WorldWideScience

Sample records for internal-standard response factors

  1. Experience from implementing international standards in national emergency response planning national adjustments and suggestions for improvements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naadland Holo, E.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: A process has been going on for some time in Norway to establish a harmonized background for emergency response planning for any kind of nuclear or radiological accident. The national emergency preparedness organisation with the crisis committee for nuclear accident, consisting of representatives from civil defence, defence, police-, health-, and food control authorities, has the authority to implement countermeasures to protect health, environment and national interests in case of an accident or in case of nuclear terrorism. However, in an early phase, the response plans need to be fully harmonized to ensure that every operational level knows their responsibility and the responsibilities of others. Our intention is to implement the IAEA standard 'preparedness and response for a nuclear or radiological emergency'. We believe this will simplify national and international communication and also simplify the crisis management if an accident occurs. In revising the national plans, and also the planning basis at regional and local level, as well as the planning basis for response to accidents at national nuclear facilities and in connection with arrival of nuclear submarines in Norwegian harbours, we have seen the need to make national adjustments to the international standards. In addition to the standard, there exist several other processes and routines for reporting different kinds of incidents. We have seen a need to coordinate this internally at the competent authority to simplify the routines. This paper will focus on the challenges we have met, our national solutions and some suggestions for simplification. National adjustments to the international standard. - Firstly, the threat categorization needs to be adjusted. First of all, we do not have nuclear power plants in Norway. In the aftermath of 11 September 2001 we also have focused more an the potential for nuclear terrorism. Nuclear terrorism is unlikely but puts up some new requirements in the

  2. Applying international standards and guidelines on corporate social responsibility: An action plan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cramer, J.M.

    2005-01-01

    How can a company start the process of corporate social responsibility in an international context, thereby makinge use of diverse standards and guidelines? This question immediately came to the fore emerged after the start of the programme ‘Corporate social responsibility in international context’

  3. Why do we need international standards on responsible research publication for authors and editors?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Wager

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Delivering the best possible healthcare requires a reliable evidence-base of research publications. Both authors and editors have responsibilities when publishing research yet it can be hard to find guidance on these. Most journal instructions concentrate on style and formatting but give little or no information about research and publication ethics.

  4. Why do we need international standards on responsible research publication for authors and editors?

    OpenAIRE

    Wager, Elizabeth; Kleinert, Sabine

    2013-01-01

    Delivering the best possible healthcare requires a reliable evidence-base of research publications. Both authors and editors have responsibilities when publishing research yet it can be hard to find guidance on these. Most journal instructions concentrate on style and formatting but give little or no information about research and publication ethics.

  5. Housekeeping genes as internal standards: use and limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thellin, O; Zorzi, W; Lakaye, B; De Borman, B; Coumans, B; Hennen, G; Grisar, T; Igout, A; Heinen, E

    1999-10-08

    Quantitative studies are commonly realised in the biomedical research to compare RNA expression in different experimental or clinical conditions. These quantifications are performed through their comparison to the expression of the housekeeping gene transcripts like glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (G3PDH), albumin, actins, tubulins, cyclophilin, hypoxantine phsophoribosyltransferase (HRPT), L32. 28S, and 18S rRNAs are also used as internal standards. In this paper, it is recalled that the commonly used internal standards can quantitatively vary in response to various factors. Possible variations are illustrated using three experimental examples. Preferred types of internal standards are then proposed for each of these samples and thereafter the general procedure concerning the choice of an internal standard and the way to manage its uses are discussed.

  6. Quantification of endogenous metabolites by the postcolumn infused-internal standard method combined with matrix normalization factor in liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Hsiao-Wei; Chen, Guan-Yuan; Wu, Ming-Shiang; Liao, Wei-Chih; Tsai, I-Lin; Kuo, Ching-Hua

    2015-01-02

    Quantification of endogenous metabolites has enabled the discovery of biomarkers for diagnosis and provided for an understanding of disease etiology. The standard addition and stable isotope labeled-internal standard (SIL-IS) methods are currently the most widely used approaches to quantifying endogenous metabolites, but both have some limitations for clinical measurement. In this study, we developed a new approach for endogenous metabolite quantification by the postcolumn infused-internal standard (PCI-IS) method combined with the matrix normalization factor (MNF) method. MNF was used to correct the difference in MEs between standard solution and biofluids, and PCI-IS additionally tailored the correction of the MEs for individual samples. Androstenedione and testosterone were selected as test articles to verify this new approach to quantifying metabolites in plasma. The repeatability (n=4 runs) and intermediate precision (n=3 days) in terms of the peak area of androstenedione and testosterone at all tested concentrations were all less than 11% relative standard deviation (RSD). The accuracy test revealed that the recoveries were between 95.72% and 113.46%. The concentrations of androstenedione and testosterone in fifty plasma samples obtained from healthy volunteers were quantified by the PCI-IS combined with the MNF method, and the quantification results were compared with the results of the SIL-IS method. The Pearson correlation test showed that the correlation coefficient was 0.98 for both androstenedione and testosterone. We demonstrated that the PCI-IS combined with the MNF method is an effective and accurate method for quantifying endogenous metabolites. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. International standards for radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambrosi, P.

    2011-01-01

    International standards for radiation protection are issued by many bodies. These bodies differ to a large extent in their organisation, in the way the members are designated and in the way the international standards are authorised by the issuing body. Large differences also exist in the relevance of the international standards. One extreme is that the international standards are mandatory in the sense that no conflicting national standard may exist, the other extreme is that national and international standards conflict and there is no need to resolve that conflict. Between these extremes there are some standards or documents of relevance, which are not binding by any formal law or contract but are de facto binding due to the scientific reputation of the issuing body. This paper gives, for radiation protection, an overview of the main standards issuing bodies, the international standards or documents of relevance issued by them and the relevance of these documents. (authors)

  8. Spillover effects of international standards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trifkovic, Neda

    Most studies focus on trade effects and organizational outcomes of international standards, neglecting the effect of standards on employees. Using a two-year matched firm–employee panel dataset, this paper finds that the application of standards improves work conditions in small and medium....... The study reveals unexpected benefits from certification, calling for higher investment in standards....

  9. Does science speak clearly and fairly in trade and food safety disputes? The search for an optimal response of WTO adjudication to problematic international standard-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Kuei-Jung

    2013-01-01

    Most international health-related standards are voluntary per se. However, the incorporation of international standard-making into WTO agreements like the SPS Agreement has drastically changed the status and effectiveness of the standards. WTO members are urged to follow international standards, even when not required to comply fully with them. Indeed, such standards have attained great influence in the trade system. Yet evidence shows that the credibility of the allegedly scientific approach of these international standard-setting institutions, especially the Codex Alimentarius Commission (Codex) governing food safety standards, has been eroded and diluted by industrial and political influences. Its decision-making is no longer based on consensus, but voting. The adoption of new safety limits for the veterinary drug ractopamine in 2012, by a very close vote, is simply another instance of the problematic operations of the Codex. These dynamics have led skeptics to question the legitimacy of the standard setting body and to propose solutions to rectify the situation. Prior WTO rulings have yet to pay attention to the defect in the decision-making processes of the Codex. Nevertheless, the recent Appellate Body decision on Hormones II is indicative of a deferential approach to national measures that are distinct from Codex formulas. The ruling also rejects the reliance on those experts who authored the Codex standards to assess new measures of the European Community. This approach provides an opportunity to contemplate what the proper relationship between the WTO and Codex ought to be. Through a critical review of WTO rulings and academic proposals, this article aims to analyze how the WTO ought to define such interactions and respond to the politicized standard-making process in an optimal manner. This article argues that building a more systematic approach and normative basis for WTO judicial review of standard-setting decisions and the selection of technical

  10. Study of International Standards of Risk Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dykan Volodymyr L.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the article lies in the study of existing international standards of risk management, an important factor of improvement of risk management in domestic corporations and enterprises and development of recommendations on application of international standards in Ukraine, in particular, within the framework of building corporate systems of risk management. The conducted study shows that approaches on organisation of the process of risk management, used in standards of risk management, are of general character and differ with the degree of detailing. Their undoubted value in development of risk management in Ukraine is identification of a general direction of building corporate systems of risk management in practice. The said approaches at the national and corporate levels of standardisation in Ukraine within the framework of building corporate systems of risk management would allow improvement of risk management in corporations and enterprises. The prospect of further studies of domestic specialists in the field of risk management is development of the domestic standard of risk management with consideration of modern domestic specific features of development of risk management in Ukraine and leading foreign experience.

  11. EVALUATION OF DIFFERENT INTERNAL STANDARDS FOR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    internal standard addition method was evaluated with the variation in solution ... background emissions involved in generating accurate and reliable .... The most suitable atomic and ionic wavelengths (λ) for the internal standards and precious ..... spectral interferences occur and using validation parameters is currently ...

  12. International Standards on stability of digital prints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adelstein, Peter Z

    2010-01-01

    The International Standards Organization (ISO) is a worldwide recognized standardizing body which has responsibility for standards on permanence of digital prints. This paper is an update on the progress made to date by ISO in writing test methods in this area. Three technologies are involved, namely ink jet, dye diffusion thermal transfer (dye-sublimation) and electrophotography. Two types of test methods are possible, namely comparative tests and predictive tests. To date a comparative test on water fastness has been published and final balloting is underway on a comparative test on humidity fastness. Predictive tests are being finalized on thermal stability and pollution susceptibility. The test method on thermal stability is intended to predict the print life during normal aging. One of the testing concerns is that some prints do not show significant image change in practical testing times. The test method on pollution susceptibility only deals with ozone and assumes that the reciprocity law applies. This law assumes that a long time under a low pollutant concentration is equivalent to a short time under the high concentration used in the test procedure. Longer term studies include a predictive test for light stability and the preparation of a material specification. The latter requires a decision about the proper colour target to be used and what constitutes an unacceptable colour change. Moreover, a specification which gives a predictive life is very dependent upon the conditions the print encounters and will only apply to specific levels of temperature, ozone and light.

  13. International standards in mitigating trade risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiermann, A B

    2011-04-01

    This paper describes the role of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE), as a science-based and democratic standard-setting organisation that provides guidance on preventing the spread of animal diseases, including zoonoses, in international trade. The World Trade Organization is identified as the international institution with the legal power to encourage adherence to international standards and mediate trade disputes. The importance of assuring good governance and the credibility of national Veterinary Services through a process of official certification is identified as an essential component in the safety of trade. Private-public partnerships and the evolution of responsibilities are also identified as essential for the implementation of health guarantees such as compartmentalisation. The rapid emergence of private standards is described as a potential complement to the implementation of sanitary standards, as long as they are applied globally and in support of the OIE standards. Ultimately, the biggest challenge is for the international community to create the incentives and generate the political will for fair trade and for the universal recognition and application of the established international sanitary standards.

  14. China and IEC international standardization activities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Su Zhongmin; Guo Chenguang

    2006-01-01

    @@ International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC), one of the currently worlswide largest and most authoritative international standardization organizations,is specialized in developing and promulgating international standards for the electric and electronic fields, which are widespread adopted through out the world and play an important role in the international trade of electric and electronic products. Moreover, according to the 2005 statistics by the World Bank, the population of countries participating in the IEC activities accounts for 92% of the world total and their trade volume accounts for 95% of the global total.

  15. International Standardization of Library and Documentation Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Federation for Documentation, The Hague (Netherlands).

    This comparative study of the national and international standards, rules and regulations on library and documentation techniques adopted in various countries was conducted as a preliminary step in determining the minimal bases for facilitating national and international cooperation between documentalists and librarians. The study compares and…

  16. The CMMI Product Suite and International Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-07-01

    standards: “2.3 Reference Documents 2.3.1 Applicable ISO /IEC documents, including ISO /IEC 12207 and ISO /IEC 15504.” “3.1 Development User Requirements...related international standards such as ISO 9001:2000, 12207 , 15288 © 2006 by Carnegie Mellon University Page 12 Key Supplements Needed...the Measurement Framework in ISO /IEC 15504; and • the Process Reference Model included in ISO /IEC 12207 . A possible approach has been developed for

  17. Importance of international standards on hydrogen technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bose, T.K.; Gingras, S.

    2001-01-01

    This presentation provided some basic information regarding standards and the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). It also explained the importance of standardization activities, particularly ISO/TC 197 which applies to hydrogen technologies. Standards are established by consensus. They define the minimum requirements that will ensure that products and services are reliable and effective. Standards contribute to the elimination of technical barriers to trade (TBT). The harmonization of standards around the world is desirable in a free trade environment. The influence of the TBT on international standardization was discussed with particular reference to the objectives of ISO/TC 197 hydrogen technologies. One of the priorities for ISO/TC 197 is a hydrogen fuel infrastructure which includes refuelling stations, fuelling connectors, and storage technologies for gaseous and liquid hydrogen. Other priorities include an agreement between the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) and the ISO, in particular the IEC/TC 105 and ISO/TC 197 for the development of fuel cell standards. The international standards that have been published thus far include ISO 13984:1999 for liquid hydrogen, land vehicle fuelling system interface, and ISO 14687:1999 for hydrogen fuel product specification. Standards are currently under development for: liquid hydrogen; airport hydrogen fuelling facilities; gaseous hydrogen blends; basic considerations for the safety of hydrogen systems; gaseous hydrogen and hydrogen blends; and gaseous hydrogen for land vehicle filling connectors. It was concluded that the widespread use of hydrogen is dependent on international standardization

  18. The International Standards Organisation offshore structures standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snell, R.O.

    1994-01-01

    The International Standards Organisation has initiated a program to develop a suite of ISO Codes and Standards for the Oil Industry. The Offshore Structures Standard is one of seven topics being addressed. The scope of the standard will encompass fixed steel and concrete structures, floating structures, Arctic structures and the site specific assessment of mobile drilling and accommodation units. The standard will use as base documents the existing recommended practices and standards most frequently used for each type of structure, and will develop them to incorporate best published and recognized practice and knowledge where it provides a significant improvement on the base document. Work on the Code has commenced under the direction of an internationally constituted sub-committee comprising representatives from most of the countries with a substantial offshore oil and gas industry. This paper outlines the background to the code and the format, content and work program

  19. International standards and agreements in food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cetinkaya, N.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: The economies of both developed and developing countries have been effected by their exported food and agricultural products. Trading policies of food and agricultural products are governed by international agreement as well as national regulations. Trade in food and agricultural commodities may be affected by both principal Agreements within the overall World Trade Organization (WTO) Agreement, though neither specifically refers to irradiation or irradiated foods. The principal Agreements are the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Agreement and the Sanitary and Phyto sanitary (SPS) Agreement. The SPS of the WTO requires governments to harmonize their sanitary and phyto sanitary measures on as wide basis as possible. Related standards, guidelines and recommendations of international standard setting bodies such as the Codex Alimentarius Commission (food safety); the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC) (plant health and quarantine); and International Office of Epizootic (animal health and zoo noses) should be used in such a harmonization. International Standards for Phyto sanitary Measures (ISPM) no.18 was published under the IPPC by FAO (April 2003, Rome-Italy). ISPM standard provides technical guidance on the specific procedure for the application of ionizing radiation as a phyto sanitary treatment for regulated pests or articles. Moreover, Codex Alimentarius Commission, Codex General Standard for Irradiated Foods (Stand 106-1983) and Recommended International Code of Practice were first published in 1983 and revised in March 2003. Scope of this standard applies to foods processed by ionizing radiation that is used in conjunction with applicable hygienic codes, food standards and transportation codes. It does not apply to foods exposed to doses imparted by measuring instruments used for inspection purposes. Codex documents on Principles and Guidelines for the Import/Export Inspection and Certification of Foods have been prepared to guide

  20. International standards and agreements in food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cetinkaya, N.

    2004-01-01

    The economies of both developed and developing countries have been effected by their exported food and agricultural products. Trading policies of food and agricultural products are governed by international agreement as well as national regulations. Trade in food and agricultural commodities may be affected by both principal Agreements within the overall World Trade Organization (WTO) Agreement, though neither specifically refers to irradiation or irradiated foods. The principal Agreements are the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Agreement and the Sanitary and Phyto sanitary (SPS) Agreement. The SPS of the WTO requires governments to harmonize their sanitary and phyto sanitary measures on as wide basis as possible. Related standards, guidelines and recommendations of international standard setting bodies such as the Codex Alimentarius Commission (food safety); the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC) (plant health and quarantine); and International Office of Epizootic (animal health and zoo noses) should be used in such a harmonization. International Standards for Phyto sanitary Measures (ISPM) no.18 was published under the IPPC by FAO (April 2003, Rome-Italy). ISPM standard provides technical guidance on the specific procedure for the application of ionizing radiation as a phyto sanitary treatment for regulated pests or articles. Moreover, Codex Alimentarius Commission, Codex General Standard for Irradiated Foods (Stand 106-1983) and Recommended International Code of Practice were first published in 1983 and revised in March 2003. Scope of this standard applies to foods processed by ionizing radiation that is used in conjunction with applicable hygienic codes, food standards and transportation codes. It does not apply to foods exposed to doses imparted by measuring instruments used for inspection purposes. Codex documents on Principles and Guidelines for the Import/Export Inspection and Certification of Foods have been prepared to guide international

  1. Free viewpoint TV and its international standardization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanimoto, Masayuki

    2009-05-01

    We have developed a new type of television named FTV (Free-viewpoint TV). FTV is an innovative visual media that enables us to view a 3D scene by freely changing our viewpoints. We proposed the concept of FTV and constructed the world's first real-time system including the complete chain of operation from image capture to display. We also realized FTV on a single PC and FTV with free listening-point audio. FTV is based on the ray-space method that represents one ray in real space with one point in the ray-space. We have also developed new type of ray capture and display technologies such as a 360-degree mirror-scan ray capturing system and a 360 degree ray-reproducing display. MPEG regarded FTV as the most challenging 3D media and started the international standardization activities of FTV. The first phase of FTV is MVC (Multi-view Video Coding) and the second phase is 3DV (3D Video). MVC was completed in March 2009. 3DV is a standard that targets serving a variety of 3D displays. It will be completed within the next two years.

  2. International Standards for Neurological Classification of Spinal Cord Injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirshblum, S C; Biering-Sorensen, F; Betz, R

    2014-01-01

    The International Standards for the Neurological Classification of Spinal Cord Injury (ISNCSCI) is routinely used to determine the levels of injury and to classify the severity of the injury. Questions are often posed to the International Standards Committee of the American Spinal Injury Associat......The International Standards for the Neurological Classification of Spinal Cord Injury (ISNCSCI) is routinely used to determine the levels of injury and to classify the severity of the injury. Questions are often posed to the International Standards Committee of the American Spinal Injury...

  3. International Standards for Neurological Classification of Spinal Cord Injury:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirshblum, S C; Biering-Sørensen, Fin; Betz, R

    2014-01-01

    The International Standards for the Neurological Classification of Spinal Cord Injury (ISNCSCI) is routinely used to determine levels of injury and to classify the severity of the injury. Questions are often posed to the International Standards Committee of the American Spinal Injury Association...

  4. 46 CFR 133.03 - Relationship to international standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Relationship to international standards. 133.03 Section 133.03 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS LIFESAVING SYSTEMS General § 133.03 Relationship to international standards. This subpart and subpart B of...

  5. 46 CFR 108.503 - Relationship to international standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Relationship to international standards. 108.503 Section 108.503 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Lifesaving Equipment § 108.503 Relationship to international standards. For...

  6. The Satisfaction of the Right of Justice under the Colombian Peace Process. A Look at Developments in the Field of Criminal Responsibility in the Context of a Peace Process and Current International Standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Eugenia Suárez López

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available With the purpose of comparing the peace agreements that were carried out in Colombia during the decades of the 80s and 90s and the current negotiation process that is taking place in Havana with the farc, the article identifies the lessons of the peace processes selected and discusses their relevance to the negotiation in progress. In particular, the article explicates how the right to justice of the victims, and the amnesties and pardons to members of illegal armed groups, were addressed in the past. Furthermore, the article examines the Legislative Act 1 of 2012, which establishes the so-called ‘Legal Framework for Peace’. Thus, it highlights the possible consequences in regards to international responsibility of the Colombian State and of the perpetrators of international crimes.

  7. CSNI International standard problems (ISP). Brief descriptions (1975-1999)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-03-01

    Over the last twenty-five years the NEA Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations (CSNI) has sponsored a considerable number of international activities to promote the exchange of experience between its Member countries in the use of nuclear safety codes and testing materials. A primary goal of these activities is to increase confidence in the validity and accuracy of analytical tools or testing procedures which are needed in warranting the safety of nuclear installations, and to demonstrate the competence of involved institutions. International Standard Problems (ISPs) exercises are comparative exercises in which predictions or recalculations of a given physical problem with different best-estimate computer code are compared with each other and above all with the results of a carefully specified experimental study. ISP exercises are performed as 'open' or 'blind' problems. In an open Standard Problem exercise the results of the experiment are available to the participants before performing the calculations, while in a blind Standard Problem exercise the experimental results are locked until the calculation results are made available for comparison. The CSNI-promoted ISP activity started in the early 70's and is still underway. Parallel to other national and international programs the CSNI has sponsored over more than 25 years forty-seven International Standard Problem exercises. This program has been focused mainly on the applicability of large thermal-hydraulic code systems simulating the behaviour of nuclear coolant and containment systems, fuel behaviour under accident conditions, hydrogen distribution, core-concrete interactions and fission product release and transport. One ISP exercise was organised in connection with a seismic ultimate dynamic response test. ISP exercises have proven to be very valuable to participating countries. They have been fruitful to identify code application problems and to amplify the contacts between the experimental and

  8. A new internal standard for HPLC assay of conjugated linoleic acid in animal tissues and milk

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Czauderna, M.; Kowalczyk, J.; Marounek, Milan; Michalski, J. P.; Rozbicka-Wieczorek, A. J.; Krajewska, K. A.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 1 (2011), s. 23-29 ISSN 1212-1819 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : sorbic acid * internal standard * CLA isomers Subject RIV: GH - Livestock Nutrition Impact factor: 1.079, year: 2011

  9. Normalization method for metabolomics data using optimal selection of multiple internal standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yetukuri Laxman

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Success of metabolomics as the phenotyping platform largely depends on its ability to detect various sources of biological variability. Removal of platform-specific sources of variability such as systematic error is therefore one of the foremost priorities in data preprocessing. However, chemical diversity of molecular species included in typical metabolic profiling experiments leads to different responses to variations in experimental conditions, making normalization a very demanding task. Results With the aim to remove unwanted systematic variation, we present an approach that utilizes variability information from multiple internal standard compounds to find optimal normalization factor for each individual molecular species detected by metabolomics approach (NOMIS. We demonstrate the method on mouse liver lipidomic profiles using Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry, and compare its performance to two commonly utilized normalization methods: normalization by l2 norm and by retention time region specific standard compound profiles. The NOMIS method proved superior in its ability to reduce the effect of systematic error across the full spectrum of metabolite peaks. We also demonstrate that the method can be used to select best combinations of standard compounds for normalization. Conclusion Depending on experiment design and biological matrix, the NOMIS method is applicable either as a one-step normalization method or as a two-step method where the normalization parameters, influenced by variabilities of internal standard compounds and their correlation to metabolites, are first calculated from a study conducted in repeatability conditions. The method can also be used in analytical development of metabolomics methods by helping to select best combinations of standard compounds for a particular biological matrix and analytical platform.

  10. EFFECT OF ADDING THE INTERNAL STANDARD TO BLOOD SAMPLES, PRIOR TO THE PREPARATION OF BLOOD SPOTS FOR ACYLCARNITINE ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Osorio, José Henry; Pourfarzam, Morteza

    2010-01-01

    Background: some general factors can influence when determining acylcarnitines through tandem mass spectrometry. Objective: to study the effect of adding the internal standard to blood samples before the preparation of filter paper cards compared with the addition of internal standard after having the filter paper cards prepared for determining acylcarnitines in blood for tandem mass spectrometry. Methodology: two groups of blood samples were prepared: group one without adding internal standa...

  11. Comparative study of Malaysian and Philippine regulatory infrastructures on radiation and nuclear safety with international standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cayabo, Lynette B.

    2013-06-01

    licensing needs to be considered in the regulatory system and processes of both countries. Enforcement policy of AELB and PNRI needs to be enhanced taking into account the factors in GS-G-1.5. Examples of key learning areas and good practices identified are: AELB's e-learning system represents an innovative means of its regulatory processes; the style and language used in the code of PNRI Regulations is in acordance with international standards, i.e. use of shall statements. The results of this study could be used by both countries in revisiting or further reviewing and updating their respective legislations in order to be consistent and coherent with international standards. (author)

  12. Human Rights and Values Education: Using the International Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reardon, Betty A.

    1994-01-01

    Asserts that, in teaching about human rights, the international standards should be the fundamental core of the content and values to be communicated. Recommends that teachers should use the Universal Declaration of Human Rights as the standard by which the actions of individuals and governments should be compared. (CFR)

  13. Adaptations of International Standards on Educational Leadership Preparation in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purinton, Ted; Khalil, Dalia

    2016-01-01

    This paper is a case study of one leadership preparation program, utilizing US school leadership standards and practices, offered in Egypt. This case study illuminates how cultural and policy distinctions impact differing necessities of educational leadership, and how those necessities conflict or concur with the international standards and…

  14. 46 CFR 199.03 - Relationship to international standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Relationship to international standards. 199.03 Section 199.03 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LIFESAVING APPLIANCES AND ARRANGEMENTS LIFESAVING SYSTEMS FOR CERTAIN INSPECTED VESSELS General § 199.03 Relationship to international...

  15. Finite element analyses for Seismic Shear Wall International Standard Problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Y.; Hofmayer, C.; Chokshi, N.

    1997-01-01

    In the seismic design of shear wall structures, e.g., nuclear reactor buildings, a linear FEM analysis is frequently used to quantify the stresses under the design loading condition. The final design decisions, however, are still based on empirical design rules established over decades from accumulated laboratory test data. This paper presents an overview of the state-of-the-art on the application of nonlinear FEM analysis to reinforced concrete (RC) shear wall structures under severe earthquake loadings based on the findings obtained during the Seismic Shear Wall International Standard Problem (SSWISP) Workshop in 1996. Also, BNL's analysis results of the International Standard Problem (ISP) shear walls under monotonic static, cyclic static and dynamic loading conditions are described

  16. Nuclear Data Center International Standard Towards TSO Initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raja Murzaferi Raja Moktar; Mohd Fauzi Haris; Siti Nurbahyah Hamdan

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear Data Center is the main facility for Nuclear Malaysia Agency IT infrastructure comprising of main critical servers, research and operational data storage, HPC-clusters system and vital network core equipment. In recent years, international body such as TIA-Telecommunication Industry Association and Up time Institute have came out with proper international data center standards in order to ensure data center operation on achieving maximum operational up time and minimal downtime. The standard are currently being rated as tier level ranging from Data Center tier I up to tier IV, differentiate by facility standard and up time/ downtime percentage ratio. This paper will discuss Nuclear Data Center adopting international standards in supporting Nuclear Malaysia TSO initiative thus ensuring the critical core component of agency IT services availability and further more International standard recognitions. (author)

  17. A Metadata Standard for Hydroinformatic Data Conforming to International Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notay, Vikram; Carstens, Georg; Lehfeldt, Rainer

    2017-04-01

    The affordable availability of computing power and digital storage has been a boon for the scientific community. The hydroinformatics community has also benefitted from the so-called digital revolution, which has enabled the tackling of more and more complex physical phenomena using hydroinformatic models, instruments, sensors, etc. With models getting more and more complex, computational domains getting larger and the resolution of computational grids and measurement data getting finer, a large amount of data is generated and consumed in any hydroinformatics related project. The ubiquitous availability of internet also contributes to this phenomenon with data being collected through sensor networks connected to telecommunications networks and the internet long before the term Internet of Things existed. Although generally good, this exponential increase in the number of available datasets gives rise to the need to describe this data in a standardised way to not only be able to get a quick overview about the data but to also facilitate interoperability of data from different sources. The Federal Waterways Engineering and Research Institute (BAW) is a federal authority of the German Federal Ministry of Transport and Digital Infrastructure. BAW acts as a consultant for the safe and efficient operation of the German waterways. As part of its consultation role, BAW operates a number of physical and numerical models for sections of inland and marine waterways. In order to uniformly describe the data produced and consumed by these models throughout BAW and to ensure interoperability with other federal and state institutes on the one hand and with EU countries on the other, a metadata profile for hydroinformatic data has been developed at BAW. The metadata profile is composed in its entirety using the ISO 19115 international standard for metadata related to geographic information. Due to the widespread use of the ISO 19115 standard in the existing geodata infrastructure

  18. International standardization of instruments for neutron irradiation tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanimoto, Masataka; Shibata, Akira; Nakamura, Jinichi; Tsuchiya, Kunihiko; Cho, M.; Lee, C.; Park, S.; Choo, K.

    2012-01-01

    The JMTR in JAEA and HANARO in KAERI are the foremost testing/research reactors in the world and these are expected to contribute to many nuclear fields. As a part of instrument development in irradiation field, information exchange of instruments started from 2010 under the cooperation agreements between KAERI and JAEA. The instruments developed in JMTR and HANARO are introduced and cooperation experiments as future plan are discussed for international standardization. (author)

  19. Housekeeping Genes as Internal Standards: Use and Limits

    OpenAIRE

    Thellin, Olivier; Zorzi, Willy; Lakaye, Bernard; De Borman, B.; Coumans, Bernard; Hennen, Georges; Grisar, Thierry; Igout, Ahmed; Heinen, Ernst

    1999-01-01

    Quantitative studies are commonly realised in the biomedical research to compare RNA expression in different experimental or clinical conditions. These quantifications are performed through their comparison to the expression of the housekeeping gene transcripts like glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (G3PDH), albumin, actins, tubulins, cyclophilin, hypoxantine phsophoribosyltransferase (HRPT), L32. 28S, and 18S rRNAs are also used as internal standards. In this paper, it is recalled tha...

  20. Asset Accounting According to National and International Standards

    OpenAIRE

    Karina Utenkova

    2014-01-01

    The Article overviews the issues of complying National Accounting Standards at the enterprises of Ukraine with International Financial Reporting Standards. Key provisions of national and international standards governing the accounting of fixed assets (NP(S)A 7 'Property, Plant, Equipment', IFRS 16 'Fixed Assets') have been analyzed. It has been found that the list of PPE regulated by both accounting standard frameworks is not identical. Specifics of fixed assets recognition, their classifica...

  1. International Standards for Radiation Sterilization of Medical Devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, A.

    2007-01-01

    For a terminally sterilized medical device to be designated '' STERILE '', probability of finding the viable micro-organisms in the device shall be equal to or less than 1 x 10 -6 (EN 556-1:2001: Sterilization of medical devices - Requirements for medical devices to be designated '' STERILE '' - Part 1: Requirements for terminally sterilized medical devices). Author presents the main legal aspects of the international standards for radiation sterilization of medical devices

  2. Compensation of matrix effects in gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of pesticides using a combination of matrix matching and multiple isotopically labeled internal standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchiyama, Tomoyuki; Katsuhara, Miki; Nakajima, Masahiro

    2017-11-17

    In the multi-residue analysis of pesticides using GC-MS, the quantitative results are adversely affected by a phenomenon known as the matrix effect. Although the use of matrix-matched standards is considered to be one of the most practical solutions to this problem, complete removal of the matrix effect is difficult in complex food matrices owing to their inconsistency. As a result, residual matrix effects can introduce analytical errors. To compensate for residual matrix effects, we have developed a novel method that employs multiple isotopically labeled internal standards (ILIS). The matrix effects of ILIS and pesticides were evaluated in spiked matrix extracts of various agricultural commodities, and the obtained data were subjected to simple statistical analysis. Based on the similarities between the patterns of variation in the analytical response, a total of 32 isotopically labeled compounds were assigned to 338 pesticides as internal standards. It was found that by utilizing multiple ILIS, residual matrix effects could be effectively compensated. The developed method exhibited superior quantitative performance compared with the common single-internal-standard method. The proposed method is more feasible for regulatory purposes than that using only predetermined correction factors and is considered to be promising for practical applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Implementation of International Standards in Russia's Foreign Trade Statistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia E. Grigoruk

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the basic documents of international organizations in recent years, which have become the global standard for the development and improvement of statistics of foreign economic relations of most countries, including the Russian Federation. The article describes the key features of the theory and practice of modern foreign trade statistics in Russia and abroad, with an emphasis on the methodological problems of its main parts - the external trade statistics. It shows their interpretation in the most recent recommendations by UN statistical apparatus and other international organizations; considers a range of problems associated with the implementation of the national statistical practices of countries, including Russia and the countries of the Customs Union, the main international standard of foreign trade statistics - UN document "International Merchandise Trade Statistics". The main attention is paid to methodological issues such as: the criteria for selecting the objects of statistical accounting in accordance with international standards, quantitative and cost parameters of foreign trade statistics, statistical methods and estimates of commodity exports and imports, the problems of comparability of data; to a comparison of international standards in 2010 with documents on key precursor methodology of foreign trade statistics, characterized by the practice of introducing these standards in the foreign trade statistics of Russia and the countries of the Customs Union. The article analyzes the content given in the official statistical manuals of Russia foreign trade and foreign countries, covers the main methodological problems of World Trade in conjunction with the major current international statistical standards - System of National Accounts, Manual on Statistics of International Trade in Services and other documents; provides specific data describing the current structure of Russian foreign trade and especially its

  4. International standards for monoclonal antibodies to support pre- and post-marketing product consistency: Evaluation of a candidate international standard for the bioactivities of rituximab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior, Sandra; Hufton, Simon E; Fox, Bernard; Dougall, Thomas; Rigsby, Peter; Bristow, Adrian

    2018-01-01

    The intrinsic complexity and heterogeneity of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies is built into the biosimilarity paradigm where critical quality attributes are controlled in exhaustive comparability studies with the reference medicinal product. The long-term success of biosimilars will depend on reassuring healthcare professionals and patients of consistent product quality, safety and efficacy. With this aim, the World Health Organization has endorsed the need for public bioactivity standards for therapeutic monoclonal antibodies in support of current controls. We have developed a candidate international potency standard for rituximab that was evaluated in a multi-center collaborative study using participants' own qualified Fc-effector function and cell-based binding bioassays. Dose-response curve model parameters were shown to reflect similar behavior amongst rituximab preparations, albeit with some differences in potency. In the absence of a common reference standard, potency estimates were in poor agreement amongst laboratories, but the use of the candidate preparation significantly reduced this variability. Our results suggest that the candidate rituximab standard can support bioassay performance and improve data harmonization, which when implemented will promote consistency of rituximab products over their life-cycles. This data provides the first scientific evidence that a classical standardization exercise allowing traceability of bioassay data to an international standard is also applicable to rituximab. However, we submit that this new type of international standard needs to be used appropriately and its role not to be mistaken with that of the reference medicinal product.

  5. European and International Standards on health and safety in welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howe, A

    2009-01-01

    A number of European and International Standards on health and safety in welding have been published in recent years and work on several more is nearing completion. These standards have been prepared jointly by the International Standards Organization (ISO) and the European Committee for Standardization (CEN). The standards development work has mostly been led by CEN/TC 121/SC 9, with excellent technical input from experts within Europe; but work on the revision of published standards, which has recently gathered pace, is now being carried out by ISO/TC 44/SC 9, with greater international involvement. This paper gives an overview of the various standards that have been published, are being revised or are under development in this field of health and safety in welding, seeking to (i) increase international awareness of published standards, (ii) encourage wider participation in health and safety in welding standards work and (iii) obtain feedback and solicit comments on standards that are currently under development or revision. Such an initiative is particularly timely because work is currently in progress on the revision of one of the more important standards in this field, namely EN ISO 10882:2001 Health and safety in welding and allied processes- Sampling of airborne particles and gases in the operator's breathing zone - Part 1: Sampling of airborne particles.

  6. Collaborative study to assess the suitability of a candidate International Standard for yellow fever vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Morag; Heath, Alan

    2004-12-01

    Yellow fever vaccines are routinely assayed by plaque assay. However, the results of these assays are then converted into mouse LD(50) using correlations/conversion factors which, in many cases, were established many years ago. The minimum required potency in WHO Recommendations is 10(3) LD(50)/dose. Thirteen participants from 8 countries participated in a collaborative study whose aim was to assess the suitability of two candidate preparations to serve as an International Standard for yellow fever vaccine. In addition, the study investigated the relationship between the mouse LD(50) test and plaque forming units with a view to updating the WHO recommendations. Plaque assays were more reproducible than mouse assays, as expected. Differences in sensitivities of plaque assays were observed between laboratories but these differences appear to be consistent within a laboratory for all samples and the expression of potency relative to the candidate standard vaccine improved the reproducibility of assays between laboratories. However, the use of potencies had little effect on the between laboratory variability in mouse LD(50) assays. There appears to be a consistent relationship between overall mean LD(50) and plaques titre for all study preparations other than sample E. The slope of the correlation curve is >1 and it would appear that 10(3) LD(50) is approximately equivalent to 10(4) plaque forming units (PFU), based on the overall means of all laboratory results. The First International Standard for yellow fever vaccine, NIBSC Code 99/616, has been established as the First International Standard for yellow fever vaccine by the Expert Committee of Biological Standards of the World Health Organisation. The International Standard has been arbitrarily assigned a potency of 10(4.5) International Units (IU) per ampoule. Manufacturers and National Control Laboratories are including the First International Standard for yellow fever vaccine in routine assays so that the minimum

  7. LEASE AGREEMENTS FINANCIAL REPORTING ISSUES ACCORDING TO THE INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina MAISURADZE

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available On January 13th 2016, the Board for International Accounting Standards  published the  new International Standard 16 of Financial Reporting,   named as “Lease”, which will substitute the International Accounting Standard 17 of financial reporting “Lease”. ISFR 16 ensures reflection of practically all lease agreements in the financial reporting, which, in is part, meets the requirements of investors regarding reliability and transparency of the information related to a financial state of an enterprise. The Article considers the changes caused by ISFR 16, which relate to recognition of the lease agreements as the asset, their accounting and, impact on the financial reporting. Relevant conclusions are provided regarding the above mentioned issues.

  8. Contribution from twenty two years of CSNI International Standard Problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-03-01

    This report provides a brief overview on the contribution of some CSNI International Standard Problems (ISPs) to nuclear reactor safety issues (41 ISPs performed over the last 22 years). This CSNI activity on ISPs has been one of the major activities of the Principal Working Group no.2 on Coolant System Behaviour. Its domain extended from thermal-hydraulics to several other accident domains following the main concerns of nuclear reactor safety, e.g., LOCA predictions fuel behaviour, operator procedures, containment thermal-hydraulics severe accidents, VVERs, etc. ISPs are providing unique material and benefits for some safety related issues. Clearly, all the technical findings and benefits provided by ISPs are still needed and contribute to advancement of nuclear safety. The report provides some overview on the general objectives of ISPs, content and types of ISPs, and technical domains covered by ISPs, followed by a synthesis of technical findings and benefits to the scientific community

  9. International standardization of nuclear reactor designs - the way forward

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raetzke, Christian

    2010-01-01

    The concept of 'International Standardization of Nuclear Reactor Designs' means that vendors could build their designs in every country without having to adapt it specifically to national safety requirements. Such standardization would have two main effects. It would greatly facilitate nuclear new build worldwide by giving greater efficiency and certainty to the national licensing procedures; by taking into account the fact that vendors, and nowadays also utilities, are active across borders; by helping developing countries to establish their nuclear new build programmes; and by reducing the strain on human resources on both the regulators' and the industry's side. The second valuable effect of standardization would be to further enhance safety by improving the exchange of construction and operating experience among a number of reactors belonging to fleets of the same design. The World Nuclear Association's CORDEL (Cooperation in Reactor Design Evaluation and Licensing) Group has developed a concept for implementation of international standardization of reactor designs. It has defined a number of steps to be taken by industry. At the same time, possibilities offered by national and international regulatory mechanisms would have to be fully made use of, and some changes in regulatory frameworks might be necessary. Some steps especially towards greater cooperation of regulators have already been taken; however, much still remains to be done. The concept of deploying standardized reactor designs across a number of countries supposes an alignment and, if possible, harmonization of national safety standards; a streamlining of national licensing procedures, making them more efficient and predictable; and the willingness of national regulators to take into account licensing done in other countries. In the end, this should lead to a mutual acceptance of design approvals or, in a more distant future, even to a multinational design approval process. All in all, the concept

  10. Developing an Implementation Guideline to International Standard School for Schools under Secondary Educational Service Area Office 25

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Worawut Poltree

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of developing an implementation guideline to international standard school for schools under secondary educational service area office 25 were ; 1 to study present and problem an implementation guideline to international standard school for schools under secondary educational service area office 25 and 2 to develop an implementation guideline to international standard school for schools under secondary educational service area office 25. There were 68 samples ; administrators, deputy administrators, head of quality management systems, and academic teachers by purposive sampling. The tools used to collect the data were the five level scale questionnaire and structured interviews. Data were analyzed using mean, standard deviation, and descriptive analysis. The researcher set the research by 2 phase. The first phase educated present and problem an implementation guideline to international standard school for schools under secondary educational service area office 25. The research was assessed feasibility of developing an implementation guideline to international standard school for schools under secondary educational service area office 25 by 5 experts. The research results were: 1. The present and problem an implementation guideline to international standard school for schools under secondary educational service area office 25 found that the overall present were at the high level and each one was at the high level. The overall problem were at the low and each one was at the moderate 2 aspects ; The leadership and the focus on personnel. Then it was at the low level. 2. Developing an implementation guideline to international standard school for schools under secondary educational service area office 25 found that 1 the leadership had set with the vision, values, performance of the school’s senior leadership, including good governance of the school, implementation of the ethics law, and responsibility for the community, 2 strategic

  11. CSNI International Standard Problems (ISP). Brief descriptions (1975-1994)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-07-01

    Between 1975 and 1994 the NEA Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations (CSNI) has sponsored some forty International Standard Problems (ISPs) in the fields of in-vessel thermal-hydraulic behaviour, fuel behaviour under accident conditions, fission product release and transport, core/concrete interactions, hydrogen distribution and mixing, containment thermal-hydraulics. ISPs are comparative exercises in which predictions of different computer codes for a given physical problem are compared with each other or with the results of a carefully controlled experimental study. The main goal of ISP exercises is to increase confidence in the validity and accuracy of tools which are used in assessing the safety of nuclear installations. Moreover, they enable code users to gain experience and demonstrate their competence. ISPs are performed as 'open' or 'blind' problems. In an open Standard Problem the results of the experiment are available to the participants before performing the calculations, while in a blind Standard Problem the results are locked until the calculational results are made available for comparison. Experiments selected to support ISP exercises are exceptionally well documented; they provide the framework for several code validation matrices. This report briefly describes 36 ISPs and 3 containment analysis standard problems (CASP)

  12. CSNI International standard problems (ISP): brief descriptions (1975-1997)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-07-01

    Over the last twenty years (1975-1999) the NEA Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations (CSNI) has sponsored more than forty International Standard Problems (ISPs) in the fields of in-vessel thermal-hydraulic behaviour, fuel behaviour under accident conditions, fission product release and transport, core/concrete interactions, hydrogen distribution and mixing, containment thermal-hydraulic, and iodine behaviour in the containment. ISPs are comparative exercises in which predictions of different computer codes for a given physical problem are compared with each other or with the results of a carefully controlled experimental study. The main goal of ISP exercises is to increase confidence in the validity and accuracy of analytical tools or testing procedures which are needed in warranting the safety of nuclear installations, and to demonstrate the competence of involved institutions. ISP exercises are performed as 'open' or 'blind' problems. The main characteristics of 41 ISPs completed between 1975 and 1999, and 3 containment analysis standard problems (CASPs) are briefly presented

  13. ASTEC participation in the international standard problem on KAEVER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spitz, P.; Van Dorsselaere, J.P.; Schwinges, B.; Schwarz, S.

    2001-01-01

    The objectives of the International Standard Problem no 44 was aerosol depletion behaviour under severe accident conditions in a LWR containment examined in the KAEVER test facility of Battelle (Germany). Nine organisations participated with 5 different codes in the ISP44, including a joint participation of GRS and IPSN with the integral code ASTEC (and in particular the CPA module) they have commonly developed. Five tests were selected from the KAEVER test matrix: K123, K148, K186 and K188 as open standard problems and the three-component test K187 as blind standard problem. All these tests were performed in supersaturated conditions and with slight fog formation, which are the most ambitious conditions for the coupled problem of thermal hydraulics and aerosol processes. The comparison between calculation and test showed a good agreement for all the tests with respect to the thermal-hydraulic conditions in the vessel, i.e. total pressure, atmosphere temperature, sump water and nitrogen mass, etc.... As for aerosol depletion, the ASTEC results were in a good overall agreement with the measured data. The code in particular predicted well the fast depletion of the hygroscopic and mixed aerosols and the slow depletion of insoluble silver aerosol. The important effects of bulk condensation, solubility and the Kelvin effect on the aerosol depletion were well predicted. However the code overestimation of steam condensation on hygroscopic aerosols in supersaturated conditions indicates that some slight improvements of the appropriate ASTEC models are needed in the future. In the final ISP44 workshop, the deviations of the ASTEC results with respect to the experiments were considered to be small compared to those of most other codes. (authors)

  14. Finite element analyses for seismic shear wall international standard problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Y.J.; Hofmayer, C.H.

    1998-04-01

    Two identical reinforced concrete (RC) shear walls, which consist of web, flanges and massive top and bottom slabs, were tested up to ultimate failure under earthquake motions at the Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation's (NUPEC) Tadotsu Engineering Laboratory, Japan. NUPEC provided the dynamic test results to the OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development), Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) for use as an International Standard Problem (ISP). The shear walls were intended to be part of a typical reactor building. One of the major objectives of the Seismic Shear Wall ISP (SSWISP) was to evaluate various seismic analysis methods for concrete structures used for design and seismic margin assessment. It also offered a unique opportunity to assess the state-of-the-art in nonlinear dynamic analysis of reinforced concrete shear wall structures under severe earthquake loadings. As a participant of the SSWISP workshops, Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) performed finite element analyses under the sponsorship of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC). Three types of analysis were performed, i.e., monotonic static (push-over), cyclic static and dynamic analyses. Additional monotonic static analyses were performed by two consultants, F. Vecchio of the University of Toronto (UT) and F. Filippou of the University of California at Berkeley (UCB). The analysis results by BNL and the consultants were presented during the second workshop in Yokohama, Japan in 1996. A total of 55 analyses were presented during the workshop by 30 participants from 11 different countries. The major findings on the presented analysis methods, as well as engineering insights regarding the applicability and reliability of the FEM codes are described in detail in this report. 16 refs., 60 figs., 16 tabs

  15. Amendments to the Audit Report for the Review of International Standards on Auditing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mortură Laura-Alexandra

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available As a result of the last economic and financial crisis, the auditors' impact on its triggering wasquestioned, as the opinion expressed by the auditors directly influenced, the decisions taken by theusers of the financial and accounting information, namely the investors. The sign of question on theauditors 'work was also due to a lack of knowledge of the auditors' responsibility by the users. Theopinion issued by the auditor provides reasonable, but not absolute, assurance on the informationprovided by the financial statements, in which case the auditor's responsibility is limited. Tomitigate these discrepancies, the International Auditing and Assurance Standards Board (IAASBhas developed projects that have generated solutions to improve International Standards onAuditing. Thus, in 2015, the IAASB issued a new edition of the International Auditing Standards,which made changes in the drafting of the audit report.

  16. Mobile communications technology: The singular factor responsible ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper investigated the factors responsible for the growth of Internet usage on the African continent. The principal finding was that increasing growth of Internet usage is also down to one singular factor: mobile communications technology. The proliferation of mobile phone usage in Africa has resulted in the sustained ...

  17. Gas Chromatographic Mass Spectrometric Determination of Myo-inositol in Humans Utilizing a Deuterated Internal Standard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jan Rud; Larsen, Elfinn; Harbo, Helge

    1982-01-01

    The isotopic dilution technique was used for determining the content of myo-inositol in human urine, plasma and haemolysed erythrocyte samples. A deuterated myo-inositol, synthesized from inosose-2 by base-catalysed exchange of hydrogens by deuterium, followed by reduction of the inosose with 2H2......, was added as internal standard to the samples at an early stage in the analytical procedure. After separation and derivatization to the hexa-acetate, the gas chromatographic mass spectrometric analysis was carried out. A 25 m fused silica capillary column coated with methyl silicone was used, and the ions...... selected for monitoring were m/z 210 and m/z 214, which are characteristic and abundant fragment ions from unlabelled and hexadeuterated myo-inositolhexa-acetate, respectively. Calibration curves from water, urine, plasma and haemolysed erythrocytes show parallel, linear responses in the ratio between...

  18. The quantitative analysis of Bowen's kale by PIXE using the internal standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navarrete, V.R.; Izawa, G.; Shiokawa, T.; Kamiya, M.; Morita, S.

    1978-01-01

    The internal standard method was used for non-destructive quantitative determination of trace elements by PIXE. The uniform distribution of the internal standard element in the Bowen's kale powder sample was obtained by using homogenization technique. Eleven elements are determined quantitatively for the sample prepared into self-supporting targets having lower relative standard deviations than non-self-supporting targets. (author)

  19. International standards to document remaining autonomic function after spinal cord injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krassioukov, Andrei; Biering-Sørensen, Fin; Donovan, William

    2012-01-01

    This is the first guideline describing the International Standards to document remaining Autonomic Function after Spinal Cord Injury (ISAFSCI). This guideline should be used as an adjunct to the International Standards for Neurological Classification of Spinal Cord Injury (ISNCSCI) including the ...

  20. 78 FR 50259 - Derivatives Clearing Organizations and International Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-16

    ... managerial resources, as determined by the Commission, to discharge each responsibility of the [DCO].'' \\27... wide range of potential stress scenarios, which include, but are not limited to, the default of the... clearing members through margin requirements and other risk control mechanisms, to ensure that the DCO's...

  1. 78 FR 37505 - International Standard-Setting Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-21

    ... category: Cereals, Pulses and Legumes Responsible Agency: HHS/FDA. U.S. Participation: Yes. Cocoa Products... the animal product, and include residues of associated impurities of the veterinary drug concerned. An... technical requirements for registration of veterinary medicinal products Draft MRLs for Veterinary Drugs (at...

  2. 77 FR 36984 - International Standard-Setting Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-20

    .../FDA. U.S. Participation: Yes. Cocoa Products and Chocolate Responsible Agency: HHS/FDA. U.S... (cattle liver) at Step 5/8. Proposed draft Sampling Plans for Residue Control for Aquatic Animal Products and Derived Edible Products of Aquatic Origin at Step 5/8. [[Page 36987

  3. Personal factors of moral responsibility in adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey V. Molchanov

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Responsibility as a measure of individual freedom comes only under the condition of freedom of choice and the ability to anticipate and take into account the consequences of acts. Therefore, personal factors play a key role in taking moral responsibility. Scholars have studied the personal bases of responsibility that comprises autonomy, independence, confidence, the locus of control, the motivation to achieve a goal, the level of aspiration. However, the role of the moral self and moral identity in the determination of responsibility is not sufficiently studied. Objective. The objective of the research is to study the relationship between the moral identity of the individual and the willingness to accept moral responsibility in adolescence. Proceeding from the general hypothesis about the essential role of moral identity in adopting and actualising themoral responsibility, two specific hypotheses are articulated, specifying the role of values and moral self-esteem in taking moral responsibility. Design. An empirical study of adolescents aged 13–17 years was conducted. Subjects are students of educational institutions of general education in Moscow (a total of 314 subjects. The study poses the challenges of studying the readiness to accept moral responsibility by adolescents in the situation of a moral dilemma, the connection of the moral and value orientation of adolescents and the willingness to accept moral responsibility, the connection of self-esteem of moral qualities and the readiness of adolescents to accept moral responsibility. The methodology for assessing moral responsibility in the situation of solving the moral dilemma «Moral Situations from Real Life» (MORS, a modified version of M. Rokich’s method for evaluating value orientations, the method of structured moral self-esteem (A.I. Podolsky, P. Heymans, O.A. Karabanova are used. Conclusion. The results revealed the influence of the participants’ moral dilemma

  4. Prison Library Services in Croatia Need Improvement to Meet International Standards of Universal Rights to Access

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol Perryman

    2016-09-01

    . While use of the libraries was high, most responses reflected severely limited educational, rehabilitative or cultural programming and access to the internet, and lack of space for collections and reading purposes. Conclusion – Libraries in Croatia fail to meet international standards for staffing, collections, and services. Recommendations for immediate improvement are made, including legislative advocacy and funding, improved public library involvement, and the creation of national standards aligned with international standards.

  5. Factors affecting seismic response of submarine slopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Biscontin

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The response of submerged slopes on the continental shelf to seismic or storm loading has become an important element in the risk assessment for offshore structures and 'local' tsunami hazards worldwide. The geological profile of these slopes typically includes normally consolidated to lightly overconsolidated soft cohesive soils with layer thickness ranging from a few meters to hundreds of meters. The factor of safety obtained from pseudo-static analyses is not always a useful measure for evaluating the slope response, since values less than one do not necessarily imply slope failure with large movements of the soil mass. This paper addresses the relative importance of different factors affecting the response of submerged slopes during seismic loading. The analyses use a dynamic finite element code which includes a constitutive law describing the anisotropic stress-strain-strength behavior of normally consolidated to lightly overconsolidated clays. The model also incorporates anisotropic hardening to describe the effect of different shear strain and stress histories as well as bounding surface principles to provide realistic descriptions of the accumulation of the plastic strains and excess pore pressure during successive loading cycles. The paper presents results from parametric site response analyses on slope geometry and layering, soil material parameters, and input ground motion characteristics. The predicted maximum shear strains, permanent deformations, displacement time histories and maximum excess pore pressure development provide insight of slope performance during a seismic event.

  6. Fiscal 1999 technical research report. Development project on prompt-effect international standards for developing new industry (Comprehensive survey and research concerning promotion of international standardization); 1999 nendo shinki sangyo ikusei sokkogata kokusai hyojun kaihatsu jigyo seika hokokusho. Kokusai hyojunka suishin ni kakawaru sogo chosa kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    For encouraging the promotion of international standardization involving the six subjects of advanced technology taken up under the above-named project, wide-range investigations are conducted into measures for international standardization, the activities of international standardizing agencies and organizations, and the approaches of European and American business corporations to this issue. Technical literature and material are studied in Japan, and interviews are held overseas with responsible persons at organizations and corporations engaged in this task. At Standards Development Organization (SDO) of America, verification tests are under way for early development into international standards of technical standards it has so far developed independently. For the strategical utilization of intellectual property incorporated into its technical standards, SDO accepts that the best policy is to win approvals from patent proprietors at the early stage of standardization process by presenting them with conditions about patent implementation. In Europe and America, for the enhancement of their competitive power in the international theater, governments and civil sectors cooperate with each other for the establishment of international standards and, in business corporations, the management takes the initiative in coping with the issue with an understanding that there are business opportunities in international standardization. (NEDO)

  7. ISO 639-1 and ISO 639-2: International Standards for Language Codes. ISO 15924: International Standard for Names of Scripts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrum, John D.

    This paper describes two international standards for the representation of the names of languages. The first (ISO 639-1), published in 1988, provides two-letter codes for 136 languages and was produced primarily to meet terminological needs. The second (ISO 639-2) appeared in late 1998 and includes three-letter codes for 460 languages. This list…

  8. INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS FOR FINANCIAL REPORTING: HARMONIZATION IN MACEDONIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasho Kozuharov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A continuous flow of reliable, relevant and financially important information is necessary for making economically justified and strategic investment decisions. Economic globalization has contributed to the need of creating a unified language for communication, a single set of international financial reporting standards with the sole purpose of enhancing transparency for investors and reducing the cost of capital. Harmonization of financial reporting provides more efficient use of global resources, easier consolidation of multinational companies foreign subsidiaries, alleviation of accounting staff mobility and reducing of audit costs. The research is based on the benefits that the national economy can gain if the international financial reporting standards are successfully implemented. Special attention in the paper is devoted to the factors that determine the harmonization of financial reporting. The analysis of the results show the managers' perception of financial reporting, and emphasize the effects of the implementation of IFRS in Republic of Macedonia.

  9. International Standards to Develop and Promote Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    International Standards are a powerful tool for disseminating new technologies and good practices, developing global markets and supporting the harmonization of government policies on energy efficiency and renewable sources on a global scale.

  10. The European Union CREATE project: a model for international standardization of allergy diagnostics and vaccines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chapman, Martin D.; Ferreira, Fatima; Villalba, Mayte; Cromwell, Oliver; Bryan, Donna; Becker, Wolf-Meinhard; Fernández-Rivas, Montserrat; Durham, Stephen; Vieths, Stefan; van Ree, Ronald; Aalbers, M.; Notten, S.; Ooievaar-de Heer, P.; Ferreira, F.; Gademaier, G.; Wallner, M.; Villalba, M.; Rodriguez, R.; Becker, W.-M.; Eberhardt, F.; Lepp, U.; Raulf-Heimsoth, M.; Valenta, R.; Focke, M.; Bryan, D.; Dolman, C.; Das, R. G.; Vieths, S.; Fötisch, K.; Di Felice, G.; Pini, C.; Cromwell, O.; Fiebig, H.; Weber, B.; van Schijndel, H.; Dorpema, J. W.; Marco, F. M.; Monsalve, R.; Barber, D.; Caldas, E. Fernandez; Moingeon, P.; Didierlaurent, A.; André, C.; Kroon, A.; Neubauer, A.; Chapman, M.; Vailes, L.; Tsay, A.; Durham, S.; Custovic, A.; Simpson, B.; Knulst, A.; Rivas, M. Fernández; Mancebo, E. Gonzalez; Bahima, A. Cistero; Moncin, M. M. San Miguel; Mari, A.; Kinaciyan, T.; Quiralte, J.; Pauli, G.; de Blay, F.; Purohit, A.; Rak, S.

    2008-01-01

    Allergen measurements are used extensively in the formulation of allergy diagnostics and vaccines, yet no purified international allergen standards are available for calibration purposes. The aims of the European Union CREATE project were to develop international standards with verifiable allergen

  11. Recently aspects regarding International Auditing Standard 200 „Overall Objectives of the Independent Auditor and the Conduct of an Audit in Accordance with International Standards on Auditing”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Botez

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of an audit is to enhance the degree of confidence of intended users in the financial statements. This is achieved by the expression of an opinion by the auditor on whether the financial statements are prepared, in all material respects, in accordance with an applicable financial reporting framework. The International Standard on Auditing 200 (ISA 200 deals with the independent auditor’s overall responsibilities when conducting an audit of financial statements in accordance with International Standards on Auditing (ISAs.

  12. Occupational exposures worldwide and revision of international standards for protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czarwinski, R.; Crick, M. J.

    2011-01-01

    United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) has become the world authority on the levels and effects of ionising radiation. Since 1975, UNSCEAR has evaluated inter alia the level of occupational exposure worldwide. Based on revised questionnaires, more detailed information is now available. The results of the last evaluation (1995-2002) will be shown in the paper. Lessons learned from the responses by UN Member States will be given, as well as an outline of plans for data collection in future cycles. The requirements for protection against exposure to ionising radiation of workers, the public and patients are established in the International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionising Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources (BSS), published in 1996. As a result of a review of the BSS in 2006, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) started a process for the revision of these standards in 2007. International organisations including the joint sponsoring organisations of the BSS-IAEA, FAO, ILO, OECD/NEA, PAHO and WHO-as well as potential new joint sponsoring organisations of the revised BSS-the European Commission and UNEP-were involved from the beginning in the revision process. The paper also provides a summary of the status of the Draft Revised BSS and describes the new format. The paper focuses, in particular, on requirements for the protection of workers as well as record keeping requirements, which provide the legal basis for the collection of specific data; these data are of the type that can be used by UNSCEAR. (authors)

  13. International Standards: Past Free Trade Agreements and the Prospects in the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliasson Leif Johan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership represents a strategic vision of transatlantic relations, including job creation, global leadership, and establishing high international standards. This paper discusses how three recent bi-lateral and regional agreements, along with positions adopted in transatlantic negotiations, convey respective side's acceptable parameters, and how international standards are emerging from and disseminated through agreements involving the European Union and the United States

  14. OECD International Standard Problem number 34. Falcon code comparison report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, D.A.

    1994-12-01

    ISP-34 is the first ISP to address fission product transport issues and has been strongly supported by a large number of different countries and organisations. The ISP is based on two experiments, FAL-ISP-1 and FAL-ISP-2, which were conducted in AEA's Falcon facility. Specific features of the experiments include quantification of chemical effects and aerosol behaviour. In particular, multi-component aerosol effects and vapour-aerosol interactions can all be investigated in the Falcon facility. Important parameters for participants to predict were the deposition profiles and composition, key chemical species and reactions, evolution of suspended material concentrations, and the effects of steam condensation onto aerosols and particle hygroscopicity. The results of the Falcon ISP support the belief that aerosol physics is generally well modelled in primary circuit codes, but the chemistry models in many of the codes need to be improved, since chemical speciation is one of the main factors which controls transport and deposition behaviour. The importance of chemical speciation, aerosol nucleation, and the role of multi-component aerosols in determining transport and deposition behaviour are evident. The role of re-vaporization in these Falcon experiments is not clear; it is not possible to compare those codes which predicted re-vaporization with quantitative data. The evidence from this ISP exercise indicates that the containment codes can predict thermal-hydraulics conditions satisfactorily. However, the differences in the predicted aerosol locations in the Falcon tests had shown that aerosol behaviour was very susceptible to parameters such as particle size distribution

  15. Internal standardization in atomic-emission spectrometry using inductively coupled plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, G.L.

    1985-01-01

    The principle of internal standardization has been used in quantitative analytical emission spectroscopy since 1925 to minimize the errors arising from fluctuations in sample preparation, excitation-source conditions, and detection parameters. Although modern spectroscopic excitation sources are far more stable and electronic detection methods are more precise than before, the system for the introduction of the sample in spectrometric analysis using inductively coupled plasma (ICP) introduces significant errors, and internal standardization can still play a useful role in improving the overall precision of the analytical results. The criteria for the selection of the elements to be used as internal standards in arc and spark spectrographic analysis apply to a much lesser extent in ICP-spectrometric analysis. Internal standardization is recommended for use in routine ICP-simultaneous spectrometric analysis to improve its accuracy and precision and to provide a monitor for the reassurance of the analyst. However, the selection of an unsuitable reference element can result in misuse of the principle of internal standardization and, although internal standardization can be applied when a sequential monochromator is used, the main sources of error will not be minimized

  16. [The International Standards for Tuberculosis Care (ISTC): what is the importance for Japan?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Paula I

    2008-07-01

    In 2005, the World Health Assembly resolved that all Member States should ensure that all persons with tuberculosis (TB) "have access to the universal standard of care based on proper diagnosis, treatment and reporting consistent with the DOTS strategy..." The purpose of the International Standards for Tuberculosis Care (ISTC) is to define the widely accepted level of care of persons either suspected of, or diagnosed with, TB by all health practitioners, especially those in the private sector, who often lack guidance and systematic evaluation of outcomes provided by government programs. Since their publication in 2006 on World TB Day, the standards have been endorsed by the major international health organizations as well as many country-level professional societies. The intention is to complement local and national control polices consistent with those of the World Health Organization: they are not intended to replace local guidelines, but are written to accommodate local differences in practice. The ISTC comprise seventeen evidence-based standards on tuberculosis diagnosis and treatment, as well as the responsibility of the public health sector. These are based on the basic principles of TB care: prompt and accurate diagnosis, standardized treatment regimens of proven efficacy, appropriate treatment support and supervision, monitoring of response to treatment and the carrying out of essential public health responsibilities. The relevance of the ISTC to the Japanese context is highlighted, in terms of when persons should be suspected of TB; the appropriate diagnostic modalities, including the use of chest radiographs; the advantages of fixed dose combinations; the importance of follow-up laboratory tests to document response to treatment, the importance of recordkeeping and reporting to public health authorities, the value of HIV testing of TB patients and the use of anti-retrovirals for those dually infected; and the assessment of drug resistance and the

  17. The procedure of evaluating the practical adhesion strength of new biocompatible nano- and micro-thin films in accordance with international standards

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kutílek, P.; Mikšovský, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 3 (2011), s. 87-94 ISSN 1509-409X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100522 Keywords : practical adhesion * strength * nano-layer * micro-layer * international standards * scratch test Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.449, year: 2011 http://382.indexcopernicus.com/abstracted.php?level=5&ICID=962671

  18. To recognize the use of international standards for making harmonized regulation of medical devices in Asia-pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, K; Saini, Ks; Chopra, Y; Binod, Sk

    2010-07-01

    'Medical Devices' include everything from highly sophisticated, computerized, medical equipment, right down to simple wooden tongue depressors. Regulations embody the public expectations for how buildings and facilities are expected to perform and as such represent public policy. Regulators, who develop and enforce regulations, are empowered to act in the public's interest to set this policy and are ultimately responsible to the public in this regard. Standardization contributes to the basic infrastructure that underpins society including health and environment, while promoting sustainability and good regulatory practice. The international organizations that produce International Standards are the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC), the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), and the International Telecommunication Union (ITU). With the increasing globalization of markets, International Standards (as opposed to regional or national standards) have become critical to the trading process, ensuring a level playing field for exports, and ensuring that imports meet the internationally recognized levels of performance and safety. The development of standards is done in response to sectors and stakeholders that express a clearly established need for them. An industry sector or other stakeholder group typically communicates its requirement for standards to one of the national members. To be accepted for development, a proposed work item must receive a majority support of the participating members, who verify the global relevance of the proposed item. The regulatory authority (RA) should provide a method for the recognition of international voluntary standards and for public notification of such recognition. The process of recognition may vary from country to country. Recognition may occur by periodic publication of lists of standards that a regulatory authority has found will meet the Essential Principles. In conclusion, International standards

  19. Best-Matched Internal Standard Normalization in Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry Metabolomics Applied to Environmental Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boysen, Angela K; Heal, Katherine R; Carlson, Laura T; Ingalls, Anitra E

    2018-01-16

    The goal of metabolomics is to measure the entire range of small organic molecules in biological samples. In liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-based metabolomics, formidable analytical challenges remain in removing the nonbiological factors that affect chromatographic peak areas. These factors include sample matrix-induced ion suppression, chromatographic quality, and analytical drift. The combination of these factors is referred to as obscuring variation. Some metabolomics samples can exhibit intense obscuring variation due to matrix-induced ion suppression, rendering large amounts of data unreliable and difficult to interpret. Existing normalization techniques have limited applicability to these sample types. Here we present a data normalization method to minimize the effects of obscuring variation. We normalize peak areas using a batch-specific normalization process, which matches measured metabolites with isotope-labeled internal standards that behave similarly during the analysis. This method, called best-matched internal standard (B-MIS) normalization, can be applied to targeted or untargeted metabolomics data sets and yields relative concentrations. We evaluate and demonstrate the utility of B-MIS normalization using marine environmental samples and laboratory grown cultures of phytoplankton. In untargeted analyses, B-MIS normalization allowed for inclusion of mass features in downstream analyses that would have been considered unreliable without normalization due to obscuring variation. B-MIS normalization for targeted or untargeted metabolomics is freely available at https://github.com/IngallsLabUW/B-MIS-normalization .

  20. Factors influencing induction of adaptive response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misonoh, Jun; Ojima, Mitsuaki; Yonezawa, Morio

    2000-01-01

    Exposure to low doses of X-rays makes ICR mice resistant to subsequent sublethal irradiation and decrease mortality from hematopoietic death. Many factors, however, influence the induction of radioresistance. For instances, in ICR mice, the priming irradiation with 0.50 Gy was effective in the induction of radioresistance, when it is given at 6-week old, 2 weeks prior to subsequent sublethal irradiation. One hundred-fifty kV X-ray filtered off the soft component through 1.0 mm aluminum and 0.2 mm copper induces radioadaptive response as well as the harder radiation such as 260 kV X-ray filtered through 0.5 mm aluminum and 0.3 mm copper. Dose rate of priming irradiation also seemed to influence the induction of radioresistance. Priming irradiation with 0.50 Gy at 0.50 Gy/min and 0.25 Gy/min induced adaptive response, while same 0.50 Gy given at 0.063 Gy/min didn't. To make the matter complicated, when mice were pre-irradiated with 0.50 Gy at 0.013 Gy/min in the irradiation cell which was 1.2 x 1.2 x 1.4 times larger than the usual one, adaptive response was induced again. These results suggested that mice felt more uncomfortable when they were packing in the irradiation cell with little free space even for several minutes than when they were placed in the cell with much free space for about 40 minutes, and such a stress might give the mice some resistance to the subsequent sublethal irradiation. (author)

  1. Determination of avermectins by the internal standard recovery correction - high performance liquid chromatography - quantitative Nuclear Magnetic Resonance method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Huang, Ting; Li, Hongmei; Dai, Xinhua; Quan, Can; He, Yajuan

    2017-09-01

    Quantitative Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (qNMR) is widely used to determine the purity of organic compounds. For the compounds with lower purity especially molecular weight more than 500, qNMR is at risk of error for the purity, because the impurity peaks are likely to be incompletely separated from the peak of major component. In this study, an offline ISRC-HPLC-qNMR (internal standard recovery correction - high performance liquid chromatography - qNMR) was developed to overcome this problem. It is accurate by excluding the influence of impurity; it is low-cost by using common mobile phase; and it extends the applicable scope of qNMR. In this method, a mix solution of the sample and an internal standard was separated by HPLC with common mobile phases, and only the eluents of the analyte and the internal standard were collected in the same tube. After evaporation and re-dissolution, it was determined by qNMR. A recovery correction factor was determined by comparison of the solutions before and after these procedures. After correction, the mass fraction of analyte was constant and it was accurate and precise, even though the sample loss varied during these procedures, or even in bad resolution of HPLC. Avermectin B 1 a with the purity of ~93% and the molecular weight of 873 was analyzed. Moreover, the homologues of avermectin B 1 a were determined based on the identification and quantitative analysis by tandem mass spectrometry and HPLC, and the results were consistent with the results of traditional mass balance method. The result showed that the method could be widely used for the organic compounds, and could further promote qNMR to become a primary method in the international metrological systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Convergence Between Kazakhstan’S Financial Systemand International Standards: Overcoming Difficulties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uvarova Natalya

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the convergence of the Kazakh financial system with international standards in light of the new, enhanced agreement with the European Union on partnership and cooperation (January 19, 2015. Based on this research, the approaches used by the Kazakh financial system to converge with the European Union (EU and the mechanism of implementing international standards in the national regulatory framework are determined. In practice, the study provides justification for the necessity of arranging the systematization of existing rules and regulations covering financial activity in the Republic, eliminating discrepancies between the national regulatory framework and international standards, and determining clear security guarantees for foreign investors’ financial activity in the Republic. The research results are primarily focused on the development of public finance management theory. Theories and conclusions present in the study can be used in the educational processes of economic and legal institutions and in the policymaking activity of public finance management bodies.

  3. Study on a Threat-Countermeasure Model Based on International Standard Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Horacio Ramirez Caceres

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Many international standards exist in the field of IT security. This research is based on the ISO/IEC 15408, 15446, 19791, 13335 and 17799 standards. In this paper, we propose a knowledge base comprising a threat countermeasure model based on international standards for identifying and specifying threats which affect IT environments. In addition, the proposed knowledge base system aims at fusing similar security control policies and objectives in order to create effective security guidelines for specific IT environments. As a result, a knowledge base of security objectives was developed on the basis of the relationships inside the standards as well as the relationships between different standards. In addition, a web application was developed which displays details about the most common threats to information systems, and for each threat presents a set of related security control policies from different international standards, including ISO/IEC 27002.

  4. International collaborative study for the calibration of proposed International Standards for thromboplastin, rabbit, plain and for thromboplastin, recombinant, human, plain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van den Besselaar, A M H P; Chantarangkul, V; Angeloni, F

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The availability of International Standards for thromboplastin is essential for the calibration of routine reagents and hence the calculation of the International Normalized Ratio (INR). Stocks of the current 4(th) International Standards are running low. Candidate replacement materia......) international standard (rTF/09). The candidate materials have been accepted by WHO as the 5(th) International Standards for thromboplastin, rabbit plain, and thromboplastin, recombinant, human, plain. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.......BACKGROUND: The availability of International Standards for thromboplastin is essential for the calibration of routine reagents and hence the calculation of the International Normalized Ratio (INR). Stocks of the current 4(th) International Standards are running low. Candidate replacement materials...... have been prepared. This report describes the calibration of the proposed 5(th) International Standards for thromboplastin, rabbit, plain (coded RBT/16) and for thromboplastin, recombinant, human, plain (coded rTF/16). METHODS: An international collaborative study was carried out for the assignment...

  5. Mass fragmentographic analysis of total cholesterol in serum using a heptadeuterated internal standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolthers, B.G.; Hindriks, F.R.; Muskiet, F.A.J.; Groen, A.

    1980-01-01

    A mass fragmentographic method for the determination of total cholesterol in serum using heptadeuterated [25,26,26,26,27,27,27- 2 H] cholesterol as internal standard is presented. The results obtained are compared with a colorimetric and gas chromatographic method which were previously proposed as reference methods. Criteria for the development of absolute measurement by means of mass fragmentography and stable isotopically labelled internal standards are given. The conclusion is drawn that, at present, mass fragmentographic methods for the determination of total cholesterol in serum do not fulfil the criteria required for absolute methods. (Auth.)

  6. 40 CFR 1065.845 - Response factor determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Response factor determination. 1065... POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Testing With Oxygenated Fuels § 1065.845 Response factor... each FID analyzer's alcohol/carbonyl response factor (such as RF MeOH) after FID optimization to...

  7. Use of spontaneously mutated human DNA as competitive internal standard for nucleic acid quantification by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudnicka, L.; Diaz, A.; Varga, J.; Jimenez, S.A.; Christiano, A.; Uitto, J.

    1995-01-01

    Quantification of gene expression is of increasing interest in many medical sciences. Methods based on reverse transcription-polymerase chain reactions (RT-PCRs) are timesaving and require only very small amounts of RNA. A limiting factor, however, is the significant fluctuation in the efficacy of reverse transcription as well in the polymerase chain reactions. Various external and internal standards have been suggested for correcting these fluctuations. We describe a novel way of creating an internal standard for assessing the expression of type VII collagen in human cells. The total RNA of a patient with hereditary 'epidermilysis bulosa dystrophica' associated with a homozygous T to A point mutation in type VII collagen gene was reverse transcribed and a 382bp fragment of type VII collagen cDNA containing the mutation was amplified. The mutated cDNA, unlike normal type VII collagen cDNA could be cleaved by 'Ear I' endonuclease into 244bp and 138bp fragments. Semiquantitative PCR was performed with the mutated cDNA as internal standard and the studied cDNA sample in the same tube in the presence of α 32 P-labelled dCTP. The reaction was followed by 'Ear I' digestion, electrophoresis on a polyacrylamide gel and exposure to a X-ray film. In conclusion, we describe a timesaving method for creating internal standards for semiquantitative RT-PCR. (author). 12 refs, 3 figs

  8. Internationally Comparable Measures of Occupational Status for the 1988 International Standard Classification of Occupations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ganzeboom, H.B.G.; Treiman, D.J.

    1996-01-01

    This paper provides operational procedures for coding internationally comparable measures of occupational status from the recently published International Standard Classification of Occupation 1988 (ISCO88) of the International Labor Office (ILO, 1990). We first discuss the nature of the ISCO88

  9. An International Standard Set of Patient-Centered Outcome Measures After Stroke

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salinas, J. (Joel); Sprinkhuizen, S.M. (Sara M.); Ackerson, T. (Teri); Bernhardt, J. (Julie); Davie, C. (Charlie); George, M.G. (Mary G.); Gething, S. (Stephanie); Kelly, A.G. (Adam G.); Lindsay, P. (Patrice); Liu, L. (Liping); Martins, S.C.O. (Sheila C.O.); Morgan, L. (Louise); B. Norrving (Bo); Ribbers, G.M. (Gerard M.); Silver, F.L. (Frank L.); Smith, E.E. (Eric E.); Williams, L.S. (Linda S.); Schwamm, L.H. (Lee H.)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:__ Value-based health care aims to bring together patients and health systems to maximize the ratio of quality over cost. To enable assessment of healthcare value in stroke management, an international standard set of patient-centered stroke outcome measures

  10. Media Representations of National and International Standardized Testing in the Israeli Education System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yemini, Miri; Gordon, Noa

    2017-01-01

    This study applies discourse analysis to Israeli media coverage of national and international standardized examinations within Israel's public education system. Through systematic analysis of the topic in the two main Israeli financial publications between the years 2000 and 2013, we explore the nature and narrative of the media and compare the…

  11. Bismuth as a general internal standard for lead in atomic absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bechlin, Marcos A.; Fortunato, Felipe M.; Ferreira, Edilene C.; Neto, José A. Gomes; Nóbrega, Joaquim A.; Donati, George L.; Jones, Bradley T.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Single internal standard is commonly proposed for definite application in AAS. • Internal standard for general use in AAS techniques is original. • Bi showed efficiency as internal standard for Pb determinations by FAAS and GFAAS. • Assorted samples were analyzed and accurate results were found. - Abstract: Bismuth was evaluated as internal standard for Pb determination by line source flame atomic absorption spectrometry (LS FAAS), high-resolution continuum source flame atomic absorption spectrometry (HR-CS FAAS) and line source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (LS GFAAS). Analysis of samples containing different matrices indicated close relationship between Pb and Bi absorbances. Correlation coefficients of calibration curves built up by plotting A Pb /A Bi versus Pb concentration were higher than 0.9953 (FAAS) and higher than 0.9993 (GFAAS). Recoveries of Pb improved from 52–118% (without IS) to 97–109% (IS, LS FAAS); 74–231% (without IS) to 96–109% (IS, HR-CS FAAS); and 36–125% (without IS) to 96–110% (IS, LS GFAAS). The relative standard deviations (n = 12) were reduced from 0.6–9.2% (without IS) to 0.3–4.3% (IS, LS FAAS); 0.7–7.7% (without IS) to 0.1–4.0% (IS, HR-CS FAAS); and 2.1–13% (without IS) to 0.4–5.9% (IS, LS GFAAS)

  12. Comparison report for CSNI International Standard Problem 12 (ROSA-III Run 912)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tasaka, Kanji; Anoda, Yoshinari; Kumamaru, Hiroshige; Nakamura, Hideo; Iriko, Masanori; Yonomoto, Taisuke; Shiba, Masayoshi

    1982-09-01

    ROSA-III Run 912 was identified as International Standard Problem 12 by the Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations. Run 912 simulated a 5% split break LOCA condition in a BWR at the pump suction in the recirculation line with the HPCS failure. Comparisons between the test data and the calculations by eight international participants were made and discussed. (author)

  13. Russian seismic standards and demands for equipment and their conformity with international standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaznovsky, S.; Ostretsov, I.

    1993-01-01

    The principle regulations of standard documents concerning seismic safety of NPPs and demands for reactor equipment conformity with international standards are presented in this report. General state of NPP safety standards is reviewed, with a special emphasis on the state of seismic design standards for NPP equipment and piping. Russian standards documents on seismic resistance of NPPs and requirements are compared to international ones

  14. International standard on auditing 800 the auditor`s report on special purpose audit engagements

    OpenAIRE

    Jovanova, Blagica

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to show the main characteristics of the international standard on auditing 800. ISA 800 explains requirements by making a report on financial statements prepared in accordance with another comprehensive basis of accounting, on a component of financial statements, on compliance with contractual agreements or reports on summarized financial statements.

  15. Knowledge about plant is basis for successful cultivation : new international standard handbook on plant physiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Esch, van H.; Heuvelink, E.; Kierkels, T.

    2015-01-01

    ‘Plant physiology in Greenhouses’ is the new international standard handbook on plant knowledge for the commercial greenhouse grower. It relates the functioning of the plant to the rapid developments in greenhouse cultivation. It is based on a continuing series of plant physiology articles published

  16. The international standard for protection from ionizing radiation and safety of radiation sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlesinger, T [Israel Atomic Energy Commission, Yavne (Israel). Soreq Nuclear Research Center

    1995-06-01

    This document is a review in hebrew of the new 1994 international standard of the IAEA. The new standard title is `Basic safety standards for radiation protection and for the safety of radiation sources`, which were published in the ICRP Pub. 9.

  17. Photon activation analysis using internal standards: some studies of the analysis of environmental materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masumoto, K; Yagi, M

    1986-01-01

    The authors report the application of the internal standard method to the simultaneous determination of trace elements in environmental reference materials. The standard soil material used was IAEA CRM Soil-5. The power plant fly ash reference used was NBS SRM-1633a. Fifteen target elements, including As, Ba and Ce, were determined. Internal standards were supplied by six elements, including Na and Mg. Although there were several interfering elements, their effect could be eliminated by utilizing more than one gamma-ray peak and carrying out appropriate corrections. The values determined for most of the target elements were well within the certified range. Measured concentrations were of the orders of 10 to 1000 ..mu..g/g. 6 references, 2 figures, 5 tables.

  18. International standards for optical wireless communications: state-of-the-art and future directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marciniak, Marian

    2017-10-01

    As the number of active OWC installations is growing fast, the standards for compatibility of co-existing neighbouring systems are being developed. The paper addresses the Laser Safety (IEC standards), ITU-T Study Group 15 standards (G.640 Co-location longitudinally compatible interfaces for free space optical systems), ITU-Radiocommunication Sector standards (P.1817-1 Propagation data required for the design of terrestrial free-space optical links), and the IEEE Work in Progress - standardization activity on Visible Light Communications. International standards of FSO communications have been reviewed and discussed. ITU, IEC, and IEEE International standards for Free-Space Optical links have been reviewed. The system reliability and availability as well as security issues will be addressed as well in the talk.

  19. Protocol for Usability Testing and Validation of the ISO Draft International Standard 19223 for Lung Ventilators

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Background Clinicians, such as respiratory therapists and physicians, are often required to set up pieces of medical equipment that use inconsistent terminology. Current lung ventilator terminology that is used by different manufacturers contributes to the risk of usage errors, and in turn the risk of ventilator-associated lung injuries and other conditions. Human factors and communication issues are often associated with ventilator-related sentinel events, and inconsistent ventilator terminology compounds these issues. This paper describes our proposed protocol, which will be implemented at the University of Waterloo, Canada when this project is externally funded. Objective We propose to determine whether a standardized vocabulary improves the ease of use, safety, and utility as it relates to the usability of medical devices, compared to legacy medical devices from multiple manufacturers, which use different terms. Methods We hypothesize that usage errors by clinicians will be lower when standardization is consistently applied by all manufacturers. The proposed study will experimentally examine the impact of standardized nomenclature on performance declines in the use of an unfamiliar ventilator product in clinically relevant scenarios. Participants will be respiratory therapy practitioners and trainees, and we propose studying approximately 60 participants. Results The work reported here is in the proposal phase. Once the protocol is implemented, we will report the results in a follow-up paper. Conclusions The proposed study will help us better understand the effects of standardization on medical device usability. The study will also help identify any terms in the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) Draft International Standard (DIS) 19223 that may be associated with recurrent errors. Amendments to the standard will be proposed if recurrent errors are identified. This report contributes a protocol that can be used to assess the effect of

  20. AN APPRAISAL OF FACTORS RESPONSIBLE FOR ERRORS IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    2013-01-11

    Jan 11, 2013 ... management and clients are the main factors responsible for them. However, the collective .... planning/programming, stress, repetitive tasks. (Shelton, 1999) ... concurrent working control, communications) and global factors ...

  1. International standards: the World Organisation for Animal Health Terrestrial Animal Health Code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiermann, A B

    2015-04-01

    This paper provides a description of the international standards contained in the TerrestrialAnimal Health Code of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) that relate to the prevention and control of vector-borne diseases. It identifies the rights and obligations of OIE Member Countries regarding the notification of animal disease occurrences, as well as the recommendations to be followed for a safe and efficient international trade of animals and their products.

  2. Austrian contributions to fuel rod failure models shown at the International Standard Problem ISP-14

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sdouz, G.

    1984-04-01

    The computer code BALON-2A was improved to perform the International Standard Problem ISP-14. The main extensions are the implementation of input-options and the development of a model to predict the pressure in the fuel rod gap. With these improvements and some calculations for input values satisfying results have been obtained. This is remarkable because loss of coolant accident analyses are performed usually with larger computer codes. (Author) [de

  3. Globalization quickly increased need for moving from local to international standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cappelli, Cataldo

    2005-07-01

    'Standardization' quickly changed in the past few years, due to the market's globalization that needs international standards as important instruments in eliminating technical barriers to trade. The 'Petroleum Sector' chose moving to international standards jointly processed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and the American Petroleum Institute (API) that played the role of historical reference. Taking into account that oil industry wants only one Standard worldwide used, also Europe decided for adopting these ISO Standards as European Standards. The result is much better considering that also Russia and China seem to adopt these ISO documents as their national standards. It is so becoming much more significant the 'motto' that ISO TC 67 'Materials, equipment and offshore structures for petroleum, petrochemical and natural gas industries' adopted for its standardization activities: 'Do it once, do it right, do it internationally'. Examples of such international Standards worldwide used as National Standards are: ISO 11960:2004 - 'Steel pipes for use as casing or tubing for wells' and; ISO/DIS 3183 - 'Steel pipe for pipeline transportation systems' (under preparation). Standardization has so grown from technical to management tool and countries are also moving, including standards in more areas of its legislations. (author)

  4. International standards for the exploration and production industry -- Their development and use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansen, A.R.; Loppinet, A.; Reeve, P.T.N.; Thomas, G.A.N.; Thorp, G.; Vanzini, R.

    1995-01-01

    A single global market for procurement is of crucial importance to the E and P industry. The resulting benefits, including cost reductions and shorter delivery times, could even be the key to the economic development of marginal fields. International Standards that cater for the needs of users, manufacturers and the public at large can provide a common basis for companies to procure and provide goods and services that will deliver the required performance throughout the field life. The savings to industry could be billions of dollars per year. The E and P Forum, on behalf of the industry, has developed proposals to increase the efficiency of this managerial procedure and to speed up the ''internationalization'' of selected standards. Details are given at the end of the paper. It is argued that the E and P industry should rally to the cause of international standardization. Companies should lend their full support by committing their valuable expert resources. It is in the interests of the industry to do this for, without suitably skilled expert representation in ISO and the elimination of duplication as well as waste of resources through performing similar work at company or national level, the large potential benefits of international standardization will elude the E and P industry

  5. Global, National, and Local Goals: English Language Policy Implementation in an Indonesian International Standard School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eddy Haryanto

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the achievement of students in math and science subjects as the impact of using English as a medium of instruction at an international standard school. A questionnaire was used as a research instrument to 190 students at one international standard school in Jambi Province, Indonesia. A focus group discussion (FGD approach was undertaken to validate and verify the data gathered through the questionnaire and clarify some issues raised in the questionnaire. Data were analyzed by using descriptive statistics and Pearson Product Moment Correlation. It was found that the students’ demographic profile, attitude toward English and grades in math and science subjects were significantly related with their academic achievement. However, students’ perception on methods and techniques was not significantly related with their academic achievement in English, math, and the science subjects. The result showed that the implementation of English as a medium of instruction was not done well in the international standard school. This is perhaps due to the difficulty of learning science and math in English. This study provided information for policy makers, school leaders, researchers, and teacher educators to understand how the policy is implemented at the school level. The challenges of attempting too ambitious linguistic and academic goals in the school were discussed as were policy implications and future research.

  6. Review of international standards related to the design for control rooms on nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitamura, Masashi; Yoshikawa, Hidekazu; Fujita, Yushi

    2005-01-01

    The improvement of Human-Machine Interface (HMI) design for control rooms on nuclear power plants (NPP) has been accomplished world wide, especially after the TMI-2 accident. The design process and guidelines are standardized in IEC60964 and supplemental standards as international standard. However, technological update is required due to the increased use of computerized control and monitoring equipment and systems in control rooms on NPP in recent years. Standards are becoming more important for computerized control rooms because there is more freedom to design than conventional hardware based system. For computerized control rooms, standards for hardware and software of HMI systems should be also considered. Standards and guidelines for computerized control rooms on NPP have been developed recently in each body such as IEC, ISO, and IEEE etc. Therefore, reviewing these standards and guidelines related to control rooms design of NPP can be useful not only for revision of the international standards such as IEC60964, but also for users of the standards and guidelines. In this paper, we reviewed the international standards related to the design for control rooms, in the two aspects of HMI design and hardware and software design, considering the undergoing revision work and their application. (author)

  7. Globalization quickly increased need for moving from local to international standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cappelli, Cataldo

    2005-07-01

    'Standardization' quickly changed in the past few years, due to the market's globalization that needs international standards as important instruments in eliminating technical barriers to trade. The 'Petroleum Sector' chose moving to international standards jointly processed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and the American Petroleum Institute (API) that played the role of historical reference. Taking into account that oil industry wants only one Standard worldwide used, also Europe decided for adopting these ISO Standards as European Standards. The result is much better considering that also Russia and China seem to adopt these ISO documents as their national standards. It is so becoming much more significant the 'motto' that ISO TC 67 'Materials, equipment and offshore structures for petroleum, petrochemical and natural gas industries' adopted for its standardization activities: 'Do it once, do it right, do it internationally'. Examples of such international Standards worldwide used as National Standards are: ISO 11960:2004 - 'Steel pipes for use as casing or tubing for wells' and; ISO/DIS 3183 - 'Steel pipe for pipeline transportation systems' (under preparation). Standardization has so grown from technical to management tool and countries are also moving, including standards in more areas of its legislations. (author)

  8. International Standards Development for Marine and Hydrokinetic Renewable Energy - Final Report on Technical Status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rondorf, Neil E.; Busch, Jason; Kimball, Richard

    2011-10-29

    This report summarizes the progress toward development of International Standards for Marine and Hydrokinetic Renewable Energy, as funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) under the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) Technical Committee 114. The project has three main objectives: 1. Provide funding to support participation of key U.S. industry technical experts in 6 (originally 4) international working groups and/or project teams (the primary standards-making committees) and to attend technical meetings to ensure greater U.S. involvement in the development of these standards. 2. Provide a report to DOE and industry stakeholders summarizing the IEC standards development process for marine and hydrokinetic renewable energy, new international standards and their justifications, and provide standards guidance to industry members. 3. Provide a semi-annual (web-based) newsletter to the marine renewable energy community. The newsletter will educate industry members and stakeholders about the processes, progress, and needs of the US efforts to support the international standards development effort. The newsletter is available at www.TC114.us

  9. Factors Responsible for Domestic Water Contamination | Idika ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was therefore designed to identify the factors that influenced domestic water contamination in our rural communities and recommend some intervention measures that can reduce this high morbidity and mortality due to diarrhoeal diseases in Nigeria. Water samples from the water sources serving six rural ...

  10. Measurement of Henry's Law Constants Using Internal Standards: A Quantitative GC Experiment for the Instrumental Analysis or Environmental Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Chang; Boisvert, Susanne M.; Arida, Ann-Marie C.; Day, Shannon E.

    2008-01-01

    An internal standard method applicable to undergraduate instrumental analysis or environmental chemistry laboratory has been designed and tested to determine the Henry's law constants for a series of alkyl nitriles. In this method, a mixture of the analytes and an internal standard is prepared and used to make a standard solution (organic solvent)…

  11. Growth curves and the international standard: How children's growth reflects challenging conditions in rural Timor-Leste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Phoebe R; Sanders, Katherine A; Judge, Debra S

    2018-02-01

    Population-specific growth references are important in understanding local growth variation, especially in developing countries where child growth is poor and the need for effective health interventions is high. In this article, we use mixed longitudinal data to calculate the first growth curves for rural East Timorese children to identify where, during development, deviation from the international standards occurs. Over an eight-year period, 1,245 children from two ecologically distinct rural areas of Timor-Leste were measured a total of 4,904 times. We compared growth to the World Health Organization (WHO) standards using z-scores, and modeled height and weight velocity using the SuperImposition by Translation And Rotation (SITAR) method. Using the Generalized Additive Model for Location, Scale and Shape (GAMLSS) method, we created the first growth curves for rural Timorese children for height, weight and body mass index (BMI). Relative to the WHO standards, children show early-life growth faltering, and stunting throughout childhood and adolescence. The median height and weight for this population tracks below the WHO fifth centile. Males have poorer growth than females in both z-BMI (p = .001) and z-height-for-age (p = .018) and, unlike females, continue to grow into adulthood. This is the most comprehensive investigation to date of rural Timorese children's growth, and the growth curves created may potentially be used to identify future secular trends in growth as the country develops. We show significant deviation from the international standard that becomes most pronounced at adolescence, similar to the growth of other Asian populations. Males and females show different growth responses to challenging conditions in this population. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. FY 2000 Project of developing international standards for supporting new industries. Comprehensive study for promotion of the international standardization; 2000 nendo shinki sangyo shiengata kokusai hyojun kaihatsu jigyo seika hokokusho. Kokusai hyojunka suishin ni kakawaru hokatsuteki chosa kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    This project studies the schemes for the international standardization, trends of the international standardization by the international standardization organizations and related organizations, and activities for the international standardization by the enterprises in the advanced countries, among others, in order to promote the international standardization for the 8 research and development themes. These themes are SMIL (synchronized multimedia integration language) tag standard of the three-dimensional image data, based on MXL; systems for detecting gene recombination products; methods for testing mileage of gas-fueled automobiles; measurement of multi-colors; testing/evaluation methods for highly coherent lasers; methods of evaluating optical performance of microlenses for optical information processing; recycled CFRPs; and devices for measuring marine environments. The study results indicate that progress of the development of the international standardization of the advanced technologies can be followed by investigating the characteristics of the ISO publications; ISO is studying the business plans being developed by each TC, in order to improve market adaptability of the international standards; and the European countries add conditions for standardization when the research and development themes are contracted. (NEDO)

  13. Factors influencing societal response of nanotechnology : an expert stakeholder analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, N.; Fischer, A.R.H.; Lans, van der, I.A.; Frewer, L.J.

    2012-01-01

    Nanotechnology can be described as an emerging technology and, as has been the case with other emerging technologies such as genetic modification, different socio-psychological factors will potentially influence societal responses to its development and application. These factors will play an important role in how nanotechnology is developed and commercialised. This article aims to identify expert opinion on factors influencing societal response to applications of nanotechnology. Structured i...

  14. Factors influencing societal response of nanotechnology: an expert stakeholder analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, Nidhi; Fischer, Arnout R. H.; van der Lans, Ivo A.; Frewer, Lynn J.

    2012-01-01

    Nanotechnology can be described as an emerging technology and, as has been the case with other emerging technologies such as genetic modification, different socio-psychological factors will potentially influence societal responses to its development and application. These factors will play an important role in how nanotechnology is developed and commercialised. This article aims to identify expert opinion on factors influencing societal response to applications of nanotechnology. Structured i...

  15. Assess of the Status of the Karaj Operating Rooms in Comparison with International Standards in 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.H. Naseri

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Because of making money, the operating room (OR is known as the beating heart of any clinical & health center. The effective and regular activity of the operating room guarantees a sustainable income for the hospital. So, in order to provide high quality treatment and care services, and to save the health and safety of OR staff, exploiting standard equipments and spaces as well as employing professional and skilled personnel is necessary. This study was aimed to assess the status of the Karaj operating rooms from physical, safety, sterilization, staffing and equipment aspects in comparison to the International Standards. Methods: This sectional descriptive study was conducted in Alborz University of Medical Sciences in 2011. Samples were 10 operating room wards from 10 surgical hospitals. Data were collected by a 70 items check-list at 5 fields of physical, safety, sterilization, staffing and equipment conditions and then compared to the international standards. The data were recorded in SPSS software and analyzed by statistical methods. Results: The results showed that compared to the international standards, the physical aspect was 60.5%, safety aspect 66%, sterilization aspect 68%, staffing aspect 63%, and equipment aspect was 80% close to the standard criteria. On the whole, in 10 assessed hospitals, equipment aspect with 80% had the best and the physical aspect with 60.5% had the worst conditions respectively. Conclusion: Due to admission in different medical and paramedical programs in Alborz University of Medical Sciences, renovation of the ORs is essential for training skilled students. Considering the results of this study could help the University authorities to improve the current condition.

  16. Relational factors in psychopathological responses to childbirth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cigoli, Vittorio; Gilli, Gabriella; Saita, Emanuela

    2006-06-01

    Childbirth can represent for women the time of greatest vulnerability experience, often associated with being out of control, loneliness or sadness. One hundred and sixty women who had 'normal' births were assessed within 48 hours on potential predictive measures and at 3-6 months post-partum for PTSD. Symptoms of depression, anxiety, perceived and desired support by family members, friends, medical personnel were also assessed. t-Test and chi-square were used to analyze, differences between 'risk group' and 'non-risk group'. Few women (1.25%) showed questionnaire responses suggesting clinically significant levels on PTSD; other women (28.75%) reported clinically significant symptoms for at least one subscale. Being at the first delivery experience, together with perceptions of low levels of support from family members and medical personnel, were found to be related to experience of post-traumatic stress symptoms. Anxiety for the child and previous depression are also related to such symptoms. Moreover, anxiety and depression are related to a difficult recognition of the support received, as well as to the desire for more support, in the care of the newborn, from medical professionals.

  17. Determination of plutonium in highly radioactive liquid waste by spectrophotometry using neodymium as an internal standard for safeguards analysis. Japan support program for agency safeguards (JASPAS) JC-19

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taguchi, Shigeo; Surugaya, Naoki; Sato, Soichi; Kurosawa, Akira; Watahiki, Masaru; Hiyama, Toshiaki

    2006-06-01

    A spectrophotometric determination using neodymium as an internal standard was developed for safeguards verification analysis of plutonium in highly radioactive liquid waste which is produced by the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel. The internal standard is used as a means to analyze plutonium and also to authenticate the instrument conditions. The method offers reduced sample preparation and analysis time compared to isotope dilution mass spectrometry. The sample was mixed with a known amount of internal standard. Subsequently, plutonium was quantitatively oxidized to Pu(VI) by the addition of Ce(IV) for spectrophotometry. Plutonium concentration was calculated from a relation between Nd(III)/Pu(VI) molar extinction coefficient ratio and their absorbance ratio. The relative expanded uncertainty of the repeated analysis (n=5) was 8.9% (coverage factor k=2) for a highly radioactive liquid waste sample (173 mg L -1 ). The determination limit was 6 mg L -1 (ten fold's the standard deviation). This method was validated through comparison experiments with isotope dilution mass spectrometry. The analytical results of plutonium in highly radioactive liquid waste using this method were agree well with values obtained using isotope dilution mass spectrometry. The proposed method can be applied to independent on-site safeguards analysis at the Tokai Reprocessing Plant. (author)

  18. Simulation of International Standard Problem No. 44 'KAEVER' experiments on aerosol behaviour with the CONTAIN code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kljenak, I.

    2001-01-01

    Experiments on aerosol behavior in a vapor-saturated atmosphere, which were performed in the KAEVER experimental facility and proposed for the OECD International Standard Problem No. 44, were simulated with the CONTAIN thermal-hydraulic computer code. The purpose of the work was to assess the capability of the CONTAIN code to model aerosol condensation and deposition in a containment of a light-water-reactor nuclear power plant at severe accident conditions. Results of dry and wet aerosol concentrations are presented and analyzed.(author)

  19. PANDA experiment and International Standard Problem for passive cooling systems for afterheat removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yadigaroglu, G.; Aksan, N.S.

    1999-01-01

    In the context of OECD/NEA, Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI) is working on an International Standard Problem which is to provide information on the efficiency and use of computer program systems for passive afterheat removal systems. The PANDA test facility of PSI was designed for these investigations. A six-phase PANDA experiment provides a basis for pre-calculation and recalculation of selected phases covering a limited number of system-typical operating states and phenomena. The experiment was specified and carried out in the year under report [de

  20. Rare earths analysis of rock samples by instrumental neutron activation analysis, internal standard method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silachyov, I.

    2016-01-01

    The application of instrumental neutron activation analysis for the determination of long-lived rare earth elements (REE) in rock samples is considered in this work. Two different methods are statistically compared: the well established external standard method carried out using standard reference materials, and the internal standard method (ISM), using Fe, determined through X-ray fluorescence analysis, as an element-comparator. The ISM proved to be the more precise method for a wide range of REE contents and can be recommended for routine practice. (author)

  1. Error analysis of isotope dilution mass spectrometry method with internal standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rizhinskii, M.W.; Vitinskii, M.Y.

    1989-02-01

    The computation algorithms of the normalized isotopic ratios and element concentration by isotope dilution mass spectrometry with internal standard are presented. A procedure based on the Monte-Carlo calculation is proposed for predicting the magnitude of the errors to be expected. The estimation of systematic and random errors is carried out in the case of the certification of uranium and plutonium reference materials as well as for the use of those reference materials in the analysis of irradiated nuclear fuels. 4 refs, 11 figs, 2 tabs

  2. A New International Standard for "Actions from Waves and Currents on Coastal Structures"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tørum, Alf; Burcharth, Hans F.; Goda, Yoshimi

    2007-01-01

    The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) is going to issue a new standard concerning "Actions from Waves and Currents on Coastal Structures," which becomes the first international standard in coastal engineering. It is composed of a normative part (29 pages), an informative part (80...... pages) and Bibliography ( 17 pages). The normative part describes what is considered as the norm of the matters in concern, while the informative part provides the information on recommended practice. The paper introduces the main points of the normative part and discusses the influence of the new...

  3. Current Methods Applied to Biomaterials - Characterization Approaches, Safety Assessment and Biological International Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Justine P R; Ortiz, H Ivan Melendez; Bucio, Emilio; Alves, Patricia Terra; Lima, Mayara Ingrid Sousa; Goulart, Luiz Ricardo; Mathor, Monica B; Varca, Gustavo H C; Lugao, Ademar B

    2018-04-10

    Safety and biocompatibility assessment of biomaterials are themes of constant concern as advanced materials enter the market as well as products manufactured by new techniques emerge. Within this context, this review provides an up-to-date approach on current methods for the characterization and safety assessment of biomaterials and biomedical devices from a physicalchemical to a biological perspective, including a description of the alternative methods in accordance with current and established international standards. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  4. Internationally Standardized Reporting (Checklist) on the Sustainable Development Performance of Uranium Mining and Processing Sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, Frank

    2014-01-01

    The Internationally Standardized Reporting Checklist on the Sustainable Development Performance of Uranium Mining and Processing Sites: • A mutual and beneficial work between a core group of uranium miners and nuclear utilities; • An approach based on an long term experience, international policies and sustainable development principles; • A process to optimize the reporting mechanism, tools and efforts; • 11 sections focused on the main sustainable development subject matters known at an operational and headquarter level. The WNA will make available the sustainable development checklist for member utilities and uranium suppliers. Utilities and suppliers are encouraged to use the checklist for sustainable development verification.

  5. Comparison and Interpretation Report of the OECD International Standard Problem No. 45 - Exercise (QUENCH-06)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hering, W.; Homann, Ch.; Lamy, J.S.; Miassoedov, A.; Schanz, G.; Sepold, L.; Steinbrueck, M.

    2002-10-01

    The International Standard Problem (ISP) No. 45 is part of the overall ISP program of the OECD/NEA and is dedicated to the behavior of heat-up and delayed reflood of fuel elements in nuclear reactors during a hypothetical accident. ISP-45 is related to the out-of-pile bundle quench experiment QUENCH-06, performed at Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (FZK), Germany, on December 13, 2000. Special attention was paid to hydrogen production. To assess the ability of severe accident codes to simulate processes during core heat-up and reflood at temperatures above 2000 K, the behavior of the bundle during the whole experiment should be calculated on the basis of the necessary experimental initial and boundary conditions, but without knowing further experimental details. In this so-called blind phase 21 participants from 15 nations contributed with 8 different code systems (ATHLET-CD, ICARE/CATHARE, IMPACT/SAMPSON, GENFLO, MAAP, MELCOR, SCDAPSIM, SCDAP-3D). Additionally, posttest calculations using the in-house version SCDAP/RELAP5 mod3.2.irs are used for comparison. After the end of the blind phase all measured data were made available and the participants were invited to deliver a second calculation, where this knowledge could be used (so-called open phase). In this report, results of the blind calculations are presented, analyzed, and compared to experimental data. During heat-up most results do not deviate significantly from one another, except as a consequence of some obvious user errors, so that a definition of a mainstream is justified. For the quench phase the lack of adequate hydraulic modeling becomes obvious: some participants could not match the observed cool-down rates, others had to use very fine meshes to compensate code deficiencies. To overcome this insufficiency some newly developed reflood models were used in MAAP and MELCOR. In QUENCH-06, oxide layers were thick enough to protect the cladding from melting and failure below 2200 K, so that no massive hydrogen

  6. Partial synthesis of ganglioside and lysoganglioside lipoforms as internal standards for MS quantification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gantner, Martin; Schwarzmann, Günter; Sandhoff, Konrad; Kolter, Thomas

    2014-12-01

    Within recent years, ganglioside patterns have been increasingly analyzed by MS. However, internal standards for calibration are only available for gangliosides GM1, GM2, and GM3. For this reason, we prepared homologous internal standards bearing nonnatural fatty acids of the major mammalian brain gangliosides GM1, GD1a, GD1b, GT1b, and GQ1b, and of the tumor-associated gangliosides GM2 and GD2. The fatty acid moieties were incorporated after selective chemical or enzymatic deacylation of bovine brain gangliosides. For modification of the sphingoid bases, we developed a new synthetic method based on olefin cross metathesis. This method was used for the preparation of a lyso-GM1 and a lyso-GM2 standard. The total yield of this method was 8.7% for the synthesis of d17:1-lyso-GM1 from d20:1/18:0-GM1 in four steps. The title compounds are currently used as calibration substances for MS quantification and are also suitable for functional studies. Copyright © 2014 by the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  7. The upstream oil and gas industry's initiative in the development of international standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, G.A.N.; Thorp, G.

    1993-01-01

    The paper describes the international work of the oil industry to formalize as International Standards many of the industry standards used world-wide. It also describes how matters have been developing in Europe. E and P Forum, representing the international exploration and production oil and gas industry, provides a forum for coordinating industry standardization, to ensure that the necessary standards are maintained by the appropriate technical body. The paper discusses the development of the standardization program in ISO/TC67, the Technical Committee directing the transformation of some 70 API Standards into ISO Standards and the relationship to CEN (the European standardization body). The objective of the upstream industry is to operate worldwide to consistent international standards. Company standards can then concentrate on functional and performance requirements. This will facilitate international trade and communication, open competition and the global market. For a practical realization of this objective the oil industry must foster a special relationship between the relevant US bodies, ISO and CEN. The sustained support of all sides of industry is required

  8. Organizational aspects of integrated reporting preparation according to international standard «Integrated reporting»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.O. Maksymchuk

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Integrated Reporting is an innovative reporting for business entities, therefore the issue of the organization the preparation of this reporting is an actual. The absence of legislative regulation of integrated reporting at national level of legal documents has greatly affected the issue, because the only document, that specifies the requirements for integrated reporting is the international standard «integrated reporting». The article considers the organizational principles of integrated reporting preparation. Taking into account the requirements of the international standard «integrated reporting», the authors make the attempts to define the basic organizational stages of such reporting, that allows to introduce the integrated reporting in a structured way and logically. It is proposed on the enterprises preparing the integrated reporting to constitute the schedule of the formation of the integrated reporting. In addition, the important thing is to develop the internal policy for determining materiality by the use of the professional judgment. The appropriate internal policy is assigned to disclose the materiality process in an integrated reporting for decision-making on the inclusion or exclusion issues to be understandable for users.

  9. Specific Features of Reflection of Information Regarding Lease Operations in the National and International Standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolenko Nataliya V.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article identifies the degree of correspondence of the national Provisions (Standard of Business Accounting (PSBA Lease with the international standard and provides recommendations with respect to their closing up. On the results of the study the author provides specific features of international and national standards – the existing IFRS 17 Lease and national PSBA 14 Lease by the following components: definition of lease, its classification and reflection in accounting. Also the text of PSBA 31 Financial Expenditures is supplemented with provisions on capitalisation of financial expenditures prospectively, which would allow avoidance of correction of the balance of the retained income and provision of comparative information for previous periods. The article provides an algorithm of division of lease for accounting purposes on the basis of international standards. Its use would ensure correctness of reflection of lease operations in accounting and would serve as a basis for development of methodical provisions with respect to accounting. By the result of the study the author forms definition of the qualification asset as an asset which requires considerable time for its creation, preparation for target use, sales or acquisition of the ownership right. Capitalisation of such expenditures would allow non-reduction of the accounting income and also would provide a possibility to reflect financial expenditures in accordance with their economic essence.

  10. Certifying a university ENT clinic using the ISO 9001:2000 international standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helbig, Matthias; Helbig, Silke; Kahla-Witzsch, Heike A; Kroll, Tobias; May, Angelika

    2010-01-01

    Against statutory duties to introduce quality management systems, the increased importance of this subject has led to numerous activities in various public health institutions. Following the International Standardization Organization (ISO 9001:2000) prerequisites, Frankfurt Goethe University Hospital ENT clinic staff introduced a quality management system. This paper aims to investigate this process. Designing, planning and implementing the quality management system is described. Under the supervision of an executive quality management board, clinic quality goals were defined. Thereafter, several quality management teams performed an actual state analysis as well as developing and realising improvement proposals. Finally a quality management manual containing binding standards and working instructions concerning all patient care, research and teaching aspects was written. Successful certification by a neutral body ascertained that the clinic's quality management system conformed to current national and international standards while restructuring and reform improved procedural efficiency. The paper shows that mplementing the quality management system requires considerable effort but patients as well as staff profit considerably from the innovation. On the whole, the positive impact on structure and workflow in a specialist clinic predominates. Therefore, implementing a quality management system in all the clinic's wards and departments is recommended.

  11. Characterization of a Cytokinin Response Factor in Arabidopsis thaliana

    OpenAIRE

    Ketelsen, Bernd

    2012-01-01

    The papers of this thesis are not available in Munin: 1. Bernd Ketelsen, Rainer Schwacke, Kirsten Krause and Karsten Fischer: 'Transcriptional activation by Cytokinin Response Factor 5 is governed by an acidic Cterminus containing two conserved domains' (manuscript) 2. Bernd Ketelsen, Stian Olsen, Kirsten Krause and Karsten Fischer: 'Cytokinin responsive factor 5 (CRF5) is involved in root development, hormonal crosstalk and sugar metabolism in Arabidopsis thaliana' (manuscript) 3. Bernd K...

  12. Determining the normal range for IGF-I, IGFBP-3, and ALS: new reference data based on current internal standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertl, Diana-Alexandra; Gleiss, Andreas; Sagmeister, Susanne; Haeusler, Gabriele

    2014-09-01

    The measurement of insulin-like growth factors (IGF-I) and insulin-like growth factor-binding protein (IGFBP-3) often serves as first-line testing in children with growth disorders. The role of acid-labile subunit (ALS) as a screening parameter for homozygous or heterozygous mutations of the ALS gene still has to be determined. IGF-I, IGFBP-3, and ALS were measured in 252 samples from children and adolescents. Reference curves were fitted using generalized additive model for location, scale and shape (GAMLSS) models and SD-Scores were calculated. Bootstrap analysis was used to quantify the uncertainty of the estimated percentiles. Bland-Altman plots were used to investigate the discrepancy between our newly estimated standard deviation scores (SDS) and SDS calculated on the basis of previous reference data. We present reference data for enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) measurements based on recommended internal standard for IGF-I, IGFBP-3, and ALS suitable for calculation of SD-scores. The Bland-Altman plot shows a rough agreement between the previous SDS calculation and our new one only for SDS around 1; for SDS at -2, an average difference of 0.83 SD was noticed. Our IGF-I reference values for the interval of interest in diagnosing growth hormone deficiency (GHD) (prepubertal age) are solid as proved by bootstrap analysis. The difference in calculated SD scores by using data provided previously highlights the importance of using labor and method specific reference data.

  13. Risk factors for discordant immune response among HIV-infected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Risk factors for discordant immune response among HIV-infected patients initiating antiretroviral therapy: A retrospective cohort study. ... Multivariate logistic regression models were used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (AORs) to determine associations between discordant immune response and clinical and demographic ...

  14. Effect of International Standards Certification on Firm-Level Exports: An Application of the Control Function Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Tsunehiro Otsuki

    2011-01-01

    Growing number of firms in developing countries have earned certifications such as International Standards Organization (ISO) as it enhances reputation of their company or brand and attract buyers particularly in export market. This study evaluates the effect of international standards certification on firm's export performance in Europe and Central Asia by applying the control function approach with endogenous treatment effect to firm-level data. Certification is found to increase export sha...

  15. Factors affecting the runoff response of watersheds to precipitation

    OpenAIRE

    DROZDOVÁ, Martina

    2013-01-01

    This bachelor thesis is focused on the factors that affect the drainage basin of the response. It contains a literature review, which deals with the hydrological cycle characteristics of precipitation, surface runoff and flood and erosion protection. The aim of the work is to evaluate the factors that adversely affect the runoff from the catchment.

  16. Factors influencing societal response of nanotechnology : an expert stakeholder analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gupta, N.; Fischer, A.R.H.; Lans, van der I.A.; Frewer, L.J.

    2012-01-01

    Nanotechnology can be described as an emerging technology and, as has been the case with other emerging technologies such as genetic modification, different socio-psychological factors will potentially influence societal responses to its development and application. These factors will play an

  17. ABFs, a family of ABA-responsive element binding factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, H; Hong, J; Ha, J; Kang, J; Kim, S Y

    2000-01-21

    Abscisic acid (ABA) plays an important role in environmental stress responses of higher plants during vegetative growth. One of the ABA-mediated responses is the induced expression of a large number of genes, which is mediated by cis-regulatory elements known as abscisic acid-responsive elements (ABREs). Although a number of ABRE binding transcription factors have been known, they are not specifically from vegetative tissues under induced conditions. Considering the tissue specificity of ABA signaling pathways, factors mediating ABA-dependent stress responses during vegetative growth phase may thus have been unidentified so far. Here, we report a family of ABRE binding factors isolated from young Arabidopsis plants under stress conditions. The factors, isolated by a yeast one-hybrid system using a prototypical ABRE and named as ABFs (ABRE binding factors) belong to a distinct subfamily of bZIP proteins. Binding site selection assay performed with one ABF showed that its preferred binding site is the strong ABRE, CACGTGGC. ABFs can transactivate an ABRE-containing reporter gene in yeast. Expression of ABFs is induced by ABA and various stress treatments, whereas their induction patterns are different from one another. Thus, a new family of ABRE binding factors indeed exists that have the potential to activate a large number of ABA/stress-responsive genes in Arabidopsis.

  18. Quantification of Lignin and Its Structural Features in Plant Biomass Using 13C Lignin as Internal Standard for Pyrolysis-GC-SIM-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Erven, Gijs; de Visser, Ries; Merkx, Donny W H; Strolenberg, Willem; de Gijsel, Peter; Gruppen, Harry; Kabel, Mirjam A

    2017-10-17

    Understanding the mechanisms underlying plant biomass recalcitrance at the molecular level can only be achieved by accurate analyses of both the content and structural features of the molecules involved. Current quantification of lignin is, however, majorly based on unspecific gravimetric analysis after sulfuric acid hydrolysis. Hence, our research aimed at specific lignin quantification with concurrent characterization of its structural features. Hereto, for the first time, a polymeric 13 C lignin was used as internal standard (IS) for lignin quantification via analytical pyrolysis coupled to gas chromatography with mass-spectrometric detection in selected ion monitoring mode (py-GC-SIM-MS). In addition, relative response factors (RRFs) for the various pyrolysis products obtained were determined and applied. First, 12 C and 13 C lignin were isolated from nonlabeled and uniformly 13 C labeled wheat straw, respectively, and characterized by heteronuclear single quantum coherence (HSQC), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and py-GC/MS. The two lignin isolates were found to have identical structures. Second, 13 C-IS based lignin quantification by py-GC-SIM-MS was validated in reconstituted biomass model systems with known contents of the 12 C lignin analogue and was shown to be extremely accurate (>99.9%, R 2 > 0.999) and precise (RSD corn stover, and sugar cane bagasse), and lignin contents were in good agreement with the total gravimetrically determined lignin contents. Our robust method proves to be a promising alternative for the high-throughput quantification of lignin in milled biomass samples directly and simultaneously provides a direct insight into the structural features of lignin.

  19. Assessment of seismic design response factors of concrete wall buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwafy, Aman

    2011-03-01

    To verify the seismic design response factors of high-rise buildings, five reference structures, varying in height from 20- to 60-stories, were selected and designed according to modern design codes to represent a wide range of concrete wall structures. Verified fiber-based analytical models for inelastic simulation were developed, considering the geometric nonlinearity and material inelasticity of the structural members. The ground motion uncertainty was accounted for by employing 20 earthquake records representing two seismic scenarios, consistent with the latest understanding of the tectonic setting and seismicity of the selected reference region (UAE). A large number of Inelastic Pushover Analyses (IPAs) and Incremental Dynamic Collapse Analyses (IDCAs) were deployed for the reference structures to estimate the seismic design response factors. It is concluded that the factors adopted by the design code are adequately conservative. The results of this systematic assessment of seismic design response factors apply to a wide variety of contemporary concrete wall buildings with various characteristics.

  20. Simulation of international standard problem no. 44 open tests using Melcor computer code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Y.M.; Cho, S.W.

    2001-01-01

    MELCOR 1.8.4 code has been employed to simulate the KAEVER test series of K123/K148/K186/K188 that were proposed as open experiments of International Standard Problem No.44 by OECD-CSNI. The main purpose of this study is to evaluate the accuracy of the MELCOR aerosol model which calculates the aerosol distribution and settlement in a containment. For this, thermal hydraulic conditions are simulated first for the whole test period and then the behavior of hygroscopic CsOH/CsI and unsoluble Ag aerosols, which are predominant activity carriers in a release into the containment, is compared between the experimental results and the code predictions. The calculation results of vessel atmospheric concentration show a good simulation for dry aerosol but show large difference for wet aerosol due to a data mismatch in vessel humidity and the hygroscopicity. (authors)

  1. National and international standards and recommendations on fire protection and fire safety assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, H.P.

    2007-01-01

    Experience feedback from events in nuclear facilities worldwide has shown that fire can represent a safety significant hazard. Thus, the primary objectives of fire protection programmes are to minimize both the probability of occurrence and the consequences of a fire. The regulator body expects that the licensees justify their arrangements for identifying how fires can occur and spread, assess the vulnerability of plant equipment and structures, determine how the safe operation of a plant is affected, and introduce measures to prevent a fire hazard from developing and propagating as well as to mitigate its effects in case the fire cannot be prevented. For that purpose usually a comprehensive regulatory framework for fire protection has been elaborated, based on national industrial regulations, nuclear specific regulations as well as international recommendations or requirements. Examples of such national and international standards and recommendations on fire protection and fire safety assessment as well as ongoing activities in this field are described. (orig.)

  2. Comparison of National and International Standards of Good Egg Production Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GP Sousa

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Egg production is an important economic activity in Brazil, with about 697 million eggs produced annually. The conventional cage system is commonly used for egg production. However, there has been a growing concern for the welfare of laying hens around the world. In this context, many countries have issued laws, protocols, and other normative technical specifications to ensure the welfare of layers. This study aims at identifying similarities and differences between international standards and Brazilian protocols using the Comparative Law perspective. This article reports an analytical study of selected protocols, performing three analyses using the Comparative Law method. The research concludes that some items of the Brazilian protocols of good egg production practices, such as farm inspection, treatment of diseases, temperature, ventilation, beak trimming, feed and water supply, correspond to international specifications, whereas others, such as housing, freedom movement, use of equipment, and transport, are less strict.

  3. Existing and future international standards for the safety of radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linsley, G.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper the essential features of the current international safety standards are summarised and the issues being raised for inclusion in future standards are discussed. The safety standards of the IAEA are used as the basis for the review and discussion. The IAEA has established a process for establishing international standards of safety for radioactive waste management through its Radioactive Waste Safety Standards (RADWASS) programme. The RADWASS documents are approved by a comprehensive process involving regulatory and other experts from all concerned IAEA Member States. A system of committees for approving the IAEAs safety standards has been established. For radioactive waste safety the committee for review and approval is the Waste Safety Standards Advisory Committee (WASSAC). In 1995 the IAEA published 'The Principles of Radioactive Waste Management' as the top level document in the RADWASS programme. The report sets out the basis principles which most experts believe are fundamental to the safe management of radioactive wastes

  4. Posttest analysis of international standard problem 10 using RELAP4/MOD7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, M.; Davis, C.B.; Peterson, A.C. Jr.; Behling, S.R.

    1981-01-01

    RELAP4/MOD7, a best estimate computer code for the calculation of thermal and hydraulic phenomena in a nuclear reactor or related system, is the latest version in the RELAP4 code development series. This paper evaluates the capability of RELAP4/MOD7 to calculate refill/reflood phenomena. This evaluation uses the data of International Standard Problem 10, which is based on West Germany's KWU PKL refill/reflood experiment K9A. The PKL test facility represents a typical West German four-loop, 1300 MW pressurized water reactor (PWR) in reduced scale while maintaining prototypical volume-to-power ratio. The PKL facility was designed to specifically simulate the refill/reflood phase of a hypothetical loss-of-coolant accident

  5. International Standardization in the Design of "Shore to Ship" - Power Supply Systems of Ships in Port

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarnapowicz, Dariusz; German-Galkin, Sergiej

    2018-03-01

    The decisive source of air pollution emissions in ports is the berthed ships. This is primarily caused by the work of ship's autonomous generator sets. One way of reducing the air pollution emissions in ports is the supply of ships from electricity inland system. The main problem connected with the power connection of ships to the inland network is caused by different values of levels and frequencies of voltages in these networks (in various countries) in relation to different values of levels and frequencies of voltages present in the ship's network. It is also important that the source power can range from a few hundred kW up to several MW. In order to realize a universal „Shore to Ship" system that allows the connection of ships to the electricity inland network, the international standardization is necessary. This article presents the current recommendations, standards and regulations for the design of „Shore to Ship" systems.

  6. [International Standards of Tuberculosis Care (ISTC)--comments from the German point of view].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castell, S; Bauer, T; Diel, R; Hedrich, A; Magdorf, K; Rüsch-Gerdes, S; Schaberg, T; Loddenkemper, R

    2012-04-01

    The "International Standards for Tuberculosis Care" (ISTC) were developed by the World Health Organisation (WHO) and others to provide internationally agreed and, if possible, evidence-based standards for tuberculosis care including the care by private providers who are not part of national tuberculosis programmes or health-care systems. Hence, the ISTC primarily address resource-restrained countries with high tuberculosis prevalence. In this article, the German translation of the 21 standards from 2009 is presented - addressing diagnostic and therapeutic standards, co-infection (especially with HIV) and public-health issues. The accompanying comments show how these standards have to be modified for Germany due to the medical resources available here and country-specific characteristics respectively. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  7. Review and Outlook of China Electronic and IT Industry Footprints in IEC International Standardization Activities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu Jingping

    2006-01-01

    @@ Year 2006 is the year marking the 100th anniversary of the founding of International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC). IEC is mainly engaged in the international standardization for electrical and electronic technology field aiming at promoting international trade and technology cooperation and exchange, improving product and service quality, upgrading productivity and protecting the environment as well as human health and safety. Most countries worldwide adopt standards developed and promulgated by IEC, providing a platform to international trade and technical exchange. China has being a member since 1957. Electronic and IT are the most developed and energetic filed in recent decades. Number of IEC TC/SC specialized in electronic and IT amounts up to 52.

  8. International Standard Problem 40 - Aerosol Deposition and Resuspension. Final Comparison Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Los Reyes, Alfredo Castelo; Areia Capitao, Joaquim; De Santi, Giovanni

    1999-02-01

    The Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations of the OECD/NEA, in its meeting of November 1996, endorsed the adoption, as International Standard Problem number 40 (ISP-40), of an experiment on aerosol deposition and resuspension to be run in the STORM facility of the Joint Research Centre of the European Commission (JRC). The problem was run as two consecutive blind exercises. A preparatory workshop took place at the JRC in March 1997 [ 53 ] and approved the test specifications, the experimental data to be supplied to the ISP participants and the results to be submitted to them. It was also decided that the CPU times needed for the different calculations should not be compared in absolute terms but 'normalised' by the CPU time needed for the same computers to run a reference number-crunching code, linpackd, supplied by GRS and already used for another International Standard Problem. The test, STORM test SR11, took place in April 1997 and included two distinct phases, the first concentrating on aerosol deposition mostly by thermophoresis and eddy impaction and the second on aerosol resuspension under a stepwise increasing gas flow. The International Standard Problem was also divided into two phases, each one concerning one of the phases of the experiment. Each organisation could participate in only one or both phases of the exercise. The decision whether or not to model resuspension also during the deposition phase of the exercise was left to the participants. The experimental data for the deposition phase of the exercise - thermal-hydraulics and aerosol feed rate and physical characteristics at the inlet of the test section - were distributed in mid-June 1997 and the deadline for submission of the results for the deposition phase was the end of September 1997. The experimental data for the resuspension phase - thermal-hydraulics, initial deposited mass and size distribution of the resuspended particles - was distributed to the participants in mid

  9. International standard for the charging of electric vehicles; Internationaler Standard fuer das Laden von Elektrofahrzeugen - Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathoy, A.

    2001-12-15

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) reports on the situation regarding the standardisation of battery charging systems for electric vehicles. The advantages of an international standard both for users and manufacturers of electrically-powered vehicles are discussed. The work done in the IEC and CENELEC technical committees is reviewed. Developments achieved since 1999 are reviewed and further developments and work to be done are examined. The most important points in the IEC standard 61851 are looked at and various connector interfaces are described. Direct and inductive charging systems according to IEC 61980 are examined and the special situation in Italy, where power available in homes for the charging of electrical vehicles is more limited, is reviewed.

  10. Development of international standards for instrumentation used for detection of illicit trafficking of radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voytchev, M.; Chiaro, P.; Radev, R.

    2006-01-01

    Subcommittee 45 B 'Radiation Protection Instrumentation' of the International Electrotechnical Commission (I.E.C.) is charged with the development of international standards for instrumentation used for monitoring of illicit trafficking of radioactive material through international boarders and territories, as well as inside countries. Currently three I.E.C. standards are in advanced stages of development. They are expected to be approved and published in 2006-2007. The international participation and the main characteristics of the following three standards are discussed and presented: I.E.C. 62327 'Hand-held Instruments for the Detection and Identification of Radionuclides and Additionally for the Indication of Ambient Dose Equivalent Rate from Photon Radiation', I.E.C. 62401 'Alarming Personal Radiation Devices for Detection of Illicit Trafficking of Radioactive Material' and I.E.C. 62244 'Installed Radiation Monitors for the Detection of Radioactive and Special Nuclear Materials at National Borders'

  11. Register of international standard NP on IT based wireless application in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, I. S.; Hong, S. B.; Cho, I. W.; Choi, Y. S.; Lee, J. C.

    2011-04-01

    DC draft of standard technical report for wireless applications in NPP is developed, which is a Korean IT technologies. Wireless technologies are forwardwd to converging technologies nuclear and IT area. These technologies are supported to reduce vulnerability against cyber attacks and are forwarded to international standards which met with the nuclear environment requirements. DC draft of standard technical report is provided and circulated. Korean experts participate in Plenary meeting for IEC TC45/SC45A and intermediate meeting for IEC SC45A/WGA3 and 9. Korean expert takes the chair of wireless session at ANS winter conference. Visible light communication is experimented for feasibility study on reducing vulnerability against cyber attacks. VLC is capable of robust wireless communication against cyber attacks. This is suggested to describe a method for technical report. Issue DTR for wireless applications in NPP in 2012

  12. Seismic analysis response factors and design margins of piping systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shieh, L.C.; Tsai, N.C.; Yang, M.S.; Wong, W.L.

    1985-01-01

    The objective of the simplified methods project of the Seismic Safety Margins Research Program is to develop a simplified seismic risk methodology for general use. The goal is to reduce seismic PRA costs to roughly 60 man-months over a 6 to 8 month period, without compromising the quality of the product. To achieve the goal, it is necessary to simplify the calculational procedure of the seismic response. The response factor approach serves this purpose. The response factor relates the median level response to the design data. Through a literature survey, we identified the various seismic analysis methods adopted in the U.S. nuclear industry for the piping system. A series of seismic response calculations was performed. The response factors and their variabilities for each method of analysis were computed. A sensitivity study of the effect of piping damping, in-structure response spectra envelop method, and analysis method was conducted. In addition, design margins, which relate the best-estimate response to the design data, are also presented

  13. Erythropoiesis in Malaria Infections and Factors Modifying the Erythropoietic Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vrushali A. Pathak

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Anemia is the primary clinical manifestation of malarial infections and is responsible for the substantial rate of morbidity. The pathophysiology discussed till now catalogued several causes for malarial anemia among which ineffective erythropoiesis being remarkable one occurs silently in the bone marrow. A systematic literature search was performed and summarized information on erythropoietic response upon malaria infection and the factors responsible for the same. This review summarizes the clinical and experimental studies on patients, mouse models, and in vitro cell cultures reporting erythropoietic changes upon malaria infection as well as factors accountable for the same. Inadequate erythropoietic response during malaria infection may be the collective effect of various mediators generated by host immune response as well as parasite metabolites. The interplay between various modulators causing the pathophysiology needs to be explored further. Globin gene expression profiling upon malaria infection should also be looked into as abnormal production of globin chains could be a possible contributor to ineffective erythropoiesis.

  14. Simple method for the determination of rosiglitazone in human plasma using a commercially available internal standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamidi, Rao N V S; Benjamin, Biju; Ramesh, Mullangi; Srinivas, Nuggehally R

    2003-09-01

    To the best of our knowledge, bioanalytical methods to determine rosiglitazone in human plasma reported in literature use internal standards that are not commercially available. Our purpose was to develop a simple method for the determination of rosiglitazone in plasma employing a commercially available internal standard (IS). After the addition of celecoxib (IS), plasma (0.25 mL) samples were extracted into ethyl acetate. The residue after evaporation of the organic layer was dissolved in 750 microL of mobile phase and 50 microL was injected on to HPLC. The separation was achieved using a Hichrom KR 100, 250 x 4.6 mm C(18) with a mobile phase composition potassium dihydrogen phosphate buffer (0.01 m, pH 6.5):acetonitrile:methanol (40:50:10, v/v/v). The flow-rate of the mobile phase was set at 1 mL/min. The column eluate was monitored by fluorescence detector set at an excitation wavelength of 247 nm and emission wavelength of 367 nm. Linear relationships (r(2) > 0.99) were observed between the peak area ratio rosiglitazone to IS vs rosiglitazone concentrations across the concentration range 5-1000 ng/mL. The intra-run precision (%RSD) and accuracy (%Dev) in the measurement of rosiglitazone were 80% for both rosiglitazone and IS from human plasma. The lower limit of quantitation of the assay was 5 ng/mL. In summary, the methodology for rosiglitazone measurement in plasma was simple, sensitive and employed a commercially available IS. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Trend of the bioceramics (for the international standardization); Baioseramikkusu no doko. Kokusai hyojunka nimukete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurita, Manabu

    1999-11-01

    The Ministry of International Trade and Industry Agency of Industrial Science and Technology would carry out development research of the standardization of test evaluation method of fine ceramics for the organism as research and development business of the international standardization promotion plan since this fiscal year. The fine ceramics becomes not possible material of lacking as alternative material of the organism. The public standard which appropriately evaluates the quality material in the other has not been established. JIS in the home of the result which there is Japan Fine Ceramics Association standard (test methods such as porosity and specific gravity, grain size, pore distribution, specific surface, Vickers hardness, crystal structure, bending strength, compressive strength, elastic modulus, fracture toughness, effluent of the bioceramics) JIS has not been instituted. It is present state that it becomes the Europe and America initiative artificial joint artificial bone expert committee TC-150 surgical internal burying agent ISO (ISO) and takes the one step delay. And, security of the reliability is necessary in order to fulfil the popularization in the market. The standardization must be hurried up. Research and development of test evaluation method of fine ceramics for the organism was carried out in order to attempt market expansion taking the reliability of fine ceramics material performance for the organism in our country as a sure thing, and standardizing into JIS and international standardization would be systematically advanced. Efforts would be made in fiscal 99 for research and development of evaluation method on abrasion resistance of artificial bone member subject, mechanical property such as strength degradation and biocompatibility. The technical committee of the industry-government-university from the specialist which consists in this inside is founded, and the deliberation for plan execution of this study development is got and will be

  16. Concept for an International Standard related to Space Weather Effects on Space Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobiska, W. Kent; Tomky, Alyssa

    There is great interest in developing an international standard related to space weather in order to specify the tools and parameters needed for space systems operations. In particular, a standard is important for satellite operators who may not be familiar with space weather. In addition, there are others who participate in space systems operations that would also benefit from such a document. For example, the developers of software systems that provide LEO satellite orbit determination, radio communication availability for scintillation events (GEO-to-ground L and UHF bands), GPS uncertainties, and the radiation environment from ground-to-space for commercial space tourism. These groups require recent historical data, current epoch specification, and forecast of space weather events into their automated or manual systems. Other examples are national government agencies that rely on space weather data provided by their organizations such as those represented in the International Space Environment Service (ISES) group of 14 national agencies. Designers, manufacturers, and launchers of space systems require real-time, operational space weather parameters that can be measured, monitored, or built into automated systems. Thus, a broad scope for the document will provide a useful international standard product to a variety of engineering and science domains. The structure of the document should contain a well-defined scope, consensus space weather terms and definitions, and internationally accepted descriptions of the main elements of space weather, its sources, and its effects upon space systems. Appendices will be useful for describing expanded material such as guidelines on how to use the standard, how to obtain specific space weather parameters, and short but detailed descriptions such as when best to use some parameters and not others; appendices provide a path for easily updating the standard since the domain of space weather is rapidly changing with new advances

  17. Concept of Draft International Standard for a Unified Approach to Space Program Quality Assurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stryzhak, Y.; Vasilina, V.; Kurbatov, V.

    2002-01-01

    For want of the unified approach to guaranteed space project and product quality assurance, implementation of many international space programs has become a challenge. Globalization of aerospace industry and participation of various international ventures with diverse quality assurance requirements in big international space programs requires for urgent generation of unified international standards related to this field. To ensure successful fulfillment of space missions, aerospace companies should design and process reliable and safe products with properties complying or bettering User's (or Customer's) requirements. Quality of the products designed or processed by subcontractors (or other suppliers) should also be in compliance with the main user (customer)'s requirements. Implementation of this involved set of unified requirements will be made possible by creating and approving a system (series) of international standards under a generic title Space Product Quality Assurance based on a system consensus principle. Conceptual features of the baseline standard in this system (series) should comprise: - Procedures for ISO 9000, CEN and ECSS requirements adaptation and introduction into space product creation, design, manufacture, testing and operation; - Procedures for quality assurance at initial (design) phases of space programs, with a decision on the end product made based on the principle of independence; - Procedures to arrange incoming inspection of products delivered by subcontractors (including testing, audit of supplier's procedures, review of supplier's documentation), and space product certification; - Procedures to identify materials and primary products applied; - Procedures for quality system audit at the component part, primary product and materials supplier facilities; - Unified procedures to form a list of basic performances to be under configuration management; - Unified procedures to form a list of critical space product components, and unified

  18. Convergence Improvement of Response Matrix Method with Large Discontinuity Factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Akio

    2003-01-01

    In the response matrix method, a numerical divergence problem has been reported when extremely small or large discontinuity factors are utilized in the calculations. In this paper, an alternative response matrix formulation to solve the divergence problem is discussed, and properties of iteration matrixes are investigated through eigenvalue analyses. In the conventional response matrix formulation, partial currents between adjacent nodes are assumed to be discontinuous, and outgoing partial currents are converted into incoming partial currents by the discontinuity factor matrix. Namely, the partial currents of the homogeneous system (i.e., homogeneous partial currents) are treated in the conventional response matrix formulation. In this approach, the spectral radius of an iteration matrix for the partial currents may exceed unity when an extremely small or large discontinuity factor is used. Contrary to this, an alternative response matrix formulation using heterogeneous partial currents is discussed in this paper. In the latter approach, partial currents are assumed to be continuous between adjacent nodes, and discontinuity factors are directly considered in the coefficients of a response matrix. From the eigenvalue analysis of the iteration matrix for the one-group, one-dimensional problem, the spectral radius for the heterogeneous partial current formulation does not exceed unity even if an extremely small or large discontinuity factor is used in the calculation; numerical stability of the alternative formulation is superior to the conventional one. The numerical stability of the heterogeneous partial current formulation is also confirmed by the two-dimensional light water reactor core analysis. Since the heterogeneous partial current formulation does not require any approximation, the converged solution exactly reproduces the reference solution when the discontinuity factors are directly derived from the reference calculation

  19. Assumptions of Corporate Social Responsibility as Competitiveness Factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaneta Simanaviciene

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the assumptions of corporate social responsibility (CSR as competitiveness factor in economic downturn. Findings indicate that factors affecting the quality of the micro-economic business environment, i.e., the sophistication of enterprise’s strategy and management processes, the quality of the human capital resources, the increase of product / service demand, the development of related and supporting sectors and the efficiency of natural resources, and competitive capacities of enterprise impact competitiveness at a micro-level. The outcomes suggest that the implementation of CSR elements, i.e., economic, environmental and social responsibilities, gives good opportunities to increase business competitiveness.

  20. Tumor necrosis factor blockers influence macrophage responses to Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    OpenAIRE

    HARRIS, JAMES; HARRIS, JAMES

    2008-01-01

    PUBLISHED umor necrosis factor (TNF)?? is a proinflammatory cytokine that mediates inflammation in response to various pathogens, including Mycobacterium tuberculosis, but is also a key factor in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis and other autoimmune diseases. Three TNF???suppressing drugs have been approved to treat selected autoimmune diseases; 2 are monoclonal antibodies against TNF?? (adalimumab and infliximab), and the other is a soluble TNF receptor/Fc fusion protein (etanerce...

  1. Key factors driving corporate social responsibility of Vietnamese firms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kabir, Mohammed Rezaul; Thai Minh, H.

    2016-01-01

    We examine the impact of firm, corporate governance and managerial characteristics on the corporate social responsibility (CSR) activities of Vietnamese listed firms. Our results show that export-oriented firms engage in more CSR activities. As for corporate governance factors, we observe that

  2. Analysis of Factors Responsible for Low Utilization of Mechanical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study is concerned with identifying the problems of low utilization of plant and equipment by the indigenous building construction firms in Nigeria. The methodology involved the use of a well structured questionnaire complemented with an oral interview. The results revealed that (15) factors were responsible for low ...

  3. Physiological response of carnation to radiation and some other factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel - Baky, M.M.

    1986-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the physiological response of carnation plant (Dianthus caryophyllus c v. William sim) to gamma rays irradiation and some other factors namely: gibberellic acid and alar (B - 9 or daminozide) as growth regulators and potassium and boron as nutrients. The obtained results would be summarized

  4. Factors Responsible for Students' Involvement in Internet Fraud as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Internet fraud is one of the most rapidly increasing forms of cybercrime. It has become rampant among students generally because they make use of different Internet devices in schools. The purpose of this study was to examine the factors responsible for students' involvement in Internet fraud as expressed by tertiary ...

  5. Chenodeoxycholic acid stimulated fibroblast growth factor 19 response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borup, C; Wildt, S; Rumessen, J J

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Bile acid diarrhoea is underdiagnosed and better diagnostic tests are needed. Fasting serum fibroblast growth factor-19 (FGF19) has insufficient diagnostic value, but this may be improved by stimulation. AIM: To explore if an impaired FGF19 response identifies primary bile acid...

  6. Fibrinolytic response to tumor necrosis factor in healthy subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Poll, T.; Levi, M. [=Marcel M.; Büller, H. R.; van Deventer, S. J.; de Boer, J. P.; Hack, C. E.; ten Cate, J. W.

    1991-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) may be involved in the disturbance of the procoagulant-fibrinolytic balance in septicemia, leading to microvascular thrombosis. To assess the dynamics of the fibrinolytic response to TNF in humans, we performed a crossover saline-controlled study in six healthy men,

  7. gender and school types as factors responsible for job stress

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Emeka Egbochuku

    public Universities should be looked into so that all factors responsible for stress might be .... universities in Malaysia, university academic staffs faced more problems .... adjustment with different coping styles. .... in college students: The role of rumination and stress. ... International Journal of Stress Management, 8, 285–29.

  8. Bayes Factor Covariance Testing in Item Response Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Jean-Paul; Mulder, Joris; Sinharay, Sandip

    2017-12-01

    Two marginal one-parameter item response theory models are introduced, by integrating out the latent variable or random item parameter. It is shown that both marginal response models are multivariate (probit) models with a compound symmetry covariance structure. Several common hypotheses concerning the underlying covariance structure are evaluated using (fractional) Bayes factor tests. The support for a unidimensional factor (i.e., assumption of local independence) and differential item functioning are evaluated by testing the covariance components. The posterior distribution of common covariance components is obtained in closed form by transforming latent responses with an orthogonal (Helmert) matrix. This posterior distribution is defined as a shifted-inverse-gamma, thereby introducing a default prior and a balanced prior distribution. Based on that, an MCMC algorithm is described to estimate all model parameters and to compute (fractional) Bayes factor tests. Simulation studies are used to show that the (fractional) Bayes factor tests have good properties for testing the underlying covariance structure of binary response data. The method is illustrated with two real data studies.

  9. Opacity of financial information, adoption of international standards and legal origins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Turola Takamatsu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – The goal of this study was to investigate the relationship between the level of Earnings Opacity and a company’s informational environment, specifically considering accounting standards and the legal origins of the system. Design/methodology/approach – The sample consisted of publicly traded companies from 20 countries classified as emerging, based on agency Standard & Poor’s index. The sample included data from 2004 to 2013. In order to compare the indicators among the group of countries, taking into account their institutional characteristics, the Mann-Whitney test and the Kruskal-Wallis test were performed. Findings – The assessment of the informational environment measures’ behavior in emerging countries revealed that these measures were correlated, suggesting that, despite different behaviors, opacity proxies share information. The fact that earnings opacity was lower in countries that had already adopted international standards during the analyzed period was also observed. In the same sense, a higher level of income smoothing was detected in countries of French code law origins. Originality/value – This article contributes to the understanding of the relationship between the characteristics of an accounting informational environment and the levels of opacity of the information emitted by accounting. Thus, this article has helped managers, investors and regulators to understand users’ needs and how country-specific characteristics change their perspectives.

  10. An Internal Standard for Assessing Phosphopeptide Recovery from Metal Ion/Oxide Enrichment Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulo, Joao A.; Navarrete-Perea, Jose; Erickson, Alison R.; Knott, Jeffrey; Gygi, Steven P.

    2018-04-01

    Phosphorylation-mediated signaling pathways have major implications in cellular regulation and disease. However, proteins with roles in these pathways are frequently less abundant and phosphorylation is often sub-stoichiometric. As such, the efficient enrichment, and subsequent recovery of phosphorylated peptides, is vital. Mass spectrometry-based proteomics is a well-established approach for quantifying thousands of phosphorylation events in a single experiment. We designed a peptide internal standard-based assay directed toward sample preparation strategies for mass spectrometry analysis to understand better phosphopeptide recovery from enrichment strategies. We coupled mass-differential tandem mass tag (mTMT) reagents (specifically, TMTzero and TMTsuper-heavy), nine mass spectrometry-amenable phosphopeptides (phos9), and peak area measurements from extracted ion chromatograms to determine phosphopeptide recovery. We showcase this mTMT/phos9 recovery assay by evaluating three phosphopeptide enrichment workflows. Our assay provides data on the recovery of phosphopeptides, which complement other metrics, namely the number of identified phosphopeptides and enrichment specificity. Our mTMT/phos9 assay is applicable to any enrichment protocol in a typical experimental workflow irrespective of sample origin or labeling strategy. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  11. Development of international standards for instrumentation used for detection of illicit trafficking of radioactive material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voytchev, M. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN/DSU/SERAC/CTHIR), 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France); Chiaro, P. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Radev, R. [LLNL, Livermore, CA (United States)

    2006-07-01

    Subcommittee 45 B 'Radiation Protection Instrumentation' of the International Electrotechnical Commission (I.E.C.) is charged with the development of international standards for instrumentation used for monitoring of illicit trafficking of radioactive material through international boarders and territories, as well as inside countries. Currently three I.E.C. standards are in advanced stages of development. They are expected to be approved and published in 2006-2007. The international participation and the main characteristics of the following three standards are discussed and presented: I.E.C. 62327 'Hand-held Instruments for the Detection and Identification of Radionuclides and Additionally for the Indication of Ambient Dose Equivalent Rate from Photon Radiation', I.E.C. 62401 'Alarming Personal Radiation Devices for Detection of Illicit Trafficking of Radioactive Material' and I.E.C. 62244 'Installed Radiation Monitors for the Detection of Radioactive and Special Nuclear Materials at National Borders'.

  12. International standards for tuberculosis care: Relevance and implications for laboratory professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pai M

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available On World Tuberculosis (TB Day 2006, the International Standards for Tuberculosis Care (ISTC was officially released and widely endorsed by several agencies and organizations. The ISTC release was the culmination of a year long global effort to develop and set internationally acceptable, evidence-based standards for tuberculosis care. The ISTC describes a widely endorsed level of care that all practitioners, public and private, should seek to achieve in managing individuals who have or are suspected of having, TB and is intended to facilitate the effective engagement of all healthcare providers in delivering high quality care for patients of all ages, including those with smear-positive, smear-negative and extra-pulmonary TB, TB caused by drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis and TB/HIV coinfection. In this article, we present the ISTC, with a special focus on the diagnostic standards and describe their implications and relevance for laboratory professionals in India and worldwide. Laboratory professionals play a critical role in ensuring that all the standards are actually met by providing high quality laboratory services for smear microscopy, culture and drug susceptibility testing and other services such as testing for HIV infection. In fact, if the ISTC is widely followed, it can be expected that there will be a greater need and demand for quality assured laboratory services and this will have obvious implications for all laboratories in terms of work load, requirement for resources and trained personnel and organization of quality assurance systems.

  13. Effect of standards on new equipment design by new international standards and industry restraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endelman, Lincoln L.

    1991-01-01

    The use of international standards to further trade is one of the objectives of creating a standard. By having form fit and function compatible the free interchange of manufactured goods can be handled without hindrance. Unfortunately by setting up standards that are peculiar to a particular country or district it is possible to exclude competition from a group of manufacturers. A major effort is now underway to develop international laser standards. In the May I 990 issue of Laser Focus World Donald R. Johnson the director of industrial technology services for the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST formerly the National Bureau of Standards) is quoted as follows: " The common means of protectionism has been through certification for the market place. " The article goes on to say " Mr. Johnson expects this tradition to continue and that the new European Community (EC) will demand not just safety standards but performance standards as well. . . . the American laser industry must move very quickly on this issue or risk being left behind the European standards bandwagon. " The article continues laser companies must get involved in the actual standards negotiating process if they are to have a say in future policy. A single set of standards would reduce the need to repeatedly recalibrate products for different national markets. " As a member of ISO TC-72 SC9 I am

  14. Approaches to the international standards application in healthcare and public health in different countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitaliy Sarancha

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available As a result of consequent development, and guided by an increasing demand of different types of the organizations regarding structured management, the system of standardization has been established. The idea behind standardization is adjusting the characteristics of a product, process or a production cycle to make them consistent and in line with the rules regarding what is proper and acceptable. The “standard” is a document that specifies such established set of criteria covering a broad range of topics and applicable to commissioners of health, specialists in primary care, public health staff, and social care providers, as well as the local authorities and service users. Health products, ranging from medical devices and health informatics to traditional medicines and unconventional healing tools are all in the focus of standards’ application. Different countries have their own quality management traditions based on their history, mentality, socio-economic environment and the local regulations. Taking into consideration that community social system organization and the quality of social infrastructure are the main foundations of social relations and future prosperity, here we review the existing standardization environment in the health sector in different countries, both developed and those on a convergence path. We focused on standardization environment in the United States of America, Great Britain, Germany, Ukraine, Russian Federation, Croatia and Albania. In order to simplify comprehension, we also demonstrate the algorithm of standardization, as well as the opportunities for application of the international standards in healthcare and public health.

  15. International standard problem (ISP) no. 41 follow up exercise: Containment iodine computer code exercise: parametric studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ball, J.; Glowa, G.; Wren, J. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada); Ewig, F. [GRS Koln (Germany); Dickenson, S. [AEAT, (United Kingdom); Billarand, Y.; Cantrel, L. [IPSN (France); Rydl, A. [NRIR (Czech Republic); Royen, J. [OECD/NEA (France)

    2001-11-01

    This report describes the results of the second phase of International Standard Problem (ISP) 41, an iodine behaviour code comparison exercise. The first phase of the study, which was based on a simple Radioiodine Test Facility (RTF) experiment, demonstrated that all of the iodine behaviour codes had the capability to reproduce iodine behaviour for a narrow range of conditions (single temperature, no organic impurities, controlled pH steps). The current phase, a parametric study, was designed to evaluate the sensitivity of iodine behaviour codes to boundary conditions such as pH, dose rate, temperature and initial I{sup -} concentration. The codes used in this exercise were IODE(IPSN), IODE(NRIR), IMPAIR(GRS), INSPECT(AEAT), IMOD(AECL) and LIRIC(AECL). The parametric study described in this report identified several areas of discrepancy between the various codes. In general, the codes agree regarding qualitative trends, but their predictions regarding the actual amount of volatile iodine varied considerably. The largest source of the discrepancies between code predictions appears to be their different approaches to modelling the formation and destruction of organic iodides. A recommendation arising from this exercise is that an additional code comparison exercise be performed on organic iodide formation, against data obtained front intermediate-scale studies (two RTF (AECL, Canada) and two CAIMAN facility, (IPSN, France) experiments have been chosen). This comparison will allow each of the code users to realistically evaluate and improve the organic iodide behaviour sub-models within their codes. (author)

  16. DNA internal standard for the quantitative determination of hallucinogenic plants in plant mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luciano, Pino; Bertea, Cinzia M; Temporale, Giovanni; Maffei, Massimo E

    2007-12-01

    Here, we show a new, simple, and rapid SYBR Green-based Real-Time PCR assay for the quantification of hallucinogenic plants in plant mixtures. As a test plant, Salvia divinorum Epling & Játiva-M., a perennial herb belonging to the Lamiaceae family able to induce hallucinations, changes in perception, or other psychologically induced changes with similar potency as LSD, was used. The method was tested on seven mixtures 100/0%, 80/20%, 60/40%, 40/60%, 20/80%, 10/90%, 0/100% (w/w) S. divinorum versus a non-hallucinogenic plant, Salvia officinalis. Total DNA was extracted from samples and quantified by Real-Time PCR. Arabidopsis thaliana genomic DNA was added, as internal standard, at the beginning of each extraction. A new formula for the interpretation of Real-Time PCR data, based on the relative quantification of DNA extracted from mixture versus a reference DNA extracted from a known amount of pure S. divinorum, was developed. The results of this work show an almost perfect correspondence between Real-Time PCR-calculated weight and the weight estimated by an analytical weighted method, proving the effectiveness of this method for the quantitative analysis of a given species in a plant mixture.

  17. The environment, international standards, asset health management and condition monitoring: An integrated strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roe, S. [CSD, British Institute of Non-Destructive Testing (BINDT) (United Kingdom); Mba, D. [School of Engineering, Cranfield University, MK43 0AL, Bedfordshire (United Kingdom)], E-mail: d.mba@cranfield.ac.uk

    2009-02-15

    Asset Health Management (AHM), supported by condition monitoring (CM) and performance measuring technologies, together with trending, modelling and diagnostic frameworks, is not only critical to the reliability of high-value machines, but also to a companies Overall Equipment Efficiency (OEE), system safety and profitability. In addition these protocols are also critical to the global concern of the environment. Industries involved with monitoring key performances indicators (KPI) to improve OEE would benefit from a standardised qualification and certification scheme for their personnel, particularly if it is based on internationally accepted procedures for the various CM technologies that also share the same objectives as AH and CM. Furthermore, the development of 'models' for implementation of a Carbon tax is intrinsically dependent on the integrity and accuracy of measurements contributing to these indicators. This paper reviews the global picture of condition monitoring, the environment and related international standards and then considers their relationship and equivalent global objectives. In addition, it presents the methods behind the development of such standards for certification of competence in personnel involved with data collection, modelling and measurements of KPIs. Two case studies are presented that highlight the integrated strategy in practise.

  18. Quantitation of biological retinoids by high-pressure liquid chromatography: primary internal standardization using tritiated retinoids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cullum, M.E.; Zile, M.H.

    1986-01-01

    A single method is described for quantitation of 14 retinoids found in biological material. The method consists of reversed-phase HPLC, internal standardization, and carrier extraction procedures with three synthetic retinoids. Primary standardization of HPLC uv detector is achieved using tritiated all-trans-retinoic acid, all-trans-retinol, all-trans-retinyl palmitate, and all-trans-retinyl acetate. Extraction methods are standardized by correlating the uv absorbance of retinoids at 340 nm with radioactivity of tritiated retinoids of known specific activity. Quantitation of 10 pg of tritiated or 5 ng of nonradioactive retinoid per 0.1 g sample in a polarity range from 4-oxo-retinoic acid to retinyl stearate can be achieved in a single, 50-min chromatographic run. A single HPLC pump, a C 18 reversed-phased analytical column, a multistep three-solvent gradient, and inexpensive solvents based on methanol, water, and chloroform comprise this cost-effective chromatographic system. Our primary standardization method allows investigators employing different procedures to compare results between laboratories by standardizing the HPLC uv detector with commercially available tritiated retinoids. With this method we were able to quantitate nanomolar amounts of endogenous retinoic acids and retinyl esters, that HPLC uv only conditions usually would not detect in the circulation and liver of rats under physiological conditions

  19. International standard problem (ISP) no. 41 follow up exercise: Containment iodine computer code exercise: parametric studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ball, J.; Glowa, G.; Wren, J.; Ewig, F.; Dickenson, S.; Billarand, Y.; Cantrel, L.; Rydl, A.; Royen, J.

    2001-11-01

    This report describes the results of the second phase of International Standard Problem (ISP) 41, an iodine behaviour code comparison exercise. The first phase of the study, which was based on a simple Radioiodine Test Facility (RTF) experiment, demonstrated that all of the iodine behaviour codes had the capability to reproduce iodine behaviour for a narrow range of conditions (single temperature, no organic impurities, controlled pH steps). The current phase, a parametric study, was designed to evaluate the sensitivity of iodine behaviour codes to boundary conditions such as pH, dose rate, temperature and initial I - concentration. The codes used in this exercise were IODE(IPSN), IODE(NRIR), IMPAIR(GRS), INSPECT(AEAT), IMOD(AECL) and LIRIC(AECL). The parametric study described in this report identified several areas of discrepancy between the various codes. In general, the codes agree regarding qualitative trends, but their predictions regarding the actual amount of volatile iodine varied considerably. The largest source of the discrepancies between code predictions appears to be their different approaches to modelling the formation and destruction of organic iodides. A recommendation arising from this exercise is that an additional code comparison exercise be performed on organic iodide formation, against data obtained front intermediate-scale studies (two RTF (AECL, Canada) and two CAIMAN facility, (IPSN, France) experiments have been chosen). This comparison will allow each of the code users to realistically evaluate and improve the organic iodide behaviour sub-models within their codes. (author)

  20. Bismuth as a general internal standard for lead in atomic absorption spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechlin, Marcos A; Fortunato, Felipe M; Ferreira, Edilene C; Gomes Neto, José A; Nóbrega, Joaquim A; Donati, George L; Jones, Bradley T

    2014-06-11

    Bismuth was evaluated as internal standard for Pb determination by line source flame atomic absorption spectrometry (LS FAAS), high-resolution continuum source flame atomic absorption spectrometry (HR-CS FAAS) and line source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (LS GFAAS). Analysis of samples containing different matrices indicated close relationship between Pb and Bi absorbances. Correlation coefficients of calibration curves built up by plotting A(Pb)/A(Bi)versus Pb concentration were higher than 0.9953 (FAAS) and higher than 0.9993 (GFAAS). Recoveries of Pb improved from 52-118% (without IS) to 97-109% (IS, LS FAAS); 74-231% (without IS) to 96-109% (IS, HR-CS FAAS); and 36-125% (without IS) to 96-110% (IS, LS GFAAS). The relative standard deviations (n=12) were reduced from 0.6-9.2% (without IS) to 0.3-4.3% (IS, LS FAAS); 0.7-7.7% (without IS) to 0.1-4.0% (IS, HR-CS FAAS); and 2.1-13% (without IS) to 0.4-5.9% (IS, LS GFAAS). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. A change of course: The importance to DoD of international standards for electronic commerce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Judith E.

    1991-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) is committed to using electronic commerce in the future with the over 300,000 vendors interested in doing business with DoD. Electronic commerce will move DoD from a paper-based world to one based on electronic transactions enabled by the exchange of formatted, electronic messages referred to as electronic data interchange (EDI). With electronic commerce, DoD plans to reduce costs, increase effectiveness, and make it easier for vendors to deal with DoD. Benefits from electronic commerce are enhanced when many businesses use the same standards for EDI messages themselves and their transmission. The fewer standards used, the less time and resources must be spent translating messages and agreeing on how to use different standards. To enhance benefits and smooth the transition to electronic commerce for itself and its vendors, DoD has chosen to use the widely accepted American National Standards Institute (ANSI) X12 standards for EDI messages, coupled with international standards for delivering messages and organizing addresses. In the past 18 months, EDI standards sponsored by a United Nations body and serving the same purpose as ANSI X12 message standards have begun to gain wider acceptance internationally.

  2. The environment, international standards, asset health management and condition monitoring: An integrated strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roe, S.; Mba, D.

    2009-01-01

    Asset Health Management (AHM), supported by condition monitoring (CM) and performance measuring technologies, together with trending, modelling and diagnostic frameworks, is not only critical to the reliability of high-value machines, but also to a companies Overall Equipment Efficiency (OEE), system safety and profitability. In addition these protocols are also critical to the global concern of the environment. Industries involved with monitoring key performances indicators (KPI) to improve OEE would benefit from a standardised qualification and certification scheme for their personnel, particularly if it is based on internationally accepted procedures for the various CM technologies that also share the same objectives as AH and CM. Furthermore, the development of 'models' for implementation of a Carbon tax is intrinsically dependent on the integrity and accuracy of measurements contributing to these indicators. This paper reviews the global picture of condition monitoring, the environment and related international standards and then considers their relationship and equivalent global objectives. In addition, it presents the methods behind the development of such standards for certification of competence in personnel involved with data collection, modelling and measurements of KPIs. Two case studies are presented that highlight the integrated strategy in practise

  3. Dynamics of ethylene production in response to compatible Nod factor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reid, Dugald; Liu, Huijun; Kelly, Simon

    2018-01-01

    Establishment of symbiotic nitrogen-fixation in legumes is regulated by the plant hormone ethylene, but it has remained unclear whether and how its biosynthesis is regulated by the symbiotic pathway. We established a sensitive ethylene detection system for Lotus japonicus and found that ethylene...... production increased as early as six hours after inoculation with Mesorhizobium loti. This ethylene response was dependent on Nod factor production by compatible rhizobia. Analyses of nodulation mutants showed that perception of Nod factor was required for ethylene emission, while downstream transcription...... factors including CYCLOPS, NIN and ERN1 were not required for this response. Activation of the nodulation signalling pathway in spontaneously nodulating mutants was also sufficient to elevate ethylene production. Ethylene signalling is controlled by EIN2, which is duplicated in L. japonicus. We obtained...

  4. Instrumental charged-particle activation analysis of several selected elements in biological materials using the internal standard method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yagi, M.; Masumoto, K.

    1987-01-01

    In order to study instrumental charged-particle activation analysis using the internal standard method, simultaneous determinations of several selected elements such as Ca, Ti, V, Fe, Zn, As, Sr, Zr and Mo, in oyster tissue, brewer's yeast and mussel were carried out by using the respective (p, n) reactions and a personal computer-based gamma-ray spectrometer equipped with a micro-robot for sample changing. In the determination constant amounts of Y and La were added to the sample and comparative standard as exotic internal standards. As a result, it was demonstrated that concentrations of the above elements could be determined accurately and precisely. (author)

  5. World Nuclear Association (WNA) internationally standardized reporting (checklist) on the sustainable development performance of uranium mining and processing sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, F.

    2014-01-01

    The World Nuclear Association (WNA) has developed internationally standardized reporting (‘Checklist’) for uranium mining and processing sites. This reporting is to achieve widespread utilities/miners agreement on a list of topics/indicators for common use in demonstrating miners’ adherence to strong sustainable development performance. Nuclear utilities are often required to evaluate the sustainable development performance of their suppliers as part of a utility operational management system. In the present case, nuclear utilities are buyers of uranium supplies from uranium miners and such purchases are often achieved through the utility uranium or fuel supply management function. This Checklist is an evaluation tool which has been created to collect information from uranium miners’ available annual reports, data series, and measurable indicators on a wide range of sustainable development topics to verify that best practices in this field are implemented throughout uranium mining and processing sites. The Checklist has been developed to align with the WNA’s policy document Sustaining Global Best Practices in Uranium Mining and Processing: Principles for Managing Radiation, Health and Safety, and Waste and the Environment which encompasses all applicable aspects of sustainable development to uranium mining and processing. The eleven sections of the Checklist are: 1. Adherence to Sustainable Development; 2. Health, Safety and Environmental Protection; 3. Compliance; 4. Social Responsibility and Stakeholder Engagement; 5. Management of Hazardous Materials; 6. Quality Management Systems; 7. Accidents and Emergencies; 8. Transport of Hazardous Materials; 9. Systematic Approach to Training; 10. Security of Sealed Radioactive Sources and Nuclear Substances; 11. Decommissioning and Site Closure. The Checklist benefits from many years of nuclear utility experience in verifying the sustainable development performance of uranium mining and processing sites. This

  6. Factors influencing societal response of nanotechnology: an expert stakeholder analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Nidhi, E-mail: nidhi.gupta@wur.nl; Fischer, Arnout R. H., E-mail: arnout.fischer@wur.nl; Lans, Ivo A. van der, E-mail: Ivo.vanderLans@wur.nl [Wageningen University, Marketing and Consumer Behaviour Group (Netherlands); Frewer, Lynn J., E-mail: lynn.frewer@newcastle.ac.uk [Newcastle University, School of Agriculture, Food and Rural Development (United Kingdom)

    2012-05-15

    Nanotechnology can be described as an emerging technology and, as has been the case with other emerging technologies such as genetic modification, different socio-psychological factors will potentially influence societal responses to its development and application. These factors will play an important role in how nanotechnology is developed and commercialised. This article aims to identify expert opinion on factors influencing societal response to applications of nanotechnology. Structured interviews with experts on nanotechnology from North West Europe were conducted using repertory grid methodology in conjunction with generalized Procrustes analysis to examine the psychological constructs underlying societal uptake of 15 key applications of nanotechnology drawn from different areas (e.g. medicine, agriculture and environment, chemical, food, military, sports, and cosmetics). Based on expert judgement, the main factors influencing societal response to different applications of nanotechnology will be the extent to which applications are perceived to be beneficial, useful, and necessary, and how 'real' and physically close to the end-user these applications are perceived to be by the public.

  7. Factors influencing societal response of nanotechnology: an expert stakeholder analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Nidhi; Fischer, Arnout R. H.; Lans, Ivo A. van der; Frewer, Lynn J.

    2012-01-01

    Nanotechnology can be described as an emerging technology and, as has been the case with other emerging technologies such as genetic modification, different socio-psychological factors will potentially influence societal responses to its development and application. These factors will play an important role in how nanotechnology is developed and commercialised. This article aims to identify expert opinion on factors influencing societal response to applications of nanotechnology. Structured interviews with experts on nanotechnology from North West Europe were conducted using repertory grid methodology in conjunction with generalized Procrustes analysis to examine the psychological constructs underlying societal uptake of 15 key applications of nanotechnology drawn from different areas (e.g. medicine, agriculture and environment, chemical, food, military, sports, and cosmetics). Based on expert judgement, the main factors influencing societal response to different applications of nanotechnology will be the extent to which applications are perceived to be beneficial, useful, and necessary, and how 'real' and physically close to the end-user these applications are perceived to be by the public.

  8. Factors influencing societal response of nanotechnology: an expert stakeholder analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Nidhi; Fischer, Arnout R. H.; van der Lans, Ivo A.; Frewer, Lynn J.

    2012-05-01

    Nanotechnology can be described as an emerging technology and, as has been the case with other emerging technologies such as genetic modification, different socio-psychological factors will potentially influence societal responses to its development and application. These factors will play an important role in how nanotechnology is developed and commercialised. This article aims to identify expert opinion on factors influencing societal response to applications of nanotechnology. Structured interviews with experts on nanotechnology from North West Europe were conducted using repertory grid methodology in conjunction with generalized Procrustes analysis to examine the psychological constructs underlying societal uptake of 15 key applications of nanotechnology drawn from different areas (e.g. medicine, agriculture and environment, chemical, food, military, sports, and cosmetics). Based on expert judgement, the main factors influencing societal response to different applications of nanotechnology will be the extent to which applications are perceived to be beneficial, useful, and necessary, and how 'real' and physically close to the end-user these applications are perceived to be by the public.

  9. Development and pilot of an internationally standardized measure of cardiovascular risk management in European primary care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szecsenyi Joachim

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Primary care can play an important role in providing cardiovascular risk management in patients with established Cardiovascular Diseases (CVD, patients with a known high risk of developing CVD, and potentially for individuals with a low risk of developing CVD, but who have unhealthy lifestyles. To describe and compare cardiovascular risk management, internationally valid quality indicators and standardized measures are needed. As part of a large project in 9 European countries (EPA-Cardio, we have developed and tested a set of standardized measures, linked to previously developed quality indicators. Methods A structured stepwise procedure was followed to develop measures. First, the research team allocated 106 validated quality indicators to one of the three target populations (established CVD, at high risk, at low risk and to different data-collection methods (data abstraction from the medical records, a patient survey, an interview with lead practice GP/a practice survey. Secondly, we selected a number of other validated measures to enrich the assessment. A pilot study was performed to test the feasibility. Finally, we revised the measures based on the findings. Results The EPA-Cardio measures consisted of abstraction forms from the medical-records data of established Coronary Heart Disease (CHD-patients - and high-risk groups, a patient questionnaire for each of the 3 groups, an interview questionnaire for the lead GP and a questionnaire for practice teams. The measures were feasible and accepted by general practices from different countries. Conclusions An internationally standardized measure of cardiovascular risk management, linked to validated quality indicators and tested for feasibility in general practice, is now available. Careful development and pilot testing of the measures are crucial in international studies of quality of healthcare.

  10. Results of international standard problem No. 36 severe fuel damage experiment of a VVER fuel bundle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Firnhaber, M. [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen-und Reaktorsicherheit, Koeln (Germany); Yegorova, L. [Nuclear Safety Institute of Russian Research Center, Moscow (Russian Federation); Brockmeier, U. [Ruhr-Univ. of Bochum (Germany)] [and others

    1995-09-01

    International Standard Problems (ISP) organized by the OECD are defined as comparative exercises in which predictions with different computer codes for a given physical problem are compared with each other and with a carefully controlled experimental study. The main goal of ISP is to increase confidence in the validity and accuracy of analytical tools used in assessing the safety of nuclear installations. In addition, it enables the code user to gain experience and to improve his competence. This paper presents the results and assessment of ISP No. 36, which deals with the early core degradation phase during an unmitigated severe LWR accident in a Russian type VVER. Representatives of 17 organizations participated in the ISP using the codes ATHLET-CD, ICARE2, KESS-III, MELCOR, SCDAP/RELAP5 and RAPTA. Some participants performed several calculations with different codes. As experimental basis the severe fuel damage experiment CORA-W2 was selected. The main phenomena investigated are thermal behavior of fuel rods, onset of temperature escalation, material behavior and hydrogen generation. In general, the calculations give the right tendency of the experimental results for the thermal behavior, the hydrogen generation and, partly, for the material behavior. However, some calculations deviate in important quantities - e.g. some material behavior data - showing remarkable discrepancies between each other and from the experiments. The temperature history of the bundle up to the beginning of significant oxidation was calculated quite well. Deviations seem to be related to the overall heat balance. Since the material behavior of the bundle is to a great extent influenced by the cladding failure criteria a more realistic cladding failure model should be developed at least for the detailed, mechanistic codes. Regarding the material behavior and flow blockage some models for the material interaction as well as for relocation and refreezing requires further improvement.

  11. Updating the International Standards for Tuberculosis Care. Entering the era of molecular diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopewell, Philip C; Fair, Elizabeth L; Uplekar, Mukund

    2014-03-01

    The International Standards for Tuberculosis Care, first published in 2006 (Lancet Infect Dis 2006;6:710-725.) with a second edition in 2009 ( www.currytbcenter.ucsf.edu/international/istc_report ), was produced by an international coalition of organizations funded by the United States Agency for International Development. Development of the document was led jointly by the World Health Organization and the American Thoracic Society, with the aim of promoting engagement of all care providers, especially those in the private sector in low- and middle-income countries, in delivering high-quality services for tuberculosis. In keeping with World Health Organization recommendations regarding rapid molecular testing, as well as other pertinent new recommendations, the third edition of the Standards has been developed. After decades of dormancy, the technology available for tuberculosis care and control is now rapidly evolving. In particular, rapid molecular testing, using devices with excellent performance characteristics for detecting Mycobacterium tuberculosis and rifampin resistance, and that are practical and affordable for use in decentralized facilities in low-resource settings, is being widely deployed globally. Used appropriately, both within tuberculosis control programs and in private laboratories, these devices have the potential to revolutionize tuberculosis care and control, providing a confirmed diagnosis and a determination of rifampin resistance within a few hours, enabling appropriate treatment to be initiated promptly. Major changes have been made in the standards for diagnosis. Additional important changes include: emphasis on the recognition of groups at increased risk of tuberculosis; updating the standard on antiretroviral treatment in persons with tuberculosis and human immunodeficiency virus infection; and revising the standard on treating multiple drug-resistant tuberculosis.

  12. PROPOSAL METHODOLOGY OF THE SUBSYSTEM - INTERNAL STANDARDIZATION AS PART OF TQM SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeta Mitreva

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Standardization in the management system becomes a key task of the managers and a priority issue for survival of every organization of this century. Besides the company's owner which is mostly concerned with the profit and fast multiplication of its invested capital, many other parties such as consumers, community, employees, deliverers and the society make a pressure in demanding. As of those demands the organization is to adapt its management system according the standards in order to be safe t hat the expectations will be fulfilled. However, to fulfill the standards in Europe and worldwide it is necessary to approach towards huge - radical changes in problem solving i.e. reengineering, new manner of consideration of causes and not as the so far known way - thinking over the consequences. Implementing this new TQM strategy means designing solidly documented quality system that covers every working process in a company and appears as a necessary base for successful usage of statistical process contr ol (SPC and efficient teamwork which otherwise in case of bad quality system will not be able to be set. In this manner it is guaranteed that the attitude of the top management is conducted; this attitude is consisted within the quality policy that create s a climate and information base whe re team work can be developed. This paper offers a proposal methodology for designing and implementation of internal standardization of TQM system in companies. This methodology is applicable in factory for reconstructio n of wagons and in a factory for confectionary production and has shown its efficiency and usage. In order to design the processes in line with the consumers/ clients content and at the same time to achieve profitability, it is necessary to reengineer the working processes

  13. Development of an international standard on instruments setpoints based on ISA S67.04 - 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinn, E.L.

    1996-01-01

    This is a summary of the application for and development of an international standard on instrument setpoints, based on the Instrument Society of America (ISA) Standard S67.04 - 1994. The forum this new standard was proposed in is the International Electrotechnique Commission (IEC), based in Geneva, Switzerland, which is the international commission which oversees electrical and instrumentation standards for all applications around the world. The Instrument Society of America (ISA) is a United States based Society for the advancement of instrumentation and controls related science and technology and has 30,000 members. A division within the ISA is the Standard and Practices board which has over 5000 members actively involved in standards development and approval. In 1994, the ISA SP67, Nuclear Power Plant Standards Committee authorized that the IEC be approached to develop and issue an IEC standard on Instrument Setpoints. This application was formally submitted in January, 1995 to the IEC and approved for ballot to member countries in June, 1995. Approval for standard development by IEC was received in October, 1995 and the first draft vas issued in February, 1996, and is currently under review by the IEC working group. It is very important to focus on the approach that the U.S. and other countries are taking toward development of IEC standards that can apply to all nuclear instrumentation applications around the world. By referencing IEC standards in design specification, vendors can be solicited from many different countries, thereby ensuring that the highest quality products can be used. This also offsets the need to specify individual standards in the specification, based on the country that each vendor solicited, represents. In summary, this standard development process, with support from the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) will assist U.S. suppliers in competing in the global market for products and services into the next century. (author)

  14. South Ural State University Campus: Architectural Development Concept in Accordance with International Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabiev, S. G.

    2017-11-01

    The article deals with the vital problem of the implementation of the Program to enhance the competitiveness of the South Ural State University (SUSU) among other scientific and educational centers, which defines the main objective - to form a world-class university. According to the set objective, the most important task is to build a landscaped campus, which can be efficiently solved by the architectural means. The solution of this task is based on the scientific methods of the territorial and architectural improvement of the main university building complex development in the northern academic area and the architectural and aesthetic improvement of the space structural arrangement of the buildings. The author analyzes the global practice of modern campuses in Russia and abroad based on the Internet resources. The author carried out some additional on-site surveys of foreign campuses in Australia, Canada and China. The essence of the architectural concept of the first university campus development stage lies in the science-based achievement of a harmonious architectural and space unity of solid and plane elements of the site development, landscape arrangement of the main building’s courtyard and the adjacent territories with an efficient use of the relief, water areas and planting, allotment of additional spaces for landscaped areas due to a split-level arrangement, including a landscaped platform, increase of the underground space utilization share with the arrangement of an underground car parking and an underground walkway considering the environmental requirements. Further, it is planned to use the author’s methodological approach for the southern academic and the northern residential university areas, which will allow to create a duly completed landscaped SUSU campus with a developed infrastructure according to the international standards.

  15. The International Standards for Solar Thermal Collectors and Components as a Medium of Quality Assurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alkishriwi, Nouri; Schorn, Christian A.; Theis, Danjana

    2014-01-01

    Within this publication a detailed overview about the national and international solal't1lel1nai standards is made. The various tests are described and a cross reference list for comparing the different standards is given. Moreover a certification model is presented and the advantage of third party assessment is carried out. The requirement for a solar thermal test laboratory to conduct independent third party assessment by means of an ISO/IEC17065 accreditation is given. Finally the concept of a quality system for solar thermal markets is explained and major advantages are outlined. Solar thermal systems and their components are described in various national and international standards. In Europe the standard EN12975 defines the regulations and requirements for solar thermal collectors. The standard EN12976 is established for the evaluation of factory made solar thermal systems. The EN12977 is the state of the art standard for the evaluation of custom build systems. Nowadays in Libya the standard ISO9806 for solar collectors and the standard ISO9459 for domestic water heating systems define the regulations and requirements for solar thermal collectors and systems. In the meanwhile, empowered Center for Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Certification Body is under construction. This body is working now to set the minimum requirements of the testing facilities of solar thermal systems. The international standard for collector testing is the ISO9806 and the standard ISO9459 Part 2, 4, 5 for domestic water heating systems. Within the year 2013 a revision of the ISO9806 will be published and, for the first time, a consistent harmonized standard for the main solar thermal markets will be set in force. Besides the various standards for solar thermal products a meaningful element for the quality assurance and the customer protection is third party certification. Third party certification involves an independent assessment, declaring that specified requirements

  16. Extracellular matrix organization modulates fibroblast growth and growth factor responsiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, S; Pawelek, P; Grinnell, F

    1989-06-01

    To learn more about the relationship between extracellular matrix organization, cell shape, and cell growth control, we studied DNA synthesis by fibroblasts in collagen gels that were either attached to culture dishes or floating in culture medium during gel contraction. After 4 days of contraction, the collagen density (initially 1.5 mg/ml) reached 22 mg/ml in attached gels and 55 mg/ml in floating gels. After contraction, attached collagen gels were well organized; collagen fibrils were aligned in the plane of cell spreading; and fibroblasts had an elongated, bipolar morphology. Floating collagen gels, however, were unorganized; collagen fibrils were arranged randomly; and fibroblasts had a stellate morphology. DNA synthesis by fibroblasts in contracted collagen gels was suppressed if the gels were floating in medium but not if the gels were attached, and inhibition was independent of the extent of gel contraction. Therefore, growth of fibroblasts in contracted collagen gels could be regulated by differences in extracellular matrix organization and cell shape independently of extracellular matrix density. We also compared the responses of fibroblasts in contracted collagen gels and monolayer culture to peptide growth factors including fibroblast growth factor, platelet-derived growth factor, transforming growth factor-beta, and interleukin 1. Cells in floating collagen gels were generally unresponsive to any of the growth factors. Cells in attached collagen gels and monolayer culture were affected similarly by fibroblast growth factor but not by the others. Our results indicate that extracellular matrix organization influenced not only cell growth, but also fibroblast responsiveness to peptide growth factors.

  17. Improvement of security techniques and protection of biometric data in biometric systems: Presentation of International Standard ISO 24745

    OpenAIRE

    Milinković, Milorad

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the International Standard ISO 24745 as a potential security tool for biometric information protection, more precisely as a tool for privacy protection in biometric systems. This is one of the latest internationally accepted standards that address the security issues of biometric systems.

  18. Quantitative determination of titin and nebulin in poultry meat by SDS-PAGE with an internal standard

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tomaszewska Gras, J.; Kijowski,; Schreurs, F.J.G.

    2002-01-01

    The method of quantitative determination of titin and nebulin in chicken meat by SDS-PAGE electrophoresis technique was developed by application of β-galactosidase as the internal standard. The method was tested first on marker protein samples of known concentrations (myosin, transferrin, glutamic

  19. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry quantification of 6-thioguanine in DNA using endogenous guanine as internal standard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Jack Hummeland; Schmiegelow, Kjeld; Nersting, Jakob

    2012-01-01

    was estimated at 63% (RSD 26%), which is corrected for by the internal standard resulting in stable quantification. The TG levels found were above the LOQ in 18 out of 18 childhood leukemia patients on 6-mercaptopurine/methotrexate maintenance therapy (median 377, range 45-1190 fmol/μg DNA) with intra...

  20. Training effectiveness when teaching the International Standards for Neurological Classification of Spinal Cord Injury (ISNCSCI) to medical students

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, N; Zhou, M-W; Krassioukov, A V

    2013-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN: Interventional training sessions. OBJECTIVES: To examine the effectiveness of training medical students in the International Standards for Neurological Classification of Spinal Cord Injury (ISNCSCI). SETTING: A Peking University teaching hospital. METHODS: A total of 46 medical...... without more detailed discussions and case presentations. Utilization of cases is a valuable method in training ISNCSCI and can improve the overall training effectiveness....

  1. Internal standard method for determination of gallium and some trace elements in bauxite by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, S.G.; Tsai, H.T.

    1983-01-01

    A method is described for the determination of gallium and other trace elements such as Ce, Cr, Hf, Lu and Th in bauxite by the technique of neutron activation analysis using gold as internal standard. Isopropyl ether was used as organic extractant radioactive gallium from the sample. This method yields very good accuracy with a relative error of +-3%. (author)

  2. ANALYSIS OF THE CHARACTERISTICS OF INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ALGORITHMS «LIGHTWEIGHT CRYPTOGRAPHY» – ISO/IEC 29192-3:2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Poljakov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The data on the characteristics of international standard algorithms «lightweight cryptography» while application in hardware implementation based on microchips of FPGA are provided. A compari-son of the characteristics of these algorithms with the characteristics of several widely-used standard encryption algorithms is made and possibilities of lightweight cryptography algorithms are evaluated.

  3. WRKY transcription factors in plant responses to stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jingjing; Ma, Shenghui; Ye, Nenghui; Jiang, Ming; Cao, Jiashu; Zhang, Jianhua

    2017-02-01

    The WRKY gene family is among the largest families of transcription factors (TFs) in higher plants. By regulating the plant hormone signal transduction pathway, these TFs play critical roles in some plant processes in response to biotic and abiotic stress. Various bodies of research have demonstrated the important biological functions of WRKY TFs in plant response to different kinds of biotic and abiotic stresses and working mechanisms. However, very little summarization has been done to review their research progress. Not just important TFs function in plant response to biotic and abiotic stresses, WRKY also participates in carbohydrate synthesis, senescence, development, and secondary metabolites synthesis. WRKY proteins can bind to W-box (TGACC (A/T)) in the promoter of its target genes and activate or repress the expression of downstream genes to regulate their stress response. Moreover, WRKY proteins can interact with other TFs to regulate plant defensive responses. In the present review, we focus on the structural characteristics of WRKY TFs and the research progress on their functions in plant responses to a variety of stresses. © 2016 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  4. International collaborative study for the calibration of proposed International Standards for thromboplastin, rabbit, plain, and for thromboplastin, recombinant, human, plain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Besselaar, A M H P; Chantarangkul, V; Angeloni, F; Binder, N B; Byrne, M; Dauer, R; Gudmundsdottir, B R; Jespersen, J; Kitchen, S; Legnani, C; Lindahl, T L; Manning, R A; Martinuzzo, M; Panes, O; Pengo, V; Riddell, A; Subramanian, S; Szederjesi, A; Tantanate, C; Herbel, P; Tripodi, A

    2018-01-01

    Essentials Two candidate International Standards for thromboplastin (coded RBT/16 and rTF/16) are proposed. International Sensitivity Index (ISI) of proposed standards was assessed in a 20-centre study. The mean ISI for RBT/16 was 1.21 with a between-centre coefficient of variation of 4.6%. The mean ISI for rTF/16 was 1.11 with a between-centre coefficient of variation of 5.7%. Background The availability of International Standards for thromboplastin is essential for the calibration of routine reagents and hence the calculation of the International Normalized Ratio (INR). Stocks of the current Fourth International Standards are running low. Candidate replacement materials have been prepared. This article describes the calibration of the proposed Fifth International Standards for thromboplastin, rabbit, plain (coded RBT/16) and for thromboplastin, recombinant, human, plain (coded rTF/16). Methods An international collaborative study was carried out for the assignment of International Sensitivity Indexes (ISIs) to the candidate materials, according to the World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines for thromboplastins and plasma used to control oral anticoagulant therapy with vitamin K antagonists. Results Results were obtained from 20 laboratories. In several cases, deviations from the ISI calibration model were observed, but the average INR deviation attributabled to the model was not greater than 10%. Only valid ISI assessments were used to calculate the mean ISI for each candidate. The mean ISI for RBT/16 was 1.21 (between-laboratory coefficient of variation [CV]: 4.6%), and the mean ISI for rTF/16 was 1.11 (between-laboratory CV: 5.7%). Conclusions The between-laboratory variation of the ISI for candidate material RBT/16 was similar to that of the Fourth International Standard (RBT/05), and the between-laboratory variation of the ISI for candidate material rTF/16 was slightly higher than that of the Fourth International Standard (rTF/09). The candidate materials

  5. Biogastronomy: Factors that determine the biological response to meal ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pribic, T; Azpiroz, F

    2018-02-02

    The biological response to a meal includes physiological changes, primarily related to the digestive process, and a sensory experience, involving sensations related to the homeostatic control of food consumption, eg, satiety and fullness, with a hedonic dimension, ie associated with changes in digestive well-being and mood. The responses to a meal include a series of events before, during and after ingestion. While much attention has been paid to the events before and during ingestion, relatively little is known about the postprandial sensations, which are key to the gastronomical experience. The aim of this narrative review is to provide a comprehensive overview and to define the framework to investigate the factors that determine the postprandial experience. Based on a series of proof-of-concept studies and related information, we propose that the biological responses to a meal depend on the characteristics of the meal, primarily its palatability and composition, and the responsiveness of the guest, which may be influenced by multiple previous and concurrent conditioning factors. This information provides the scientific backbone to the development of personalized gastronomy. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Snakebite Prognostic Factors: Leading Factors of Weak Therapeutic Response Following Snakebite Envenomation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bita Dadpour

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The goal of antivenom administration for snake-bitten patients is to achieve therapeutic response (initial control, which means reversal of the venom-induced effects through neutralizing the venom. The aim of this study was to identify snakebite prognostic factors of weak therapeutic response prior to antivenom administration. Methods: This was a retrospective study of patients with viperidae snakebite envenomation who were admitted to Mashhad Toxicology Centre during 2007-2011. Demographic features, clinical manifestations and snakebite severity score (SSS were collected prior to antivenom administration. Total number of antivenom vials administered to achieve therapeutic response and duration of hospitalization were also recorded. Potential factors in snakebite prognosis were analyzed by comparing in two groups of achieving therapeutic response with less than 5 vials and over 5 to calculate odds ratio.  Results: Total of 108 patients (male/female: 85/23 with mean (SD age of 34.5 (17.0 were studied. The most common manifestations included fang marks (100%, pain (100%, ecchymosis (89%, swelling (83%, blister formation (48% and thrombocytopenia (25%. In univariate analysis, thrombocytopenia (P=0.01, spontaneous bleeding (P=0.02, coagulopathic disturbances (P=0.007, swelling (P=0.003, progressive swelling (P=0.005, ecchymosis (P=0.05 and respiratory distress (P= 0.05 were significantly correlated to weak therapeutic response. Swelling and spontaneous bleeding were the strongest snakebite prognostic factors, as respectively they put the patients at 12.4 and 10.4 fold risks for difficult achievement of therapeutic response. Conclusions: In snakebite, some clinical manifestations in the first hours of admission and prior to antivenom administration are associated with weak therapeutic response. Identifying these prognostic factors, can assist health care providers to better estimate the patient’s needs and predict the final

  7. International Standard Problems and Small Break Loss-of-Coolant Accident (SBLOCA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Aksan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Best-estimate thermal-hydraulic system codes are widely used to perform safety and licensing analyses of nuclear power plants and also used in the design of advance reactors. Evaluation of the capabilities and the performance of these codes can be accomplished by comparing the code predictions with measured experimental data obtained on different test facilities. OECD/NEA Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations (CSNI has promoted, over the last twenty-nine years, some forty-eight international standard problems (ISPs. These ISPs were performed in different fields as in-vessel thermal-hydraulic behaviour, fuel behaviour under accident conditions, fission product release and transport, core/concrete interactions, hydrogen distribution and mixing, containment thermal-hydraulic behaviour. 80% of these ISPs were related to the working domain of principal working group no.2 on coolant system behaviour (PWG2 and were one of the major PWG2 activities for many years. A global review and synthesis on the contribution that ISPs have made to address nuclear reactor safety issues was initiated by CSNI-PWG2 and an overview on the subject of small break LOCA ISPs is given in this paper based on a report prepared by a writing group. In addition, the relevance of small break LOCA in a PWR with relation to nuclear reactor safety and the reorientation of the reactor safety program after TMI-2 accident are shortly summarized. The experiments in four integral test facilities, LOBI, SPES, BETHSY, ROSA IV/LSTF and the recorded data during a steam generator tube rupture transient in the DOEL-2 PWR (Belgium were the basis of the five small break LOCA related ISP exercises, which deal with the phenomenon typical of small break LOCAs in Western design PWRs. Some lessons learned from these small break LOCA ISPs are identified in relation to code deficiencies and capabilities, progress in the code capabilities, possibility of scaling, and various additional aspects

  8. International Standard Problems and Small Break Loss-Of-Coolant Accident (SBLOCA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aksan, N.

    2008-01-01

    Best-estimate thermalhydraulic system codes are widely used to perform safety and licensing analyses of nuclear power plants and also used in the design of advance reactors. Evaluation of the capabilities and the performance of these codes can be accomplished by comparing the code predictions with measured experimental data obtained on different test facilities. In this respect, parallel to other national and international programs, OECD/Nea (OECD Nuclear Energy Agency) Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations (CSNI) has promoted, over the last twenty-nine years some forty-eight International Standard Problems (ISPs). These ISPs were performed in different fields as in-vessel thermalhydraulic behaviour, fuel behaviour under accident conditions, fission product release and transport, core/concrete interactions, hydrogen distribution and mixing, containment thermalhydraulic behaviour. 80% of these ISPs were related to the working domain of Principal Working Group no. 2 on Coolant System Behaviour (PWG2). The ISPs have been one of the major PWG2 activities for many years. The individual ISP comparison reports include the analysis and conclusions of the specific ISP exercises. A global review and synthesis on the contribution that ISPs have made to address nuclear reactor safety issues was initiated by CSNI-PWG2 and an overview on the subject of small break LOCA ISP's is given in this paper based on a report prepared by a CSNI-PWG2 writing group. In addition, the relevance of small break LOCA in a PWR with relation to nuclear reactor safety and the reorientation of the reactor safety program after TMI-2 accident, specifically small break LOCA, are shortly summarized. Five small break LOCA related ISP's are considered, since these were used for the assessment of the advanced best-estimate codes. The considered ISP's deal with the phenomenon typical of small break LOCAs in Western design PWRs. The experiments in four integral test facilities, LOBI, SPES, BETHSY

  9. Thematic network for a Phebus FPT1 international standard problem (THENPHEBISP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clement, B.; Haste, T.; Krausmann, E.; Dickinson, S.; Gyenes, G.; Duspiva, J.; Rosa, F. de; Paci, S.; Martin-Fuertes, F.; Scholytssek, W.; Allelein, H.-J.; Guentay, S.; Arien, B.; Marguet, S.; Leskovar, M.; Sartmadjiev, A.

    2005-01-01

    The THENPHEBISP 2-year thematic network started in December 2001, and was concerned with OECD/CSNI International Standard Problem 46, itself based on the Phebus FPT1 core degradation/source term experiment. The aim was to assess the capability of computer codes to model in an integrated way the physical processes taking place during a severe accident in a pressurised water reactor, from the initial stages of core degradation, the fission product transport through the primary circuit and the behaviour of the released fission products in the containment. ISP-46, coordinated by IRSN/DRS Cadarache, attracted 33 participating organisations, from 23 countries and international bodies, who submitted 47 base case calculations and 21 best-estimate calculations, using 15 different codes. The thermal behaviour of the fuel bundle and the hydrogen production were generally well captured, and good agreement for the core final state could be obtained with a suitable choice of bulk fuel relocation temperature, however this is unlikely to be representative of all plant studies so sensitivity calculations are needed with the modelling in its current state. Total volatile fission product release was simulated, but its kinetics, and the overall modelling of semi-volatile, low-volatile and structural material release (Ag/In/Cd, Sn) needs improvement. Overall retention in the circuit is well predicted, but calculations underestimate deposits in the upper plenum and overestimate those in the steam generator, also the volatility of some elements could be better predicted. Containment thermal hydraulics and depletion rate of aerosols are well calculated, but with difficulties related to partition amongst the deposition mechanisms. Calculation of iodine chemistry in the containment turned out to be more difficult. Its quality strongly depends of the calculation of release and transport in the integral codes. The major difficulties are related to the existence of gaseous iodine in the

  10. Key Response Planning Factors for the Aftermath of Nuclear Terrorism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buddemeier, B R; Dillon, M B

    2009-01-21

    Despite hundreds of above-ground nuclear tests and data gathered from Hiroshima and Nagasaki, the effects of a ground-level, low-yield nuclear detonation in a modern urban environment are still the subject of considerable scientific debate. Extensive review of nuclear weapon effects studies and discussions with nuclear weapon effects experts from various federal agencies, national laboratories, and technical organizations have identified key issues and bounded some of the unknowns required to support response planning for a low-yield, ground-level nuclear detonation in a modern U.S. city. This study, which is focused primarily upon the hazards posed by radioactive fallout, used detailed fallout predictions from the advanced suite of three-dimensional (3-D) meteorology and plume/fallout models developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), including extensive global Key Response Planning Factors for the Aftermath of Nuclear Terrorism geographical and real-time meteorological databases to support model calculations. This 3-D modeling system provides detailed simulations that account for complex meteorology and terrain effects. The results of initial modeling and analysis were presented to federal, state, and local working groups to obtain critical, broad-based review and feedback on strategy and messaging. This effort involved a diverse set of communities, including New York City, National Capitol Regions, Charlotte, Houston, Portland, and Los Angeles. The largest potential for reducing casualties during the post-detonation response phase comes from reducing exposure to fallout radiation. This can be accomplished through early, adequate sheltering followed by informed, delayed evacuation.B The response challenges to a nuclear detonation must be solved through multiple approaches of public education, planning, and rapid response actions. Because the successful response will require extensive coordination of a large number of organizations, supplemented by

  11. Jasmonate-responsive transcription factors regulating plant secondary metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Meiliang; Memelink, Johan

    2016-01-01

    Plants produce a large variety of secondary metabolites including alkaloids, glucosinolates, terpenoids and phenylpropanoids. These compounds play key roles in plant-environment interactions and many of them have pharmacological activity in humans. Jasmonates (JAs) are plant hormones which induce biosynthesis of many secondary metabolites. JAs-responsive transcription factors (TFs) that regulate the JAs-induced accumulation of secondary metabolites belong to different families including AP2/ERF, bHLH, MYB and WRKY. Here, we give an overview of the types and functions of TFs that have been identified in JAs-induced secondary metabolite biosynthesis, and highlight their similarities and differences in regulating various biosynthetic pathways. We review major recent developments regarding JAs-responsive TFs mediating secondary metabolite biosynthesis, and provide suggestions for further studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Fiscal 2000 project for development of international standards for supporting novel industries. Standardization of management of color reproduction (Color management); 2000 nendo shinki sangyo shiengata kokusai hyojun kaihatsu jigyo. Iro saigen kanri (color management) no hyojunka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Studies were made to formulate a standard plan on color information apparatuses and prepare software programs to be responsible for their characteristics and to draft propositions on international standards based on them. In the effort to standardize color control for input/output apparatuses, factors causing fluctuations in the profile were extracted, and hierarchical function expansion was implemented for the profile including elementary color augmentation. The draft on standardization was presented at a conference held at San Jose, U.S. As for the standardization of the multispectral color image description format, a fluorescent color atlas was prepared and presented at ISO/TC130 Conference in September, when it was accepted that it be a proposition at the next conference. In the standardization of psychological color reproduction, a 2-stage evaluation system was established, capable of achieving a result high in accuracy and stability under a small experimental load. This methodology of subjective evaluation was presented at ISO/TC42/WG18 Tokyo Conference, when it was requested that it be a new item on the agenda. (NEDO)

  13. CSNI international standard problem procedures - CSNI Report No. 17 - Revision 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Micaelli, J.C.

    2004-01-01

    Assessing the safety of a nuclear installation requires the use of a number of highly specialised tools: computer codes, experimental facilities and their instrumentation, special measurement techniques, methods for testing materials and components and so on. These tools may vary to some extent in different countries and many of them are extremely complex and costly to produce and use. A highly effective way of increasing confidence in the validity and accuracy of such tools is provided by International Standard Problem (ISP) Exercises in which they are gauged against one another and/or against an agreed standard. For example, predictions of different computer codes for a given physical problem may be compared with each other and with the results of a carefully controlled experimental study which also could be a real plant transient. This kind of comparative exercise is clearly suitable for an international venture. CSNI is of the opinion that ISP exercises are useful and should be continued. ISPs are performed as 'open' or as 'blind' problems. In an open problem results of an experiment are available to participants before it is evaluated. In a blind problem results of the experiment are not made known to the participants until after delivery of the calculated results. Depending on the kind of experiment and its objectives, certain boundary and initial conditions of the experiment are communicated to the participants before they start the exercise. This is necessary where it is difficult to guarantee the reproducibility of experiments. For all ISPs the participants are provided with a complete description of the experimental facility. The Lead Country (proposing the ISP) must decide whether the data can be withheld temporarily (blind ISP) or whether the data will be published before the analysis of participating countries is completed (open ISP). It is recommended that ISPs be conducted blind, where possible. ISPs require a considerable expenditure of resources

  14. Regulation of bitter taste responses by tumor necrosis factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Pu; Jyotaki, Masafumi; Kim, Agnes; Chai, Jinghua; Simon, Nirvine; Zhou, Minliang; Bachmanov, Alexander A; Huang, Liquan; Wang, Hong

    2015-10-01

    Inflammatory cytokines are important regulators of metabolism and food intake. Over production of inflammatory cytokines during bacterial and viral infections leads to anorexia and reduced food intake. However, it remains unclear whether any inflammatory cytokines are involved in the regulation of taste reception, the sensory mechanism governing food intake. Previously, we showed that tumor necrosis factor (TNF), a potent proinflammatory cytokine, is preferentially expressed in a subset of taste bud cells. The level of TNF in taste cells can be further induced by inflammatory stimuli. To investigate whether TNF plays a role in regulating taste responses, in this study, we performed taste behavioral tests and gustatory nerve recordings in TNF knockout mice. Behavioral tests showed that TNF-deficient mice are significantly less sensitive to the bitter compound quinine than wild-type mice, while their responses to sweet, umami, salty, and sour compounds are comparable to those of wild-type controls. Furthermore, nerve recording experiments showed that the chorda tympani nerve in TNF knockout mice is much less responsive to bitter compounds than that in wild-type mice. Chorda tympani nerve responses to sweet, umami, salty, and sour compounds are similar between TNF knockout and wild-type mice, consistent with the results from behavioral tests. We further showed that taste bud cells express the two known TNF receptors TNFR1 and TNFR2 and, therefore, are potential targets of TNF. Together, our results suggest that TNF signaling preferentially modulates bitter taste responses. This mechanism may contribute to taste dysfunction, particularly taste distortion, associated with infections and some chronic inflammatory diseases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Intemational collaborative study on the preparation of 1st international standard for rhTSH for bioassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Ying; Shen Hongzheng; Yu Ting; Xu Ligen

    2007-01-01

    The history of the international collaborative studies on the preparation of standards of TSH for bioassay and immunoassay was reviewed. The result of collaborative study on the 1st international standard for thyroid-stimulating hormone, recombinant, human, for bioassay was reported in detail in this article. Based on the results of this collaborative study, it is proposed that the candidate standard be established as the international standard for rhTSH for bioassay, and be assigned an activity of 9.5 IU per ampoule. The national standard preparation of TSH for immunoassay was also reassayed, revealing the potency to be 0.557 mIU/ampoule, i.e. 92. 8% of the labelled value of 0.600mIU/ampoule, a reasonable consistency. (authors)

  16. Water quality - Determination of tritium activity concentration - Liquid scintillation counting method (International Standard Publication ISO 9698:1989)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanik, J.

    1999-01-01

    This International Standard specifies a method for the determination of tritiated water ([ 3 H]H 2 O) activity concentration in water by liquid scintillation counting. The method is applicable to all types of water including seawater with tritium activity concentrations of up to 10 6 Bq/m 3 when using 20 ml counting vials. Below tritium activity concentrations of about 5 x 10 4 Bq/m 3[ 8], a prior enrichment step and/or the measurement of larger sample volumes can significantly improve the accuracy of the determination and lower the limit of detection. Tritium activity concentrations higher than 10 6 Bq/m 3 may be determined after appropriate dilution with distilled water of proven low tritium content. An alternative method for the determination of these higher activities involves increasing the tritium activity concentrations of the internal standard solution. The method is not applicable to the analysis of organically bound tritium; its determination requires an oxidative digestion

  17. Electronic book format EPUB and Japanese typography : Mainstream people in Japan are unlikely to win international standardization battles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Makoto

    EPUB3 is an electronic book format based on Web technologies such as HTML and CSS. EPUB3 is internationalized; in particular, it supports Japanese typography. Features such as vertical writing were introduced by first creating CSS Writing Modes and CSS Text at W3C and then creating EPUB3 at IDPF on top of them. On the basis of this standardization experience, common pitfalls for Japanese in international standardization are pointed out and a promising approach is suggested.

  18. Compliance with the AM+L4776L/CFT International Standard; Lessons from a Cross-Country Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Concha Verdugo Yepes

    2011-01-01

    This paper assesses countries' compliance with the Anti-Money Laundering and Combating the Financing of Terrorism (AML/CFT) international standard during the period 2004 to 2011. We find that overall compliance is low; there is an adverse impact on financial transparency created by the cumulative effects of poor implementation of standards on customer identification; and the current measurements of compliance do not take into account an analysis of ML/FT risk, thereby undermining their credib...

  19. Comparison of the thermodynamic and correlation criteria for internal standard selection in laser-induced breakdown spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labutin, Timur A.; Zaytsev, Sergey M.; Popov, Andrey M.; Seliverstova, Irina V.; Bozhenko, Sergey E.; Zorov, Nikita B.

    2013-01-01

    The use of the reference line of an internal standard in LIBS is a usual way to eliminate or reduce the fluctuations of plasma parameters from pulse to pulse as well as from sample to sample. Thermodynamic criterion, i.e. closeness of excitation potentials of the analytical line and the reference one, is often used to select an appropriate reference line. In this work, we propose an alternative criterion based on searching the best correlated pairs of lines under the variations of laser energy. Two criteria were compared for high-alloy steels and soils of different origins. The discrepancy among the values of plasma temperature calculated from Fe I, Mn I and Cr I transitions was found under the conditions of slightly changed laser fluence on steel samples. On the other hand, the agreement between plasma temperatures, obtained for Fe I and Mn I transitions, was demonstrated in plasma on soil samples. Calibration results obtained for manganese in steels and lead in soils show that thermodynamic criterion can be an appropriate way for choosing an internal standard only under LTE conditions. Two lines of Mn I at 403.07 nm and 404.14 nm and Pb I at 405.78 nm were the analytical lines for the quantification of manganese in steels and lead in soils, respectively. The use of the correlative criterion seems to be suitable for internal standardization under LTE or non-LTE conditions. Probable limitations of the correlative criterion and its possibilities to identify weak lines are discussed in the article. - Highlights: • Novel criterion for internal standard selection, based on the correlation of analytical line and reference one • Comparison of correlation and thermodynamic criteria • Correlation analysis of the spectrum can be useful for atomic line identification. • Correlation approach can be used in LTE and non-LTE conditions

  20. FACTORS RESPONSIBLE FOR CONSUMER’S ATTITUDE TOWARDS ADVERGAMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghirvu Alina

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Internet technology, as well as development of mobile phone was fast adopted by people for recreational, economical and business reasons. The Internet technology development and the new communication systems made marketers to orientate their promotional campaigns and efforts towards new ways of reaching their actual and potential client. They started to use new and innovative ways to get public’s interest and to encourage purchase. In this context, Internet offered a complex environment to support the development of innovative brand strategies. One of the emerging new techniques in advertising is advergaming. Advergames represent the use of video game interactive technology for delivering brand messages to public. They are electronic games accessible on companies own websites, on social media sites and on application which can be downloaded on mobile devices. For marketers is important to understand the way that advergames work and what consumer’s attitude towards this practice is. The formation of attitude depends on a series of factors which are common to all types of advertisements based on Internet technology. These factors responsible for consumers’ attitude towards online advertising and implicit for attitude formation over advergames are informative component, entertainment, source credibility and irritation. Beside these four elements, there are additional criterions which consumers use for evaluating advertising in video games: the viral component, interactivity and telepresence. For marketers it is important to understand these factors and to find practical ways for using them for a better brand communication and for higher result of advertising campaigns which include the use of advergames as part of the promotional strategy. The present paper is looking to make a description of the factors influencing consumer’s attitude formation towards advergames, in conjunction with the Internet environment and the specific features of

  1. Current situation of International Organization for Standardization/Technical Committee 249 international standards of traditional Chinese medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu-Qi; Wang, Yue-Xi; Shi, Nan-Nan; Han, Xue-Jie; Lu, Ai-Ping

    2017-05-01

    To review the current situation and progress of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) international standards, standard projects and proposals in International Organization for Standardization (ISO)/ technical committee (TC) 249. ISO/TC 249 standards and standard projects on the ISO website were searched and new standard proposals information were collected from ISO/TC 249 National Mirror Committee in China. Then all the available data were summarized in 5 closely related items, including proposed time, proposed country, assigned working group (WG), current stage and classifification. In ISO/TC 249, there were 2 international standards, 18 standard projects and 24 new standard proposals proposed in 2014. These 44 standard subjects increased year by year since 2011. Twenty-nine of them were proposed by China, 15 were assigned to WG 4, 36 were in preliminary and preparatory stage and 8 were categorized into 4 fifields, 7 groups and sub-groups based on International Classifification Standards. A rapid and steady development of international standardization in TCM can be observed in ISO/TC 249.

  2. Preparation and certification of solutions of perdeuterated polycyclic aromatic compounds intended for use as surrogate internal standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quilliam, M.A.; Hardstaff, W.R.; Anacleto, J.F.; LeBlanc, M.D.; Stergiopoulos, V.; Dick, K.L.; Bowser, M.T.; Curtis, J.M.; Embree, D.J.; Sim, P.G.; Boyd, R.K.

    1994-01-01

    Two standard solutions of deuterated polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) have been prepared for use as surrogate internal standards. Solution DPAC-1 contains 21 deuterated PACs, and is intended for use with mass spectrometric (MS) detection. Most of the difficulties in certifying concentrations in DPAC-1 arose from the fact that none of the individual compounds was 100% deuterated, so that effects of mass spectrometric fragmentation are convoluted with those of isotopic distributions. The best methods are discussed for using such internal standards so as to minimize these problems, together with those arising from kinetic isotope effects. Solution DPAC-2 contains 6 deuterated PACs, and is primarily intended for use with reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detection (FLD, dural programmed wavelength mode), in which the signals for analyte and internal standard are separated chromatographically rather than via the detector. Full details of the preparation of these solutions are described. In addition, examples of their use in the analysis of a certified coal-tar extract (NIST SRM 1597) are described briefly. In one example a novel HPLC-MS technique was employed, and in the other the HPLC-FLD technique was used. (orig.)

  3. Reliable LC-MS quantitative glycomics using iGlycoMab stable isotope labeled glycans as internal standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shiyue; Tello, Nadia; Harvey, Alex; Boyes, Barry; Orlando, Ron; Mechref, Yehia

    2016-06-01

    Glycans have numerous functions in various biological processes and participate in the progress of diseases. Reliable quantitative glycomic profiling techniques could contribute to the understanding of the biological functions of glycans, and lead to the discovery of potential glycan biomarkers for diseases. Although LC-MS is a powerful analytical tool for quantitative glycomics, the variation of ionization efficiency and MS intensity bias are influencing quantitation reliability. Internal standards can be utilized for glycomic quantitation by MS-based methods to reduce variability. In this study, we used stable isotope labeled IgG2b monoclonal antibody, iGlycoMab, as an internal standard to reduce potential for errors and to reduce variabililty due to sample digestion, derivatization, and fluctuation of nanoESI efficiency in the LC-MS analysis of permethylated N-glycans released from model glycoproteins, human blood serum, and breast cancer cell line. We observed an unanticipated degradation of isotope labeled glycans, tracked a source of such degradation, and optimized a sample preparation protocol to minimize degradation of the internal standard glycans. All results indicated the effectiveness of using iGlycoMab to minimize errors originating from sample handling and instruments. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Cooperative binding of transcription factors promotes bimodal gene expression response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo S Gutierrez

    Full Text Available In the present work we extend and analyze the scope of our recently proposed stochastic model for transcriptional regulation, which considers an arbitrarily complex cis-regulatory system using only elementary reactions. Previously, we determined the role of cooperativity on the intrinsic fluctuations of gene expression for activating transcriptional switches, by means of master equation formalism and computer simulation. This model allowed us to distinguish between two cooperative binding mechanisms and, even though the mean expression levels were not affected differently by the acting mechanism, we showed that the associated fluctuations were different. In the present generalized model we include other regulatory functions in addition to those associated to an activator switch. Namely, we introduce repressive regulatory functions and two theoretical mechanisms that account for the biphasic response that some cis-regulatory systems show to the transcription factor concentration. We have also extended our previous master equation formalism in order to include protein production by stochastic translation of mRNA. Furthermore, we examine the graded/binary scenarios in the context of the interaction energy between transcription factors. In this sense, this is the first report to show that the cooperative binding of transcription factors to DNA promotes the "all-or-none" phenomenon observed in eukaryotic systems. In addition, we confirm that gene expression fluctuation levels associated with one of two cooperative binding mechanism never exceed the fluctuation levels of the other.

  5. Overview and comparative study of GPR international standards and guidelines - COST Action TU1208

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajewski, Lara; Marciniak, Marian; Benedetto, Andrea; Tosti, Fabio

    2016-04-01

    Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) can be effectively used for non-destructive testing of composite structures and diagnostics affecting the whole life-cycle of civil engineering works. Nevertheless, few recognised international standards exist in this field and inhomogeneous recommendations are present in different countries. Moreover, the levels of knowledge, awareness and experience regarding the use of GPR in civil engineering vary strongly across different European areas. The COST Action TU1208 is working hard on leveraging these differences, by sharing and disseminating knowledge and experience, as well as by developing guidelines and protocols for a safe and effective use of GPR in civil engineering. GPR users need to know which is the best way to conduct GPR measurements and what the quality level for the results should be. The TU1208 guidelines will ensure a higher efficiency and quality of GPR services and they will constitute a scientific basis for the introduction of European Standards on the application of GPR in civil engineering. The aim of this contribution is to present an in-depth overview and critical analysis of the existing GPR international and national standards and guidelines. The main documents considered in our work are listed and briefly described in the following. Three standards are provided by the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), to guide the GPR use for subsurface investigation, evaluation of asphalt-covered concrete bridge decks, and determination of pavement-layer thickness: 1. ASTM D6432-11, Standard Guide for Using the Surface Ground Penetrating Radar Method for Subsurface Investigation, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2011, www.astm.org, DOI: 10.1520/D6432-11. 2. ASTM D6087-08, Standard Test Method for Evaluating Asphalt-Covered Concrete Bridge Decks Using Ground Penetrating Radar, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2008, www.astm.org, DOI: 10.1520/D6087-08. 3. ASTM D4748-10, Standard Test Method

  6. Ethylene response factor AtERF72 negatively regulates Arabidopsis thaliana response to iron deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Li, Qiwei; Wang, Yi; Wu, Ting; Yang, Yafei; Zhang, Xinzhong; Han, Zhenhai; Xu, Xuefeng

    2017-09-23

    Ethylene regulates the plant's response to stress caused by iron (Fe) deficiency. However, specific roles of ERF proteins in response to Fe deficiency remain poorly understood. Here, we investigated the role of ERF72 in response to iron deficiency in Arabidopsis thaliana. In this study, the levels of the ethylene response factor AtERF72 increased in leaves and roots induced under the iron deficient conditions. erf72 mutant plants showed increased growth compared to wild type (WT) when grown in iron deficient medium for 5 d. erf72 mutants had increased root H + velocity and the ferric reductase activity, and increase in the expression of the iron deficiency response genes iron-regulated transporter 1 (IRT1) and H + -ATPase (HA2) levels in iron deficient conditions. Compared to WT plants, erf72 mutants retained healthy chloroplast structure with significantly higher Fe and Mg content, and decreased chlorophyll degradation gene pheophorbide a oxygenase (PAO) and chlorophyllase (CLH1) expression when grown in iron deficient media. Yeast one-hybrid analysis showed that ERF72 could directly bind to the promoter regions of iron deficiency responses genes IRT1, HA2 and CLH1. Based on our results, we suggest that ethylene released from plants under iron deficiency stress can activate the expression of ERF72, which responds to iron deficiency in the negative regulation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. An International Standard for specifying the minimum potency of anti-D blood-grouping reagents: evaluation of a candidate preparation in an international collaborative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thorpe, S. J.; Fox, B.; Heath, A. B.; Scott, M.; de Haas, M.; Kochman, S.; Padilla, A.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate a lyophilized monoclonal immunoglobulin M (IgM) anti-D preparation for use as an International Standard to specify a recommended minimum acceptable potency of anti-D blood-grouping reagents. The candidate International Standard (99/836) for specifying the

  8. Insulin and insulin-like growth factor receptors and responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, R.A.; Steele-Perkins, G.; Hari, J.; Stover, C.; Pierce, S.; Turner, J.; Edman, J.C.; Rutter, W.J.

    1988-01-01

    Insulin is a member of a family of structurally related hormones with diverse physiological functions. In humans, the best-characterized members of this family include insulin, insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I, and IGF-II. Each of these three polypeptide hormones has its own distinct receptor. The structures of each of these receptors have now been deduced from analyses of isolated cDNA clones. To study further the responses mediated through these three different receptors, the authors have been studying cells expressing the proteins encoded by these three cDNAs. The isolated cDNAs have been transfected into Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, and the resulting transfected cell lines have been characterized as to the ligand-binding activities and signal-transducing activities of the expressed proteins

  9. Intensity of the Internal Standard Response as the Basis for Reporting a Test Specimen as Negative or Inconclusive

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-08-01

    conclusive results in toxicology tests. Even under normal analytical conditions where the IS is poorly recovered, the substance may escape detection if it is...and en- zyme immunoassay of cannabis metabolites with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis of 11-nor-Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9- carboxylic

  10. External and internal standards in the single-isotope derivative (radioenzymatic) measurement of plasma norepinephrine and epinephrine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, S.D.; Clutter, W.E.; Cryer, P.E.

    1985-01-01

    In plasma from normal humans (n = 9, 35 samples) and from patients with diabetes mellitus (n = 12, 24 samples) single-isotope derivative (radioenzymatic) plasma norepinephrine and epinephrine concentrations calculated from external standard curves constructed in a normal plasma pool were identical to those calculated from internal standards added to an aliquot of each plasma sample. In plasma from patients with end-stage renal failure receiving long-term dialysis (n = 34, 109 samples), competitive catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) inhibitory activity resulted in a systematic error when external standards in a normal plasma pool were used, as reported previously; values so calculated averaged 21% (+/- 12%, SD) lower than those calculated from internal standards. However, when external standard curves were constructed in plasma from a given patient with renal failure and used to calculate that patient's values, or in a renal failure plasma pool and used to calculate all renal failure values, norepinephrine and epinephrine concentrations were not significantly different from those calculated from internal standards. We conclude: (1) External standard curves constructed in plasma from a given patient with renal failure can be used to measure norepinephrine and epinephrine in plasma from that patient; further, external standards in a renal failure plasma pool can be used for assays in patients with end-stage renal failure receiving long-term dialysis. (2) Major COMT inhibitory activity is not present commonly if samples from patients with renal failure are excluded. Thus, it would appear that external standard curves constructed in normal plasma can be used to measure norepinephrine and epinephrine precisely in samples from persons who do not have renal failure

  11. A generalized linear factor model approach to the hierarchical framework for responses and response times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molenaar, Dylan; Tuerlinckx, Francis; van der Maas, Han L J

    2015-05-01

    We show how the hierarchical model for responses and response times as developed by van der Linden (2007), Fox, Klein Entink, and van der Linden (2007), Klein Entink, Fox, and van der Linden (2009), and Glas and van der Linden (2010) can be simplified to a generalized linear factor model with only the mild restriction that there is no hierarchical model at the item side. This result is valuable as it enables all well-developed modelling tools and extensions that come with these methods. We show that the restriction we impose on the hierarchical model does not influence parameter recovery under realistic circumstances. In addition, we present two illustrative real data analyses to demonstrate the practical benefits of our approach. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.

  12. A Fresh Look at Spanish Scientific Publishing in the Framework of International Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindelan, Paz

    2009-01-01

    Research has become a key element in the knowledge-based society with its role of producing and disseminating results. In this context, scientific publishing becomes the means by which research activity and knowledge production are circulated to the scientific community and society at large. However, there are factors influencing the system of…

  13. OH yields from the CH3CO+O-2 reaction using an internal standard\\ud

    OpenAIRE

    Carr, S.A.; Baeza-Romero, M.T.; Blitz, M.A.; Pilling, M.J.; Heard, D.E.; Seakins, P.W.

    2007-01-01

    Laser flash photolysis of CH3C(O)OH at 248 nm was used to create equal zero time yields of CH3CO and OH. The absolute OH yield from the CH3CO + O2 (+M) reaction was determined by following the OH temporal profile using the zero time\\ud OH concentration as an internal standard. The OH yield from CH3CO + O2 (+M) was observed to decrease with increasing pressure with an extrapolated zero pressure yield\\ud close to unity (1.1 ± 0.2, quoted uncertainties correspond to 95% confidence limits). The r...

  14. Fiscal 1997 report on the results of the international standardization R and D. International standards for computers/manikins; 1997 nendo seika hokokusho kokusai hyojun soseigata kenkyu kaihatsu. Computer manikin ni kansuru kokusai hyojun kikaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    Through the development of computer manikins (CM) which assess human adaptability to products and environments, a draft for international standardization was worked out to propose to ISO. A draft for the international standardization was presented to ISO through a development of `a structure model` changing based on human attributes, a study of `a motion model` enabling changes in posture and movement, a study of `an evaluation model` evaluating attainment ranges and ecodynamic loads, and a development of `computer functions` realizing the above-mentioned functions. The development of CM having the following characteristics: a function to reproduce `the structure model` based on the ISO7250 human body dimensional measuring values which were regulated in items for the human body dimensional measuring, a function to change posture/movement based on the joint movable range data, a function to evaluate geometrical human adaptability such as attainment ranges. As a plug-in to Autodesk Mechanical Desktop 2.0, the above-mentioned functions were realized, and the modular structure platform was constructed which enables the wide-range cross-industry option and functional expansion by the advance of CM. 7 refs., 41 figs., 18 tabs.

  15. NECAP 4.1: NASA's Energy Cost Analysis Program thermal response factor routine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weise, M. R.

    1982-08-01

    A thermal response factor is described and calculation sequences and flowcharts for RESFAC2 are provided. RESFAC is used by NASA's (NECAP) to calculate hourly heat transfer coefficients (thermal response factors) for each unique delayed surface. NECAP uses these response factors to compute each spaces' hourly heat gain/loss.

  16. Fiscal 1997 report on the results of the international standardization R and D. Overall survey; 1997 nendo seika hokokusho kokusai hyojun soseigata kenkyu kaihatsu. Sogo chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The paper summed up the results of the survey of tackling with the international standardization by enterprises and organizations involved in the standardization in the U.S., Europe and Japan, the results of the R and D on 20 themes for the international standardization, and the development toward the international standardization. As the R and D themes, the following were selected: the development of chemical method to analyze/evaluate metallic coatings of surface treated steel coating sheets, R and D of the basic evaluation method of functional composite particles, international standards for computer/manikins, basic technology of color image management, study on optimizing design/evaluation technology using quality engineering, study of the international standardization by economic evaluation of environmental impacts, R and D of the standardization of a method to test acceleration life of phosphorous acid fuel cells, development of a test method of halogen-free flame-retardant cables and a study of the cable standards, standard measuring methods of hormone effects of chemical substances, quantification of the sensory evaluation and international standardization in the paint field, experimental study on the international standardization for immunochemical measurement of chemical substances, etc. 24 figs., 16 tabs.

  17. [From manual workshop to international standard maker: exploration on production standard of acupuncture needle by Chengjiang acupuncture school].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jie; Cao, Yang; Xia, Youbing

    2015-02-01

    ABSTRACT The exploration course on production standard of acupuncture needle by Chengjiang acupuncture school is reviewed in this paper. After new China was established, acupuncture needle standard was unified by Mr. CHENG Dan-an, which guided Suzhou Hua Erfang (predecessor of Suzhou Medical Supplies Factory) to make the quality standards and testing methods of acupuncture needle and improved the production process to make the modern acupuncture needle. Based on this, Suzhou Medical Supplies Factory followed the time development pace, ac tively introduced new technology, carried out technological innovation, and constantly improved the level of production technology, as a result, it gradually developed into one of the world's largest acupuncture needle production suppliers. Meanwhile, after establishing China's first national standard on acupuncture needle (GB 2024-1980), the Suzhou Medical Supplies Factory took the lead to draft "ISO) 17218:2014 the disposable use asepsis acupuncture needle", which was officially published as an international standard. The Suzhou Medical Supplies Factory developed from a manual workshop to an international standard maker.

  18. Investigations on international standardization of environmental management systems. 3; Kankyo kanri system no kokusai hyojunka ni kansuru chosa. 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    Japan as an ISO member country identifies the state of discussions in the environmental management standard deliberation committee at ISO. Investigations were performed on international standardization of environmental management systems for the purpose of participating and cooperating in preparing and establishing international standards related to environmental management, and playing part in working, solving and improving environmental problems. Under the circumstances that environmental problems are drawing worldwide interest, the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) has been carrying out since 1993 deliberations on environmental management standards to institutionalize environmental management rules to check effects of business activities on the environment. The International Organization for Standardization/Environmental Management Technical Committee (ISO/TC207) was installed, at which series number of 1400 order was allotted for environmental management related standards, and major standards have come to a final stage of standard formulation at the TC207 Oslo conference in June 1995. In Japan, the Ministry of International Trade and Industry has established an environmental management standard deliberation committee composed of people of experience or academic standing to advance discussions on how the environmental management should be in business entities through deliberations on ISO standards.

  19. Methodological aspects of clinical trials in tinnitus: A proposal for an international standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landgrebe, Michael; Azevedo, Andréia; Baguley, David; Bauer, Carol; Cacace, Anthony; Coelho, Claudia; Dornhoffer, John; Figueiredo, Ricardo; Flor, Herta; Hajak, Goeran; van de Heyning, Paul; Hiller, Wolfgang; Khedr, Eman; Kleinjung, Tobias; Koller, Michael; Lainez, Jose Miguel; Londero, Alain; Martin, William H.; Mennemeier, Mark; Piccirillo, Jay; De Ridder, Dirk; Rupprecht, Rainer; Searchfield, Grant; Vanneste, Sven; Zeman, Florian; Langguth, Berthold

    2013-01-01

    Chronic tinnitus is a common condition with a high burden of disease. While many different treatments are used in clinical practice, the evidence for the efficacy of these treatments is low and the variance of treatment response between individuals is high. This is most likely due to the great heterogeneity of tinnitus with respect to clinical features as well as underlying pathophysiological mechanisms. There is a clear need to find effective treatment options in tinnitus, however, clinical trials differ substantially with respect to methodological quality and design. Consequently, the conclusions that can be derived from these studies are limited and jeopardize comparison between studies. Here, we discuss our view of the most important aspects of trial design in clinical studies in tinnitus and make suggestions for an international methodological standard in tinnitus trials. We hope that the proposed methodological standard will stimulate scientific discussion and will help to improve the quality of trials in tinnitus. PMID:22789414

  20. [Management of quality in an Intensive Care Unit: implementation of ISO 9001:2008 international standard].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo Torrent, R; Sánchez Palacios, M; Santana Cabrera, L; Cobian Martinez, J L; García del Rosario, C

    2010-10-01

    The Quality Management Systems make it possible to prioritize actions to maintain the safety and efficacy of health technologies. The Intensive Care Unit of our hospital has implemented a quality management plan, which has obtained accreditation as "Service Certificate that manages its activities according to UNE-EN ISO 9001:2008" standard. With the application of quality management system, it has been possible to detect the needs that the Service can cover in order to obtain the satisfaction of the patient, relative or health personnel of the other services of the hospital, to improve communications inside and outside of service, to secure greater understanding of the processes of the organization and control of risk, to delimit responsibilities clearly to all the personnel, to make better use of the time and resources and, finally, to improve the motivation of the personnel. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier España, S.L. y SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  1. Regulation of cardiac microRNAs by serum response factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Jeanne Y

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Serum response factor (SRF regulates certain microRNAs that play a role in cardiac and skeletal muscle development. However, the role of SRF in the regulation of microRNA expression and microRNA biogenesis in cardiac hypertrophy has not been well established. In this report, we employed two distinct transgenic mouse models to study the impact of SRF on cardiac microRNA expression and microRNA biogenesis. Cardiac-specific overexpression of SRF (SRF-Tg led to altered expression of a number of microRNAs. Interestingly, downregulation of miR-1, miR-133a and upregulation of miR-21 occurred by 7 days of age in these mice, long before the onset of cardiac hypertrophy, suggesting that SRF overexpression impacted the expression of microRNAs which contribute to cardiac hypertrophy. Reducing cardiac SRF level using the antisense-SRF transgenic approach (Anti-SRF-Tg resulted in the expression of miR-1, miR-133a and miR-21 in the opposite direction. Furthermore, we observed that SRF regulates microRNA biogenesis, specifically the transcription of pri-microRNA, thereby affecting the mature microRNA level. The mir-21 promoter sequence is conserved among mouse, rat and human; one SRF binding site was found to be in the mir-21 proximal promoter region of all three species. The mir-21 gene is regulated by SRF and its cofactors, including myocardin and p49/Strap. Our study demonstrates that the downregulation of miR-1, miR-133a, and upregulation of miR-21 can be reversed by one single upstream regulator, SRF. These results may help to develop novel therapeutic interventions targeting microRNA biogenesis.

  2. Role of the IAEA in establishment of the international standards of radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinak, M.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the presentation is to highlight the existing challenges in radiation protection, and provide insight into the role of the IAEA in establishment of the radiation safety standards. It will, inter alia, cover from the following areas: 1. global outreach of safety principles in radiation protection and safety; 2. IAEA and establishment of Safety Standards; 3. IAEA Standards and national regulations; 4. IAEA members states role in drafting and review of IAEA Safety Standards; 5. existing, novel issues and challenges. The role of the IAEA is to establish fundamental safety objectives in radiation protection and safety following fundamental safety objectives, safety principles and concepts. The main aim of Safety Standards is to provide for the establishment of a system for protection of people and the environment from harmful effects of ionizing radiation. The requirements as included in the Safety Standards aim to assess, manage and control exposure to radiation so that radiation risks, including risks of health effects and risks to the environment, are reduced to the extent reasonably achievable.One of the novel feature adopted in the revised Basic Safety Standards (BSS) is the classification of exposures - planned, emergency and existing - each of them including several categories of exposure (occupational, public and medical), where appropriate.The revised BSS also addresses areas like exemption and clearance being particularly important in international trade and transport; significantly increases the number of requirements in medicine, in response to novel and/or expanding techniques in medicine using ionizing radiation; incorporates new regulatory limits for exposure to radon, and in protection of the lens of the eyes, as recommended by WHO and ICRP; newly introduces requirements for specific practices like, for example, airport security screenings; and addresses many other areas.While the principal approach to regulatory aspects in emergency exposure

  3. An Audit of Emergency Department Accreditation Based on Joint Commission International Standards (JCI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behrooz Hashemi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Despite thousands of years from creation of medical knowledge, it not much passes from founding the health care systems. Accreditation is an effective mechanism for performance evaluation, quality enhancement, and the safety of health care systems. This study was conducted to assess the results of emergency department (ED accreditation in Shohadaye Tajrish Hospital, Tehran, Iran, 2013 in terms of domesticated standards of joint commission international (JCI standards. Methods: This is a cohort study with a four months follow up which was conducted in the ED of Shohadaye Tajrish hospital in December 2013. The standard evaluation check list of Iran hospitals (based on JCI standards included 24 heading and 337 subheading was used for this purpose. The effective possible causes of weak spots were found and their solutions considered. After correction, assessment of accreditation were repeated again. Finally, the achieved results of two periods were analyzed using SPSS version 20. Results: Quality improvement, admission in department and patient assessment, competency and capability test for staffs, collection and analysis of data, training of patients, and facilities had the score of below 50%. The mean of total score for accreditation in ED in the first period was 60.4±30.15 percent and in the second period 68.9±22.9 (p=0.005. Strategic plans, head of department, head nurse, resident physician, responsible nurse for the shift, and personnel file achieved the score of 100%. Of total headings below 50% in the first period just in two cases, collection and analysis of data with growth of 40% as well as competency and capability test for staffs with growth of 17%, were reached to more than 50%. Conclusion: Based on findings of the present study, the ED of Shohadaye Tajrish hospital reached the score of below 50% in six heading of quality improvement, admission in department and patient assessment, competency and capability test for

  4. An Audit of Emergency Department Accreditation Based on Joint Commission International Standards (JCI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi, Behrooz; Motamedi, Maryam; Etemad, Mania; Rahmati, Farhad; Forouzanfar, Mohammad Mehdi; Kaghazchi, Fatemeh

    2014-01-01

    Despite thousands of years from creation of medical knowledge, it not much passes from founding the health care systems. Accreditation is an effective mechanism for performance evaluation, quality enhancement, and the safety of health care systems. This study was conducted to assess the results of emergency department (ED) accreditation in Shohadaye Tajrish Hospital, Tehran, Iran, 2013 in terms of domesticated standards of joint commission international (JCI) standards. This cohort study with a four-month follow up was conducted in the ED of Shohadaye Tajrish Hospital in 2013. The standard evaluation checklist of Iran hospitals (based on JCI standards) included 24 heading and 337 subheading was used for this purpose. The effective possible causes of weak spots were found and their solutions considered. After correction, assessment of accreditation were repeated again. Finally, the achieved results of two periods were analyzed using SPSS version 20. Quality improvement, admission in department and patient assessment, competency and capability test for staffs, collection and analysis of data, training of patients, and facilities had the score of below 50%. The mean of total score for accreditation in ED in the first period was 60.4±30.15 percent and in the second period 68.9±22.9 (p=0.005). Strategic plans, head of department, head nurse, resident physician, responsible nurse for the shift, and personnel file achieved the score of 100%. Of total headings below 50% in the first period just in two cases, collection and analysis of data with growth of 40% as well as competency and capability test for staffs with growth of 17%, were reached to more than 50%. Based on findings of the present study, the ED of Shohadaye Tajrish hospital reached the score of below 50% in six heading of quality improvement, admission in department and patient assessment, competency and capability test for staffs, collection and analysis of data, training of patients, and facilities. While

  5. U.S. initiatives to strengthen forensic science & international standards in forensic DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, John M.

    2015-01-01

    A number of initiatives are underway in the United States in response to the 2009 critique of forensic science by a National Academy of Sciences committee. This article provides a broad review of activities including efforts of the White House National Science and Technology Council Subcommittee on Forensic Science and a partnership between the Department of Justice (DOJ) and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) to create the National Commission on Forensic Science and the Organization of Scientific Area Committees. These initiatives are seeking to improve policies and practices of forensic science. Efforts to fund research activities and aid technology transition and training in forensic science are also covered. The second portion of the article reviews standards in place or in development around the world for forensic DNA. Documentary standards are used to help define written procedures to perform testing. Physical standards serve as reference materials for calibration and traceability purposes when testing is performed. Both documentary and physical standards enable reliable data comparison, and standard data formats and common markers or testing regions are crucial for effective data sharing. Core DNA markers provide a common framework and currency for constructing DNA databases with compatible data. Recent developments in expanding core DNA markers in Europe and the United States are discussed. PMID:26164236

  6. U.S. initiatives to strengthen forensic science & international standards in forensic DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, John M

    2015-09-01

    A number of initiatives are underway in the United States in response to the 2009 critique of forensic science by a National Academy of Sciences committee. This article provides a broad review of activities including efforts of the White House National Science and Technology Council Subcommittee on Forensic Science and a partnership between the Department of Justice (DOJ) and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) to create the National Commission on Forensic Science and the Organization of Scientific Area Committees. These initiatives are seeking to improve policies and practices of forensic science. Efforts to fund research activities and aid technology transition and training in forensic science are also covered. The second portion of the article reviews standards in place or in development around the world for forensic DNA. Documentary standards are used to help define written procedures to perform testing. Physical standards serve as reference materials for calibration and traceability purposes when testing is performed. Both documentary and physical standards enable reliable data comparison, and standard data formats and common markers or testing regions are crucial for effective data sharing. Core DNA markers provide a common framework and currency for constructing DNA databases with compatible data. Recent developments in expanding core DNA markers in Europe and the United States are discussed. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  7. The Involvement of IRPA in the Development of ICRP and Other International Standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, G.A.M.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: One of the main items in the IRPA constitution is to encourage the establishment and continuous review of universally acceptable radiation protection standards or recommendations through the international bodies concerned. This matter was discussed in depth at the Associate Societies Forum during the IRPA-10 Congress in Hiroshima in May 2000. A clear consensus existed among societies present that IRPA must play a larger role in the standard setting process. The mechanisms to fulfil this role have still to be elaborated but two processes have been identified. One for collecting and transmitting societies views on proposals by standards-setting bodies and another for quickly informing societies about the developments within international bodies on which IRPA acts as an observer. An example of the first was when IRPA invited its Member Societies to comment on Professor Roger Clarke's Controllable Dose proposal. The IRPA 10 Congress in May 2000 in Hiroshima provided the obvious focus for discussing the responses from the various Societies. These have been brought together in a report entitled IRPA Member Societies' Contributions to the development of new ICRP Recommendations and transmitted to ICRP by the IRPA Secretariat. The second procedure is more established as IRPA has observer status with a number of organisations including ICRP, IAEA and NEA and on interagency committees such as the Interagency Committee on Radiation Safety Standards (IACRS). (author)

  8. EXPERIENCE OF IMPLEMENTATION OF THE LABOR PROTECTION CONTROL SYSTEM AT RUP «BMZ» IN ACCORDANCE WITH INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS OHSAS 180001 AND STATE STANDARD STB 18001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. N. Zhuk

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Experience of introduction of the control system by labour protection at RUP «BMZ» in accordance with international standard OHSAS 18001 and State standard STB 18001 is described.

  9. Fiscal 1997 report on the results of the international standardization R and D. Robot control system; 1997 nendo seika hokokusho kokusai hyojun soseigata kenkyu kaihatsu. Robot seigyo system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    R and D of the robot control system was conducted in the following items: 1) integrated open control system, 2) remote control robot manipulation language, 3) human factor robot use built-in LAN system, 4) built-in actuator driver. In 1), there were some problems to be pointed out around the system, but the effectiveness was confirmed as system architecture of each verification item. In 2), development/design were made of RCML(R-Cube Manipulation Language) as a remote robot manipulation language, telecommunication protocol, and the experimental system, and the international standardization was targeted. In 3), the R and D was conducted of the realtime telecommunication protocol which clears the standards for the distributed control required for construction of human factor robot and the advanced realtime micro-controller, ULSI, which is the one that the protocol was made IC. In 4), an intelligent connector for built-in actuator was developed which enables saving of wiring in robot system and plug-in connection. 13 refs., 186 figs., 53 tabs.

  10. Cytokinin response factors regulate PIN-FORMED auxin transporters

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šimášková, M.; O'Brien, J.A.; Khan, M.; Van Noorden, G.; Ötvös, K.; Vieten, A.; De Clercq, E.; Van Haperen, J.M.A.; Cuesta, C.; Hoyerová, Klára; Vanneste, S.; Marhavý, P.; Wabnik, K.; Van Breusegem, F.; Nowack, M.; Murphy, A.; Friml, J.; Weijers, D.; Beeckman, T.; Benková, E.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 6, NOV (2015), s. 8717 ISSN 2041-1723 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : ARABIDOPSIS -THALIANA * ROOT-MERISTEM * TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 11.329, year: 2015

  11. Results of SFD experiment CORA-13 (OECD International Standard Problem 31)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagen, S.; Hofmann, P.; Noack, V.; Schanz, G.; Schumacher, G.; Sepold, L.

    1993-02-01

    The PWR-type assemblies usually consist of 25 rods with 16 electrically heated fuel rod simulators and nine unheated rods (full-pellet and absorber rods). Bundle CORA-13, a PWR-type assembly, contained two Ag/In/Cd - steel absorber rods. The test bundle was subjected to temperature transients of a slow heatup rate in a steam environment with a temperature ramp rate of 1 K/s. The temperature escalation due to the exothermal zircaloy(Zry)-steam reaction started at about 1100 C at an elevation of 850 mm (1000 s after onset of the transient), leading to a temperature plateau of 1850 C and after initiation of quenching to maximum temperatures of approximately 2000 C to 2300 C. CORA-13 was terminated by quenching with water from the bottom with a flooding rate of 1 cm/s. Rod destruction started with the failure of the absorber rod cladding at about 1200 C, i.e. about 250 K below the melting regime of steel. Penetration of the steel cladding was presumably caused by a eutectic interaction between steel and the zircaloy guide tube. As a consequence, the absorber-steel-zircaloy melt relocated radially outward and axially downward. Besides this melt relocation the test bundle experienced severe oxidation and partial melting of the cladding, fuel dissolution by Zry/UO 2 interaction, complete Inconel grid spacer destruction, and relocation of melts and fragments to lower elevations in the bundle. An extended flow blockage has formed at the axial midplane. Quenching by water resulted, besides additional fragmentation of fuel rods and shroud, in an additional temperature increase in the upper bundle region. Coinciding with the temperature response an additional hydrogen buildup was detected. During the flooding phase 48% of the total hydrogen were generated. (orig./HP) [de

  12. Importance of pharmaceutical laboratory compliance with international standard requirements in respect of raising their competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Božanić Vojislav N.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Current Good Manufacturing Practice (cGMP being a legal regulation in developed countries will become a legal regulation in Republic of Serbia starting with March 2010. In this paper comparative analysis between requirements of standard ISO/IEC 17025 and requirements of cEU GMP is shown. Considering the fact that in Republic of Serbia no pharmaceutical industry laboratory has been accredited according to requirements of ISO/IEC 17025, while keeping in mind that more than 90% of these laboratories have not fulfilled cEU GMP requirements, this paper aimed at pointing to the possibility of fulfilling both of mentioned requirements at the same time, which would open the way to different types of interlaboratory cooperation for pharmaceutical quality control laboratories and contribute to improving competitiveness of pharmaceutical companies. Accreditation, especially in the case of pharmaceutical quality control laboratories, is important because it guaranties the level of organizational and technical competency. It could easily be said that accreditation is becoming a must in quality control of products in order for the organization to be able to gain a leading role in the global market. Both accreditation and cGMP show the organization's commitment to having products of highest quality level. Considering the above mentioned facts, it is of greatest advantage for pharmaceutical quality control laboratories to fulfill both requirements of ISO/IEC 17025 and cGMP and reach total compliance. The aim of doing this lies in an easier acceptance of pharmaceutical products in different markets, overcoming technical barriers and affirmation of quality as key factor in reaching competitiveness, while keeping in mind the importance of strategic and competitive positioning in the global market.

  13. Quantization of secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) data using external and internal standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gnaser, H.

    1983-01-01

    Some aspects of multi-dimensional characterization of solids by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) are given. A theoretical part discusses methods for the quantization of SIMS data and the most prominent effects of ion-solid interactions as related to SIMS. After a description of the instrument used for experiments (a quadrupole-equipped ion microprobe featuring a liquid metal ion source in addition to the standard duoplasmatron gas ion source) the first experimental section is devoted to the determination of practical sensitivities and relative sensitivity factors for selected pure elements, binary and treary alloys and multicomponent systems. For 23 pure elements practical sensitivities under O + 2 bombardment also have been compared to those under In + -bombardment; it was shown that on oxygen saturated surfaces yields under In + -bombardment are higher, this making feasible use of submicron In-beams for surface analysis. In the second experimental section boron implants in silicon have been used for studying depth profiling capabilities of the instrument. Sputtering yields of Si and degrees of ionization of both B and Si have been measured. It has been shown that implantation profiles may deviate considerably from Gaussian but can be described by means of mathematical distribution functions. In the third experimental section depth resolution of the erosion process has been studied by profiling a Ni/Cr multilayer sample (100 A single layer) and been found to be approximately constant over the depth range investigated. Quantization of depth profiles, usually distorted by matrix effects, has been attempted using the primary beam species (In) as internal implantation standard. Some problems in connection with the conversion of secondary ion micrographs to concentration maps are discussed. Elemental detection limits in multidimensional SIMS analysis are given in dependence of primary beam size and total eroded depth. (Author)

  14. Survey of image quality and patient dose in simple radiographic examinations: establishing guidance levels and comparison with international standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manatrakul, N.; Bunsoong, T.; Krisanachinda, A.; Suwanpradit, P.; Rungruengthanakit, P.; Kanchart, S.; Chaiwong, Rajikorn; Tsapakig, V.A.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate image quality and patient dose for commonly radiographic examinations in Thailand, to establish national reference or guidance levels (GL) and compare with international standards, as part of an International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) project on Radiation Protection of Patients and Medical Exposure Control (RAS/9/034 and RAS/9/047). Materials and Methods: Film reject rate analysis, image quality and patient dose assessment before and after Quality Control (QC) implementation were investigated in 8 X-ray machines in 4 hospitals. Air kerma (in mGy) at 1 meter focus-detector-distance for different kVp settings for each X-ray machines were measured using an ionization chamber under standardized condition. The entrance skin air kerma (ESAK) for Chest PA, Lumbar spine AP, Lumbar spine LAT, Pelvis AP, Abdomen AP, Skull AP and Skull LAT were calculated for at least 10 adult patients of average body mass (60 to 80 kg) for each projection. The obtained values were compared with international standards. Results: The highest film rejection rate reduction recorded after corrective actions from 9.15% to 6.8%. Mean ESAK values were less than international standards both before and after QC implementation in all projections but Chest PA projection. Maximum ESAK in Chest PA projection before corrective action was 0.55 mGy which was higher than the IAEA GL of 0.2 mGy. However, it was reduced to 0.25 mGy after QC tests on X- ray machine and using high kilovoltage (kV) technique. Conclusion: Proposed national GL of Thailand were obtained by estimating the 3rd quartile of the whole sample: Chest PA: 0.1 mGy, Lumbar Spine AP: 2.1 mGy, Lumbar Spine LAT: 6.3 mGy, Pelvis AP: 1.8 mGy, Abdomen: 1.5 mGy, Skull PA: 1.3 mGy and Skull LAT: 0.9 mGy. (author)

  15. International standard problem ISP-47 on containment thermal hydraulics - Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allelein, H. J.; Schwarz, S.; Fischer, K.; Vendel, J.; Malet, J.; Bentaib, A.; Studer, E.; Paillere, H.; Houkema, M.

    2007-01-01

    The main objective of the ISP-47 is to assess the capabilities of Lumped Parameter (LP) and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) codes in the area of containment thermal-hydraulics. Following the recommendations made in the state-of-the-art report on 'Containment Thermal-hydraulics and Hydrogen Distribution' this ISP was based on the application of different complementary experimental facilities and a progressive modelling difficulty. The three experimental facilities TOSQAN, MISTRA and ThAI have shown the quality of the provided experimental data suitable for CFD and LP code benchmarking in steady-state and transient conditions (control of the initial and boundary conditions, and the accuracy of the measurement techniques). This mainly includes pressure transients and gas temperature field as in former exercises. Detailed gas velocity and gas concentration (air, steam and helium) fields were obtained for the first time in such an exercise. ISP-47 was executed in two main steps: Step 1 was dedicated to the validation of the codes in the separate effects facility TOSQAN (7 m 3 ). Wall condensation, steam injection in air or air / helium atmospheres, and buoyancy were addressed under well-controlled initial conditions in a simple geometry. Furthermore, the interactions of phenomena such as condensation / stratification, turbulence / buoyancy, etc. were addressed using the larger scale of MISTRA (100 m 3 ) facility. Both TOSQAN and MISTRA were specifically designed to produce data for CFD codes with state-of-the-art instrumentation. The TOSQAN benchmark was open, whereas the MISTRA benchmark was blind. Step 2 addressed the code assessment using an experiment in the multi-compartment ThAI (60 m 3 ) facility with different steam and helium injection phases, transient stratification and mixing conditions in the atmosphere, development of natural convection, wall condensate distribution, fog formation, and transient thermal response of heat conducting walls. Detailed

  16. Bayes factor covariance testing in item response models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fox, J.P.; Mulder, J.; Sinharay, Sandip

    2017-01-01

    Two marginal one-parameter item response theory models are introduced, by integrating out the latent variable or random item parameter. It is shown that both marginal response models are multivariate (probit) models with a compound symmetry covariance structure. Several common hypotheses concerning

  17. Bayes Factor Covariance Testing in Item Response Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fox, Jean-Paul; Mulder, Joris; Sinharay, Sandip

    2017-01-01

    Two marginal one-parameter item response theory models are introduced, by integrating out the latent variable or random item parameter. It is shown that both marginal response models are multivariate (probit) models with a compound symmetry covariance structure. Several common hypotheses concerning

  18. CIEMAT contribution to the international standard problem ISP-34: contain analysis of FAL-ISP 1 test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herranz, L.E.; Polo, J.

    1994-01-01

    CIEMAT, along with a great number of international laboratories, has participated in the open exercise of the first International Standard Problem addressing fission product transport issues. The FAL-ISP 1, aimed to study particle agglomeration, has been simulated with CONTAIN code. The thermalhydraulic results obtained have been satisfactory and aerosols ones have been reasonably accurate. However, some discrepancies appeared between predictions and experimental data; these are essentially related to the injection phase of the experiment, where the major influence of input approximations took place. In addition, the rationalization of discrepancies pointed potential data inconsistencies. Some parametric studies showed the results sensitivity to input assumptions concerning aerosol characterization and default values in CONTAIN; in general, they confirmed the suitability of most of the approximations taken. (Author)

  19. Ciemat Contribution to The International Standard Problem ISP-34: Contain Analysis of Fal-ISP 1 Test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herranz, L. E.; Polo, J.

    1994-01-01

    CIEMAT, along with a great number of international laboratories, has participated in the open exercise of the first International Standard Problem addressing fission product transport issues. The FAL-ISP 1, aimed to study particle agglomeration, has been simulated with CONTAIN code. The therma hydraulic results obtained have been satisfactory and aerosol ones have been reasonably accurate. However, some discrepancies appeared between predictions and experimental data; these are essentially related to the injection phase of the experiment, where the major influence of input approximations took place. In addition, the rationalization of discrepancies pointed potential data inconsistencies. Some parametric studies showed the results sensitivity to input assumptions concerning aerosol characterization and default values in CONTAIN; in general, they confirmed the suitability of most of the approximations taken. (Author) 11 refs

  20. CRIMINALIZATION AND PROSECUTION OF HUMAN TRAFFICKING IN ETHIOPIA: ASSESSING THE LEGAL FRAMEWORK IN LIGHT OF INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z.Sh. Woldemichael

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available As is the case in many countries, in Ethiopia human trafficking causes multi-dimensional harmful consequences on individuals. With a view to addressing the problem, in 2012 Ethiopia acceded to the Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children, supplementing the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime. For the purpose of translating the requirements of the UN Trafficking Protocol into reality, the government has taken various steps including legislative measures. Proclamation No. 909/2015 (Prevention and Suppression of Trafficking in Persons and Smuggling of Migrants Proclamation is the most recent law adopted to deal with smuggling of migrants and human trafficking. The Proclamation comprises four key aspects: criminalization and prosecution; prevention; protection, rehabilitation and compensation; and cooperation. This article critically examines whether the criminalization and prosecution aspect of the Proclamation complies with international standards.

  1. ISP 22 OECD/NEA/CSNI International standard problem n. 22. Evaluation of post-test analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-07-01

    The present report deals with the open re-evaluation of the originally double-blind CSNI International Standard Problem 22 based on the test SP-FW-02 performed in the SPES facility. The SPES apparatus is an experimental simulator of the Westinghouse PWR-PUN plant. The test SP-FW-02 (ISP22) simulates a complete loss of feedwater with delayed injection of auxiliary feedwater. The main parts of the report are: outline of the test facility and of the SP-FW-02 experiment; overview of pre-test activities; overview of input models used by post-test participants; evaluation of participant predictions; evaluation of qualitative and quantitative code accuracy of pre-test and post-test calculations

  2. Automatic Generation of Object Models for Process Planning and Control Purposes using an International standard for Information Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petter Falkman

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a formal mapping between static information models and dynamic models is presented. The static information models are given according to an international standard for product, process and resource information exchange, (ISO 10303-214. The dynamic models are described as Discrete Event Systems. The product, process and resource information is automatically converted into product routes and used for simulation, controller synthesis and verification. A high level language, combining Petri nets and process algebra, is presented and used for speci- fication of desired routes. A main implication of the presented method is that it enables the reuse of process information when creating dynamic models for process control. This method also enables simulation and verification to be conducted early in the development chain.

  3. E-governance European and international standards of opportune impact on decision-making in the Republic of Moldova

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria GOREA

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The scientific publication denotes trends of a scientific and academic research of the practices of the: investigation, development, evaluation, implementation, practical application, renovation and evolutionary domain that refers to the European and international e-government standards who manifest an opportune impact on decision- making process of the Republic of Moldova, which also develops the image of the relational hierarchy of the e-government and the decision-making process by creating some situations modeled and obtained recursively the repercussion aspect of the international standards that can resolve the dilemmas existing in space microenvironment framed in macroenvironment progressing continuously emerging the evolution irreversible of the phenomenon of the globalization etc.

  4. Quantitation of dialkyl phosphate metabolites of organophosphate pesticides in human urine using GC-MS-MS with isotopic internal standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, Roberto; Driskell, William J; Whitehead, Ralph D; Needham, Larry L; Barr, Dana B

    2002-01-01

    Human exposure to organophosphate pesticides can be estimated from the presence of urinary metabolites. An isotope-dilution gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS-MS) method was developed for quantitating the six dialkyl phosphate urinary metabolites of at least 29 organophosphate pesticides. Urine samples were spiked with stable isotope analogues of the dialkyl phosphates, evaporated using azeotropic distillation, followed by chemical derivatization of the metabolites to their respective chloropropyl phosphate esters. The chloropropyl phosphate esters were concentrated and then analyzed using GC-MS-MS. The limits of detection (LODs) of the method were in the low-to-mid picogram-per-milliliter range (parts per trillion) with coefficients of variation of less than 20%. The use of stable isotope analogues as internal standards for each of these metabolites allows for the highest degree of accuracy and precision. Additionally, the low LODs allow the use of this method in general population studies.

  5. High-performance liquid chromatographic analysis of cyclosporin A in rat blood and liver using a commercially available internal standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chimalakonda, Anjaneya P; Shah, Rakhi B; Mehvar, Reza

    2002-05-25

    All the available HPLC assays of cyclosporin A (CyA) use internal standards that are not commercially available. Our purpose was to develop an HPLC assay for measurements of CyA in rat blood and liver using a commercially available internal standard (I.S.). After the addition of tamoxifen (I.S.), blood (0.25 ml) or the liver homogenate (1 ml) samples were extracted into a mixture of ether:methanol (95:5). The residue after evaporation of the organic layer was dissolved in 200 microl of an injection solution and washed with 1 ml of hexane before analysis. The separation was achieved using an LC-1 column (70 degrees C) with a mobile phase of methanol-acetonitrile-0.01 M KH(2)PO(4) (50:25:25, v/v) and a flow-rate of 1 ml/min. Detection was at 205 nm. Cyclosporin A and I.S. eluted at 5 and 7 min, respectively, free from endogenous peaks. Linear relationships (r>0.98) were observed between the CyA:I.S. peak area ratios and the CyA concentrations within the range of 0.2-10 microg/ml for blood and 0.1-4 microg/ml for the liver homogenates. The intra- and inter-run C.V.s and errors for both the blood and liver samples were <15%. The extraction efficiency (n=5) was close to 100% for both CyA and I.S. in both blood and liver homogenates. The lower limit of quantitation of the assay was 0.2 or 0.1 microg/ml based on 250 microl of blood or 1 ml of liver homogenate, respectively. The assay was capable of measuring blood and liver concentrations of CyA in a rat injected intravenously with a single 5-mg/kg dose of the drug.

  6. Ensuring good governance to address emerging and re-emerging animal disease threats: supporting the veterinary services of developing countries to meet OIE international standards on quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallat, B; Mallet, E

    2006-04-01

    As an effect of increased globalisation, animal diseases, in particular those transmissible to man, have an immediate global economic and social impact. This fact, dramatically illustrated by the current avian influenza epizootic in South-East Asia and Eastern Europe, clearly demonstrates the crucial importance of the national Veterinary Services (VS) for the prevention, early detection and response for the efficient control of animal diseases. Complying with this mission for the VS presupposes the existence of appropriate governance and legislation and of an official system to control their quality and reliability- an obvious weakness in many developing and in transition countries. The World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) has therefore developed a project aiming at strengthening the VS in those countries facing the greatest animal health threats and to bring them into line with OIE international standards already adopted by the same countries. Based on the evaluation of the VS and subsequent actions at the global, regional and national levels, the project will have a significant beneficial impact on the targeted countries as well as the international community as a whole, not only in the fields of agriculture, food security and production, and food safety, but also for the local and global prevention of emerging and re-emerging diseases of veterinary and public health importance. The project will be implemented in strong collaboration with the Food and Agriculture Organization. The actions proposed must be considered eligible for the concept of International Public Good.

  7. How media factors affect audience responses to brand placement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Reijmersdal, E.; Smit, E.; Neijens, P.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the influence of media factors on brand placement effects in a real-life setting. Although many studies on brand placement have been conducted, insights into context effects on brand placement reactions are scarce. The impact of objective and subjective media context factors

  8. Mechanical Responses and Physical Factors of the Fingertip Pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Sakai

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The images of the mechanical responses were analysed when the fingertip was pressed against a plateau plate, and the influence of the contact angle on the loading pressure and the mechanical responses was investigated. As a result, as the contact angle was smaller, the change ratios due to the loading pressure were significantly larger in the contact length, the contact width and the distortion of lateral-view area. These parameters were thought to be useful in clinical medicine as indices for the degrees of mechanical responses of the fingertip. The length of the central axis and the maximum width of the fingertip were inappropriate as the parameters to represent the mechanical responses of the fingertip. The maximum width of the fingertip scarcely changed. This does not reflect the compressibility of the fingertip, and the fingertip as a whole extended along the central axis and in the vertical direction, and the change was not reflected in the maximum width.

  9. International standard problem (ISP) No. 43 Rapid boron-dilution transient tests for code verification. Comparison report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-03-01

    International Standard Problem No. 43 (ISP 43) addresses the nuclear industries present capabilities of simulating fluid dynamics aspects of a subset of rapid boron dilution transients. Specifically, the exercise focuses on the sequence involving the transport of a boron-dilute slug through the actuation of a pump. The slug is formed on the primary side of the steam generator as a consequence of in interfacing system leak from the secondary un-borated coolant. Experimental data was collected using the University of Maryland 2 x 4 Thermalhydraulic Loop (UM 2 x 4 Loop) and the Boron-mixing Visualization Facility. Two blind test series were proposed during the first workshop (October 1998) and refined using participant input. The first series, test series A, deals with the injection of a front, i.e., a single interface between borated and dilute fluids. The second blind series, test series B, is the more realistic injection of a slug, i.e., a dilute fluid volume preceded and followed by the borated coolant of the primary system. Data are collected in the UM 2 x 4 Loop and refined details are obtained from the Visualization Facility, which represents a replica of the Loop.s vessel downcomer. In the Loop experimental program, the dilute volume is simulated by cold water and the borated primary coolant is simulated by hot water. The Visualization Facility uses dye to mark the diluted front or slug. The measured boundary conditions for both test series include the initial temperature of the primary system, the front/slug injection flowrate and temperature, and the pressure drop across the core. Temperature data is collected at 185 thermocouple positions in the downcomer and 38 positions in the lower plenum. The advancement of the front/slug through the system is monitored at discrete horizontal levels that contain the thermocouples. The performance of codes is measured relative to a set of figures of merit. During the first workshop, the principal figure of merit was

  10. Application of Internal Standard Method for Several 3d-Transition Metallic Elements in Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry Using a Multi-wavelength High-resolution Spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toya, Yusuke; Itagaki, Toshiko; Wagatsuma, Kazuaki

    2017-01-01

    We investigated a simultaneous internal standard method in flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS), in order to better the analytical precision of 3d-transition metals contained in steel materials. For this purpose, a new spectrometer system for FAAS, comprising a bright xenon lamp as the primary radiation source and a high-resolution Echelle monochromator, was employed to measure several absorption lines at a wavelength width of ca. 0.3 nm at the same time, which enables the absorbances of an analytical line and also an internal standard line to be estimated. In considering several criteria for selecting an internal standard element and the absorption line, it could be suggested that platinum-group elements: ruthenium, rhodium, or palladium, were suitable for an internal standard element to determine the 3d-transition metal elements, such as titanium, iron, and nickel, by measuring an appropriate pair of these absorption lines simultaneously. Several variances of the absorption signal, such as a variation in aspirated amounts of sample solution and a short-period drift of the primary light source, would be corrected and thus reduced, when the absorbance ratio of the analytical line to the internal standard line was measured. In Ti-Pd, Ni-Rh, and Fe-Ru systems chosen as typical test samples, the repeatability of the signal respnses was investigated with/without the internal standard method, resulting in better precision when the internal standard method was applied in the FAAS with a nitrous oxide-acetylene flame rather than an air-acetylene flame.

  11. Performance related factors are the main determinants of the von Willebrand factor response to exhaustive physical exercise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.E. van Loon (Janine ); M.A.H. Sonneveld (Michelle); S.F.E. Praet (Stephan); M.P.M. de Maat (Moniek); F.W.G. Leebeek (Frank)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Physical stress triggers the endothelium to release von Willebrand Factor (VWF) from the Weibel Palade bodies. Since VWF is a risk factor for arterial thrombosis, it is of great interest to discover determinants of VWF response to physical stress. We aimed to determine the

  12. NAC Transcription Factors in Stress Responses and Senescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Shea, Charlotte

    Plant-specific NAM/ATAF/CUC (NAC) transcription factors have recently received considerable attention due to their significant roles in plant development and stress signalling. This interest has resulted in a number of physiological, genetic and cell biological studies of their functions. Some...... of these studies have also revealed emerging gene regulatory networks and protein-protein interaction networks. However, structural studies relating structure to function are lagging behind. Structure-function analysis of the NAC transcription factors has therefore been the main focus of this PhD thesis...... not involve significant folding-upon-binding but fuzziness or an extended ANAC046 region. The ANAC046 regulatory domain functions as an entropic chain with a bait for interactions with for example RCD1. RCD1 interacts with transcription factors from several different families, and the large stress...

  13. Religious beliefs, coping skills and responsibility to family as factors ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Deliberate self-harm (DSH) ranges from behaviours aiming to communicate distress or relieve tension, but where suicide is not intended, to suicide. Not all individuals are prone to DSH, which suggests that there are factors that protect against it. Identifying these could play an important role in the management ...

  14. Factors affecting the remotely sensed response of coniferous forest plantations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danson, F.M.; Curran, P.J.

    1993-01-01

    Remote sensing of forest biophysical properties has concentrated upon forest sites with a wide range of green vegetation amount and thereby leaf area index and canopy cover. However, coniferous forest plantations, an important forest type in Europe, are managed to maintain a large amount of green vegetation with little spatial variation. Therefore, the strength of the remotely sensed signal will, it is hypothesized, be determined more by the structure of this forest than by its cover. Airborne Thematic Mapper (ATM) and SPOT-1 HRV data were used to determine the effects of this structural variation on the remotely sensed response of a coniferous forest plantation in the United Kingdom. Red and near infrared radiance were strongly and negatively correlated with a range of structural properties and with the age of the stands but weakly correlated with canopy cover. A composite variable, related to the volume of the canopy, accounted for over 75% of the variation in near infrared radiance. A simple model that related forest structural variables to the remotely sensed response was used to understand and explain this response from a coniferous forest plantation

  15. Plant community mediation of ecosystem responses to global change factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churchill, A. C.

    2017-12-01

    Human alteration of the numerous environmental drivers affecting ecosystem processes is unprecedented in the last century, including changes in climate regimes and rapid increases in the availability of biologically active nitrogen (N). Plant communities may offer stabilizing or amplifying feedbacks mediating potential ecosystem responses to these alterations, and my research seeks to examine the conditions associated with when plant feedbacks are important for ecosystem change. My dissertation research focused on the unintended consequences of N deposition into natural landscapes, including alpine ecosystems which are particularly susceptible to adverse environmental impacts. In particular, I examined alpine plant and soil responses to N deposition 1) across multiple spatial scales throughout the Southern Rocky Mountains, 2) among diverse plant communities associated with unique environmental conditions common in the alpine of this region, and 3) among ecosystem pools of N contributing to stabilization of N inputs within those communities. I found that communities responded to inputs of N differently, often associated with traits of dominant plant species but these responses were intimately linked with the abiotic conditions of each independent community. Even so, statistical models predicting metrics of N processing in the alpine were improved by encompassing both abiotic and biotic components of the main community types.

  16. Factors responsible for the growth of small business

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JA Döckel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Entrepreneurial conduct holds the key to economic growth. Thus those business that show growth and development are considered entrepreneurial, implying that SMME policy initiatives should focus on businesses with growth potential, and not the small business sector as a whole.  The success of a small business seems to depend on the intentions of the owner, together with factors associated with the ability of, and opportunity for, the specific business to grow.  The aim of this article is to make use of a multiple linear regression model to determine the variables that impact positively on business growth.  In addition to demand factors, it was established that smaller and younger businesses are the ones that grow faster. A successful business also shows a positive correlation between business management skills and entrepreneurial conduct.

  17. Factor Responsible for Examination Malpractices as Expressed by Undergraduates of Osun State University, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusuf; Adeoti, Florence; Olufunke, Yinusa Rasheedat; Ruth, Bamgbose Oluwayemisi

    2015-01-01

    The study investigated perception of undergraduates on factors responsible for examination malpractices. The study is a descriptive study; a sample of two hundred (200) undergraduates formed the participants for the study. A questionnaire titled: "Factor responsible for examination malpractices was used for data collection. Data collected…

  18. Introductory analysis of sustainable consumption and production : Factors of corporate social responsibility management in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    八木, 迪幸; 國部, 克彦

    2017-01-01

    As an introductory analysis of sustainable consumption and production, this paper examines what factors influence corporate social responsibility management in Japan. Following some underlying theories (management control system; the neo-institutional theory; performance measurement systems; the stakeholder theory; the resource dependence theory), this paper conducts empirical studies using firm-level data. The first three studies examine what factors encourage corporate social responsibility...

  19. DMPD: Macrophage migration inhibitory factor and host innate immune responses tomicrobes. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 14620137 Macrophage migration inhibitory factor and host innate immune responses to...microbes. Calandra T. Scand J Infect Dis. 2003;35(9):573-6. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Macrophage migration... inhibitory factor and host innate immune responses tomicrobes. PubmedID 14620137 Title Macrophage migration

  20. A method to adjust radiation dose-response relationships for clinical risk factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appelt, Ane Lindegaard; Vogelius, Ivan R

    2012-01-01

    Several clinical risk factors for radiation induced toxicity have been identified in the literature. Here, we present a method to quantify the effect of clinical risk factors on radiation dose-response curves and apply the method to adjust the dose-response for radiation pneumonitis for patients...

  1. MISTRA facility for containment lumped parameter and CFD codes validation. Example of the International Standard Problem ISP47

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tkatschenko, I.; Studer, E.; Paillere, H.

    2005-01-01

    During a severe accident in a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR), the formation of a combustible gas mixture in the complex geometry of the reactor depends on the understanding of hydrogen production, the complex 3D thermal-hydraulics flow due to gas/steam injection, natural convection, heat transfer by condensation on walls and effect of mitigation devices. Numerical simulation of such flows may be performed either by Lumped Parameter (LP) or by Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) codes. Advantages and drawbacks of LP and CFD codes are well-known. LP codes are mainly developed for full size containment analysis but they need improvements, especially since they are not able to accurately predict the local gas mixing within the containment. CFD codes require a process of validation on well-instrumented experimental data before they can be used with a high degree of confidence. The MISTRA coupled effect test facility has been built at CEA to fulfil this validation objective: with numerous measurement points in the gaseous volume - temperature, gas concentration, velocity and turbulence - and with well controlled boundary conditions. As illustration of both experimental and simulation areas of this topic, a recent example in the use of MISTRA test data is presented for the case of the International Standard Problem ISP47. The proposed experimental work in the MISTRA facility provides essential data to fill the gaps in the modelling/validation of computational tools. (author)

  2. Measurement of rimantadine in plasma by capillary gas chromatography/mass spectrometry with a deuterium-labeled internal standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herold, D.A.; Anonick, P.K.; Kinter, M.; Hayden, F.G.

    1988-01-01

    Rimantadine is a synthetic antiviral agent used in prophylaxis and in treating the early stages of uncomplicated influenza A illness. We describe a stable isotope-dilution assay involving capillary gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. We used 200 ng of d3-rimantadine, added to 1 mL of plasma, as the internal standard. The rimantadine was extracted from the plasma with a Bond-Elut CN column, the column was washed with water, and the rimantadine was eluted with methanol, dried, and treated to form the t-butyldimethylsilyl derivative. The mass spectrometer was operated in the selected ion monitoring mode. Ions at m/z 236 and m/z 239 were monitored, corresponding to the loss of C4H9 from the rimantadine derivative and d3-rimantadine, respectively. Within-run precision (CVs) ranged from 8.9% at 29 micrograms/L to 3.2% at 1666 micrograms/L. Corresponding data for between-run precision were 5.4% and 1.7%. Treated volunteers (n = 86) provided plasma samples with a concentration range of 153 to 1127 micrograms/L. This simplified method allows rapid, precise assay of rimantadine in plasma

  3. Quantitative determination and validation of octreotide acetate using 1 H-NMR spectroscopy with internal standard method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chen; Zhang, Qian; Xu, Peng-Yao; Bai, Yin; Shen, Wen-Bin; Di, Bin; Su, Meng-Xiang

    2018-01-01

    Quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance (qNMR) is a well-established technique in quantitative analysis. We presented a validated 1 H-qNMR method for assay of octreotide acetate, a kind of cyclic octopeptide. Deuterium oxide was used to remove the undesired exchangeable peaks, which was referred to as proton exchange, in order to make the quantitative signals isolated in the crowded spectrum of the peptide and ensure precise quantitative analysis. Gemcitabine hydrochloride was chosen as the suitable internal standard. Experimental conditions, including relaxation delay time, the numbers of scans, and pulse angle, were optimized first. Then method validation was carried out in terms of selectivity, stability, linearity, precision, and robustness. The assay result was compared with that by means of high performance liquid chromatography, which is provided by Chinese Pharmacopoeia. The statistical F test, Student's t test, and nonparametric test at 95% confidence level indicate that there was no significant difference between these two methods. qNMR is a simple and accurate quantitative tool with no need for specific corresponding reference standards. It has the potential of the quantitative analysis of other peptide drugs and standardization of the corresponding reference standards. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Means to verify the accuracy of CT systems for metrology applications (In the Absence of Established International Standards)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lettenbauer, H.; Georgi, B.; Weib, D.

    2007-01-01

    X-ray computed tomography (CT) reconstructs an unknown object from X-ray projections and has long been used for qualitative investigation of internal structures in industrial applications. Recently there has been increased interest in applying X-ray cone beam CT to the task of high-precision dimensional measurements of machined parts, since it is a relatively fast method of measuring both inner and outer geometries of arbitrary complexity. The important information for the user in dimensional metrology is if measured elements of a machined part are within the defined tolerances or not. In order to qualify cone beam CT as an established measurement technology, it must be qualified in the same manner as established measurement technologies such as coordinate measurement machines (CMMs) with tactile or optical sensors. In international standards artefacts are defined that are calibrated by certified institutions. These artefacts are defined by certain geometrical elements. CT measurements are performed on the reconstructed object volume, either directly or using an intermediate surface-extraction step. The results of these measurements have to be compared to the values of the calibrated elements; the level of agreement of the results defines the accuracy of the measurements. By using established methods to define measurement uncertainty a very high level of acceptance in dimensional metrology can be reached for the user. Only if results are comparable to standards of the established technologies the barriers of entry into metrology will be removed and all benefits of this technology will be available for the user. (authors)

  5. ISP-31 OECD/NEA/CSNI International Standard Problem n.31. Cora-13 experiment on severe fuel damage. Comparison report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Firnhaber, M.; Trambauer, K.; Hagen, S.; Hofmann, P.; Schanz, G.; Sepold, L.

    1993-07-01

    The severe fuel damage experiment CORA-13 has been offered as CSNI-International Standard Problem (ISP) No. 31. The out-of-pile experiment CORA-13 was executed in November 1990 at Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe. The major objectives of this experiment were to investigate the behavior of PWR fuel elements during early core degradation and fast cooldown due to refill. Measured quantities are boundary conditions, bundle temperatures, hydrogen generation and the final bundle configuration. The ISP was conducted as a blind exercise. Boundary conditions which could not be measured, but which are necessary for simplified test simulation (axial power profile, shroud insulation temperature, bundle refill flow) were estimated using ATHLET-CD. Results to the ISP were submitted by 9 participants using different versions of SCDAP/RELAP5, and codes such as FRAS-SFD, ICARE2, KESS-III, MELCOR. The thermal behavior up to significant oxidation has been predicted quite well by most of the codes. In general, the capability of the codes in calculating the main degradation phenomena has been clearly illustrated and weaknesses concerning the modelling of some degradation processes have been identified. Among the degradation phenomena involved in the test, the more severe limitations concern the UO 2 -ZrO 2 dissolution by molten Zr, the solubility limits in the resulting U-Zr-O mixture and the cladding failure by the molten mixture

  6. Comparison of ICare and IOPen vs Goldmann applanation tonometry according to international standards 8612 in glaucoma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahlitzsch, Milena; Brünner, Jeanette; Gonnermann, Johannes; Maier, Anna-Karina B; Torun, Necip; Bertelmann, Eckart; Klamann, Matthias Kj

    2016-01-01

    To compare IOPen and ICare rebound tonometry to Goldmann applanation tonometry (GAT) according to International Standards Organization (ISO) 8612 criteria. Totally 191 eyes ( n =107 individuals) were included. Criteria of ISO 8612 were fulfilled: 3 clusters of IOP, measured by GAT, were formed. The GAT results were given as mean±standard deviation. GAT (19.7±0.5 mm Hg) showed a significant correlation to ICare (19.8±0.5 mm Hg) ( r =0.547, P 0.5 mm Hg) ( r =0.526, P <0.001). According to ISO 8612 criteria in all 3 IOP groups the number of outliers (of the 95% limits of agreement) exceeded 5% for ICare and IOPen vs GAT: No.1 ( n =68) 29.4% and 22.1%, No.2 ( n =62) 35.5% and 37.1%, No.3 ( n =61) 26.2% and 42.6%, respectively. The strict requirements of the ISO 8612 are not fulfilled in a glaucoma collective by ICare and IOPen at present. As long as the Goldmann tonometry is applicable it should be used first of all for reproducible IOP readings. ICare and IOPen tonometry should be considered as an alternative tool, if application of Goldmann tonometry is not possible.

  7. Body mass index in Saudi Arabian children and adolescents: A national reference and comparison with international standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al Herbish, Abdullah S; ElMouzan, Mohammed I; AlSalloum, Abdullah A; AlQureshi, Mansour M; AlOmar, Ahmed A; Fster, Peter J; Kecojevic, Tatjana

    2009-01-01

    Because there are no reference standards for body mass index (BMI) in Saudi children, we established BMI reference percentiles for normal Saudi Arabian children and adolescents and compared them with international standards. Data from a stratified multistage probability sample were collected from the 13 health regions in Saudi Arabia, as part of a nationwide health profile survey of Saudi Arabian children and adolescents conducted to establish normal physical growth references. Selected households were visited by a trained team. Weight and length/height were measured and recorded following the WHO recommended procedures using the same equipment, which were subjected to both calibration and intra/interobserver variations. Survey of 11 874 eligible households yielded 35 275 full-term and healthy children and adolescents who were subjected to anthropometric measurements. Four BMI curves were produced, from birth to 36 months and 2 to 19 years for girls and boys. The 3rd, 5th, 10th ,25th , 5oth , 75th ,85th , 90th , 95th , and 97th percentiles were produced and compared with the WHO and CDC BMI charts. In the higher percentiles, the Saudi children differed from Western counterparts, indicating that Saudi children have equal or higher BMIs. The BMI curves reflect statistically representative BMI values for Saudi Arabian children and adolescents. (author)

  8. Simulation of Impacts of Changing in the International Standard of Financial Instruments (IFRS 9 in the Major Brazilian Banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir Sayed

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This article aimed to verify the impact of changes in the net profit and their respective volatilities resulting from changes of the international standard of financial instruments, from IAS 39 to IFRS 9, in regard to aspects: (i the future change in the methodology of the impairment calculated e (ii the elimination of the category "available for sale" and their reclassification to the category "fair value through profit or loss". The study was based on simulations in profits expected to sixteen quarters, from 31/12/2010 to 31/12/2014, to the five largest financial institutions in Brazil. For such simulations it were projected interest rates that fluctuate according to the estimated model of the term structure of interest rates using the Monte Carlo method. According to the projected interest rates set new credit risk levels, which resulted changes in the impairment and fair value of financial assets previously classified as available for sale. The results showed an early impact in Q1, in view of their adaptation to the new standard. Subsequently, there was no significant change in the results and their respective volatilities.

  9. The use of a xylosylated plant glycoprotein as an internal standard accounting for N-linked glycan cleavage and sample preparation variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, S Hunter; Taylor, Amber D; Muddiman, David C

    2013-06-30

    Traditionally, free oligosaccharide internal standards are used to account for variability in glycan relative quantification experiments by mass spectrometry. However, a more suitable internal standard would be a glycoprotein, which could also control for enzymatic cleavage efficiency, allowing for more accurate quantitative experiments. Hydrophobic, hydrazide N-linked glycan reagents (both native and stable-isotope labeled) are used to derivatize and differentially label N-linked glycan samples for relative quantification, and the samples are analyzed by a reversed-phase liquid chromatography chip system coupled online to a Q-Exactive mass spectrometer. The inclusion of two internal standards, maltoheptaose (previously used) and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) (novel), is studied to demonstrate the effectiveness of using a glycoprotein as an internal standard in glycan relative quantification experiments. HRP is a glycoprotein containing a xylosylated N-linked glycan, which is unique from mammalian N-linked glycans. Thus, the internal standard xylosylated glycan could be detected without interference to the sample. Additionally, it was shown that differences in cleavage efficiency can be detected by monitoring the HRP glycan. In a sample where cleavage efficiency variation is minimal, the HRP glycan performs as well as maltoheptaose. Because the HRP glycan performs as well as maltoheptaose but is also capable of correcting and accounting for cleavage variability, it is a more versatile internal standard and will be used in all subsequent biological studies. Because of the possible lot-to-lot variation of an enzyme, differences in biological matrix, and variable enzyme activity over time, it is a necessity to account for glycan cleavage variability in glycan relative quantification experiments. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Quantitation of peptides and proteins by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry using (18)O-labeled internal standards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mirgorodskaya, O A; Kozmin, Y P; Titov, M I

    2000-01-01

    A method for quantitating proteins and peptides in the low picomole and sub-picomole range has been developed using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) with internal (18)O-labeled standards. A simple procedure is proposed to produce such internal standards for...... inhibitor, were quantified by MALDI-time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometry.......A method for quantitating proteins and peptides in the low picomole and sub-picomole range has been developed using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) with internal (18)O-labeled standards. A simple procedure is proposed to produce such internal standards...

  11. Internal-standard method for the determination of uranium, thorium, lanthanum and europium in carbonaceous shale and monazite by epithermal neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Shuenn-Gang; Tsai, Hui-Tuh; Wu, Shaw-Chii [Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Lung-Tan (Taiwan, Republic of China)

    1981-10-03

    An internal-standard method was applied for the determination of uranium, thorium, lanthanum and europium is carbonaceous shale samples and monazite sand by epithermal neutron activation analysis using gold as an internal standard element. The samples were irradiated in a zero-power reactor at the Institute of Nuclear Energy Research and measured with a high-resolution Ge(Li) detector. The detection limit is 0.1 ppm for uranium and europium, 1 ppm for thorium, 5 ppm for lanthanum, and the realative error of all elements is within +-2.6%.

  12. Transcription Factor Functional Protein-Protein Interactions in Plant Defense Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murilo S. Alves

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Responses to biotic stress in plants lead to dramatic reprogramming of gene expression, favoring stress responses at the expense of normal cellular functions. Transcription factors are master regulators of gene expression at the transcriptional level, and controlling the activity of these factors alters the transcriptome of the plant, leading to metabolic and phenotypic changes in response to stress. The functional analysis of interactions between transcription factors and other proteins is very important for elucidating the role of these transcriptional regulators in different signaling cascades. In this review, we present an overview of protein-protein interactions for the six major families of transcription factors involved in plant defense: basic leucine zipper containing domain proteins (bZIP, amino-acid sequence WRKYGQK (WRKY, myelocytomatosis related proteins (MYC, myeloblastosis related proteins (MYB, APETALA2/ ETHYLENE-RESPONSIVE ELEMENT BINDING FACTORS (AP2/EREBP and no apical meristem (NAM, Arabidopsis transcription activation factor (ATAF, and cup-shaped cotyledon (CUC (NAC. We describe the interaction partners of these transcription factors as molecular responses during pathogen attack and the key components of signal transduction pathways that take place during plant defense responses. These interactions determine the activation or repression of response pathways and are crucial to understanding the regulatory networks that modulate plant defense responses.

  13. Evaluation of response factors for seismic probabilistic safety assessment of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebisawa, K.; Abe, K.; Muramatsu, K.; Itoh, M.; Kohno, K.; Tanaka, T.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents a method for evaluating 'response factors' of components in nuclear power plants for use in a seismic probabilistic safety assessment (PSA). The response factor here is a measure of conservatism included in response calculations in seismic design analysis of components and is defined as a ratio of conservative design resonse to actual response. This method has the following characteristic features: (1) The components are classified into several groups based on the differences in their location and in the vibration models used in design response analyses; (2) the response factors are decomposed into subfactors corresponding to the stages of the seismic response analyses in the design practices; (3) the response factors for components are calculated as products of subfactors; (4) the subfactors are expressed either as a single value or as a function of parameters that influence the response of components. This paper describes the outline of this method and results from an application to a sample problem in which response factors were quantified for examples of components selected from the groups. (orig.)

  14. Sociodemographic factors responsible for blindness in diabetic Egyptian patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abueleinen KGI

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Khaled Gamal Ibraheem Abueleinen1, Hany El-Mekawey1, Yasser Sayed Saif2, Amr Khafagy1, Hoda Ibrahim Rizk3, Eman M Eltahlawy41Department of Ophthalmology, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt; 2Department of Ophthalmology, Beni-Suef University, Beni-Suef, Egypt; 3Department of Public Health, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt; 4Public Health and Community Medicine National Research Center, Cairo, EgyptPurpose: To evaluate factors behind the delay in diagnosis and treatment among Egyptian patients who present with complicated diabetic retinopathy.Methods: Observational cross-sectional study of diabetic patients with advanced diabetic retinopathy. Patients were asked to answer a questionnaire to assess the impact of several sociodemographic factors.Results: A total of 397 patients agreed to take the questionnaire. Diabetic vitreous hemorrhage was the most common ocular complication and was found in 359 patients (90.4%. A total of 158 (39.8% patients knew that diabetes mellitus can be sight threatening, while 240 (60.2% were not aware until they developed sight threatening complication. A total of 179 patients (45.1% had early retirement because of visual loss related to diabetes mellitus. Multivariate logistic regression has shown that education, internist, contact with other patients, and media were respectively significant in predicting the awareness of patients about the sight-threatening effect of diabetic retinopathy.Conclusion: Patient education regarding diabetes and diabetic eye disease is essential for early detection and compliance with treatment. Illiteracy has a significant impact on development of sight-threatening diabetic complications. The internist is the first line of prophylaxis. Media has to participate more in patient education.Keywords: blindness, education, laser photocoagulation, macular edema, vitreous hemorrhage

  15. FTIR spectroscopic studies of bacterial cellular responses to environmental factors, plant-bacterial interactions and signalling

    OpenAIRE

    Kamnev, Alexander A.

    2008-01-01

    Modern spectroscopic techniques are highly useful in studying diverse processes in microbial cells related to or incited by environmental factors. Spectroscopic data for whole cells, supramolecular structures or isolated cellular constituents can reflect structural and/or compositional changes occurring in the course of cellular metabolic responses to the effects of pollutants, environmental conditions (stress factors); nutrients, signalling molecules (communication factors), etc. This inform...

  16. Class and compassion: socioeconomic factors predict responses to suffering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stellar, Jennifer E; Manzo, Vida M; Kraus, Michael W; Keltner, Dacher

    2012-06-01

    Previous research indicates that lower-class individuals experience elevated negative emotions as compared with their upper-class counterparts. We examine how the environments of lower-class individuals can also promote greater compassionate responding-that is, concern for the suffering or well-being of others. In the present research, we investigate class-based differences in dispositional compassion and its activation in situations wherein others are suffering. Across studies, relative to their upper-class counterparts, lower-class individuals reported elevated dispositional compassion (Study 1), as well as greater self-reported compassion during a compassion-inducing video (Study 2) and for another person during a social interaction (Study 3). Lower-class individuals also exhibited heart rate deceleration-a physiological response associated with orienting to the social environment and engaging with others-during the compassion-inducing video (Study 2). We discuss a potential mechanism of class-based influences on compassion, whereby lower-class individuals' are more attuned to others' distress, relative to their upper-class counterparts.

  17. International standard problem ISP36. Cora-W2 experiment on severe fuel damage for a Russian type PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    An OECD/NEA-CSNI International Standard Problem (ISP) has been performed on the experimental comparison basis of the severe fuel damage experiment CORA-W2. The out-of-pile experiment CORA-W2 was executed in February 1993 at he Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe. The objective of this experiment was the investigation of the behavior of a Russian type PWR fuel element (VVER-1000) during early core degradation. The main difference between a Western type and a Russian type PWR bundle is the B 4 C absorber rod instead of AgInCd. Measured quantities ar boundary conditions, bundle temperature, hydrogen generation and the final bundle configurations after cooldown. The ISP was conducted as a blind exercise. Boundary conditions were estimated using ATHLET-CD. Six different severe accident codes were used. The comparisons between experimental and analytical results were grouped by codes and examined separately. The thermal behavior up to significant oxidation has been predicted quite well. Larger deviations have been observed for the oxidation-induced temperature escalation, both time of onset and maximum temperature as well. The bundle behavior is greatly influenced by chemical interactions involving B 4 C absorber rod material, which failed relatively early at low temperature due to eutectic interaction between B 4 C and SS cladding as well as the SS guide tube. Regarding the complex material interaction larger differences can be recognized between calculated and measured results because of inappropriate models for material relocation and solidification processes and the lack of models describing the interactions of absorber rod materials with the fuel rods. For the total amount of H 2 generated, acceptable agreement could be achieved, if the total of oxidized zirconium was calculated correctly. The oxidation of stainless steel components and B 4 C were not treated. In general the confidence in code predictions decreases with processing core damage. (N.T.)

  18. International standard problem ISP36. Cora-W2 experiment on severe fuel damage for a Russian type PWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    An OECD/NEA-CSNI International Standard Problem (ISP) has been performed on the experimental comparison basis of the severe fuel damage experiment CORA-W2. The out-of-pile experiment CORA-W2 was executed in February 1993 at he Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe. The objective of this experiment was the investigation of the behavior of a Russian type PWR fuel element (VVER-1000) during early core degradation. The main difference between a Western type and a Russian type PWR bundle is the B{sub 4}C absorber rod instead of AgInCd. Measured quantities ar boundary conditions, bundle temperature, hydrogen generation and the final bundle configurations after cooldown. The ISP was conducted as a blind exercise. Boundary conditions were estimated using ATHLET-CD. Six different severe accident codes were used. The comparisons between experimental and analytical results were grouped by codes and examined separately. The thermal behavior up to significant oxidation has been predicted quite well. Larger deviations have been observed for the oxidation-induced temperature escalation, both time of onset and maximum temperature as well. The bundle behavior is greatly influenced by chemical interactions involving B{sub 4}C absorber rod material, which failed relatively early at low temperature due to eutectic interaction between B{sub 4}C and SS cladding as well as the SS guide tube. Regarding the complex material interaction larger differences can be recognized between calculated and measured results because of inappropriate models for material relocation and solidification processes and the lack of models describing the interactions of absorber rod materials with the fuel rods. For the total amount of H{sub 2} generated, acceptable agreement could be achieved, if the total of oxidized zirconium was calculated correctly. The oxidation of stainless steel components and B{sub 4}C were not treated. In general the confidence in code predictions decreases with processing core damage. 36 refs.

  19. Different responses of influenza epidemic to weather factors among Shanghai, Hong Kong, and British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xi-Ling; Yang, Lin; He, Dai-Hai; Chiu, Alice Py; Chan, Kwok-Hung; Chan, King-Pan; Zhou, Maigeng; Wong, Chit-Ming; Guo, Qing; Hu, Wenbiao

    2017-06-01

    Weather factors have long been considered as key sources for regional heterogeneity of influenza seasonal patterns. As influenza peaks coincide with both high and low temperature in subtropical cities, weather factors may nonlinearly or interactively affect influenza activity. This study aims to assess the nonlinear and interactive effects of weather factors with influenza activity and compare the responses of influenza epidemic to weather factors in two subtropical regions of southern China (Shanghai and Hong Kong) and one temperate province of Canada (British Columbia). Weekly data on influenza activity and weather factors (i.e., mean temperature and relative humidity (RH)) were obtained from pertinent government departments for the three regions. Absolute humidity (AH) was measured by vapor pressure (VP), which could be converted from temperature and RH. Generalized additive models were used to assess the exposure-response relationship between weather factors and influenza virus activity. Interactions of weather factors were further assessed by bivariate response models and stratification analyses. The exposure-response curves of temperature and VP, but not RH, were consistent among three regions/cities. Bivariate response model revealed a significant interactive effect between temperature (or VP) and RH (P weather factors in developing a universal model to explain seasonal outbreaks of influenza. However, further research is needed to assess the association between weather factors and influenza activity in a wider context of social and environmental conditions.

  20. Introducing a true internal standard for the Comet assay to minimize intra- and inter-experiment variability in measures of DNA damage and repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainol, Murizal; Stoute, Julia; Almeida, Gabriela M.; Rapp, Alexander; Bowman, Karen J.; Jones, George D. D.

    2009-01-01

    The Comet assay (CA) is a sensitive/simple measure of genotoxicity. However, many features of CA contribute variability. To minimize these, we have introduced internal standard materials consisting of ‘reference’ cells which have their DNA substituted with BrdU. Using a fluorescent anti-BrdU antibody, plus an additional barrier filter, comets derived from these cells could be readily distinguished from the ‘test’-cell comets, present in the same gel. In experiments to evaluate the reference cell comets as external and internal standards, the reference and test cells were present in separate gels on the same slide or mixed together in the same gel, respectively, before their co-exposure to X-irradiation. Using the reference cell comets as internal standards led to substantial reductions in the coefficient of variation (CoV) for intra- and inter-experimental measures of comet formation and DNA damage repair; only minor reductions in CoV were noted when the reference and test cell comets were in separate gels. These studies indicate that differences between individual gels appreciably contribute to CA variation. Further studies using the reference cells as internal standards allowed greater significance to be obtained between groups of replicate samples. Ultimately, we anticipate that development will deliver robust quality assurance materials for CA. PMID:19828597

  1. Evaluation of the impact of matrix effect on quantification of pesticides in foods by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry using isotope-labeled internal standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarita, Takashi; Aoyagi, Yoshie; Otake, Takamitsu

    2015-05-29

    The impact of the matrix effect in GC-MS quantification of pesticides in food using the corresponding isotope-labeled internal standards was evaluated. A spike-and-recovery study of nine target pesticides was first conducted using paste samples of corn, green soybean, carrot, and pumpkin. The observed analytical values using isotope-labeled internal standards were more accurate for most target pesticides than that obtained using the external calibration method, but were still biased from the spiked concentrations when a matrix-free calibration solution was used for calibration. The respective calibration curves for each target pesticide were also prepared using matrix-free calibration solutions and matrix-matched calibration solutions with blank soybean extract. The intensity ratio of the peaks of most target pesticides to that of the corresponding isotope-labeled internal standards was influenced by the presence of the matrix in the calibration solution; therefore, the observed slope varied. The ratio was also influenced by the type of injection method (splitless or on-column). These results indicated that matrix-matching of the calibration solution is required for very accurate quantification, even if isotope-labeled internal standards were used for calibration. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography of anthranilic acid-labelled oligosaccharides with a 4-aminobenzoic acid ethyl ester-labelled dextran hydrolysate internal standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neville, David C A; Alonzi, Dominic S; Butters, Terry D

    2012-04-13

    Hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) of fluorescently labelled oligosaccharides is used in many laboratories to analyse complex oligosaccharide mixtures. Separations are routinely performed using a TSK gel-Amide 80 HPLC column, and retention times of different oligosaccharide species are converted to glucose unit (GU) values that are determined with reference to an external standard. However, if retention times were to be compared with an internal standard, consistent and more accurate GU values would be obtained. We present a method to perform internal standard-calibrated HILIC of fluorescently labelled oligosaccharides. The method relies on co-injection of 4-aminobenzoic acid ethyl ester (4-ABEE)-labelled internal standard and detection by UV absorption, with 2-AA (2-aminobenzoic acid)-labelled oligosaccharides. 4-ABEE is a UV chromophore and a fluorophore, but there is no overlap of the fluorescent spectrum of 4-ABEE with the commonly used fluorescent reagents. The dual nature of 4-ABEE allows for accurate calculation of the delay between UV and fluorescent signals when determining the GU values of individual oligosaccharides. The GU values obtained are inherently more accurate as slight differences in gradients that can influence retention are negated by use of an internal standard. Therefore, this paper provides the first method for determination of HPLC-derived GU values of fluorescently labelled oligosaccharides using an internal calibrant. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Analysis of oxidative DNA damage, Part II: Synthesis of the internal standard 8-[18O]hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermanns RCA; Zomer G; Stavenuiter JFC; Westra G; Visser T; van de Werken G

    1993-01-01

    In the project 'Oxidative DNA Damage' the first aim is to develop a mass spectrometric method for the quantification of 8-hydroxy-2'- deoxyguanosine (oh8dG). The required precision of the method requires the application of a labeled analogue as an internal standard. This report

  4. A heteroscedastic generalized linear model with a non-normal speed factor for responses and response times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molenaar, Dylan; Bolsinova, Maria

    2017-05-01

    In generalized linear modelling of responses and response times, the observed response time variables are commonly transformed to make their distribution approximately normal. A normal distribution for the transformed response times is desirable as it justifies the linearity and homoscedasticity assumptions in the underlying linear model. Past research has, however, shown that the transformed response times are not always normal. Models have been developed to accommodate this violation. In the present study, we propose a modelling approach for responses and response times to test and model non-normality in the transformed response times. Most importantly, we distinguish between non-normality due to heteroscedastic residual variances, and non-normality due to a skewed speed factor. In a simulation study, we establish parameter recovery and the power to separate both effects. In addition, we apply the model to a real data set. © 2017 The Authors. British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British Psychological Society.

  5. Host transcription factors in the immediate pro-inflammatory response to the parasitic mite Psoroptes ovis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stewart T G Burgess

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sheep scab, caused by infestation with the ectoparasitic mite Psoroptes ovis, results in the rapid development of cutaneous inflammation and leads to the crusted skin lesions characteristic of the disease. We described previously the global host transcriptional response to infestation with P. ovis, elucidating elements of the inflammatory processes which lead to the development of a rapid and profound immune response. However, the mechanisms by which this response is instigated remain unclear. To identify novel methods of intervention a better understanding of the early events involved in triggering the immune response is essential. The objective of this study was to gain a clearer understanding of the mechanisms and signaling pathways involved in the instigation of the immediate pro-inflammatory response. RESULTS: Through a combination of transcription factor binding site enrichment and pathway analysis we identified key roles for a number of transcription factors in the instigation of cutaneous inflammation. In particular, defined roles were elucidated for the transcription factors NF-kB and AP-1 in the orchestration of the early pro-inflammatory response, with these factors being implicated in the activation of a suite of inflammatory mediators. CONCLUSIONS: Interrogation of the host temporal response to P. ovis infestation has enabled the further identification of the mechanisms underlying the development of the immediate host pro-inflammatory response. This response involves key regulatory roles for the transcription factors NF-kB and AP-1. Pathway analysis demonstrated that the activation of these transcription factors may be triggered following a host LPS-type response, potentially involving TLR4-signalling and also lead to the intriguing possibility that this could be triggered by a P. ovis allergen.

  6. Developing a registration entry and query system within the scope of harmonizing of the orthophoto metadata with the international standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şahin, İ.; Alkış, Z.

    2013-10-01

    about the storage, management and presentation of the huge amounts of orthophoto images to the users must be started immediately. In this study; metadata components of the produced orthophotos compatible with the international standards have been defined, a relational database has been created to keep complete and accurate metadata, and a user interface has been developed to insert the metadata into the database. Through the developed software, some extra time has been saved while creating and querying the metadata.

  7. Emotional Responses to Suicidal Patients: Factor Structure, Construct, and Predictive Validity of the Therapist Response Questionnaire-Suicide Form

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shira Barzilay

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundMental health professionals have a pivotal role in suicide prevention. However, they also often have intense emotional responses, or countertransference, during encounters with suicidal patients. Previous studies of the Therapist Response Questionnaire-Suicide Form (TRQ-SF, a brief novel measure aimed at probing a distinct set of suicide-related emotional responses to patients found it to be predictive of near-term suicidal behavior among high suicide-risk inpatients. The purpose of this study was to validate the TRQ-SF in a general outpatient clinic setting.MethodsAdult psychiatric outpatients (N = 346 and their treating mental health professionals (N = 48 completed self-report assessments following their first clinic meeting. Clinician measures included the TRQ-SF, general emotional states and traits, therapeutic alliance, and assessment of patient suicide risk. Patient suicidal outcomes and symptom severity were assessed at intake and one-month follow-up. Following confirmatory factor analysis of the TRQ-SF, factor scores were examined for relationships with clinician and patient measures and suicidal outcomes.ResultsFactor analysis of the TRQ-SF confirmed three dimensions: (1 affiliation, (2 distress, and (3 hope. The three factors also loaded onto a single general factor of negative emotional response toward the patient that demonstrated good internal reliability. The TRQ-SF scores were associated with measures of clinician state anger and anxiety and therapeutic alliance, independently of clinician personality traits after controlling for the state- and patient-specific measures. The total score and three subscales were associated in both concurrent and predictive ways with patient suicidal outcomes, depression severity, and clinicians’ judgment of patient suicide risk, but not with global symptom severity, thus indicating specifically suicide-related responses.ConclusionThe TRQ-SF is a brief and reliable measure with a

  8. Emotional Responses to Suicidal Patients: Factor Structure, Construct, and Predictive Validity of the Therapist Response Questionnaire-Suicide Form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barzilay, Shira; Yaseen, Zimri S; Hawes, Mariah; Gorman, Bernard; Altman, Rachel; Foster, Adriana; Apter, Alan; Rosenfield, Paul; Galynker, Igor

    2018-01-01

    Mental health professionals have a pivotal role in suicide prevention. However, they also often have intense emotional responses, or countertransference, during encounters with suicidal patients. Previous studies of the Therapist Response Questionnaire-Suicide Form (TRQ-SF), a brief novel measure aimed at probing a distinct set of suicide-related emotional responses to patients found it to be predictive of near-term suicidal behavior among high suicide-risk inpatients. The purpose of this study was to validate the TRQ-SF in a general outpatient clinic setting. Adult psychiatric outpatients ( N  = 346) and their treating mental health professionals ( N  = 48) completed self-report assessments following their first clinic meeting. Clinician measures included the TRQ-SF, general emotional states and traits, therapeutic alliance, and assessment of patient suicide risk. Patient suicidal outcomes and symptom severity were assessed at intake and one-month follow-up. Following confirmatory factor analysis of the TRQ-SF, factor scores were examined for relationships with clinician and patient measures and suicidal outcomes. Factor analysis of the TRQ-SF confirmed three dimensions: (1) affiliation, (2) distress, and (3) hope. The three factors also loaded onto a single general factor of negative emotional response toward the patient that demonstrated good internal reliability. The TRQ-SF scores were associated with measures of clinician state anger and anxiety and therapeutic alliance, independently of clinician personality traits after controlling for the state- and patient-specific measures. The total score and three subscales were associated in both concurrent and predictive ways with patient suicidal outcomes, depression severity, and clinicians' judgment of patient suicide risk, but not with global symptom severity, thus indicating specifically suicide-related responses. The TRQ-SF is a brief and reliable measure with a 3-factor structure. It demonstrates

  9. Enhanceosomes as integrators of hypoxia inducible factor (HIF) and other transcription factors in the hypoxic transcriptional response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlus, Matthew R; Hu, Cheng-Jun

    2013-09-01

    Hypoxia is a prevalent attribute of the solid tumor microenvironment that promotes the expression of genes through posttranslational modifications and stabilization of alpha subunits (HIF1α and HIF2α) of hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs). Despite significant similarities, HIF1 (HIF1α/ARNT) and HIF2 (HIF2α/ARNT) activate common as well as unique target genes and exhibit different functions in cancer biology. More surprisingly, accumulating data indicates that the HIF1- and/or HIF2-mediated hypoxia responses can be oncogenic as well as tumor suppressive. While the role of HIF in the hypoxia response is well established, recent data support the concept that HIF is necessary, but not sufficient for the hypoxic response. Other transcription factors that are activated by hypoxia are also required for the HIF-mediated hypoxia response. HIFs, other transcription factors, co-factors and RNA poll II recruited by HIF and other transcription factors form multifactorial enhanceosome complexes on the promoters of HIF target genes to activate hypoxia inducible genes. Importantly, HIF1 or HIF2 requires distinct partners in activating HIF1 or HIF2 target genes. Because HIF enhanceosome formation is required for the gene activation and distinct functions of HIF1 and HIF2 in tumor biology, disruption of the HIF1 or HIF2 specific enhanceosome complex may prove to be a beneficial strategy in tumor treatment in which tumor growth is specifically dependent upon HIF1 or HIF2 activity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Factors effecting Corporate Social Responsibility disclosure ratings:an empirical study of Finnish listed companies

    OpenAIRE

    Roitto, A. (Artturi)

    2013-01-01

    Abstract As Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) disclosure is becoming more common practise amongst companies, it is valuable to understand the underlying factors involved. The Goal of this thesis is to examine if the factors suggested by previous studies seem to have significance in a Finnish sample composed of 31 listed companies. As an ancillary research question linkage between Corporate Governance recommendation devi...

  11. Age and other perioperative risk factors for postoperative systemic inflammatory response syndrome after cardiac surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dieleman, J. M.; Peelen, L. M.; Coulson, T. G.; Tran, L.; Reid, C. M.; Smith, Jennifer A.; Myles, P. S.; Pilcher, C.D.

    2017-01-01

    Background The inflammatory response to surgery varies considerably between individual patients. Age might be a substantial factor in this variability. Our objective was to examine the association of patient age and other potential risk factors with the occurrence of a postoperative systemic

  12. International standard problem (ISP) No. 41. Containment iodine computer code exercise based on a radioiodine test facility (RTF) experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-04-01

    International Standard Problem (ISP) exercises are comparative exercises in which predictions of different computer codes for a given physical problem are compared with each other or with the results of a carefully controlled experimental study. The main goal of ISP exercises is to increase confidence in the validity and accuracy of the tools, which were used in assessing the safety of nuclear installations. Moreover, they enable code users to gain experience and demonstrate their competence. The ISP No. 41 exercise, computer code exercise based on a Radioiodine Test Facility (RTF) experiment on iodine behaviour in containment under severe accident conditions, is one of such ISP exercises. The ISP No. 41 exercise was borne at the recommendation at the Fourth Iodine Chemistry Workshop held at PSI, Switzerland in June 1996: 'the performance of an International Standard Problem as the basis of an in-depth comparison of the models as well as contributing to the database for validation of iodine codes'. [Proceedings NEA/CSNI/R(96)6, Summary and Conclusions NEA/CSNI/R(96)7]. COG (CANDU Owners Group), comprising AECL and the Canadian nuclear utilities, offered to make the results of a Radioiodine Test Facility (RTF) test available for such an exercise. The ISP No. 41 exercise was endorsed in turn by the FPC (PWG4's Task Group on Fission Product Phenomena in the Primary Circuit and the Containment), PWG4 (CSNI Principal Working Group on the Confinement of Accidental Radioactive Releases), and the CSNI. The OECD/NEA Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations (CSNI) has sponsored forty-five ISP exercises over the last twenty-four years, thirteen of them in the area of severe accidents. The criteria for the selection of the RTF test as a basis for the ISP-41 exercise were; (1) complementary to other RTF tests available through the PHEBUS and ACE programmes, (2) simplicity for ease of modelling and (3) good quality data. A simple RTF experiment performed under controlled

  13. Auxin Response Factors (ARFs are potential mediators of auxin action in tomato response to biotic and abiotic stress (Solanum lycopersicum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Bouzroud

    Full Text Available Survival biomass production and crop yield are heavily constrained by a wide range of environmental stresses. Several phytohormones among which abscisic acid (ABA, ethylene and salicylic acid (SA are known to mediate plant responses to these stresses. By contrast, the role of the plant hormone auxin in stress responses remains so far poorly studied. Auxin controls many aspects of plant growth and development, and Auxin Response Factors play a key role in the transcriptional activation or repression of auxin-responsive genes through direct binding to their promoters. As a mean to gain more insight on auxin involvement in a set of biotic and abiotic stress responses in tomato, the present study uncovers the expression pattern of SlARF genes in tomato plants subjected to biotic and abiotic stresses. In silico mining of the RNAseq data available through the public TomExpress web platform, identified several SlARFs as responsive to various pathogen infections induced by bacteria and viruses. Accordingly, sequence analysis revealed that 5' regulatory regions of these SlARFs are enriched in biotic and abiotic stress-responsive cis-elements. Moreover, quantitative qPCR expression analysis revealed that many SlARFs were differentially expressed in tomato leaves and roots under salt, drought and flooding stress conditions. Further pointing to the putative role of SlARFs in stress responses, quantitative qPCR expression studies identified some miRNA precursors as potentially involved in the regulation of their SlARF target genes in roots exposed to salt and drought stresses. These data suggest an active regulation of SlARFs at the post-transcriptional level under stress conditions. Based on the substantial change in the transcript accumulation of several SlARF genes, the data presented in this work strongly support the involvement of auxin in stress responses thus enabling to identify a set of candidate SlARFs as potential mediators of biotic and abiotic

  14. Regulation of Cancer Cell Responsiveness to Ionizing Radiation Treatment by Cyclic AMP Response Element Binding Nuclear Transcription Factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca D’Auria

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Cyclic AMP response element binding (CREB protein is a member of the CREB/activating transcription factor (ATF family of transcription factors that play an important role in the cell response to different environmental stimuli leading to proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, and survival. A number of studies highlight the involvement of CREB in the resistance to ionizing radiation (IR therapy, demonstrating a relationship between IR-induced CREB family members’ activation and cell survival. Consistent with these observations, we have recently demonstrated that CREB and ATF-1 are expressed in leukemia cell lines and that low-dose radiation treatment can trigger CREB activation, leading to survival of erythro-leukemia cells (K562. On the other hand, a number of evidences highlight a proapoptotic role of CREB following IR treatment of cancer cells. Since the development of multiple mechanisms of resistance is one key problem of most malignancies, including those of hematological origin, it is highly desirable to identify biological markers of responsiveness/unresponsiveness useful to follow-up the individual response and to adjust anticancer treatments. Taking into account all these considerations, this mini-review will be focused on the involvement of CREB/ATF family members in response to IR therapy, to deepen our knowledge of this topic, and to pave the way to translation into a therapeutic context.

  15. Project in fiscal 2000 of developing international standards for supporting new industries. Comprehensive surveys and researches in relation with promotion of international standardization; 2000 nendo shinki sangyo shiengata kokusai hyojun kaihatsu jigyo seika hokokusho. Kokusai hyojunka suishin ni kakawaru sogo chosa kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    With an objective of promoting the international standardization efficiently and strategically, surveys were performed on trends of international standardization in Europe and America, and researches on means for the international standardization. The standards strategy in the U.S. is to increase the U.S. competitive power in overseas countries, support strongly the domestic markets, and at the same time, deal with problems such as those of the environment. It attempts to structure a framework that can be utilized by any concerned parties, including business entities, the government, and consumers, whereas the National Standards Strategy (NSS) has proposed the initiative. In Europe, targeting to establish international standards originated from Europe, works are becoming more active for new technologies such as information communicating technologies from the R and D phase to the test and evaluation methods, taking the standardization into consideration. These works are being carried out within the scope of the common EU R and D, represented by the 'Framework program' and the 'EUREKA program'. In the survey and research on means to complete the international standardization, analyses and surveys were performed on the latest information, such as TC/SC, which are scheduled of proposition. Advices were given on giving the directionality and establishing the strategy. (NEDO)

  16. Project in fiscal 2000 of developing international standards for supporting new industries. Comprehensive surveys and researches in relation with promotion of international standardization; 2000 nendo shinki sangyo shiengata kokusai hyojun kaihatsu jigyo seika hokokusho. Kokusai hyojunka suishin ni kakawaru sogo chosa kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    With an objective of promoting the international standardization efficiently and strategically, surveys were performed on trends of international standardization in Europe and America, and researches on means for the international standardization. The standards strategy in the U.S. is to increase the U.S. competitive power in overseas countries, support strongly the domestic markets, and at the same time, deal with problems such as those of the environment. It attempts to structure a framework that can be utilized by any concerned parties, including business entities, the government, and consumers, whereas the National Standards Strategy (NSS) has proposed the initiative. In Europe, targeting to establish international standards originated from Europe, works are becoming more active for new technologies such as information communicating technologies from the R and D phase to the test and evaluation methods, taking the standardization into consideration. These works are being carried out within the scope of the common EU R and D, represented by the 'Framework program' and the 'EUREKA program'. In the survey and research on means to complete the international standardization, analyses and surveys were performed on the latest information, such as TC/SC, which are scheduled of proposition. Advices were given on giving the directionality and establishing the strategy. (NEDO)

  17. The small ethylene response factor ERF96 is involved in the regulation of the abscisic acid response in Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoping eWang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Ethylene regulates many aspects of plant growth and development including seed germination, leaf senescence, and fruit ripening, and of plant responses to environmental stimuli including both biotic and abiotic stresses. Ethylene Response Factors (ERFs are plant-specific transcription factors and are a subfamily of the AP2 (APETALA2/ERF transcription factor family. The function of many members in this large gene family remains largely unknown. ERF96, a member of the Group IX ERF family transcription factors, has recently been shown to be a transcriptional activator that is involved in plant defense response in Arabidopsis. Here we provide evidence that ERF96 is a positive regulator of abscisic acid (ABA responses. Bioinformatics analysis indicated that there are a total four small ERFs in Arabidopsis including ERF95, ERF96, ERF97 and ERF98, and that ERF96 forms a cluster with ERF95 and ERF97. By using quantitative RT-PCR, we found that ERF96 is expressed in all tissues and organs examined except roots, with relatively high expression in flowers and seeds. Results from the protoplast transfection assay results indicated that the EDLL motif-containing C-terminal domain is responsible for ERF96’s transcriptional activity. Although loss-of-function mutant of ERF96 was morphologically similar to wild type plants, transgenic plants overexpressing ERF96 had smaller rosette size and were delayed in flowering time. In ABA sensitivity assays, we found that ERF96 overexpression plants were hypersensitive to ABA in terms of ABA inhibition of seed germination, early seedling development and root elongation. Consistent with these observations, elevated transcript levels of some ABA-responsive genes including RD29A, ABI5, ABF3, ABF4, P5CS and COR15A were observed in the transgenic plants in the presence of ABA. However, in the absence of ABA treatment, the transcript levels of these ABA-responsive genes remained largely unchanged. Our experiments also showed

  18. Tissue factor-dependent vascular endothelial growth factor production by human fibroblasts in response to activated factor VII.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ollivier, V; Bentolila, S; Chabbat, J; Hakim, J; de Prost, D

    1998-04-15

    The transmembrane protein tissue factor (TF) is the cell surface receptor for coagulation factor VII (FVII) and activated factor VII (FVIIa). Recently, TF has been identified as a regulator of angiogenesis, tumor growth, and metastasis. This study was designed to link the binding of FVII(a) to its receptor, TF, with the subsequent triggering of angiogenesis through vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) production by human lung fibroblasts. We report that incubation of fibroblasts, which express constitutive surface TF, with FVII(a) induces VEGF synthesis. FVII(a)-induced VEGF secretion, assessed by a specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, was time- and concentration-dependent. VEGF secretion was maximal after 24 hours of incubation of the cells with 100 nmol/L FVII(a) and represented a threefold induction of the basal VEGF level. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis of VEGF detected three mRNA species of 180, 312, and 384 bp corresponding, respectively, to VEGF121, VEGF165, and VEGF189. A 2.5- to 3.5-fold increase was observed for the 180- and 312-bp transcripts at 12 and 24 hours, respectively. FVII(a)-dependent VEGF production was inhibited by a pool of antibodies against TF, pointing to the involvement of this receptor. On specific active-site inhibition with dansyl-glutamyl-glycinyl-arginyl chloromethyl ketone, FVIIa lost 70% of its capacity to elicit VEGF production. Consistent with this, the native form (zymogen) of FVII only had a 1.8-fold stimulating effect. Protein tyrosine kinase and protein kinase C are involved in signal transduction leading to VEGF production, as shown by the inhibitory effects of genistein and GF 109203X. The results of this study indicate that TF is essential for VIIa-induced VEGF production by human fibroblasts and that its role is mainly linked to the proteolytic activity of the TF-VIIa complex.

  19. Factors Affecting 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentration in Response to Vitamin D Supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajar Mazahery

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Sun exposure is the main source of vitamin D. Due to many lifestyle risk factors vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency is becoming a worldwide health problem. Low 25(OHD concentration is associated with adverse musculoskeletal and non-musculoskeletal health outcomes. Vitamin D supplementation is currently the best approach to treat deficiency and to maintain adequacy. In response to a given dose of vitamin D, the effect on 25(OHD concentration differs between individuals, and it is imperative that factors affecting this response be identified. For this review, a comprehensive literature search was conducted to identify those factors and to explore their significance in relation to circulating 25(OHD response to vitamin D supplementation. The effect of several demographic/biological factors such as baseline 25(OHD, aging, body mass index(BMI/body fat percentage, ethnicity, calcium intake, genetics, oestrogen use, dietary fat content and composition, and some diseases and medications has been addressed. Furthermore, strategies employed by researchers or health care providers (type, dose and duration of vitamin D supplementation and environment (season are other contributing factors. With the exception of baseline 25(OHD, BMI/body fat percentage, dose and type of vitamin D, the relative importance of other factors and the mechanisms by which these factors may affect the response remains to be determined.

  20. Factors Affecting 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentration in Response to Vitamin D Supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazahery, Hajar; von Hurst, Pamela R

    2015-06-25

    Sun exposure is the main source of vitamin D. Due to many lifestyle risk factors vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency is becoming a worldwide health problem. Low 25(OH)D concentration is associated with adverse musculoskeletal and non-musculoskeletal health outcomes. Vitamin D supplementation is currently the best approach to treat deficiency and to maintain adequacy. In response to a given dose of vitamin D, the effect on 25(OH)D concentration differs between individuals, and it is imperative that factors affecting this response be identified. For this review, a comprehensive literature search was conducted to identify those factors and to explore their significance in relation to circulating 25(OH)D response to vitamin D supplementation. The effect of several demographic/biological factors such as baseline 25(OH)D, aging, body mass index(BMI)/body fat percentage, ethnicity, calcium intake, genetics, oestrogen use, dietary fat content and composition, and some diseases and medications has been addressed. Furthermore, strategies employed by researchers or health care providers (type, dose and duration of vitamin D supplementation) and environment (season) are other contributing factors. With the exception of baseline 25(OH)D, BMI/body fat percentage, dose and type of vitamin D, the relative importance of other factors and the mechanisms by which these factors may affect the response remains to be determined.

  1. Determination of the detective quantum efficiency (DQE) of CMOS/CsI imaging detectors following the novel IEC 62220-1-1:2015 International Standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michail, C.; Valais, I.; Martini, N.; Koukou, V.; Kalyvas, N.; Bakas, A.; Kandarakis, I.; Fountos, G.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the Detective Quantum Efficiency (DQE) of CMOS imaging detectors, coupled to structured CsI:Tl and Gd_2O_2S:Tb scintillating screens, following the new IEC 62220-1-1:2015 International Standard. DQE was assessed after the experimental determination of the Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) and the Normalized Noise Power Spectrum (NNPS) in the general radiography energy range. Two CMOS sensors were used; one with a pixel size of 22.5 μmcoupled to a columnar CsI:Tl scintillator screen with thickness of 490 μm, which was placed in direct contact with the optical sensor and one with a pixel size of 74.8 μmcoupled to a 200 μmcolumnar CsI:Tl scintillator screen. The MTF was measured using the slanted-edge method (following both the IEC 62220-1:2003 and IEC 62220-1-1:2015 methods) while NNPS was determined by 2D Fourier transforming uniformly exposed images. Both parameters were assessed by irradiation under the RQA-3 and RQA-5 (IEC 62220-1-1:2015) beam qualities. The detector response functions were linear for the exposure ranges under investigation. MTFs calculated following the 62220-1:2003 protocol, were found in all cases overestimated in the higher frequency range (spatial frequencies higher than 2 cycles/mm). DQE values, determined with the IEC 62220-1:2003 method, were also found overestimated (spatial frequencies higher than 2 cycles/mm), due to the influence of both MTF and NNPS. The influence of both additive and multiplicative lag effects were found below 0.005, insuring that lag contributes less than 0.5% of the effective exposure. - Highlights: • DQE was measured with the novel 62220-1-1:2015 protocol and compared to 62220-1:2003. • Two CMOS sensors were evaluated. • DQE of the 62220-1:2003 was overestimated due to the addition of noise when averaging MTFs.

  2. The CSNI International Standard Problem Programme: Overall Presentation on Objectives; Rationale and Lessons Learnt: a Joint Venture of the Thermalhydraulic International Community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reocreux, M.

    2008-01-01

    The CSNI International Standard Problems have been one of the key activities of the CSNI thermal hydraulics groups during the last 25 years. After recalling the way the international standard problems were initiated in the late 1970 years -they were called at that time CSNI LOCA Standard Problem- the process which has led to make from the ISPs a full CSNI activity, is described. Rules have been defined which formalized the way experimental results were provided and the way the comparison exercise were performed. The long series of ISPs from 1975 up to nowadays is described, explaining the different trends in the ISPs choices. The findings which have been obtained are reviewed on both technical and programmatic aspects.

  3. Synthesis of (±-3,4-dimethoxybenzyl-4-methyloctanoate as a novel internal standard for capsinoid determination by HPLC-ESI-MS/MS(QTOF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fayos O

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Capsinoids exhibit health-promoting properties and are therefore compounds of interest for medical and food sciences. They are minor compounds present in relatively high concentrations in only a few number of pepper cultivars. It is desirable to quantify capsinoids to provide selected cultivars with high capsinoid contents, which can then be employed as health food product. Quantifying low concentrations of capsinoids from pepper fruit requires a precise and selective analytical technique such as HPLC coupled to electrospray ionization - mass spectrometry, with development of an internal standard essential. In this work, the synthesis method of a novel compound analogue of capsinoids, the (±-3,4-dimethoxybenzyl-4-methyloctanoate, which could be a suitable internal standard for capsinoid determination by electrospray ionization - mass spectrometry is described.

  4. Quantification of captopril in urine through surface-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry using 4-mercaptobenzoic acid-capped gold nanoparticles as an internal standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wen-Tsen; Chiang, Cheng-Kang; Lin, Yang-Wei; Chang, Huan-Tsung

    2010-05-01

    We have developed a new internal standard method for the determination of the concentration of captopril (CAP) through surface-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (SALDI-MS) using gold nanoparticles (Au NPs). This approach provided linearity for CAP over the concentration range 2.5-25 microM (R(2) = 0.987), with a limit of detection (signal-to-noise ratio = 3) of 1.0 microM. The spot-to-spot variations in the concentration of CAP through SALDI-MS analyses performed in the absence and presence of the internal standard were 26% and 9%, respectively (15 measurements). This approach provides simplicity, accuracy, precision, and great reproducibility to the determination of the levels of CAP in human urine samples. Copyright 2010 American Society for Mass Spectrometry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Pilot Evaluation of Angiogenesis Signaling Factor Response after Transcatheter Arterial Embolization for Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald, James; Nixon, Andrew B; Marin, Daniele; Gupta, Rajan T; Janas, Gemini; Chen, Willa; Suhocki, Paul V; Pabon-Ramos, Waleska; Sopko, David R; Starr, Mark D; Brady, John C; Hurwitz, Herbert I; Kim, Charles Y

    2017-10-01

    Purpose To identify changes in a broad panel of circulating angiogenesis factors after bland transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE), a purely ischemic treatment for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Materials and Methods This prospective HIPAA-compliant study was approved by the institutional review board. Informed written consent was obtained from all participants prior to entry into the study. Twenty-five patients (21 men; mean age, 61 years; range, 30-81 years) with Liver Imaging Reporting and Data System category 5 or biopsy-proven HCC and who were undergoing TAE were enrolled from October 15, 2014, through December 2, 2015. Nineteen plasma angiogenesis factors (angiopoietin 2; hepatocyte growth factor; platelet-derived growth factor AA and BB; placental growth factor; vascular endothelial growth factor A and D; vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1, 2, and 3; osteopontin; transforming growth factor β1 and β2; thrombospondin 2; intercellular adhesion molecule 1; interleukin 6 [IL-6]; stromal cell-derived factor 1; tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 1; and vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 [VCAM-1]) were measured by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays at 1 day, 2 weeks, and 5 weeks after TAE and were compared with baseline levels by using paired Wilcoxon tests. Tumor response was assessed according to modified Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (mRECIST). Angiogenesis factor levels were compared between responders and nonresponders by mRECIST criteria by using unpaired Wilcoxon tests. Results All procedures were technically successful with no complications. Fourteen angiogenesis factors showed statistically significant changes following TAE, but most changes were transient. IL-6 was upregulated only 1 day after the procedure, but showed the largest increases of any factor. Osteopontin and VCAM-1 demonstrated sustained upregulation at all time points following TAE. At 3-month follow-up imaging, 11 patients had responses to TAE

  6. Multiple internal standard normalization for improving HS-SPME-GC-MS quantitation in virgin olive oil volatile organic compounds (VOO-VOCs) profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortini, Martina; Migliorini, Marzia; Cherubini, Chiara; Cecchi, Lorenzo; Calamai, Luca

    2017-04-01

    The commercial value of virgin olive oils (VOOs) strongly depends on their classification, also based on the aroma of the oils, usually evaluated by a panel test. Nowadays, a reliable analytical method is still needed to evaluate the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and support the standard panel test method. To date, the use of HS-SPME sampling coupled to GC-MS is generally accepted for the analysis of VOCs in VOOs. However, VOO is a challenging matrix due to the simultaneous presence of: i) compounds at ppm and ppb concentrations; ii) molecules belonging to different chemical classes and iii) analytes with a wide range of molecular mass. Therefore, HS-SPME-GC-MS quantitation based upon the use of external standard method or of only a single internal standard (ISTD) for data normalization in an internal standard method, may be troublesome. In this work a multiple internal standard normalization is proposed to overcome these problems and improving quantitation of VOO-VOCs. As many as 11 ISTDs were used for quantitation of 71 VOCs. For each of them the most suitable ISTD was selected and a good linearity in a wide range of calibration was obtained. Except for E-2-hexenal, without ISTD or with an unsuitable ISTD, the linear range of calibration was narrower with respect to that obtained by a suitable ISTD, confirming the usefulness of multiple internal standard normalization for the correct quantitation of VOCs profile in VOOs. The method was validated for 71 VOCs, and then applied to a series of lampante virgin olive oils and extra virgin olive oils. In light of our results, we propose the application of this analytical approach for routine quantitative analyses and to support sensorial analysis for the evaluation of positive and negative VOOs attributes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Synthesis and analytics of 2,2,3,4,4-d5-19-nor-5alpha-androsterone--an internal standard in doping analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaertner, Peter; Bica, Katharina; Felzmann, Wolfgang; Forsdahl, Guro; Gmeiner, Günter

    2007-05-01

    A short and efficient synthesis of pentadeuterated 2,2,3,4,4-d5-19-nor-5alpha-androsterone 7 starting from 19-norandrost-4-ene-3,17-dione 1 by a d1-L-Selectride mediated stereo- and regioselective reduction of the 3-keto group is presented. The use of compound 7 as internal standard for the detection of anabolic steroids via mass spectrometric techniques such as gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) is discussed.

  8. Comparison of debris environment models (MASTER-2005, 2001, ORDEM2000): For international standardization of process based implementation of meteoroid and debris environmental models

    OpenAIRE

    Fukushige, Shinya; Akahoshi, Yasuhiro; Kitazawa, Yukihito; Goka, Tateo; 福重 進也; 赤星 保浩; 北澤 幸人; 五家 建夫

    2007-01-01

    Space agencies of some countries have space debris environment model for design of spacecrafts. These models can estimate debris flux as a function of the size, relative impact velocity, and impact angle in a spacecraft orbit. However, it is known calculation results of models are not always consistent with each other. Therefore, international common implementation process of debris environment model is required. In this paper, as the first step of international standardization of implementat...

  9. Integration of growth factor signals at the c-fos serum response element.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, M A; Hill, C; Treisman, R

    1996-04-29

    A transcription factor ternary complex composed of serum response factor (SRF) and a second factor, ternary complex factor (TCF), mediates the response of the c-fos Serum Response Element to growth factors and mitogens. In NIH3T3 fibroblasts, TCF binding is required for transcriptional activation by the SRE in response to activation of the Ras-Raf-ERK pathway. We compared the properties of three members of the TCF family, Elk-1, SAP-1 and SAP-2 (ERP/NET). Although all the proteins contain sequences required for ternary complex formation with SRF, only Elk-1 and SAP-1 appear to interact with the c-fos SRE efficiently in vivo. Each TCF contains a C-terminal activation domain capable of transcriptional activation in response to activation of the Ras-Raf-ERK pathway, and this is dependent on the integrity of S/T-P motifs conserved between all the TCF family members. In contrast, activation of the SRE by whole serum and the mitogenic phospholipid LPA requires SRF binding alone. Constitutively activated members of the Rho subfamily of Ras-like GTPases are also capable of inducing activation of the SRE in the absence of TCF; unlike activated Ras itself, these proteins do not activate the TCFs in NIH3T3 cells. At the SRE, SRF- and TCF-linked signalling pathways act synergistically to potentiate transcription.

  10. Accurate determination of arsenic in arsenobetaine standard solutions of BCR-626 and NMIJ CRM 7901-a by neutron activation analysis coupled with internal standard method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Tsutomu; Chiba, Koichi; Kuroiwa, Takayoshi; Narukawa, Tomohiro; Hioki, Akiharu; Matsue, Hideaki

    2010-09-15

    Neutron activation analysis (NAA) coupled with an internal standard method was applied for the determination of As in the certified reference material (CRM) of arsenobetaine (AB) standard solutions to verify their certified values. Gold was used as an internal standard to compensate for the difference of the neutron exposure in an irradiation capsule and to improve the sample-to-sample repeatability. Application of the internal standard method significantly improved linearity of the calibration curve up to 1 microg of As, too. The analytical reliability of the proposed method was evaluated by k(0)-standardization NAA. The analytical results of As in AB standard solutions of BCR-626 and NMIJ CRM 7901-a were (499+/-55)mgkg(-1) (k=2) and (10.16+/-0.15)mgkg(-1) (k=2), respectively. These values were found to be 15-20% higher than the certified values. The between-bottle variation of BCR-626 was much larger than the expanded uncertainty of the certified value, although that of NMIJ CRM 7901-a was almost negligible. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Photon and proton activation analysis of iron and steel standards using the internal standard method coupled with the standard addition method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masumoto, K.; Hara, M.; Hasegawa, D.; Iino, E.; Yagi, M.

    1997-01-01

    The internal standard method coupled with the standard addition method has been applied to photon activation analysis and proton activation analysis of minor elements and trace impurities in various types of iron and steel samples issued by the Iron and Steel Institute of Japan (ISIJ). Samples and standard addition samples were once dissolved to mix homogeneously, an internal standard and elements to be determined and solidified as a silica-gel to make a similar matrix composition and geometry. Cerium and yttrium were used as an internal standard in photon and proton activation, respectively. In photon activation, 20 MeV electron beam was used for bremsstrahlung irradiation to reduce matrix activity and nuclear interference reactions, and the results were compared with those of 30 MeV irradiation. In proton activation, iron was removed by the MIBK extraction method after dissolving samples to reduce the radioactivity of 56 Co from iron via 56 Fe(p, n) 56 Co reaction. The results of proton and photon activation analysis were in good agreement with the standard values of ISIJ. (author)

  12. Gold internal standard correction for elemental imaging of soft tissue sections by LA-ICP-MS: element distribution in eye microstructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konz, Ioana; Fernández, Beatriz; Fernández, M Luisa; Pereiro, Rosario; González, Héctor; Alvarez, Lydia; Coca-Prados, Miguel; Sanz-Medel, Alfredo

    2013-04-01

    Laser ablation coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry has been developed for the elemental imaging of Mg, Fe and Cu distribution in histological tissue sections of fixed eyes, embedded in paraffin, from human donors (cadavers). This work presents the development of a novel internal standard correction methodology based on the deposition of a homogeneous thin gold film on the tissue surface and the use of the (197)Au(+) signal as internal standard. Sample preparation (tissue section thickness) and laser conditions were carefully optimized, and internal normalisation using (197)Au(+) was compared with (13)C(+) correction for imaging applications. (24)Mg(+), (56)Fe(+) and (63)Cu(+) distributions were investigated in histological sections of the anterior segment of the eye (including the iris, ciliary body, cornea and trabecular meshwork) and were shown to be heterogeneously distributed along those tissue structures. Reproducibility was assessed by imaging different human eye sections from the same donor and from ten different eyes from adult normal donors, which showed that similar spatial maps were obtained and therefore demonstrate the analytical potential of using (197)Au(+) as internal standard. The proposed analytical approach could offer a robust tool with great practical interest for clinical studies, e.g. to investigate trace element distribution of metals and their alterations in ocular diseases.

  13. High responders and low responders: factors associated with individual variation in response to standardized training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Theresa N; Lamberts, Robert P; Lambert, Michael I

    2014-08-01

    The response to an exercise intervention is often described in general terms, with the assumption that the group average represents a typical response for most individuals. In reality, however, it is more common for individuals to show a wide range of responses to an intervention rather than a similar response. This phenomenon of 'high responders' and 'low responders' following a standardized training intervention may provide helpful insights into mechanisms of training adaptation and methods of training prescription. Therefore, the aim of this review was to discuss factors associated with inter-individual variation in response to standardized, endurance-type training. It is well-known that genetic influences make an important contribution to individual variation in certain training responses. The association between genotype and training response has often been supported using heritability estimates; however, recent studies have been able to link variation in some training responses to specific single nucleotide polymorphisms. It would appear that hereditary influences are often expressed through hereditary influences on the pre-training phenotype, with some parameters showing a hereditary influence in the pre-training phenotype but not in the subsequent training response. In most cases, the pre-training phenotype appears to predict only a small amount of variation in the subsequent training response of that phenotype. However, the relationship between pre-training autonomic activity and subsequent maximal oxygen uptake response appears to show relatively stronger predictive potential. Individual variation in response to standardized training that cannot be explained by genetic influences may be related to the characteristics of the training program or lifestyle factors. Although standardized programs usually involve training prescribed by relative intensity and duration, some methods of relative exercise intensity prescription may be more successful in creating

  14. Hepatitis B viral factors and treatment responses in chronic hepatitis B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Lin Lin

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Baseline and on-treatment hepatitis B viral factors are reported to affect treatment responses. A lower baseline hepatitis B virus (HBV DNA level is a strong predictor of the response to antiviral therapy. HBV genotype A/B patients have better responses to interferon-based therapy than those with genotypes C/D. Regarding the association of HBV mutants with responses to antiviral therapy, current evidence is limited. On-treatment viral suppression is the most important predictor of response to nucleoside analogs. On-treatment hepatitis B surface antigen decline is significantly associated with response to pegylated interferon. In the future, individualized therapy should be based on treatment efficacy, adverse effects, baseline and on-treatment predictors of antiviral therapy.

  15. Boundary condition effect on response modification factor of X-braced steel frames

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walid A. Attia

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Design of the structures to resist seismic force depends on the theory of dissipation in elastic energy that already exists in response modification factor “R-factor”. The main problem in codes gives a constant value for R-factor, since change in boundary conditions of building change in behavior of braced steel frame structures and that effects on R-factor. This study is an attempt to assess overstrength, ductility and response modification factor of X-braced steel frame under change in boundary conditions, as change in the direction of strong axis of column and connection support type of column besides variation in storey and bays numbers to be 21 frames and each frame has 8 different boundary conditions as sum of 168 cases for analysis. These frames were analyzed by using nonlinear static “pushover” analysis. As results of this study change in support type and direction of strong axis of column give large change in value of R-factor; the minimum value was 4.37 and maximum value 10.97. Minimum value is close to code value that’s mean the code is more conservative in suggesting of R-factor and gives a large factor of safety. Change in the location of bracing gives change in value of R-factor for all boundary conditions. Change in direction of strong axis of columns and support type didn’t give change in value of fundamental period, all boundary conditions. Keywords: Response modification factor, Ductility reduction factor, Overstrength factor, Boundary conditions, Brace frame, Nonlinear static analysis “Pushover”

  16. Dyadic confirmatory factor analysis of the inflammatory bowel disease family responsibility questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenley, Rachel Neff; Reed-Knight, Bonney; Blount, Ronald L; Wilson, Helen W

    2013-09-01

    Evaluate the factor structure of youth and maternal involvement ratings on the Inflammatory Bowel Disease Family Responsibility Questionnaire, a measure of family allocation of condition management responsibilities in pediatric inflammatory bowel disease. Participants included 251 youth aged 11-18 years with inflammatory bowel disease and their mothers. Item-level descriptive analyses, subscale internal consistency estimates, and confirmatory factor analyses of youth and maternal involvement were conducted using a dyadic data-analytic approach. Results supported the validity of 4 conceptually derived subscales including general health maintenance, social aspects, condition management tasks, and nutrition domains. Additionally, results indicated adequate support for the factor structure of a 21-item youth involvement measure and strong support for a 16-item maternal involvement measure. Additional empirical support for the validity of the Inflammatory Bowel Disease Family Responsibility Questionnaire was provided. Future research to replicate current findings and to examine the measure's clinical utility is warranted.

  17. Elevated-CO2 Response of Stomata and Its Dependence on Environmental Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhenzhu; Jiang, Yanling; Jia, Bingrui; Zhou, Guangsheng

    2016-01-01

    Stomata control the flow of gases between plants and the atmosphere. This review is centered on stomatal responses to elevated CO2 concentration and considers other key environmental factors and underlying mechanisms at multiple levels. First, an outline of general responses in stomatal conductance under elevated CO2 is presented. Second, stomatal density response, its development, and the trade-off with leaf growth under elevated CO2 conditions are depicted. Third, the molecular mechanism regulating guard cell movement at elevated CO2 is suggested. Finally, the interactive effects of elevated CO2 with other factors critical to stomatal behavior are reviewed. It may be useful to better understand how stomata respond to elevated CO2 levels while considering other key environmental factors and mechanisms, including molecular mechanism, biochemical processes, and ecophysiological regulation. This understanding may provide profound new insights into how plants cope with climate change. PMID:27242858

  18. Parasitism can be a confounding factor in assessing the response of zebra mussels to water contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minguez, Laëtitia; Buronfosse, Thierry; Beisel, Jean-Nicolas; Giambérini, Laure

    2012-03-01

    Biological responses measured in aquatic organisms to monitor environmental pollution could be also affected by different biotic and abiotic factors. Among these environmental factors, parasitism has often been neglected even if infection by parasites is very frequent. In the present field investigation, the parasite infra-communities and zebra mussel biological responses were studied up- and downstream a waste water treatment plant in northeast France. In both sites, mussels were infected by ciliates and/or intracellular bacteria, but prevalence rates and infection intensities were different according to the habitat. Concerning the biological responses differences were observed related to the site quality and the infection status. Parasitism affects both systems but seemed to depend mainly on environmental conditions. The influence of parasites is not constant, but remains important to consider it as a potential confounding factor in ecotoxicological studies. This study also emphasizes the interesting use of integrative indexes to synthesize data set. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Predictive and prognostic factors associated with soft tissue sarcoma response to chemotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Young, Robin J; Litière, Saskia; Lia, Michela

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) 62012 study was a Phase III trial of doxorubicin versus doxorubicin-ifosfamide chemotherapy in 455 patients with advanced soft tissue sarcoma (STS). Analysis of the main study showed that combination chemotherapy...... improved tumor response and progression-free survival, but differences in overall survival (OS) were not statistically significant. We analyzed factors prognostic for tumor response and OS, and assessed histological subgroup and tumor grade as predictive factors to identify patients more likely to benefit...... patients had improved tumor response compared to other histological subgroups, whilst patients with metastases other than lung, liver or bone had a poorer response [odds ratio (OR) 0.42, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.23-0.78; p = 0.006]. Patients with bone metastases had reduced OS [hazard ratio (HR) 1...

  20. The Role of Trauma-Specific Irrational Beliefs and Sociodemographic Risk Factors in Posttraumatic Stress Responses

    OpenAIRE

    Hyland, Philip; Shevlin, Mark; Adamson, Gary; Boduszek, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress responses have been linked to a range of social-cognitive and sociodemographic factors. Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy suggests that responding to a traumatic life event with a set of irrational beliefs should play a crucial role in predicting the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD: Ellis, 2001). The current study assessed the role of trauma-specific irrational beliefs in the prediction of clinically relevant posttraumatic stress responses, while contr...

  1. Factors behind response strategies of incumbent firms to disruptive innovation: case of TV broadcasting industry

    OpenAIRE

    Markevičiūtė, Imantė

    2017-01-01

    Disruptive technologies and business models are fundamentally changing the established ‘rules of the game’ in many industries. Thus, finding an adequate response becomes a matter of survival to companies touched by disruptive innovation. The current research is attempting to reveal the factors determining the response strategy of local incumbent TV broadcasters to global disruptive innovation. In order to do so, these research objectives are pursued in order to answer the research question: t...

  2. Organotypic Cultures of Intervertebral Disc Cells: Responses to Growth Factors and Signaling Pathways Involved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harris Pratsinis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Intervertebral disc (IVD degeneration is strongly associated with low back pain, a major cause of disability worldwide. An in-depth understanding of IVD cell physiology is required for the design of novel regenerative therapies. Accordingly, aim of this work was the study of IVD cell responses to mitogenic growth factors in a three-dimensional (3D organotypic milieu, comprising characteristic molecules of IVD’s extracellular matrix. In particular, annulus fibrosus (AF cells were cultured inside collagen type-I gels, while nucleus pulposus (NP cells in chondroitin sulfate A (CSA supplemented collagen gels, and the effects of Platelet-Derived Growth Factor (PDGF, basic Fibroblast Growth Factor (bFGF, and Insulin-Like Growth Factor-I (IGF-I were assessed. All three growth factors stimulated DNA synthesis in both AF and NP 3D cell cultures, with potencies similar to those observed previously in monolayers. CSA supplementation inhibited basal DNA synthesis rates, without affecting the response to growth factors. ERK and Akt were found to be phosphorylated following growth factor stimulation. Blockade of these two signaling pathways using pharmacologic inhibitors significantly, though not completely, inhibited growth factor-induced DNA synthesis. The proposed culture systems may prove useful for further in vitro studies aiming at future interventions for IVD regeneration.

  3. Time to treatment as an important factor for the response to methotrexate in juvenile idiopathic arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albers, H M; Wessels, J A M; van der Straaten, R J H M; Brinkman, D M C; Suijlekom-Smit, L W A; Kamphuis, S S M; Girschick, H J; Wouters, C; Schilham, M W; le Cessie, S; Huizinga, T W J; Ten Cate, R; Guchelaar, H J

    2009-01-15

    Methotrexate (MTX) is the most commonly used disease-modifying antirheumatic drug in juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). Currently, individual response to MTX cannot be reliably predicted. Identification of clinical and genetic factors that influence the response to MTX could be helpful in realizing the optimal treatment for individual patients. A cohort of 128 JIA patients treated with MTX were studied retrospectively. Eleven clinical parameters and genotypes of 6 single nucleotide polymorphisms in 5 genes related to the mechanism of action of MTX were compared between MTX responders and nonresponders using a multivariate regression analysis. The time from diagnosis to start of MTX treatment, physician's global assessment at baseline, and the starting dose were significantly associated with the response to MTX at 6 months after initiation. Patients with a shorter time from diagnosis to start of MTX and a higher disease activity according to the physician but with a lower MTX dose showed an increased response. The effect of the starting dose on MTX response seemed to be mainly due to the influence of the systemic JIA subtype. The time from diagnosis to start of MTX treatment and physician's global assessment at baseline were highly correlated. Therefore, the precise effect size of each independent variable could not be determined. In children with JIA, the time from diagnosis to start of MTX appears to be an important factor for MTX response. Our results suggest that an earlier start of MTX treatment will lead to an increased response.

  4. FY 1999 project on the development of new industry support type international standards. Comprehensive survey research on the promotion of international standardization; 1999 nendo shinki sangyo shiengata kokusai hyojun kaihatsu jigyo seika hokokusho. Kokusai hyojunka suishin ni kakawaru sogo chosa kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    For the purpose of promoting the international standardization effectively/strategically, a comprehensive survey was made, and the FY 1999 results were summarized. In the trend survey on the comprehensive international standardization, survey was conducted for companies in the material field (plastics, rubber and iron steel) and in the mechanical field (robot, machinery, aircraft, etc.). As a result of the survey, it was found out that they have few headquarters systems and experts, but they tackle it strategically and defensively, taking the standardization as business. Also as to the trend of CEN/CENELEC, importance of the continued trend survey was pointed out. In the survey of policy for the international standardization, survey was carried out on the trend of the process for working out the international standards (TS, ITS and SDO). Further, in relation to the technology standards and intellectual property rights in the hi-tech field, survey was made on the present situation of rules for handling intellectual property rights of organizations, groups, etc. for standardization, how to handle intellectual property rights in the standardization process, problems and the solution, etc. (NEDO)

  5. Familial factors responsible for persistent crying-induced asthma: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, A G

    1987-10-01

    Crying behavior of the asthmatic child may induce wheezing symptoms. This may be a clinical problem for families with asthmatic children who exhibit frequent and persistent crying behavior. This case report identifies behaviors by the child and parents that may be responsible for continual crying. Child factors include (1) "spoiled" personality, (2) poor self-image, (3) biologic sensitivity to foods, medication, and environmental allergens producing irritability. Parental factors include poor disciplinary practices secondary to (1) disrupted home life, (2) guilt, and (3) overprotective behavior. Identification of these factors may be helpful in establishing clinical management strategies to reduce crying-induced asthma.

  6. Capsicum annuum WRKY transcription factor d (CaWRKYd) regulates hypersensitive response and defense response upon Tobacco mosaic virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huh, Sung Un; Choi, La Mee; Lee, Gil-Je; Kim, Young Jin; Paek, Kyung-Hee

    2012-12-01

    WRKY transcription factors regulate biotic, abiotic, and developmental processes. In terms of plant defense, WRKY factors have important roles as positive and negative regulators via transcriptional regulation or protein-protein interaction. Here, we report the characterization of the gene encoding Capsicum annuum WRKY transcription factor d (CaWRKYd) isolated from microarray analysis in the Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV)-P(0)-inoculated hot pepper plants. CaWRKYd belongs to the WRKY IIa group, a very small clade in the WRKY subfamily, and WRKY IIa group has positive/negative regulatory roles in Arabidopsis and rice. CaWRKYd transcripts were induced by various plant defense-related hormone treatments and TMV-P(0) inoculation. Silencing of CaWRKYd affected TMV-P(0)-mediated hypersensitive response (HR) cell death and accumulation of TMV-P(0) coat protein in local and systemic leaves. Furthermore, expression of some pathogenesis-related (PR) genes and HR-related genes was reduced in the CaWRKYd-silenced plants compared with TRV2 vector control plants upon TMV-P(0) inoculation. CaWRKYd was confirmed to bind to the W-box. Thus CaWRKYd is a newly identified Capsicum annuum WRKY transcription factor that appears to be involved in TMV-P(0)-mediated HR cell death by regulating downstream gene expression. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Functional analysis of jasmonate-responsive transcription factors in Arabidopsis thaliana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zarei, Adel

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the studies described in this thesis was the functional analysis of JA-responsive transcription factors in Arabidopsis with an emphasis on the interaction with the promoters of their target genes. In short, the following new results were obtained. The promoter of the PDF1.2 gene contains

  8. 41 CFR 101-25.202 - Factors to be used to determine assignment of purchase responsibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... experience of agency purchasing and contracting officials and their operating units with due regard to... determine assignment of purchase responsibility. 101-25.202 Section 101-25.202 Public Contracts and Property... PROCUREMENT 25-GENERAL 25.2-Interagency Purchase Assignments § 101-25.202 Factors to be used to determine...

  9. Parasitism can be a confounding factor in assessing the response of zebra mussels to water contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minguez, Laëtitia; Buronfosse, Thierry; Beisel, Jean-Nicolas; Giambérini, Laure

    2012-01-01

    Biological responses measured in aquatic organisms to monitor environmental pollution could be also affected by different biotic and abiotic factors. Among these environmental factors, parasitism has often been neglected even if infection by parasites is very frequent. In the present field investigation, the parasite infra-communities and zebra mussel biological responses were studied up- and downstream a waste water treatment plant in northeast France. In both sites, mussels were infected by ciliates and/or intracellular bacteria, but prevalence rates and infection intensities were different according to the habitat. Concerning the biological responses differences were observed related to the site quality and the infection status. Parasitism affects both systems but seemed to depend mainly on environmental conditions. The influence of parasites is not constant, but remains important to consider it as a potential confounding factor in ecotoxicological studies. This study also emphasizes the interesting use of integrative indexes to synthesize data set. Highlights: ► Study of potential bias associated with the use of infected zebra mussels in ecotoxicological studies. ► Presence of infected mussels on banks and channels, up- and downstream a waste water treatment plant. ► Parasitism influence on biological responses dependent of mussel population history. ► Integrative index, an interesting tool to synthesize the set of biological data. - Parasitism influence on the host physiology would be strongly dependent on environmental conditions but remains a potential confounding factor in ecotoxicological studies.

  10. Risk factors of virologic failure and slow response to art among HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Risk factors of virologic failure and slow response to art among HIV-infected children and adolescents in Nairobi. J. M. Kabogo, S. Gupta, A. K. Maina, M. Ochwoto, R. W. Omange, R. N. Musoke, R. W. Lihana, E. Muniu, F. W. Wamunyokoli, B. Liang, E. M. Songok ...

  11. Using the Bayes Factors to Evaluate Person Fit in the Item Response Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Tianshu; Yin, Yue

    2017-01-01

    In this article, we propose using the Bayes factors (BF) to evaluate person fit in item response theory models under the framework of Bayesian evaluation of an informative diagnostic hypothesis. We first discuss the theoretical foundation for this application and how to analyze person fit using BF. To demonstrate the feasibility of this approach,…

  12. Linear Ordinary Differential Equations with Constant Coefficients. Revisiting the Impulsive Response Method Using Factorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camporesi, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    We present an approach to the impulsive response method for solving linear constant-coefficient ordinary differential equations based on the factorization of the differential operator. The approach is elementary, we only assume a basic knowledge of calculus and linear algebra. In particular, we avoid the use of distribution theory, as well as of…

  13. General biological character of mammal adaptive potential in the response to diverse extreme environmental factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graevskaya, B.M.; Zolotareva, N.N.

    1986-01-01

    Method for evaluating individual response and its prediction to extreme effect was developed. Experiments with different mammal types show that ranking (dominancy or subordination) are tightly related to radiosensitivity. It is confirmed that organism sensitivity, independen of effect factors, is determined with homeostasis capacity characterizing mammal genotype. Variation limits of ogranism mobilization possibilities depending on species differences were determined as well

  14. Epigenetic and genetic factors in the cellular response to radiations and DNA-damaging chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, J.R.; D'Arpa, P.

    1981-01-01

    DNA-damaging agents are widely used as therapeutic tools for a variety of disease states. Many such agents are considered to produce detrimental side effects. Thus, it is important to evaluate both therapeutic efficacy and potential risk. DNA-damaging agents can be so evaluated by comparison to agents whose therapeutic benefit and potential hazards are better known. We propose a framework for such comparison, demonstrating that a simple transformation of cytotoxicity-dose response patterns permits a facile comparison of variation between cells exposed to a single DNA-damaging agent or to different cytotoxic agents. Further, by transforming data from experiments which compare responses of 2 cell populations to an effects ratio, different patterns for the changes in cytotoxicity produced by epigenetic and genetic factors were compared. Using these transformations, we found that there is a wide variation (a factor of 4) between laboratories for a single agent (UVC) and only a slightly larger variation (factor of 6) between normal cell response for different types of DNA-damaging agents (x-ray, UVC, alkylating agents, crosslinking agents). Epigenetic factors such as repair and recovery appear to be a factor only at higher dose levels. Comparison in the cytotoxic effect of a spectrum of DNA-damaging agents in xeroderma pigmentosum, ataxia telangiectasia, and Fanconi's anemia cells indicates significantly different patterns, implying that the effect, and perhaps the nature, of these genetic conditions are quite different

  15. Factors Promoting Environmental Responsibility in European SMEs: The Effect on Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. Sáez-Martínez

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing social and political awareness of the importance of developing environmental responsibility at a corporate level. When focusing on issues of responsibility, large companies are frequently perceived to be more responsible for driving climate change and resource depletion. However, small and medium enterprises (SMEs contribute significantly to the use of resources such as material and energy and produce approximately 64% of the pollution in Europe. Drawing on evidence from “The Eurobarometer 381 Survey on SMEs, Resource Efficiency and Green Markets”, we analyze the environmental responsibility of European SMEs, studying their compliance with environmental legislation and how several factors drive environmental orientation among SMEs. Our sample consists of 3647 SMEs operating in 38 countries. Only around a fifth of the firms go beyond environmental regulations, showing the highest levels of environmental responsibility. We conduct OLS regressions to analyze the factors that affect a positive environmental attitude among European SMEs (internal drivers being more significant than external ones and then, to observe the positive effect of environmental responsibility and firm’s experience in offering green services/products on performance, although a conjoint effect was not found. Implications for practitioners, academics, and policy-makers are outlined.

  16. Connective tissue growth factor/CCN2-null mouse embryonic fibroblasts retain intact transforming growth factorresponsiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Yasuji; Hinchcliff, Monique; Wu, Minghua; Warner-Blankenship, Matthew; Lyons, Karen M.; Varga, John

    2008-01-01

    Background: The matricellular protein connective tissue growth factor (CCN2) has been implicated in pathological fibrosis, but its physiologic role remains elusive. In vitro, transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) induces CCN2 expression in mesenchymal cells. Because CCN2 can enhance profibrotic responses elicited by TGF-β, it has been proposed that CCN2 functions as an essential downstream signaling mediator for TGF-β. To explore this notion, we characterized TGF-β-induced activation of fibroblasts from CCN2-null (CCN2 -/- ) mouse embryos. Methods: The regulation of CCN2 expression was examined in vivo in a model of fibrosis induced by bleomycin. Cellular TGF-β signal transduction and regulation of collagen gene expression were examined in CCN2 -/- MEFs by immunohistochemistry, Northern, Western and RT-PCR analysis, immunocytochemistry and transient transfection assays. Results: Bleomycin-induced skin fibrosis in the mouse was associated with substantial CCN2 up-regulation in lesional fibroblasts. Whereas in vitro proliferation rate of CCN2 -/- MEFs was markedly reduced compared to wild type MEFs, TGF-β-induced activation of the Smad pathways, including Smad2 phosphorylation, Smad2/3 and Smad4 nuclear accumulation and Smad-dependent transcriptional responses, were unaffected by loss of CCN2. The stimulation of COL1A2 and fibronectin mRNA expression and promoter activity, and of corresponding protein levels, showed comparable time and dose-response in wild type and CCN2 -/- MEFs, whereas stimulation of alpha smooth muscle actin and myofibroblast transdifferentiation showed subtle impairment in MEFs lacking CCN2. Conclusion: Whereas endogenous CCN2 plays a role in regulation of proliferation and TGF-β-induced myofibroblast transdifferentiation, it appears to be dispensable for Smad-dependent stimulation of collagen and extracellular matrix synthesis in murine embryonic fibroblasts

  17. Feasibility of internal standardization in the direct and simultaneous determination of As, Cu and Pb in sugar-cane spirits by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldas, Naise Mary; Ruella Oliveira, Silvana; Anchieta Gomes Neto, Jose

    2009-01-01

    Bismuth and Sb were evaluated as internal standards (IS) to minimize matrix effects on the direct and simultaneous determination of As, Cu, and Pb in cachaca by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry using W-coated platform plus Pd-Mg(NO 3 ) 2 as modifier. For 20 μL injected sample, calibration within the 0.5-10 μg L -1 As, 100-1000 μg L -1 Cu and 0.5-30 μg L -1 Pb intervals were established using the ratios As absorbance to Sb absorbance, Cu absorbance to Bi absorbance and Pb absorbance to Bi absorbance versus analytes concentration, respectively. Typical linear correlations of 0.998, 0.999 and 0.999 were, respectively, obtained. The proposed method was applied for direct determination of As, Cu and Pb in 10 commercial cachaca samples and results were in agreement with those obtained by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry at 95% confidence level. The found characteristic masses were 30 pg As, 274 pg Cu and 39 pg Pb. The useful lifetime of the graphite tube was around 760 firings. Recoveries of As, Cu and Pb added to cachaca samples varied, respectively, from 98% to 109%, 97% to 108% and 98% to 104% with internal standards and from 48% to 54%, 53% to 92% and 62% to 97% without internal standards. The limits of detection were 0.13 μg L -1 As, 22 μg L -1 Cu and 0.05 μg L -1 Pb. The relative standard deviations (n = 12) for a spiked sample containing 20 μg L -1 As, Pb and 500 μg L -1 Cu were 1.6%, 1.0%, and 1.8% with IS and 4.3%, 5.2%, and 5.5% without IS

  18. [Identification of an auxin response factor-like protein cDNA from mango cotyledon section].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jie-Ning; Huang, Xue-Lin; Huang, Xia; Li, Xiao-Ju

    2004-01-01

    Auxin-responsive elements (AuxRE) interact with a new class of plant-specific transcription factors, auxin response factors (ARFs). Some of ARFs have been shown to repress or activate expression of genes with an AuxRE promotor element. In Arabidopsis, ARFs play important roles in early embryo development and vascular strand formation (ARF5), floral patterning (ARF3) and photo- and gravitropic responses (ARF7). Two cut surfaces (distal and proximal) of mango (Mangifera indica L. var. Zi-Hua) cotyledon showed different patterns of adventitious root formation, with only the proximal cut surface, but not the distal one, could be induced to form the roots. Thus, the mango cotyledon is a good system for studying adventitious root formation. A cDNA fragment homologous to the Arabidopsis auxin response factor-like protein and relates to adventitious root formation from the cut sections were isolated using suppressive subtractive hybridization (SSH). Two cDNA clones, designated as MiARF1 (mango auxin response factor 1 gene, GenBank accession number AY255705) and MiARF2 (mango auxin response factor 2 gene, GenBank accession number is AY300808), were identified by 3'RACE. MiARF1, 3 272bp long, contains an open reading frame (ORF) of 2 523bp, 5'UTR of 285bp and 3'UTR of 464bp, MiARF2, 1 474bp long, contains an ORF of 981bp, 5' UTR of 285bp and 3'UTR of 208bp. The deduced MiARF1 and MiARF2 are homologues of auxin response factor (ARF) family of transcriptional regulators, and show high similarity to ARF of Arabidopsis in conserved domains. The motifs of MiARF1 EL-WHACAGPL in DBD (DNA binding domain) and GDDPW in IV domain are identical to that of ARF-like protein of Arabidopsis. MiARF2 is identical to MiARF1 in a large part of DBD, but lacks a carboxyl-terminal domain containing conserved motifs III and IV. Virtual Northern blot showed that the expression of MiARF2 was high in rooting tissue of cultured cotyledon sections but low in non-rooting tissue, and the MiARF1 was

  19. A systems biology perspective on the role of WRKY transcription factors in drought responses in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Prateek; Rabara, Roel C; Rushton, Paul J

    2014-02-01

    Drought is one of the major challenges affecting crop productivity and yield. However, water stress responses are notoriously multigenic and quantitative with strong environmental effects on phenotypes. It is also clear that water stress often does not occur alone under field conditions but rather in conjunction with other abiotic stresses such as high temperature and high light intensities. A multidisciplinary approach with successful integration of a whole range of -omics technologies will not only define the system, but also provide new gene targets for both transgenic approaches and marker-assisted selection. Transcription factors are major players in water stress signaling and some constitute major hubs in the signaling webs. The main transcription factors in this network include MYB, bHLH, bZIP, ERF, NAC, and WRKY transcription factors. The role of WRKY transcription factors in abiotic stress signaling networks is just becoming apparent and systems biology approaches are starting to define their places in the signaling network. Using systems biology approaches, there are now many transcriptomic analyses and promoter analyses that concern WRKY transcription factors. In addition, reports on nuclear proteomics have identified WRKY proteins that are up-regulated at the protein level by water stress. Interactomics has started to identify different classes of WRKY-interacting proteins. What are often lacking are connections between metabolomics, WRKY transcription factors, promoters, biosynthetic pathways, fluxes and downstream responses. As more levels of the system are characterized, a more detailed understanding of the roles of WRKY transcription factors in drought responses in crops will be obtained.

  20. Factors affecting the United Nations' response to natural disasters: what determines the allocation of the Central Emergency Response Fund?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Tyler D; Oliveira, Thiago M; Kayden, Stephanie

    2017-10-01

    Natural disasters can overwhelm the domestic response of a country, leaving it dependent on external humanitarian relief. The Central Emergency Response Fund (CERF) of the United Nations centralises humanitarian funding and thus allows for a rapid response. This study combined data to analyse the factors that affected the allocation of CERF funding to countries that suffered a natural disaster between 2007 and 2013. It generated descriptive statistics and information on relative risks, and performed regressions of CERF funding across countries. There were 4,346 disasters in total in 188 countries between 2007 and 2013. CERF provided USD 2.98 billion to 87 countries, comprising 3.3 per cent of their total humanitarian funding. CERF more frequently supplied aid to countries in North Africa and the Middle East, and to those that had suffered geophysical disasters. Appropriately, it funds vulnerable countries experiencing severe natural disasters, yet its funding may be affected by variables beyond severity and vulnerability. Further investigation is warranted, therefore. © 2017 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2017.

  1. The functions of WHIRLY1 and REDOX-RESPONSIVE TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR 1 in cross tolerance responses in plants: a hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foyer, Christine H; Karpinska, Barbara; Krupinska, Karin

    2014-04-19

    Chloroplasts are important sensors of environment change, fulfilling key roles in the regulation of plant growth and development in relation to environmental cues. Photosynthesis produces a repertoire of reductive and oxidative (redox) signals that provide information to the nucleus facilitating appropriate acclimation to a changing light environment. Redox signals are also recognized by the cellular innate immune system allowing activation of non-specific, stress-responsive pathways that underpin cross tolerance to biotic-abiotic stresses. While these pathways have been intensively studied in recent years, little is known about the different components that mediate chloroplast-to-nucleus signalling and facilitate cross tolerance phenomena. Here, we consider the properties of the WHIRLY family of proteins and the REDOX-RESPONSIVE TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR 1 (RRTF1) in relation to chloroplast redox signals that facilitate the synergistic co-activation of gene expression pathways and confer cross tolerance to abiotic and biotic stresses. We propose a new hypothesis for the role of WHIRLY1 as a redox sensor in chloroplast-to-nucleus retrograde signalling leading to cross tolerance, including acclimation and immunity responses. By virtue of its association with chloroplast nucleoids and with nuclear DNA, WHIRLY1 is an attractive candidate coordinator of the expression of photosynthetic genes in the nucleus and chloroplasts. We propose that the redox state of the photosynthetic electron transport chain triggers the movement of WHIRLY1 from the chloroplasts to the nucleus, and draw parallels with the regulation of NONEXPRESSOR OF PATHOGENESIS-RELATED GENES 1 (NPR1).

  2. Feasibility of using training cases from International Spinal Cord Injury Core Data Set for testing of International Standards for Neurological Classification of Spinal Cord Injury items

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, N; Hu, Z W; Zhou, M W

    2014-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN: Descriptive comparison analysis. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether five training cases of International Spinal Cord Injury Core Data Set (ISCICDS) are appropriate for testing the facts within the International Standards for Neurological Classification of Spinal Cord Injury (ISNCSCI...... include information about zone of partial preservation, sensory score or motor score. CONCLUSION: Majority of the facts related to SL, ML and AIS are included in the five training cases of ISCICDS. Thus, using these training cases, it is feasible to test the above facts within the ISNCSCI. It is suggested...

  3. Syntheses of deuterated leu-enkephalins and their use as internal standards for the quantification of leu-enkephalin by fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benfenati, E. (Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri, Bergamo (Italy) Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri, Milan (Italy)); Icardi, G.; Chen, S. (Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri, Bergamo (Italy)); Fanelli, R. (Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri, Milan (Italy))

    1990-04-01

    We have developed a synthetic method for the preparation of di- and pentadeuterated leu-enkephalin (LE), Tyr-Gly-Gly-Phe-Leu, by proton-deuterium exchange using CF[sub 3]COOO[sup 2]H. Four to six deuterium atoms are introduced using a reaction temperature of 120[sup o]C and if 5% of [sup 2]H[sub 2]O is added the di-deuterated LE is obtained. These deuterated compounds are used as internal standards to plot calibration curves of LE using fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry. (author).

  4. Comparison of Test Procedures and Energy Efficiency Criteria in Selected International Standards & Labeling Programs for Copy Machines, External Power Supplies, LED Displays, Residential Gas Cooktops and Televisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Nina [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Zhou, Nan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fridley, David [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-03-01

    This report presents a technical review of international minimum energy performance standards (MEPS), voluntary and mandatory energy efficiency labels and test procedures for five products being considered for new or revised MEPS in China: copy machines, external power supply, LED displays, residential gas cooktops and flat-screen televisions. For each product, an overview of the scope of existing international standards and labeling programs, energy values and energy performance metrics and description and detailed summary table of criteria and procedures in major test standards are presented.

  5. Coordination of International Standards with Implementation of the IECRE Conformity Assessment System to Provide Multiple Certification Offerings for PV Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, George; Haring, Adrian; Spooner, Ted; Ball, Greg; Kurtz, Sarah; Heinze, Matthias; Yamamichi, Masaaki; Eguchi, Yoshihito; Ramu, Govind

    2016-11-21

    To help address the industry's needs for assuring the value and reducing the risk of investments in PV power plants; the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) has established a new conformity assessment system for renewable energy (IECRE). There are presently important efforts underway to define the requirements for various types of PV system certificates, and publication of the international standards upon which these certifications will be based. This paper presents a detailed analysis of the interrelationship of these activities and the timing for initiation of IECRE PV system certifications.

  6. Trace element analysis of water using radioisotope induced X-ray fluorescence (Cd-109) and a preconcentration-internal standard method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, M.; Cano, W.

    1986-10-01

    Radioisotope induced X-ray fluorescence using Cd-109 was used for the determination of iron, nickel, copper, zinc, lead and mercury in water. These metals were concentrated by precipitation with the chelating agent APDC. The precipitated formed was filtered using a membrane filter. Cobalt was added as an internal standard. Minimum detection limit, sensitivities and calibration curves linearities have been obtained to find the limits of the method. The usefulness of the method is illustrated analysing synthetic standard solutions. As an application analytical results are given for water of a highly polluted river area. (Author)

  7. Factors involved in nurses' responses to burnout: a grounded theory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikravesh Mansoure

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intense and long-standing problems in burn centers in Tehran have led nurses to burnout. This phenomenon has provoked serious responses and has put the nurses, patients and the organization under pressure. The challenge for managers and nurse executives is to understand the factors which would reduce or increase the nurses' responses to burnout and develop delivery systems that promote positive adaptation and facilitate quality care. This study, as a part of more extensive research, aims to explore and describe the nurses' perceptions of the factors affecting their responses to burnout. Methods Grounded theory was used as the method. Thirty- eight participants were recruited. Data were generated by unstructured interviews and 21 sessions of participant observations. Constant comparison was used for data analysis. Results Nurses' and patients' personal characteristics and social support influenced nurses' responses to burnout. Personal characteristics of the nurses and patients, especially when interacting, had a more powerful effect. They altered emotional, attitudinal, behavioral and organizational responses to burnout and determined the kind of caring behavior. Social support had a palliative effect and altered emotional responses and some aspects of attitudinal responses. Conclusions The powerful effect of positive personal characteristics and its sensitivity to long standing and intense organizational pressures suggests approaches to executing stress reduction programs and refreshing the nurses' morale by giving more importance to ethical aspects of caring. Moreover, regarding palliative effect of social support and its importance for the nurses' wellbeing, nurse executives are responsible for promoting a work environment that supports nurses and motivates them.

  8. Modeling silicon diode energy response factors for use in therapeutic photon beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eklund, Karin; Ahnesjö, Anders

    2009-10-21

    Silicon diodes have good spatial resolution, which makes them advantageous over ionization chambers for dosimetry in fields with high dose gradients. However, silicon diodes overrespond to low-energy photons, that are more abundant in scatter which increase with large fields and larger depths. We present a cavity-theory-based model for a general response function for silicon detectors at arbitrary positions within photon fields. The model uses photon and electron spectra calculated from fluence pencil kernels. The incident photons are treated according to their energy through a bipartition of the primary beam photon spectrum into low- and high-energy components. Primary electrons from the high-energy component are treated according to Spencer-Attix cavity theory. Low-energy primary photons together with all scattered photons are treated according to large cavity theory supplemented with an energy-dependent factor K(E) to compensate for energy variations in the electron equilibrium. The depth variation of the response for an unshielded silicon detector has been calculated for 5 x 5 cm(2), 10 x 10 cm(2) and 20 x 20 cm(2) fields in 6 and 15 MV beams and compared with measurements showing that our model calculates response factors with deviations less than 0.6%. An alternative method is also proposed, where we show that one can use a correlation with the scatter factor to determine the detector response of silicon diodes with an error of less than 3% in 6 MV and 15 MV photon beams.

  9. Modeling silicon diode energy response factors for use in therapeutic photon beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eklund, Karin; Ahnesjoe, Anders

    2009-01-01

    Silicon diodes have good spatial resolution, which makes them advantageous over ionization chambers for dosimetry in fields with high dose gradients. However, silicon diodes overrespond to low-energy photons, that are more abundant in scatter which increase with large fields and larger depths. We present a cavity-theory-based model for a general response function for silicon detectors at arbitrary positions within photon fields. The model uses photon and electron spectra calculated from fluence pencil kernels. The incident photons are treated according to their energy through a bipartition of the primary beam photon spectrum into low- and high-energy components. Primary electrons from the high-energy component are treated according to Spencer-Attix cavity theory. Low-energy primary photons together with all scattered photons are treated according to large cavity theory supplemented with an energy-dependent factor K(E) to compensate for energy variations in the electron equilibrium. The depth variation of the response for an unshielded silicon detector has been calculated for 5 x 5 cm 2 , 10 x 10 cm 2 and 20 x 20 cm 2 fields in 6 and 15 MV beams and compared with measurements showing that our model calculates response factors with deviations less than 0.6%. An alternative method is also proposed, where we show that one can use a correlation with the scatter factor to determine the detector response of silicon diodes with an error of less than 3% in 6 MV and 15 MV photon beams.

  10. Evaluating response modification factor (R for some types of steel structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doralba Valencia Restrepo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Response modification factor (R, tabulated in the Colombian Design Code as NSR-98, is used in this paper for eva-luating internal member forces produced by design earthquake action on steel structures and the inconsistencies pre-sent when designing structures when 1% drift limits must be complied with. The article presents the design of 45 frames corresponding to the seismic resistance system of 5 buildings: 15 special moment frames (SMF, 15 special concentrically-braced frames (CBF and 15 eccentrically-braced frames (EBF. External loads and their combination were used in estimating internal loads and rigidity demands (1% drift were evaluated in line with NSR-98 requi-rements. Member strength requirements were evaluated by using the AISC-2005 seismic provisions for steel structu-red buildings. Modal pushover analysis was used for evaluating the response modification factor for the 45 given frames at different structural performance levels. It was found that this factor was not constant for any of the three structural systems (SMF, CBF and EBF suggested by NSR-98 and that the values of the response modification factor found in the present investigation were smaller than those tabulated in this design code governing everyday structural design. This would lead to significant errors being made in evaluating design forces, not only in the structures but in the support elements (base-plates, foundations, shear walls and any structures attached to buildings constructed in line with the seismic resistance system.

  11. Religious beliefs, coping skills and responsibility to family as factors protecting against deliberate self-harm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Kannan

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Deliberate self-harm (DSH ranges from behaviours aiming to communicate distress or relieve tension, but where suicide is not intended, to actual suicide. Not all individuals are prone to DSH, which suggests that there are factors that protect against it. Identifying these could play an important role in the management and prevention of DSH. Objectives. This study examined whether religious beliefs, coping skills and responsibility to family serve as factors protecting against DSH in Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia. Method. A cross-sectional comparative study assessed DSH patients consecutively admitted or directly referred to Queen Elizabeth General Hospital and Hospital Mesra Bukit Padang during the period December 2006 - April 2007. DSH patients (N=42 were matched with controls (N=42 for gender, age, religion, race, occupation and marital status. The DSH and control groups were compared using psychosocial tests that assess coping skills, religious beliefs and responsibility to family. Results. There were significant differences in religious beliefs (p=0.01 and responsibility to family (p=0.03 between the DSH patients and the control group. There were also significant differences in coping skills, DSH patients tending to use emotion-orientated coping (p=0.01 as opposed to task- and avoidance-orientated coping. Conclusion. Consistent with international studies, coping skills (i.e. task-orientated skills, religious beliefs and responsibility to family were more evident in patients who did not attempt DSH than in those who did. These findings imply that treating DSH should not start only at the point of contact. Protective factors such as religious beliefs, responsibility to family and coping strategies can be inculcated from a very young age. However, caution is required in generalising the results owing to limitations of the study. Further extensive research on religious and psychotherapeutic interventions and prospective studies on

  12. Predictive Factors of Clinical Response of Infliximab Therapy in Active Nonradiographic Axial Spondyloarthritis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiming Lin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To evaluate the efficiency and the predictive factors of clinical response of infliximab in active nonradiographic axial spondyloarthritis patients. Methods. Active nonradiographic patients fulfilling ESSG criteria for SpA but not fulfilling modified New York criteria were included. All patients received infliximab treatment for 24 weeks. The primary endpoint was ASAS20 response at weeks 12 and 24. The abilities of baseline parameters and response at week 2 to predict ASAS20 response at weeks 12 and 24 were assessed using ROC curve and logistic regression analysis, respectively. Results. Of 70 axial SpA patients included, the proportions of patients achieving an ASAS20 response at weeks 2, 6, 12, and 24 were 85.7%, 88.6%, 87.1%, and 84.3%, respectively. Baseline MRI sacroiliitis score (AUC = 0.791; P=0.005, CRP (AUC = 0.75; P=0.017, and ASDAS (AUC = 0.778, P=0.007 significantly predicted ASAS20 response at week 12. However, only ASDAS (AUC = 0.696, P=0.040 significantly predicted ASAS20 response at week 24. Achievement of ASAS20 response after the first infliximab infusion was a significant predictor of subsequent ASAS20 response at weeks 12 and 24 (wald χ2=6.87, P=0.009, and wald χ2=5.171, P=0.023. Conclusions. Infliximab shows efficiency in active nonradiographic axial spondyloarthritis patients. ASDAS score and first-dose response could help predicting clinical efficacy of infliximab therapy in these patients.

  13. Heat shock factor-1 modulates p53 activity in the transcriptional response to DNA damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Ian R.; McNeill, Hesta V.; Cook, Susan; Lu, Xiaohong; Meek, David W.; Fuller-Pace, Frances V.; Lunec, John; Robson, Craig N.

    2009-01-01

    Here we define an important role for heat shock factor 1 (HSF1) in the cellular response to genotoxic agents. We demonstrate for the first time that HSF1 can complex with nuclear p53 and that both proteins are co-operatively recruited to p53-responsive genes such as p21. Analysis of natural and synthetic cis elements demonstrates that HSF1 can enhance p53-mediated transcription, whilst depletion of HSF1 reduces the expression of p53-responsive transcripts. We find that HSF1 is required for optimal p21 expression and p53-mediated cell-cycle arrest in response to genotoxins while loss of HSF1 attenuates apoptosis in response to these agents. To explain these novel properties of HSF1 we show that HSF1 can complex with DNA damage kinases ATR and Chk1 to effect p53 phosphorylation in response to DNA damage. Our data reveal HSF1 as a key transcriptional regulator in response to genotoxic compounds widely used in the clinical setting, and suggest that HSF1 will contribute to the efficacy of these agents. PMID:19295133

  14. Factors affecting responses of infants with respiratory distress syndrome to exogenous surfactant therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, N K

    1993-02-01

    Approximately 20% to 30% of infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) do not respond to surfactant replacement therapy. Unfortunately there is no uniform definition of 'response' or 'non-response' to surfactant therapy. Response was based on improvement in a/A PO2 and/or mean airway pressure (MAP) by some and on improvement in FIO2 and/or MAP by others. Even the point of time at which evaluation of response was done is different in various reports. There is an urgent need to adopt an uniform definition. Most premature babies are surfactant deficient which is the aetiological factor of RDS. Generally good antenatal care and perinatal management are essential in avoidance of premature birth. Babies with lung hypoplasia and who are extremely premature (less than 24 weeks of gestation) do not respond well to exogenous surfactant replacement because of structural immaturity. Prompt management of asphyxiated birth and shock are necessary as there may be negative response to surfactant replacement. Foetal exposure to glucocorticoids improves responsiveness to postnatal administration of surfactant. Antenatal steroid therapy has become an important part of management of RDS with surfactant replacement. The premature lungs with high alveolar permeability tend to develop pulmonary oedema. With the presence of plasma-derived surfactant inhibitors, the response to exogenous surfactant may be affected. These inhibitors may also be released following ventilator barotrauma. The standard of neonatal intensive care such as ventilatory techniques has an important bearing on the outcome of the RDS babies.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. The ethylene response factor AtERF4 negatively regulates the iron deficiency response in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Liu

    Full Text Available Iron (Fe deficiency is one of many conditions that can seriously damage crops. Low levels of photosynthesis can lead to the degradation of chlorophyll content and impaired respiration in affected plants, which together cause poor growth and reduce quality. Although ethylene plays an important role in responses to Fe deficiency, a limited number of studies have been carried out on ethylene response factor (ERFs as components of plant regulation mechanisms. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the role of AtERF4 in plant responses to Fe deficiency. Results collected when Arabidopsis thaliana was grown under Fe deficient conditions as well as in the presence of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC revealed that leaf chlorosis did not occur over short timescales and that chloroplast structural integrity was retained. At the same time, expression of the chlorophyll degradation-related genes AtPAO and AtCLH1 was inhibited and net H+ root flux was amplified. Our results show that chlorophyll content was enhanced in the mutant erf4, while expression of the chlorophyll degradation gene AtCLH1 was reduced. Ferric reductase activity in roots was also significantly higher in the mutant than in wild type plants, while erf4 caused high levels of expression of the genes AtIRT1 and AtHA2 under Fe deficient conditions. We also utilized yeast one-hybrid technology in this study to determine that AtERF4 binds directly to the AtCLH1 and AtITR1 promoter. Observations show that transient over-expression of AtERF4 resulted in rapid chlorophyll degradation in the leaves of Nicotiana tabacum and the up-regulation of gene AtCLH1 expression. In summary, AtERF4 plays an important role as a negative regulator of Fe deficiency responses, we hypothesize that AtERF4 may exert a balancing effect on plants subject to nutrition stress.

  16. Hysteresis responses of evapotranspiration to meteorological factors at a diel timescale: patterns and causes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Zheng

    Full Text Available Evapotranspiration (ET is an important component of the water cycle in terrestrial ecosystems. Understanding the ways in which ET changes with meteorological factors is central to a better understanding of ecological and hydrological processes. In this study, we used eddy covariance measurements of ET from a typical alpine shrubland meadow ecosystem in China to investigate the hysteresis response of ET to environmental variables including air temperature (Ta, vapor pressure deficit (VPD and net radiation (Rn at a diel timescale. Meanwhile, the simulated ET by Priestly-Taylor equation was used to interpret the measured ET under well-watered conditions. Pronounced hysteresis was observed in both Ta and VPD response curves of ET. At a similar Ta and VPD, ET was always significantly depressed in the afternoon compared with the morning. But the hysteresis response of ET to Rn was not evident. Similar hysteresis patterns were also observed in the Ta/VPD response curves of simulated ET. The magnitudes of the measured and simulated hysteresis loops showed similar seasonal variation, with relatively smaller values occurring from May to September, which agreed well with the lifetime of plants and the period of rainy season at this site. About 62% and 23% of changes in the strength of measured ET-Ta and ET-VPD loops could be explained by the changes in the strength of simulated loops, respectively. Thus, the time lag between Rn and Ta/VPD is the most important factor generating and modulating the ET-Ta/VPD hysteresis, but plants and water status also contribute to the hysteresis response of ET. Our research confirmed the different hysteresis in the responses of ET to meteorological factors and proved the vital role of Rn in driving the diel course of ET.

  17. Baseline factors that influence ASAS 20 response in patients with ankylosing spondylitis treated with etanercept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, John C; Van der Heijde, Désirée M F M; Dougados, Maxime; Braun, Jurgen; Cush, John J; Clegg, Daniel O; Inman, Robert D; de Vries, Todd; Tsuji, Wayne H

    2005-09-01

    To examine the baseline demographic and disease characteristics that might influence improvement as measured by the Assessment in Ankylosing Spondylitis Response Criteria (ASAS 20) in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS). A multicenter Phase 3 study was performed to compare the safety and efficacy of 24 weeks of etanercept 25 mg subcutaneous injection twice weekly (n = 138) and placebo (n = 139) in patients with AS. The ASAS 20 was measured at multiple time points. Using a significance level of 0.05, a repeated measures logistic regression model was used to determine which baseline factors influenced response in the etanercept-treated patients during the 24-week double blind portion of the trial. The following baseline factors were used in the model: demographic and disease severity variables, concomitant medications, extra-articular manifestations, and HLA-B27 status. The predictive capability of the model was then tested on the patients receiving placebo after they had received open-label etanercept treatment. Baseline factors that were significant predictors of an ASAS 20 response in etanercept-treated patients were C-reactive protein (CRP), back pain score, and Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index (BASFI) score. Although clinical response to etanercept was seen at all levels of baseline disease activity, responses were consistently more likely with higher CRP levels or back pain scores and less likely with increased BASFI scores at baseline. Higher CRP values and back pain scores and lower BASFI scores at baseline were significant predictors of a higher ASAS 20 response in patients with AS receiving etanercept but predictive value was of insufficient magnitude to determine treatment in individual patients.

  18. Modifying chemotherapy response by targeted inhibition of eukaryotic initiation factor 4A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cencic, R; Robert, F; Galicia-Vázquez, G; Malina, A; Ravindar, K; Somaiah, R; Pierre, P; Tanaka, J; Deslongchamps, P; Pelletier, J

    2013-01-01

    Translation is regulated predominantly at the initiation phase by several signal transduction pathways that are often usurped in human cancers, including the PI3K/Akt/mTOR axis. mTOR exerts unique administration over translation by regulating assembly of eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF) 4F, a heterotrimeric complex responsible for recruiting 40S ribosomes (and associated factors) to mRNA 5′ cap structures. Hence, there is much interest in targeted therapies that block eIF4F activity to assess the consequences on tumor cell growth and chemotherapy response. We report here that hippuristanol (Hipp), a translation initiation inhibitor that selectively inhibits the eIF4F RNA helicase subunit, eIF4A, resensitizes Eμ-Myc lymphomas to DNA damaging agents, including those that overexpress eIF4E—a modifier of rapamycin responsiveness. As Mcl-1 levels are significantly affected by Hipp, combining its use with the Bcl-2 family inhibitor, ABT-737, leads to a potent synergistic response in triggering cell death in mouse and human lymphoma and leukemia cells. Suppression of eIF4AI using RNA interference also synergized with ABT-737 in murine lymphomas, highlighting eIF4AI as a therapeutic target for modulating tumor cell response to chemotherapy

  19. National and International Standardization (International Organization for Standardization and European Committee for Standardization Relevant for Sustainability in Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Morbiducci

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability in construction has a short history in terms of principles, standardizations and applications. From the Brundtland Report “Our Common Future”, a new vision of the resource deficits, climate impacts and the social responsibility gave growth to the idea of sustainability also in design and construction. Consequently, in around 2000, the international and national organizations for standardization started to develop standards for the application of sustainable principles. This paper gives an overview of existing and planned standards, and examples on how to use them as a framework for the development of methods and tools for assessment.

  20. Recombinant nematode anticoagulant protein c2, an inhibitor of tissue factor/factor VIIa, attenuates coagulation and the interleukin-10 response in human endotoxemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Pont, A. C. J. M.; Moons, A. H. M.; de Jonge, E.; Meijers, J. C. M.; Vlasuk, G. P.; Rote, W. E.; Büller, H. R.; van der Poll, T.; Levi, M. [=Marcel M.

    2004-01-01

    The tissue factor-factor (F)VIIa complex (TF/FVIIa) is responsible for the initiation of blood coagulation under both physiological and pathological conditions. Recombinant nematode anticoagulant protein c2 (rNAPc2) is a potent inhibitor of TF/FVIIa. mechanistically distinct from tissue factor

  1. Obstructive Jaundice in Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Response after Percutaneous Transhepatic Biliary Drainage and Prognostic Factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Joon Woo; Han, Joon Koo; Kim, Tae Kyoung; Choi, Byung Ihn; Park, Seong Ho; Ko, Young Hwan; Yoon, Chang Jin; Yeon, Kyung-Mo

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the therapeutic effect of percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD) in patients with obstructive jaundice caused by biliary involvement of hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC) and to determine the prognostic factors. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed the data of 22 consecutive patients (M:F = 20:2, mean age 52.8 years).Inclusion criteria were the patient having obstructive jaundice caused by HCC that invaded the bile ducts and having at least 4 weeks of follow-up data after the PTBD. We defined 'good response' and 'poor response' as whether the level of total bilirubin decreased more than 50% in 4 weeks or not. Total bilirubin level (T-bil),Child-Pugh score and the location of biliary obstruction for the two groups were compared. In addition, the interval between clinical onset of jaundice and PTBD, the degree of parenchymal atrophy and the size of the primary tumor were compared. Results: Of the 22 patients, 13 (59.1%) showed good response. T-bil was significantly lower in the good response group than in the poor (14.2 ± 6 mg/dlvs 25.9 ± 13.8 mg/dl, p = .017). In the five patients with T-bil 20 mg/dl, only three (33%)showed good response. Although statistically not significant, patients with Child score <10 showed better results [good response rate of 66.7% (12/18)] than patients with Child score ?10 [good response rate of 25% (1/4)]. Involvement of secondary confluence of the bile duct also served as a poor prognostic factor (p =0.235). The interval between clinical onset of jaundice and PTBD, the presence of parenchymal atrophy and the size of the tumor did not show significant effect. Conclusion: Early and effective biliary drainage might be necessary in this group of patients with limited hepatic function

  2. Fiscal 2000 comprehensive survey. Project for development of international standards for supporting novel industries; 2000 nendo shinki sangyo shiengata kokusai hyojun kaihatsu jigyo. Sogo chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Research and development for creation of international standards had been under way for three years since fiscal 1998 for the sustenance and securement of Japan's technical advantage and for the enhancement of the international competitiveness of its industries. In the ultimate fiscal year for the project, studies were made for establishing standards relative to 13 subjects, involving the management of color reproduction, assurance of interoperability of optical disk systems, digital image processing for home-use digital electronic appliances, securement of connection between information devices for home-use electric appliances, production process system, method for testing and evaluating fine ceramics for communication equipment, method for evaluating high-temperature properties of new glass, method for testing and evaluating corrosion resistance of surface treated steel sheets, method for testing and evaluating pure titanium, method for testing and evaluating plastic optical fiber, method for evaluating properties of high-strength large-diameter steel pipe for ultrahigh-pressure natural gas pipeline, method for measuring fuel consumption of hybrid electric vehicles, method for calculating the recycling rate of automotive products, or the like. The fruits of 77% of the efforts have already been proposed as international standards or have arrived at a stage where they may be proposed as such. (NEDO)

  3. Determination Of Oxygen Isotope Ratio (18O-/16O) and Sulfur (34S-/32S) Value Of BaSO4 Din 5033 For Internal Standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evarista Ristin, P.I.; Sidauruk, Paston; Wibagoyo; Djiono; Satrio

    2000-01-01

    It has been done an experiment to determine of oxygen( 18 O-/ 16 O) and Sulfur ( 34 S-/ 32 S) ) isotop value of BaSO 4 DIN 5033 (merck) for internal standard. The used technique for preparation of CO 2 gas to measure oxygen isotop ratio ratio (stated as deltaδ 18 O) is based on Rafter on Rafte method using graphite for reduction of BaSO 4 . Where the used technique for preparation of SO 2 gas to measure isotope sulphur ratio (started as δ 34 S) is based on Robinson - Kasakabe method using Cupro oxide to oxidize Ag 2 S. The result of this experiment is 11,48±0,41 0/00 and 5,00 plus minus ±0,33 o/oo for deltaδ 18 O and δ 34 S value respectively. Based on this experiment. BaSO 4 DIN 5033 can be used as internal standard because is values both oxygen and sulphur lie in the middle of range of its variation in nature. The result of interlab comparison shows that the value of this experiment is nearly similar to the value obtained from laboratorium of Pinstech-Pakistan. To acquire the result, it is necessary to carry out more interlab comparison

  4. Use of a Deuterated Internal Standard with Pyrolysis-GC/MS Dimeric Marker Analysis to Quantify Tire Tread Particles in the Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie M. Panko

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Pyrolysis(pyr-GC/MS analysis of characteristic thermal decomposition fragments has been previously used for qualitative fingerprinting of organic sources in environmental samples. A quantitative pyr-GC/MS method based on characteristic tire polymer pyrolysis products was developed for tread particle quantification in environmental matrices including soil, sediment, and air. The feasibility of quantitative pyr-GC/MS analysis of tread was confirmed in a method evaluation study using artificial soil spiked with known amounts of cryogenically generated tread. Tread concentration determined by blinded analyses was highly correlated (r2 ³ 0.88 with the known tread spike concentration. Two critical refinements to the initial pyrolysis protocol were identified including use of an internal standard and quantification by the dimeric markers vinylcyclohexene and dipentene, which have good specificity for rubber polymer with no other appreciable environmental sources. A novel use of deuterated internal standards of similar polymeric structure was developed to correct the variable analyte recovery caused by sample size, matrix effects, and ion source variability. The resultant quantitative pyr-GC/MS protocol is reliable and transferable between laboratories.

  5. 1998 Annual Study Report. New industry supporting type international standard development program (Comprehensive survey); 1998 nendo seika hokokusho. Shinki sangyo shiengata kokusai hyojun kaihatsu jigyo (sogo chosa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Summarized herein are results of the survey on a total of 13 themes for international standardization. These themes are for standardization of (1) color control, (2) securing interoperability between optical disk systems, (3) digital image processing for home digital electronic appliances, (4) securing interconnectability between home electronic information appliances, (5) production process systems, (6) testing and evaluation methods for fine ceramic materials for communications, (7) evaluation methods for high-temperature properties of new glass melts, (8) corrosion testing and evaluation methods for surface-treated steel plates, (9) testing and evaluation methods for high-purity titanium, (10) testing and evaluation methods for plastic optical fibers, (11) evaluation methods for high-strength, large-size steel pipe characteristics for superhigh-pressure natural gas pipelines, (12) methods for measuring mileage of hybrid electric vehicles, and (13) methods for determining recycle ratios of automobile components. This comprehensive survey also includes overseas trends for the standardization, establishment/expansion of the international standardization processes, and standardization for determining recycle ratios of home electric appliances. (NEDO)

  6. Use of a deuterated internal standard with pyrolysis-GC/MS dimeric marker analysis to quantify tire tread particles in the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unice, Kenneth M; Kreider, Marisa L; Panko, Julie M

    2012-11-08

    Pyrolysis(pyr)-GC/MS analysis of characteristic thermal decomposition fragments has been previously used for qualitative fingerprinting of organic sources in environmental samples. A quantitative pyr-GC/MS method based on characteristic tire polymer pyrolysis products was developed for tread particle quantification in environmental matrices including soil, sediment, and air. The feasibility of quantitative pyr-GC/MS analysis of tread was confirmed in a method evaluation study using artificial soil spiked with known amounts of cryogenically generated tread. Tread concentration determined by blinded analyses was highly correlated (r2 ≥ 0.88) with the known tread spike concentration. Two critical refinements to the initial pyrolysis protocol were identified including use of an internal standard and quantification by the dimeric markers vinylcyclohexene and dipentene, which have good specificity for rubber polymer with no other appreciable environmental sources. A novel use of deuterated internal standards of similar polymeric structure was developed to correct the variable analyte recovery caused by sample size, matrix effects, and ion source variability. The resultant quantitative pyr-GC/MS protocol is reliable and transferable between laboratories.

  7. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) analysis of calcium ions dissolved in water using filter paper substrates: an ideal internal standard for precision improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Daewoong; Gong, Yongdeuk; Nam, Sang-Ho; Han, Song-Hee; Yoo, Jonghyun; Lee, Yonghoon

    2014-01-01

    We report an approach for selecting an internal standard to improve the precision of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) analysis for determining calcium (Ca) concentration in water. The dissolved Ca(2+) ions were pre-concentrated on filter paper by evaporating water. The filter paper was dried and analyzed using LIBS. By adding strontium chloride to sample solutions and using a Sr II line at 407.771 nm for the intensity normalization of Ca II lines at 393.366 or 396.847 nm, the analysis precision could be significantly improved. The Ca II and Sr II line intensities were mapped across the filter paper, and they showed a strong positive shot-to-shot correlation with the same spatial distribution on the filter paper surface. We applied this analysis approach for the measurement of Ca(2+) in tap, bottled, and ground water samples. The Ca(2+) concentrations determined using LIBS are in good agreement with those obtained from flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Finally, we suggest a homologous relation of the strongest emission lines of period 4 and 5 elements in groups IA and IIA based on their similar electronic structures. Our results indicate that the LIBS can be effectively applied for liquid analysis at the sub-parts per million level with high precision using a simple drying of liquid solutions on filter paper and the use of the correct internal standard elements with the similar valence electronic structure with respect to the analytes of interest.

  8. [Reference values of apolipoproteins A1 and B. Contribution of international standardization. Travail collaboratif entre la SFBC, l'Arcol et le SFRL].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinmetz, J; Caces, E; Couderc, R; Beucler, I; Legrand, A; Henny, J

    1997-01-01

    The utilization of two WHO reference materials, liquid and lyophilized, permitted international standardization of apolipoprotein measurements. We report here the results of a collaborative study between Arcol, SFBC and SFRL in order to establish reference ranges for apo A1 and B on nine standardized systems. A population of 1027 men and women supposed healthy, 4 to 60 year old, have been selected in two Centers for Preventive Medicine. The serum samples were aliquoted frozen at -20 degrees C the day of sampling and analysed by the manufacturers with IFCC standardized calibrants. A specific quality control was performed using a frozen pool of sera. For apo A1, the centile 2.5 of the reference population varies from 1.04 to 1.16 g/l. The range values for the centile 97.5 varies from 1.87 to 2.24 g/l. For apoB, the centile 2.5 varies from 0.43 to 0.57 g/l, and the centile 97.5 from 1.30 to 1.39 g/l. Only one system has a problem of dispersion with an upper limit equal to 1.20 g/l. These results improve that international standardization allowed actually a good comparability of the results, especially for apoB.

  9. Fiscal 2000 comprehensive survey. Project for development of international standards for supporting novel industries; 2000 nendo shinki sangyo shiengata kokusai hyojun kaihatsu jigyo. Sogo chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Research and development for creation of international standards had been under way for three years since fiscal 1998 for the sustenance and securement of Japan's technical advantage and for the enhancement of the international competitiveness of its industries. In the ultimate fiscal year for the project, studies were made for establishing standards relative to 13 subjects, involving the management of color reproduction, assurance of interoperability of optical disk systems, digital image processing for home-use digital electronic appliances, securement of connection between information devices for home-use electric appliances, production process system, method for testing and evaluating fine ceramics for communication equipment, method for evaluating high-temperature properties of new glass, method for testing and evaluating corrosion resistance of surface treated steel sheets, method for testing and evaluating pure titanium, method for testing and evaluating plastic optical fiber, method for evaluating properties of high-strength large-diameter steel pipe for ultrahigh-pressure natural gas pipeline, method for measuring fuel consumption of hybrid electric vehicles, method for calculating the recycling rate of automotive products, or the like. The fruits of 77% of the efforts have already been proposed as international standards or have arrived at a stage where they may be proposed as such. (NEDO)

  10. Innovative method for carbon dioxide determination in human postmortem cardiac gas samples using headspace-gas chromatography–mass spectrometry and stable labeled isotope as internal standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varlet, V.; Smith, F.; Froidmont, S. de; Dominguez, A.; Rinaldi, A.; Augsburger, M.; Mangin, P.; Grabherr, S.

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •We developed a method for CO 2 analysis in cardiac samples and quantification by 13 CO 2 . •This method was fully validated by accuracy profile. •We have applied this method to perform CO 2 precise quantification for forensic applications. •Context of the death could be documented following CO 2 concentrations. -- Abstract: A novel approach to measure carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) in gaseous samples, based on a precise and accurate quantification by 13 CO 2 internal standard generated in situ is presented. The main goal of this study was to provide an innovative headspace-gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (HS-GC–MS) method applicable in the routine determination of CO 2 . The main drawback of the GC methods discussed in the literature for CO 2 measurement is the lack of a specific internal standard necessary to perform quantification. CO 2 measurement is still quantified by external calibration without taking into account analytical problems which can often occur considering gaseous samples. To avoid the manipulation of a stable isotope-labeled gas, we have chosen to generate in situ an internal labeled standard gas ( 13 CO 2 ) on the basis of the stoichiometric formation of CO 2 by the reaction of hydrochloric acid (HCl) with sodium hydrogen carbonate (NaH 13 CO 3 ). This method allows a precise measurement of CO 2 concentration and was validated on various human postmortem gas samples in order to study its efficiency

  11. Parallel synthesis: a new approach for developing analytical internal standards. Application to the analysis of patulin by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llovera, Montserrat; Balcells, Mercè; Torres, Mercè; Canela, Ramon

    2005-08-24

    The polymer-assisted reaction of 4-(hydroxymethyl)furan-2(5H)-one (4HM2F) with 21 carboxylic acids using polystyrene-carbodiimide (PS-carbodiimide) yielded an ester library. Four of the esters, (5-oxo-2,5-dihydrofuran-3-yl)methyl acetate (IS-1), (5-oxo-2,5-dihydrofuran-3-yl)methyl butyrate (IS-2), (5-oxo-2,5-dihydrofuran-3-yl)methyl 2-methylpropanoate (IS-3), and (5-oxo-2,5-dihydrofuran-3-yl)methyl chloroacetate (IS-4), were tested as internal standards for the quantification of patulin in apple juice by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in the selected ion monitoring mode (GC-MS-SIM). The developed method combines an AOAC official extractive step and a GC-MS-SIM analysis. Using a chromatographic column containing trifluoropropylmethylpolysiloxane as the stationary phase and IS-1 as the internal standard, it was possible to perform an accurate and precise quantification of underivatizated patulin in apple juice at concentrations down to 6 microg/L. A detection limit of 1 microg/L was established.

  12. New internal standard method for activation analysis and its application. Determination of Co, Ni, Rb, Sr in pepperbush by means of photon activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yagi, M.; Masumoto, K. (Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Lab. of Nuclear Science)

    1984-08-01

    A new internal standard method for activation analysis has been developed. In this method a suitable element present originally in the sample is used as an internal standard and the comparative standard is prepared by applying the standard addition method to the duplicated sample. The present method has the great advantages that the comparative standard spiked with the element of interest has the same matrix as the sample, and then the amount of the element to be determined in the sample can be evaluated easily by using a very simple equation even though the sample and comparative standard are irradiated separately by particles with different flux. Neither correction of the inhomogeneities of flux between the sample and comparative standard, nor that of the self-shielding effects are necessary for the present method. The usefulness of the method was examined through the determination of Co, Ni, Rb and Sr in pepperbush by means of photon activation, and the precision and accuracy of the method were proved to be valid. 29 refs.

  13. PLZF regulates fibroblast growth factor responsiveness and maintenance of neural progenitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaber, Zachary B; Butler, Samantha J; Novitch, Bennett G

    2013-10-01

    Distinct classes of neurons and glial cells in the developing spinal cord arise at specific times and in specific quantities from spatially discrete neural progenitor domains. Thus, adjacent domains can exhibit marked differences in their proliferative potential and timing of differentiation. However, remarkably little is known about the mechanisms that account for this regional control. Here, we show that the transcription factor Promyelocytic Leukemia Zinc Finger (PLZF) plays a critical role shaping patterns of neuronal differentiation by gating the expression of Fibroblast Growth Factor (FGF) Receptor 3 and responsiveness of progenitors to FGFs. PLZF elevation increases FGFR3 expression and STAT3 pathway activity, suppresses neurogenesis, and biases progenitors towards glial cell production. In contrast, PLZF loss reduces FGFR3 levels, leading to premature neuronal differentiation. Together, these findings reveal a novel transcriptional strategy for spatially tuning the responsiveness of distinct neural progenitor groups to broadly distributed mitogenic signals in the embryonic environment.

  14. Roles of Arabidopsis WRKY3 and WRKY4 Transcription Factors in Plant Responses to Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Baofang

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plant WRKY DNA-binding transcription factors are involved in plant responses to biotic and abiotic responses. It has been previously shown that Arabidopsis WRKY3 and WRKY4, which encode two structurally similar WRKY transcription factors, are induced by pathogen infection and salicylic acid (SA. However, the role of the two WRKY transcription factors in plant disease resistance has not been directly analyzed. Results Both WRKY3 and WRKY4 are nuclear-localized and specifically recognize the TTGACC W-box sequences in vitro. Expression of WRKY3 and WRKY4 was induced rapidly by stress conditions generated by liquid infiltration or spraying. Stress-induced expression of WRKY4 was further elevated by pathogen infection and SA treatment. To determine directly their role in plant disease resistance, we have isolated T-DNA insertion mutants and generated transgenic overexpression lines for WRKY3 and WRKY4. Both the loss-of-function mutants and transgenic overexpression lines were examined for responses to the biotrophic bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae and the necrotrophic fungal pathogen Botrytis cinerea. The wrky3 and wrky4 single and double mutants exhibited more severe disease symptoms and support higher fungal growth than wild-type plants after Botrytis infection. Although disruption of WRKY3 and WRKY4 did not have a major effect on plant response to P. syringae, overexpression of WRKY4 greatly enhanced plant susceptibility to the bacterial pathogen and suppressed pathogen-induced PR1 gene expression. Conclusion The nuclear localization and sequence-specific DNA-binding activity support that WRKY3 and WRKY4 function as transcription factors. Functional analysis based on T-DNA insertion mutants and transgenic overexpression lines indicates that WRKY3 and WRKY4 have a positive role in plant resistance to necrotrophic pathogens and WRKY4 has a negative effect on plant resistance to biotrophic pathogens.

  15. Behavioral factors predicting response to employment-based reinforcement of cocaine abstinence in methadone patients

    OpenAIRE

    Holtyn, August F.; Washington, Wendy Donlin; Knealing, Todd W.; Wong, Conrad J.; Kolodner, Ken; Silverman, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    We sought to identify behavioral factors associated with response to an employment-based intervention, in which participants had to provide drug-free urine samples to gain access to paid employment. The present secondary analysis included data from a randomized clinical trial. The trial evaluated whether employment-based reinforcement could decrease cocaine use in community methadone patients. Participants (N=56) in the trial worked in a model workplace for 4 hr every weekday and earned about...

  16. Expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 by trophectoderm cells in response to hypoxia and epidermal growth factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Wooyoung; Bazer, Fuller W.; Song, Gwonhwa; Kim, Jinyoung

    2016-01-01

    The low oxygen environment in the uterine environment requires pre-implantation embryos to adapt to oxygen deficiency. Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1 is a master regulator whereby cells adapt to changes in oxygen concentrations. In addition to hypoxic conditions, non-hypoxic stimuli such as growth factors also activate expression of HIF-1. In this study, the mechanisms underlying low oxygen-dependent and epidermal growth factor (EGF)-dependent expression of HIF-1α were explored using porcine trophectoderm (pTr) cells. The results indicated that expression of HIF-1α and HIF-1β mRNAs was not affected by low concentrations of oxygen; however, hypoxic conditions markedly increased the abundance of HIF-1α protein, especially in nuclei of pTr cells. Even under normoxic conditions, the abundance of HIF-1α protein increased in response to EGF. This EGF-mediated increase in HIF-1α protein was blocked through inhibition of translation by cycloheximide. The inhibitors LY294002 (PI3K-AKT inhibitor), U0126 (inhibitor of ERK1/2) and rapamycin (mTOR inhibitor) also blocked the ability of EGF to increase HIF-1α protein and to phosphorylate AKT, ERK1/2 and mTOR proteins. Both hypoxia and EGF induced proliferation of pTr cells. This ability of EGF to stimulate proliferation of pTr cells was suppressed by EGFR siRNA, but not HIF-1α siRNA, but a significant decrease in EGF-induced HIF-1α protein occurred when pTr cells were transfected with HIF-1α siRNA. The results of the present study suggest that pTr cells adapt to oxygen deficiency and proliferate in response to an oxygen-dependent HIF-1 system, and that EGF at maternal–conceptus interface can increase the abundance of HIF-1α protein via translational regulation through AKT, ERK1/2 and mTOR signaling cascades. - Highlights: • HIF-1α expression is up-regulated in pTr cells under low oxygen concentrations. • EGF induces HIF-1α accumulation in pTr cells. • EGF-induced HIF-1α accumulation is blocked by de

  17. Expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 by trophectoderm cells in response to hypoxia and epidermal growth factor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Wooyoung [Department of Animal Resources Science, Dankook University, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Bazer, Fuller W. [Center for Animal Biotechnology and Genomics and Department of Animal Science, Texas A& M University, College Station, TX (United States); Song, Gwonhwa, E-mail: ghsong@korea.ac.kr [Department of Biotechnology, College of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jinyoung, E-mail: jinyoungkim@dankook.ac.kr [Department of Animal Resources Science, Dankook University, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-01-08

    The low oxygen environment in the uterine environment requires pre-implantation embryos to adapt to oxygen deficiency. Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1 is a master regulator whereby cells adapt to changes in oxygen concentrations. In addition to hypoxic conditions, non-hypoxic stimuli such as growth factors also activate expression of HIF-1. In this study, the mechanisms underlying low oxygen-dependent and epidermal growth factor (EGF)-dependent expression of HIF-1α were explored using porcine trophectoderm (pTr) cells. The results indicated that expression of HIF-1α and HIF-1β mRNAs was not affected by low concentrations of oxygen; however, hypoxic conditions markedly increased the abundance of HIF-1α protein, especially in nuclei of pTr cells. Even under normoxic conditions, the abundance of HIF-1α protein increased in response to EGF. This EGF-mediated increase in HIF-1α protein was blocked through inhibition of translation by cycloheximide. The inhibitors LY294002 (PI3K-AKT inhibitor), U0126 (inhibitor of ERK1/2) and rapamycin (mTOR inhibitor) also blocked the ability of EGF to increase HIF-1α protein and to phosphorylate AKT, ERK1/2 and mTOR proteins. Both hypoxia and EGF induced proliferation of pTr cells. This ability of EGF to stimulate proliferation of pTr cells was suppressed by EGFR siRNA, but not HIF-1α siRNA, but a significant decrease in EGF-induced HIF-1α protein occurred when pTr cells were transfected with HIF-1α siRNA. The results of the present study suggest that pTr cells adapt to oxygen deficiency and proliferate in response to an oxygen-dependent HIF-1 system, and that EGF at maternal–conceptus interface can increase the abundance of HIF-1α protein via translational regulation through AKT, ERK1/2 and mTOR signaling cascades. - Highlights: • HIF-1α expression is up-regulated in pTr cells under low oxygen concentrations. • EGF induces HIF-1α accumulation in pTr cells. • EGF-induced HIF-1α accumulation is blocked by de

  18. Genome wide analysis of stress responsive WRKY transcription factors in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaiq Sultan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available WRKY transcription factors are a class of DNA-binding proteins that bind with a specific sequence C/TTGACT/C known as W-Box found in promoters of genes which are regulated by these WRKYs. From previous studies, 43 different stress responsive WRKY transcription factors in Arabidopsis thaliana, identified and then categorized in three groups viz., abiotic, biotic and both of these stresses. A comprehensive genome wide analysis including chromosomal localization, gene structure analysis, multiple sequence alignment, phylogenetic analysis and promoter analysis of these WRKY genes was carried out in this study to determine the functional homology in Arabidopsis. This analysis led to the classification of these WRKY family members into 3 major groups and subgroups and showed evolutionary relationship among these groups on the base of their functional WRKY domain, chromosomal localization and intron/exon structure. The proposed groups of these stress responsive WRKY genes and annotation based on their position on chromosomes can also be explored to determine their functional homology in other plant species in relation to different stresses. The result of the present study provides indispensable genomic information for the stress responsive WRKY transcription factors in Arabidopsis and will pave the way to explain the precise role of various AtWRKYs in plant growth and development under stressed conditions.

  19. Screen-Printed Electrode Modified by Bismuth /Fe3O4 Nanoparticle/Ionic Liquid Composite Using Internal Standard Normalization for Accurate Determination of Cd(II in Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Wang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The quality and safety of agricultural products are threatened by heavy metal ions in soil, which can be absorbed by the crops, and then accumulated in the human body through the food chain. In this paper, we report a low-cost and easy-to-use screen-printed electrode (SPE for cadmium ion (Cd(II detection based on differential pulse voltammetry (DPV, which decorated with ionic liquid (IL, magnetite nanoparticle (Fe3O4, and deposited a bismuth film (Bi. The characteristics of Bi/Fe3O4/ILSPE were investigated using scanning electron microscopy, cyclic voltammetry, impedance spectroscopy, and linear sweep voltammetry. We found that the sensitivity of SPE was improved dramatically after functionalized with Bi/Fe3O4/IL. Under optimized conditions, the concentrations of Cd(II are linear with current responses in a range from 0.5 to 40 µg/L with the lowest detection limit of 0.05 µg/L (S/N = 3. Additionally, the internal standard normalization (ISN was used to process the response signals of Bi/Fe3O4/ILSPE and established a new linear equation. For detecting three different Cd(II concentrations, the root-mean-square error using ISN (0.25 is lower than linear method (0.36. Finally, the proposed electrode was applied to trace Cd(II in soil samples with the recovery in the range from 91.77 to 107.83%.

  20. Chemical risk factors responsible for the formation of wedge-shaped lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perić Dejan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Non-carious tooth substances loss pose a major health problem of a modern man. The literature often collectively describes all non-carious lesions and is therefore difficult to compare results obtained by different authors. Chemical factors are one of the predisposing factors responsible for the formation of wedge-shaped erosions. Aim: Examination of chemical risk factors as one of the predisposing causes responsible for the formation of wedge-shaped lesions. Method: We examined 62 patients with wedge-shaped erosions (mean age 45.52 ± 12.03 years, 58.1% of men and 60 patients without erosions in the control group (mean age 34.40 ± 9.28 years, 60% men . The entire examination was completed by using a questionnaire at the Dental Clinic of the University of Pristina - Kosovska Mitrovica. salivary pH was measured by the pH meter. Results: The results show that the wedge-shaped lesions often occur equally in both men and women. Considerably often it might appear in older people but can also occur in teenagers. Patients with wedge-shaped erosion have increased acidity of saliva, a heightened sense of acid in the mouth and consume a lot more carbonated drinks compared to patients without erosions. Conclusion: Wedge-shaped lesions are more common in people older than 40 years. Taking into account the results obtained in this study it can be concluded that the chemical risk factors truly fall within the predisposing factors that may be responsible for the creation of wedge-shaped erosions.

  1. Structure, function and networks of transcription factors involved in abiotic stress responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindemose, Søren; O'Shea, Charlotte; Jensen, Michael Krogh

    2013-01-01

    Transcription factors (TFs) are master regulators of abiotic stress responses in plants. This review focuses on TFs from seven major TF families, known to play functional roles in response to abiotic stresses, including drought, high salinity, high osmolarity, temperature extremes...... and the phytohormone ABA. Although ectopic expression of several TFs has improved abiotic stress tolerance in plants, fine-tuning of TF expression and protein levels remains a challenge to avoid crop yield loss. To further our understanding of TFs in abiotic stress responses, emerging gene regulatory networks based...... on TFs and their direct targets genes are presented. These revealed components shared between ABA-dependent and independent signaling as well as abiotic and biotic stress signaling. Protein structure analysis suggested that TFs hubs of large interactomes have extended regions with protein intrinsic...

  2. Immune responses to influenza virus and its correlation to age and inherited factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azadeh Bahadoran

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Influenza viruses belong to the family Orthomyxoviridae of enveloped viruses and are an important cause of respiratory infections worldwide. The influenza virus is able to infect a wide variety species as diverse as poultry, marine, pigs, horses and humans. Upon infection with influenza virus the innate immunity plays a critical role in efficient and rapid control of viral infections as well as in adaptive immunity initiation. The humoral immune system produces antibodies against different influenza antigens, of which the HA-specific antibody is the most important for neutralization of the virus and thus prevention of illness. Cell mediated immunity including CD4+ helper T cells and CD8+ cytotoxic T cells are the other arms of adaptive immunity induced upon influenza virus infection. The complex inherited factors and age related changes are associated with the host immune responses. Here, we review the different components of immune responses against influenza virus. Additionally, the correlation of the immune response to age and inherited factors has been discussed. These determinations lead to a better understanding of the limitations of immune responses for developing improved vaccines to control influenza virus infection.

  3. Factors influencing response to ingenol mebutate therapy for actinic keratosis of face and scalp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skroza, Nevena; Proietti, Ilaria; Bernardini, Nicoletta; Balduzzi, Veronica; Mambrin, Alessandra; Marchesiello, Anna; Tolino, Ersilia; Zuber, Sara; La Torre, Giuseppe; Potenza, Concetta

    2017-01-01

    AIM To determine factors independently influencing response to ingenol mebutate therapy and assess efficacy on clinical setting of non-hypertrophic non-hyperkeratotic actinic keratosis (AK). METHODS Consecutive patients affected by non-hypertrophic non-hyperkeratotic AKs of the face or scalp were enrolled to receive ingenol mebutate 0.015% gel on a selected skin area of 25 cm2 for 3 consecutive days. Local skin reactions were calculated at each follow up visit using a validated composite score. Efficacy was evaluated by the comparison of clinical and dermoscopic pictures before the treatment and at day 57, and classified as complete, partial and poor response. RESULTS A number of 130 patients were enrolled, of which 101 (77.7%) were treated on the face, while 29 (22.3%) on the scalp. The great majority of our study population (n = 119, 91.5%) reached at least a 75% clearance of AKs and, in particular, 58 patients (44.6%) achieved a complete response while 61 (46.9%) a partial one. Logistic backward multivariate analysis showed that facial localization, level of local skin reaction (LSR) at day 2, the highest LSR values and level of crusts at day 8 were factors independently associated with the achievement of a complete response. CONCLUSION Ingenol mebutate 0.015% gel, when properly applied, is more effective on the face than on the scalp and efficacy is directly associated to LSR score. PMID:29067277

  4. Energy response of detectors to alpha/beta particles and compatibility of the equivalent factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Bingxing; Li Guangxian; Lin Lixiong

    2011-01-01

    By measuring detect efficiency and equivalent factors of alpha/beta radiation with different energies on three types of detectors, this paper compares compatibility of their equivalent factors and discusses applicability of detectors to measuring total alpha/beta radiation. The result shows the relationship between efficiency of alpha/beta radiation and their energies on 3 types of detectors, such as scintillation and proportional and semiconductor counters, are overall identical. Alpha count efficiency display exponential relation with alpha-particle energy. While beta count efficiency display logarithm relation with beta-particle energy, but the curves appears deflection at low energy. Comparison test of energy response also shows that alpha and beta equivalent factors of scintillation and proportional counters have a good compatibility, and alpha equivalent factors of the semiconductor counters are in good agreement with those of the above two types of counters, but beta equivalent factors have obvious difference, or equivalent factors of low energy beta-particle are lower than those of other detectors. So, the semiconductor counter can not be used for measuring total radioactivity or for the measurements for the purpose of food safety. (authors)

  5. Influential Factors and Strategy of Sustainable Product Development under Corporate Social Responsibility in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jui-Che Tu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to adopt the perspective of corporate social responsibility (CSR to explore the intention of sustainable product development in Taiwan, as well as leading to the creation of influential factors that affect corporate sustainable product development intention. In this research, the induction analysis was conducted to understand the implementation of sustainable product development, and this was supplemented with questionnaire surveys and in-depth interviews to evaluate developmental intention. In addition, principal component analysis was used for factor analysis and content analysis in the 6 W expression method, leading to the creation of the influential factors. The research results have demonstrated that the factors affecting the intention of corporate sustainable product development include having a sustainable design and a development purpose, a corporate development purpose, sustainable development concepts, a sustainable design value, a sustainability concept, and a manufacturing process quality. For sustainable product development, corporate social responsibility needs to be most concerned with the added value of products, regulation requirements, and accommodation of the industrial chain, costs, and quality.

  6. Soluble factors from biofilm of Candida albicans and Staphylococcus aureus promote cell death and inflammatory response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho Dias, Kassia; Barbugli, Paula Aboud; de Patto, Fernanda; Lordello, Virginia Barreto; de Aquino Penteado, Letícia; Medeiros, Alexandra Ivo; Vergani, Carlos Eduardo

    2017-06-30

    The objective of this study was to better understand the effects of soluble factors from biofilm of single- and mixed-species Candida albicans (C. albicans) and methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) cultures after 36 h in culture on keratinocytes (NOK-si and HaCaT) and macrophages (J774A.1). Soluble factors from biofilms of C. albicans and MSSA were collected and incubated with keratinocytes and macrophages, which were subsequently evaluated by cell viability assays (MTT). Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) enzyme release was measured to assess cell membrane damage to keratinocytes. Cells were analysed by brightfield microscopy after 2 and 24 h of exposure to the soluble factors from biofilm. Cell death was detected by labelling apoptotic cells with annexin V and necrotic cells with propidium iodide (PI) and was visualized via fluorescence microscopy. Soluble factors from biofilm were incubated with J774A.1 cells for 24 h; the subsequent production of NO and the cytokines IL-6 and TNF-α was measured by ELISA. The cell viability assays showed that the soluble factors of single-species C. albicans cultures were as toxic as the soluble factors from biofilm of mixed cultures, whereas the soluble factors of MSSA cultures were less toxic than those of C. albicans or mixed cultures. The soluble factors from biofilm of mixed cultures were the most toxic to the NOK-si and HaCaT cells, as confirmed by analyses of PI labelling and cell morphology. Soluble factors from biofilm of single-species MSSA and mixed-species cultures induced the production of IL-6, NO and TNF-α by J744A.1 macrophages. The production of IL-6 and NO induced by the soluble factors from biofilm of mixed cultures was lower than that induced by the soluble factors from biofilm of single-species MSSA cultures, whereas the soluble factors from biofilm of C. albicans cultures induced only low levels of NO. Soluble factors from 36-h-old biofilm of C. albicans and MSSA cultures promoted cell death and

  7. The development of international standards for the protection of the environment from the effects of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, Carol

    2004-01-01

    There has been an increasing awareness over recent years of the need to develop an approach that specifically addresses the protection of non-human species from the effects of ionizing radiation, largely in response to national and international environmental legal instruments. The IAEA has a long history of involvement in assessing the impact of ionizing radiation on non-human species and has, in recent years, established a programme of work to address the development of safety standards on this issue, in co-operation with other relevant international organizations. This paper provides an overview of the status of international work in this regard, paying particular attention to the work of the IAEA, and the relevant task groups of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). It includes a discussion of the ethics and principles of environmental protection, and issues related to the development of a practical framework for environmental assessment and decision-making. The future development of international safety standards for the control of releases of radionuclides to the environment will depend upon the findings and recommendations of the International Conference on Protection of the Environment from the Effects of Ionizing Radiation, held in Stockholm, Sweden, 6-10 October 2003. The main issues arising at that conference are summarised. (author)

  8. Assessing the service quality of Iran military hospitals: Joint Commission International standards and Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahadori, Mohammadkarim; Ravangard, Ramin; Yaghoubi, Maryam; Alimohammadzadeh, Khalil

    2014-01-01

    Background: Military hospitals are responsible for preserving, restoring and improving the health of not only armed forces, but also other people. According to the military organizations strategy, which is being a leader and pioneer in all areas, providing quality health services is one of the main goals of the military health care organizations. This study was aimed to evaluate the service quality of selected military hospitals in Iran based on the Joint Commission International (JCI) standards and comparing these hospitals with each other and ranking them using the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) technique in 2013. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional and descriptive study conducted on five military hospitals, selected using the purposive sampling method, in 2013. Required data collected using checklists of accreditation standards and nominal group technique. AHP technique was used for prioritizing. Furthermore, Expert Choice 11.0 was used to analyze the collected data. Results: Among JCI standards, the standards of access to care and continuity of care (weight = 0.122), quality improvement and patient safety (weight = 0.121) and leadership and management (weight = 0.117) had the greatest importance, respectively. Furthermore, in the overall ranking, BGT (weight = 0.369), IHM (0.238), SAU (0.202), IHK (weight = 0.125) and SAB (weight = 0.066) ranked first to fifth, respectively. Conclusion: AHP is an appropriate technique for measuring the overall performance of hospitals and their quality of services. It is a holistic approach that takes all hospital processes into consideration. The results of the present study can be used to improve hospitals performance through identifying areas, which are in need of focus for quality improvement and selecting strategies to improve service quality. PMID:25250364

  9. Assessing the service quality of Iran military hospitals: Joint Commission International standards and Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahadori, Mohammadkarim; Ravangard, Ramin; Yaghoubi, Maryam; Alimohammadzadeh, Khalil

    2014-01-01

    Military hospitals are responsible for preserving, restoring and improving the health of not only armed forces, but also other people. According to the military organizations strategy, which is being a leader and pioneer in all areas, providing quality health services is one of the main goals of the military health care organizations. This study was aimed to evaluate the service quality of selected military hospitals in Iran based on the Joint Commission International (JCI) standards and comparing these hospitals with each other and ranking them using the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) technique in 2013. This was a cross-sectional and descriptive study conducted on five military hospitals, selected using the purposive sampling method, in 2013. Required data collected using checklists of accreditation standards and nominal group technique. AHP technique was used for prioritizing. Furthermore, Expert Choice 11.0 was used to analyze the collected data. Among JCI standards, the standards of access to care and continuity of care (weight = 0.122), quality improvement and patient safety (weight = 0.121) and leadership and management (weight = 0.117) had the greatest importance, respectively. Furthermore, in the overall ranking, BGT (weight = 0.369), IHM (0.238), SAU (0.202), IHK (weight = 0.125) and SAB (weight = 0.066) ranked first to fifth, respectively. AHP is an appropriate technique for measuring the overall performance of hospitals and their quality of services. It is a holistic approach that takes all hospital processes into consideration. The results of the present study can be used to improve hospitals performance through identifying areas, which are in need of focus for quality improvement and selecting strategies to improve service quality.

  10. Problems with the factor analysis of items: Solutions based on item response theory and item parcelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gideon P. De Bruin

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available The factor analysis of items often produces spurious results in the sense that unidimensional scales appear multidimensional. This may be ascribed to failure in meeting the assumptions of linearity and normality on which factor analysis is based. Item response theory is explicitly designed for the modelling of the non-linear relations between ordinal variables and provides a strong alternative to the factor analysis of items. Items may also be combined in parcels that are more likely to satisfy the assumptions of factor analysis than do the items. The use of the Rasch rating scale model and the factor analysis of parcels is illustrated with data obtained with the Locus of Control Inventory. The results of these analyses are compared with the results obtained through the factor analysis of items. It is shown that the Rasch rating scale model and the factoring of parcels produce superior results to the factor analysis of items. Recommendations for the analysis of scales are made. Opsomming Die faktorontleding van items lewer dikwels misleidende resultate op, veral in die opsig dat eendimensionele skale as meerdimensioneel voorkom. Hierdie resultate kan dikwels daaraan toegeskryf word dat daar nie aan die aannames van lineariteit en normaliteit waarop faktorontleding berus, voldoen word nie. Itemresponsteorie, wat eksplisiet vir die modellering van die nie-liniêre verbande tussen ordinale items ontwerp is, bied ’n aantreklike alternatief vir die faktorontleding van items. Items kan ook in pakkies gegroepeer word wat meer waarskynlik aan die aannames van faktorontleding voldoen as individuele items. Die gebruik van die Rasch beoordelingskaalmodel en die faktorontleding van pakkies word aan die hand van data wat met die Lokus van Beheervraelys verkry is, gedemonstreer. Die resultate van hierdie ontledings word vergelyk met die resultate wat deur ‘n faktorontleding van die individuele items verkry is. Die resultate dui daarop dat die Rasch

  11. Individual differences in maternal response to immune challenge predict offspring behavior: Contribution of environmental factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronson, Stefanie L.; Ahlbrand, Rebecca; Horn, Paul S.; Kern, Joseph R.; Richtand, Neil M.

    2011-01-01

    Maternal infection during pregnancy elevates risk for schizophrenia and related disorders in offspring. Converging evidence suggests the maternal inflammatory response mediates the interaction between maternal infection, altered brain development, and behavioral outcome. The extent to which individual differences in the maternal response to immune challenge influence the development of these abnormalities is unknown. The present study investigated the impact of individual differences in maternal response to the viral mimic polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (poly I:C) on offspring behavior. We observed significant variability in body weight alterations of pregnant rats induced by administration of poly I:C on gestational day 14. Furthermore, the presence or absence of maternal weight loss predicted MK-801 and amphetamine stimulated locomotor abnormalities in offspring. MK-801 stimulated locomotion was altered in offspring of all poly I:C treated dams; however, the presence or absence of maternal weight loss resulted in decreased and modestly increased locomotion, respectively. Adult offspring of poly I:C treated dams that lost weight exhibited significantly decreased amphetamine stimulated locomotion, while offspring of poly I:C treated dams without weight loss performed similarly to vehicle controls. Social isolation and increased maternal age predicted weight loss in response to poly I:C but not vehicle injection. In combination, these data identify environmental factors associated with the maternal response to immune challenge and functional outcome of offspring exposed to maternal immune activation. PMID:21255612

  12. Identification and Expression Profiling of the Auxin Response Factors in Dendrobium officinale under Abiotic Stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhehao; Yuan, Ye; Fu, Di; Shen, Chenjia; Yang, Yanjun

    2017-05-04

    Auxin response factor (ARF) proteins play roles in plant responses to diverse environmental stresses by binding specifically to the auxin response element in the promoters of target genes. Using our latest public Dendrobium transcriptomes, a comprehensive characterization and analysis of 14 DnARF genes were performed. Three selected DnARFs , including DnARF1 , DnARF4 , and DnARF6 , were confirmed to be nuclear proteins according to their transient expression in epidermal cells of Nicotiana benthamiana leaves. Furthermore, the transcription activation abilities of DnARF1 , DnARF4 , and DnARF6 were tested in a yeast system. Our data showed that DnARF6 is a transcriptional activator in Dendrobium officinale . To uncover the basic information of DnARF gene responses to abiotic stresses, we analyzed their expression patterns under various hormones and abiotic treatments. Based on our data, several hormones and significant stress responsive DnARF genes have been identified. Since auxin and ARF genes have been identified in many plant species, our data is imperative to reveal the function of ARF mediated auxin signaling in the adaptation to the challenging Dendrobium environment.

  13. Development of new geomagnetic storm ground response scaling factors for utilization in hazard assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulkkinen, A. A.; Bernabeu, E.; Weigel, R. S.; Kelbert, A.; Rigler, E. J.; Bedrosian, P.; Love, J. J.

    2017-12-01

    Development of realistic storm scenarios that can be played through the exposed systems is one of the key requirements for carrying out quantitative space weather hazards assessments. In the geomagnetically induced currents (GIC) and power grids context, these scenarios have to quantify the spatiotemporal evolution of the geoelectric field that drives the potentially hazardous currents in the system. In response to the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) order 779, a team of scientists and engineers that worked under the auspices of North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC), has developed extreme geomagnetic storm and geoelectric field benchmark(s) that use various scaling factors that account for geomagnetic latitude and ground structure of the locations of interest. These benchmarks, together with the information generated in the National Space Weather Action Plan, are the foundation for the hazards assessments that the industry will be carrying out in response to the FERC order and under the auspices of the National Science and Technology Council. While the scaling factors developed in the past work were based on the best available information, there is now significant new information available for parts of the U.S. pertaining to the ground response to external geomagnetic field excitation. The significant new information includes the results magnetotelluric surveys that have been conducted over the past few years across the contiguous US and results from previous surveys that have been made available in a combined online database. In this paper, we distill this new information in the framework of the NERC benchmark and in terms of updated ground response scaling factors thereby allowing straightforward utilization in the hazard assessments. We also outline the path forward for improving the overall extreme event benchmark scenario(s) including generalization of the storm waveforms and geoelectric field spatial patterns.

  14. Investigation of absolute and relative response for three different liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry systems; the impact of ionization and detection saturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Lars B; Skansen, Patrik

    2012-06-30

    The investigations in this article were triggered by two observations in the laboratory; for some liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) systems it was possible to obtain linear calibration curves for extreme concentration ranges and for some systems seemingly linear calibration curves gave good accuracy at low concentrations only when using a quadratic regression function. The absolute and relative responses were tested for three different LC/MS/MS systems by injecting solutions of a model compound and a stable isotope labeled internal standard. The analyte concentration range for the solutions was 0.00391 to 500 μM (128,000×), giving overload of the chromatographic column at the highest concentrations. The stable isotope labeled internal standard concentration was 0.667 μM in all samples. The absolute response per concentration unit decreased rapidly as higher concentrations were injected. The relative response, the ratio for the analyte peak area to the internal standard peak area, per concentration unit was calculated. For system 1, the ionization process was found to limit the response and the relative response per concentration unit was constant. For systems 2 and 3, the ion detection process was the limiting factor resulting in decreasing relative response at increasing concentrations. For systems behaving like system 1, simple linear regression can be used for any concentration range while, for systems behaving like systems 2 and 3, non-linear regression is recommended for all concentration ranges. Another consequence is that the ionization capacity limited systems will be insensitive to matrix ion suppression when an ideal internal standard is used while the detection capacity limited systems are at risk of giving erroneous results at high concentrations if the matrix ion suppression varies for different samples in a run. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Coenzyme Q10 quantification in muscle, fibroblasts and cerebrospinal fluid by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry using a novel deuterated internal standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duberley, Kate E C; Hargreaves, Iain P; Chaiwatanasirikul, Korn-Anong; Heales, Simon J R; Land, John M; Rahman, Shamima; Mills, Kevin; Eaton, Simon

    2013-05-15

    Neurological dysfunction is common in primary coenzyme Q10 (2,3-dimethoxy, 5-methyl, 6-polyisoprene parabenzoquinone; CoQ10 ; ubiquinone) deficiencies, the most readily treatable subgroup of mitochondrial disorders. Therapeutic benefit from CoQ10 supplementation has also been noted in other neurodegenerative diseases. CoQ10 can be measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in plasma, muscle or leucocytes; however, there is no reliable method to quantify CoQ10 in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Additionally, many methods use CoQ9 , an endogenous ubiquinone in humans, as an internal standard. Deuterated CoQ10 (d6 -CoQ10 ) was synthesised by a novel, simple, method. Total CoQ10 was measured by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) using d6 -CoQ10 as internal standard and 5 mM methylamine as an ion-pairing reagent. Chromatography was performed using a Hypsersil GOLD C4 column (150 × 3 mm, 3 µm). CoQ10 levels were linear over a concentration range of 0-200 nM (R(2) = 0.9995). The lower limit of detection was 2 nM. The inter-assay coefficient of variation (CV) was 3.6% (10 nM) and 4.3% (20 nM), and intra-assay CV 3.4% (10 nM) and 3.6% (20 nM). Reference ranges were established for CoQ10 in CSF (5.7-8.7 nM; n = 17), fibroblasts (57.0-121.6 pmol/mg; n = 50) and muscle (187.3-430.1 pmol/mg; n = 15). Use of d6 -CoQ10 internal standard has enabled the development of a sensitive LC/MS/MS method to accurately determine total CoQ10 levels. Clinical applications of CSF CoQ10 determination include identification of patients with cerebral CoQ10 deficiency, and monitoring CSF CoQ10 levels following supplementation. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Interleukin-6, vascular endothelial growth factor and transforming growth factor beta 1 in canine steroid responsive meningitis-arteritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maiolini Arianna

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Steroid Responsive Meningitis-Arteritis (SRMA is a common cause of inflammation of the canine central nervous system (CNS. To investigate if transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1, interleukin-6 (IL-6 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF are involved in the production of excessive immunoglobulin A (IgA, the induction of acute phase proteins and in the development of a systemic necrotizing vasculitis, characteristic of SRMA, these three signalling proteins were evaluated. Results Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF and serum samples of dogs during the acute phase of SRMA (SRMA were tested for IL-6, VEGF and TGF- β1. Results were compared to those of dogs affected with SRMA during treatment (SRMA Th and during relapse (SRMA R, to dogs with other meningoencephalomyelitides (ME, with miscellaneous non-inflammatory diseases of the CNS (CNS-Mix, with idiopathic epilepsy (IE, with systemic inflammatory diseases (Syst. Infl. and with healthy dogs (Healthy. Concentrations of IL-6 and VEGF in CSF were significantly elevated in the SRMA group compared to the other disease categories (p 1 were increased in SRMA group, but statistically significant differences were found only in comparison with Healthy and CNS-Mix groups. No differences were detected in the serum concentrations of TGF-β1 between the different groups. In untreated SRMA patients, a positive correlation (rSpear = 0.3549; P = 0.0337 between concentrations of TGF-β1 and IgA concentration was found in CSF, while concentrations of IL-6 and VEGF in CSF positively correlated with the degree of pleocytosis (rSpear = 0.8323; P Spear = 0.5711; P = 0.0166, respectively. Conclusions Our results suggest that these three signalling proteins are biomarkers of disease activity in SRMA. VEGF might play an important role in the development of a systemic arteritis. TGF-β1 is considered to be involved in the excessive IgA production, while IL-6 in the pleocytosis

  17. Performance related factors are the main determinants of the von Willebrand factor response to exhaustive physical exercise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janine E van Loon

    Full Text Available Physical stress triggers the endothelium to release von Willebrand Factor (VWF from the Weibel Palade bodies. Since VWF is a risk factor for arterial thrombosis, it is of great interest to discover determinants of VWF response to physical stress. We aimed to determine the main mediators of the VWF increase by exhaustive physical exercise.105 healthy individuals (18-35 years were included in this study. Each participant performed an incremental exhaustive exercise test on a cycle ergometer. Respiratory gas exchange measurements were obtained while cardiac function was continuously monitored. Blood was collected at baseline and directly after exhaustion. VWF antigen (VWF:Ag levels, VWF collagen binding (VWF:CB levels, ADAMTS13 activity and common variations in Syntaxin Binding Protein-5 (STXBP5, rs1039084 and rs9399599, Syntaxin-2 (STX2, rs7978987 and VWF (promoter, rs7965413 were determined.The median VWF:Ag level at baseline was 0.94 IU/mL [IQR 0.8-1.1] and increased with 47% [IQR 25-73] after exhaustive exercise to a median maximum VWF:Ag of 1.38 IU/mL [IQR 1.1-1.8] (p<0.0001. VWF:CB levels and ADAMTS13 activity both also increased after exhaustive exercise (median increase 43% and 12%, both p<0.0001. The strongest determinants of the VWF:Ag level increase are performance related (p<0.0001. We observed a gender difference in VWF:Ag response to exercise (females 1.2 IU/mL; males 1.7 IU/mL, p = 0.001, which was associated by a difference in performance. Genetic variations in STXBP5, STX2 and the VWF promoter were not associated with VWF:Ag levels at baseline nor with the VWF:Ag increase.VWF:Ag levels strongly increase upon exhaustive exercise and this increase is strongly determined by physical fitness level and the intensity of the exercise, while there is no clear effect of genetic variation in STXBP5, STX2 and the VWF promoter.

  18. Performance related factors are the main determinants of the von Willebrand factor response to exhaustive physical exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Loon, Janine E; Sonneveld, Michelle A H; Praet, Stephan F E; de Maat, Moniek P M; Leebeek, Frank W G

    2014-01-01

    Physical stress triggers the endothelium to release von Willebrand Factor (VWF) from the Weibel Palade bodies. Since VWF is a risk factor for arterial thrombosis, it is of great interest to discover determinants of VWF response to physical stress. We aimed to determine the main mediators of the VWF increase by exhaustive physical exercise. 105 healthy individuals (18-35 years) were included in this study. Each participant performed an incremental exhaustive exercise test on a cycle ergometer. Respiratory gas exchange measurements were obtained while cardiac function was continuously monitored. Blood was collected at baseline and directly after exhaustion. VWF antigen (VWF:Ag) levels, VWF collagen binding (VWF:CB) levels, ADAMTS13 activity and common variations in Syntaxin Binding Protein-5 (STXBP5, rs1039084 and rs9399599), Syntaxin-2 (STX2, rs7978987) and VWF (promoter, rs7965413) were determined. The median VWF:Ag level at baseline was 0.94 IU/mL [IQR 0.8-1.1] and increased with 47% [IQR 25-73] after exhaustive exercise to a median maximum VWF:Ag of 1.38 IU/mL [IQR 1.1-1.8] (pexercise (median increase 43% and 12%, both pexercise (females 1.2 IU/mL; males 1.7 IU/mL, p = 0.001), which was associated by a difference in performance. Genetic variations in STXBP5, STX2 and the VWF promoter were not associated with VWF:Ag levels at baseline nor with the VWF:Ag increase. VWF:Ag levels strongly increase upon exhaustive exercise and this increase is strongly determined by physical fitness level and the intensity of the exercise, while there is no clear effect of genetic variation in STXBP5, STX2 and the VWF promoter.

  19. Characterization of mechanical behavior of an epithelial monolayer in response to epidermal growth factor stimulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Ruiguo; Chen, Jennifer Y.; Xi, Ning; Lai, King Wai Chiu; Qu, Chengeng; Fung, Carmen Kar Man; Penn, Lynn S.; Xi, Jun

    2012-01-01

    Cell signaling often causes changes in cellular mechanical properties. Knowledge of such changes can ultimately lead to insight into the complex network of cell signaling. In the current study, we employed a combination of atomic force microscopy (AFM) and quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D) to characterize the mechanical behavior of A431 cells in response to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling. From AFM, which probes the upper portion of an individual cell in a monolayer of cells, we observed increases in energy dissipation, Young's modulus, and hysteresivity. Increases in hysteresivity imply a shift toward a more fluid-like mechanical ordering state in the bodies of the cells. From QCM-D, which probes the basal area of the monolayer of cells collectively, we observed decreases in energy dissipation factor. This result suggests a shift toward a more solid-like state in the basal areas of the cells. The comparative analysis of these results indicates a regionally specific mechanical behavior of the cell in response to EGFR signaling and suggests a correlation between the time-dependent mechanical responses and the dynamic process of EGFR signaling. This study also demonstrates that a combination of AFM and QCM-D is able to provide a more complete and refined mechanical profile of the cells during cell signaling. -- Highlights: ► The EGF-induced cellular mechanical response is regionally specific. ► The EGF-induced cellular mechanical response is time and dose dependent. ► A combination of AFM and QCM-D provides a more complete mechanical profile of cells.

  20. Climate and terrain factors explaining streamflow response and recession in Australian catchments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. J. M. van Dijk

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Daily streamflow data were analysed to assess which climate and terrain factors best explain streamflow response in 183 Australian catchments. Assessed descriptors of catchment response included the parameters of fitted baseflow models, and baseflow index (BFI, average quick flow and average baseflow derived by baseflow separation. The variation in response between catchments was compared with indicators of catchment climate, morphology, geology, soils and land use. Spatial coherence in the residual unexplained variation was investigated using semi-variogram techniques. A linear reservoir model (one parameter; recession coefficient produced baseflow estimates as good as those obtained using a non-linear reservoir (two parameters and for practical purposes was therefore considered an appropriate balance between simplicity and explanatory performance. About a third (27–34% of the spatial variation in recession coefficients and BFI was explained by catchment climate indicators, with another 53% of variation being spatially correlated over distances of 100–150 km, probably indicative of substrate characteristics not captured by the available soil and geology data. The shortest recession half-times occurred in the driest catchments and were attributed to intermittent occurrence of fast-draining (possibly perched groundwater. Most (70–84% of the variation in average baseflow and quick flow was explained by rainfall and climate characteristics; another 20% of variation was spatially correlated over distances of 300–700 km, possibly reflecting a combination of terrain and climate factors. It is concluded that catchment streamflow response can be predicted quite well on the basis of catchment climate alone. The prediction of baseflow recession response should be improved further if relevant substrate properties were identified and measured.

  1. Haemodynamic responses and changes of haemostatic risk factors in cold-adapted humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lorenzo, F; Kadziola, Z; Mukherjee, M; Saba, N; Kakkar, V V

    1999-09-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown an increase in acute myocardial infarctions or deaths due to myocardial infarction in colder weather; the mechanisms most likely involve increased blood levels of haemostatic risk factors, and increases in arterial blood pressure and heart rate. We studied the relationship between cold adaptation, haemostatic risk factors and haemodynamic variables. Cold adaptation was obtained by a programme of immersion of the whole body up to the neck in a water-filled bath, the temperature of which was gradually decreased from 22 degrees C to 14 degrees C, time of exposure being increased from 5 to 20 min over a period of 90 days. We studied 428 patients (44% men) and measured blood levels of fibrinogen, plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1), tissue plasminogen activator antigen (t-PA), plasma viscosity, von Willebrand factor, D-dimer and platelet count, both at baseline and after 90 days of daily immersion. There were significant reductions in von Willebrand factor (-3%; p cold adaptation (-310; p = 0.004). Cold adaptation, compared with exposure to cold weather, induces different haemodynamic responses and changes of blood levels of haemostatic risk factors.

  2. Factors determining immunological response to vaccination against tick-borne encephalitis virus in older individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindblom, Pontus; Wilhelmsson, Peter; Fryland, Linda; Matussek, Andreas; Haglund, Mats; Sjöwall, Johanna; Vene, Sirkka; Nyman, Dag; Forsberg, Pia; Lindgren, Per-Eric

    2014-01-01

    We performed a cross-sectional study including 533 individuals (median age 61) from the highly TBE endemic Åland Islands in the archipelago between Sweden and Finland. Blood samples, questionnaires and vaccination records were obtained from all study participants. The aim was to investigate if there was any association between TBEV antibody titer and 12 health-related factors. Measurement of TBEV IgG antibodies was performed using two commercial ELISA assays (Enzygnost and Immunozym), and a third in-house rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test was used to measure TBEV neutralizing antibodies. The age of the individual and the number of vaccine doses were the two most important factors determining the immunological response to vaccination. The response to each vaccine dose declined linearly with increased age. A 35 year age difference corresponds to a vaccine dose increment from 3 to 4 to achieve the same immunological response. Participants previously vaccinated against other flaviviruses had lower odds of being seropositive for neutralizing TBEV antibodies on average, while participants with self-reported asthma had higher odds of being seropositive. By comparing the 3 serological assays we show that the Enzygnost and Immunozym assay differ due to choice of cutoffs, but not in overall accuracy.

  3. Glucose impairs tamoxifen responsiveness modulating connective tissue growth factor in breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrosio, Maria Rosaria; D'Esposito, Vittoria; Costa, Valerio; Liguoro, Domenico; Collina, Francesca; Cantile, Monica; Prevete, Nella; Passaro, Carmela; Mosca, Giusy; De Laurentiis, Michelino; Di Bonito, Maurizio; Botti, Gerardo; Franco, Renato; Beguinot, Francesco; Ciccodicola, Alfredo; Formisano, Pietro

    2017-12-12

    Type 2 diabetes and obesity are negative prognostic factors in patients with breast cancer (BC). We found that sensitivity to tamoxifen was reduced by 2-fold by 25 mM glucose (High Glucose; HG) compared to 5.5 mM glucose (Low Glucose; LG) in MCF7 BC cells. Shifting from HG to LG ameliorated MCF7 cell responsiveness to tamoxifen. RNA-Sequencing of MCF7 BC cells revealed that cell cycle-related genes were mainly affected by glucose. Connective Tissue Growth Factor (CTGF) was identified as a glucose-induced modulator of cell sensitivity to tamoxifen. Co-culturing MCF7 cells with human adipocytes exposed to HG, enhanced CTGF mRNA levels and reduced tamoxifen responsiveness of BC cells. Inhibition of adipocyte-released IL8 reverted these effects. Interestingly, CTGF immuno-detection in bioptic specimens from women with estrogen receptor positive (ER + ) BC correlated with hormone therapy resistance, distant metastases, reduced overall and disease-free survival. Thus, glucose affects tamoxifen responsiveness directly modulating CTGF in BC cells, and indirectly promoting IL8 release by adipocytes.

  4. Identification, isolation and expression analysis of auxin response factor (ARF) genes in Solanum lycopersicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jian; Wang, Feiyan; Cheng, Lin; Kong, Fuling; Peng, Zhen; Liu, Songyu; Yu, Xiaolin; Lu, Gang

    2011-11-01

    Auxin response factors (ARFs) encode transcriptional factors that bind specifically to the TGTCTC-containing auxin response elements found in the promoters of primary/early auxin response genes that regulate plant development. In this study, investigation of the tomato genome revealed 21 putative functional ARF genes (SlARFs), a number comparable to that found in Arabidopsis (23) and rice (25). The full cDNA sequences of 15 novel SlARFs were isolated and delineated by sequencing of PCR products. A comprehensive genome-wide analysis of this gene family is presented, including the gene structures, chromosome locations, phylogeny, and conserved motifs. In addition, a comparative analysis between ARF family genes in tomato and maize was performed. A phylogenetic tree generated from alignments of the full-length protein sequences of 21 OsARFs, 23 AtARFs, 31 ZmARFs, and 21 SlARFs revealed that these ARFs were clustered into four major groups. However, we could not find homologous genes in rice, maize, or tomato with AtARF12-15 and AtARF20-23. The expression patterns of tomato ARF genes were analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR. Our comparative analysis will help to define possible functions for many of these newly isolated ARF-family genes in plant development.

  5. Neural Responses to Injury: Prevention, Protection and Repair; Volume 7: Role Growth Factors and Cell Signaling in the Response of Brain and Retina to Injury

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bazan, Nicolas

    1996-01-01

    ...: Prevention, Protection, and Repair, Subproject: Role of Growth Factors and Cell Signaling in the Response of Brain and Retina to Injury, are as follows: Species Rat(Albino Wistar), Number Allowed...

  6. TCP Transcription Factors at the Interface between Environmental Challenges and the Plant's Growth Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danisman, Selahattin

    2016-01-01

    Plants are sessile and as such their reactions to environmental challenges differ from those of mobile organisms. Many adaptions involve growth responses and hence, growth regulation is one of the most crucial biological processes for plant survival and fitness. The plant-specific TEOSINTE BRANCHED 1, CYCLOIDEA, PCF1 (TCP) transcription factor family is involved in plant development from cradle to grave, i.e., from seed germination throughout vegetative development until the formation of flowers and fruits. TCP transcription factors have an evolutionary conserved role as regulators in a variety of plant species, including orchids, tomatoes, peas, poplar, cotton, rice and the model plant Arabidopsis. Early TCP research focused on the regulatory functions of TCPs in the development of diverse organs via the cell cycle. Later research uncovered that TCP transcription factors are not static developmental regulators but crucial growth regulators that translate diverse endogenous and environmental signals into growth responses best fitted to ensure plant fitness and health. I will recapitulate the research on TCPs in this review focusing on two topics: the discovery of TCPs and the elucidation of their evolutionarily conserved roles across the plant kingdom, and the variety of signals, both endogenous (circadian clock, plant hormones) and environmental (pathogens, light, nutrients), TCPs respond to in the course of their developmental roles.

  7. A review of major factors influencing plant responses to recreation impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuss, Fred R.

    1986-09-01

    This article reviews some of the more important factors found to influence the susceptibility of plants to trampling impacts associated with recreational use of natural areas. A three-way interaction mediates plant responses to impacts: plant x environment x stress level(s). Plant responses vary in part according to the genetic constitution of the plant, life and growth form, the adaptive flexibility of the plant, and anatomical differences inherent to growth habit and morphology. Other factors that influence plant sensitivities to impacts are the habitat environments in which plants grow, since a number of conditions such as moisture excesses or deficiencies, nitrogen or oxygen starvation, late frosts, etc., cause physiological injury and may increase plant sensitivity to impacts. Among the environmental factors that may increase or lessen plant sensitivities to impacts are soil moisture levels, canopy density, elevation, aspect, microclimate, soil drainage, texture, fertility and productivity. Seasonal influences also bear consideration since environmental changes and phonological and physiological events are mediated by time of year. Stresses are caused by both direct and indirect forms of impact and vary according to season of use, frequency and amount of use, and the type of activity. These interactions are further complicated by evidence that inter- and intraspecific competition, antagonism, and commensalism may influence differences in the sensitivity of plant communities to impacts.

  8. Determination of trace impurities in uranium-transition metal alloy fuels by ICP-MS using extended common analyte internal standardization (ECAIS) technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saha, Abhijit; Deb, S.B.; Nagar, B.K.; Saxena, M.K.

    2015-01-01

    An analytical methodology was developed for the determination of eight trace impurities viz, Al, B, Cd, Co, Cu, Mg, Mn and Ni in three different uranium-transition metal alloy fuels (U-Me; Me = Ti, Zr and Mo) employing inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The well known common analyte internal standardization (CAIS) chemometric technique was modified and then employed to minimize and account for the matrix effect on analyte intensity. Standard addition of analytes to the pure synthetic U-Me sample solutions and subsequently their ≥ 94% recovery by the ICP-MS measurement validates the proposed methodology. One real sample of each of these alloys was analyzed by the developed analytical methodology and the %RSD observed was in the range of 5-8%. The method detection limits were found to be within 4-10 μg L -1 . (author)

  9. Decontamination of radioactively contaminated surfaces - Method for testing and assessing the ease of decontamination (International Standard Publication ISO 8690:1988)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanik, J.

    2001-01-01

    The specifications laid down in this International Standard apply to the testing of surfaces which may become contaminated by radioactive materials. Decontaminability data obtained using this test method are not applicable to technical systems where layers of contaminating materials are formed as a result of long-term application of higher temperatures and pressures (for example primary circuits of nuclear reactors). The purpose of the test is to assess the ease of decontamination of surfaces under laboratory conditions. In practical applications, it may be important to consider other qualities, such as chemical, mechanical and radiation resistance and long-term stability in the selection of the materials to be used. It should be recognized that further decontamination tests under simulated service conditions may be needed

  10. Innovative method for carbon dioxide determination in human postmortem cardiac gas samples using headspace-gas chromatography–mass spectrometry and stable labeled isotope as internal standard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varlet, V., E-mail: vincent.varlet@chuv.ch [Toxicology and Forensic Chemistry Unit, University Center of Legal Medicine Lausanne – Geneva, CH-1011 Lausanne (Switzerland); Smith, F. [Toxicology and Forensic Chemistry Unit, University Center of Legal Medicine Lausanne – Geneva, CH-1011 Lausanne (Switzerland); Froidmont, S. de; Dominguez, A.; Rinaldi, A. [Forensic Medicine Unit, University Center of Legal Medicine Lausanne – Geneva, CH-1011 Lausanne (Switzerland); Augsburger, M. [Toxicology and Forensic Chemistry Unit, University Center of Legal Medicine Lausanne – Geneva, CH-1011 Lausanne (Switzerland); Mangin, P.; Grabherr, S. [Forensic Medicine Unit, University Center of Legal Medicine Lausanne – Geneva, CH-1011 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2013-06-19

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •We developed a method for CO{sub 2} analysis in cardiac samples and quantification by {sup 13}CO{sub 2}. •This method was fully validated by accuracy profile. •We have applied this method to perform CO{sub 2} precise quantification for forensic applications. •Context of the death could be documented following CO{sub 2} concentrations. -- Abstract: A novel approach to measure carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) in gaseous samples, based on a precise and accurate quantification by {sup 13}CO{sub 2} internal standard generated in situ is presented. The main goal of this study was to provide an innovative headspace-gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (HS-GC–MS) method applicable in the routine determination of CO{sub 2}. The main drawback of the GC methods discussed in the literature for CO{sub 2} measurement is the lack of a specific internal standard necessary to perform quantification. CO{sub 2} measurement is still quantified by external calibration without taking into account analytical problems which can often occur considering gaseous samples. To avoid the manipulation of a stable isotope-labeled gas, we have chosen to generate in situ an internal labeled standard gas ({sup 13}CO{sub 2}) on the basis of the stoichiometric formation of CO{sub 2} by the reaction of hydrochloric acid (HCl) with sodium hydrogen carbonate (NaH{sup 13}CO{sub 3}). This method allows a precise measurement of CO{sub 2} concentration and was validated on various human postmortem gas samples in order to study its efficiency.

  11. Analysis of epoxyeicosatrienoic acids by chiral liquid chromatography/electron capture atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry using [13C]-analog internal standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesaros, Clementina; Lee, Seon Hwa; Blair, Ian A.

    2012-01-01

    The metabolism of arachidonic acid (AA) to epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) is thought to be mediated primarily by the cytochromes P450 (P450s) from the 2 family (2C9, 2C19, 2D6, and 2J2). In contrast, P450s of the 4 family are primarily involved in omega oxidation of AA (4A11 and 4A22). The ability to determine enantioselective formation of the regioisomeric EETs is important in order to establish their potential biological activities and to asses which P450 isoforms are involved in their formation. It has been extremely difficult to analyze individual EET enantiomers in biological fluids because they are present in only trace amounts and they are extremely difficult to separate from each other. In addition, the deuterium-labeled internal standards that are commonly used for stable isotope dilution liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) analyses have different LC retention times when compared with the corresponding protium forms. Therefore, quantification by LC/MS-based methodology can be compromised by differential suppression of ionization of the closely eluting isomers. We report the preparation of [13C20]-EET analog internal standards and the use of a validated high-sensitivity chiral LC/electron capture atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (ECAPCI)-MS method for the trace analysis of endogenous EETs as their pentafluorobenzyl (PFB) ester derivatives. The assay was then used to show the exquisite enantioselectivity of P4502C19-, P4502D6-, P4501A1-, and P4501B1-mediated conversion of AA into EETs and to quantify the enantioselective formation of EETs produced by AA metabolism in a mouse epithelial hepatoma (Hepa) cell line. PMID:20972997

  12. Prevalence and risk factors of clopidogrel non-response among Saudi patients undergoing coronary angiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haitham I. Sakr

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To estimate the prevalence of clopidogrel non-response and identify its risk factors among Saudi patients. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted at Prince Sultan Cardiac Center, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia between January and June 2013, to assess the degree of platelet inhibition using the VerifyNow assay (Accumetrics, San Diego, CA, USA after receiving clopidogrel standard loading dose. Clopidogrel resistance was defined as ≤15% platelet inhibition or greater than 213 P2Y12 reaction units (PRU. Results: Three hundred and four patients were included in the study. The mean age was 60.3 ± 11.4 years, and 73% were males. Clopidogrel doses were 300 mg (57%, 600 mg (27%, and 75 mg (16%. All patients used aspirin (81 mg in 94%. Approximately 66% (200/304 showed in vitro clopidogrel non-response, 54% had low platelet inhibitions, and 61% had high post-loading PRU. Using multivariate regression analysis that included all significant characteristics; only diabetes (odds ratio [OR]: 2.36, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.30-4.27, p=0.005 and higher preloading PRU (OR: 2.39, 95% CI: 1.40-4.11, p=0.002 remained significantly associated with higher clopidogrel non-response while myocardial infarction (OR: 0.34, 95% CI: 0.15-0.81, p=0.014 remained significantly associated with lower clopidogrel non-response. The associations of morbid obesity and diuretics use with higher clopidogrel non-response were slightly attenuated. Conclusion: Our findings indicate a high rate of clopidogrel in-vitro non-response among Saudi patients undergoing coronary angiography.

  13. The effect of dietary fiber and other factors on insulin response: role in obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullrich, I H; Albrink, M J

    1985-07-01

    Epidemiologic evidence favors the hypothesis that obesity may result from the fiber-depleted diet of industrialized societies. Since hyperinsulinemia is a universal characteristic and perhaps causal of obesity, the possibility is considered that dietary factors causing excess insulin secretion might lead to obesity. Dietary glucose causes a slightly greater insulin rise than cooked starch containing an equal amount of carbohydrate, and high fiber starchy foods cause a much lesser insulin response than does glucose in solution. Doubling the dose of carbohydrate in a meal causes only a small increase in glucose response but a large increase in insulin response. Dietary fiber could act by displacing some of the carbohydrate that would normally be absorbable in the small intestine, or could translocate the carbohydrate to a point lower in the intestinal tract where less effect on insulin secretion would be observed. Evidence is presented that a higher fiber diet is associated with a higher concentration of fasting circulating free fatty acids, a lesser post-cibal decrease in circulating free fatty acids and triglycerides and less chronic increase in fasting triglycerides than a low fiber diet. These differences are associated with a lesser insulin response to high fiber meals. The extreme fluctuations between the fed and fasted states seen with low fiber diets are thus dampened by high fiber diets. The less complete inhibition of lipolysis during the fed state, and more intense lipolysis during fasting, suggested by the above data, might tend to prevent obesity. The mechanisms of the lesser insulin response to high rather than low fiber meals are not known, but the possibility that dietary fiber decreases the GIP response is considered.

  14. The quasi-equilibrium response of MOS structures: Quasi-static factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okeke, M.; Balland, B.

    1984-07-01

    The dynamic response of a MOS structure driven into a non-equilibrium behaviour by a voltage ramp is presented. In contrast to Khun's quasi-static technique it is shown that any ramp-driven MOS structure has some degree of non-equilibrium. A quasi staticity factor μAK which serves as a measure of the degree of quasi-equilibrium, has been introduced for the first time. The mathematical model presented in the paper allows a better explanation of the experimental recordings. It is shown that this model could be used to analyse the various features of the response of the structure and that such physical parameters as the generation-rate, trap activation energy, and the effective capture constants could be obtained.

  15. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia responses to cognitive tasks: effects of task factors and RSA indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overbeek, Thérèse J M; van Boxtel, Anton; Westerink, Joyce H D M

    2014-05-01

    Many studies show that respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) decreases while performing cognitive tasks. However, there is uncertainty about the role of contaminating factors such as physical activity and stress-inducing task variables. Different methods to quantify RSA may also contribute to variable results. In 83 healthy subjects, we studied RSA responses to a working memory task requiring varying levels of cognitive control and a perceptual attention task not requiring strong cognitive control. RSA responses were quantified in the time and frequency domain and were additionally corrected for differences in mean interbeat interval and respiration rate, resulting in eight different RSA indices. The two tasks were clearly differentiated by heart rate and facial EMG reference measures. Cognitive control induced inhibition of RSA whereas perceptual attention generally did not. However, the results show several differences between different RSA indices, emphasizing the importance of methodological variables. Age and sex did not influence the results. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Consumer factors predicting level of treatment response to illness management and recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Dominique A; McGuire, Alan B; Luther, Lauren; Anderson, Adrienne I; Phalen, Peter; McGrew, John H

    2017-12-01

    This study aims to identify consumer-level predictors of level of treatment response to illness management and recovery (IMR) to target the appropriate consumers and aid psychiatric rehabilitation settings in developing intervention adaptations. Secondary analyses from a multisite study of IMR were conducted. Self-report data from consumer participants of the parent study (n = 236) were analyzed for the current study. Consumers completed prepost surveys assessing illness management, coping, goal-related hope, social support, medication adherence, and working alliance. Correlations and multiple regression analyses were run to identify self-report variables that predicted level of treatment response to IMR. Analyses revealed that goal-related hope significantly predicted level of improved illness self-management, F(1, 164) = 10.93, p consumer-level predictors of level of treatment response have not been explored for IMR. Although 2 significant predictors were identified, study findings suggest more work is needed. Future research is needed to identify additional consumer-level factors predictive of IMR treatment response in order to identify who would benefit most from this treatment program. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Decision-related factors in pupil old/new effects: Attention, response execution, and false memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brocher, Andreas; Graf, Tim

    2017-07-28

    In this study, we investigate the effects of decision-related factors on recognition memory in pupil old/new paradigms. In Experiment 1, we used an old/new paradigm with words and pseudowords and participants made lexical decisions during recognition rather than old/new decisions. Importantly, participants were instructed to focus on the nonword-likeness of presented items, not their word-likeness. We obtained no old/new effects. In Experiment 2, participants discriminated old from new words and old from new pseudowords during recognition, and they did so as quickly as possible. We found old/new effects for both words and pseudowords. In Experiment 3, we used materials and an old/new design known to elicit a large number of incorrect responses. For false alarms ("old" response for new word), we found larger pupils than for correctly classified new items, starting at the point at which response execution was allowed (2750ms post stimulus onset). In contrast, pupil size for misses ("new" response for old word) was statistically indistinguishable from pupil size in correct rejections. Taken together, our data suggest that pupil old/new effects result more from the intentional use of memory than from its automatic use. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Kruppel-like factor 15 is required for the cardiac adaptive response to fasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugi, Keiki; Hsieh, Paishiun N; Ilkayeva, Olga; Shelkay, Shamanthika; Moroney, Bridget; Baadh, Palvir; Haynes, Browning; Pophal, Megan; Fan, Liyan; Newgard, Christopher B; Prosdocimo, Domenick A; Jain, Mukesh K

    2018-01-01

    Cardiac metabolism is highly adaptive in response to changes in substrate availability, as occur during fasting. This metabolic flexibility is essential to the maintenance of contractile function and is under the control of a group of select transcriptional regulators, notably the nuclear receptor family of factors member PPARα. However, the diversity of physiologic and pathologic states through which the heart must sustain function suggests the possible existence of additional transcriptional regulators that play a role in matching cardiac metabolism to energetic demand. Here we show that cardiac KLF15 is required for the normal cardiac response to fasting. Specifically, we find that cardiac function is impaired upon fasting in systemic and cardiac specific Klf15-null mice. Further, cardiac specific Klf15-null mice display a fasting-dependent accumulation of long chain acylcarnitine species along with a decrease in expression of the carnitine translocase Slc25a20. Treatment with a diet high in short chain fatty acids relieves the KLF15-dependent long chain acylcarnitine accumulation and impaired cardiac function in response to fasting. Our observations establish KLF15 as a critical mediator of the cardiac adaptive response to fasting through its regulation of myocardial lipid utilization.

  19. Weak Satiety Responsiveness Is a Reliable Trait Associated with Hedonic Risk Factors for Overeating among Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Michelle; Hollingworth, Sophie; Blundell, John; Finlayson, Graham

    2015-09-04

    Some individuals exhibit a weak satiety response to food and may be susceptible to overconsumption. The current study identified women showing consistently low or high satiety responses to standardised servings of food across four separate days and compared them on behavioural, psychological and physiological risk factors for overeating and future weight gain. In a crossover design, 30 female participants (age: 28.0 ± 10.6; body mass index (BMI): 23.1 ± 3.0) recorded sensations of hunger in the post-prandial period following four graded energy level breakfasts. Satiety quotients were calculated to compare individuals on satiety responsiveness across conditions. Body composition, resting metabolic rate (RMR), energy intake, food reward and craving, and eating behaviour traits were assessed under controlled laboratory conditions. A distinct low satiety phenotype (LSP) was identified with good consistency across separate study days. These individuals had a higher RMR, greater levels of disinhibition and reported feeling lower control over food cravings. Further, they consumed more energy and exhibited greater wanting for high-fat food. The inverse pattern of characteristics was observed in those exhibiting a consistently high satiety phenotype (HSP). Weak satiety responsiveness is a reliable trait identifiable using the satiety quotient. The LSP was characterised by distinct behavioural and psychological characteristics indicating a risk for overeating, compared to HSP.

  20. Weak Satiety Responsiveness Is a Reliable Trait Associated with Hedonic Risk Factors for Overeating among Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Dalton

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Some individuals exhibit a weak satiety response to food and may be susceptible to overconsumption. The current study identified women showing consistently low or high satiety responses to standardised servings of food across four separate days and compared them on behavioural, psychological and physiological risk factors for overeating and future weight gain. In a crossover design, 30 female participants (age: 28.0 ± 10.6; body mass index (BMI: 23.1 ± 3.0 recorded sensations of hunger in the post-prandial period following four graded energy level breakfasts. Satiety quotients were calculated to compare individuals on satiety responsiveness across conditions. Body composition, resting metabolic rate (RMR, energy intake, food reward and craving, and eating behaviour traits were assessed under controlled laboratory conditions. A distinct low satiety phenotype (LSP was identified with good consistency across separate study days. These individuals had a higher RMR, greater levels of disinhibition and reported feeling lower control over food cravings. Further, they consumed more energy and exhibited greater wanting for high-fat food. The inverse pattern of characteristics was observed in those exhibiting a consistently high satiety phenotype (HSP. Weak satiety responsiveness is a reliable trait identifiable using the satiety quotient. The LSP was characterised by distinct behavioural and psychological characteristics indicating a risk for overeating, compared to HSP.

  1. Malignant lymphoma. Prognostic factors and response to treatment of 473 patients at the National Cancer Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, T.; DeVita, V.T. Jr.; Simon, R.M.; Berard, C.W.; Canellos, G.P.; Garvin, A.J.; Young, R.C.

    1982-01-01

    Treatment results were reviewed in 473 consecutively staged and treated patients at the National Cancer Institute over a 22-year period from 1953 to 1975. Responses correlated with histologic pattern and stage of disease. Complete responses to radiotherapy were frequent in nodular lymphoma patients. Similar treatment regimens were less effective in diffuse lymphoma patients. Using chemotherapy or combined modality approaches, complete responses were obtained in a high proportion of advanced nodular disease patients. Patients with nodular lymphoma tend to have higher complete response rates and longer survivals than their counterparts with diffuse histologic types. Patients with nodular lymphocytic lymphoma had a better survival than those with mixed or ''histiocytic'' histologic types. Patients with diffuse well differentiated lymphocytic lymphoma survived significantly longer than patients with other diffuse histologic types. Percentage and prominence of nodularity were not of prognostic significance in those patients with combined nodular and diffuse patterns of disease. When compared by histologic type, patient sex did not appear to be an important prognostic factor. The presence of B-symptoms was associated with a poorer survival in patients with nodular disease and in patients with diffuse disease. Over the years of this study, survival appears to have improved in each histologic subtype except diffuse poorly differentiated lymphoma

  2. Psychometric properties of the Epworth Sleepiness Scale: A factor analysis and item-response theory approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilcher, June J; Switzer, Fred S; Munc, Alec; Donnelly, Janet; Jellen, Julia C; Lamm, Claus

    2018-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the psychometric properties of the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) in two languages, German and English. Students from a university in Austria (N = 292; 55 males; mean age = 18.71 ± 1.71 years; 237 females; mean age = 18.24 ± 0.88 years) and a university in the US (N = 329; 128 males; mean age = 18.71 ± 0.88 years; 201 females; mean age = 21.59 ± 2.27 years) completed the ESS. An exploratory-factor analysis was completed to examine dimensionality of the ESS. Item response theory (IRT) analyses were used to provide information about the response rates on the items on the ESS and provide differential item functioning (DIF) analyses to examine whether the items were interpreted differently between the two languages. The factor analyses suggest that the ESS measures two distinct sleepiness constructs. These constructs indicate that the ESS is probing sleepiness in settings requiring active versus passive responding. The IRT analyses found that overall, the items on the ESS perform well as a measure of sleepiness. However, Item 8 and to a lesser extent Item 6 were being interpreted differently by respondents in comparison to the other items. In addition, the DIF analyses showed that the responses between German and English were very similar indicating that there are only minor measurement differences between the two language versions of the ESS. These findings suggest that the ESS provides a reliable measure of propensity to sleepiness; however, it does convey a two-factor approach to sleepiness. Researchers and clinicians can use the German and English versions of the ESS but may wish to exclude Item 8 when calculating a total sleepiness score.

  3. [Rapid Response obstetrics Team at Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social,enabling factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dávila-Torres, Javier; González-Izquierdo, José de Jesús; Ruíz-Rosas, Roberto Aguli; Cruz-Cruz, Polita Del Rocío; Hernández-Valencia, Marcelino

    2015-01-01

    There are barriers and enablers for the implementation of Rapid Response Teams in obstetric hospitals. The enabling factors were determined at Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS) MATERIAL AND METHODS: An observational, retrospective study was conducted by analysing the emergency obstetric reports sent by mobile technology and e-mail to the Medical Care Unit of the IMSS in 2013. Frequency and mean was obtained using the Excel 2010 program for descriptive statistics. A total of 164,250 emergency obstetric cases were reported, and there was a mean of 425 messages per day, of which 32.2% were true obstetric emergencies and required the Rapid Response team. By e-mail, there were 73,452 life threatening cases (a mean of 6 cases per day). A monthly simulation was performed in hospitals (480 in total). Enabling factors were messagés synchronisation among the participating personnel,the accurate record of the obstetrics, as well as the simulations performed by the operational staff. The most common emergency was pre-eclampsia-eclampsia with 3,351 reports, followed by obstetric haemorrhage with 2,982 cases. The enabling factors for the implementation of a rapid response team at IMSS were properly timed communication between the central delegation teams, as they allowed faster medical and administrative management and participation of hospital medical teams in the process. Mobile technology has increased the speed of medical and administrative management in emergency obstetric care. However, comparative studies are needed to determine the statistical significance. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A.

  4. AP2/ERF Transcription Factors Involved in Response to Tomato Yellow Leaf Curly Virus in Tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Huang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Tomato yellow leaf curly virus (TYLCV, transmitted by the whitefly (, causes leaf curling and yellowing, plant dwarfism, and growth inhibition in tomato ( L.. The APETALA2 (AP2 and ethylene response factor (ERF transcription factor (TF family, the largest plant-specific TF family, was identified to function in plant development and pathogen defense. Our study aimed to analyze the mechanism underlying the function of ERF (SlERF TFs in response to TYLCV infection and improve useful information to increase the resistance to TYLCV in tomato. A total of 22 tomato AP2/ERF TFs in response to TYLCV were identified according to transcriptome database. Five ERF-B3 TFs were identified in cultivars Hongbeibei (highly resistant, Zheza-301, Zhefen-702 (both resistant, Jinpeng-1, and Xianke-6 (both susceptible. Interaction network indicated that SlERF TFs could interact with mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK. Expression profiles of five ERF-B3 genes (, , , , and were detected by quantitative real-time–polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR after TYLCV infection in five tomato cultivars. expression was upregulated in five tomato cultivars. The expressions of three genes (, , and were upregulated in Zheza-301 and Zhefen-702. and expressions were downregulated in Hongbeibei and Xianke-6, respectively. Yeast one-hybrid showed that the GCC-box binding ability of ERF-B3 TFs differed in resistant and susceptible tomato cultivars. Expression profiles were related to the GCC-box binding ability of SlERF TFs in resistant and susceptible tomato cultivars. The defense mechanism underlying the tomato’s response to TYLCV involved a complicated network, which provided important information for us in breeding and genetic analysis.

  5. Effects of epidermal growth factor receptor kinase inhibition on radiation response in canine osteosarcoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantovani, Fernanda B; Morrison, Jodi A; Mutsaers, Anthony J

    2016-05-31

    Radiation therapy is a palliative treatment modality for canine osteosarcoma, with transient improvement in analgesia observed in many cases. However there is room for improvement in outcome for these patients. It is possible that the addition of sensitizing agents may increase tumor response to radiation therapy and prolong quality of life. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) expression has been documented in canine osteosarcoma and higher EGFR levels have been correlated to a worse prognosis. However, effects of EGFR inhibition on radiation responsiveness in canine osteosarcoma have not been previously characterized. This study examined the effects of the small molecule EGFR inhibitor erlotinib on canine osteosarcoma radiation responses, target and downstream protein expression in vitro. Additionally, to assess the potential impact of treatment on tumor angiogenesis, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels in conditioned media were measured. Erlotinib as a single agent reduced clonogenic survival in two canine osteosarcoma cell lines and enhanced the impact of radiation in one out of three cell lines investigated. In cell viability assays, erlotinib enhanced radiation effects and demonstrated single agent effects. Erlotinib did not alter total levels of EGFR, nor inhibit downstream protein kinase B (PKB/Akt) activation. On the contrary, erlotinib treatment increased phosphorylated Akt in these osteosarcoma cell lines. VEGF levels in conditioned media increased after erlotinib treatment as a single agent and in combination with radiation in two out of three cell lines investigated. However, VEGF levels decreased with erlotinib treatment in the third cell line. Erlotinib treatment promoted modest enhancement of radiation effects in canine osteosarcoma cells, and possessed activity as a single agent in some cell lines, indicating a potential role for EGFR inhibition in the treatment of a subset of osteosarcoma patients. The relative radioresistance of

  6. How Do Various Maize Crop Models Vary in Their Responses to Climate Change Factors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassu, Simona; Brisson, Nadine; Grassini, Patricio; Durand, Jean-Louis; Boote, Kenneth; Lizaso, Jon; Jones, James W.; Rosenzweig, Cynthia; Ruane, Alex C.; Adam, Myriam; hide

    2014-01-01

    Potential consequences of climate change on crop production can be studied using mechanistic crop simulation models. While a broad variety of maize simulation models exist, it is not known whether different models diverge on grain yield responses to changes in climatic factors, or whether they agree in their general trends related to phenology, growth, and yield. With the goal of analyzing the sensitivity of simulated yields to changes in temperature and atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations [CO2], we present the largest maize crop model intercomparison to date, including 23 different models. These models were evaluated for four locations representing a wide range of maize production conditions in the world: Lusignan (France), Ames (USA), Rio Verde (Brazil) and Morogoro (Tanzania). While individual models differed considerably in absolute yield simulation at the four sites, an ensemble of a minimum number of models was able to simulate absolute yields accurately at the four sites even with low data for calibration, thus suggesting that using an ensemble of models has merit. Temperature increase had strong negative influence on modeled yield response of roughly -0.5 Mg ha(sup 1) per degC. Doubling [CO2] from 360 to 720 lmol mol 1 increased grain yield by 7.5% on average across models and the sites. That would therefore make temperature the main factor altering maize yields at the end of this century. Furthermore, there was a large uncertainty in the yield response to [CO2] among models. Model responses to temperature and [CO2] did not differ whether models were simulated with low calibration information or, simulated with high level of calibration information.

  7. Assessing the Role of ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTOR Transcriptional Repressors in Salicylic Acid-Mediated Suppression of Jasmonic Acid-Responsive Genes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caarls, Lotte; van der Does, Adriana; Hickman, Richard; Jansen, Wouter; van Verk, Marcel; Proietti, Silvia; Lorenzo, Oscar; Solano, Roberto; Pieterse, Corné M J; Van Wees, Saskia C M

    2017-01-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) cross-communicate in the plant immune signaling network to finely regulate induced defenses. In Arabidopsis, SA antagonizes many JA-responsive genes, partly by targeting the ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTOR (ERF)-type transcriptional activator ORA59. Members of the

  8. Sex, Receptors and Attachment: A Review of Individual Factors Influencing Response to Oxytocin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai S Macdonald

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available As discussed in the larger review in this special issue (MacDonald and Feifel, intranasal oxytocin (IN OT is demonstrating a growing potential as a therapeutic agent in psychiatry. Importantly, research suggests that a variety of individual factors may influence a person’s response to OT. In this mini-review, I provides a review of three: (1 sex and hormonal status; (2 genetic variation in aspects of the OT system (i.e. OT receptors; and (3 attachment history. Each of these factors will be important to monitor as we strive to develop a richer understanding of OT's role in human development, brain-based disease, and the potential for individualized, OT-targeted treatments.

  9. Nonlinear Local Bending Response and Bulging Factors for Longitudinal and Circumferential Cracks in Pressurized Cylindrical Shells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Richard D.; Rose, Cheryl A.; Starnes, James H., Jr.

    2000-01-01

    Results of a geometrically nonlinear finite element parametric study to determine curvature correction factors or bulging factors that account for increased stresses due to curvature for longitudinal and circumferential cracks in unstiffened pressurized cylindrical shells are presented. Geometric parameters varied in the study include the shell radius, the shell wall thickness, and the crack length. The major results are presented in the form of contour plots of the bulging factor as a function of two nondimensional parameters: the shell curvature parameter, lambda, which is a function of the shell geometry, Poisson's ratio, and the crack length; and a loading parameter, eta, which is a function of the shell geometry, material properties, and the applied internal pressure. These plots identify the ranges of the shell curvature and loading parameters for which the effects of geometric nonlinearity are significant. Simple empirical expressions for the bulging factor are then derived from the numerical results and shown to predict accurately the nonlinear response of shells with longitudinal and circumferential cracks. The numerical results are also compared with analytical solutions based on linear shallow shell theory for thin shells, and with some other semi-empirical solutions from the literature, and limitations on the use of these other expressions are suggested.

  10. Postprandial lipemia: factoring in lipemic response for ranking foods for their healthiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Cintia Botelho; Moughan, Paul J; Wood, Lisa G; Singh, Harjinder; Garg, Manohar L

    2017-09-18

    One of the limitations for ranking foods and meals for healthiness on the basis of the glycaemic index (GI) is that the GI is subject to manipulation by addition of fat. Postprandial lipemia, defined as a rise in circulating triglyceride containing lipoproteins following consumption of a meal, has been recognised as a risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease and other chronic diseases. Many non-modifiable factors (pathological conditions, genetic background, age, sex and menopausal status) and life-style factors (physical activity, smoking, alcohol and medication use, dietary choices) may modulate postprandial lipemia. The structure and the composition of a food or a meal consumed also plays an important role in the rate of postprandial appearance and clearance of triglycerides in the blood. However, a major difficulty in grading foods, meals and diets according to their potential to elevate postprandial triglyceride levels has been the lack of a standardised marker that takes into consideration both the general characteristics of the food and the food's fat composition and quantity. The release rate of lipids from the food matrix during digestion also has an important role in determining the postprandial lipemic effects of a food product. This article reviews the factors that have been shown to influence postprandial lipemia with a view to develop a novel index for ranking foods according to their healthiness. This index should take into consideration not only the glycaemic but also lipemic responses.

  11. Radiation damage of hemopoietic tissue: circulating stem cells and growth factor responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagemaker, G.

    1997-01-01

    Briefly, evidence in rodents and nonhuman primates demonstrated two types of immature cells to be involved in regeneration following total body irradiation (X-rays). These cell populations can be separated and there is good responses differ. Related to these observations, experimental growth factor therapy has been ineffective at doses larger than 6-7 Gy X-rays and was shown to be optimally effective at the mid-lethal dose of 5 Gy. Consequently, at relatively high doses of radiation, treatment should initially be directed at reconstitution of growth factor responding stem cell subsets rather than at accelerated production of mature blood cells. Following cytotoxic insult to bone marrow, hemopoietic reconstitution is characterized by an increased fraction of stem cells that enters circulation. This might reflect a physiological mechanism to regulate the activities of the scattered bone marrow sites. In experimental studies with nonhuman primates, we showed that the number of circulating immature cells are proportional to those in the bone marrow and can be used for quantitative evaluation of residual stem cells numbers and to monitor the effectiveness of growth factor therapy at the immature cell level. The latter observations enables the design of growth factor treatment schedules for radiation induced myelosuppression in which thrombopenia is reduced and the recovery of immature bone marrow cells is promoted. (N.C.)

  12. Human response to wind turbine noise - perception, annoyance and moderating factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedersen, Eja

    2007-05-15

    The aims of this thesis were to describe and gain an understanding of how people who live in the vicinity of wind turbines are affected by wind turbine noise, and how individual, situational and visual factors, as well as sound properties, moderate the response. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out in a flat, mainly rural area in Sweden, with the objective to estimate the prevalence of noise annoyance and to examine the dose-response relationship between A-weighted sound pressure levels (SPLs) and perception of and annoyance with wind turbine noise. Subjective responses were obtained through a questionnaire (n = 513; response rate: 68%) and outdoor, A-weighted SPLs were calculated for each respondent. To gain a deeper understanding of the observed noise annoyance, 15 people living in an area were interviewed using open-ended questions. The interviews were analysed using the comparative method of Grounded Theory (GT). An additional cross-sectional study, mainly exploring the influence of individual and situational factors, was carried out in seven areas in Sweden that differed with regard to terrain (flat or complex) and degree of urbanization (n = 765; response rate: 58%). To further explore the impact of visual factors, data from the two cross-sectional studies were tested with structural equation modelling. A proposed model of the influence of visual attitude on noise annoyance, also comprising the influence of noise level and general attitude, was tested among respondents who could see wind turbines versus respondents who could not see wind turbines from their dwelling, and respondents living in flat versus complex terrain. Dose-response relationships were found both for perception of noise and for noise annoyance in relation to A-weighted SPLs. The risk of annoyance was enhanced among respondents who could see at least one turbine from their dwelling and among those living in a rural in comparison with a suburban area. Noise from wind turbines was

  13. Human response to wind turbine noise - perception, annoyance and moderating factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedersen, Eja

    2007-05-01

    The aims of this thesis were to describe and gain an understanding of how people who live in the vicinity of wind turbines are affected by wind turbine noise, and how individual, situational and visual factors, as well as sound properties, moderate the response. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out in a flat, mainly rural area in Sweden, with the objective to estimate the prevalence of noise annoyance and to examine the dose-response relationship between A-weighted sound pressure levels (SPLs) and perception of and annoyance with wind turbine noise. Subjective responses were obtained through a questionnaire (n = 513; response rate: 68%) and outdoor, A-weighted SPLs were calculated for each respondent. To gain a deeper understanding of the observed noise annoyance, 15 people living in an area were interviewed using open-ended questions. The interviews were analysed using the comparative method of Grounded Theory (GT). An additional cross-sectional study, mainly exploring the influence of individual and situational factors, was carried out in seven areas in Sweden that differed with regard to terrain (flat or complex) and degree of urbanization (n = 765; response rate: 58%). To further explore the impact of visual factors, data from the two cross-sectional studies were tested with structural equation modelling. A proposed model of the influence of visual attitude on noise annoyance, also comprising the influence of noise level and general attitude, was tested among respondents who could see wind turbines versus respondents who could not see wind turbines from their dwelling, and respondents living in flat versus complex terrain. Dose-response relationships were found both for perception of noise and for noise annoyance in relation to A-weighted SPLs. The risk of annoyance was enhanced among respondents who could see at least one turbine from their dwelling and among those living in a rural in comparison with a suburban area. Noise from wind turbines was

  14. Clinical factors associated with the humoral immune response to influenza vaccination in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nath KD

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Karthik D Nath,1,2 Julie G Burel,1 Viswanathan Shankar,3 Antonia L Pritchard,1 Michelle Towers,2 David Looke,1,2 Janet M Davies,1 John W Upham1,2 1The University of Queensland (School of Medicine, Brisbane, QLD, Australia; 2Princess Alexandra Hospital, Brisbane, QLD, Australia; 3Department of Epidemiology and Population Health, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, New York, NY, USA Background and objective: Individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD are at a high risk of developing significant complications from infection with the influenza virus. It is therefore vital to ensure that prophylaxis with the influenza vaccine is effective in COPD. The aim of this study was to assess the immunogenicity of the 2010 trivalent influenza vaccine in persons with COPD compared to healthy subjects without lung disease, and to examine clinical factors associated with the serological response to the vaccine. Methods: In this observational study, 34 subjects (20 COPD, 14 healthy received the 2010 influenza vaccine. Antibody titers at baseline and 28 days post-vaccination were measured using the hemagglutination inhibition assay (HAI assay. Primary endpoints included seroconversion (≥4-fold increase in antibody titers from baseline and the fold increase in antibody titer after vaccination. Results: Persons with COPD mounted a significantly lower humoral immune response to the influenza vaccine compared to healthy participants. Seroconversion occurred in 90% of healthy participants, but only in 43% of COPD patients (P=0.036. Increasing age and previous influenza vaccination were associated with lower antibody responses. Antibody titers did not vary significantly with cigarette smoking, presence of other comorbid diseases, or COPD severity. Conclusion: The humoral immune response to the 2010 influenza vaccine was lower in persons with COPD compared to non-COPD controls. The antibody response also declined with increasing age and in those with

  15. Abnormal cardiovascular response to exercise in hypertension: contribution of neural factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Jere H

    2017-06-01

    During both dynamic (e.g., endurance) and static (e.g., strength) exercise there are exaggerated cardiovascular responses in hypertension. This includes greater increases in blood pressure, heart rate, and efferent sympathetic nerve activity than in normal controls. Two of the known neural factors that contribute to this abnormal cardiovascular response are the exercise pressor reflex (EPR) and functional sympatholysis. The EPR originates in contracting skeletal muscle and reflexly increases sympathetic efferent nerve activity to the heart and blood vessels as well as decreases parasympathetic efferent nerve activity to the heart. These changes in autonomic nerve activity cause an increase in blood pressure, heart rate, left ventricular contractility, and vasoconstriction in the arterial tree. However, arterial vessels in the contracting skeletal muscle have a markedly diminished vasoconstrictor response. The markedly diminished vasoconstriction in contracting skeletal muscle has been termed functional sympatholysis. It has been shown in hypertension that there is an enhanced EPR, including both its mechanoreflex and metaboreflex components, and an impaired functional sympatholysis. These conditions set up a positive feedback or vicious cycle situation that causes a progressively greater decrease in the blood flow to the exercising muscle. Thus these two neural mechanisms contribute significantly to the abnormal cardiovascular response to exercise in hypertension. In addition, exercise training in hypertension decreases the enhanced EPR, including both mechanoreflex and metaboreflex function, and improves the impaired functional sympatholysis. These two changes, caused by exercise training, improve the muscle blood flow to exercising muscle and cause a more normal cardiovascular response to exercise in hypertension. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  16. Factor XI Deficiency Alters the Cytokine Response and Activation of Contact Proteases during Polymicrobial Sepsis in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles E Bane

    Full Text Available Sepsis, a systemic inflammatory response to infection, is often accompanied by abnormalities of blood coagulation. Prior work with a mouse model of sepsis induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP suggested that the protease factor XIa contributed to disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC and to the cytokine response during sepsis. We investigated the importance of factor XI to cytokine and coagulation responses during the first 24 hours after CLP. Compared to wild type littermates, factor XI-deficient (FXI-/- mice had a survival advantage after CLP, with smaller increases in plasma levels of TNF-α and IL-10 and delayed IL-1β and IL-6 responses. Plasma levels of serum amyloid P, an acute phase protein, were increased in wild type mice 24 hours post-CLP, but not in FXI-/- mice, supporting the impression of a reduced inflammatory response in the absence of factor XI. Surprisingly, there was little evidence of DIC in mice of either genotype. Plasma levels of the contact factors factor XII and prekallikrein were reduced in WT mice after CLP, consistent with induction of contact activation. However, factor XII and PK levels were not reduced in FXI-/- animals, indicating factor XI deficiency blunted contact activation. Intravenous infusion of polyphosphate into WT mice also induced changes in factor XII, but had much less effect in FXI deficient mice. In vitro analysis revealed that factor XIa activates factor XII, and that this reaction is enhanced by polyanions such polyphosphate and nucleic acids. These data suggest that factor XI deficiency confers a survival advantage in the CLP sepsis model by altering the cytokine response to infection and blunting activation of the contact (kallikrein-kinin system. The findings support the hypothesis that factor XI functions as a bidirectional interface between contact activation and thrombin generation, allowing the two processes to influence each other.

  17. Radiation safety: New international standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, A.J.

    1994-01-01

    This article highlights an important result of this work for the international harmonization of radiation safety: specifically, it present an overview of the forthcoming International Basic Safety Standards for Protection Against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources - the so-called BSS. They have been jointly developed by six organizations - the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the International Labour Organization (ILO), the Nuclear Energy Agency of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (NEA/OECD), the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO), and the World Health Organization (WHO)

  18. Upgrading Temelin to international standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, J.J.; Gisoni, G.A.; Stormer, T.D.

    1994-01-01

    The digital technology being installed to upgrade the Instrumentation and Control system at the Temelin twin VVER-1000 station in the Czech Republic will allow the plant to operate more safely because it allows key information to be organised and presented to the operators, enabling them to make better informed decisions about the status of the plant. The new system is based on proven technology previously applied at Beznau in Switzerland and Sizewell B in the UK. (author)

  19. Identification and network-enabled characterization of auxin response factor genes in Medicago truncatula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J. Burks

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The Auxin Response Factor (ARF family of transcription factors is an important regulator of environmental response and symbiotic nodulation in the legume Medicago truncatula. While previous studies have identified members of this family, a recent spurt in gene expression data coupled with genome update and reannotation calls for a reassessment of the prevalence of ARF genes and their interaction networks in M. truncatula. We performed a comprehensive analysis of the M. truncatula genome and transcriptome that entailed search for novel ARF genes and the co-expression networks. Our investigation revealed 8 novel M. truncatula ARF (MtARF genes, of the total 22 identified, and uncovered novel gene co-expression networks as well. Furthermore, the topological clustering and single enrichment analysis of several network models revealed the roles of individual members of the MtARF family in nitrogen regulation, nodule initiation, and post-embryonic development through a specialized protein packaging and secretory pathway. In summary, this study not just shines new light on an important gene family, but also provides a guideline for identification of new members of gene families and their functional characterization through network analyses.

  20. Endoglin negatively regulates transforming growth factor beta1-induced profibrotic responses in intestinal fibroblasts.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Burke, J P

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Fibroblasts isolated from strictures in Crohn\\'s disease (CD) exhibit reduced responsiveness to stimulation with transforming growth factor (TGF) beta1. TGF-beta1, acting through the smad pathway, is critical to fibroblast-mediated intestinal fibrosis. The membrane glycoprotein, endoglin, is a negative regulator of TGF-beta1. METHODS: Intestinal fibroblasts were cultured from seromuscular biopsies of patients undergoing intestinal resection for CD strictures or from control patients. Endoglin expression was assessed using confocal microscopy, flow cytometry and western blot. The effect of small interfering (si) RNA-mediated knockdown and plasmid-mediated overexpression of endoglin on fibroblast responsiveness to TGF-beta1 was assessed by examining smad phosphorylation, smad binding element (SBE) promoter activity, connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) expression and ability to contract collagen. RESULTS: Crohn\\'s stricture fibroblasts expressed increased constitutive cell-surface and whole-cell endoglin relative to control cells. Endoglin co-localized with filamentous actin. Fibroblasts treated with siRNA directed against endoglin exhibited enhanced TGF-beta1-mediated smad-3 phosphorylation, and collagen contraction. Cells transfected with an endoglin plasmid did not respond to TGF-beta1 by exhibiting SBE promoter activity or producing CTGF. CONCLUSION: Fibroblasts from strictures in CD express increased constitutive endoglin. Endoglin is a negative regulator of TGF-beta1 signalling in the intestinal fibroblast, modulating smad-3 phosphorylation, SBE promoter activity, CTGF production and collagen contraction.

  1. Relationship between serum response factor and androgen receptor in prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prencipe, Maria; O'Neill, Amanda; O'Hurley, Gillian; Nguyen, Lan K; Fabre, Aurelie; Bjartell, Anders; Gallagher, William M; Morrissey, Colm; Kay, Elaine W; Watson, R William

    2015-11-01

    Serum response factor (SRF) is an important transcription factor in castrate-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Since CRPC is associated with androgen receptor (AR) hypersensitivity, we investigated the relationship between SRF and AR. Transcriptional activity was assessed by luciferase assay. Cell proliferation was measured by MTT and flow cytometry. Protein expression in patients was assessed by immunohistochemistry. To investigate AR involvement in SRF response to androgen, AR expression was down-regulated using siRNA. This resulted in the abrogation of SRF induction post-DHT. Moreover, DHT stimulation failed to induce SRF transcriptional activity in AR-negative PC346 DCC cells, which was only restored following AR over-expression. Next, SRF expression was down-regulated by siRNA, resulting in AR increased transcriptional activity in castrate-resistant LNCaP Abl cells but not in the parental LNCaP. This negative feedback loop in the resistant cells was confirmed by immunohistochemistry which showed a negative correlation between AR and SRF expression in CRPC bone metastases and a positive correlation in androgen-naïve prostatectomies. Cell proliferation was next assessed following SRF inhibition, demonstrating that SRF inhibition is more effective than AR inhibition in castrate-resistant cells. Our data support SRF as a promising therapeutic target in combination with current treatments. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. The metal-responsive transcription factor-1 contributes to HIF-1 activation during hypoxic stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, Brian J.; Sato, Barbara G.; Dalton, Timothy P.; Laderoute, Keith R.

    2005-01-01

    Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1), the major transcriptional regulator of the mammalian cellular response to low oxygen (hypoxia), is embedded within a complex network of signaling pathways. We have been investigating the importance of another stress-responsive transcription factor, MTF-1, for the adaptation of cells to hypoxia. This article reports that MTF-1 plays a central role in hypoxic cells by contributing to HIF-1 activity. Loss of MTF-1 in transformed Mtf1 null mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) results in an attenuation of nuclear HIF-1α protein accumulation, HIF-1 transcriptional activity, and expression of an established HIF-1 target gene, glucose transporter-1 (Glut1). Mtf1 null (Mtf1 KO) MEFs also have constitutively higher levels of both glutathione (GSH) and the rate-limiting enzyme involved in GSH synthesis-glutamate cysteine ligase catalytic subunit-than wild type cells. The altered cellular redox state arising from increased GSH may perturb oxygen-sensing mechanisms in hypoxic Mtf1 KO cells and decrease the accumulation of HIF-1α protein. Together, these novel findings define a role for MTF-1 in the regulation of HIF-1 activity

  3. Transcriptome-wide identification of Camellia sinensis WRKY transcription factors in response to temperature stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhi-Jun; Li, Xing-Hui; Liu, Zhi-Wei; Li, Hui; Wang, Yong-Xin; Zhuang, Jing

    2016-02-01

    Tea plant [Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze] is a leaf-type healthy non-alcoholic beverage crop, which has been widely introduced worldwide. Tea is rich in various secondary metabolites, which are important for human health. However, varied climate and complex geography have posed challenges for tea plant survival. The WRKY gene family in plants is a large transcription factor family that is involved in biological processes related to stress defenses, development, and metabolite synthesis. Therefore, identification and analysis of WRKY family transcription factors in tea plant have a profound significance. In the present study, 50 putative C. sinensis WRKY proteins (CsWRKYs) with complete WRKY domain were identified and divided into three Groups (Group I-III) on the basis of phylogenetic analysis results. The distribution of WRKY family transcription factors among plantae, fungi, and protozoa showed that the number of WRKY genes increased in higher plant, whereas the number of these genes did not correspond to the evolutionary relationships of different species. Structural feature and annotation analysis results showed that CsWRKY proteins contained WRKYGQK/WRKYGKK domains and C2H2/C2HC-type zinc-finger structure: D-X18-R-X1-Y-X2-C-X4-7-C-X23-H motif; CsWRKY proteins may be associated with the biological processes of abiotic and biotic stresses, tissue development, and hormone and secondary metabolite biosynthesis. Temperature stresses suggested that the candidate CsWRKY genes were involved in responses to extreme temperatures. The current study established an extensive overview of the WRKY family transcription factors in tea plant. This study also provided a global survey of CsWRKY transcription factors and a foundation of future functional identification and molecular breeding.

  4. An inflammation-responsive transcription factor in the pathophysiology of osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Alpana; Ray, Bimal K

    2008-01-01

    A number of risk factors including biomechanical stress on the articular cartilage imposed by joint overloading due to obesity, repetitive damage of the joint tissues by injury of the menisci and ligaments, and abnormal joint alignment play a significant role in the onset of osteoarthritis (OA). Genetic predisposition can also lead to the formation of defective cartilage matrix because of abnormal gene expression in the cartilage-specific cells. Another important biochemical event in OA is the consequence of inflammation. It has been shown that synovial inflammation triggers the synthesis of biological stimuli such as cytokines and growth factors which subsequently reach the chondrocyte cells of the articular cartilage activating inflammatory events in the chondrocytes leading to cartilage destruction. In addition to cartilage degradation, hypertrophy of the subchondral bone and osteophyte formation at the joint margins also takes place in OA. Both processes involve abnormal expression of a number of genes including matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) for cartilage degradation and those associated with bone formation during osteophyte development. To address how diverse groups of genes are activated in OA chondrocyte, we have studied their induction mechanism. We present evidence for abundant expression of an inflammation-responsive transcription factor, SAF-1, in moderate to severely damaged OA cartilage tissues. In contrast, cells in normal cartilage matrix contain very low level of SAF-1 protein. SAF-1 is identified as a major regulator of increased synthesis of MMP-1 and -9 and pro-angiogenic factor, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). While VEGF by stimulating angiogenesis plays a key role in new bone formation in osteophyte, increase of MMP-1 and -9 is instrumental for cartilage erosion in the pathogenesis of OA. Increased expression in degenerated cartilage matrix and in the osteophytes indicate for a key regulatory role of SAF-1 in directing catabolic

  5. Germination Response of Four Alien Congeneric Amaranthus Species to Environmental Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Jian-Hua; Lv, Shuang-Shuang; Bhattacharya, Saurav; Fu, Jian-Guo

    2017-01-01

    Seed germination is the key step for successful establishment, growth and further expansion of population especially for alien plants with annual life cycle. Traits like better adaptability and germination response were thought to be associated with plant invasion. However, there are not enough empirical studies correlating adaptation to environmental factors with germination response of alien invasive plants. In this study, we conducted congeneric comparisons of germination response to different environmental factors such as light, pH, NaCl, osmotic and soil burials among four alien amaranths that differ in invasiveness and have sympatric distribution in Jiangsu Province, China. The data were used to create three-parameter sigmoid and exponential decay models, which were fitted to cumulative germination and emergence curves. The results showed higher maximum Germination (Gmax), shorter time for 50% germination (G50) and the rapid slope (Grate) for Amaranthus blitum (low-invasive) and A. retroflexus (high-invasive) compare to intermediately invasive A. spinosus and A. viridis in all experimental regimes. It indicated that germination potential does not necessarily constitute a trait that can efficiently distinguish highly invasive and low invasive congeners in four Amaranthus species. However, it was showed that the germination performances of four amaranth species were more or less correlated with their worldwide distribution area. Therefore, the germination performance can be used as a reference indicator, but not an absolute trait for invasiveness. Our results also confirmed that superior germination performance in wide environmental conditions supplementing high seed productivity in highly invasive A. retroflexus might be one of the reasons for its prolific growth and wide distribution. These findings lay the foundation to develop more efficient weed management practice like deep burial of seeds by turning over soil and use of tillage agriculture to control

  6. Sae regulator factor impairs the response to photodynamic inactivation mediated by Toluidine blue in Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gándara, Lautaro; Mamone, Leandro; Dotto, Cristian; Buzzola, Fernanda; Casas, Adriana

    2016-12-01

    Photodynamic inactivation (PDI) involves the combined use of light and a photosensitizer, which, in the presence of oxygen, originates cytotoxic species capable of inactivating bacteria. Since the emergence of multi-resistant bacterial strains is becoming an increasing public health concern, PDI becomes an attractive choice. The aim of this work was to study the differential susceptibility to Toluidine blue (TB) mediated PDI (TB-PDI) of S. aureus mutants (RN6390 and Newman backgrounds) for different key regulators of virulence factors related to some extent to oxidative stress. Complete bacteria eradication of planktonic cultures of RN6390 S. aureus photosensitized with 13μM TB was obtained upon illumination with a low light dose of 4.2J/cm 2 from a non-coherent light source. Similarly, complete cell death was achieved applying 1.3μM TB and 19J/cm 2 light dose, showing that higher light doses can lead to equal cell death employing low photosensitizer concentrations. Interestingly, RN6390 in planktonic culture responded significantly better to TB-PDI than the Newman strain. We showed that deficiencies in rsbU, mgrA (transcription factors related to stress response) or agr (quorum sensing system involved in copper resistance to oxidative stress) did not modify the response of planktonic S. aureus to PDI. On the other hand, the two component system sae impaired the response to TB-PDI through a mechanism not related to the Eap adhesin. More severe conditions were needed to inactivate S. aureus biofilms (0.5mM TB, 157J/cm 2 laser light). In mutant sae biofilms, strain dependant differential susceptibilities are not noticed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. [Cryptogenic West syndrome: Clinical profile, response to treatment and prognostic factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón Romero, María; Arce Portillo, Elena; López Lobato, Mercedes; Muñoz Cabello, Beatriz; Blanco Martínez, Bárbara; Madruga Garrido, Marcos; Alonso Luego, Olga

    2017-12-06

    West syndrome (WS) is an age-dependent epileptic encephalopathy in which the prognosis varies according to the, not always identified, underlying origin. To define the profile of cryptogenic (a least studied isolated sub-group) WS, in Spain. To study its outcome, response to different treatments, and to establish prognostic factors. The study included a review of the medical records of 16 patients diagnosed with cryptogenic WS during the period, 2000-2015. The mean follow-up time was 6.6 years, with a minimum of 2 years. The large majority (11/16) were male. The mean age at onset was 6 months, and 6/16 had a family history of idiopathic epilepsy. The first line treatment with vigabatrin had an electrical-clinical response in 5/16 patients, with the remaining cases responding to adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). Almost half (44%) of the patients progressed to other types of epilepsy, with no difference between those treated with vigabatrin or ACTH. A greater number of adverse effects were obtained with ACTH, with no retinal involvement being observed with vigabatrin. The aetiological cause was found in 2/16. Being female, late onset, and early control of the hypsarrhythmia, were factors of a good prognosis. The overall prognosis of cryptogenic WS was more serious than expected. Although the incidence of Lennox-Gastaut syndrome was low, the progression to focal epilepsy was the most common, with it appearing within the first 2 years of the diagnosis. The initial response to vigabatrin was lower than expected, but the long-term result was comparable to ACTH. Copyright © 2017. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  8. Effect of environmental and material factors on the response of nanocomposite foam impact sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Evan; Merrell, Jake; Rosquist, Parker; Martineau, Adin; Bowden, Anton; Seeley, Matthew; Fullwood, David

    2018-05-01

    Nanocomposite foam (NCF) is a multifunctional material that can be used to measure impact. Interactions between the flexible polymer matrix and conductive particles dispersed throughout it produce a voltage signal under dynamic strain, which correlates to the magnitude of impact. Though promising in applications requiring both impact sensing and energy absorption, NCF’s voltage response has been observed to suffer from significant signal drift. This paper investigates several causes of variance in the response of NCF sensors to consistent impacts. These effects can be classified into three general types: recoverable transient effects (such as those relating to viscoelasticity or capacitive charging), environmental drift (due to humidity and temperature), and permanent signal decay from material degradation. The motivation for the study arises from various potential repeat-impact applications where periodic recalibration of the sensor would be difficult (such as a gait-tracking insole in use for a marathon event). A cyclic drop testing machine was used to apply consistent impacts to NCF, and drift resulting from each factor (in ranges typical of an insole environment) was experimentally isolated. Models representing each factor’s contribution to signal drift are presented. Of the factors investigated, humidity and temperature caused the most significant drift, with permanent material degradation accounting for only minor decay in voltage response. Transient effects were also observed, with a characteristic ‘warm-up’ (or ‘charging’) time required for the NCF to achieve steady-state; this phenomenon, and the related ‘recovery’ time for the material to return to its original state, were determined. The resultant data can be leveraged to implement a correction algorithm or other drift-compensating method to retain an NCF sensor’s accuracy in both long and short data collection scenarios.

  9. Regulation of Serum Response Factor and Adiponectin by PPARγ Agonist Docosahexaenoic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clayton Johnson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies indicate that significant health benefits involving the regulation of signaling proteins result from the consumption of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFAs. Serum response factor (SRF is involved in transcriptional regulation of muscle growth and differentiation. SRF levels are increased in the aging heart muscle. It has not been examined whether SRF is made by adipocytes and whether SRF secretion by adipocytes is modulated by PPARγ agonist DHA. Adiponectin is made exclusively by adipocytes. We and others have previously reported that PUFAs such as DHA increase adiponectin levels and secretion in adipocytes. Here we show that DHA downregulates SRF with a simultaneous upregulation of adiponectin and that both these responses are reversible by PPARγ antagonist. Furthermore, there appears to be a direct relationship between DHA exposure and increased levels of membrane-associated high-density adiponectin, as well as lower levels of membrane-associated SRF. Thus, we find that the levels of SRF and adiponectin are inversely related in response to treatment with PPARγ agonist DHA. Decreased levels of SRF along with increase in membrane-associated adiponectin could in part mediate the health benefits of DHA.

  10. Nurse-Administered, Gut-Directed Hypnotherapy in IBS: Efficacy and Factors Predicting a Positive Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lövdahl, Jenny; Ringström, Gisela; Agerforz, Pia; Törnblom, Hans; Simrén, Magnus

    2015-07-01

    Hypnotherapy is an effective treatment in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). It is often delivered by a psychotherapist and is costly and time consuming. Nurse-administered hypnotherapy could increase availability and reduce costs. In this study the authors evaluate the effectiveness of nurse-administered, gut-directed hypnotherapy and identify factors predicting treatment outcome. Eighty-five patients were included in the study. Participants received hypnotherapy by a nurse once/week for 12 weeks. Patients reported marked improvement in gastrointestinal (GI) and extra-colonic symptoms after treatment, as well as a reduction in GI-specific anxiety, general anxiety, and depression. Fifty-eight percent were responders after the 12 weeks treatment period, and of these 82% had a favorable clinical response already at week 6. Women were more likely than men to respond favorably to the treatment. Nurse-administered hypnotherapy is an effective treatment for IBS. Being female and reporting a favorable response to treatment by week 6 predicted a positive treatment response at the end of the 12 weeks treatment period.

  11. Concord Grape Juice Polyphenols and Cardiovascular Risk Factors: Dose-Response Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumberg, Jeffrey B.; Vita, Joseph A.; Chen, C. -Y. Oliver

    2015-01-01

    Pure fruit juices provide nutritional value with evidence suggesting some of their benefits on biomarkers of cardiovascular disease risk may be derived from their constituent polyphenols, particularly flavonoids. However, few data from clinical trials are available on the dose-response relationship of fruit juice flavonoids to these outcomes. Utilizing the results of clinical trials testing single doses, we have analyzed data from studies of 100% Concord grape juice by placing its flavonoid content in the context of results from randomized clinical trials of other polyphenol-rich foods and beverages describing the same outcomes but covering a broader range of intake. We selected established biomarkers determined by similar methods for measuring flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD), blood pressure, platelet aggregation, and the resistance of low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL) to oxidation. Despite differences among the clinical trials in the treatment, subjects, and duration, correlations were observed between the dose and FMD. Inverse dose-response relationships, albeit with lower correlation coefficients, were also noted for the other outcomes. These results suggest a clear relationship between consumption of even modest serving sizes of Concord grape juice, flavonoid intake, and effects on risk factors for cardiovascular disease. This approach to dose-response relationships may prove useful for testing other individual foods and beverages. PMID:26633488

  12. Development of novel metabolite-responsive transcription factors via transposon-mediated protein fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younger, Andrew K D; Su, Peter Y; Shepard, Andrea J; Udani, Shreya V; Cybulski, Thaddeus R; Tyo, Keith E J; Leonard, Joshua N

    2018-02-01

    Naturally evolved metabolite-responsive biosensors enable applications in metabolic engineering, ranging from screening large genetic libraries to dynamically regulating biosynthetic pathways. However, there are many metabolites for which a natural biosensor does not exist. To address this need, we developed a general method for converting metabolite-binding proteins into metabolite-responsive transcription factors-Biosensor Engineering by Random Domain Insertion (BERDI). This approach takes advantage of an in vitro transposon insertion reaction to generate all possible insertions of a DNA-binding domain into a metabolite-binding protein, followed by fluorescence activated cell sorting to isolate functional biosensors. To develop and evaluate the BERDI method, we generated a library of candidate biosensors in which a zinc finger DNA-binding domain was inserted into maltose binding protein, which served as a model well-studied metabolite-binding protein. Library diversity was characterized by several methods, a selection scheme was deployed, and ultimately several distinct and functional maltose-responsive transcriptional biosensors were identified. We hypothesize that the BERDI method comprises a generalizable strategy that may ultimately be applied to convert a wide range of metabolite-binding proteins into novel biosensors for applications in metabolic engineering and synthetic biology. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. The AP2/ERF Transcription Factor DRNL Modulates Gynoecium Development and Affects Its Response to Cytokinin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda Durán-Medina

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The gynoecium is the female reproductive system in flowering plants. It is a complex structure formed by different tissues, some that are essential for reproduction and others that facilitate the fertilization process and nurture and protect the developing seeds. The coordinated development of these different tissues during the formation of the gynoecium is important for reproductive success. Both hormones and genetic regulators guide the development of the different tissues. Auxin and cytokinin in particular have been found to play important roles in this process. On the other hand, the AP2/ERF2 transcription factor BOL/DRNL/ESR2/SOB is expressed at very early stages of aerial organ formation and has been proposed to be a marker for organ founder cells. In this work, we found that this gene is also expressed at later stages during gynoecium development, particularly at the lateral regions (the region related to the valves of the ovary. The loss of DRNL function affects gynoecium development. Some of the mutant phenotypes present similarities to those observed in plants treated with exogenous cytokinins, and AHP6 has been previously proposed to be a target of DRNL. Therefore, we explored the response of drnl-2 developing gynoecia to cytokinins, and found that the loss of DRNL function affects the response of the gynoecium to exogenously applied cytokinins in a developmental-stage-dependent manner. In summary, this gene participates during gynoecium development, possibly through the dynamic modulation of cytokinin homeostasis and response.

  14. Nerve Growth Factor Gene Therapy Activates Neuronal Responses in Alzheimer’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuszynski, Mark H.; Yang, Jennifer H.; Barba, David; U, H S.; Bakay, Roy; Pay, Mary M.; Masliah, Eliezer; Conner, James M.; Kobalka, Peter; Roy, Subhojit; Nagahara, Alan H.

    2016-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disorder, and lacks effective disease modifying therapies. In 2001 we initiated a clinical trial of Nerve Growth Factor (NGF) gene therapy in AD, the first effort at gene delivery in an adult neurodegenerative disorder. This program aimed to determine whether a nervous system growth factor prevents or reduces cholinergic neuronal degeneration in AD patients. We present post-mortem findings in 10 subjects with survival times ranging from 1 to 10 years post-treatment. OBJECTIVE To determine whether degenerating neurons in AD retain an ability to respond to a nervous system growth factor delivered after disease onset. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS 10 patients with early AD underwent NGF gene therapy using either ex vivo or in vivo gene transfer. The brains of all eight patients in the first Phase 1 ex vivo trial and two patients in a subsequent Phase 1 in vivo trial were examined. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Brains were immunolabeled to evaluate in vivo gene expression, cholinergic neuronal responses to NGF, and activation of NGF-related cell signaling. In two cases, NGF protein levels were measured by ELISA. RESULTS Degenerating neurons in the AD brain respond to NGF. All patients exhibited a trophic response to NGF, in the form of axonal sprouting toward the NGF source. Comparing treated and non-treated sides of the brain in three patients that underwent unilateral gene transfer, cholinergic neuronal hypertrophy occurred on the NGF-treated side (P>0.05). Activation of cellular signaling and functional markers were present in two patients that underwent AAV2-mediated NGF gene transfer. Neurons exhibiting tau pathology as well as neurons free of tau expressed NGF, indicating that degenerating cells can be infected with therapeutic genes with resulting activation of cell signaling. No adverse pathological effects related to NGF were observed. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE These findings indicate that

  15. Nerve Growth Factor Gene Therapy: Activation of Neuronal Responses in Alzheimer Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuszynski, Mark H; Yang, Jennifer H; Barba, David; U, Hoi-Sang; Bakay, Roy A E; Pay, Mary M; Masliah, Eliezer; Conner, James M; Kobalka, Peter; Roy, Subhojit; Nagahara, Alan H

    2015-10-01

    Alzheimer disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disorder and lacks effective disease-modifying therapies. In 2001, we initiated a clinical trial of nerve growth factor (NGF) gene therapy in AD, the first effort at gene delivery in an adult neurodegenerative disorder. This program aimed to determine whether a nervous system growth factor prevents or reduces cholinergic neuronal degeneration in patients with AD. We present postmortem findings in 10 patients with survival times ranging from 1 to 10 years after treatment. To determine whether degenerating neurons in AD retain an ability to respond to a nervous system growth factor delivered after disease onset. Patients in this anatomicopathological study were enrolled in clinical trials from March 2001 to October 2012 at the University of California, San Diego, Medical Center in La Jolla. Ten patients with early AD underwent NGF gene therapy using ex vivo or in vivo gene transfer. The brains of all 8 patients in the first phase 1 ex vivo trial and of 2 patients in a subsequent phase 1 in vivo trial were examined. Brains were immunolabeled to evaluate in vivo gene expression, cholinergic neuronal responses to NGF, and activation of NGF-related cell signaling. In 2 patients, NGF protein levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Among 10 patients, degenerating neurons in the AD brain responded to NGF. All patients exhibited a trophic response to NGF in the form of axonal sprouting toward the NGF source. Comparing treated and nontreated sides of the brain in 3 patients who underwent unilateral gene transfer, cholinergic neuronal hypertrophy occurred on the NGF-treated side (P < .05). Activation of cellular signaling and functional markers was present in 2 patients who underwent adeno-associated viral vectors (serotype 2)-mediated NGF gene transfer. Neurons exhibiting tau pathology and neurons free of tau expressed NGF, indicating that degenerating cells can be infected with therapeutic

  16. Analysis of clinical factors for pathological complete response after preoperative neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy for rectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayiguli Hare; Palida Apizi; Iskandar Abulimiti; Zhang Jinrong; Tian Hanhan

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the clinical factors associated with pathological complete response (pCR) after preoperative neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy for rectal cancer. Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed on the clinical data of 116 patients with rectal cancer, who underwent neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy followed by radical surgery from January 2009 to December 2012. All patients received pelvic intensity-modulated radiotherapy (50 Gy/25 fractions) with concurrent fluorouracil based chemotherapy and then underwent radical surgery 4-8 weeks later. The clinical factors associated with pCR or non-pCR were analyzed by Logistic regression. Results: Of the 116 patients, 20 (17.2%) achieved a pCR after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy. The univariate analysis showed that percentage of circumference of the rectal tube invaded by the tumor, preoperative serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) level, T stage, N stage, distance from the anal verge, degree of tumor differentiation, and maximum tumor diameter were associated with pCR or non-pCR after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy for rectal cancer. The multivariate analysis revealed that percentage of circumference of the rectal tube invaded by the tumor, preoperative serum CEA level,and T stage were predictive factors for pCR or non-pCR after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy for rectal cancer. Conclusions: Non-circumferential tumor (percentage of circumference of the rectal tube invaded by the tumor <75 %), low CEA level, and early T stage before treatment may be associated with pCR after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy for rectal cancer. (authors)

  17. Sequence and expression analyses of ethylene response factors highly expressed in latex cells from Hevea brasiliensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piyanuch Piyatrakul

    Full Text Available The AP2/ERF superfamily encodes transcription factors that play a key role in plant development and responses to abiotic and biotic stress. In Hevea brasiliensis, ERF genes have been identified by RNA sequencing. This study set out to validate the number of HbERF genes, and identify ERF genes involved in the regulation of latex cell metabolism. A comprehensive Hevea transcriptome was improved using additional RNA reads from reproductive tissues. Newly assembled contigs were annotated in the Gene Ontology database and were assigned to 3 main categories. The AP2/ERF superfamily is the third most represented compared with other transcription factor families. A comparison with genomic scaffolds led to an estimation of 114 AP2/ERF genes and 1 soloist in Hevea brasiliensis. Based on a phylogenetic analysis, functions were predicted for 26 HbERF genes. A relative transcript abundance analysis was performed by real-time RT-PCR in various tissues. Transcripts of ERFs from group I and VIII were very abundant in all tissues while those of group VII were highly accumulated in latex cells. Seven of the thirty-five ERF expression marker genes were highly expressed in latex. Subcellular localization and transactivation analyses suggested that HbERF-VII candidate genes encoded functional transcription factors.

  18. Changes in antagonistic activity of lactic acid bacteria induced by their response to technological factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dovile Jonkuviene

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the changes in antagonistic activity of selected lactic acid bacteria (LAB in response to technological factors used in food production. The antimicrobial activity of 12 selected LAB strains was assessed against the bacterial and fungal strains using the agar well diffusion method. Sodium chloride (NaCl 6.5–8.0%, glucose 20-30% and pH 4.0, pH 8.0 and higher were the most crucial factors in reducing the spectra of the microorganisms antagonized. Heating at 80 °C or 100 °C had a greater negative impact than 63 °C on the antifungal activity of LAB. Freezing at –72 °C eliminated the antifungal activity, or it changed from fungicidal to fungistatic. Although each LAB demonstrated the ability to retain antimicrobial activity induced by various technological factors, Lactococcus lactis 768/5 was superior in retaining high antimicrobial activity against tested indicator strains.

  19. pH modulates the binding of early growth response protein 1 transcription factor to DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikles, David C; Bhat, Vikas; Schuchardt, Brett J; Deegan, Brian J; Seldeen, Kenneth L; McDonald, Caleb B; Farooq, Amjad

    2013-08-01

    The transcription factor early growth response protein (EGR)1 orchestrates a plethora of signaling cascades involved in cellular homeostasis, and its downregulation has been implicated in the development of prostate cancer. Herein, using a battery of biophysical tools, we show that the binding of EGR1 to DNA is tightly regulated by solution pH. Importantly, the binding affinity undergoes an enhancement of more than an order of magnitude with an increase in pH from 5 to 8, implying that the deprotonation of an ionizable residue accounts for such behavior. This ionizable residue is identified as His382 by virtue of the fact that its replacement by nonionizable residues abolishes the pH dependence of the binding of EGR1 to DNA. Notably, His382 inserts into the major groove of DNA, and stabilizes the EGR1-DNA interaction via both hydrogen bonding and van der Waals contacts. Remarkably, His382 is mainly conserved across other members of the EGR family, implying that histidine protonation-deprotonation may serve as a molecular switch for modulating the protein-DNA interactions that are central to this family of transcription factors. Collectively, our findings reveal an unexpected but a key step in the molecular recognition of the EGR family of transcription factors, and suggest that they may act as sensors of pH within the intracellular environment. © 2013 FEBS.

  20. Divergent responses of tropical cyclone genesis factors to strong volcanic eruptions at different latitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Qing; Zhang, Zhongshi; Wang, Huijun

    2018-03-01

    To understand the behaviors of tropical cyclones (TCs), it is very important to explore how TCs respond to anthropogenic greenhouse gases and natural forcings. Volcanic eruptions are a major natural forcing mechanism because they inject sulphate aerosols into the stratosphere, which modulate the global climate by absorbing and scattering solar radiation. The number of Atlantic hurricanes is thought to be reduced following strong tropical eruptions, but whether the response of TCs varies with the locations of the volcanoes and the different ocean basins remains unknown. Here, we use the Community Earth System Model-Last Millennium Ensemble to investigate the response of the large-scale environmental factors that spawn TCs to strong volcanic eruptions at different latitudes. A composite analysis indicates that tropical and northern hemisphere volcanic eruptions lead to significantly unfavorable conditions for TC genesis over the whole Pacific basin and the North Atlantic during the 3 years post-eruption, relative to the preceding 3 years. Southern hemisphere volcanic eruptions result in obviously unfavorable conditions for TC formation over the southwestern Pacific, but more favorable conditions over the North Atlantic. The mean response over the Indian Ocean is generally muted and insignificant. It should be noted that volcanic eruptions impact on environmental conditions through both the direct effect (i.e. on radiative forcing) and the indirect effect (i.e. on El Niño-Southern Oscillation), which is not differentiated in this study. In addition, the spread of the TC genesis response is considerably large for each category of eruptions over each ocean basin, which is also seen in the observational/proxy-based records. This large spread is attributed to the differences in stratospheric aerosol distributions, initial states and eruption intensities, and makes the short-term forecast of TC activity following the next large eruption challenging.

  1. Transcriptome-wide identification of bread wheat WRKY transcription factors in response to drought stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okay, Sezer; Derelli, Ebru; Unver, Turgay

    2014-10-01

    The WRKY superfamily of transcription factors was shown to be involved in biotic and abiotic stress responses in plants such as wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), one of the major crops largely cultivated and consumed all over the world. Drought is an important abiotic stress resulting in a considerable amount of loss in agronomical yield. Therefore, identification of drought responsive WRKY members in wheat has a profound significance. Here, a total of 160 TaWRKY proteins were characterized according to sequence similarity, motif varieties, and their phylogenetic relationships. The conserved sequences of the TaWRKYs were aligned and classified into three main groups and five subgroups. A novel motif in wheat, WRKYGQR, was identified. To putatively determine the drought responsive TaWRKY members, publicly available RNA-Seq data were analyzed for the first time in this study. Through in silico searches, 35 transcripts were detected having an identity to ten known TaWRKY genes. Furthermore, relative expression levels of TaWRKY16/TaWRKY16-A, TaWRKY17, TaWRKY19-C, TaWRKY24, TaWRKY59, TaWRKY61, and TaWRKY82 were measured in root and leaf tissues of drought-tolerant Sivas 111/33 and susceptible Atay 85 cultivars. All of the quantified TaWRKY transcripts were found to be up-regulated in root tissue of Sivas 111/33. Differential expression of TaWRKY16, TaWRKY24, TaWRKY59, TaWRKY61 and TaWRKY82 genes was discovered for the first time upon drought stress in wheat. These comprehensive analyses bestow a better understanding about the WRKY TFs in bread wheat under water deficit, and increased number of drought responsive WRKYs would contribute to the molecular breeding of tolerant wheat cultivars.

  2. Transcriptional responses of metallothionein gene to different stress factors in Pacific abalone (Haliotis discus hannai).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Yoon; Nam, Yoon Kwon

    2016-11-01

    A novel metallothionein (MT) gene from the Pacific abalone H. discus hannai was characterized and its mRNA expression patterns (tissue distribution, developmental expression and differential expression in responsive to various in vivo stimulatory treatments) were examined. Abalone MT shares conserved structural features with previously known gastropod orthologs at both genomic (i.e., tripartite organization) and amino acid (conserved Cys motifs) levels. The 5'-flanking regulatory region of abalone MT gene displayed various transcription factor binding motifs particularly including ones related with metal regulation and stress/immune responses. Tissue distribution and basal expression patterns of MT mRNAs indicated a potential association between ovarian MT expression and sexual maturation. Developmental expression pattern suggested the maternal contribution of MT mRNAs to embryonic and early larval developments. Abalone MT mRNAs could be significantly induced by various heavy metals in different tissues (gill, hepatopancreas, muscle and hemocyte) in a tissue- and/or metal-dependent fashion. In addition, the abalone MT gene was highly modulated in responsive to other non-metal, stimulatory treatments such as immune challenge (LPS, polyI:C and bacterial injections), hypoxia (decrease from normoxia 8 ppm-2 ppm), thermal elevation (increase from 20 °C to 30 °C), and xenobiotic exposure (250 ppb of 17α-ethynylestradiol and 0.25 ppb of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzodioxin) where differential expression patterns were toward either up- or down-regulation depending on types of stimulations and tissues examined. Taken together, our results highlight that MT is a multifunctional effector playing in wide criteria of cellular pathways especially associated with development and stress responses in this abalone species. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Emotional Responses to Suicidal Patients: Factor Structure, Construct, and Predictive Validity of the Therapist Response Questionnaire-Suicide Form

    OpenAIRE

    Shira Barzilay; Zimri S. Yaseen; Zimri S. Yaseen; Mariah Hawes; Bernard Gorman; Rachel Altman; Adriana Foster; Alan Apter; Paul Rosenfield; Igor Galynker; Igor Galynker

    2018-01-01

    BackgroundMental health professionals have a pivotal role in suicide prevention. However, they also often have intense emotional responses, or countertransference, during encounters with suicidal patients. Previous studies of the Therapist Response Questionnaire-Suicide Form (TRQ-SF), a brief novel measure aimed at probing a distinct set of suicide-related emotional responses to patients found it to be predictive of near-term suicidal behavior among high suicide-risk inpatients. The purpose o...

  4. Expression of jasmonic ethylene responsive factor gene in transgenic poplar tree leads to increased salt tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yiliang; Su, Xiaohua; Zhang, Bingyu; Huang, Qinjun; Zhang, Xianghua; Huang, Rongfeng

    2009-02-01

    The stress resistance of plants can be enhanced by regulating the expression of multiple downstream genes associated with stress resistance. We used the Agrobacterium method to transfer the tomato jasmonic ethylene responsive factors (JERFs) gene that encodes the ethylene response factor (ERF) like transcription factor to the genome of a hybrid poplar (Populus alba x Populus berolinensis). Eighteen resistant plants were obtained, of which 13 were identified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), reverse transcriptase PCR and Southern blot analyses as having incorporated the JERFs gene and able to express it at the transcriptional level. Salinity tests were conducted in a greenhouse with 0, 100, 200 and 300 mM NaCl. In the absence of NaCl, the transgenic plants were significantly taller than the control plants, but no statistically significant differences in the concentrations of proline and chlorophyll were observed. With increasing salinity, the extent of damage was significantly less in transgenic plants than that in control plants, and the reductions in height, basal diameter and biomass were less in transgenic plants than those in control plants. At 200 and 300 mM NaCl concentrations, transgenic plants were 128.9% and 98.8% taller, respectively, and had 199.8% and 113.0% more dry biomass, respectively, than control plants. The saline-induced reduction in leaf water content and increase in root/crown ratio were less in transgenic plants than in control plants. Foliar proline concentration increased more in response to salt treatment in transgenic plants than in control plants. Foliar Na(+) concentration was higher in transgenic plants than in control plants. In the coastal area in Panjin of Liaoning where the total soil salt concentration is 0.3%, a salt tolerance trial of transgenic plants indicated that 3-year-old transgenic plants were 14.5% and 33.6% taller than the control plants at two field sites. The transgenic plants at the two field sites were growing

  5. Male endocrine response to seasonally varying environmental and social factors in a neotropical primate, Cebus capucinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoof, Valérie A M; Bonnell, Tyler R; Jack, Katharine M; Ziegler, Toni E; Melin, Amanda D; Fedigan, Linda M

    2016-04-01

    Circannual variation in reproduction is pervasive in birds and mammals. In primates, breeding seasonality is variable, with seasonal birth peaks occurring even in year-round breeders. Environmental seasonality is reportedly an important contributor to the observed variation in reproductive seasonality. Given that food availability is the primary factor constraining female reproduction, predictions concerning responsiveness to environmental seasonality focus on females, with studies of males focusing primarily on social factors. We examined the influence of both environmental and social factors on male fecal testosterone (fT) and glucocorticoids (fGC) in moderately seasonally breeding white-faced capuchin monkeys (Cebus capucinus) in Costa Rica. Over 17 months, we collected 993 fecal samples from 14 males in three groups. We used LMM to simultaneously examine the relative effects of photoperiod, fruit biomass, rainfall, temperature, female reproductive status (i.e., number of periovulatory periods, POPs), and male age and dominance rank on monthly fT and fGC levels. Male age and rank had large effects on fT and fGC. Additionally, some hormone variation was explained by environmental factors: photoperiod in the previous month (i.e., lagged photoperiod) was the best environmental predictor of monthly fT levels, whereas fGC levels were best explained by lagged photoperiod, fruit biomass, and rainfall. POPs predicted monthly fT and fGC, but this effect was reduced when all variables were considered simultaneously, possibly because lagged photoperiod and POP were highly correlated. Males may use photoperiod as a cue predicting circannual trends in the temporal distribution of fertile females, while also fine-tuning short-term hormone increases to the actual presence of ovulatory females, which may occur at any time during the year. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Protein Kinases and Transcription Factors Activation in Response to UV-Radiation of Skin: Implications for Carcinogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Laurence A. Marchat; Elena Aréchaga Ocampo; Mavil López Casamichana; Carlos Pérez-Plasencia; César López-Camarillo; Elizbeth Álvarez-Sánchez

    2011-01-01

    Solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation is an important environmental factor that leads to immune suppression, inflammation, photoaging, and skin carcinogenesis. Here, we reviewed the specific signal transduction pathways and transcription factors involved in the cellular response to UV-irradiation. Increasing experimental data supporting a role for p38, MAPK, JNK, ERK1/2, and ATM kinases in the response network to UV exposure is discussed. We also reviewed the participation of NF-?B, AP-1, and NRF2...

  7. Corporate Social-Environmental Responsibility as an Attraction and Retention Factor for Young Professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Cohen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This research investigates if company social-environmental responsibility (SER is an attraction and retention factor for young professionals in two studies. The first study, an experiment, investigates whether such practices influence the attraction exerted by the company as a prospect employer among undergraduate students, considering different wage and professional development conditions. The second study, a survey, investigates the impact of company SER on voluntary turnover among trainees, controlling for individual differences and satisfaction with income, growth and interests. The results suggest that SER is an important element in the attractiveness exercised by companies as they recruit young professionals, and in the retention of trainees, since it is statistically associated with the likelihood of them leaving their companies after disputed selection processes and expensive training programs.

  8. The role of nuclear factor κB in the cellular response to different radiation qualities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, Kristina

    2013-04-11

    Radiation is currently one of the most important limiting factors for manned space flight. During such missions, there is a constant exposure to low doses of galactic cosmic radiation and in particular high-energy heavy ions. Together this is associated with an increased cancer risk which currently cannot be sufficiently reduced by shielding. As such, cellular radiation response needs to be further studied in order to improve risk estimation and develop appropriate countermeasures. It has been shown that exposure of human cells to accelerated heavy ions, in fluences that can be reached during long-term missions, leads to activation of the Nuclear Factor κB (NF-κB) pathway. Heavy ions with a linear energy transfer (LET) of 90 to 300 keV/μm were most effective in activating NF-κB. NF-κB as an important modulating factor in the cellular radiation response could improve cellular survival after heavy ion exposure, thereby influencing the cancer risk of astronauts. The NF-κB pathway may be a potential pharmacological target in the mitigation of radiation