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Sample records for internalizing anti-epidermal growth

  1. 99m Tc-anti-epidermal growth factor receptor nanobody for tumor imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piramoon, Majid; Hosseinimehr, Seyed Jalal; Omidfar, Kobra; Noaparast, Zohreh; Abedi, Seyed Mohammad

    2017-04-01

    Nanobodies are important biomolecules for tumor targeting. In this study, we synthesized and labeled anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) nanobody OA-cb6 with 99m Tc(CO) 3 + and evaluated its characteristics for targeting the EGFR in the A431 human epidermal carcinoma cell line. Nanobody radiolabeling was achieved with high yield and radiochemical purity, and the radioconjugate was stable. Biodistribution results in nude mice exhibited a favorable tumor-to-muscle ratio at 4-hr postinjection, and tumor location was visualized at 4 hr after injection of radiolabeled nanobody. Our result showed that the OA-cb6- 99m Tc-tricarbonyl radiolabeled nanobody is a promising radiolabeled biomolecule for tumor imaging in cancers with high EGFR overexpression. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  2. Anti-epidermal growth factor receptor conjugated mesoporous zinc oxide nanofibers for breast cancer diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Md. Azahar; Mondal, Kunal; Singh, Chandan; Dhar Malhotra, Bansi; Sharma, Ashutosh

    2015-04-01

    We report the fabrication of an efficient, label-free, selective and highly reproducible immunosensor with unprecedented sensitivity (femto-molar) to detect a breast cancer biomarker for early diagnostics. Mesoporous zinc oxide nanofibers (ZnOnFs) are synthesized by electrospinning technique with a fiber diameter in the range of 50-150 nm. Fragments of ZnOnFs are electrophoretically deposited on an indium tin oxide glass substrate and conjugated via covalent or electrostatic interactions with a biomarker (anti-ErbB2; epidermal growth factor receptor 2). Oxygen plasma treatment of the carbon doped ZnOnFs generates functional groups (-COOH, -OH, etc.) that are effective for the conjugation of anti-ErbB2. ZnOnFs without plasma treatment that conjugate via electrostatic interactions were also tested for comparison. Label-free detection of the breast cancer biomarker by this point-of-care device is achieved by an electrochemical impedance technique that has high sensitivity (7.76 kΩ μM-1) and can detect 1 fM (4.34 × 10-5 ng mL-1) concentration. The excellent impedimetric response of this immunosensor provides a fast detection (128 s) in a wide detection test range (1.0 fM-0.5 μM). The oxy-plasma treated ZnOnF immunoelectrode shows a higher association constant (404.8 kM-1 s-1) indicating a higher affinity towards the ErbB2 antigen compared to the untreated ZnOnF immunoelectrode (165.6 kM-1 s-1). This sensor is about an order of magnitude more sensitive than the best demonstrated in the literature based on different nanomaterials and about three orders of magnitude better than the ELISA standard for breast cancer biomarker detection. This proposed point-of-care cancer diagnostic offers several advantages, such as higher stability, rapid monitoring, simplicity, cost-effectiveness, etc., and should prove to be useful for the detection of other bio- and cancer markers.We report the fabrication of an efficient, label-free, selective and highly reproducible immunosensor

  3. Systematic review: Anti-epidermal growth factor receptor treatment effect modification by KRAS mutations in advanced colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahabreh, Issa J; Terasawa, Teruhiko; Castaldi, Peter J; Trikalinos, Thomas A

    2011-01-04

    KRAS mutations have been extensively investigated as predictive biomarkers for treatment of advanced colorectal cancer with the anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) antibodies cetuximab and panitumumab. To summarize whether KRAS mutation status modifies effects of anti-EGFR-based treatments for patients with advanced colorectal cancer and whether KRAS status predicts clinical outcomes among such patients. MEDLINE and 2 curated genetics databases (through 24 March 2010) were searched for observational studies. MEDLINE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and the Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (through 1 September 2010) were searched for randomized, controlled trials. No search was restricted by language. Three reviewers screened titles and abstracts to identify published studies assessing KRAS mutations as predictors of overall and progression-free survival or treatment failure for patients who received anti-EGFR-based therapy for metastatic colorectal cancer. Three investigators extracted data on population and study-design characteristics, including quality items, and on outcomes of interest. Random-effects meta-analyses were done on nonoverlapping studies. In 4 reanalyses of randomized trials of anti-EGFR-based therapy versus best supportive care or cytotoxic chemotherapy, no significant benefit was found for overall or progression-free survival from anti-EGFR-based treatment among KRAS-positive patients (hazard ratio [HR], 1.0). However, evidence favors anti-EGFR therapy among KRAS wild-type patients; the relative HR across KRAS-positive and wild-type patients was 1.30 (95% CI, 0.95 to 1.78) for overall survival and 2.22 (CI, 1.74 to 2.84) for progression-free survival by random-effects meta-analysis. In 13 cohorts of patients who received anti-EGFR antibodies, the summary HR for overall survival was 1.79 (CI, 1.48 to 2.17), with better survival in wild-type patients. The

  4. A new horizon in the treatment of head and neck cancer. Anti-epidermal growth factor receptor monoclonal antibodies as novel options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tahara, Makoto; Fujii, Masato

    2012-01-01

    Cetuximab, an anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) monoclonal antibody, has been shown to have greater survival benefits as an adjunct to radiotherapy for locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (LA-SCCHN) as well as a combination with platinum-based chemotherapy for recurrent/metastatic SCCHN (R/M-SCCHN). Based on this conclusive evidence from phase II/III studies, its use for these indications has been approved in many countries and is recommended by the NCCN guideline 2012. Several other drugs in the same class, including panitumumab and nimotuzumab, are now under development for the treatment of SCCHN. Anti-EGFR monoclonal antibodies are known to cause adverse reactions typically associated with EGFR blockade, against which effective countermeasures have been developed. How to identify likely responders and how to overcome resistance to anti-EGFR monoclonal antibodies are two important challenges for the future. (author)

  5. Radionuclide therapy using ¹³¹I-labeled anti-epidermal growth factor receptor-targeted nanoparticles suppresses cancer cell growth caused by EGFR overexpression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Liu, Zhongyun; Li, Chengxia; Li, Ning; Fang, Lei; Chang, Jin; Tan, Jian

    2016-03-01

    Anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-targeted nanoparticles can be used to deliver a therapeutic and imaging agent to EGFR-overexpressing tumor cells. (131)I-labeled anti-EGFR nanoparticles derived from cetuximab were used as a tumor-targeting vehicle in radionuclide therapy. This paper describes the construction of the anti-EGFR nanoparticle EGFR-BSA-PCL. This nanoparticle was characterized for EGFR-targeted binding and cellular uptake in EGFR-overexpressing cancer cells by using flow cytometry and confocal microscopy. Anti-EGFR and non-targeted nanoparticles were labeled with (131)I using the chloramine-T method. Analyses of cytotoxicity and targeted cell killing with (131)I were performed using the MTT assay. The time-dependent cellular uptake of (131)I-labeled anti-EGFR nanoparticles proved the slow-release effects of nanoparticles. A radioiodine therapy study was also performed in mice. The EGFR-targeted nanoparticle EGFR-BSA-PCL and the non-targeted nanoparticle BSA-PCL were constructed; the effective diameters were approximately 100 nm. The results from flow cytometry and confocal microscopy revealed significant uptake of EGFR-BSA-PCL in EGFR-overexpressing tumor cells. Compared with EGFR-BSA-PCL, BSA-PCL could also bind to cells, but tumor cell retention was minimal and weak. In MTT assays, the EGFR-targeted radioactive nanoparticle (131)I-EGFR-BSA-PCL showed greater cytotoxicity and targeted cell killing than the non-targeted nanoparticle (131)I-BSA-PCL. The radioiodine uptake of both (131)I-labeled nanoparticles, (131)I-EGFR-BSA-PCL and (131)I-BSA-PCL, was rapid and reached maximal levels 4 h after incubation, but the (131)I uptake of (131)I-EGFR-BSA-PCL was higher than that of (131)I-BSA-PCL. On day 15, the average tumor volumes of the (131)I-EGFR-BSA-PCL and (131)I-BSA-PCL groups showed a slow growth relationship compared with that of the control group. The EGFR-targeted nanoparticle EGFR-BSA-PCL demonstrated superior cellular binding and uptake

  6. Intraoperative fluorescence delineation of head and neck cancer with a fluorescent Anti-epidermal growth factor receptor nanobody

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Driel, P.B.A.A.; Van Der Vorst, J.R.; Verbeek, F.P.R.; Oliveira, S.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304841455; Snoeks, T.J.A.; Keereweer, S.; Chan, B.; Boonstra, M.C.; Frangioni, J.V.; Van Bergen En Henegouwen, P.M.P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/071919481; Vahrmeijer, A.L.; Lowik, C.W.G.M.

    2014-01-01

    Intraoperative near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence imaging is a technology with high potential to provide the surgeon with real-time visualization of tumors during surgery. Our study explores the feasibility for clinical translation of an epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-targeting nanobody for

  7. Intraoperative fluorescence delineation of head and neck cancer with a fluorescent anti-epidermal growth factor receptor nanobody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Driel, P B A A; van der Vorst, J R; Verbeek, F P R; Oliveira, S; Snoeks, T J A; Keereweer, S; Chan, B; Boonstra, M C; Frangioni, J V; van Bergen en Henegouwen, P M P; Vahrmeijer, A L; Lowik, C W G M

    2014-06-01

    Intraoperative near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence imaging is a technology with high potential to provide the surgeon with real-time visualization of tumors during surgery. Our study explores the feasibility for clinical translation of an epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-targeting nanobody for intraoperative imaging and resection of orthotopic tongue tumors and cervical lymph node metastases. The anti-EGFR nanobody 7D12 and the negative control nanobody R2 were conjugated to the NIR fluorophore IRDye800CW (7D12-800CW and R2-800CW). Orthotopic tongue tumors were induced in nude mice using the OSC-19-luc2-cGFP cell line. Tumor-bearing mice were injected with 25 µg 7D12-800CW, R2-800CW or 11 µg 800CW. Subsequently, other mice were injected with 50 or 75 µg of 7D12-800CW. The FLARE imaging system and the IVIS spectrum were used to identify, delineate and resect the primary tumor and cervical lymph node metastases. All tumors could be clearly identified using 7D12-800CW. A significantly higher tumor-to-background ratio (TBR) was observed in mice injected with 7D12-800CW compared to mice injected with R2-800CW and 800CW. The highest average TBR (2.00 ± 0.34 and 2.72 ± 0.17 for FLARE and IVIS spectrum, respectively) was observed 24 hr after administration of the EGFR-specific nanobody. After injection of 75 µg 7D12-800CW cervical lymph node metastases could be clearly detected. Orthotopic tongue tumors and cervical lymph node metastases in a mouse model were clearly identified intraoperatively using a recently developed fluorescent EGFR-targeting nanobody. Translation of this approach to the clinic would potentially improve the rate of radical surgical resections. © 2013 UICC.

  8. Facile labelling of an anti-epidermal growth factor receptor nanobody with 68Ga via a novel bifunctional desferal chelate for immuno-PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vosjan, Maria J.W.D.; Perk, Lars R.; Stigter van Walsum, Marijke; Roovers, Rob C.; Bergen en Henegouwen, Paul M.P. van; Visser, Gerard W.M.; Dongen, Guus A.M.S. van

    2011-01-01

    The ∝15 kDa variable domains of camelid heavy-chain-only antibodies (called Nanobodies registered ) have the flexibility to be formatted as monovalent, monospecific, multivalent or multispecific single chain proteins with either fast or slow pharmacokinetics. We report the evaluation of the fast kinetic anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) Nanobody 7D12, labelled with 68 Ga via the novel bifunctional chelate (BFC) p-isothiocyanatobenzyl-desferrioxamine (Df-Bz-NCS). Df-Bz-NCS has recently been introduced as the chelate of choice for 89 Zr immuno-positron emission tomography (PET). Nanobody 7D12 was premodified with Df-Bz-NCS at pH 9. Radiolabelling with purified 68 Ga was performed at pH 5.0-6.5 for 5 min at room temperature. For in vitro stability measurements in storage buffer (0.25 M NaOAc with 5 mg ml -1 gentisic acid, pH 5.5) at 4 C or in human serum at 37 C, a mixture of 67 Ga and 68 Ga was used. Biodistribution and immuno-PET studies of 68 Ga-Df-Bz-NCS-7D12 were performed in nude mice bearing A431 xenografts using 89 Zr-Df-Bz-NCS-7D12 as the reference conjugate. The Df-Bz-NCS chelate was conjugated to Nanobody 7D12 with a chelate to Nanobody molar substitution ratio of 0.2:1. The overall 68 Ga radiochemical yield was 55-70% (not corrected for decay); specific activity was 100-500 MBq/mg. Radiochemical purity of the conjugate was >96%, while the integrity and immunoreactivity were preserved. 68/67 Ga-Df-Bz-NCS-7D12 was stable in storage buffer as well as in human serum during a 5-h incubation period ( 68 Ga-labelled Nanobody 7D12 showed high uptake in A431 tumours (ranging from 6.1 ± 1.3 to 7.2 ± 1.5%ID/g at 1-3 h after injection) and high tumour to blood ratios, which increased from 8.2 to 14.4 and 25.7 at 1, 2 and 3 h after injection, respectively. High uptake was also observed in the kidneys. Biodistribution was similar to that of the reference conjugate 89 Zr-Df-Bz-NCS-7D12. Tumours were clearly visualized in a PET imaging study. Via a rapid

  9. Facile labelling of an anti-epidermal growth factor receptor Nanobody with 68Ga via a novel bifunctional desferal chelate for immuno-PET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vosjan, Maria J W D; Perk, Lars R; Roovers, Rob C; Visser, Gerard W M; Stigter-van Walsum, Marijke; van Bergen En Henegouwen, Paul M P; van Dongen, Guus A M S

    2011-04-01

    The ∼15 kDa variable domains of camelid heavy-chain-only antibodies (called Nanobodies®) have the flexibility to be formatted as monovalent, monospecific, multivalent or multispecific single chain proteins with either fast or slow pharmacokinetics. We report the evaluation of the fast kinetic anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) Nanobody 7D12, labelled with (68)Ga via the novel bifunctional chelate (BFC) p-isothiocyanatobenzyl-desferrioxamine (Df-Bz-NCS). Df-Bz-NCS has recently been introduced as the chelate of choice for (89)Zr immuno-positron emission tomography (PET). Nanobody 7D12 was premodified with Df-Bz-NCS at pH 9. Radiolabelling with purified (68)Ga was performed at pH 5.0-6.5 for 5 min at room temperature. For in vitro stability measurements in storage buffer (0.25 M NaOAc with 5 mg ml(-1) gentisic acid, pH 5.5) at 4°C or in human serum at 37°C, a mixture of (67)Ga and (68)Ga was used. Biodistribution and immuno-PET studies of (68)Ga-Df-Bz-NCS-7D12 were performed in nude mice bearing A431 xenografts using (89)Zr-Df-Bz-NCS-7D12 as the reference conjugate. The Df-Bz-NCS chelate was conjugated to Nanobody 7D12 with a chelate to Nanobody molar substitution ratio of 0.2:1. The overall (68)Ga radiochemical yield was 55-70% (not corrected for decay); specific activity was 100-500 MBq/mg. Radiochemical purity of the conjugate was >96%, while the integrity and immunoreactivity were preserved. (68/67)Ga-Df-Bz-NCS-7D12 was stable in storage buffer as well as in human serum during a 5-h incubation period (Nanobody 7D12 showed high uptake in A431 tumours (ranging from 6.1 ± 1.3 to 7.2 ± 1.5%ID/g at 1-3 h after injection) and high tumour to blood ratios, which increased from 8.2 to 14.4 and 25.7 at 1, 2 and 3 h after injection, respectively. High uptake was also observed in the kidneys. Biodistribution was similar to that of the reference conjugate (89)Zr-Df-Bz-NCS-7D12. Tumours were clearly visualized in a PET imaging study. Via a rapid

  10. Facile labelling of an anti-epidermal growth factor receptor nanobody with {sup 68}Ga via a novel bifunctional desferal chelate for immuno-PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vosjan, Maria J.W.D.; Perk, Lars R.; Stigter van Walsum, Marijke [VU University Medical Center, Department of Otolaryngology/Head and Neck Surgery, De Boelelaan 1117, P.O. Box 7057, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Roovers, Rob C.; Bergen en Henegouwen, Paul M.P. van [Utrecht University, Cellular Dynamics, Science Faculty, Utrecht (Netherlands); Visser, Gerard W.M. [VU University Medical Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine and PET Research, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Dongen, Guus A.M.S. van [VU University Medical Center, Department of Otolaryngology/Head and Neck Surgery, De Boelelaan 1117, P.O. Box 7057, Amsterdam (Netherlands); VU University Medical Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine and PET Research, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2011-04-15

    The {proportional_to}15 kDa variable domains of camelid heavy-chain-only antibodies (called Nanobodies {sup registered}) have the flexibility to be formatted as monovalent, monospecific, multivalent or multispecific single chain proteins with either fast or slow pharmacokinetics. We report the evaluation of the fast kinetic anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) Nanobody 7D12, labelled with {sup 68}Ga via the novel bifunctional chelate (BFC) p-isothiocyanatobenzyl-desferrioxamine (Df-Bz-NCS). Df-Bz-NCS has recently been introduced as the chelate of choice for {sup 89}Zr immuno-positron emission tomography (PET). Nanobody 7D12 was premodified with Df-Bz-NCS at pH 9. Radiolabelling with purified {sup 68}Ga was performed at pH 5.0-6.5 for 5 min at room temperature. For in vitro stability measurements in storage buffer (0.25 M NaOAc with 5 mg ml{sup -1} gentisic acid, pH 5.5) at 4 C or in human serum at 37 C, a mixture of {sup 67}Ga and {sup 68}Ga was used. Biodistribution and immuno-PET studies of {sup 68}Ga-Df-Bz-NCS-7D12 were performed in nude mice bearing A431 xenografts using {sup 89}Zr-Df-Bz-NCS-7D12 as the reference conjugate. The Df-Bz-NCS chelate was conjugated to Nanobody 7D12 with a chelate to Nanobody molar substitution ratio of 0.2:1. The overall {sup 68}Ga radiochemical yield was 55-70% (not corrected for decay); specific activity was 100-500 MBq/mg. Radiochemical purity of the conjugate was >96%, while the integrity and immunoreactivity were preserved. {sup 68/67}Ga-Df-Bz-NCS-7D12 was stable in storage buffer as well as in human serum during a 5-h incubation period (<2% radioactivity loss). In biodistribution studies the {sup 68}Ga-labelled Nanobody 7D12 showed high uptake in A431 tumours (ranging from 6.1 {+-} 1.3 to 7.2 {+-} 1.5%ID/g at 1-3 h after injection) and high tumour to blood ratios, which increased from 8.2 to 14.4 and 25.7 at 1, 2 and 3 h after injection, respectively. High uptake was also observed in the kidneys. Biodistribution was

  11. Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1 contributes to resistance to anti-epidermal growth factor receptor drugs in human cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianco, Roberto; Rosa, Roberta; Damiano, Vincenzo; Daniele, Gennaro; Gelardi, Teresa; Garofalo, Sonia; Tarallo, Valeria; De Falco, Sandro; Melisi, Davide; Benelli, Roberto; Albini, Adriana; Ryan, Anderson; Ciardiello, Fortunato; Tortora, Giampaolo

    2008-08-15

    The resistance to selective EGFR inhibitors involves the activation of alternative signaling pathways, and Akt activation and VEGF induction have been described in EGFR inhibitor-resistant tumors. Combined inhibition of EGFR and other signaling proteins has become a successful therapeutic approach, stimulating the search for further determinants of resistance as basis for novel therapeutic strategies. We established human cancer cell lines with various degrees of EGFR expression and sensitivity to EGFR inhibitors and analyzed signal transducers under the control of EGFR-dependent and EGFR-independent pathways. Multitargeted inhibitor vandetanib (ZD6474) inhibited the growth and the phosphorylation of Akt and its effector p70S6 kinase in both wild-type and EGFR inhibitor-resistant human colon, prostate, and breast cancer cells. We found that the resistant cell lines exhibit, as common feature, VEGFR-1/Flt-1 overexpression, increased secretion of VEGF and placental growth factor, and augmented migration capabilities and that vandetanib is able to antagonize them. Accordingly, a new kinase assay revealed that in addition to VEGF receptor (VEGFR)-2, RET, and EGFR, vandetanib efficiently inhibits also VEGFR-1. The contribution of VEGFR-1 to the resistant phenotype was further supported by the demonstration that VEGFR-1 silencing in resistant cells restored sensitivity to anti-EGFR drugs and impaired migration capabilities, whereas exogenous VEGFR-1 overexpression in wild-type cells conferred resistance to these agents. This study shows that VEGFR-1 contributes to anti-EGFR drug resistance in different human cancer cells. Moreover, vandetanib inhibits VEGFR-1 activation, cell proliferation, and migration, suggesting its potential utility in patients resistant to EGFR inhibitors.

  12. Incidence and risk of treatment-related mortality with anti-epidermal growth factor receptor monoclonal antibody in cancer patients: a meta-analysis of 21 randomized controlled trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Li

    Full Text Available Anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs cetuximab and panitumumab have emerged as an effective targeted therapy in the treatment of cancer patients, but the overall incidence and risk of fatal adverse events (FAEs associated with these agents is still unclear.Databases from PubMed, Web of Science and abstracts presented at ASCO meeting up to May 31, 2013 were searched to identify relevant studies. Eligible studies included prospective randomized controlled trials evaluating MoAbs in cancer patients with adequate data on FAEs. Statistical analyses were conducted to calculate the summary incidence, odds ratio and 95% confidence intervals (CIs by using either random effects or fixed effect models according to the heterogeneity of included studies.A total of 14,776 patients with a variety of solid tumors from 21 clinical trials were included in our analysis. The overall incidence of MoAbs associated FAEs was 1.7% (95%CI: 1.1-2.5%, and the incidence of cetuximab-related FAEs was higher than that of panitumumab (2.0% versus 0.9%. Compared with the controls, the use of MoAbs was associated with a significantly increased risk of FAEs, with an OR of 1.37 (95%CI: 1.04-1.81, p=0.024. Subgroup analysis based on EGFR-MoAbs drugs, phase of trials and tumor types demonstrated a tendency to increase the risk of FAEs, but the risk did not increase in breast cancer, esophagus cancer and phase II trials.With present evidence, the use of EGFR-MoAbs is associated with an increased risk of FAEs in patients with advanced solid tumors.

  13. Impact of human papilloma virus infection on the response of head and neck cancers to anti-epidermal growth factor receptor antibody therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogorzelski, M; Ting, S; Gauler, T C; Breitenbuecher, F; Vossebein, I; Hoffarth, S; Markowetz, J; Lang, S; Bergmann, C; Brandau, S; Jawad, J A; Schmid, K W; Schuler, M; Kasper, S

    2014-02-27

    Infection with human papillomaviruses (HPVs) characterizes a distinct subset of head and neck squamous cell cancers (HNSCCs). HPV-positive HNSCC preferentially affect the oropharynx and tonsils. Localized HPV-positive HNSCCs have a favorable prognosis and treatment outcome. However, the impact of HPV in advanced or metastatic HNSCC remains to be defined. In particular, it is unclear whether HPV modulates the response to cetuximab, an antibody targeting the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), which is a mainstay of treatment of advanced HNSCC. To this end, we have examined the sensitivity of HPV-positive and -negative HNSCC models to cetuximab and cytotoxic drugs in vitro and in vivo. In addition, we have stably expressed the HPV oncogenes E6 and E7 in cetuximab-sensitive cancer cell lines to specifically investigate their role in the antibody response. The endogenous HPV status or the expression of HPV oncogenes had no significant impact on cetuximab-mediated suppression of EGFR signaling and proliferation in vitro. Cetuximab effectively inhibited the growth of E6- and E7-expressing tumors grafted in NOD/SCID mice. In support, formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tumor samples from cetuximab-treated patients with recurrent or metastatic HNSCC were probed for p16(INK4a) expression, an established biomarker of HPV infection. Response rates (45.5% versus 45.5%) and median progression-free survival (97 versus 92 days) following cetuximab-based therapy were similar in patients with p16(INK4A)-positive and p16(INK4A)-negative tumors. In conclusion, HPV oncogenes do not modulate the anti-EGFR antibody response in HSNCC. Cetuximab treatment should be administered independently of HPV status.

  14. International growth of neuropsychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponsford, Jennie

    2017-11-01

    Twenty-five years ago, the field of neuropsychology was well established in North America, Europe, and Australia, with less presence elsewhere. This article discusses the development of neuropsychology over the last 25 years in other regions. The growth of neuropsychology in Asia, Africa, the Middle East, Central and South America, and New Zealand is reviewed. Sources drawn on include a 2016 edition of The Clinical Neuropsychologist describing the practice of neuropsychology in 18 countries; papers on the profession of neuropsychology in Latin America (Arango-Lasprilla, Stevens, Paredes, Ardila, & Rivera, 2016), the history of neuropsychology in Asia (Lee, Wang, & Collinson, 2016), and neuropsychology in Central America (Judd, 2017); INSNET; and personal communications. There has been tremendous variability in the development of neuropsychology across these regions over the last 25 years. Obstacles to the growth of neuropsychology have included economic constraints on health care provision, limited availability of appropriate assessment and treatment methods, linguistic diversity and illiteracy, stigma toward and/or lack of awareness of neuropsychological disorders, lack of graduate training and clinical supervision, absence of accreditation of neuropsychologists as a clinical profession, poor pay, and diminished visibility of the field within the regional culture. Despite these obstacles, neuropsychological research and practice is establishing itself in these regions and has grown significantly over the last quarter century. Major challenges remain in establishing awareness of the significance of and developing culturally appropriate methods of assessing and rehabilitating cognitive aspects of brain disorders, training programs, recognition as a profession, and dedicated funding for neuropsychology positions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Employment Growth and International Trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Rikke; Warzynski, Frederic; Westergård-Nielsen, Niels Chr.

    In this paper, we use a detailed dataset containing information about all international trade transactions of the population of Danish ?rms over more than a decade to analyze the relationship between export and import decisions and employment growth. We further distinguish between imports of ?nal...... goods and imports of intermedi­ate products. We ?nd that both imports and exports decisions are positively related to employment growth. Interestingly, both ?nished goods and intermediate goods imports have a positive link. We also control for the re-exporting process, i.e. ?rms importing ?nal goods...

  16. Internal equilibrium layer growth over forest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dellwik, E.; Jensen, N.O.

    2000-01-01

    the magnitude of the scatter. Different theoretical friction velocity profiles for the Internal Boundary Layer (IBL) are tested against the forest data. The results yield information on the Internal Equilibrium Layer (IEL) growth and an equation for the IEL height fur neutral conditions is derived. For stable...... conditions the results indicate that very long fetches are required in order to measure parameters in equilibrium with the actual surface....

  17. Inclusive growth: Buzzword or innovation? | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2017-05-03

    May 3, 2017 ... The World Economic Forum (WEF) brought great focus to this debate through its Inclusive Growth and Development Report, which was the subject of a recent event in Ottawa at the International Development Research Centre (IDRC). The report's lead author, Richard Samans, argues that an inclusive ...

  18. Employment and Growth | Page 17 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Employment and Growth. Language English. Read more about Making the Most of Commodities Program (sub-Saharan Africa). Language English. Read more about International Remittances, Poverty and Inequality : a Case Study of Ghana, Ivory Coast and Nigeria (West Africa). Language English. Read more about ...

  19. Employment and Growth | Page 41 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    José María Fanelli (CEDES): This article presents some key recommendations to protect world growth and avoid a painful global depression, drawing on the results of an IDRC -supported research project on the international financial architecture, macroeconomic volatility, and institutions. Read more about The financial ...

  20. Employment and Growth | Page 38 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    José María Fanelli (CEDES): This article presents some key recommendations to protect world growth and avoid a painful global depression, drawing on the results of an IDRC -supported research project on the international financial architecture, macroeconomic volatility, and institutions. Read more about The financial ...

  1. Employment and Growth | Page 39 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    José María Fanelli (CEDES): This article presents some key recommendations to protect world growth and avoid a painful global depression, drawing on the results of an IDRC -supported research project on the international financial architecture, macroeconomic volatility, and institutions. Read more about The financial ...

  2. Will inclusive growth succeed? | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2017-05-15

    May 15, 2017 ... Civil society, government, private sectors, and researchers must rally together towards such a promising framework. But who has heard about inclusive growth outside of international development circles? Let's continue to diversify the conversation and document what works and what doesn't to ensure that ...

  3. Growth Effects of International Economic Integration

    OpenAIRE

    Hino, Tomoko

    2011-01-01

    This paper quantitatively evaluates the influence of international risk sharing on econom-ic growth by extending the analysis in Obstfeld (1994). However, whereas Obstfeld employs only data on the growth rate of consumption to calculate the returns on risky and risk-free assets, we include additional data on the total rates of return for risky assets and the deposit rates for risk-free assets. We also assume more realistic values for the degree of relative risk aversion and the elasticity of...

  4. Employment and Growth | Page 24 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Employment and Growth. Language English. Read more about Upgrading Lebanese Economic Analytical Capacity. Language English. Read more about Promoting Research for Policymaking under Decentralization in Peru (CIES). Language English. Read more about Trade Policy and Pro Poor Growth in Ghana.

  5. Employment and Growth | Page 28 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Employment and Growth. Language English. Read more about Development Implications of Liberalization of Trade in Services. Language English. Read more about Micro Level Perspectives on Growth (Tanzania). Language English. Read more about Southern African Development Research Network. Language English.

  6. Economic growth and gender equality | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Does economic growth impact gender equality? And conversely, does gender equality impact economic growth? GrOW-supported projects seek to provide a deeper understanding of these relationships. The University of Göttingen leads a GrOW research consortium to understand the impact of structural change and growth ...

  7. International Trade as an Engine of Growth in Developing Countries ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examines international trade as an engine of growth in developing countries, a case study of Nigeria. A review of the literature reveals that countries that are more open to international trade tends to experience higher growth rate and per-capital income than countries who do not trade or closed economy.

  8. Employment and Growth | Page 27 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Employment and Growth. Language English. Read more about Globalization, Adjustment and the Challenge of Inclusive Growth (Indonesia, Philippines and Viet Nam). Language English. Read more about Microfinance and reducing poverty in Central Africa. Language English. Read more about Asia-Pacific Research and ...

  9. Employment and Growth | Page 42 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Employment and Growth. Emploi et croissance. Language English. Read more about Growing Informal Cities: Mobile Entrepreneurs and Inclusive Growth in South Africa, Mozambique, and Zimbabwe. Language English. Read more about Scaling Up Financial Inclusion for Vulnerable Women and Youth: Proyecto Capital.

  10. Employment and Growth | Page 33 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Employment and Growth. Language English. TOWARD INCLUSIVE GROWTH: Not only do the poor have lower incomes, but more importantly, these incomes tend to be highly volatile. Thus, poor households are especially vulnerable to unexpected events. In the event of job loss, illness, or a poor harvest, the main source ...

  11. Employment and Growth | Page 6 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Home · Inclusive Economies. Employment and Growth. Language English. Read more about Strengthening labour market participation and economic opportunities for women in Paraguay. Language English. Read more about Inclusive growth and development: An IDRC-World Economic Forum collaboration to promote ...

  12. Employment and Growth | Page 23 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Employment and Growth. Language English. Read more about Multi-donor Research Platform on Social Protection, Financial Inclusion and ICTs. Language English. Read more about Impact of Foreign Direct Investment Flows on Poverty in Ghana. Language English. Read more about Labour Markets for Inclusive Growth ...

  13. Employment and Growth | Page 49 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Employment and Growth. Emploi et croissance. Language English. Read more about Development Implications of Liberalization of Trade in Services. Language English. Read more about Micro Level Perspectives on Growth (Tanzania). Language English. Read more about Southern African Development Research ...

  14. Employment and Growth | Page 35 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Employment and Growth. Language English. ​New entrants to the labour force are often “the last hired, first fired.” As an alternative, many young people launch ... Language English. Despite strong economic growth, the Philippines has the highest unemployment rate in the ASEAN region — more than 7%. Particularly hard ...

  15. Employment and Growth | Page 16 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Employment and Growth. Language English. Read more about Can Inclusive Growth Also Be Green? Language English. Read more about Fostering Entrepreneurship in the Caribbean. Language English. Read more about Capacity Building for a New Social and Economic Policy Strategy in Paraguay. Language English.

  16. Employment and Growth | Page 36 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Employment and Growth. Emploi et croissance. Language English. Read more about Promoting Entrepreneurship Research in Southeast Asia: Applying the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor. Language English. Read more about Greening Small and Medium Enterprises: Its Impact on Competitiveness and Employment.

  17. Does international trade cause regional growth differentials in Croatia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davor Mikulić

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to investigate the role of international trade in the process of regional convergence in Croatia. Previous empirical and theoretical studies usually argued that international competitiveness and export orientation promotes regional convergence and enables less developed regions to increase economic growth through enhanced productivity and efficiency. The main hypothesis tested is that international trade is less significant in explaining regional growth differentials in Croatia. The method used for the analysis is a panel data model which is based on conditional convergence hypothesis. The model is oriented to identification of factors which explain growth differentials of Croatian counties, including variables related to international competitiveness. The fundamental result obtained is empirical evidence for conclusion that international trade is not to be assumed as a key determinant of the regional convergence process in Croatia. Regional growth in Croatia is primarily determined by quality of human capital, investments in fixed assets and structural features of individual Croatian counties. The main conclusion on the basis of the results is that in the past period, regional growth was primarily determined by domestic demand of households and government. The highest growth was recorded in counties in which public funds were invested in infrastructural projects and counties specialised in production of services for personal consumption. However, the role of international trade in the regional economic growth can be more pronounced in the future as a result of limited domestic demand. Improved international competitiveness is a prerequisite for successful and sustainable regional development.

  18. Value versus Growth International Real Estate Investment

    OpenAIRE

    Addae-Dapaah, K.; Webb, J. R.; Kim Hin Ho, D.; Hiang Liow, K.

    2013-01-01

    We use office and retail properties return data for the United States and some Asia Pacific cities to ascertain the relative performance of value and growth investment strategies. The results reveal that value portfolios outperform growth portfolios. Furthermore, while the results show that risk varies over time, time-varying risk analyses generally do not support the risk-based explanation for the value premium. Similarly, conditional market regressions do not explain the value premium anoma...

  19. Employment and Growth | Page 3 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Employment and Growth. Language English. Read more about Deepening financial inclusion for women and youth in sub-Saharan Africa. Language English. Read more about Making trade work for small producers in Southeast Asia's least developed countries. Language English. Read more about Expanding economic ...

  20. Employment and Growth | Page 20 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Read more about Growing Informal Cities: Mobile Entrepreneurs and Inclusive Growth in South Africa, Mozambique, and Zimbabwe. Language English. Read more about Scaling Up Financial Inclusion for Vulnerable Women and Youth: Proyecto Capital. Language English. Read more about Labour Market Regulations in ...

  1. Employment and Growth | Page 15 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Employment and Growth. Language English. Read more about Improving childcare options to create better economic opportunities for women in Nairobi slums. Language English. Read more about Accroître l'inclusion financière pour les femmes et les jeunes vulnérables : Proyecto Capital. Language French. Read more ...

  2. Employment and Growth | Page 8 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Employment and Growth. Language English. Read more about Mekong Economic Research Network (MERN). Language English. Read more about Competencies for Central American SMEs in the Knowledge-Based Economy. Language English. Read more about ILEAP Core Grant 2011-2012 - Phase IV: Engendering ...

  3. Employment and Growth | Page 4 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Home · Inclusive Economies. Employment and Growth. Language English. Read more about Promouvoir l'entrepreneuriat inclusif des jeunes et des femmes : Une étude de cas sur le Burkina Faso, le Kenya et la Côte d'Ivoire. Language French. Read more about Promouvoir l'inclusion financière des femmes en Afrique : le ...

  4. Employment and Growth | Page 37 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Employment and Growth. Emploi et croissance. Language English. Read more about Can Small and Medium Enterprises Participate in Greener Production? Language English. Read more about Toward Establishing an Arab Youth Policy Research Initiative. Language English. Read more about Courts, Networks, and ...

  5. Employment and Growth | Page 34 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Employment and Growth. Emploi et croissance. Language English. Read more about Merconet: Strengthening Economic Research and Fostering Entrepreneurship in South America. Language English. Read more about Global Trade Alert (GTA) - Phase II: Year 2 - Monitoring and Analysis of Crisis-Era Discrimination.

  6. Employment and Growth | Page 45 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Employment and Growth. Emploi et croissance. Language English. Read more about Poverty Reduction through Private Sector Development : Policy Research on Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises. Language English. Read more about Child Support, Poverty and Gender Equality in the Caribbean - Phase II. Language ...

  7. Employment and Growth | Page 21 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Employment and Growth. Language English. Read more about Social Protection and Labour Market Outcomes of Youth in South Africa. Language English. Read more about Job Creation in African Agriculture. Language English. Read more about Création d'emplois dans l'agriculture africaine. Language French.

  8. Employment and Growth | Page 19 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Employment and Growth. Language English. Read more about Economic Research Forum - Core Support 2012-2014. Language English. Read more about IDRC-GDN: A Strengthened Partnership for Research Capacity Building. Language English. Read more about Impact of Minimum Wage on the Labour Market in ...

  9. ICTs, Economic Growth and Poverty | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    However, most of the efforts touting the role of ICTs in poverty reduction emphasize their macroeconomic impact rather than their microeconomic and micro-social consequences. This raises the question of whether ICT-induced growth is pro-poor. This project will evaluate the specific contribution of ICTs to sustainable ...

  10. Employment and Growth | Page 2 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Home · Inclusive Economies. Employment and Growth. Language English. Read more about Évaluation de l'incidence des programmes de transferts en espèces sur l'autonomisation des femmes en Tanzanie. Language French. Read more about Les femmes et la transition au marché du travail en Afrique subsaharienne.

  11. Employment and Growth | Page 13 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Employment and Growth. Language English. Read more about S'attaquer au chômage chez les jeunes en Éthiopie grâce au développement de la micro et de la petite entreprise. Language French. Read more about Sustainable Public Procurement: A Tool for Greening the Economy. Language English. Read more about ...

  12. Employment and Growth | Page 22 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Language English. Read more about Global Administrative Law and Developing Countries. Language English. Read more about Informal sector, business environment and economic growth: A comparative analysis of West and Central Africa. Language English. Read more about Unfair Trade Practices in ASEAN.

  13. Employment and Growth | Page 69 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Language English. ​More than 70 of Vietnamese entrepreneurs choose to start a business to take advantage of opportunities. This is just one of many findings ... Language English. Despite strong economic growth, the Philippines has the highest unemployment rate in the ASEAN region — more than 7%. Particularly hard ...

  14. Fostering inclusive growth | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2017-05-12

    May 12, 2017 ... IDI provides a more nuanced assessment of economic progress than GDP. The report features a policy framework that outlines areas such as education, infrastructure, ethics, investment, entrepreneurship, and social protection as focus points for governments to improve their inclusive growth strategies.

  15. Employment and Growth | Page 9 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Read more about Fostering Entrepreneurship and Sustainable Livelihoods in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Multi-country Policy Research and Capacity- Building Initiative. Language English. Read more about Analyse de politiques pour la croissance et l'emploi. Language French. Read more about Policy Analysis for Growth and ...

  16. Employment and Growth | Page 40 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Since the 1990s, foreign direct investment (FDI) has been on the rise worldwide. By 2008, the world's FDI flows amounted to about $1.7 trillion (although they are expected to go below $1.2 trillion in 2009 during the economic downturn). Read more about Smallish foreign direct investment, sluggish growth: Can MERCOSUR ...

  17. Employment and Growth | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    WEConnect International matches businesses owned by women with multinational corporations that want to buy more services from women. Madelaine Artavia Sotela of Costa Rica is a prime example of how the initiative can vastly improve women's livelihoods. This article is part of an ongoing series of stories about ...

  18. Employment and Growth | Page 31 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Read more about Foreign Direct Investment Behaviour in Low and Middle Income Countries. Language English. Read more about Latin American Knowledge Networking Program on Gender, Macroeconomics and International Economics. Language English. Read more about Creating an Economically Enabling and ...

  19. International tourism and economic growth in New Zealand

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Jaforullah

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines whether the tourism-led growth hypothesis holds for the New Zealand economy. Using unit root tests, cointegration tests and vector error correction models, and annual data over the period 1972-2012 on international tourism expenditure, real gross domestic product (GDP) and the exchange rate for New Zealand, it finds that the tourism-led growth hypothesis holds for New Zealand. The long-run elasticity of real GDP with respect to international tourism expenditure is estimate...

  20. Growth, development, and behavior: confronting the issues of international adoption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Shelly

    2011-02-01

    In evaluating children who have been adopted internationally, health care providers must consider the psychosocioemotional risk factors these children bring with them that ultimately affect their physical growth, development, and emotional, behavioral, and cognitive functioning. This third-in-a-series article explores these considerations and offers information regarding growth and developmental delays and the potential for behavioral and psychosocial concerns.

  1. Does the internet generate economic growth, international trade, or both?

    OpenAIRE

    Meijers, H.H.M.

    2012-01-01

    Recent cross country panel data studies find a positive impact of internet use on economic growth and a positive impact of internet use on trade. The present study challenges the first finding by showing that internet use does not explain economic growth directly in a fully specified growth model. In particular openness to international trade variables seems to be highly correlated with internet use and the findings in the literature that internet use causes trade is confirmed here, suggestin...

  2. The Effect of International Business on SMEs Growth in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Oladimeji Moruff Sanjo; Muhammed Olaniyi Ibrahim

    2017-01-01

    The research examined the effect of international business on SMEs growth in a competitive environment, particularly Nigeria. The secondary data were gathered from the Nigerian Bureau of Statistics and the Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) annual report. This study adopted ordinary least square method of data analyses. The finding revealed that trade openness as a measure of competitiveness and FDI has no significant effect on SMEs growth in Nigeria. It was also revealed that the exchange rate ha...

  3. Growth hormone treatment in aarskog syndrome: analysis of the KIGS (Pharmacia International Growth Database) data.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Darendeliler, F.; Larsson, P.; Neyzi, O.; Price, A.D.; Hagenas, L.; Sipila, I.; Lindgren, A.; Otten, B.J.; Bakker, B.

    2003-01-01

    Aarskog syndrome is an X-linked disorder characterized by faciogenital dysplasia and short stature. The present study set out to determine the effect of growth hormone (GH) therapy in patients with Aarskog syndrome enrolled in KIGS--the Pharmacia International Growth Database. Twenty-one patients

  4. Dynamics in international market segmentation of new product growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lemmens, A.; Croux, C.; Stremersch, S.

    2012-01-01

    Prior international segmentation studies have been static in that they have identified segments that remain stable over time. This paper shows that country segments in new product growth are intrinsically dynamic. We propose a semiparametric hidden Markov model to dynamically segment countries based

  5. International Migrant Remittance and Productivity Growth in Ghana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study assessed the relationship between productivity growth and remittance at the macro level. Existing studies have largely focused on the micro level which falls short of revealing how shocks in the economy are transmitted through international remittance. Using time series analysis for data covering the period ...

  6. The Effect of International Business on SMEs Growth in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oladimeji Moruff Sanjo

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The research examined the effect of international business on SMEs growth in a competitive environment, particularly Nigeria. The secondary data were gathered from the Nigerian Bureau of Statistics and the Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN annual report. This study adopted ordinary least square method of data analyses. The finding revealed that trade openness as a measure of competitiveness and FDI has no significant effect on SMEs growth in Nigeria. It was also revealed that the exchange rate has a significant effect on SMEs growth in Nigeria, and the level at which exchange rate affects SMEs growth is relatively high. It was further showed that the exchange rate has a negative coefficient indicating that, as the exchange rate reduces SMEs growth increases. It is concluded that trade competitiveness had no significant effect on SMEs growth in Nigeria. It is therefore recommended that government should formulate policies, which will encourage the reduction of exchange rate in the country in order to enhance competition and improve business activities across the country, and improve the growth of SMEs across the country, as well as encouraging entrepreneurship spirit in the country.

  7. Scoping medical tourism and international hospital accreditation growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodhead, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Uwe Reinhardt stated that medical tourism can do to the US healthcare system what the Japanese automotive industry did to American carmakers after Japanese products developed a value for money and reliability reputation. Unlike cars, however, healthcare can seldom be test-driven. Quality is difficult to assess after an intervention (posteriori), therefore, it is frequently evaluated via accreditation before an intervention (a priori). This article aims to scope the growth in international accreditation and its relationship to medical tourism markets. Using self-reported data from Accreditation Canada, Joint Commission International (JCI) and Australian Council on Healthcare Standards (ACHS), this article examines how quickly international accreditation is increasing, where it is occurring and what providers have been accredited. Since January 2000, over 350 international hospitals have been accredited; the JCI's total nearly tripling between 2007-2011. Joint Commission International staff have conducted most international accreditation (over 90 per cent). Analysing which countries and regions where the most international accreditation has occurred indicates where the most active medical tourism markets are. However, providers will not solely be providing care for medical tourists. Accreditation will not mean that mistakes will never happen, but that accredited providers are more willing to learn from them, to varying degrees. If a provider has been accredited by a large international accreditor then patients should gain some reassurance that the care they receive is likely to be a good standard. The author questions whether commercializing international accreditation will improve quality, arguing that research is necessary to assess the accreditation of these growing markets.

  8. How Changes In International Trade Effect African Growth?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adolfo C. Fernández Puente

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The dismal growth performance of Africa in the last decades is one of the main worries of the global economy. In this paper we design an empirical model to explain how the growth rate of the economy is affected by changes in international trade. The main message of the model is that integration enables countries to exchange more varieties of goods and take advantage of some spillovers linked to the export-import process. These predictions are tested using GMM technique in a panel data performed on a sample of 22 countries belonging to the Sub-Sahara region over the period 1970-2002. The estimations suggest that Africa’s growth rates are positively related to a more open attitude and to a greater integration in international markets. However, the empirical analysis also points out the need of a certain degree of “social capacity” to ensure a successful integration. Finally, our results imply that African nations can profit from the economic growth of the OECD countries, as they are the main buyers of the region.

  9. Economic growth, international trade and air pollution. A decomposition analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kukla-Gryz, Anna

    2009-01-01

    This study analyzes the impact of economic growth and international trade on the level of air pollution. This is done by the estimation of the Structural Equation Model with two factors describing the structure of economic activity and air pollution intensity. It is further assumed that there is causal link between these two factors and that they are influenced by per capita income, international trade intensity and the Freedom House Index. The estimation results suggest that in the developing countries analyzed both international trade and per capita income lead to changes in the structure of economic activity and - as a consequence - to the increase in air pollution. In addition, the estimation results suggest that the impact of economic growth on air pollution intensity varies between the developing and developed countries. In the developing countries, this impact occurs through the change of the structure of economic activity, while in the developed countries, this impact is mainly direct and occurs through the sum of the scale effect and income effect. The positive sign of this impact suggests the dominance of the scale effect over the income effect. (author)

  10. Panorama 2012 - Biofuels update: growth in national and international markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorne, Daphne

    2011-11-01

    As the only direct substitute for fossil fuels, biofuels continue to grow in importance, despite a significant slowdown in investment. International trade remains active, with dynamic growth from the major exporting countries. However, current production technologies will very soon come up against the limits of resource availability, raising important questions regarding the ability to meet incorporation targets for 2020, especially in Europe and the USA. Current markets are therefore expected to maintain their current levels whilst waiting for the emergence of new biofuel technologies from 2015 onwards. (author)

  11. Growth Chambers on the International Space Station for Large Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massa, Gioia D.; Wheeler, Raymond M.; Morrow, Robert C.; Levine, Howard G.

    2016-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) now has platforms for conducting research on horticultural plant species under LED (Light Emitting Diodes) lighting, and those capabilities continue to expand. The Veggie vegetable production system was deployed to the ISS as an applied research platform for food production in space. Veggie is capable of growing a wide array of horticultural crops. It was designed for low power usage, low launch mass and stowage volume, and minimal crew time requirements. The Veggie flight hardware consists of a light cap containing red (630 nanometers), blue, (455 nanometers) and green (530 nanometers) LEDs. Interfacing with the light cap is an extendable bellowsbaseplate for enclosing the plant canopy. A second large plant growth chamber, the Advanced Plant Habitat (APH), is will fly to the ISS in 2017. APH will be a fully controllable environment for high-quality plant physiological research. APH will control light (quality, level, and timing), temperature, CO2, relative humidity, and irrigation, while scrubbing any cabin or plant-derived ethylene and other volatile organic compounds. Additional capabilities include sensing of leaf temperature and root zone moisture, root zone temperature, and oxygen concentration. The light cap will have red (630 nm), blue (450 nm), green (525 nm), far red (730 nm) and broad spectrum white LEDs (4100K). There will be several internal cameras (visible and IR) to monitor and record plant growth and operations. Veggie and APH are available for research proposals.

  12. Growth Chambers on the International Space Station for Large Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massa, G. D.; Wheeler, R. M.; Morrow, R. C.; Levine, H. G.

    2016-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) now has platforms for conducting research on horticultural plant species under LED lighting, and those capabilities continue to expand. The 'Veggie' vegetable production system was deployed to the ISS as an applied research platform for food production in space. Veggie is capable of growing a wide array of horticultural crops. It was designed for low power usage, low launch mass and stowage volume, and minimal crew time requirements. The Veggie flight hardware consists of a light cap containing red (630 nm), blue, (455 nm) and green (530 nm) LEDs. Interfacing with the light cap is an extendable bellows/baseplate for enclosing the plant canopy. A second large plant growth chamber, the Advanced Plant Habitat (APH), is will fly to the ISS in 2017. APH will be a fully controllable environment for high-quality plant physiological research. APH will control light (quality, level, and timing), temperature, CO2, relative humidity, and irrigation, while scrubbing any cabin or plant-derived ethylene and other volatile organic compounds. Additional capabilities include sensing of leaf temperature and root zone moisture, root zone temperature, and oxygen concentration. The light cap will have red (630 nm), blue (450 nm), green (525 nm), far red (730 nm) and broad spectrum white LEDs (4100K). There will be several internal cameras (visible and IR) to monitor and record plant growth and operations. Veggie and APH are available for research proposals.

  13. Population, internal migration, and economic growth: an empirical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreland, R S

    1982-01-01

    The role of population growth in the development process has received increasing attention during the last 15 years, as manifested in the literature in 3 broad categories. In the 1st category, the effects of rapid population growth on the growth of income have been studied with the use of simulation models, which sometimes include endogenous population growth. The 2nd category of the literature is concerned with theoretical and empirical studies of the economic determinants of various demographic rates--most usually fertility. Internal migration and dualism is the 3rd population development category to recieve attention. An attempt is made to synthesize developments in these 3 categories by estimating from a consistent set of data a 2 sector economic demographic model in which the major demographic rates are endogenous. Due to the fact that the interactions between economic and demographic variables are nonlinear and complex, the indirect effects of changes in a particular variable may depend upon the balance of numerical coefficients. For this reason it was felt that the model should be empirically grounded. A brief overview of the model is provided, and the model is compared to some similar existing models. Estimation of the model's 9 behavior equations is discussed, followed by a "base run" simulation of a developing country "stereotype" and a report of a number of policy experiments. The relatively new field of economic determinants of demographic variables was drawn upon in estimating equations to endogenize demographic phenomena that are frequently left exogenous in simulation models. The fertility and labor force participation rate functions are fairly standard, but a step beyong existing literature was taken in the life expectancy and intersectorial migration equations. On the economic side, sectoral savings functions were estimated, and it was found that the marginal propensity to save is lower in agriculture than in nonagriculture. Testing to see the

  14. Optimal transient growth in thin-interface internal solitary waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passaggia, Pierre-Yves; Helfrich, Karl R.; White, Brian L.

    2018-04-01

    The dynamics of perturbations to large-amplitude Internal Solitary Waves (ISW) in two-layered flows with thin interfaces is analyzed by means of linear optimal transient growth methods. Optimal perturbations are computed through direct-adjoint iterations of the Navier-Stokes equations linearized around inviscid, steady ISWs obtained from the Dubreil-Jacotin-Long (DJL) equation. Optimal perturbations are found as a function of the ISW phase velocity $c$ (alternatively amplitude) for one representative stratification. These disturbances are found to be localized wave-like packets that originate just upstream of the ISW self-induced zone (for large enough $c$) of potentially unstable Richardson number, $Ri < 0.25$. They propagate through the base wave as coherent packets whose total energy gain increases rapidly with $c$. The optimal disturbances are also shown to be relevant to DJL solitary waves that have been modified by viscosity representative of laboratory experiments. The optimal disturbances are compared to the local WKB approximation for spatially growing Kelvin-Helmholtz (K-H) waves through the $Ri < 0.25$ zone. The WKB approach is able to capture properties (e.g., carrier frequency, wavenumber and energy gain) of the optimal disturbances except for an initial phase of non-normal growth due to the Orr mechanism. The non-normal growth can be a substantial portion of the total gain, especially for ISWs that are weakly unstable to K-H waves. The linear evolution of Gaussian packets of linear free waves with the same carrier frequency as the optimal disturbances is shown to result in less energy gain than found for either the optimal perturbations or the WKB approximation due to non-normal effects that cause absorption of disturbance energy into the leading face of the wave.

  15. Patterns of International Non Governmental Organisation’s Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon Huggett

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This essay looks at the growth of INGOs, the patterns of that growth, and what has driven this growth.  It asks whether this growth has been healthy, and how these new global institutions are held accountable.

  16. Does the internet generate growth, international trade, or both?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijers, H.H.M.

    2014-01-01

    Recent cross country panel data studies find a positive impact of internet use on economic growth and a positive impact of internet use on trade. The present study challenges the first finding by showing that internet use does not explain economic growth directly in a fully specified growth model.

  17. Macroeconomic Determinants of Economic Growth: A Review of International Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chirwa Themba G.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper conducts a qualitative narrative appraisal of the existing empirical literature on the key macroeconomic determinants of economic growth in developing and developed countries. Much as other empirical studies have investigated the determinants of economic growth using various econometric methods, the majority of these studies have not distinguished what drives or hinders economic growth in developing or developed countries. The study finds that the determinants of economic growth are different when this distinction is used. It reveals that in developing countries the key macroeconomic determinants of economic growth include foreign aid, foreign direct investment, fiscal policy, investment, trade, human capital development, demographics, monetary policy, natural resources, reforms and geographic, regional, political and financial factors. In developed countries, the study reveals that the key macroeconomic determinants that are associated with economic growth include physical capital, fiscal policy, human capital, trade, demographics, monetary policy and financial and technological factors.

  18. Can Inclusive Growth Also Be Green? | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Researchers will analyze how the pressure to adopt the green growth model could affect growth itself, social inclusion, and gender disparities. Another focus will be on adequate policy instruments for the move toward low carbon economies within the particular development context of Latin American countries. As well, the ...

  19. Risk bias and the link between motivation and new venture post-entry international growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiss, Andreea N.; Williams, David W.; Houghton, Susan M.

    2013-01-01

    We link research in international entrepreneurship and on behavioral decision making with the international business literature on firm degree of internationalization to advance an integrative model of new venture post-entry international growth. We test this model on a sample of 286 new ventures.

  20. International Trade as an Engine of Growth in Developing Countries ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    First Lady

    2013-06-30

    Jun 30, 2013 ... The classical and Neo-classical economics believed that participation in international trade could be a strong positive force for economic development. There are so many reasons that support the role of international trade to economic development one of such approach of export trade to development is to ...

  1. Growth curves and the international standard: How children's growth reflects challenging conditions in rural Timor-Leste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Phoebe R; Sanders, Katherine A; Judge, Debra S

    2018-02-01

    Population-specific growth references are important in understanding local growth variation, especially in developing countries where child growth is poor and the need for effective health interventions is high. In this article, we use mixed longitudinal data to calculate the first growth curves for rural East Timorese children to identify where, during development, deviation from the international standards occurs. Over an eight-year period, 1,245 children from two ecologically distinct rural areas of Timor-Leste were measured a total of 4,904 times. We compared growth to the World Health Organization (WHO) standards using z-scores, and modeled height and weight velocity using the SuperImposition by Translation And Rotation (SITAR) method. Using the Generalized Additive Model for Location, Scale and Shape (GAMLSS) method, we created the first growth curves for rural Timorese children for height, weight and body mass index (BMI). Relative to the WHO standards, children show early-life growth faltering, and stunting throughout childhood and adolescence. The median height and weight for this population tracks below the WHO fifth centile. Males have poorer growth than females in both z-BMI (p = .001) and z-height-for-age (p = .018) and, unlike females, continue to grow into adulthood. This is the most comprehensive investigation to date of rural Timorese children's growth, and the growth curves created may potentially be used to identify future secular trends in growth as the country develops. We show significant deviation from the international standard that becomes most pronounced at adolescence, similar to the growth of other Asian populations. Males and females show different growth responses to challenging conditions in this population. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Fetal, neonatal, infant, and child international growth standards: an unprecedented opportunity for an integrated approach to assess growth and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garza, Cutberto

    2015-07-01

    The recent publication of fetal growth and gestational age-specific growth standards by the International Fetal and Newborn Growth Consortium for the 21st Century Project and the previous publication by the WHO of infant and young child growth standards based on the WHO Multicentre Growth Reference Study enable evaluations of growth from ∼9 wk gestation to 5 y. The most important features of these projects are the prescriptive approach used for subject selection and the rigorous testing of the assertion that growth is very similar among geographically and ethnically diverse nonisolated populations when health, nutrition, and other care needs are met and the environment imposes minimal constraints on growth. Both studies documented that with adequate controls, the principal source of variability in growth during gestation and early childhood resides among individuals. Study sites contributed much less to observed variability. The agreement between anthropometric measurements common to both studies also is noteworthy. Jointly, these studies provide for the first time, to my knowledge, a conceptually consistent basis for worldwide and localized assessments and comparisons of growth performance in early life. This is an important contribution to improving the health care of children across key periods of growth and development, especially given the appropriate interest in pursuing "optimal" health in the "first 1000 d," i.e., the period covering fertilization/implantation, gestation, and postnatal life to 2 y of age. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  3. Effect of genotype on growth traits of rabbits | Oke | International ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genotype effect on growth traits of rabbits were investigated in a randomised complete block design using one hundred and twenty - 10-week-old breeding rabbits. The breeds of rabbits used were New Zealand white, Dutch, chinchilla and were characterized using body weight (BW), heart girth (HG), shoulder to tail (ST), ...

  4. International Financial Integration and Economic Growth in India: An Empirical Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayia MAHAJAN

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study endeavors to estimate relationship between international financial integration and economic growth in India during 1981-2011. Apart from direct impact of international financial integration on growth, indirect impact (via financial development has also been studied empirically. Models of co-integration and Vector Error Correction Model (VECM have been applied to examine the relationships. The study observes that international financial integration affects the growth of the economy positively; and change in economic growth due to it through financial development is approximately 8.63 percent. The study also suggests that the structural reforms that took place in India in early nineties did not affect the existing relationship of global financial integration and economic growth significantly.

  5. Trade Policy and Pro Poor Growth in Ghana | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    As in other sub-Saharan countries, small-scale subsistence farming constitutes the predominant source of livelihood in Ghana. This grant will allow the Institute of Statistical, Social and Economic Research (ISSER) at the University of Ghana to assess the linkages between international trade and poverty with special ...

  6. Policy Analysis for Growth and Employment | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Through the network, research teams from different countries compare and contrast policies and programs, promoting South-South learning. Increasingly, PEP is being called upon by international institutions like the United Nations Children's Fund, the United Nations Development Programme, and the United Nations ...

  7. A clear path for small business growth | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-10-25

    Oct 25, 2010 ... Today her fast-growing company, Special Foods Industry International, is Egypt's leading manufacturer and exporter of a variety of olives, olive oil, and pickled vegetables. Starting small, by 2008 El Sheridy had 80 employees with annual sales of CA$4 million. Notable change for small businesses.

  8. GLOBALISATION, INTERNATIONAL COMPETITIVENESS AND GROWTH: ADVANCED AND EMERGING MARKETS, LARGE AND SMALL COUNTRIES

    OpenAIRE

    DOMINICK SALVATORE

    2010-01-01

    The past three decades have witnessed a rapid tendency toward globalisation in the world economy. A great deal of controversy exists, however, as to whether and to what extent globalisation has increased nations' international competitiveness and growth. After discussing the common characteristics of the rapidly growing economies and the meaning and importance of globalisation, this paper examines the relationship among globalisation, international competitiveness and growth during the most r...

  9. Internalization mechanisms of the epidermal growth factor receptor after activation with different ligands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lasse; Grandal, Michael Vibo; Knudsen, Stine Louise Jeppe

    2013-01-01

    after ligand activation focuses on the effect of epidermal growth factor (EGF) and transforming growth factor-α (TGF-α). For a long time it was believed that clathrin-mediated endocytosis was the major pathway for internalization of the receptor, but recent work suggests that different pathways exist....... Here we show that clathrin ablation completely inhibits internalization of EGF- and TGF-α-stimulated receptor, however the inhibition of receptor internalization in cells treated with heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF) or betacellulin (BTC) was only partial. In contrast, clathrin knockdown...... fully inhibits EGFR degradation after all ligands tested. Furthermore, inhibition of dynamin function blocked EGFR internalization after stimulation with all ligands. Knocking out a number of clathrin-independent dynamin-dependent pathways of internalization had no effect on the ligand...

  10. International Capital Market Integration, Educational Choice and Economic Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Hartmut Egger; Peter Egger; Josef Falkinger; Volker Grossmann

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of capital market integration (CMI) on higher education and economic growth. We take into account that participation in higher education is non-compulsory and depends on individual choice. Integration increases (decreases) the incentives to participate in higher education in capital-importing (-exporting) economies, all other things equal. Increased participation in higher education enhances productivity progress and is accompanied by rising wage inequality. Fro...

  11. G20: Engaging with International Organizations to Generate Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Larionova

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Born in response to economic and financial crises which existing institutions were unable to address adequately, the G20 transformed from a crisis management group into the premier forum for international economic cooperation. Like its predecessor, the G7 (which was set up in 1975, and BRICS (established in 2009, G20 is an informal club or summit institution. To ensure continuity, legitimacy and efficiency in fulfilling their global governance functions of deliberation, direction-setting, decision-making, delivery and the development of global governance, the G20 members engage other international organizations. It is hypothesized that to maximize benefits from its engagement with international organizations, the G20 resorts to a combination of the “catalyst”, “core group” and “parallel treatment” approaches exercised by summit institutions. These include exerting an influence in promoting changes to international organizations through endorsement or stimulus, compelling them to reform, imparting a new direction by giving a lead that the other organizations would follow, and creating original mechanisms, working in parallel with existing institutions. The article tests this assumption. To trace the dynamics of G20 engagement with multilateral organizations and identify preferred models across the presidencies and policy areas, the analysis is carried out within the rational choice institutionalist paradigm, drawing on the quantitative and qualitative analysis of documents adopted by the G20. Findings from the study indicate that the intensity of the G20 engagement with the IOs is very high and G20 mostly resorts to a combination of the catalyst and core group approaches, though the pattern depends on the policy area, the IOs and the presidency agenda. The intensity of G20 engagement with the IMF, Financial Stability Board, World Bank, and Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development by far exceeds the intensity of its

  12. Coming to America for Spiritual or Academic Growth? Experiences of International Students at One Christian School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Lishu

    2013-01-01

    The number of international students flocking to North American private Christian schools has continued to grow. The author examined the overall experiences of 67 international high school students studying at a private Christian school in South Carolina. Their frustrations and struggles with academic and spiritual growth in a new cross-cultural…

  13. Internalization Mechanisms of the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor after Activation with Different Ligands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksen, Lasse; Grandal, Michael Vibo; Knudsen, Stine Louise Jeppe; van Deurs, Bo; Grøvdal, Lene Melsæther

    2013-01-01

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) regulates normal growth and differentiation, but dysregulation of the receptor or one of the EGFR ligands is involved in the pathogenesis of many cancers. There are eight ligands for EGFR, however most of the research into trafficking of the receptor after ligand activation focuses on the effect of epidermal growth factor (EGF) and transforming growth factor-α (TGF-α). For a long time it was believed that clathrin-mediated endocytosis was the major pathway for internalization of the receptor, but recent work suggests that different pathways exist. Here we show that clathrin ablation completely inhibits internalization of EGF- and TGF-α-stimulated receptor, however the inhibition of receptor internalization in cells treated with heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF) or betacellulin (BTC) was only partial. In contrast, clathrin knockdown fully inhibits EGFR degradation after all ligands tested. Furthermore, inhibition of dynamin function blocked EGFR internalization after stimulation with all ligands. Knocking out a number of clathrin-independent dynamin-dependent pathways of internalization had no effect on the ligand-induced endocytosis of the EGFR. We suggest that EGF and TGF-α lead to EGFR endocytosis mainly via the clathrin-mediated pathway. Furthermore, we suggest that HB-EGF and BTC also lead to EGFR endocytosis via a clathrin-mediated pathway, but can additionally use an unidentified internalization pathway or better recruit the small amount of clathrin remaining after clathrin knockdown. PMID:23472148

  14. Internalization mechanisms of the epidermal growth factor receptor after activation with different ligands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lasse Henriksen

    Full Text Available The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR regulates normal growth and differentiation, but dysregulation of the receptor or one of the EGFR ligands is involved in the pathogenesis of many cancers. There are eight ligands for EGFR, however most of the research into trafficking of the receptor after ligand activation focuses on the effect of epidermal growth factor (EGF and transforming growth factor-α (TGF-α. For a long time it was believed that clathrin-mediated endocytosis was the major pathway for internalization of the receptor, but recent work suggests that different pathways exist. Here we show that clathrin ablation completely inhibits internalization of EGF- and TGF-α-stimulated receptor, however the inhibition of receptor internalization in cells treated with heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF or betacellulin (BTC was only partial. In contrast, clathrin knockdown fully inhibits EGFR degradation after all ligands tested. Furthermore, inhibition of dynamin function blocked EGFR internalization after stimulation with all ligands. Knocking out a number of clathrin-independent dynamin-dependent pathways of internalization had no effect on the ligand-induced endocytosis of the EGFR. We suggest that EGF and TGF-α lead to EGFR endocytosis mainly via the clathrin-mediated pathway. Furthermore, we suggest that HB-EGF and BTC also lead to EGFR endocytosis via a clathrin-mediated pathway, but can additionally use an unidentified internalization pathway or better recruit the small amount of clathrin remaining after clathrin knockdown.

  15. Financial Development, International Trade and Economic Growth: Empirical Evidence from Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safana SHAHEEN

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The study utilizes the Autoregressive-distributed lag (ARDL approach for cointegration and Granger causality test, to explore the long run equilibrium relationship and the possible direction of causality between international trade, financial development and economic growth for the Pakistan economy. Imports plus exports of goods and services is used as a proxy for international trade, while broad money (M2 and gross domestic product (GDP are used as the proxies for financial development and economic growth, respectively. Result explores a long run relationship between the variables. In case of Pakistan, economy supply leading hypothesis is accepted. Moreover, unidirectional causality is observed from international trade to economic growth and from financial development to international trade.

  16. 15. international conference on plant growth substances: Program -- Abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    Since the 14th Conference in Amsterdam in 1991, progress in plant hormone research and developmental plant biology has been truly astonishing. The five ``classical`` plant hormones, auxin, gibberellin, cytokinin, ethylene, and abscisic acid, have been joined by a number of new signal molecules, e.g., systemin, jasmonic acid, salicylic acid, whose biosynthesis and functions are being understood in ever greater detail. Molecular genetics has opened new vistas in an understanding of transduction pathways that regulate developmental processes in response to hormonal and environmental signals. The program of the 15th Conference includes accounts of this progress and brings together scientists whose work focuses on physiological, biochemical, and chemical aspects of plant growth regulation. This volume contains the abstracts of papers presented at this conference.

  17. Effects of postharvest handling conditions on internalization and growth of Salmonella enterica in tomatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Bin; Luo, Yaguang; Nou, Xiangwu; Yang, Yang; Wu, Yunpeng; Wang, Qin

    2014-03-01

    Salmonella internalization in tomatoes during postharvest handling is a major food safety concern. This study was conducted to determine the effect of immersion time, immersion depth, and temperature differential between bacterial suspension and tomato pulp on the internalization of Salmonella enterica in tomato fruits. The effect of storage temperature and duration on the survival and growth of internalized Salmonella cells was also evaluated. Overall, immersion time significantly affected the incidence and extent of S. enterica internalization (P internalization. The depth of Salmonella internalization in tomato tissues also increased with increasing immersion time. Immersion time also significantly influenced the degree to which the temperature differential affected Salmonella internalization. With an immersion time of 2 min, the temperature differential had no significant effect on Salmonella internalization (P = 0.2536). However, with an immersion time of 15 min, a significantly larger Salmonella population became internalized in tomatoes immersed in solutions with a -30°F (-16.7°C) temperature differential. Internalized S. enterica cells persisted in the core tissues during 14 days of storage. Strain type and storage duration significantly affected (P internalized Salmonella recovered, but storage temperatures of 55 to 70°F (12.8 to 21.1°C) did not (P > 0.05). These findings indicate the importance of preventing pathogen internalization during postharvest handling.

  18. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN NUMBERS OF INTERNATIONAL TOURIST ARRIVALS AND ECONOMIC GROWTH IN THE ASEAN-8: PANEL DATA APPROACH

    OpenAIRE

    Anggraeni, Garnis Nur

    2017-01-01

    In an open economy, economic growth is not only supported by international trade but may also be supported through the development of tourism. We can use international tourist arrivals as one of indicators of international tourism. This study aimed to examine the factors that influence international tourist arrivals as well as to analyze the relationship between the number of international tourist arrivals and economic growth in the Southeast Asian regions. This study uses panel data regressi...

  19. Internal and External Determinants of Economic Growth: A closer look at Pakistan’s Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Jamil

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the impact of internal and external determinants of economic growth on the economic growth of Pakistan. Major internal determinants include stock of physical capital and developmental expenditures, while external determinants include trade openness and real effective exchange rate. In doing so, study utilizes the annual time series data from 1972 to 2011. Advanced Autoregressive Distributed Lag model (ARDL approach has been employed for co-integration and error correction model (ECM for short-run results. Empirical investigations indicate that developmental expenditures, physical capital and trade openness are positively correlated with economic growth in long run, while real effective exchange rate negatively and significantly affect economic growth in long run in case of Pakistan.

  20. Harmonizing national growth references for multi-centre surveys, drug monitoring and international postmarketing surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermanussen, M; Assmann, C; Wöhling, H; Zabransky, M

    2012-01-01

    National European growth references differ. We aimed to convert (harmonize) currently used charts into a single unified interchangeable LMS format for each European nation. Nine currently used national European growth references from Belgium (2009), France (1979), Poland (2001), Sweden (2002), Switzerland (1989), the UK (1990), Italy (2006) and Germany (1979 and 1997) were harmonized and compared with the international WHO child growth standards and WHO growth reference data for 5-19 years. European growth charts can be harmonized. The approach appears useful as height, and body mass index (BMI) is inappropriately represented by WHO references. European height references exhibit warping when plotted against the WHO reference. The French appears too short, the other Europeans too tall. Also, the BMI is not appropriately represented by the WHO references. Harmonizing references is a novel, convenient and cost-effective approach for converting historic and/or incomplete local or national growth reference charts into a unified interchangeable LMS format. Harmonizing facilitates producing growth references 'on demand', for limited regional purposes, for ethnically, socio-economically or politically defined minorities, but also for matching geographically different groups of children and adolescents for international growth and registry studies. © 2011 The Author(s)/Acta Paediatrica © 2011 Foundation Acta Paediatrica.

  1. Further Study on Strain Growth in Spherical Containment Vessels Subjected to Internal Blast Loading

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Strain growth is a phenomenon observed in the elastic response of containment vessels subjected to internal blast loading, which is featured by the increased vibration amplitude of the vessel in a later stage. Previous studies attributed the strain growth in spherical containment vessels to the beating between two close vibration modes, the interactions between the vessel vibration and the reflected shock waves and the structural perturbation. In this paper, it is shown th...

  2. Modelling the Growth and Volatility in Daily International Mass Tourism to Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Jose Angelo Divino; Michael McAleer

    2009-01-01

    Peru is a South American country that is divided into two parts by the Andes Mountains. The rich historical, cultural and geographic diversity has led to the inclusion of ten Peruvian sites on UNESCO’s World Heritage List. For the potential negative impacts of mass tourism on the environment, and hence on future international tourism demand, to be managed appropriately require modelling growth rates and volatility adequately. The paper models the growth rate and volatility (or the variability...

  3. Carbon dioxide emission and economic growth of China-the role of international trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boamah, Kofi Baah; Du, Jianguo; Bediako, Isaac Asare; Boamah, Angela Jacinta; Abdul-Rasheed, Alhassan Alolo; Owusu, Samuel Mensah

    2017-05-01

    This study investigates the role of international trade in mitigating carbon dioxide emission as a nation economically advances. This study disaggregated the international trade into total exports and total imports. A multivariate model framework was estimated for the time series data for the period of 1970-2014. The quantile regression detected all the essential relationship, which hitherto, the traditional ordinary least squares could not capture. A cointegration relationship was confirmed using the Johansen cointegration model. The findings of the Granger causality revealed the presence of a uni-directional Granger causality running from energy consumption to economic growth; from import to economic growth; from imports to exports; and from urbanisation to economic growth, exports and imports. Our study established the presence of long-run relationships amongst carbon dioxide emission, economic growth, energy consumption, imports, exports and urbanisation. A bootstrap method was further utilised to reassess the evidence of the Granger causality, of which the results affirmed the Granger causality in the long run. This study confirmed a long-run N-shaped relationship between economic growth and carbon emission, under the estimated cubic environmental Kuznet curve framework, from the perspective of China. The recommendation therefore is that China as export leader should transform its trade growth mode by reducing the level of carbon dioxide emission and strengthening its international cooperation as it embraces more environmental protectionisms.

  4. Perceptions of growth monitoring and promotion among an international panel of district medical officers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberfroid, Dominique; Lefèvre, Pierre; Hoerée, Tom; Kolsteren, Patrick

    2005-09-01

    The growth chart has been proposed as an educational tool to make the child's growth visible to both health workers and caregivers and to enhance communication between them. In the case of growth faltering, this would trigger timely corrective measures. Although the relevance of growth monitoring and promotion (GMP) has often been questioned in the literature, opinions of District Medical Officers responsible for local implementation of GMP are unknown. The aim of this qualitative research was to explore the perceptions and difficulties of an international panel of District Medical Officers regarding GMP. As an exploratory study, in-depth interviews of an international panel of District Medical Officers (n=19) were conducted. Data were coded using the QSR Nudist 5.0 software. A discrepancy between intended purposes and practice of GMP was detected at two levels. First, lack of participation of care-givers was reported. Second, the District Medical Officers expressed a restrictive interpretation of the concept of growth monitoring. The communication with parents was never reported as a means or a result of GMP, neither as an evaluation criterion of programme efficiency. The growth chart was mainly considered a tool intended to be used by health services for the purpose of diagnosis. This two-fold discrepancy between the intention of international policy-planners and practice of local programme implementers could be a crucial factor affecting the performance of GMP. More emphasis should be put on social communication and involvement of caregivers.

  5. The Role of International Trade in Lesotho’s Economic Growth: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malefa Malefane

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the role of international trade in Lesotho's economy. Over the years, the increasing role of international trade in the economy of Lesotho has become evident, particularly with the impetus from the country‘s export sector. An exploratory review approach has been used in this paper, in which the discussion mainly focuses on Lesotho‘s economic growth policy, trade policy, trends in economic growth, and trade performance. The findings point to the connection between Lesotho‘s economic growth and exports from the manufacturing sector, which driven by trade privileges. There is a further indication from this review that Lesotho‘s growth policy has been largely shaped by the country‘s need to pursue export-led growth and private-sector led growth. In recent years, developments in the country‘s trade policy have moved towards the implementation of a more liberal trade approach, as opposed to the initial import substitution industrialisation that Lesotho adopted in the 1960s. This change in trade policy has resulted in an enforcement of measures that have helped to enhance policy-driven trade. The graphical analysis shows that, generally, trends in Lesotho‘s economic growth correspond to the performance of the country‘s trade sector. Nevertheless, while international trade has made some significant contributions to Lesotho‘s economic growth, a heavy reliance on manufactured exports, which are known to be volatile to global economic downturns, poses some challenges to the country. Therefore, it is recommended that Lesotho relies on a wider range of exports, rather than manufactured exports, in order to strengthen trade-related growth in the country.

  6. Transnational Spaces of Education: The Growth of the International School Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayden, Mary

    2011-01-01

    One area in which the impact of globalisation can be seen is that of education. This article suggests that there are currently two main aspects of the growing internationalisation of education at school level: the internationalisation of national systems of education and the growth in numbers of international schools worldwide. It is the latter…

  7. The Growth in International Enrolments in Accounting: Implications for an Established Nexus between Education and Migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekanayake, Dimuthu; Jackling, Beverley

    2014-01-01

    International student enrolments globally have grown substantially over the first decade of the twenty-first century. In the context of Australia, the higher education (HE) sector and specifically the accounting discipline grew during this time, together with the growth in the demand for qualified accountants. Australia was attractive to…

  8. Improving International Standards in Surgical and Procedural Training through Comparative Operative Log Growth Charts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vannipa Vathanophas, M.D.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To use these growth charts to critically assess sufficiency of cases and parity of cases between residents, and to compare these growth charts to available international standards for minimum case numbers. Methods: Operative Log Growth Charts were developed for key indicator procedures for graduating otolaryngology residents in 2012-2014 at a large teaching hospital in the capital city of a newly industrialized country. Comparisons were made between years of training and required minimum case numbers published by the ACGME RRC for Otolaryngology. Results: Data was available to create 7 key indicator operative log growth charts to include all available data from 2012-2014 residents. These growth charts were used to assess growth in operative procedures for residents in the program compared to historical norms in the program. Graduating residents surpassed ACGME minimum case numbers in Bronchoscopy only and were below the minimum numbers for the other key indicators tested. Conclusion: There is significant heterogeneity in the standards for otolaryngology training between countries. It is possible to develop program-specific and country-specific operative log growth charts.

  9. The Effect of Globalization in an Endogenous Growth Model with Heterogeneous Firms and Endogenous International Spillovers: Note

    OpenAIRE

    Katsufumi Fukuda

    2013-01-01

    This paper shows that globalization increases (decreases) the growth rate if and only if the beachhead cost for the domestic market is strictly higher (lower) than that for the foreign market in a endogenous growth model with firm heterogeneity, international trade, and endogenous international spillover under specified necessary and sufficient conditions for exporting firms being more productive than non-exporting firms.

  10. Advertising Amsterdam: the rise and growth of an international advertising industry

    OpenAIRE

    Röling, R.

    2011-01-01

    Cultural industries have experienced dynamic growth in the Netherlands since the 1990s. Amsterdam is the indisputable cultural and creative capital of the country and one of the city’s most prominent cultural industries is the advertising industry. This study has explored processes of globalisation in the international advertising industry and the position of Amsterdam herein. The book tells us how Amsterdam has become one of the most important creative hubs of the industry and a hotspot for ...

  11. Impact of international financial assistance on economic growth in Europe after the World War II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polchanov A.Yu.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This research is devoted to studying the impact of international financial aid on economic growth in Europe after the Second World War. The aim of the investigation is the identification of regularities of post-war recovery of European economies in the second half of the twentieth century and the assessment of international financial aid’s role in the economic growth stimulation. The author summarizes domestic and foreign researchers’ achievements of studying the issue of the Marshall Plan and its importance for modern Ukraine, and differentiates the classic, capitalistic and modern stages of post-conflict reconstruction of the national economies. The relation between the amount of financial assistance from US government to 14 European countries and the growth of GDP in 1947–1952 is studied with the help of correlation and regression analysis and their significant linear dependence is determined. The issue of institutional support of international financing program of economic recovery of Europe has not been left without attention.

  12. Education and Socio-Political Change: The Continued Growth and Evolution of the International Schools Sector in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamato, Yoko; Bray, Mark

    2002-01-01

    Adds to literature on education and sociopolitical change by presenting case study of the international schools in Hong Kong. Examines growth of the international schools sector and changing roles of the institutions within it. Initially created to serve various foreign populations, international schools increasingly serve the local population,…

  13. [Differences in the prevalence of malnutrition resulting from using a national growth reference or an international growth reference].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyhenart, Evelia Edith; Orden, Alicia Bibiana

    2005-09-01

    To evaluate if using an international growth reference versus a national growth reference leads to differences in the prevalences of low weight-for-height (wasting) and low height-for-age (stunting) in a sample of children 8 to 14 years old. A cross-sectional study was carried out with a sample of 1,470 school-children (both boys and girls) in the city of La Plata, in the province of Buenos Aires, Argentina. Based on the data on weight and height, Z-scores were calculated with regard to the reference values from the United States of America's first and second National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES I and NHANES II), and the reference values for Argentina from the Argentine Pediatric Society. The prevalences of wasting and stunting were calculated, using as the cutoff point two standard deviations below the median of the reference. The prevalences were compared using the chi-squared test with Yates' correction, and odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated. The international reference was positively associated with a higher prevalence of stunting in the entire sample (OR = 5.12; 95% CI: 3.27 to 8.05), in the boys (OR = 4.36; 95% CI: 2.43 to 7.93), and in the girls (OR = 6.32; 95% CI: 3.10 to 13.27). The prevalence of wasting was similar with both references. The distribution of height-for-age was skewed to the left with respect to the international reference and to the right with respect to the Argentine reference, while the distribution of weight-for-height overlapped both references. The differences in the prevalences of stunting calculated according to the two references that were used indicate a different nutritional status for the population studied. The increase in the height of the children with respect to the Argentine reference points to the presence of a positive secular trend, and the increase can explain part of the differences in the prevalence of stunting.

  14. Growth of 48 built environment bacterial isolates on board the International Space Station (ISS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A. Coil

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. While significant attention has been paid to the potential risk of pathogenic microbes aboard crewed spacecraft, the non-pathogenic microbes in these habitats have received less consideration. Preliminary work has demonstrated that the interior of the International Space Station (ISS has a microbial community resembling those of built environments on Earth. Here we report the results of sending 48 bacterial strains, collected from built environments on Earth, for a growth experiment on the ISS. This project was a component of Project MERCCURI (Microbial Ecology Research Combining Citizen and University Researchers on ISS. Results. Of the 48 strains sent to the ISS, 45 of them showed similar growth in space and on Earth using a relative growth measurement adapted for microgravity. The vast majority of species tested in this experiment have also been found in culture-independent surveys of the ISS. Only one bacterial strain showed significantly different growth in space. Bacillus safensis JPL-MERTA-8-2 grew 60% better in space than on Earth. Conclusions. The majority of bacteria tested were not affected by conditions aboard the ISS in this experiment (e.g., microgravity, cosmic radiation. Further work on Bacillus safensis could lead to interesting insights on why this strain grew so much better in space.

  15. Growth and development in internationally adopted children: extent and timing of recovery after early adversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios, Jesús; Román, Maite; Camacho, Carlos

    2011-03-01

    Following initial adversity, internationally adopted children arrive with significant growth and developmental delays. Post-placement recovery has been widely documented, but little has been known about its extent and timing several years after placement and in children with diverse pre-adoptive experiences. A total of 289 children adopted from six countries into Spanish families were studied. Growth and psychological development were considered on arrival and after an average of over 3 years. Growth and developmental initial delays affected a substantial percentage of the children. Post-adoption recovery seemed quicker and more complete in weight and height than in head circumference and psychological development. Initial and later values were correlated, but growth-development relation on arrival subsequently lost significance. Most of the catch-up happened in the first three post-adoption years. Adoption offers an impressive opportunity for recovery after previous adversity, although continuity between past and present persists. The improvement is more marked in some areas than in others and more substantial in the first post-adoption years. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. The contribution of international trade to economic growth through human capital accumulation: Evidence from nine Asian countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirajul Haq

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study is an attempt to test the hypothesis “international trade contributes to economic growth through its effects on human capital accumulation.” To assess the hypothesis empirically, we employed the extended Neo-Classical growth model that reflects some features of the endogenous growth models. We thus ended up with a model in which the change in human capital is sensitive to change in trade policies. Unlike conventional approaches, the model serves to assess and determine the impact of international trade on the accumulation of human capital. The empirical analysis estimates dynamic panel growth equations by using a data-set of nine Asian countries, over the period 1972–2012. The overall evidence substantiates the fact that in countries under consideration, international trade enhances the accumulation of human capital and contributes to economic growth positively through human capital accumulation.

  17. Growth in emission transfers via international trade from 1990 to 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Glen P; Minx, Jan C; Weber, Christopher L; Edenhofer, Ottmar

    2011-05-24

    Despite the emergence of regional climate policies, growth in global CO(2) emissions has remained strong. From 1990 to 2008 CO(2) emissions in developed countries (defined as countries with emission-reduction commitments in the Kyoto Protocol, Annex B) have stabilized, but emissions in developing countries (non-Annex B) have doubled. Some studies suggest that the stabilization of emissions in developed countries was partially because of growing imports from developing countries. To quantify the growth in emission transfers via international trade, we developed a trade-linked global database for CO(2) emissions covering 113 countries and 57 economic sectors from 1990 to 2008. We find that the emissions from the production of traded goods and services have increased from 4.3 Gt CO(2) in 1990 (20% of global emissions) to 7.8 Gt CO(2) in 2008 (26%). Most developed countries have increased their consumption-based emissions faster than their territorial emissions, and non-energy-intensive manufacturing had a key role in the emission transfers. The net emission transfers via international trade from developing to developed countries increased from 0.4 Gt CO(2) in 1990 to 1.6 Gt CO(2) in 2008, which exceeds the Kyoto Protocol emission reductions. Our results indicate that international trade is a significant factor in explaining the change in emissions in many countries, from both a production and consumption perspective. We suggest that countries monitor emission transfers via international trade, in addition to territorial emissions, to ensure progress toward stabilization of global greenhouse gas emissions.

  18. International strategies for growth : monetizing gas reserves to add value to the bottom line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihaichuk, G.

    1998-01-01

    The direction taken by oil and gas companies, including TransCanada International, in their strategy for growth in global energy markets was discussed. The role that gas plays in meeting the objectives was examined and the different ways in which gas reserves and investments in the gas sector are being turned into high-performing vehicles for adding value to the bottom line were described. Deregulation of, and competition within, the gas and electric power industries are the driving factors for changes within the energy industries. Natural gas will be a winner because it is the first choice for new power generation. Many companies have entered the international playing field to take advantage of the opportunities in international markets. The problems and solutions to monetizing natural gas reserves, some of the international political issues such as regulatory uncertainty, cross-border disputes, lack of regional integration, and sanctions, and how these adverse effects may be mitigated through mergers, acquisitions, or joint ventures, are explored. 14 figs

  19. Heterogeneous amylin fibril growth mechanisms imaged by total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Sharadrao M; Mehta, Andrew; Jha, Suman; Alexandrescu, Andrei T

    2011-04-12

    Total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy has been used to visualize the fibrillization of amylin, a hormone which in aggregated forms plays a role in type 2 diabetes pathology. Data were obtained at acidic pH where fibrillization is hindered by the charging of histidine 18 and at slightly basic pH where the loss of charge on the histidine promotes aggregation. The experiments show three types of aggregate growth processes. In the earliest steps globular seeds are formed with some expanding radially during the course of the reaction. The dimensions of the globular seeds as well as their staining with the amyloid-specific dye thioflavin T indicate that they are plaques of short fibrils. The next species observed are fibrils that invariably grow from large globular seeds or smaller punctate granules. Fibril elongation appears to be unidirectional, although in some cases multiple fibrils radiate from a single seed or granule. After fibrils are formed, some show an increase in fluorescence intensity that we attribute to the growth of new fibrils alongside those previously formed. All three aggregation processes are suggestive of secondary (heterogeneous) nucleation mechanisms in which nucleation occurs on preformed fibrils. Consistently, electron micrographs show changes in fibril morphology well after fibrils are first formed, and the growth processes observed by fluorescence microscopy occur after the corresponding solution reactions have reached an initial apparent plateau. Taken together, the results highlight the importance of secondary nucleation in the fibrillization of amylin, as this could provide a pathway to continue fibril growth once an initial population of fibrils is established.

  20. Impacts of Microbial Growth on the Air Quality of the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macatangay, Ariel V.; Bruce, Rebekah J.

    2010-01-01

    An understanding of the various sources of non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs) is one facet to ensuring the habitability of crewed spacecraft. Even though the International Space Station (ISS) atmosphere is relatively well characterized in terms of what is in the atmosphere and approximately how much, linking the majority of these trace contaminants detected to their source is virtually impossible. Albeit a few of can be associated to a single source, the majority of these trace contaminants have their origins from multiple sources. On crewed spacecraft such as ISS, trace contaminants are broadly categorized as either coming from equipment, which includes systems and payloads, or from the metabolic processes of the crew members. Such widely encompassing categories clearly illustrate the difficulty in linking air contaminants to their source(s). It is well known that microbial growth in ISS can flourish if left unchecked. Although processes are in place to limit microbial growth, in reality, microbial growth has pervaded the habitable environment of ISS. This is simply a consequence of having crewed spacecraft, as humans are the largest contributor to the bioload. As with crew members, microbes also have metabolic processes which, in many ways, are comparable to human metabolism. As such, it can be expected that microbial growth can lead to the release of volatile organic compounds into the ISS atmosphere. Given a large enough microbial population, the impact to the air quality of ISS can be potentially large. A survey of the microbiology found in ISS will be presented as well as the possible types of volatile organic compounds that can result from such organisms. This will be correlated to the observations provided by ground-based analysis of ISS atmosphere samples

  1. Enron looking to international arena for growth via hydrocarbon/power schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, B.

    1998-01-01

    Enron Corp., one of the US pioneers in the business of comarketing hydrocarbons and electricity, is looking to the international arena to provide the bulk of its future growth. Following its successes emanating from opportunities created by the deregulation of the natural gas industry in the US, Enron has ventured into a new area: the wholesale electricity market, which is in the process of deregulating in the US and in Europe. Enron has gained an edge here by transferring its wholesale gas market expertise to the evolving new electric power market. With its wholesale strategy in place, Enron has trained its sights on the deregulating retail natural gas and electricity markets in the US and Europe

  2. Generalization of international centrifugal zone growth of metal-ceramic composites. Technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekerka, R.F.; Hartzell, R.A.

    1976-08-01

    The electric and temperature fields within inductively heated materials have been calculated in order to better understand the essential features of the crystal growth process called Internal Centrifugal Zone Growth (ICZG). A complicated two-dimensional problem has been studied via a simple one-dimensional model which applies to infinitely long samples heated by infinitely long induction coils. Two such one-dimensional models are presented. In the first model, all material properties of the sample are assumed to be independent of temperature. The coupled differential equations determining the electric field and temperature distributions within the sample are solved analytically. Resulting profiles of temperature and electromagnetic fields within the sample provide a basis for more sophisticated models. The second model deals with materials (e.g., oxides) whose electrical conductivities are very low at room temperature but increase significantly with temperature. The differential equations for electromagnetic and temperature fields are consequently strongly coupled, resulting in multiple steady state solutions, some of which are unstable. An understanding of this instability is of utmost importance with regard to crystal growth via ICZG, because it has been observed that an increase in the electrical conductivity of the sample when melting occurs can cause a catastrophic increase in surface temperature. The modeling predicts, however, that the instability can be controlled through a judicious choice of RF frequency, sample size, and sample alloying. Progress has been made in solving the two-dimensional differential equations. Many problems are encountered that are not present in one-dimensional modeling. The method of solution is outlined, but no solutions have yet been obtained

  3. THE INSTITUTIONAL BARRIERS’ IMPACT ON THE ECONOMIC GROWTH IN THE INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC INTEGRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iryna Prykhodko

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper. In our study we try to assess the causality link between a number of the international economic integration politico-economic factors, institutions and basic production factors with the growth of the economy. We form a sample of 18 post-socialist countries, including Central and Eastern Europe (CEE countries-members the European Union, and the rest of CEE non-members countries and CIS countries, who have not acquired the membership in the EU, including Ukraine. The time period of our study is 23 years, starting from 1991 – the year of independence of Ukraine till 2013 – the last year for which statistics are published for our group of a corresponding list of indicators that make up our interest. In the estimating equation we use econometric analysis panel data by least squares method with fixed effects transformation to eliminate countries’ heterogeneity. In the study we use such determinant of the institutions quality as the Index of Economic Freedom (Heritage Foundation, and we investigate various components of the Index of Economic Freedom (freedom of ownership, freedom of trade, freedom from corruption, freedom of investment. We assume that institutions towards freedom of foreign trade and reducing corruption will have a greater effect on the economy of the investigated countries. It is advisable to attach to the international economic integration politico-economic factors the indicator of foreign trade taxation as a measure of tariff barriers, international aid programs of the foreign donors and the European institutions to assess their role for the economic growth of the countries surveyed, and we take into account the capital and the labor as the basic factors of production. Methodology. The methods of synthesis, logic, abstraction and analysis are used in the study. On a sample of 18 post-socialist countries (CEE and CIS for the period of 23 years (1991-2013 we had conducted the econometric panel analysis

  4. RETURN ON INVESTMENT OF PUBLIC SPENDING IN TOURISM POLICY AND INTERNATIONAL TOURISM GROWTH: A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS BETWEEN COUNTRIES.

    OpenAIRE

    Karen Gardenia Ramos Higuera.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between the international tourism growth and public funding invested in the tourism policy by United States, Australia and Mexico. The research method is quantitative, based on country level data; an econometric statistical analysis was carried out, using simple linear regressions. This study found that the public investment in the tourism policy is strongly statistically related to (1) international tourist expenditure generated and (2...

  5. [The decline in the population growth rate--a priority issue in international politics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhein, E

    1994-08-25

    The Third International UN Conference on Population and Development took place in Cairo in early September 1994 with the participation of 200 governments and 1000 nongovernmental organizations to discuss ways of stabilizing world population at the possible lowest level and how industrialized countries could contribute to this effort. As a consequence of the advances in reproductive medicine the use of contraceptives skyrocketed: in 1994 more than half of men and women were using contraception compared to only 5% in 1950. However, the demographic momentum would still increase world population for another 100 years, even if fertility would drop to 2.2 children per couple (compared to 4 children in 1990). Nevertheless, the present generation could be instrumental in deciding whether the world's population will remain around 8 billion or reach 12 billion between 2050 and 2150. Poor countries can no longer afford an annual growth rate of 2-4% while also trying to improve living standards; this would require an economic growth rate of 6-8%. For the control of population growth both a sustainable environmental policy in the North, with rapid transition to renewable energy and recycling, and a more effective population policy in the South are needed. Family planning (FP) is the precondition of stabilization. The global FP outlays are envisioned to double from the 1994 figure of $5 billion to over $10 billion in the year 2000, with donor contributions to increase from 20% to 40% of the total. The US contribution is to double from $500 million by 2000, while the European Commission decided to boost expenditures for FP from DM 30 million in 1994 to DM 600 million by 2000. Japan is also expending $3 billion during this period. Recent promising developments have emerged: national pronatalist policies have diminished sharply and the pronatalist influence of religions has also declined. Political commitment at the highest level is central to a successful population policy as

  6. Internal dynamics and emittance growth in space-charge-dominated beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, O.A.

    1987-01-01

    Previous analytical studies have related transverse rms emittance growth in nonuniform beams to changes in the beam density profile, but the time evolution of the process has not been analyzed. Our new approach analyzes the internal motion of the beam and from this obtains the explicit time dependence of the rms emittance. It is shown to reach its peak value explosively in about one quarter of a plasma period. The subsequent behavior depends on the uniformity of the initial density profile. We derive a uniformity criterion that determines whether or not the emittance oscillates periodically and present examples of density profiles for which the emittance returns to its initial value and then continues to oscillate. We discuss a class of continuous initial profiles that lead to discontinuous shocklike behavior (with partial irreversibility of the oscillations) and a class of segmented profiles for which the emittance jumps to its maximum value in one fourth of a plasma period and remains at that value with essentially no further change. (author)

  7. The International Environmental Institute: Leveraging the investment in Hanford for economic growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atkin, S.D.; Schwenk, R.M.

    1994-02-01

    Billions of dollars are being invested to achieve environmental compliance at the Hanford Site. The 30-yr-plan for the Site calls for remediation and restoration followed by rampdown and closure of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) mission at the Site. The investment of the Federal government during this restoration period provides a real opportunity to go beyond the cleanup mission and convert the Site's assets to other uses that benefit the region, nation, and world. The International Environmental Institute (Institute) was created to help realize this opportunity. This is accomplished by utilizing the assets of the Site -- it's land, equipment, facilities, technologies, and people -- to achieve economic growth and worldwide spinoff benefits from the Hanford investment. The Institute is developing new ways of getting the private sector involved with the Hanford Site. We are working with local and state governments, academia, and the private sector, to jointly develop and commercialize environmental technologies and to redeploy, loan, or lease those assets that are no longer needed by the DOE. The Institute is also interacting with other communities around the world to assess models, issues, and performance measures for successful defense conversion. Through these various worldwide partnerships, the investment in Hanford can be successfully leveraged to help create the desired economic future for the Northwest and environmental industry for the world

  8. Preparation of epidermal growth factor (EGF) conjugated iron oxide nanoparticles and their internalization into colon cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Creixell, Mar [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Puerto Rico, Mayagueez Campus, P.O. Box 9000, Mayagueez, PR 00681 (Puerto Rico); Department of Electronics, Faculty of Physics, University of Barcelona, Av. Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Herrera, Adriana P.; Ayala, Vanessa; Latorre-Esteves, Magda [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Puerto Rico, Mayagueez Campus, P.O. Box 9000, Mayagueez, PR 00681 (Puerto Rico); Perez-Torres, Marianela [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Puerto Rico-Medical Sciences Campus, PO Box 365067, San Juan, PR 00936 (Puerto Rico); Torres-Lugo, Madeline [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Puerto Rico, Mayagueez Campus, P.O. Box 9000, Mayagueez, PR 00681 (Puerto Rico); Rinaldi, Carlos, E-mail: carlos.rinaldi@upr.ed [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Puerto Rico, Mayagueez Campus, P.O. Box 9000, Mayagueez, PR 00681 (Puerto Rico)

    2010-08-15

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) was conjugated with carboxymethyldextran (CMDx) coated iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles using carbodiimide chemistry to obtain magnetic nanoparticles that target the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Epidermal growth factor modified magnetic nanoparticles were colloidally stable when suspended in biological buffers such as PBS and cell culture media. Both targeted and non-targeted nanoparticles were incubated with CaCo-2 cancer cells, known to overexpress EGFR. Nanoparticle localization within the cell was visualized by confocal laser scanning microscopy and light microscopy using Prussian blue stain. Results showed that targeted magnetic nanoparticles were rapidly accumulated in both flask-shaped small vesicles and large circular endocytic structures. Internalization patterns suggest that both clathrin-dependent and clathrin-independent receptors mediated endocytosis mechanisms are responsible for nanoparticle internalization.

  9. The F-BAR Protein PACSIN2 Regulates Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Internalization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Kreuk, Bart-Jan; Anthony, Eloise C.; Geerts, Dirk; Hordijk, Peter L.

    2012-01-01

    Signaling via growth factor receptors, including the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor, is key to various cellular processes, such as proliferation, cell survival, and cell migration. In a variety of human diseases such as cancer, aberrant expression and activation of growth factor receptors

  10. The F-BAR protein PACSIN2 regulates epidermal growth factor receptor internalization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.J. de Kreuk (Bart-Jan); E.C. Anthony (Eloise); D. Geertss (Dirk); P.L. Hordijk (Peter )

    2012-01-01

    textabstractSignaling via growth factor receptors, including the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor, is key to various cellular processes, such as proliferation, cell survival, and cell migration. In a variety of human diseases such as cancer, aberrant expression and activation of growth factor

  11. Coming Out and the Potential for Growth in Sexual Minorities: The Role of Social Reactions and Internalized Homonegativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, David; McAbee, James; Åsberg, Kia; McGee, Ashley

    2015-01-01

    Coming out is a significant and sometimes difficult process in the lives of sexual minorities, but disclosure can also affect wellbeing in positive ways, including reduced distress and greater relationship satisfaction. This study investigates the possibility of stress-related growth and depreciation following coming out. To obtain a diverse sample with varying coming-out experiences, data were collected from undergraduate students as well as from online sources, including lesbian, gay, and bisexual support groups and Pride groups. Regression analyses indicated that negative social reactions to coming out predicted both growth and depreciation, although they more strongly predicted depreciation. Positive social reactions were positively related to stress-related growth, while internalized homonegativity was inversely associated with growth. Although the two sample sources (online and campus) differed in some ways, sample source was not a significant predictor in the regressions, nor was it indicated as a moderator in exploratory ANOVA analyses.

  12. Internalization and cellular pools of never growth factor in pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neet, K.E.; Kasaian, M.

    1987-05-01

    Nerve Growth Factor (NGF) binds to a cell surface receptor on responsive neuronal cells to initiate cell maintenance and/or differentiation regimes. The purpose of these studies was to define quantitatively the fate of NGF in PC12 cells with respect to various cellular compartments in a single series of biochemical experiments. Different binding methodologies were evaluated in suspension and on plates. 50 pM SVI-NGF was bound to rat PC12 cells in suspension for 30 min at 37, followed by various methods and combinations of methods to remove subsets of bound ligand. Distinction could be made between NGF bound to fast vs. slow cell surface receptors, NGF bound to slow receptors at the cell surface vs. cell interior, and detergent-soluble vs. cytoskeletally-attached NGF. These treatments defined the relative size of five pools, including the fast receptor (65%), two intracellular compartments (12% and 3%) susceptible to nonionic detergent, and a detergent-stable intracellular pool of ligand (16%). At 37 the cold chase stable and the acid stable pools were about the same size because of rapid internalization, but the slow receptor was measurable at 4. Inhibitors were used to define the route of NGF through the cell from the plasma membrane to degradation. Chloroquine caused accumulation of NGF only in pools that were not associated with the cytoskeleton, implicating this compartment in supplying ligand to the lysosome. Results with cytochalasin B and colchicine and suggested both microfilament and microtubule pathways in NGF degradation. A model for the movement of NGF through the cell was developed based on these observations.

  13. Internalization and cellular pools of never growth factor in pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neet, K.E.; Kasaian, M.

    1987-01-01

    Nerve Growth Factor (NGF) binds to a cell surface receptor on responsive neuronal cells to initiate cell maintenance and/or differentiation regimes. The purpose of these studies was to define quantitatively the fate of NGF in PC12 cells with respect to various cellular compartments in a single series of biochemical experiments. Different binding methodologies were evaluated in suspension and on plates. 50 pM 125 I-NGF was bound to rat PC12 cells in suspension for 30 min at 37 0 , followed by various methods and combinations of methods to remove subsets of bound ligand. Distinction could be made between NGF bound to fast vs. slow cell surface receptors, NGF bound to slow receptors at the cell surface vs. cell interior, and detergent-soluble vs. cytoskeletally-attached NGF. These treatments defined the relative size of five pools, including the fast receptor (65%), two intracellular compartments (12% and 3%) susceptible to nonionic detergent, and a detergent-stable intracellular pool of ligand (16%). At 37 0 the cold chase stable and the acid stable pools were about the same size because of rapid internalization, but the slow receptor was measurable at 4 0 . Inhibitors were used to define the route of NGF through the cell from the plasma membrane to degradation. Chloroquine caused accumulation of NGF only in pools that were not associated with the cytoskeleton, implicating this compartment in supplying ligand to the lysosome. Results with cytochalasin B and colchicine and suggested both microfilament and microtubule pathways in NGF degradation. A model for the movement of NGF through the cell was developed based on these observations

  14. Internalization and down-regulation of the human epidermal growth factor receptor are regulated by the carboxyl-terminal tyrosines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helin, K; Beguinot, L

    1991-01-01

    The C terminus of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGF-R) contains three tyrosines (Y1068, Y1148, and Y1173) which correspond to the major autophosphorylation sites. To investigate the role of the tyrosines in internalization and down-regulation of the EGF-R, mutational analysis was performed......-R in response to EGF showing a half-life of about 1 h. Degradation of the triple point mutant, however, was impaired and resulted in a half-life of 4 h in the presence of EGF. EGF-dependent down-regulation of surface receptors was decreased in the triple point mutant EGF-R as was internalization and degradation...... of EGF. The specific rate of internalization of the triple point mutant was reduced. By contrast, intracellular processing of ligand previously internalized at 20 degrees C was similar between wild type and mutant receptors. Taken together the data indicate that the delay in degradation observed in cells...

  15. Growth or Steady State? A Bibliometric Focus on International Comparative Higher Education Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosmützky, Anna; Krücken, Georg

    2014-01-01

    The study combines a bibliometric approach with a content analysis of abstracts of articles to explore the patterns of international comparative higher education research in leading international journals. The overall data set covers 4,095 publications from the Web of Science for the period 1992-2012 and the amount of international comparative…

  16. [Differences in dynamics of insulin and insulin-like growth I (IGF-I) receptors internalization in isolated rat hepatocytes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolychev, A P; Ternovskaya, E E; Arsenieva, A V; Shapkina, E V

    2013-01-01

    Insulin and IGF-I are two related peptides performing in the mammalian body functionally different roles of the metabolic and growth hormones, respectively. Internalization of the insulin-receptor complex (IRC) is the most important chain of mechanism of the action of hormone. To elucidate differences in the main stages of internalization of the two related hormones, the internalization dynamics of 125I-insulin and 125I-IGF-I was traced in isolated rat hepatocytes at 37 and 12 degrees C. There were established marked differences in the process of internalization of labeled hormones, which is stimulated by insulin and IGF-I. At 37 degrees C the insulin-stimulated internalization, unlike the process initiated by IGF-I, did not reach the maximal level for 1 h of incubation. However, essential differences in the internalization course of these two related peptide were obvious at the temperature of 12 degrees C. The internalization level of insulin receptors at 12 degrees C decreased by one third in spite of a significant increase of the insulin receptor binding on the hepatocytes plasma membrane. At 12 degrees C a slight decrease of the proportion of intracellular 125I-IGF-I correlated with a decrease in the 125I-IGF-I binding to receptors on the cell membrane. Internalization of IGF-I receptors was not affected by low temperature, as neither its level, nor the rate changed at 12 degrees C. The paradoxical decrease of the insulin-stimulated internalization at low temperature seems to represent a peculiar "inhibition mechanism" of immersion of IRC into the cell, which leads to accumulation of the complexes on the cell surface and possibly to a readjustment of the insulin biological activity. The resistance of internalization of the IGF-I receptor to cold seems to be related to the more ancient origin of this mechanism in the poikilothermal vertebrates.

  17. The relationship between international tourism and economic growth: the case of Morocco and Tunisia

    OpenAIRE

    Bouzahzah, Mohamed; El Menyari, Younesse

    2013-01-01

    This study proposes to examine the impact of tourism activity on the economic growth of Morocco and Tunisia. We contribute here to the empirical literature on the tourism-led growth (TLG) hypothesis, by adopting the error correction model framework, the cointegration and Granger Causality tests between real tourism receipts, real effective exchange rate and economic growth in Morocco and Tunisia, for the annual period 1980-2010; two main results emerge from this analysis. First, contrary to t...

  18. Comparative study on the growth patterns of internal organs of male ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the growth of various organs in 36 male and 36 female mice using increase in weight as the index of growth. The mice were randomly selected from the offspring of the same breeding stock. They were given a commercially prepared diet and drinking water ad libitum until they were sacrificed at 3, ...

  19. Human insulin-like growth factor II leader 2 mediates internal initiation of translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Susanne; Christiansen, Jan; Hansen, T.O.

    2002-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II) is a fetal growth factor, which belongs to the family of insulin-like peptides. During fetal life, the IGF-II gene generates three mRNAs with different 5' untranslated regions (UTRs), but identical coding regions and 3' UTRs. We have shown previously that IG...

  20. Nonmuscle Myosin II Is Required for Internalization of the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor and Modulation of Downstream Signaling*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong Hyun; Wang, Aibing; Conti, Mary Anne; Adelstein, Robert S.

    2012-01-01

    Ligand-induced internalization of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is an important process for regulating signal transduction, cellular dynamics, and cell-cell communication. Here, we demonstrate that nonmuscle myosin II (NM II) is required for the internalization of the EGFR and to trigger the EGFR-dependent activation of ERK and AKT. The EGFR was identified as a protein that interacts with NM II by co-immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry analysis. This interaction requires both the regulatory light chain 20 (RLC20) of NM II and the kinase domain of the EGFR. Two paralogs of NM II, NM II-A, and NM II-B can act to internalize the EGFR, depending on the cell type and paralog content of the cell line. Loss (siRNA) or inhibition (25 μm blebbistatin) of NM II attenuates the internalization of the EGFR and impairs EGFR-dependent activation of ERK and AKT. Both internalization of the EGFR and downstream signaling to ERK and AKT can be partially restored in siRNA-treated cells by introduction of wild type (WT) GFP-NM II, but cannot be restored by motor mutant NM II. Taken together, these results suggest that NM II plays a role in the internalization of the EGFR and EGFR-mediated signaling pathways. PMID:22718763

  1. Predicting growth conditions from internal metabolic fluxes in an in-silico model of E. coli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viswanadham Sridhara

    Full Text Available A widely studied problem in systems biology is to predict bacterial phenotype from growth conditions, using mechanistic models such as flux balance analysis (FBA. However, the inverse prediction of growth conditions from phenotype is rarely considered. Here we develop a computational framework to carry out this inverse prediction on a computational model of bacterial metabolism. We use FBA to calculate bacterial phenotypes from growth conditions in E. coli, and then we assess how accurately we can predict the original growth conditions from the phenotypes. Prediction is carried out via regularized multinomial regression. Our analysis provides several important physiological and statistical insights. First, we show that by analyzing metabolic end products we can consistently predict growth conditions. Second, prediction is reliable even in the presence of small amounts of impurities. Third, flux through a relatively small number of reactions per growth source (∼10 is sufficient for accurate prediction. Fourth, combining the predictions from two separate models, one trained only on carbon sources and one only on nitrogen sources, performs better than models trained to perform joint prediction. Finally, that separate predictions perform better than a more sophisticated joint prediction scheme suggests that carbon and nitrogen utilization pathways, despite jointly affecting cellular growth, may be fairly decoupled in terms of their dependence on specific assortments of molecular precursors.

  2. The dividend-price ratio does predict dividend growth: International evidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engsted, Tom; Pedersen, Thomas Quistgaard

    -2008), while long-horizon real dividend growth is unpredictable in the early period and significantly predictable in the 'wrong' direction in the post war period. These results are directly opposite to those reported by Chen using nominal returns and dividend growth. For the UK, the results are more or less...... similar to those for the US. For Sweden and Denmark we find no evidence of return predictability, but strong evidence of predictable dividend growth in the 'right' direction on both short and long horizons and over both the full sample periods and the post war period. We also document that implied long...

  3. SEALEX — Internal reef chronology and virtual drill logs from a spreadsheet-based reef growth model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koelling, Martin; Webster, Jody Michael; Camoin, Gilbert; Iryu, Yasufumi; Bard, Edouard; Seard, Claire

    2009-03-01

    A reef growth model has been developed using an Excel spreadsheet. The 1D forward model is driven by a user definable sea-level curve. Other adjustable model parameters include maximum coral growth rate, coral growth rate depth dependence and light attenuation, subaerial erosion and subsidence. A time lag for the establishment of significant reef accretion may also be set. During the model run, both, the external shape and the internal chronologic structure of the growing reef as well as the paleo-water-depths are continuously displayed and recorded. We tested the model on fossil reef systems growing in a range of different tectonic settings such as both on slowly subsiding islands like Tahiti (subsidence rates of 0.25 m ka - 1 ) and rapidly subsiding islands like Hawaii (subsidence rate of 2.5 mka - 1 ) as well as rapidly uplifting coastal settings like Huon Peninsula (uplift rates of 0.5 to 4 m ka - 1 ) and more slowly uplifting settings like Haiti (uplift rates of 0.55 mka - 1 ). The model runs show the sensitivity of the resulting overall morphology and internal age structure to different model parameters. Additionally the water depth at the time of deposition is recorded. This allows the constructions of virtual borehole logs with the coral age profiles and the paleo water depth at the time of growth both displayed and recorded. Because the model is implemented as a macro in a popular spreadsheet program, it may be easily adapted or extended to model the growth of different reef and carbonate platform settings. Single model runs take a few minutes on a standard (2 GHz CoreDuo) desktop computer under Windows XP. The model may be used to investigate the effects of different boundary conditions such as maximum reef growth, erosion rates, subsidence or uplift on both, the general morphology of the reefs, and the internal chronologic structure. These results can then be compared to observed data allowing different hypothesis concerning reefs development to be

  4. Single-domain antibodies that compete with the natural ligand fibroblast growth factor block the internalization of the fibroblast growth factor receptor 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → Recombinant antibodies for FGFR1 were isolated from a llama naive library in VHH format. → These antibodies compete with the natural ligand FGF-2 for the same epitope on FGFR1. → The antibody competition inhibits the FGF-2-dependent internalization of FGFR1. -- Abstract: Single-domain antibodies in VHH format specific for fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1) were isolated from a phage-display llama naive library. In particular, phage elution in the presence of the natural receptor ligand fibroblast growth factor (FGF) allowed for the identification of recombinant antibodies that compete with FGF for the same region on the receptor surface. These antibodies posses a relatively low affinity for FGFR1 and were never identified when unspecific elution conditions favoring highly affine binders were applied to panning procedures. Two populations of competitive antibodies were identified that labeled specifically the receptor-expressing cells in immunofluorescence and recognize distinct epitopes. Antibodies from both populations effectively prevented FGF-dependent internalization and nuclear accumulation of the receptor in cultured cells. This achievement indicates that these antibodies have a capacity to modulate the receptor physiology and, therefore, constitute powerful reagents for basic research and a potential lead for therapeutic applications.

  5. Single-domain antibodies that compete with the natural ligand fibroblast growth factor block the internalization of the fibroblast growth factor receptor 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veggiani, Gianluca; Ossolengo, Giuseppe; Aliprandi, Marisa; Cavallaro, Ugo [IFOM-IEO Campus, Via Adamello 16, 20139 Milano (Italy); Marco, Ario de, E-mail: ario.demarco@ung.si [IFOM-IEO Campus, Via Adamello 16, 20139 Milano (Italy); Dept. Environmental Sciences, University of Nova Gorica (UNG), Vipavska 13, P.O. Box 301-SI-5000, Rozna Dolina, Nova Gorica (Slovenia)

    2011-05-20

    Highlights: {yields} Recombinant antibodies for FGFR1 were isolated from a llama naive library in VHH format. {yields} These antibodies compete with the natural ligand FGF-2 for the same epitope on FGFR1. {yields} The antibody competition inhibits the FGF-2-dependent internalization of FGFR1. -- Abstract: Single-domain antibodies in VHH format specific for fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1) were isolated from a phage-display llama naive library. In particular, phage elution in the presence of the natural receptor ligand fibroblast growth factor (FGF) allowed for the identification of recombinant antibodies that compete with FGF for the same region on the receptor surface. These antibodies posses a relatively low affinity for FGFR1 and were never identified when unspecific elution conditions favoring highly affine binders were applied to panning procedures. Two populations of competitive antibodies were identified that labeled specifically the receptor-expressing cells in immunofluorescence and recognize distinct epitopes. Antibodies from both populations effectively prevented FGF-dependent internalization and nuclear accumulation of the receptor in cultured cells. This achievement indicates that these antibodies have a capacity to modulate the receptor physiology and, therefore, constitute powerful reagents for basic research and a potential lead for therapeutic applications.

  6. Effect of Different Carbon Sources on Relative Growth Rate, Internal Carbohydrates, and Mannitol 1-Oxidoreductase Activity in Celery Suspension Cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoop, JMH.; Pharr, D. M.

    1993-11-01

    Little information exists concerning the biochemical route of mannitol catabolism in higher plant cells. In this study, the role of a recently discovered mannitol 1-oxidoreductase (MDH) in mannitol catabolism was investigated. Suspension cultures of celery (Apium graveolens L. var dulce [Mill.] Pers.) were successfully grown on nutrient media with either mannitol, mannose, or sucrose as the sole carbon source. Cell cultures grown on any of the three carbon sources did not differ in relative growth rate, as measured by packed cell volume, but differed drastically in internal carbohydrate concentration. Mannitol-grown cells contained high concentrations of mannitol and extremely low concentrations of sucrose, fructose, glucose, and mannose. Sucrose-grown cells had high concentrations of sucrose early in the growth cycle and contained a substantial hexose pool. Mannose-grown cells had a high mannose concentration early in the cycle, which decreased during the growth cycle, whereas their internal sucrose concentrations remained relatively constant during the entire growth cycle. Celery suspension cultures on all three carbon substrates contained an NAD-dependent MDH. Throughout the growth cycle, MDH activity was 2- to 4-fold higher in mannitol-grown cells compared with sucrose- or mannose-grown cells, which did not contain detectable levels of mannitol, indicating that MDH functions pre-dominantly in an oxidative capacity in situ. The MDH activity observed in celery cells was 3-fold higher than the minimum amount required to account for the observed rate of mannitol utilization from the media. Cultures transferred from mannitol to mannose underwent a decrease in MDH activity over a period of days, and transfer from mannose to mannitol resulted in an increase in MDH activity. These data provide strong evidence that MDH plays an important role in mannitol utilization in celery suspension cultures.

  7. An internal deletion in MTH1 enables growth on glucose of pyruvate-decarboxylase negative, non-fermentative Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oud Bart

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pyruvate-decarboxylase negative (Pdc- strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae combine the robustness and high glycolytic capacity of this yeast with the absence of alcoholic fermentation. This makes Pdc-S. cerevisiae an interesting platform for efficient conversion of glucose towards pyruvate-derived products without formation of ethanol as a by-product. However, Pdc- strains cannot grow on high glucose concentrations and require C2-compounds (ethanol or acetate for growth under conditions with low glucose concentrations, which hitherto has limited application in industry. Results Genetic analysis of a Pdc- strain previously evolved to overcome these deficiencies revealed a 225bp in-frame internal deletion in MTH1, encoding a transcriptional regulator involved in glucose sensing. This internal deletion contains a phosphorylation site required for degradation, thereby hypothetically resulting in increased stability of the protein. Reverse engineering of this alternative MTH1 allele into a non-evolved Pdc- strain enabled growth on 20 g l-1 glucose and 0.3% (v/v ethanol at a maximum specific growth rate (0.24 h-1 similar to that of the evolved Pdc- strain (0.23 h-1. Furthermore, the reverse engineered Pdc- strain grew on glucose as sole carbon source, albeit at a lower specific growth rate (0.10 h-1 than the evolved strain (0.20 h-1. The observation that overexpression of the wild-type MTH1 allele also restored growth of Pdc-S. cerevisiae on glucose is consistent with the hypothesis that the internal deletion results in decreased degradation of Mth1. Reduced degradation of Mth1 has been shown to result in deregulation of hexose transport. In Pdc- strains, reduced glucose uptake may prevent intracellular accumulation of pyruvate and/or redox problems, while release of glucose repression due to the MTH1 internal deletion may contribute to alleviation of the C2-compound auxotrophy. Conclusions In this study we have discovered and

  8. An internal deletion in MTH1 enables growth on glucose of pyruvate-decarboxylase negative, non-fermentative Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oud, Bart; Flores, Carmen-Lisset; Gancedo, Carlos; Zhang, Xiuying; Trueheart, Joshua; Daran, Jean-Marc; Pronk, Jack T; van Maris, Antonius J A

    2012-09-15

    Pyruvate-decarboxylase negative (Pdc⁻) strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae combine the robustness and high glycolytic capacity of this yeast with the absence of alcoholic fermentation. This makes Pdc⁻S. cerevisiae an interesting platform for efficient conversion of glucose towards pyruvate-derived products without formation of ethanol as a by-product. However, Pdc⁻ strains cannot grow on high glucose concentrations and require C₂-compounds (ethanol or acetate) for growth under conditions with low glucose concentrations, which hitherto has limited application in industry. Genetic analysis of a Pdc⁻ strain previously evolved to overcome these deficiencies revealed a 225 p in-frame internal deletion in MTH1, encoding a transcriptional regulator involved in glucose sensing. This internal deletion contains a phosphorylation site required for degradation, thereby hypothetically resulting in increased stability of the protein. Reverse engineering of this alternative MTH1 allele into a non-evolved Pdc⁻ strain enabled growth on 20 g l⁻¹ glucose and 0.3% (v/v) ethanol at a maximum specific growth rate (0.24 h⁻¹) similar to that of the evolved Pdc⁻ strain (0.23 h⁻¹). Furthermore, the reverse engineered Pdc⁻ strain grew on glucose as sole carbon source, albeit at a lower specific growth rate (0.10 h⁻¹) than the evolved strain (0.20 h⁻¹). The observation that overexpression of the wild-type MTH1 allele also restored growth of Pdc⁻S. cerevisiae on glucose is consistent with the hypothesis that the internal deletion results in decreased degradation of Mth1. Reduced degradation of Mth1 has been shown to result in deregulation of hexose transport. In Pdc⁻ strains, reduced glucose uptake may prevent intracellular accumulation of pyruvate and/or redox problems, while release of glucose repression due to the MTH1 internal deletion may contribute to alleviation of the C₂-compound auxotrophy. In this study we have discovered and characterised a

  9. International consensus guidelines for scoring the histopathological growth patterns of liver metastasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Dam, Pieter Jan; Van Der Stok, Eric P.; Teuwen, Laure Anne

    2017-01-01

    Background:Liver metastases present with distinct histopathological growth patterns (HGPs), including the desmoplastic, pushing and replacement HGPs and two rarer HGPs. The HGPs are defined owing to the distinct interface between the cancer cells and the adjacent normal liver parenchyma that is p......Background:Liver metastases present with distinct histopathological growth patterns (HGPs), including the desmoplastic, pushing and replacement HGPs and two rarer HGPs. The HGPs are defined owing to the distinct interface between the cancer cells and the adjacent normal liver parenchyma...

  10. Internal migration, center-state grants, and economic growth in the states of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cashin, P; Sahay, R

    1996-03-01

    "This paper examines the growth experience of 20 states of India during 1961-91, using cross-sectional estimation and the analytical framework of the Solow-Swan neoclassical growth model. We find evidence of absolute convergence--initially poor states grew faster than their initially rich counterparts. Also, the dispersion of real per capita state incomes widened over the period 1961-91. However, relatively more grants were transferred from the central government to the poor states than to their rich counterparts. Significant barriers to population flows also exist, as net migration from poor to rich states responded only weakly to cross-state income differentials." excerpt

  11. Advertising Amsterdam: the rise and growth of an international advertising industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Röling, R.

    2011-01-01

    Cultural industries have experienced dynamic growth in the Netherlands since the 1990s. Amsterdam is the indisputable cultural and creative capital of the country and one of the city’s most prominent cultural industries is the advertising industry. This study has explored processes of globalisation

  12. GROWTH OF THE INTERNATIONAL CRITICALITY SAFETY AND REACTOR PHYSICS EXPERIMENT EVALUATION PROJECTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Blair Briggs; John D. Bess; Jim Gulliford

    2011-09-01

    Since the International Conference on Nuclear Criticality Safety (ICNC) 2007, the International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project (ICSBEP) and the International Reactor Physics Experiment Evaluation Project (IRPhEP) have continued to expand their efforts and broaden their scope. Eighteen countries participated on the ICSBEP in 2007. Now, there are 20, with recent contributions from Sweden and Argentina. The IRPhEP has also expanded from eight contributing countries in 2007 to 16 in 2011. Since ICNC 2007, the contents of the 'International Handbook of Evaluated Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiments1' have increased from 442 evaluations (38000 pages), containing benchmark specifications for 3955 critical or subcritical configurations to 516 evaluations (nearly 55000 pages), containing benchmark specifications for 4405 critical or subcritical configurations in the 2010 Edition of the ICSBEP Handbook. The contents of the Handbook have also increased from 21 to 24 criticality-alarm-placement/shielding configurations with multiple dose points for each, and from 20 to 200 configurations categorized as fundamental physics measurements relevant to criticality safety applications. Approximately 25 new evaluations and 150 additional configurations are expected to be added to the 2011 edition of the Handbook. Since ICNC 2007, the contents of the 'International Handbook of Evaluated Reactor Physics Benchmark Experiments2' have increased from 16 different experimental series that were performed at 12 different reactor facilities to 53 experimental series that were performed at 30 different reactor facilities in the 2011 edition of the Handbook. Considerable effort has also been made to improve the functionality of the searchable database, DICE (Database for the International Criticality Benchmark Evaluation Project) and verify the accuracy of the data contained therein. DICE will be discussed in separate papers at ICNC 2011. The status of the

  13. Internalized and externalized continuing bonds in bereaved parents: their relationship with grief intensity and personal growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholtes, Dianna; Browne, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Continuing bonds (CBs) expression appears especially prevalent among bereaved parents. This study examined the relationship between CBs and grief outcomes for this population. A customized CB scale for use with bereaved parents was derived from the literature. Three hundred fifty-four participants (10 male) recruited from online support groups completed an internet questionnaire. A 3-factor dimensional structure of CB (internalized, externalized, and transference) was supported. Structural equation modeling showed clear links between internalized bonds and a more positive grief status; externalized bonds showing an opposite relationship. Weaker effects were found for child's age, time since death, and type of death.

  14. Growth of PETROBRAS international gas reserves in Latin America; Crescimento das reservas internacionais de gas da PETROBRAS na America Latina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabe, Claudio [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio), RJ (Brazil); Syrio, Julio Cesar; Pizarro, Jorge Oscar de Sant' Anna [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    This paper presents the work developed at PETROBRAS International to increase the natural gas reserves and production in Latin America. The results indicate that the company's new strategic focus has been providing an increase of its production of natural gas in 270%, in which daily production in September reached 84192 boed. The same happened with reserves in 2002, that increased in 37,2 billions m{sup 3}. This growth was mainly due to incorporation of Perez Conpanc and Petrolera Santa Fe. (author)

  15. Effects of post-harvest handling conditions on internalization and growth of Salmonella enterica in tomatoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Internalization during post-harvest handling is a significant route of tomato contamination by phytopathogens and foodborne human pathogens. This study was conducted to determine the effect of immersion time, immersion depth, and the temperature differential between bacterial suspension and tomato p...

  16. Unequal worlds. Poverty, growth, inequality and the role of international cooperation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zoomers, E.B.

    2012-01-01

    What are the possible consequences of observed shifting patterns of poverty for the post-2015 agenda and possibly, related changes in inequality within and between countries? On the basis of the analytical part of this advisory report the Dutch Advisory Council on International Affairs (AIV)

  17. Small town, big campaigns: the rise and growth of an international advertising industry in Amsterdam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roling, R.W.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an historical analysis of international advertising by describing four waves of advertising from early twentieth-century Western capitalism. This analysis is necessary to understand the dynamics within the organizational structure of the global advertising industry, with a

  18. Control of the population growth and women in Mexico: international organizations, civil society and public policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Ileana García Gossio

    2015-07-01

    subjects of the public demographic policies. For their part, the international organizations considered them, at first, as the key factor in birth control, but also as a beginning of development. Later, women were identified in public discourse according to feminist demands: as subjects with rights and with positions with a generic perspective.

  19. Marital Conflict and Growth in Children's Internalizing Symptoms: The Role of Autonomic Nervous System Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sheikh, Mona; Keiley, Margaret; Erath, Stephen; Dyer, W. Justin

    2013-01-01

    We assessed trajectories of children's internalizing symptoms, indexed through anxiety and depression, with a focus on the role of interactions between interparental marital conflict, children's sympathetic nervous system activity indexed by skin conductance level (SCL), and parasympathetic nervous system activity indexed by respiratory sinus…

  20. The Role of International Volunteers in the Growth of Surgical Capacity in Post-earthquake Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derenoncourt, Max Herby; Carré, Roselaine; Condé-Green, Alexandra; Rodnez, Alain; Sifri, Ziad C; Baltazar, Gerard A

    2016-04-01

    The 2010 Haiti earthquake severely strained local healthcare infrastructure. In the wake of this healthcare crisis, international organizations provided volunteer support. Studies demonstrate that this support improved short-term recovery; however, it is unclear how long-term surgical capacity has changed and what role volunteer surgical relief efforts have played. Our goal was to investigate the role of international surgical volunteers in the increase of surgical capacity following the 2010 Haiti earthquake. We retrospectively analyzed the operative reports of 3208 patients at a general, trauma and critical care hospital in Port-au-Prince from June 2010 through December 2013. We collected data on patient demographics and operation subspecialty. Surgeons and anesthesiologists were categorized by subspecialty training and as local healthcare providers or international volunteers. We performed analysis of variance to detect changes in surgical capacity over time and to estimate the role volunteers play in these changes. Overall number of monthly operations increased over the 2.5 years post-earthquake. The percentage of orthopedic operations declined while the percentage of other subspecialty operations increased (p = 0.0003). The percentage of operations performed by international volunteer surgeons did not change (p = 0.51); however, the percentage of operations staffed by volunteer anesthesiologists declined (p = 0.058). The percentage of operations performed by matching specialty- and subspecialty-trained international volunteers has not changed (p = 0.54). Haitian post-earthquake local and overall surgical capacity has steadily increased, particularly for provision of subspecialty operations. Surgical volunteers have played a consistent role in the recovery of surgical capacity. An increased focus on access to surgical services and resource-allocation for long-term surgical efforts particularly in the realm of subspecialty surgery may lead to full recovery of

  1. Implementation of international financial reporting standards (IFRS) and their impact on economic growth

    OpenAIRE

    Gorgieva-Trajkovska, Olivera; Miteva-Kacarski, Emilija

    2011-01-01

    The confidence in the transparency and integrity of financial reporting is critically important to global financial stability and sound economic growth. The global financial crisis has led many economic and financial market participants to reexamine their governance, practices, and standards. Effective financial reporting depends on high quality accounting standards as well as the consistent and faithful application and rigorous independent audit and enforcement of those standards. ...

  2. An international literature survey on energy-economic growth nexus: Evidence from country-specific studies

    OpenAIRE

    Omri, Anis

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, an extensive review of the rapidly growing in the literature on the nexus between economic growth and four types of energy consumption : total energy consumption, electricity consumption, nuclear consumption, and renewable consumption. The various hypotheses associated with the causal interaction between these variables along with a survey of the empirical literature are also discussed. The survey focuses on country coverage, periods, modeling techniques, and empirical conclusi...

  3. Economic Growth, Energy Consumption, Financial Development, International Trade and CO2 Emissions, in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad, Shahbaz; Qazi Muhammad Adnan, Hye; Aviral Kumar, Tiwari

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the linkages among economic growth, energy consumption, financial development, trade openness and CO2 emissions over the period of 1975Q1-2011Q4 in the case of Indonesia. The stationary analysis is performed by using Zivot-Andrews structural break unit root test and the ARDL bounds testing approach for a long run relationship between the series in the presence of structural breaks. The causal relation between the concerned variable is examined by the VECM Granger causality...

  4. Physiological and Growth Characteristics of Brassica rapa 'Tokyo Bekana' Grown within the International Space Station Crop Production System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgner, Samuel Edward

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) as well as many other space research organizations across the globe have advanced the idea of using plants as a method of bioregenerative life support for decades. Currently, the International Space Station (ISS) houses a small vegetable-production system named "Veggie." Veggie is equipped with a light-emitting diode (LED) cap, a reservoir that provides water to the root zone through capillary action, and adjustable bellows that enclose the growing environment allowing for controlled air circulation. However, Veggie draws air from the cabin space and ISS environmental conditions are controlled for human comfort and function as opposed to optimal plant growth conditions. During the first experiment within Veggie aboard the ISS, temperature averaged 22 ºC (+/- 0.25), relative humidity was 43.9% (+/- 3.7), and CO2 fluctuated around 2,800 ppm (+/- 678). Preliminary trials selected Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa 'Tokyo Bekana') as the most suitable cultivar for production within Veggie based on its horticultural, organoleptic, and nutritional characteristics. Introducing this cultivar into ISS conditions (mimicked in a growth chamber) led to extensive chlorosis, necrosis, and growth inhibition. Attempts to ameliorate this observed stress by changing light spectrum, slow-release fertilizer composition, and growth substrate were unsuccessful suggesting that this issue could be attributed to environmental conditions. Analyzing effects of CO2 at 450, 900 and 1350 ppm on growth, photosynthesis, and stomatal conductance in this cultivar revealed a poor ability to acclimate to this environmental variable. In order to develop an efficient system of plant production aboard the ISS or other potential spacecraft, a more efficient CO2 regulation system must be implemented within the cabin space or within a defined plant production area and species should be screened based on their ability to thrive in such an environment.

  5. International Trade, Pollution Accumulation and Sustainable Growth: A VAR Estimation from the Pearl River Delta Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Hui; Tian, Lu

    2018-03-01

    In order to investigate international trade influence in the regional environment. This paper constructs a vector auto-regression (VAR) model and estimates the equations with the environment and trade data of the Pearl River Delta Region. The major mechanisms to the lag are discussed and the fit simulation of the environmental change by the international impulse is given. The result shows that impulse of pollution-intensive export deteriorates the environment continuously and impulse of such import improves it. These effects on the environment are insignificantly correlated with contemporary regional income but significantly correlative to early-stage trade feature. To a typical trade-dependent economy, both export and import have hysteresis influence in the regional environment. The lagged impulse will change environmental development in the turning point, maximal pollution level and convergence.

  6. International and domestic technology transfers and productivity growth: Empirical evidence for Flanders

    OpenAIRE

    Belderbos, Rene; Van Roy, Vincent; Duvivier, Florence

    2008-01-01

    We examine the drivers of international and domestic technology transfer strategies of firms and the impact of these transfers on firms’ productivity performance in a sample of 457 Flemish innovating firms during 2003-2006. We use data on innovating firms from the 4th Community Innovation Survey for Flanders. In this survey, responding firms indicate whether they sourced technology externally and if so, whether the source of this technology was domestic or foreign. Technology transfers may oc...

  7. International commodity prices, growth and the outbreak of Civil War in Sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Markus Brückner; Antonio Ciccone

    2007-01-01

    To learn more about the effect of economic conditions on civil war, we examine whether Sub-Saharan civil wars are more likely to start following downturns in the international price of countries’ main export commodities. The data show a robust effect of commodity price downturns on the outbreak of civil wars. We also find that Sub-Saharan countries are more likely to see civil wars following economic downturns in their main OECD export destinations.

  8. International Commodity Prices, Growth, and the Outbreak of Civil War in Sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Markus Brückner; Antonio Ciccone

    2009-01-01

    To learn more about the effect of economic conditions on civil war, we examine whether Sub-Saharan civil wars are more likely to start following downturns in the international price of countries main export commodities. The data show a robust effect of commodity price downturns on the outbreak of civil wars. We also find that Sub-Saharan countries are more likely to see civil wars following economic downturns in their main OECD export destinations.

  9. A study on the causal effect of urban population growth and international trade on environmental pollution: evidence from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boamah, Kofi Baah; Du, Jianguo; Boamah, Angela Jacinta; Appiah, Kingsley

    2018-02-01

    This study seeks to contribute to the recent literature by empirically investigating the causal effect of urban population growth and international trade on environmental pollution of China, for the period 1980-2014. The Johansen cointegration confirmed a long-run cointegration association among the utilised variables for the case of China. The direction of causality among the variables was, consequently, investigated using the recent bootstrapped Granger causality test. This bootstrapped Granger causality approach is preferred as it provides robust and accurate critical values for statistical inferences. The findings from the causality analysis revealed the existence of a bi-directional causality between import and urban population. The three most paramount variables that explain the environmental pollution in China, according to the impulse response function, are imports, urbanisation and energy consumption. Our study further established the presence of an N-shaped environmental Kuznets curve relationship between economic growth and environmental pollution of China. Hence, our study recommends that China should adhere to stricter environmental regulations in international trade, as well as enforce policies that promote energy efficiency in the urban residential and commercial sector, in the quest to mitigate environmental pollution issues as the economy advances.

  10. Height, weight and BMI percentiles and nutritional status relative to the international growth references among Pakistani school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushtaq, Muhammad Umair; Gull, Sibgha; Mushtaq, Komal; Abdullah, Hussain Muhammad; Khurshid, Usman; Shahid, Ubeera; Shad, Mushtaq Ahmad; Akram, Javed

    2012-03-19

    Child growth is internationally recognized as an important indicator of nutritional status and health in populations. This study was aimed to compare age- and gender-specific height, weight and BMI percentiles and nutritional status relative to the international growth references among Pakistani school-aged children. A population-based study was conducted with a multistage cluster sample of 1860 children aged five to twelve years in Lahore, Pakistan. Smoothed height, weight and BMI percentile curves were obtained and comparison was made with the World Health Organization 2007 (WHO) and United States' Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 2000 (USCDC) references. Over- and under-nutrition were defined according to the WHO and USCDC references, and the International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) cut-offs. Simple descriptive statistics were used and statistical significance was considered at P references. Mean differences from zero for height-, weight- and BMI-for-age z score values relative to the WHO and USCDC references were significant (P reference were closer to zero and the present study as compared to the USCDC reference. Mean differences between weight-for-age (0.19, 95% CI 0.10-0.30) and BMI-for-age (0.21, 95% CI 0.11-0.30) z scores relative to the WHO and USCDC references were significant. Over-nutrition estimates were higher (P reference as compared to the USCDC reference (17% vs. 15% overweight and 7.5% vs. 4% obesity) while underweight and thinness/wasting were lower (P reference as compared to the USCDC reference (7% vs. 12% underweight and 10% vs. 13% thinness). Significantly lower overweight (8%) and obesity (5%) prevalence and higher thinness grade one prevalence (19%) was seen with use of the IOTF cut-offs as compared to the WHO and USCDC references. Mean difference between height-for-age z scores and difference in stunting prevalence relative to the WHO and USCDC references was not significant. Pakistani school-aged children significantly differed

  11. Oncolytic viruses for cancer therapy II. Cell-internal factors for conditional growth in neoplastic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Stephanie A; Gromeier, Matthias

    2005-04-01

    Recent advances in our understanding of virus-host interactions have fueled new studies in the field of oncolytic viruses. The first part of this review explained how cell-external factors, such as cellular receptors, influence tumor tropism and specificity of oncolytic virus candidates. In the second part of this review, we focus on cellinternal factors that mediate tumor-specific virus growth. An oncolytic virus must be able to replicate within cancerous cells and kill them without collateral damage to healthy surrounding cells. This desirable property is inherent to some proposed oncolytic viral agents or has been achieved by genetic manipulation in others.

  12. Exploration of plant growth and development using the European Modular Cultivation System facility on the International Space Station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittang, A-I; Iversen, T-H; Fossum, K R; Mazars, C; Carnero-Diaz, E; Boucheron-Dubuisson, E; Le Disquet, I; Legué, V; Herranz, R; Pereda-Loth, V; Medina, F J

    2014-05-01

    Space experiments provide a unique opportunity to advance our knowledge of how plants respond to the space environment, and specifically to the absence of gravity. The European Modular Cultivation System (EMCS) has been designed as a dedicated facility to improve and standardise plant growth in the International Space Station (ISS). The EMCS is equipped with two centrifuges to perform experiments in microgravity and with variable gravity levels up to 2.0 g. Seven experiments have been performed since the EMCS was operational on the ISS. The objectives of these experiments aimed to elucidate phototropic responses (experiments TROPI-1 and -2), root gravitropic sensing (GRAVI-1), circumnutation (MULTIGEN-1), cell wall dynamics and gravity resistance (Cell wall/Resist wall), proteomic identification of signalling players (GENARA-A) and mechanism of InsP3 signalling (Plant signalling). The role of light in cell proliferation and plant development in the absence of gravity is being analysed in an on-going experiment (Seedling growth). Based on the lessons learned from the acquired experience, three preselected ISS experiments have been merged and implemented as a single project (Plant development) to study early phases of seedling development. A Topical Team initiated by European Space Agency (ESA), involving experienced scientists on Arabidopsis space research experiments, aims at establishing a coordinated, long-term scientific strategy to understand the role of gravity in Arabidopsis growth and development using already existing or planned new hardware. © 2014 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  13. Growth and nutritional status, and their association with lung function: a study from the international Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goutaki, Myrofora; Halbeisen, Florian S; Spycher, Ben D; Maurer, Elisabeth; Belle, Fabiën; Amirav, Israel; Behan, Laura; Boon, Mieke; Carr, Siobhan; Casaulta, Carmen; Clement, Annick; Crowley, Suzanne; Dell, Sharon; Ferkol, Thomas; Haarman, Eric G; Karadag, Bulent; Knowles, Michael; Koerner-Rettberg, Cordula; Leigh, Margaret W; Loebinger, Michael R; Mazurek, Henryk; Morgan, Lucy; Nielsen, Kim G; Phillipsen, Maria; Sagel, Scott D; Santamaria, Francesca; Schwerk, Nicolaus; Yiallouros, Panayiotis; Lucas, Jane S; Kuehni, Claudia E

    2017-12-01

    Chronic respiratory disease can affect growth and nutrition, which can influence lung function. We investigated height, body mass index (BMI), and lung function in patients with primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD).In this study, based on the international PCD (iPCD) Cohort, we calculated z-scores for height and BMI using World Health Organization (WHO) and national growth references, and assessed associations with age, sex, country, diagnostic certainty, age at diagnosis, organ laterality and lung function in multilevel regression models that accounted for repeated measurements.We analysed 6402 measurements from 1609 iPCD Cohort patients. Height was reduced compared to WHO (z-score -0.12, 95% CI -0.17 to -0.06) and national references (z-score -0.27, 95% CI -0.33 to -0.21) in male and female patients in all age groups, with variation between countries. Height and BMI were higher in patients diagnosed earlier in life (p=0.026 and pnutrition are affected adversely in PCD patients from early life and are both strongly associated with lung function. If supported by longitudinal studies, these findings suggest that early diagnosis with multidisciplinary management and nutritional advice could improve growth and delay disease progression and lung function impairment in PCD. Copyright ©ERS 2017.

  14. Interaction of TiO2 nanoparticles with the marine microalga Nitzschia closterium: Growth inhibition, oxidative stress and internalization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia, Bin; Chen, Bijuan; Sun, Xuemei; Qu, Keming; Ma, Feifei; Du, Meirong

    2015-01-01

    The toxicity of TiO 2 engineered nanoparticles (NPs) to the marine microalga Nitzschia closterium was investigated by examining growth inhibition, oxidative stress and uptake. The results indicated that the toxicity of TiO 2 particles to algal cells significantly increased with decreasing nominal particle size, which was evidenced by the 96 EC 50 values of 88.78, 118.80 and 179.05 mg/L for 21 nm, 60 nm and 400 nm TiO 2 particles, respectively. The growth rate was significantly inhibited when the alga was exposed to 5 mg/L TiO 2 NPs (21 nm). Measurements of antioxidant enzyme activities showed that superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD) activities were first induced and subsequently inhibited following exposure to 5 mg/L TiO 2 NPs. The depletion of antioxidant enzymes with a concomitant increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and reactive oxygen species (ROS) posed a hazard to membrane integrity. A combination of flow cytometry analysis, transmission electron microscopy and Ti content measurement indicated that TiO 2 NPs were internalized in N. closterium cells. The level of extracellular ROS, which was induced by TiO 2 NPs under visible light, was negligible when compared with the intracellular ROS level (accounting for less than 6.0% of the total ROS level). These findings suggest that elevated TiO 2 nanotoxicity in marine environments is related to increased ROS levels caused by internalization of TiO 2 NPs. - Highlights: • Inhibition of marine microalgae by TiO 2 NPs and bulk particles was evaluated. • Aggregation of TiO 2 NPs and bulk particles was observed in marine algal test medium. • TiO 2 NPs induced damage to algal cell membranes as detected by flow cytometry. • Increased TiO 2 nanotoxicity to algal cells was caused by internalization of NPs

  15. International Commodities Prices, Growth and the Outbreak of Civil War in Sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Markus Bruckner; Antonio Ciccone

    2010-01-01

    To learn more about the effect of economic conditions on civil war, we examine whether Sub-Saharan civil wars are more likely to start following downturns in the international price of countries’ main export commodities. The data show a robust effect of commodity price downturns on the outbreak of civil wars. We also find that Sub-Saharan countries are more likely to see civil wars following economic downturns in their main OECD export destinations.

  16. International studies of prenatal exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and fetal growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyunok; Jedrychowski, Wieslaw; Spengler, John; Camann, David E; Whyatt, Robin M; Rauh, Virginia; Tsai, Wei-Yann; Perera, Frederica P

    2006-11-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitously distributed human mutagens and carcinogens. However, lack of adequate air monitoring data has limited understanding of the effects of airborne PAHs on fetal growth. To address this gap in knowledge, we examined the association between prenatal exposure to airborne PAHs and birth weight, birth length, and birth head circumference, respectively, in Krakow, Poland, and New York City (NYC). The parallel prospective cohort studies enrolled nonsmoking, healthy, and nonoccupationally exposed women and their newborns. Personal air monitoring of pregnant women was conducted over 48 hr. To control for maternal environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure, we excluded those with umbilical cord plasma cotinine concentrations > 25 ng/mL. Mean cord plasma cotinine concentrations in both ethnic groups were growth impairment has been linked to child developmental and health problems. Thus, substantial health benefits would result from global reduction of PAH emissions.

  17. International

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    This rubric reports on 10 short notes about international economical facts about nuclear power: Electricite de France (EdF) and its assistance and management contracts with Eastern Europe countries (Poland, Hungary, Bulgaria); Transnuclear Inc. company (a 100% Cogema daughter company) acquired the US Vectra Technologies company; the construction of the Khumo nuclear power plant in Northern Korea plays in favour of the reconciliation between Northern and Southern Korea; the delivery of two VVER 1000 Russian reactors to China; the enforcement of the cooperation agreement between Euratom and Argentina; Japan requested for the financing of a Russian fast breeder reactor; Russia has planned to sell a floating barge-type nuclear power plant to Indonesia; the control of the Swedish reactor vessels of Sydkraft AB company committed to Tractebel (Belgium); the renewal of the nuclear cooperation agreement between Swiss and USA; the call for bids from the Turkish TEAS electric power company for the building of the Akkuyu nuclear power plant answered by three candidates: Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL), Westinghouse (US) and the French-German NPI company. (J.S.)

  18. Growth performance and development of internal organ, and gastrointestinal tract of calf supplementation with calcium propionate at various stages of growth period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xin; Chen, Wanbao; Zhang, Yawei; Jiang, Yuming; Meng, Qingxiang; Zhou, Zhenming

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the effects of calcium propionate (CaP) supplementation on performance, the development of the internal organ, and gastrointestinal tract of calves at various stages of growth period, 54 male Jersey calves (age = 7 ± 1 d, body weight(BW) = 23.1 ± 1.2 kg) were randomly allocated to three treatment groups. While control calves were fed basis dietary with no additives (0CaP), other treatment calves were fed basis dietary supplementation with CaP at 50 (5CaP) or 100 (10CaP) g kg−1 dry matter. The experiment lasted 160 d and was divided into three feeding stages: Stage 1 (d 0 to 30), Stage 2 (d 31 to 90), and Stage 3 (d 91 to160). Six calves from each group were randomly selected and slaughtered on days 30, 90, and 160 when at the conclusion of each experimental feeding stage. The BW of calves increased with 10CaP after feeding 90 d, whereas it increased with 5CaP and 10CaP at feeding 120d and 160d compared to 0CaP. The 10CaP group improved average daily gain (ADG) of calves at stage 2, and d120-160 of stage 3 compared with the 0CaP group. The ADG of 5CaP was greater than the 0CaP group only at 120–160 d of stage 3 compared with the 0CaP group. The results of feed efficiency were in agreed with ADG as no dry matter intake difference at all stages of growth period. The 10CaP treatment exhibited the greatest spleen weight among the treatment at the end of the experiment; the liver weight of the 5CaP and 10CaP calves at feeding 90 d and of the 10CaP calves at feeding 160 d and were greater than those of the 0CaP animals. The CaP at the tested doses increased the rumen weight after feeding 90d of Jersey calves, and also improved the development of intestine. In conclusion, dietary supplementation with calcium propionate at the tested doses caused a beneficial effect in the growth performance and gastrointestinal tract traits of Jersey calves, thus to add 10% CaP before feeding 90 days was better and 5% CaP supplementation was expected at the period for

  19. International Conferences and Young Scientists Schools on Computational Information Technologies for Environmental Sciences (CITES) as a professional growth instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordov, E. P.; Lykosov, V. N.; Genina, E. Yu; Gordova, Yu E.

    2017-11-01

    The paper describes a regular events CITES consisting of young scientists school and international conference as a tool for training and professional growth. The events address the most pressing issues of application of information-computational technologies in environmental sciences and young scientists’ training, diminishing a gap between university graduates’ skill and concurrent challenges. The viability of the approach to the CITES organization is proved by the fact that single event organized in 2001 turned into a series, quite a few young participants successfully defended their PhD thesis and a number of researchers became Doctors of Science during these years. Young researchers from Russia and foreign countries show undiminishing interest to these events.

  20. Growth inhibition of HeLa cell by internalization of Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG Tokyo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asahina Izumi

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intravesical BCG immunotherapy is effective for preventing recurrence and progression in none muscle-invasive bladder cancer but the dosing schedule and duration of treatment remain empirical. The mechanisms by which intravesical BCG treatment mediates antitumor activity are currently poorly understood. Results HeLa cell infected with Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guérin(BCG Tokyo which were different multiplicity of infection(MOI. Proliferation of HeLa cell reduced in a dose-dependent manner by live BCG. The cytoplasm of the HeLa cell showed variety lysosomal stages by internalized and interacted BCG. Conclusion Proliferated Live BCG secreted the protein and depressed the growth of tumor. The possibility for clinical introduction of BCG therapy for carcinoma reported with review of literature.

  1. Early growth hormone treatment start in childhood growth hormone deficiency improves near adult height: analysis from NordiNet® International Outcome Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polak, Michel; Blair, Jo; Kotnik, Primoz; Pournara, Effie; Pedersen, Birgitte Tønnes; Rohrer, Tilman R

    2017-11-01

    To investigate the effect of age at growth hormone (GH) treatment start on near adult height (NAH) in children with isolated GH deficiency (GHD). NordiNet® International Outcome Study (IOS) (Nbib960128), a non-interventional, multicentre study, evaluates the long-term effectiveness and safety of Norditropin® (somatropin) (Novo Nordisk A/S) in the real-life clinical setting. Patients ( n  = 172) treated to NAH (height at ≥18 years, or height velocity start (early (girls, 10; boys, >11)) and GHD severity (start (as a categorical and continuous variable) on NAH standard deviation score (SDS). Age at treatment start had a marked effect on NAH SDS; NAH SDS achieved by patients starting treatment early ( n  = 40 (boys, 70.0%); least squares mean (standard error) -0.76 (0.14)) exceeded that achieved by those starting later (intermediate, n  = 42 (boys, 57.1%); -1.14 (0.15); late, n  = 90 (boys, 68.9%); -1.21 (0.10)). Multiple regression analysis showed a significant association between NAH SDS and age at treatment start ( P  start. Early initiation of GH treatment in children with isolated GHD improves their chance of achieving their genetic height potential. © 2017 The authors.

  2. Introduction [to tenth anniversary report of the International Cooperative Group on Cyclic Crack Growth in pressure vessel steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomkins, B.

    1989-01-01

    The formation and development of the International Cooperative Group on Cyclic Crack Growth Rate (ICCGR) is outlined. By 1976, it had become apparent that the number of variables that affected the cyclic crack growth rate in reactor water was large and that the rate of data generation was very slow, because it was the low frequency regime that was of major practical importance. A clear need was recognised for a forum to exchange ideas and data, but most important of all to explore collaborative testing to minimise duplication and achieve economies. It was from the outset recognised as a complex and therefore very expensive materials testing area. In response to this situation, it was agreed to set up a group which was formally chartered as the ICCGR in 1978. What had begun as a sharing of views rapidly became an active collaborative group concerned to resolve three issues: 1. development of a consistent method for data reduction; 2. the practice of consistent testing methods; 3. a physical understanding of the underlying mechanisms involved in the process. Three Task Groups were eventually formed to address these issues; Test Methods, Mechanisms, Data Collection and Evaluation. (author)

  3. Cellular Internalization of Fibroblast Growth Factor-12 Exerts Radioprotective Effects on Intestinal Radiation Damage Independently of FGFR Signaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakayama, Fumiaki; Umeda, Sachiko; Yasuda, Takeshi; Fujita, Mayumi; Asada, Masahiro; Meineke, Viktor; Imamura, Toru; Imai, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Several fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) were shown to inhibit radiation-induced tissue damage through FGF receptor (FGFR) signaling; however, this signaling was also found to be involved in the pathogenesis of several malignant tumors. In contrast, FGF12 cannot activate any FGFRs. Instead, FGF12 can be internalized readily into cells using 2 cell-penetrating peptide domains (CPP-M, CPP-C). Therefore, this study focused on clarifying the role of FGF12 internalization in protection against radiation-induced intestinal injury. Methods and Materials: Each FGF or peptide was administered intraperitoneally to BALB/c mice in the absence of heparin 24 hours before or after total body irradiation with γ rays at 9 to 12 Gy. Several radioprotective effects were examined in the jejunum. Results: Administration of FGF12 after radiation exposure was as effective as pretreatment in significantly promoting intestinal regeneration, proliferation of crypt cells, and epithelial differentiation. Two domains, comprising amino acid residues 80 to 109 and 140 to 169 of FGF12B, were identified as being responsible for the radioprotective activity, so that deletion of both domains from FGF12B resulted in a reduction in activity. Interestingly, these regions included the CPP-M and CPP-C domains, respectively; however, CPP-C by itself did not show an antiapoptotic effect. In addition, FGF1, prototypic FGF, possesses a domain corresponding to CPP-M, whereas it lacks CPP-C, so the fusion of FGF1 with CPP-C (FGF1/CPP-C) enhanced cellular internalization and increased radioprotective activity. However, FGF1/CPP-C reduced in vitro mitogenic activity through FGFRs compared with FGF1, implying that FGFR signaling might not be essential for promoting the radioprotective effect of FGF1/CPP-C. In addition, internalized FGF12 suppressed the activation of p38α after irradiation, resulting in reduced radiation-induced apoptosis. Conclusions: These findings indicate that FGF12 can protect the

  4. Cellular Internalization of Fibroblast Growth Factor-12 Exerts Radioprotective Effects on Intestinal Radiation Damage Independently of FGFR Signaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakayama, Fumiaki, E-mail: f_naka@nirs.go.jp [Advanced Radiation Biology Research Program, Research Center for Charged Particle Therapy, Chiba (Japan); Umeda, Sachiko [Advanced Radiation Biology Research Program, Research Center for Charged Particle Therapy, Chiba (Japan); Yasuda, Takeshi [Radiation Emergency Medicine Research Program, Research Center for Radiation Emergency Medicine, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Fujita, Mayumi [Advanced Radiation Biology Research Program, Research Center for Charged Particle Therapy, Chiba (Japan); Asada, Masahiro [Signaling Molecules Research Group, Biomedical Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba (Japan); Meineke, Viktor [Bundeswehr Institute of Radiobiology affiliated to the University of Ulm, Munich (Germany); Imamura, Toru [Signaling Molecules Research Group, Biomedical Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba (Japan); Imai, Takashi [Advanced Radiation Biology Research Program, Research Center for Charged Particle Therapy, Chiba (Japan)

    2014-02-01

    Purpose: Several fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) were shown to inhibit radiation-induced tissue damage through FGF receptor (FGFR) signaling; however, this signaling was also found to be involved in the pathogenesis of several malignant tumors. In contrast, FGF12 cannot activate any FGFRs. Instead, FGF12 can be internalized readily into cells using 2 cell-penetrating peptide domains (CPP-M, CPP-C). Therefore, this study focused on clarifying the role of FGF12 internalization in protection against radiation-induced intestinal injury. Methods and Materials: Each FGF or peptide was administered intraperitoneally to BALB/c mice in the absence of heparin 24 hours before or after total body irradiation with γ rays at 9 to 12 Gy. Several radioprotective effects were examined in the jejunum. Results: Administration of FGF12 after radiation exposure was as effective as pretreatment in significantly promoting intestinal regeneration, proliferation of crypt cells, and epithelial differentiation. Two domains, comprising amino acid residues 80 to 109 and 140 to 169 of FGF12B, were identified as being responsible for the radioprotective activity, so that deletion of both domains from FGF12B resulted in a reduction in activity. Interestingly, these regions included the CPP-M and CPP-C domains, respectively; however, CPP-C by itself did not show an antiapoptotic effect. In addition, FGF1, prototypic FGF, possesses a domain corresponding to CPP-M, whereas it lacks CPP-C, so the fusion of FGF1 with CPP-C (FGF1/CPP-C) enhanced cellular internalization and increased radioprotective activity. However, FGF1/CPP-C reduced in vitro mitogenic activity through FGFRs compared with FGF1, implying that FGFR signaling might not be essential for promoting the radioprotective effect of FGF1/CPP-C. In addition, internalized FGF12 suppressed the activation of p38α after irradiation, resulting in reduced radiation-induced apoptosis. Conclusions: These findings indicate that FGF12 can protect the

  5. Distal femoral flexion deformity from growth disturbance treated with a two-level osteotomy and internal lengthening nail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Austin T. Fragomen

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Salter Harris fractures of the distal femur can lead to growth disturbance with resulting leg length inequality and knee deformity. We have looked at a case series (3 of patients who presented with a distal femur flexion malunion and shortening treated with a distal femoral osteotomy and plating and a proximal femoral osteotomy with a magnetic internal lengthening nail. Does a two-level osteotomy and internal fixation approach provide a reliable result both radiographically and functionally? The average knee extension loss was 12°, LLD 47 mm, PDFA 65°, MAD 2 mm. The patients were treated with an acute, posterior, opening wedge osteotomy of the distal femur stabilized with a lateral plate and screws and grafted with cancellous chips and putty. A second osteotomy was made proximally in the femur percutaneously, and the internal lengthening nail was inserted. Lengthening was done at approximately 1 mm/day. The average extension gain was 12°; amount of lengthening at the proximal site was 40 mm, LLD was 3 mm. The average PDFA was 81°, and MAD 3 mm. There were no complications. Functional results were excellent. Bone healing index was 24 days/cm. The average distance from the distal osteotomy to the joint line was 57 mm. The technique of two-level femur osteotomy stabilized with a plate and lengthening nail yielded excellent results with acceptable correction of deformity, full knee extension, and improved function. There were no complications including implant failure, infection, need for blood transfusion, knee stiffness, nonunion, compartment syndrome, or malunion.

  6. Interaction of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles with the marine microalga Nitzschia closterium: Growth inhibition, oxidative stress and internalization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xia, Bin, E-mail: xiabin@ysfri.ac.cn; Chen, Bijuan; Sun, Xuemei; Qu, Keming; Ma, Feifei; Du, Meirong

    2015-03-01

    The toxicity of TiO{sub 2} engineered nanoparticles (NPs) to the marine microalga Nitzschia closterium was investigated by examining growth inhibition, oxidative stress and uptake. The results indicated that the toxicity of TiO{sub 2} particles to algal cells significantly increased with decreasing nominal particle size, which was evidenced by the 96 EC{sub 50} values of 88.78, 118.80 and 179.05 mg/L for 21 nm, 60 nm and 400 nm TiO{sub 2} particles, respectively. The growth rate was significantly inhibited when the alga was exposed to 5 mg/L TiO{sub 2} NPs (21 nm). Measurements of antioxidant enzyme activities showed that superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD) activities were first induced and subsequently inhibited following exposure to 5 mg/L TiO{sub 2} NPs. The depletion of antioxidant enzymes with a concomitant increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and reactive oxygen species (ROS) posed a hazard to membrane integrity. A combination of flow cytometry analysis, transmission electron microscopy and Ti content measurement indicated that TiO{sub 2} NPs were internalized in N. closterium cells. The level of extracellular ROS, which was induced by TiO{sub 2} NPs under visible light, was negligible when compared with the intracellular ROS level (accounting for less than 6.0% of the total ROS level). These findings suggest that elevated TiO{sub 2} nanotoxicity in marine environments is related to increased ROS levels caused by internalization of TiO{sub 2} NPs. - Highlights: • Inhibition of marine microalgae by TiO{sub 2} NPs and bulk particles was evaluated. • Aggregation of TiO{sub 2} NPs and bulk particles was observed in marine algal test medium. • TiO{sub 2} NPs induced damage to algal cell membranes as detected by flow cytometry. • Increased TiO{sub 2} nanotoxicity to algal cells was caused by internalization of NPs.

  7. Predicting growth rates and growth boundary of Listeria monocytogenes - An international validation study with focus on processed and ready-to-eat meat and seafood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mejlholm, Ole; Gunvig, A.; Borggaard, C.

    2010-01-01

    they take into account. The most complex model included the effect of nine environmental parameters and it performed better than the other less complex models both for prediction of maximum specific growth rates (mu(max) values) and for the growth boundary of L. monocytogenes. For this model bias...... and accuracy factors for growth rate predictions were 1.0 and 1.5, respectively, and 89% of the growth/no-growth responses were correctly predicted. The performance of three other models, including the effect of five to seven environmental parameters, was considered acceptable with bias factors of 1.2 to 1......The performance of six predictive models for Listeria monocytogenes was evaluated using 1014 growth responses of the pathogen in meat, seafood, poultry and dairy products. The performance of the growth models was closely related to their complexity i.e. the number of environmental parameters...

  8. Identification of phenylalanine 346 in the rat growth hormone receptor as being critical for ligand-mediated internalization and down-regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allevato, G; Billestrup, N; Goujon, L

    1995-01-01

    The functional significance of growth hormone (GH) receptor (GHR) internalization is unknown; therefore, we have analyzed domains and individual amino acids in the cytoplasmic region of the rat GHR required for ligand-mediated receptor internalization, receptor down-regulation, and transcriptional......, the ability to stimulate transcription of the serine protease inhibitor 2.1 promoter by the GHR was not affected by the phenylalanine 346 to alanine mutation. These results demonstrate that phenylalanine 346 is essential for GHR internalization and down-regulation but not for transcriptional signaling......, suggesting that ligand-mediated endocytosis is not a prerequisite for GH-induced gene transcription....

  9. The Effect of Jatropha Curcas Seed Meal on Growth Performance and Internal Organs Development and Lesions in Broiler Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CR Barros

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The meal of Jatropha curcas (JCM seed is a by-product of the biofuel industry and may potentially to be used as animal feed. However, its toxicity has prevented its utilization in animal nutrition mainly due to its high concentration of phorbol esters. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of the dietary inclusion of JCM on the growth performance, feed digestibility and internal organs development of broilers. Thirty two 48-d-old Ross 308 broiler chickens housed in 16 pens (2 birds/pen were used in this study. Birds were randomly allocated to dietary treatments comprising four JCM levels (negative control, 25, 50, or 100 g JCM/kg of diet for four weeks. Results showed that increasing levels of JCM had a negative impact on broiler performance, reducing live weight, weight gain, and feed intake. Treatments led to a decrease of the relative weight of testis and spleen, and to an increase in heart relative weight. In broilers fed diets containing JCM, the testis were atrophic, presenting reduced size of the seminiferous tubule, which were small and lined within active sertoli cells and rare spermatogonia. This study illustrates the negative impact of diets containing JCM on broiler performance and JCM pathological effects on several organs.

  10. The satisfactory growth and development at 2 years of age of the INTERGROWTH-21st Fetal Growth Standards cohort support its appropriateness for constructing international standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villar, José; Cheikh Ismail, Leila; Staines Urias, Eleonora; Giuliani, Francesca; Ohuma, Eric O; Victora, Cesar G; Papageorghiou, Aris T; Altman, Douglas G; Garza, Cutberto; Barros, Fernando C; Puglia, Fabien; Ochieng, Roseline; Jaffer, Yasmin A; Noble, Julia A; Bertino, Enrico; Purwar, Manorama; Pang, Ruyan; Lambert, Ann; Chumlea, Cameron; Stein, Alan; Fernandes, Michelle; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Kennedy, Stephen H

    2018-02-01

    The World Health Organization recommends that human growth should be monitored with the use of international standards. However, in obstetric practice, we continue to monitor fetal growth using numerous local charts or equations that are based on different populations for each body structure. Consistent with World Health Organization recommendations, the INTERGROWTH-21 st Project has produced the first set of international standards to date pregnancies; to monitor fetal growth, estimated fetal weight, Doppler measures, and brain structures; to measure uterine growth, maternal nutrition, newborn infant size, and body composition; and to assess the postnatal growth of preterm babies. All these standards are based on the same healthy pregnancy cohort. Recognizing the importance of demonstrating that, postnatally, this cohort still adhered to the World Health Organization prescriptive approach, we followed their growth and development to the key milestone of 2 years of age. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the babies in the INTERGROWTH-21 st Project maintained optimal growth and development in childhood. In the Infant Follow-up Study of the INTERGROWTH-21 st Project, we evaluated postnatal growth, nutrition, morbidity, and motor development up to 2 years of age in the children who contributed data to the construction of the international fetal growth, newborn infant size and body composition at birth, and preterm postnatal growth standards. Clinical care, feeding practices, anthropometric measures, and assessment of morbidity were standardized across study sites and documented at 1 and 2 years of age. Weight, length, and head circumference age- and sex-specific z-scores and percentiles and motor development milestones were estimated with the use of the World Health Organization Child Growth Standards and World Health Organization milestone distributions, respectively. For the preterm infants, corrected age was used. Variance components analysis was

  11. Use of national and international growth charts for studying height in European children: development of up-to-date European height-for-age charts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonthuis, Marjolein; van Stralen, Karlijn J; Verrina, Enrico; Edefonti, Alberto; Molchanova, Elena A; Hokken-Koelega, Anita C S; Schaefer, Franz; Jager, Kitty J

    2012-01-01

    Growth charts based on data collected in different populations and time periods are key tools to assess children's linear growth. We analyzed the impact of geographic factors and the secular trend on height-for-age charts currently used in European populations, developed up-to-date European growth charts, and studied the effect of using different charts in a sample of growth retarded children. In an international survey we obtained 18 unique national height-for-age charts from 28 European countries and compared them with charts from the World Health Organization (WHO), Euro-Growth reference, and Centers of Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). As an example, we obtained height data from 3,534 children with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) from 13 countries via the ESPN/ERA-EDTA registry, a patient group generally suffering from growth retardation. National growth charts showed a clear secular trend in height (mean height increased on average 0.6 cm/decade) and a North-South height gradient in Europe. For countries without a recent (>1990) national growth chart novel European growth charts were constructed from Northern and Southern European reference populations, reflecting geographic height differences in mean final height of 3.9 cm in boys and 3.8 cm in girls. Mean height SDS of 2- to 17-year-old ESRD patients calculated from recent national or derived European growth charts (-1.91, 95% CI: -1.97 to -1.85) was significantly lower than when using CDC or WHO growth charts (-1.55, 95% CI: -1.61 to -1.49) (Pdiseased European children.

  12. The Share of Internal Organs and Viscera in Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus Mykiss Reared in Different Growth Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Cocan

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In this experiment we followed the influence of growth system on the share of internal organs and viscera by the total body mass on rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss. The importance of this study results from the need to reach as favourable slaughter yield. For this, were slaughtered 25 rainbow trout from the Fiad trout farm (conventional farm, Bistriţa-Năsăud County (control group – M, respectively 25 rainbow trout grown in a recirculating system arranged in Cluj-Napoca (experimental group – E. Body weight of the studied specimens was 228.96±1.21 g – M group, respectively 229.40±1.24 g – E group, the difference between the two groups being insignificant (p>0.05. The slaughter yield was favorable for E group – 90.55±0.03%, compared with M group – 89.23±0.05% (p<0.001. We analyzed the total gravimetric share of the internal organs and viscera at trout from the two groups and individual weights of esophagus, stomach, pyloric caeca, medium intestine and duodenum, rectum, liver, pancreas, heart, spleen, air bladder and kidney. The results showed a higher share of this organs at trout from the Fiad trout farm (M group, except stomach (2.38±0.01g – M group vs. 2.45±0.008 g – E group; p<0.05, and liver respectively (4.83±0.02 g – M group vs. 5.36±0.04 g – E group; p<0.001. In accordance with the values obtained, the resulting conclusion is that in the recirculating system, due to optimal environmental conditions, trout have a higher slaughter yield compared with those of conventional farm, accumulating in the same time fat reserves deposited in the liver.

  13. Antagonistic Growth Effects of Mercury and Selenium in Caenorhabditis elegans Are Chemical-Species-Dependent and Do Not Depend on Internal Hg/Se Ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, Lauren H; Diringer, Sarah E; Rogers, Laura A; Hsu-Kim, Heileen; Pan, William K; Meyer, Joel N

    2016-03-15

    The relationship between mercury (Hg) and selenium (Se) toxicity is complex, with coexposure reported to reduce, increase, and have no effect on toxicity. Different interactions may be related to chemical compound, but this has not been systematically examined. Our goal was to assess the interactive effects between the two elements on growth in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, focusing on inorganic and organic Hg (HgCl2 and MeHgCl) and Se (selenomethionine, sodium selenite, and sodium selenate) compounds. We utilized aqueous Hg/Se dosing molar ratios that were either above, below, or equal to 1 and measured the internal nematode total Hg and Se concentrations for the highest concentrations of each Se compound. Observed interactions were complicated, differed between Se and Hg compounds, and included greater-than-additive, additive, and less-than-additive growth impacts. Biologically significant interactions were only observed when the dosing Se solution concentration was 100-25,000 times greater than the dosing Hg concentration. Mitigation of growth impacts was not predictable on the basis of internal Hg/Se molar ratio; improved growth was observed at some internal Hg/Se molar ratios both above and below 1. These findings suggest that future assessments of the Hg and Se relationship should incorporate chemical compound into the evaluation.

  14. Identification of phenylalanine 346 in the rat growth hormone receptor as being critical for ligand-mediated internalization and down-regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allevato, G; Billestrup, N; Goujon, L

    1995-01-01

    The functional significance of growth hormone (GH) receptor (GHR) internalization is unknown; therefore, we have analyzed domains and individual amino acids in the cytoplasmic region of the rat GHR required for ligand-mediated receptor internalization, receptor down-regulation, and transcriptional...... signaling. When various mutated GHR cDNAs were transfected stably into Chinese hamster ovary cells or transiently into monkey kidney (COS-7) cells, internalization of the GHR was found to be dependent upon a domain located between amino acids 318 and 380. Mutational analysis of aromatic residues...... in this domain revealed that phenylalanine 346 is required for internalization. Receptor down-regulation in transiently transfected COS-7 cells was also dependent upon the phenylalanine 346 residue of the GHR, since no GH-induced down-regulation was observed in cells expressing the F346A GHR mutant. In contrast...

  15. Time as a Barrier to International Trade and Economic Growth: The Role of Information and Communication Technology in Reducing Time Cost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nashwa Mostafa Ali Mohamed

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The study examines the relationship between reducing time and international trade. Primarily, through the role of information and communication technology, within the trade facilities, in reducing the time required for import and export, and discussing its impact on economic growth. The Two-Stages Least Squares method was used to estimate the econometric model for 16 Arab countries during the period (2005-2011. The study concluded that the information and communication technology leads to time and cost reduction, thereby increasing the value of merchandise exports and imports. In addition, there is a positive relationship between the decline in time and economic growth.

  16. Optimal product variety and economic growth: the trade-off between internal and external economies of scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, H.L.F.; Nahuis, R.

    2002-01-01

    We develop a model to analyze the social optimality of growth and product variety. The model contains two sectors, one assembly sector producing a homogeneous consumption good, and one intermediate goods sector producing differentiated inputs. Both growth which results from R & D performed in the

  17. Report on the meetings of the International Organization for Crystal Growth Executive Council and General Assembly held during ICCGE-18 in Nagoya (Japan) August 7-12, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabkowska, Hanna A.

    2017-06-01

    The International Organization for Crystal Growth (IOCG) Executive Committee, Council and General Assembly met in the week 7-12 August 2016. Participation quorum was achieved at all the meetings. The following changes in the Constitution, already approved at ICCGE-17 for the second time, were moved to be presented to the IOCG General Assembly for the third and final approval. 7.a The International Conference on Crystal Growth, ICCG is renamed to the International Conference on Crystal Growth and Epitaxy (ICCGE) and all references to ICCG in the constitution and By-laws are changed to ICCGE. 7.b The IOCG Constitution is amended such that Article III Section 1 will read as "The Executive Committee shall consist of the five Officers, the Past President, the Chairman or Chairmen of the past ICCGE the Chairman or Chairmen of the next ICCGE and up to ten additional members elected by the Council." 7.c The IOCG Constitution is amended such that Article IV Section 1 includes the sentence: "The Council may also include ex-officio members as described in the Bylaws" There was no change to the Bylaws. All provisional amendments are included in the IOCG Constitution and Bylaws with different text colors. The amendments that were approved for the third time and are definitive are inserted with no special color as part of standard text.

  18. The height-, weight-, and BMI-for-age of Polish school-aged children and adolescents relative to international and local growth references.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulaga, Zbigniew; Litwin, Mieczysław; Tkaczyk, Marcin; Rózdzyńska, Agnieszka; Barwicka, Katarzyna; Grajda, Aneta; Swiader, Anna; Gurzkowska, Beata; Napieralska, Ewelina; Pan, Huiqi

    2010-03-04

    The growth of children is an indicator of health and society's wellbeing. Growth references are useful in monitoring a child's growth, which is a very important part of child care. Poland's growth references are not updated regularly. Although several growth reference ranges have been developed in Poland over recent years, sampling was restricted to urban populations of major cities. The aim of this study was to assess how well Polish children match with, or diverge from, regional charts and to compare them with international growth references. Four Polish and two international (WHO 2007 and USCDC2000) growth references were used to calculate the height, weight and BMI z-scores in a recent, large, population-representative sample of school-aged children and adolescents in Poland. The distributions of z-scores were analysed with descriptive and inferential statistical methods. Mean height z-scores calculated with the use of the WHO 2007 and USCDC2000 references were positive and significantly different from zero over the entire age range. The mean height z-score was closest to zero in the Poznan reference for boys (0.05) and Warszawa reference for girls (0.01). Median weight z-scores were positive under all weight references over the entire age range with only the exception of 18-year-old girls' weight z-score calculated relative to USCDC2000. Median BMI z-scores were positive in males in early childhood, decreasing with age. In the case of girls, the median BMI z-score calculated using WHO 2007 and USCDC2000 was close to zero in early childhood, decreased in adolescents and reached minimum values at age 18 years. Median BMI z-scores calculated with the use of the Lodz reference fluctuated between 0.05 and 0.2 over the studied age range. In this contemporary sample of Polish school-aged children, distributions of height, weight and BMI differed from those of children from the international growth references. These differences should be considered when using the

  19. Use of national and international growth charts for studying height in European children: development of up-to-date European height-for-age charts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjolein Bonthuis

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Growth charts based on data collected in different populations and time periods are key tools to assess children's linear growth. We analyzed the impact of geographic factors and the secular trend on height-for-age charts currently used in European populations, developed up-to-date European growth charts, and studied the effect of using different charts in a sample of growth retarded children. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In an international survey we obtained 18 unique national height-for-age charts from 28 European countries and compared them with charts from the World Health Organization (WHO, Euro-Growth reference, and Centers of Disease Control and Prevention (CDC. As an example, we obtained height data from 3,534 children with end-stage renal disease (ESRD from 13 countries via the ESPN/ERA-EDTA registry, a patient group generally suffering from growth retardation. National growth charts showed a clear secular trend in height (mean height increased on average 0.6 cm/decade and a North-South height gradient in Europe. For countries without a recent (>1990 national growth chart novel European growth charts were constructed from Northern and Southern European reference populations, reflecting geographic height differences in mean final height of 3.9 cm in boys and 3.8 cm in girls. Mean height SDS of 2- to 17-year-old ESRD patients calculated from recent national or derived European growth charts (-1.91, 95% CI: -1.97 to -1.85 was significantly lower than when using CDC or WHO growth charts (-1.55, 95% CI: -1.61 to -1.49 (P<0.0001. CONCLUSION: Differences between height-for-age charts may reflect true population differences, but are also strongly affected by the secular trend in height. The choice of reference charts substantially affects the clinical decision whether a child is considered short-for-age. Therefore, we advocate using recent national or European height-for-age charts derived from recent national data when monitoring growth

  20. Differences in internalization and growth of Escherichia coli O157:H7 within the apoplast of edible plants, spinach and lettuce, compared with the model species Nicotiana benthamiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Kathryn M; Crozier, Louise; Marshall, Jacqueline; Merget, Bernhard; Holmes, Ashleigh; Holden, Nicola J

    2017-05-01

    Internalization of food-borne bacteria into edible parts of fresh produce plants represents a serious health risk. Therefore, internalization of verocytotoxigenic E. coli O157:H7 isolate Sakai was assessed in two species associated with outbreaks, spinach (Spinacia oleracea) and lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and compared to the model species Nicotiana benthamiana. Internalization occurred in the leaves and roots of spinach and lettuce throughout a 10 day time-course. The plant species, tissue type and inoculum dose all impacted the outcome. A combination of low inoculum dose (~10 2 CFU) together with light microscopy imaging highlighted marked differences in the fate of endophytic E. coli O157:H7 Sakai. In the fresh produce species, bacterial growth was restricted but viable cells persisted over 20 days, whereas there was > 400-fold (~2.5 Log 10 ) increase in growth in N. benthamiana. Colony formation occurred adjacent to epidermal cells and mesophyll cells or close to vascular bundles of N. benthamiana and contained components of a biofilm matrix, including curli expression and elicitation, extracellular DNA and a limited presence of cellulose. Together the data show that internalization is a relevant issue in crop production and that crop species and tissue need to be considered as food safety risk parameters. © 2017 The Authors. Microbial Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  1. Migrants' dreams and planners' nightmares: international labour migration in the Arab world and the growth of two sets of cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findlay, A M

    1985-11-01

    "The author investigates how trends in international labour migration in the Arab world have been paralleled by new directions in migration research....[She] seeks to evaluate why the urban impact of international migration is so great and outlines the considerable potential which exists for pursuing research on this aspect of urban development." excerpt

  2. International Conference on Crystal Growth (10th) Held in San Diego, California, on 16-21 August 1992

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-07-14

    Crystal.lografia i Diposits Minerals Universitat de Barcelona. Facultat de Geologia Marti i Franques s~n 08028 Barcelona, Spain Borates form an...8217,eir 1) DA. Weitz, (.S. Huag, MY Lin and J. Sung. Phys. Rev. Hausdorff fractal dimension (DH). We found that 1.9 5 DH e< COUPLING INTERACTION OF...observation technique is employed to study the frac- describe the fractal growth in our system. The NLA process tal growth in a thin isothermal aqueous

  3. Growth and Expansion of the International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project and the Newly Organized International Reactor Physics Experiment Evaluation Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Blair Briggs; Lori Scott; Yolanda Rugama; Enrico Satori

    2007-05-01

    Since ICNC 2003, the International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project (ICSBEP) has continued to expand its efforts and broaden its scope. Criticality-alarm / shielding type benchmarks and fundamental physics measurements that are relevant to criticality safety applications are not only included in the scope of the project, but benchmark data are also included in the latest version of the handbook. A considerable number of improvements have been made to the searchable database, DICE and the criticality-alarm / shielding benchmarks and fundamental physics measurements have been included in the database. There were 12 countries participating on the ICSBEP in 2003. That number has increased to 18 with recent contributions of data and/or resources from Brazil, Czech Republic, Poland, India, Canada, and China. South Africa, Germany, Argentina, and Australia have been invited to participate. Since ICNC 2003, the contents of the “International Handbook of Evaluated Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiments” have increased from 350 evaluations (28,000 pages) containing benchmark specifications for 3070 critical or subcritical configurations to 442 evaluations (over 38,000 pages) containing benchmark specifications for 3957 critical or subcritical configurations, 23 criticality-alarm-placement / shielding configurations with multiple dose points for each, and 20 configurations that have been categorized as fundamental physics measurements that are relevant to criticality safety applications in the 2006 Edition of the ICSBEP Handbook. Approximately 30 new evaluations and 250 additional configurations are expected to be added to the 2007 Edition of the Handbook. Since ICNC 2003, a reactor physics counterpart to the ICSBEP, The International Reactor Physics Experiment Evaluation Project (IRPhEP) was initiated. Beginning in 1999, the IRPhEP was conducted as a pilot activity by the by the Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Nuclear Energy

  4. Growth and Expansion of the International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project and the Newly Organized International Reactor Physics Experiment Evaluation Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J. Blair Briggs; Lori Scott; Yolanda Rugama; Enrico Satori

    2007-01-01

    Since ICNC 2003, the International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project (ICSBEP) has continued to expand its efforts and broaden its scope. Criticality-alarm/shielding type benchmarks and fundamental physics measurements that are relevant to criticality safety applications are not only included in the scope of the project, but benchmark data are also included in the latest version of the handbook. A considerable number of improvements have been made to the searchable database, DICE and the criticality-alarm/shielding benchmarks and fundamental physics measurements have been included in the database. There were 12 countries participating on the ICSBEP in 2003. That number has increased to 18 with recent contributions of data and/or resources from Brazil, Czech Republic, Poland, India, Canada, and China. South Africa, Germany, Argentina, and Australia have been invited to participate. Since ICNC 2003, the contents of the ''International Handbook of Evaluated Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiments'' have increased from 350 evaluations (28,000 pages) containing benchmark specifications for 3070 critical or subcritical configurations to 442 evaluations (over 38,000 pages) containing benchmark specifications for 3957 critical or subcritical configurations, 23 criticality-alarm-placement/shielding configurations with multiple dose points for each, and 20 configurations that have been categorized as fundamental physics measurements that are relevant to criticality safety applications in the 2006 Edition of the ICSBEP Handbook. Approximately 30 new evaluations and 250 additional configurations are expected to be added to the 2007 Edition of the Handbook. Since ICNC 2003, a reactor physics counterpart to the ICSBEP, The International Reactor Physics Experiment Evaluation Project (IRPhEP) was initiated. Beginning in 1999, the IRPhEP was conducted as a pilot activity by the by the Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Nuclear Energy Agency

  5. Growth hormone abuse and bodybuilding as aetiological factors in the development of bilateral internal laryngocoeles. A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moor, James W; Khan, M Iqbal J

    2005-07-01

    A 36-year-old man presented with hoarseness and stridor. He was an elite professional bodybuilder and admitted to having abusing anabolic steroids and growth hormone in the recent past. A CT scan showed bilateral laryngocoeles. The patient was initially managed with intravenous corticosteroids and broad-spectrum antibiotics, and the stridor resolved sufficiently to permit discharge from the hospital. He proceeded to undergo endoscopic marsupialisation of his laryngocoeles and to date has made a full recovery. This is the first reported case where anabolic steroid and growth hormone abuse combined with an elite bodybuilder's exercise regime has been implicated in the aetiology of bilateral laryngocoeles.

  6. National and international capital shortages slowing, perhaps preventing, American economic growth and leading to a decline in the domestic standard of living

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    It is shown that many of the basic industries that the U.S. has relied upon in the past for economic growth and development are now so obsolete, so old, and so technologically inferior to that of foreign competitors that the U.S. is losing its international competitive position. The most conservative estimate suggests that it will require $325 billion between now and 1982 merely to meet existing and currently anticipated pollution requirements and that it would take an additional $197 billion to replace outmoded existing facilities.

  7. International Charitable Connections: the Growth in Number, and the Countries of Operation, of English and Welsh Charities Working Overseas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifford, David

    2016-07-01

    This paper provides new empirical evidence about English and Welsh charities operating internationally. It answers basic questions unaddressed in existing work: how many charities work overseas, and how has this number changed over time? In which countries do they operate, and what underlies these geographical patterns? It makes use of a unique administrative dataset which records every country in which each charity operates. The results show a sizeable increase in the number of charities working overseas since the mid-1990s. They show that charities are much more likely to work in countries with colonial and linguistic ties to the UK, and less likely to work in countries with high levels of instability or corruption. This considerable geographical unevenness, even after controlling for countries' population size and poverty, illustrates the importance of supply-side theories and of institutional factors to an understanding of international voluntary activity. The paper also serves to provide a new perspective on international charitable operation: while it is the large development charities that are household names, the results reveal the extent of small-scale 'grassroots' registered charitable activity that links people and places internationally, and the extent of activity in 'developed' as well as 'developing' country contexts.

  8. Protein Internal Dynamics Associated With Pre-System Glass Transition Temperature Endothermic Events: Investigation of Insulin and Human Growth Hormone by Solid State Hydrogen/Deuterium Exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Rui; Grobelny, Pawel J; Bogner, Robin H; Pikal, Michael J

    2016-11-01

    Lyophilized proteins are generally stored below their glass transition temperature (T g ) to maintain long-term stability. Some proteins in the (pure) solid state showed a distinct endotherm at a temperature well below the glass transition, designated as a pre-T g endotherm. The pre-T g endothermic event has been linked with a transition in protein internal mobility. The aim of this study was to investigate the internal dynamics of 2 proteins, insulin and human growth hormone (hGH), both of which exhibit the pre-T g endothermic event with onsets at 50°C-60°C. Solid state hydrogen/deuterium (H/D) exchange of both proteins was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy over a temperature range from 30°C to 80°C. A distinct sigmoidal transition in the extent of H/D exchange had a midpoint of 56.1 ± 1.2°C for insulin and 61.7 ± 0.9°C for hGH, suggesting a transition to greater mobility in the protein molecules at these temperatures. The data support the hypothesis that the pre-T g event is related to a transition in internal protein mobility associated with the protein dynamical temperature. Exceeding the protein dynamical temperature is expected to activate protein internal motion and therefore may have stability consequences. Copyright © 2016 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Economic growth, inequality, and the economic position of the poor in 1985-1995: an international perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kangas, Olli

    2002-01-01

    The "trickle-down" theory argues that wider income differences are good for economic growth, that growth is good for the poor, and therefore that widening income disparities benefit the poor. The theory thus fulfills Rawlsian principles of justice. The purpose of this article is to present a preliminary evaluation of the correctness of this theory. Income data for 21 countries were obtained from the Luxembourg Income Study, for the period 1985-95. The results of the analysis show no clear connections between inequality and economic prosperity. The wider the inequality, the worse is the absolute income of the poor. In this respect the theory is falsified. However, the trickle-down theory is partly correct in arguing for the beneficial effects of economic growth for the poor: the absolute income level of the poor is dependent on what is happening in the national economy, while the incidence and depth of poverty in advanced countries are not so much associated with economic factors as a result of national social policy programs.

  10. The height-, weight- and BMI-for-age of preschool children from Nizhny Novgorod city, Russia, relative to the international growth references.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazarova, Ekaterina; Kuzmichev, Yury

    2016-03-17

    Monitoring a child's growth status helps to diagnose diseases and implement curative and preventive measures. The aim of this study was to assess how well preschool children of Russian city (Nizhny Novgorod) match with, or diverge from, international growth charts (WHO2006,2007; USCDC2000). Cross-sectional study included 3,130 children aged 3-7 years attending municipal preschools of Nizhny Novgorod, the city in the European part of Russia. The study was held from February 2012 to October 2013. The international WHO2006,2007 and USCDC2000 growth references were used to calculate the height, weight and BMI z-scores. The distributions of z-scores were analysed with descriptive and inferential statistical methods. Z-score equal 0.25 was considered as a benchmark for clinically significant differences. Means height z-scores calculated with the use of WHO2006, 2007 and USCDC2000 references were above the 50th centile (0.13 - 0.47) for both boys and girls. The means height z-scores was less than 0.25 SD above the 50th centile only for WHO2006. Stunting prevalence (the height-for-age z-score less than -2) was slightly higher under WHO2006 (3-4%) than under USCDC 2000 (2-3%). Stunting prevalence among children aged 5-7 years was similar under WHO2007 and USCDC2000 references (1%). For boys and girls aged 3-4 years the thinness prevalence, using WHO2006 was 2%, using USCDC2000 was 6% (p reference (13-15%) than under USCDC2000 (12-14%). In the case of age 5-7 years the overweight prevalence under WHO2007 (13-12 %) was lower than under USCDC2000 (14%). Obesity prevalence under WHO2006,2007 (3-4%) was slightly higher than that under USCDC2000 reference (2-3%). Preschoolers' distribution by groups of normal weight, overweight, obesity didn't significantly differ among the references (chi-square). The growth assessment of children aged 3-7 years attending municipal preschools of the Russian city Nizhny Novgorod under the international references (WHO2006,2007; USCDC 2000

  11. National and International Inequalities in Income and Wealth in a Global Growth with Free Trade and National Inflation Policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WEI-BIN ZHANG

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to study global monetary economic growth with heterogeneous households under free trade. The paper examines dynamics of global and national wealth and income distribution in association with monetary economic growth within an integrated framework. Money is introduced via the cash-in-advance (CIA approach. We show that the dynamics of the world economy (with any number of countries is described by a set of differential equations. We simulate equilibrium of the global economy with three countries and two types of households in each country. We also demonstrate effects of changes in technology and inflation policy. Our model demonstrates, as Grier and Grier (2007 empirically show, that the global economy exhibits absolute divergence in output levels if some determinants of steady state income are different. The study shows that as one country increases its inflation policy, the equilibrium values of the global output, consumption level and physical wealth are enhanced, and the rate of interest is lowered. The country which raises its inflation policy benefits in every aspect, but the other countries suffer in some aspects and benefit in others.

  12. Internal prostatic architecture on transrectal ultrasonography predicts future prostatic growth: natural history of prostatic hyperplasia in a 15-year longitudinal community-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuta, Fumimasa; Masumori, Naoya; Mori, Mitsuru; Tsukamoto, Taiji

    2011-05-01

    From 1992 to 1993, we conducted a cross-sectional community-based study to clarify the prevalence of benign prostatic hyperplasia in Japanese men aged 40-79. Based on the results, we hypothesized that the internal prostatic architecture (IPA) on transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS) would predict future prostatic growth. We investigated the changes in prostate volume (PV) over time and validated our hypothesis on predictors for future prostatic growth. Of 319 participants in the initial study, the PV of 104 men was evaluated by TRUS with approximately a 15-year follow-up in the current study. We categorized prostates into three groups based on the IPA: group 1, invisible transition zone (TZ); group 2, visible TZ with an unclear border; and group 3, visible TZ with a clear border. Overall PV significantly increased from 17.4  ml to 23.9  ml (P  <  0.001). The median PV changes by age decade (40s, 50s, 60s, and 70s) were 5.5, 5.6, 8.6, and 11.1  ml, respectively. Those by baseline PV < 20  ml, 20-25  ml, and ≥ 25  ml were 5.3, 9.8, and 14.7  ml, respectively. Those by baseline IPA for group 1, group 2, and group 3 were 4.7, 6.5, and 17.3  ml, respectively. Multiple linear regression analysis indicated that PV (P  =  0.027) and the IPA (P  <  0.001) at baseline were independent predictors for future prostatic growth. This was the first study by longitudinal community-based study that the PV in Japanese men increased during 15 years. The IPA on TRUS is useful for predicting future prostatic growth. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. Comparison of US Birth Weight References and the International Fetal and Newborn Growth Consortium for the 21st Century Standard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kozuki, Naoko; Katz, Joanne; Christian, Parul

    2015-01-01

    ) status. OBJECTIVES: To compare the birth weight distributions of the INTERGROWTH-21st international standard to commonly used US references and examine the differences in the prevalence and neonatal mortality risk of SGA status (below the 10th percentile of a population reference). DESIGN, SETTING...... variance. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: We examine neonatal mortality (death within the first 28 days after birth) as the main outcome measure. RESULTS: The pooled SGA prevalence was 23.7% (95% CI, 16.5%-31.0%) using the INTERGROWTH-21st standard compared with 36.0% (95% CI, 27.0%-45.0%) with the US 2000...... and no significant change in the associated neonatal mortality risk, resulting in a decrease in the percentage of neonatal death attributable to SGA. Our study sheds light on how previously published studies on SGA status may be reinterpreted with the introduction of this new birth weight standard....

  14. Cultured bovine brain capillary endothelial cells (BBCEC) - a blood-brain barrier model for studying the binding and internalization of insulin and insulin-like growth factor 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keller, B.T.; Borchardt, R.T.

    1987-01-01

    Cultured bovine brain capillary endothelial cells (BBCEC) have previously been reported by their laboratory as a working model for studying nutrient and drug transport and metabolism at the blood-brain barrier. In the present study, they have utilized this culture system to investigate the binding and internalization of [ 125 I]-labelled insulin (INS) and insulin-like growth factor 1(IGF-1) by BBCEC. After 2 hrs at 23 0 C, the specific binding of INS and IGF-1 was 1.6% and 13.6%, respectively. At 37 0 C, the maximum specific binding was 0.9% for INS and 5.8% for IGF-1. Using an acid-wash technique to assess peptide internalization, it was observed that, at 37 0 C, approximately 60% of the bound INS rapidly became resistant to acid treatment, a value which was constant over 2 hr. With IGF-1, a similar proportion of the bound material, 62%, became resistant by 30 min, but subsequently decreased to 45% by 2 hr. Scatchard analysis of competitive binding studies indicated the presence of two binding sites for each protein, having K/sub d/'s of 0.82 nM and 19.2 nM for INS and 0.39 nM and 3.66 nM for IGF-1. Little change in the amount of INS binding was observed over a four-day interval as the cultures became a confluent monolayer. The present report of binding and internalization of these proteins suggests that the BBCEC may utilize a receptor-mediated process to internalize and/or transport (transcytosis) INS and IGF-1 from the circulation

  15. Pars plana vitrectomy combined with internal limiting membrane peeling for recurrent macular edema due to branch retinal vein occlusion after antivascular endothelial growth factor treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirakata Y

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Yukari Shirakata,1 Kouki Fukuda,1 Tomoyoshi Fujita,1 Yuki Nakano,1 Hiroyuki Nomoto,2 Hidetaka Yamaji,3 Fumio Shiraga,4 Akitaka Tsujikawa1 1Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University, Miki-cho, 2Nomoto Eye Clinic, Himeji, 3Department of Ophthalmology, Shirai Eye Hospital, Mitoyo, 4Department of Ophthalmology, Okayama University, Okayama, Japan Purpose: To evaluate the anatomic and functional outcomes of pars plana vitrectomy combined with internal limiting membrane peeling for recurrent macular edema (ME due to branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO after intravitreal injections of antivascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF agents. Methods: Twenty-four eyes of 24 patients with treatment-naive ME from BRVO were treated with intravitreal injections of anti-VEGF agents. Recurred ME was treated with pars plana vitrectomy combined with internal limiting membrane peeling. Results: After the surgery, ME was significantly reduced at 1 month (P=0.031 and the reduction increased with time (P=0.007 at the final visit. With the reduction in ME, treated eyes showed a slow improvement in visual acuity (VA. At the final visit, improvement in VA was statistically significant compared with baseline (P=0.048. The initial presence of cystoid spaces, serous retinal detachment, or subretinal hemorrhage under the fovea, as well as retinal perfusion status, showed no association with VA improvement. However, the presence of epiretinal membrane showed a significant association with the visual recovery. Although eyes without epiretinal membrane showed visual improvement (-0.10±0.32 in logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution [logMAR], eyes with epiretinal membrane showed greater visual improvement (-0.38±0.12 in logMAR, P=0.012. Conclusion: For recurrent ME due to BRVO after anti-VEGF treatment, particularly when accompanied by epiretinal membrane, pars plana vitrectomy combined with internal limiting membrane peeling might be a

  16. Heat and drought stress during growth of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) does not promote internalization of Escherichia coli O157:H7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guodong; Ma, Li; Beuchat, Larry R; Erickson, Marilyn C; Phelan, Vanessa H; Doyle, Michael P

    2009-12-01

    Studies were done to determine the effect of heat stress on internalization of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in lettuce subjected to different watering practices during growth. Iceberg and romaine lettuce were grown in sandy soil in an environmental chamber at 23 degrees C during the day and 7 degrees C at night, with a 12-h photoperiod. Thirty days after transplanting seedlings, potting soil was inoculated with a five-strain mixture of green fluorescent protein-labeled E. coli O157:H7 at populations of 4 and 6 log CFU/g of soil. Lettuce plants were exposed to one of two temperature stress regimes: 36 degrees C during the day and 15 degrees C at night for 2 days, or 32 degrees C during the day and 15 degrees C at night for 3 days, both with a 12-h photoperiod. Control plants were held at 23 degrees C during the day and 7 degrees C at night for 3 days. Plants were either watered daily or not watered during the heat stress and control treatments. E. coli O157:H7 was detected by enrichment in all inoculated soil and rhizosphere samples from plants grown in inoculated soil. Less E. coli O157:H7 was detected in inoculated heat-stressed soil than in control soil. From inoculated pots, all leaf surfaces and macerated leaves that had been surface sanitized were negative for E. coli O157:H7. All surface-sanitized macerated roots from control samples and from 143 of 144 samples of inoculated samples were negative for E. coli O157:H7. Heat stress during growth of lettuce did not promote or enhance internalization of E. coli O157:H7, regardless of the moisture content in the soil.

  17. Vizantin inhibits bacterial adhesion without affecting bacterial growth and causes Streptococcus mutans biofilm to detach by altering its internal architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takenaka, Shoji; Oda, Masataka; Domon, Hisanori; Ohsumi, Tatsuya; Suzuki, Yuki; Ohshima, Hayato; Yamamoto, Hirofumi; Terao, Yutaka; Noiri, Yuichiro

    2016-11-11

    An ideal antibiofilm strategy is to control both in the quality and quantity of biofilm while maintaining the benefits derived from resident microflora. Vizantin, a recently developed immunostimulating compound, has also been found to have antibiofilm property. This study evaluated the influence on biofilm formation of Streptococcus mutans in the presence of sulfated vizantin and biofilm development following bacterial adhesion on a hydroxyapatite disc coated with sulfated vizantin. Supplementation with sulfated vizantin up to 50 μM did not affect either bacterial growth or biofilm formation, whereas 50 μM sulfated vizantin caused the biofilm to readily detach from the surface. Sulfated vizantin at the concentration of 50 μM upregulated the expression of the gtfB and gtfC genes, but downregulated the expression of the gtfD gene, suggesting altered architecture in the biofilm. Biofilm development on the surface coated with sulfated vizantin was inhibited depending on the concentration, suggesting prevention from bacterial adhesion. Among eight genes related to bacterial adherence in S. mutans, expression of gtfB and gtfC was significantly upregulated, whereas the expression of gtfD, GbpA and GbpC was downregulated according to the concentration of vizantin, especially with 50 μM vizantin by 0.8-, 0.4-, and 0.4-fold, respectively. These findings suggest that sulfated vizantin may cause structural degradation as a result of changing gene regulation related to bacterial adhesion and glucan production of S. mutans. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Growth and endocrine disorders in thalassemia: The international network on endocrine complications in thalassemia (I-CET position statement and guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo De Sanctis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The current management of thalassemia includes regular transfusion programs and chelation therapy. It is important that physicians be aware that endocrine abnormalities frequently develop mainly in those patients with significant iron overload due to poor compliance to treatment, particularly after the age of 10 years. Since the quality of life of thalassemia patients is a fundamental aim, it is vital to monitor carefully their growth and pubertal development in order to detect abnormalities and to initiate appropriate and early treatment. Abnormalities should be identified and treatment initiated in consultation with a pediatric or an adult endocrinologist and managed accordingly. Appropriate management shall put in consideration many factors such as age, severity of iron overload, presence of chronic liver disease, thrombophilia status, and the presence of psychological problems. All these issues must be discussed by the physician in charge of the patient′s care, the endocrinologist and the patient himself. Because any progress in research in the field of early diagnosis and management of growth disorders and endocrine complications in thalassemia should be passed on to and applied adequately to all those suffering from the disease, on the 8 May 2009 in Ferrara, the International Network on Endocrine Complications in Thalassemia (I-CET was founded in order to transmit the latest information on these disorders to the treating physicians. The I-CET position statement outlined in this document applies to patients with transfusion-dependent thalassemia major to help physicians to anticipate, diagnose, and manage these complications properly.

  19. Creep fracture mechanics parameters for internal axial surface cracks in pressurized cylinders and creep crack growth analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen Jianfeng; Tu Shantung; Gong Jianming; Sun Wei

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, a low alloy Cr-Mo steel cylinder subjected to internal pressure at high temperature with a semi-elliptical crack located at the inner surface is considered. The creep crack driving force parameter C*-integrals calculated by finite element (FE) method, are compared with results from previous studies, which indicates that empirical equations may be inaccurate under some conditions. A total of 96 cases for wide practical ranges of geometry and material parameters are performed to obtain systematic FE results of C*-integral, which are tabulated and formulated in this paper. It is observed that the maximum C*-integral may occur neither at the deepest point nor at the surface point when the aspect ratio is large enough and the value of C*-integral is significantly sensitive to the crack depth ratio. Furthermore, based on the proposed equations for estimating C*-integrals and a step-by-step analysis procedure, crack profile development, crack depth, crack length and remaining life prediction are obtained for surface cracks with various initial aspect ratios. It is found that when the crack depth ratio is increased, there is no obvious convergence of crack aspect ratio observed. The magnitude of half crack length increment is always minor compared with the crack depth increment. In addition, the remaining life is much more dependent on the surface crack depth than on the surface crack length. - Highlights: → Existing empirical equations of C*-integral for surface cracks may be inaccurate. → Systematic FE results of C*-integral from 96 cases are tabulated and formulated. → Maximum C*-integral may not occur at deepest/surface point if a/c is large enough. → The value of C*-integral is significantly sensitive to the crack depth ratio. → Crack profile development, crack size and remaining life prediction are obtained.

  20. International Monetary Fund sacrifices higher growth, employment, spending, and public investment in health systems in order to keep inflation unnecessarily low.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowden, Rick

    2010-01-01

    The International Monetary Fund's response to evidence on the impact of its programs on public health fails to address the fundamental criticisms about its policies. The IMF's demand for borrowers to achieve extremely low inflation targets is founded on very little empirical evidence in the peer-reviewed literature. The low-inflation policies privilege international creditors over domestic debtors and short-term priorities over long-term development goals, and contain high social costs, referred to by economists as a "sacrifice ratio." For example, governments' raising of interest rates to bring down inflation undermines the ability of domestic firms to expand production and employment and thus "sacrifices" higher economic growth and higher tax revenues and unnecessarily constrains domestic health spending. During financial crisis, most countries seek to lower interest rates to stimulate the economy, the opposite of the IMF's general advice. Perversely, compliance with IMF policies has become a prerequisite for receiving donor aid. Critiques of the IMF express significant concerns that IMF fiscal and monetary policies are unduly restrictive. Health advocates must weigh in on such matters and pressure their finance ministries, particularly in the G7, to take steps at the level of the IMF Executive Board to revisit and modify its policy framework on deficits and inflation. Such reforms are crucial to enable countries to generate more domestic resources while the global health community searches for ways to support strengthening health system capacity.

  1. THE INDIAN GROWTH MIRACLE AND ENDOGENOUS GROWTH

    OpenAIRE

    Jakob B. Madsen; Shishir Saxena; James B. Ang

    2008-01-01

    Using over half a century of R&D data for India, this paper examines the extent to which India's recent growth experience can be explained by R&D, international R&D spillovers, catch-up to the technology frontier and financial liberalization. Furthermore, the paper also tests whether any of the competing second-generation endogenous growth theories can explain India's growth experience. The findings provide support for Schumpeterian growth theory and indicate that the recent high growth rates...

  2. Report of a workshop on nuclear power growth and nonproliferation held at the Woodrow Wilson international center for scholars, Washington, DC, April 21, 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilat, Joseph F [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    The workshop addressed the future of nuclear power and nonproliferation in light of global nuclear energy developments, changing US policy and growing concerns about nuclear proliferation and terrorism. The discussion reflected wide agreement on the need for nuclear power, the necessity of mitigating any proliferation and terrorism risks and support for international cooperation on solutions. There were considerable differences on the nature and extent of the risks of differing fuel cycle choices. There was some skepticism about the prospects for a global nuclear energy renaissance, but there was a recognition that nuclear power would expand somewhat in the decades ahead with some states expanding capacity dramatically (e.g., China) and at least a few new states developing nuclear power programs. It was also argued by some participants that under the right conditions, a genuine renaissance could occur some decades from now. The prospects for a dramatic growth in nuclear power will depend on the ability of governments and industry to address these concerns, including the effectiveness of, and the resources devoted to, plans to develop and implement technologies and approaches that strengthen nonproliferation, nuclear materials accountability and nuclear security Several participants noted that the United States will not be able to continue to lead global nonproliferation efforts and to shape the growth of nuclear power as well as the global environment and energy debates without a robust US nuclear energy program. Some participants argued that fully integrating nuclear energy growth and nonproliferation, proliferation resistance and physical protection objectives was possible. The growing consensus on these objectives and the growing concern about the potential impact of further proliferation on the industry was one reason for optimism. The Blue Ribbon commission led by Scowcroft and Hamilton was seen as going far beyond the need to find an alternative to Yucca

  3. Growth models with internal competition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ausloos, M.; Vandewalle, N.

    1996-01-01

    Combined statistical physics and computation modelling give new instruments for the study of non-equilibrium systems. We briefly review generalized Eden and Diffusion-Limited Aggregation models as applied to spreading phenomena. We indicate the occurrence of non-universal behaviors. (author)

  4. The Utilization of Plant Facilities on the International Space Station—The Composition, Growth, and Development of Plant Cell Walls under Microgravity Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann-Iren Kittang Jost

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the preparation for missions to Mars, basic knowledge of the mechanisms of growth and development of living plants under microgravity (micro-g conditions is essential. Focus has centered on the g-effects on rigidity, including mechanisms of signal perception, transduction, and response in gravity resistance. These components of gravity resistance are linked to the evolution and acquisition of responses to various mechanical stresses. An overview is given both on the basic effect of hypergravity as well as of micro-g conditions in the cell wall changes. The review includes plant experiments in the US Space Shuttle and the effect of short space stays (8–14 days on single cells (plant protoplasts. Regeneration of protoplasts is dependent on cortical microtubules to orient the nascent cellulose microfibrils in the cell wall. The space protoplast experiments demonstrated that the regeneration capacity of protoplasts was retarded. Two critical factors are the basis for longer space experiments: a. the effects of gravity on the molecular mechanisms for cell wall development, b. the availability of facilities and hardware for performing cell wall experiments in space and return of RNA/DNA back to the Earth. Linked to these aspects is a description of existing hardware functioning on the International Space Station.

  5. Models og International Entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rask, Morten; Servais, Per

    2015-01-01

    on International Entrepreneurship, and specifically but not exclusively, International New Ventures (INVs). The three resulting ‘meta-models’ depict the activities and loci of such firms, the motivating factors that give rise to such firms and their growth modalities and strategies. These models reflect the merger...... of entrepreneurship and international business into the field of international entrepreneurship....

  6. Diferencias en las prevalencias de desnutrición al usarse referencias nacionales e internacionales Differences in the prevalence of malnutrition resulting from using a national growth reference or an international growth reference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelia Edith Oyhenart

    2005-09-01

    prevalencia de retraso del crecimiento.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate if using an international growth reference versus a national growth reference leads to differences in the prevalences of low weight-for-height (wasting and low height-for-age (stunting in a sample of children 8 to 14 years old. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out with a sample of 1 470 school-children (both boys and girls in the city of La Plata, in the province of Buenos Aires, Argentina. Based on the data on weight and height, Z-scores were calculated with regard to the reference values from the United States of America's first and second National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES I and NHANES II, and the reference values for Argentina from the Argentine Pediatric Society. The prevalences of wasting and stunting were calculated, using as the cutoff point two standard deviations below the median of the reference. The prevalences were compared using the chi-squared test with Yates' correction, and odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs were calculated. RESULTS: The international reference was positively associated with a higher prevalence of stunting in the entire sample (OR = 5.12; 95% CI: 3.27 to 8.05, in the boys (OR = 4.36; 95% CI: 2.43 to 7.93, and in the girls (OR = 6.32; 95% CI: 3.10 to 13.27. The prevalence of wasting was similar with both references. The distribution of height-for-age was skewed to the left with respect to the international reference and to the right with respect to the Argentine reference, while the distribution of weight-for-height overlapped both references. CONCLUSIONS: The differences in the prevalences of stunting calculated according to the two references that were used indicate a different nutritional status for the population studied. The increase in the height of the children with respect to the Argentine reference points to the presence of a positive secular trend, and the increase can explain part of the differences in the prevalence

  7. Differences in internalization and growth of Escherichia coli O157:H7 within the apoplast of edible plants, spinach and lettuce, compared with the model species Nicotiana benthamiana

    OpenAIRE

    Wright, Kathryn M.; Crozier, Louise; Marshall, Jacqueline; Merget, Bernhard; Holmes, Ashleigh; Holden, Nicola J.

    2017-01-01

    Summary Internalization of food?borne bacteria into edible parts of fresh produce plants represents a serious health risk. Therefore, internalization of verocytotoxigenic E.?coli O157:H7 isolate Sakai was assessed in two species associated with outbreaks, spinach (Spinacia oleracea) and lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and compared to the model species Nicotiana benthamiana. Internalization occurred in the leaves and roots of spinach and lettuce throughout a 10?day time?course. The plant species, tis...

  8. Use of National and International Growth Charts for Studying Height in European Children: Development of Up-To-Date European Height-For-Age Charts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonthuis, Marjolein; van Stralen, Karlijn J.; Verrina, Enrico; Edefonti, Alberto; Molchanova, Elena A.; Hokken-Koelega, Anita C. S.; Schaefer, Franz; Jager, Kitty J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Growth charts based on data collected in different populations and time periods are key tools to assess children's linear growth. We analyzed the impact of geographic factors and the secular trend on height-for-age charts currently used in European populations, developed up-to-date

  9. Distinct cytoplasmic domains of the growth hormone receptor are required for glucocorticoid- and phorbol ester-induced decreases in growth hormone (GH) binding. These domains are different from that reported for GH-induced receptor internalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    King, A P; Tseng, M J; Logsdon, C D

    1996-01-01

    to be required for maximal DEX-induced inhibition of GH binding. DEX decreased GH binding to a GHR mutant F346A, which is reported to be deficient in ligand-induced internalization, suggesting that DEX decreases GH binding by a mechanism distinct from that of ligand-induced GHR internalization. PMA reduced GH...

  10. Models og International Entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rask, Morten; Servais, Per

    2015-01-01

    The purpose with this article is to review models used to describe and explain the establishment and development of international new ventures in order to investigate how and why international new ventures are established and developed. This article attempts an integration of extant theory...... on International Entrepreneurship, and specifically but not exclusively, International New Ventures (INVs). The three resulting ‘meta-models’ depict the activities and loci of such firms, the motivating factors that give rise to such firms and their growth modalities and strategies. These models reflect the merger...... of entrepreneurship and international business into the field of international entrepreneurship....

  11. Options for decoupling economic growth from water use and water pollution: A report of the Water Working Group of the International Resource Panel Options for decoupling economic growth from water use and water pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Global trends have pointed to a relative decoupling of water – that is, the rate of water resource use is increasing at a rate slower than that of economic growth. Despite this progress at the global level, it is projected that by 2030 there will be a 40% gap between water supply and water demand if...

  12. International Competitiveness.

    OpenAIRE

    Fagerberg, Jan

    1988-01-01

    This paper develops and tests a model of differing trends in international competi tiveness and economic growth across countries. The model relates the development of market shares at home and abroad to the three sets of factors: the ability to compete in technology, the ability to compete in delivery (capacity), and the ability to compete in price. The tes t, using data for fifteen OECD countries for the period 1961-83, show s that, in the medium and long run, factors related to technology a...

  13. International Competitiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Jan Fagerberg

    1988-01-01

    This paper develops and tests a model of differing trends in international competitiveness and economic growth across countries. The model relates the development of market shares at home and abroad to three sets of factors: the ability to compete in technology, the ability to compete in delivery(capacity) and the ability to compete in price. The test, using data for 15 OECD countries for the period 1961-1983, shows that in the medium and long run, factors related to technology and capacity a...

  14. Blessing of dimensionality in forecasting real house price growth in the nine census divisions of the US: 57th International Statistical Institute Conference 2009

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Das, Sonali

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available rates of the census divisions, are more informative when forecasting the house price growth rate of the nine census regions. The role of fundamentals in affecting the housing market cannot be underestimated. What is needed first is a detailed look...

  15. The ZBED6-IGF2 axis has a major effect on growth of skeletal muscle and internal organs in placental mammals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Younis, Shady; Schönke, Milena; Massart, Julie

    2018-01-01

    A single nucleotide substitution in the third intron of insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) is associated with increased muscle mass and reduced subcutaneous fat in domestic pigs. This mutation disrupts the binding of the ZBED6 transcription factor and leads to a threefold up-regulation ofIGF2exp...

  16. STRIDER (Sildenafil TheRapy in dismal prognosis early onset fetal growth restriction): an international consortium of randomised placebo-controlled trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pels, A.; Kenny, L. C.; Alfirevic, Z.; Baker, P. N.; von Dadelszen, Peter; Gluud, C.; Kariya, C. T.; Mol, B. W.; Papageorghiou, A. T.; van Wassenaer-Leemhuis, A. G.; Ganzevoort, W.; Groom, K. M.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Severe, early-onset fetal growth restriction due to placental insufficiency is associated with a high risk of perinatal mortality and morbidity with long-lasting sequelae. Placental insufficiency is the result of abnormal formation and function of the placenta with inadequate remodelling

  17. STRIDER (Sildenafil TheRapy in dismal prognosis early onset fetal growth restriction): An international consortium of randomised placebo-controlled trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pels, A. (A.); L.C. Kenny (Louise C.); Z. Alfirevic (Zarko); P.N. Baker (Philip Newton); P. von Dadelszen (Peter); C. Gluud (Christian); Kariya, C.T. (C. T.); B.W.J. Mol (Ben); Papageorghiou, A. (A.); A.G. van Wassenaer-Leemhuis (Aleid); W. Ganzevoort (Wessel); Groom, K.M. (K. M.); McCowan, L.M. (L. M.); Stone, P.R. (P. R.); Lee, A. (A.); Mackay, L. (L.); Oyston, C. (C.); Gardener, G. (G.); Khashan, A. (A.); Eustace, J. (J.); Dempsey, E. (E.); Jackson, R. (R.); Dickinson, J. (J.); Gill, A. (A.); Muller, P. (P.); Sekar, R. (R.); Reid, R.A. (R. A.); Unterschneider, J. (J.); Welsh, A. (A.); Marlow, J. (J.); Hyett, J. (Jon); Walker, S. (S.); J. Morris; Watson, D. (D.); McKinlay, C. (C.); Harris, S. (S.); von Dadelszen, P. (P.); Lim, K.I. (K. I.); Lalji, S. (S.); Magee, L.A. (L. A.); Lim, K.I. (K. I.); Magee, L.A. (L. A.); Lalji, S. (S.); Kariya, C.T. (C. T.); Lee, T. (T.); Li, J. (J.); Hutfield, A. (A.); Ansermino, M. (M.); Robinson, W. (W.); Singer, J. (J.); Synnes, A.R. (A. R.); Burrows, J. (J.); Audibert, F. (F.); E. Bujold (Emmanuel); Piedboeuf, B. (B.); Piedboeuf, B. (B.); Davidge, S.T. (S. T.); Seaward, G.R. (G. R.); Dwinnell, S. (S.); Gagnon, R. (R.); Gaudet, L. (L.); Young, C. (C.); Murphy, D. (D.); Daly, S. (S.); McAuliffe, F. (F.); Malone, F. (F.); Breathnach, F. (F.); O'Donoghue, K. (K.); Ganzevoort, J.W. (J. W.); Pels, A. (A.); Al-Nasiry, S. (S.); de Boer, M.A. (M. A.); C.J.M. de Groot (Christianne); Sueters, M. (M.); J.B. Derks (Jan); van Drongelen, J. (J.); J.J. Duvekot (Hans); Elvan-Taspinar, A. (A.); J. van Eyck (Jim); van Laar, J. (J.); Morssink, L.P. (L. P.); Alfirevic, Z. (Z.); Price, L. (L.); Astor, A. (A.); Hardman, L. (L.); Sharp, A. (A.); Turner, M. (M.); Cameron, A. (A.); Draper, E. (E.); Clarke, P. (P.); Mckelvey, A. (A.); A.T. Papageorghiou (A.); Alfirevic, Z. (Z.); Masson, G. (G.); Aquilin, J. (J.); Johnstone, E. (E.); Bugg, G. (G.); Howe, D. (D.); Patni, S. (S.); Mousa, H. (H.); Russell, H. (H.); Hannon, T. (T.); M.D. Kilby (Mark); David, A. (A.); Cohen, K. (K.); Impey, L. (L.); Stock, S. (S.); Poon, L. (L.); Pasupath, D. (D.); A. Khalil (Asma); Baker, P.N. (P. N.)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Severe, early-onset fetal growth restriction due to placental insufficiency is associated with a high risk of perinatal mortality and morbidity with long-lasting sequelae. Placental insufficiency is the result of abnormal formation and function of the placenta with inadequate

  18. Distinct cytoplasmic domains of the growth hormone receptor are required for glucocorticoid- and phorbol ester-induced decreases in growth hormone (GH) binding. These domains are different from that reported for GH-induced receptor internalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    King, A P; Tseng, M J; Logsdon, C D

    1996-01-01

    Glucocorticoids inhibit growth in children and antagonize the growth-promoting action of GH in peripheral tissues. Recently, they have been shown to decrease GH binding. In this study we examine the molecular mechanisms by which the glucocorticoid dexamethasone (DEX) and the phorbol ester phorbol...... myristate acetate (PMA) decrease cellular GH binding. In 3T3-F442A fibroblasts, DEX and PMA decrease the number of GH receptors (GHRs) capable of binding GH by 50% (t1/2 = 6 h) and 70% (t1/2 = 15 min), respectively. Neither appear to decrease the total number of cellular GHR. Rather, they appear...... to redistribute GHRs away from the plasma membrane or inactivate GHRs on the membrane such that they cannot bind GH. DEX and PMA also decrease GH-induced tyrosyl phosphorylation of GHR and JAK2 with a magnitude and time course correlating with that of inhibition of GH binding. DEX- and PMA-induced reductions...

  19. Models of international entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rask, Morten; Servais, Per

    2012-01-01

    The purpose with this article is to review models used to describe and explain the establishment and development of international new ventures in order to investigate how and why international new ventures are established and developed. This article attempts an integration of extant theory...... on International Entrepreneurship, and specifically but not exclusively, International New Ventures (INVs). The three resulting ‘meta-models’ depict the activities and loci of such firms (Figure 1), the motivating factors that give rise to such firms (Figure 2) and their growth modalities and strategies (Figure 3......). These models reflect the merger of entrepreneurship and international business into the field of international entrepreneurship. Managers in international entrepreneurial firms and students in international business and entrepreneurship can use the models as framework for understanding international...

  20. International Youth Nuclear Congress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fern, A.

    2017-01-01

    International Youth Nuclear Congress (IYNC) was Initiated by an international YG group of enthusiasts in 1997. Mission statement developed at ENC1998 in Nice, France Growth in enthusiasm and support: IAEA, Nuclear Societies, companies. IYNC run by the Young Generation with full support of experienced advisors, nuclear societies and companies. First came to African continent when IYNC 2010 was hosted by South Africa

  1. The ZBED6-IGF2 axis has a major effect on growth of skeletal muscle and internal organs in placental mammals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Younis, Shady; Schönke, Milena; Massart, Julie

    2018-01-01

    2 concentrations, higher growth rate, increased lean mass, and larger heart, kidney, and liver; no significant changes were observed for white adipose tissues. The changes in body and lean mass were most pronounced in female mice. The phenotypic changes were concomitant with a remarkable up......-regulation of Igf2 expression in adult tissues. Transcriptome analysis of skeletal muscle identified differential expression of genes belonging to the extracellular region category. Expression analysis using fetal muscles indicated a minor role of ZBED6 in regulating Igf2 expression prenatally. Furthermore...

  2. Cooperation to Ensure Economic Growth and International Security The G20 and the BRICS on Trade and Investment: Trends and Policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Wouters

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available International trade and investment declined sharply in the aftermath of the 2008 financial crisis. To coordinate policy responses in the wake of this crisis, the Group of Twenty (G20 was elevated to the leaders’ level and the BRICS grouping of Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa was founded as a summit to gather leaders from the most important emerging economies. This contribution reviews the work of both fora to restore trade and investment. We show that, despite efforts to stimulate cross-border trade and investment, neither has returned to pre-crisis levels. This is especially the case regarding international investment for the G20 members, although the data show a revival of trade. In general, BRICS members have been able to recover more quickly. Although their decisions have not always been implemented by members, the G20 and BRICS have proven to be effective fora for coordinating efforts and compliance has been rather high. However, this contribution argues that more can be done, especially regarding investments. The future will tell whether these two bodies will continue to be complimentary and whether they will be able to withstand protectionist and nationalist reflexes

  3. Combined impact of water column oxygen and temperature on internal oxygen status and growth of Zostera marina seedlings and adult shoots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raun, Ane-Marie Løvendahl; Borum, Jens

    2013-01-01

    at temperatures of ≥25°C. In the present study we experimentally examine the impact of combined water column oxygen and temperature on oxygen dynamics in leaf meristems of seedlings and adult shoots to better understand how stressful environmental conditions affect eelgrass oxygen dynamics and subsequent growth...... and mortality. There was a strong interaction between water column oxygen and temperature on meristem pO implying that eelgrass is rather resistant to unfavorable oxygen conditions in winter but becomes increasingly vulnerable in summer, especially at high temperatures. At 25°C meristems became anoxic...... were less prone to meristem anoxia than adult shoots suggesting that seedlings would better tolerate unfavorable combinations of water column oxygen conditions and temperature. The results suggest that eelgrass die-offs will occur more frequently in eutrophied coastal areas with the more frequent...

  4. Eps15 is recruited to the plasma membrane upon epidermal growth factor receptor activation and localizes to components of the endocytic pathway during receptor internalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torrisi, M R; Lotti, L V; Belleudi, F

    1999-01-01

    role for eps15 in receptor-mediated endocytosis. In this study we show that, upon activation of the EGFR kinase, eps15 undergoes dramatic relocalization consisting of 1) initial relocalization to the plasma membrane and 2) subsequent colocalization with the EGFR in various intracellular compartments......Eps15 is a substrate for the tyrosine kinase of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and is characterized by the presence of a novel protein:protein interaction domain, the EH domain. Eps15 also stably binds the clathrin adaptor protein complex AP-2. Previous work demonstrated an essential......, suggesting sustained phosphorylation in endocytic compartments. Our results are consistent with a model in which eps15 undergoes cycles of association:dissociation with membranes and suggest multiple roles for this protein in the endocytic pathway....

  5. The NordiNet® International Outcome Study and NovoNet® ANSWER Program®: rationale, design, and methodology of two international pharmacoepidemiological registry-based studies monitoring long-term clinical and safety outcomes of growth hormone therapy (Norditropin®).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höybye, Charlotte; Sävendahl, Lars; Christesen, Henrik Thybo; Lee, Peter; Pedersen, Birgitte Tønnes; Schlumpf, Michael; Germak, John; Ross, Judith

    2013-01-01

    Randomized controlled trials have shown that growth hormone (GH) therapy has effects on growth, metabolism, and body composition. GH therapy is prescribed for children with growth failure and adults with GH deficiency. Carefully conducted observational study of GH treatment affords the opportunity to assess long-term treatment outcomes and the clinical factors and variables affecting those outcomes, in patients receiving GH therapy in routine clinical practice. The NordiNet® International Outcome Study (IOS) and the American Norditropin® Web Enabled Research (ANSWER Program®) are two complementary, non-interventional, observational studies that adhere to current guidelines for pharmacoepidemiological data. The studies include pediatric and adult patients receiving Norditropin®, as prescribed by their physicians. The studies gather long-term data on the safety and effectiveness of reallife treatment with the recombinant human GH, Norditropin®. We describe the origins, aims, objectives, and design methodology of the studies, as well as their governance and validity, strengths, and limitations. The NordiNet® IOS and ANSWER Program® studies will provide valid insights into the effectiveness and safety of GH treatment across a diverse and large patient population treated in accordance with real-world clinical practice and following the Good Pharmacoepidemiological Practice and STrengthening the Reporting of OBservational studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) guidelines.

  6. Cultural Globalization and Economic Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuno Carlos Leitão

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates the relationship between cultural globalization and economic growth for the Portuguese experience for the period 1995-2011. In this research we apply a static and dynamic panel data. The initial GDP per capita is negatively correlated with economic growth. This result is according to theoretical and empirical studies. This paper shows that international trade and cultural globalization promote the economic growth. As we expected the inflation has a negative impact on economic growth.

  7. Theoretical Grounds of Economic Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Alp ÖZEL

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Economic growth bears importance for any country with different levels of development. It is seen that various theories of economic growth give a different importance to technological development and human capital. Theories of economic growth referred to as exogenous economic growth theories, which assume technological development and human capital as determinants of economic growth and propose that they are not affected by economic variables, consider them as the main determinants of economic growth in the long run While these models support technological development as the main source of economic growth in the long run, they have deficiencies in explaining the sources of technological development. These deficiencies are overcome by endogenous growth theories. Endogenous growth theories consider technological development as a variable that is affected by the decisions of economic units and internalize them. The aim of this study is to explain the thoretical grounds of exogenous and endogenous economic growth theories and stress the differences based on their nature.

  8. Mapping Inclusive Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Raquel Almeida Ramos; Rafael Ranieri; Jan-Willem Lammes

    2013-01-01

    Since its emergence around the turn of the century the concept of inclusive growth has been substantially debated by researchers and practitioners, has increasingly gained space in domestic and international political circles, has inspired the design of and generated projects and policies, and has impacted the views and the lives of many people. While the conceptual debate and the practical application of various definitions of inclusive growth have taken place simultaneously, they have recen...

  9. The effect of growth hormone (GH) replacement on blood glucose homeostasis in adult nondiabetic patients with GH deficiency: real-life data from the NordiNet® International Outcome Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Matthias M; Biller, Beverly M K; Pedersen, Birgitte Tønnes; Pournara, Effie; Christiansen, Jens Sandahl; Höybye, Charlotte

    2017-02-01

    To assess the effect of 4 years' growth hormone (GH) replacement on glucose homeostasis and evaluate factors affecting glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA 1c ) in adults with growth hormone deficiency (GHD). NordiNet ® International Outcome Study, a noninterventional study, monitors long-term effectiveness and safety of GH replacement [Norditropin ® (somatropin), Novo Nordisk A/S] in real-life clinical practice. Nondiabetic patients (n = 245) with adult-onset GHD (age ≥20 years at GH start), ≥4 years' GH replacement and HbA 1c values at baseline and 4 years were included in the analysis. Changes from baseline (∆) to 4 years in HbA 1c , fasting plasma glucose (FPG), IGF-I, lipids (high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, total cholesterol, triglycerides), waist circumference, glycaemic (HbA 1c GH dose and baseline body mass index (BMI) on ΔHbA 1c were investigated. The models were adjusted for concomitant medication use. Mean (standard deviation) baseline HbA 1c was 5·13 (0·65)% and remained at the same level at 4 years. Age at treatment start (P = 0·0094) and BMI (P = 0·0008) had a significant impact on ∆HbA 1c . At 4 years, 85% of patients with HbA 1c GH replacement therapy did not adversely affect glucose homeostasis in the majority of adults with GHD. © 2016 The Authors. Clinical Endocrinology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Environment and Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horii, Ryo; Ikefuji, Masako

    . In a less developed country, this link, which we call “limits to growth,” emerges as the “poverty-environment trap,” which explains the persistent international inequality both in terms of income and environment. This link also threatens the sustainability of the world’s economic growth, particularly when...... the emission of greenhouse gases raises the risk of natural disasters. Stronger environmental policies are required to overcome this link. While there is a trade-off between the environment and growth in the short run, we show that an appropriate policy can improve both in the long run....

  11. In vivo photoacoustic imaging of cancer using indocyanine green-labeled monoclonal antibody targeting the epidermal growth factor receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, Kohei; Ohashi, Manami; Kanazaki, Kengo; Ding, Ning; Deguchi, Jun; Kanada, Yuko; Ono, Masahiro; Saji, Hideo

    2015-08-28

    Photoacoustic (PA) imaging is an attractive imaging modality for sensitive and depth imaging of biomolecules with high resolution in vivo. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) monoclonal antibody (panitumumab; Pan) labeled with indocyanine green derivative (ICG-EG4-Sulfo-OSu), Pan-EG4-ICG, as a PA imaging probe to target cancer-associated EGFR. In vitro PA imaging studies demonstrated that Pan-EG4-ICG yielded high EGFR-specific PA signals in EGFR-positive cells. To determine the optimal injection dose and scan timing, we investigated the biodistribution of radiolabeled Pan-EG4-ICG (200-400 μg) in A431 tumor (EGFR++)-bearing mice. The highest tumor accumulation (29.4% injected dose/g) and high tumor-to-blood ratio (2.1) was observed 7 days after injection of Pan-EG4-ICG (400 μg). In in vivo PA imaging studies using Pan-EG4-ICG (400 μg), the increase in PA signal (114%) was observed in A431 tumors inoculated in the mammary glands 7 days post-injection. Co-injection of excess Pan resulted in a 35% inhibition of this PA signal, indicating the EGFR-specific accumulation. In conclusion, the ICG-labeled monoclonal antibody (i.e., panitumumab) has the potential to enhance target-specific PA signal, leading to the discrimination of aggressiveness and metastatic potential of tumors and the selection of effective therapeutic strategies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Employment and Growth | Page 14 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Language French. Read more about Incidence des services de garde d'enfants abordables sur l'autonomisation des femmes en Inde. Language French. Read more about Incidences des programmes d'acquisition de compétences sur les possibilités économiques des femmes au Pakistan. Language French. Read more ...

  13. Employment and Growth | Page 34 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Since the 1990s, foreign investment and a vast pool of workers have helped Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam, and more recently Burma connect with global value chains in fashion, electronics, food processing, and other industries. Ensuring that transformation leads to better jobs for growing numbers of youth is a top priority in ...

  14. Employment and Growth | Page 29 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Read more about Linking Macro Development Policies to Child Poverty in Ethiopia's Second Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (2006-2010). Language English. Read more about Public Accountability Institutions in Pakistan and their Macroeconomic Impacts. Language English. Read more about Trade, Gender and Equity ...

  15. Employment and Growth | Page 36 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    As many as 84% of Ghanaians see a career in business as a good choice, a view that is shared by 76% of sub-Saharan Africans overall. In Uganda, more than three-quarters of adults say they are intending to start their own businesses, while more than 40% of Zambians are actually running or starting a new business.

  16. Employment and Growth | Page 25 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Read more about Dynamics of Poverty and Land Degradation in the Sahel (West Africa). Language English. Read more about Shaping Social Protection in Africa : National Transfer Accounts. Language English. Read more about Ageing and Development : National Transfer Accounts (Latin America and the Caribbean).

  17. Employment and Growth | Page 26 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Language English. Read more about Social and Health Protection of Women Migrants from Sénégal in Agricultural Activity and the Personal Care Industry in Spain. Language English. Read more about Shaping Social Protection in Africa : National Transfer Accounts. Language English. Read more about Women Migrants ...

  18. Employment and Growth | Page 68 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Yet most work in the informal sector, where wages are low and there are few social protections. Many programs are targeting women's perceived skills gaps, to better equip them for the workplace. Yet for many reasons, they are not always able to participate in or benefit from training programs. For example, rural Pakistan ...

  19. Employment and Growth | Page 70 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Despite its persistent development challenges, Africa has some of the world's fastest growing economies. Entrepreneurship has deep roots, but a number of barriers restrain private sector development. Many African economies are small and fragmented, having limited access to global markets. With financial markets just ...

  20. Employment and Growth | Page 48 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Language English. Read more about Promoting Trade in Services in the Middle East and North Africa : Pilot Project. Language English. Read more about Transnational Migration of Vietnamese Women in Asia. Language English. Read more about Sharing the Benefits from Transportation and Logistics Improvements in the ...

  1. Globalization, Growth and Marginalization | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    "A dispassionate and rich analysis of the social costs of globalization that should be welcomed both by defenders and critics of the new global economic order." Roy Culpeper, President, North-South Institute "Worth reading by anyone before entering the battle over globalization, including legislators considering ...

  2. Employment and Growth | Page 5 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Language English. Read more about Supporting graduation programs through empirical evidence and leadership promotion. Language English. Read more about Making trade work for small producers in Southeast Asia's least developed countries. Language English. Read more about Expanding economic opportunities ...

  3. Employment and Growth | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    And it will support the knowledge and the leaders that help bring such efforts to scale, broker relationships between private companies, businesses associations, non-profits, and public agencies, and include the poor as producers, suppliers, consumers, and workers. Priorities. The program focuses on two key objectives:.

  4. Employment and Growth | Page 31 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC is supporting the University of Zimbabwe's Institute of Environmental Studies (IES) as it explores the multiple dimensions of the country's challenges and ... The report draws on data collected during a three-year study on entrepreneurial attitudes, perceptions, and intentions in 10 sub-Saharan African countries ...

  5. Employment and Growth | Page 37 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Population aging, demographers will tell you, is inevitable. In countries where fertility is high, large numbers of children will eventually enter the labor force and expect to earn a living. In other countries, declining fertility rates coupled with longer life spans will lead to elderly populations growing faster than other age groups.

  6. Employment and Growth | Page 71 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Population aging, demographers will tell you, is inevitable. In countries where fertility is high, large numbers of children will eventually enter the labor force and expect to earn a living. In other countries, declining fertility rates coupled with longer life spans will lead to elderly populations growing faster than other age groups.

  7. Employment and Growth | Page 26 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Population aging, demographers will tell you, is inevitable. In countries where fertility is high, large numbers of children will eventually enter the labor force and expect to earn a living. In other countries, declining fertility rates coupled with longer life spans will lead to elderly populations growing faster than other age groups.

  8. Employment and Growth | Page 12 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    8 · 9 · 10 · 11; 12; 13 · 14 · 15 · 16 … next › · last » · What we do · Funding · Resources · About IDRC. Knowledge. Innovation. Solutions. Careers · Contact Us · Site map · Copyright · Open access policy · Privacy policy · Research ethics · Transparency · Website usage. Follow us; Facebook · Twitter · Youtube · Linked In · RSS ...

  9. Employment and Growth | Page 72 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... economic consequences of changes in population age structure. The book is a bona fide crystal ball. It will be a must read for the next decade. David Bloom, Clarence James Gamble Professor of Economics and Demography and Chair, Department of Global Health and Population, Harvard School of Public Health, USA.

  10. Employment and Growth | Page 39 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    University degrees and decent jobs make it easier for women to speak up and demand their rights as full citizens. ... Language French. Once overlooked and undervalued, small-scale businesses are now front and centre as Egypt takes bold steps to transform its economy, with the strategic support of the SME Policy Project ...

  11. Employment and Growth | Page 44 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Language English. Read more about Social Protection and Vulnerable Communities in East Africa: Implications for Household Welfare. Language English. Read more about Global Trade Alert. Language English. Read more about Multi-donor Research Platform on Social Protection, Financial Inclusion and ICTs. Language ...

  12. Employment and Growth | Page 38 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Language English. Governments can't stop populations from aging nor can they ignore the future economic impact of changing demographics. ... To boost their tourist industries, Caribbean countries are looking for new opportunities closer to home — among families and friends in the Caribbean diaspora. Although many of ...

  13. Employment and Growth | Page 53 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    When households are able to set aside some of their income in a formal financial institution, they are less vulnerable to external shocks and can invest in health, education, or even their own businesses. But in many Latin American countries, poverty and limited access to formal financial services prevent this from happening ...

  14. Employment and Growth | Page 50 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Read more about Expanding Access to Insurance by the Poor : Policy, Regulation and Supervision of Micro Insurance. Language English. Read more about Foreign Direct Investment Behaviour in Low and Middle Income Countries. Language English. Read more about Latin American Knowledge Networking Program on ...

  15. Employment and Growth | Page 32 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    When households are able to set aside some of their income in a formal financial institution, they are less vulnerable to external shocks and can invest in health, education, or even their own businesses. But in many Latin American countries, poverty and limited access to formal financial services prevent this from happening ...

  16. Employment and Growth | Page 30 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Brand-name billion-dollar multinationals tend to get the lion's share of attention when the topic of environmentally-friendly industry comes up. ... This article is part of an ongoing series of stories about innovative projects in the developing world, a partnership between the IDRC and Canadian Geographic. Read the full story.

  17. Employment and Growth | Page 51 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Brand-name billion-dollar multinationals tend to get the lion's share of attention when the topic of environmentally-friendly industry comes up. ... This article is part of an ongoing series of stories about innovative projects in the developing world, a partnership between the IDRC and Canadian Geographic. Read the full story.

  18. Fostering growth with equity | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-01-25

    Jan 25, 2011 ... Environmental burdens, urban stress Intensified migration and the resulting urban stress are not unique to India, of course, and IDRC — through its Urban Poverty and Environment program — has been addressing these issues across the region. Colombo, Sri Lanka, for example, is an IDRC Focus City.

  19. Research Award: Employment and Growth | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-09-07

    Sep 7, 2016 ... The successful candidate will allocate 50% of their time to their own research project under the guidance of a Senior Program Officer, and will be expected to present their research plan and provide progress updates during the year. In the remaining 50% of their time, the Research Award Recipient will ...

  20. Research award: Employment and Growth | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2017-09-06

    Sep 6, 2017 ... The successful candidate will allocate 50% of his/her time for a research project under the guidance of a senior program officer, and will be expected ... Priority will be given to proposals that fit the GrOW program's objectives and that outline focused and feasible objectives and clearly defined methodology.

  1. Employment and Growth | Page 33 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Youth are central to Bangladesh's shift from a rural to urban economy. The country's booming garment industry has created urban employment for large numbers of rural youth, especially young women. But not everyone has equal access to these jobs. Many rural youth face barriers to urban work, including distance and a ...

  2. Employment and Growth | Page 10 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Read more about Fostering Entrepreneurship and Sustainable Livelihoods in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Multi-country Policy Research and Capacity- Building Initiative. Language English. Read more about Moving Jobs to the Center Stage in Mexico: Case Study for World Development Report 2013. Language English.

  3. Employment and Growth | Page 40 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Read more about Macroeconomic Volatility, Institutions and Financial Architectures: The Developing World Experience. Language English. Since the 1990s, foreign direct investment (FDI) has been on the rise worldwide. By 2008, the world's FDI flows amounted to about $1.7 trillion (although they are expected to go below ...

  4. Employment and Growth | Page 30 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Language English. Thousands of events and competitions in 160 countries mark Global Entrepreneurship Week every November. This year's events, from November 14–20, 2016, will inspire millions of people to pursue entrepreneurial activities and will provide connections to potential collaborators, mentors, and even ...

  5. Employment and Growth | Page 74 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Most developing countries, including Egypt, lack a robust and dynamic medium enterprise sector similar to the one that emerged in East Asia, hence suffering from what is known as 'the missing middle' syndrome. — Egypt's Ministry of Finance in Enhancing Competitiveness of SMEs in Egypt: General Framework and Action ...

  6. Employment and Growth | Page 47 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Read more about Labour Market Regulations, Outcomes and Income Distribution in Colombia and Chile. Language English. Read more about Women Migrants Advocacy in Latin America. Language English. Read more about Improving Labour Market Outcomes for the Poor in Sub-Saharan Africa. Language English.

  7. Employment and Growth | Page 35 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2015-06-09

    The 2014 Vietnam Report, by the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM), was launched on June 9, 2015 at the National Entrepreneurship Forum of the Vietnamese Chamber of Commerce and Industry (VCCI). The report, funded in part by IDRC, is based on the results of a survey of 2,000 individuals and 36 experts in ...

  8. Integração financeira internacional e crescimento econômico: uma crítica à abordagem convencional International financial integration and economic growth: a critique to the conventional approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aderbal Oliveira Damasceno

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO A defesa de um desenho institucional para as economias domésticas que permita a livre circulação de capitais entre as fronteiras é fundamentada por modelos teóricos que sublinham um conjunto de canais por meio dos quais a Integração Financeira Internacional levaria à melhoria na eficiência da alocação de recursos, estimulando o crescimento econômico de longo prazo dos países. O objetivo do trabalho é realizar uma crítica a essa abordagem, mostrando as fragilidades das teorias que estabelecem essa relação, a ausência de evidências empíricas a corroborá-la e, tendo por base fundamentos de inspiração (pós Keynesiana acerca do comportamento do mercado financeiro, esboçar uma abordagem alternativa.ABSTRACT The arguments in favor of developing an institutional framework for the liberalization of capital flows among countries are based on theoretical models that underline a set of channels through which the International Financial Integration would lead to a better resource allocation, stimulating long run economic growth. The aim of this work is to make a critical evaluation of those models, emphasizing their main fragilities and the lack of empirical evidence to support them. In addition, this paper outline an alternative approach, a Post-Keynesian point of view.

  9. The NordiNet® International Outcome Study and NovoNet® ANSWER Program®: rationale, design, and methodology of two international pharmacoepidemiological registry-based studies monitoring long-term clinical and safety outcomes of growth hormone therapy (Norditropin®

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Höybye C

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Charlotte Höybye,1 Lars Sävendahl,2 Henrik Thybo Christesen,3 Peter Lee,4 Birgitte Tønnes Pedersen,5 Michael Schlumpf,6 John Germak,7 Judith Ross8 1Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Karolinska Institute and Department of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Diabetes, 2Department of Women’s and Children’s Health, Karolinska Institute and Division of Pediatrics, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden; 3Hans Christian Andersen Children’s Hospital, Odense University Hospital, Odense, Denmark; 4Department of Pediatrics, Penn State College of Medicine, Hershey, PA, USA; 5Global Development, Novo Nordisk A/S, Søborg, Denmark; 6Global Medical Affairs Biopharm, Novo Nordisk Health Care AG, Zurich, Switzerland; 7Clinical Development and Medical Affairs, Novo Nordisk Inc, Princeton, NJ, USA; 8Department of Pediatrics, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA, USA Objective: Randomized controlled trials have shown that growth hormone (GH therapy has effects on growth, metabolism, and body composition. GH therapy is prescribed for children with growth failure and adults with GH deficiency. Carefully conducted observational study of GH treatment affords the opportunity to assess long-term treatment outcomes and the clinical factors and variables affecting those outcomes, in patients receiving GH therapy in routine clinical practice. Design: The NordiNet® International Outcome Study (IOS and the American Norditropin® Studies: Web Enabled Research (ANSWER Program® are two complementary, non-interventional, observational studies that adhere to current guidelines for pharmacoepidemiological data. Patients: The studies include pediatric and adult patients receiving Norditropin®, as prescribed by their physicians. Measurements: The studies gather long-term data on the safety and effectiveness of real-life treatment with the recombinant human GH, Norditropin®. We describe the origins, aims, objectives, and design methodology of

  10. What Is International about International Schools? An Institutional Legitimacy Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunnell, Tristan; Fertig, Michael; James, Chris

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the number of International Schools around the world has increased rapidly largely as a result of growth of new forms of International Schools, which differ markedly from the traditional forms. These new forms: are often operated on a for-profit commercial basis; are usually for children from the local (indigenous), wealthy…

  11. Acceptance of a reusable self-injection device for recombinant human growth hormone: final data from a questionnaire-based, cross-sectional, international, multicenter, observational study in pediatric patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schnabel D

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Dirk Schnabel,1 Carl-Joachim Partsch,2 Muriel Houang,3 Sarah Ehtisham,4 Helen Johnstone,5 Markus Zabransky,6 Wieland Kiess7 1Pediatric Endocrinology, Center for Chronic Sick Children, Otto-Heubner-Centrum für Kinder- und Jugendmedizin, Charite, University Medicine, Berlin, Germany; 2Endokrinologikum Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany; 3Explorations Fonctionnelles Endocriniennes, Hôpital Armand Trousseau, Paris, France; 4Mediclinic City Hospital, Dubai Healthcare City, Dubai, United Arab Emirates; 5The Newcastle upon Tyne Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Newcastle, UK; 6Sandoz International GmbH, Holzkirchen, 7Department of Women and Child Health, Hospital for Children and Adolescents, University Hospitals, University of Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany Background: A questionnaire-based survey was conducted to assess attitudes toward a reusable self-injection system (SurePal™ among pediatric patients with growth disturbances who were prescribed treatment with Omnitrope® within routine clinical practice.Methods: This was a multicenter, observational study, incorporated into the noninterventional PAtients TReated with Omnitrope® (PATRO Children study. Included subjects, or their caregivers, completed a questionnaire on the following five main areas: attractiveness of SurePal™, training received, using the device, the low drug wastage system, and experience versus other devices used previously (pretreated patients. Responses were based on a 5-point scale, with 2 being the best possible outcome and −2 the worst possible outcome.Results: In total, 550 patients were included in this study (338 from France, 169 from Germany, and 43 from the UK. The mean age ± standard deviation of participants was 10.8±3.5 years; the majority (57% were male and growth hormone treatment naïve (88%. Almost half (49.8% of children prepared their SurePal™ for injection themselves and 45.5% performed injections themselves. As patients progressed into their teens, the majority

  12. International. Go8 Backgrounder 17

    Science.gov (United States)

    Group of Eight (NJ1), 2010

    2010-01-01

    International education, particularly study in Australia, provides significant economic benefits for Australia. It is both a major export industry and a source of domestic economic growth. If Australia can attract talented international students through scholarships and a reputation for quality, they will return to their home countries to become…

  13. Technical Education and Economic Growth

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Technical Education and Economic Growth. Technical Education and Economic Growth. Review of the Present Status. Expanding no.s and impairment of quality; Faculty shortage; Grim situation ... Absence of International flavour. Consequences of Low Research. Some Success Stories. New Models of Institutional Structure ...

  14. Technical Education and Economic Growth

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Graphics. Technical Education and Economic Growth. Technical Education and Economic Growth. Review of the Present Status. Expanding no.s and impairment of quality; Faculty shortage; Grim situation at Masters and PhD levels; Regional imbalance; Absence of International flavour ...

  15. Internal and International Corruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Sc. Mario Antinucci

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This subject, whence the name of this paper originates from, must be addressed with courage and intellectual integrity by all of us, the different parts of the civil society, the public institutions, the entrepreneurs and the legal professionals, the youth and the new generations. All the public policies of the European governments share the belief of a direct correlation between the criminal density connected to corruption of States political and economic protagonists and the lack of availability of investments on young talents, new generations, both in the entrepreneurial and in the professional fields. In most Member States, anticorruption policies have gained an increased prominence in government agendas and the financial crisis has drawn attention to the integrity and accountability of policy-makers. Most Member States that are currently in serious financial difficulties have acknowledged the seriousness of issues related to corruption and have created (or are planning anticorruption programs in order to deal with the risks deriving from this issue and with the diversion of public funds. In some Member States, the economic adjustment programs provide for explicit obligations related to anti-corruption policies. Even when not formally connected to adjustment programs, anticorruption policies complement the adjustment measures, especially in those countries in which corruption is a serious issue.  During the European Semester of economic policy coordination, recommendations for efficiently fighting corruption have been laid out; Among the most vulnerable sectors, urban development and building projects are certainly very exposed to corruption risks and to infiltration of internal and transnational organized crime.

  16. Financing Asia’s Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Estrada, Gemma; Noland, Marcus; Park, Donghyun; Ramayandi, Arief

    2015-01-01

    Recent key challenges highlight the need to revisit Asia's financial development. These include the region's growth slowdown since the global crisis, compounded by a less benign external environment; internal structural challenges, such as population aging; and the maturing of much of the region into middle-income status. The evolving shift in the region's growth paradigm from one based primarily on investment to one based on both investment and productivity growth also underscores the urgenc...

  17. International arbejdsdeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henten, Anders

    1998-01-01

    Article dealing with the implications of informátion and communication technologies on the international division of labour.......Article dealing with the implications of informátion and communication technologies on the international division of labour....

  18. Growth Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... problem or disease. The pituitary gland makes growth hormone, which stimulates the growth of bone and other tissues. Children who have too little ... gland tumor, which is not cancer. Too much growth hormone can cause gigantism in children, where their bones and their body grow too much. In adults, ...

  19. MARC International

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard E. Coward

    1969-12-01

    Full Text Available The cooperative development of the Library of Congress MARC II Profect and the British National Bibliography MARC II Project is described and presented as the forerunner of an international MARC network. Emphasis is placed on the necessity for a standard MARC record for international exchange and for acceptance of international standards of cataloging.

  20. Internal Communication

    OpenAIRE

    Rathouský, Tomáš

    2015-01-01

    The diploma thesis focuses on characteristics of internal communication, its implementation in various forms in different companies and analysis of the internal communication in one selected company. After the analysis of its current state in the multinational company, the thesis will recommend improvements to the areas of internal communication and human resources, with the main focus of global implementation of these recommendations.

  1. International law

    CERN Document Server

    Shaw, Malcolm N

    2017-01-01

    International Law is the definitive and authoritative text on the subject, offering Shaw's unbeatable combination of clarity of expression and academic rigour and ensuring both understanding and critical analysis in an engaging and authoritative style. Encompassing the leading principles, practice and cases, and retaining and developing the detailed references which encourage and assist the reader in further study, this new edition motivates and challenges students and professionals while remaining accessible and engaging. Fully updated to reflect recent case law and treaty developments, this edition contains an expanded treatment of the relationship between international and domestic law, the principles of international humanitarian law, and international criminal law alongside additional material on international economic law.

  2. International technology transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Won Gi

    1991-11-01

    This book introduces technology progress and economic growth, theoretical consideration of technology transfer, policy and mechanism on technology transfer of a developed country and a developing country, reality of international technology transfer technology transfer and industrial structure in Asia and the pacific region, technology transfer in Russia, China and Eastern Europe, cooperation of science and technology for development of Northeast Asia and strategy of technology transfer of Korea.

  3. International child health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse, Alexandra Y; Høgh, Birthe

    2007-01-01

    diseases and neonatal complications, over half associated with malnutrition. Conditions we could prevent and treat. One of UN's Millennium Development Goals is to reduce child mortality. However child health is more than mortality and morbidity indicators, it includes growth and development. Udgivelsesdato......International child health has improved. Better healthcare strategies, like IMCI, have contributed implementing basic interventions: vaccinations, nutrition supplement, oral rehydration and antibiotics. But 11 million children still die every year before they turn five, most from infectious...

  4. Quality, Export and Economic Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Erik Strøjer; Pedersen, Kurt

    1998-01-01

    in an international context. The paper, therefore, addresses the complicated interactions between economic growth, export performance and quality. The contribution of the paper, compared to other growth accounting research, is the inclusion of quality data, quality being a significant mirror of technological...... development. The countries covered by the research represent a wide variation in terms of economic development, from poor LDC's to the most developed industrial nations. The empirical results reveal a probable strong relationship between quality/price and export growth as well as economic growth. This new...

  5. International marketing

    OpenAIRE

    T Cannon

    1989-01-01

    The international marketplace has been transformed in recent years by shifts in trading patterns and practices. These changes have been reinforced by new technologies and evolving economic relationships. This paper is an attempt to integrate these developments into the burgeoning literature on international marketing as well as recent research findings. The research emphasis within the subject has evolved alongside changes in the stress given to key aspects of international trade. The preoccu...

  6. Internal branding

    OpenAIRE

    Rijal, Ramesh; Dhakal, Rajendra

    2015-01-01

    The project report provides an insight into internal branding of two different leading firms – Coca-Cola and Google. The aim of this project report is to study how these two companies use internal branding to promote or build brand performance of the company. This report follows a qualitative research method. The report is deductive in nature and hence, it is guided by the literatures of internal branding. The project report conducted research on brand identity, brand commitment and brand loy...

  7. Assessment of Parametrial Response by Growth Pattern in Patients With International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics Stage IIB and IIIB Cervical Cancer: Analysis of Patients From a Prospective, Multicenter Trial (EMBRACE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, Kenji [Medical University of Vienna, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Vienna (Austria); Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe (Japan); Jastaniyah, Noha [Medical University of Vienna, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Vienna (Austria); King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Sturdza, Alina, E-mail: alina.sturdza@akhwien.at [Medical University of Vienna, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Vienna (Austria); Lindegaard, Jacob [Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus (Denmark); Segedin, Barbara [Institute of Oncology Ljubljana, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Mahantshetty, Umesh [Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai (India); Rai, Bhavana [Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh (India); Jürgenliemk-Schulz, Ina [University Medical Center, Utrecht (Netherlands); Haie-Meder, Christine [Institut Gustave Roussy, Paris (France); Sasaki, Ryohei [Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe (Japan); Pötter, Richard [Medical University of Vienna, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Vienna (Austria)

    2015-11-15

    Purpose: To assess disease response along the parametrial space according to tumor morphology in patients with International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage IIB and IIIB cervical cancer at the time of image-guided adaptive brachytherapy. Methods and Materials: Patients with FIGO stage IIB and IIIB cervical cancer registered as of November 2013 in the EMBRACE study were evaluated. Tumors were stratified according to morphologic subtype on magnetic resonance imaging (expansive and infiltrative), and the characteristics of those subtypes were analyzed. Parametrial involvement at diagnosis and at brachytherapy was evaluated, and the response to chemo-radiotherapy was classified as good, moderate, or poor. The response grade was compared between the 2 groups and analyzed with regard to tumor volumes, and dosimetric parameters. Results: A total of 452 patients were evaluated, of whom 186 had expansive growth type and 266 had infiltrative morphology. Patients with infiltrative tumors had more extensive disease, as indicated by a higher rate of FIGO stage IIIB disease, as well as radiologic evidence of extension into the distal parametrial space and to the pelvic side wall on magnetic resonance imaging. Cervical necrosis was more common in the infiltrative group. Good response was more common in the expansive group (34% vs 24%; P=.02), and poor response was more common in the infiltrative group (11% and 19%; P=.02). Mean gross tumor volume at diagnosis was equal in both groups (51.7 cm{sup 3}). The high-risk clinical target volume was larger in infiltrative tumors (37.9 cm{sup 3} vs 33.3 cm{sup 3}, P=.005). The mean high-risk clinical target volume D{sub 90} was slightly higher in expansive tumors (92.7 Gy and 89.4 Gy, P<.001). Conclusion: Infiltrative tumors are more advanced at presentation and respond less favorably to chemo-radiotherapy when compared with expansive tumors that are more or less equivalent in size. The use of image

  8. International Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Kenn; Habermann, Ulla; Chowdhury, Omar Faruque; Guerra, Iraida Manzanilla

    1998-01-01

    Includes "Introduction to International Perspectives" (Allen); "Volunteerism in the Welfare State: The Case of Denmark" (Habermann); "Grassroots Organizing in Bangladesh" (Chowdhury); and "Volunteerism in Latin America" (Guerra). (SK)

  9. 77 FR 26413 - Promoting International Regulatory Cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-04

    ... growth, innovation, competitiveness, and job creation. In an increasingly global economy, international... Order 13609 of May 1, 2012 Promoting International Regulatory Cooperation By the authority vested in me... promote international regulatory cooperation, it is hereby ordered as follows: Section 1. Policy...

  10. International skatteret

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther-Sørensen, Niels; Wittendorff, Jens

    1996-01-01

    De seneste 6 måneders udvikling indenfor international skatteret beskrives. NW-S har skrevet artiklens afsnit om udvalgte afgørelser og om EU-skatteret.......De seneste 6 måneders udvikling indenfor international skatteret beskrives. NW-S har skrevet artiklens afsnit om udvalgte afgørelser og om EU-skatteret....

  11. International cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    In this chapter international cooperation of the Division for Radiation Safety, NPP Decommissioning and Radwaste Management of the VUJE, a. s. is presented. Very important is cooperation with the International Atomic Energy Agency. This cooperation has various forms - national and regional projects of technical cooperation, coordinated research activities, participation of our experts in preparation of the IAEA documentation etc.

  12. International relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2008-01-01

    Concerning international relations, the different meetings in the field of nuclear safety are reported (Western european nuclear regulator association or Wenra, Nea, IAEA, northern dimension environmental partnership or N.D.E.P., nuclear safety and security group or N.S.S.G., international nuclear regulators association or I.N.R.A.). (N.C.)

  13. International indsats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sachs, Therese

    En analyse af Beredskabsstyrelsens internationale engagement og muligheder for international indsats fremover. Forslag til struktur logistisk og materielt samt til udvikling af personel-kompetencer......En analyse af Beredskabsstyrelsens internationale engagement og muligheder for international indsats fremover. Forslag til struktur logistisk og materielt samt til udvikling af personel-kompetencer...

  14. International Curriculums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, Larry L.

    This workshop presentation on international curriculums in the field of parks, recreation, leisure, cultural services, and travel/tourism comments that the literature is replete with articles addressing what the field is about, but not about curriculum issues, models, and structure. It reports an international survey of 12 college educators…

  15. International Relations:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This is the textbook for the Open University module International Relations: Continuity and Change in Global Politics. Instead of leading with a succession of theoretical 'isms', the module structures its presentation of the subject around six teaching ‘blocks’, each of which explores a dilemma......: Flat or uneven? Change and transformation in the international system • Block 3: Just or unjust? Intervention and inequality in the international system • Block 4: Top-down or bottom-up? Governance in the international system • Block 5: Secure or insecure? Pursuing security in the international system...... • Block 6: Continuity or change in global politics? Each block introduces new IR theories through discussions of the substantive dilemmas and adds in a layered way levels of analysis and conceptual complexity....

  16. International Specialization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kleindienst, Ingo; Geisler Asmussen, Christian; Hutzschenreuter, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    arbitrage strategy is characterized by specialization versus replication and argue that these different strategies may have differential impact on profitability and risk reduction. Developing a sophisticated measure of international specialization and using a unique panel data set of 92 German MNEs to test......Whether and how international diversification and cross-border arbitrage affects firm performance remains one of the major unresolved research questions in the strategy and international business literatures. We propose that knowing how much a firm has internationally diversified tells us very...... little about performance implications, if we do not know, and do not ask, how the firm has diversified. Therefore, building on the two broad arguments of operating flexibility and location-specific commitment, we develop a theoretical framework that focuses on the extent to which a firm's international...

  17. Growth theory and 'green growth'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smulders, S.; Toman, M.; Withagen, C.A.A.M.

    2014-01-01

    The relatively new and still amorphous concept of 'green growth' can be understood as a call for balancing longer-term investments in sustaining environmental wealth with nearer-term income growth to reduce poverty. We draw on a large body of economic theory available for providing insights on such

  18. 75 Years of the International Labour Review: A Retrospective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Albert; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Contains 18 articles published in International Labour Review from 1921-1975 that discuss the International Labour Organisation, international labor movement and law, economics and the labor market, family security, full employment, population growth, industrial welfare, trade policy and employment growth, and income expectations and rural-urban…

  19. International Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... create refugee populations with immediate and long-term health problems. Some of the major diseases currently affecting ... also an international problem which can affect people's health. Many countries and health organizations are working together ...

  20. Juris International

    CERN Document Server

    A database on international trade law aimed at lawyers and legal counsel in developing and transition economies. Juris International is a multilingual collection (English, Spanish, and French) of legal information on international trade. Juris International aims to facilitate and reduce the work involved in research for business lawyers, advisers and in-house counsel, and state organizations in developing nd transition economies, by providing access to texts which have often been difficult to obtain. Its objective is to gather a large quantity of basic information at one site (favoring complete legal texts), without the need to send for the information, and consequently without excessive communication costs for users who d benefit from an efficient and cheap telecommunications network.

  1. Eyelid Growths

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the Eyelids and Tears Blepharitis Blepharospasm Canaliculitis Chalazion and Stye (Hordeolum) Dacryocystitis Dacryostenosis Entropion and Ectropion ... mimic other eye disorders (such as blepharitis and chalazion ), so a doctor usually biopsies any growths that ...

  2. Governance Quality and Economic Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Tao Kong

    2011-01-01

    Among both academics and the wider development community there seems to be a general acceptance of the value of good governance and its role in promoting economic growth. However, beyond this general statement, there is a lack of deeper theoretical understanding as to why good governance is expected to foster economic growth and how such effects may take place. We de.ne governance quality as the capacity of a government to internalize externality. A theoretical model is developed to formally ...

  3. Diamond growth in mantle fluids

    OpenAIRE

    Bureau, Hélène; Frost, Daniel J.; Bolfan-casanova, Nathalie; Leroy, Clémence; Esteve, Imène; Cordier, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    International audience; In the upper mantle, diamonds can potentially grow from various forms of media (solid, gas, fluid) with a range of compositions (e.g. graphite, C–O–H fluids, silicate or carbonate melts). Inclusions trapped in diamonds are one of the few diagnostic tools that can constrain diamond growth conditions in the Earth's mantle. In this study, inclusion-bearing diamonds have been synthesized to understand the growth conditions of natural diamonds in the upper mantle. Diamonds ...

  4. Population growth and economic growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayana, D L

    1984-01-01

    This discussion of the issues relating to the problem posed by population explosion in the developing countries and economic growth in the contemporary world covers the following: predictions of economic and social trends; the Malthusian theory of population; the classical or stationary theory of population; the medical triage model; ecological disaster; the Global 2000 study; the limits to growth; critiques of the Limits to Growth model; nonrenewable resources; food and agriculture; population explosion and stabilization; space and ocean colonization; and the limits perspective. The Limits to Growth model, a general equilibrium anti-growth model, is the gloomiest economic model ever constructed. None of the doomsday models, the Malthusian theory, the classical stationary state, the neo-Malthusian medical triage model, the Global 2000 study, are so far reaching in their consequences. The course of events that followed the publication of the "Limits to Growth" in 1972 in the form of 2 oil shocks, food shock, pollution shock, and price shock seemed to bear out formally the gloomy predictions of the thesis with a remarkable speed. The 12 years of economic experience and the knowledge of resource trends postulate that even if the economic pressures visualized by the model are at work they are neither far reaching nor so drastic. Appropriate action can solve them. There are several limitations to the Limits to Growth model. The central theme of the model, which is overshoot and collapse, is unlikely to be the course of events. The model is too aggregative to be realistic. It exaggerates the ecological disaster arising out of the exponential growth of population and industry. The gross underestimation of renewable resources is a basic flaw of the model. The most critical weakness of the model is its gross underestimation of the historical trend of technological progress and the technological possiblities within industry and agriculture. The model does correctly emphasize

  5. International Criminalization of International Terrorizm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Grigoryevich Volevodz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis and studying of the terrorism in all its facets is a complex entangled problem with less clear legal regulation that it might seem at first glance, especially after its transformation from local phenomenon into a world threat. Hitherto terrorism and actions connected to it have been criminalized by the majority of states. There are in modern criminal law whole systems of rules on criminal liability for terrorism which differs considerably from country to country. Terrorism has been criminalized in numerous international regional and universal antiterrorist legal instruments. The author notes that differences in definitions that are enshrined in them hinders international cooperation in criminal matters with respect to terrorist cases. Difficulties reside in the necessity to meet the dual criminality requirement and in the political offense exception. These difficulties can only be overcome through elaboration of a universally recognized definition of the notion of international terrorism and making it legally binding via its inclusion into a universal convention. The issue of definition of international terrorism is an important part of an efficient mutual assistance among states in fight against this crime. In this article the author accounts of actual ways of tackling by the international community of the issue of criminalization of international terrorism and of factors influencing them.

  6. International collaboration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    In the wake of the demise of the US Superconducting Supercollider (SSC) project last year which empoverished both US and world science, some rapid scene shifting is going on. The SSC may be dead, but the underlying physics quest lives on. In the US, the 'future vision' subpanel of the High Energy Physics Advisory Board (HEPAP) is at work formulating its recommendations. On the international front, the International Committee for Future Accelerators (ICFA) at a special meeting in Vancouver in January drafted a statement

  7. Telecommunications and Universal Service: International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    How does international experience compare with the efforts undertaken in South Africa? Telecommunications and Universal Service was prepared in the context of a national effort in South Africa to develop a telecommunications policy that would balance the aims of economic growth and social justice. It will be of interest to ...

  8. Culture and the International Recording Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallis, Roger; Malm, Krister

    1986-01-01

    Discusses how the interaction of activities at local, national, and global levels form the structure of the international recording industry. Describes the growth of "transcultural music" and argues that its process will continue and accelerate. (JD)

  9. Govt. Pubs.: Internal Auditing in Federal, State, and Local Governments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Susan; Wilson, Guy

    1980-01-01

    Lists reports, monographs, and journal articles of the last five years that deal with internal auditing at various governmental levels, including the growth of the internal audit, the development of guidelines, current practices, types of audit, and current issues. (FM)

  10. International Illiquidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malkhozov, Aytek; Mueller, Philippe; Vedolin, Andrea

    We build a parsimonious international asset pricing model in which deviations of government bond yields from a fitted yield curve of a country measure the tightness of investors' capital constraints. We compute these measures at daily frequency for six major markets and use them to test the model...

  11. Transparency International

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulten, van M. (Michel)

    2009-01-01

    Established in 1993, Transparency International (TI) defines itself as “the global civil society organization leading the fight against corruption, that brings people together in a powerful worldwide coalition to end the devastating impact of corruption on men, women and children around the

  12. Interne evalueringer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansson, Finn

    Det er en gennemgående tese i denne undersøgelse af interne evalueringer, at en af de vigtigste kendetegn ved den New Public Management -dominerede udvikling af den offentlige sektors reguleringspolitik, som Danmark såvel som en række andre OECD lande har gennemlevet, er en omfattende brug af alle...

  13. Cooperating Internationally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Wayne

    1999-01-01

    A number of college and university consortia have embarked on international educational cooperation ventures, providing valuable experiences and benefits for faculty, students, alumni, and the community. For these programs to be effective, they must have high-level institutional support, equal opportunities to participate, effective marketing and…

  14. Transparency International

    OpenAIRE

    Hulten, van, M. (Michel)

    2009-01-01

    Established in 1993, Transparency International (TI) defines itself as “the global civil society organization leading the fight against corruption, that brings people together in a powerful worldwide coalition to end the devastating impact of corruption on men, women and children around the world”. Its stated goal is “to take action to combat corruption and prevent criminal activities arising from corruption so as to help build a world in which Government, politics, business...

  15. Teaching International Law: Concepts in International Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starbird, Caroline; Pettit, Jenny; Singleton, Laurel

    2004-01-01

    This book is designed to introduce students to public international law. Topics covered include international public organizations, such as the United Nations and World Trade Organization, international courts, international human rights law, international trade law, and international environmental law. The goal of each study is to examine how…

  16. International cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barisich, A.

    1992-01-01

    Europe is certainly the part of the world where the largest number of international arrangements have been established for dealing with international cooperation in cases of major oil spills at sea. Let me list the most important of these multilateral arrangements: Bonn Agreement: covers the North Sea Contracting Parties: riparian states and the EEC Barcelona Convention: (protocol for emergency situations) covers the Mediterranean Sea Contracting Parties: riparian states and the EEC; Helsinki Convention: covers the Baltic Sea Contracting Parties: riparian states and (soon) the EEC; Lisbon Agreement: covers the NE Atlantic Contracting Parties: France, Spain, Portugal, Morocco and the EEC; Community Action Plan: covers the whole community waters; EEC; Members States participate in this plan. It should be underlined that, in addition to these large multilateral agreements a number of bilateral or trilateral arrangements have been set up, such as the Copenhagen Agreement, Denger Plan, Manche Plan, etc. The Commission involvement in these international frameworks is very important: as an example, it is presently chairing the Bonn Agreement Contracting Parties meeting. In addition, being the only contracting party to all these agreements, it is able to play a unique role of coordination and information to avoid duplications and contradictions. Having given this overview, I would now focus on the Community Action Plan

  17. Search Results | Page 753 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Results 7521 - 7530 of 8491 ... Growth and Economic Opportunities for Women: Literature ReviewPrimary. In partnership with the United Kingdom's Department for International Development and The William and Flora Hewlett Foundation, IDRC is launching a call for research proposals on Growth and Economic Opportunities ...

  18. Publications | Page 136 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Growth and Economic Opportunities for Women: Literature ReviewPrimary. In partnership with the United Kingdom's Department for International Development and The William and Flora Hewlett Foundation, IDRC is launching a call for research proposals on Growth and Economic Opportunities for Women (GrOW) ...

  19. Search Results | Page 2 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2013-01-01

    Results 11 - 20 of 52 ... The final report of a two-year study examines the impact of remittances from migrants in Ghana, Ivory Coast and Nigeria on poverty reduction and economic growth. Published date. January 1, 2013. Reports. ECONOMIC GROWTH INCOME DISTRIBUTION INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION HOUSEHOLD ...

  20. growth conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Fuchs

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the obstacle problem {minimize????????I(u=?OG(?udx??among functions??u:O?Rsuch?that???????u|?O=0??and??u=F??a.e. for a given function F?C2(O¯,F|?O<0 and a bounded Lipschitz domain O in Rn. The growth properties of the convex integrand G are described in terms of a N-function A:[0,8?[0,8 with limt?8¯A(tt-2<8. If n=3, we prove, under certain assumptions on G,C1,8-partial regularity for the solution to the above obstacle problem. For the special case where A(t=tln(1+t we obtain C1,a-partial regularity when n=4. One of the main features of the paper is that we do not require any power growth of G.

  1. Conceptualizing international education : From international student to international study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Madge, Clare; Raghuram, Parvati; Noxolo, Pat

    2015-01-01

    In a rapidly changing transnational eduscape, it is timely to consider how best to conceptualize international education. Here we argue for a conceptual relocation from international student to international study as a means to bridge the diverse literatures on international education. International

  2. Growth hormone deficiency - children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... childhood. The pediatrician will most often draw the child's growth curve on a growth chart . Children with growth ... Most cases are not preventable. Review your child's growth chart ... child's growth rate, evaluation by a specialist is recommended.

  3. Plant growth-promoting bacterial endophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoyo, Gustavo; Moreno-Hagelsieb, Gabriel; Orozco-Mosqueda, Ma del Carmen; Glick, Bernard R

    2016-02-01

    Bacterial endophytes ubiquitously colonize the internal tissues of plants, being found in nearly every plant worldwide. Some endophytes are able to promote the growth of plants. For those strains the mechanisms of plant growth-promotion known to be employed by bacterial endophytes are similar to the mechanisms used by rhizospheric bacteria, e.g., the acquisition of resources needed for plant growth and modulation of plant growth and development. Similar to rhizospheric plant growth-promoting bacteria, endophytic plant growth-promoting bacteria can act to facilitate plant growth in agriculture, horticulture and silviculture as well as in strategies for environmental cleanup (i.e., phytoremediation). Genome comparisons between bacterial endophytes and the genomes of rhizospheric plant growth-promoting bacteria are starting to unveil potential genetic factors involved in an endophytic lifestyle, which should facilitate a better understanding of the functioning of bacterial endophytes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. Selected highlights of the VIII International Symposium of Clinicians for Endocrinopathies in Thalassemia and Adolescent Medicine (ICET-A) on Growth, Puberty and Endocrine Complications in Thalassaemia. Auditorium of the Sultan Qaboos University (SQU) Muscat (Sultanate of Oman), 20th of December 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Sanctis, Vincenzo; Soliman, Ashraf T; Wali, Yasser; Elsedfy, Heba; Daar, Shahina; Al-Yaarubi, Saif A H; Mevada, Surekha Tony; Tony, Surekha; Elshinawy, Mohamed; Fawzy, Hanan; Al-Subhi, Taimoora; Al-Rawas, Abulhakim; Al-Muslehi, Muhanna; El Kholy, Mohamed

    2015-03-01

    The VIII ICET-A International Symposium was held in Muscat (Sultanate of Oman) on the 20th of December, 2014. The symposium included four sessions on a wide range of topics covering growth disorders and endocrine complications in thalassaemia. Despite the fact that endocrine complications are very common in multi-transfused thalassaemia patients a recent survey conducted by the International Network of Clinicians for Endocrinopathies in Thalassemia and Adolescent Medicine (ICET-A) in 2014 in Acitrezza (Catania, Italy) showed that the major difficulties reported by hematologists or pediatricians experienced in thalassaemias or thalassaemia syndromes in following endocrine complications included: Lack of familiarity with medical treatment of endocrine complications, interpretation of endocrine tests, lack of collaboration and on-time consultation between thalassaemic centres supervised by haematologists and endocrinologists. Endocrine monitoring of growth, pubertal development, reproductive ability and endocrine function in general are essential to achieve a good quality of life as well as controlling the pain which results from the defects of bone structure, all of which increase with the age of patients. Such comprehensive care is best provided by coordinated, multidisciplinary teams working in expert centres. The multidisciplinary team must include an endocrinologist, preferably someone experienced in the management of hormonal deficiencies caused early in life by transfusion-induced iron overload.

  5. Marketing aspects of steady growth business strategy

    OpenAIRE

    GONCHAR V.; KALININ O.

    2015-01-01

    The article analyzed the importance of marketing to achieve steady business growth, the main strategy of internal development and marketing of its level of development, achieving competitive advantage and the main directions of marketing management. The examples of marketing strategies for leading corporations were described. The problems and prospects of the business strategy of extensive growth and diversification were made.

  6. Electrification, economic growth and uranium power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starr, C.

    1982-01-01

    It is argued that the expanded use of nuclear power is essential to provide a substantial portion of the electricity necessary for world economic growth. However, obstacles to this growth arise not from the technology but rather from the inadequacies of our industrial, political, and economic institutions needed to manage this new energy system effectively, nationally and internationally. (U.K.)

  7. Opportunities and barriers for international bioenergy trade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Junginger, H.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/202130703; van Dam, J.M.C.; Zarrilli, S.; Mohamed, F.A.; Marchal, D.; Faaij, A.P.C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/10685903X

    2011-01-01

    Recently, the international trade of various bioenergy commodities has grown rapidly, yet this growth is also hampered by some barriers. The aim of this paper is to obtain an overview of what market actors currently perceive as major opportunities and barriers for the development of international

  8. International Students' Confidence and Academic Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telbis, Nicola Miky; Helgeson, Lars; Kingsbury, Cheryl

    2014-01-01

    Research shows that the international student population is showing significant growth. This article deals with issues affecting a growing international student population. Studies show that foreign students are encountering difficulties in social adaptability, language barriers, academic ability, and financial need. There is evidence that a…

  9. International Higher Education in Australia: Unplanned Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Mahsood; Nair, Chenicheri Sid

    2011-01-01

    International education is the third largest export industry in Australia and is worth almost A$20 billion. The last ten years have witnessed significant growth in both onshore and offshore enrolments of international students in Australian universities. The offshore component of all Australian universities has been subject to scrutiny by the…

  10. Growing Women-Owned Businesses | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This project will help women-owned businesses connect to global markets and enhance their growth prospects. WEConnect International, a leading international certification body for women's business enterprises, is leading the project. The organization connects women-owned businesses to large private companies' ...

  11. The Growth Effects of Education in Australia.

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio Paradiso; Saten Kumar; B. Bhaskara Rao

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we estimate the growth effects of human capital with country-specific time series data for Australia. Previous empirical studies, based on international data, have been inconclusive, in terms of the extent of the contribution of human capital to growth. We extend the Solow (1956) growth model by using educational attainment as a measure of human capital, as developed by Barro and Lee (2010). The extended Solow (1956) model performs well after allowing for the presence of structu...

  12. Measuring International Migration in Azerbaijan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serhat Yüksel

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available International migration significantly affects economic, social, cultural, and political factors of the country. Owing to this situation, it can be said that the reasons of international migration should be analyzed in order to control this problem. The purpose of this study is to determine the influencing factors of international migration in Azerbaijan. In this scope, annual data of 11 explanatory variables for the period of 1995–2015 was analyzed via Multivariate Adaptive Regression Splines (MARS method. According to the results of this analysis, it was identified that people prefer to move other countries in case of high unemployment rates. In addition, the results of the study show that population growth and high mortality rate increases the migration level. While considering these results, it was recommended that Azerbaijan should focus on these aspects to control international migration problem.

  13. Internal education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Zagorc

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Research Question (RQ: The importance of internal trainings in an organization. Purpose: The purpose of research is to examine and present internal trainings in an organization and their contribution to greater success of an organization. The paper studies employee training in a company, how the organization itself looks after its employees during training, how trainings contribute to further development of organization and the advancement of knowledge for successful operation of organization. Method: How to achieve the purpose of research, used methods and theoretical approach. Results: Specific examples and opinions of employees. Results show the importance of trainings for an organization. We can see that all employees are fairly motivated and ready to participate in trainings and can adapt to changing business environment very well. The results demonstrate that all trainings in the organization are very important and welcome. Only with continuous learning, the organization can be successful and survive in the market despite strong competition. Organization: Trainings are designed for all employees inside an organization. Different employees participate in trainings in a different way as all trainings are divided into certain work and fields that are important for each individual or department in an organization. Society: Trainings have an impact on the whole organization by contributing to its development. Originality: The originality of study is what was new in the research, what is the value and originality of research. Limitations/Future Research: Research was limited to a small number of sources.

  14. Can Growth Be Green?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gough, Ian

    2015-01-01

    This short article, based on a presentation at the London School of Economics, criticizes the common opinion that "green growth" offers a relatively painless - some even say pain-free - transition path for capitalist economies. After a brief summary of the daunting arithmetic entailed in combining fast decarbonization with continuing growth, the article advances 3 propositions. First, market-based carbon mitigation programs, such as carbon trading, cannot be sufficient and must be coupled with other policy pillars that foster transformative investment and widespread regulation. Second, a political economy of climate policy needs to draw on the lessons of comparative social policy research, which emphasizes the role of international pressures, interests, institutions, and ideas. Taking these into account gives a more realistic perspective on climate policy making in today's neoliberal world. Third, more radical policies on both consumption and production are called for, to ensure that carbon mitigation is not pursued at the expense of equity and social welfare. These include policies to restrain high-carbon luxury consumption and a transition toward shorter paid working time. The conclusion is that a realistic program of green growth will be immensely difficult and entail radical political change. © SAGE Publications 2015.

  15. Intermittent internal fixation with a locking plate to preserve epiphyseal growth function during limb-salvage surgery in a child with osteosarcoma of the distal femur: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Jiong; Ni, Ming; Jia, Guang-Yao; Chen, Yan-Xi; Zhu, Xiao-Zhong

    2015-05-01

    Limb shortening is a problem associated with surgery for osteosarcoma of the lower extremity in adolescents, as the tumors frequently occur near the epiphysis. Herein we report the use of a less invasive stabilization system (LISS) and an intermittent fixation method to preserve the growth function of epiphysis in an 11-year-old patient with an osteosarcoma of the distal femur.The 11-year-old male presented with left knee enlargement and pain for 2 weeks, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and biopsy were consistent with osteosarcoma of the left distal femur. After preoperative chemotherapy, en bloc tumor resection was performed with margins based on MRI findings preserving the epiphyseal growth plate, the tumor cavity was filled with inactivated bone and bone cement, and a LISS was used to stabilize the femur. Aggressive postoperative chemotherapy was given. Approximately 105 weeks after surgery radiography showed that the distal end of the plate had moved superior to the epiphysis along with bone growth. Locking screws were placed in the distal part of the LISS plate to stabilize the re-implanted bone, and external fixation was not needed.The patient was able to walk with the crutches 1 week postoperatively, and bear weight on the extremity 6 weeks postoperatively. At 6 years after surgery, the patient's height had increased 52 cm, shortening of the affected limb was only 1 cm, and the circumference of the affected limb was 2 cm smaller than that of the contralateral limb. There was no significant discomfort in the affected limb, and there was no gait abnormality. The patient could jump and run, and could participate in sports including basketball and badminton to the same degree as his peers.In summary, the novel method of bone reconstruction and fixation provided good results in a child with an osteosarcoma of the distal femur. This fixation method preserves the osteogenic function of the epiphysis and restored bone integrity simultaneously, and

  16. On high temperature internal friction in metallic glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zolotukhin, I.V.; Kalinin, Yu.E.; Roshchupkin, A.M.

    1992-01-01

    High temperature background of internal friction in amorphous lanthanum-aluminium alloys was investigated. More rapid growth of internal friction was observed at temperature ∼ 453 K reaching maximal value at 495 K. Crystallization process was accompanied by decrease of internal friction. Increase of mechanical vibration frequency to 1000 Hz leads to rise of internal friction background in the range of room temperatures and to decrease at temperatures above 370 K. Bend was observed on temperature dependence of internal friction at 440 K

  17. International recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindell, Bo

    1986-01-01

    Full text: This short presentation will indicate the general radiation protection background to protective measures against foodstuffs contaminated with radioactive substances. A number of international organizations are involved in various aspects of radiation protection, for example, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), and the World Health Organization (WHO). Two international organizations, however, provide the basic background. These are the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR). UNSCEAR provides the scientific information on radiation levels and effects. It consists of 21 member countries, with truly international coverage. It issues reports to the UN General Assembly, including comprehensive scientific annexes. Its latest comprehensive report was issued in 1982, the next is expected to be published in 1988. That report will include an assessment of the radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident. The ICRP is a non-governmental organization. It has issued recommendations on radiation protection since 1928. The postulated biological basis for radiation protection recommendations involves two types of biological effects. The so-called non-stochastic effects, mainly due to cell death, appear only when the radiation doses exceed a certain threshold value. These effects, therefore, can only appear after high accidental exposures. After the Chernobyl accident, they only affected about 200 individuals involved in fire extinction and rescue work at the damaged nuclear power plant. Stochastic effects, with some simplification, may be seen as the result of initial changes in the genetic code of some surviving cells. If these cells are germ cells, this may lead to hereditary harm. If they are somatic cells, the result could be cancer

  18. Energy taxation and economic growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seymour, Adam; Mabro, Robert.

    1994-01-01

    These two linked articles look at the relationship between policies aimed at taxing various energy sources and economic growth in the country, raising such taxes in order to decide how such fiscal policy can best serve the needs of developing nations. It is argued that, while many developing nations seek to protect internal energy markets by taxing imported petroleum products, a policy of domestic energy prices being set at the same level as their international equivalent costs is more consistent with the efficient management of long-term structural adjustment programmes. (UK)

  19. International relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2009-01-01

    The French nuclear safety authority (A.S.N.) has participated at different meeting in European Union as nuclear decommissioning assistance programme(N.D.A.P.), Regulatory assistance management group (R.A.M.G.) and Instrument for nuclear safety cooperation (I.N.S.C.). The members of Western European nuclear regulator association (W.E.N.R.A.) met and discussed about the future of W.E.N.R.A. and its representativeness and its cooperation with European nuclear safety regulator group (E.N.S.R.E.G.) and head of European radiation control authorities (H.E.R.C.A.). About International relations it is to noticed a meeting at the invitation of IAEA to discuss about the possibility to resort to the Ines scale for medical events. An audit mission under the IAEA aegis stood at Fessenheim, O.S.A.R.T. for operational safety review team. Two years and a half passed by between the audit mission Integrated regulatory review service (I.R.S.S.) welcome by A.S.N. in november 2006 and the audit mission follow up in 2009, 12 experts from 11 different countries and coordinated by three representatives of IAEA worked, the conclusions were that 90% of recommendations made to A.S.N. in 2006 were treated in a satisfying way; the evaluation gives three new recommendations, 7 new suggestions and 11 new correct practices. A meeting of the commission on safety standards (C.S.S.) stood in april 2009. Some others meeting are to be noticed: nuclear safety and security group (N.S.S.G.), expert group on nuclear and radiation safety (E.G.N.R.S.) instituted by the council of the Baltic sea states (C.B.S.S.) treats data exchange on the national networks of dose rates and surveillance of radioactivity in air. International nuclear regulator association (I.N.R.A.) held its first meeting in april 2009 at Seoul (Korea). Bilateral relations with Poland, Italy, Ukraine and Germany planed cooperation or information exchange in the field of nuclear safety. Participation to conference in Usa, meetings with United

  20. International migration: a global challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, P; Widgren, J

    1996-04-01

    Trends in international migration are presented in this multiregional analysis. Seven of the world's wealthiest countries have about 33% of the world's migrant population, but under 16% of the total world population. Population growth in these countries is substantially affected by the migrant population. The migration challenge is external and internal. The external challenge is to balance the need for foreign labor and the commitment to human rights for those migrants seeking economic opportunity and political freedom. The internal challenge is to assure the social adjustment of immigrants and their children and to integrate them into society as citizens and future leaders. Why people cross national borders and how migration flows are likely to evolve over the next decades are explained. This report also presents some ways that countries can manage migration or reduce the pressures which force people to migrate. It is recommended that receiving nations control immigration by accelerating global economic growth and reducing wars and human rights violations. This report examines the impact of immigration on international trade, aid, and direct intervention policies. Although migration is one of the most important international economic issues, it is not coordinated by an international group. The European experience indicates that it is not easy to secure international cooperation on issues that affect national sovereignty. It is suggested that countries desiring control of their borders should remember that most people never cross national borders to live or work in another country, that 50% of the world's migrants move among developing countries, and that countries can shift from being emigration to immigration countries. The author suggests that sustained reductions in migration pressure are a better alternative than the "quick fixes" that may invite the very much feared mass and unpredictable movements.

  1. An international perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skinner, R.

    2004-01-01

    Recent developments in the oil markets were reviewed in order to examine the international context for energy policy and challenges. The main elements and trends in global energy supply and demand were also reviewed along with the issues they present. Oil markets and energy supply industries in North America are influenced by industry consolidation, regulatory reform and oil pricing. Grid-based industries have been the main target of market reform policies. This presentation examined the world energy outlook in terms of fossil fuel use, demand growth in developing countries, energy security, and how to reduce greenhouse gases. It was noted that in addition to energy efficiency and renewable energy sources, unconventional oil from Canada's oil sands will appear in the oil business scene. The author emphasized that a key policy goal will be the removal of barriers to investment in energy supplies. figs

  2. The 16th International Twin Congress: Highlights from Madrid/Twin Research: Twin Study of Partner Aggression; ABO Incompatibility in Dizygotic Twins; Growth Discordance in a Monoamniotic Twin Pair; Quick Note on Twin Implantation/In the Media: Long-Lost Twins Found; NASA Twin Experiment; Twin Brothers and the Las Vegas Attack; Retired Twin Airline Pilots; Twin Film Clips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, Nancy L

    2018-02-01

    Highlights from the 16th International Twin Congress, held in Madrid, Spain from November 16-18, 2017, are presented. The Twin Congress, formerly held every three years, now takes place biennially with a single-day meeting organized during the off years. This meeting is the largest gathering of scientific twin researchers, medical personnel, and representatives of multiple birth organizations in the world. This overview is followed by reviews of recent twin research and commentary concerning partner aggression, ABO incompatibility in dizygotic twins, growth discordance in a monoamniotic twin pair and twin implantation. The article closes with summaries of timely topics in the media, namely a father's finding of his long-lost twin children, early results from the NASA twin experiment, twin brothers at the center of the October 2017 Las Vegas attack, retired twin airline pilots, and clips from recent films with twin-based themes.

  3. Public procurement, governance and economic growth: some policy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Public procurement, governance and economic growth: some policy recommendations for Africa's growth and development. ... International Journal of Development and Management Review ... The paper presents an analytical insight into the link between public procurement, governance and economic growth. It shows that ...

  4. Growth Hormone Research Society perspective on the development of long-acting growth hormone preparations

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Growth Hormone (GH) Research Society (GRS) convened a workshop to address important issues regarding trial design, efficacy, and safety of long-acting growth hormone preparations (LAGH). A closed meeting of 55 international scientists with expertise in GH, including pediatric and adult endocrino...

  5. Bangladesh : Growth and Export Competitiveness

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2005-01-01

    Bangladesh's growth over the past two decades or more, in terms of developing-country standards, has been notable. Such record of progress is one guide to the country's potential to grow, and to score well in world markets. To this end, i.e., to make the most of its export opportunities on a changing international playing field, Bangladesh needs to follow a strategic game plan, invest in infrastructure, technology and skills, streamline policies, and improve quality and safety standards. This...

  6. Clean versus Dirty Economic Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Palokangas, Tapio

    2012-01-01

    This document considers an economy with many regions and two engines of growth: horizontal R&D, which increases the number of polluting product lines; and vertical R&D, which improves productivity in these lines. Pollution in any region decreases welfare in all regions. Any group of regions can form a jurisdiction where a common policy maker controls pollution. Large jurisdictions, which can better internalize externality through pollution, perform vertical R&D. Because jurisdictions face dec...

  7. Gambling on growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feeney, A

    1990-01-01

    policy. High tariffs and protectionism, debt payments, and International Monetary Fund structural adjustment programs have made the situation worse for the Third World. Many suggestions have been made to correct the poverty imbalance, including no growth or steady state economics.

  8. International safeguards problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheinman, L.; Curtis, H.B.

    1977-01-01

    To recognize the limitations of safeguards as a barrier to nuclear proliferation is not to deny their essential role in the effort to contain that problem. Without a safeguards system, international nuclear commerce and development would not, indeed could not, be what they are today. The problems evoked in the discussion of the spread of sensitive nuclear technology underscore the importance of ensuring that activities do not outpace our ability to control them. To sustain a global nuclear economy requires a readiness to live within the constraints that such an economy requires. Enhanced safeguards and strengthened national commitments to facilitate their application are key elements of those constraints. So also may be a prepardness by many nations to forego explicitly national control over all facets of the nuclear fuel cycle while still sharing fully and equally in the benefits of the peaceful atom. The challenge of the coming years will be to craft mechanisms and institutions enabling the continued growth of peaceful nuclear activity without further impairing international security. The constraints that such an outcome entails are not limited to nations lacking sophisticated nuclear technology; they apply to the most advanced nuclear nations as well--partly through adherence to the safeguards system that these countries call upon others to adopt, and partly through greater willingness to entertain solutions that may involve greater international involvement in, and control over, their own peaceful nuclear productive activities. With time, the relative incompatibility of nuclear energy with full national sovereignty, and the far-sighted wisdom of the Baruch Plan, are becoming increasingly clear. 1 table, 10 references

  9. special article pharmacogenetics in ghana: reviewing the evidence

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    David Ofori-Adjei

    with colorectal cancer and treated with irinotecan and cetuximab; which are anti epidermal growth factor ... third of breast cancers have a mutation in the gene that causes high HER2 levels. Patients with breast cancer ... HLA-B*5701 genotyping is also recommended before the use of Abacavir to prevent drug related ...

  10. Leadership Challenges in International Schools in the Asia Pacific Region: Evidence from Programme Implementation of the International Baccalaureate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Moosung; Hallinger, Philip; Walker, Allan

    2012-01-01

    Over the last four decades, International Baccalaureate (IB) schools have become increasingly important in the global market of international education. This is especially evident in Asia Pacific, which has evidenced the fastest growth in IB schools, as well as international schools more generally, across the world over the last decade. Despite…

  11. Professional Development in International Schools; Issues of Inclusion Identified by a Group of International School Teaching Assistants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarry, Estelle; Cox, Anna

    2014-01-01

    With the growth in numbers of teaching assistants (TAs) in the UK, it has been identified through research carried out on behalf of the Council of British International Schools (COBIS) research that TAs in British international schools have specific and unmet training needs. Following the development of a course for TAs in international contexts,…

  12. Limits to the growth debate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon, L.

    The first two major studies sponsored by the club of Rome were the report of the Meadows team at MIT, The Limits to Growth, published in 1972, and the Mesarovic and Pestel report, Mankind at the Turning Point, published in 1974. When the Club of Rome met in Philadelphia in April of 1976, its pronouncements reflected a frame of mind quite different from that of 1972. Recently, Herman Kahn and his colleagues at the Hudson Institute have published The Next 200 Years, a book evidently inspired as much by antagonism to the limits-to-growth school of thought as by affirmative faith in its own vision of technological optimism. The author discusses the content of the studies and summarizes his own position in four areas. (1) While no trend of growth of anything can continue indefinitely in the real world, there are not global physical limits to economic growth within a time frame susceptible to plausible foresight or relevant to policy making. (2) In some world regions, notably South Asia and tropical Africa, population growth rates do indeed threaten to create a kind of Malthusian trap, and the rapid reduction of fertility is critically important to their development prospects and urgent in time. (3) For other parts of the world, both rates and directions of growth will be more influenced by changes in preferences for consumption and in attitudes toward production than by physical constraints, although higher energy costs and environmental pressures will also be important influences in generating such changes in growth patterns. (4) Probable changes in directions of growth will generate new and important issues in international economic and political relations, with both dangers and opportunities for the evolving world order. (MCW)

  13. Baseline characteristics and response to 2 years of growth hormone (GH) replacement of hypopituitary patients with GH deficiency due to adult-onset craniopharyngioma in comparison with patients with nonfunctioning pituitary adenoma: data from KIMS (Pfizer International Metabolic Database).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhelst, Johan; Kendall-Taylor, Pat; Erfurth, Eva Marie; Price, David Anthony; Geffner, Mitchell; Koltowska-Häggström, Maria; Jönsson, Peter J; Wilton, Patrick; Abs, Roger

    2005-08-01

    In epidemiological studies, hypopituitary adults show increased mortality compared with population controls. Patients with hypopituitarism caused by a craniopharyngioma (CP) and/or its treatment have a higher mortality than patients with other etiologies, such as a nonfunctioning pituitary adenoma (NFPA). To analyze this difference, we used the KIMS database (Pfizer International Metabolic Database) comparing CP and NFPA patients in terms of baseline characteristics and responses to GH replacement. Baseline characteristics were studied in 351 CP patients (189 men and 162 women; mean age, 42.5 yr) and compared with 370 NFPA patients, matched for age and sex (185 men and 185 women; mean age, 42.5 yr). The effects of 2 yr of GH replacement were analyzed in a subgroup of 183 CP and 209 NFPA patients. At baseline, both CP and NFPA patients had characteristic features of GH deficiency, with low serum IGF-I, increased body fat, dyslipidemia, and reduced quality of life. Male CP patients were significantly more obese (30.0 vs. 28.2 kg/m2; P = 0.0003) compared with NFPA patients, had a higher waist/hip ratio (P = 0.004), higher triglycerides (P = 0.003), and lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P = 0.03). Similar, but much smaller, differences were seen in female CP compared with NFPA patients, only reaching significance for waist/hip ratio (P = 0.05) and triglycerides (P = 0.0004). CP patients had more often undergone surgery by the transcranial route (68.8% vs. 30.9%; P NFPA patients (58.7% vs. 19.8%; P NFPA patients. After 2 yr of GH replacement therapy, similar significant improvements were evident in both groups in fat-free mass, total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and Quality-of-Life-Assessment in GH Deficient Adults score compared with baseline. In contrast to NFPA patients, CP patients had no significant decrease in body fat with GH therapy. In the KIMS database, patients with CP have more often undergone surgery by the transcranial route than

  14. Improving the Rotterdam European Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer Risk Calculator for Initial Prostate Biopsy by Incorporating the 2014 International Society of Urological Pathology Gleason Grading and Cribriform growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roobol, Monique J; Verbeek, Jan F M; van der Kwast, Theo; Kümmerlin, Intan P; Kweldam, Charlotte F; van Leenders, Geert J L H

    2017-07-01

    The survival rate for men with International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) grade 2 prostate cancer (PCa) without invasive cribriform (CR) and intraductal carcinoma (IDC) is similar to that for ISUP grade 1. If updated into the European Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer (ERSPC Rotterdam) risk calculator number 3 (RC3), this may further improve upfront selection of men who need a biopsy. To improve the number of possible biopsies avoided, while limiting undiagnosed clinically important PCa by applying the updated RC3 for risk-based patient selection. The RC3 is based on the first screening round of the ERSPC Rotterdam, which involved 3616 men. In 2015, histopathologic slides for PCa cases (n=885) were re-evaluated. Low-risk (LR) PCa was defined as ISUP grade 1 or 2 without CR/IDC. High-risk (HR) PCa was defined as ISUP grade 2 with CR/IDC and PCa with ISUP grade≥3. We updated the RC3 using multinomial logistic regression analysis, including data on age, PSA, digital rectal examination, and prostate volume, for predicting LR and HR PCa. Predictive accuracy was quantified using receiver operating characteristic analysis and decision curve analysis. Men without PCa could effectively be distinguished from men with LR PCa and HR PCa (area under the curve 0.70, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.68-0.72 and 0.92, 95% CI 0.90-0.94). At a 1% risk threshold, the updated calculator would lead to a 34% reduction in unnecessary biopsies, while only 2% of HR PCa cases would be undiagnosed. A relatively simple risk stratification tool augmented with a highly sensitive contemporary pathologic biopsy classification would result in a considerable decrease in unnecessary prostate biopsies and overdiagnosis of potentially indolent disease. We improved a well-known prostate risk calculator with a new pathology classification system that better reflects disease burden. This new risk calculator allows individualized prediction of the chance of having (potentially

  15. Biological growth in bodies with incoherent interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, Digendranath; Gupta, Anurag

    2018-01-01

    A general theory of thermodynamically consistent biomechanical-biochemical growth in a body, considering mass addition in the bulk and at an incoherent interface, is developed. The incoherency arises due to incompatibility of growth and elastic distortion tensors at the interface. The incoherent interface therefore acts as an additional source of internal stress besides allowing for rich growth kinematics. All the biochemicals in the model are essentially represented in terms of nutrient concentration fields, in the bulk and at the interface. A nutrient balance law is postulated which, combined with mechanical balances and kinetic laws, yields an initial-boundary-value problem coupling the evolution of bulk and interfacial growth, on the one hand, and the evolution of growth and nutrient concentration on the other. The problem is solved, and discussed in detail, for two distinct examples: annual ring formation during tree growth and healing of cutaneous wounds in animals.

  16. Step-Growth Polymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stille, J. K.

    1981-01-01

    Following a comparison of chain-growth and step-growth polymerization, focuses on the latter process by describing requirements for high molecular weight, step-growth polymerization kinetics, synthesis and molecular weight distribution of some linear step-growth polymers, and three-dimensional network step-growth polymers. (JN)

  17. Multiphasic growth curve analysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koops, W.J.

    1986-01-01

    Application of a multiphasic growth curve is demonstrated with 4 data sets, adopted from literature. The growth curve used is a summation of n logistic growth functions. Human height growth curves of this type are known as "double logistic" (n = 2) and "triple logistic" (n = 3) growth curves (Bock

  18. Genomic growth hormone, growth hormone receptor and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-07-20

    Jul 20, 2009 ... Genomic growth hormone, growth hormone receptor and transforming growth factor β-3 gene polymorphism in breeder hens of Mazandaran native fowls. Babak Enayati and Ghodrat Rahimi-Mianji*. Laboratory for Molecular Genetics and Animal Biotechnology, Department of Animal Sciences, Faculty of ...

  19. Mask strategy at International SEMATECH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimmel, Kurt R.

    2002-08-01

    International SEMATECH (ISMT) is a consortium consisting of 13 leading semiconductor manufacturers from around the globe. Its objective is to develop the infrastructure necessary for its member companies to realize the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS) through efficiencies of shared development resources and knowledge. The largest area of effort is lithography, recognized as a crucial enabler for microelectronics technology progress. Within the Lithography Division, most of the efforts center on mask-related issues. The development strategy at International SEMATCH will be presented and the interlock of lithography projects clarified. Because of the limited size of the mask production equipment market, the business case is weak for aggressive investment commensurate with the pace of the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors. With masks becoming the overwhelming component of lithography cost, new ways of reducing or eliminating mask costs are being explored. Will mask technology survive without a strong business case? Will the mask industry limit the growth of the semiconductor industry? Are advanced masks worth their escalating cost? An analysis of mask cost from the perspective of mask value imparted to the user is presented with examples and generic formulas for the reader to apply independently. A key part to the success for both International SEMATECH and the industry globally will be partnerships on both the local level between mask-maker and mask-user, and the macro level where global collaborations will be necessary to resolve technology development cost challenges.

  20. International Methane Partnership Fighting Climate Change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    Due to the growth of international attention on the problem of climate change combined with the attractiveness of methane mitigation technologies, the capture and use of methane in agriculture, coal mines, landfills, and the oil and gas sector has increasingly become popular over the past few years. Highlighting this, several countries hosted the international 'Methane to Market' Partnership Conference and Exposition in October 2007 in Beijing, China.

  1. Price Categories Used in International Trade

    OpenAIRE

    Paliu-Popa, Lucia

    2009-01-01

    In the current world economy conditions, development of any state can not be based solely on internal sources and the national economy results. Increased volume and diversification of cross-border transactions in goods and services, the dynamics of international capital flows, and the fast spread of technology, gives multiple values of foreign trade leading to growth of economic interlinks across the world countries. Through the foreign trade activity is carried out exchange of goods and s...

  2. Growth hormone suppression test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003376.htm Growth hormone suppression test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The growth hormone suppression test determines whether growth hormone production is ...

  3. Seasonal variations in ectotherm growth rates: Quantifying growth as an intermittent non steady state compensatory process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarini, J.-M.; Chauvaud, Laurent; Cloern, J.E.; Clavier, J.; Coston-Guarini, J.; Patry, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Generally, growth rates of living organisms are considered to be at steady state, varying only under environmental forcing factors. For example, these rates may be described as a function of light for plants or organic food resources for animals and these could be regulated (or not) by temperature or other conditions. But, what are the consequences for an individual's growth (and also for the population growth) if growth rate variations are themselves dynamic and not steady state? For organisms presenting phases of dormancy or long periods of stress, this is a crucial question. A dynamic perspective for quantifying short-term growth was explored using the daily growth record of the scallop Pecten maximus (L.). This species is a good biological model for ectotherm growth because the shell records growth striae daily. Independently, a generic mathematical function representing the dynamics of mean daily growth rate (MDGR) was implemented to simulate a diverse set of growth patterns. Once the function was calibrated with the striae patterns, the growth rate dynamics appeared as a forced damped oscillation during the growth period having a basic periodicity during two transitory phases (mean duration 43. days) and appearing at both growth start and growth end. This phase is most likely due to the internal dynamics of energy transfer within the organism rather than to external forcing factors. After growth restart, the transitory regime represents successive phases of over-growth and regulation. This pattern corresponds to a typical representation of compensatory growth, which from an evolutionary perspective can be interpreted as an adaptive strategy to coping with a fluctuating environment. ?? 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  4. Community College Internal Auditors: Internal Audit Guidebook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Ronna; And Others

    This guidebook includes information compiled by the "Audit Manual" committee of Community College Internal Auditors (CCIA) from several California community college districts regarding their internal auditing practices. The first section of the guidebook discusses the purpose of internal audits, indicating that audits assist members of…

  5. Nuclear fuel cycle: international market, international constraints and international cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imai, R.

    1977-01-01

    Some of the constraints on the nuclear fuel cycle are ones arising from economic and financial reasons, those caused by uranium resources and their distribution, those arising from technical reasons, issues of public acceptance, and those quite independent of normal industrial considerations, but caused by elements of international politics. The nuclear fuel cycle and the international market, matters of nuclear non-proliferation, and international cooperation are discussed

  6. Growth factors and kinases in glioblastoma growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel Peña-Ortiz

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM is the most aggressive type of brain cancer, having the highest invasion, migration, proliferation, and angiogenesis rates. Several signaling pathways are involved in the regulation of these processes including growth factors and their tyrosine kinase receptors, such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ, fibroblast growth factor (FGF, platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF, and insulin-like growth factor–I (IGF–I. Different kinases and regulators also participate in signaling pathways initiated by growth factors, such as mitogen-activated kinases (MAPK, protein kinases C (PKC, phosphatidylinositol-3 kinases (PI3K, protein kinase B (PKB or Akt, glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β, the mTOR complex, and Bcl-2. In this review, we will focus on the role of these proteins as possible therapeutic targets in GBM.

  7. Melanoma International Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the state of Pennsylvania, certificate #29498 © 2013 Melanoma International Foundation. All Rights Reserved. Privacy Policy | Terms of Use Toll-free: 866-463-6663 International: 610-942-3432 Melanoma International Foundation 250 Mapleflower ...

  8. Changes in the International Wine Market

    OpenAIRE

    Vlahović, Branislav; Puškarić, Anton; Tomašević, Dejan

    2013-01-01

    Knowing international market is a basis for segmentation and making right and timely marketing decisions regarding wine export. In this piece, we have analized the international wine market, and determined changes in international turnover, with largest importers and exporters for the period of 2001 - 2011. The average wine export in the world was 8,4 tons, with a growth tendency of 5,0% per year. Converted in money, the average export amounted to 22 billion US Dollars, which makes wine one o...

  9. Does FDI influence economic growth in Albania?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurel Koroci

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Foreign direct investment (FDI has been viewed as a power affecting economic growth (EG directly and indirectly during the past few decades. Foreign direct investment (FDI in developing countries brings economic development and enhances the international competitiveness of domestic enterprises. It is argued in the existing literature that foreign direct investment (FDI influences economic growth through technology diffusion, human capital formation, etc. FDI accounts for the largest and most important proportion of foreign capital in Albania, which undoubtedly plays an important role in the Albania’s economic development growth. However, as the country’s FDI increases, and in this paper I want to make an empirical research how the FDI has influenced the economic growth of the country. The findings revealed that there is a strong positive relationship between the FDI inflows and the GDP for the studied period which covers 1995 to 2012, thus a positive effect on the economic growth.

  10. International exploration by independents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertagne, R.G.

    1991-01-01

    Recent industry trends indicate that the smaller US independents are looking at foreign exploration opportunities as one of the alternatives for growth in the new age of exploration. It is usually accepted that foreign finding costs per barrel are substantially lower than domestic because of the large reserve potential of international plays. To get involved overseas requires, however, an adaptation to different cultural, financial, legal, operational, and political conditions. Generally foreign exploration proceeds at a slower pace than domestic because concessions are granted by the government, or are explored in partnership with the national oil company. First, a mid- to long-term strategy, tailored to the goals and the financial capabilities of the company, must be prepared; it must be followed by an ongoing evaluation of quality prospects in various sedimentary basins, and a careful planning and conduct of the operations. To successfully explore overseas also requires the presence on the team of a minimum number of explorationists and engineers thoroughly familiar with the various exploratory and operational aspects of foreign work, having had a considerable amount of onsite experience in various geographical and climatic environments. Independents that are best suited for foreign expansion are those that have been financially successful domestically, and have a good discovery track record. When properly approached foreign exploration is well within the reach of smaller US independents and presents essentially no greater risk than domestic exploration; the reward, however, can be much larger and can catapult the company into the big leagues

  11. International exploration by independent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertragne, R.G.

    1992-01-01

    Recent industry trends indicate that the smaller U.S. independents are looking at foreign exploration opportunities as one of the alternatives for growth in the new age of exploration. Foreign finding costs per barrel usually are accepted to be substantially lower than domestic costs because of the large reserve potential of international plays. To get involved in overseas exploration, however, requires the explorationist to adapt to different cultural, financial, legal, operational, and political conditions. Generally, foreign exploration proceeds at a slower pace than domestic exploration because concessions are granted by a country's government, or are explored in partnership with a national oil company. First, the explorationist must prepare a mid- to long-term strategy, tailored to the goals and the financial capabilities of the company; next, is an ongoing evaluation of quality prospects in various sedimentary basins, and careful planning and conduct of the operations. To successfully explore overseas also requires the presence of a minimum number of explorationists and engineers thoroughly familiar with the various exploratory and operational aspects of foreign work. Ideally, these team members will have had a considerable amount of on-site experience in various countries and climates. Independents best suited for foreign expansion are those who have been financially successful in domestic exploration. When properly approached, foreign exploration is well within the reach of smaller U.S. independents, and presents essentially no greater risk than domestic exploration; however, the reward can be much larger and can catapult the company into the 'big leagues.'

  12. International nuclear technology transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cartwright, P.; Rocchio, J.P.

    1978-01-01

    Light water reactors (LWRs), originally developed in the United States, became the nuclear workhorses for utilities in Europe and Japan largely because the U.S. industry was willing and able to transfer its nuclear know-how abroad. In this international effort, the industry had the encouragement and support of the U.S. governement. In the case of the boiling water reactor (BWR) the program for technology transfer was developed in response to overseas customer demands for support in building local designs and manufacturing capabilities. The principal vehicles have been technology exchange agreements through which complete engineering and manufacturing information is furnished covering BWR systems and fuel. Agreements are held with companies in Germany, Japan, Italy, and Sweden. In recent years, a comprehensive program of joint technology development with overseas manufacturers has begun. The rapidly escalating cost of nuclear research and development make it desirable to minimize duplication of effort. These joint programs provide a mechanism for two or more parties jointly to plan a development program, assign work tasks among themselves, and exchange test results. Despite a slower-than-hoped-for start, nuclear power today is playing a significant role in the economic growth of some developing countries, and can continue to do so. Roughly half of the 23 free world nations that have adopted LWRs are developing countries

  13. Internal friction in irradiated textolite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zajkin, Yu.A.; Kozhamkulov, B.A.; Koztaeva, U.P.

    1996-01-01

    Structural relaxation in irradiated textolite of ST and ST-EhTF trade marks presenting pressed material got by method of impregnation of fibreglass by phenole and epoxytriphenole binders relatively. Measuring of temperature dependences of internal friction (TDIF) is carried out in torsional pendulum at oscillation frequency 0.6-1.0 Hz before and after irradiation by stopped gamma-quanta with energy 3 MeV on electron accelerator EhLU-4. α and β peaks, related with segments motion in base and side chains of macromolecular have being observed on TDIF of all textolite. Growth of peaks height after irradiation evident about increase of segments mobility in base chain and about de-freezing of segments in side chains and it could be considered as qualitative measure of radiation destruction rate. Comparison of temperature dependences of internal friction indicates on higher radiation stability of textolite of ST-EhTF trade mark

  14. Narrow, duplicated internal auditory canal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, T. [Servico de Neurorradiologia, Hospital Garcia de Orta, Avenida Torrado da Silva, 2801-951, Almada (Portugal); Shayestehfar, B. [Department of Radiology, UCLA Oliveview School of Medicine, Los Angeles, California (United States); Lufkin, R. [Department of Radiology, UCLA School of Medicine, Los Angeles, California (United States)

    2003-05-01

    A narrow internal auditory canal (IAC) constitutes a relative contraindication to cochlear implantation because it is associated with aplasia or hypoplasia of the vestibulocochlear nerve or its cochlear branch. We report an unusual case of a narrow, duplicated IAC, divided by a bony septum into a superior relatively large portion and an inferior stenotic portion, in which we could identify only the facial nerve. This case adds support to the association between a narrow IAC and aplasia or hypoplasia of the vestibulocochlear nerve. The normal facial nerve argues against the hypothesis that the narrow IAC is the result of a primary bony defect which inhibits the growth of the vestibulocochlear nerve. (orig.)

  15. Astrophysics and Cosmology: International Partnerships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blandford, Roger

    2016-03-01

    Most large projects in astrophysics and cosmology are international. This raises many challenges including: --Aligning the sequence of: proposal, planning, selection, funding, construction, deployment, operation, data mining in different countries --Managing to minimize cost growth through reconciling different practices --Communicating at all levels to ensure a successful outcome --Stabilizing long term career opportunities. There has been considerable progress in confronting these challenges. Lessons learned from past collaborations are influencing current facilities but much remains to be done if we are to optimize the scientific and public return on the expenditure of financial and human resources.

  16. Foundations for Innovation | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Build the human and organizational capital needed for innovation to support economic growth and development in low- and middle-income countries through programs that strengthen science, technology, engineering, and mathematics ... National Research Foundation, The UK Department for International Development ...

  17. Publications | Page 118 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Most urban growth, however, is occurring not in wealthy settings but rather in the expanding cities and slums of developing countries. Many of the fastest... Knowledge sharing and development cooperation through virtual platforms - Save the Children Canada (open access). As an international network of 29 development ...

  18. International Policies on Bioenergy and Biofuels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rajcaniova, M.; Ciaian, P.; Drabik, D.

    2015-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of international biofuel polices and their main impacts on food prices and land use. Global biofuel production has experienced a rapid growth by increasing from almost a zero level in 1970 to 29 billion gallons in 2011; the United States, the European Union, and

  19. Search Results | Page 116 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The Economic Policy Research Centre (EPRC) was established in 1993 as an autonomous not-for-profit policy research institute with support from the Government of Uganda, donor agencies and international research institutes. Project. Actuarial Sciences Graduate Training Program (India-Waterloo). The explosive growth ...

  20. The International Communist Movement: Origins and Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    interest in the international market , which in turn increased indebtedness. The Threat Posed by Growing Soviet Naval Power The growth of Soviet maritime...Common Good, one must recognize the concept of participation. This necessary * Fundamentos da Douirina, Escola Superior de Guerra, Brazil, 1981. 62

  1. 78 FR 11109 - International Settlements Policy Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-15

    ... routes giving U.S. consumers competitive pricing when they make international calls. The Commission also... apply, with the exception of Cuba. The market has seen significant competitive growth since the Commission last reviewed the ISP. Further, in today's competitive market, maintaining the ISP has the...

  2. Publications | Page 251 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    "We need [the EcoHealth] journal to help articulate what ecohealth is and to encourage the growth of the community," said Dr Bruce Wilcox, the publication's editor-in-chief. The journal introduces projects, institutions,... International Association for Ecology and Health—Cultivating Partnerships and Engaging Members.

  3. Corporate Managers' International Orientation and the Export ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract: Exporting has been one of the fastest growing economic activities consistently exceeding the rate of growth in world economic output since the 1970s. Yet, in Uganda, the majority of firms seem to be either ambivalent or negative towards exporting. The study attempts to measure corporate managers' international ...

  4. International Development Assistance Executive Summary Reports

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    pwust

    for development, while the fourth section examines India's approach to international collaboration. Finally, the fifth section explores the emerging trends and future of India's development assistance (click here for full report). 4. SOUTH AFRICA. In keeping with its surging economic growth and regional influence, South Africa ...

  5. Search Results | Page 848 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Results 8471 - 8480 of 8492 ... The International Development Research Centre (IDRC) funds research in developing countries to promote growth, reduce poverty, and drive large-scale positive change. Profile. Trent Hoole. Trent Hoole is Corporate Secretary and General Counsel. From 2002-2012, he served in progressive ...

  6. Search | Page 16 | IDRC - International Development Research Centre

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Protecting mangrove forests in Cambodia | IDRC - International ... This project will address the effects of fast-paced economic growth in the Greater Mekong region on jobs for youth. View moreJob Prospects in the Mekong .

  7. All projects related to | Page 471 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    , Senegal, Viet Nam, Togo, Burkina Faso, Zambia, United Kingdom. Program: Employment and Growth. Total Funding: CA$ 408,414.00. Competition and Regulation in West Africa. Project. Consumer Unity &Trust Society (CUTS International) ...

  8. All projects related to | Page 460 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Topic: LABOUR MIGRATION, INTRAREGIONAL MIGRATION, INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION, BRAIN DRAIN, ECONOMIC IMPLICATIONS, SOCIAL IMPLICATIONS, MIGRATION POLICY. Region: North of Sahara, South of Sahara. Program: Employment and Growth. Total Funding: CA$ 548,550.00. Migration, Development ...

  9. All projects related to | Page 134 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Topic: INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY, PUBLICATIONS, INFORMATION SYSTEMS, CANADA, ADAPTATION ... The Growth and Economic Opportunities for Women (GrOW) research program is a collaborative initiative involving IDRC, the United Kingdom's Department for International Development, and The William and ...

  10. China’s Internal Migration, Public Policies, and Economic Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    much needed to food to feed the country. In addition, the push to industrialize faster also did not help: “While much of the output was unusable junk ... effect of migration on economic performance has had a discernible impact both positive and negative at different times. There are two distinct aspects...the actual migration patterns and their relative effects on the economy; and the domestic policies enacted by the PRC that directly prompted

  11. Genesis and growth of internal microstructures of manganese nodule

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Banakar, V.K.; Tarkian, M.

    with less than 15% detrital influence. The alkali and alkaline earth metals (Na, K, Ca and Ba) appear to exist in the Mn mineral phase as charge balancing cations or result from the adsorption of seawater cations on the large surface areas for delta-MnO sub...

  12. THE INTERNATIONAL GROWTH OF A SOCIAL BUSINESS: A CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Maria de Moura

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In developing countries, initiatives have often been undertaken in order to fight social and environmental problems. Since the 1990s, an increase can be seen in corporate social responsibility actions, as well as increasingly strong activities by civil society organizations. Tweenty years ago, companies and civil society organizations stood wide apart from each other, with often conflicting agendas and resistance to mutual collaboration. This reality has changed significantly. Besides the phenomenon of cross-sector partnerships, we can also observe the expansion of a particular organization type, i.e., the social business, which combines two objectives that were previously seen as incompatible: financial sustainability and the generation of social value. This article aims to discuss the factors that influence the results of a social business operating in three countries: Botswana, Brazil and Jordan. The results allow understanding the challenges involved in constructing social businesses in developing countries as well as a better understanding of the very nature of those businesses, considering the social realities where they operate.

  13. Growth facilitators of SME’s in a low-growth region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Annabeth; Senderovitz, Martin

    Growth and growth facilitation among SME’s and entrepreneurs have attracted attention from both academics and practitioners for decades. However, the existing literature of growth models tends to oversimplify the different stages, and the inherent determinism in these models does not reflect...... reality, where firms may have individual choices and not pre-destined evolutionary paths. In addition, firm performance is often seen as the outcome or success criteria in the majority of the SME and entrepreneurial management literature, where performance is primarily measured in innovation, financial...... at identifying and describing the key internal business processes that contribute to growth in a longitudinal study of eleven SME case companies located in a low-growth region. The findings of the study reveal seven key growth facilitating themes and activities, which are critical in active support of firm...

  14. Population growth and economic growth: a reconsideration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, C K; Zhang, J

    1996-01-01

    The relationship between population growth and development has long been a controversial topic in the economic development literature. Early work by Hoover and Coale and more recent work by Blanchet suggest that high fertility suppresses per capita income growth. However, recent work by Kelley and Srinivasan are ambivalent about such a neo-Malthusian relationship between population growth and economic growth. The authors examine these conflicting positions. They emphasize that the rates of both population growth and income growth are endogenous variables within a general equilibrium framework. An endogenous growth model with endogenous fertility is then developed. It is found that when all exogenous variables are controlled for, there exists an inverse relation between population growth and economic growth. However, when some exogenous factors change, such as an improvement in technological progress, the relation becomes ambiguous. This suggests that the conflicting findings in the literature may be because of the presence of substantial heterogeneity in unobserved variables across countries and over time in cross-country panel data sets.

  15. Growth and Economic Opportunities for Women: Strengthening ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The Growth and Economic Opportunities for Women (GrOW) research program is a collaborative initiative involving IDRC, the United Kingdom's Department for International Development, and The William and Flora Hewlett Foundation. It represents a joint investment of CA$16.4 million over five years to address knowledge ...

  16. African economists inspire growth, reduce poverty | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-10-25

    Oct 25, 2010 ... ... AERC ) training program. Founded in 1988 with support from IDRC and other international donor agencies, AERC has trained over 1,800 students at the Master's level and 300 PhDs. This critical mass of experts has helped to steer economies toward sustainable growth in sub-Saharan Africa.

  17. The International Criminal Court

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Ciara Therése

    This article considers whether acts of international terrorism can and should be prosecuted before the International Criminal Court as crimes against humanity.......This article considers whether acts of international terrorism can and should be prosecuted before the International Criminal Court as crimes against humanity....

  18. The Internal Audit Outsourcing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Gołębiowski

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The article explores an issue of the internal audit outsourcing. It indicates the differences between internal audit, outsourcing and cosourcing of this service as well as their advantages and disadvantages. Drawing from the research on internal audit outsourcing the recent market trends were identified as well as motivations for choosing different forms of internal auditing.

  19. Tourists, Expatriates and International Retirees: An Empirical Evidence from Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Tan Chuie-Hong; Ho Sin-Ban

    2014-01-01

    Malaysia relies heavily on tourism industry to spur its economic growth. Parallel to the growth of tourists, Malaysia is also a popular destination for international retiree migration through the Malaysia My Second Home (MM2H) programme and expatriates. Hence this study attempts to investigate the relationship between tourists, expatriates and MM2H participants. The pull factors of Malaysia as a destination of tourism, expatriates and international retirees are prevalent, and could be further...

  20. INTERNATIONAL TOURISM - ECONOMIC PARAMETERS AND STATUS QUO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ENEA CONSTANTA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of the Romanian tourism cannot be obtained without following the development of the tourism indicators at international level. A first image reveals a thriving international tourism with an upward trend. Also, the forecasts regarding tourism, based on the extrapolation of the factors’ influence, anticipate a continuous growth of it. The influence of the international events slows the level of growth of the indicators, but it cannot determine a decrease in them. Tourism is considered, mainly, a form of recreation with other activities and forms of leisure. In terms of tourism, according to the new regulations, it designates "the activities of persons ,during travel and stays, in locations outside of the normal residence for a consecutive period not exceeding one year, with the purpose of leisure, business or other reasons "

  1. Benefits of International Collaboration on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasbrook, Pete; Robinson, Julie A.; Brown Tate, Judy; Thumm, Tracy; Cohen, Luchino; Marcil, Isabelle; De Parolis, Lina; Hatton, Jason; Umezawa, Kazuo; Shirakawa, Masaki; hide

    2017-01-01

    results publications, maintained by the ISS international partnership and accessible via nasa.gov, make ISS results available worldwide, and encourage new users, ideas and research. The paper explores international collaboration history, its evolution and maturation, change of focus during its different phases, and growth of its effectiveness (in accordance with the especially established criteria) in the light of benefits for the entire ISS community. With the International Space Station extended through at least 2024, more crew time becoming available and new facilities arriving on board the ISS, these benefits of international scientific collaboration on the ISS can only increase.

  2. Opportunities for green growth; Vihreaen kasvun mahdollisuudet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antikainen, R.; Mickwitz, P.; Seppaelae, J. [and others

    2013-03-15

    .) Facilitating green pilots and trials for the domestic and export markets. (D.) Creating international and domestic strategic openings and partnerships (E.) Creating space for green growth by removing wasteful systems. (F.) Fostering continuous and systematic learning as an accelerator of green growth. (orig.)

  3. INTERNATIONAL SURVEY OF PUBLICATIONS IN INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS: RISING THROUGH THE BASE OF WEB SCIENCE

    OpenAIRE

    Carpes, Aletéia de Moura; UFSM; Velter, Aline Nadalin; UFSM; Scherer, Flavia Luciane; UFSM; Lütz, Carolina; UFSM

    2011-01-01

    Internationalization is an alternative to business growth, allowing its exposure to international standards of products, technologies and management methods, generating significant returns for domestic transactions (STAL, 2010). The evolution of commercial transactions between the countries have brought a lot of issues to be understood, that seek to check the reflection of international activity in the individual, company and nation experiencing this context of globalization. This article was...

  4. Which Mechanisms Explain Monetary Returns to International Student Mobility?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratz, Fabian; Netz, Nicolai

    2018-01-01

    The authors develop a conceptual framework explaining monetary returns to international student mobility (ISM). Based on data from two German graduate panel surveys, they test this framework using growth curve models and Oaxaca-Blinder decompositions. The results indicate that ISM-experienced graduates enjoy a steeper wage growth after graduation…

  5. What we do | Page 65 | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Results 641 - 650 of 1605 ... ILEAP Core Grant 2011-2012 - Phase IV: Engendering Inclusive Growth through Policy. Topic(s): TRADE POLICY, TRADE NEGOTIATIONS, TRADE FACILITATION. Region(s): Africa, South of Sahara. Program(s): Employment and Growth. International Lawyers and Economists Against Poverty ...

  6. What factors determine international real estate security returns?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamelink, F.; Hoesli, M.

    2004-01-01

    We use constrained cross-sectional regressions to disentangle the effects of various factors on international real estate security returns. Besides a common factor, pure country, property type, size and value/growth factors are considered. The value/growth measure that is used in this paper provides

  7. Physical growth and academic intelligence of rural South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physical growth and academic intelligence of rural South African children: Ellisras Longitudinal Growth and Health Study. ... Anthropometric measurements of stature and body mass were carried out according to the protocol of the International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry (ISAK). General Scholastic ...

  8. Growth and Women: Pathways for Shared Prosperity | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... Growth and Economic Opportunities for Women This research is supported under the Growth and Economic Opportunities for Women (GrOW) program. GrOW is a five-year, multi-funder partnership of the United Kingdom's Department for International Development, The William and Flora Hewlett Foundation, and IDRC.

  9. Positive Aspects of International Student Transitions: A Qualitative Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moores, Lisa; Popadiuk, Natalee

    2011-01-01

    Despite the considerable growth of the international student population, positive aspects of their experience have received little attention. The current study combines a Critical Incident Technique methodology and a positive psychology lens to explore the cross-cultural transition of seven international students, focusing on facilitative factors,…

  10. Understanding the Role of Economics in International Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckles, Stephen

    1990-01-01

    Economic understanding is a necessary component of high quality coursework devoted to international issues and U.S. and world history and geography. A secondary program should cover specialization and exchange, barriers to trade, balance of payment and exchange rates, international aspects of growth and stability, and economic systems. (MLH)

  11. International Corporate Responsibility and MBA Programs: Using an Integrated Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herremans, Irene M.; Murch, Ron

    1999-01-01

    Discusses an experiential learning situation that can successfully integrate corporate values and international growth in masters in business administration programs. Focuses on a teaching technique that emphasizes the realistic challenges that corporations face when growing an international company built on a strong ethical foundation. (Author/DB)

  12. HIV/AIDS Globalization and Vulnerability | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    There is a particular need for evidence on how economic globalization and growth impact vulnerability to HIV/AIDS and, conversely, how HIV/AIDS may affect efforts ... The Honourable Chrystia Freeland, Minister of International Trade, announced a new project to be funded by Canada's International Development Research ...

  13. The International Nucleotide Sequence Database Collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochrane, Guy; Karsch-Mizrachi, Ilene; Nakamura, Yasukazu

    2011-01-01

    Under the International Nucleotide Sequence Database Collaboration (INSDC; http://www.insdc.org), globally comprehensive public domain nucleotide sequence is captured, preserved and presented. The partners of this long-standing collaboration work closely together to provide data formats and conventions that enable consistent data submission to their databases and support regular data exchange around the globe. Clearly defined policy and governance in relation to free access to data and relationships with journal publishers have positioned INSDC databases as a key provider of the scientific record and a core foundation for the global bioinformatics data infrastructure. While growth in sequence data volumes comes no longer as a surprise to INSDC partners, the uptake of next-generation sequencing technology by mainstream science that we have witnessed in recent years brings a step-change to growth, necessarily making a clear mark on INSDC strategy. In this article, we introduce the INSDC, outline data growth patterns and comment on the challenges of increased growth.

  14. Growth hormone stimulation test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003377.htm Growth hormone stimulation test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The growth hormone (GH) stimulation test measures the ability of the ...

  15. Measuring multifactor productivity growth

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wölfl, A.; Hájková, Dana

    -, 2007/5 (2007), s. 1-45 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : multifactor productivity growth * GDP growth * measuring Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/61/17/39522985.pdf

  16. CDC Child Growth Charts

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — CDC child growth charts consist of a series of percentile curves that illustrate the distribution of selected body measurements in U.S. children. Pediatric growth...

  17. Toddler Growth and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... time, his or her physical growth and motor development will slow, but you can expect to see ... Schedule of Well-Child Care Visits . ​​ Toddler Growth & Development Physical Skills Walks alone Pulls toys behind when ...

  18. Growth uncertainty and risksharing

    OpenAIRE

    Stefano Athanasoulis; Eric Van Wincoop

    1997-01-01

    How large are potential benefits from global risksharing? In order to answer this question we propose a new methodology that is closely connected with the empirical growth literature. We obtain estimates of residual risk (growth uncertainty) at various horizons from regressions of country-specific growth in deviation from world growth on a wide set of variables in the information set. Since this residual risk can be entirely hedged through risksharing, we use it to obtain a measure of the pot...

  19. "Good Niggers": The Struggle to Find Courage, Strength, and Confidence to Fight Internalized Racism and Internalized Dominance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Valerie; Williams, Tanya O.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the authors relate how they, as two Black, female graduate students and educators, discovered racial self-negation and internalized racial hatred within themselves. Through designing and facilitating a workshop exploring the word "nigger," they concluded that internalized oppression stymied their growth as people and scholars, and…

  20. Internal Control: Peran Dan Perkembangannya

    OpenAIRE

    Murtin, Alek

    2000-01-01

    Perhatian terhadap pentingnya internal control dalam organisasi berjalan dari waktu ke waktu untuk meningkatkan fungsi internal control yang disesuaikan dengan perkembangan lingkungan organisasi, dimulai dengan adanya internal check, kemudian internal control system, internal control structure dan terakhir adalah internal control-integrated framework. Internal control system sempat berkembang beberapa tahun di Indonesia yang selanjutnya digantikan oleh internal control structure yang digunaka...

  1. Reliability Growth in Space Life Support Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Harry W.

    2014-01-01

    A hardware system's failure rate often increases over time due to wear and aging, but not always. Some systems instead show reliability growth, a decreasing failure rate with time, due to effective failure analysis and remedial hardware upgrades. Reliability grows when failure causes are removed by improved design. A mathematical reliability growth model allows the reliability growth rate to be computed from the failure data. The space shuttle was extensively maintained, refurbished, and upgraded after each flight and it experienced significant reliability growth during its operational life. In contrast, the International Space Station (ISS) is much more difficult to maintain and upgrade and its failure rate has been constant over time. The ISS Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly (CDRA) reliability has slightly decreased. Failures on ISS and with the ISS CDRA continue to be a challenge.

  2. [Population Growth and Development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clausen, A. W.

    Rapid population growth as a central development problem, the proper domain of government in reducing population growth, and effective measures which can be taken to reduce fertility are examined. Rapid population growth puts a brake on development because it exacerbates the difficult choice between higher consumption now and the investment needed…

  3. Urban tree growth modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    E. Gregory McPherson; Paula J. Peper

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes three long-term tree growth studies conducted to evaluate tree performance because repeated measurements of the same trees produce critical data for growth model calibration and validation. Several empirical and process-based approaches to modeling tree growth are reviewed. Modeling is more advanced in the fields of forestry and...

  4. Corrupt Bureaucracy and Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Djumashev, Ratbek

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze implications of corruption on growth. We extend existing growth models by incorporating ubiquitous corruption as a by-product of the public sector. Corruption affects both taxation and public good provision, and therefore causes income redistribution and inefficiencies in the public sector. These effects of corruption lead to lower growth through distortions of investment incentives and resources allocation.

  5. Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) are a group of bacteria that enhances plant growth and yield via various plant growth promoting substances as well as biofertilizers. Given the negative environmental impact of artificial fertiliz- ers and their increasing costs, the use of beneficial soil micro- organisms such as ...

  6. Leadership Styles and the Moral Choice of Internal Auditors

    OpenAIRE

    Woodbine, Gordon F.; Liu, Joanne

    2010-01-01

    Internal auditors’ performance largely depends on their moral decisions when faced with ethical dilemmas. This study explores the impacts of different leadership styles on internal auditors’ moral choice using ERG theory and Path-goal theory. The findings of the survey demonstrated support for both theories. Regression analysis revealed that a sample of West Australian internal auditors were motivated by growth needs and the motivation was enhanced if the leader took a Standard-achievement-or...

  7. International energy outlook, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    This report presents international energy projections through 2035, : prepared by the U.S. Energy Information Administration, including outlooks : for major energy fuels and associated carbon dioxide emissions. The International Energy Outlook 2010 (...

  8. Economics and International Understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Ramesh

    1983-01-01

    A methodology linking the teaching of economics to the promotion of international understanding is discussed. The content of a course dealing with the new international economic order is examined. (Author/RM)

  9. International trade and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Posada L, Luis Guillermo

    2000-01-01

    Topics are presented as economic theory and theory of the international trade, international dimension of the environmental problems, economic prosperity, environmental quality and lineament are given for an alternative, among others

  10. International images: business cards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaston, S; Pucci, J

    1991-01-01

    Nursing specialists engage in a variety of international professional activities. Business cards are an important aspect of establishing a professional image. This article presents recommended business card contents, international etiquette, card design and production, and cared innovations.

  11. International aspects of fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stacey, W.M. Jr.

    1979-12-01

    International collaborative efforts in magnetic confinement fusion in which the USA is involved are reviewed. These efforts are carried under the auspices of international agencies and through bilateral agreements

  12. International diversification and Microfinance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galema, Rients; Lensink, Robert; Spierdijk, Laura

    International commercial banks, institutional investors, and private investors have become increasingly interested in financing microfinance institutions (MFIs). This paper investigates whether adding microfinance funds to a portfolio of risky international assets yields diversification gains. By

  13. International diversification and Microfinance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galema, R.; Lensink, B.W.; Spierdijk, L.

    2011-01-01

    International commercial banks, institutional investors, and private investors have become increasingly interested in financing microfinance institutions (MFIs). This paper investigates whether adding microfinance funds to a portfolio of risky international assets yields diversification gains. By

  14. Generalized internal multiple imaging

    KAUST Repository

    Zuberi, Mohammad Akbar Hosain

    2014-12-04

    Various examples are provided for generalized internal multiple imaging (GIMI). In one example, among others, a method includes generating a higher order internal multiple image using a background Green\\'s function and rendering the higher order internal multiple image for presentation. In another example, a system includes a computing device and a generalized internal multiple imaging (GIMI) application executable in the computing device. The GIMI application includes logic that generates a higher order internal multiple image using a background Green\\'s function and logic that renders the higher order internal multiple image for display on a display device. In another example, a non-transitory computer readable medium has a program executable by processing circuitry that generates a higher order internal multiple image using a background Green\\'s function and renders the higher order internal multiple image for display on a display device.

  15. Collisional Growth of Planetesimals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeter, Thomas; Nyffenegger, Oliver; Benz, Willy

    2010-05-01

    Motivation ---------- In the current planet formation paradigm, planets form through collisions. While the size of the primordial planetesimals is not yet established, it is recognized that this collision cascade plays an crucial role not only in determining the growth rate of the bodies but also in determining their internal structure as well as bulk chemical composition. In the case of giant gaseous planets, the nucleated instability scenario begins with the formation of critical cores of order 10 Earth masses through this very process as well. Hence, the process of collisional growth underpins the early formation of all planets massive or not. The most natural and physically appropriate approach for studying these processes is to perform N-body simulations. Unfortunately, simulating the collisional dynamics of a very large number of bodies (several hundreds of millions) over very long timescales (hundred million orbits) turns out to be computationally prohibitive. Therefore, this approach remains for the moment limited to the late stages of formation when the number of bodies has become tractable. Statistical approaches while allowing treating an arbitrary number of bodies do not provide individual collision histories and therefore cannot address some of the most important issues related to the internal structure of young planets. By introducing an orbit averaging method based on a Monte Carlo technique that allows integrating the system using time steps much longer than an orbital period, we are in a position to follow the individual collision history of several tens of millions of bodies over long evolution times. Hence, this method effectively bridges the gap between the early small planetesimals and the large embryos for which the evolution can be followed using an N-body approach. Approach -------- The method is based on an orbit averaging Monte Carlo process. The essential advantage of the method is to allow for time steps that are not dictated by the

  16. Development Internal Problems of Shanghay Cooperation Organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oksana Y. Kolegova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the main internal problems of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization. Particular attention is paid to the conflict of interests of the participating countries, as well as identifying obstacles to strengthen the organization and increase its influence in the international arena. The international organizations are created by the states to meet mutual problems in the course of interstate relations requiring regular cooperation mechanism. Given the background of the Organization, it is important to emphasize that the main reason for the establishment of the Shanghai organization was the need for the united front against the strengthening of the region at the turn of centuries against dangerous trends of terrorism, extremism, separatism, the growth of organized crime. Despite the conflict of interests and the internal and external development challenges thirteen-year history of evolution of the SCO, to some extent proves its effectiveness, moreover, there are the preconditions for its consistent transition to a more comprehensive organization.

  17. International business and the eclectic paradigm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The eclectic paradigm has become the dominant theoretical basis in the study of international business, multinational corporations and internationalization since 1980. However, developments such as economic globalization and the subsequent growth of global and alliance capitalism have fundamentally......, finance, evolutionary economics, resource-based theory or strategic management? Can it be utilized to explain new developments in international business and economics? Do these require new ideas and concepts to be integrated within the eclectic paradigm? What are the new challenges to which international...... and how the ownership-location-internalization (OLI) framework continues to be applicable to the perspective of their own particular analytical concerns. Has the explanatory usefulness of the paradigm diminished? To what extent is it a useful tool from the perspective of, for instance, trade theory...

  18. International double taxation

    OpenAIRE

    Odarčenko, Michal

    2015-01-01

    1 Summary This thesis deals with the issue of international double taxation of income and capital and methods for its solution. International double taxation is an issue which states began to deal with in the late 19th century. This interest intensified after the First World War when also the League of Nations (predecessor of the United Nations) began to deal with international double taxation. Most attention the phenomenon of double taxation of income and capital with an international elemen...

  19. Internal wave interferometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, Manikandan; Peacock, Thomas

    2010-03-19

    Internal waves are a ubiquitous and significant means of momentum and energy transport in the oceans, atmosphere, and astrophysical bodies. Here, we show that internal wave propagation in nonuniform density stratifications, which are prevalent throughout nature, has a direct mathematical analogy with the classical optical problem of a Fabry-Perot multiple-beam light interferometer. We rigorously establish this correspondence, and furthermore provide the first experimental demonstration of an internal wave interferometer, based on the theory of resonant transmission of internal waves.

  20. International students' enrollment in IPTA by using multilevel analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wai, Phoong Seuk; Ismail, Mohd Tahir; Karim, Samsul Ariffin Abdul

    2012-09-01

    The increases of demand on knowledge-based and production-based market force the growth of higher education. International students' enrollment contributes to economic growth and increase country's income, university reputation and name; promote the competitive of education and training markets. This paper used multilevel analysis to study the international students' enrollment in Malaysia public university. Student's background variables and institution background variables were study in this paper and the relationship among them also been investigated. Result shows that institution type is a significance factor on international students' enrollment in Malaysia public university.

  1. International Courts and Tribunals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amaya Castro, J.M.; Cali, B.

    2010-01-01

    This chapter introduces a type of institution that is very important in the field of international law: international courts. The last few decades have seen an enormous rise in the number and importance of such courts, not just for states but for all (international) actors. Increasingly, what

  2. Petroleum and international policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pertuzio, A.

    2002-01-01

    To illustrate the relation between the petroleum and the international policy, the author presents the place of the petroleum industry in the international relations by an analysis of the historical aspects, the states and international organizations interventions and the prices evolution. (A.L.B.)

  3. National and International Views.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilgour, David

    1992-01-01

    Discusses Canadian government policy dealing with internal matters of party politics and international questions of human rights. Describes the political situation in Burma as an oppressive military regime. Urges the Canadian government to take a firmer stand to influence the international community against tolerating regimes that are guilty of…

  4. Microbial growth on the edge of desiccation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Goffau, Marcus C; van Dijl, Jan Maarten; Harmsen, Hermie J M

    2011-08-01

    The availability of water, which can be expressed in terms of water activity (a(w)), is one of the most important determinants for microbial homeostasis and growth on surface to air interfaces. Here we show, using an environmental control chamber containing a precisely controlled temperature/a(w) gradient in combination with a mathematical approach, that the environmental a(w) growth limit of a microorganism can be lower than its intracellular a(w) limit. This internal limit represents the point at which microbial cells cannot lower their internal a(w) any further in response to low external a(w) values without interfering with essential intracellular processes. To grow at external a(w) values below their internal limit, microbes need to generate more water metabolically than they lose to their environment. This internal a(w) limit can be calculated by measuring the a(w) growth limit of an organism at different water vapour diffusivities using barometric pressure as a variable. Fascinating morphological changes, such as rope-like superstructures formed by B. subtilis, are furthermore observed in response to low external a(w) values in particular around the calculated intracellular a(w) limit. The intracellular a(w) limit of an organism is a decisive parameter for water limitation-induced adaptations in cellular hydrophilicity and morphogenesis. © 2011 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. Green growth in fisheries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Max; Ravensbeck, Lars; Nielsen, Rasmus

    2014-01-01

    harming the environment. Fishery is an environment-dependent sector and it has been argued that there is no potential for green growth in the sector owing to global overexploitation, leaving no scope for production growth. The purpose of this paper is to explain what green growth is and to develop...... a conceptual framework. Furthermore, the aim is to show that a large green growth potential actually exists in fisheries and to show how this potential can be achieved. The potential green growth appears as value-added instead of production growth. The potential can be achieved by reducing overcapacity......, investing in the rebuilding of fish stocks and a coordinated regulation of marine activities that interact with fisheries. Incentive-based regulation of fisheries that counterbalances services of the ecosystems is an important instrument to achieve green growth....

  6. Lung growth and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Suchita; Kotecha, Sailesh

    2007-12-01

    Human lung growth starts as a primitive lung bud in early embryonic life and undergoes several morphological stages which continue into postnatal life. Each stage of lung growth is a result of complex and tightly regulated events governed by physical, environmental, hormonal and genetic factors. Fetal lung liquid and fetal breathing movements are by far the most important determinants of lung growth. Although timing of the stages of lung growth in animals do not mimic that of human, numerous animal studies, mainly on sheep and rat, have given us a better understanding of the regulators of lung growth. Insight into the genetic basis of lung growth has helped us understand and improve management of complex life threatening congenital abnormalities such as congenital diaphragmatic hernia and pulmonary hypoplasia. Although advances in perinatal medicine have improved survival of preterm infants, premature birth is perhaps still the most important factor for adverse lung growth.

  7. Scaling behaviour in the growth of companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Michael H. R.; Amaral, Luís A. N.; Buldyrev, Sergey V.; Havlin, Shlomo; Leschhorn, Heiko; Maass, Philipp; Salinger, Michael A.; Stanley, H. Eugene

    1996-02-01

    A SUCCESSFUL theory of corporate growth should include both the external and internal factors that affect the growth of a company1-18. Whereas traditional models emphasize production-related influences such as investment in physical capital and in research and development18, recent models10-20 recognize the equal importance of organizational infrastructure. Unfortunately, no exhaustive empirical account of the growth of companies exists by which these models can be tested. Here we present a broad, phenomenological picture of the dependence of growth on company size, derived from data for all publicly traded US manufacturing companies between 1975 and 1991. We find that, for firms with similar sales, the distribution of annual (logarithmic) growth rates has an exponential form; the spread in the distribution of rates decreases with increasing sales as a power law over seven orders of magnitude. A model wherein the probability of a company's growth depends on its past as well as present sales accounts for the former observation. As the latter observation applies to companies that manufacture products of all kinds, organizational structures common to all firms might well be stronger determinants of growth than production-related factors, which differ for companies producing different goods.

  8. Establishing the Legitimacy of a School's Claim to Be "International": The Provision of an International Curriculum as the Institutional Primary Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunnell, Tristan; Fertig, Michael; James, Chris

    2017-01-01

    The recent growth in the number and diversity of schools around the world classified as "International Schools" raises questions about what makes a school's claim to be an International School legitimate. From the analysis we report here, the provision of an international curriculum emerges as what a school must do to be legitimate as an…

  9. Effects Associated with Leadership Program Participation in International Students Compared to Domestic Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Daniel A.; Rosch, David M.

    2016-01-01

    International student enrollment in the U.S. higher education system has recently experienced profound growth. This research examines leadership-oriented differences between international and domestic students and focuses on their growth in capacity associated with participation in co-curricular leadership programs. Similarly-sized gains emerged…

  10. Windows® Internals

    CERN Document Server

    Russinovich, Mark E; Ionescu, Alex

    2009-01-01

    See how the core components of the Windows operating system work behind the scenes-guided by a team of internationally renowned internals experts. Fully updated for Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista, this classic guide delivers key architectural insights on system design, debugging, performance, and support-along with hands-on experiments to experience Windows internal behavior firsthand.Delve inside Windows architecture and internals:Understand how the core system and management mechanisms work-from the object manager to services to the registryExplore internal system data structures usin

  11. Attracting International Hotels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Assaf, A. George; Josiassen, Alexander; Agbola, Frank Wogbe

    2015-01-01

    With the increased international competition facing hotel chains, it is essential that the next destination they enter is the most attractive option possible. The host destinations too have a keen interest in strategically positioning themselves in order to attract international hotels since thei...... for international hotels. We then rank these. The results show that welcomeness, infrastructure, and crime rate are the three most important factors that influence the location of international hotels in host destinations.......With the increased international competition facing hotel chains, it is essential that the next destination they enter is the most attractive option possible. The host destinations too have a keen interest in strategically positioning themselves in order to attract international hotels since...... their presence has several positive effects. Using, for the first time, actual on-location data we investigate the factors that matter most for international hotels when selecting host destinations. Specifically, we identify 23 factors that make a destination an attractive (or unattractive) location...

  12. TRANSITION COUNTRIES TOWARDS INTERNATIONAL COMPETITIVENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gazmend Qorraj

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Most of the transition countries in Europe had significant benefits from the EU enlargement but the positive effects depend also from the structure of the economy and reforms of these countries. It’s important to analyze: if transition countries ensured sustainable economic reforms or just short term stability and emergent solutions. This paper will address international competitiveness which is the main challenge for the transition countries but also for the EU. First, monopoly position of some international firms in local markets and lack of creativity and innovations of the local firms, especially in Western Balkans due to lack of institutional support and non-stable business environment. The problem of creativity and lack of innovations by the firms is also a serious issue for the EU countries. The second important issue is large productivity gap. The recent global financial crisis as well as EU crises present the difficulties in the Euro zone and highlighted the interdependence of national economies and the convergence problems within European Union. The third challenge is absorption capacity for the structural and cohesion funds. The past experience of Central European countries shows that success in effectively using the EU financial and technical assistance is positively related with the success of countries on creating sustainable economic development and international competitiveness. Fourth issue is that some transition countries achieved economic growth but due to unequal distribution of welfare on these countries there is no significant reduce of unemployment and social cohesion. Last but not least the international competitiveness in most of the countries is harmed by the lack of functional institutions due to high level of corruption, inefficiency, rule of law, the lack of transparency and accountability.

  13. International Conference on Advances in Applied Mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Hammami, Mohamed; Masmoudi, Afif

    2015-01-01

    This contributed volume presents some recent theoretical advances in mathematics and its applications in various areas of science and technology.   Written by internationally recognized scientists and researchers, the chapters in this book are based on talks given at the International Conference on Advances in Applied Mathematics (ICAAM), which took place December 16-19, 2013, in Hammamet, Tunisia.  Topics discussed at the conference included spectral theory, operator theory, optimization, numerical analysis, ordinary and partial differential equations, dynamical systems, control theory, probability, and statistics.  These proceedings aim to foster and develop further growth in all areas of applied mathematics.

  14. Focus on managing population growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, S

    1995-01-01

    For the past 4 decades, the world's population growth has threatened to outstrip the planet's ability to sustain it. According to recent projections, an end to the growth of world population is finally in sight. Dr. Joseph van Arendonk, deputy executive director of the United Nations Population Fund, told an international press conference that population growth is likely to begin falling before the mid-21st century. Currently, some 87 million couples worldwide wish to use contraception but have no access to services. Van Arendonk argued that 4% of overseas aid set aside for population programs would satisfy this unmet need. He also predicted that the average family size in developing countries would stabilize at 2.1 children within the next 55 years if these needs were met. This would still mean a global population of 10 billion in the year 2050, rising to a plateau of 11.6 billion within the following century. In developing countries fertility rates fell from 6.1 to 3.3 children per woman between the mid-1960s and the mid-1980s, while use of contraception increased from 10% to 50%. However, contraceptive users in the developing world must increase from 446 million in 1994 to 603 million in 2005 to keep population growth within such projected limits. The costs of providing the contraception will increase from US $528 million to US $752 million. The contraceptive needs of 603 million users in 2005 will require: 196 million sterilizations, 436 million IUD insertions, 898 million injectables, 12.3 billion cycles of OCs, and 55 billion condoms. To this end, IPPF plans greater accessibility of services, a wider range of effective methods, and the involvement of the male partner.

  15. International networking: connecting midwives through social media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, S; Sidebotham, M; Davis, D

    2012-09-01

    This article reports on the 'Virtual International Day of the Midwife E-vent', an innovative initiative that uses social media to provide opportunities for learning and networking internationally. This e-vent was conceived of and initiated in 2009 by a small group of midwives with an interest in social media. The e-vent uses web conferencing software and schedules a presentation every hour for a 24-h period so as to reach midwives or other interested parties in all time zones of the globe. The authors draw on their experiences to describe the e-vent including the e-vent aims and organizing processes, and to report on participation trends over the 3-year period. The e-vent has seen significant growth over a 3-year period with participation increasing from an average of five participants per session to 50. The organizing committee has expanded to include an international team and they have extended the reach of the project by establishing a Facebook page. While the use of social media has its limitations, projects such as the International Day of the Midwife E-vent have real potential to increase access to educational materials and provide opportunities for international networking. © 2012 The Authors. International Nursing Review © 2012 International Council of Nurses.

  16. World economic growth pushing LNG use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, R.L.; Clary, R.

    1997-01-01

    Natural gas, especially liquefied (LNG), is in position to participate in the energy growth now being triggered by strong worldwide economic growth, increasingly open markets, and expanding international trade. Natural gas is abundant, burns cleanly, and is highly efficient in combined-cycle, gas-turbine power plants. Moreover, the comparative remoteness of much of the resource base to established and emerging markets can make LNG a compelling processing and transportation alternative. Discussed here are the resource distribution and emerging market opportunities that can make LNG attractive for monetizing natural-gas reserves

  17. Innovation and growth in SME Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brink, Tove

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to reveal what organising can enable innovation and growth within entrepreneurial SME networks. The research is conducted in the Danish food industry with the participation of three food producing firm networks. The posed hypothesis are tested in a structural equation...... modeling (SEM) approach with data available from 55 SMEs. The findings show a significant positive impact from internal complementary preferences of behavior on innovation types. Furthermore, a significant positive impact is revealed from product-, process and systematic innovation types on growth...

  18. Growth rates made easy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Barry G; Acar, Hande; Nandipati, Anna; Barlow, Miriam

    2014-01-01

    In the 1960s-1980s, determination of bacterial growth rates was an important tool in microbial genetics, biochemistry, molecular biology, and microbial physiology. The exciting technical developments of the 1990s and the 2000s eclipsed that tool; as a result, many investigators today lack experience with growth rate measurements. Recently, investigators in a number of areas have started to use measurements of bacterial growth rates for a variety of purposes. Those measurements have been greatly facilitated by the availability of microwell plate readers that permit the simultaneous measurements on up to 384 different cultures. Only the exponential (logarithmic) portions of the resulting growth curves are useful for determining growth rates, and manual determination of that portion and calculation of growth rates can be tedious for high-throughput purposes. Here, we introduce the program GrowthRates that uses plate reader output files to automatically determine the exponential portion of the curve and to automatically calculate the growth rate, the maximum culture density, and the duration of the growth lag phase. GrowthRates is freely available for Macintosh, Windows, and Linux. We discuss the effects of culture volume, the classical bacterial growth curve, and the differences between determinations in rich media and minimal (mineral salts) media. This protocol covers calibration of the plate reader, growth of culture inocula for both rich and minimal media, and experimental setup. As a guide to reliability, we report typical day-to-day variation in growth rates and variation within experiments with respect to position of wells within the plates.

  19. City Population Growth and Economic Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Freire-Gibb, L. Carlos

    2008-01-01

    This article looks at the relationship between city population growth (intimately related to population proximity), and economic development. The hypothesis is that wherever dynamic and inclusive networks exist, there are more opportunities for economic development in this place. When these types...... of networks choose a tool (project, policy) to implement in the city, success will be more likely. Furthermore, virtuous circles will arise. The author gives an overview of two historical cases in urban growth, in Europe (1200-1800) and the U.S.A. (1800 to today)....

  20. New thrombopoietic growth factors

    OpenAIRE

    Kuter, David J.

    2007-01-01

    Although development of first-generation thrombopoietic growth factors (recombinant human thrombopoietin [TPO] and pegylated recombinant human megakaryocyte growth and development factor [PEG-rHuMGDF]) was stopped due to development of antibodies to PEG-rHuMGDF, nonimmunogenic second-generation thrombopoietic growth factors with unique pharmacologic properties have been developed. TPO peptide mimetics contain TPO receptor-activating peptides inserted into complementarity-determining regions o...

  1. Capitalist development and internal migration in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akor, R I; Mou, D

    1986-12-01

    The authors analyze internal migration trends in Nigeria by examining individual household strategies and how they have adapted to structural changes brought about by colonial rule and capitalist development. The first section of this article describes the structural changes that started the process of labor migration. The second section deals with post-independence industrialization and the consequent rural-urban migration. The final section analyzes the consequences of these migration patterns for urban growth and rural productivity.

  2. The fertility of internal migrants to Kinshasa

    OpenAIRE

    Anglewicz, Philip; Corker, Jamaica; Kayembe, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    The rapid population growth of many African cities has important implications for population health, yet little is known about factors contributing to increasing population, such as the fertility of internal migrants. We examine whether in-migrants to Kinshasa have different fertility patterns than lifetime Kinshasa residents, and identify characteristics of migrants that may explain differences in fertility. We also use detailed migration histories to examine whether fertility differs by fea...

  3. Development trends of the international derivatives market

    OpenAIRE

    Motorniuk, U.; Terebukh, M.; Kharchuk, V.

    2016-01-01

    The factors forming international derivatives market trends are researched in this article. The history of the formation of the global derivatives market was analyzed, in particular, events which have led to the growth of the derivatives market. Global derivatives market has revealed major changes in its trends and witnessed the gradual transformation of its structure, observed in recent years. Global derivatives market has revealed major changes in its trends and witnessed the gradual transf...

  4. Importance of International Cooperation on Internet Governance

    OpenAIRE

    Gokturk, Beyza

    2005-01-01

    The Internet developed very rapidly over the past few years and diffused in to many aspects of human life by way of trade, education and communication. This diffusion will continue to get deeper with the growth of the Internet, as will the problems get more complicated and serious. Internet governance is an initiative to handle these problems, in order to make Internet safer and more useful for the future. In this thesis I discuss the importance of international cooperation in the context of ...

  5. Incentives and Earnings Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Anders

    2013-01-01

    The career prospects of newly recruited employees differ substantially within an organization. The stars experience considerable growth in earnings; others can hardly maintain their entry salaries. This article sheds light on the mechanisms generating the observed heterogeneity in earnings growth...... by investigating the effects that explicit short-run incentives and implicit incentives have on earnings growth. The model’s predictions are tested using personnel records from a large bank and are found to be consistent with the observed earnings growth during the first half of the employees’ careers....

  6. FDI- Economic Growth Nexus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bujac, Andreea Ioana; Corado Cretu, Emanuel

    2017-01-01

    Conducting a systematic literature review on the topic of FDI and Economic Growth and investigating this relationship, along with the determinants of an economy that attract FDI and the externalities resulting from Foreign activities, it is found that FDI does have a positive effect on a host...... country’s economic growth but only with the preexistence of certain determinants which facilitate the absorption capacity of the host country on reaping the spillover effects (externalities) of FDI. Lastly, a framework was built to illustrate the interaction between FDI, Determinants and condition...... of the host economy, barriers to growth, economic growth and externalities....

  7. Optimising growth in phenylketonuria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dokoupil, Katharina; Gokmen-Ozel, Hulya; Lammardo, Anna Maria

    2012-01-01

    . Protein requirements in dietary management of PKU are met mostly from Phe-free protein substitutes with the intake of natural protein restricted to patient tolerance. Several reports have suggested that growth in early childhood in PKU is sub-optimal, relative to non-PKU control groups or reference...... populations. We reviewed the literature searching for evidence regarding PKU and growth as well as possible links between dietary management of PKU and growth. The search retrieved only limited evidence on the effect of PKU and its dietary management on growth. Physical development in PKU remains an under...

  8. Smart Growth and Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Describes the relationship between smart growth and transportation, focusing smart and sustainable street design, transit-oriented development, parking management, sustainable transportation planning, and related resources.

  9. ICONO'5 2000. 5th International Conference on Organic Nonlinear Optics. Davos, Switzerland, March 12-16, 2000

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2000-01-01

    .... The conference aims at achieving international exchange of information and cooperation among researchers in academia, government laboratories, and industries, and to stimulate growth in the field...

  10. Efeito da restrição pré e pós-natal sobre o crescimento dos depósitos de gordura de cordeiros Santa Inês Effects of pre and postnatal nutritional restriction on internal fats growth of Santa Ines lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.C. Geraseev

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se os efeitos da restrição pré e pós-natal sobre o tamanho e o crescimento dos depósitos de gordura de cordeiros Santa Inês. Foram utilizados 68 cordeiros, distribuídos em três tratamentos: com restrição pré-natal (RPRE, com restrição pós-natal (RPOS e sem restrição (controle. Dentro de cada tratamento, os animais foram aleatoriamente sorteados para serem abatidos após o nascimento e com 10, 15, 25, 35 e 45kg de peso vivo. Os depósitos de gordura (omental, mesentérica, perirenal, pélvica e inguinal foram registrados. Ao nascimento, os depósitos de gordura foram menores nos animais do tratamento RPRE. Entre 15 a 35kg de peso, a quantidade de gordura foi igual nos animais dos três tratamentos e, a partir desse peso (35kg, com exceção da gordura pélvica, os depósitos no animais do tratamento RPRE foram significativamente maiores. A restrição pré-natal elevou consideravelmente as taxas de ganho da gordura omental, mesentérica, perirenal e pélvica, enquanto a restrição pós-natal influenciou somente a taxa de ganho da gordura inguinal. Cordeiros de todos os grupos apresentaram taxas de desenvolvimento tardias (b>1.Effects of pre and postnatal nutritional restriction on allometric growth of internal fat deposits in Santa Ines lambs were evaluated Sixty eight lambs were randomly alloted to three different nutritional restriction:prenatal nutritional restriction (PRER, postnatal nutritional restriction (POSR, and a control group without nutritional restriction. Lambs of each group were randomly sampled and slaughtered at birth and weighing 10, 15, 25, 35 and 45kg. Fat depositts (omental, mesenteric, perirenal, pelvic and inguinal of slaughtered lambs were recorded. At birth fat deposits were small for animals from treatment RPRE. From 15 to 35kg of live weight the amount of fat was similar for animals from all groups but lambs from PRER group, with live body weight heavier than 35kg, showed higher fat deposits

  11. International safeguards data authentication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melton, R.B.; Smith, C.E.; DeLand, S.M.; Manatt, D.R.

    1996-07-01

    The International Safeguards community is becoming increasingly reliant on information stored in electronic form. In international monitoring and related activities it must be possible to verify and maintain the integrity of this electronic information. This paper discusses the use of data authentication technology to assist in accomplishing this task. The paper provides background information, identifies the relevance to international safeguards, discusses issues related to export controls, algorithm patents, key management and the use of commercial vs. custom software.

  12. School of International Relations

    OpenAIRE

    Michail M. Narinskii

    2014-01-01

    International Relations have been and remain not only one of the basic academic disciplines, but also one of the main directions of research work at MGIMO. Doing IR is closely intertwined with theory and practice, history and current events, the desire to combine a deep knowledge of the factual material and research-based evaluation in accordance with objective laws found in international life. Training of highly qualified specialists in international relations is impossible without a fundame...

  13. International New Ventures

    OpenAIRE

    Knudsen, Thorbjørn; Koed Madsen, Tage

    2004-01-01

    The label ‘International New Ventures’ has been used to designate firms, which from their inception are oriented towards the international market place. The present article aims to test empirically whether such a type of manufacturing firms differ from comparable firms with respect to some basic characteristics. The motivation for doing so is to evaluate the usefulness of studying International New Ventures as a distinct form of economic organization.

  14. International Research Chairs Initiative | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The International Research Chairs Initiative (IRCI) is a seven-year, CA$8 million research program that pairs top research talent from universities in Canada with their counterparts in developing countries to address key development challenges. These specialists share their advanced skills and knowledge to confront issues ...

  15. International Ecohealth Forum 2008 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    It will be hosted by the National Institute of Public Health (INSP) in Mérida, Mexico, 1-4 December 2008. The Forum is expected to bring together more than 700 participants from around the world and will constitute a seminal step toward consolidating an international community of practitioners with a holistic perspective ...

  16. International Rehabilitation Network

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Smith, William

    2001-01-01

    The International Rehabilitation Network's goal is to improve the quality of services for land mine survivors and other amputee's through the dissemination of educational programs to rehabilitation professionals...

  17. EM International. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-07-01

    It is the intent of EM International to describe the Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management`s (EM`s) various roles and responsibilities within the international community. Cooperative agreements and programs, descriptions of projects and technologies, and synopses of visits to international sites are all highlighted in this semiannual journal. Focus on EM programs in this issue is on international collaboration in vitrification projects. Technology highlights covers: in situ sealing for contaminated sites; and remote sensors for toxic pollutants. Section on profiles of countries includes: Arctic contamination by the former Soviet Union, and EM activities with Germany--cooperative arrangements.

  18. SME International Business Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Child, John; Hsieh, Linda; Elbanna, Said

    2017-01-01

    This paper addresses two questions through a study of 180 SMEs located in contrasting industry and home country contexts. First, which business models for international markets prevail among SMEs and do they configure into different types? Second, which factors predict the international business...... models that SMEs follow? Three distinct international business models (traditional market-adaptive, technology exploiter, and ambidextrous explorer) are found among the SMEs studied. The likelihood of SMEs adopting one business model rather than another is to a high degree predictable with reference...... to a small set of factors: industry, level of home economy development, and decision-maker international experience....

  19. Deregulation, economic growth and growth acceleration

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stankov, Petar

    -, č. 424 (2010), s. 1-42 ISSN 1211-3298 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC542 Institutional research plan: CEZ:MSM0021620846 Keywords : deregulation * economic growth * origins of institutional change Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.cerge-ei.cz/pdf/wp/Wp424.pdf

  20. Effective Exchange Rate Classifications and Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Justin M. Dubas; Byung-Joo Lee; Nelson C. Mark

    2005-01-01

    We propose an econometric procedure for obtaining de facto exchange rate regime classifications which we apply to study the relationship between exchange rate regimes and economic growth. Our classification method models the de jure regimes as outcomes of a multinomial logit choice problem conditional on the volatility of a country's effective exchange rate, a bilateral exchange rate and international reserves. An `effective' de facto exchange rate regime classification is then obtained by as...