H2+ embedded in a Debye plasma: Electronic and vibrational properties
Angel, M. L.; Montgomery Jr, H. E.
2010-01-01
The effect of plasma screening on the electronic and vibrational properties of the H2+ molecular ion was analyzed within the Born-Oppenheimer approximation. When a molecule is embedded in a plasma, the plasma screens the electrostatic interactions. This screening is accounted for in the Schr\\"odinger equation by replacing the Coulomb potentials with Yukawa potentials that incorporate the Debye length as a screening parameter. Variational expansions in confocal elliptical coordinates were used...
H2+ embedded in a Debye plasma: Electronic and vibrational properties
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Angel, M.L.; Montgomery, H.E.
2011-01-01
The effect of plasma screening on the electronic and vibrational properties of the H 2 + molecular ion was analyzed within the Born-Oppenheimer approximation. When a molecule is embedded in a plasma, the plasma screens the electrostatic interactions. This screening is accounted in the Schroedinger equation by replacing the Coulomb potentials with Yukawa potentials that incorporate the Debye length as a screening parameter. Variational expansions in confocal elliptical coordinates were used to calculate energies of the 1sσ g and 2pσ u states over a range of Debye lengths and bond distances. When the Debye length is comparable to the equilibrium bond distance, the dissociation energy is reduced while the equilibrium internuclear separation is increased. Expectation values, static dipole polarizabilities and spectroscopic constants were calculated for the 1sσ g state. - Highlights: → Effect of plasma screening on the properties of the H 2 + molecular ion. → Used a variational wavefunction in confocal elliptical coordinates. → Potential energy curves for the ground and first excited state are presented. → Decreasing Debye length increases polarizability of the electron distribution.
Physics behind the Debye temperature
Garai, Jozsef
2007-01-01
Textbooks introduce the Debye temperature to simplify the integration of the heat capacity. This approach gives the impression that the Debye temperature is a parameter which makes the integration more convenient. The Debye frequency cut occurs when the wavelength of the phonon frequency reaches the size of the smallest unit of the lattice which is the length of the unit cell. At frequencies higher than the cut off frequency the 'lattice' unable to 'see' the vibration because the wavelength o...
Internal Temperature Control For Vibration Testers
Dean, Richard J.
1996-01-01
Vibration test fixtures with internal thermal-transfer capabilities developed. Made of aluminum for rapid thermal transfer. Small size gives rapid response to changing temperatures, with better thermal control. Setup quicker and internal ducting facilitates access to parts being tested. In addition, internal flows smaller, so less energy consumed in maintaining desired temperature settings.
International Conference on Acoustics and Vibration
Chaari, Fakher; Walha, Lasaad; Abdennadher, Moez; Abbes, Mohamed; Haddar, Mohamed
2017-01-01
The book provides readers with a snapshot of recent research and industrial trends in field of industrial acoustics and vibration. Each chapter, accepted after a rigorous peer-review process, reports on a selected, original piece of work presented and discussed at International Conference on Acoustics and Vibration (ICAV2016), which was organized by the Tunisian Association of Industrial Acoustics and Vibration (ATAVI) and held March 21-23, in Hammamet, Tunisia. The contributions, mainly written by north African authors, covers advances in both theory and practice in a variety of subfields, such as: smart materials and structures; fluid-structure interaction; structural acoustics as well as computational vibro-acoustics and numerical methods. Further topics include: engines control, noise identification, robust design, flow-induced vibration and many others.This book provides a valuable resource for both academics and professionals dealing with diverse issues in applied mechanics. By combining advanced theori...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Qin, Shitong; Li, Renxian; Yang, Ruiping; Ding, Chunying
2017-01-01
The interaction of an axicon-generated vector Bessel beam (AGVBB) with a homogeneous sphere is investigated in the framework of generalized Lorenz-Mie theory (GLMT). An analytical expression of beam shape coefficients (BSCs) is derived using angular spectrum decomposition method (ASDM), and the scattering coefficients are expanded using Debye series (DSE) in order to isolate the contribution of single scattering process. The internal and near-surface electric fields are numerically analyzed, and the effect of beam location, polarization, order of beam, half-cone angle, and scattering process (namely Debye mode p) are mainly discussed. Numerical results show that a curve formed by extreme peaks can be observed, and the electric fields can be locally enhanced after the interaction of AGVBBs with the particle. Internal and near-surface fields, especially its local enhancement, are very sensitive to the beam parameters, including polarization, order, half-cone angle, etc. The internal fields can also be enhanced by various scattering process (or Debye mode p). Such results have important applications in various fields, including particle sizing, optical tweezers, etc. - Highlights: • Debye series is employed to the analysis of internal and near-surface fields for a sphere illuminated by a vector Bessel beam. • Analytical expressions of BSCs for vector Bessel beams with selected polarizations are derived using ASDM. • The local enhancement of internal and near-surface fields is investigated. • The polarization, order, half-cone angle of the beam affect the local enhancement. • The local enhancement of internal fields is sensitive to the scattering process.
10th International Conference on Vibration Problems
Horáček, Jaromír; Okrouhlík, Miloslav; Marvalová, Bohdana; Verhulst, Ferdinand; Sawicki, Jerzy; Vibration Problems ICOVP 2011
2011-01-01
This volume presents the Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Vibration Problems, September 5-8, 2011, Prague, Czech Republic. Since they started in 1990 the ICOVP conferences have matured into a reference platform reflecting the state-of-the-art of dynamics in the broadest sense, bringing together scientists from different backgrounds who are actively working on vibration-related problems in theoretical, experimental and applied dynamics, thus facilitating a lively exchange of ideas, methods and results. Dynamics as a scientific discipline draws inspiration from a large variety of engineering areas, such as Mechanical and Civil Engineering, Aero and Space Technology, Wind and Earthquake Engineering and Transport and Building Machinery. Moreover, the basic research in dynamics nowadays includes many fields of theoretical physics and various interdisciplinary subject areas. ICOVP 2011 covers all branches of dynamics and offers the most up-to-date results and developments in a high-quality select...
Reactor internals vibration monitoring by neutron noise methods in PWRs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pazsit, I.; Por, G.; Lux, I.
1983-01-01
Certain elements of PWR cores such as control/fuel rods or cassettes, or other parts of reactor internals, often represent a vibration problem. Early analyses at operating PWR plant revealed that these vibrations can be detected by in-core neutron detectors, opening up the possibility of vibration monitoring and diagnostics by noise methods. Theoretical methods of calculating vibration induced neutron noise and its application to vibration diagnostics are summarized. Experiments to check theoretical conclusions are under way at the Central Research Institute for Physics, Budapest. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mak, S.S.
1992-01-01
In deriving the expression for the Debye length, the assumption eφ << kT is often invoked casually. Using a scaling technique this assumption is put in perspective. Furthermore, it is shown that the commonly accepted linearization condition is in fact much more stringent (by two orders of magnitude) than necessary. (author)
The thermo-electric nature of the Debye temperature
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mithun Bhowmick
2018-05-01
Full Text Available The Debye temperature is typically associated with the heat capacity of a solid and the cut-off of the possible lattice vibrations, but not necessarily to the electric conductivity of the material. By investigating III-V and II-VI compound semiconductors, we reveal that the Debye temperature represents a thermo-electric material parameter, connecting the thermal and electronic properties of a solid via a distinct power law.
Seventh international conference on time-resolved vibrational spectroscopy
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dyer, R.B.; Martinez, M.A.D.; Shreve, A.; Woodruff, W.H. [comps.
1997-04-01
The International Conference on Time-Resolved Vibrational Spectroscopy (TRVS) is widely recognized as the major international forum for the discussion of advances in this rapidly growing field. The 1995 conference was the seventh in a series that began at Lake Placid, New York, 1982. Santa Fe, New Mexico, was the site of the Seventh International Conference on Time-Resolved Vibrational Spectroscopy, held from June 11 to 16, 1995. TRVS-7 was attended by 157 participants from 16 countries and 85 institutions, and research ranging across the full breadth of the field of time-resolved vibrational spectroscopy was presented. Advances in both experimental capabilities for time-resolved vibrational measurements and in theoretical descriptions of time-resolved vibrational methods continue to occur, and several sessions of the conference were devoted to discussion of these advances and the associated new directions in TRVS. Continuing the interdisciplinary tradition of the TRVS meetings, applications of time-resolved vibrational methods to problems in physics, biology, materials science, and chemistry comprised a large portion of the papers presented at the conference.
Vibration behavior of PWR reactor internals Model experiments and analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Assedo, R.; Dubourg, M.; Livolant, M.; Epstein, A.
1975-01-01
In the late 1971, the CEA and FRAMATOME decided to undertake a comprehensive joint program of studying the vibration behavior of PWR internals of the 900 MWe, 50 cycle, 3 loop reactor series being built by FRAMATOME in France. The PWR reactor internals are submitted to several sources of excitation during normal operation. Two main sources of excitation may effect the internals behavior: the large flow turbulences which could generate various instabilities such as: vortex shedding: the pump pressure fluctuations which could generate acoustic noise in the circuit at frequencies corresponding to shaft speed frequencies or blade passing frequencies, and their respective harmonics. The flow induced vibrations are of complex nature and the approach selected, for this comprehensive program, is semi-empirical and based on both theoretical analysis and experiments on a reduced scale model and full scale internals. The experimental support of this program consists of: the SAFRAN test loop which consists of an hydroelastic similitude of a 1/8 scale model of a PWR; harmonic vibration tests in air performed on full scale reactor internals in the manufacturing shop; the GENNEVILLIERS facilities which is a full flow test facility of primary pump; the measurements carried out during start up on the Tihange reactor. This program will be completed in April 1975. The results of this program, the originality of which consists of studying separately the effects of random excitations and acoustic noises, on the internals behavior, and by establishing a comparison between experiments and analysis, will bring a major contribution for explaining the complex vibration phenomena occurring in a PWR
PREFACE: International Conference on Vibration Problems (ICOVP-2015)
2015-12-01
Vibrations produced by operating machine cause deleterious effect including excessive stresses in mechanical components and reduce the machine performance. Hence, it is important to minimize the vibrations to improve the machine performance. Machines need the materials wherein vibration characteristics such as frequency and amplitude are lower. The vibration characteristics depend on strength and other elastic constants. Therefore, study of the relation between vibration characteristics and the elastic constants of the material is very much important. In the domain of seismology, the knowledge of vibrations associated with an earthquake is needed for the mitigation plans. With the increased use of strong and light weight structures especially in defence and aero-space engineering applications, wherein, precision is very important, problems of vibrations arise. The knowledge of quality (mechanical properties) of bones comes from the study of vibrations in it. This knowledge may, for exmple, help to answer bone tissue remodelling problems. Unfortunately, vibrations mostly deal with destructive areas such as manufacturing industry, seismology, and bonemechanics. These days, mathematics has become a very important tool for Non- Destructive Evaluation (NDE) in the destructive areas. A very common issue in the said domains is that the pertinent problems result in non-linear coupled differential equations which are not easily solvable. Keeping the above facts in mind, the Department of Mathematics, Kakatiya University has organized the International Conference on Vibration Problems (ICOVP-2015) from February, 18-20, 2015 in collaboration with the Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kakatiya University, and Von-Karman Society, West Bengal. This association has already succeeded in organizing the Wave Mechanics and Vibration Conference (WMVC) in the year 2010. In the Conference, new research results were presented by the experts from eight countries. There were more than
Vibrational anomalies and marginal stability of glasses
Marruzzo, Alessia; Kö hler, Stephan; Fratalocchi, Andrea; Ruocco, Giancarlo; Schirmacher, Walter
2013-01-01
The experimentally measured vibrational spectrum of glasses strongly deviates from that expected in Debye's elasticity theory: The density of states deviates from Debye's ω2 law ("boson peak"), the sound velocity shows a negative dispersion
First international conference on vibration control in optics and metrology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baker, L.R.
1987-01-01
This book contains 27 selections. Some of the titles are: Use of optics for vibration analysis of automotive components; Use of pulsed lasers for vibration analysis in the nuclear power industry; Vibration analysis of photocopiers; Control of ground vibrations; Design of low-vibration buildings: two case histories; and Continuous pulsed electronic speckle pattern interferometry
Physical model study of neutron noise induced by vibration of reactor internals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu Jinhui; Gu Fangyu
1999-01-01
The author presents a physical model of neutron noise induced by reactor internals vibration in frequency domain. Based on system control theory, the reactor dynamic equations are coupled with random vibration equation, and non-linear terms are also taken into accounted while treating the random vibration. Experiments carried out on a zero-power reactor show that the model can be used to describe dynamic character of neutron noise induced by internals' vibration. The model establishes a method to help to determine internals'vibration features, and to diagnosis anomalies through neutron noise
Substantiation of vibration strength of nuclear reactor and steam generator internals. Main problems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fyodorov, V.G.; Sinyavasky, V.F.
1977-01-01
The report details the scope and priority of studies necessary for substantiation of vibration strength of steam generator tube bundles and reactor fuel assemblies, and design modifications helping to reduce flow-induced vibration of the internals specified. Steam generator tube bundles are studied on the basis of a standard establishing vibration requirements at various stages of design, manufacture and operation of a steam generator at a nuclear power station. The main vibration characteristics of tubes obtained through model and full-scale tests are compared with calculation results. Results are provided concerning test-stand vibration tests of fuel elements and fuel assemblies. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fu Geyan; Zhu Qirong
1998-11-01
It is pointed out that the main reason making nuclear power plants reactors leak is the vibration of internals of reactors. The factors which lead the vibration all have randomness and obscureness. The obscure reliability theory is introduced to the vibration system of internals of nuclear power reactor. Based on a quantity of designing and moving data, the obscure factors effecting the vibration reliability of the internals of nuclear power plant reactor are analyzed and the anti-vibration reliability criteria and the evaluating model are given. And the anti-vibration reliability measures are advanced from different quarters of the machine design and building, the thermohydraulics design, the control of reactivity, etc.. They may benefit the theory and practice for building and perfecting the vibration obscure reliability model of the reactor internals
Application of neural networks and neutron noise for diagnostics of reactor internals vibration
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Garis, N.S.; Pazsit, I.; Gloeckler, O.
1995-01-01
It has long been known that vibration of reactor internals, in particular excessive vibrations of control rods, can be detected via the neutron noise they induce. Noise measurements are actually suitable to determine important diagnostic parameters such as the location of the vibrating rod and the vibration amplitude. An algorithm was earlier elaborated for this purpose, which is based on inversion of the expression describing the neutron noise as a function of vibration parameters. This inversion procedure is nevertheless complicated and not always unique. It was investigated whether a properly trained neural network can perform the inversion more effectively. It was found that artificial neural networks can be trained effectively to perform vibration diagnostics from neutron noise data fast, effectively and reliably. The present paper gives a description of the development and use of the neural networks for purposes of vibration diagnostics
Analytical and experimental vibration analysis of BWR pressure vessel internals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Krutzik, N.; Schad, O.
1975-01-01
This report attempts to evaluate the validity as well as quality of several analytical methods in the light of presently available experimental data for the internals of pressure vessels of boiling-water-reactor-types. The experimental checks were performed after the numerical analysis was completed and showed the accuracy of the numerical results. The analytical investigations were done by finite element programmes - 2-dimensional as well as 3-dimensional, where the effect of the mass distribution with parts of virtual masses on the dynamic response could be studied in depth. The experimental data were collected at various different plants and with different mass correlations. Besides evaluating the dynamic characteristics of the components, tests were also performed to evaluate the vibrations of the pressure vessel relative to the main structure. After analysing extensive recorded data much better understanding of the response under a variety of loading- and boundary conditions could be gained. The comparison of the results of analytical studies with the experimental results made a broad qualitative evaluation possible. (Auth.)
Bandwidth of reactor internals vibration resonance with coolant pressure oscillations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Proskuryakov, K.N.; Novikov, K.S.; Galivec, E.Yu.
2009-01-01
In a few decades a significant increase in a part of an electricity development on the NPP will require NPP to be operated in non full capacity modes and increase in operation time in transitive modes. Operating in such conditions as compared to the operation on a constant mode will lead to the increase in cyclic dynamical loading. In water cooled water moderated reactors these loading are realized as low-cyclic and high-cyclic loadings. High-cyclic loadings increases are caused by a raised vibration in non stationary modes of operation. It is known, that in some modes of a non full capacity reactor high-cyclic dynamic loadings can increase. It is obvious, that the development of management technologies is necessary for the life time management operation. In the context of this problem one of the main tasks are revealing and the prevention of the conditions of the occurrence of the operation leading to the resonant interaction of the coolant fluctuations and the equipment, reactor vessel (RV), fuel assemblies (FA) and reactor internals (RI) vibration. To prevent the appearance of the conditions for resonance interaction between the fluid flow and the equipments, it is necessary to provide the different frequencies for the self oscillations in the separated elements of the circulating system and also in the parts of the system formed by the comprising of these elements. While solving these problems it is necessary to have a theoretical and settlement substantiation of an oscillation frequency band of coolant outside of which there is no resonant interaction. The presented work is devoted to finding the solution of this problem. There are results of theoretical an estimation of width of such band as well as the examples of a preliminary quantitative estimation of Q - factors of coolant acoustic oscillatory circuit formed by the equipment of the NPP. The accordance of results had been calculated with had been measured are satisfied for practical purposes. These
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, Y. Z.; Ding, X. D.; Xiong, X. M.; Zhang, J. X.
2007-01-01
Relations between various values of the internal friction (tgδ, Q -1 , Q -1* , and Λ/π) measured by free decay and forced vibration are analyzed systemically based on a fundamental mechanical model in this paper. Additionally, relations between various natural frequencies, such as vibration frequency of free decay ω FD , displacement-resonant frequency of forced vibration ω d , and velocity-resonant frequency of forced vibration ω 0 are calculated. Moreover, measurement of natural frequencies of a copper specimen of 99.9% purity has been made to demonstrate the relation between the measured natural frequencies of the system by forced vibration and free decay. These results are of importance for not only more accurate measurement of the elastic modulus of materials but also the data conversion between different internal friction measurements
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Van Hung, Nguyen, E-mail: hungnv@vnu.edu.vn [Department of Physics, Hanoi University of Science, 334 Nguyen Trai, Thanh Xuan, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Hue, Trinh Thi [Department of Physics, Hanoi University of Science, 334 Nguyen Trai, Thanh Xuan, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Khoa, Ha Dang [School of Engineering Physics, Hanoi University of Science and Technology, 1 Dai Co Viet, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Vuong, Dinh Quoc [Quang Ninh Education & Training Department, Nguyen Van Cu, Ha Long, Quang Ninh (Viet Nam)
2016-12-15
High-order expanded interatomic effective potential and Debye-Waller factors (DWFs) for local vibrational amplitudes in X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) of bcc crystals have been studied based on the anharmonic correlated Debye model. DWFs are presented in terms of cumulant expansion up to the fourth order and the many-body effects are taken into account in the present one-dimensional model based on the first shell near neighbor contribution approach used in the derivations of the anharmonic effective potential and XAFS cumulants where Morse potential is assumed to describe the single-pair atomic interaction. Analytical expressions for the dispersion relation, correlated Debye frequency and temperature and four first temperature-dependent XAFS cumulants have been derived based on the many-body perturbation approach. Thermodynamic properties and anharmonic effects in XAFS of bcc crystals described by the obtained cumulants have been in detail discussed. The advantage and efficiency of the present theory are illustrated by good agreement of the numerical results for Mo, Fe and W with experiment.
The thermo-elastic instability model of melting of alkali halides in the Debye approximation
Owens, Frank J.
2018-05-01
The Debye model of lattice vibrations of alkali halides is used to show that there is a temperature below the melting temperature where the vibrational pressure exceeds the electrostatic pressure. The onset temperature of this thermo-elastic instability scales as the melting temperature of NaCl, KCl, and KBr, suggesting its role in the melting of the alkali halides in agreement with a previous more rigorous model.
FFTF scale-model characterization of flow-induced vibrational response of reactor internals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ryan, J.A.; Julyk, L.J.
1977-01-01
As an integral part of the Fast Test Reactor Vibration Program for Reactor Internals, the flow-induced vibrational characteristics of scaled Fast Test Reactor core internal and peripheral components were assessed under scaled and simulated prototype flow conditions in the Hydraulic Core Mockup. The Hydraulic Core Mockup, a 0.285 geometric scale model, was designed to model the vibrational and hydraulic characteristics of the Fast Test Reactor. Model component vibrational characteristics were measured and determined over a range of 36 percent to 111 percent of the scaled prototype design flow. Selected model and prototype components were shaker tested to establish modal characteristics. The dynamic response of the Hydraulic Core Mockup components exhibited no anomalous flow-rate dependent or modal characteristics, and prototype response predictions were adjudged acceptable
Scale-model characterization of flow-induced vibrational response of FFTF reactor internals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ryan, J.A.; Mahoney, J.J.
1980-10-01
Fast Test Reactor core internal and peripheral components were assessed for flow-induced vibrational characteristics under scaled and simulated prototype flow conditions in the Hydraulic Core Mockup as an integral part of the Fast Test Reactor Vibration Program. The Hydraulic Core Mockup was an 0.285 geometric scale model of the Fast Test Reactor internals designed to simulate prototype vibrational and hydraulic characteristics. Using water to simulate sodium coolant, vibrational characteristics were measured and determined for selected model components over the scaled flow range of 36 to 110%. Additionally, in-situ shaker tests were conducted on selected Hydraulic Core Mockup outlet plenum components to establish modal characteristics. Most components exhibited resonant response at all test flow rates; however, the measured dynamic response was neither abnormal nor anomalously flow-rate dependent, and the predicted prototype components' response were deemed acceptable
FFTF scale-model characterization of flow induced vibrational response of reactor internals
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ryan, J A; Julyk, L J [Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States)
1977-12-01
As an integral part of the Fast Test Reactor Vibration Program for Reactor Internals, the flow-induced vibrational characteristics of scaled Fast Test Reactor core internal and peripheral components were assessed under scaled and simulated prototype flow conditions in the Hydraulic Core Mockup. The Hydraulic Core Mockup, a 0.285 geometric scale model, was designed to model the vibrational and hydraulic characteristics of the Fast Test Reactor. Model component vibrational characteristics were measured and determined over a range of 36% to 111% of the scaled prototype design flow. Selected model and prototype components were shaker tested to establish modal characteristics. The dynamic response of the Hydraulic Core Mockup components exhibited no anomalous flow-rate dependent or modal characteristics, and prototype response predictions were adjudged acceptable. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hougen, J.T. [NIST, Gaithersburg, MD (United States)
1993-12-01
The goal of this project is to use spectroscopic techniques to investigate in detail phenomena involving the vibrational quasi-continuum in a simple physical system. Acetaldehyde was chosen for the study because: (i) methyl groups have been suggested to be important promotors of intramolecular vibrational relaxation, (ii) the internal rotation of a methyl group is an easily describle large-amplitude motion, which should retain its simple character even at high levels of excitation, and (iii) the aldehyde carbonyl group offers the possibility of both vibrational and electronic probing. The present investigation of the ground electronic state has three parts: (1) understanding the {open_quotes}isolated{close_quotes} internal-rotation motion below, at, and above the top of the torsional barrier, (2) understanding in detail traditional (bond stretching and bending) vibrational fundamental and overtone states, and (3) understanding interactions involving states with multiquantum excitations of at least one of these two kinds of motion.
FFTF scale-model characterization of flow induced vibrational response of reactor internals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ryan, J.A.; Julyk, L.J.
1977-01-01
As an integral part of the Fast Test Reactor Vibration Program for Reactor Internals, the flow-induced vibrational characteristics of scaled Fast Test Reactor core internal and peripheral components were assessed under scaled and simulated prototype flow conditions in the Hydraulic Core Mockup. The Hydraulic Core Mockup, a 0.285 geometric scale model, was designed to model the vibrational and hydraulic characteristics of the Fast Test Reactor. Model component vibrational characteristics were measured and determined over a range of 36% to 111% of the scaled prototype design flow. Selected model and prototype components were shaker tested to establish modal characteristics. The dynamic response of the Hydraulic Core Mockup components exhibited no anomalous flow-rate dependent or modal characteristics, and prototype response predictions were adjudged acceptable. (author)
Hydroelastic model of PWR reactor internals SAFRAN 1 - Validation of a vibration calculation method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Epstein, A.; Gibert, R.J.; Jeanpierre, F.; Livolant, M.
1978-01-01
The SAFRAN 1 test loop consists of an hydroelastic similitude of a 1/8 scale model of a 3 loop P.W.R. Vibrations of the main internals (thermal shield and core barrel) and pressure fluctuations in water thin sections between vessel and internals, and in inlet and outlet pipes, have been measured. The calculation method consists of: an evaluation of the main vibration and acoustic sources owing to the flow (unsteady jet impingement on the core barrel, turbulent flow in a water thin section). A calculation of the internal modal parameters taking into account the inertial effects of fluid (the computer codes AQUAMODE and TRISTANA have been used). A calculation of the acoustic response of the circuit (the computer code VIBRAPHONE has been used). The good agreement between the calculation and the experimental results allows using this method with better security for the prediction of the vibration levels of full scale P.W.R. internals
Electron-helium scattering in Debye plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zammit, Mark C.; Fursa, Dmitry V.; Bray, Igor; Janev, R. K.
2011-01-01
Electron-helium scattering in weakly coupled hot-dense (Debye) plasma has been investigated using the convergent close-coupling method. The Yukawa-type Debye-Hueckel potential has been used to describe plasma Coulomb screening effects. Benchmark results are presented for momentum transfer cross sections, excitation, ionization, and total cross sections for scattering from the ground and metastable states of helium. Calculations cover the entire energy range up to 1000 eV for the no screening case and various Debye lengths (5-100 a 0 ). We find that as the screening interaction increases, the excitation and total cross sections decrease, while the total ionization cross sections increase.
Achromatization of Debye-Scherrer Lines
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Ekstein, Hans
1951-01-01
A method is described for reducing the width of a Debye-Scherrer line produced by diffraction from a polycrystalline medium, if this width is due to the spectral impurity of the primary characteristic radiation...
Control model for dampening hand vibrations using information of internal and external coordinates.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shunta Togo
Full Text Available In the present study, we investigate a control mechanism that dampens hand vibrations. Here, we propose a control method with two components to suppress hand vibrations. The first is a passive suppression method that lowers the joint stiffness to passively dampen the hand vibrations. The second is an active suppression method that adjusts an equilibrium point based on skyhook control to actively dampen the hand vibrations. In a simulation experiment, we applied these two methods to dampen hand vibrations during the shoulder's horizontal oscillation. We also conducted a measurement experiment wherein a subject's shoulder was sinusoidally oscillated by a platform that generated horizontal oscillations. The results of the measurement experiments showed that the jerk of each part of the arm in a task using a cup filled with water was smaller than the shoulder jerk and that in a task with a cup filled with stones was larger than the shoulder jerk. Moreover, the amplitude of the hand trajectory in both horizontal and vertical directions was smaller in a task using a cup filled with water than in a task using a cup filled with stones. The results of the measurement experiments were accurately reproduced by the active suppression method based on skyhook control. These results suggest that humans dampen hand vibrations by controlling the equilibrium point through the information of the external workspace and the internal body state rather than by lowering joint stiffness only by using internal information.
Van Dyke, Michael B.
2014-01-01
During random vibration testing of electronic boxes there is often a desire to know the dynamic response of certain internal printed wiring boards (PWBs) for the purpose of monitoring the response of sensitive hardware or for post-test forensic analysis in support of anomaly investigation. Due to restrictions on internally mounted accelerometers for most flight hardware there is usually no means to empirically observe the internal dynamics of the unit, so one must resort to crude and highly uncertain approximations. One common practice is to apply Miles Equation, which does not account for the coupled response of the board in the chassis, resulting in significant over- or under-prediction. This paper explores the application of simple multiple-degree-of-freedom lumped parameter modeling to predict the coupled random vibration response of the PWBs in their fundamental modes of vibration. A simple tool using this approach could be used during or following a random vibration test to interpret vibration test data from a single external chassis measurement to deduce internal board dynamics by means of a rapid correlation analysis. Such a tool might also be useful in early design stages as a supplemental analysis to a more detailed finite element analysis to quickly prototype and analyze the dynamics of various design iterations. After developing the theoretical basis, a lumped parameter modeling approach is applied to an electronic unit for which both external and internal test vibration response measurements are available for direct comparison. Reasonable correlation of the results demonstrates the potential viability of such an approach. Further development of the preliminary approach presented in this paper will involve correlation with detailed finite element models and additional relevant test data.
Vibration survey of internal combustion engines for use on unmanned air vehicles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Duanis, B.
1998-01-01
This paper describes the method, the procedure and data results of engine vibration test which is carried out on engines for use on unmanned air vehicles. The paper focuses on the testing of rotating propulsion systems powered by an internal combustion engine which is composed of main rotating components such as the alternator, gearbox, propeller , dampers and couplings. Three measurement methods for measuring torsional and lateral vibrations are presented: a. Gear tooth pulse signal. b. Shaft Strain Gage. c. Laser Displacement Sensors The paper also presents data from tests which were performed using each method and discusses the applications, the advantages and disadvantages of each method
Debye shielding in a nonextensive plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ait Gougam, Leila; Tribeche, Mouloud
2011-01-01
The phenomenon of Debye Shielding is revisited within the theoretical framework of the Tsallis statistical mechanics. The plasma consists of nonextensive electrons and ions. Both the effective Debye length λ D q and the fall-off of the electrostatic potential Φ are considered and a parameter study conducted. Owing to electron nonextensivity, the critical Mach number derived from the modified Bohm sheath criterion may become less than unity allowing therefore ions with speed less than ion-acoustic speed to enter the sheath from the main body of the plasma. Considering the wide relevance of collective processes, our analysis may be viewed as a first step toward a more comprehensive Debye shielding and electrostatic plasma sheath in nonequilibrium plasmas.
Nonlinear throughflow and internal heating effects on vibrating porous medium
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Palle Kiran
2016-06-01
Full Text Available The effect of vertical throughflow and internal heating effects on fluid saturated porous medium under gravity modulation is investigated. The amplitude of modulation is considered to be very small and the disturbances are expanded in terms of power series of amplitude of convection. A weakly nonlinear stability analysis is proposed to study stationary convection. The Nusselt number is obtained numerically to present the results of heat transfer while using Ginzburg–Landau equation. The vertical throughflow has dual effect either to destabilize or to stabilize the system for downward or upward directions. The effect of internal heat source (Ri>0 enhances or sink (Ri<0 diminishes heat transfer in the system. The amplitude and frequency of modulation have the effects of increasing or diminishing heat transport. For linear model Venezian approach suggested that throughflow and internal heating have both destabilizing and stabilizing effects for suitable ranges of Ω. Further, the study establishes that heat transport can be controlled effectively by a mechanism that is external to the system throughflow and gravity modulation.
Mayes, W. H.; Scholl, H. F.; Stephens, D. G.; Holliday, B. G.; Deloach, R.; Finley, T. D.; Holmes, H. K.; Lewis, R. B.; Lynch, J. W.
1977-01-01
A series of studies were conducted to assess the noise-induced building vibrations associated with Concorde operations. The vibration levels of windows, walls, and floors were measured along with the associated noise levels of Concorde, subsonic aircraft and some nonaircraft events. Test sites included Sully Plantation which is adjacent to Dulles International Airport and three residential homes located in Montgomery County, Maryland. The measured vibration response levels due to Concorde operations were found to be: (1) higher than the levels due to other aircraft, (2) less than the levels due to certain household events which involve direct impulsive loading such as door and window closing, (3) less than criteria levels for building damage, and (4) comparable to levels which are perceptible to people.
One-dimensional conduction through supporting electrolytes: two-scale cathodic Debye layer.
Almog, Yaniv; Yariv, Ehud
2011-10-01
Supporting-electrolyte solutions comprise chemically inert cations and anions, produced by salt dissolution, together with a reactive ionic species that may be consumed and generated on bounding ion-selective surfaces (e.g., electrodes or membranes). Upon application of an external voltage, a Faraday current is thereby established. It is natural to analyze this ternary-system process through a one-dimensional transport problem, employing the thin Debye-layer limit. Using a simple model of ideal ion-selective membranes, we have recently addressed this problem for moderate voltages [Yariv and Almog, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 176101 (2010)], predicting currents that scale as a fractional power of Debye thickness. We address herein the complementary problem of moderate currents. We employ matched asymptotic expansions, separately analyzing the two inner thin Debye layers adjacent to the ion-selective surfaces and the outer electroneutral region outside them. A straightforward calculation following comparable singular-perturbation analyses of binary systems is frustrated by the prediction of negative ionic concentrations near the cathode. Accompanying numerical simulations, performed for small values of Debye thickness, indicate a number unconventional features occurring at that region, such as inert-cation concentration amplification and electric-field intensification. The current-voltage correlation data of the electrochemical cell, obtained from compilation of these simulations, does not approach a limit as the Debye thickness vanishes. Resolution of these puzzles reveals a transformation of the asymptotic structure of the cathodic Debye layer. This reflects the emergence of an internal boundary layer, adjacent to the cathode, wherein field and concentration scaling differs from those of the Gouy-Chapman theory. The two-scale feature of the cathodic Debye layer is manifested through a logarithmic voltage scaling with Debye thickness. Accounting for this scaling, the
Vibration monitoring of the mechanical behavior of the internal structures of PWR reactors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Assedo, R.; Carre, J.C.; Sol, J.C.
1979-01-01
The internal structures of pressurized water reactors are the seat of vibrations induced by fluctuations in primary fluid flow. A knowledge of these phenomena is indispensable in order to ensure that the structures are in proper mechanical order. It can also be used for operational monitoring. This paper describes all the methods developed and the results already achieved in this domain. The first part deals with tests on mockup associated with the calculation models which afforded a good knowledge of the vibrational characteristics of the internal structures, as well as the measurements made during hot tests of certain reactors which made it possible to qualify these models on real structures. The second part describes the means of detection (neutron noise, external accelerometers) as well as the processing methods used in the follow-up. A few typical results obtained on site are then presented. Finally, the general principles of operational monitoring of the mechanical behavior of the internal structures are described [fr
Debye screening modifications in ponderomotive effects
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sodha, M.S.; Subbarao, D.
1979-01-01
The effective Debye screening length is shown to be increased in the presence of a high-power electromagnetic wave. The consequent modifications in ponderomotive redistributive effects and strong violations of charge neutrality have been shown to be in agreement with recent laser-plasma experiments
Debye temperatures of uranium chalcogenides from their lattice ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Unknown
From the phonon frequencies, their Debye temperatures are evaluated. Further, ... Keywords. Uranium chalcogenides; p-wave electronic superconductor; phonon frequency; Debye tempera- ture; spin ... to the ionic crystals of similar structure.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
List, Nanna Holmgaard; Beerepoot, Maarten; Olsen, Jógvan Magnus Haugaard
2015-01-01
for the quantum region, covering (multiconfigurational) self-consistent-field and Kohn–Sham density functional theory. As the first application of the implementation, we consider the internal vibrational Stark effect of the C=O group of acetophenone in different solvents and derive its vibrational linear Stark...
Fluid-Induced Vibration Analysis for Reactor Internals Using Computational FSI Method
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Moon, Jong Sung; Yi, Kun Woo; Sung, Ki Kwang; Im, In Young; Choi, Taek Sang [KEPCO E and C, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
2013-10-15
This paper introduces a fluid-induced vibration analysis method which calculates the response of the RVI to both deterministic and random loads at once and utilizes more realistic pressure distribution using the computational Fluid Structure Interaction (FSI) method. As addressed above, the FIV analysis for the RVI was carried out using the computational FSI method. This method calculates the response to deterministic and random turbulence loads at once. This method is also a simple and integrative method to get structural dynamic responses of reactor internals to various flow-induced loads. Because the analysis of this paper omitted the bypass flow region and Inner Barrel Assembly (IBA) due to the limitation of computer resources, it is necessary to find an effective way to consider all regions in the RV for the FIV analysis in the future. Reactor coolant flow makes Reactor Vessel Internals (RVI) vibrate and may affect the structural integrity of them. U. S. NRC Regulatory Guide 1.20 requires the Comprehensive Vibration Assessment Program (CVAP) to verify the structural integrity of the RVI for Fluid-Induced Vibration (FIV). The hydraulic forces on the RVI of OPR1000 and APR1400 were computed from the hydraulic formulas and the CVAP measurements in Palo Verde Unit 1 and Yonggwang Unit 4 for the structural vibration analyses. In this method, the hydraulic forces were divided into deterministic and random turbulence loads and were used for the excitation forces of the separate structural analyses. These forces are applied to the finite element model and the responses to them were combined into the resultant stresses.
Two independent measurements of Debye lengths in doped nonpolar liquids.
Prieve, D C; Hoggard, J D; Fu, R; Sides, P J; Bethea, R
2008-02-19
Electric current measurements were performed between 2.5 cm x 7.5 cm parallel-plate electrodes separated by 1.2 mm of heptane doped with 0-15% w/w poly(isobutylene succinimide) (PIBS) having a molecular weight of about 1700. The rapid (microsecond) initial charging of the capacitor can be used to infer the dielectric constant of the solution. The much slower decay of current arising from the polarization of electrodes depends on the differential capacitance of the diffuse clouds of charge carriers accumulating next to each electrode and on the ohmic resistance of the fluid. Using the Gouy-Chapman model for the differential capacitance, Debye lengths of 80-600 nm were deduced that decrease with increasing concentration of PIBS. Values of the Debye lengths were confirmed by performing independent measurements of double-layer repulsion between a 6 microm polystyrene (PS) latex sphere and a PS-coated glass plate using total internal reflection microscopy in the same solutions. The charge carriers appear to be inverted PIBS micelles having apparent Stokes diameters of 20-40 nm. Dynamic light scattering reveals a broad distribution of sizes having an intensity-averaged diameter of 15 nm. This smaller size might arise (1) from overestimating the electrophoretic mobility of micelles by treating them as point charges or (2) because charged micelles are larger on average than uncharged micelles. When Faradaic reactions and zeta potentials on the electrodes can be neglected, such current versus time experiments yield values for the Debye length and ionic strength with less effort than force measurements. To obtain the concentration of charge carriers from measurements of conductivity, the mobility of the charge carriers must be known.
Limitations of the paraxial Debye approximation.
Sheppard, Colin J R
2013-04-01
In the paraxial form of the Debye integral for focusing, higher order defocus terms are ignored, which can result in errors in dealing with aberrations, even for low numerical aperture. These errors can be avoided by using a different integration variable. The aberrations of a glass slab, such as a coverslip, are expanded in terms of the new variable, and expressed in terms of Zernike polynomials to assist with aberration balancing. Tube length error is also discussed.
Debye classes in A15 compounds
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Staudenmann, J.; DeFacio, B.; Testardi, L.R.; Werner, S.A.; Fluekiger, R.; Muller, J.
1981-01-01
The comparison between electron charge-density distribution of V 3 Si, Cr 3 Si, and V 3 Ge at room temperature leads us to study the Debye temperatures at 0 0 K THETA 0 from specific-heat measurements for over 100 A15 compounds. A phenomenological THETA 0 (M), M the molecular mass, is obtained from the static scaling relation THETA 0 (M) = aM/sup b/ and this organizes all of the data into five Debye classes: V(V 3 Si), V-G, G(V 3 Ge), G-C, and C(Cr 3 Si). In contrast, the Debye temperature THETA 0 (V), with V as the unit-cell volume does not relate alloys as THETA 0 (M) does, with the exception of the C class. This latter case leads to the surprising result MproportionalV/sup approximately1/3/ and to a Grueneisen constant of 1.6 +- 0.1 for all compounds of this class. In the V class where V 3 Si and Nb 3 Sn are found, THETA 0 (V) labels these two alloys differently, as does their martensitic c/a ratios. With T-bar/sub c/ denoting the average superconducting transition temperature within a Debye class, interesting correlations are shown. One is the maximum of T-bar/sub c/ which exists in the V class where the strongest anharmonicity occurs. Another is the case of compounds formed only by transition elements up to and including Au. This interesting case shows that approx.3.2< T-bar/sub c/< approx.5.0 K in all of the five classes and that there is no correlation between T/sub c/ and the thermal properties. The implications of these observations for creating better models for the A15 compounds are briefly discussed
KO, DO-YOUNG; KIM, KYU-HYUNG
2013-01-01
In accordance with the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (US NRC), Regulatory Guide 1.20, the reactor vessel internals comprehensive vibration assessment program (RVI CVAP) has been developed for an Advanced Power Reactor 1400 (APR1400). The purpose of the RVI CVAP is to verify the structural integrity of the reactor internals to flow-induced loads prior to commercial operation. The APR1400 RVI CVAP consists of four programs (analysis, measurement, inspection, and assessment). Thoughtful prepa...
Vibration Diagnostics as an effective Tool for Testing Engines of Internal Combustion
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ferenc Dömötör
2017-10-01
Full Text Available There are several methods of automotive diagnostics used in services to detect a large variety of faults and damages of various parts of engines of internal combustion. Undoubtedly, they are effective, but they are simply unable to find all types of mechanical faults occurring during the operation. This is the reason why authors of this paper tried to use a special tool, which has been proven for years for detecting faults of rolling element bearing in rotating machinery. During their research, the authors tried to find valuable results by measuring vibration of various parts of engines. Three items were tested, a Diesel engine and two Otto motors. A large number of measurements have been taken at various speed, at different points, in different directions, with different parameter setup, etc. However, there was one setup which has been applied to all three engines. It is the measurement setup of vibration velocity, in the frequency range of 2 Hz-300 Hz. Valuable consequences have been found regarding the clogging of the air filters and the exhaust systems. As a conclusion the authors expressed their opinion, that, apart from the traditional diagnostic methods used in services, vibration measurements can also be useful, especially for detecting faults of rolling element bearings.
Vibration analysis of reactor assembly internals for Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chellapandi, P.; Jalaldeen, S.; Srinivasan, R.; Chetal, S.C.; Bhoje, S.B.
2003-01-01
Vibration analysis of the reactor assembly components of 500 MWe Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR) is presented. The vibration response of primary pump as well as dynamic forces developed at its supports are predicted numerically. The stiffness properties of hydrostatic bearing are determined by formulating and solving governing fluid and structural mechanics equations. The dynamic forces exerted by pump are used as input data for the dynamic response of reactor assembly components, mainly inner vessel, thermal baffle and control plug. Dynamic response of reactor assembly components is also predicted for the pressure fluctuations caused by sodium free level oscillations. Thermal baffle (weir shell) which is subjected to fluid forces developed at the associated sodium free levels is analysed by formulating and solving a set of non-linear equations for fluids, structures and fluid structure interaction (FSI). The control rod drive mechanism is analysed for response under flow induced forces on the parts subjected to cross flow in the zone just above the core top, taking into account FSI between sheaths of control and safety rod and absorber pin bundle. Based on the analysis results, it is concluded that the reactor assembly internals are free from any risk of mechanical as well as flow induced vibrations. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim Hun; Lim, Hee Chang
2015-01-01
This study aims to understand the internal flow and the evaporation characteristics of a deionized water droplet subjected to vertical forced vibrations. To predict and evaluate its resonance frequency, the theories of Lamb, Strani, and Sabetta have been applied. To visualize the precise mode, shape, and internal flow inside a droplet, the experiment utilizes a combination of a high-speed camera, macro lens, and continuous laser. As a result, a water droplet on a hydrophobic surface has its typical shape at each mode, and complicated vortices are observed inside the droplet. In particular, large symmetrical flow streams are generated along the vertical axis at each mode, with a large circulating movement from the bottom to the top and then to the triple contact line along the droplet surface. In addition, a bifurcation-shaped flow pattern is formed at modes 2 and 4, whereas a large ellipsoid-shape flow pattern forms at modes 6 and 8. Mode 4 has the fastest internal flow speed and evaporation rate, followed by modes 8 then 6, with 2 having the slowest of these properties. Each mode has the fastest evaporation rate amongst its neighboring frequencies. Finally, the droplet evaporation under vertical vibration would lead to more rapid evaporation, particularly for mode 4
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kim Hun; Lim, Hee Chang [School of Mechanical Engineering, Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)
2015-07-15
This study aims to understand the internal flow and the evaporation characteristics of a deionized water droplet subjected to vertical forced vibrations. To predict and evaluate its resonance frequency, the theories of Lamb, Strani, and Sabetta have been applied. To visualize the precise mode, shape, and internal flow inside a droplet, the experiment utilizes a combination of a high-speed camera, macro lens, and continuous laser. As a result, a water droplet on a hydrophobic surface has its typical shape at each mode, and complicated vortices are observed inside the droplet. In particular, large symmetrical flow streams are generated along the vertical axis at each mode, with a large circulating movement from the bottom to the top and then to the triple contact line along the droplet surface. In addition, a bifurcation-shaped flow pattern is formed at modes 2 and 4, whereas a large ellipsoid-shape flow pattern forms at modes 6 and 8. Mode 4 has the fastest internal flow speed and evaporation rate, followed by modes 8 then 6, with 2 having the slowest of these properties. Each mode has the fastest evaporation rate amongst its neighboring frequencies. Finally, the droplet evaporation under vertical vibration would lead to more rapid evaporation, particularly for mode 4.
Mode pattern of internal flow in a water droplet on a vibrating hydrophobic surface.
Kim, Hun; Lim, Hee-Chang
2015-06-04
The objective of this study is to understand the mode pattern of the internal flow in a water droplet placed on a hydrophobic surface that periodically and vertically vibrates. As a result, a water droplet on a vibrating hydrophobic surface has a typical shape that depends on each resonance mode, and, additionally, we observed a diversified lobe size and internal flows in the water droplet. The size of each lobe at the resonance frequency was relatively greater than that at the neighboring frequencies, and the internal flow of the nth order mode was also observed in the flow visualization. In general, large symmetrical flow streams were generated along the vertical axis in each mode, with a large circulating movement from the bottom to the top, and then to the triple contact line along the droplet surface. In contrast, modes 2 and 4 generated a Y-shaped flow pattern, in which the flow moved to the node point in the lower part of the droplet, but modes 6 and 8 had similar patterns, with only a little difference. In addition, as a result of the PIV measurement, while the flow velocity of mode 4 was faster than that of model 2, those of modes 6 and 8 were almost similar.
Dumas, Jean-Charles; Barriga, Pablo; Zhao, Chunnong; Ju, Li; Blair, David G
2009-11-01
High performance vibration isolators are required for ground based gravitational wave detectors. To attain very high performance at low frequencies we have developed multistage isolators for the proposed Australian International Gravitational Observatory detector in Australia. New concepts in vibration isolation including self-damping, Euler springs, LaCoste springs, Roberts linkages, and double preisolation require novel sensors and actuators. Double preisolation enables internal feedback to be used to suppress low frequency seismic noise. Multidegree of freedom control systems are required to attain high performance. Here we describe the control components and control systems used to control all degrees of freedom. Feedback forces are injected at the preisolation stages and at the penultimate suspension stage. There is no direct actuation on test masses. A digital local control system hosted on a digital signal processor maintains alignment and position, corrects drifts, and damps the low frequency linear and torsional modes without exciting the very high Q-factor test mass suspension. The control system maintains an optical cavity locked to a laser with a high duty cycle even in the absence of an autoalignment system. An accompanying paper presents the mechanics of the system, and the optical cavity used to determine isolation performance. A feedback method is presented, which is expected to improve the residual motion at 1 Hz by more than one order of magnitude.
Dumas, Jean-Charles; Barriga, Pablo; Zhao, Chunnong; Ju, Li; Blair, David G.
2009-11-01
High performance vibration isolators are required for ground based gravitational wave detectors. To attain very high performance at low frequencies we have developed multistage isolators for the proposed Australian International Gravitational Observatory detector in Australia. New concepts in vibration isolation including self-damping, Euler springs, LaCoste springs, Roberts linkages, and double preisolation require novel sensors and actuators. Double preisolation enables internal feedback to be used to suppress low frequency seismic noise. Multidegree of freedom control systems are required to attain high performance. Here we describe the control components and control systems used to control all degrees of freedom. Feedback forces are injected at the preisolation stages and at the penultimate suspension stage. There is no direct actuation on test masses. A digital local control system hosted on a digital signal processor maintains alignment and position, corrects drifts, and damps the low frequency linear and torsional modes without exciting the very high Q-factor test mass suspension. The control system maintains an optical cavity locked to a laser with a high duty cycle even in the absence of an autoalignment system. An accompanying paper presents the mechanics of the system, and the optical cavity used to determine isolation performance. A feedback method is presented, which is expected to improve the residual motion at 1 Hz by more than one order of magnitude.
Vibrational response of a rectangular duct of finite length excited by a turbulent internal flow
David, Antoine; Hugues, Florian; Dauchez, Nicolas; Perrey-Debain, Emmanuel
2018-05-01
Gas transport ductwork in industrial plants or air conditioning networks can be subject to vibrations induced by the internal flow. Most studies in this matter have been carried out on circular ducts. This paper focuses specifically on the vibratory response of a rectangular duct of finite length excited by an internal turbulent flow. A semi-analytical model taking into account the modal response of the structure due to both aerodynamic and acoustic contributions is derived. The aerodynamic component of the excitation is applied on the basis of Corcos model where the power spectral density of the wall pressure is determined experimentally. The acoustic component is based on the propagating modes in the duct where the acoustic modal contribution are extracted via cross-spectral densities. The vibrational response is given for a 0.2 × 0.1 × 0.5 m3 duct made of 3 mm steel plates excited by 20 m/s or 30 m/s flows. Comparisons between experimental results and numerical predictions show a good agreement. The competition between acoustic and aerodynamic components is highlighted.
Non Debye approximation on specific heat of solids
Bhattacharjee, Ruma; Das, Anamika; Sarkar, A.
2018-05-01
A simple non Debye frequency spectrum is proposed. The normalized frequency spectrum is compared to that of Debye spectrum. The proposed spectrum, provides a good account of low frequency phonon density of states, which gives a linear temperature variation at low temperature in contrast to Debye T3 law. It has been analyzed that the proposed model provides a good account of excess specific heat for nanostructure solid.
14th International Conference on Acoustics and Vibration of Mechanical Structures
Marinca, Vasile
2018-01-01
This book is a collection of papers presented at Acoustics and Vibration of Mechanical Structures 2017 – AVMS 2017 – highlighting the current trends and state-of-the-art developments in the field. It covers a broad range of topics, such as noise and vibration control, noise and vibration generation and propagation, the effects of noise and vibration, condition monitoring and vibration testing, modeling, prediction and simulation of noise and vibration, environmental and occupational noise and vibration, noise and vibration attenuators, as well as biomechanics and bioacoustics. The book also presents analytical, numerical and experimental techniques for evaluating linear and non-linear noise and vibration problems (including strong nonlinearity). It is primarily intended for academics, researchers and professionals, as well as PhD students in various fields of the acoustics and vibration of mechanical structures.
Electron plasma oscillations at arbitrary Debye lengths
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lehnert, B.
1990-12-01
A solution is presented for electron plasma oscillation in a thermalized homogeneous plasma, at arbitrary ratios between the Debye length λ D and the perturbation wave length λ. The limit λ D D >> λ corresponds to the free-streaming limit of strong kinetic phase-mixing due to large particle excursions. A strong large Debye distance (LDD) effect already appears when λ D > approx λ. The initial amplitude of the fluid-like contribution to the macroscopic density perturbation then becomes small as compared to the contribution from the free-streaming part. As a consequence, only a small fraction of the density perturbation remains after a limited number of kinetic damping times of the free-streaming part. The analysis further shows that a representation in terms of normal model of the form exp(-iωt) leads to amplitude factors of these modes which are related to each other and which depend on the combined free-streaming and fluid behaviour of the plasma. Consequently, these modes are coupled and cannot be treated as being independent of each other. (au)
Charged particle layers in the Debye limit.
Golden, Kenneth I; Kalman, Gabor J; Kyrkos, Stamatios
2002-09-01
We develop an equivalent of the Debye-Hückel weakly coupled equilibrium theory for layered classical charged particle systems composed of one single charged species. We consider the two most important configurations, the charged particle bilayer and the infinite superlattice. The approach is based on the link provided by the classical fluctuation-dissipation theorem between the random-phase approximation response functions and the Debye equilibrium pair correlation function. Layer-layer pair correlation functions, screened and polarization potentials, static structure functions, and static response functions are calculated. The importance of the perfect screening and compressibility sum rules in determining the overall behavior of the system, especially in the r--> infinity limit, is emphasized. The similarities and differences between the quasi-two-dimensional bilayer and the quasi-three-dimensional superlattice are highlighted. An unexpected behavior that emerges from the analysis is that the screened potential, the correlations, and the screening charges carried by the individual layers exhibit a marked nonmonotonic dependence on the layer separation.
Charged particle layers in the Debye limit
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Golden, Kenneth I.; Kalman, Gabor J.; Kyrkos, Stamatios
2002-01-01
We develop an equivalent of the Debye-Hueckel weakly coupled equilibrium theory for layered classical charged particle systems composed of one single charged species. We consider the two most important configurations, the charged particle bilayer and the infinite superlattice. The approach is based on the link provided by the classical fluctuation-dissipation theorem between the random-phase approximation response functions and the Debye equilibrium pair correlation function. Layer-layer pair correlation functions, screened and polarization potentials, static structure functions, and static response functions are calculated. The importance of the perfect screening and compressibility sum rules in determining the overall behavior of the system, especially in the r→∞ limit, is emphasized. The similarities and differences between the quasi-two-dimensional bilayer and the quasi-three-dimensional superlattice are highlighted. An unexpected behavior that emerges from the analysis is that the screened potential, the correlations, and the screening charges carried by the individual layers exhibit a marked nonmonotonic dependence on the layer separation
Operational feedback on internal structure vibration in 54 French PWRs during 300 fuel cycles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Trenty, A.
1995-01-01
EDF has acquired extensive feedback on vibration of reactor vessel internals by analysing ex-core neutron noise on its 54 pressurized water reactors during the course of over 300 fuel cycles. This feedback has been built up by processing more than 3,000 vibratory signatures acquired since the startup of its reactors. These signatures are now centralized for the whole of France in the ''SINBAD'' data base. Signature processing has enabled: distinguishing between mechanical phenomena and signature variation linked to unit operation: in particular, the impact on signature level of unit operating parameters such as initial fuel enrichment and burn-up rate was assessed; among the purely mechanical phenomena, pointing up slight changes in position of vessel internals and the first signs of structural wear; relaxation (in the hold-down spring and fuel rod assemblies) and wear on surfaces of contact between internals and reactor vessel were detected; lastly and most importantly, automatic recognition of the various types of vibratory behavior of internals. It was consequently possible to draw up user requirement specifications for automated monitoring of internals, which should soon be integrated in PSAD, a system which groups several reactor monitoring functions. (author)
Portnov, Alexander; Epshtein, Michael; Bar, Ilana
2017-06-01
Nonadiabatic processes, dominated by dynamic passage of reactive fluxes through conical intersections (CIs) are considered to be appealing means for manipulating reaction paths. One approach that is considered to be effective in controlling the course of dissociation processes is the selective excitation of vibrational modes containing a considerable component of motion. Here, we have chosen to study the predissociation of the model test molecule, methylamine and its deuterated isotopologues, excited to well-characterized quantum states on the first excited electronic state, S_{1}, by following the N-H(D) bond fission dynamics through sensitive H(D) photofragment probing. The branching ratios between slow and fast H(D) photofragments, the internal energies of their counter radical photofragments and the anisotropy parameters for fast H photofragments, confirm correlated anomalies for predissociation initiated from specific rovibronic states, reflecting the existence of a dynamic resonance in each molecule. This resonance strongly depends on the energy of the initially excited rovibronic states, the evolving vibrational mode on the repulsive S_{1} part during N-H(D) bond elongation, and the manipulated passage through the CI that leads to radicals excited with C-N-H(D) bending and preferential perpendicular bond breaking, relative to the photolyzing laser polarization, in molecules containing the NH_{2} group. The indicated resonance plays an important role in the bifurcation dynamics at the CI and can be foreseen to exist in other photoinitiated processes and to control their outcome.
Malfunction tests and vibration analysis of P.W.R. internal structures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Puyal, C.; Carre, J.C.; Epstein, A.
1987-01-01
To diagnose changes liable to occur in the vibration behavior of internals, it is important to understand the influence of changes in the mechanical properties of elements on the output signals obtained from neutron chambers placed out of core and accelerometers fixed to the reactor vessel. To do this, the effects of changes liable to occur in the hold-down springs and the flexures were simulated on the SAFRAN loop, using a representative hydroelastic mock-up. The results obtained experimentally on SAFRAN for different characteristics of the hold-down spring, which lies between the upper part of the core barrel and the vessel head, have been published. In this paper, we propose to present the results of the investigation of the fracture of one or more flexures which connect the cylindrical thermal shield to the core barrel. This work is in two parts: a) Computation based on a hydroelastic model using the substructuration computer program TRISTANA of the CASTEM system. b) Tests simulating flexure fracture: 1 - in air, for an understanding of the mechanisms involved; 2 - on the SAFRAN loop with a representative flow in order to estimate the strains liable to exist on the vibration signatures recorded on displacement transducers and accelerometers. Good agreement was observed between the computation results with the theoretical model employed and those obtained experimentally [fr
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ko, Doyoung; Kim, Kyuhyung
2013-01-01
In accordance with the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (US NRC), Regulatory Guide 1.20, the reactor vessel internals comprehensive vibration assessment program (RVI CVAP) has been developed for an Advanced Power Reactor 1400 (APR1400). The purpose of the RVI CVAP is to verify the structural integrity of the reactor internals to flow-induced loads prior to commercial operation. The APR1400 RVI CVAP consists of four programs (analysis, measurement, inspection, and assessment). Thoughtful preparation is essential to the measurement program, because data acquisition must be performed only once. The optimized design of a vibration and stress measurement system for the RVI CVAP is essential to verify the integrity of the APR1400 RVI. We successfully designed a vibration and stress measurement system for the APR1400 RVI CVAP based on the design materials, the hydraulic and structural analysis results, and performance tests of transducers in an extreme environment. The measurement system designed in this paper will be utilized for the APR1400 RVI CVAP as part of the first construction project in Korea
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
DO-YOUNG KO
2013-04-01
Full Text Available In accordance with the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (US NRC, Regulatory Guide 1.20, the reactor vessel internals comprehensive vibration assessment program (RVI CVAP has been developed for an Advanced Power Reactor 1400 (APR1400. The purpose of the RVI CVAP is to verify the structural integrity of the reactor internals to flow-induced loads prior to commercial operation. The APR1400 RVI CVAP consists of four programs (analysis, measurement, inspection, and assessment. Thoughtful preparation is essential to the measurement program, because data acquisition must be performed only once. The optimized design of a vibration and stress measurement system for the RVI CVAP is essential to verify the integrity of the APR1400 RVI. We successfully designed a vibration and stress measurement system for the APR1400 RVI CVAP based on the design materials, the hydraulic and structural analysis results, and performance tests of transducers in an extreme environment. The measurement system designed in this paper will be utilized for the APR1400 RVI CVAP as part of the first construction project in Korea.
PREFACE: 7th International Conference on Modern Practice in Stress and Vibration Analysis
Dulieu-Barton, J. M.
2009-07-01
The proceedings contain the papers presented at the 7th International Conference on Modern Practice in Stress and Vibration Analysis. The collection of papers represents the range of activities that are carried out to understand the functionality of engineering systems and structures through stress/strain based evaluation and dynamic response. The scope is broad and covers theoretical studies, modelling and experimental evaluations. Many of the papers cover integration techniques and approaches to better understanding of system performance and failure. All of the papers have been peer reviewed by at least two experts and represent the state of the art of research in this area. The conference is the seventh in the series, following on from previous conferences in Bath, Glasgow, Nottingham, Dublin, Sheffield and Liverpool. Although based in the British Isles the conference has a truly international flavour with offerings from 22 countries. The conference is organised by the Institute of Physics Applied Mechanics Group (formerly the Stress and Vibration Group). It incorporates activities associated with the British Society for Strain Measurement including the Measurements Lecture, the EMex Exhibition and the Young Stress Analyst Competition. The organising committee is grateful for the support of all of the authors, the scientific committee and keynote speakers who played a significant role in the review process, to John Edwards who was instrumental in managing the paper review and submission process, Dawn Stewart and Claire Garland of the Institute of Physics for organising the conference, social programme and registration and Biana Gale of the British Society for Strain Measurement for organising the Exhibition. The organising committee is also grateful to the sponsors of the conference for their kind support and to the co-sponsors for distributing information on the conference. Professor Janice M Dulieu-Barton Professor of Experimental Mechanics University of
Proceedings of second international conference on vibration engineering and technology of machinery
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
2002-12-01
This volume of proceedings of the conference on vibration engineering cover a wide range of fields spanning diagnostics and condition monitoring, dynamics of rotors, dynamics of structures, computational methods, vehicle dynamics, vibration control, fluid-structure interaction, random and non-linear vibration. Many of these topics are also important to nuclear industry. The papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately
Proceedings of the 8. international conference on Flow-induced vibration
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Langre, E. de; Axisa, F.
2004-01-01
FIV2004, the eighth of the series of International Conferences on Flow-Induced Vibration initiated at Keswick in 1973, evidences the sustained interest of the scientific and engineering international community for a subject area which incorporates at least two major disciplines: fluid mechanics and structural dynamics. Flow induced vibration (FIV) occur whenever a structure is in contact with a flowing fluid; which is a very common occurrence indeed. FIV can be rightly perceived as very useful and agreeable, in musical instruments, or at the opposite as annoying and even disastrous, in mechanical engineering. In both cases, the subject motivates a large and highly diversified amount of research work, driven either by scientific curiosity or engineering concerns, or both. In this field, empirical knowledge and experience are a precious asset but a certain breadth of perspective gained through a thorough background in theoretical mechanics is also necessary. In other words, to deal successfully with FIV problems, theoretical and pragmatic knowledge must be skillfully interwoven. Having also in mind the impressive progress achieved since the early seventies both in experimental techniques and computer science, it is rather fascinating to realize that we have still to learn so much about so 'elementary' systems as a pipe conveying air or water, or cylindrical rods subjected to cross-flow, to mention just two archetypical systems which are in fact extremely complex and which motivated so many studies already at the time of the first Keswick Conference and which still do at FIV2004. Though such systems are encountered in many industrial components and are rather easily accessible to experiment, they still give rise to many challenging questions concerning the extremely varied dynamical behavior they can display, which remain often insufficiently amenable to prediction. By no means this is to say that the research work devoted to FIV up to now has been made in vain. First
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chen, Jia Nen; Liu, Jun [Tianjin Key Laboratory of the Design and Intelligent Control of the Advanced Mechatronical System, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin (China); Zhang, Wei; Yao, Ming Hui [College of Mechanical Engineering, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing (China); Sun, Min [School of Science, Tianjin Chengjian University, Tianjin (China)
2016-09-15
Nonlinear vibrations of carbon fiber reinforced composite sandwich plate with pyramidal truss core are investigated. The governing equation of motion for the sandwich plate is derived by using a Zig-Zag theory under consideration of geometrically nonlinear. The natural frequencies of sandwich plates with different dimensions are calculated and compared with those obtained from the classic laminated plate theory and Reddy's third-order shear deformation plate theory. The frequency responses and waveforms of the sandwich plate when 1:3 internal resonance occurs are obtained, and the characteristics of the internal resonance are discussed. The influences of layer number of face sheet, strut radius, core height and inclination angle on the nonlinear responses of the sandwich plate are analyzed. The results demonstrate that the strut radius and inclination angle mainly affect the resonance frequency band of the sandwich plate, and the layer number and core height not only influence the resonance frequency band but also significantly affect the response amplitude.
Debye screening length effects of nanostructured materials
Ghatak, Kamakhya Prasad
2014-01-01
This monograph solely investigates the Debye Screening Length (DSL) in semiconductors and their nano-structures. The materials considered are quantized structures of non-linear optical, III-V, II-VI, Ge, Te, Platinum Antimonide, stressed materials, Bismuth, GaP, Gallium Antimonide, II-V and Bismuth Telluride respectively. The DSL in opto-electronic materials and their quantum confined counterparts is studied in the presence of strong light waves and intense electric fields on the basis of newly formulated electron dispersion laws that control the studies of such quantum effect devices. The suggestions for the experimental determination of 2D and 3D DSL and the importance of measurement of band gap in optoelectronic materials under intense built-in electric field in nano devices and strong external photo excitation (for measuring photon induced physical properties) have also been discussed in this context. The influence of crossed electric and quantizing magnetic fields on the DSL and the DSL in heavily doped ...
Non-linear unidimensional Debye screening in plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Clemente, R.A.; Martin, P.
1992-01-01
An exact analytical solution for T e = T i and an approximate solution for T e ≠ T i have been obtained for the unidimensional non-linear Debye potential. The approximate expression is a solution of the Poisson equation obtained by expanding up to third order the Boltzmann's factors. The analysis shows that the effective Debye screening length can be quite different from the usual Debye length, when the potential to thermal energy ratio of the particles is not much smaller than unity. (author)
Spectra of electron pair under harmonic and Debye potential
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Munjal, D. [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi (India); Department of Physics, Swami Shraddhanand College, University of Delhi (India); Prasad, V. [Department of Physics, Swami Shraddhanand College, University of Delhi (India)
2017-02-15
Two electron systems confined by harmonic potential is known as harmonium. Such a system has been studied for many reasons in the literature. In this work we study harmonium under Debye potential. We use higher order finite difference method for the solution of Schrodinger equation. Complete energy spectrum of harmonium and harmonium under Debye potential is studied. Debye screening length shows considerable effect on the energy levels and the radial matrix elements. The results are analysed in the light of existing results and the comparison with available results shows remarkable agreement. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
McCrory, Jean L.; Lemmon, David R.; Sommer, H. Joseph; Prout, Brian; Smith, Damon; Korth, Deborah W.; Lucero, Javier; Greenisen, Michael; Moore, Jim
1999-01-01
A treadmill with vibration isolation and stabilization designed for the International Space Station (ISS) was evaluated during Shuttle mission STS-81. Three crew members ran and walked on the device, which floats freely in zero gravity. For the majority of the more than 2 hours of locomotion studied, the treadmill showed peak to peak linear and angular displacements of less than 2.5 cm and 2.5 deg, respectively. Vibration transmitted to the vehicle was within the microgravity allocation limits that are defined for the ISS. Refinements to the treadmill and harness system are discussed. This approach to treadmill design offers the possibility of generating 1G-like loads on the lower extremities while preserving the microgravity environment of the ISS for structural safety and vibration free experimental conditions.
Mohammadi, Ebrahim; Fadaeinedjad, Roohollah; Moschopoulos, Gerry
2018-05-01
Vibration control and fatigue loads reduction are important issues in large-scale wind turbines. Identifying the vibration frequencies and tuning dampers and controllers at these frequencies are major concerns in many control methods. In this paper, an internal model control (IMC) method with an adaptive algorithm is implemented to first identify the vibration frequency of the wind turbine tower and then to cancel the vibration signal. Standard individual pitch control (IPC) is also implemented to compare the performance of the controllers in term of fatigue loads reduction. Finally, the performance of the system when both controllers are implemented together is evaluated. Simulation results demonstrate that using only IMC or IPC alone has advantages and can reduce fatigue loads on specific components. IMC can identify and suppress tower vibrations in both fore-aft and side-to-side directions, whereas, IPC can reduce fatigue loads on blades, shaft and yaw bearings. When both IMC and IPC are implemented together, the advantages of both controllers can be used. The aforementioned analysis and comparisons were not studied in literature and this study fills this gap. FAST, AreoDyn and Simulink are used to simulate the mechanical, aerodynamic and electrical aspects of wind turbine.
Hickey, Owen A; Shendruk, Tyler N; Harden, James L; Slater, Gary W
2012-08-31
We introduce a mesoscale simulation method based on multiparticle collision dynamics (MPCD) for the electrohydrodynamics of polyelectrolytes with finite Debye lengths. By applying the Debye-Hückel approximation to assign an effective charge to MPCD particles near charged monomers, our simulations are able to reproduce the rapid rise in the electrophoretic mobility with respect to the degree of polymerization for the shortest polymer lengths followed by a small decrease for longer polymers due to charge condensation. Moreover, these simulations demonstrate the importance of a finite Debye length in accurately determining the mobility of uniformly charged polyelectrolytes and net neutral polyampholytes.
Resonant charge exchange for H-H+ in Debye plasmas
Laricchiuta, Annarita; Colonna, Gianpiero; Capitelli, Mario; Kosarim, Alexander; Smirnov, Boris M.
2017-11-01
The dynamics of resonant charge exchange in proton-hydrogen collisions embedded in plasma is investigated in the framework of the asymptotic approach, modified to account for the effect of Debye-Hückel screening in particle interactions. The cross sections exhibit a marked dependence on the Debye length in regimes of severe plasma confinement. Processes involving excited states H( n)-H+ are also discussed.
A review of quantum collision dynamics in Debye plasmas
Janev, R. K.; Zhang, Song Bin; Wang, Jian Guo
2016-01-01
Hot, dense plasmas exhibit screened Coulomb interactions, resulting from the collective effects of correlated many-particle interactions. In the lowest particle correlation order (pair-wise correlations), the interaction between charged plasma particles reduces to the Debye-H\\"uckel (Yukawa-type) potential, characterized by the Debye screening length D. Due to the importance of Coulomb interaction screening in dense laboratory and astrophysical plasmas, hundreds of theoretical investigations ...
The Debye-Hückel theory and its importance in modeling electrolyte solutions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kontogeorgis, Georgios M.; Maribo-Mogensen, Bjørn; Thomsen, Kaj
2018-01-01
A colleague at the Technical University of Denmark has often stated: “Life is too short for electrolytes”. Another well-known scientist in the field of molecular simulation has recently said during an international Thermodynamics conference: “All my life I have tried to keep myself away from water...... and electrolytes”. Sadly, what these statements correctly imply is that there are far too many unclear questions and concepts in electrolyte thermodynamics, and associated difficulties in modeling electrolyte solutions. In this work, we attempt to shed some light on some important concepts and misconceptions...... are omitted. We first discuss the peculiarities of electrolyte thermodynamics and associated modeling and continue with the derivation of the Debye-Hückel theory. The assumptions and limits of application of Debye-Hückel are discussed in particular. Next, the Born term and its significance and implications...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rossikhin Yury A.
2018-01-01
Full Text Available Non-linear damped vibrations of a cylindrical shell embedded into a fractional derivative medium are investigated for the case of the combinational internal resonance, resulting in modal interaction, using two different numerical methods with further comparison of the results obtained. The damping properties of the surrounding medium are described by the fractional derivative Kelvin-Voigt model utilizing the Riemann-Liouville fractional derivatives. Within the first method, the generalized displacements of a coupled set of nonlinear ordinary differential equations of the second order are estimated using numerical solution of nonlinear multi-term fractional differential equations by the procedure based on the reduction of the problem to a system of fractional differential equations. According to the second method, the amplitudes and phases of nonlinear vibrations are estimated from the governing nonlinear differential equations describing amplitude-and-phase modulations for the case of the combinational internal resonance. A good agreement in results is declared.
Gautier, Pierre-Etienne; Hanson, Carl; Hemsworth, Brian; Nelson, James; Schulte-Werning, Burkhard; Thompson, David; Vos, Paul
2012-01-01
This volume contains the contributions to the 10th International Workshop on Railway Noise, held October 18–22, 2010, in Nagahama, Japan, organized by the Railway Technical Research Institute (RTRI), Japan. With 11 sessions and 3 poster sessions, the workshop featured presentations by international leaders in the field of railway noise and vibration. All subjects relating to 1. prospects, legal regulation, and perception; 2. wheel and rail noise; 3. structure-borne noise and squeal noise; 4. ground-borne vibration; 5. aerodynamic noise and micro-pressure waves from tunnel portals; 6. interior noise and sound barriers; and 7. prediction, measurements, and monitoring are addressed here. This book is a useful “state-of-the-art” reference for scientists and engineers involved in solving environmental problems of railways.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wentzeis, Luis M.; Calvo, Maria D.
2009-01-01
The neutron noise analysis technique is an important predictive maintenance tool for early detection of failures such as sensor malfunctions and incipient mechanical problems located in the reactor internals. This technique was applied successfully in Argentina since 1987. The FER-GAEN group dependent of the CNEA developed the measuring system to detect anomalies as early as possible. The magnitude of interest in this analysis is the fluctuating component of the neutron flux known as 'neutron noise'. In order to improve and facilitate the analysis, a new software code was developed for the data acquisition of the neutron noise signals and neutron spectra estimation in the frequency domain. The RMS values related with the internals vibrations are calculated from these spectra and are chronologically displayed, in order to detect any anomalous vibration or incipient detector malfunction as early as possible. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Park, Chang-Seok; Lim, Hee-Chang [Pusan Nat’l Univ., Busan (Korea, Republic of)
2017-01-15
Thermal Marangoni flow has been observed inside droplets on heated surfaces, finally resulting in a coffee stain effect. This study aims to visualize and control the thermal Marangoni flow by employing periodic vertical vibration. The variations in the contact angle and internal volume of the droplet as it evaporates is observed by using a combination of continuous light and a still camera. With regard to the internal velocity, the particle image velocimetry system is applied to visualize the internal thermal Marangoni flow. In order to estimate the internal temperature gradient and surface tension on the surface of a droplet, the theoretical model based on the conduction and convection theory of heat transfer is applied. Thus, the internal velocity increases with an increase in plate temperature. The flow directions of the Marangoni and gravitational flows are opposite, and hence, it may be possible to control the coffee stain effect.
First international symposium on Flow Induced Noise and Vibration Issues and Aspects
Rosa, Sergio; Franco, Francesco; Guyader, Jean-Louis; Hambric, Stephen; Flinovia - Flow Induced Noise and Vibration Issues and Aspects
2015-01-01
Flow induced vibration and noise (FIVN) remains a critical research topic. Even after over 50 years of intensive research, accurate and cost-effective FIVN simulation and measurement techniques remain elusive. This book gathers the latest research from some of the most prominent experts in the field. It describes methods for characterizing wall pressure fluctuations, including subsonic and supersonic turbulent boundary layer flows over smooth and rough surfaces using computational methods like Large Eddy Simulation; for inferring wall pressure fluctuations using inverse techniques based on panel vibrations or holographic pressure sensor arrays; for calculating the resulting structural vibrations and radiated sound using traditional finite element methods, as well as advanced methods like Energy Finite Elements; for using scaling approaches to universally collapse flow-excited vibration and noise spectra; and for computing time histories of structural response, including alternating stresses. This book p...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Simonis, J.C.; Post, R.C.; Thoren, D.E.
1976-08-01
The surveillance specimen holder tubes installed in the Babcock and Wilcox 177-fuel assembly plants have been redesigned. The structural adequacy of this design has been verified through extensive analysis. The design adequacy will be further confirmed by measuring the vibrational response of the surveillance specimen holder tube during normal and transient flow operation. This report describes the vibration measurement program that will be conducted at Toledo Edison's Davis Besse 1 site
Study of two-dimensional Debye clusters using Brownian motion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sheridan, T.E.; Theisen, W.L.
2006-01-01
A two-dimensional Debye cluster is a system of n identical particles confined in a parabolic well and interacting through a screened Coulomb (i.e., a Debye-Hueckel or Yukawa) potential with a Debye length λ. Experiments were performed for 27 clusters with n=3-63 particles (9 μm diam) in a capacitively coupled 9 W rf discharge at a neutral argon pressure of 13.6 mTorr. In the strong-coupling regime each particle exhibits small amplitude Brownian motion about its equilibrium position. These motions were projected onto the center-of-mass and breathing modes and Fourier analyzed to give resonance curves from which the mode frequencies, amplitudes, and damping rates were determined. The ratio of the breathing frequency to the center-of-mass frequency was compared with theory to self-consistently determine the Debye shielding parameter κ, Debye length λ, particle charge q, and mode temperatures. It is found that 1 < or approx. κ < or approx. 2, and κ decreases weakly with n. The particle charge averaged over all measurements is -14 200±200 e, and q decreases slightly with n. The two center-of-mass modes and the breathing mode are found to have the same temperature, indicating that the clusters are in thermal equilibrium with the neutral gas. The average cluster temperature is 399±5 K
Benedek, Giorgio; Vattuone, Luca
2008-06-01
The 12th International Conference on Vibrations at Surfaces (VAS 12) took place from 20 26 July 2007 as an event of the International School of Solid State Physics at the Ettore Majorana Foundation and Centre for Scientific Culture, Erice (Italy). The format and special environment of the conference have contributed to its transition from a traditional, medium-size conference into a more effective workshop, with a series of lectures reporting the most recent developments in the field, two poster sessions presenting recent results and even works in progress being discussed. The papers collected in this issue cover the highlights of the conference very thoroughly. Quite a few novel aspects concerning vibrations at surfaces are represented here, for example: new aspects in surface phonon spectroscopy, such as the very recent progress in inelastic x-ray scattering, the first observation of the boson peak in disordered surfaces, progress in the theory of atom scattering inelastic resonances, the action spectroscopy, the study of polycrystalline surfaces with electron energy-loss spectroscopy etc; parallel developments in experimental vibrational studies of adsorbed phases, either inorganic or organic, with those in ab initio theoretical simulations; the theory of enhanced electron--phonon interaction in low dimensions (2D and 1D); the extension from the traditional realm of surface vibrations and spectroscopy to other aspects of surface dynamics, like friction and various nonlinear effects, and to relevant dynamical phenomena occurring at interfaces. Other novelties presented at the conference, but already published in recent issues of the Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter, are also worth mentioning: the spin-echo spectroscopy with 3He allowing for slow-dynamics spectroscopy at very high, unprecedented resolutions (2007 J. Phys.: Cond. Matter 19 300301 and 305010; the first demonstration of dissociative surface trapping of molecules (2007 J. Phys.: Cond. Matter 19
Debye-Waller factors of the light actinide metals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lawson, A.C.; Goldstone, J.A.; Cort, B.; Sheldon, R.I.; Foltyn, E.M.
1994-01-01
The authors have been using time-of-flight neutron powder diffraction to determine the Debye-Waller factors of the light actinide metals. The Debye-Waller factor is a measure of the mean-square atomic displacement that arises from the thermal motion of the atoms in any solid. Its temperature dependence determines a Debye-Waller temperature, Θ DW , that is characteristic of the elastic properties of the solid. The data are obtained by Rietveld analysis of neutron diffraction powder patterns obtained at several temperatures. The authors will present results for α-U, α-Np, α-Pu and σ-Pu 0.95 Al 0.05 . The Θ DW 's are temperature dependent, and anharmonic interatomic forces seem to be required to explain the results
Relativistic effects in hydrogenlike atoms embedded in Debye plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bielinska-Waz, D.; Karwowski, J.; Saha, B.; Mukherjee, P.K.
2004-01-01
Spectra of hydrogenlike atoms embedded in a Debye plasma are investigated. The state energies and the transition rates are studied using a fully relativistic formalism based on the Dirac equation. The effect of the plasma is described by introducing an exponential screening to the nuclear Coulomb potential (the Debye screening). Systematic trends with respect to both the nuclear charge and the screening parameter are observed for all calculated quantities. The pattern of splittings of ns 1/2 , np 1/2 and np 3/2 is modified in a specific way due to the combined relativity and plasma effect. The transition rates decrease with an increase of the Debye parameter as well as with an increase of Z
Determination of molecular configuration by debye length modulation.
Vacic, Aleksandar; Criscione, Jason M; Rajan, Nitin K; Stern, Eric; Fahmy, Tarek M; Reed, Mark A
2011-09-07
Silicon nanowire field effect transistors (FETs) have emerged as ultrasensitive, label-free biodetectors that operate by sensing bound surface charge. However, the ionic strength of the environment (i.e., the Debye length of the solution) dictates the effective magnitude of the surface charge. Here, we show that control of the Debye length determines the spatial extent of sensed bound surface charge on the sensor. We apply this technique to different methods of antibody immobilization, demonstrating different effective distances of induced charge from the sensor surface.
Electron-positronium scattering in Debye plasma environment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Basu, Arindam; Ghosh, A.S.
2008-01-01
Electron-positronium scattering has been investigated in the Debye plasma environment employing the close-coupling approximation. Three models, viz. 3-state CCA, 6-state CCA and 9-state CCA, have been employed. The 2s 21 S e autodetaching resonant state of the positronium negative ion has been successfully predicted for various plasma environments. The position of the resonance for different Debye lengths are in close agreement with those of Kar and Ho [S. Kar, Y.K. Ho, Phys. Rev. A 71 (2005) 052503
Measurement of Debye length in laser-produced plasma.
Ehler, W.
1973-01-01
The Debye length of an expanded plasma created by placing an evacuated chamber with an entrance slit in the path of a freely expanding laser produced plasma was measured, using the slab geometry. An independent measurement of electron density together with the observed value for the Debye length also provided a means for evaluating the plasma electron temperature. This temperature has applications in ascertaining plasma conductivity and magnetic field necessary for confinement of the laser produced plasma. Also, the temperature obtained would be useful in analyzing electron-ion recombination rates in the expanded plasma and the dynamics of the cooling process of the plasma expansion.
Calculating Debye potentials from data on I or H
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Torrence, R.J.
1982-01-01
Using the formalism of Cohen and Kegeles equations are obtained for arbitrary spin radiation field Debye potentials in Reissner-Nordstrom geometries, and a formal series solution is presented. For the case of integer spin the series is modified to what appears to be am more natural form. In the particular case of vanishing spin it is shown that in some important cases the modified series converges to a solution of the Debye potential equation, which is the scalar wave equation, and is simply related to characteristic initial data given on either H or I. (author)
Debye-Waller Factor in Neutron Scattering by Ferromagnetic Metals
Paradezhenko, G. V.; Melnikov, N. B.; Reser, B. I.
2018-04-01
We obtain an expression for the neutron scattering cross section in the case of an arbitrary interaction of the neutron with the crystal. We give a concise, simple derivation of the Debye-Waller factor as a function of the scattering vector and the temperature. For ferromagnetic metals above the Curie temperature, we estimate the Debye-Waller factor in the range of scattering vectors characteristic of polarized magnetic neutron scattering experiments. In the example of iron, we compare the results of harmonic and anharmonic approximations.
Laser ablation characteristics of metallic materials: Role of Debye-Waller thermal parameter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Butt, M Z
2014-01-01
The interaction of a high intensity laser pulse with a solid target results in the formation of a crater and a plasma plume. The characteristics of both depend on physical properties of target material, environmental conditions, and laser parameters (e.g. wavelength, pulse duration, energy, beam diameter) etc. It has been shown for numerous metals and their alloys that plasma threshold fluence, plasma threshold energy, ablation efficiency, ablation yield, angular distribution of laser produced plasma (LPP) ions, etc. are a unique function of the Debye-Waller thermal parameter B or the mean-square amplitude of atomic vibration of the target material for given experimental conditions. The FWHM of the angular distribution of LPP ions, ablation yield, and ablation efficiency increase whereas plasma threshold fluence and plasma threshold energy decrease as B-factor of the target material increases
Brodyanski, A. P.; Medvedev, S. A.; Vetter, M.; Kreutz, J.; Jodl, H. J.
2002-09-01
The ir-active phonon sidebands to internal vibrations of oxygen and nitrogen were precisely investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy in the fundamental and first overtone spectral regions from 10 K to the boiling points at ambient pressure. We showed that an analysis of ir-active phonon sidebands yields important information on the internal vibrations of molecules in a condensed medium (solid or liquid), being complementary to Raman data on vibron frequencies. Analyzing the complete profile of these bands, we determined the band origin frequencies and explored their temperature behavior in all phases of both substances. We present unambiguous direct experimental proofs that this quality corresponds to the frequency of internal vibrations of single molecules. Considering solid oxygen and nitrogen as two limiting cases for simple molecular solids, we interpret this result as a strong evidence for a general fact that an ir-active phonon sideband possesses the same physical origin in pure molecular solids and in impurity centers. The key characteristics of the fundamental vibron energy zone (environmental and resonance frequency shifts) were deduced from the combined analysis of ir and Raman experimental data and their temperature behavior was explored in solid and liquid phases of oxygen and nitrogen at ambient pressure. The character of the short-range orientational order was established in the β-nitrogen based on our theoretical analysis consistent with the present experimental results. We also present the explanation of the origin of pressure-caused changes in the frequency of the Raman vibron mode of solid oxygen at low temperatures.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
List, Nanna Holmgaard, E-mail: nhl@sdu.dk; Jensen, Hans Jørgen Aagaard; Kongsted, Jacob [Department of Physics, Chemistry and Pharmacy, University of Southern Denmark, Campusvej 55, Odense M, Odense DK-5230 Denmark (Denmark); Beerepoot, Maarten T. P.; Gao, Bin; Ruud, Kenneth [Centre for Theoretical and Computational Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, University of Tromsø–The Arctic University of Norway, N-9037 Tromsø (Norway); Olsen, Jógvan Magnus Haugaard [Department of Physics, Chemistry and Pharmacy, University of Southern Denmark, Campusvej 55, Odense M, Odense DK-5230 Denmark (Denmark); Laboratory of Computational Chemistry and Biochemistry, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)
2015-01-21
We present an implementation of analytical quantum mechanical molecular gradients within the polarizable embedding (PE) model to allow for efficient geometry optimizations and vibrational analysis of molecules embedded in large, geometrically frozen environments. We consider a variational ansatz for the quantum region, covering (multiconfigurational) self-consistent-field and Kohn–Sham density functional theory. As the first application of the implementation, we consider the internal vibrational Stark effect of the C=O group of acetophenone in different solvents and derive its vibrational linear Stark tuning rate using harmonic frequencies calculated from analytical gradients and computed local electric fields. Comparisons to PE calculations employing an enlarged quantum region as well as to a non-polarizable embedding scheme show that the inclusion of mutual polarization between acetophenone and water is essential in order to capture the structural modifications and the associated frequency shifts observed in water. For more apolar solvents, a proper description of dispersion and exchange–repulsion becomes increasingly important, and the quality of the optimized structures relies to a larger extent on the quality of the Lennard-Jones parameters.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
List, Nanna Holmgaard; Jensen, Hans Jørgen Aagaard; Kongsted, Jacob; Beerepoot, Maarten T. P.; Gao, Bin; Ruud, Kenneth; Olsen, Jógvan Magnus Haugaard
2015-01-01
We present an implementation of analytical quantum mechanical molecular gradients within the polarizable embedding (PE) model to allow for efficient geometry optimizations and vibrational analysis of molecules embedded in large, geometrically frozen environments. We consider a variational ansatz for the quantum region, covering (multiconfigurational) self-consistent-field and Kohn–Sham density functional theory. As the first application of the implementation, we consider the internal vibrational Stark effect of the C=O group of acetophenone in different solvents and derive its vibrational linear Stark tuning rate using harmonic frequencies calculated from analytical gradients and computed local electric fields. Comparisons to PE calculations employing an enlarged quantum region as well as to a non-polarizable embedding scheme show that the inclusion of mutual polarization between acetophenone and water is essential in order to capture the structural modifications and the associated frequency shifts observed in water. For more apolar solvents, a proper description of dispersion and exchange–repulsion becomes increasingly important, and the quality of the optimized structures relies to a larger extent on the quality of the Lennard-Jones parameters
On Debye radius measurement in an unstable gas discharged plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shvilkin, B.N.
1998-01-01
It is shown that at low concentrations of charged particles conditions can be realized in a magnetized unstable-to-drift plasma for which concentration perturbations are comparable to the concentration itself. The electron temperature is then determined by potential fluctuations, and the drift oscillation wavelength is of the order of the Debye length
Debye temperatures of uranium chalcogenides from their lattice ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Phonon dispersion relations in uranium chalcogenides have been investigated using a modified three-body force shell model. From the phonon frequencies, their Debye temperatures are evaluated. Further, on the basis of the spin fluctuation in the heavy fermion uranium compounds, UPt3 and UBe13, the possible ...
Einstein-Ehrenfest's radiation theory and Compton-Debye's kinetics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barranco, A.V.; Franca, H.M.
1990-01-01
Einstein and Ehrenfest's radiation theory is modified in order to introduce the efeects of random zero-point fields, characteristics of classical stochastic electrodynamics. As a result, the Compton and Debye's kinematic relations are obtained within the realm of a completely undulatory theory, that is, without having to consider the corpuscular character of the photon. (A.C.A.S.) [pt
10th International Conference on Vibration Engineering and Technology of Machinery
2015-01-01
The VETOMAC-X Conference covered a holistic plethora of relevant topics in vibration and engineering technology including condition monitoring, machinery and structural dynamics, rotor dynamics, experimental techniques, finite element model updating, industrial case studies, vibration control and energy harvesting, and signal processing. These proceedings contain not only all of the nearly one-hundred peer-reviewed presentations from authors representing more than twenty countries, but also include six invited lectures from renowned experts: Professor K. Gupta, Mr W. Hahn, Professor A.W. Lees, Professor John Mottershead, Professor J.S. Rao, and Dr P. Russhard. This work is of interest to researchers and practitioners alike, and is an essential book for most of libraries of higher academic institutes.
Active vibration control using state space LQG and internal model control methods
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mørkholt, Jakob; Elliott, S.J.
1998-01-01
Two ways of designing discrete time robust H2-controllers for feedback broadband active vibration control are compared through computer simulations. The methods are based on different models of disturbance and plant transfer functions, but yield controllers with identical properties. Two simple...... ways of introducing robustness into the H2-design are compared, and finally an efficient way of designing a practical IIR-controller is proposed....
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Elin Yusibani
2013-12-01
Full Text Available Application of a curved vibrating wire method (CVM to measure gas viscosity has been widely used. A ﬁne Tungsten wire with 50 mm of diameter is bent into a semi-circular shape and arranged symmetrically in a magnetic ﬁeld of about 0.2 T. The frequency domain is used for calculating the viscosity as a response for forced oscillation of the wire. Internal friction is one of the parameter in the CVM which is has to be measured beforeahead. Internal friction coefﬁcien for the wire material which is the inverse of the quality factor has to be measured in a vacuum condition. The term involving internal friction actually represents the effective resistance of motion due to all non-viscous damping phenomena including internal friction and magnetic damping. The testing of internal friction measurement shows that at different induced voltage and elevated temperature at a vacuum condition, it gives the value of internal friction for Tungsten is around 1 to 4 10-4.
Study of the nonlinear three-dimensional Debye screening in plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lin Chang; Zhao Jinbao; Zhang Xiulian
2000-01-01
The nonlinear three-dimensional Debye screening in plasmas is investigated. New analytical solutions for the three-dimensional Poisson equation have been obtained for the nonlinear Debye potential for the first time. We derive exact analytical expression for the special case of the nonlinear three-dimensional Debye screening in plasmas. (orig.)
The Fourteenth International Meeting on Time-Resolved Vibrational Spectroscopy (TRVS XIV)
2010-02-03
conferences covering the use of advanced vibrational spectroscopy for the use of studying time-dependent molecular processes in chemistry, physics ...Netherlands a.huertaviga@uva.nl Neil Hunt Dept of Physics , University of Strathclyde United Kingdom nhunt@phys.strath.ac Koichi Iwata Gakushuin University...Dasgupta Mark Creelman Sangdeok Shim Biochemical Reaction Dynamics, , , UC B k ler e ey 11:50 AM C W. Zinth, W. J. Schreier, J. Kubon, N. Regner, K
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Farhad Forouharmajd
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Aims: The objective of this research was an evaluation of hand-held tools vibration acceleration such as circular saw and drill transmitted to operator′s and also to determine the role of glove in vibration reduction of those tools. Materials and Methods: In this study, Bruel and Kjaer Vibration meter with a model of 2231 and its analyzer, 2522, along three types of gloves have been used. Accelerometer transducer installed according to International Standard Organization (ISO 5349:1-2 standards in the case of the operator handles the hand-held tool. In next step, the transducer was placed inside the glove. Results: The results show the most accelerated vibration in axis Y for circular saw while working on Plexiglas. All of the used gloves show a reduction of vibration transmission from tools to hands. Glove of C grouped had a reduction of vibration less than two other groups. Conclusion: Based on ISO 5349-1, 10% of workers who are working with circular saw and drill without using glove will be affiliated to white finger after about 7-12 years. As a whole, the results showed that the anti-vibration gloves should be tested in real conditions before using them.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
2016-01-01
This volume contains the papers presented at the Thirteenth International Conference on Motion and Vibration Control (MoViC), together with the Twelfth International Conference on Recent Advances in Structural Dynamics (RASD). MoViC is an event that started in Yokohama, Japan in 1992 and has been organised every two years alternating between Japan, USA and Europe. The eleven previous RASD conferences have been held every three years or so since 1980 primarily in Southampton, UK. The idea of joining the two conferences came quite naturally because of the common ground of the two conferences and the chances of cross-pollination between two otherwise separate research groups. This joint conference is devoted to theoretical, numerical and experimental developments in motion/vibration/structural dynamics, their control and application to all types of structures and dynamical systems. The conference reflects the state-of-the- art in these topics, and is an excellent opportunity to exchange scientific, technical and experimental ideas. The Conference Proceedings include over 250 papers by authors from over 20 countries, forty technical sessions and five plenary presentations. The five invited speakers are Professor Roger Goodall (Loughborough University, UK) presenting “Motion and vibration control for railway vehicles”, Professor Takeshi Mizuno (Saitama University, Japan) presenting “Recent advances in magnetic suspension technology”, Professor Kevin Murphy (University of Louisville, USA) presenting “Dynamics of Passive Balancing Rings for Rotating Systems”, Professor David Wagg (University of Sheffield, UK) presenting “Reducing vibrations in structures using structural control”, and Professor Kon-Well Wang (University of Michigan, USA) presenting “From Muscles to Plants - Nature-Inspired Adaptive Metastructures for Structural Dynamics Enhancement”. I would like to thank members of the Organising Committee for their help, over the last year or so, in
Review of quantum collision dynamics in Debye plasmas
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
R.K. Janev
2016-09-01
Full Text Available Hot, dense plasmas exhibit screened Coulomb interactions, resulting from the collective effects of correlated many-particle interactions. In the lowest particle correlation order (pair-wise correlations, the interaction between charged plasma particles reduces to the Debye–Hückel (Yukawa-type potential, characterized by the Debye screening length. Due to the importance of Coulomb interaction screening in dense laboratory and astrophysical plasmas, hundreds of theoretical investigations have been carried out in the past few decades on the plasma screening effects on the electronic structure of atoms and their collision processes employing the Debye–Hückel screening model. The present article aims at providing a comprehensive review of the recent studies in atomic physics in Debye plasmas. Specifically, the work on atomic electronic structure, photon excitation and ionization, electron/positron impact excitation and ionization, and excitation, ionization and charge transfer of ion-atom/ion collisions will be reviewed.
Photoexcitation and ionization of hydrogen atom confined in Debye environment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lumb, S.; Lumb, S.; Nautiyal, V.
2015-01-01
The dynamics of a hydrogen atom confined in an impenetrable spherical box and under the effect of Debye screening, in the presence of intense short laser pulses of few femtosecond is studied in detail. The energy spectra and wave functions have been calculated using Bernstein polynomial (B-polynomial) method. Variation of transition probabilities for various transitions due to changes in Debye screening length, confinement radius as well as the parameters characterizing applied laser pulse is studied and explained. The results are found to be in good agreement with the results obtained by others. The photoexcitation and ionization of the atom strongly depend on confinement radius and screening parameter. For small confinement radii and for some values of screening parameter the atom is found to be ionized easily. The dynamics of the atom can be easily controlled by varying pulse parameters
Electron impact excitation of helium in Debye plasma
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Diallo, S.; Gomis, L.; Faye, I. G.; Tall, M. S.; Diédhiou, I. [Département de Physique, Faculté des Sciences and Techniques, Université Cheikh Anta Diop, Dakar-Fann (Senegal); Diatta, C. S. [Institut International des Sciences et de Technologie, 28 Avenue des Ambassadeurs Dakar-Fann (Senegal); Zammit, M. [ARC Centre for Antimatter-Matter Studies, Curtin University, GPO Box U1987, Perth, Western Australia 6845 (Australia)
2015-03-15
The probability, differential, and integral scattering cross sections of the 1{sup 1}S→2{sup 1}S and 1{sup 1}S→2{sup 1}P transitions of helium have been calculated in the first Born approximation. The projectile-target interactions depending on the temperature and the density of plasma are described by the Debye-Hückel model. Wave functions of the target before and after collision were modeled by non orthogonal Hartree-Fock orbitals. The wave functions parameters are calculated with the Ritz variational method. We improve our unscreened first Born approximation integral cross sections by using the BE-scaled (B stands for binding energy and E excitation energy) method. The second Born approximation has also been used to calculate the excitation cross sections in Debye plasma. Our calculations are compared to other theoretical and experimental results where applicable.
Absence of Debye screening in the quantum Coulomb system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brydges, D.C.; Keller, G.
1994-01-01
We present an approximation to the quantum Coulomb plasma at equilibrium which captures the power-law violations of Debye screening which have been reported in recent papers. The objectives are (1) to produce a simpler model which we will study in forthcoming papers, and (2) to develop a strategy by which the absence of screening can be proven for the low-density quantum Coulomb plasma itself
Bernoulli Numbers: from Ada Lovelace to the Debye Functions
Sparavigna , Amelia Carolina
2016-01-01
Jacob Bernoulli owes his fame for the numerous contributions to calculus and for his discoveries in the field of probability. Here we will discuss one of his contributions to the theory of numbers, the Bernoulli numbers. They were proposed as a case study by Ada Lovelace in her analysis of Menabrea's report on Babbage Analytical Engine. It is probable that it was this Lovelace's work, that inspired Hans Thirring in using the Bernoulli numbers in the calculus of the Debye functions.
Debye's length in expanding quark-gluon plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bialas, A.
1988-06-01
The screening properties of an abelian quark-gluon plasma and boost invariantly expanding in a given direction, are discussed. The expansion results in anisotropic screening. At early stages of the process, the Debye length along the direction of the expansion is reduced by a factor of about 2, relative to static calculations. This may have important consequences for the J/ψ production rate. 12 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab. (author)
Barriga, P.; Dumas, J. C.; Woolley, A. A.; Zhao, C.; Blair, D. G.
2009-11-01
This paper describes the first demonstration of vibration isolation and suspension systems, which have been developed with view to application in the proposed Australian International Gravitational Observatory. In order to achieve optimal performance at low frequencies new components and techniques have been combined to create a compact advanced vibration isolator structure. The design includes two stages of horizontal preisolation and one stage of vertical preisolation with resonant frequencies ˜100 mHz. The nested structure facilitates a compact design and enables horizontal preisolation stages to be configured to create a superspring configuration, where active feedback can enable performance close to the limit set by seismic tilt coupling. The preisolation stages are combined with multistage three-dimensional (3D) pendulums. Two isolators suspending mirror test masses have been developed to form a 72 m optical cavity with finesse ˜700 in order to test their performance. The suitability of the isolators for use in suspended optical cavities is demonstrated through their ease of locking, long term stability, and low residual motion. An accompanying paper presents the local control system and shows how simple upgrades can substantially improve residual motion performance.
Banks, Simon T; Clary, David C
2009-01-14
We consider the general problem of vibrational analysis at nonglobally optimized points on a reduced dimensional reaction surface. We discuss the importance of the use of curvilinear internal coordinates to describe molecular motion and derive a curvilinear projection operator to remove the contribution of nonzero gradients from the Hessian matrix. Our projection scheme is tested in the context of a two-dimensional quantum scattering calculation for the reaction H + CH(4) --> H(2) + CH(3) and its reverse H(2) + CH(3) --> H + CH(4). Using zero-point energies calculated via rectilinear and curvilinear projections we construct two two-dimensional, adiabatically corrected, ab initio reaction surfaces for this system. It is shown that the use of curvilinear coordinates removes unphysical imaginary frequencies observed with rectilinear projection and leads to significantly improved thermal rate constants for both the forward and reverse reactions.
Investigations of mechanical properties and Debye temperature of U2Ti
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chattaraj, D.; Dash, Smruti; Kulkarni, S.G.
2012-01-01
U 2 Ti is a potential solid state material for safe storage, supply and recovery of hydrogen isotopes. It is not pyrophoric and its hydride is resistance to powdering upon hydrogenation. These two properties made this alloy advantageous over the conventionally used uranium as tritium getter material. Hence, thorough study of material properties like thermodynamic and elastic properties of U 2 Ti is important. Recently, present authors have reported thermodynamic functions for U 2 Ti. However, elastic moduli of this alloy have not been reported. The second derivatives of the internal energy with respect to strain, gives adiabatic elastic constants. Thus adiabatic elastic constants are related to interatomic potentials of material. They are also related to the thermal properties of a solid through the Debye theory. For metal hydride material, the elastic constants are useful for an evaluation of the elastic contribution to the hydrogen-hydrogen interaction energy and the elastic energy associated with the precipitation of hydride phases. The present paper reports the ultrasonic measurement of the elastic moduli and Debye temperature of U 2 Ti at room temperature using 38 DL plus ultrasonic velocitymeter
Nonlinear Forced Vibration of a Viscoelastic Buckled Beam with 2 : 1 Internal Resonance
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Liu-Yang Xiong
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Nonlinear dynamics of a viscoelastic buckled beam subjected to primary resonance in the presence of internal resonance is investigated for the first time. For appropriate choice of system parameters, the natural frequency of the second mode is approximately twice that of the first providing the condition for 2 : 1 internal resonance. The ordinary differential equations of the two mode shapes are established using the Galerkin method. The problem is replaced by two coupled second-order differential equations with quadratic and cubic nonlinearities. The multiple scales method is applied to derive the modulation-phase equations. Steady-state solutions of the system as well as their stability are examined. The frequency-amplitude curves exhibit the steady-state response in the directly excited and indirectly excited modes due to modal interaction. The double-jump, the saturation phenomenon, and the nonperiodic region phenomena are observed illustrating the influence of internal resonance. The validity range of the analytical approximations is assessed by comparing the analytical approximate results with a numerical solution by the Runge-Kutta method. The unstable regions in the internal resonance are explored via numerical simulations.
Bound states of hydrogen-like ions in Debye plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li Bowen; Jiang Jun; Kang Weimin; Yang Ningxuan; Dong Chenzhong
2009-01-01
The plasma screening effects on the energy levels and wave functions of hydrogen-like ions were estimated by using Debye model. The effects on n l(n=1-4, l=0-3) energy levels and wave functions of hydrogen and Fe 25+ ion versus screening lengths λ have been analyzed. Furthermore, the screening effects versus quantum number n and l has been analyzed. The results show that the screening effects increasing as n increasing and decreasing as l increasing. Last, the Eigenergies of isoelectronic series change against screening parameter λ has been discussed, it's shown that the plasma screening effects are decreasing as nuclear charge increasing. (authors)
Modified Debye screening potential in a magnetized quantum plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Salimullah, M.; Hussain, A.; Sara, I.; Murtaza, G.; Shah, H.A.
2009-01-01
The effects of quantum mechanical influence and uniform static magnetic field on the Shukla-Nambu-Salimullah potential in an ultracold homogeneous electron-ion Fermi plasma have been examined in detail. It is noticed that the strong quantum effect arising through the Bohm potential and the ion polarization effect can give rise to a new oscillatory behavior of the screening potential beyond the shielding cloud which could explain a new type of possible robust ordered structure formation in the quantum magnetoplasma. However, the magnetic field enhances the Debye length perpendicular to the magnetic field in the weak quantum limit of the quantum plasma.
Non-perturbative Debye mass in finite-T QCD
Kajantie, Keijo; Peisa, J; Rajantie, A; Rummukainen, K; Shaposhnikov, Mikhail E
1997-01-01
Employing a non-perturbative gauge invariant definition of the Debye screening mass m_D in the effective field theory approach to finite T QCD, we use 3d lattice simulations to determine the leading O(g^2) and to estimate the next-to-leading O(g^3) corrections to m_D in the high temperature region. The O(g^2) correction is large and modifies qualitatively the standard power-counting hierarchy picture of correlation lengths in high temperature QCD.
Yrjämä, M; Tervonen, O; Vanharanta, H
1996-03-01
The diagnostic information achieved by a combination of ultrasonographic imaging of discs and local bony vibration of lumbar vertebrae was compared to that obtained by discographic imaging and pain provocation. The purpose of this study was to find a noninvasive method for spine diagnostics to replace expensive and invasive methods such as discography. Internal anular fissures of the lumbar discs have been shown to be a source of back pain. Intradiscal changes associated with disc degeneration can be imaged by ultrasonography. The bony vibration test of spinal processes has shown to correlate well with discographic pain provocation tests in cases of internal anular ruptures. Discographic examination of the spine is the only widely accepted diagnostic method that combines pathoanatomic changes and patients' pain. Patients with back pain in this study were examined by means of ultrasonography, bony vibration stimulation, and discography. The three lowest lumbar discs were examined. In the cases of intradiscal ultrasound findings, the vibration provocation test showed a sensitivity of 0.90 and a specificity of 0.75 compared to the discographic pain provocation test. In cases of total anular ruptures seen in ultrasound examination, the sensitivity and the specificity of the vibration pain provocation test were much lower, being 0.50 and 0.50, respectively. The combination of the two noninvasive methods provides a useful screening test for the evaluation of low back pain. The combination test can accurately depict painful disc degeneration with internal disc rupture and the use of discography can be limited to the cases suggesting total anular rupture in ultrasound examination.
Photoionization of Li and Na in Debye plasma environments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sahoo, Satyabrata; Ho, Y.K.
2006-01-01
A calculation of the photoionization cross sections is presented for alkali-metal atoms such as Li and Na in plasma environments. The computational scheme is based on the complex coordinate rotation method. A model potential formalism has been used to simplify the computational complexity of the problems of making quantitative predictions of properties and interactions of many electron systems in Debye plasmas. The plasma environment is found to appreciably influence the photoionization cross sections. In this regard the photoionization cross sections of isolated atoms are also discussed that is found to be in good agreement with the previous theoretical results. It is observed that the strong plasma screening effect remarkably alters the photoionization cross sections near the ionization threshold. The Cooper minimum in the photoionization cross sections of Na shifts toward the higher energy as the plasma screening effect increases. For Li, the Cooper minimum is uncovered in strong plasma environments. This is the first time such structures have been determined
Plasma interaction with emmissive surface with Debye-scale grooves
Schweigert, Irina; Burton, Thomas S.; Thompson, Gregory B.; Langendorf, Samuel; Walker, Mitchell L. R.; Keidar, Michael
2018-04-01
The sheath development over emissive grooved surface in dc discharge plasma controlled by an electron beam is studied in the experiment and in 2D kinetic simulations. Grooved hexagonal boron nitride surfaces with different aspect ratios, designed to mimic the erosion channels, were exposed to an argon plasma. The characteristic size of the grooves (1 mm and 5 mm) is about of the Debye length. The secondary electrons emission from the grooved surfaces is provided by the bombardment with energetic electrons originated from the heated powered cathode. The transition between a developed and a collapsed sheaths near emissive surface takes place with an increase of the beam electron energy. For grooved emissive surfaces, the sheath transition happens at essentially higher voltage compared to the planar one. This phenomenon is analyzed in the terms of the electron energy distribution function.
Charge transfer in proton-hydrogen collisions under Debye plasma
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bhattacharya, Arka [Department of Mathematics, Burdwan University, Golapbag, Burdwan 713 104, West Bengal (India); Kamali, M. Z. M. [Centre for Foundation Studies in Science, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Ghoshal, Arijit, E-mail: arijit98@yahoo.com [Department of Mathematics, Burdwan University, Golapbag, Burdwan 713 104, West Bengal (India); Department of Mathematics, Kazi Nazrul University, B.C.W. Campus, Asansol 713 304, West Bengal (India); Institute of Mathematical Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Ratnavelu, K. [Department of Mathematics, Kazi Nazrul University, B.C.W. Campus, Asansol 713 304, West Bengal (India)
2015-02-15
The effect of plasma environment on the 1s → nlm charge transfer, for arbitrary n, l, and m, in proton-hydrogen collisions has been investigated within the framework of a distorted wave approximation. The effect of external plasma has been incorporated using Debye screening model of the interacting charge particles. Making use of a simple variationally determined hydrogenic wave function, it has been possible to obtain the scattering amplitude in closed form. A detailed study has been made to investigate the effect of external plasma environment on the differential and total cross sections for electron capture into different angular momentum states for the incident energy in the range of 20–1000 keV. For the unscreened case, our results are in close agreement with some of the most accurate results available in the literature.
Determination of the Debye-Waller Factor of hydrogen in Palladium and Palladium Silver alloy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Khodabakhsh, R.
1986-01-01
The mean square amplitude of the vibrating hydrogen in metals can be determined by using coherent elastic neutron scattering experiments, inelastic one-phonon scattering measurements. To determine the D.W.F. Debye-Waller Factor from the coherent elastic scattering measurements, information about the positions of atoms within the unit is required, and vice versa. The main difficulty concerning the determination of the D.W.F. from the inelastic experiment is in elimination of multi-phonon contribution from the measured spectrum. However, the D.W.F. of hydrogen in palladium has been usually determined by the intensity of the quasi-elastic line. An integration of the measured scattering law S(Q,W) at constant Q, over a certain energy window ΔE, results in the quasi-elastic intensity. To obtain an accurate result, this window has to be chosen large enough to comprise most of the quasi-elastic line, but sufficiently small so that the phonon contributions are small. The MARX spectrometer is ideally constructed for this type of measurement where the window is about +-1 Mev for incident neutron wavelength, =4.115 A. Thus, the quasi-elastic scattering method was considered the best method of determining the D.W.F. of hydrogen in palladium using the MARX spectrometer. However, if the acoustic part overlaps with the quasi-elastic part, one has to obtain the D.W.F. by fitting the data to a quasi-elastic model. The work to be reported here is the investigation of variations of the D.W.F. of hydrogen in Pd and PdAgsub(0.085) with temperature and extension of the available data to as high a temperature as possible. Therefore the integrated intensity of incoherent quasi-elastic neutron scattering by proton in polycrystallin Pd/H and PdAgsub(0.085)/H was investigated as a function of the scattering vector Q. A quasi-harmonic D.W.F. behaviour was observed at elevated temperatures. The observed Debye-Waller Factor depends strongly on the form of the amplitude weighted frequency
Vibrational anomalies and marginal stability of glasses
Marruzzo, Alessia
2013-01-01
The experimentally measured vibrational spectrum of glasses strongly deviates from that expected in Debye\\'s elasticity theory: The density of states deviates from Debye\\'s ω2 law ("boson peak"), the sound velocity shows a negative dispersion in the boson-peak frequency regime, and there is a strong increase in the sound attenuation near the boson-peak frequency. A generalized elasticity theory is presented, based on the model assumption that the shear modulus of the disordered medium fluctuates randomly in space. The fluctuations are assumed to be uncorrelated and have a certain distribution (Gaussian or otherwise). Using field-theoretical techniques one is able to derive mean-field theories for the vibrational spectrum of a disordered system. The theory based on a Gaussian distribution uses a self-consistent Born approximation (SCBA),while the theory for non-Gaussian distributions is based on a coherent-potential approximation (CPA). Both approximate theories appear to be saddle-point approximations of effective replica field theories. The theory gives a satisfactory explanation of the vibrational anomalies in glasses. Excellent agreement of the SCBA theory with simulation data on a soft-sphere glass is reached. Since the SCBA is based on a Gaussian distribution of local shear moduli, including negative values, this theory describes a shear instability as a function of the variance of shear fluctuations. In the vicinity of this instability, a fractal frequency dependence of the density of states and the sound attenuation ∝ ω1+a is predicted with a ≲ 1/2. Such a frequency dependence is indeed observed both in simulations and in experimental data. We argue that the observed frequency dependence stems from marginally stable regions in a glass and discuss these findings in terms of rigidity percolation. © 2013 EDP Sciences and Springer.
Dynamics of photoionization of hydrogenlike ions in Debye plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Qi, Y. Y.; Wang, J. G.; Janev, R. K.
2009-01-01
Photoionization processes for the ground state and n≤3 excited states of hydrogenlike ions embedded in a weakly coupled plasma are investigated in the entire energy range of a nonrelativistic regime. The plasma screening of the Coulomb interaction between charged particles is described by the Debye-Hueckel model. The energy levels and wave functions for both the bound and continuum states are calculated by solving the Schroedinger equation numerically by the symplectic integrator. The screening of Coulomb interactions reduces the number of bound electron states, decreases their binding energies, broadens the radial distribution of electron wave functions of these states, and changes significantly the phases and the amplitudes of continuum wave functions. These changes strongly affect the dipole matrix elements between the bound and continuum states and, hence, the photoionization cross sections. The most significant effects of the screened Coulomb interactions on the energy behavior of photoionization cross sections are manifested in its low-energy behavior (Wigner threshold law), the appearance of multiple shape and virtual-state resonances when the energy levels of upper bound states enter the continuum after certain critical strength of the screening, and in the (slight) reduction of the cross section at high photon energies. All these features of the photoionization cross section are related to the short-range character of the Debye-Hueckel potential. The effects of the potential screening on the Combet-Farnoux and Cooper minima in the photoionization cross section are also investigated. Comparison of calculated photoionization cross sections with the results of other authors, when available, is made.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ovcharov, O.; Pavelko, V.; Usanov, A.; Arkadov, G.; Dolgov, A.; Molchanov, V.; Anikeev, J.; Pljush, A.
2006-01-01
In this paper the following items have been presented: 1) Vibration noise instrument channels; 2) Vibration loading characteristics of control assemblies, internals and design peculiarities of internals of WWER-440 deferent projects; 3) Coolant flow rate through the reactor, reactor core, fuel assemblies and control assemblies for different projects WWER-440 and 4) Noise measurements of coolant speed per channel. The change of auto power spectrum density of absolute displacement detector signal for the last 12 years of SUS monitoring of the Kola NPP unit 2; the coherence functions groups between two SPND of the same level for the Kola NPP unit 1; the measured coolant flow rate at Paks NPP and the auto power spectrum density group of SPND signals from 11 neutron measuring channels of the Kola NPP unit 1 are given. The main factors of vibration loading of internals and fuel assemblies for Kola NPP units 1-4, Bohunice NPP units 1 and 2 and Novovoronezh NPP units 3 and 4 are also discussed
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Falkenstein, Jens Werner [Rostock Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Antriebstechnik und Mechatronik
2004-07-01
The design of motor car powertrains requires simulations as well as prototype tests. For the simulations, prototype parameters must be identified on test rigs, simulation results must be verified, and life tests must be carried out. This necessitates realistic and reproducible excitation of vibrations. Thee book describes the development and construction of a test rig which, with the aid of electric power systems, induces rotary vibrations like those which may occur in internal combustion engines due to gas forces and unbalanced mass forces. In combination with excess resonance, the test stand achieves high dynamics with average rotary momenta up to 600 Nm. The development process is documented, from test stand design with specially developed servo-engines to the control hardware to modelling, control element design, and commissioning. (orig.)
Pressure effects in Debye-Waller factors and in EXAFS
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nguyen Van Hung, E-mail: hungnv@vnu.edu.v [University of Science, VNU Hanoi, 334 Nguyen Trai, Thanh Xuan, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Vu Van Hung [Hanoi National University of Education, 136 Xuan Thuy, Cau Giay, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Ho Khac Hieu [University of Science, VNU Hanoi, 334 Nguyen Trai, Thanh Xuan, Hanoi (Viet Nam); National University of Civil Engineering, 55 Giai Phong, Hai Ba Trung, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Frahm, Ronald R. [Bergische Universitaet-Gesamthochschule Wuppertal, FB: 8-Physik, Gauss Strasse 20, 42097 Wuppertal (Germany)
2011-02-01
Anharmonic correlated Einstein model (ACEM) and statistical moment method (SMM) have been developed to derive analytical expressions for pressure dependence of the lattice bond length, effective spring constant, correlated Einstein frequency and temperature, Debye-Waller factors (DWF) or second cumulant, first and third cumulants in Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS) at a given temperature. Numerical results for pressure-dependent DWF of Kr and Cu agree well with experiment and other theoretical values. Simulated EXAFS of Cu and its Fourier transform magnitude using our calculated pressure-induced change in the 1st shell are found to be in a reasonable agreement with those using X-ray diffraction (XRD) experimental results. -- Research Highlights: {yields} We have developed anharmonic correlated Einstein model and statistical moment method. {yields} The pressure effects in cumulants including DWF and in EXAFS has been investigated. {yields} Calculated pressure-dependent DWF for Kr, Cu agree with experiment and other results. {yields} Simulated EXAFS and Fourier transform magnitude of Cu agree with those using XRD data.
Pressure effects in Debye-Waller factors and in EXAFS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nguyen Van Hung; Vu Van Hung; Ho Khac Hieu; Frahm, Ronald R.
2011-01-01
Anharmonic correlated Einstein model (ACEM) and statistical moment method (SMM) have been developed to derive analytical expressions for pressure dependence of the lattice bond length, effective spring constant, correlated Einstein frequency and temperature, Debye-Waller factors (DWF) or second cumulant, first and third cumulants in Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS) at a given temperature. Numerical results for pressure-dependent DWF of Kr and Cu agree well with experiment and other theoretical values. Simulated EXAFS of Cu and its Fourier transform magnitude using our calculated pressure-induced change in the 1st shell are found to be in a reasonable agreement with those using X-ray diffraction (XRD) experimental results. -- Research Highlights: → We have developed anharmonic correlated Einstein model and statistical moment method. → The pressure effects in cumulants including DWF and in EXAFS has been investigated. → Calculated pressure-dependent DWF for Kr, Cu agree with experiment and other results. → Simulated EXAFS and Fourier transform magnitude of Cu agree with those using XRD data.
Osman, Frederick; Ghahramani, Nader; Hora, Heinrich
2005-10-01
The studies of laser ablation have lead to a new theory of nuclei, endothermic nuclei generation, and quark-gluon plasmas. The surface of ablated plasma expanding into vacuum after high power laser irradiation of targets contains an electric double layer having the thickness of the Debye length. This led to the discovery of surface tension in plasmas, and led to the internal dynamic electric fields in all inhomogeneous plasmas. The surface tension causes stabilization by short length surface wave smoothing the expanding plasma plume and to stabilization against the Rayleigh Taylor instability. Generalizing this to the degenerate electrons in a metal with the Fermi energy instead of the temperature resulted in the first quantum theory of surface tension of metals in agreement with measurements. Taking the Fermi energy in the Debye length for nucleons results in a theory of nuclei with stable confinement of protons and neutrons just at the well-known nuclear density, and the Debye lengths equal to the Hofstadter decay of the nuclear surface. Increasing the nuclear density by a factor of 10 leads to a change of the Fermi energy into its relativistic branch where no surface energy is possible and the particle mass is not defined, permitting the quark gluon plasma. Expansion of this higher density at the big bang or in super-nova results in nucleation and element generation. The Boltzmann equilibrium permits the synthesis of nuclei even in the endothermic range, however with the limit to about uranium. A relation for the magic numbers leads to a quark structure of nuclear shells that can be understood as a duality property of nuclei with respect to nucleons and quarks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schumann, P.
2000-10-01
The report explains in detail applications and results of noise diagnostic measurements for examining vibrations which caused damage to reactor pressure vessel internals. The vibrations investigated were observed in 1975 and 1985 at the WWER-440/230 type reactors of the Russian design installed in units 1 and 2 of the Greifswald nuclear power plant, and were identified as dominant control element vibrations and abnormal core basket movements. The report presents essential operating characteristics recorded during disturbed reactor operation, the inspection results, and characteristic experimental findings from noise signal analyses and special tests examining the physical aspects of the vibration processes and their causes. Some recommendations have been derived relating to monitoring and minimization of such vibrations. (orig./CB) [de
Debye temperature, thermal expansion, and heat capacity of TcC up to 100 GPa
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Song, T., E-mail: songting@mail.lzjtu.cn [School of Mathematics and Physics, Lanzhou Jiaotong University, Lanzhou 730070 (China); School of Material Science and Engineering, Lanzhou University of Technology, Lanzhou 730050 (China); Ma, Q. [School of Material Science and Engineering, Lanzhou University of Technology, Lanzhou 730050 (China); Tian, J.H. [School of Mathematics and Physics, Lanzhou Jiaotong University, Lanzhou 730070 (China); Liu, X.B. [School of Physics and Information Science, Tianshui Normal University, Tianshui 741000 (China); Ouyang, Y.H.; Zhang, C.L.; Su, W.F. [School of Mathematics and Physics, Lanzhou Jiaotong University, Lanzhou 730070 (China)
2015-01-15
Highlights: • A number of thermodynamic properties of rocksalt TcC are investigated for the first time. • The quasi-harmonic Debye model is applied to take into account the thermal effect. • The pressure and temperature up to about 100 GPa and 3000 K, respectively. - Abstract: Debye temperature, thermal expansion coefficient, and heat capacity of ideal stoichiometric TcC in the rocksalt structure have been studied systematically by using ab initio plane-wave pseudopotential density functional theory method within the generalized gradient approximation. Through the quasi-harmonic Debye model, in which the phononic effects are considered, the dependences of Debye temperature, thermal expansion coefficient, constant-volume heat capacity, and constant-pressure heat capacity on pressure and temperature are successfully predicted. All the thermodynamic properties of TcC with rocksalt phase have been predicted in the entire temperature range from 300 to 3000 K and pressure up to 100 GPa.
Relationship between the DC Bias and Debye Length in a Complex Plasma
Kong, Jie; Reyes, Jorge C.; Creel, James; Hyde, Truell
2007-01-01
The levitation height of a dust particle layer within a RF discharge plasma sheath is known to be related to the DC bias, the background pressure, and the Debye length. In this paper, a new experimental technique for measurement of the Debye length is introduced. This technique is based on the relationship between an externally applied DC bias and the particle levitation height and shows that under appropriate conditions, the addition of an externally applied DC bias provides a mechanism for ...
Determination of low-frequency vibrational states in glasses
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ahmad, N.; Hasan, M.M.
1996-01-01
It is shown that density of low frequency (v < 1 THz) vibrational states g(v) in glasses can be determined from heat capacities measured at low temperature. These g(v) are identical to those determined from inelastic neutron scattering studies. The form of g(v) is non quadratic and therefore the Debye density of states may not be used to interpret the Raman, and infrared absorption in glasses. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mangir Murshed, M.; Gesing, Thorsten M. [Solid State Chemical Crystallography, Institute of Inorganic Chemistry and Crystallography, University of Bremen (Germany); MAPEX Center for Materials and Processes, University of Bremen (Germany); Zhao, Pei [Solid State Chemical Crystallography, Institute of Inorganic Chemistry and Crystallography, University of Bremen (Germany); Huq, Ashfia [Chemical and Engineering Materials Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
2018-03-01
The thermal expansion behavior of Li{sub 3}AsW{sub 7}O{sub 25} has been studied. The temperature-dependent development of crystal structural parameters was obtained from Rietveld refinement using neutron time of flight powder diffraction data. Modeling of the lattice thermal expansion was carried out using a Grueneisen first-order approximation for the zero-pressure equation of state, where the temperature-dependent vibrational energy was calculated taking the Debye-Einstein-Anharmonicity approach. Temperature-dependent Raman spectra shed light on some selective modes with unusual anharmonicity. Debye temperatures were calculated using three different theoretical approaches, namely, thermal expansion, mean-squared isotropic atomic displacement parameter and heat capacity. Similarities as well as discrepancies between the numerical values obtained from different theoretical approaches are discussed. (copyright 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Alekhin, S.A.; Chernov, V.S.; Denisenko, V.V.; Gorodnyanskiy, I.F.; Prokopov, L.I.; Tikhonov, Yu.P.
1983-01-01
The vibration mixer is proposed which contains a housing, vibration drive with rod installed in the upper part of the mixing mechanism made in the form of a hollow shaft with blades. In order to improve intensity of mixing and dispersion of the mud, the shaft with the blades is arranged on the rod of the vibrator and is equipped with a cam coupling whose drive disc is attached to the vibration rod. The rod is made helical, while the drive disc of the cam coupling is attached to the helical surface of the rod. In addition, the vibration mixer is equipped with perforated discs installed on the ends of the rods.
Vibration damping method and apparatus
Redmond, James M.; Barney, Patrick S.; Parker, Gordon G.; Smith, David A.
1999-01-01
The present invention provides vibration damping method and apparatus that can damp vibration in more than one direction without requiring disassembly, that can accommodate varying tool dimensions without requiring re-tuning, and that does not interfere with tool tip operations and cooling. The present invention provides active dampening by generating bending moments internal to a structure such as a boring bar to dampen vibration thereof.
Spherical conducting probes in finite Debye length plasmas and E x B fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Patacchini, Leonardo; Hutchinson, Ian H
2011-01-01
The particle-in-cell code SCEPTIC3D (Patacchini and Hutchinson 2010 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 52 035005) is used to calculate the interaction of a transversely flowing magnetized plasma with a negatively charged spherical conductor, in the entire range of magnetization and Debye length. The results allow the first fully self-consistent analysis of probe operation where neither the ion Larmor radius nor the Debye length are approximated by zero or infinity. An important transition in plasma structure occurs when the Debye length exceeds the average ion Larmor radius, as the sphere starts to shield the convective electric field driving the flow. A remarkable result is that in those conditions, the ion current can significantly exceed the unmagnetized orbital motion limit. When both the Debye length and the Larmor radius are small compared with the probe dimensions, however, their ratio does not affect the collection pattern significantly, and Mach-probe calibration methods derived in the context of quasineutral strongly magnetized plasmas (Patacchini and Hutchinson 2009 Phys. Rev. E 80 036403) hold for Debye lengths and ion Larmor radii smaller than about 10% of the probe radius.
Experience in WWER fuel assemblies vibration analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ovtcharov, O.; Pavelko, V.; Usanov, A.; Arkadov, G.; Dolgov, A.; Molchanov, V.
2003-01-01
It is stated that the vibration studies of internals and the fuel assemblies should be conducted during the reactor designing, commissioning and commercial operation stages and the analysis methods being used should complement each other. The present paper describes the methods and main results of the vibration noise studies of internals and the fuel assemblies of the operating NPPs with WWER reactors, as an example of the implementation of the comprehensive approach to the analysis on equipment flow-induced vibration. At that, the characteristics of internals and fuel assemblies vibration loading were dealt jointly as they are elements of the same compound oscillating system and their vibrations have the interrelated nature
Eddies in a bottleneck: an arbitrary Debye length theory for capillary electroosmosis.
Park, Stella Y; Russo, Christopher J; Branton, Daniel; Stone, Howard A
2006-05-15
Using an applied electrical field to drive fluid flows becomes desirable as channels become smaller. Although most discussions of electroosmosis treat the case of thin Debye layers, here electroosmotic flow (EOF) through a constricted cylinder is presented for arbitrary Debye lengths (kappa(-1)) using a long wavelength perturbation of the cylinder radius. The analysis uses the approximation of small potentials. The varying diameter of the cylinder produces radially and axially varying effective electric fields, as well as an induced pressure gradient. We predict the existence of eddies for certain constricted geometries and propose the possibility of electrokinetic trapping in these regions. We also present a leading-order criterion which predicts central eddies in very narrow constrictions at the scale of the Debye length. Eddies can be found both in the center of the channel and along the perimeter, and the presence of the eddies is a consequence of the induced pressure gradient that accompanies electrically driven flow into a narrow constriction.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Escande, D F; Elskens, Yves; Doveil, F
2015-01-01
The derivation of Debye shielding and Landau damping from the N-body description of plasmas is performed directly by using Newton’s second law for the N-body system. This is done in a few steps with elementary calculations using standard tools of calculus and no probabilistic setting. Unexpectedly, Debye shielding is encountered together with Landau damping. This approach is shown to be justified in the one-dimensional case when the number of particles in a Debye sphere becomes large. The theory is extended to accommodate a correct description of trapping and chaos due to Langmuir waves. On top of their well-known production of collisional transport, the repulsive deflections of electrons are shown to produce shielding, in such a way that each particle is shielded by all other ones, while keeping in uninterrupted motion. (paper)
Boundary asymptotics for a non-neutral electrochemistry model with small Debye length
Lee, Chiun-Chang; Ryham, Rolf J.
2018-04-01
This article addresses the boundary asymptotics of the electrostatic potential in non-neutral electrochemistry models with small Debye length in bounded domains. Under standard physical assumptions motivated by non-electroneutral phenomena in oxidation-reduction reactions, we show that the electrostatic potential asymptotically blows up at boundary points with respect to the bulk reference potential as the scaled Debye length tends to zero. The analysis gives a lower bound for the blow-up rate with respect to the model parameters. Moreover, the maximum potential difference over any compact subset of the physical domain vanishes exponentially in the zero-Debye-length limit. The results mathematically confirm the physical description that electrolyte solutions are electrically neutral in the bulk and are strongly electrically non-neutral near charged surfaces.
An Investigation on the He−(1s2s2 2S Resonance in Debye Plasmas
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Arijit Ghoshal
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The effect of Debye plasma on the 1 s 2 s 2 2 S resonance states in the scattering of electron from helium atom has been investigated within the framework of the stabilization method. The interactions among the charged particles in Debye plasma have been modelled by Debye–Huckel potential. The 1 s 2 s excited state of the helium atom has been treated as consisting of a H e + ionic core plus an electron moving around. The interaction between the core and the electron has then been modelled by a model potential. It has been found that the background plasma environment significantly affects the resonance states. To the best of our knowledge, such an investigation of 1 s 2 s 2 2 S resonance states of the electron–helium system embedded in Debye plasma environment is the first reported in the literature.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bodryakov, V.Yu.; Povzner, A.A.
2000-01-01
The correlation between the temperature dependence of elastic moduli and the Debye temperature of paramagnetic metal is analyzed in neglect of the temperature dependence of the Poison coefficient σ within the frames of the Debye-Grueneisen presentations. It is shown, that namely the temperature dependence of the elastic moduli determines primarily the temperature dependence of the Debye temperature Θ(T). On the other hand, the temperature dependence Θ(T) very weakly effects the temperature dependence of the elastic moduli. The later made it possible to formulate the self-consistent approach to calculation of the elastic moduli temperature dependence. The numerical estimates of this dependence parameters are conducted by the example of the all around compression modulus of the paramagnetic lutetium [ru
Vibrational spectra of ordered perovskites
Corsmit, A.F.; Hoefdraad, H.E.; Blasse, G.
1972-01-01
The vibrational spectra of the molecular M6+O6 (M = Mo, Te, W) group in ordered perovskites of the type Ba2M2+M6+O6 are reported. These groups have symmetry Oh, whereas their site symmetry is also Oh. An assignment of the internal vibrations is presented.
Light intensity dependent Debye screening length in undoped photorefractive titanosillenite crystals
de Oliveira, I; Frejlich, J
2012-01-01
We report on the experimental evidence of the light intensity dependence of the Debye screening length l(s) in undoped photorefractive titanosillenite crystals (Bi12TiO20) by measuring the holographic gain and diffraction efficiency in a two-wave mixing experiment under 532 nm wavelength laser light. Debye length shows saturation at high values of the light intensity. Results are in agreement with the theoretical development. (C) 2012 American Institute of Physics. [http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kumar, Bharat; Crittenden, Scott R
2013-01-01
We demonstrate the ability to measure Stern potential and Debye length in dilute ionic solution with atomic force microscopy. We develop an analytic expression for the second harmonic force component of the capacitive force in an ionic solution from the linearized Poisson–Boltzmann equation. This allows us to calibrate the AFM tip potential and, further, obtain the Stern potential of sample surfaces. In addition, the measured capacitive force is independent of van der Waals and double layer forces, thus providing a more accurate measure of Debye length. (paper)
Kumar, Bharat; Crittenden, Scott R
2013-11-01
We demonstrate the ability to measure Stern potential and Debye length in dilute ionic solution with atomic force microscopy. We develop an analytic expression for the second harmonic force component of the capacitive force in an ionic solution from the linearized Poisson-Boltzmann equation. This allows us to calibrate the AFM tip potential and, further, obtain the Stern potential of sample surfaces. In addition, the measured capacitive force is independent of van der Waals and double layer forces, thus providing a more accurate measure of Debye length.
Debye shielding in a dusty plasma with nonextensively distributed electrons and ions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu, Y.; Xu, K.; Liu, S. Q.
2012-01-01
The phenomenon of Debye shielding in dusty plasmas is investigated within the framework of nonextensively distributed electrons and ions. The effects of dust grain charge fluctuation are considered. It shows that the increase of the nonextensive parameters of electrons and ions will lead to the decrease of the shielding distance and it is due to that the effective temperature of nonextensively distributed particles drops with the increase of nonextensive parameters. There is a rather interesting result that the Debye shielding effects may vanish in a certain condition when the fluctuation of the dust grain charges is taken into account.
The Temperature Dependence of the Debye-Waller Factor of Magnesium
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sledziewska-Blocka, D.; Lebech, Bente
1976-01-01
The temperature dependence of the average Debye-Waller factor for magnesium was measured by means of neutron diffraction spectrometry. The experimental results obtained in the temperature range from 5 to 256 K are compared with theoretical calculations, using the harmonic and quasi-harmonic appro......The temperature dependence of the average Debye-Waller factor for magnesium was measured by means of neutron diffraction spectrometry. The experimental results obtained in the temperature range from 5 to 256 K are compared with theoretical calculations, using the harmonic and quasi......-harmonic approximations and results of previous experiments....
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Filippov, A V
2015-01-01
This paper is devoted to a careful study of two charge interaction in an equilibrium plasma within the Debye approximation. The effect of external boundary conditions for the electric field strength and potential on the electrostatic force is studied. The problem is solved by the method of potential decomposition into Legendre polynomials up to the fifth multipole term included. It is shown that the effect of attraction of identically charged macroparticles is explained by the influence of the external boundary. When the size of a calculation cell is increased the attraction effect disappears and the electrostatic force is well described by the screened Debye-Hückel potential. (paper)
Thermodynamics of Binary Mixed Crystals in the Sub-quasi-chemical/Debye Approximation
van der Kemp, W. J. M.; Verdonk, M. L.
1995-03-01
A new statistical model for the description of the thermodynamic properties of binary mixed crystals is discussed. The model is based on an asymmetrical analogue of the quasi-chemical approximation and the Debye model of a solid. With two interchange -energy parameters and two interchange-Debye-temperature parameters, all important thermodynamic functions, at constant volume, of the binary mixed crystal can be calculated as a function of temperature and composition. The binary system {( 1 - x)Nai + xKI}(s) is used for illustration of the model.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sørensen, Herman
1997-01-01
Methods for calculating natural frequencies for ship hulls and for plates and panels.Evaluation of the risk for inconvenient vibrations on board......Methods for calculating natural frequencies for ship hulls and for plates and panels.Evaluation of the risk for inconvenient vibrations on board...
VIBRATION ISOLATION SYSTEM PROBABILITY ANALYSIS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Smirnov Vladimir Alexandrovich
2012-10-01
Full Text Available The article deals with the probability analysis for a vibration isolation system of high-precision equipment, which is extremely sensitive to low-frequency oscillations even of submicron amplitude. The external sources of low-frequency vibrations may include the natural city background or internal low-frequency sources inside buildings (pedestrian activity, HVAC. Taking Gauss distribution into account, the author estimates the probability of the relative displacement of the isolated mass being still lower than the vibration criteria. This problem is being solved in the three dimensional space, evolved by the system parameters, including damping and natural frequency. According to this probability distribution, the chance of exceeding the vibration criteria for a vibration isolation system is evaluated. Optimal system parameters - damping and natural frequency - are being developed, thus the possibility of exceeding vibration criteria VC-E and VC-D is assumed to be less than 0.04.
An investigation of antiprotons collisions with positronium atom in Debye plasma environments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pandey, M. K.; Lin, Y.-C.; Ho, Y. K.
2015-01-01
The effects of Debye plasmas on antihydrogen formation and ionization processes are investigated in antiprotons (p ¯ ) and positronium (Ps) collisions. The classical trajectory Monte Carlo method with Debye Hückel potentials has been used for cross section calculations. In this process, antihydrogen formation and ionization cross sections have been calculated in unscreened as well as in Debye plasmas conditions in energies ranging from 1 to 500 keV. Partial cross sections for antihydrogen formation are also calculated which show the largest cross sections correspond to production of antihydrogen in the n = 2 (2s, 2p) states. Comparative study has been carried out to determine the differences of cross sections in screening and unscreening cases. The results show that the cross sections for both antihydrogen formation and positronium ionization depend on Debye screening lengths as well as on collision energies. The effects of plasmas conditions on antihydrogen formation and positronium ionization are explained in terms of classical trajectory framework. Our results for the unscreened case are in agreement with previously reported results
Electron Debye scale Kelvin-Helmholtz instability: Electrostatic particle-in-cell simulations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, Sang-Yun; Lee, Ensang; Kim, Khan-Hyuk; Lee, Dong-Hun; Seon, Jongho; Jin, Ho
2015-01-01
In this paper, we investigated the electron Debye scale Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) instability using two-dimensional electrostatic particle-in-cell simulations. We introduced a velocity shear layer with a thickness comparable to the electron Debye length and examined the generation of the KH instability. The KH instability occurs in a similar manner as observed in the KH instabilities in fluid or ion scales producing surface waves and rolled-up vortices. The strength and growth rate of the electron Debye scale KH instability is affected by the structure of the velocity shear layer. The strength depends on the magnitude of the velocity and the growth rate on the velocity gradient of the shear layer. However, the development of the electron Debye scale KH instability is mainly determined by the electric field generated by charge separation. Significant mixing of electrons occurs across the shear layer, and a fraction of electrons can penetrate deeply into the opposite side fairly far from the vortices across the shear layer
Effective Debye length in closed nanoscopic systems: a competition between two length scales.
Tessier, Frédéric; Slater, Gary W
2006-02-01
The Poisson-Boltzmann equation (PBE) is widely employed in fields where the thermal motion of free ions is relevant, in particular in situations involving electrolytes in the vicinity of charged surfaces. The applications of this non-linear differential equation usually concern open systems (in osmotic equilibrium with an electrolyte reservoir, a semi-grand canonical ensemble), while solutions for closed systems (where the number of ions is fixed, a canonical ensemble) are either not appropriately distinguished from the former or are dismissed as a numerical calculation exercise. We consider herein the PBE for a confined, symmetric, univalent electrolyte and quantify how, in addition to the Debye length, its solution also depends on a second length scale, which embodies the contribution of ions by the surface (which may be significant in high surface-to-volume ratio micro- or nanofluidic capillaries). We thus establish that there are four distinct regimes for such systems, corresponding to the limits of the two parameters. We also show how the PBE in this case can be formulated in a familiar way by simply replacing the traditional Debye length by an effective Debye length, the value of which is obtained numerically from conservation conditions. But we also show that a simple expression for the value of the effective Debye length, obtained within a crude approximation, remains accurate even as the system size is reduced to nanoscopic dimensions, and well beyond the validity range typically associated with the solution of the PBE.
Numerical study of the influence of solid polarization on electrophoresis at finite Debye thickness.
Bhattacharyya, Somnath; De, Simanta
2015-09-01
The influence of solid polarization on the electrophoresis of a uniformly charged dielectric particle for finite values of the particle-to-fluid dielectric permittivity ratio is analyzed quantitatively without imposing the thin Debye length or weak-field assumption. Present analysis is based on the computation of the coupled Poisson-Nernst-Planck and Stokes equations in the fluid domain along with the Laplace equation within the solid. The electrophoretic velocity is determined through the balance of forces acting on the particle. The solid polarization of the charged particle produces a reduction on its electrophoretic velocity compared to a nonpolarizable particle of the same surface charge density. In accordance with the existing thin-layer analysis, our computed results for thin Debye layer shows that the solid polarization is important only when the applied electric field is strong. When the Debye length is in the order of the particle size, the electrophoretic velocity decreases with the rise of the particle permittivity and attains a saturation limit at large values of the permittivity. Our computed solution for electrophoretic velocity is in agreement with the existing asymptotic analyses based on a thin Debye layer for limiting cases.
Modelling the X-ray powder diffraction of nitrogen-expanded austenite using the Debye formula
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Oddershede, Jette; Christiansen, Thomas; Ståhl, Kenny
2008-01-01
Stress-free and homogeneous samples of nitrogen-expanded austenite, a defect-rich f.c.c. structure with a high interstitial nitrogen occupancy (between 0.36 and 0.61), have been studied using X-ray powder diffraction and Debye simulations. The simulations confirm the presence of deformation...... to be indistinguishable to X-ray powder diffraction....
An investigation of antiprotons collisions with positronium atom in Debye plasma environments
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pandey, M. K., E-mail: pandey@pub.iams.sinica.edu.tw; Lin, Y.-C.; Ho, Y. K., E-mail: ykho@pub.iams.sinica.edu.tw [Institute of Atomic and Molecular Sciences, Academia Sinica, P.O. Box 23-166, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China)
2015-05-15
The effects of Debye plasmas on antihydrogen formation and ionization processes are investigated in antiprotons (p{sup ¯}) and positronium (Ps) collisions. The classical trajectory Monte Carlo method with Debye Hückel potentials has been used for cross section calculations. In this process, antihydrogen formation and ionization cross sections have been calculated in unscreened as well as in Debye plasmas conditions in energies ranging from 1 to 500 keV. Partial cross sections for antihydrogen formation are also calculated which show the largest cross sections correspond to production of antihydrogen in the n = 2 (2s, 2p) states. Comparative study has been carried out to determine the differences of cross sections in screening and unscreening cases. The results show that the cross sections for both antihydrogen formation and positronium ionization depend on Debye screening lengths as well as on collision energies. The effects of plasmas conditions on antihydrogen formation and positronium ionization are explained in terms of classical trajectory framework. Our results for the unscreened case are in agreement with previously reported results.
A gradient approximation for calculating Debye temperatures from pairwise interatomic potentials
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jackson, D.P.
1975-09-01
A simple gradient approximation is given for calculating the effective Debye temperature of a cubic crystal from central pairwise interatomic potentials. For examples of the Morse potential applied to cubic metals the results are in generally good agreement with experiment. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nawal H. Al – Raheimy
2016-09-01
Full Text Available In this paper the approximate method of Raleigh method can be used to study the effect of additional boundary conditions (clamped – free & clamped – clamped on the free transverse vibrations of uniform pipes which have length, L (1m , inner radius, "Ri" (1cm & thickness, "t" (1mm made from composite materials, where the resin of unsaturated polyester represented the matrix material reinforced by aligned (E-fibers glass in the first case and used aligned fiber (Kevlar-49 in the second case. The length of fibers is in the two types, the first type is long fibers (continuous and the second is short fibers (discontinuous for different length all at volume fraction of fibers, "f" (0.15 & 0.25. At any construction of the pipe in composite material the natural frequency decreased when the velocity of flow increased from zero to critical velocity also can be observed the pipe at clamped – clamped boundary conditions predicts natural frequency & critical velocity greater than that pipe at clamped – free. The natural frequency and critical velocity increase with increasing volume fraction and length of discontinuous fiber. The value of natural frequency for pipes which have continuous fibers is constant at certain velocity of flow while are variable in pipes which have discontinuous fibers according to ratio between length of short fiber to critical length of discontinuous fiber whereas the natural frequency increase with increasing this ratio. Finally the pipes with Kevlar fiber have high critical velocity and natural frequency compare with pipes for fiber glass.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chiodo, Sandro Giuseppe; Mineva, Tzonka
2015-01-01
This work reports non-radiative internal conversion (IC) rate constants obtained for Cu n with n = 3, 6, and 9 and H 2 on Cu 3 . The Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory (TDDFT) method was employed with three different functionals in order to investigate the electronic structures and the absorption spectra. The performance of the generalized gradient approximation of Perdew, Burke and Ernzerhof (PBE) and the hybrid B3LYP and PBE0 exchange correlation functionals in combination with the SVP and the def2-TZVP basis sets was examined. TDDFT results were used as input data to compute internal conversion rate constants. For this purpose, we have developed a program package. A description of the theoretical background used in our numerical implementation and the program input file is presented. In view of future applications of this program package in photoinduced catalysis, we present the analysis of the IC rate processes for the photodissociation of H 2 on Cu 3 . These results showed the applicability of the method and the computational program to identify the vibrational modes in transition metal clusters giving rise to the largest IC rate constant due to their interactions with the excited electronic states occurring in the hot-electron induced dissociation phenomena
Zhong, Rui; Wang, Qingshan; Tang, Jinyuan; Shuai, Cijun; Liang, Qian
2018-02-01
This paper presents the first known vibration characteristics of moderately thick functionally graded carbon nanotube reinforced composite rectangular plates on Pasternak foundation with arbitrary boundary conditions and internal line supports on the basis of the firstorder shear deformation theory. Different distributions of single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) along the thickness are considered. Uniform and other three kinds of functionally graded distributions of carbon nanotubes along the thickness direction of plates are studied. The solutions carried out using an enhanced Ritz method mainly include the following three points: Firstly, create the Lagrange energy function by the energy principle; Secondly, as the main innovation point, the modified Fourier series are chosen as the basic functions of the admissible functions of the plates to eliminate all the relevant discontinuities of the displacements and their derivatives at the edges; Lastly, solve the natural frequencies as well as the associated mode shapes by means of the Ritz-variational energy method. In this study, the influences of the volume fraction of CNTs, distribution type of CNTs, boundary restrain parameters, location of the internal line supports, foundation coefficients on the natural frequencies and mode shapes of the FG-CNT reinforced composite rectangular plates are presented.
Kaliski, S
2013-01-01
This book gives a comprehensive overview of wave phenomena in different media with interacting mechanical, electromagnetic and other fields. Equations describing wave propagation in linear and non-linear elastic media are followed by equations of rheological models, models with internal rotational degrees of freedom and non-local interactions. Equations for coupled fields: thermal, elastic, electromagnetic, piezoelectric, and magneto-spin with adequate boundary conditions are also included. Together with its companion volume Vibrations and Waves. Part A: Vibrations this work provides a wealth
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Morrison, Ann; Knudsen, L.; Andersen, Hans Jørgen
2012-01-01
In this paper we describe a field study conducted with a wearable vibration belt where we test to determine the vibration intensity sensitivity ranges on a large diverse group of participants with evenly distributed ages and...
Nokes, L D; Thorne, G C
1988-01-01
Measurements of various mechanical properties of skeletal material using vibration techniques have been reported. The purposes of such investigations include the monitoring of pathogenic disorders such as osteoporosis, the rate and extent of fracture healing, and the status of internal fixations. Early investigations pioneered the application of conventional vibration measurement equipment to biological systems. The more recent advent of the microcomputer has made available to research groups more sophisticated techniques for data acquisition and analysis. The economical advantages of such equipment has led to the development of portable research instrumentation which lends itself to use in a clinical environment. This review article reports on the developments and progression of the various vibrational techniques and theories as applied to musculoskeletal systems.
Smith, N L; Coukouma, A; Dubnik, S; Asher, S A
2017-12-06
We fabricate 2D photonic crystals (2DPC) by spreading a dispersion of charged colloidal particles (diameters = 409, 570, and 915 nm) onto the surface of electrolyte solutions using a needle tip flow method. When the interparticle electrostatic interaction potential is large, particles self-assemble into highly ordered hexagonal close packed (hcp) monolayers. Ordered 2DPC efficiently forward diffract monochromatic light to produce a Debye ring on a screen parallel to the 2DPC. The diameter of the Debye ring is inversely proportional to the 2DPC particle spacing, while the Debye ring brightness and thickness depends on the 2DPC ordering. The Debye ring thickness increases as the 2DPC order decreases. The Debye ring ordering measurements of 2DPC attached to glass slides track measurements of the 2D pair correlation function order parameter calculated from SEM micrographs. The Debye ring method was used to investigate the 2DPC particle spacing, and ordering at the air-solution interface of NaCl solutions, and for 2DPC arrays attached to glass slides. Surprisingly, the 2DPC ordering does not monotonically decrease as the salt concentration increases. This is because of chloride ion adsorption onto the anionic particle surfaces. This adsorption increases the particle surface charge and compensates for the decreased Debye length of the electric double layer when the NaCl concentration is below a critical value.
Yang, X X; Li, J W; Zhou, Z F; Wang, Y; Yang, L W; Zheng, W T; Sun, Chang Q
2012-01-21
From the perspective of bond relaxation and bond vibration, we have formulated the Raman phonon relaxation of graphene, under the stimuli of the number-of-layers, the uni-axial strain, the pressure, and the temperature, in terms of the response of the length and strength of the representative bond of the entire specimen to the applied stimuli. Theoretical unification of the measurements clarifies that: (i) the opposite trends of the Raman shifts, which are due to the number-of-layers reduction, of the G-peak shift and arises from the vibration of a pair of atoms, while the D- and the 2D-peak shifts involve the z-neighbor of a specific atom; (ii) the tensile strain-induced phonon softening and phonon-band splitting arise from the asymmetric response of the C(3v) bond geometry to the C(2v) uni-axial bond elongation; (iii) the thermal softening of the phonons originates from bond expansion and weakening; and (iv) the pressure stiffening of the phonons results from bond compression and work hardening. Reproduction of the measurements has led to quantitative information about the referential frequencies from which the Raman frequencies shift as well as the length, energy, force constant, Debye temperature, compressibility and elastic modulus of the C-C bond in graphene, which is of instrumental importance in the understanding of the unusual behavior of graphene.
Doubly excited P-wave resonance states of H− in Debye plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jiao, L. G.; Ho, Y. K.
2013-01-01
We investigate the doubly excited P-wave resonance states of H − system in Debye plasmas modeled by static screened Coulomb potentials. The screening effects of the plasma environment on resonance parameters (energy and width) are investigated by employing the complex-scaling method with Hylleraas-type wave functions for both the shape and Feshbach resonances associated with the H(N = 2 to 6) thresholds. Under the screening conditions, the H(N) threshold states are no longer l degenerate, and all the H − resonance energy levels are shifted away from their unscreened values toward the continuum. The influence of Debye plasmas on resonance widths has also been investigated. The shape resonance widths are broadened with increasing plasma screening strength, whereas the Feshbach resonance widths would generally decrease. Our results associated with the H(N = 2) and H(N = 3) thresholds are compared with others in the literature
Ion collection by a sphere in a flowing plasma: 2. non-zero Debye length
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hutchinson, I H
2003-01-01
The spatial distribution of ion flux to a sphere in a flowing collisionless plasma is calculated using a particle-in-cell code SCEPTIC. The code is validated by comparing with prior stationary-plasma and approximate calculations. Comprehensive results are provided for ion temperatures 1 and 0.1 times the electron temperature, and for Debye length from 0.01 to 100 times the probe size. A remarkable qualitatively new result is obtained: over a range of Debye lengths from roughly 0.1 to 10 times the probe radius at T i = 0.1T e , the downstream side of the probe receives substantially higher flux density than the upstream side when the flow is subsonic. This unexpected reversal of the asymmetry reinforces the need for these fully self-consistent calculations, but renders the use of the flux ratio for Mach-probe purposes problematic, even for deriving the direction of the flow
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Panigrahy, N N [Siddartha Nagar 2, Berhampur (India); Mahapatra, D [T.T. College, Ganjam (India); Panda, B N [DAV College, Koraput (India); Rout, G C [Govt. Science College, Ganjam (India)
2006-04-15
The interplay between superconductivity (SC) and antiferromagnetism (AFM) is studied in strongly correlated systems: R{sub 2-x}M{sub x}CuO{sub 4} (R = Nd, La, Pr. Gd; M = Sr, Ce) due to electron-phonon interaction, It is assumed that SC arises due to BCS pairing mechanism in presence of AFM in Cu lattices of Cu-O planes, Debye frequency {omega}{sub D} dependence of high temperature SC gap as well as staggered magnetic field at different temperatures are calculated analytically and solved self-consistently with respect to half-filled band situation for different model parameters (temperature parameter {theta} and hybridization parameter {nu}, {lambda}{sub 1} and {lambda}{sub 2} being the SC and AF coupling parameters, respectively). The SC gap and AFM gap are studied in their coexistence phase for different Debye frequencies. (author)
Debye frequency and interplay of superconductivity and antiferromagnetism in high Tc superconductors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Panigrahy, N.N.; Mahapatra, D.; Panda, B.N.; Rout, G.C.
2006-01-01
The interplay between superconductivity (SC) and antiferromagnetism (AFM) is studied in strongly correlated systems: R 2-x M x CuO 4 (R = Nd, La, Pr. Gd; M = Sr, Ce) due to electron-phonon interaction, It is assumed that SC arises due to BCS pairing mechanism in presence of AFM in Cu lattices of Cu-O planes, Debye frequency ω D dependence of high temperature SC gap as well as staggered magnetic field at different temperatures are calculated analytically and solved self-consistently with respect to half-filled band situation for different model parameters (temperature parameter θ and hybridization parameter ν, λ 1 and λ 2 being the SC and AF coupling parameters, respectively). The SC gap and AFM gap are studied in their coexistence phase for different Debye frequencies. (author)
On the Debye-Waller factor in atom-surface scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Garcia, N.; Maradudin, A.A.; Celli, V.
1982-01-01
A theory for the Debye-Waller factor in atom-surface scattering is presented, to lowest order in the phonon contributions. Multiple-scattering effects as well as the cross-correlated surface atom displacements are included. The theory accounts for experimental data without the necessity of introducing the Armand effect, which is due to the finite size of the incident atom. The work presented here implies that the Kirchhoff approximation fails when the energy of the incident particle is in the energy range of the phonon spectrum. The results of the calculation are presented in the high-temperature limit, and it is observed that the Rayleigh surface phonons contribute three-quarters of the Debye-Waller factor, while the bulk phonons account for the rest. This result is interesting because the calculation of the former contribution is simpler than that of the latter. (author)
Nonabelian Debye screening and the {open_quotes}tsunami{close_quotes} problem
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pisarski, R.D. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)
1997-09-22
The phenomenon of Debye screening is familiar from electrolytes and many other systems. Recently, it has been recognized that in nonabelian gauge theories at high temperature, even perturbatively Debye screening is much more complicated than in nonrelativistic systems. This was originally derived as {open_quotes}hard thermal loops{close_quotes}. Hard thermal loops have been derived perturbatively, by a semiclassical truncation of the Schwinger-Dyson equations, and by classical kinetic theory. In this talk I give a pedagogical derivation, following that of Kelly, Liu, Lucchesi, and Manuel. The derivation is valid not just for a thermal distribution, but (modulo certain obvious restrictions) for an arbitrary initial distribution of particles. Consider, for example, the {open_quotes}tsunami{close_quotes} problem: suppose that one starts, at time t = 0, with a spatially homogenous, infinite wall of particles, all moving with the same velocity at the speed of light.
Quantum Debye-Hueckel theory and the possible plasma phase transition
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baker, G. Jr.
1998-01-01
In this paper the author first sketches the calculation of the pressure of a neutral, ion-electron gas as an expansion in powers of the electron charge, e, by means of the Matsubara, finite-temperature, many-body, perturbation theory. He then goes on to derive the Debye-Hue term and other equations to support his contentions. His results support but do not prove the existence of a phase transition
Electron structure of atoms in laser plasma: The Debye shielding model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sako, Tokuei; Okutsu, Hiroshi; Yamanouchi, Kaoru
2005-01-01
The electronic structure and the energy spectra of multielectron atoms in laser plasmas are examined by the Debye shielding model. The effect of the plasma environment on the electrons bound in an atom is taken into account by introducing the screened Coulomb-type potentials into the electronic Hamiltonian of an atom in place of the standard nuclear attraction and electron repulsion potentials. The capabilities of this new Hamiltonian are demonstrated for He and Li in laser plasmas. (author)
Volume dependence of the melting temperature for alkali metals with Debye's model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Soma, T.; Kagaya, H.M.; Nishigaki, M.
1983-01-01
Using the volume dependence of the Grueneisen constant at higher temperatures, the volume effect on the melting temperature of alkali metals is studied by Lindeman's melting law and Debye's model. The obtained melting curve increases as a function of the compressed volume and shows the maximum of the melting point at the characteristic volume. The resultant data are qualitatively in agreement with the observed tendency for alkali metals. (author)
Lattice dynamical appraisal of the anisotropic Debye-Waller factors in graphite lattice
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Haridasan, T.M.; Sathyamurthy, G.
1989-12-01
The Debye-Waller factors in graphite for the atomic motions within the basal plane and also across the basal planes have been calculated using the various lattice dynamical models available to date and a critical comparison is made with the existing experimental data from X ray and neutron scattering studies. The present study reveals the need for further investigation on the nature of atomic motion across the basal planes. (author). 15 refs, 1 tab
Importance of the Debye screening length on nanowire field effect transistor sensors.
Stern, Eric; Wagner, Robin; Sigworth, Fred J; Breaker, Ronald; Fahmy, Tarek M; Reed, Mark A
2007-11-01
Nanowire field effect transistors (NW-FETs) can serve as ultrasensitive detectors for label-free reagents. The NW-FET sensing mechanism assumes a controlled modification in the local channel electric field created by the binding of charged molecules to the nanowire surface. Careful control of the solution Debye length is critical for unambiguous selective detection of macromolecules. Here we show the appropriate conditions under which the selective binding of macromolecules is accurately sensed with NW-FET sensors.
Ratio of sheath thickness to Debye length for a slightly ionized continuum plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hamilton, J.
1980-01-01
The penetration of plasma sheaths for spherical probes in a slightly ionized continuum plasma has been computed for values of epsilon (the ratio of ion to electron temperature) of 0.01 and 1.0 with rhosub(p) (the ratio of probe radius to plasma Debye length) set at 5.10,20 and 30. Values of the potential drops at the sheath boundaries are presented
Detection beyond Debye's length with an electrolyte-gated organic field-effect transistor.
Palazzo, Gerardo; De Tullio, Donato; Magliulo, Maria; Mallardi, Antonia; Intranuovo, Francesca; Mulla, Mohammad Yusuf; Favia, Pietro; Vikholm-Lundin, Inger; Torsi, Luisa
2015-02-04
Electrolyte-gated organic field-effect transistors are successfully used as biosensors to detect binding events occurring at distances from the transistor electronic channel that are much larger than the Debye length in highly concentrated solutions. The sensing mechanism is mainly capacitive and is due to the formation of Donnan's equilibria within the protein layer, leading to an extra capacitance (CDON) in series to the gating system. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
A genetic algorithm for optimizing multi-pole Debye models of tissue dielectric properties
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Clegg, J; Robinson, M P
2012-01-01
Models of tissue dielectric properties (permittivity and conductivity) enable the interactions of tissues and electromagnetic fields to be simulated, which has many useful applications in microwave imaging, radio propagation, and non-ionizing radiation dosimetry. Parametric formulae are available, based on a multi-pole model of tissue dispersions, but although they give the dielectric properties over a wide frequency range, they do not convert easily to the time domain. An alternative is the multi-pole Debye model which works well in both time and frequency domains. Genetic algorithms are an evolutionary approach to optimization, and we found that this technique was effective at finding the best values of the multi-Debye parameters. Our genetic algorithm optimized these parameters to fit to either a Cole–Cole model or to measured data, and worked well over wide or narrow frequency ranges. Over 10 Hz–10 GHz the best fits for muscle, fat or bone were each found for ten dispersions or poles in the multi-Debye model. The genetic algorithm is a fast and effective method of developing tissue models that compares favourably with alternatives such as the rational polynomial fit. (paper)
Rigorous study of the mean field approximation of Debye and Hueckel for Coulomb systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kennedy, T.G.
1984-01-01
The statistical mechanics of a classical charge symmetric Coulomb system is studied in three dimensions in the limit that the plasma parameter (the inverse temperature divided by the Debye length) goes to zero. To make the system stable, a short range interaction, e.g., hard cores is included. This short range interaction is allowed to go to zero as the plasma parameter goes to zero. Debye and Hueckel used a mean field approximation to give a nonrigorous study of Coulomb systems in his limit. For a system with no external charge distribution, it is shown that the pressure, density, and correlation functions are asymptotic to their Debye-Hueckel approximations. These approximations consist of the ideal gas term plus a term of one lower order in the plasma parameter. The main tools are the Sine-Gordon transformation, the Mayer expansion, and some new correlation inequalities. The sine-Gordon transformation and the Mayer expansion are used to express the observables as functional integrals with respect to a Gaussian measure. The correlation inequalities help control these functional integrals
Numerical analysis of finite Debye-length effects in induced-charge electro-osmosis.
Gregersen, Misha Marie; Andersen, Mathias Baekbo; Soni, Gaurav; Meinhart, Carl; Bruus, Henrik
2009-06-01
For a microchamber filled with a binary electrolyte and containing a flat unbiased center electrode at one wall, we employ three numerical models to study the strength of the resulting induced-charge electro-osmotic (ICEO) flow rolls: (i) a full nonlinear continuum model resolving the double layer, (ii) a linear slip-velocity model not resolving the double layer and without tangential charge transport inside this layer, and (iii) a nonlinear slip-velocity model extending the linear model by including the tangential charge transport inside the double layer. We show that, compared to the full model, the slip-velocity models significantly overestimate the ICEO flow. This provides a partial explanation of the quantitative discrepancy between observed and calculated ICEO velocities reported in the literature. The discrepancy increases significantly for increasing Debye length relative to the electrode size, i.e., for nanofluidic systems. However, even for electrode dimensions in the micrometer range, the discrepancies in velocity due to the finite Debye length can be more than 10% for an electrode of zero height and more than 100% for electrode heights comparable to the Debye length.
Conditions for similitude and the effect of finite Debye length in electroosmotic flows.
Oh, Jung Min; Kang, Kwan Hyoung
2007-06-15
Under certain conditions, the velocity field is similar to the electric field for electroosmotic flow (EOF) inside a channel. There was a disagreement between investigators on the necessity of the infinitesimal-Reynolds-number condition for the similarity when the Helmholtz-Smoluchowski relation is applied throughout the boundaries. What is puzzling is a recent numerical result that showed, contrary to the conventional belief, an evident Reynolds number dependence of the EOF. We show here that the notion that the infinitesimal-Reynolds-number condition is required originates from the misunderstanding that the EOF is the Stokes flow. We point out that the EOF becomes the potential flow when the Helmholtz-Smoluchowski relation is applied at the boundaries. We carry out a numerical simulation to investigate the effect of finiteness of the Debye length and the vorticity layer inherently existing at the channel wall. We show that the Reynolds number dependence of the previous numerical simulation resulted from the finiteness of the Debye length and subsequent convective transport of vorticity toward the bulk flow. We discuss in detail how the convection of vorticity occurs and what factors are involved in the transport process, after carrying out the simulation for different Reynolds numbers, Debye lengths, corner radii, and geometries.
XAFS Debye-Waller Factors Temperature-Dependent Expressions for Fe+2-Porphyrin Complexes
Dimakis, Nicholas; Bunker, Grant
2007-02-01
We present an efficient and accurate method for directly calculating single and multiple scattering X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) thermal Debye-Waller factors for Fe+2 -porphiryn complexes. The number of multiple scattering Debye-Waller factors on metal porphyrin centers exceeds the number of available parameters that XAFS experimental data can support during fitting with simulated spectra. Using the Density Functional Theory (DFT) under the hybrid functional of X3LYP, phonon normal mode spectrum properties are used to express the mean square variation of the half-scattering path length for a Fe+2 -porphiryn complex as a function of temperature for the most important single and multiple scattering paths of the complex thus virtually eliminating them from the fitting procedure. Modeled calculations are compared with corresponding values obtained from DFT-built and optimized Fe+2 -porphyrin bis-histidine structure as well as from experimental XAFS spectra previously reported. An excellent agreement between calculated and reference Debye-Waller factors for Fe+2-porphyrins is obtained.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lu Xiaogang; Selleby, Malin; Sundman, Bo
2007-01-01
The thermal expansivities and heat capacities of MX (M = Ti, Zr, Hf, V, Nb, Ta; X = C, N) carbides and nitrides with NaCl structure were calculated using the Debye-Grueneisen model combined with ab initio calculations. Two different approximations for the Grueneisen parameter γ were used in the Debye-Grueneisen model, i.e. the expressions proposed by Slater and by Dugdale and MacDonald. The thermal electronic contribution was evaluated from ab initio calculations of the electronic density of states. The calculated results were compared with CALPHAD assessments and experimental data. It was found that the calculations using the Dugdale-MacDonald γ can account for most of the experimental data. By fitting experimental heat capacity and thermal expansivity data below the Debye temperatures, an estimation of Poisson's ratio was obtained and Young's and shear moduli were evaluated. In order to reach a reasonable agreement with experimental data, it was necessary to use the logarithmic averaged mass of the constituent atoms. The agreements between the calculated and the experimental values for the bulk and Young's moduli are generally better than the agreement for shear modulus
XAFS Debye-Waller Factors Temperature-Dependent Expressions for Fe+2-Porphyrin Complexes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dimakis, Nicholas; Bunker, Grant
2007-01-01
We present an efficient and accurate method for directly calculating single and multiple scattering X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) thermal Debye-Waller factors for Fe+2 -porphiryn complexes. The number of multiple scattering Debye-Waller factors on metal porphyrin centers exceeds the number of available parameters that XAFS experimental data can support during fitting with simulated spectra. Using the Density Functional Theory (DFT) under the hybrid functional of X3LYP, phonon normal mode spectrum properties are used to express the mean square variation of the half-scattering path length for a Fe+2 -porphiryn complex as a function of temperature for the most important single and multiple scattering paths of the complex thus virtually eliminating them from the fitting procedure. Modeled calculations are compared with corresponding values obtained from DFT-built and optimized Fe+2 -porphyrin bis-histidine structure as well as from experimental XAFS spectra previously reported. An excellent agreement between calculated and reference Debye-Waller factors for Fe+2-porphyrins is obtained
Calculation of Debye-Scherrer diffraction patterns from highly stressed polycrystalline materials
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
MacDonald, M. J., E-mail: macdonm@umich.edu [Applied Physics Program, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Vorberger, J. [Helmholtz Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, 01328 Dresden (Germany); Gamboa, E. J.; Glenzer, S. H.; Fletcher, L. B. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Drake, R. P. [Climate and Space Sciences and Engineering, Applied Physics, and Physics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States)
2016-06-07
Calculations of Debye-Scherrer diffraction patterns from polycrystalline materials have typically been done in the limit of small deviatoric stresses. Although these methods are well suited for experiments conducted near hydrostatic conditions, more robust models are required to diagnose the large strain anisotropies present in dynamic compression experiments. A method to predict Debye-Scherrer diffraction patterns for arbitrary strains has been presented in the Voigt (iso-strain) limit [Higginbotham, J. Appl. Phys. 115, 174906 (2014)]. Here, we present a method to calculate Debye-Scherrer diffraction patterns from highly stressed polycrystalline samples in the Reuss (iso-stress) limit. This analysis uses elastic constants to calculate lattice strains for all initial crystallite orientations, enabling elastic anisotropy and sample texture effects to be modeled directly. The effects of probing geometry, deviatoric stresses, and sample texture are demonstrated and compared to Voigt limit predictions. An example of shock-compressed polycrystalline diamond is presented to illustrate how this model can be applied and demonstrates the importance of including material strength when interpreting diffraction in dynamic compression experiments.
A molecular Debye-Hückel theory of solvation in polar fluids: An extension of the Born model
Xiao, Tiejun; Song, Xueyu
2017-12-01
A dielectric response theory of solvation beyond the conventional Born model for polar fluids is presented. The dielectric response of a polar fluid is described by a Born response mode and a linear combination of Debye-Hückel-like response modes that capture the nonlocal response of polar fluids. The Born mode is characterized by a bulk dielectric constant, while a Debye-Hückel mode is characterized by its corresponding Debye screening length. Both the bulk dielectric constant and the Debye screening lengths are determined from the bulk dielectric function of the polar fluid. The linear combination coefficients of the response modes are evaluated in a self-consistent way and can be used to evaluate the electrostatic contribution to the thermodynamic properties of a polar fluid. Our theory is applied to a dipolar hard sphere fluid as well as interaction site models of polar fluids such as water, where the electrostatic contribution to their thermodynamic properties can be obtained accurately.
2009-01-01
Ed Witten is one of the leading scientists in the field of string theory, the theory that describes elementary particles as vibrating strings. This week he leaves CERN after having spent a few months here on sabbatical. His wish is that the LHC will unveil supersymmetry.
Umesh P. Agarwal; Rajai Atalla
2010-01-01
Vibrational spectroscopy is an important tool in modern chemistry. In the past two decades, thanks to significant improvements in instrumentation and the development of new interpretive tools, it has become increasingly important for studies of lignin. This chapter presents the three important instrumental methods-Raman spectroscopy, infrared (IR) spectroscopy, and...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bruls, R.; Hintzen, H.T.; Metselaar, R.
2005-01-01
The value of the Debye temperature of the acoustic modes, as required in the application of Slack's approximation [G. A. Slack, Solid State Physics, edited by F. Seitz, D. Turnbull, and H. Ehrenreich, (Academic, New York, 1979), Vol. 34, pp. 1-71] for the thermal conductivity, is not always available. It is shown that for these cases, the value at the minimum of the curve of the Debye temperature versus the temperature obtained from specific-heat data, gives a good approximation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ammar Guellab
2018-01-01
Full Text Available We propose an efficient finite difference time domain (FDTD method based on the piecewise linear recursive convolution (PLRC technique to evaluate the human body exposure to electromagnetic (EM radiation. The source of radiation considered in this study is a high-power antenna, mounted on a military vehicle, covering a broad band of frequency (100 MHz–3 GHz. The simulation is carried out using a nonhomogeneous human body model which takes into consideration most of the internal body tissues. The human tissues are modeled by a four-pole Debye model which is derived from experimental data by using particle swarm optimization (PSO. The human exposure to EM radiation is evaluated by computing the local and whole-body average specific absorption rate (SAR for each occupant. The higher in-tissue electric field intensity points are localized, and the SAR values are compared with the crew safety standard recommendations. The accuracy of the proposed PLRC-FDTD approach and the matching of the Debye model with the experimental data are verified in this study.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Arnal, R.S.; Martin, G.V.; Gonzalez, J.L.M.-C.
1988-01-01
This paper studies the local vibrations of reactor components driven by Gaussian coloured and white forces, when nonlinear vibrations arise. We study also the important problem of noise sources, modelization and the noise propagation through the neutron field using the discrete ordinates transport theory. Finally, we study the effect of the neutron field upon the PSD (power spectral density) of the noise source and we analyse the problem of fitting neutron noise experimental data to perform pattern recognition analysis. (author)
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Hopefully, the new year will bring more good than our little faith allows us ... to such an extent that the Royal Academy of Sciences has awarded you the Nobel Prize ... ended in Europe in 1939, during the turmoil of the Second World War.
PREFACE: Vibrations at surfaces Vibrations at surfaces
Rahman, Talat S.
2011-12-01
This special issue is dedicated to the phenomenon of vibrations at surfaces—a topic that was indispensible a couple of decades ago, since it was one of the few phenomena capable of revealing the nature of binding at solid surfaces. For clean surfaces, the frequencies of modes with characteristic displacement patterns revealed how surface geometry, as well as the nature of binding between atoms in the surface layers, could be different from that in the bulk solid. Dispersion of the surface phonons provided further measures of interatomic interactions. For chemisorbed molecules on surfaces, frequencies and dispersion of the vibrational modes were also critical for determining adsorption sites. In other words, vibrations at surfaces served as a reliable means of extracting information about surface structure, chemisorption and overlayer formation. Experimental techniques, such as electron energy loss spectroscopy and helium-atom-surface scattering, coupled with infra-red spectroscopy, were continually refined and their resolutions enhanced to capture subtleties in the dynamics of atoms and molecules at surfaces. Theoretical methods, whether based on empirical and semi-empirical interatomic potential or on ab initio electronic structure calculations, helped decipher experimental observations and provide deeper insights into the nature of the bond between atoms and molecules in regions of reduced symmetry, as encountered on solid surfaces. Vibrations at surfaces were thus an integral part of the set of phenomena that characterized surface science. Dedicated workshops and conferences were held to explore the variety of interesting and puzzling features revealed in experimental and theoretical investigations of surface vibrational modes and their dispersion. One such conference, Vibrations at Surfaces, first organized by Harald Ibach in Juelich in 1980, continues to this day. The 13th International Conference on Vibrations at Surfaces was held at the University of
Internal vibrations in molecular crystals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Howard, J.
1984-01-01
Recent developments in the understanding of the relative intensities of INS bands (polycrystalline samples) are described together with the observation of a fundamental transition at ca 380 MeV (C-H stretching mode) uncontaminated by overtone or combination bands. Recent work (>100 MeV) on strongly hydrogen bonded complexes (CrOHO and MFHF - ), which have high energy modes exhibiting significant dispersion, is also discussed
Exact current to a spherical electrode in a collisionless, large-Debye-length magnetoplasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sonmor, L.J.; Laframboise, J.G.
1991-01-01
Exact calculations of the steady-state current drawn from a collisionless, Maxwellian plasma in a uniform magnetic field by a spherical, perfectly absorbing electrode are presented for a range of dimensionless electrode potentials and magnetic-field strengths. These calculations are valid in the limit of large Debye length. The results are compared with the theory of Rubinstein and Laframboise, which gives upper and lower bounds for both the attracted-species and the repelled-species current. It is found that as the electrode potential increases from space potential with magnetic-field strength fixed, the electron (i.e., attracted-species) current decreases, but not as quickly as the adiabatic-limit (effectively lower-bound) current. The ion current also diverges immediately from the adiabatic-limit current. As the electrode potential increases further, the electron current rises and moves monotonically toward the canonical upper bound, which is the warm-plasma generalization of the well-known Parker and Murphy upper bound. It is unclear whether the current approaches the upper bound asymptotically as the electrode potential becomes large, or instead a constant proportion of the upper bound which varies with magnetic-field strength. The dependence on magnetic-field strength is more complicated. As expected for small fixed electrode potentials, the attracted-species current approaches the adiabatic-limit current monotonically as the magnetic-field strength increases. However, for large electrode potentials this pattern reverses: the current approaches the canonical upper bound monotonically as the magnetic-field strength increases. These patterns are expected to persist when the Debye length is finite. Interpretation of these results leads to an inference that for large electrode potentials, the effect of decreasing the Debye length may be to reduce the current, as in the nonmagnetic case
Low temperature heat capacities and thermodynamic functions described by Debye-Einstein integrals.
Gamsjäger, Ernst; Wiessner, Manfred
2018-01-01
Thermodynamic data of various crystalline solids are assessed from low temperature heat capacity measurements, i.e., from almost absolute zero to 300 K by means of semi-empirical models. Previous studies frequently present fit functions with a large amount of coefficients resulting in almost perfect agreement with experimental data. It is, however, pointed out in this work that special care is required to avoid overfitting. Apart from anomalies like phase transformations, it is likely that data from calorimetric measurements can be fitted by a relatively simple Debye-Einstein integral with sufficient precision. Thereby, reliable values for the heat capacities, standard enthalpies, and standard entropies at T = 298.15 K are obtained. Standard thermodynamic functions of various compounds strongly differing in the number of atoms in the formula unit can be derived from this fitting procedure and are compared to the results of previous fitting procedures. The residuals are of course larger when the Debye-Einstein integral is applied instead of using a high number of fit coefficients or connected splines, but the semi-empiric fit coefficients keep their meaning with respect to physics. It is suggested to use the Debye-Einstein integral fit as a standard method to describe heat capacities in the range between 0 and 300 K so that the derived thermodynamic functions are obtained on the same theory-related semi-empiric basis. Additional fitting is recommended when a precise description for data at ultra-low temperatures (0-20 K) is requested.
Atomic-partial vibrational density of states of i-AlCuFe quasicrystals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Parshin, P.P.; Zemlyanov, M.; Brand, R.A.; Dianoux, A.J.; Calvayrac, Y.
2002-01-01
We present new results on the separation of the atomic-partial vibrational density of states for the ternary quasicrystal i-Al 62 Cu 25.5 Fe 12.5 . The decomposition into three atomic-partial functions, Al-, Cu- and Fe-g(E), has been performed self-consistently with the calculation of the multi-phonon contributions. The results show the surprising result that both Cu- and Fe-g(E) are strongly peaked. The low-energy regions of Al- and Cu-g(E) show strong deviations from Debye behaviour due to the presence of non-propagating low-energy vibrational states. (orig.)
Direct measurement of sub-Debye-length attraction between oppositely charged surfaces.
Kampf, Nir; Ben-Yaakov, Dan; Andelman, David; Safran, S A; Klein, Jacob
2009-09-11
Using a surface force balance with fast video analysis, we have measured directly the attractive forces between oppositely charged solid surfaces (charge densities sigma(+), sigma(-)) across water over the entire range of interaction, in particular, at surface separations D below the Debye screening length lambda(S). At very low salt concentration we find a long-ranged attraction between the surfaces (onset ca. 100 nm), whose variation at D
Experimental studies of the large Debye length probe theory in a continuum plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kamitsuma, M.; Chen, S.
1977-01-01
The Laplace limit probe theory for continuum plasmas, i.e., probe theory under the condition r/sub p//lambda/sub D/→0, where r/sub p/ is probe radius and lambda/sub D/ is Debye length, has been experimentally studied. The results show that the application limit of this theory is r/sub p//lambda/sub D/=0.44 for a spherical probe and r/sub p//lambda/sub D/=0.23 for a cylindrical probe
Ionization potential depression and optical spectra in a Debye plasma model
Lin, Chengliang; Röpke, Gerd; Reinholz, Heidi; Kraeft, Wolf-Dietrich
2017-11-01
We show how optical spectra in dense plasmas are determined by the shift of energy levels as well as the broadening owing to collisions with the plasma particles. In lowest approximation, the interaction with the plasma particles is described by the RPA dielectric function, leading to the Debye shift of the continuum edge. The bound states remain nearly un-shifted, their broadening is calculated in Born approximation. The role of ionization potential depression as well as the Inglis-Teller effect are shown. The model calculations have to be improved going beyond the lowest (RPA) approximation when applying to WDM spectra.
External vibrations measurement of reactor components
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rogers, S A [Nuclear Electric plc, Barnwood (United Kingdom); Sugden, J [Magnox Electric, Berkeley (United Kingdom)
1997-12-31
The paper outlines the use of External Vibration Monitoring for remote vibration assessment of internal reactor components. The main features of the technique are illustrated by a detailed examination of the specific application to the problem of Heysham 2 Fuel Plug Unit monitoring. (author). 6 figs.
Thermal behaviour of the Debye-Waller factor and the specific heat of anharmonic crystals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lima, R.A.T. de; Tsallis, C.
1979-08-01
The influence of the cubic and quartic crystalline anharmonicity on the classical and quantum thermal behaviour of the specific heat, Debye temperaturetheta, Debye-Waller factor W, crystalline expansion and phonon spectrum is studied, within the framework of the Variational Method in Statistical Mechanics. The sistems, mainly focalized are the single oscillator, the mono-atomic linear chain and simple cubic crystal. The trial Hamiltonian is an harmonic one, therefore the various anharmonic influences are mainly absorbed into the renormalization of theta(T). Several differences between the classical and quantum results are exhibited. Satisfactory qualitative agreement with experience was obtained in the low-temperature regime, in particular in what concerns the existence of a minimum in theta(T) which has been observed in Cu, Al, Ag, Au and Pb. For the intermediate-temperature regime the customary linear behaviour of W(T) (hence theta(T) almost constant) is reobtained. Finally in the high-temperature regime, the present treatment leads to a √T - dependence for the W-factor, which implies in the wrong curvature with respect to experimental data. A possible explanation of this disagreement might be related to the melting phenomenon, which is not covered by the present theory. (Author) [pt
Stark shifts and widths of a hydrogen atom in Debye plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yu, A.C.H.; Ho, Y.K.
2005-01-01
A computational scheme has been developed and used to investigate the influence of the plasma environments on modified atomic autoionization for isolated atoms/ions by using the complex coordinate rotation method which is proved to be a very simple and powerful tool to analyze the position and the width of a resonance. The Debye screening potential is employed to describe the effects of the plasma environments. Stark shifts and widths on the ground state of hydrogen are reported for field strength up to F=0.12 a.u. Slater-type basis wave functions are used to describe the system and angular-momentum states up to L=11 are included when the external electric field is turned on. Converged results are obtained by using different maximum angular-momentum states. The modified autoionization for various Debye lengths ranging from infinite to a small value of 0.86 are reported. It has been observed that for a given temperature and under the influence of a given external electric field, the resonance energy and the autoionization width increase for increasing electron density in the plasma. A discussion on the physical implication of our results is made
Li, Jun; Zhang, Song Bin; Ye, Bang Jiao; Wang, Jian Guo; Janev, R. K.
2017-09-01
Low-energy electron elastic scattering and impact ionization with hydrogenlike helium in Debye plasmas have been investigated by employing the exterior complex scaling method. The interactions between charged particles in the plasmas have been represented by Debye-Hückel potentials. The 1 s -1 s elastic collision strengths below the n =2 excitation threshold of He+ dominated by resonance structures are calculated for different screening lengths. As the screening strength increases, the resonance peaks studied [2(1,0) 2 +1Se,3Po,1De , and 2(0,1) 2 +1Po] exhibit blueshifts and then redshifts with a further increase of the screening strength, which results in dramatic changes of the collision strengths. It is found that these dynamic variation features of the resonances are related to the changes of energy levels of He+ in the screened potential and geometric configurations of resonances. Triple-differential-ionization cross sections in coplanar geometries at 6-Ry incident electron energy are also reported, significant changes are observed with varying screening length.
Liu, Bo; Liu, Pei; Xu, Zhenli; Zhou, Shenggao
2013-10-01
Near a charged surface, counterions of different valences and sizes cluster; and their concentration profiles stratify. At a distance from such a surface larger than the Debye length, the electric field is screened by counterions. Recent studies by a variational mean-field approach that includes ionic size effects and by Monte Carlo simulations both suggest that the counterion stratification is determined by the ionic valence-to-volume ratios. Central in the mean-field approach is a free-energy functional of ionic concentrations in which the ionic size effects are included through the entropic effect of solvent molecules. The corresponding equilibrium conditions define the generalized Boltzmann distributions relating the ionic concentrations to the electrostatic potential. This paper presents a detailed analysis and numerical calculations of such a free-energy functional to understand the dependence of the ionic charge density on the electrostatic potential through the generalized Boltzmann distributions, the role of ionic valence-to-volume ratios in the counterion stratification, and the modification of Debye length due to the effect of ionic sizes.
Debye-scale solitary structures measured in a beam-plasma laboratory experiment
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
B. Lefebvre
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Solitary electrostatic pulses have been observed in numerous places of the magnetosphere such as the vicinity of reconnection current sheets, shocks or auroral current systems, and are often thought to be generated by energetic electron beams. We present results of a series of experiments conducted at the UCLA large plasma device (LAPD where a suprathermal electron beam was injected parallel to a static magnetic field. Micro-probes with tips smaller than a Debye length enabled the detection of solitary pulses with positive electric potential and half-widths 4–25 Debye lengths (λ_{De}, over a set of experiments with various beam energies, plasma densities and magnetic field strengths. The shape, scales and amplitudes of the structures are similar to those observed in space, and consistent with electron holes. The dependance of these properties on the experimental parameters is shown. The velocities of the solitary structures (1–3 background electron thermal velocities are found to be much lower than the beam velocities, suggesting an excitation mechanism driven by parallel currents associated to the electron beam.
Ab Initio Calculation of XAFS Debye-Waller Factors for Crystalline Materials
Dimakis, Nicholas
2007-02-01
A direct an accurate technique for calculating the thermal X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) Debye-Waller factors (DWF) for materials of crystalline structure is presented. Using the Density Functional Theory (DFT) under the hybrid X3LYP functional, a library of MnO spin—optimized clusters are built and their phonon spectrum properties are calculated; these properties in the form of normal mode eigenfrequencies and eigenvectors are in turn used for calculation of the single and multiple scattering XAFS DWF. DWF obtained via this technique are temperature dependent expressions and can be used to substantially reduce the number of fitting parameters when experimental spectra are fitted with a hypothetical structure without any ad hoc assumptions. Due to the high computational demand a hybrid approach of mixing the DFT calculated DWF with the correlated Debye model for inner and outer shells respectively is presented. DFT obtained DWFs are compared with corresponding values from experimental XAFS spectra on manganosite. The cluster size effect and the spin parameter on the DFT calculated DWFs are discussed.
Analytic Debye-Grüneisen equation of state for a generalized Lennard-Jones solids
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
孙久勋; 吴强; 蔡灵仓; 经福谦
2003-01-01
The approximate method to treat the practical quantum anharmonic solids proposed by Hardy,Lacks and Shukla is reformulated with explicit physical meanings.It is shown that the quantum effect is important at low temperature,it can be treated in the harmonic framework; and the anharmonic effect is important at high temperature and tends to zero at low temperature,it can be treated by using a classical approximation.The alternative formulation is easier for various applications,and is applied to a Debye-Gruneisen solid with the generalized Lennard-Jones intermolecular interaction.The expressions for the Debye temperature and Gruneisen parameter as a function of volume are analytically derived.The analytic equation of state is applied to predict the thermodynamic properties of solid xenon at normal-pressure with the nearest-neighbour Lennard-Jones interaction,and is further applied to research the properties of solid xenon and krypton at high pressure by using an all-neighbour Lennard-Jones interaction.The theoretical results are in agreement with the experiments.
The non-perturbative QCD Debye mass from a Wilson line operator
Laine, Mikko
1999-01-01
According to a proposal by Arnold and Yaffe, the non-perturbative g^2T-contribution to the Debye mass in the deconfined QCD plasma phase can be determined from a single Wilson line operator in the three-dimensional pure SU(3) gauge theory. We extend a previous SU(2) measurement of this quantity to the physical SU(3) case. We find a numerical coefficient which is more accurate and smaller than that obtained previously with another method, but still very large compared with the naive expectation: the correction is larger than the leading term up to T ~ 10^7 T_c, corresponding to g^2 ~ 0.4. At moderate temperatures T ~ 2 T_c, a consistent picture emerges where the Debye mass is m_D ~ 6T, the lightest gauge invariant screening mass in the system is ~ 3T, and the purely magnetic operators couple dominantly to a scale ~ 6T. Electric (~ gT) and magnetic (~ g^2T) scales are therefore strongly overlapping close to the phase transition, and the colour-electric fields play an essential role in the dynamics.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jong Chull Jo; Myung Jo Jhung; Woong Sik Kim; Hho Jung Kim
2005-01-01
Full text of publication follows: This paper addresses the potential flow-induced vibration problems in a helically-coiled tube steam generator of integral-type nuclear reactor, of which the tubes are subjected to liquid cross flow externally and multi-phase flow externally. The thermal-hydraulic conditions of both tube side and shell side flow fields are predicted using a general purpose computational fluid dynamics code employing the finite volume element modeling. To get the natural frequency and corresponding mode shape of the helical type tubes with various conditions, a finite element analysis code is used. Based on the results of both helical coiled tube steam generator thermal-hydraulic and coiled tube modal analyses, turbulence-induced vibration and fluid-elastic instability analyses are performed. And then the potential for damages on the tubes due to either turbulence-induced vibration or fluid-elastic instability is assessed. In the assessment, special emphases are put on the detailed investigation for the effects of support conditions, coil diameter, and helix pitch on the modal, vibration amplitude and instability characteristics of tubes, from which a technical information and basis needed for designers and regulatory reviewers can be derived. (authors)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pilati, T.; Dermartin, F.; Gramaccioli, C.M.
1993-01-01
A wide-purpose computer program has been written (Fortran) for lattice dynamical evaluation of crystallographic and thermodynamic properties of solids, especially minerals or inorganic substances.The program essentially consists of a routine affording first and second derivatives of energy with respect to mass weighted coordinates, properly modulated by a wave vector algorithm, so that diagonalization can immediately follow and arrive at frequencies, density of states, and eventually to thermodynamic functions and Debye-Waller parameters thorough an automatic Brillouin-zone sampling procedure. The input consists of crystallographic data (unit-cell parameters, space group symmetry operations, atomic coordinates), plus atomic charge and empirical parameters, such as force constants or non-bonded atom-atom interaction energy functions in almost any form. It is also possible to obtain the structure corresponding to the energy minimum, or even to work with partial rigid bodies, in order to reduce the order of the dynamical matrices. The program provides for automatic symmetry labelling of the vibrational modes, in order to compare them with the experimental data; there is possibility of improving the empirical functions through a minimization routine. Examples of application and transferability of force fields to a series of minerals are provided. (author)
Effect of anharmonicity and Debye-Waller factor on the superconductivity of PdHsub(x) and PdDsub(x)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Griessen, R.; Groot, D.G. de
1983-01-01
On the basis of existing superconducting tunnelling, neutron scattering, electrical resistivity and Raman scattering data and new thermal expansion, elastic moduli and point-contact spectroscopy data it is concluded that the anharmonicity of the proton (deuteron)-palladium potential is such that Msub(H)#betta#sub(H) 2 /(Msub(D)#betta#sub(D) 2 ) = 1.12 +- 0.05 Msub(H(D)) is the mass and #betta#sub(H(D)) the frequency of the vibration of hydrogen (deuterium). This anharmonicity is approximately 2 times too weak to reproduce the observed inverse isotope effect in the superconducting transition temperature of concentrated PdHsub(x) and PdDsub(x) alloys. Within a pseudopotential formalism it is shown that the Debye-Waller factor arising from the large zero-point amplitude of the interstitial hydrogen (deuterium) leads to a contribution to the inverse isotope effect in Tsub(c) which is as large as that of anharmonicity alone. (Auth.)
1993-11-01
IS PROGRAM NUMBER 1 OF THE COMPLETE VIBRATIONAL PACKAGE. C C BMAT ... WIL.riON B MATRIX ELDEMETS FOR INTERNAL COORDINATES C iVERSIONO JUL 28, 1977) C...MATRIX ISCAN=ISCAN+ 1 IER=O GO TO 30 210 WRITE(6,1120) STOP 1000 FORMAT(20A4/20A4/214) 1010 FORMAT(’l’,20A4,24X.’ BMAT (VERSIONO JUL 28. 1977)’/1X,20A4
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Ground vibration tests or modal surveys are routinely conducted to support flutter analysis for subsonic and supersonic vehicles. However, vibration testing...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
R. Pässler
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Detailed analytical and numerical analyses are performed for combinations of several complementary sets of measured heat capacities, for ZnSe and ZnTe, from the liquid-helium region up to 600 K. The isochoric (harmonic parts of heat capacities, CVh(T, are described within the frame of a properly devised four-oscillator hybrid model. Additional anharmonicity-related terms are included for comprehensive numerical fittings of the isobaric heat capacities, Cp(T. The contributions of Debye and non-Debye type due to the low-energy acoustical phonon sections are represented here for the first time by unprecedented, integral-free formulas. Indications for weak electronic contributions to the cryogenic heat capacities are found for both materials. A novel analytical framework has been constructed for high-accuracy evaluations of Debye function integrals via a couple of integral-free formulas, consisting of Debye’s conventional low-temperature series expansion in combination with an unprecedented high-temperature series representation for reciprocal values of the Debye function. The zero-temperature limits of Debye temperatures have been detected from published low-temperature Cp(T data sets to be significantly lower than previously estimated, namely, 270 (±3 K for ZnSe and 220 (±2 K for ZnTe. The high-temperature limits of the “true” (harmonic lattice Debye temperatures are found to be 317 K for ZnSe and 262 K for ZnTe.
Theory of vibration protection
Karnovsky, Igor A
2016-01-01
This text is an advancement of the theory of vibration protection of mechanical systems with lumped and distributed parameters. The book offers various concepts and methods of solving vibration protection problems, discusses the advantages and disadvantages of different methods, and the fields of their effective applications. Fundamental approaches of vibration protection, which are considered in this book, are the passive, parametric and optimal active vibration protection. The passive vibration protection is based on vibration isolation, vibration damping and dynamic absorbers. Parametric vibration protection theory is based on the Shchipanov-Luzin invariance principle. Optimal active vibration protection theory is based on the Pontryagin principle and the Krein moment method. The book also contains special topics such as suppression of vibrations at the source of their occurrence and the harmful influence of vibrations on humans. Numerous examples, which illustrate the theoretical ideas of each chapter, ar...
Hopping model for the non-Debye dielectric response in ionic crystals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, J.C.; Bates, J.B.
1988-10-01
A model based on ion hopping in potential double-wells is proposed to explain the non-Debye dielectric response in solids. Relying on some assumptions, an attempt is made to remove the ''average'' nature of previous diffusion theories. This results in a distribution of activation energies, G(E), which decays exponentially on both sides of some given value E/sub o/. It is shown that the existence of a dielectric loss peak is a result of the decay of G(E) for E > E 0 the constant-phase-angle behavior above the loss peak is associated with the decay of G(E) for E 0 , and G(E) can produce all the main features of the empirical Havriliak-Negami function. An interesting property of this G(E) is that it broadens with increasing temperature, consistent with many experimental observations. 18 refs., 3 figs
One- and two-photon ionization of hydrogen atom embedded in Debye plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chang, T. N.; Fang, T. K.; Ho, Y. K.
2013-01-01
We present a detailed analysis of the plasma-induced resonance-like atomic structures near the ionization threshold in one- and two-photon ionization of hydrogen atom. Such resonance-like structures result from the migration of the upper bound excited states of bound-bound atomic transitions into the continuum due to the less attractive screened Coulomb potential which simulates the external environmental effect for an atom embedded in Debye plasma. The change from the resonance-like narrow structures into broad continuous spectra as the plasma effect increases could be accounted for by the overlap between the respective wavefunctions of the atomic electron in the initial state and its corresponding outgoing ionized state in the continuum
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cruceru, I; Nicolescu, G [National Institute of Research and Development for Physics and Nuclear Engineering ' Horia - Hulubei' , PO Box MG - 6, 077125 Magurele (Romania); Duliu, O G [University of Bucharest, Department of Atomic and Nuclear Physics, PO Box MG-II, 077125 Magurele (Romania)
2008-11-01
Coherent scattering of neutrinos on high Debye temperature monocrystals represent an alternative to detect solar as well as other high flux neutrino sources such as nuclear reactors or nuclear tests. Therefore, the possibility of detecting neutrinos by using sapphire monocrystals is presented and analyzed. Preliminary evaluations showed that 1 MeV neutrinos with a fluency density of 10{sup 12} cm{sup -1} s{sup -1} could interact with a 100 g sapphire monocrystal with a force of about 10{sup -6} dyne, value measurable with a high sensitivity torsion balance. For this reason a torsion balance provided with 1 m length molybdenum or tungsten wire and an optical autocollimator able to measure small rotation angles of about 0.1 seconds of arc was designed, constructed and now is under preliminary tests. Both theoretical and practical implications of such kind of detector are presented and discussed.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kremer, J. P.; Pedersen, T. Sunn; Lefrancois, R. G.; Marksteiner, Q.
2006-01-01
The creation of the first small-Debye length, low temperature pure electron plasmas in a stellarator is reported. A confinement time of 20 ms has been measured. The long confinement time implies the existence of macroscopically stable equilibria and that the single particle orbits are well confined despite the lack of quasisymmetry in the device, the Columbia non-neutral torus. This confirms the beneficial confinement effects of strong electric fields and the resulting rapid ExB rotation of the electrons. The particle confinement time is presently limited by the presence of bulk insulating materials in the plasma, rather than any intrinsic plasma transport processes. A nearly flat temperature profile is seen in the inner part of the plasma
Exact mean-field theory of ionic solutions: non-Debye screening
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Varela, L.M.; Garcia, Manuel; Mosquera, Victor
2003-01-01
The main aim of this report is to analyze the equilibrium properties of primitive model (PM) ionic solutions in the formally exact mean-field formalism. Previously, we review the main theoretical and numerical results reported throughout the last century for homogeneous (electrolytes) and inhomogeneous (electric double layer, edl) ionic systems, starting with the classical mean-field theory of electrolytes due to Debye and Hueckel (DH). In this formalism, the effective potential is derived from the Poisson-Boltzmann (PB) equation and its asymptotic behavior analyzed in the classical Debye theory of screening. The thermodynamic properties of electrolyte solutions are briefly reviewed in the DH formalism. The main analytical and numerical extensions of DH formalism are revised, ranging from the earliest extensions that overcome the linearization of the PB equation to the more sophisticated integral equation techniques introduced after the late 1960s. Some Monte Carlo and molecular dynamic simulations are also reviewed. The potential distributions in an inhomogeneous ionic system are studied in the classical PB framework, presenting the classical Gouy-Chapman (GC) theory of the electric double layer (edl) in a brief manner. The mean-field theory is adequately contextualized using field theoretic (FT) results and it is proven that the classical PB theory is recovered at the Gaussian or one-loop level of the exact FT, and a systematic way to obtain the corrections to the DH theory is derived. Particularly, it is proven following Kholodenko and Beyerlein that corrections to DH theory effectively lead to a renormalization of charges and Debye screening length. The main analytical and numerical results for this non-Debye screening length are reviewed, ranging from asymptotic expansions, self-consistent theory, nonlinear DH results and hypernetted chain (HNC) calculations. Finally, we study the exact mean-field theory of ionic solutions, the so-called dressed-ion theory
Kremer, J P; Pedersen, T Sunn; Lefrancois, R G; Marksteiner, Q
2006-09-01
The creation of the first small-Debye length, low temperature pure electron plasmas in a stellarator is reported. A confinement time of 20 ms has been measured. The long confinement time implies the existence of macroscopically stable equilibria and that the single particle orbits are well confined despite the lack of quasisymmetry in the device, the Columbia non-neutral torus. This confirms the beneficial confinement effects of strong electric fields and the resulting rapid E x B rotation of the electrons. The particle confinement time is presently limited by the presence of bulk insulating materials in the plasma, rather than any intrinsic plasma transport processes. A nearly flat temperature profile is seen in the inner part of the plasma.
Thermal spectrum of pseudo-scalar glueballs and Debye screening mass from holography
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Braga, Nelson R.F.; Ferreira, Luiz F. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto de Fisica, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)
2017-10-15
The finite temperature spectrum of pseudo-scalar glueballs in a plasma is studied using a holographic model. The 0{sup -+} glueball is represented by a pseudo-scalar (axion) field living in a five dimensional geometry that comes from a solution of Einstein equations for gravity coupled with a dilaton scalar field. The spectral function obtained from the model shows a clear peak corresponding to the quasi-particle ground state. Analyzing the variation of the position of the peak with temperature, we describe the thermal behavior of the Debye screening mass of the plasma. As a check of consistency, the zero temperature limit of the model is also investigated. The glueball masses obtained are consistent with previous lattice results. (orig.)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andreetta, Christian
-likelihood estimators for the form factors employed in the Debye formula, a theoretical forward model for SAXS profiles. The resulting computation compares favorably with the state of the art tool in the field, the program CRYSOL in the suite ATSAS. A faster, parallel implementation on Graphical Processor Units (GPUs......The present work describes the design and the implementation of a protocol for arbitrary precision computation of Small Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS) profiles, and its inclusion in a probabilistic framework for protein structure determination. This protocol identifies a set of maximum...... of protein structures all fitting the experimental data. For the first time, we describe in full atomic detail a set of different conformations attainable by flexible polypeptides in solution. This method is not limited by assumptions in shape or size of the samples. It allows therefore to investigate...
Formation of Coulomb crystal in presence of attractive overlapping Debye sphere potential
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baruah, Swati; Das, Nilakshi
2011-01-01
The role of attractive overlapping Debye sphere (ODS) potential on dust crystal formation has been investigated by using molecular dynamics code. A comparative study on plasma crystal formation has been made between Yukawa and coupled Yukawa-ODS potential by calculating pair-correlation function, for different values of Coulomb coupling parameter Γ and screening parameter κ. From our study, it is seen that the attractive ODS potential becomes dominant beyond a critical radius than that of the Yukawa potential. This leads to the fact that the effect due to combined Yukawa-ODS potential depends more sensitively on κ. From the comparison of the results for Yukawa and ODS potential with experimental results, it is observed that a close agreement is obtained for attractive ODS potential.
KEhD-1 Debye-Sherrar camera with a coordinate proportional counter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ageev, O.I.; Glazova, L.P.; Goganov, D.A.; Rejzis, B.M.; Syrkin, M.G.
1985-01-01
An arrangement of the KEhD-1 Debye-Sherrar camera, in which the advantages of a proportional counter are combined with the wide range of simultaneous image recording is described. The camera consists of an X-ray tube unit with the URS-0.1 source, a linear coordinate detector with resistive-capacity coding, a signal transducer and the MK-1 multichannel system for data acquisition and processing based on the ''Uskra-1256'' computer. The counting rate of X-ray pulses is > 5x10 4 s -1 , energy resolution for the CuKsub(α) line constitutes 20%, spatial resolution equals 150 μm, detection efficiency constitutes not less than 64%. The range of the detector displacement varies from -30 deg to +130 deg. The information obtained by means of the camera may be output to a display, a plotter, a numeric printer or a magnetic tape
Elasticity moduli, thermal expansion coefficients and Debye temperature of titanium alloys
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Beletskij, V.M.; Glej, V.A.; Maksimyuk, P.A.; Tabachnik, V.I.; Opanasenko, V.F.
1979-01-01
Studied are the characteristics of titanium alloys which reflect best the bonding forces for atoms in a crystal lattice: elastic modules, their temperature dependences, thermal expansion coefficient and Debye temperatures. For the increase of the accuracy of measuring modules and especially their changes with temperature an ultrasonic echo-impulse method of superposition has been used. The temperature dependences of Young modulus of the VT1-0, VT16 and VT22 titanium alloys are plotted. The Young module and its change with temperature depend on the content of alloying elements. The Young module decrease with temperature may be explained within the framework of the inharmonic effect theory. The analysis of the results obtained permits to suppose that alloying of titanium alloys with aluminium results in an interatomic interaction increase that may be one of the reasons of their strength increase
Booth, D; Rittenhouse, S T; Yang, J; Sadeghpour, H R; Shaffer, J P
2015-04-03
Permanent electric dipole moments are important for understanding symmetry breaking in molecular physics, control of chemical reactions, and realization of strongly correlated many-body quantum systems. However, large molecular permanent electric dipole moments are challenging to realize experimentally. We report the observation of ultralong-range Rydberg molecules with bond lengths of ~100 nanometers and kilo-Debye permanent electric dipole moments that form when an ultracold ground-state cesium (Cs) atom becomes bound within the electronic cloud of an extended Cs electronic orbit. The electronic character of this hybrid class of "trilobite" molecules is dominated by degenerate Rydberg manifolds, making them difficult to produce by conventional photoassociation. We used detailed coupled-channel calculations to reproduce their properties quantitatively. Our findings may lead to progress in ultracold chemistry and strongly correlated many-body physics. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.
The Debye light scattering equation’s scaling relation reveals the purity of synthetic dendrimers
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tseng, Hui-Yu; Chen, Hsiao-Ping [National Chung Cheng University, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry (China); Tang, Yi-Hsuan [Kaohsiung Medical University, Department of Medicinal and Applied Chemistry (China); Chen, Hui-Ting [Kaohsiung Medical University, Department of Fragrance and Cosmetic Science (China); Kao, Chai-Lin, E-mail: clkao@kmu.edu.tw [Kaohsiung Medical University, Department of Medicinal and Applied Chemistry (China); Wang, Shau-Chun, E-mail: chescw@ccu.edu.tw [National Chung Cheng University, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry (China)
2016-03-15
Spherical dendrimer structures cannot be structurally modeled using conventional polymer models of random coil or rod-like configurations during the calibration of the static light scattering (LS) detectors used to determine the molecular weight (M.W.) of a dendrimer or directly assess the purity of a synthetic compound. In this paper, we used the Debye equation-based scaling relation, which predicts that the static LS intensity per unit concentration is linearly proportional to the M.W. of a synthetic dendrimer in a dilute solution, as a tool to examine the purity of high-generational compounds and to monitor the progress of dendrimer preparations. Without using expensive equipment, such as nuclear magnetic resonance or mass spectrometry, this method only required an affordable flow injection set-up with an LS detector. Solutions of the purified dendrimers, including the poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimer and its fourth to seventh generation pyridine derivatives with size range of 5–9 nm, were used to establish the scaling relation with high linearity. The use of artificially impure mixtures of six or seven generations revealed significant deviations from linearity. The raw synthesized products of the pyridine-modified PAMAM dendrimer, which included incompletely reacted dendrimers, were also examined to gauge the reaction progress. As a reaction toward a particular generational derivative of the PAMAM dendrimers proceeded over time, deviations from the linear scaling relation decreased. The difference between the polydispersity index of the incompletely converted products and that of the pure compounds was only about 0.01. The use of the Debye equation-based scaling relation, therefore, is much more useful than the polydispersity index for monitoring conversion processes toward an indicated functionality number in a given preparation.Graphical abstract.
Tsui, C K; Boedo, J A; Stangeby, P C
2018-01-01
A Child-Langmuir law-based method for accounting for Debye sheath expansion while fitting the current-voltage I-V characteristic of proud Langmuir probes (electrodes that extend into the volume of the plasma) is described. For Langmuir probes of a typical size used in tokamak plasmas, these new estimates of electron temperature and ion saturation current density values decreased by up to 60% compared to methods that did not account for sheath expansion. Changes to the collection area are modeled using the Child-Langmuir law and effective expansion perimeter l p , and the model is thus referred to as the "perimeter sheath expansion method." l p is determined solely from electrode geometry, so the method may be employed without prior measurement of the magnitude of the sheath expansion effects for a given Langmuir probe and can be used for electrodes of different geometries. This method correctly predicts the non-saturating ΔI/ΔV slope for cold, low-density plasmas where sheath-expansion effects are strong, as well as for hot plasmas where ΔI/ΔV ∼ 0, though it is shown that the sheath can still significantly affect the collection area in these hot conditions. The perimeter sheath expansion method has several advantages compared to methods where the non-saturating current is fitted: (1) It is more resilient to scatter in the I-V characteristics observed in turbulent plasmas. (2) It is able to separate the contributions to the ΔI/ΔV slope from sheath expansion to that of the high energy electron tail in high Te conditions. (3) It calculates the change in the collection area due to the Debye sheath for conditions where ΔI/ΔV ∼ 0 and for V = V f .
Size, shape, and diffusivity of a single Debye-Hückel polyelectrolyte chain in solution
Soysa, W. Chamath; Dünweg, B.; Prakash, J. Ravi
2015-08-01
Brownian dynamics simulations of a coarse-grained bead-spring chain model, with Debye-Hückel electrostatic interactions between the beads, are used to determine the root-mean-square end-to-end vector, the radius of gyration, and various shape functions (defined in terms of eigenvalues of the radius of gyration tensor) of a weakly charged polyelectrolyte chain in solution, in the limit of low polymer concentration. The long-time diffusivity is calculated from the mean square displacement of the centre of mass of the chain, with hydrodynamic interactions taken into account through the incorporation of the Rotne-Prager-Yamakawa tensor. Simulation results are interpreted in the light of the Odjik, Skolnick, Fixman, Khokhlov, and Khachaturian blob scaling theory (Everaers et al., Eur. Phys. J. E 8, 3 (2002)) which predicts that all solution properties are determined by just two scaling variables—the number of electrostatic blobs X and the reduced Debye screening length, Y. We identify three broad regimes, the ideal chain regime at small values of Y, the blob-pole regime at large values of Y, and the crossover regime at intermediate values of Y, within which the mean size, shape, and diffusivity exhibit characteristic behaviours. In particular, when simulation results are recast in terms of blob scaling variables, universal behaviour independent of the choice of bead-spring chain parameters, and the number of blobs X, is observed in the ideal chain regime and in much of the crossover regime, while the existence of logarithmic corrections to scaling in the blob-pole regime leads to non-universal behaviour.
The Debye light scattering equation’s scaling relation reveals the purity of synthetic dendrimers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tseng, Hui-Yu; Chen, Hsiao-Ping; Tang, Yi-Hsuan; Chen, Hui-Ting; Kao, Chai-Lin; Wang, Shau-Chun
2016-01-01
Spherical dendrimer structures cannot be structurally modeled using conventional polymer models of random coil or rod-like configurations during the calibration of the static light scattering (LS) detectors used to determine the molecular weight (M.W.) of a dendrimer or directly assess the purity of a synthetic compound. In this paper, we used the Debye equation-based scaling relation, which predicts that the static LS intensity per unit concentration is linearly proportional to the M.W. of a synthetic dendrimer in a dilute solution, as a tool to examine the purity of high-generational compounds and to monitor the progress of dendrimer preparations. Without using expensive equipment, such as nuclear magnetic resonance or mass spectrometry, this method only required an affordable flow injection set-up with an LS detector. Solutions of the purified dendrimers, including the poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimer and its fourth to seventh generation pyridine derivatives with size range of 5–9 nm, were used to establish the scaling relation with high linearity. The use of artificially impure mixtures of six or seven generations revealed significant deviations from linearity. The raw synthesized products of the pyridine-modified PAMAM dendrimer, which included incompletely reacted dendrimers, were also examined to gauge the reaction progress. As a reaction toward a particular generational derivative of the PAMAM dendrimers proceeded over time, deviations from the linear scaling relation decreased. The difference between the polydispersity index of the incompletely converted products and that of the pure compounds was only about 0.01. The use of the Debye equation-based scaling relation, therefore, is much more useful than the polydispersity index for monitoring conversion processes toward an indicated functionality number in a given preparation.Graphical abstract
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kryshtab, T.; Palacios G, J.; Cadena A, A.; Kryvko, A.
2015-01-01
The texture analysis using X-ray diffraction (XRD) implies measurement of pole figures (Pf) from the diffracted intensities considering the model of kinematical dispersion. The extinction phenomenon results in a decrease of diffracted intensity and that in turn in a decrease of pole densities (Pds). The phenomenon appears in the kinematical theory of XRD as the primary extinction and the secondary extinction to characterize the loss of intensity of kinematical dispersion. In turn, the static Debye-Waller factor is an integral characteristic of defects in crystals that is introduced in the kinematical theory of XRD and also is used in dynamical theory of XRD. In this work the correlation between the primary extinction coefficient and the static Debye-Waller factor in the case of textured nickel was determined. The value of static Debye-Waller factor was determined from the value of the calculated primary extinction coefficient. For the evaluation there were used Pds in the maxima of Pf obtained for 111 and 200 reflections with Mo Kα radiation, and the Pds in the maxima of Pf obtained for the first and second orders of these reflections with Cu Kα and Co Kα radiations. There were calculated the dislocation densities in grains using values of static Debye-Waller factor and the extinction coefficients. The dislocation densities calculated from these two characteristics are practically equal. (Author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Petracca, S [Salerno Univ. (Italy)
1996-08-01
Debye potentials, the Lorentz reciprocity theorem, and (extended) Leontovich boundary conditions can be used to obtain simple and accurate analytic estimates of the longitudinal and transverse coupling impedances of (piecewise longitudinally uniform) multi-layered pipes with non simple transverse geometry and/or (spatially inhomogeneous) boundary conditions. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wolf, C.
1993-01-01
We study the screening of a central Abelian dyon by a surrounding dyon cloud in a two potential theory of electromagnetism. A generalized formula for the Debye screening length is obtained and a Thomas - Fermi Model for a charged cloud surrounding a central Dyonic Core is studied. 20 refs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Konstantin A. Shapovalov
2013-01-01
Full Text Available The article considers general approach to structured particle and particle system form factor calculation in the Rayleigh-Gans-Debye (RGD approximation. Using this approach, amplitude of light scattering by a truncated pyramid and cone formulas in RGD approximation are obtained. Light scattering indicator by a truncated pyramid and cone in the RGD approximation are calculated.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Qi, Lei; Jin, Yuchun; Zhao, Yuhong; Yang, Xiaomin; Zhao, Hui; Han, Peide
2015-01-01
Highlights: • Structural, elastic, electronic properties and Debye temperature under pressure. • Higher hardness of Ni 3 Mo compound may be obtained when pressure increases. • Proper pressure can improve the ductility but excess pressure was just the opposite. • Ni 3 Mo compound has no structural phase transformation under pressure up to 30 GPa. • Debye temperatures increase with increasing pressure. - Abstract: With the help of first principles method based on density functional theory, the structural, elastic, electronic properties and Debye temperature of Ni 3 Mo binary compound under pressure are investigated. Our calculated structural parameters are in good agreement with experimental and previous theoretical results. The obtained elastic constants show that Ni 3 Mo compound is mechanically stable. Elastic properties such as bulk modulus B, shear modulus G, Young’s modulus E and Poisson’s ratio υ are calculated by the Voigt–Reuss–Hill method. The results of B/G under various pressures show that proper pressure can improve the ductility of Ni 3 Mo but excess pressure will make the ductility decrease. In addition, the density of states as a function of pressure is analyzed. The Debye temperature Θ D calculated from elastic constants increases along with the pressure
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kwak, Mun Gyu; Na, Sung Su; Baek, Gwang Hyeon; Song, Chul Gi; Han, Sang Bo
2001-09-01
This book deals with vibration of machine which gives descriptions of free vibration using SDOF system, forced vibration using SDOF system, vibration of multi-degree of freedom system like introduction and normal form, distribution system such as introduction, free vibration of bar and practice problem, approximate solution like lumped approximations and Raleigh's quotient, engineering by intuition and experience, real problem and experimental method such as technology of signal, fourier transform analysis, frequency analysis and sensor and actuator.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
K. A. Shapovalov
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The paper concerns the light scattering problem of biological objects of complicated structure.It considers optically “soft” (having a refractive index close to that of a surrounding medium homogeneous cylindrical capsules, composed of three parts: central one that is cylindrical and two symmetrical rounding end caps. Such capsules can model more broad class of biological objects than the ordinary shapes of a spheroid or sphere. But, unfortunately, if a particle has other than a regular geometrical shape, then it is very difficult or impossible to solve the scattering problem analytically in its most general form that oblige us to use numerical and approximate analytical methods. The one of such approximate analytical method is the Rayleigh-Gans-Debye approximation (or the first Born approximation.So, the Rayleigh-Gans-Debye approximation is valid for different objects having size from nanometer to millimeter and depending on wave length and refractive index of an object under small phase shift of central ray.The formulas for light scattering amplitude of cylindrical capsule with arbitrary end caps in the Rayleigh-Gans-Debye approximation in scalar form are obtained. Then the light scattering phase function [or element of scattering matrix f11] for natural incident light (unpolarized or arbitrary polarized light is calculated.Numerical results for light scattering phase functions of cylindrical capsule with conical, spheroidal, paraboloidal ends in the Rayleigh-Gans-Debye approximation are compared. Also numerical results for light scattering phase function of cylindrical capsule with conical ends in the Rayleigh-Gans-Debye approximation and in the method of Purcell-Pennypacker (or Discrete Dipole method are compared. The good agreement within an application range of the RayleighGans-Debye approximation is obtained.Further continuation of the work, perhaps, is a consideration of multilayer cylindrical capsule in the Rayleigh-Gans-Debye
Enhanced vibration diagnostics using vibration signature analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ahmed, S.; Shehzad, K.; Zahoor, Y.; Mahmood, A.; Bibi, A.
2001-01-01
Symptoms will appear in equipment, as well as in human beings. when 'suffering from sickness. Symptoms of abnormality in equipment are vibration, noise, deformation, temperature, pressure, electric current, crack, wearing, leakage etc. these are called modes of failure. If the mode of failure is vibration then the vibration signature analysis can be effectively used in order to diagnose the machinery problems. Much valuable information is contained within these vibration 'Spectra' or 'Signatures' but is only of use if the analyst can unlock its 'Secrets'. This paper documents a vibration problem in the motor of a centrifugal pump (Type ETA). It focuses mainly on the roll of modern vibration monitoring system in problem analysis. The problem experienced was the motor unstability and noise due to high vibration. Using enhanced vibration signature data, the problem was analyzed. which suggested that the rotor eccentricity was the cause of excessive noise and vibration in the motor. In conclusion, advanced electronic monitoring and diagnostic systems provide powerful information for machine's condition assessment and problem analysis. Appropriate interpretation and use of this information is important for accurate and effective vibration analysis. (author)
[Occupational standing vibration rate and vibrational diseases].
Karnaukh, N G; Vyshchipan, V F; Haumenko, B S
2003-12-01
Occupational standing vibration rate is proposed in evaluating a degree of impairment of an organism activity. It will allow more widely to introduce specification of quality and quantity in assessment of the development of vibrational disease. According out-patient and inpatient obtained data we have established criterial values of functional changes in accordance with accumulated occupational standing vibration rate. The nomogram was worked out for defining a risk of the development of vibrational disease in mine workers. This nomogram more objectively can help in diagnostics of the disease.
Magnetically levitated autoparametric broadband vibration energy harvesting
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kurmann, L.; Jia, Y.; Manoli, Y.; Woias, P.
2016-01-01
Some of the lingering challenges within the current paradigm of vibration energy harvesting (VEH) involve narrow operational frequency range and the inevitable non-resonant response from broadband noise excitations. Such VEHs are only suitable for limited applications with fixed sinusoidal vibration, and fail to capture a large spectrum of the real world vibration. Various arraying designs, frequency tuning schemes and nonlinear vibratory approaches have only yielded modest enhancements. To fundamentally address this, the paper proposes and explores the potentials in using highly nonlinear magnetic spring force to activate an autoparametric oscillator, in order to realize an inherently broadband resonant system. Analytical and numerical modelling illustrate that high spring nonlinearity derived from magnetic levitation helps to promote the 2:1 internal frequency matching required to activate parametric resonance. At the right internal parameters, the resulting system can intrinsically exhibit semi-resonant response regardless of the bandwidth of the input vibration, including broadband white noise excitation. (paper)
Beecher, L. C.; Williams, F. T.
1970-01-01
Gas-driven vibration exciter produces a sinusoidal excitation function controllable in frequency and in amplitude. It allows direct vibration testing of components under normal loads, removing the possibility of component damage due to high static pressure.
Search for anisotropy in the Debye-Waller factor of HCP solid 4He
Barnes, Ashleigh L.; Hinde, Robert J.
2016-02-01
The properties of hexagonal close packed (hcp) solid 4He are dominated by large atomic zero point motions. An accurate description of these motions is therefore necessary in order to accurately calculate the properties of the system, such as the Debye-Waller (DW) factors. A recent neutron scattering experiment reported significant anisotropy in the in-plane and out-of-plane DW factors for hcp solid 4He at low temperatures, where thermal effects are negligible and only zero-point motions are expected to contribute. By contrast, no such anisotropy was observed either in earlier experiments or in path integral Monte Carlo (PIMC) simulations of solid hcp 4He. However, the earlier experiments and the PIMC simulations were both carried out at higher temperatures where thermal effects could be substantial. We seek to understand the cause of this discrepancy through variational quantum Monte Carlo simulations utilizing an accurate pair potential and a modified trial wavefunction which allows for anisotropy. Near the melting density, we find no anisotropy in an ideal hcp 4He crystal. A theoretical equation of state is derived from the calculated energies of the ideal crystal over a range of molar volumes from 7.88 to 21.3 cm3, and is found to be in good qualitative agreement with experimental data.
Bo, Renheng; Nasiri, Noushin; Chen, Hongjun; Caputo, Domenico; Fu, Lan; Tricoli, Antonio
2017-01-25
Accurate detection of UV light by wearable low-power devices has many important applications including environmental monitoring, space to space communication, and defense. Here, we report the structural engineering of ultraporous ZnO nanoparticle networks for fabrication of very low-voltage high-performance UV photodetectors. A record high photo- to dark-current ratio of 3.3 × 10 5 and detectivity of 3.2 × 10 12 Jones at an ultralow operation bias of 2 mV and low UV-light intensity of 86 μW·cm -2 are achieved by controlling the interplay between grain boundaries and surface depletion depth of ZnO nanoscale semiconductors. An optimal window of structural properties is determined by varying the particle size of ultraporous nanoparticle networks from 10 to 42 nm. We find that small electron-depleted nanoparticles (≤40 nm) are necessary to minimize the dark-current; however, the rise in photocurrent is tampered with decreasing particle size due to the increasing density of grain boundaries. These findings reveal that nanoparticles with a size close to twice their Debye length are required for high photo- to dark-current ratio and detectivity, while further decreasing their size decreases the photodetector performance.
X-ray Debye-Waller factor measurements of solid 3He and 4He
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Arms, D.A.; Shah, R.S.; Simmons, R.O.
2003-01-01
X-ray synchrotron radiation was used to measure Debye-Waller factors of helium crystals for both 3 He and 4 He in both hcp and fcc phases. To our knowledge, there are no previous measurements for 3 He. The ranges studied for 3 He and 4 He crystals were 11.52-12.82 and 10.95-12.13 cm 3 , respectively, and 11.5-18.2 and 12.0-20.3 K. With small uncertainty, only a Gaussian dependence upon momentum transfer Q was found, and no anisotropy was detected in the hcp phase. Mean square atomic deviations, 2 >, and Lindemann ratios were obtained. Large Lindemann ratios confirm that these solids are highly anharmonic. The 2 > values agree within an average 1% with computations of Draeger and Ceperley from path integral Monte Carlo methods including unusual extrapolations to the thermodynamic limit. Because the path-integral Monte Carlo (PIMC) computations exhibit a T 3 dependence for 2 >, which also depends upon molar volume, an empirical analysis was made of the present data as well as of published x-ray and neutron data on hcp 4 He. The volume dependencies are similar to those found from calorimetry, over a large volume range, and the temperature dependencies show similar systematic variations with molar volume both in x-ray data and PIMC results
X-ray stress measurement of ferritic steel using fourier analysis of Debye-Scherrer ring
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fujimoto, Yohei; Sasaki, Toshihiko; Miyazaki, Toshiyuki
2015-01-01
In this study, X-ray stress measurements of ferritic steel based on Fourier analysis are conducted. Taira et al. developed the cosα method for X-ray stress measurements using a two-dimensional X-ray detector. Miyazaki et al. reported that the cosα method can be described more concisely by developing the Fourier series (the Fourier analysis method). The Fourier analysis method is expected to yield the stress measurement with an imperfect Debye-Scherrer ring and there is a possibility that the materials evaluation is different compared with the conventional method, that is, the sin 2 ψ method. In the Fourier analysis method, the strain measured by X-rays is developed as a Fourier series, and all the plane-stress components can be calculated from the Fourier series. In this study, the normal stress calculation was confirmed. In addition, the Fourier-analysis and cosα methods were used for X-ray stress measurements during a four-point bending test on a S45C test piece, and the effectiveness of the Fourier analysis method was confirmed. It was found that the experimental results from the Fourier analysis and cosα methods were nearly identical. In addition, the measurement accuracies of both the methods were equivalent. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. KH. Alassafee
2017-11-01
Full Text Available The modified DebyeâEinstein approximation model is used to calculate nanoscale size-dependent values of Gruneisen parameters and lattice specific heat capacity for Si nanowires. All parameters forming the model, including Debye temperatures, bulk moduli, the lattice thermal expansion and the lattice volume, are calculated according to their nanoscale size dependence. Values for lattice volume Gruneisen parameters increase with the decrease of the nanowiresâ diameter, while all other parameters decrease. The nanosize dependence of lattice thermal parameters agree with other reported theoretical results. Keywords: Lattice specific heat capacity, Gruneisen parameter, DebyeâEinstein model, Si nanowires
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
We make music by causing strings, membranes, or air columns to vibrate. Engineers design safe structures by control- ling vibrations. I will describe to you a very simple vibrating system and the mathematics needed to analyse it. The ideas were born in the work of Joseph-Louis Lagrange (1736–1813), and I begin by quot-.
Bhatia, Anand
2012-01-01
We study the free-free transition in electron-helium ion in the ground state and embedded in a Debye potential in the presence of an external laser field at very low incident electron energies. The laser field is treated classically while the collision dynamics is treated quantum mechanically. The laser field is chosen as monochromatic, linearly polarized and homogeneous. The incident electron is considered to be dressed by the laser field in a nonperturbative manner by choosing Volkov wave function for it. The scattering wave function for the incident electron on the target embedded in a Debye potential is solved numerically by taking into account the effect of electron exchange. We calculate the laser-assisted differential and total cross sections for free-free transition for absorption/emission of a single photon or no photon exchange. The results will be presented at the conference.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zammit, Mark C.; Fursa, Dmitry V.; Bray, Igor
2010-01-01
Electron-hydrogen scattering in weakly coupled hot-dense plasmas has been investigated using the convergent-close-coupling method. The Yukawa-type Debye-Hueckel potential has been used to describe the plasma screening effects. The target structure, excitation dynamics, and ionization process change dramatically as the screening is increased. Excitation cross sections for the 1s→2s,2p,3s,3p,3d and 2s→2p,3s,3p,3d transitions and total and total ionization cross sections for the scattering from the 1s and 2s states are presented. Calculations cover the energy range from thresholds to high energies (250 eV) for various Debye lengths. We find that as the screening increases, the excitation and total cross sections decrease, while the total ionization cross sections increase.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Correa, J.R.; Chang Yongbin; Ordonez, C.A.
2005-01-01
Collisional scattering is considered within a system of charged particles experiencing binary Coulomb interactions when the scale length for the range of each interaction is not isotropic and is not necessarily equal to the Debye length. For example, one or more dimensions of the system could be smaller than the Debye length. The effect is assessed by evaluating integrals over the impact cross section. Cutoffs on both the impact parameter and the Coulomb interaction potential are employed, and no assumption is made regarding the value of the Coulomb logarithm. Two expressions are found that have a dependence on the cutoff lengths, with one of the expressions being associated with the Coulomb logarithm. Collisional scattering within an electrostatic ion trap is considered by way of example
Li, Pan; Zhang, Jianxin; Ma, Shiyu; Jin, Huixin; Zhang, Youjian; Zhang, Wenyang
2018-06-01
The structural, elastic, electronic properties and Debye temperature of Ni3Ta under different pressures are investigated using the first-principles method based on density functional theory. Our calculated equilibrium lattice parameters at 0 GPa well agree with the experimental and previous theoretical results. The calculated negative formation enthalpies and elastic constants both indicate that Ni3Ta is stable under different pressures. The bulk modulus B, shear modulus G, Young's modulus E and Poisson's ratio ν are calculated by the Voigt-Reuss-Hill method. The bigger ratio of B/G indicates Ni3Ta is ductile and the pressure can improve the ductility of Ni3Ta. In addition, the results of density of states and the charge density difference show that the stability of Ni3Ta is improved by the increasing pressure. The Debye temperature ΘD calculated from elastic modulus increases along with the pressure.
Lin, Wushao; Bi, Lei; Liu, Dong; Zhang, Kejun
2017-08-21
The extinction efficiencies of atmospheric particles are essential to determining radiation attenuation and thus are fundamentally related to atmospheric radiative transfer. The extinction efficiencies can also be used to retrieve particle sizes or refractive indices through particle characterization techniques. This study first uses the Debye series to improve the accuracy of high-frequency extinction formulae for spheroids in the context of Complex angular momentum theory by determining an optimal number of edge-effect terms. We show that the optimal edge-effect terms can be accurately obtained by comparing the results from the approximate formula with their counterparts computed from the invariant imbedding Debye series and T-matrix methods. An invariant imbedding T-matrix method is employed for particles with strong absorption, in which case the extinction efficiency is equivalent to two plus the edge-effect efficiency. For weakly absorptive or non-absorptive particles, the T-matrix results contain the interference between the diffraction and higher-order transmitted rays. Therefore, the Debye series was used to compute the edge-effect efficiency by separating the interference from the transmission on the extinction efficiency. We found that the optimal number strongly depends on the refractive index and is relatively insensitive to the particle geometry and size parameter. By building a table of optimal numbers of edge-effect terms, we developed an efficient and accurate extinction simulator that has been fully tested for randomly oriented spheroids with various aspect ratios and a wide range of refractive indices.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mangir Murshed, M., E-mail: murshed@uni-bremen.de [Chemische Kristallographie fester Stoffe, Institut für Anorganische Chemie, Universität Bremens, Leobener Straße, D-28359 Bremen (Germany); Mendive, Cecilia B.; Curti, Mariano [Departamento de Química, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, Dean Funes 3350, B7600AYL Mar del Plata (Argentina); Šehović, Malik [Chemische Kristallographie fester Stoffe, Institut für Anorganische Chemie, Universität Bremens, Leobener Straße, D-28359 Bremen (Germany); Friedrich, Alexandra [Institut für Geowissenschaften, Abteilung Kristallographie, Goethe-Universität Frankfurt, Altenhöferallee 1, D-60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Fischer, Michael [Kristallographie, FB Geowissenschaften, Universität Bremen, Klagenfurter Straße, D-28359 Bremen (Germany); Gesing, Thorsten M. [Chemische Kristallographie fester Stoffe, Institut für Anorganische Chemie, Universität Bremens, Leobener Straße, D-28359 Bremen (Germany)
2015-09-15
Polycrystalline Bi{sub 2}Al{sub 4}O{sub 9} powder samples were synthesized using the glycerine method. Single crystals were produced from the powder product in a Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} melt. The lattice thermal expansion of the mullite-type compound was studied using X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy and density functional theory (DFT). The metric parameters were modeled using Grüneisen approximation for the zero pressure equation of state, where the temperature-dependent vibrational internal energy was calculated from the Debye characteristic frequency. Both the first-order and second-order Grüneisen approximations were applied for modeling the volumetric expansion, and the second-order approach provided physically meaningful axial parameters. The phonon density of states as well as phonon dispersion guided to set the characteristic frequency for simulation. The experimental infrared and Raman phonon bands were compared with those calculate from the DFT calculations. Selective Raman modes were analyzed for the thermal anharmonic behaviors using simplified Klemens model. The respective mode Grüneisen parameters were calculated from the pressure-dependent Raman spectra. - Graphical abstract: Crystal structure of mullite-type Bi{sub 2}Al{sub 4}O{sub 9} showing the edge-sharing AlO{sub 6} octahedra running parallel to the c-axis. - Highlights: • Thermal expansion of Bi{sub 2}Al{sub 4}O{sub 9} was studied using XRD, FTIR, Raman and DFT. • Metric parameters were modeled using Grüneisen approximation. • Phonon DOS and phonon dispersion helped to set the Debye frequency. • Mode Grüneisen parameters were calculated from the pressure-dependent Raman spectra. • Anharmonicity was analyzed for some selective Raman modes.
Vibration of hydraulic machinery
Wu, Yulin; Liu, Shuhong; Dou, Hua-Shu; Qian, Zhongdong
2013-01-01
Vibration of Hydraulic Machinery deals with the vibration problem which has significant influence on the safety and reliable operation of hydraulic machinery. It provides new achievements and the latest developments in these areas, even in the basic areas of this subject. The present book covers the fundamentals of mechanical vibration and rotordynamics as well as their main numerical models and analysis methods for the vibration prediction. The mechanical and hydraulic excitations to the vibration are analyzed, and the pressure fluctuations induced by the unsteady turbulent flow is predicted in order to obtain the unsteady loads. This book also discusses the loads, constraint conditions and the elastic and damping characters of the mechanical system, the structure dynamic analysis, the rotor dynamic analysis and the system instability of hydraulic machines, including the illustration of monitoring system for the instability and the vibration in hydraulic units. All the problems are necessary for vibration pr...
Hewitt, Sue; Dong, Ren G; Welcome, Daniel E; McDowell, Thomas W
2015-03-01
For exposure to hand-transmitted vibration (HTV), personal protective equipment is sold in the form of anti-vibration (AV) gloves, but it remains unclear how much these gloves actually reduce vibration exposure or prevent the development of hand-arm vibration syndrome in the workplace. This commentary describes some of the issues that surround the classification of AV gloves, the assessment of their effectiveness and their applicability in the workplace. The available information shows that AV gloves are unreliable as devices for controlling HTV exposures. Other means of vibration control, such as using alternative production techniques, low-vibration machinery, routine preventative maintenance regimes, and controlling exposure durations are far more likely to deliver effective vibration reductions and should be implemented. Furthermore, AV gloves may introduce some adverse effects such as increasing grip force and reducing manual dexterity. Therefore, one should balance the benefits of AV gloves and their potential adverse effects if their use is considered. © Crown copyright 2014.
Free vibration analysis of beams by using a third-order shear ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Free vibrations of beams; the third-order shear deformation theory; ... Thus, a shear correction factor is required to compensate for the error because of ...... Wang C M, Kitipornchai S 2003 Vibration of Timoshenko beams with internal hinge.
From single Debye-Hückel chains to polyelectrolyte solutions: Simulation results
Kremer, Kurt
1996-03-01
This lecture will present results from simulations of single weakly charged flexible chains, where the electrostatic part of the interaction is modeled by a Debye-Hückel potential,( with U. Micka, IFF, Forschungszentrum Jülich, 52425 Jülich, Germany) as well as simulations of polyelectrolyte solutions, where the counterions are explicitly taken into account( with M. J. Stevens, Sandia Nat. Lab., Albuquerque, NM 87185-1111) ( M. J. Stevens, K. Kremer, JCP 103), 1669 (1995). The first set of the simulations is meant to clear a recent contoversy on the dependency of the persistence length LP on the screening length Γ. While the analytic theories give Lp ~ Γ^x with either x=1 or x=2, the simulations find for all experimentally accessible chain lengths a varying exponent, which is significantly smaller than 1. This causes serious doubts on the applicability of this model for weakly charged polyelectrolytes in general. The second part deals with strongly charged flexible polyelectrolytes in salt free solution. These simulations are performed for multichain systems. The full Coulomb interactions of the monomers and counterions are treated explicitly. Experimental measurements of the osmotic pressure and the structure factor are reproduced and extended. The simulations reveal a new picture of the chain structure based on calculations of the structure factor, persistence length, end-to-end distance, etc. Even at very low density, the chains show significant bending. Furthermore, the chains contract significantly before they start to overlap. We also show that counterion condensation dramatically alters the chain structure, even for a good solvent backbone.
Surveillance of vibrations in PWR
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Espefaelt, R.; Lorenzen, J.; Aakerhielm, F.
1980-07-01
The core of a PWR - including fuel elements, internal structure, control rods and core support structure inside the pressure vessel - is subjected to forces which can cause vibrations. One sensitive means to detect and analyse such vibrations is by means of the noise from incore and excore neutron detector signals. In this project noise recordings have been made on two occasions in the Ringhals 2 plant and the obtained data been analysed using the Studsvik Noise Analysis Program System (SNAPS). The results have been intepreted and a detailed description of the vibrational status of the core and pressure vessel internals has been produced. On the basis of the obtained results it is proposed that neutron signal noise analysis should be performed at each PWR plant in the beginning, middle and end of each fuel cycle and an analysis be made using the methods developed in the project. It would also provide a contribution to a higher degree of preparedness for diagnostic tasks in case of unexpected and abnormal events. (author)
Bandshapes in vibrational spectroscopy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dijkman, F.G.
1978-01-01
A detailed account is given of the development of modern bandshape theories since 1965. An investigation into the relative contributions of statistical irreversible relaxation processes is described, for a series of molecules in which gradually the length of one molecular axis is increased. An investigation into the theoretical and experimental investigation of the broadening brought about by the effect of fluctuating intermolecular potentials on the vibrational frequency is also described. The effect of an intermolecular perturbative potential on anharmonic and Morse oscillators is discussed and the results are presented of a computation on the broadening of the vibrational band of some diatomic molecules in a rigid lattice type solvent. The broadening of the OH-stretching vibration in a number of aliphatic alcohols, the vibrational bandshapes of the acetylenic C-H stretching vibration and of the symmetric methyl stretching vibration are investigated. (Auth./ C.F.)
Transfer vibration through spine
Benyovszky, Adam
2012-01-01
Transfer Vibration through Spine Abstract In the bachelor project we deal with the topic of Transfer Vibration through Spine. The problem of TVS is trying to be solved by the critical review method. We analyse some diagnostic methods and methods of treatment based on this principle. Close attention is paid to the method of Transfer Vibration through Spine that is being currently solved by The Research Institute of Thermomechanics in The Czech Academy of Sciences in cooperation with Faculty of...
On aspects of vibration of axially moving continua
Hageraats-Ponomareva, S.
2009-01-01
In axially moving structures like conveyor belt systems, magnetic tapes, and so on, vibrations occur due to the presence of different kinds of imperfections in the systems. For these structures internal resonances can lead to severe vibrations. Resonance free conveyor belt systems can be constructed
The large Debye-Scherrer camera installed at SPring-8 BL02B2 for charge density studies
Nishibori, E; Kato, K; Sakata, M; Kubota, Y; Aoyagi, S; Kuroiwa, Y; Yamakata, M; Ikeda, N
2001-01-01
The design and performance of a large Debye-Scherrer Camera with imaging plate (IP) as a detector, which was very recently installed at SPring-8, BL02B2, is reported. By taking advantage of high beam quality of SPring-8, the camera enables one a rapid collection of a high counting statistics and high angular resolution powder pattern, which can lead to accurate structure analyses. The camera also provides easy access to structural changes at varied temperatures between 15-1000 K. The camera provides a rapid and accurate powder diffraction system utilizing third generation SR.
Mechanical vibration and shock analysis, sinusoidal vibration
Lalanne, Christian
2014-01-01
Everything engineers need to know about mechanical vibration and shock...in one authoritative reference work! This fully updated and revised 3rd edition addresses the entire field of mechanical vibration and shock as one of the most important types of load and stress applied to structures, machines and components in the real world. Examples include everything from the regular and predictable loads applied to turbines, motors or helicopters by the spinning of their constituent parts to the ability of buildings to withstand damage from wind loads or explosions, and the need for cars to m
Hydroelastic Vibrations of Ships
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Jørgen Juncher; Folsø, Rasmus
2002-01-01
A formula for the necessary hull girder bending stiffness required to avoid serious springing vibrations is derived. The expression takes into account the zero crossing period of the waves, the ship speed and main dimensions. For whipping vibrations the probability of exceedance for the combined...
Surface vibrational spectroscopy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Erskine, J.L.
1984-01-01
A brief review of recent studies which combine measurements of surface vibrational energies with lattice dynamical calculations is presented. These results suggest that surface vibrational spectroscopy offers interesting prospects for use as a molecular-level probe of surface geometry, adsorbate bond distances and molecular orientations
Gearbox vibration diagnostic analyzer
1992-01-01
This report describes the Gearbox Vibration Diagnostic Analyzer installed in the NASA Lewis Research Center's 500 HP Helicopter Transmission Test Stand to monitor gearbox testing. The vibration of the gearbox is analyzed using diagnostic algorithms to calculate a parameter indicating damaged components.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Busse, W; Drews, U; Moeder, H; Ohr, K; Werner, P
1980-06-19
The invention concerns an electrically controlled fuel injection system for an internal combustion engine with at least one solenoid operated injection valve and a power transistor in series with the magnetising winding of the valve and with a control multi-vibrator connected before this, which is switched on synchronously with the crankshaft rotation with simultaneous opening of the injection valve, and which is kept in this state for a period determining the quantity injected, depending on the quantity of suction air. A control pulse is supplied for at least one injection valve, which is extended by a voltage correction stage proportionally to the voltage of a source of electrical supply provided for operating the injection valve, particularly to a vehicle battery. It has been found that the delay in response of the solenoid injection valves is independent of the duration of the opening pulse and must be compensated by an additional fuse independent of the length of the opening pulse, whose duration increases with increasing voltage drop. According to the invention this is achieved by a voltage-correcting stage with a Zener diode and several transistors. The individual operating steps are made clear by 3 patent claims and several detailed circuit diagrams and pulse-time graphs.
Atomic-partial vibrational density of states of i-AlCuFe quasicrystals
Parshin, P P; Brand, R A; Dianoux, A J; Calvayrac, Y
2002-01-01
We present new results on the separation of the atomic-partial vibrational density of states for the ternary quasicrystal i-Al sub 6 sub 2 Cu sub 2 sub 5 sub . sub 5 Fe sub 1 sub 2 sub . sub 5. The decomposition into three atomic-partial functions, Al-, Cu- and Fe-g(E), has been performed self-consistently with the calculation of the multi-phonon contributions. The results show the surprising result that both Cu- and Fe-g(E) are strongly peaked. The low-energy regions of Al- and Cu-g(E) show strong deviations from Debye behaviour due to the presence of non-propagating low-energy vibrational states. (orig.)
Handbook Of Noise And Vibration
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1995-12-01
This book is about noise and vibration. The first chapter has explanations of noise such as basic of sound, influence of noise, assessment of noise, measurement of prevention of noise and technology, case of noise measurement and soundproof. The second chapter describes vibration with outline, theory of vibration, interpretation of vibration, measurement for reduction of vibration, case of design of protection against vibration. It deals with related regulation and method of measurement.
Vibration insensitive interferometry
Millerd, James; Brock, Neal; Hayes, John; Kimbrough, Brad; North-Morris, Michael; Wyant, James C.
2017-11-01
The largest limitation of phase-shifting interferometry for optical testing is the sensitivity to the environment, both vibration and air turbulence. An interferometer using temporal phase-shifting is very sensitive to vibration because the various phase shifted frames of interferometric data are taken at different times and vibration causes the phase shifts between the data frames to be different from what is desired. Vibration effects can be reduced by taking all the phase shifted frames simultaneously and turbulence effects can be reduced by averaging many measurements. There are several techniques for simultaneously obtaining several phase-shifted interferograms and this paper will discuss two such techniques: 1) Simultaneous phase-shifting interferometry on a single detector array (PhaseCam) and 2) Micropolarizer phase-shifting array. The application of these techniques for the testing of large optical components, measurement of vibrational modes, the phasing of segmented optical components, and the measurement of deformations of large diffuse structures is described.
Vibrations of rotating machinery
Matsushita, Osami; Kanki, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Masao; Keogh, Patrick
2017-01-01
This book opens with an explanation of the vibrations of a single degree-of-freedom (dof) system for all beginners. Subsequently, vibration analysis of multi-dof systems is explained by modal analysis. Mode synthesis modeling is then introduced for system reduction, which aids understanding in a simplified manner of how complicated rotors behave. Rotor balancing techniques are offered for rigid and flexible rotors through several examples. Consideration of gyroscopic influences on the rotordynamics is then provided and vibration evaluation of a rotor-bearing system is emphasized in terms of forward and backward whirl rotor motions through eigenvalue (natural frequency and damping ratio) analysis. In addition to these rotordynamics concerning rotating shaft vibration measured in a stationary reference frame, blade vibrations are analyzed with Coriolis forces expressed in a rotating reference frame. Other phenomena that may be assessed in stationary and rotating reference frames include stability characteristic...
Vibration diagnostics instrumentation for ILC
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bertolini, A.
2007-06-15
The future e{sup -}e{sup +} 500 GeV International Linear Collider will rely on unprecedented nanometer scale particle beam size at the interaction point, in order to achieve the design luminosity. Tight tolerances on static and dynamic alignment of the accelerator cavities and optical components are demanded to transport and focus the high energy electron and positron beams with reasonable position jitter and low emittance. A brief review of techniques and devices evaluated and developed so far for the vibration diagnostics of the machine is presented in this paper. (orig.)
Vibration diagnostics instrumentation for ILC
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bertolini, A.
2007-06-01
The future e - e + 500 GeV International Linear Collider will rely on unprecedented nanometer scale particle beam size at the interaction point, in order to achieve the design luminosity. Tight tolerances on static and dynamic alignment of the accelerator cavities and optical components are demanded to transport and focus the high energy electron and positron beams with reasonable position jitter and low emittance. A brief review of techniques and devices evaluated and developed so far for the vibration diagnostics of the machine is presented in this paper. (orig.)
CRBRP flow induced vibration program
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Novendstern, E H [Westinghouse Advanced Reactor Division, Madison, PA (United States); Grochowski, F A; Yang, T M [General Electric Co., Fast Breeder Reactor Department, Sunnyvale, CA (United States); Ryan, J A; Mulcahy, T M
1977-12-01
The program to assure the structural adequacy of Clinch River Breeder Reactor (CRBRP) components during its planned 30 years of operation is described. The program includes (1) an assessment of reactor components relative to their susceptibility to FIV, (2) designing to minimize component excitation due to Fluid induced vibrations (FIV), (3) scale model tests to measure structural response during simulated operating conditions and (4) preoperational tests. An overview of the CRBRP test program is described. Additionally, details of scale model testing of reactor internals and the steam generator is described in more detail. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bo, Maolin [Key Laboratory of Low-Dimensional Materials and Application Technologies, Ministry of Education, Xiangtan University, Xiangtan, Hunan 411105 (China); Wang, Yan [Key Laboratory of Low-Dimensional Materials and Application Technologies, Ministry of Education, Xiangtan University, Xiangtan, Hunan 411105 (China); School of Information and Electronic Engineering, Hunan University of Science and Technology, Xiangtan, Hunan 411201 (China); Huang, Yongli, E-mail: huangyongli@xtu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Low-Dimensional Materials and Application Technologies, Ministry of Education, Xiangtan University, Xiangtan, Hunan 411105 (China); Yang, Xuexian [Department of Physics, Jishou University, Jishou, Hunan 416000 (China); Yang, Yezi [Key Laboratory of Low-Dimensional Materials and Application Technologies, Ministry of Education, Xiangtan University, Xiangtan, Hunan 411105 (China); Li, Can [Center for Coordination Bond Engineering, School of Materials Science and Engineering, China Jiliang University, Hangzhou 330018 (China); Sun, Chang Q., E-mail: ecqsun@ntu.edu.sg [Key Laboratory of Low-Dimensional Materials and Application Technologies, Ministry of Education, Xiangtan University, Xiangtan, Hunan 411105 (China); NOVITAS, School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore)
2014-11-30
Highlights: • Cohesive energy of the representative bond determines the core-level shift. • XPS derives the energy level of an isolated atom and its bulk shift. • XPS derives the local bond length, bond energy, binding energy density. • Thermal XPS resolves the Debye temperature and atomic cohesive energy. - Abstract: Numerical reproduction of the measured 4f{sub 7/2} energy shift of Ir(1 0 0), (1 1 1), and (2 1 0) solid skins turns out the following: (i) the 4f{sub 7/2} level of an isolated Ir atom shifts from 56.367 eV to 60.332 eV by 3.965 eV upon bulk formation; (ii) the local energy density increases by up to 130% and the atomic cohesive energy decreases by 70% in the skin region compared with the bulk values. Numerical match to observation of the temperature dependent energy shift derives the Debye temperature that varies from 285.2 K (Surface) to 315.2 K (Bulk). We clarified that the shorter and stronger bonds between under-coordinated atoms cause local densification and quantum entrapment of electron binding energy, which perturbs the Hamiltonian and the core shifts in the skin region.
Ding, Mingnan; Lu, Bing-Sui; Xing, Xiangjun
2016-10-01
Self-consistent field theory (SCFT) is used to study the mean potential near a charged plate inside a m:-n electrolyte. A perturbation series is developed in terms of g=4πκb, where band1/κ are Bjerrum length and bare Debye length, respectively. To the zeroth order, we obtain the nonlinear Poisson-Boltzmann theory. For asymmetric electrolytes (m≠n), the first order (one-loop) correction to mean potential contains a secular term, which indicates the breakdown of the regular perturbation method. Using a renormalizaton group transformation, we remove the secular term and obtain a globally well-behaved one-loop approximation with a renormalized Debye length and a renormalized surface charge density. Furthermore, we find that if the counterions are multivalent, the surface charge density is renormalized substantially downwards and may undergo a change of sign, if the bare surface charge density is sufficiently large. Our results agrees with large MC simulation even when the density of electrolytes is relatively high.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Abhishek Chowdhury
2014-12-01
Full Text Available Focused multiple ion beamlets from a microwave plasma source is investigated for localized micron-scale modification of substrates in a patterned manner. Plasma electrodes (PE with an array of through apertures having aperture diameters of the order of plasma Debye length are investigated for generating the beamlets. Extraction through sub-Debye length apertures becomes possible when the PE is kept at floating potential. It is found that the current – voltage characteristics of the extracted beamlets exhibits interesting features such as a space-charge-limited region that has a different behaviour than the conventional Child-Langmuir’s law and an extraction-voltage-limited region that does not undergo saturation but exhibits a Schottky-like behaviour similar to that of a vacuum diode. A switching technique to control the motion of individual beamlets is developed and the stopping potential determined. The beamlets are thereafter used to create localized micro-resistive patterns. The experimental results are compared with simulations and reasonably good agreement is obtained.
1,3Do and 1,3Pe states of two electron atoms under Debye plasma screening
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Saha, Jayanta K.; Bhattacharyya, S.; Mukherjee, T.K.; Mukherjee, P.K.
2010-01-01
Extensive non-relativistic variational calculations for estimating the energy values of 2pnd( 1,3 D o ) states [n=3-6] of two electron atoms (He, Li + ,Be 2+ ) and 2pnp( 1 P e )[n=3-8] and 2pnp( 3 P e ) states [n=2-7] of Be 2+ under weakly coupled plasma screening have been performed using explicitly correlated Hylleraas type basis. The modified energy eigenvalues of 1,3 P e states arising from two p electrons of Be 2+ ion and 1,3 D o states due to 2pnd configuration of Li + and Be 2+ ion in the Debye plasma environment are being reported for the first time. The effect of plasma has been incorporated through the Debye screening model. The system tends towards gradual instability and the number of bound states reduces with increasing plasma coupling strength. The wavelengths for 2pn ' p( 1 P e )[n ' =3-8]→2pnd( 1 D o )[n=3-6] and 2pn ' p( 3 P e )[n ' =2-8]→2pnd( 3 D o )[n=3-6] transitions in plasma embedded two electron atoms have also been reported.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anon.
1997-01-01
This rubric reports on 10 short notes about international economical facts about nuclear power: Electricite de France (EdF) and its assistance and management contracts with Eastern Europe countries (Poland, Hungary, Bulgaria); Transnuclear Inc. company (a 100% Cogema daughter company) acquired the US Vectra Technologies company; the construction of the Khumo nuclear power plant in Northern Korea plays in favour of the reconciliation between Northern and Southern Korea; the delivery of two VVER 1000 Russian reactors to China; the enforcement of the cooperation agreement between Euratom and Argentina; Japan requested for the financing of a Russian fast breeder reactor; Russia has planned to sell a floating barge-type nuclear power plant to Indonesia; the control of the Swedish reactor vessels of Sydkraft AB company committed to Tractebel (Belgium); the renewal of the nuclear cooperation agreement between Swiss and USA; the call for bids from the Turkish TEAS electric power company for the building of the Akkuyu nuclear power plant answered by three candidates: Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL), Westinghouse (US) and the French-German NPI company. (J.S.)
Vibration characteristics of the Transrapid TR08 Maglev System
2002-03-01
As part of the Federal Railroad Administration's (FRA) Magnetic Levitation Transportation Technology Deployment Program, the technical report has been prepared to charaterize the vibration associated with the operation of the Transrapid International...
A Vibration Control Method for the Flexible Arm Based on Energy Migration
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yushu Bian
2015-01-01
Full Text Available A vibration control method based on energy migration is proposed to decrease vibration response of the flexible arm undergoing rigid motion. A type of vibration absorber is suggested and gives rise to the inertial coupling between the modes of the flexible arm and the absorber. By analyzing 1 : 2 internal resonance, it is proved that the internal resonance can be successfully created and the exchange of vibration energy is existent. Due to the inertial coupling, the damping enhancement effect is revealed. Via the inertial coupling, vibration energy of the flexible arm can be dissipated by not only the damping of the vibration absorber but also its own enhanced damping, thereby effectively decreasing vibration. Through numerical simulations and analyses, it is proven that this method is feasible in controlling nonlinear vibration of the flexible arm undergoing rigid motion.
Simulation of fuel rods vibration in power reactors by vibration of tape coated with cadmium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Holland, L.
1982-01-01
The circulation of cooling water in light water power reactor makes a vibration in internal components. The monitoring of those vibrations is necessary aiming to the safety use of reactors. Aiming at study those vibrations a neutron absorber, type vibratory tape was introduced in the core of a research reactor type Pulstar, operating at 80 W of power. The induced power variations were measured with an ionization chamber put besides the reactor core. The detector signal was recorded and analysed in a PDP-11 computer. The analysis of the results show that the power density of the detector signal, and thus, the power reactor, increase in the O-25 Hz range with an increase in the pulse height vibration. (E.G.) [pt
Silicon micromachined vibrating gyroscopes
Voss, Ralf
1997-09-01
This work gives an overview of silicon micromachined vibrating gyroscopes. Market perspectives and fields of application are pointed out. The advantage of using silicon micromachining is discussed and estimations of the desired performance, especially for automobiles are given. The general principle of vibrating gyroscopes is explained. Vibrating silicon gyroscopes can be divided into seven classes. for each class the characteristic principle is presented and examples are given. Finally a specific sensor, based on a tuning fork for automotive applications with a sensitivity of 250(mu) V/degrees is described in detail.
System Detects Vibrational Instabilities
Bozeman, Richard J., Jr.
1990-01-01
Sustained vibrations at two critical frequencies trigger diagnostic response or shutdown. Vibration-analyzing electronic system detects instabilities of combustion in rocket engine. Controls pulse-mode firing of engine and identifies vibrations above threshold amplitude at 5.9 and/or 12kHz. Adapted to other detection and/or control schemes involving simultaneous real-time detection of signals above or below preset amplitudes at two or more specified frequencies. Potential applications include rotating machinery and encoders and decoders in security systems.
Lanzani, Guglielmo; De Silvestri, Sandro
2007-01-01
Vibrational spectroscopy is a powerful investigation tool for a wide class of materials covering diverse areas in physics, chemistry and biology. The continuous development in the laser field regarding ultrashort pulse generation has led to the possibility of producing light pulses that can follow vibrational motion coupled to the electronic transitions in molecules and solids in real time. Aimed at researchers and graduate students using vibrational spectroscopy, this book provides both introductory chapters as well as more advanced contents reporting on recent progress. It also provides a good starting point for scientists seeking a sound introduction to ultrafast optics and spectroscopic techniques.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Søren R. K.
The present textbook has been written based on previous lecture notes for a course on stochastic vibration theory that is being given on the 9th semester at Aalborg University for M. Sc. students in structural engineering. The present 4th edition of this textbook on linear stochastic vibration th...... theory is unchanged in comparison to the 3rd edition. Only a few errors have been corrected.......The present textbook has been written based on previous lecture notes for a course on stochastic vibration theory that is being given on the 9th semester at Aalborg University for M. Sc. students in structural engineering. The present 4th edition of this textbook on linear stochastic vibration...
Improved Laser Vibration Radar
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Hilaire, Pierre
1998-01-01
.... This thesis reconfigured an existing CO2 laboratory laser radar system that is capable of measuring the frequencies of vibration of a simulated target into a more compact and rugged form for field testing...
NIF Ambient Vibration Measurements
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Noble, C.R.; Hoehler, M.S.; S.C. Sommer
1999-01-01
LLNL has an ongoing research and development project that includes developing data acquisition systems with remote wireless communication for monitoring the vibrations of large civil engineering structures. In order to establish the capability of performing remote sensing over an extended period of time, the researchers needed to apply this technology to a real structure. The construction of the National Ignition Facility provided an opportunity to test the data acquisition system on a large structure to monitor whether the facility is remaining within the strict ambient vibration guidelines. This document will briefly discuss the NIF ambient vibration requirements and summarize the vibration measurements performed during the Spring and Summer of 1999. In addition, a brief description of the sensors and the data acquisition systems will be provided in Appendix B
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Alekhin, S.A.; Denisenko, V.V.; Dzhalalov, M.G.; Kirichek, F.P.; Pitatel, Yu.A.; Prokopov, L.I.; Tikhonov, Yu.P.
1982-01-01
A vibration sieve is proposed which includes a vibration drive, a body and a screen installed on shock absorbers, a device for washing out the screen, and a subassembly for loading the material. To increase the operational reliability and effectiveness of the vibration sieve by improving the cleaning of the screen, the loading subassembly is equipped with a baffle with a lever which is hinged to it. The device for washing out the screen is made in the form of an electromagnet with a connecting rod, a switch and an eccentric, a friction ratchet mechanism and sprinkling systems. Here, the latter are interconnected, using a connecting rod, while the sprinkling system is installed on rollers under the screen. The electromagnetic switch is installed under the lever. The body is made with grooves for installing the sprinkling system. The vibration sieve is equipped with a switch which interacts with the connecting rod. The friction ratchet mechanism is equipped with a lug.
Structural Stability and Vibration
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wiggers, Sine Leergaard; Pedersen, Pauli
This book offers an integrated introduction to the topic of stability and vibration. Strikingly, it describes stability as a function of boundary conditions and eigenfrequency as a function of both boundary conditions and column force. Based on a post graduate course held by the author at the Uni...... and their derivation, thus stimulating them to write interactive and dynamic programs to analyze instability and vibrational modes....
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Philip J. Reid
2009-09-21
The conference focuses on using vibrational spectroscopy to probe structure and dynamics of molecules in gases, liquids, and interfaces. The goal is to bring together a collection of researchers who share common interests and who will gain from discussing work at the forefront of several connected areas. The intent is to emphasize the insights and understanding that studies of vibrations provide about a variety of systems.
Munday, J. N.; Capasso, Federico; Parsegian, V. Adrian; Bezrukov, Sergey M.
2008-09-01
We present detailed measurements of the Casimir-Lifshitz force between two gold surfaces (a sphere and a plate) immersed in ethanol and study the effect of residual electrostatic forces, which are dominated by static fields within the apparatus and can be reduced with proper shielding. Electrostatic forces are further reduced by Debye screening through the addition of salt ions to the liquid. Additionally, the salt leads to a reduction of the Casimir-Lifshitz force by screening the zero-frequency contribution to the force; however, the effect is small between gold surfaces at the measured separations and within experimental error. An improved calibration procedure is described and compared with previous methods. Finally, the experimental results are compared with Lifshitz’s theory and found to be consistent for the materials used in the experiment.
Rezaie-Dereshgi, Amir; Mohammad-Rafiee, Farshid
2018-04-01
The electrostatic interactions play a crucial role in biological systems. Here we consider an impermeable dielectric molecule in the solvent with a different dielectric constant. The electrostatic free energy in the problem is studied in the Debye-Hückel regime using the analytical Green function that is calculated in the paper. Using this electrostatic free energy, we study the electrostatic contribution to the twist rigidity of a double stranded helical molecule such as a DNA and an actin filament. The dependence of the electrostatic twist rigidity of the molecule to the dielectric inhomogeneity, structural parameters, and the salt concentration is studied. It is shown that, depending on the parameters, the electrostatic twist rigidity could be positive or negative.
Bukar, Natalia; Zhao, Sandy Shuo; Charbonneau, David M; Pelletier, Joelle N; Masson, Jean-Francois
2014-05-18
We report that a shorter Debye length and, as a consequence, decreased colloidal stability are required for the molecular interaction of folic acid-modified Au nanoparticles (Au NPs) to occur on a surface-bound receptor, human dihydrofolate reductase (hDHFR). The interaction measured using surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensing was optimal in a phosphate buffer at pH 6 and ionic strength exceeding 300 mM. Under these conditions, the aggregation constant of the Au NPs was approximately 10(4) M(-1) s(-1) and the Debye length was below 1 nm, on the same length scale as the size of the folate anion (approximately 0.8 nm). Longer Debye lengths led to poorer SPR responses, revealing a reduced affinity of the folic acid-modified Au NPs for hDHFR. While high colloidal stability of Au NPs is desired in most applications, these conditions may hinder molecular interactions due to Debye lengths exceeding the size of the ligand and thus preventing close interactions with the surface-bound molecular receptor.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Selle, J.E.
1975-01-01
Results are presented of studies conducted to relate internal friction measurements in U to allotropic transformations. It was found that several internal friction peaks occur in α-uranium whose magnitude changed drastically after annealing in the β phase. All of the allotropic transformations in uranium are diffusional in nature under slow heating and cooling conditions. Creep at regions of high stress concentration appears to be responsible for high temperature internal friction in α-uranium. The activation energy for grain boundary relaxation in α-uranium was found to be 65.1 +- 4 kcal/mole. Impurity atoms interfere with the basic mechanism for grain boundary relaxation resulting in a distribution in activation energies. A considerable distribution in ln tau 0 was also found which is a measure of the distribution in local order and in the Debye frequency around a grain boundary
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hsiao, Jui-Ju; Chen, Hung-Ing; Huang, Yi-Jen; Wang, Jen-Cheng; Lu, Bing-Yuh; Wu, Ya-Fen; Nee, Tzer-En
2015-01-01
Analysis was made of the Subcell Debye behavior of the order–disorder effects in triple-junction InGaP-based photovoltaic solar cells fabricated by a metal organic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE) system with careful adjustment of the growth conditions. The order–disorder configurations of the InGaP subcells were investigated after post-annealing treatment at various temperatures in a nitrogen atmosphere. Temperature-dependent photoluminescence (PL) measurements over a broad temperature range provided insight into the roles of the thermophysical phenomena connected with the ordering and disordering in the InGaP alloys. The thermally-related spectroscopic observations associated with the ordering effects on the photon–phonon interactions were confirmed by the McCumber–Sturge theory. The variations of both the full width at half-maximum (FWHM) and shift in the peak of PL with temperature were analyzed. According to the width-related PL observations the effective photon–phonon coupling coefficient and the Debye temperature were 0.53 meV and 424 K, respectively; according to shift-related PL observations of the as-grown sample they were 0.3247 eV and 430 K, respectively, for the width-related PL observation they were 0.29 meV and 421 K; and from the shift-related PL observations for the as-grown ordered samples they were 0.3142 eV and 425 K, respectively, implying that the spontaneously disordered InGaP heterostructures met the demand for improvement of photovoltaic devices. Both the effective photon–phonon coupling coefficient and the Debye temperatures were characterized as functions of the annealing temperature. The Debye temperatures obtained for the disordered and ordered top subcells were consistent with the universal Gruneisen–Bloch relation. - Highlights: • Analysis was made of the Subcell Debye behavior in photovoltaic solar cells. • The order–disorder configurations of the InGaP subcells were investigated. • The Debye temperatures were
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hsiao, Jui-Ju; Chen, Hung-Ing; Huang, Yi-Jen; Wang, Jen-Cheng [Graduate Institute of Electro-Optical Engineering and Department of Electronic Engineering, Chang Gung University, 259 Wen-Hwa 1st Road, Kwei-Shan, Tao-Yuan, Taiwan ROC (China); Lu, Bing-Yuh [Department of Electronic Engineering, Tungnan University, No.152, Sec. 3, Beishen Road, Shenkeng District, New Taipei City, Taiwan ROC (China); Wu, Ya-Fen [Department of Electronic Engineering, Ming Chi University of Technology, 84 Gungjuan Road, Taishan District, New Taipei City, Taiwan ROC (China); Nee, Tzer-En, E-mail: neete@mail.cgu.edu.tw [Graduate Institute of Electro-Optical Engineering and Department of Electronic Engineering, Chang Gung University, 259 Wen-Hwa 1st Road, Kwei-Shan, Tao-Yuan, Taiwan ROC (China)
2015-12-15
Analysis was made of the Subcell Debye behavior of the order–disorder effects in triple-junction InGaP-based photovoltaic solar cells fabricated by a metal organic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE) system with careful adjustment of the growth conditions. The order–disorder configurations of the InGaP subcells were investigated after post-annealing treatment at various temperatures in a nitrogen atmosphere. Temperature-dependent photoluminescence (PL) measurements over a broad temperature range provided insight into the roles of the thermophysical phenomena connected with the ordering and disordering in the InGaP alloys. The thermally-related spectroscopic observations associated with the ordering effects on the photon–phonon interactions were confirmed by the McCumber–Sturge theory. The variations of both the full width at half-maximum (FWHM) and shift in the peak of PL with temperature were analyzed. According to the width-related PL observations the effective photon–phonon coupling coefficient and the Debye temperature were 0.53 meV and 424 K, respectively; according to shift-related PL observations of the as-grown sample they were 0.3247 eV and 430 K, respectively, for the width-related PL observation they were 0.29 meV and 421 K; and from the shift-related PL observations for the as-grown ordered samples they were 0.3142 eV and 425 K, respectively, implying that the spontaneously disordered InGaP heterostructures met the demand for improvement of photovoltaic devices. Both the effective photon–phonon coupling coefficient and the Debye temperatures were characterized as functions of the annealing temperature. The Debye temperatures obtained for the disordered and ordered top subcells were consistent with the universal Gruneisen–Bloch relation. - Highlights: • Analysis was made of the Subcell Debye behavior in photovoltaic solar cells. • The order–disorder configurations of the InGaP subcells were investigated. • The Debye temperatures were
Vibration transducer calibration techniques
Brinkley, D. J.
1980-09-01
Techniques for the calibration of vibration transducers used in the Aeronautical Quality Assurance Directorate of the British Ministry of Defence are presented. Following a review of the types of measurements necessary in the calibration of vibration transducers, the performance requirements of vibration transducers, which can be used to measure acceleration, velocity or vibration amplitude, are discussed, with particular attention given to the piezoelectric accelerometer. Techniques for the accurate measurement of sinusoidal vibration amplitude in reference-grade transducers are then considered, including the use of a position sensitive photocell and the use of a Michelson laser interferometer. Means of comparing the output of working-grade accelerometers with that of previously calibrated reference-grade devices are then outlined, with attention given to a method employing a capacitance bridge technique and a method to be used at temperatures between -50 and 200 C. Automatic calibration procedures developed to speed up the calibration process are outlined, and future possible extensions of system software are indicated.
Noise and vibration analysis system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Johnsen, J.R.; Williams, R.L.
1985-01-01
The analysis of noise and vibration data from an operating nuclear plant can provide valuable information that can identify and characterize abnormal conditions. Existing plant monitoring equipment, such as loose parts monitoring systems (LPMS) and neutron flux detectors, may be capable of gathering noise data, but may lack the analytical capability to extract useful meanings hidden in the noise. By analyzing neutron noise signals, the structural motion and integrity of core components can be assessed. Computer analysis makes trending of frequency spectra within a fuel cycle and from one cycle to another a practical means of core internals monitoring. The Babcock and Wilcox Noise and Vibration Analysis System (NVAS) is a powerful, compact system that can automatically perform complex data analysis. The system can acquire, process, and store data, then produce report-quality plots of the important parameter. Software to perform neutron noise analysis and loose parts analysis operates on the same hardware package. Since the system is compact, inexpensive, and easy to operate, it allows utilities to perform more frequency analyses without incurring high costs and provides immediate results
Time-resolved vibrational spectroscopy
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tokmakoff, Andrei [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Champion, Paul [Northeastern Univ., Boston, MA (United States); Heilweil, Edwin J. [National Inst. of Standards and Technology (NIST), Boulder, CO (United States); Nelson, Keith A. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Ziegler, Larry [Boston Univ., MA (United States)
2009-05-14
This document contains the Proceedings from the 14th International Conference on Time-Resolved Vibrational Spectroscopy, which was held in Meredith, NH from May 9-14, 2009. The study of molecular dynamics in chemical reaction and biological processes using time-resolved spectroscopy plays an important role in our understanding of energy conversion, storage, and utilization problems. Fundamental studies of chemical reactivity, molecular rearrangements, and charge transport are broadly supported by the DOE's Office of Science because of their role in the development of alternative energy sources, the understanding of biological energy conversion processes, the efficient utilization of existing energy resources, and the mitigation of reactive intermediates in radiation chemistry. In addition, time-resolved spectroscopy is central to all fiveof DOE's grand challenges for fundamental energy science. The Time-Resolved Vibrational Spectroscopy conference is organized biennially to bring the leaders in this field from around the globe together with young scientists to discuss the most recent scientific and technological advances. The latest technology in ultrafast infrared, Raman, and terahertz spectroscopy and the scientific advances that these methods enable were covered. Particular emphasis was placed on new experimental methods used to probe molecular dynamics in liquids, solids, interfaces, nanostructured materials, and biomolecules.
Recovering Intrinsic Fragmental Vibrations Using the Generalized Subsystem Vibrational Analysis.
Tao, Yunwen; Tian, Chuan; Verma, Niraj; Zou, Wenli; Wang, Chao; Cremer, Dieter; Kraka, Elfi
2018-05-08
Normal vibrational modes are generally delocalized over the molecular system, which makes it difficult to assign certain vibrations to specific fragments or functional groups. We introduce a new approach, the Generalized Subsystem Vibrational Analysis (GSVA), to extract the intrinsic fragmental vibrations of any fragment/subsystem from the whole system via the evaluation of the corresponding effective Hessian matrix. The retention of the curvature information with regard to the potential energy surface for the effective Hessian matrix endows our approach with a concrete physical basis and enables the normal vibrational modes of different molecular systems to be legitimately comparable. Furthermore, the intrinsic fragmental vibrations act as a new link between the Konkoli-Cremer local vibrational modes and the normal vibrational modes.
Vibrational spectra of aminoacetonitrile
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bak, B.; Hansen, E.L.; Nicolaisen, F.M.; Nielsen, O.F.
1975-01-01
The preparation of pure, stable aminoacetonitrile(1-amino, 1'-cyanomethane)CH 2 NH 2 CN (1) is described. The Raman spectrum, now complete, and a novel infrared spectrum extending over the 50-3600 cm -1 region are reported. A tentative normal vibration analysis is presented and supported by Raman and infrared data from the spectra of CH 2 NHDCN (2) and CH 2 ND 2 CN (3). The predominance of the trans rotamer may be attributed to intramolecular hydrogen bonding but this is too unimportant to influence the vibrational frequencies of gaseous 1, 2, and 3. However, large gas/liquid frequency shifts occur. (author)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Søren R. K.
The present textbook has been written based on previous lecture notes for a course on stochastic vibration theory that is being given on the 9th semester at Aalborg University for M. Sc. students in structural engineering. The present 2nd edition of this textbook on linear stochastic vibration th...... theory is basically unchanged in comparison to the 1st edition. Only section 4.2 on single input - single output systems and chapter 6 on offshore structures have been modified in order to enhance the clearness....
Flow-induced vibration in LMFBR steam generators: a state-of-the-art review
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shin, Y.S.; Wambsganss, M.W.
1975-05-01
This state-of-the-art review identifies and discusses existing methods of flow-induced vibration analysis applicable to steam generators, their limitations, and base-technology needs. Also included are discussions of five different LMFBR steam-generator configurations and important design considerations, failure experiences, possible flow-induced excitation mechanisms, vibration testing, and available methods of vibration analysis. The objectives are to aid LMFBR steam-generator designers in making the best possible evaluation of potential vibration in steam-generator internals, and to provide the basis for development of design guidelines to avoid detrimental flow-induced vibration
Heterogeneous Dynamics of Coupled Vibrations
Cringus, Dan; Jansen, Thomas I. C.; Pshenichnikov, Maxim S.; Schoenlein, RW; Corkum, P; DeSilvestri, S; Nelson, KA; Riedle, E
2009-01-01
Frequency-dependent dynamics of coupled stretch vibrations of a water molecule are revealed by 2D IR correlation spectroscopy. These are caused by non-Gaussian fluctuations of the environment around the individual OH stretch vibrations.
Hansson, J E; Eklund, L; Kihlberg, S; Ostergren, C E
1987-03-01
The main objective of the study was to find efficient hand tools which caused only minor vibration loading. Vibration measurements were carried out under standardised working conditions. The time during which car body repairers in seven companies were exposed to vibration was determined. Chisel hammers, impact wrenches, sanders and saws were the types of tools which generated the highest vibration accelerations. The average daily exposure at the different garages ranged from 22 to 70 min. The risk of vibration injury is currently rated as high. The difference between the highest and lowest levels of vibration was considerable in most tool categories. Therefore the choice of tool has a major impact on the magnitude of vibration exposure. The importance of choosing the right tools and working methods is discussed and a counselling service on vibration is proposed.
Energy scavenging from environmental vibration.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Galchev, Tzeno (University of Michigan); Apblett, Christopher Alan; Najafi, Khalil (University of Michigan)
2009-10-01
The goal of this project is to develop an efficient energy scavenger for converting ambient low-frequency vibrations into electrical power. In order to achieve this a novel inertial micro power generator architecture has been developed that utilizes the bi-stable motion of a mechanical mass to convert a broad range of low-frequency (< 30Hz), and large-deflection (>250 {micro}m) ambient vibrations into high-frequency electrical output energy. The generator incorporates a bi-stable mechanical structure to initiate high-frequency mechanical oscillations in an electromagnetic scavenger. This frequency up-conversion technique enhances the electromechanical coupling and increases the generated power. This architecture is called the Parametric Frequency Increased Generator (PFIG). Three generations of the device have been fabricated. It was first demonstrated using a larger bench-top prototype that had a functional volume of 3.7cm3. It generated a peak power of 558{micro}W and an average power of 39.5{micro}W at an input acceleration of 1g applied at 10 Hz. The performance of this device has still not been matched by any other reported work. It yielded the best power density and efficiency for any scavenger operating from low-frequency (<10Hz) vibrations. A second-generation device was then fabricated. It generated a peak power of 288{micro}W and an average power of 5.8{micro}W from an input acceleration of 9.8m/s{sup 2} at 10Hz. The device operates over a frequency range of 20Hz. The internal volume of the generator is 2.1cm{sup 3} (3.7cm{sup 3} including casing), half of a standard AA battery. Lastly, a piezoelectric version of the PFIG is currently being developed. This device clearly demonstrates one of the key features of the PFIG architecture, namely that it is suitable for MEMS integration, more so than resonant generators, by incorporating a brittle bulk piezoelectric ceramic. This is the first micro-scale piezoelectric generator capable of <10Hz operation. The
Vibration Analysis of a Residential Building
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sampaio Regina Augusta
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present the results of a study regarding vibration problems in a 17 storey residential building during pile driving in its vicinity. The structural design of the building was checked according to the Brazilian standards NBR6118 and NBR6123, and using commercial finite element software. An experimental analysis was also carried out using low frequency piezo-accelerometers attached to the building structure. Structure vibrations were recorded under ambient conditions. Four monitoring tests were performed on different days. The objective of the first monitoring test was an experimental modal analysis. To obtain de modal parameters, data was processed in the commercial software ARTEMIS employing two methods: the Stochastic Subspace Identification and the Frequency Domain Decomposition. Human comfort was investigated considering the International Standard ISO 2631. The Portuguese standard, NP2074, was also used as a reference, since it aims to limit the adverse effects of vibrations in structures caused by pile driving in the vicinity of the structure. The carried out experimental tests have shown that, according to ISO2301, the measure vibration levels are above the acceptance limits. However, velocity peaks are below the limits established by NP2074. It was concluded that, although the structure has adequate capacity to resist internal forces according to normative criteria, it has low horizontal stiffness, which could be verified by observing the vibration frequencies and mode shapes obtained with the finite element models, and its similarity with the experimental results. Thus, the analyses indicate the occurrence of discomfort by the residents.
Structural Stability and Vibration
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wiggers, Sine Leergaard; Pedersen, Pauli
at the University of Southern Denmark, it reports on fundamental formulas and makes uses of graphical representation to promote understanding. Thanks to the emphasis put on analytical methods and numerical results, the book is meant to make students and engineers familiar with all fundamental equations...... and their derivation, thus stimulating them to write interactive and dynamic programs to analyze instability and vibrational modes....
Vibrational Spectroscopy and Astrobiology
Chaban, Galina M.; Kwak, D. (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
Role of vibrational spectroscopy in solving problems related to astrobiology will be discussed. Vibrational (infrared) spectroscopy is a very sensitive tool for identifying molecules. Theoretical approach used in this work is based on direct computation of anharmonic vibrational frequencies and intensities from electronic structure codes. One of the applications of this computational technique is possible identification of biological building blocks (amino acids, small peptides, DNA bases) in the interstellar medium (ISM). Identifying small biological molecules in the ISM is very important from the point of view of origin of life. Hybrid (quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics) theoretical techniques will be discussed that may allow to obtain accurate vibrational spectra of biomolecular building blocks and to create a database of spectroscopic signatures that can assist observations of these molecules in space. Another application of the direct computational spectroscopy technique is to help to design and analyze experimental observations of ice surfaces of one of the Jupiter's moons, Europa, that possibly contains hydrated salts. The presence of hydrated salts on the surface can be an indication of a subsurface ocean and the possible existence of life forms inhabiting such an ocean.
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
The vibrating string problem is the source of much mathe- matics and physics. ... ing this science [mechanics],and the art of solving the problems pertaining to it, to .... used tools for finding maxima and minima of functions of several variables.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Richards, D.J.W.
1977-01-01
The heat exchangers of various types are common items of plant in the generation and transmission of electricity. The amount of attention given to the flow-induced vibrations of heat exchangers by designers is usually related to the operational history of similar items of plant. Consequently, if a particular design procedure yields items of plant which behave in a satisfactory manner during their operational life, there is little incentive to improve or refine the design procedure. On the other hand, failures of heat exchangers clearly indicate deficiencies in the design procedures or in the data available to the designer. When such failures are attributable to flow-induced vibrations, the identification of the mechanisms involved is a prime importance. Ideally, basic research work provides the background understanding and the techniques necessary to be able to identify the important mechanisms. In practice, the investigation of a flow-induced vibration problem may identify the presence of mechanisms but may not be able to quantify their effects adequately. In these circumstances the need for additional work is established and the objectives of the research programme emerge. The purpose of this paper is to outline the background to the current research programme at C.E.R.L. on heat exchanger vibration
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jönsson, Jeppe; Hansen, Lars Pilegaard
1994-01-01
work has been done on the measurement of the exact load functions and related reponse analysis. A recent work using a spectral description has been performed by Per-Erik Erikson and includes a good literature survey. Bachmann and Ammann give a good overview of vibrations caused by human activity. Other...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Richards, D J.W. [CERL, CEGB, Leatherhead, Surrey (United Kingdom)
1977-12-01
The heat exchangers of various types are common items of plant in the generation and transmission of electricity. The amount of attention given to the flow-induced vibrations of heat exchangers by designers is usually related to the operational history of similar items of plant. Consequently, if a particular design procedure yields items of plant which behave in a satisfactory manner during their operational life, there is little incentive to improve or refine the design procedure. On the other hand, failures of heat exchangers clearly indicate deficiencies in the design procedures or in the data available to the designer. When such failures are attributable to flow-induced vibrations, the identification of the mechanisms involved is a prime importance. Ideally, basic research work provides the background understanding and the techniques necessary to be able to identify the important mechanisms. In practice, the investigation of a flow-induced vibration problem may identify the presence of mechanisms but may not be able to quantify their effects adequately. In these circumstances the need for additional work is established and the objectives of the research programme emerge. The purpose of this paper is to outline the background to the current research programme at C.E.R.L. on heat exchanger vibration.
General principles of vibrational spectroscopies
Weckhuysen, B.M.; Schoonheydt, R.A.
2000-01-01
Atoms in molecules and solids do not remain in fixed relative positions, but vibrate about some mean position. This vibrational motion is quantized and at room temperature, most of the molecules in a given sample are in their lowest vibrational state. Absorption of electromagnetic radiation with
High-Temperature Vibration Damper
Clarke, Alan; Litwin, Joel; Krauss, Harold
1987-01-01
Device for damping vibrations functions at temperatures up to 400 degrees F. Dampens vibrational torque loads as high as 1,000 lb-in. but compact enough to be part of helicopter rotor hub. Rotary damper absorbs energy from vibrating rod, dissipating it in turbulent motion of viscous hydraulic fluid forced by moving vanes through small orifices.
Crocker, Malcolm J. (Editor); Raju, P. K. (Editor)
1992-01-01
The papers presented in this volume cover a variety of topics, including sound intensity, structural intensity, modal analysis and synthesis, statistical energy analysis and energy methods, passive and active damping, and boundary element methods. Attention is also given to diagnostics and condition monitoring, material characterization and nondestructive evaluation, active noise and vibration control, sound radiation and scattering, and finite element analysis.
Scrimshire, A.; Lobera, A.; Bell, A. M. T.; Jones, A. H.; Sterianou, I.; Forder, S. D.; Bingham, P. A.
2018-03-01
Lanthanide orthoferrites have wide-ranging industrial uses including solar, catalytic and electronic applications. Here a series of lanthanide orthoferrite perovskites, LnFeO3 (Ln = La Nd; Sm; Eu; Gd), prepared through a standard stoichiometric wet ball milling route using oxide precursors, has been studied. Characterisation through x-ray diffraction and x-ray fluorescence confirmed the synthesis of phase-pure or near-pure LnFeO3 compounds. 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy was performed over a temperature range of 10 K-293 K to observe hyperfine structure and to enable calculation of the recoil-free fraction and Debye temperature (θ D) of each orthoferrite. Debye temperatures (Ln = La 474 K Nd 459 K Sm 457 K Eu 452 K Gd 473 K) and recoil-free fractions (Ln = La 0.827; Nd 0.817; Sm 0.816; Eu 0.812; Gd 0.826) were approximated through minimising the difference in the temperature dependent experimental centre shift and theoretical isomer shift, by allowing the Debye temperature and isomer shift values to vary. This method of minimising the difference between theoretical and actual values yields Debye temperatures consistent with results from other studies determined through thermal analysis methods. This displays the ability of variable-temperature Mössbauer spectroscopy to approximate Debye temperatures and recoil-free fractions, whilst observing temperature induced transitions over the temperature range observed. X-ray diffraction and Rietveld refinement show an inverse relationship between FeO6 octahedral volume and approximated Debye temperatures. Raman spectroscopy show an increase in the band positions attributed to soft modes of Ag symmetry, Ag(3) and Ag(5) from La to GdFeO3 corresponding to octahedral rotations and tilts in the [0 1 0] and [1 0 1] planes respectively.
The effects of vibration-reducing gloves on finger vibration
Welcome, Daniel E.; Dong, Ren G.; Xu, Xueyan S.; Warren, Christopher; McDowell, Thomas W.
2015-01-01
Vibration-reducing (VR) gloves have been used to reduce the hand-transmitted vibration exposures from machines and powered hand tools but their effectiveness remains unclear, especially for finger protection. The objectives of this study are to determine whether VR gloves can attenuate the vibration transmitted to the fingers and to enhance the understanding of the mechanisms of how these gloves work. Seven adult male subjects participated in the experiment. The fixed factors evaluated include hand force (four levels), glove condition (gel-filled, air bladder, no gloves), and location of the finger vibration measurement. A 3-D laser vibrometer was used to measure the vibrations on the fingers with and without wearing a glove on a 3-D hand-arm vibration test system. This study finds that the effect of VR gloves on the finger vibration depends on not only the gloves but also their influence on the distribution of the finger contact stiffness and the grip effort. As a result, the gloves increase the vibration in the fingertip area but marginally reduce the vibration in the proximal area at some frequencies below 100 Hz. On average, the gloves reduce the vibration of the entire fingers by less than 3% at frequencies below 80 Hz but increase at frequencies from 80 to 400 Hz. At higher frequencies, the gel-filled glove is more effective at reducing the finger vibration than the air bladder-filled glove. The implications of these findings are discussed. Relevance to industry Prolonged, intensive exposure to hand-transmitted vibration can cause hand-arm vibration syndrome. Vibration-reducing gloves have been used as an alternative approach to reduce the vibration exposure. However, their effectiveness for reducing finger-transmitted vibrations remains unclear. This study enhanced the understanding of the glove effects on finger vibration and provided useful information on the effectiveness of typical VR gloves at reducing the vibration transmitted to the fingers. The new
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mereghetti, Paolo; Martinez, Michael; Wade, Rebecca C
2014-01-01
Brownian dynamics (BD) simulations can be used to study very large molecular systems, such as models of the intracellular environment, using atomic-detail structures. Such simulations require strategies to contain the computational costs, especially for the computation of interaction forces and energies. A common approach is to compute interaction forces between macromolecules by precomputing their interaction potentials on three-dimensional discretized grids. For long-range interactions, such as electrostatics, grid-based methods are subject to finite size errors. We describe here the implementation of a Debye-Hückel correction to the grid-based electrostatic potential used in the SDA BD simulation software that was applied to simulate solutions of bovine serum albumin and of hen egg white lysozyme. We found that the inclusion of the long-range electrostatic correction increased the accuracy of both the protein-protein interaction profiles and the protein diffusion coefficients at low ionic strength. An advantage of this method is the low additional computational cost required to treat long-range electrostatic interactions in large biomacromolecular systems. Moreover, the implementation described here for BD simulations of protein solutions can also be applied in implicit solvent molecular dynamics simulations that make use of gridded interaction potentials
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li, Renxian; Ren, Kuan Fang; Han, Xiang'e; Wu, Zhensen; Guo, Lixin; Gong, Shuxi
2013-01-01
Debye series expansion (DSE) is employed to the analysis of radiation pressure force (RPF) exerted on biological cells induced by high-order Bessel beams (BB). The beam shape coefficients (BSCs) for high-order Bessel beams are calculated using analytical expressions obtained by the integral localized approximation (ILA). Different types of cells, including a real Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cell and a lymphocyte which are respectively modeled by a coated and five-layered sphere, are considered. The RPF induced by high-order Bessel beams is compared with that by Gaussian beams and zeroth-order Bessel beams, and the effect of different scattering processes on RPF is studied. Numerical calculations show that high-order Bessel beams with zero central intensity can also transversely trap particle in the beam center, and some scattering processes can provide longitudinal pulling force. -- Highlights: ► BSCs for high-order Bessel beam (HOBB) is derived using ILA. ► DSE is employed to study the RPF induced by HOBB exerted on multilayered cells. ► RPF is decided by radius relative to the interval of peaks in intensity profile. ► HOBB can also transversely trap high-index particle in the vicinity of beam axis. ► RPF for some scattering processes can longitudinally pull particles back
Field-Assisted Splitting of Pure Water Based on Deep-Sub-Debye-Length Nanogap Electrochemical Cells.
Wang, Yifei; Narayanan, S R; Wu, Wei
2017-08-22
Owing to the low conductivity of pure water, using an electrolyte is common for achieving efficient water electrolysis. In this paper, we have fundamentally broken through this common sense by using deep-sub-Debye-length nanogap electrochemical cells to achieve efficient electrolysis of pure water (without any added electrolyte) at room temperature. A field-assisted effect resulted from overlapped electrical double layers can greatly enhance water molecules ionization and mass transport, leading to electron-transfer limited reactions. We have named this process "virtual breakdown mechanism" (which is completely different from traditional mechanisms) that couples the two half-reactions together, greatly reducing the energy losses arising from ion transport. This fundamental discovery has been theoretically discussed in this paper and experimentally demonstrated in a group of electrochemical cells with nanogaps between two electrodes down to 37 nm. On the basis of our nanogap electrochemical cells, the electrolysis current density from pure water can be significantly larger than that from 1 mol/L sodium hydroxide solution, indicating the much better performance of pure water splitting as a potential for on-demand clean hydrogen production.
Two-dimensional imaging of Debye-Scherrer ring for tri-axial stress analysis of industrial materials
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sasaki, T; Maruyama, Y; Ohba, H; Ejiri, S
2014-01-01
In this study, an application of the two-dimensional imaging technology to the X ray tri-axial stress analysis was studied. An image plate (IP) was used to obtain a Debye-Scherre ring and the image data was analized for determining stress. A new principle for stress analysis which is suitable to two-dimensional imaging data was used. For the verification of this two-dimensional imaging type X-ray stress measurement method, an experiment was conducted using a ferritic steel sample which was processed with a surface grinder. Tri-axial stress analysis was conducted to evaluate the sample. The conventional method for X-ray tri-axial stress analysis proposed by Dölle and Hauk was used to evaluate residual stress in order to compare with the present method. As a result, it was confirmed that a sufficiently highly precise and high-speed stress measurement was enabled with the two-dimensional imaging technology compared with the conventional method
Corcho, Adán J.; Cordero, Juan C.
2018-02-01
We obtain local well-posedness for the one-dimensional Schrödinger-Debye interactions in nonlinear optics in the spaces L^2× L^p, 1≤p 0} in H^1× H^1 associated to an initial data family {(u_{τ _0},v_{τ _0})}_{τ >0} uniformly bounded in H^1× L^2 , where τ is a small response time parameter. We prove that ( u_{τ }, v_{τ }) converges to ( u, -|u|^2) in the space L^{∞}_{[0, T]}L^2_x× L^1_{[0, T]}L^2_x whenever u_{τ _0} converges to u_0 in H^1 as long as τ tends to 0, where u is the solution of the one-dimensional cubic nonlinear Schrödinger equation with the initial data u_0 . The convergence of v_{τ } for -|u|^2 in the space L^{∞}_{[0, T]}L^2_x is shown under compatibility conditions of the initial data. For non-compatible data, we prove convergence except for a corrector term which looks like an initial layer phenomenon.
Prevalence and characteristics of vibrator use among women who have sex with women.
Schick, Vanessa; Herbenick, Debby; Rosenberger, Joshua G; Reece, Michael
2011-12-01
Research suggests that vibrator use may be more prevalent among lesbian/bisexual-identified women. However, previous research has been limited by small samples of lesbian- and bisexual-identified women and has not focused specifically on the characteristics of vibrator use between women. The present study was designed in order to develop a comprehensive understanding of women's use of vibrators with their female sexual partners and to understand the extent to which vibrator use is related to their sexual experiences. Data were collected via a cross-sectional web-based survey from 2,192 women living in the United States and the United Kingdom. All participants reported engaging in sexual behavior with only women in the previous year. Sociodemographic characteristics, vibrator use history, vibrator use perceptions, and the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI). Over three-quarters of women in the sample reported a history of vibrator use during solo masturbation/with a female partner and over a quarter of the sample reported use in the previous month. Participants who were older, white, and in a long-term relationship were the most likely to use a vibrator with a female partner in the previous year. Vibrator use lifetime history was unrelated to all FSFI subscales with the exception of pain for lesbian and queer-identified women. In contrast to lifetime use, participants who used a vibrator with a female sexual partner in the previous month scored higher on several of the FSFI domains than women who reported no vibrator use or vibrator use only during solo masturbation in the past month. Vibrator use was common among this sample of women who have sex with women. Women who reported recent vibrator use with other women had higher mean sexual functioning scores than women who reported no vibrator use or vibrator use only during masturbation. Implications for health-care providers are discussed. © 2011 International Society for Sexual Medicine.
Editorial: Special Issue on Experimental Vibration Analysis
Serra, Roger
2018-04-01
The vibratory analyses are particularly present today in the various fields of industry, from aeronautics to manufacturing, from machining and maintenance to civil engineering, to mention a few areas, which have made this special issue a true need. The International Journal of Mechanics & Industry compiles a Special Issue on Experimental Vibration Analysis. More than thirty manuscripts were received by the international scientific committee on the 6th congress AVE2016 and only eight papers have been selected after completing a careful and rigorous peer-review process for the Special Issue, which are briefly summarized below.
Current applications of vibration monitoring and neutron noise analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Damiano, B.; Kryter, R.C.
1990-02-01
Monitoring programs using vibration monitoring or neutron noise analysis have demonstrated the ability to detect and, in some cases, diagnose the nature of reactor vessel internals structural degradation. Detection of compromised mechanical integrity of reactor vessel internal components in its early stages allows corrective action to be taken before weakening or damage occurs. In addition to the economic benefits early detection and correction can provide, they can also help maintain plant safety. Information on the condition of reactor vessel internal components gained from a monitoring program supplements in-service inspection results and may be useful in justifying plant license extension. This report, which was prepared under the Nuclear Plant Aging Research Program sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, discusses the application of vibration monitoring and neutron noise analysis for monitoring light-water reactor vessel internals. The report begins by describing the effects of structural integrity loss on internals vibration and how measurable parameters can be used to detect and track the progress of degradation. This is followed by a description and comparison of vibration monitoring and neutron noise analysis, two methods for monitoring the mechanical integrity of reactor vessel internals condition monitoring programs in the United States, Federal Republic of Germany, and France, three countries having substantial commitments to nuclear power. The last section presents guidelines for US utilities wishing to establish reactor internals condition monitoring programs. 20 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs
Kos, L.; Jelić, N.; Kuhn, S.; Tskhakaya, D. D.
2018-04-01
At present, identifying and characterizing the common plasma-sheath edge (PSE) in the conventional fluid approach leads to intrinsic oversimplifications, while the kinetic one results in unusable over-generalizations. In addition, none of these approaches can be justified in realistic plasmas, i.e., those which are characterized by non-negligible Debye lengths and a well-defined non-negligible ion temperature. In an attempt to resolve this problem, we propose a new formulation of the Bohm criterion [D. Bohm, The Characteristics of Electrical Discharges in Magnetic Fields (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1949)], which is here expressed in terms of fluid, kinetic, and electrostatic-pressure contributions. This "unified" Bohm criterion consists of a set of two equations for calculating the ion directional energy (i.e., the mean directional velocity) and the plasma potential at the common PSE, and is valid for arbitrary ion-to-electron temperature ratios. It turns out to be exact at any point of the quasi-neutral plasma provided that the ion differential polytropic coefficient function (DPCF) of Kuhn et al. [Phys. Plasmas 13, 013503 (2006)] is employed, with the advantage that the DPCF is an easily measurable fluid quantity. Moreover, our unified Bohm criterion holds in plasmas with finite Debye lengths, for which the famous kinetic criterion formulated by Harrison and Thompson [Proc. Phys. Soc. 74, 145 (1959)] fails. Unlike the kinetic criterion in the case of negligible Debye length, the kinetic contribution to the unified Bohm criterion, arising due to the presence of negative and zero velocities in the ion velocity distribution function, can be calculated separately from the fluid term. This kinetic contribution disappears identically at the PSE, yielding strict equality of the ion directional velocity there and the ion sound speed, provided that the latter is formulated in terms of the present definition of DPCFs. The numerical values of these velocities are found for the
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen, S.S.
1975-06-01
Several mathematical models have been proposed for calculating fuel rod responses in axial flows based on a single rod consideration. The spacing between fuel rods in liquid metal fast breeder reactors is small; hence fuel rods will interact with one another due to fluid coupling. The objective of this paper is to study the coupled vibration of fuel bundles. To account for the fluid coupling, a computer code, AMASS, is developed to calculate added mass coefficients for a group of circular cylinders based on the potential flow theory. The equations of motion for rod bundles are then derived including hydrodynamic forces, drag forces, fluid pressure, gravity effect, axial tension, and damping. Based on the equations, a method of analysis is presented to study the free and forced vibrations of rod bundles. Finally, the method is applied to a typical LMFBR fuel bundle consisting of seven rods
Katarina Anthony
2015-01-01
In preparation for the civil engineering work on the HL-LHC, vibration measurements were carried out at the LHC’s Point 1 last month. These measurements will help evaluate how civil engineering work could impact the beam, and will provide crucial details about the site’s geological make-up before construction begins. A seismic truck at Point 1 generated wave-like vibrations measured by EN/MME. From carrying out R&D to produce state-of-the-art magnets to developing innovative, robust materials capable of withstanding beam impact, the HL-LHC is a multi-faceted project involving many groups and teams across CERN’s departments. It was in this framework that the project management mandated CERN's Mechanical and Materials Engineering (EN/MME) group to measure the propagation of vibrations around Point 1. Their question: can civil engineering work for the HL-LHC – the bulk of which is scheduled for LS2 – begin while the LHC is running? Alth...
Vibrational stability of graphene
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yangfan Hu
2013-05-01
Full Text Available The mechanical stability of graphene as temperature rises is analyzed based on three different self-consistent phonon (SCP models. Compared with three-dimensional (3-D materials, the critical temperature Ti at which instability occurs for graphene is much closer to its melting temperature Tm obtained from Monte Carlo simulation (Ti ≃ 2Tm, K. V. Zakharchenko, A. Fasolino, J. H. Los, and M. I. Katsnelson, J. Phys. Condens. Matter 23, 202202. This suggests that thermal vibration plays a significant role in melting of graphene while melting for 3-D materials is often dominated by topologic defects. This peculiar property of graphene derives from its high structural anisotropy, which is characterized by the vibrational anisotropic coefficient (VAC, defined upon its Lindermann ratios in different directions. For any carbon based material with a graphene-like structure, the VAC value must be smaller than 5.4 to maintain its stability. It is also found that the high VAC value of graphene is responsible for its negative thermal expansion coefficient at low temperature range. We believe that the VAC can be regarded as a new criterion concerning the vibrational stability of any low-dimensional (low-D materials.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kryshtab, T.; Palacios G, J. [Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas, Av. IPN s/n, 07738 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Cadena A, A. [Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Escuela Superior de Ingenieria Quimica e Industrias Extractivas, Av. IPN s/n, 07738 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Kryvko, A., E-mail: kryshtab@gmail.com [Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Escuela Superior de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, Unidad Zacatenco, 07360 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)
2015-07-01
The texture analysis using X-ray diffraction (XRD) implies measurement of pole figures (Pf) from the diffracted intensities considering the model of kinematical dispersion. The extinction phenomenon results in a decrease of diffracted intensity and that in turn in a decrease of pole densities (Pds). The phenomenon appears in the kinematical theory of XRD as the primary extinction and the secondary extinction to characterize the loss of intensity of kinematical dispersion. In turn, the static Debye-Waller factor is an integral characteristic of defects in crystals that is introduced in the kinematical theory of XRD and also is used in dynamical theory of XRD. In this work the correlation between the primary extinction coefficient and the static Debye-Waller factor in the case of textured nickel was determined. The value of static Debye-Waller factor was determined from the value of the calculated primary extinction coefficient. For the evaluation there were used Pds in the maxima of Pf obtained for 111 and 200 reflections with Mo Kα radiation, and the Pds in the maxima of Pf obtained for the first and second orders of these reflections with Cu Kα and Co Kα radiations. There were calculated the dislocation densities in grains using values of static Debye-Waller factor and the extinction coefficients. The dislocation densities calculated from these two characteristics are practically equal. (Author)
Resonant vibration control of wind turbine blades
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Svendsen, Martin Nymann; Krenk, Steen; Høgsberg, Jan Becker
2010-01-01
. The efficiency of the resonant controller is demonstrated for a representative turbine blade exposed to turbulent wind loading. It is found that the present explicit tuning procedure yields close to optimal tuning, with very limited modal spill-over and effective reduction of the vibration amplitudes.......The paper deals with introduction of damping to specific vibration modes of wind turbine blades, using a resonant controller with acceleration feedback. The wind turbine blade is represented by three-dimensional, two-node finite elements in a local, rotating frame of reference. The element...... formulation accounts for arbitrary mass density distributions, general elastic crosssection properties and geometric stiffness effects due to internal stresses. A compact, linear formulation for aerodynamic forces with associated stiffness and damping terms is established and added to the structural model...
Nonlinear resonance ultrasonic vibrations in Czochralski-silicon wafers
Ostapenko, S.; Tarasov, I.
2000-04-01
A resonance effect of generation of subharmonic acoustic vibrations is observed in as-grown, oxidized, and epitaxial silicon wafers. Ultrasonic vibrations were generated into a standard 200 mm Czochralski-silicon (Cz-Si) wafer using a circular ultrasound transducer with major frequency of the radial vibrations at about 26 kHz. By tuning frequency (f) of the transducer within a resonance curve, we observed a generation of intense f/2 subharmonic acoustic mode assigned as a "whistle." The whistle mode has a threshold amplitude behavior and narrow frequency band. The whistle is attributed to a nonlinear acoustic vibration of a silicon plate. It is demonstrated that characteristics of the whistle mode are sensitive to internal stress and can be used for quality control and in-line diagnostics of oxidized and epitaxial Cz-Si wafers.
Poznanski, Roman R
2010-02-01
An assumption commonly used in cable theory is revised by taking into account electrical amplification due to intracellular capacitive effects in passive dendritic cables. A generalized cable equation for a cylindrical volume representation of a dendritic segment is derived from Maxwell's equations under assumptions: (i) the electric-field polarization is restricted longitudinally along the cable length; (ii) extracellular isopotentiality; (iii) quasielectrostatic conditions; and (iv) homogeneous medium with constant conductivity and permittivity. The generalized cable equation is identical to Barenblatt's equation arising in the theory of infiltration in fissured strata with a known analytical solution expressed in terms of a definite integral involving a modified Bessel function and the solution to a linear one-dimensional classical cable equation. Its solution is used to determine the impact of thermal noise on voltage attenuation with distance at any particular time. A regular perturbation expansion for the membrane potential about the linear one-dimensional classical cable equation solution is derived in terms of a Green's function in order to describe the dynamics of free charge within the Debye layer of endogenous structures in passive dendritic cables. The asymptotic value of the first perturbative term is explicitly evaluated for small values of time to predict how the slowly fluctuating (in submillisecond range) electric field attributed to intracellular capacitive effects alters the amplitude of the membrane potential. It was found that capacitive effects are almost negligible for cables with electrotonic lengths L>0.5 , contributes up to 10% of the signal for cables with electrotonic lengths in the range between 0.25
Random vibrations theory and practice
Wirsching, Paul H; Ortiz, Keith
1995-01-01
Random Vibrations: Theory and Practice covers the theory and analysis of mechanical and structural systems undergoing random oscillations due to any number of phenomena— from engine noise, turbulent flow, and acoustic noise to wind, ocean waves, earthquakes, and rough pavement. For systems operating in such environments, a random vibration analysis is essential to the safety and reliability of the system. By far the most comprehensive text available on random vibrations, Random Vibrations: Theory and Practice is designed for readers who are new to the subject as well as those who are familiar with the fundamentals and wish to study a particular topic or use the text as an authoritative reference. It is divided into three major sections: fundamental background, random vibration development and applications to design, and random signal analysis. Introductory chapters cover topics in probability, statistics, and random processes that prepare the reader for the development of the theory of random vibrations a...
Atomic beams probe surface vibrations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Robinson, A.L.
1982-01-01
In the last two years, surface scientist have begun trying to obtain the vibrational frequencies of surface atoms in both insulating and metallic crystals from beams of helium atoms. It is the inelastic scattering that researchers use to probe surface vibrations. Inelastic atomic beam scattering has only been used to obtain vibrational frequency spectra from clean surfaces. Several experiments using helium beams are cited. (SC)
Digital analysis of vibrations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bohnstedt, H.J.; Walter, G.
1982-01-01
Vibrational measurements, e.g. on turbomachinery, can be evaluated rapidly and economically with the aid of a combination of the following instruments: a desk-top computer, a two-channel vector filter and a FFT spectral analyzer. This equipment combination is available within the Allianz Centre for Technology and has also been used for mobile, on-site investigations during the last year. It enables calculation and display of time functions, kinetic shaft orbits, displacement diagrams. Bode plots, polar-coordinate plots, cascade diagrams and histograms. (orig.) [de
Turbine blade vibration dampening
Cornelius, C.C.; Pytanowski, G.P.; Vendituoli, J.S.
1997-07-08
The present turbine wheel assembly increases component life and turbine engine longevity. The combination of the strap and the opening combined with the preestablished area of the outer surface of the opening and the preestablished area of the outer circumferential surface of the strap and the friction between the strap and the opening increases the life and longevity of the turbine wheel assembly. Furthermore, the mass ``M`` or combined mass ``CM`` of the strap or straps and the centrifugal force assist in controlling vibrations and damping characteristics. 5 figs.
Lattice Vibrations in Chlorobenzenes:
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Reynolds, P. A.; Kjems, Jørgen; White, J. W.
1974-01-01
Lattice vibrational dispersion curves for the ``intermolecular'' modes in the triclinic, one molecule per unit cell β phase of p‐C6D4Cl2 and p‐C6H4Cl2 have been obtained by inelastic neutron scattering. The deuterated sample was investigated at 295 and at 90°K and a linear extrapolation to 0°K...... was applied in order to correct for anharmonic effects. Calculations based on the atom‐atom model for van der Waals' interaction and on general potential parameters for the aromatic compounds agree reasonably well with the experimental observations. There is no substantial improvement in fit obtained either...
Vibration control, machine diagnostics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1990-01-01
Changing vibrations announce damage in the form of wear or cracks on components of, e.g., engine rotors, pumps, power plant turbo sets, rounding-up tools, or marine diesel engines. Therefore, machine diagnostics use frequency analyses, system tests, trend analyses as well as expert systems to localize or estimate the causes of these damages and malfunctions. Data acquisistion, including not only sensors, but also reliable and redundant data processing systems and analyzing systems, play an important role. The lectures pertaining to the data base are covered in detail. (DG) [de
Off-axis Modal Active Vibration Control Of Rotational Vibrations
Babakhani, B.; de Vries, Theodorus J.A.; van Amerongen, J.
Collocated active vibration control is an effective and robustly stable way of adding damping to the performance limiting vibrations of a plant. Besides the physical parameters of the Active Damping Unit (ADU) containing the collocated actuator and sensor, its location with respect to the
Peter Debye and Electrochemistry
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
however, remember him for the Debye–Hückel limiting law that describes the behavior ... ing the non-ideal behavior of strong electrolytes, his math- ematical treatment ... and the diffraction of X-rays and electrons in gases, he is best known to ...
Peter Debye and Electrochemistry
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Author Affiliations. A K Shukla1 T Prem Kumar2. Solid State and Structural Chemistry Unit, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012, India. Electrochemical Power Systems Division Central Electrochemical Research Institute (CSIR) Karaikudi 630006, India.
Studies on the substrate mediated vibrational excitation of CO/Si(100) by means of SFG spectroscopy
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Han, Xu; Lass, Kristian; Balgar, Thorsten; Hasselbrink, Eckart [Universitaet Duisburg-Essen, Fachbereich Chemie, 45117 Essen (Germany)
2009-07-01
Vibrational excitations of adsorbates play an important role in chemical reaction dynamics. In the past decade CO on solid surfaces was chosen as adequate model system for studying vibrational relaxation dynamics. Our work is focused on the energy dissipation of vibrationally excited CO adsorbed on a silicon surface by means of IR/Vis sum frequency generation (SFG) spectroscopy. Here we present studies on substrate mediated excitation of vibrational modes of CO on Si(100) induced by UV radiation. We suppose the observation of highly excited internal stretch vibrations of CO caused by hot electrons generated within the silicon substrate.
Vibrations and Stability: Solved Problems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Thomsen, Jon Juel
Worked out solutions for exercise problems in J. J. Thomsen 'Vibrations and Stability: Advanced Theory, Analysis, and Tools', Springer, Berlin - Heidelberg, 2003.......Worked out solutions for exercise problems in J. J. Thomsen 'Vibrations and Stability: Advanced Theory, Analysis, and Tools', Springer, Berlin - Heidelberg, 2003....
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rodriguez-Nunez, J.J.; Schmidt, A.A.; Beck, H.; Valera, M.
2005-08-01
One of the most intriguing aspects of high temperature superconductors (HTSC) is the presence of the pseudogap in the normal and the superconducting phases of the cuprate compounds. Several pseudogap models have been proposed to explain the $abnormal$ properties of the cuprates. One of the recent models relies on the assumption that the self-energy is given by Σ PG (iω n )=- E g 2 (k)G 0 (k,-iω n ) where G 0 (k,iω n is the one- particle free Green function. Going beyond this mean field model for the pseudogap we now take into account fluctuations of the pseudogap as Σ PG (iω n )=- E g 2 (k)G PG (k,-iω n ) where G PG (k,iω n is the one-particle full Green function. We study the combined effect of the band structure and the Debye frequency, ω D , on the superconducting critical temperature, T c , as a function of the number of carriers per site, n. Our conclusions are: 1) increasing the value of V/t increases the value of T c /t; 2) increasing the value of E G /t decreases the value of T c /t. By the way, one needs some critical value of V/t to have finite values of T c /t. This is the reason we have taken high values of V/ to find superconductivity; 3) decreasing the value of ω D /t decreases the value of T c /t. This is reasonable since we have less available states around the Fermi; 4) the inclusion of α', which we call the effect of the band structure, is important because it moves the center of curve of T c /t x n. The center of this curve, with respect to half-filling (n=1), is displaced to the left if α'>0.0; 5) the chemical potential is defined in the region where T c /t ≠ 0. However, in this region, it is almost identical for different values of V/t. This is due to the fact that μ is a global property; 6) our model always produces d-wave superconductivity around the Fermi level, independent whether E G (K-bar)/t is s- or d-wave symmetry. (author)
Low Cost Digital Vibration Meter.
Payne, W Vance; Geist, Jon
2007-01-01
This report describes the development of a low cost, digital Micro Electro Mechanical System (MEMS) vibration meter that reports an approximation to the RMS acceleration of the vibration to which the vibration meter is subjected. The major mechanical element of this vibration meter is a cantilever beam, which is on the order of 500 µm in length, with a piezoresistor deposited at its base. Vibration of the device in the plane perpendicular to the cantilever beam causes it to bend, which produces a measurable change in the resistance of a piezoresistor. These changes in resistance along with a unique signal-processing scheme are used to determine an approximation to the RMS acceleration sensed by the device.
Transient vibration of thin viscoelastic orthotropic plates
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Soukup, J.; Valeš, František; Volek, J.; Skočilas, J.
2011-01-01
Roč. 27, č. 1 (2011), s. 98-107 ISSN 0567-7718. [International Conference on Dynamical Systems - Theory and Applications /10./. Lodz, 07.12.2009-10.12.2009] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA101/07/0946 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : transient vibration thin plate * orthotropic * general viscoelastic standard solid Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics Impact factor: 0.860, year: 2011 http://www.springerlink.com/content/hn67324178846n4r/
A method for regulating strong nonlinear vibration energy of the flexible arm
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yushu Bian
2015-07-01
Full Text Available For an oscillating system, large amplitude indicates strong vibration energy. In this article, modal interaction is used as a useful means to regulate strong nonlinear vibration energy of the flexible arm undergoing rigid motion. A method is put forward to migrate and dissipate vibration energy based on modal interaction. By means of multiple-scale perturbation analysis, it is proven that internal resonance can be successfully established between modes of the flexible arm and the vibration absorber. Through examples and analyses, it is verified that this control method is effective in regulating strong vibration energy and can be used to suppress strong nonlinear vibration of the flexible arm undergoing rigid motion.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jackson W. Cryns
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Harvesting power with a piezoelectric vibration powered generator using a full-wave rectifier conditioning circuit is experimentally compared for varying sinusoidal, random, and sine on random (SOR input vibration scenarios; the implications of source vibration characteristics on harvester design are discussed. The rise in popularity of harvesting energy from ambient vibrations has made compact, energy dense piezoelectric generators commercially available. Much of the available literature focuses on maximizing harvested power through nonlinear processing circuits that require accurate knowledge of generator internal mechanical and electrical characteristics and idealization of the input vibration source, which cannot be assumed in general application. Variations in source vibration and load resistance are explored for a commercially available piezoelectric generator. The results agree with numerical and theoretical predictions in the previous literature for optimal power harvesting in sinusoidal and flat broadband vibration scenarios. Going beyond idealized steady-state sinusoidal and flat random vibration input, experimental SOR testing allows for more accurate representation of real world ambient vibration. It is shown that characteristic interactions from more complex vibration sources significantly alter power generation and processing requirements by varying harvested power, shifting optimal conditioning impedance, inducing voltage fluctuations, and ultimately rendering idealized sinusoidal and random analyses incorrect.
Miao, Yurun; Li, Huayang; Wang, Hongjuan; He, Kaihua; Wang, Qingbo
2018-02-01
First principles and quasi-harmonic Debye model have been used to study the thermodynamic properties, enthalpies, electronic and optical properties of MgO up to the core-mantle boundary (CMB) condition (137 GPa and 3700 K). Thermodynamic properties calculation includes thermal expansion coefficient and capacity, which have been studied up to the CMB pressure (137 GPa) and temperature (3700 K) by the Debye model with generalized gradient approximation (GGA) and local-density approximation (LDA). First principles with hybrid functional method (PBE0) has been used to calculate the electronic and optical properties under pressure up to 137 GPa and 0 K. Our results show the Debye model with LDA and first principles with PBE0 can provide accurate thermodynamic properties, enthalpies, electronic and optical properties. Calculated enthalpies show that MgO keep NaCl (B1) structure up to 137 GPa. And MgO is a direct bandgap insulator with a 7.23 eV calculated bandgap. The bandgap increased with increasing pressure, which will induce a blue shift of optical properties. We also calculated the density of states (DOS) and discussed the relation between DOS and band, optical properties. Equations were used to fit the relations between pressure and bandgaps, absorption coefficient (α(ω)) of MgO. The equations can be used to evaluate pressure after careful calibration. Our calculations can not only be used to identify some geological processes, but also offer a reference to the applications of MgO in the future.
Slavchov, Radomir I
2014-04-28
If the molecules of a given solvent possess significant quadrupolar moment, the macroscopic Maxwell equations must involve the contribution of the density of the quadrupolar moment to the electric displacement field. This modifies the Poisson-Boltzmann equation and all consequences from it. In this work, the structure of the diffuse atmosphere around an ion dissolved in quadrupolarizable medium is analyzed by solving the quadrupolar variant of the Coulomb-Ampere's law of electrostatics. The results are compared to the classical Debye-Hückel theory. The quadrupolar version of the Debye-Hückel potential of a point charge is finite even in r = 0. The ion-quadrupole interaction yields a significant expansion of the diffuse atmosphere of the ion and, thus, it decreases the Debye-Hückel energy. In addition, since the dielectric permittivity of the electrolyte solutions depends strongly on concentration, the Born energy of the dissolved ions alters with concentration, which has a considerable contribution to the activity coefficient γ± known as the self-salting-out effect. The quadrupolarizability of the medium damps strongly the self-salting-out of the electrolyte, and thus it affects additionally γ±. Comparison with experimental data for γ± for various electrolytes allows for the estimation of the quadrupolar length of water: LQ ≈ 2 Å, in good agreement with previous assessments. The effect of quadrupolarizability is especially important in non-aqueous solutions. Data for the activity of NaBr in methanol is used to determine the quadrupolarizability of methanol with good accuracy.
Vibration analysis of the synchronous motor of a propane compressor
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nogueira, D.; Rangel Junior, J. de S. [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. - PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], Emails: diananogueira@petrobras.com.br, joilson_jr@petrobras.com.br; Moreira, R.G. [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. - PETROBRAS, Cabiunas, RJ (Brazil)], E-mail: ricgmoreira@petrobras.com.br
2010-07-01
This paper aims at describing the Analysis of a synchronous electric motor which presented high vibration levels (shaft displacement and bearing housing vibration) during the commissioning process, as well as propose the best practices for the solution of vibration problems in similar situations. This motor belongs to the propane centrifugal compressor installed at a Gas Compression Station. The methodology used in this study conducted an investigation of the problems presented in the motor through the execution of many types of tests and the analysis of the results. The main evaluations were performed, such as the vibration analysis and the rotor dynamic analysis. The electric motor was shipped back to the manufacturer's shop, where the manufacturer made certain modifications to the motor structure so as to improve the structure stiffness, such as the improvement of the support and the increase of the thickness of the structural plates. In addition to that, the dynamic balancing of the rotating set was checked. Finally, the excitation at a critical speed close to the rated speed was found after Rotor Dynamics Analysis was performed again, because of the increase in bearing clearances. The bearing shells were replaced so as to increase the separation margin between these frequencies. In order to verify the final condition of the motor, the manufacturer repeated the standard tests - FAT (Factory Acceptance Tests) - according to internal procedure and international standards. As a result of this work, it was possible to conclude that there was a significant increase in the vibration levels due to unbalance conditions. It was also possible to conclude that there are close relationships between high vibration levels and unbalance conditions, as well as between high vibration levels and the stiffness of the system and its support. Certain points of attention related to the manufacturing process of the motor compressor are described at the end of this paper, based
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lutz, H.D.; Willich, P.
1977-01-01
The FIR absorption spectra of pyrite type compounds RuS 2 , RuSsub(2-x)Sesub(x), RuSe 2 , RuTe 2 , OsS 2 , OsSe 2 , and PtP 2 as well as loellingite type phosphides FeP 2 , RuP 2 , and OsP 2 are reported. For RuS 2 , RuSe 2 , RuTe 2 , OsS 2 , and PtP 2 all of the five infrared allowed modes (k = 0) are observed. As a first result of a numerical normal coordinate treatment vibration forms of pyrite structure are communicated. The spectra show that lattice forces of corresponding sulfides, tellurides, and phosphides are about the same strength, but increase strongly by substitution of iron by ruthenium and especially of ruthenium by osmium. The lattice constants of the RuSsub(2-x)Sesub(x) solid solution obey Vegard's rule. (author)
The application of external vibration monitoring to reactors with concrete pressure vessels
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hammill, W.J.
1979-01-01
The application of external vibration monitoring techniques to advanced gas cooled reactors (AGR) which have concrete pressure vessels is considered. A monitoring system for a particular AGR coolant circuit structure is developed, whose primary objective is to detect impacting of two components, although the detection of forced vibration response is also considered. Experimental results from instrumented components in the reactor and data from rig tests on full size units have been used together with a mathematical model of some elements of the transmission path in order to establish its dynamic characteristics and relate internal component vibration to externally measured signals. The application of external vibration monitoring to the external detection of the forced vibration response of an internal reactor assembly and the remote monitoring of circulator sound output is discussed. (author)
The Study of Vibration Processes in Oil Flooded Screw Compressors
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
I. V. Filippov
2014-01-01
system with vibration acceleration feedback. Such system implementation will allow us to exclude extremely dangerous regimes of polytrophic boosting during discharge phase when there is mismatch between the internal compression pressure of the oil flooded screw compressor and that of in discharge line.
Vibrational Spectroscopy of Ionic Liquids.
Paschoal, Vitor H; Faria, Luiz F O; Ribeiro, Mauro C C
2017-05-24
Vibrational spectroscopy has continued use as a powerful tool to characterize ionic liquids since the literature on room temperature molten salts experienced the rapid increase in number of publications in the 1990's. In the past years, infrared (IR) and Raman spectroscopies have provided insights on ionic interactions and the resulting liquid structure in ionic liquids. A large body of information is now available concerning vibrational spectra of ionic liquids made of many different combinations of anions and cations, but reviews on this literature are scarce. This review is an attempt at filling this gap. Some basic care needed while recording IR or Raman spectra of ionic liquids is explained. We have reviewed the conceptual basis of theoretical frameworks which have been used to interpret vibrational spectra of ionic liquids, helping the reader to distinguish the scope of application of different methods of calculation. Vibrational frequencies observed in IR and Raman spectra of ionic liquids based on different anions and cations are discussed and eventual disagreements between different sources are critically reviewed. The aim is that the reader can use this information while assigning vibrational spectra of an ionic liquid containing another particular combination of anions and cations. Different applications of IR and Raman spectroscopies are given for both pure ionic liquids and solutions. Further issues addressed in this review are the intermolecular vibrations that are more directly probed by the low-frequency range of IR and Raman spectra and the applications of vibrational spectroscopy in studying phase transitions of ionic liquids.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cryns, Jackson W.; Hatchell, Brian K.; Santiago-Rojas, Emiliano; Silvers, Kurt L.
2013-07-01
Formal journal article Experimental analysis of a piezoelectric energy harvesting system for harmonic, random, and sine on random vibration Abstract: Harvesting power with a piezoelectric vibration powered generator using a full-wave rectifier conditioning circuit is experimentally compared for varying sinusoidal, random and sine on random (SOR) input vibration scenarios. Additionally, the implications of source vibration characteristics on harvester design are discussed. Studies in vibration harvesting have yielded numerous alternatives for harvesting electrical energy from vibrations but piezoceramics arose as the most compact, energy dense means of energy transduction. The rise in popularity of harvesting energy from ambient vibrations has made piezoelectric generators commercially available. Much of the available literature focuses on maximizing harvested power through nonlinear processing circuits that require accurate knowledge of generator internal mechanical and electrical characteristics and idealization of the input vibration source, which cannot be assumed in general application. In this manuscript, variations in source vibration and load resistance are explored for a commercially available piezoelectric generator. We characterize the source vibration by its acceleration response for repeatability and transcription to general application. The results agree with numerical and theoretical predictions for in previous literature that load optimal resistance varies with transducer natural frequency and source type, and the findings demonstrate that significant gains are seen with lower tuned transducer natural frequencies for similar source amplitudes. Going beyond idealized steady state sinusoidal and simplified random vibration input, SOR testing allows for more accurate representation of real world ambient vibration. It is shown that characteristic interactions from more complex vibrational sources significantly alter power generation and power processing
Flow induced vibration studies on PFBR control plug components
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Prakash, V., E-mail: prakash@igcar.gov.in [Fast Reactor Technology Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam, Tamilnadu (India); Kumar, P. Anup; Anandaraj, M.; Thirumalai, M.; Anandbabu, C.; Rajan, K.K. [Fast Reactor Technology Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam, Tamilnadu (India)
2012-09-15
susceptible to flow induced vibrations. Since control plug is partially immersed in hot sodium, the reactor transients are felt by the components, hence it is very much essential to understand the vibration response of the control plug components. The main vibration excitation mechanisms are vortex shedding, turbulence buffeting, fluid-elastic instability, etc. In order to assess the susceptibility of CP internals against flow induced vibrations (FIVs), to measure structural response and to validate the analytical codes developed for FIV analysis of CP along with the assumptions of supports for various CP internals therein, a flow induced vibration testing program was formulated in 1:4 scale model of PFBR CP. As the first phase of this program, experimental modal analysis of CP internals was carried out in air to estimate the modal parameters. Subsequently, flow induced vibration studies were conducted in the 1:4 scale model of CP in water. In this model, size of the tubes, shell and plates are reduced to Vulgar-Fraction-One-Quarter size of the PFBR CP. The stiffness of CP parts is reduced by 4 times and mass decreased by 64 times which results in scaling up of modal frequencies by 4 times. The CP internals in the model were instrumented with accelerometers and strain gages. The studies were conducted in water with flows derived on the basis of velocity similitude. The output signals from the sensors were acquired and analyzed to obtain frequency spectra, overall vibration amplitude and strain values at various locations inside CP. The study carried out confirms the absence of resonance due to flow induced vibration mechanisms for the entire operating range. This paper elucidates the modeling details, similitude criteria, instrumentation employed and experimental results obtained with discussion on results.
Molecular vibrations the theory of infrared and Raman vibrational spectra
Wilson, E Bright; Cross, Paul C
1980-01-01
Pedagogical classic and essential reference focuses on mathematics of detailed vibrational analyses of polyatomic molecules, advancing from application of wave mechanics to potential functions and methods of solving secular determinant.
Simulations of vibrational relaxation in dense molecular fluids
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Holian, B.L.
1985-07-01
In the understanding of high-temperatre and -pressure chemistry in explosives, first step is the study of the transfer of energy from translational degrees of freedom into internal vibrations of the molecules. We present new methods using nonequilibrium molecular dynamics (NEMD) for measuring vibrational relaxation in a diatomic fluid, where we expect a classical treatment of many-body collisions to be relevant because of the high densities (2 to 3 times compressed compared to the normal fluid) and high temperatures (2000 to 4000 K) involved behind detonation waves. NEMD techniques are discussed, including their limitations, and qualitative results presented
Atomic vibration amplitudes in fcc and hcp 4He through x-ray diffraction measurements
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Venkataraman, C.T.; Simmons, R.O.
2003-01-01
Atomic vibration amplitudes in dense fcc and hcp 4 He crystals have been measured using synchrotron x rays from the dependence of integrated Bragg intensities up to wave vectors of 91 nm -1 . Observed raw Bragg x-ray integrated intensities cover an extraordinary range, greater than 10 5 , due to the combined effect of the Debye-Waller factor and electronic form factor. From analysis of these intensities mean-square atomic vibration amplitudes Q 2 > and Lindemann ratios are determined. Path-integral Monte Carlo (PIMC) computations of Draeger and Ceperley, extrapolated to the thermodynamic limit, provide excellent agreement with these experimental results. For both present measurements and the PIMC results, one finds both a predominantly Gaussian distribution in Q 2 > and an extraordinarily large Lindemann ratio. In contrast, these directly measured x-ray values are significantly larger than published values inferred from Born-von Karman fitting to phonon dispersion measured by neutron scattering. Mildly anharmonic neon, which is fairly well described by self-consistent phonon theories, is contrasted with present results on fcc 4 He at corresponding densities
Chen, Zhanbin
2018-05-01
Plasma-screening effects on the 1s _{1/2} → 2l (l = s , p ) and 1s _{1/2} → 3d _{3/2} electron-impact excitation of highly charged ions are investigated, together with their subsequent radiative decay. The analysis is performed based on the multi-configuration Dirac-Fock method and the fully relativistic distorted-wave method incorporating the Debye-Hückel potential. To explore the nature of the effects, calculations are carried out based on detailed analyses of the integrated total and magnetic sublevel cross sections, the alignment parameters, the linear polarizations, and the angular distribution of the X-ray photoemission, as well as on corresponding data calculated in various Debye lengths/environments, taking the 2p _{3/2}→ 1s _{1/2} and 3d _{3/2}→ 1s _{1/2} characteristic lines of H-like Fe^{25+} ion as an example. The present results are compared with experimental data and other theoretical predictions where available.
Świergiel, Jolanta; Bouteiller, Laurent; Jadżyn, Jan
2014-11-14
Impedance spectroscopy was used for the study of the static and dynamic behavior of the electrical conductivity of a hydrogen-bonded supramolecular polymer of high viscosity. The experimental data are discussed in the frame of the Stokes-Einstein and Stokes-Einstein-Debye models. It was found that the translational movement of the ions is due to normal Brownian diffusion, which was revealed by a fulfillment of Ohm's law by the electric current and a strictly exponential decay of the current after removing the electric stimulus. The dependence of the dc conductivity on the viscosity of the medium fulfills the Stokes-Einstein model quite well. An extension of the model, by including in it the conductivity relaxation time, is proposed in this paper. A breakdown of the Stokes-Einstein-Debye model is revealed by the relations of the dipolar relaxation time to the viscosity and to the dc ionic conductivity. The importance of the C=O···H-N hydrogen bonds in that breakdown is discussed.
Putting a damper on drilling's bad vibrations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jardine, S [Sedco forex, Montrouge (France); Malone, D [Anadrill, Sugar Land, TX (United States); Sheppard, M [Schlumberger Cambridge Research, Cambridge (United Kingdom)
1994-01-01
Harmful drilling vibrations are costing the industry dearly. Three main vibration types (axial, torsional and transverse) are explained and its causes discussed. Technology exists to eliminate most vibrations, but requires more systematic deployment than is usual. Hardware that eliminates vibrations is reviewed, including downhole shock measurement, torque feedback shock guards and antiwhirl bits. 9 figs., 11 refs.
Component vibration of VVER-reactors - diagnostics and modelling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Altstadt, E.; Scheffler, M.; Weiss, F.-P.
1995-01-01
Flow induced vibrations of reactor pressure vessel (RPV) internals (control element and core barrel motions) at VVER-440 reactors have led to the development of dedicated methods for on-line monitoring. These methods need a certain developed stage of the faults to be detected. To achieve a real sensitive early detection of mechanical faults of RPV internals, a theoretical vibration model was developed based on finite elements. The model comprises the whole primary circuit including the steam generators (SG). By means of that model all eigenfrequencies up to 30 Hz and the corresponding mode shapes were calculated for the normal vibration behaviour. Moreover the shift of eigenfrequencies and of amplitudes due to the degradation or to the failure of internal clamping and spring elements could be investigated, showing that a recognition of such degradations even inside the RPV is possible by pure excore vibration measurements. A true diagnostic, that is the identification of the failed component, might become possible because different faults influence different and well separated eigenfrequencies. (author)
Vibration Analysis for Steam Dryer of APR1400 Steam Generator
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Han, Sung-heum; Ko, Doyoung [KHNP CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Minki [Doosan Heavy Industry, Changwon (Korea, Republic of)
2016-10-15
This paper is related to comprehensive vibration assessment program for APR1400 steam generator internals. According to U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Regulatory Guide 1.20 (Rev.3, March 2007), we conducted vibration analysis for a steam dryer as the second steam separator of steam generator internals. The vibration analysis was performed at the 100 % power operating condition as the normal operation condition. The random hydraulic loads were calculated by the computational fluid dynamics and the structural responses were predicted by power spectral density analysis for the probabilistic method. In order to meet the recently revised U.S. NRC RG 1.20 Rev.3, the CVAP against the potential adverse flow effects in APR1400 SG internals should be performed. This study conducted the vibration response analysis for the SG steam dryer as the second moisture separator at the 100% power condition, and evaluated the structural integrity. The predicted alternating stress intensities were evaluated to have more than 17.78 times fatigue margin compared to the endurance limit.
New vibrational mode of the acoustic type in Nd(Pr)2 Cu O4 single crystals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fil', D.V.; Kolobov, I.G.; Fil', V.D.; Barilo, S.N.; Zhigunov, D.I.
1995-01-01
Sound velocities along main symmetry directions as well as their angle dependences in (100),(110)-type planes are measured in Nd(Pr) 2 Cu O 4 . Anomalies in the angle dependences are found, which are interpreted as a result of the interaction of elastic vibrations with an additional plane mode of the acoustic type. According to the proposed interpretation, the bare spectrum of the additional mode is two-dimensional, and the origin of the mode is connected with the electron degrees of freedom in the Cu O 2 -planes. A phenomenological model for description of acoustic mode spectra in the investigated systems is proposed. On the basis of the anion model of HTSC, a possible microscopic scenario of the appearance of the additional mode is analyzed. In the framework of the phenomenological model, the Debye temperatures are computed, which are in agreement with the specific heat data. The values of the components of the elastic moduli tensor are given
Vibration measurements of automobile catalyst
Aatola, Seppo
1994-09-01
Vibration of catalyst cell, which is inside the casing of the catalyst, is difficult to measure with usual measuring instrumentation. When catalyst is in use, there is hot exhaust gas flow though the catalyst cell and temperature of the cell is approximately +900 degree(s)C. Therefore non-contact Laser- Doppler-Vibrometer was used to measure vibration velocity of the catalyst cell. The laser beam was directed towards the cell through pipe which was put through and welded to the casing of the catalyst. The outer end of the pipe was screw down with a tempered class to prevent exhaust gas flow from the pipe. The inner end of the pipe was open and few millimeters away from the measuring point. Catalyst was attached to the engine with two ways, rigidly close to the engine and flexible under the engine. The engine was running in test bench under controlled conditions. Vibration measurements were carried out during constant running speeds of the engine. Vibration signals were captured and analyzed with FFT-analyzer. Vibration of catalyst cell was strongest at running speed of 5000 rpm, from 10 to 20 g (1 g equals 9.81 ms-2), when catalyst was attached rigidly close to the engine. At running speed of 3000 rpm, vibration of catalyst cell was from 2 to 3 g in most cases, when catalyst was attached either rigidly or flexible to the engine. It is estimated that in real life, i.e. when catalyst is attached to car with same engine, vibration of catalyst cell at running speed of 5000 rpm is somewhere between 1 and 10 g. At running speed of 3000 rpm, which may be more often used when driving car (car speed approximately 100 kmh-1), vibration of catalyst cell is probably few g's.
Smart accelerometer. [vibration damage detection
Bozeman, Richard J., Jr. (Inventor)
1994-01-01
The invention discloses methods and apparatus for detecting vibrations from machines which indicate an impending malfunction for the purpose of preventing additional damage and allowing for an orderly shutdown or a change in mode of operation. The method and apparatus is especially suited for reliable operation in providing thruster control data concerning unstable vibration in an electrical environment which is typically noisy and in which unrecognized ground loops may exist.
Vibrational excitation from heterogeneous catalysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Purvis, G.D. III; Redmon, M.J.; Woken, G. Jr.
1979-01-01
Classical trajectories have been used by numerous researchers to investigate the dynamics of exothermic chemical reactions (atom + diatom) with a view toward understanding what leads to vibrational excitation of the product molecule. Unlike these studies, the case where the reaction is catalyzed by a solid surface is considered. The trajectory studies indicate that there should be conditions under which considerable vibrational energy appears in the product molecules without being lost to the solid during the course of the reaction. 2 figures, 3 tables
Vibrational Spectral Studies of Gemfibrozil
Benitta, T. Asenath; Balendiran, G. K.; James, C.
2008-11-01
The Fourier Transform Raman and infrared spectra of the crystallized drug molecule 5-(2,5-Dimethylphenoxy)-2,2-dimethylpentanoic acid (Gemfibrozil) have been recorded and analyzed. Quantum chemical computational methods have been employed using Gaussian 03 software package based on Hartree Fock method for theoretically modeling the grown molecule. The optimized geometry and vibrational frequencies have been predicted. Observed vibrational modes have been assigned with the aid of normal coordinate analysis.
Free vibration of complex systems of shells of revolution
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Markov, P.
1987-01-01
Simplified relations are presented for shells of revolution and the finite difference energy method is described as is its numerical application to the problems of the mechanics of the shells of revolution of a complex and branched meridian, used in the BOSOR4 program. Also presented are two examples of calculating the free vibration of systems of shells of revolution using the said program. Both problems stemmed from the needs of SKODA, Energeticke Strojirenstvi. The first concerns the free vibration of the system of WWER-440 reactor vessels, approximating its internals. The second concerns the eigenfrequencies and corresponding shapes of the vibrations of the DK3 diagnostic assembly which was designed and manufactured for improved knowledge of events taking place in the reactor core during different operating modes. (author). 7 figs., 2 tabs., 7 refs
Modern diagnostic systems for loose parts, vibration and leakage monitoring
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kunze, U.
1997-01-01
The modern diagnostic systems for loose parts, vibration and leakage monitoring of Siemens marked improvements in signal detection, ease of operation, and the display of information. The paper gives an overview on: Loose parts monitoring system KUeS '95 - a computer-based system. The knowledge and experience about loose parts detection incorporated into this system can be characterized as ''intelligence''. Vibration monitoring system SUeS '95 - a fully automated system for early detection of changes in the vibration patterns of the reactor coolant system components and reactor pressure vessel internals. Leak detection system FLUeS - a system that detects even small leaks in steam-carrying components and very accurately determines their location. Leaks are detected on the moisture distribution in a sample air column into which the escaping steam locally diffuses. All systems described represent the latest state of technology. Nevertheless a considerable amount of operational experience can be reported. (author). 5 refs, 10 figs
Flow induced vibration of secondary piping of LMFBR
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gibert, R.J.; Axisa, F.
1977-01-01
This paper presents a method for evaluating the characteristics of vibrations caused by internal flow in three-dimensional piping systems conveying high density fluids. The excitation of the circuit is mainly caused by the flow singularities, and it is shown that the problem may be reduced to calculate the response of the circuit to an acoustical pressure discontinuity, localised at each flow singularity. The paper is divided into two main parts: First part is devoted to the theoretical formulation of the coupled acoustical-mechanical problem and to its numerical solution by the french computer code TEDEL. Second part describes an experimental test of the method. The tested piping system consists of a stainless steel tube circuit comprising four 909 bends, conveying water. Vibrations are excited by a half closed gate valve. Satisfactory results are obtained concerning both the frequencies of resonance of the circuit and the level of the vibrations observed
Free Vibration of Rectangular Plates with Attached Discrete Sprung Masses
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ding Zhou
2012-01-01
Full Text Available A direct approach is used to derive the exact solution for the free vibration of thin rectangular plates with discrete sprung masses attached. The plate is simply supported along two opposite edges and elastically supported along the two other edges. The elastic support can represent a range of boundary conditions from free to clamped supports. Considering only the compatibility of the internal forces between the plate and the sprung masses, the equations of the coupled vibration of the plate-spring-mass system are derived. The exact expressions for mode and frequency equations of the coupled vibration of the plate and sprung masses are determined. The solutions converge steadily and monotonically to exact values. The correctness and accuracy of the solutions are demonstrated through comparison with published results. A parametric study is undertaken focusing on the plate with one or two sprung masses. The results can be used as a benchmark for further investigation.
Active control of noise radiation from vibrating structures
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mørkholt, Jakob
developed, based on the theory of radiation filters for estimating the sound radiation from multimodal vibrations. This model has then been used in simulations of optimal feedback control, with special emphasis of the stability margins of the optimal control scheme. Two different methods of designing...... optimal and robust discrete-time feedback controllers for active vibration control of multimodal structures have been compared. They have been showed to yield controllers with identical frequency response characteristics, even though they employ completely different methods of numerical solutions...... and result in different representations of the controllers. The Internal Model Control structure combined with optimal filtering is suggested as an alternative to state space optimal control techniques for designing robust optimal controllers for audio frequency vibration control of resonant structures....
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yushu Bian
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Due to the presence of system flexibility, impact can excite severe large amplitude vibration responses of the flexible robotic manipulator. This impact vibration exhibits characteristics of remarkable nonlinearity and strong energy. The main goal of this study is to put forward an energy-based control method to absorb and attenuate large amplitude impact vibration of the flexible robotic manipulator. The method takes advantage of internal resonance and is implemented through a vibration absorber based on the transfer and dissipation of energy. The addition of the vibration absorber to the flexible arm generates a coupling effect between vibration modes of the system. By means of analysis on 2:1 internal resonance, the exchange of energy is proven to be existent. The impact vibrational energy can be transferred from the arm to the absorber and dissipated through the damping of the absorber. The results of numerical simulations are promising and preliminarily verify that the method is feasible and can be used to combat large amplitude impact vibration of the flexible manipulator undergoing rigid motion.
Analysis of micro vibration in gas film of aerostatic guide way based on molecule collision theory
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yang Shao Hua
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Micro vibration of the aerostatic guide way has a significant impact on its dynamic characteristics and stability, which limits the development of pneumatic component. High pressure gas molecules have been collided with the supporting surface and the internal surface of the throttle during the flow process. Variable impulse of the surfaces aside for the gas film are affected by the changes of impulse which formed irregular impact force in horizontal and vertical direction. Micro-vibration takes place based on the natural frequency of the system and its frequency doubling. In this paper, the vibration model was established to describe the dynamic characteristics of the gas film, and the formation mechanism of micro vibration in the film is defined. Through the simulation analysis and experimental comparison, formation mechanism of the micro vibration in the gas film is confirmed. It was proposed that the micro vibration of gas film can be produced no matter whether there is a gas chamber or not in the throttle. Under the same conditions, the micro vibration of the guide way with air chamber is greater than that without any chamber. The frequency points of the vibration peaks are almost the same, as well as the vibration pattern in the frequency domain.
Investigation of Gas Holdup in a Vibrating Bubble Column
Mohagheghian, Shahrouz; Elbing, Brian
2015-11-01
Synthetic fuels are part of the solution to the world's energy crisis and climate change. Liquefaction of coal during the Fischer-Tropsch process in a bubble column reactor (BCR) is a key step in production of synthetic fuel. It is known from the 1960's that vibration improves mass transfer in bubble column. The current study experimentally investigates the effect that vibration frequency and amplitude has on gas holdup and bubble size distribution within a bubble column. Air (disperse phase) was injected into water (continuous phase) through a needle shape injector near the bottom of the column, which was open to atmospheric pressure. The air volumetric flow rate was measured with a variable area flow meter. Vibrations were generated with a custom-made shaker table, which oscillated the entire column with independently specified amplitude and frequency (0-30 Hz). Geometric dependencies can be investigated with four cast acrylic columns with aspect ratios ranging from 4.36 to 24, and injector needle internal diameters between 0.32 and 1.59 mm. The gas holdup within the column was measured with a flow visualization system, and a PIV system was used to measure phase velocities. Preliminary results for the non-vibrating and vibrating cases will be presented.
Vibrational spectroscopy of proteins
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schwaighofer, A.
2013-01-01
Two important steps for the development of a biosensor are the immobilization of the biological component (e.g. protein) on a surface and the enhancement of the signal to improve the sensitivity of detection. To address these subjects, the present work describes Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) investigations of several proteins bound to the surface of an attenuated total reflection (ATR) crystal. Furthermore, new nanostructured surfaces for signal enhancement were developed for use in FTIR microscopy. The mitochondrial redox-protein cytochrome c oxidase (CcO) was incorporated into a protein-tethered bilayer lipid membrane (ptBLM) on an ATR crystal featuring a roughened two-layer gold surface for signal enhancement. Electrochemical excitation by periodic potential pulses at different modulation frequencies was followed by time-resolved FTIR spectroscopy. Phase sensitive detection was used for deconvolution of the IR spectra into vibrational components. A model based on protonation-dependent chemical reaction kinetics could be fitted to the time evolution of IR bands attributed to several different redox centers of the CcO. Further investigations involved the odorant binding protein 14 (OBP14) of the honey bee (Apis mellifera), which was studied using ATR-FTIR spectroscopy and circular dichroism. OBP14 was found to be thermally stable up to 45 °C, thus permitting the potential application of this protein for the fabrication of biosensors. Thermal denaturation measurements showed that odorant binding increases the thermal stability of the OBP-odorant complex. In another project, plasmonic nanostructures were fabricated that enhance the absorbance in FTIR microscopy measurements. The nanostructures are composed of an array of round-shaped insulator and gold discs on top of a continuous gold layer. Enhancement factors of up to ⁓125 could be observed with self-assembled monolayers of dodecanethiol molecules immobilized on the gold surface (author) [de
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Spreemann, Dirk; Hoffmann, Daniel; Folkmer, Bernd; Manoli, Yiannos
2008-01-01
This paper presents a design and optimization strategy for resonant electromagnetic vibration energy harvesting devices. An analytic expression for the magnetic field of cylindrical permanent magnets is used to build up an electromagnetic subsystem model. This subsystem is used to find the optimal resting position of the oscillating mass and to optimize the geometrical parameters (shape and size) of the magnet and coil. The objective function to be investigated is thereby the maximum voltage output of the transducer. An additional mechanical subsystem model based on well-known equations describing the dynamics of spring–mass–damper systems is established to simulate both nonlinear spring characteristics and the effect of internal limit stops. The mechanical subsystem enables the identification of optimal spring characteristics for realistic operation conditions such as stochastic vibrations. With the overall transducer model, a combination of both subsystems connected to a simple electrical circuit, a virtual operation of the optimized vibration transducer excited by a measured random acceleration profile can be performed. It is shown that the optimization approach results in an appreciable increase of the converter performance
Adaptive learning algorithms for vibration energy harvesting
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ward, John K; Behrens, Sam
2008-01-01
By scavenging energy from their local environment, portable electronic devices such as MEMS devices, mobile phones, radios and wireless sensors can achieve greater run times with potentially lower weight. Vibration energy harvesting is one such approach where energy from parasitic vibrations can be converted into electrical energy through the use of piezoelectric and electromagnetic transducers. Parasitic vibrations come from a range of sources such as human movement, wind, seismic forces and traffic. Existing approaches to vibration energy harvesting typically utilize a rectifier circuit, which is tuned to the resonant frequency of the harvesting structure and the dominant frequency of vibration. We have developed a novel approach to vibration energy harvesting, including adaptation to non-periodic vibrations so as to extract the maximum amount of vibration energy available. Experimental results of an experimental apparatus using an off-the-shelf transducer (i.e. speaker coil) show mechanical vibration to electrical energy conversion efficiencies of 27–34%
Low frequency vibrations disrupt left-right patterning in the Xenopus embryo.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Laura N Vandenberg
Full Text Available The development of consistent left-right (LR asymmetry across phyla is a fascinating question in biology. While many pharmacological and molecular approaches have been used to explore molecular mechanisms, it has proven difficult to exert precise temporal control over functional perturbations. Here, we took advantage of acoustical vibration to disrupt LR patterning in Xenopus embryos during tightly-circumscribed periods of development. Exposure to several low frequencies induced specific randomization of three internal organs (heterotaxia. Investigating one frequency (7 Hz, we found two discrete periods of sensitivity to vibration; during the first period, vibration affected the same LR pathway as nocodazole, while during the second period, vibration affected the integrity of the epithelial barrier; both are required for normal LR patterning. Our results indicate that low frequency vibrations disrupt two steps in the early LR pathway: the orientation of the LR axis with the other two axes, and the amplification/restriction of downstream LR signals to asymmetric organs.
Vibrational dynamics and band structure of methyl-terminated Ge(111)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
th Street, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States))" data-affiliation=" (The James Franck Institute and Department of Chemistry, The University of Chicago, 929 E. 57th Street, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States))" >Hund, Zachary M.; th Street, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States))" data-affiliation=" (The James Franck Institute and Department of Chemistry, The University of Chicago, 929 E. 57th Street, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States))" >Nihill, Kevin J.; th Street, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States))" data-affiliation=" (The James Franck Institute and Department of Chemistry, The University of Chicago, 929 E. 57th Street, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States))" >Sibener, S. J.; Campi, Davide; Bernasconi, M.; Wong, Keith T.; Lewis, Nathan S.; Benedek, G.
2015-01-01
A combined synthesis, experiment, and theory approach, using elastic and inelastic helium atom scattering along with ab initio density functional perturbation theory, has been used to investigate the vibrational dynamics and band structure of a recently synthesized organic-functionalized semiconductor interface. Specifically, the thermal properties and lattice dynamics of the underlying Ge(111) semiconductor crystal in the presence of a commensurate (1 × 1) methyl adlayer were defined for atomically flat methylated Ge(111) surfaces. The mean-square atomic displacements were evaluated by analysis of the thermal attenuation of the elastic He diffraction intensities using the Debye-Waller model, revealing an interface with hybrid characteristics. The methyl adlayer vibrational modes are coupled with the Ge(111) substrate, resulting in significantly softer in-plane motion relative to rigid motion in the surface normal. Inelastic helium time-of-flight measurements revealed the excitations of the Rayleigh wave across the surface Brillouin zone, and such measurements were in agreement with the dispersion curves that were produced using density functional perturbation theory. The dispersion relations for H-Ge(111) indicated that a deviation in energy and lineshape for the Rayleigh wave was present along the nearest-neighbor direction. The effects of mass loading, as determined by calculations for CD 3 -Ge(111), as well as by force constants, were less significant than the hybridization between the Rayleigh wave and methyl adlayer librations. The presence of mutually similar hybridization effects for CH 3 -Ge(111) and CH 3 -Si(111) surfaces extends the understanding of the relationship between the vibrational dynamics and the band structure of various semiconductor surfaces that have been functionalized with organic overlayers
Vibrational dynamics and band structure of methyl-terminated Ge(111)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hund, Zachary M.; Nihill, Kevin J.; Sibener, S. J., E-mail: s-sibener@uchicago.edu [The James Franck Institute and Department of Chemistry, The University of Chicago, 929 E. 57" t" h Street, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States); Campi, Davide; Bernasconi, M. [Dipartimento di Scienza dei Materiali, Universita di Milano-Bicocca, Via Cozzi 53, 20125 Milano (Italy); Wong, Keith T.; Lewis, Nathan S. [Division of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Beckman Institute and Kavli Nanoscience Institute, California Institute of Technology, 210 Noyes Laboratory, 127-72, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States); Benedek, G. [Dipartimento di Scienza dei Materiali, Universita di Milano-Bicocca, Via Cozzi 53, 20125 Milano (Italy); Donostia International Physics Center (DIPC), Universidad del País Vasco (EHU), 20018 Donostia/San Sebastian (Spain)
2015-09-28
A combined synthesis, experiment, and theory approach, using elastic and inelastic helium atom scattering along with ab initio density functional perturbation theory, has been used to investigate the vibrational dynamics and band structure of a recently synthesized organic-functionalized semiconductor interface. Specifically, the thermal properties and lattice dynamics of the underlying Ge(111) semiconductor crystal in the presence of a commensurate (1 × 1) methyl adlayer were defined for atomically flat methylated Ge(111) surfaces. The mean-square atomic displacements were evaluated by analysis of the thermal attenuation of the elastic He diffraction intensities using the Debye-Waller model, revealing an interface with hybrid characteristics. The methyl adlayer vibrational modes are coupled with the Ge(111) substrate, resulting in significantly softer in-plane motion relative to rigid motion in the surface normal. Inelastic helium time-of-flight measurements revealed the excitations of the Rayleigh wave across the surface Brillouin zone, and such measurements were in agreement with the dispersion curves that were produced using density functional perturbation theory. The dispersion relations for H-Ge(111) indicated that a deviation in energy and lineshape for the Rayleigh wave was present along the nearest-neighbor direction. The effects of mass loading, as determined by calculations for CD{sub 3}-Ge(111), as well as by force constants, were less significant than the hybridization between the Rayleigh wave and methyl adlayer librations. The presence of mutually similar hybridization effects for CH{sub 3}-Ge(111) and CH{sub 3}-Si(111) surfaces extends the understanding of the relationship between the vibrational dynamics and the band structure of various semiconductor surfaces that have been functionalized with organic overlayers.
PC based vibration monitoring system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jain, Sanjay K.; Roy, D.A.; Pithawa, C.K.; Patil, R.K.
2004-01-01
Health of large rotating machinery gets reflected in the vibration signature of the rotor and supporting structures and proper recording of these signals and their analysis can give a clear picture of the health of the machine. Using these data and their trending, it is possible to predict an impending trouble in the machine so that preventive action can be taken in time and catastrophic failure can be avoided. Continuous monitoring and analysis can give quick warning and enable operator to take preventive measures. Reactor Control Division, BARC is developing a PC based Vibration monitoring system for turbo generator machinery. The System can acquire 20 vibration signals at a rate of 5000 samples per second and also 15 process signals at a rate of 100 samples/ sec. The software for vibration monitoring system includes acquisition modules, analysis modules and Graphical User Interface module. The acquisition module involves initialization, setting of required parameters and acquiring the data from PC-based data acquisition cards. The acquired raw vibration data is then stored for analysis using various software packages. The display and analysis of acquired data is done in LabVIEW 7.0 where the data is displayed in time as well as frequency domain along with the RMS value of the signal. (author)
Primary pump vibration under accident conditions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guthrie, B.M.; Currie, T.C.
1984-06-01
This report presents the results of an international survey on the subject of vibration in nuclear primary coolant pumps due to two-phase flow, accident conditions. The literature search also revealed few Canadian references other than those of Ontario Hydro. Ontario Hydro's work has been extensive. Confidence in the mechanical integrity of the pumpsets is good, given the extent of the testing. However, conclusions with respect to piping integrity and thermal-hydraulic performance are difficult to determine due to the inexact geometry of the piping and the difficulties in estimating fluid conditions at the pump. The tests help to understand the phenomena and provide background information for analysis, but should be applied with caution to plant analyses. Much of the discussion in the report relates to pump head instability. This is perceived to be the most important flow regime causing vibration, as attested by the emphasis of the reviewed literature. A method for quantitative assessment of the forcing functions acting on the pump-piping system due to void generation and collapse is recommended. A relatively fundamental analytical approach is proposed, supplemented by reduced scale testing in the latter stages. 151 refs
Torsional vibrations of shafts of mechanical systems
Gulevsky, V. A.; Belyaev, A. N.; Trishina, T. V.
2018-03-01
The aim of the research is to compare the calculated dependencies for determining the equivalent rigidity of a mechanical system and to come to an agreement on the methods of compiling dynamic models for systems with elastic reducer couplings in applied and classical oscillation theories. As a result of the analysis, it was revealed that most of the damage in the mechanisms and their details is due to the appearance of oscillations due to the dynamic impact of various factors: shock and alternating loads, unbalanced parts of machines, etc. Therefore, the designer at the design stage, and the engineer in the process of operation should provide the possibility of regulating the oscillatory processes both in details and machines by means of creating rational designs, as well as the use of special devices such as vibration dampers, various vibrators with optimal characteristics. A method is proposed for deriving a formula for determining the equivalent stiffness of a double-mass oscillating system of a multistage reducer with elastic reducer links without taking into account the internal losses and inertia of its elements, which gives a result completely coinciding with the result obtained by the classical theory of small mechanical oscillations and allows eliminating formulas for reducing the moments of inertia of the flywheel masses and the stiffness of the shafts.
Measurement of rabbit eardrum vibration through stroboscopic digital holography
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
De Greef, Daniël; Dirckx, Joris J. J. [University of Antwerp, Laboratory of BioMedical Physics, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium)
2014-05-27
In this work, we present a setup for high-power single shot stroboscopic digital holography and demonstrate it in an application on rabbit eardrum vibration measurement. The setup is able to make full-field time-resolved measurements of vibrating surfaces with a precision in the nanometer range in a broad frequency range. The height displacement of the measured object is visualized over the entire surface as a function of time. Vibration magnitude and phase maps can be extracted from these data, the latter proving to be very useful to reveal phase delays across the surface. Such deviations from modal motion indicate energy losses due to internal damping, in contrast to purely elastic mechanics. This is of great interest in middle ear mechanics and finite element modelling. In our setup, short laser pulses are fired at selected instants within the surface vibration period and are recorded by a CCD camera. The timing of the pulses and the exposure of the camera are synchronized to the vibration phase by a microprocessor. The high-power frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser produces pulses containing up to 5 mJ of energy, which is amply sufficient to record single-shot holograms. As the laser pulse length is 8 ns and the smallest time step of the trigger electronics is 1 μs, vibration measurements of frequencies up to 250 kHz are achievable through this method, provided that the maximum vibration amplitude exceeds a few nanometers. In our application, middle ear mechanics, measuring frequencies extend from 5 Hz to 20 kHz. The experimental setup will be presented, as well as results of measurements on a stretched circular rubber membrane and a rabbit's eardrum. Two of the challenges when measuring biological tissues, such as the eardrum, are low reflectivity and fast dehydration. To increase reflectivity, a coating is applied and to counteract the undesirable effects of tissue dehydration, the measurement setup and software have been optimized for speed without
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bi, Lei; Yang, Ping
2016-01-01
The accuracy of the physical-geometric optics (PG-O) approximation is examined for the simulation of electromagnetic scattering by nonspherical dielectric particles. This study seeks a better understanding of the tunneling effect on the phase matrix by employing the invariant imbedding method to rigorously compute the zeroth-order Debye series, from which the tunneling efficiency and the phase matrix corresponding to the diffraction and external reflection are obtained. The tunneling efficiency is shown to be a factor quantifying the relative importance of the tunneling effect over the Fraunhofer diffraction near the forward scattering direction. Due to the tunneling effect, different geometries with the same projected cross section might have different diffraction patterns, which are traditionally assumed to be identical according to the Babinet principle. For particles with a fixed orientation, the PG-O approximation yields the external reflection pattern with reasonable accuracy, but ordinarily fails to predict the locations of peaks and minima in the diffraction pattern. The larger the tunneling efficiency, the worse the PG-O accuracy is at scattering angles less than 90°. If the particles are assumed to be randomly oriented, the PG-O approximation yields the phase matrix close to the rigorous counterpart, primarily due to error cancellations in the orientation-average process. Furthermore, the PG-O approximation based on an electric field volume-integral equation is shown to usually be much more accurate than the Kirchhoff surface integral equation at side-scattering angles, particularly when the modulus of the complex refractive index is close to unity. Finally, tunneling efficiencies are tabulated for representative faceted particles. - Highlights: • Concepts of diffraction, reflection and tunneling are refined. • The diffraction together with reflection is rigorously treated. • An improved invariant imbedding method is employed to compute the Debye
On generalized fractional vibration equation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dai, Hongzhe; Zheng, Zhibao; Wang, Wei
2017-01-01
Highlights: • The paper presents a generalized fractional vibration equation for arbitrary viscoelastically damped system. • Some classical vibration equations can be derived from the developed equation. • The analytic solution of developed equation is derived under some special cases. • The generalized equation is particularly useful for developing new fractional equivalent linearization method. - Abstract: In this paper, a generalized fractional vibration equation with multi-terms of fractional dissipation is developed to describe the dynamical response of an arbitrary viscoelastically damped system. It is shown that many classical equations of motion, e.g., the Bagley–Torvik equation, can be derived from the developed equation. The Laplace transform is utilized to solve the generalized equation and the analytic solution under some special cases is derived. Example demonstrates the generalized transfer function of an arbitrary viscoelastic system.
General vibration monitoring: Experimental hall
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jendrzejczyk, J.A.; Wambsganss, M.W.; Smith, R.K.
1993-01-01
The reported vibration data were generated from measurements made on the experimental hall floor on December 2, 1992. At the time of the measurements, the ESRF hydrolevel was set-up in the Early Assembly Area (EAA) of the experimental hall and was being used to measure static displacement (settlement) of the floor. The vibration measurement area was on and adjacent to the EAA, in the vicinity of the ESRF hydrolevel test which was in progress. This report summarizes the objectives, instrumentation, measurement locations, observations, and conclusions, and provides selected results in the form of RMS vs. time plots, and power spectral densities from which frequency information can be derived. Measured response amplitudes were within the vibration criteria established for the APS
Characteristics of vibrator use by gay and bisexually identified men in the United States.
Reece, Michael; Rosenberger, Joshua G; Schick, Vanessa; Herbenick, Debby; Dodge, Brian; Novak, David S
2010-10-01
Recent reports indicate that vibrator use during solo and partnered sexual activities is common among heterosexual men and women in the United States. However, little research has comprehensively assessed vibrator use among gay and bisexually identified men. This study sought to document the extent to which gay and bisexually identified men report using vibrators, the sexual and relational situations within which they use them, and how men use vibrators on their own and their partners' bodies. Data were collected from 25,294 gay and bisexually identified men from 50 U.S. states and from the District of Columbia via an internet-based survey. Measures included sociodemographics, health-related indicators, sexual behaviors, and those related to recent and past use of vibrators during solo and partnered sexual interactions with other men. Approximately half (49.8%) of gay and bisexually identified men reported having used vibrators. Most men who had used a vibrator in the past reported use during masturbation (86.2%). When used during partnered interactions, vibrators were incorporated into foreplay (65.9%) and intercourse (59.4%). Men reported frequent insertion of vibrators into the anus or rectum when using them during masturbation (87.3%), which was also common during partnered interactions (∼60%), but varied slightly for casual and relationship sex partners. For both masturbation and partnered interactions, men overwhelmingly endorsed the extent to which vibrator use contributed to sexual arousal, orgasm, and pleasure. Vibrator use during both solo and partnered sexual acts was common among the gay and bisexually identified men in this sample and was described by men as adding to the quality of their sexual experiences. © 2010 International Society for Sexual Medicine.
Torsional vibration signal analysis as a diagnostic tool for planetary gear fault detection
Xue, Song; Howard, Ian
2018-02-01
This paper aims to investigate the effectiveness of using the torsional vibration signal as a diagnostic tool for planetary gearbox faults detection. The traditional approach for condition monitoring of the planetary gear uses a stationary transducer mounted on the ring gear casing to measure all the vibration data when the planet gears pass by with the rotation of the carrier arm. However, the time variant vibration transfer paths between the stationary transducer and the rotating planet gear modulate the resultant vibration spectra and make it complex. Torsional vibration signals are theoretically free from this modulation effect and therefore, it is expected to be much easier and more effective to diagnose planetary gear faults using the fault diagnostic information extracted from the torsional vibration. In this paper, a 20 degree of freedom planetary gear lumped-parameter model was developed to obtain the gear dynamic response. In the model, the gear mesh stiffness variations are the main internal vibration generation mechanism and the finite element models were developed for calculation of the sun-planet and ring-planet gear mesh stiffnesses. Gear faults on different components were created in the finite element models to calculate the resultant gear mesh stiffnesses, which were incorporated into the planetary gear model later on to obtain the faulted vibration signal. Some advanced signal processing techniques were utilized to analyses the fault diagnostic results from the torsional vibration. It was found that the planetary gear torsional vibration not only successfully detected the gear fault, but also had the potential to indicate the location of the gear fault. As a result, the planetary gear torsional vibration can be considered an effective alternative approach for planetary gear condition monitoring.
Fundamental Vibration of Molecular Hydrogen
Dickenson, G. D.; Niu, M. L.; Salumbides, E. J.; Komasa, J.; Eikema, K. S. E.; Pachucki, K.; Ubachs, W.
2013-05-01
The fundamental ground tone vibration of H2, HD, and D2 is determined to an accuracy of 2×10-4cm-1 from Doppler-free laser spectroscopy in the collisionless environment of a molecular beam. This rotationless vibrational splitting is derived from the combination difference between electronic excitation from the X1Σg+, v=0, and v=1 levels to a common EF1Σg+, v=0 level. Agreement within 1σ between the experimental result and a full ab initio calculation provides a stringent test of quantum electrodynamics in a chemically bound system.
The Shock and Vibration Bulletin. Part 2. Vibration Analysis.
1977-09-01
J.N. Tait, Naval Air Development Center, Warminster, PA EVALUATION OF AN ADAPTIVE FILTER AS A DIGITAL TRACKING FILTER D.O. Smallwood and D.L. Gregory...Oklahoma Norman , Oklahoma In contrast to the considerable information abailable on free vibration of isotropic plates, there is only a very limited
Chen, Xiaojie; Green, Paul G; Levine, Jon D
2010-11-01
We recently developed a rodent model of the painful muscle disorders induced by occupational exposure to vibration. In the present study we used this model to evaluate the function of sensory neurons innervating the vibration-exposed gastrocnemius muscle. Activity of 74 vibration-exposed and 40 control nociceptors, with mechanical receptive fields in the gastrocnemius muscle, were recorded. In vibration-exposed rats ∼15% of nociceptors demonstrated an intense and long-lasting barrage of action potentials in response to sustained suprathreshold mechanical stimulation (average of 2635 action potentials with frequency of ∼44Hz during a 1min suprathreshold stimulus) much greater than that has been reported to be produced even by potent inflammatory mediators. While these high-firing nociceptors had lower mechanical thresholds than the remaining nociceptors, exposure to vibration had no effect on conduction velocity and did not induce spontaneous activity. Hyperactivity was not observed in any of 19 neurons from vibration-exposed rats pretreated with intrathecal antisense for the IL-6 receptor subunit gp130. Since vibration can injure peripheral nerves and IL-6 has been implicated in painful peripheral neuropathies, we suggest that the dramatic change in sensory neuron function and development of muscles pain, induced by exposure to vibration, reflects a neuropathic muscle pain syndrome. Copyright © 2010 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Prevalent hallucinations during medical internships: phantom vibration and ringing syndromes.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yu-Hsuan Lin
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Phantom vibration syndrome is a type of hallucination reported among mobile phone users in the general population. Another similar perception, phantom ringing syndrome, has not been previously described in the medical literature. METHODS: A prospective longitudinal study of 74 medical interns (46 males, 28 females; mean age, 24.8±1.2 years was conducted using repeated investigations of the prevalence and associated factors of phantom vibration and ringing. The accompanying symptoms of anxiety and depression were evaluated with the Beck Anxiety and Depression Inventories before the internship began, and again at the third, sixth, and twelfth internship months, and two weeks after the internship ended. RESULTS: The baseline prevalence of phantom vibration was 78.1%, which increased to 95.9% and 93.2% in the third and sixth internship months. The prevalence returned to 80.8% at the twelfth month and decreased to 50.0% 2 weeks after the internship ended. The baseline prevalence of phantom ringing was 27.4%, which increased to 84.9%, 87.7%, and 86.3% in the third, sixth, and twelfth internship months, respectively. This returned to 54.2% two weeks after the internship ended. The anxiety and depression scores also increased during the internship, and returned to baseline two weeks after the internship. There was no significant correlation between phantom vibration/ringing and symptoms of anxiety or depression. The incidence of both phantom vibration and ringing syndromes significantly increased during the internship, and subsequent recovery. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that phantom vibration and ringing might be entities that are independent of anxiety or depression during evaluation of stress-associated experiences during medical internships.
Shock and Vibration. Volume 1, Issue 1
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Pilkey, Walter D
1994-01-01
..., and earthquake engineering. Among the specific areas to be covered are vibration testing and control, vibration condition monitoring and diagnostics, shock hardenings, modal technology, shock testing, data acquisition, fluid...
Novel active vibration absorber with magnetorheological fluid
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gerlach, T; Ehrlich, J; Boese, H [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Silicatforschung ISC, Neunerplatz 2, D-97082 Wuerzburg (Germany)], E-mail: thomas.gerlach@isc.fraunhofer.de
2009-02-01
Disturbing vibrations diminish the performance of technical high precision devices significantly. In search of a suitable solution for reducing these vibrations, a novel concept of active vibration reduction was developed which exploits the special properties of magnetorheological fluids. In order to evaluate the concept of such an active vibration absorber (AVA) a demonstrator was designed and manufactured. This demonstrator generates a force which counteracts the motion of the vibrating body. Since the counterforce is generated by a centrifugal exciter, the AVA provides the capability to compensate vibrations even in two dimensions. To control the strength of the force transmitted to the vibrating body, the exciter is based on a tunable MR coupling. The AVA was integrated in an appropriate testing device to investigate its performance. The recorded results show a significant reduction of the vibration amplitudes by an order of magnitude.
Isotope separation using vibrationally excited molecules
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1979-01-01
This invention relates to isotope separation employing isotopically selective vibrational excitation and vibration-translation reactions of the excited particles. Uranium enrichment, using uranium hexafluoride, is a particular embodiment. (U.K.)
Predicting Statistical Distributions of Footbridge Vibrations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pedersen, Lars; Frier, Christian
2009-01-01
The paper considers vibration response of footbridges to pedestrian loading. Employing Newmark and Monte Carlo simulation methods, a statistical distribution of bridge vibration levels is calculated modelling walking parameters such as step frequency and stride length as random variables...
Application of eigenfunction orthogonalities to vibration problems
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Fedotov, I
2009-07-01
Full Text Available The modelling of vibration problems is of great importance in engineering. A popular method of analysing such problems is the variational method. The simplest vibration model is represented using the example of a long rod. Two kinds...
Vibrational nonadiabaticity and tunneling effects in transition state theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Marcus, R.A.
1979-01-01
The usual quantum mechanical derivation of transition state theory is a statistical one (a quasi-equilibrium is assumed) or dynamical. The typical dynamical one defines a set of internal states and assumes vibrational adiabaticity. Effects of nonadiabaticity before and after the transition state are included in the present derivation, assuming a classical treatment of the reaction coordinate. The relation to a dynamical derivation of classical mechanical transition state theory is described, and tunneling effects are considered
Adaptive active vibration isolation – A control perspective
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Landau Ioan Doré
2015-01-01
The paper will review a number of recent developments for adaptive feedback compensation of multiple unknown and time-varying narrow band disturbances and for adaptive feedforward compensation of broad band disturbances in the presence of the inherent internal positive feedback caused by the coupling between the compensator system and the measurement of the image of the disturbance. Some experimental results obtained on a relevant active vibration control system will illustrate the performance of the various algorithms presented.
Synthesis and vibrational spectrum of antimony phosphate, SbPO4.
Brockner, Wolfgang; Hoyer, Lars P
2002-07-01
SbPO4 was synthesized via a new route by reacting antimony metal with meta-phosphoric acid, (HPO3)n at high temperatures. The Raman and IR spectra of the title compound were recorded and the vibrational modes assigned on the basis of a factor group analysis. The internal vibrations are derived from tetrahedral PO4 units (approaching Sb[PO4]) by the correlation method, although the structure is polymeric and not ionic.
Barashkov, M. V.; Komyak, A. I.; Shashkov, S. N.
2000-03-01
The IR spectra and polarized Raman spectra of crystals of hexahydrates of zinc potassium and ammonium sulfates have been obtained experimentally at 93 K and at room temperature. The frequencies and modes of normal vibrations of the octahedral complex [Zn(H2O)6]2+ have been calculated. The assignment of the observed lines of the internal and external vibrations of the crystal cell has been made by calculations and by factor-group analysis.
Eddy currents self-tuning dynamic vibration absorber for machine tool chatter suppression
Aguirre , Gorka; Gorostiaga , Mikel; Porchez , Thomas; Munoa , Jokin
2013-01-01
International audience; The current trend in machine tool design aims at stiffer machines with lowerinfluence of friction, leading to faster and more precise machines. However, this is atthe expense of reducing the machine damping, which is mainly produced by friction,and thus increasing the risk of suffering from a self-excited vibration named chatter,which limits the productivity of the process. Dynamic vibration absorbers (DVAs)offer a relatively simple and low cost solution to reduce chat...
Specialists meeting on LMFBR flow induced vibrations. Summary report
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1977-12-01
A Specialists' Meeting on LMFBR Flow-Induced Vibrations was held at ANL in the United States which was sponsored by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) on the recommendations of the International Working Group on Fast Reactors (IWGFR). It was attended by participants from France, the Federal Republic of Germany, Italy, Japan, Netherlands, the United Kingdom, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the United States and the IAEA. The purpose of the meeting was to provide, for the first time, a common forum for the exchange of information on flow-induced vibration programs of the member countries. As this was a first meeting, information was sought in the broad areas of: 1. Design Criteria and Problem Areas in LMFBR Design; 2. Current Design Procedures; and 3. Ongoing Research. A session was devoted to each of the above topics wherein papers were presented and discussed followed by open discussions on the session topic. The objective of the open discussions was to identify, from a review of specific reactor designs, (a) flow induced vibration problem areas (expected and observed) and their potential for occurrence; (b) failure modes and associated design criteria; (c) specific components that are susceptible to flow induced vibration; and (d) probable excitation mechanisms. It was aimed to assess the current state-of-the-art in designing to avoid flow induced vibration with consideration of licensing requirements; to evaluate existing methods of analysis, testing, and surveillance, along with their limitations and to identify areas requiring research and review ongoing research programmes relative to these research needs
Specialists meeting on LMFBR flow induced vibrations. Summary report
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
1977-12-01
A Specialists' Meeting on LMFBR Flow-Induced Vibrations was held at ANL in the United States which was sponsored by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) on the recommendations of the International Working Group on Fast Reactors (IWGFR). It was attended by participants from France, the Federal Republic of Germany, Italy, Japan, Netherlands, the United Kingdom, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the United States and the IAEA. The purpose of the meeting was to provide, for the first time, a common forum for the exchange of information on flow-induced vibration programs of the member countries. As this was a first meeting, information was sought in the broad areas of: 1. Design Criteria and Problem Areas in LMFBR Design; 2. Current Design Procedures; and 3. Ongoing Research. A session was devoted to each of the above topics wherein papers were presented and discussed followed by open discussions on the session topic. The objective of the open discussions was to identify, from a review of specific reactor designs, (a) flow induced vibration problem areas (expected and observed) and their potential for occurrence; (b) failure modes and associated design criteria; (c) specific components that are susceptible to flow induced vibration; and (d) probable excitation mechanisms. It was aimed to assess the current state-of-the-art in designing to avoid flow induced vibration with consideration of licensing requirements; to evaluate existing methods of analysis, testing, and surveillance, along with their limitations and to identify areas requiring research and review ongoing research programmes relative to these research needs.
Vibrational properties of amorphous semiconductors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schulz, P.A.B.
1985-01-01
A model for the lattice dynamics of a-Si 1-X N X is introduced. This model is based on a Born hamiltonian, solved in the Bethe lattice approximation. Starting from the local density of vibrational states, we analize the infrared absoption spectra of this material. (author) [pt
Ultrafast vibrations of gold nanorings
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kelf, T; Tanaka, Y; Matsuda, O
2011-01-01
We investigate the vibrational modes of gold nanorings on a silica substrate with an ultrafast optical technique. By comparison with numerical simulations, we identify several resonances in the gigahertz range associated with axially symmetric deformations of the nanoring and substrate. We...
Monothiodibenzoylmethane: Structural and vibrational assignments
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Bjarke Knud Vilster; Gorski, Alexander; Posokhov, Yevgen
2007-01-01
vibrational spectra were compared with theoretical transitions obtained with B3LYP/cc-pVTZ density functional theory (DFT). The results leave no doubt that the stable ground state configuration of TDBM corresponds to the intramolecularly hydrogen bonded enol form (e-CCC), and that the photoproduct corresponds...
Low-Vibration Oscillating Compressor
Studer, P. A.
1984-01-01
Oscillating compressor momentum compensated: produces little vibration in its supporting structure. Compressure requires no lubrication and virtually free of wear. Compresses working fluids such as helium, nitrogen or chlorfluorocarbons for Stirling-cycle refrigeration or other purposes. Compressor includes two mutually opposed ferromagnetic pistons of same shape and mass. Electromagnetic flux links both pistons, causing magnetic attraction between them.
Vibrational relaxation in OCS mixtures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Simpson, C.J.S.M.; Gait, P.D.; Simmie, J.M.
1976-01-01
Experimental measurements are reported of vibrational relaxation times which may be used to show whether there is near resonant vibration-rotation energy transfer between OCS and H 2 , D 2 or HD. Vibrational relaxation times have been measured in OCS and OCS mixtures over the temperature range 360 to 1000 K using a shock tube and a laser schlieren system. The effectiveness of the additives in reducing the relaxation time of OCS is in the order 4 He 3 He 2 2 and HD. Along this series the effect of an increase in temperature changes from the case of speeding up the rate with 4 He to retarding it with D 2 , HD and H 2 . There is no measurable difference in the effectiveness of n-D 2 and o-D 2 and little, or no, difference between n-H 2 and p-H 2 . Thus the experimental results do not give clear evidence for rotational-vibration energy transfer between hydrogen and OCS. This contrasts with the situation for CO 2 + H 2 mixtures. (author)
Vibrational entropies in metallic alloys
Ozolins, Vidvuds; Asta, Mark; Wolverton, Christopher
2000-03-01
Recently, it has been recognized that vibrational entropy can have significant effects on the phase stability of metallic alloys. Using density functional linear response calculations and molecular dynamics simulations we study three representative cases: (i) phase diagram of Al-rich Al-Sc alloys, (ii) stability of precipitate phases in CuAl_2, and (iii) phonon dynamics in bcc Zr. We find large vibrational entropy effects in all cases. In the Al-Sc system, vibrations increase the solid solubility of Sc in Al by decreasing the stability of the L12 (Al_3Sc) phase. This leads to a nearly ten-fold increase in the solid solubility of Sc in Al at T=800 K. In the Cu-Al system, our calculations predict that the tetragonal Laves phase of CuAl2 has 0.35 kB/atom higher vibrational entropy than the cubic CaF_2-type phase (the latter is predicted to be the T=0 K ground state of CuAl_2). This entropy difference causes a structural transformation in CuAl2 precipitates from the fluorite to the tetragonal Laves phase around T=500 K. Finally, we analyze the highly unusual dynamics of anharmonically stabilized bcc Zr, finding large diffuse-scattering intensity streaks between the bcc Bragg peaks.
Ultrafast vibrations of gold nanorings
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kelf, T; Tanaka, Y; Matsuda, O
2011-01-01
We investigate the vibrational modes of gold nanorings on a silica substrate with an ultrafast optical technique. By comparison with numerical simulations, we identify several resonances in the gigahertz range associated with axially symmetric deformations of the nanoring and substrate. We elucid...
Effect of shelf aging on vibration transmissibility of anti-vibration gloves
SHIBATA, Nobuyuki
2017-01-01
Anti-vibration gloves have been used in real workplaces to reduce vibration transmitted through hand-held power tools to the hand. Generally materials used for vibration attenuation in gloves are resilient materials composed of certain synthetic and/or composite polymers. The mechanical characteristics of the resilient materials used in anti-vibration gloves are prone to be influenced by environmental conditions such as temperature, humidity, and photo-irradiation, which cause material degradation and aging. This study focused on the influence of shelf aging on the vibration attenuation performance of air-packaged anti-vibration gloves following 2 yr of shelf aging. Effects of shelf aging on the vibration attenuation performance of anti-vibration gloves were examined according to the Japan industrial standard JIS T8114 test protocol. The findings indicate that shelf aging induces the reduction of vibration attenuation performance in air-packaged anti-vibration gloves. PMID:28978817
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lapujoulade, J.; Lejay, Y.
1975-01-01
Vibrational properties of metal surfaces (surface phonons, surface Debye temperatures) are less known than bulk ones since common investigation methods (neutron, X-rays) are not sensitive to surface properties. A study of the backscattering of an atomic beam may give surface specific informations. The backscattering of noble gas (He, Ne, Ar) from a clean copper single crystal ((100) face) was experimentally studied. The experimental set-up allows to measure the space repartition well as the velocity distribution of the scattered atoms. If the collisions is purely elastic an analysis of the thermal dependence of the specular peak by means of the Debye Waller formula will give the mean square displacements of surface atoms. It is shown however that this simple case is not fulfilled with helium in ordinary beam or solid temperatures. If the collision is inelastic, but dominated by single phonon transfers (as it seems to be the case for helium) information should to get about the phonon dispersion relation of surface atoms. When many-phonon collision occur (Ne and Ar) the analysis is more difficult. A comparison of the experimental result with an approximate calculation of G. Armand is given [fr
Comprehensive vibration assessment program for Yonggwang nuclear power plant unit 4
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rhee, Hui Nam; Hwang, Jong Keun; Kim, Tae Hyung; Kim, Jung Kyu; Song, Heuy Gap; Kim, Beom Shig
1995-01-01
A Comprehensive Vibration Assessment Program (CVAP) has been performed for Yonggwang Nuclear Power Plant Unit 4 (YGN 4) in order to verify the structural integrity of the reactor internals for flow induced vibrations prior to commercial operation. The theoretical evidence for the structural integrity of the reactor internals and the basis for measurement and inspection are provided by the analysis. Flow induced hydraulic loads and reactor internals vibration response data were measured during pre-core hot functional testing in YGN 4 site. Also, the critical areas in the reactor internals were inspected visually to check any existence of structural abnormality before and after the pre-core hot functional testing. Then, the measured data have been analyzed and compared with the predicted data by analysis. The measured stresses are less than the predicted values and the allowable limits. It is concluded that the vibration response of the reactor internals due to the flow induced vibration under normal operation is acceptable for long term operation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
An equipment for on-line monitoring of vibrations and loose parts of nuclear power plants is described. The unit consists of piezoelectric transducers, preamplifiers, a data processor, and peripherals. It secures on-line measurement without interfering with the operation of the power plant. A diagram is given showing the monitor of vibrations and loose parts for pressurized water reactors and the Spectra-Scan equipment for the automatic recording and computer processing of noise signals is described. A survey is given of diagnostic methods for internal vibrations, noise and oscillations and procedures for the analysis of recordings are described. The experiences of Atomica International with the observation of vibrations in nuclear power plants are described and an economic assessment is presented of the efficiency of on-line monitoring of these vibrations. A cost-benefit analysis is made of such equipment which justifies their introduction. (B.S.)
Sound & Vibration 20 Design Guidelines for Health Care Facilities
Tocci, Gregory; Cavanaugh, William
2013-01-01
Sound, vibration, noise and privacy have significant impacts on health and performance. As a result, they are recognized as essential components of effective health care environments. However, acoustics has only recently become a prominent consideration in the design, construction, and operation of healthcare facilities owing to the absence, prior to 2010, of clear and objective guidance based on research and best practices. Sound & Vibration 2.0 is the first publication to comprehensively address this need. Sound & Vibration 2.0 is the sole reference standard for acoustics in health care facilities and is recognized by: the 2010 FGI Guidelines for the Design and Construction of Health Care Facilities (used in 60 countries); the US Green Building Council’s LEED for Health Care (used in 87 countries); The Green Guide for Health Care V2.2; and the International Code Council (2011). Sound & Vibration 2.0 was commissioned by the Facility Guidelines Institute in 2005, written by the Health Care Acous...
Gravity Effects on the Free Vibration of a Graphite Column
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ki, Dong-Ok; Kim, Jong-Bum; Park, Keun-Bae; Lee, Won-Jae
2006-01-01
The gravity effects on the free vibration of a graphite column are studied. Graphite block is a key component of a HTGR (High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor). The major core elements, such as the fuel blocks and neutron reflector blocks, of HTTR (High Temperature Test Reactor, Japan) and GT-MHR (Gas Turbine- Modular Helium Reactor, USA) consist of stacked hexagonal graphite blocks forming a group of columns. The vibration of the columns induced by earthquakes may lead to solid impacts between graphite blocks and structural integrity problems. The study of free vibration characteristics of the graphite block column is the first step in the core internal structure dynamic analysis. Gravity force bring a negative stiffness term to the transverse vibration analysis of heavy long column structures, and results in natural frequency reductions. Generally it is not considered in the not so tall structure cases, because the gravity term makes the analysis and design complicated. Therefore it is important to check whether the gravity effect is severe or not
Vibrational quasi-continuum in unimolecular multiphoton dissociation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Garcia Fernandez, P.; Gonzalez-Diaz, P.F.
1987-04-01
The vibrational quasi-continuum of the boron trifluoride molecule has been qualitatively studied and the formalism extended to treat N-normal-mode molecules. The anharmonic potential curves for the BF/sub 3/ normal modes have been calculated, and the computed anharmonicity constants have been tested against the fundamental frequencies. The potential curve of the wagging mode has been simulated by an internal rotation of one of the fluoride atoms. The vibrational-energy levels and wave functions have been calculated applying second-order perturbation theory. The quasi-continuum energy levels of BF/sub 3/ have been obtained by means of a method based in forming adequate linear combinations of wave functions belonging to the N-1 modes resulting from removing the i.r.-active mode;the associated energies have been minimized using a constrained minimization procedure. It has been found that the energy pattern of the N-1 vibrational modes possesses an energy density high enough for constituting a vibrational heat bath and, finally, it has been verified that the ''fictitious'' pattern of the active mode is included in the pattern of the N-1 modes.
Vibration isolation of a ship's seat
Agahi, Maryam; Samani, Mehrdad B.; Behzad, Mehdi
2005-05-01
Different factors cause vibration. These vibrations make the voyages difficult and reduce comfort and convenience in passenger ships. In this paper, the creating factors of vibration have discussed first, then with mathematical modelling it will be attempted to minimize the vibration over the crew's seat. The modelling consists of a system with two degrees of freedom and by using vibrationisolation with passive method of Tuned Mass Damper (TMD) it will be tried to reduce the vibration over personnel. Moreover using active control systems will be compared with passive systems.
Control of pipe vibrations; Schwingungsminderung bei Rohrleitungen
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sinambari, G.R. [FH Bingen, Fachrichtung Umweltschutz, und IBS Ingenieurbuero fuer Schall- und Schwingungstechnik GmbH, Frankenthal (Germany); Thorn, U. [IBS Ingenieurbuero fuer Schall- und Schwingungstechnik GmbH, Frankenthal (Germany)
2005-06-01
Following commissioning of a new vacuum system for the refinery of MiRO Mineraloelraffinerie Oberrhein GmbH and Co. KG, vibrations occurred in the furnace exhaust pipes. As these had to be regarded as critical for the fatigue strength of the pipes, the pipes' vibration response in the critical frequency range was investigated immediately by means of a vibration analysis, and appropriate measures for vibration control were elaborated. All investigations, and the installation of the hydraulic vibration dampers, took place with the system operating. The effectiveness of the measures taken was checked by means of measurements following installation. The measures succeeded in attenuating the vibrations to a level at which, empirically, damage need no longer be expected. This paper illustrates the procedure for developing the vibration control measures and the essential results of the investigations. (orig.)
Vibrations on board and health effects
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Anker; Jepsen, Jørgen Riis
2014-01-01
There is only limited knowledge of the exposure to vibrations of ships’ crews and their risk of vibration-induced health effects. Exposure to hand-arm vibrations from the use of vibrating tools at sea does not differ from that in the land-based trades. However, in contrast to most other work places...... of the health consequences of whole body vibrations in land-transportation, such exposure at sea may affect ships’ passengers and crews. While the relation of back disorders to high levels of whole body vibration has been demonstrated among e.g. tractor drivers, there are no reported epidemiological evidence...... for such relation among seafarers except for fishermen, who, however, are also exposed to additional recognised physical risk factors at work. The assessment and reduction of vibrations by naval architects relates to technical implications of this impact for the ships’ construction, but has limited value...
Interfacial instabilities in vibrated fluids
Porter, Jeff; Laverón-Simavilla, Ana; Tinao Perez-Miravete, Ignacio; Fernandez Fraile, Jose Javier
2016-07-01
Vibrations induce a range of different interfacial phenomena in fluid systems depending on the frequency and orientation of the forcing. With gravity, (large) interfaces are approximately flat and there is a qualitative difference between vertical and horizontal forcing. Sufficient vertical forcing produces subharmonic standing waves (Faraday waves) that extend over the whole interface. Horizontal forcing can excite both localized and extended interfacial phenomena. The vibrating solid boundaries act as wavemakers to excite traveling waves (or sloshing modes at low frequencies) but they also drive evanescent bulk modes whose oscillatory pressure gradient can parametrically excite subharmonic surface waves like cross-waves. Depending on the magnitude of the damping and the aspect ratio of the container, these locally generated surfaces waves may interact in the interior resulting in temporal modulation and other complex dynamics. In the case where the interface separates two fluids of different density in, for example, a rectangular container, the mass transfer due to vertical motion near the endwalls requires a counterflow in the interior region that can lead to a Kelvin-Helmholtz type instability and a ``frozen wave" pattern. In microgravity, the dominance of surface forces favors non-flat equilibrium configurations and the distinction between vertical and horizontal applied forcing can be lost. Hysteresis and multiplicity of solutions are more common, especially in non-wetting systems where disconnected (partial) volumes of fluid can be established. Furthermore, the vibrational field contributes a dynamic pressure term that competes with surface tension to select the (time averaged) shape of the surface. These new (quasi-static) surface configurations, known as vibroequilibria, can differ substantially from the hydrostatic state. There is a tendency for the interface to orient perpendicular to the vibrational axis and, in some cases, a bulge or cavity is induced
Attitudes Toward, and Use of, Vibrators in China.
Jing, Shen; Lay, Alixe; Weis, Laura; Furnham, Adrian
2018-01-02
The current study examined the relationship between traditional masculine traits and attitudes toward vibrator use, actual vibrator use, and frequency of vibrator use in China. In all, 235 Chinese females aged between 16 and 58 years completed a questionnaire regarding attitudes toward, and personal use of, vibrators. The results showed a positive association between masculine traits and attitudes toward women's vibrator use, attitudes toward vibrator use and actual vibrator use, as well as frequency of vibrator use. The findings revealed an indirect path in which masculinity influences actual and frequency of vibrator use through attitudes toward women's vibrator use. Limitations and implications of the study are discussed.
Dynamical response of vibrating ferromagnets
Gaganidze, E; Ziese, M
2000-01-01
The resonance frequency of vibrating ferromagnetic reeds in a homogeneous magnetic field can be substantially modified by intrinsic and extrinsic field-related contributions. Searching for the physical reasons of the field-induced resonance frequency change and to study the influence of the spin glass state on it, we have measured the low-temperature magnetoelastic behavior and the dynamical response of vibrating amorphous and polycrystalline ferromagnetic ribbons. We show that the magnetoelastic properties depend strongly on the direction of the applied magnetic field. The influence of the re-entrant spin glass transition on these properties is discussed. We present clear experimental evidence that for applied fields perpendicular to the main area of the samples the behavior of ferromagnetic reeds is rather independent of the material composition and magnetic state, exhibiting a large decrease of the resonance frequency. This effect can be very well explained with a model based on the dynamical response of t...
2002-01-01
Next week-end, the Geneva Science History Museum invites you to a Science Night under the banner of waves and vibrations. Scientists, artists and storytellers from more than forty institutes and local or regional associations will show that waves and vibrations form an integral part of our environment. You will be able to get in contact with the nature of waves through interactive exhibitions on sound and light and through hands-on demonstrations arranged in the Park of the Perle du Lac. On the CERN stand, you will be able to measure the speed of light with a bar of chocolate, and understand the scattering of waves with plastic ducks. Amazing, no? In addition to the stands, the Night will offer many other activities: reconstructions of experiments, a play, a concert of crystal glasses, an illuminated fountain, a house of spirits. More information Science Night, 6 and 7 July, Park of the Perle du Lac, Geneva
Vibration of imperfect rotating disk
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Půst L.
2011-12-01
Full Text Available This study is concerned with the theoretical and numerical calculations of the flexural vibrations of a bladed disk. The main focus of this study is to elaborate the basic background for diagnostic and identification methods for ascertaining the main properties of the real structure or an experimental model of turbine disks. The reduction of undesirable vibrations of blades is proposed by using damping heads, which on the experimental model of turbine disk are applied only on a limited number of blades. This partial setting of damping heads introduces imperfection in mass, stiffness and damping distribution on the periphery and leads to more complicated dynamic properties than those of a perfect disk. Calculation of FEM model and analytic—numerical solution of disk behaviour in the limited (two modes frequency range shows the splitting of resonance with an increasing speed of disk rotation. The spectrum of resonance is twice denser than that of a perfect disk.
Non-Debye heat capacity formula refined and applied to GaP, GaAs, GaSb, InP, InAs, and InSb
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
R. Pässler
2013-08-01
Full Text Available Characteristic non-Debye behaviors of low-temperature heat capacities of GaP, GaAs, GaSb, InP, InAs, and InSb, which are manifested above all in form of non-monotonic behaviors (local maxima of the respective Cp(T/T3 curves in the cryogenic region, are described by means of a refined version of a recently proposed low-to-high-temperature interpolation formula of non-Debye type. Least-mean-square fittings of representative Cp(T data sets available for these materials from several sources show excellent agreements, from the liquid-helium region up to room temperature. The results of detailed calculations of the respective material-specific Debye temperature curves, ΘD(T, are represented in graphical form. The strong, non-monotonic variations of ΘD(T values confirm that it is impossible to provide reasonable numerical simulations of measured Cp(T dependences in terms of fixed Debye temperatures. We show that it is possible to describe in good approximation the complete Debye temperature curves, from the cryogenic region up to their definitive disappearance (dropping to 0 in the high temperature region, by a couple of unprecedented algebraic formulas. The task of constructing physically adequate prolongations of the low-temperature Cp(T curves up to melting points was strongly impeded by partly rather large differences (up to an order of 10 J/(K·mol between the high-temperature data sets presented in different research papers and/or data reviews. Physically plausible criteria are invoked, which enabled an a priori rejection of a series of obviously unrealistic high-temperature data sets. Residual uncertainties for GaAs and InAs could be overcome by re-evaluations of former enthalpy data on the basis of a novel set of properly specified four-parameter polynomial expressions applying to large regions, from moderately low temperatures up to melting points. Detailed analytical and numerical descriptions are given for the anharmonicity
Investigation and analysis the vibration of handles of chainsaw without cutting
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M Feyzi
2016-04-01
Full Text Available Introduction: Nowadays most of the agricultural and industrial tasks are performed using different machines and almost any people are exposed to the vibration of these machines. Just as sound can be either music to the ear or irritating noise, human vibrations can either be pleasant or unpleasant. Whole-body vibration and hand-arm vibration are two main types of unpleasant vibration. The hand-arm transmitted vibration can cause complex vascular, neurological and musculoskeletal disorder, collectively named as hand-arm vibration syndrome. The chainsaw is a portable machine, powered by a two-stroke engine. This machine is used by tree surgeons to fell trees, remove branches, and other activities such as prune trees. The chainsaw exposes own operators to high level of hand-arm vibration which can lead to problems such as vibration white finger syndrome and Raynaud's phenomenon. White finger syndrome affects the nerves, blood vessels, muscles, and joints of the hand, wrist and arm. It is clear that before trying to control the vibrations, the level of vibrations should be identified. Therefore, an investigation on the vibration level of this machine is crucial. Materials and Methods: The Stihl-MS230 chainsaw was selected in this study. The size of this type of chainsaw is middle and it is equipped with anti-vibration system. According to the ISO-7505 standard, vibration must be measured at three speed level of engine. First at idling speed, second at nominal speed and third at 133% of the nominal speed or maximum speed of engine whichever is less (Racing. So 2800, 10000, and 13300 RPM Engine speed were selected. One of the employed accessories was ARMA ETI-TACHO tachometer which had been fabricated in Taiwan. The vibrations were measured and analyzed using the portable data acquisition system (Easy Viber. During the measurements, data acquisition system was powered by internal batteries. The vibrations were sensed by the piezoelectric accelerometer
Vibrational communication of subterranean rodents
HROUZKOVÁ, Ema
2012-01-01
This PhD. thesis focuses on the vibrational communication of subterranean mammals, in particular, vocal communication of bathyergids (Heliophobius argenteocinereus, Fukomys mechowii, Fukomys darlingi) and seismic communication of Tachyoryctes. We recorded and analyzed the vocalization of three species and discussed the physical parameters of their vocalization in relationship to the special underground acoustic environment. Moreover, social systems of African mole-rats range from solitary to ...
Tool-specific performance of vibration-reducing gloves for attenuating fingers-transmitted vibration
Welcome, Daniel E.; Dong, Ren G.; Xu, Xueyan S.; Warren, Christopher; McDowell, Thomas W.
2016-01-01
BACKGROUND Fingers-transmitted vibration can cause vibration-induced white finger. The effectiveness of vibration-reducing (VR) gloves for reducing hand transmitted vibration to the fingers has not been sufficiently examined. OBJECTIVE The objective of this study is to examine tool-specific performance of VR gloves for reducing finger-transmitted vibrations in three orthogonal directions (3D) from powered hand tools. METHODS A transfer function method was used to estimate the tool-specific effectiveness of four typical VR gloves. The transfer functions of the VR glove fingers in three directions were either measured in this study or during a previous study using a 3D laser vibrometer. More than seventy vibration spectra of various tools or machines were used in the estimations. RESULTS When assessed based on frequency-weighted acceleration, the gloves provided little vibration reduction. In some cases, the gloves amplified the vibration by more than 10%, especially the neoprene glove. However, the neoprene glove did the best when the assessment was based on unweighted acceleration. The neoprene glove was able to reduce the vibration by 10% or more of the unweighted vibration for 27 out of the 79 tools. If the dominant vibration of a tool handle or workpiece was in the shear direction relative to the fingers, as observed in the operation of needle scalers, hammer chisels, and bucking bars, the gloves did not reduce the vibration but increased it. CONCLUSIONS This study confirmed that the effectiveness for reducing vibration varied with the gloves and the vibration reduction of each glove depended on tool, vibration direction to the fingers, and finger location. VR gloves, including certified anti-vibration gloves do not provide much vibration reduction when judged based on frequency-weighted acceleration. However, some of the VR gloves can provide more than 10% reduction of the unweighted vibration for some tools or workpieces. Tools and gloves can be matched for
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dmitrii A. Oshmarin
2016-09-01
Full Text Available In technical applications it takes place the problem of vibration damping in certain regions of the structure, at the location of optical sensors for instance, at any external dynamic excitations with no mass increase and no changes in spectral portrait. In order to solve these problems it is widespread the use of special damping devices: piezoelectric elements connected to external electric circuits and attached to the structure. It became possible due to piezoelectric effect, which provides transformation of part of energy of vibrations into electric one, which is dissipated in external electric circuit. So that by using appropriate electric circuits one may dissipate internal energy and therefore reduce structural vibrations in definite frequency range. As a rule, external circuit of single branch, which shunts single piezoelectric element, allows vibration damping on one certain frequency. Due to the fact, that practical applications usually include requirements of damping of several modes by one and the same technical devices, the problem of multimodal vibration damping in smart-structures is rather acute. The objective of this paper is the study of possibility of vibration damping on several modes by using single external series RL-circuit, connected to electrodes of single piezoelectric element on the basis of solution of problems on natural and forced steady-state vibrations of electroelastic systems with external electric circuits.
A first principles study of the mechanical, electronic, and vibrational properties of lead oxide
Zhuravlev, Yu. N.; Korabel'nikov, D. V.
2017-11-01
The first principles study of the crystal structure, chemical bonds, elastic and mechanical properties, electron energy band structure and density, and normal long-wave vibrations of nine phases of lead monoxide, dioxide, and tetraoxide has been performed under normal and external pressure within the framework of density functional theory (DFT) with the Perdew-Becke-Ernzerhof (PBE) gradient exchange-correlation functional and its hybrid version with a 25-% Hartree-Fock (HF) exchange contribution in the basis of localized atom orbitals. The behavior of physical parameters has been studied using the cold four- and threeparameter equations of state. The parameters of the crystal structures are in satisfactory agreement with experimental data, and elastic constants indicate their mechanical stability and anisotropy in the elastic properties. The elasticity, shear, and Young moduli, hardness, acoustic velocities, and Debye temperature of dioxide on the one hand and monoxide and tetraoxide on the other hand appreciably differ from each other. The difference between electron properties may be explained by the character of hybridization in the upper filled and lower empty energy bands as evident from the density of states. In monoxide, the indirect band gap width decreases with increasing pressure at a rate of 0.16 eV/GPa, and the direct band gap width increases at a rate of 0.13 eV/GPa. To identify crystalline phases, the frequencies and intensities of long-wave modes active in IR and Raman spectra have been calculated.
Isotopic effects in vibrational relaxation dynamics of H on a Si(100) surface
Bouakline, F.; Lorenz, U.; Melani, G.; Paramonov, G. K.; Saalfrank, P.
2017-10-01
In a recent paper [U. Lorenz and P. Saalfrank, Chem. Phys. 482, 69 (2017)], we proposed a robust scheme to set up a system-bath model Hamiltonian, describing the coupling of adsorbate vibrations (system) to surface phonons (bath), from first principles. The method is based on an embedded cluster approach, using orthogonal coordinates for system and bath modes, and an anharmonic phononic expansion of the system-bath interaction up to second order. In this contribution, we use this model Hamiltonian to calculate vibrational relaxation rates of H-Si and D-Si bending modes, coupled to a fully H(D)-covered Si(100)-( 2 × 1 ) surface, at zero temperature. The D-Si bending mode has an anharmonic frequency lying inside the bath frequency spectrum, whereas the H-Si bending mode frequency is outside the bath Debye band. Therefore, in the present calculations, we only take into account one-phonon system-bath couplings for the D-Si system and both one- and two-phonon interaction terms in the case of H-Si. The computation of vibrational lifetimes is performed with two different approaches, namely, Fermi's golden rule, and a generalized Bixon-Jortner model built in a restricted vibrational space of the adsorbate-surface zeroth-order Hamiltonian. For D-Si, the Bixon-Jortner Hamiltonian can be solved by exact diagonalization, serving as a benchmark, whereas for H-Si, an iterative scheme based on the recursive residue generation method is applied, with excellent convergence properties. We found that the lifetimes obtained with perturbation theory, albeit having almost the same order of magnitude—a few hundred fs for D-Si and a couple of ps for H-Si—, are strongly dependent on the discretized numerical representation of the bath spectral density. On the other hand, the Bixon-Jortner model is free of such numerical deficiencies, therefore providing better estimates of vibrational relaxation rates, at a very low computational cost. The results obtained with this model clearly show
Attitudes Toward, and Use of, Vibrators in China
Jing, S.; Lay, A.; Weis, L.; Furnham, A.
2018-01-01
The current study examined the relationship between traditional masculine traits and attitudes toward vibrator use, actual vibrator use, and frequency of vibrator use in China. In all, 235 Chinese females aged between 16 and 58 years completed a questionnaire regarding attitudes toward, and personal use of, vibrators. The results showed a positive association between masculine traits and attitudes toward women's vibrator use, attitudes toward vibrator use and actual vibrator use, as well as f...
Adaptive Piezoelectric Absorber for Active Vibration Control
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sven Herold
2016-02-01
Full Text Available Passive vibration control solutions are often limited to working reliably at one design point. Especially applied to lightweight structures, which tend to have unwanted vibration, active vibration control approaches can outperform passive solutions. To generate dynamic forces in a narrow frequency band, passive single-degree-of-freedom oscillators are frequently used as vibration absorbers and neutralizers. In order to respond to changes in system properties and/or the frequency of excitation forces, in this work, adaptive vibration compensation by a tunable piezoelectric vibration absorber is investigated. A special design containing piezoelectric stack actuators is used to cover a large tuning range for the natural frequency of the adaptive vibration absorber, while also the utilization as an active dynamic inertial mass actuator for active control concepts is possible, which can help to implement a broadband vibration control system. An analytical model is set up to derive general design rules for the system. An absorber prototype is set up and validated experimentally for both use cases of an adaptive vibration absorber and inertial mass actuator. Finally, the adaptive vibration control system is installed and tested with a basic truss structure in the laboratory, using both the possibility to adjust the properties of the absorber and active control.
Ground test for vibration control demonstrator
Meyer, C.; Prodigue, J.; Broux, G.; Cantinaud, O.; Poussot-Vassal, C.
2016-09-01
In the objective of maximizing comfort in Falcon jets, Dassault Aviation is developing an innovative vibration control technology. Vibrations of the structure are measured at several locations and sent to a dedicated high performance vibration control computer. Control laws are implemented in this computer to analyse the vibrations in real time, and then elaborate orders sent to the existing control surfaces to counteract vibrations. After detailing the technology principles, this paper focuses on the vibration control ground demonstration that was performed by Dassault Aviation in May 2015 on Falcon 7X business jet. The goal of this test was to attenuate vibrations resulting from fixed forced excitation delivered by shakers. The ground test demonstrated the capability to implement an efficient closed-loop vibration control with a significant vibration level reduction and validated the vibration control law design methodology. This successful ground test was a prerequisite before the flight test demonstration that is now being prepared. This study has been partly supported by the JTI CleanSky SFWA-ITD.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Madariaga, G.; Perez-Mato, J.M.; Aramburu, I.
1993-01-01
The incommensurate displacive structure of β-ThBr 4 at 55 K has been determined from a neutron diffraction data set including main reflections and first-order satellites. The superspace group is Psub(s anti 1 s1)sup(I4 1 /amd). Final agreement factors are 0.0193, 0.0186 and 0.045 for all, main and satellite reflections, respectively. It is shown that the effect of phasons on the atomic Debye-Waller factors can be quantified by two additional structural parameters: The modulus β 11,2 Br and the phase χ 11,2 Br of a second harmonic that spatially modulates the temperature factors of Br atoms. Results are in good agreement, within the resolution of the experimental data, with the theoretically expected value for χ 11,2 Br . Crystal data for the average structure: M r =551.65, tetragonal, I4 1 /amd, a=8.919(1), c=7.902(1) A, V=628.6(2) A 3 , Z=4, D x =5.82 Mg m -3 , λ=0.84 A, wavevector q=0.32c*. (orig.)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Steven M. Lund
2011-05-01
Full Text Available A one-dimensional Vlasov-Poisson model for sheet beams is reviewed and extended to provide a simple framework for analysis of space-charge effects. Centroid and rms envelope equations including image-charge effects are derived and reasonable parameter equivalences with commonly employed 2D transverse models of unbunched beams are established. This sheet-beam model is then applied to analyze several problems of fundamental interest. A sheet-beam thermal equilibrium distribution in a continuous focusing channel is constructed and shown to have analogous properties to two- and three-dimensional thermal equilibrium models in terms of the equilibrium structure and Debye screening properties. The simpler formulation for sheet beams is exploited to explicitly calculate the distribution of particle oscillation frequencies within a thermal equilibrium beam. It is shown that as space-charge intensity increases, the frequency distribution becomes broad, suggesting that beams with strong space-charge can have improved stability relative to beams with weak space-charge.
Carini, Giovanni, Jr.; Carini, Giuseppe; D’Angelo, Giovanna; Federico, Mauro; Romano, Valentino
2018-05-01
Low and high frequency Raman scattering of B2O3 glasses, compacted under GPa pressures, has been performed to investigate structural changes due to increasing atomic packing. Compacted glasses, annealed at ambient temperature and pressure, experience a time-dependent decrease of the density to a smaller constant value over a period of few months, displaying a permanent plastic deformation. Increasing densification determines a parallel and progressive decrease of the intensity of the Boson peak and the main band at 808 cm‑1, both these modes arising from localized vibrations involving planar boroxol rings (B3O6), the glassy units formed from three basic BO3 triangles. The 808 cm‑1 mode preserves its frequency, while the BP evidences a well-defined frequency increase. The high-frequency multicomponent band between 1200 and 1600 cm‑1 also changes with increasing densification, disclosing a decreasing intensity of the 1260 cm‑1 mode due to oxygen vibrations of BO3 units bridging boroxol rings. This indicates the gradual vibrational collapse of groups formed from rings connected by more complex links than a single bridging oxygen. The observed behaviours suggest that glass compaction causes severe deformation of boroxol rings, determining a decrease of groups which preserve unaltered their vibrational activity. Growing glass densification stiffens the network and leads to a decrease of the excess heat capacity over the Debye prediction below 20 K, which is not accounted for by the hardening of the elastic continuum. By using the low-frequency Raman scattering to determine the temperature dependence of the heat capacity, it has been evaluated the density of low-frequency vibrational states which discloses a significant reduction of excess modes with increasing density.
Vibrational Stability of SRF Accelerator Test Facility at Fermilab
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
McGee, M.W.; Volk, J.T.; /Fermilab
2009-05-01
Recently developed, the Superconducting Radio Frequency (SRF) Accelerator Test Facilities at Fermilab support the International Linear Collider (ILC), High Intensity Neutrino Source (HINS), a new high intensity injector (Project X) and other future machines. These facilities; Meson Detector Building (MDB) and New Muon Lab (NML) have very different foundations, structures, relative elevations with respect to grade level and surrounding soil composition. Also, there are differences in the operating equipment and their proximity to the primary machine. All the future machines have stringent operational stability requirements. The present study examines both near-field and ambient vibration in order to develop an understanding of the potential contribution of near-field sources (e.g. compressors, ultra-high and standard vacuum equipment, klystrons, modulators, utility fans and pumps) and distant noise sources to the overall system displacements. Facility vibration measurement results and methods of possible isolation from noise sources are presented and discussed.
Vibrational Energy Distribution Analysis (VEDA): Scopes and limitations
Jamróz, Michał H.
2013-10-01
The principle of operations of the VEDA program written by the author for Potential Energy Distribution (PED) analysis of theoretical vibrational spectra is described. Nowadays, the PED analysis is indispensible tool in serious analysis of the vibrational spectra. To perform the PED analysis it is necessary to define 3N-6 linearly independent local mode coordinates. Already for 20-atomic molecules it is a difficult task. The VEDA program reads the input data automatically from the Gaussian program output files. Then, VEDA automatically proposes an introductory set of local mode coordinates. Next, the more adequate coordinates are proposed by the program and optimized to obtain maximal elements of each column (internal coordinate) of the PED matrix (the EPM parameter). The possibility for an automatic optimization of PED contributions is a unique feature of the VEDA program absent in any other programs performing PED analysis.
Vibration Transmission in a Multi-Storey Lightweight Building
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Niu, Bin; Andersen, Lars Vabbersgaard; Kiel, Nikolaj
2012-01-01
This paper develops a parametric modelling and analysis approach to investigate the vibration transmission in lightweight buildings. The main focus of the research is to investigate the influence of geometry and configuration of the building on the vibration transmission. A building with a single...... including floor panels, external and internal wall panels, which are considered as beam-stiffened double-leaf panels. As a view to reduce the modelling and analysis cost, the panels are homogenized into equivalent composite shells with two isotropic skin layers and one orthotropic core layer. The material...... configurations of the building. Some observations can be drawn from the numerical examples: •Several frequency gaps are observed from the frequency response curve. A quite low response is obtained in these gaps due to the absence of structural Eigen modes. •The flanking transmission may play a significant role...
Recent development of the passive vibration control method
Ishida, Yukio
2012-05-01
This paper introduces new passive vibration suppression methods developed recently in our laboratory. First, two methods used to suppress steady-state resonances are explained. One is the improvement of the efficiency of a ball balancer. A simple method to eliminate the influence of friction of balls and to improve its efficiency is introduced. The other is an effective method that utilizes the discontinuous spring characteristics. Secondly, a method to eliminate unstable ranges in rotor systems is explained. Unstable ranges in an asymmetrical shaft, and in a hollow rotor partially filled with liquid, are eliminated by the discontinuous spring characteristics. Thirdly, a method to suppress self-excited oscillations is explained. Self-excited oscillations due to internal damping and rubbing are discussed. Finally, the methods of using a pendulum or roller type absorbers to suppress torsional vibrations are explained.
Energetics and Vibrational Analysis of Methyl Salicylate Isomers
Massaro, Richard D.; Dai, Yafei; Blaisten-Barojas, Estela
2009-08-01
Energetics and vibrational analysis study of six isomers of methyl salicylate in their singlet ground state and first excited triple state is put forward in this work at the density functional theory level and large basis sets. The ketoB isomer is the lowest energy isomer, followed by its rotamer ketoA. For both ketoB and ketoA their enolized tautomers are found to be stable as well as their open forms that lack the internal hydrogen bond. The calculated vibrational spectra are in excellent agreement with IR experiments of methyl salicylate in the vapor phase. It is demonstrated that solvent effects have a weak influence on the stability of these isomers. The ionization reaction from ketoB to ketoA shows a high barrier of 0.67 eV ensuring that thermal and chemical equilibria yield systems containing mostly the ketoB isomer at normal conditions.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pawlowski, F; Jorgensen, P; Olsen, Jeppe
2002-01-01
A detailed study is carried out of the accuracy of molecular equilibrium geometries obtained from least-squares fits involving experimental rotational constants B(0) and sums of ab initio vibration-rotation interaction constants alpha(r)(B). The vibration-rotation interaction constants have been...... calculated for 18 single-configuration dominated molecules containing hydrogen and first-row atoms at various standard levels of ab initio theory. Comparisons with the experimental data and tests for the internal consistency of the calculations show that the equilibrium structures generated using Hartree......-Fock vibration-rotation interaction constants have an accuracy similar to that obtained by a direct minimization of the CCSD(T) energy. The most accurate vibration-rotation interaction constants are those calculated at the CCSD(T)/cc-pVQZ level. The equilibrium bond distances determined from these interaction...
Eiras, J N; Monzó, J; Payá, J; Kundu, T; Popovics, J S
2014-02-01
Dynamic non-classical nonlinear analyses show promise for improved damage diagnostics in materials that exhibit such structure at the mesoscale, such as concrete. In this study, nonlinear non-classical dynamic material behavior from standard vibration test data, using pristine and frost damaged cement mortar bar samples, is extracted and quantified. The procedure is robust and easy to apply. The results demonstrate that the extracted nonlinear non-classical parameters show expected sensitivity to internal damage and are more sensitive to changes owing to internal damage levels than standard linear vibration parameters.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Friis, Lars; Ohlrich, Mogens
2008-01-01
Many complicated systems of practical interest consist basically of a well-defined outer shell-like master structure and a complicated internal structure with uncertain dynamic properties. Using the "fuzzy structure theory" for predicting audible frequency vibration, the internal structure......-dimensional continuous boundary. Additionally, a simple method for determining the so-called equivalent coupling factor is presented. The validity of this method is demonstrated by numerical simulations of the vibration response of a master plate structure with fuzzy attachments. It is revealed that the method performs...
Ali, Md. Lokman; Rahaman, Md. Zahidur
2018-04-01
By using first principles calculation dependent on the density functional theory (DFT), we have investigated the mechanical, structural properties and the Debye temperature of Fe2ScM (M=P and As) compounds under various pressures up to 60 GPa. The optical properties have been investigated under zero pressure. Our calculated optimized structural parameters of both the materials are in good agreement with other theoretical predictions. The calculated elastic constants show that Fe2ScM (M=P and As) compounds are mechanically stable under external pressure below 60 GPa. From the elastic constants, the shear modulus G, the bulk modulus B, Young’s modulus E, anisotropy factor A and Poisson’s ratio ν are calculated by using the Voigt-Reuss-Hill approximation. The Debye temperature and average sound velocities are also investigated from the obtained elastic constants. The detailed analysis of all optical functions reveals that both compounds are good dielectric material.
Vibration-type particle separation device with piezoceramic vibrator
Ooe, Katsutoshi; Doi, Akihiro
2008-12-01
During hemanalysis, it is necessary to separate blood cells from whole blood. Many blood separation methods, for example, centrifugation and filtering, are in practical use. However, the use of these methods involves problems from the perspectives of processing speed and processing volume. We develop new types of blood separation devices that use piezo-ceramic vibrators. The first device uses a capillary. One end of the capillary is fixed to the device frame, and the other is fixed to a piezo-ceramic vibrator. The vibrator transmits bending waves to the capillary. This device can process only a small amount of solution; therefore, it is not suitable for hemanalysis. In order to solve this problem, we developed a second device; this device has a pair of thin glass plates with a small gap as a substitute for the capillary used in the first device. These devices are based on the fact that particles heavier than water move toward transverse velocity antinodes while those lighter than water move toward velocity nodes. In this report, we demonstrate the highspeed separation of silica microbeads and 50-vol% glycerol water by using these devices. The first device can separate the abovementioned solution within 3 min while the second can separate it within 1 min. Both devices are driven by a rectangular wave of 15 to 20 Vpp. Furthermore, it has been confirmed that red blood cells are separated from diluted whole blood using the first device within approximately 1 min. These devices have transparency, so they can compose as the analysis system with the chemical analyzer easily.
Identification of Bearing Failure Using Signal Vibrations
Yani, Irsyadi; Resti, Yulia; Burlian, Firmansyah
2018-04-01
Vibration analysis can be used to identify damage to mechanical systems such as journal bearings. Identification of failure can be done by observing the resulting vibration spectrum by measuring the vibration signal occurring in a mechanical system Bearing is one of the engine elements commonly used in mechanical systems. The main purpose of this research is to monitor the bearing condition and to identify bearing failure on a mechanical system by observing the resulting vibration. Data collection techniques based on recordings of sound caused by the vibration of the mechanical system were used in this study, then created a database system based bearing failure due to vibration signal recording sounds on a mechanical system The next step is to group the bearing damage by type based on the databases obtained. The results show the percentage of success in identifying bearing damage is 98 %.
Unjamming a granular hopper by vibration
Janda, A.; Maza, D.; Garcimartín, A.; Kolb, E.; Lanuza, J.; Clément, E.
2009-07-01
We present an experimental study of the outflow of a hopper continuously vibrated by a piezoelectric device. Outpouring of grains can be achieved for apertures much below the usual jamming limit observed for non-vibrated hoppers. Granular flow persists down to the physical limit of one grain diameter, a limit reached for a finite vibration amplitude. For the smaller orifices, we observe an intermittent regime characterized by alternated periods of flow and blockage. Vibrations do not significantly modify the flow rates both in the continuous and the intermittent regime. The analysis of the statistical features of the flowing regime shows that the flow time significantly increases with the vibration amplitude. However, at low vibration amplitude and small orifice sizes, the jamming time distribution displays an anomalous statistics.
Cleaning device for vibrational hose filter
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Engels, R
1978-01-05
Filter hoses out of web in dust separators can be cleaned by enforced vibrations. The efficiency of the cleaning is a maximum if the vibrations are at about the individual frequency of the whole arrangement. In the interior of the hose a cage from bars parallel to the wall of the hose is placed on its total length. The bars are fixed at one end and connected with a vibration exciter at the other end. The unilaterally fixed vibration bars can be adjusted to the individual frequency of the vibration exciter. If the hose filter is flown through from the outer to the inner side the vibration bars serve as a supporting body. In the reverse case the bars are placed on the outer side of the hose filter.
Flow induced vibrations of piping system (Vibration sources - Mechanical response of the pipes)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gibert, R.J.; Axisa, F.; Villard, B.
1978-01-01
In order to design the supports of piping system, an estimation of the vibration induced by the fluid conveyed through the pipes are generally needed. For that purpose it is necessary. To evaluate the power spectra of all the main sources generated by the flow. These sources are located at the singular points of the circuit (enlargements, bends, valves, etc. ...). To calculate the modal parameters of fluid containing pipes. This paper presents: a methodical study of the most current singularities. Inter-correlation spectra of local pressure fluctuation downstream from the singularity and correlation spectra of associated acoustical sources have been measured. A theory of noise generation by unsteady flow in internal acoustics has been developed. All these results are very useful for evaluating the source characteristics in most practical pipes. A comparison between the calculation and the results of an experimental test has shown a good agreement
Research In Diagnosing Bearing Defects From Vibrations
Zoladz, T.; Earhart, E.; Fiorucci, T.
1995-01-01
Report describes research in bearing-defect signature analysis - use of vibration-signal analysis to diagnose defects in roller and ball bearings. Experiments performed on bearings in good condition and other bearings in which various parts scratched to provide known defects correlated with vibration signals. Experiments performed on highly instrumented motor-driven rotor assembly at speeds up to 10,050 r/min, using accelerometers, velocity probes, and proximity sensors mounted at various locations on assembly to measure vibrations.
Theory And Working Of Noise And Vibration
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jeong, Il Rok
1988-09-01
This book deals with theory of noise including physical property of noise like term and characteristic of sound, occurrence of sound, characteristic of noise pollution and main cause of occurrence of noise, technique of prevention of noise with noise reduction, construction guide for prevention of noise, and measure of interior noise. It also has the theory of vibration such as an introduction of vibration, and technology of prevention of vibration, official test method of environmental pollution, and summary of protection of the environment.
Developed vibration waveform monitoring unit for CBM
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hamada, T.; Hotsuta, K.; Hirose, I.; Morita, E.
2007-01-01
In nuclear power plants, many rotating machines such as pumps and fans are in use. Shikoku Research Institute Inc. has recently developed easy-to-use tools to facilitate the maintenance of such equipment. They include a battery-operated vibration waveform monitoring unit which allows unmanned vibration monitoring on a regular basis and data collection even from intermittently operating equipment, a waveform data collector which can be used for easy collection, storage, control, and analysis of raw vibration waveform data during normal operation, and vibration analysis and evaluation tools. A combination of these tools has a high potential for optimization of rotating equipment maintenance. (author)
Electromagnetic Vibration Energy Harvesting for Railway Applications
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bradai S.
2018-01-01
Full Text Available Safe localization of trains via GPS and wireless sensors is essential for railway traffic supervision. Especially for freight trains and because normally no power source is available on the wagons, special solutions for energy supply have to be developed based on energy harvesting techniques. Since vibration is available in this case, it provides an interesting source of energy. Nevertheless, in order to have an efficient design of the harvesting system, the existing vibration needs to be investigated. In this paper, we focus on the characterization of vibration parameters in railway application. We propose an electromagnetic vibration converter especially developed to this application. Vibration profiles from a train traveling between two German cities were measured using a data acquisition system installed on the train’s wagon. Results show that the measured profiles present multiple frequency signals in the range of 10 to 50 Hz and an acceleration of up to 2 g. A prototype for a vibration converter is designed taking into account the real vibration parameters, robustness and integrability requirements. It is based on a moving coil attached to a mechanical spring. For the experimental emulation of the train vibrations, a shaker is used as an external artificial vibration source controlled by a laser sensor in feedback. A maximum voltage of 1.7 V peak to peak which corresponds to a maximum of 10 mW output power where the applied excitation frequency is close to the resonant frequency of the converter which corresponds to 27 Hz.
The Efficacy of Anti-vibration Gloves
Hewitt, Sue; Dong, Ren; McDowell, Tom; Welcome, Daniel
2016-01-01
Anyone seeking to control the risks from vibration transmitted to the hands and arms may contemplate the use of anti-vibration gloves. To make an informed decision about any type of personal protective equipment, it is necessary to have performance data that allow the degree of protection to be estimated. The information provided with an anti-vibration glove may not be easy to understand without some background knowledge of how gloves are tested and does not provide any clear route for estimating likely protection. Some of the factors that influence the potential efficacy of an anti-vibration glove include how risks from hand–arm vibration exposure are assessed, how the standard test for a glove is carried out, the frequency range and direction of the vibration for which protection is sought, how much hand contact force or pressure is applied and the physical limitations due to glove material and construction. This paper reviews some of the background issues that are useful for potential purchasers of anti-vibration gloves. Ultimately, anti-vibration gloves cannot be relied on to provide sufficient and consistent protection to the wearer and before their use is contemplated all other available means of vibration control ought first to be implemented. PMID:27582615
Axisymmetric vibrations of thick shells of revolution
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Suzuki, Katsuyoshi; Kosawada, Tadashi; Takahashi, Shin
1983-01-01
Axisymmetric shells of revolution are used for chemical plants, nuclear power plants, aircrafts, structures and so on, and the elucidation of their free vibration is important for the design. In this study, the axisymmetric vibration of a barrel-shaped shell was analyzed by the modified thick shell theory. The Lagrangian during one period of the vibration of a shell of revolution was determined, and from its stopping condition, the vibration equations and the boundary conditions were derived. The vibration equations were analyzed strictly by using the series solution. Moreover, the basic equations for the strain of a shell and others were based on those of Love. As the examples of numerical calculation, the natural frequency and vibration mode of the symmetrical shells of revolution fixed at both ends and supported at both ends were determined, and their characteristics were clarified. By comparing the results of this study with the results by thin shell theory, the effects of shearing deformation and rotary inertia on the natural frequency and vibration mode were clarified. The theoretical analysis and the numerical calculation are described. The effects of shearing deformation and rotary inertia on the natural frequency became larger in the higher order vibration. The vibration mode did not much change in both theories. (Kako, I.)
Aircraft gas turbine engine vibration diagnostics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Stanislav Fábry
2017-11-01
Full Text Available In the Czech and Slovak aviation are in service elderly aircrafts, usually produced in former Soviet Union. Their power units can be operated in more efficient way, in case of using additional diagnostic methods that allow evaluating their health. Vibration diagnostics is one of the methods indicating changes of rotational machine dynamics. Ground tests of aircraft gas turbine engines allow vibration recording and analysis. Results contribute to airworthiness evaluation and making corrections, if needed. Vibration sensors distribution, signal recording and processing are introduced in a paper. Recorded and re-calculated vibration parameters are used in role of health indicators.
Flow induced vibrations of piping
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gibert, R.J.; Axisa, F.
1977-01-01
In order to design the supports of piping systems, estimations of the vibrations induced by the fluid conveyed through the pipes are generally needed. For that purpose it is necessary to calculate the model parameters of liquid containing pipes. In most computer codes, fluid effects are accounted for just by adding the fluid mass to the structure. This may lead to serious errors. This paper presents a method to take into account these effects, by solving a coupled mechanical-acoustical problem: the computer code TEDEL of the C.E.A /D.E.M.T. System, based on the finite-elements method, has been extended to calculate simultaneously the pressure fluctuations in the fluid and the vibrations of the pipe. By this way the mechanical-acoustical coupled eigenmodes of any piping system can be obtained. These eigenmodes are used to determine the response of the system to various sources. Equations have been written in the hypohesis that acoustical wave lengths remain large compared to the diameter of the pipe. The method has been checked by an experiment performed on the GASCOGNE loop at D.E.M.T. The piping system under test consists of a tube with four elbows. The circuit is ended at each extremity by a large vessel which performs acoustical isolation by generating modes for the pressure. Excitation of the circuit is caused by a valve located near the downstream vessel. This provides an efficient localised broad band acoustical source. The comparison between the test results and the calculations has shown that the low frequency resonant characteristics of the pipe and the vibrational amplitude at various flow-rates can be correctly predicted
EMBEDDED SYSTEMS FOR VIBRATION MONITORING
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Miloš Milovančević
2014-08-01
Full Text Available The purpose of the research presented in this paper is the development of the optimal micro configuration for vibration monitoring of pumping aggregate, based on Microchip’s microcontroller (MC. Hardware used is 10-bit MC, upgraded with 12/bit A/D converter. Software for acquisition and data analysis is optimized for testing turbo pumps with rotation speed up to 2000 rpm. This software limitation is set for automatic diagnostics and for individual and manual vibro-diagnostic; the only limitation is set by accelerometer performance. The authors have performed numerous measurements on a wide range of turbo aggregates for establishing the operational condition of pumping aggregates.
Introduction to vibrations and waves
Pain, H John
2015-01-01
Based on the successful multi-edition book "The Physics ofVibrations and Waves" by John Pain, the authors carry overthe simplicity and logic of the approach taken in the originalfirst edition with its focus on the patterns underlying andconnecting so many aspects of physical behavior, whilst bringingthe subject up-to-date so it is relevant to teaching in the21st century.The transmission of energy by wave propagation is a key conceptthat has applications in almost every branch of physics withtransmitting mediums essentially acting as a continuum of coupledoscillators. The characterization of t
Vibrational Spectroscopy of Chromatographic Interfaces
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jeanne E. Pemberton
2011-03-10
Chromatographic separations play a central role in DOE-supported fundamental research related to energy, biological systems, the environment, and nuclear science. The overall portfolio of research activities in the Separations and Analysis Program within the DOE Office of Basic Energy Sciences includes support for activities designed to develop a molecular-level understanding of the chemical processes that underlie separations for both large-scale and analytical-scale purposes. The research effort funded by this grant award was a continuation of DOE-supported research to develop vibrational spectroscopic methods to characterize the interfacial details of separations processes at a molecular level.
Wideband Piezomagnetoelastic Vibration Energy Harvesting
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lei, Anders; Thomsen, Erik Vilain
2014-01-01
This work presents a small-scale wideband piezomagnetoelastic vibration energy harvester (VEH) aimed for operation at frequencies of a few hundred Hz. The VEH consists of a tape-casted PZT cantilever with thin sheets of iron foil attached on each side of the free tip. The wideband operation...... is achieved by placing the cantilever in a magnetic field induced by either one or two magnets located oppositely of the cantilever. The attraction force created by the magnetic field and iron foils introduces a mechanical force in opposite direction of the cantilevers restoring force causing a spring...
Multivariate Analysis of Ladle Vibration
Yenus, Jaefer; Brooks, Geoffrey; Dunn, Michelle
2016-08-01
The homogeneity of composition and uniformity of temperature of the steel melt before it is transferred to the tundish are crucial in making high-quality steel product. The homogenization process is performed by stirring the melt using inert gas in ladles. Continuous monitoring of this process is important to make sure the action of stirring is constant throughout the ladle. Currently, the stirring process is monitored by process operators who largely rely on visual and acoustic phenomena from the ladle. However, due to lack of measurable signals, the accuracy and suitability of this manual monitoring are problematic. The actual flow of argon gas to the ladle may not be same as the flow gage reading due to leakage along the gas line components. As a result, the actual degree of stirring may not be correctly known. Various researchers have used one-dimensional vibration, and sound and image signals measured from the ladle to predict the degree of stirring inside. They developed online sensors which are indeed to monitor the online stirring phenomena. In this investigation, triaxial vibration signals have been measured from a cold water model which is a model of an industrial ladle. Three flow rate ranges and varying bath heights were used to collect vibration signals. The Fast Fourier Transform was applied to the dataset before it has been analyzed using principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares (PLS). PCA was used to unveil the structure in the experimental data. PLS was mainly applied to predict the stirring from the vibration response. It was found that for each flow rate range considered in this study, the informative signals reside in different frequency ranges. The first latent variables in these frequency ranges explain more than 95 pct of the variation in the stirring process for the entire single layer and the double layer data collected from the cold model. PLS analysis in these identified frequency ranges demonstrated that the latent
Adaptive photodetectors for vibration monitoring
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sokolov, I.A.
2003-01-01
We present characteristics of laser vibrometer using semiconductor GaAs and molecular SnS 2 adaptive photodetectors (AP) based on the effect of the non-steady-state photoelectromotive force. AP enable efficient direct conversion of high-frequency phase modulation of speckle-like optical wave reflected from the vibrating object into an output electrical signal with concomitant setting of optimal operation point of the interferometer and suppression of amplitude laser noise. The sensitivity of the setup is analyzed and further improvements in operation of AP are discussed
Semiclassical theory of plate vibrations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bogomolny, E.; Hugues, E.
1996-11-01
The bi-harmonic equation of flexural vibrations of elastic plates is studied by a semiclassical method which can easily be generalized for other models of wave propagation. The surface and perimeter terms of the asymptotic number of levels are derived exactly. The next constant term is also derived. A semiclassical approximation of the quantization condition is obtained. A Berry-Tabor formula and a Gutzwiller trace formula are deduced for the integrable and chaotic cases respectively. From 600 eigenvalues of a clamped stadium plate obtained by a specially developed numerical algorithm, the trace formula is assessed, looking at its Fourier transform compared with the membrane case. (author)
Space Launch System Vibration Analysis Support
Johnson, Katie
2016-01-01
The ultimate goal for my efforts during this internship was to help prepare for the Space Launch System (SLS) integrated modal test (IMT) with Rodney Rocha. In 2018, the Structural Engineering Loads and Dynamics Team will have 10 days to perform the IMT on the SLS Integrated Launch Vehicle. After that 10 day period, we will have about two months to analyze the test data and determine whether the integrated vehicle modes/frequencies are adequate for launching the vehicle. Because of the time constraints, NASA must have newly developed post-test analysis methods proven well and with technical confidence before testing. NASA civil servants along with help from rotational interns are working with novel techniques developed and applied external to Johnson Space Center (JSC) to uncover issues in applying this technique to much larger scales than ever before. We intend to use modal decoupling methods to separate the entangled vibrations coming from the SLS and its support structure during the IMT. This new approach is still under development. The primary goal of my internship was to learn the basics of structural dynamics and physical vibrations. I was able to accomplish this by working on two experimental test set ups, the Simple Beam and TAURUS-T, and by doing some light analytical and post-processing work. Within the Simple Beam project, my role involves changing the data acquisition system, reconfiguration of the test set up, transducer calibration, data collection, data file recovery, and post-processing analysis. Within the TAURUS-T project, my duties included cataloging and removing the 30+ triaxial accelerometers, coordinating the removal of the structure from the current rolling cart to a sturdy billet for further testing, preparing the accelerometers for remounting, accurately calibrating, mounting, and mapping of all accelerometer channels, and some testing. Hammer and shaker tests will be performed to easily visualize mode shapes at low frequencies. Short
An International Survey of Shock and Vibration Technology
1979-03-01
evolve from concept to reality. The basic food to nourish our progress will come from the inventiveness of our fundamental researchers. The progress...Space Agency, Paris, Franch , Rept. No. ESA-TT-244; DLR-Mitt-74-21, 276 pp (Feb. 1976) (Engl. transl. from "Triebwerkslaem", DGLR, Cologne Report DLR...from ZLDI, Munich. N76-24243. 684. Dittrich, W., "Some Technical Problems of Quiet Aircraft Technology", Euro- pean Space Agency, Paris, Franch , In
Chamberlin, Ralph V; Davis, Bryce F
2013-10-01
Disordered systems show deviations from the standard Debye theory of specific heat at low temperatures. These deviations are often attributed to two-level systems of uncertain origin. We find that a source of excess specific heat comes from correlations between quanta of energy if excitations are localized on an intermediate length scale. We use simulations of a simplified Creutz model for a system of Ising-like spins coupled to a thermal bath of Einstein-like oscillators. One feature of this model is that energy is quantized in both the system and its bath, ensuring conservation of energy at every step. Another feature is that the exact entropies of both the system and its bath are known at every step, so that their temperatures can be determined independently. We find that there is a mismatch in canonical temperature between the system and its bath. In addition to the usual finite-size effects in the Bose-Einstein and Fermi-Dirac distributions, if excitations in the heat bath are localized on an intermediate length scale, this mismatch is independent of system size up to at least 10(6) particles. We use a model for correlations between quanta of energy to adjust the statistical distributions and yield a thermodynamically consistent temperature. The model includes a chemical potential for units of energy, as is often used for other types of particles that are quantized and conserved. Experimental evidence for this model comes from its ability to characterize the excess specific heat of imperfect crystals at low temperatures.
Gyergyek, T.; Kovačič, J.
2017-06-01
A one-dimensional, two-fluid, steady state model is used for the analysis of ion temperature effects to the plasma-wall transition. In this paper, the model is solved for a finite ratio ɛ between the Debye and the ionization length, while in Part II [T. Gyergyek and J. Kovačič, Phys Plasmas 24, 063506 (2017)], the solutions for ɛ = 0 are presented. Ion temperature is treated as a given, independent parameter and it is included in the model as a boundary condition. It is shown that when the ion temperature larger than zero is selected, the ion flow velocity and the electric field at the boundary must be consistent with the selected ion temperature. A numerical procedure, how to determine such "consistent boundary conditions," is proposed, and a simple relation between the ion temperature and ion velocity at the boundary of the system is found. The effects of the ion temperature to the pre-sheath length, potential, ion temperature, and ion density drops in the pre-sheath and in the sheath are investigated. It is concluded that larger ion temperature results in a better shielding of the plasma from the wall. An attempt is made to include the ion heat flux qi into the model in its simplest form q i = - K ' /d T i d x , where K ' is a constant heat conduction coefficient. It is shown that inclusion of such a term into the energy transfer equation introduces an additional ion heating mechanism into the system and the ion flow then becomes isothermal instead of adiabatic even in the sheath.
Bi, Lei; Yang, Ping
2016-07-01
The accuracy of the physical-geometric optics (PG-O) approximation is examined for the simulation of electromagnetic scattering by nonspherical dielectric particles. This study seeks a better understanding of the tunneling effect on the phase matrix by employing the invariant imbedding method to rigorously compute the zeroth-order Debye series, from which the tunneling efficiency and the phase matrix corresponding to the diffraction and external reflection are obtained. The tunneling efficiency is shown to be a factor quantifying the relative importance of the tunneling effect over the Fraunhofer diffraction near the forward scattering direction. Due to the tunneling effect, different geometries with the same projected cross section might have different diffraction patterns, which are traditionally assumed to be identical according to the Babinet principle. For particles with a fixed orientation, the PG-O approximation yields the external reflection pattern with reasonable accuracy, but ordinarily fails to predict the locations of peaks and minima in the diffraction pattern. The larger the tunneling efficiency, the worse the PG-O accuracy is at scattering angles less than 90°. If the particles are assumed to be randomly oriented, the PG-O approximation yields the phase matrix close to the rigorous counterpart, primarily due to error cancellations in the orientation-average process. Furthermore, the PG-O approximation based on an electric field volume-integral equation is shown to usually be much more accurate than the Kirchhoff surface integral equation at side-scattering angles, particularly when the modulus of the complex refractive index is close to unity. Finally, tunneling efficiencies are tabulated for representative faceted particles.
Flow induced vibrations of piping
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gibert, R.J.; Axisa, F.
1977-01-01
In order to design the supports of piping systems, estimations of the vibrations induced by the fluid conveyed through the pipes are generally needed. For that purpose it is necessary to calculate the model parameters of liquid containing pipes. In most computer codes, fluid effects are accounted for just by adding the fuid mass to the structure. This may lead to serious errors.- Inertial effects from the fluid are not correctly evaluated especially in the case of bended or of non-uniform section pipes. Fluid boundary conditions are simply ignored. - In many practical problems fluid compressibility cannot be negelcted, even in the low frequencies domain which corresponds to efficient excitation by turbulent sources of the flow. This paper presents a method to take into account these efects, by solving a coupled mechanical acoustical problem: the computer code TEDEL of the C.E.A./D.E.M.T. System, based on the finite-elements method, has been extended to calculate simultaneously the pressure fluctuations in the fluid and the vibrations of the pipe. (Auth.)
AVM branch vibration test equipment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anne, J.P.
1995-01-01
An inventory of the test equipment of the AVM Branch ''Acoustic and Vibratory Mechanics Analysis Methods'' group has been undertaken. The purpose of this inventory is to enable better acquaintance with the technical characteristics of the equipment, providing an accurate definition of their functionalities, ad to inform potential users of the possibilities and equipment available in this field. The report first summarizes the various experimental surveys conduced. Then, using the AVM equipment database to draw up an exhaustive list of available equipment, it provides a full-scope picture of the vibration measurement systems (sensors, conditioners and exciters) and data processing resources commonly used on industrial sites and in laboratories. A definition is also given of a mobile test unit, called 'shelter', and a test bench used for the testing and performance rating of the experimental analysis methods developed by the group. The report concludes with a description of two fixed installations: - the calibration bench ensuring the requisite quality level for the vibration measurement systems ; - the training bench, whereby know-how acquired in the field in the field of measurement and experimental analysis processes is made available to others. (author). 27 refs., 15 figs., 2 appends
Coherent lattice vibrations in superconductors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kadin, Alan M.
2008-01-01
A recent analysis has shown that the pair wavefunction within the BCS theory may be represented in real-space as a spherical electronic orbital (on the scale of the coherence length ξ 0 ) coupled to a standing-wave lattice vibration with wavevector 2k F and a near-resonant phonon frequency. The present paper extends this picture to a coherent pattern of phonon standing-waves on the macroscopic scale, with electrons forming Bloch waves and an energy gap much like those in the classic band theory of crystals. These parallel planes form a diffractive waveguide permitting electron waves to traveling parallel to the planes, corresponding to lossless supercurrent. A similar picture may be extended to unconventional superconductors such as the cuprates, with an array of standing spin waves rather than phonons. Such coherent lattice vibrations should be universal indicators of the superconducting state, and should be observable below T c using X-ray and neutron diffraction techniques. Further implications of this picture are discussed
Impact self-excited vibrations of linear motor
Zhuravlev, V. Ph.
2010-08-01
Impact self-exciting vibration modes in a linear motor of a monorail car are studied. Existence and stability conditions of self-exciting vibrations are found. Ways of avoiding the vibrations are discussed.
Vibrational self-consistent field theory using optimized curvilinear coordinates.
Bulik, Ireneusz W; Frisch, Michael J; Vaccaro, Patrick H
2017-07-28
A vibrational SCF model is presented in which the functions forming the single-mode functions in the product wavefunction are expressed in terms of internal coordinates and the coordinates used for each mode are optimized variationally. This model involves no approximations to the kinetic energy operator and does not require a Taylor-series expansion of the potential. The non-linear optimization of coordinates is found to give much better product wavefunctions than the limited variations considered in most previous applications of SCF methods to vibrational problems. The approach is tested using published potential energy surfaces for water, ammonia, and formaldehyde. Variational flexibility allowed in the current ansätze results in excellent zero-point energies expressed through single-product states and accurate fundamental transition frequencies realized by short configuration-interaction expansions. Fully variational optimization of single-product states for excited vibrational levels also is discussed. The highlighted methodology constitutes an excellent starting point for more sophisticated treatments, as the bulk characteristics of many-mode coupling are accounted for efficiently in terms of compact wavefunctions (as evident from the accurate prediction of transition frequencies).
Flow induced vibrational excitation of nuclear reactor structures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gibert, R.J.
1979-01-01
The pressure fluctuations generated by disturbed flows, encountered in nuclear reactors induce vibrations in the structures. In order to make forecastings for these vibrational levels, it is necessary to know the characteristics of the random pressure fluctuations induced in the walls by the main flow peculiarities of the circuits. This knowledge is essentially provided by experimentation which shows that most of the energy from these fluctuations is in the low frequency area. It is also necessary to determine the transfer functions of the fluid-structure coupled system. Given the frequency range of the excitations, a calculation of the characteristics of the first eigenmodes is generally sufficient. This calculation is carried out by finite element codes, the modal dampings being assessed separately. In this paper, emphasis is placed mainly on the analysis of the sources of excitation due to flow peculiarities. Some examples will also be given of assessments of vibrations in real structures (pipes, reactor internals, etc.) and of comparisons with the experimental results obtained on models or on a site [fr
Recent advances in micro-vibration isolation
Liu, Chunchuan; Jing, Xingjian; Daley, Steve; Li, Fengming
2015-05-01
Micro-vibration caused by disturbance sources onboard spacecraft can severely degrade the working environment of sensitive payloads. Some notable vibration control methods have been developed particularly for the suppression or isolation of micro-vibration over recent decades. Usually, passive isolation techniques are deployed in aerospace engineering. Active isolators, however, are often proposed to deal with the low frequency vibration that is common in spacecraft. Active/passive hybrid isolation has also been effectively used in some spacecraft structures for a number of years. In semi-active isolation systems, the inherent structural performance can be adjusted to deal with variation in the aerospace environment. This latter approach is potentially one of the most practical isolation techniques for micro-vibration isolation tasks. Some emerging advanced vibration isolation methods that exploit the benefits of nonlinearity have also been reported in the literature. This represents an interesting and highly promising approach for solving some challenging problems in the area. This paper serves as a state-of-the-art review of the vibration isolation theory and/or methods which were developed, mainly over the last decade, specifically for or potentially could be used for, micro-vibration control.
Vibrational measurements in 3-ID-B
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sutter, J.; Alp, E.; Barraza, J.; Shu, D.
1998-04-01
The authors have undertaken a series of vibrational measurements in hutch 3-ID-B. Their motivation was to compare two different methods of mounting an interferometer for effectiveness in vibrational isolation and stability. In addition they were able to compare the stability of the optical table with and without its eight large bolts inserted
General vibration monitoring: Utility Building, August 1992
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jendrzejczyk, J.A.; Wambsganss, M.W.; Smith, R.K.
1993-01-01
This vibration data was generated from measurements made on 8/12/92. The contents are self explanatory. They are baseline measurements and no exceptionally large vibration amplitude or response was observed. These measurements represent baseline measurements, i.e., measurements with no driving forces active, made on the utility building, a service building for the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory