Physics Teachers Have Difficulty Understanding and What Accounts for These Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Esin; Yagbasan, Rahmi

    2012-01-01

    This study aims at diagnosing which subjects pre-service physics teachers have difficulty understanding in introductory physics courses and what accounts for these difficulties. A questionnaire consisting of two qualitative questions was used to collect data for this study. The questionnaire was administered to 101 pre-service physics teachers who…

  15. University Students with Reading Difficulties: Do Perceived Supports and Comorbid Difficulties Predict Well-being and GPA?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stack-Cutler, Holly L.; Parrila, Rauno K.; Torppa, Minna

    2016-01-01

    We examined the impact of the number of comorbid difficulties, social support, and community support on life satisfaction and academic achievement among 120 university students or recent graduates with self-reported reading difficulties. Participants completed a questionnaire assessing perceived social support, perceived community support, the…

  16. Influence of Ongoing Task Difficulty and Motivation Level on Children's Prospective Memory in a Chinese Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Pi-Guo; Han, Lei; Bian, Yu-Long; Tian, Yu; Xu, Min-Xia; Gao, Feng-Qiang

    2017-01-01

    Prospective memory (PM) is the process associated with the task of realizing delayed intentions in the future. Researchers distinguish two types of PM, namely time-based PM (tbPM) and event-based PM (ebPM). Experiment 1 investigated the developmental trajectory of 3- to 5-year-old preschool children's PM ability, and the occurrence of delayed retrieval (children execute the PM task in a larger window of opportunity) in both tbPM and ebPM tasks. Results revealed that the 5-year-old children outperformed the 3- and 4-year-old children in PM. Moreover, delayed retrieval was more likely to occur in tbPM task than in ebPM task. In Experiment 2, the influence of ongoing task (OT) difficulty on PM performance was investigated with a sample of 5-year-old children. Results revealed no significant effect of OT difficulty on PM performance. In Experiment 3, we improved children's motivation level to complete the OT, then explored the influence of OT difficulty on children's PM performance. Results revealed that the effect of OT difficulty on PM performance became significant after increasing the children's motivation to complete the OT. These results provide insights into the mechanism of attentional resource allocation in PM tasks and have crucial educational and social implications.

  17. Reflections on providing sport science support for athletes with learning difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hills, Laura; Utley, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    To highlight the benefits and the need for sport science support for athletes with learning difficulties, and to reflect on our experience of working with the GB squad for athletes with learning difficulties. A review of key and relevant literature is presented, followed by a discussion of the sport science support provision and the issues that emerged in working with athletes with learning difficulties. Pre- and post- physiological tests along with evaluations of athletes' potential to benefit from sport psychology support were conducted. The aim of these tests was to provide information for the athletes and the coaches on fitness levels, to use this information to plan future training, and to identify how well the performance could be enhanced. A case study is presented for one athlete, who had competed in distance events. The focus is the psychological support that was provided. It is clear that athletes with learning difficulties require the same type of sports science support as their mainstream peers. However, sport scientists will need to consider ways to extend their practice in order to provide the appropriate level of support.

  18. Executive Summary - Future plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    Our Institute has sufficient scientific potential to play a key role in the field of particle physics, nuclear physics and in several aspects of solid state and applied physics, at least in our part of Europe. We believe the Institute should continue its present mode of operation, where basic research, closely coordinated through our collaboration with leading laboratories all over the world, stimulates our interdisciplinary research and technology transfer to the industry. If our present scientific potential is matched by suitably modernized infrastructure, we should be able to acquire the critical mass necessary for further effective development. In order to maintain our present world-level research, we have to continue and further extend our participation in large international collaborations, in the construction of large detectors and to seek further financial support from EU and international organizations. For experimental particle physics, our priorities remain in collaborating with major European and world laboratories such as CERN, DESY, Gran Sasso, Fermilab, KEK, SLAC and with laboratories developing astrophysics experiments, such as the PIERRE AUGER experiment. Collaboration in the field of nuclear physics, physics of condensed matter, theoretical physics and interdisciplinary research should be continued with leading European laboratories offering access to large accelerator facilities (such as GANIL or GSI), to synchrotron radiation or to unique polarized neutron beams, such as those available at ILL Grenoble. An exiting new frontier in research for our research teams will be opened by the X-ray Free Electron Laser (XFEL) in DESY and the future International Linear Collider. We will be able to further invest towards upgrading our small-scale facilities, such as the infrastructure around the Van de Graaff accelerator, in order to perform single-ion beam experiments, or around the AIC-144 cyclotron, to treat ocular melanoma, in close collaboration with

  19. The Prevalence of Reading Difficulties among Children in Scholar Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Rosita Cecilia

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The study investigates the prevalence of reading difficulties among children in scholar age and analyses the socio-demographic characteristics of learners who presented reading difficulties in central Italy. A sample of 623 students 7-11 aged, was assessed with the Italian MT standardized tests. Information on gender, age, handedness, and other socio-demographic variables were also gathered. The study showed that 11% of learners presented poor comprehension skills. The reading speed difficulties were more common than the reading correctness problems: about 7% of children vs 1% were dyslexics due to slow reading. There were no significant differences regarding gender, age. However, dominant hand and the school location seemed to affect the speed difficulties and the comprehension problems. The analyses showed that attending a school located in a rural area was statistically associated with the reading difficulties. Left-handed children were more likely to be slow decoders and/or poor comprehenders. These findings may be used in the early diagnosis of poor readers. These difficulties often have a chronic progression with substantial psychosocial limitations and psychological stress, so children with reading difficulties should be identified as early as possible.

  20. Exploring communication difficulties in pediatric hematology: oncology nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citak, Ebru Akgun; Toruner, Ebru Kilicarslan; Gunes, Nebahat Bora

    2013-01-01

    Communication plays an important role for the well being of patients, families and also health care professionals in cancer care. Conversely, ineffective communication may cause depression, increased anxiety, hopelessness and decreased of quality life for patients, families and also nurses. This study aimed to explore communication difficulties of pediatric hematology/oncology nurses with patients and their families, as well as their suggestions about communication difficulties. It was conducted in a pediatric hematology/oncology hospital in Ankara, Turkey. Qualitative data were collected by focus groups, with 21 pediatric hematology/oncology nursing staff from three groups. Content analysis was used for data analysis. Findings were grouped in three main categories. The first category concerned communication difficulties, assessing problems in responding to questions, ineffective communication and conflicts with the patient's families. The second was about the effects of communication difficulties on nurses and the last main category involved suggestions for empowering nurses with communication difficulties, the theme being related to institutional issues. Nurses experience communication difficulties with children and their families during long hospital stays. Communication difficulties particularly increase during crisis periods, like at the time of first diagnosis, relapse, the terminal stage or on days with special meaning such as holidays. The results obtained indicate that pediatric nurses and the child/family need to be supported, especially during crisis periods. Feeling of empowerment in communication will improve the quality of care by reducing the feelings of exhaustion and incompetence in nurses.

  1. Female international students and sexual health - a qualitative study into knowledge, beliefs and attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burchard, Adrienne; Laurence, Caroline; Stocks, Nigel

    2011-10-01

    International students make up an increasing proportion of university students in Australia. Research suggests that they have poor sexual health knowledge compared with local students. Thematic analysis was undertaken on focus groups carried out at the University of Adelaide (South Australia), with 21 female international students from Malaysia and China. Four themes were identified: poor sexual health knowledge; complex attitudes about premarital sex; difficulty accessing sexual health information, and poor understanding the role of general practitioners in this area; and ideas about future education. Participants believed that international students have insufficient sexual health education when they arrive in Australia. They were concerned that some students may become more sexually active in Australia, and may not have adequate access to health services and information. All participants felt it was necessary for international students to receive better sexual health education. International students are important to Australian universities, and it should be mandatory to ensure that culturally appropriate sex education is made available to this group.

  2. International safeguards and international nuclear trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felten, P.

    1991-01-01

    A particular feature of nuclear trade is the need to ensure a good equilibrium between technology transfer and the requirements linked to non proliferation of nuclear weapons. The recent dramatic changes that occurred on the international scene have particularly underlined the difficulty to reach this equilibrium, reminding us the fragility of the existing order and the responsibility of the nuclear community in the field of non-proliferation. Consequently, there is a need for an international thorough review of the actual non proliferation tools developed until now. This review could lead to reconsider some of the dogmas upon which the present safeguard system is based

  3. Readability Formulas and User Perceptions of Electronic Health Records Difficulty: A Corpus Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jiaping; Yu, Hong

    2017-03-02

    Electronic health records (EHRs) are a rich resource for developing applications to engage patients and foster patient activation, thus holding a strong potential to enhance patient-centered care. Studies have shown that providing patients with access to their own EHR notes may improve the understanding of their own clinical conditions and treatments, leading to improved health care outcomes. However, the highly technical language in EHR notes impedes patients' comprehension. Numerous studies have evaluated the difficulty of health-related text using readability formulas such as Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level (FKGL), Simple Measure of Gobbledygook (SMOG), and Gunning-Fog Index (GFI). They conclude that the materials are often written at a grade level higher than common recommendations. The objective of our study was to explore the relationship between the aforementioned readability formulas and the laypeople's perceived difficulty on 2 genres of text: general health information and EHR notes. We also validated the formulas' appropriateness and generalizability on predicting difficulty levels of highly complex technical documents. We collected 140 Wikipedia articles on diabetes and 242 EHR notes with diabetes International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision code. We recruited 15 Amazon Mechanical Turk (AMT) users to rate difficulty levels of the documents. Correlations between laypeople's perceived difficulty levels and readability formula scores were measured, and their difference was tested. We also compared word usage and the impact of medical concepts of the 2 genres of text. The distributions of both readability formulas' scores (Preadability predictions and laypeople's perceptions were weak. Furthermore, despite being graded at similar levels, documents of different genres were still perceived with different difficulty (Preadability formulas' predictions did not align with perceived difficulty in either text genre. The widely used readability formulas were

  4. Future Textiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anne-Louise Degn; Jensen, Hanne Troels Fusvad; Hansen, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Magasinet Future Textiles samler resultaterne fra projektet Future Textiles, der markedsfører området intelligente tekstiler. I magasinet kan man læse om trends, drivkræfter, udfordringer samt få ideer til nye produkter inden for intelligente tekstiler. Områder som bæredygtighed og kundetilpasning...

  5. Past, present and future of the «Responsibility to protect»: a bumpy journey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vítor Manuel Ramon Fernandes

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to study the “Responsibility to Protect”, its evolution since 2000 and what can be expected for its future. Concurrently, the paper takes into account the need to protect populations, victims of certain types of aggression and to preserve the international order. Major criticisms of this doctrine are highlighted, as well as some of its impacts on the international community and, significantly, some of the difficulties that have arisen during its development – a process that has been controversial and troubled. Some of the main risks and uncertainties that affect its future are investigated, considering that a set of emerging countries who do not agree with the Western liberal order intends to be more active in international affairs. The fundamental argument is that the future of this doctrine might continue to be troubled and full of uncertainties. Thus, for RtoP to evolve in a favourable way, it will be necessary, on the one hand, that the members of the Security Council of the United Nations engage in genuine multilateral cooperation in order to safeguard the changes taking place in the international order; and, on the other hand, that the States consider such crimes to be an essential issue of international security and part of their interests.

  6. A Model of Academic Self-Concept: Perceived Difficulty and Social Comparison among Academically Accelerated Secondary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Hope E.; Siegle, Del; McCoach, D. Betsy; Little, Catherine A.; Reis, Sally M.

    2014-01-01

    Academic self-concept predicts students' future goals and is affected by a student's relative success compared with his or her peer group. This exploratory study used structural equation modeling to examine the contributions of the perceived level of difficulty of the curriculum, in addition to the contributions of social comparison and…

  7. Futures Brokerages Face uncertain Future

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG PEI

    2006-01-01

    @@ 2005 was a quiet year for China's futures market.After four new trading products, including cotton, fuel oil and corn, were launched on the market in 2004, the development of the market seemed to stagnate. The trade value of the futures market totaled 13.4 trillion yuan (US$ 1.67 trillion) in 2005, down 8.5 percent year-on-year. Although the decrease is quite small and the trade value was still the second highest in the market's history, the majority of futures brokerage firms were running in the red. In some areas, up to 80 percent of futures companies made losses.

  8. Identifying and addressing student difficulties with the ideal gas law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kautz, Christian Hans

    This dissertation reports on an in-depth investigation of student understanding of the ideal gas law. The research and curriculum development were mostly conducted in the context of algebra- and calculus-based introductory physics courses and a sophomore-level thermal physics course. Research methods included individual demonstration interviews and written questions. Student difficulties with the quantities: pressure, volume, temperature, and the number of moles were identified. Data suggest that students' incorrect and incomplete microscopic models about gases contribute to the difficulties they have in answering questions posed in macroscopic terms. In addition, evidence for general reasoning difficulties is presented. These research results have guided the development of curriculum to address the student difficulties that have been identified.

  9. Task Number and Cognitive Complexity as Determinants of Difficulty ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. O. E. OSUAGWU

    2013-09-01

    Sep 1, 2013 ... amenable to item analysis and are sample- ... as item difficulty, item discrimination, and .... The aim of this study is to determine: ... and then evaluators will have to pay significant ... calculated and the test statistics were used to.

  10. Teaching chemistry to students with learning difficulties: exemplary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Teaching chemistry to students with learning difficulties: exemplary adaptive instructional practices of experienced teachers. ... Arguably, today's science classrooms are witnessing a situation in which students experience a special learning ...

  11. Brain injury and severe eating difficulties at admission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærsgaard, Annette; Kaae Kristensen, Hanne

    Objective: The objective of this pilot study was to explore and interpret the way that individuals with acquired brain injury, admitted to inpatient neurorehabilitation with severe eating difficulties, experienced eating nine to fifteen months after discharge. Methods: Four individuals with acqui......Objective: The objective of this pilot study was to explore and interpret the way that individuals with acquired brain injury, admitted to inpatient neurorehabilitation with severe eating difficulties, experienced eating nine to fifteen months after discharge. Methods: Four individuals...... with acquired brain injury were interviewed via qualitative semi-structured interviews. An explorative study was conducted to study eating difficulties. Qualitative content analysis was used. Results: Four main themes emerged from the analysis: personal values related to eating, swallowing difficulties, eating......-of-life. The preliminary findings provide knowledge regarding the patient perspective of adapting to and developing new strategies for activities related to eating, however, further prospective, longitudinal research in a larger scale and with repeated interviews is needed....

  12. Individual difficulties faced by persons with mobility impairments

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Greeff, M

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Disabled persons are experiencing additional difficulties when interacting with systems, applications or devices and also have their own unique requirements that enable them to use a system. If the design of the system does not support...

  13. Reading Comprehension Difficulties among French Students of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reading Comprehension Difficulties among French Students of the University of Education, Winneba: ... The quality of work done depends so much on the level of understanding of the reading text by students. ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  14. The effectiveness of anger management's training on difficulty of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences ... The purpose of this research is the effect of anger management training on adolescents' emotional regulation. ... Keywords: Anger management, Difficulty in emotion regulation, Adolescent ...

  15. From bureaucratic tot post-bureaucratic: the difficulties of transition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Josserand, E.; Teo, S.; Clegg, S.R.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose - Modern bureaucracies are under reconstruction, bureaucracy being no longer "modern"; they are becoming "post" bureaucratic. Defining the post-bureaucratic organization as a hybrid form provides insight into the intrinsic difficulties involved in the refurbishment of large complex

  16. Orthogonally Evolved AI to Improve Difficulty Adjustment in Video Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hintze, Arend; Olson, Randal; Lehman, Joel Anthony

    2016-01-01

    Computer games are most engaging when their difficulty is well matched to the player's ability, thereby providing an experience in which the player is neither overwhelmed nor bored. In games where the player interacts with computer-controlled opponents, the difficulty of the game can be adjusted...... not only by changing the distribution of opponents or game resources, but also through modifying the skill of the opponents. Applying evolutionary algorithms to evolve the artificial intelligence that controls opponent agents is one established method for adjusting opponent difficulty. Less-evolved agents...... (i.e. agents subject to fewer generations of evolution) make for easier opponents, while highly-evolved agents are more challenging to overcome. In this publication we test a new approach for difficulty adjustment in games: orthogonally evolved AI, where the player receives support from collaborating...

  17. A Pathway to Psychological Difficulty: Perceived Chronic Social Adversity and Its Symptomatic Reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Cody; Zhang, Jingqiu; Yang, Dong

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we attempt to predict and explain psychological maladjustment or difficulty. Specifically, we discuss the concept of perceived chronic social adversity, and we expect that such perceived chronic social adversity may potentially lead to chronic stress responses. Accordingly, we propose the symptomatic reactions of perceived chronic social adversity. We put forward a set of hypotheses regarding the relationships between perceived chronic social adversity and those chronic stress responses, and we further hypothesize a mediating role of individualized negative essentialism brought by perceived chronical social adversity. Resilience and individual differences in the ability to cope with perceived adversity are discussed. Future research and prevention need to pay more attention to effects of subjective personal experiences on psychological difficulty, focusing on the importance of exploring daily social experiences in improving cognitive construction processes and developing appropriate preventions.

  18. A Pathway to Psychological Difficulty: Perceived Chronic Social Adversity and Its Symptomatic Reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cody Ding

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we attempt to predict and explain psychological maladjustment or difficulty. Specifically, we discuss the concept of perceived chronic social adversity, and we expect that such perceived chronic social adversity may potentially lead to chronic stress responses. Accordingly, we propose the symptomatic reactions of perceived chronic social adversity. We put forward a set of hypotheses regarding the relationships between perceived chronic social adversity and those chronic stress responses, and we further hypothesize a mediating role of individualized negative essentialism brought by perceived chronical social adversity. Resilience and individual differences in the ability to cope with perceived adversity are discussed. Future research and prevention need to pay more attention to effects of subjective personal experiences on psychological difficulty, focusing on the importance of exploring daily social experiences in improving cognitive construction processes and developing appropriate preventions.

  19. Cultivate Africa's Future | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Sub-Saharan Africa's population is projected to reach 1.5 billion by 2050. As a result, the region will need to increase food production by 360% compared to 2006 levels to feed its people. Smallholder production accounts for about 80% of farms in the region, and directly employs over 175 million people.

  20. Cultivate Africa's Future | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Ten Eastern and Southern African countries will form part of this research: Burundi, Ethiopia, Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, Rwanda, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. The project team will select projects using an open competitive call where applicants will submit a concept note, followed by a full proposal for ...

  1. The International Market Retirement Funds - Future Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tudor Colomeischi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The current state of the global market pension was marked by the fact that pension systems in all countries have been strongly affected by the financial and economic crisis that broke out in the world, especially in 2008-2010. Its effects were felt primarily to pension schemes with definedcontributions (DC, the participants in these plans being increasingly skeptical about the ability to afford decent pensions. Type defined contribution plans requires, on the one hand, periods and higher contribution rates, and on the other investment plans and strategies for managing longevity risk appropriate to the market in which they operate and the characteristics of the participants in this market.Currently in the world there are many types of retirement plans, the most important criteria to classify them are pension plan administrator, the connection with the employer participants, method of calculation of the benefit, the perspective of the pension plan, the way the pension plan isfund or through the multi-pillar approach.Keywords: defined benefit (DB type, defined contribution (DC type, pension system, annuity rate

  2. Communication difficulties in children identified with psychiatric problems

    OpenAIRE

    Helland, Wenche Andersen

    2010-01-01

    Several studies have pointed to an overlap between different developmental psychopathological conditions and language impairments, and difficulties with communication have been identified in children of various diagnostic backgrounds. This thesis is based on three empirical studies, and the purposes are to investigate communication difficulties as reported by parents, in children identified with psychiatric problems as well as to evaluate a Norwegian adaptation of the Children’...

  3. Difficulties in emotion regulation in patients with eating disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Ruscitti, Catherine; Rufino, Katrina; Goodwin, Natalie; Wagner, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    Background A defining characteristic of eating disorders (EDs) is difficulty with emotion regulation (ER). Previous research indicates that ED subtypes demonstrate differing ER difficulties. Specifically, individuals with Anorexia Nervosa (AN) or Bulimia Nervosa (BN) show greater impairment in their ability to regulate emotions in areas such as achieving goals while upset, reacting impulsively to distress, and effectively using coping strategies, as compared to those with Binge Eating Disorde...

  4. DIFFICULTIeS OF TOTAL HIP REPLACEMENT IN PATIENTS WITH ANKYLOSING SPONDYLITIS (case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. Tikhilov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A distinctive feature of patients with ankylosing spondylitis is the formation of hip ankylosis in an extremely unfavorable functional position combined with upset of sagittal balance of the body along with a thoracolumbar kyphosis. Treatment of these patients poses considerable technical difficulties and is often associated with complications. The authors report a clinical case of a female 40 years old patient with confirmed rhizomelic spondylitis. The patient mainly complained of fixed malposition of the right lower extremity (hip ankylosis in extreme 1450 flexion and 1500 abduction combined with a severe fixed spine deformity (thoracic kyphosis 920, lumbar lordosis 170. Considering significant sagittal balance disorder it was decided to go for a two-stage procedure. Total hip arthroplasty of the right joint was performed at the first stage. At the second stage the authors corrected thoracolumbar spinal deformity by Th12 (type PSO 4 and L2 (type PSO 3 wedge resections and converging resected vertebral bodies by a multilevel fixation system with transpedicular support elements. The interval between the stages was 11 months. Two-stage treatment of this patient al-lowed to avoid adverse postoperative complications and to achieve a significant functional improvement in one year after treatment started. The sum of points before and after the treat-ment amounted respectively to 46 and 79 on Harris Hip Score, 17 and 38 points on Oxford Hip Score (OHS. To summarize, comprehensive treatment with planning of all subsequent steps prior to hip replacement is the method of choice for avoidance of postoperative complications in patients with ankylosing spondylitis accompanied by a significant upset of sagittal balance.

  5. Managing social difficulties: roles and responsibilities of patients and staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Penny; Bingham, Laura; Taylor, Sally; Hanif, Naheed; Podmore, Emma; Velikova, Galina

    2012-01-01

    Implementation of guidance on assessment and management of psychosocial and supportive-care problems or needs will be successful only if consideration is given to existing skills, experience and expectations of staff and patients. This study examines the roles and responsibilities of staff, patients and families in relation to management of social difficulties and proposes a pathway for response. A qualitative study was performed using staff and patient interviews. Seventeen doctors and 16 nurses were interviewed using patient scenarios and a support service questionnaire. Patients (n = 41) completed a screening questionnaire (the Social Difficulties Inventory) and were interviewed. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed and subjected to a Framework analysis. Analysis examined (1) actions taken by staff and patients in response to social difficulties, (2) reasons given for action taken and (3) perceptions of staff and patients of who was responsible for taking action. Staff were confident concerning clinically related issues (i.e. mobility) but more hesitant concerning difficulties related to money, work and family concerns. Patients liked to cope with problems on their own where possible, would have liked information or support from staff but were uncertain how to access this. Results led to development of a hierarchy of interventions in response to detected social difficulties. For routine assessment of social difficulties, patients, nurses and doctors will have to work collaboratively, with nurses taking a lead in discussion. For specific clinically related problems doctors would play a more primary role. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Review of student difficulties in upper-level quantum mechanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandralekha Singh

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available [This paper is part of the Focused Collection on Upper Division Physics Courses.] Learning advanced physics, in general, is challenging not only due to the increased mathematical sophistication but also because one must continue to build on all of the prior knowledge acquired at the introductory and intermediate levels. In addition, learning quantum mechanics can be especially challenging because the paradigms of classical mechanics and quantum mechanics are very different. Here, we review research on student reasoning difficulties in learning upper-level quantum mechanics and research on students’ problem-solving and metacognitive skills in these courses. Some of these studies were multiuniversity investigations. The investigations suggest that there is large diversity in student performance in upper-level quantum mechanics regardless of the university, textbook, or instructor, and many students in these courses have not acquired a functional understanding of the fundamental concepts. The nature of reasoning difficulties in learning quantum mechanics is analogous to reasoning difficulties found via research in introductory physics courses. The reasoning difficulties were often due to overgeneralizations of concepts learned in one context to another context where they are not directly applicable. Reasoning difficulties in distinguishing between closely related concepts and in making sense of the formalism of quantum mechanics were common. We conclude with a brief summary of the research-based approaches that take advantage of research on student difficulties in order to improve teaching and learning of quantum mechanics.

  7. Analysis of the Difficulties and Improvement Method on Introduction of PBL Approach in Developing Country

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okano, Takasei; Sessa, Salvatore

    In the field of international cooperation, it is increasing to introduce Japanese engineering educational model in the developing country to improve the quality of education and research activity. A naive implementation of such model in different cultures and educational systems may lead to several problems. In this paper, we evaluated the Project Based Learning (PBL) class, developed at Waseda University in Japan, and employed to the Egyptian education context at the Egypt-Japan University of Science and Technology (E-JUST) . We found difficulties such as : non-homogeneous student’ s background, disconnection with the student’ s research, weak learning style adaptation, and irregular course conduction. To solve these difficulties at E-JUST, we proposed : the groupware introduction, project theme choice based on student’ s motivation, and curriculum modification.

  8. Study on the Strategy of Transforming Students with Learning Difficulties in Polytechnic Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Cui

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available As demand of China’s social construction increasing and as the development of vocational education, polytechnic school plays an increasing important part, which, on the other hand, constitutes unprecedented challenges to the teaching in polytechnic schools. Most students, in the aspect of vocational education, are those from middle schools who have difficulties in their study. These students are entitled “Underachievers”. They are short in intellectual study and poor in curricular foundations. Teaching tasks cannot be satisfactorily accomplished in many of the polytechnic schools for the increasing number of underachievers. What have been harnessing the polytechnic school development is the poor study effect of these students. In this article, the internal reason of character and the external reason of social influence are analyzed as the cause that contributes to learning difficulties. And this article offers a pragmatic set of ideas for underachiever transformation.

  9. International Trade. International Business

    OpenAIRE

    Мохнюк, А. М.; Mokhniuk, A. M.

    2015-01-01

    Work programme of the study course “International Trade. International Business” was prepared in accordance with educational and vocational training program for bachelors of training direction 6.030601 “Management”.

  10. Sustainable Futures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sustainable Futures is a voluntary program that encourages industry to use predictive models to screen new chemicals early in the development process and offers incentives to companies subject to TSCA section 5.

  11. Assessing implementation difficulties in tobacco use prevention and cessation counselling among dental providers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murtomaa Heikki

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tobacco use adversely affects oral health. Clinical guidelines recommend that dental providers promote tobacco abstinence and provide patients who use tobacco with brief tobacco use cessation counselling. Research shows that these guidelines are seldom implemented, however. To improve guideline adherence and to develop effective interventions, it is essential to understand provider behaviour and challenges to implementation. This study aimed to develop a theoretically informed measure for assessing among dental providers implementation difficulties related to tobacco use prevention and cessation (TUPAC counselling guidelines, to evaluate those difficulties among a sample of dental providers, and to investigate a possible underlying structure of applied theoretical domains. Methods A 35-item questionnaire was developed based on key theoretical domains relevant to the implementation behaviours of healthcare providers. Specific items were drawn mostly from the literature on TUPAC counselling studies of healthcare providers. The data were collected from dentists (n = 73 and dental hygienists (n = 22 in 36 dental clinics in Finland using a web-based survey. Of 95 providers, 73 participated (76.8%. We used Cronbach's alpha to ascertain the internal consistency of the questionnaire. Mean domain scores were calculated to assess different aspects of implementation difficulties and exploratory factor analysis to assess the theoretical domain structure. The authors agreed on the labels assigned to the factors on the basis of their component domains and the broader behavioural and theoretical literature. Results Internal consistency values for theoretical domains varied from 0.50 ('emotion' to 0.71 ('environmental context and resources'. The domain environmental context and resources had the lowest mean score (21.3%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 17.2 to 25.4 and was identified as a potential implementation difficulty. The domain emotion

  12. Assessing implementation difficulties in tobacco use prevention and cessation counselling among dental providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amemori, Masamitsu; Michie, Susan; Korhonen, Tellervo; Murtomaa, Heikki; Kinnunen, Taru H

    2011-05-26

    Tobacco use adversely affects oral health. Clinical guidelines recommend that dental providers promote tobacco abstinence and provide patients who use tobacco with brief tobacco use cessation counselling. Research shows that these guidelines are seldom implemented, however. To improve guideline adherence and to develop effective interventions, it is essential to understand provider behaviour and challenges to implementation. This study aimed to develop a theoretically informed measure for assessing among dental providers implementation difficulties related to tobacco use prevention and cessation (TUPAC) counselling guidelines, to evaluate those difficulties among a sample of dental providers, and to investigate a possible underlying structure of applied theoretical domains. A 35-item questionnaire was developed based on key theoretical domains relevant to the implementation behaviours of healthcare providers. Specific items were drawn mostly from the literature on TUPAC counselling studies of healthcare providers. The data were collected from dentists (n = 73) and dental hygienists (n = 22) in 36 dental clinics in Finland using a web-based survey. Of 95 providers, 73 participated (76.8%). We used Cronbach's alpha to ascertain the internal consistency of the questionnaire. Mean domain scores were calculated to assess different aspects of implementation difficulties and exploratory factor analysis to assess the theoretical domain structure. The authors agreed on the labels assigned to the factors on the basis of their component domains and the broader behavioural and theoretical literature. Internal consistency values for theoretical domains varied from 0.50 ('emotion') to 0.71 ('environmental context and resources'). The domain environmental context and resources had the lowest mean score (21.3%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 17.2 to 25.4) and was identified as a potential implementation difficulty. The domain emotion provided the highest mean score (60%; 95% CI, 55

  13. Perceived Difficulties in e-Learning During the First Term at University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina Kavaliauskienė

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose—the focus of this article is to explore difficulties that are encountered by students during the first term at university. It is well known that students can have various problems in learning English and make mistakes in grammar, vocabulary, and pronunciation. The native language of a learner affects learning and using English. Speaking and e-listening are the skills that are more common on an everyday basis than reading and writing. Moreover, these skills are more difficult to master. English vocabulary presents another problem for language learners. Albeit, at the university level students study English for Specific Purposes (ESP, in other words, the foreign language for their future profession, and they might face particular difficulties in their studies of ESP. Design/methodology/approach—the research paper adopts the qualitative research approach. The questionnaire on learner perceptions of difficulties in e-learning was administered to students of three different specializations. Students’ self-assessments of achievements or failures were analysed. Findings. The results indicated that perceptions of difficulties to adapting to university studies depended on their chosen specialization. The findings show that undergraduates of all three investigated specializations encounter the same difficulties, but to a different degree. In other words, there are no significantly specific difficulties due to the complexity of the professional vocabulary that students must learn. The ratings of Psychology, Social Work and Public Policy and Management students reveal higher mean values and wider range of Standard Deviations than reported by other researchers (Berman, Cheng, 2001. The results obtained imply that Lithuanian learners are more positive than their foreign counterparts. Computations of Pearson’s correlations coefficients demonstrate that there are some good correlational relationships within each specialization. Research

  14. Asymptomatic population reference values for three knee patient-reported outcomes measures: evaluation of an electronic data collection system and implications for future international, multi-centre cohort studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, James M; Brumby-Rendell, Oscar; Lisle, Ryan; Brazier, Jacob; Dunn, Kieran; Gill, Tiffany; Hill, Catherine L; Mandziak, Daniel; Leith, Jordan

    2018-05-01

    The aim was to assess whether the Knee Society Score, Oxford Knee Score (OKS) and Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) were comparable in asymptomatic, healthy, individuals of different age, gender and ethnicity, across two remote continents. The purpose of this study was to establish normal population values for these scores using an electronic data collection system. There is no difference in clinical knee scores in an asymptomatic population when comparing age, gender and ethnicity, across two remote continents. 312 Australian and 314 Canadian citizens, aged 18-94 years, with no active knee pain, injury or pathology in the ipsilateral knee corresponding to their dominant arm, were evaluated. A knee examination was performed and participants completed an electronically administered questionnaire covering the subjective components of the knee scores. The cohorts were age- and gender-matched. Chi-square tests, Fisher's exact test and Poisson regression models were used where appropriate, to investigate the association between knee scores, age, gender, ethnicity and nationality. There was a significant inverse relationship between age and all assessment tools. OKS recorded a significant difference between gender with females scoring on average 1% lower score. There was no significant difference between international cohorts when comparing all assessment tools. An electronic, multi-centre data collection system can be effectively utilized to assess remote international cohorts. Differences in gender, age, ethnicity and nationality should be taken into consideration when using knee scores to compare to pathological patient scores. This study has established an electronic, normal control group for future studies using the Knee society, Oxford, and KOOS knee scores. Diagnostic Level II.

  15. Futures of cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogen dokumenterer resultater fra den internationale kongres Futures of Cities arrangeret af IFHP International Federation of Housing and Planning, Realdania, Kunstakademiets Arkitektskole og City of Copenhagen. Kongressen blev afholdt i september 2007 i Øksnehallen og på Kunstakademiets...... Arkitektskole. Bogen  har 3 dele. Principles: Copenhagen Agenda for Sustainable Living, 10 principper udviklet af Ugebrevet Mandag Morgen illustreret af arkitektstuderende. Congress: Futures of Cities, Emerging Urbanisms- Emerging Practices, oplæg fra unge tegnestuer til temaet fremlagt på Student Congress...

  16. The Future of TV Drama

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Redvall, Eva Novrup

    2015-01-01

    The future of television – and particularly of TV drama – was widely on the Danish industry agenda in June with the Copenhagen Future TV Conference and an international seminar on producing, selling, programming and remaking TV series. Eva Novrup Redvall reports....

  17. Reading comprehension difficulties in children with rolandic epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Nicola K; Lew, Adina R; Palmer, Tom M; Basu, Helen; De Goede, Christian; Iyer, Anand; Cain, Kate

    2018-03-01

    Difficulties in reading comprehension can arise from either word reading or listening comprehension difficulties, or a combination of the two. We sought to determine whether children with rolandic epilepsy had poor reading comprehension relative to typically developing comparison children, and whether such difficulties were associated with word reading and/or general language comprehension difficulties. In this cross-sectional study, children with rolandic epilepsy (n=25; 16 males, 9 females; mean age 9y 1mo, SD 1y 7mo) and a comparison group (n=39; 25 males, 14 females; mean age 9y 1mo, SD 1y 3mo) completed assessments of reading comprehension, listening comprehension, word/non-word reading, speech articulation, and Non-verbal IQ. Reading comprehension and word reading were worse in children with rolandic epilepsy (F 1,61 =6.89, p=0.011, ηp2=0.10 and F 1,61 =6.84, p=0.011, ηp2=0.10 respectively), with listening comprehension being marginal (F 1,61 =3.81, p=0.055, ηp2=0.06). Word reading and listening comprehension made large and independent contributions to reading comprehension, explaining 70% of the variance. Children with rolandic epilepsy may be at risk of reading comprehension difficulties. Thorough assessment of individual children is required to ascertain whether the difficulties lie with decoding text, or with general comprehension skills, or both. Children with rolandic epilepsy may be at risk of poor reading comprehension. This was related to poor word reading, poor listening comprehension, or both. Reading comprehension interventions should be tailored to the profile of difficulties. © 2017 Mac Keith Press.

  18. Difficulty buying food, BMI, and eating habits in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Anne; Maguire, Jonathon L; Carsley, Sarah; Chen, Yang; Lebovic, Gerald; Omand, Jessica; Parkin, Patricia; Birken, Catherine S

    2018-01-22

    To determine whether parent report of difficulty buying food was associated with child body mass index (BMI) z-score or with eating habits in young children. This was a cross-sectional study in primary care offices in Toronto, Ontario. Subjects were children aged 1-5 years and their caregivers, recruited through the TARGet Kids! Research Network from July 2008 to August 2011. Regression models were developed to test the association between parent report of difficulty buying food because of cost and the following outcomes: child BMI z-score, parent's report of child's intake of fruit and vegetables, fruit juice and sweetened beverages, and fast food. Confounders included child's age, sex, birth weight, maternal BMI, education, ethnicity, immigration status, and neighbourhood income. The study sample consisted of 3333 children. Data on difficulty buying food were available for 3099 children, and 431 of these (13.9%) were from households reporting difficulty buying food. There was no association with child BMI z-score (p = 0.86). Children from households reporting difficulty buying food (compared with never having difficulty buying food) had increased odds of consuming three or fewer servings of fruits and vegetables per day (odds ratio [OR]: 1.31, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.03-1.69), more than one serving of fruit juice/sweetened beverage per day (OR: 1.60, 95% CI: 1.28-2.00), and, among children 1-2 years old, one or more servings of fast food per week (OR: 2.91, 95% CI: 1.67-5.08). Parental report of difficulty buying food is associated with less optimal eating habits in children but not with BMI z-score.

  19. Tracks for Eastern/Western European Future Launch Vehicles Cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eymar, Patrick; Bertschi, Markus

    2002-01-01

    exclusively upon Western European elements indigenously produced. Yet some private initiatives took place successfully in the second half of the nineties (Eurockot and Starsem) bringing together companies from Western and Eastern Europe. Evolution of these JV's are already envisioned. But these ventures relied mostly on already existing vehicles. broadening the bases in order to enlarge the reachable world market appears attractive, even if structural difficulties are complicating the process. had recently started to analyze, with KSRC counterparts how mixing Russian and Western European based elements would provide potential competitive edges. and RKA in the frame of the new ESA's Future Launch Preparatory Programme (FLPP). main technical which have been considered as the most promising (reusable LOx/Hydrocarbon engine, experimental reentry vehicles or demonstrators and reusable launch vehicle first stage or booster. international approach. 1 patrick.eymar@lanceurs.aeromatra.com 2

  20. Do People With Psychosis Have Specific Difficulties Regulating Emotions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincoln, Tania M; Hartmann, Maike; Köther, Ulf; Moritz, Steffen

    2015-01-01

    Difficulties in emotion regulation (ER) are present in psychotic disorders, but their precise nature is not yet fully understood and it is unclear which difficulties are unique to psychosis compared with other disorders. This study investigated whether ER difficulties in psychosis are more prominent for the ability to modify emotions or for the ability to tolerate and accept them. Furthermore, it investigated whether ER difficulties occur for sadness, anxiety, anger and shame likewise. ER skills were assessed in participants with psychotic disorders (n = 37), participants with depression (n = 30) and healthy controls (n = 28) using the Emotion Regulation Skill Questionnaire that asks participants to rate the intensity of different emotions over the past week and the skills employed to handle each of them. Compared with healthy controls, participants with psychosis showed reduced skills related to awareness, understanding and acceptance of potentially distressing emotions, but not in the ability to modify them. These differences remained significant after controlling for depression. Participants with psychosis showed reduced ER skills in regard to all of the assessed emotions compared with the healthy controls, despite the fact that they only reported sadness as being significantly more intense. The participants with depression showed a similar pattern of ER skills to the psychosis sample, although with a tendency towards even more pronounced difficulties. It is concluded that psychosis is characterized by difficulties in using specific ER skills related to awareness, understanding and acceptance to regulate anger, shame, anxiety and sadness. These difficulties are not unique to psychosis but nevertheless present a promising treatment target. The participants with psychosis found it more difficult to be aware of their emotions, to understand them and to accept them than the healthy control group. However, they reported equal skills when it came to

  1. Re-examining the link between prenatal maternal anxiety and child emotional difficulties, using a sibling design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekkhus, Mona; Lee, Yunsung; Nordhagen, Rannveig; Magnus, Per; Samuelsen, Sven O; Borge, Anne I H

    2018-02-01

    Prenatal exposure to maternal anxiety has been associated with child emotional difficulties in a number of epidemiological studies. One key concern, however, is that this link is vulnerable to confounding by pleiotropic genes or environmental family factors. Data on 82 383 mothers and children from the population-based Mother and Child Cohort Study and data on 21 980 siblings were used in this study. Mothers filled out questionnaires for each unique pregnancy, for infant difficulties at 6 months and for emotional difficulties at 36 months. The link between prenatal maternal anxiety and child difficulties were examined using logistic regression analyses and multiple linear regression analyses for the full study sample and the sibling sample. In the conventional full-cohort analyses, prenatal exposure to maternal anxiety was associated with child difficulties at both 6 months [odds ratio (OR) = 2.1 (1.94-2.27)] and 36 months [OR = 2.72 (2.47-2.99)]. The findings were essentially the same whether we examined difficulties at 6 months or at 36 months. However, these associations were no longer present once we controlled for potential social and genetic confounders in the sibling comparison analyses, either at 6 months [OR = 1.32 (0.91-1.90)] or at 36 months [OR = 1.28 (0.63-2.60)]. Findings from multiple regression analyses with continuous measures were essentially the same. Our finding lends little support for there being an independent prenatal effect on child emotional difficulties; rather, our findings suggest that the link between prenatal maternal anxiety and child difficulties could be confounded by pleiotropic genes or environmental family factors. © The Author 2017; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association

  2. Undergraduate Students’ Difficulties in Reading and Constructing Phylogenetic Tree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sa'adah, S.; Tapilouw, F. S.; Hidayat, T.

    2017-02-01

    Representation is a very important communication tool to communicate scientific concepts. Biologists produce phylogenetic representation to express their understanding of evolutionary relationships. The phylogenetic tree is visual representation depict a hypothesis about the evolutionary relationship and widely used in the biological sciences. Phylogenetic tree currently growing for many disciplines in biology. Consequently, learning about phylogenetic tree become an important part of biological education and an interesting area for biology education research. However, research showed many students often struggle with interpreting the information that phylogenetic trees depict. The purpose of this study was to investigate undergraduate students’ difficulties in reading and constructing a phylogenetic tree. The method of this study is a descriptive method. In this study, we used questionnaires, interviews, multiple choice and open-ended questions, reflective journals and observations. The findings showed students experiencing difficulties, especially in constructing a phylogenetic tree. The students’ responds indicated that main reasons for difficulties in constructing a phylogenetic tree are difficult to placing taxa in a phylogenetic tree based on the data provided so that the phylogenetic tree constructed does not describe the actual evolutionary relationship (incorrect relatedness). Students also have difficulties in determining the sister group, character synapomorphy, autapomorphy from data provided (character table) and comparing among phylogenetic tree. According to them building the phylogenetic tree is more difficult than reading the phylogenetic tree. Finding this studies provide information to undergraduate instructor and students to overcome learning difficulties of reading and constructing phylogenetic tree.

  3. Visual difficulty and employment status in the world.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanen Harrabi

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Using a world-wide, population-based dataset, we sought to examine the relationship between visual difficulty and employment status. METHODS: The World Health Survey was conducted in 70 countries throughout the world in 2003 using a random, multi-stage, stratified, cluster sampling design. Far vision was assessed by asking about the level of difficulty in seeing and recognizing a person you know across the road (i.e. from a distance of about 20 meters. Responses included none, mild, moderate, severe, or extreme/unable. Participants were asked about their current job, and if they were not working, the reason why (unable to find job, ill health, homemaker, studies, unpaid work, other. The occupation in the last 12 months was obtained. Multinomial regression was used accounting for the complex survey design. RESULTS: Of those who wanted to work, 79% of those with severe visual difficulty and 64% of those with extreme visual difficulty were actually working. People who had moderate, severe, or extreme visual difficulty had a higher odds of not working due to an inability to find a job and of not working due to ill health after adjusting for demographic and health factors (P<0.05. CONCLUSIONS: As the major causes of visual impairment in the world are uncorrected refractive error and cataract, countries are losing a great deal of labor productivity by failing to provide for the vision health needs of their citizens and failing to help them integrate into the workforce.

  4. Visual difficulty and employment status in the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrabi, Hanen; Aubin, Marie-Josee; Zunzunegui, Maria Victoria; Haddad, Slim; Freeman, Ellen E

    2014-01-01

    Using a world-wide, population-based dataset, we sought to examine the relationship between visual difficulty and employment status. The World Health Survey was conducted in 70 countries throughout the world in 2003 using a random, multi-stage, stratified, cluster sampling design. Far vision was assessed by asking about the level of difficulty in seeing and recognizing a person you know across the road (i.e. from a distance of about 20 meters). Responses included none, mild, moderate, severe, or extreme/unable. Participants were asked about their current job, and if they were not working, the reason why (unable to find job, ill health, homemaker, studies, unpaid work, other). The occupation in the last 12 months was obtained. Multinomial regression was used accounting for the complex survey design. Of those who wanted to work, 79% of those with severe visual difficulty and 64% of those with extreme visual difficulty were actually working. People who had moderate, severe, or extreme visual difficulty had a higher odds of not working due to an inability to find a job and of not working due to ill health after adjusting for demographic and health factors (P<0.05). As the major causes of visual impairment in the world are uncorrected refractive error and cataract, countries are losing a great deal of labor productivity by failing to provide for the vision health needs of their citizens and failing to help them integrate into the workforce.

  5. Early emotional and behavioral difficulties and adult educational attainment: an 18-year follow-up of the TEMPO study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zbar, Ariella; Surkan, Pamela J; Fombonne, Eric; Melchior, Maria

    2016-10-01

    Children who experience behavioral difficulties often have short and long-term school problems. However, the relationship between emotional difficulties and later academic achievement has not been thoroughly examined. Using data from the French TEMPO study (n = 666, follow-up 1991, 1999, 2009, mean age = 10.5, sd = 4.9 at baseline), we studied associations between internalizing and externalizing symptoms in: (a) childhood and (b) adolescence and educational attainment by young adulthood (educational attainment; however, in multivariate models only the association with childhood internalizing symptoms remained statistically significant (OR = 1.75, 95 % CI 1.00-3.02). Supporting children with internalizing problems early on could help improve their long-term educational attainment.

  6. Future Contingents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øhrstrøm, Peter; Hasle., Per F. V.

    2015-01-01

    contingent statements. The problem of future contingents is interwoven with a number of issues in theology, philosophy, logic, semantics of natural language, computer science, and applied mathematics. The theological issue of how to reconcile the assumption of God's foreknowledge with the freedom and moral...... accountability of human beings has been a main impetus to the discussion and a major inspiration to the development of various logical models of time and future contingents. This theological issue is connected with the general philosophical question of determinism versus indeterminism. Within logic, the relation...... about the future. Finally, it should be mentioned that temporal logic has found a remarkable application in computer science and applied mathematics. In the late 1970s the first computer scientists realised the relevance of temporal logic for the purposes of computer science (see Hasle and Øhrstrøm 2004)....

  7. Future Contingents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øhrstrøm, Peter; Hasle., Per F. V.

    2011-01-01

    contingent statements. The problem of future contingents is interwoven with a number of issues in theology, philosophy, logic, semantics of natural language, computer science, and applied mathematics. The theological issue of how to reconcile the assumption of God's foreknowledge with the freedom and moral...... accountability of human beings has been a main impetus to the discussion and a major inspiration to the development of various logical models of time and future contingents. This theological issue is connected with the general philosophical question of determinism versus indeterminism. Within logic, the relation...... about the future. Finally, it should be mentioned that temporal logic has found a remarkable application in computer science and applied mathematics. In the late 1970s the first computer scientists realised the relevance of temporal logic for the purposes of computer science (see Hasle and Øhrstrøm 2004)....

  8. Future Savvy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gordon, Adam

    There's no shortage of predictions available to organizations looking to anticipate and profit from future events or trends. Apparently helpful forecasts are ubiquitous in everyday communications such as newspapers and business magazines, and in specialized sources such as government and think......-tank forecasts, consultant reports, and stock-market guides. These resources are crucial, but they are also of very mixed quality. How can decision-makers know which predictions to take seriously, which to be wary of, and which to throw out entirely? Future Savvy provides analytical filters to judging predictive...... systematic "forecast filtering" to reveal strengths and weakness in the predictions they face. Future Savvy empowers both business and policy/government decision-makers to use forecasts wisely and so improve their judgment in anticipating opportunities, avoiding threats, and managing uncertainty....

  9. Energy Futures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davies, Sarah Rachael; Selin, Cynthia

    2012-01-01

    foresight and public and stakeholder engagement are used to reflect on?and direct?the impacts of new technology. In this essay we draw on our experience of anticipatory governance, in the shape of the ?NanoFutures? project on energy futures, to present a reflexive analysis of engagement and deliberation. We...... draw out five tensions of the practice of deliberation on energy technologies. Through tracing the lineages of these dilemmas, we discuss some of the implications of these tensions for the practice of civic engagement and deliberation in a set of questions for this community of practitioner-scholars....

  10. An Analysis of Difficulties of Children with Stuttering Enrolled in Turkish Primary Inclusive Classes Who Encounter in Academic and Social Activities: From Their Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, Hakan; Gökdag, Hatice

    2017-01-01

    Stuttering means that children have difficulties in rhythm, sound, syllable, word and phrase repetitions, or flow of speech cut in the form of extension or block form. In the "International Classification of Diseases" (1992) ("International Classification of Diseases-10" ("ICD-10"), Stuttering was defined as speech…

  11. Exploring the content and quality of episodic future simulations in semantic dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irish, Muireann; Addis, Donna Rose; Hodges, John R; Piguet, Olivier

    2012-12-01

    Semantic dementia (SD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterised by the amodal loss of semantic knowledge in the context of relatively preserved recent episodic memory. Recent studies have demonstrated that despite relatively intact episodic memory the capacity for future simulation in SD is profoundly impaired, resulting in an asymmetric profile where past retrieval is significantly better than future simulation (referred to as a past>future effect). Here, we sought to identify the origins of this asymmetric profile by conducting a fine-grained analysis of the contextual details provided during past retrieval and future simulation in SD. Participants with SD (n=14), Alzheimer's disease (n=11), and healthy controls (n=14) had previously completed an experimental past-future interview in which they generated three past events from the previous year, and three future events in the next year, and provided subjective qualitative ratings of vividness, emotional valence, emotional intensity, task difficulty, and personal significance for each event described. Our results confirmed the striking impairment for future simulation in SD, despite a relative preservation of past episodic retrieval. Examination of the contextual details provided for past memories and future simulations revealed significant impairments irrespective of contextual detail type for future simulations in SD, and demonstrated that the future thinking deficit in this cohort was driven by a marked decline in the provision of internal (episodic) event details. In contrast with this past>future effect for internal event details, SD patients displayed a future>past effect for external (non-episodic) event details. Analyses of the qualitative ratings provided for past and future events indicated that SD patients' phenomenological experience did not differ between temporal conditions. Our findings underscore the fact that successful extraction of episodic elements from the past is not

  12. Difficulties concerning Diabetes Mellitus Type 1 in children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Rebouças Moreira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the knowledge on diabetes in children and adolescents and the difficulties regarding the disease. Methods: a quantitative study with 40 patients from 6 to 17 years older who were subjected on a questionnaire based on self-care behaviors proposed by the American Association of Diabetes Educators. Results: the average age was 11.6 years with predominance of the female gender (57.5%, most attending grade school (80.0%, naming the parents as primary caregivers (72.5%. Regarding the knowledge about the disease, the item with the highest percentage of errors was about the pathophysiology of Diabetes Mellitus type 1. On the difficulties related to the treatment, food control and application of insulin had higher frequency. Conclusion:the study revealed a high percentage of correct answers among the participants, suggesting knowledge about the disease. Nevertheless, they reported food control and insulin therapy as the main difficulties related to treatment.

  13. DIFFICULTIES IN TEACHING AND LEARNING GRAMMAR IN AN EFL CONTEXT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdu Mohammed Al-Mekhlafi

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The role of grammar instruction in an ESL/EFL context has been for decades a major issue for students and teachers alike. Researchers have debated whether grammar should be taught in the classroom and students, for their part, have generally looked upon grammar instruction as a necessary evil at best, and an avoidable burden at worst. The paper reports a study undertaken to investigate the difficulties teachers face in teaching grammar to EFL students as well as those faced by students in learning it, in the teachers' perception. The study aimed to find out whether there are significant differences in teachers' perceptions of difficulties in relation to their gender, qualification, teaching experience, and the level they teach in school, thus providing insights into their own and their students' difficulties. Mean scores and t-test were used to interpret the data. The main findings are reported with implications.

  14. Divided attention: an undesirable difficulty in memory retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspelin, Nicholas; Ruthruff, Eric; Pashler, Harold

    2013-10-01

    How can we improve memory retention? A large body of research has suggested that difficulty encountered during learning, such as when practice sessions are distributed rather than massed, can enhance later memory performance (see R. A. Bjork & E. L. Bjork, 1992). Here, we investigated whether divided attention during retrieval practice can also constitute a desirable difficulty. Following two initial study phases and one test phase with Swahili-English word pairs (e.g., vuvi-snake), we manipulated whether items were tested again under full or divided attention. Two days later, participants were brought back for a final cued-recall test (e.g., vuvi-?). Across three experiments (combined N = 122), we found no evidence that dividing attention while practicing retrieval enhances memory retention. This finding raises the question of why many types of difficulty during practice do improve long-term retention, but dividing attention does not.

  15. Perceived difficulty, importance, and satisfaction with physical function in COPD patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berry Michael J

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research suggests that patients' satisfaction with their physical functioning (SPF is a critical component of HRQL. This study was designed to examine the extent to which perceptions of physical function and the value placed on physical function are related to satisfaction ratings. The sample consisted of older adults suffering from a progressively debilitating disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Methods During baseline assessments, COPD patients participating in a randomized controlled physical activity trial completed measures of SPF, perceived difficulty, and perceived importance. Results An ANCOVA controlling for age and gender indicated that perceived difficulty, perceived importance, and their interaction accounted for 43% of the variance in SPF. Additionally, participants were most satisfied with important tasks that they performed with little difficulty. Participants were least satisfied with important tasks that they perceived as highly difficult. Conclusion The results of the present study indicate that not being able to perform valued tasks produces discontent that is reflected in lower rating of satisfaction with physical functioning. Clearly, the significance of loss in function to individual patients is related to the importance of the functional activities that may be compromised. These data have implications for the scope of patient assessment in clinical care and for the conceptual basis of future research in the area of physical functioning.

  16. Iraq's future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henderson, S.

    1998-01-01

    The large oil reserves of Iraq make it an important player in the long-term political energy world. This article briefly reviews the oil industry''s development and current status in Iraq and discusses the planned oil and gas field development. Finally there is a political discussion regarding the future of Iraq in terms of religion, race and neighbouring countries. (UK)

  17. Bitcoin futures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøgger, Søren Bundgaard

    2018-01-01

    Med introduktionen af et futures-marked er Bitcoin-eksponering blevet tilgængelig for en bredere gruppe af investorer, som hidtil ikke har kunnet eller villet tilgå det underliggende marked for Bitcoin. Artiklen finder, at kontrakterne umiddelbart favoriserer spekulanter på bekostning af hedgers og...

  18. DIFFICULTIES OF SPEAKING THAT ARE ENCOUNTERED BY ENGLISH LANGUAGE STUDENTS AT AL MARGEB UNIVERSITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Dalem

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to explore the speaking difficulties encountered by English language students at Al Margeb University, and to discover the causes of such difficulties. Speaking English has been a vital importance in international communication. Speaking fluent English is a common problem among the nonnative speakers. The second language learners have gone through a variety of cases to learn how to speak not only correct grammar and using the right vocabulary but with correct accent and pronunciation. Many obstacles, therefore, have been known as the predictors of such a problem among the language learners.  According to the review of literature, appropriate speaking instruction was found to be the learners' priority and a field in which they need more attention. In this paper the writer highlight the speaking difficulties encountered by English language students at Al Margeb University, which are considered to be the most urgent for every teacher, such as fear of mistakes, shyness, anxiety, lack of confidence and lack of motivation. This paper can be useful to teachers to consider their language learners' speaking needs in English language teaching and learning context.

  19. The factor structure of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ in Greek adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rotsika Vasiliki

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ is a practical, economic and user-friendly screening instrument of emotional and behavioural problems in children and adolescents. This study was aimed primarily at evaluating the factor structure of the Greek version of the SDQ. Methods A representative nationwide sample of 1,194 adolescents (11 to 17 years old completed the questionnaire. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA was conducted to assess the factor structure of the SDQ. Results CFA supported the original five-factor structure. The modification of the model provided some improvements. Internal consistency was acceptable for total difficulties, emotional symptoms and prosocial behaviour scale, moderate for hyperactivity/inattention scale and inadequate for peer and conduct problems scale. Older adolescents (aged 15 to 17 years reported more hyperactivity/inattention and conduct problems than younger ones (aged 11 to 14 years and girls reported more emotional symptoms and less prosocial behaviour problems than boys. Adolescents of low socioeconomic status (SES reported more difficulties than those of medium and high SES. Conclusion The Greek SDQ could be potentially considered as a community-wide screening instrument for adolescents' emotional and behavioural problems.

  20. Report of the International Consultative Group on Nuclear Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    The International Consultative Groups on Nuclear Energy adopted as its working premise the proposition that nuclear power will play a significant part in meeting future energy needs in an increasing number of countries. The Group's concern has been to examine the international political and economic conditions under which civil nuclear activities may be conducted safely, rationally, and in a manner generally acceptable to the world community. The views are presented in sections entitled: Energy and Nuclear Power; Establishing Nuclear Options; Nuclear Safety and the Public Interest; Nuclear Trade and Nuclear Proliferation; Conditions for the Future in which five conditions are summarized. The Group believes that if nuclear power is to be available to meet an increasing fraction of the world's future energy needs, nuclear power must, despite the difficulty of the sort-term climate, be systematically developed, without interruption or undue delay; earn and retain public acceptance; present technologies for using uranium more efficiently and be developed and tested as soon as possible, with both the coming decades and the 21st century in mind; be less feared; and convince countries depending on nuclear technology, services, or materials of continued international access to them under safeguards, on acceptable terms

  1. Enhancing international collaboration among early-career researchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Jennifer K; Albada, Akke; Farahani, Mansoureh; Lithner, Maria; Neumann, Melanie; Sandhu, Harbinder; Shepherd, Heather L

    2010-01-01

    Objective The European Association of Communication in Healthcare (EACH) Early Career Researchers Network (ECRN) aims are to (1) promote international collaboration among young investigators and (2) provide a support network for future innovative communication research projects. In October 2009, Miami, USA at a workshop facilitated by the ECRN at the International Conference on Communication in Healthcare (ICCH) hosted by the American Academy of Communication in Healthcare we explored common facilitators and challenges faced by early career researchers in health communication research. Methods Attendees introduced themselves, their research area(s) of interest, and listed one facilitator and one barrier for their career development. EACH ECRN members then led a discussion of facilitators and challenges encountered in communication research projects and career development. We discussed potential collaboration opportunities, future goals, and activities. Results Having supportive collegial relationships, institutional support, job security, and funding are critical facilitators for early career investigators. Key challenges include difficulty with time management and prioritizing, limited resources, and contacts. Conclusion International collaboration among early career researchers is a feasible and effective means to address important challenges, by increasing opportunities for professional support and networking, problem-solving, discussion of data, and ultimately publishing. Practice Implications Future AACH-EACH Early Career Researcher Networks should continue to build collaborations by developing shared research projects, papers, and other scholarly products. PMID:20663630

  2. International Youth Library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman Ümit Özen

    1994-03-01

    Full Text Available International Youth Library, the biggest youth library in the world, was founded in 1948 in Munich, Germany, by Jella Lepman. She aimed to unite all the children of the world through books by establishing this library. IYL is still trying to achieve this end supporting scholarship programmes in children’s literature research, participating in or organizing meetings on children’s literature, and working with other national and international organizations deeding with children’s literature. Unfortunately the library is facing some problems recently which have risen from economic difficulties which also inhibits promotional activities.

  3. Systems of the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The world population growth will impact largely on the energy and electric power demand in the future. Facing the decrease of the hydrocarbons reserves, the international community decided to work together to develop a new generation of nuclear systems. In this context, coordinated researches are realized first with a short dated objective on the development of innovations for PWR type reactors and second with a middle dated on the development of new systems in an international framework (essentially Generation IV). Theses research programs are presented below. The first part is devoted to the different generation of reactors (I to IV) and to the third generation; the second part deals with the international framework of the researches, the french strategy and the european dimension. (A.L.B.)

  4. The Cure for Early Grades Assessment Difficulties? Take a Tablet. International Developments. Volume 5, Article 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Maurice

    2015-01-01

    Monitoring educational development in the early years of schooling is vital if practitioners, and policy makers, are to support students' learning, but the assessment of student achievement in developing countries can be a logistical headache. Maurice Walker reports on an innovative approach to assessment using tablets that is addressing that.

  5. Childhood Sexual Abuse, Stigmatization, Internalizing Symptoms, and the Development of Sexual Difficulties and Dating Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feiring, Candice; Simon, Valerie A.; Cleland, Charles M.

    2009-01-01

    Potential pathways from childhood sexual abuse (CSA) to subsequent romantic intimacy problems were examined in a prospective longitudinal study of 160 ethnically diverse youth with confirmed CSA histories. Participants were interviewed at the time of abuse discovery, when they were 8-15 years of age, and again 1-6 years later. Stigmatization…

  6. Determining which introductory physics topics pre-service physics teachers have difficulty understanding and what accounts for these difficulties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Şahin, Esin; Yağbasan, Rahmi

    2012-01-01

    This study aims at diagnosing which subjects pre-service physics teachers have difficulty understanding in introductory physics courses and what accounts for these difficulties. A questionnaire consisting of two qualitative questions was used to collect data for this study. The questionnaire was administered to 101 pre-service physics teachers who have completed the courses Physics 1 (Mechanics 1), Physics 2 (Mechanics 2), Physics 3 (Electricity) and Physics 4 (Magnetism). Of the pre-service physics teachers 28 were second year, 26 were third year, 27 were fourth year and 20 were fifth year students. The results of the data analysis indicated that the percentage of students who think that Magnetism has the most difficult subjects is the highest compared to the others. The reasons why the pre-service physics teachers experience difficulty in understanding the subjects have been grouped into four categories. (paper)

  7. Older age, higher perceived disability and depressive symptoms predict the amount and severity of work-related difficulties in persons with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raggi, Alberto; Giovannetti, Ambra Mara; Schiavolin, Silvia; Brambilla, Laura; Brenna, Greta; Confalonieri, Paolo Agostino; Cortese, Francesca; Frangiamore, Rita; Leonardi, Matilde; Mantegazza, Renato Emilio; Moscatelli, Marco; Ponzio, Michela; Torri Clerici, Valentina; Zaratin, Paola; De Torres, Laura

    2018-04-16

    This cross-sectional study aims to identify the predictors of work-related difficulties in a sample of employed persons with multiple sclerosis as addressed with the Multiple Sclerosis Questionnaire for Job Difficulties. Hierarchical linear regression analysis was conducted to identify predictors of work difficulties: predictors included demographic variables (age, formal education), disease duration and severity, perceived disability and psychological variables (cognitive dysfunction, depression and anxiety). The targets were the questionnaire's overall score and its six subscales. A total of 177 participants (108 females, aged 21-63) were recruited. Age, perceived disability and depression were direct and significant predictors of the questionnaire total score, and the final model explained 43.7% of its variation. The models built on the questionnaire's subscales show that perceived disability and depression were direct and significant predictors of most of its subscales. Our results show that, among patients with multiple sclerosis, those who were older, with higher perceived disability and higher depression symptoms have more and more severe work-related difficulties. The Multiple Sclerosis Questionnaire for Job Difficulties can be fruitfully exploited to plan tailored actions to limit the likelihood of near-future job loss in persons of working age with multiple sclerosis. Implications for rehabilitation Difficulties with work are common among people with multiple sclerosis and are usually addressed in terms of unemployment or job loss. The Multiple Sclerosis Questionnaire for Job Difficulties is a disease-specific questionnaire developed to address the amount and severity of work-related difficulties. We found that work-related difficulties were associated to older age, higher perceived disability and depressive symptoms. Mental health issues and perceived disability should be consistently included in future research targeting work-related difficulties.

  8. Heterogeneity of emotional and interpersonal difficulties in alcohol-dependence: A cluster analytic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurage, Pierre; Timary, Philippe de; D'Hondt, Fabien

    2017-08-01

    Emotional and interpersonal impairments have been largely reported in alcohol-dependence, and their role in its development and maintenance is widely established. However, earlier studies have exclusively focused on group comparisons between healthy controls and alcohol-dependent individuals, considering them as a homogeneous population. The variability of socio-emotional profiles in this disorder thus remains totally unexplored. The present study used a cluster analytic approach to explore the heterogeneity of affective and social disorders in alcohol-dependent individuals. 296 recently-detoxified alcohol-dependent patients were first compared with 246 matched healthy controls regarding self-reported emotional (i.e. alexithymia) and social (i.e. interpersonal problems) difficulties. Then, a cluster analysis was performed, focusing on the alcohol-dependent sample, to explore the presence of differential patterns of socio-emotional deficits and their links with demographic, psychopathological and alcohol-related variables. The group comparison between alcohol-dependent individuals and controls clearly confirmed that emotional and interpersonal difficulties constitute a key factor in alcohol-dependence. However, the cluster analysis identified five subgroups of alcohol-dependent individuals, presenting distinct combinations of alexithymia and interpersonal problems ranging from a total absence of reported impairment to generalized socio-emotional difficulties. Alcohol-dependent individuals should no more be considered as constituting a unitary group regarding their affective and interpersonal difficulties, but rather as a population encompassing a wide variety of socio-emotional profiles. Future experimental studies on emotional and social variables should thus go beyond mere group comparisons to explore this heterogeneity, and prevention programs proposing an individualized evaluation and rehabilitation of these deficits should be promoted. Copyright © 2017

  9. The difference a word makes: responding to questions on 'disability' and 'difficulty' in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Marguerite

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses the current efforts to measure disability in a comparable manner internationally, the effects of using different types of wording in questions, and the implications of the approach of asking about 'difficulties' rather than 'disability' on the use of disability statistics. The study design was qualitative. Twenty-one focus groups were run with adults responding for themselves. Nine groups were classified a priori by the author as 'disabled', six as 'unsure', and the last six as 'non-disabled'. The participants completed a questionnaire using the Washington Group on Disability Statistics (WG) Short Set, the South African Census 2001 question, and the question 'Are you disabled?'. This was followed by group discussion on these questions and on how the concept of disability is understood by group participants. Participants understand disability as being a permanent, unchangeable state, mostly physical, and where a person is unable to do anything. The participants in the three groups of allocated disability status (disabled, unsure and non-disabled) provided quite different responses on the three questions. All participants in the 'disabled' and 'unsure' groups reported having 'difficulty' on the WG questions, but the 'unsure' groups did not identify as being 'disabled' on either of the two other questions. Using questions that ask about 'difficulty' rather than 'disability' provides a more comprehensive and inclusive measure of disability with a clearer understanding of what is being measured. Asking about 'difficulty' provides an improved measure of disability status for effective data collection and analysis to promote development, implementation and monitoring of disability-inclusive policies.

  10. Delayed Self-Recognition in Autism: A Unique Difficulty?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunphy-Lelii, Sarah; Wellman, Henry M.

    2012-01-01

    Achieving a sense of self is a crucial task of ordinary development. With which aspects of self do children with autism have particular difficulty? Two prior studies concluded that children with autism are unimpaired in delayed self-recognition; we confirm and clarify this conclusion by examining it in conjunction with another key aspect of self…

  11. Students' Conceptual Difficulties in Quantum Mechanics: Potential Well Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozcan, Ozgur; Didis, Nilufer; Tasar, Mehmet Fatih

    2009-01-01

    In this study, students' conceptual difficulties about some basic concepts in quantum mechanics like one-dimensional potential well problems and probability density of tunneling particles were identified. For this aim, a multiple choice instrument named Quantum Mechanics Conceptual Test has been developed by one of the researchers of this study…

  12. Linear Algebra Revisited: An Attempt to Understand Students' Conceptual Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britton, Sandra; Henderson, Jenny

    2009-01-01

    This article looks at some of the conceptual difficulties that students have in a linear algebra course. An overview of previous research in this area is given, and the various theories that have been espoused regarding the reasons that students find linear algebra so difficult are discussed. Student responses to two questions testing the ability…

  13. On the difficulties of acquiring mathematical experience: Case rural education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Booss-Bavnbek, Bernhelm

    2014-01-01

    Based on a variety of philosophical approaches and my own work for decades in pure and applied mathematics teaching and research, I explain my view upon the basic difficulties of acquiring the “Mathematical Experience” (in the sense of P.J. Davis and R. Hersh 1981) and submit a list of claims how...

  14. Communication difficulties perceived by parents of children with developmental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ingrid Ya I; Fernandes, Fernanda Dreux Miranda

    2014-01-01

    The child's inclusion in his/her social-cultural context is very important to his/her adaptation and well-being. The family has a major role as a facilitator of this process. Therefore the difficulties of these families in communicating with children with communication disorders are an important issue to be assessed in order to support orientations to families. The present study aimed to identify and compare communication difficulties perceived by parents of children with Down Syndrome (DS), Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) and Specific Language Impairment (SLI). Information was gathered with the use of a questionnaire with 24 questions regarding the perception of parents about their child communication disorders and the difficulties they identify. The questions were divided into four domains: 1 - Parents' personal difficulties; 2 - Parents' impression about themselves regarding their child; 3 - Parents' impressions about other persons' reactions to their child and 4 - Parents' impression about their child. Sixty parents were the subjects of this study: 20 had children with DS, 20 with SLI and 20 with ASD. All children had ages between 6 and 12 years. It was possible to observe that there was significant difference between the parents of ASD children with those of DS and SLI on the second, third and fourth domains. The questionnaire is effective to the identification of the communication disorders of ASD children based on their parents' reports but not to other developmental disorders.

  15. Magnetic order in graphite: Experimental evidence, intrinsic and extrinsic difficulties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esquinazi, P.; Barzola-Quiquia, J.; Spemann, D.; Rothermel, M.; Ohldag, H.; Garcia, N.; Setzer, A.; Butz, T.

    2010-01-01

    We discuss recently obtained data using different experimental methods including magnetoresistance measurements that indicate the existence of metal-free high-temperature magnetic order in graphite. Intrinsic as well as extrinsic difficulties to trigger magnetic order by irradiation of graphite are discussed in view of recently published theoretical work.

  16. Determining Difficulty of Questions in Intelligent Tutoring Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunel, Korhan; Asliyan, Rifat

    2009-01-01

    The object of this study is to model the level of a question difficulty by a differential equation at a pre-specified domain knowledge, to be used in an educational support system. For this purpose, we have developed an intelligent tutoring system for mathematics education. Intelligent Tutoring Systems are computer systems designed for improvement…

  17. The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire in the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obel, Carsten; Heiervang, Einar; Rodriguez, Alina

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) has been translated into the different Nordic languages between 1996 and 2003. During the past few years, SDQs have been completed for nearly 100,000 children and adolescents in population-based studies as well as in clinical samples...

  18. Beyond Stigmatization of Children with Difficulties in Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hido, Margarita; Shehu, Irena

    2010-01-01

    In the Albanian schools settings does not exist religious discrimination, neither gender discrimination, but there exists a discrimination, as unfair against children called "difficulty". The children who drop out of school are by far less numerous compared with those who start school, but who are not properly treated, so that they can…

  19. DYSPNEA ASSOCIATED WITH ANXIETY: MISTAKES AND DIFFICULTIES IN THE DIAGNOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. I. Tyukalova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Two clinical cases that demonstrate the difficulties diagnosing the causes of shortness of breath, coupled with anxiety, are analyzed. From the standpoint of modern neurophysiology it explains the relationship of these conditions. There were revealed typical diagnostic mistakes: «the effect of precocious focusing", "the negative effect of the narrow specialization

  20. Eye Movements Reveal How Task Difficulty Moulds Visual Search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Angela H.; Hulleman, Johan

    2013-01-01

    In two experiments we investigated the relationship between eye movements and performance in visual search tasks of varying difficulty. Experiment 1 provided evidence that a single process is used for search among static and moving items. Moreover, we estimated the functional visual field (FVF) from the gaze coordinates and found that its size…