WorldWideScience

Sample records for internal state distributions

  1. Internal state distributions of molecules scattering and desorbing from surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auerbach, D.J.

    1983-01-01

    Attempts are made to interpret scattering experiments of NO molecules on Ag(111) where a (rotational) state-specific detector has been used. A model using an anisotropic potential is proposed to explain the observed incoming energy- and angle dependence. The so-called rotational rainbows are explained. It is concluded, that in this way information on intermolecular potentials and the transfer of translational to rotational energy in the dynamics of trapping and sticking of molecules on surfaces can be extracted. (G.Q.)

  2. International and Domestic Sustainable Forest Management Policies: Distributive Effects on Power among State Agencies in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukas Giessen

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The last two decades of forest policy discussions have been dominated by calls for sustainable management of forest resources. Consequently, multiple international and domestic policies, supporting sustainable forest management (SFM, have evolved in numerous jurisdictions. Policies in developing countries often rely on foreign donors’ projects, which supplement domestic SFM policy. These policies assign various policy tasks to specific public bureaucracies, who then compete for these very tasks, as well as the related staff and budgets. Therefore, project and policy task assignment greatly influences bureaucratic power. This article analyzes the distributive effects of SFM policy on power (in terms of coercion, incentives and dominant information among relevant domestic and foreign donor bureaucracies in Bangladesh. Concepts from power theory, bureaucratic politics theory, and concepts of policy and policy process were combined to analyze 121 Bangladeshi SFM policies from 1992–2013, which assign a total of 1012 policy tasks to specific public bureaucracies. Using qualitative content analysis, inferences about power were assigned to specific competing bureaucracies by the totality of SFM policies made. Results identify domestic and foreign bureaucracies whose power distribution benefit most from the SFM policies viz. their competitors. It is concluded that bureaucracies gaining the most power set the limits and directions in designing, implementing and evaluating various elements of any national SFM policies.

  3. Distribution system choice in a service industry: An analysis of international insurance firms operating in the United States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parente, R.; Choi, B.P.; Slangen, A.H.L.; Ketkar, S.

    2010-01-01

    Service firms play an increasingly important role in the global economy. However, the internationalization strategies of such firms, and especially their distribution system choices, have been underexplored in the international management literature. One specific service industry that has

  4. Plutonium valence state distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silver, G.L.

    1974-01-01

    A calculational method for ascertaining equilibrium valence state distributions of plutonium in acid solutions as a function of the plutonium oxidation number and the solution acidity is illustrated with an example. The method may be more practical for manual use than methods based upon polynomial equations. (T.G.)

  5. Influence of forced internal air circulation on airflow distribution and heat transfer in a gas double-dynamic solid-state fermentation bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hongzhang; Qin, Lanzhi; Li, Hongqiang

    2014-02-01

    Internal air circulation affects the temperature field distribution in a gas double-dynamic solid-state fermentation bioreactor (GDSFB). To enhance heat transfer through strengthening internal air circulation in a GDSFB, we put an air distribution plate (ADP) into the bioreactor and studied the effects of forced internal air circulation on airflow, heat transfer, and cellulase activity of Trichoderma viride L3. Results showed that ADP could help form a steady and uniform airflow distribution, and with gas-guide tubes, air reversal was formed inside the bioreactor, thus resulting in a smaller temperature difference between medium and air by enhancing convective heat transfer inside the bioreactor. Using an ADP of 5.35 % aperture ratio caused a 1 °C decrease in the average temperature difference during the solid-state fermentation process of T. viride L3. Meanwhile, the cellulase activity of T. viride L3 increased by 13.5 %. The best heat-transfer effect was attained when using an ADP of 5.35 % aperture ratio and setting the fan power to 125 V (4.81 W) in the gas double-dynamic solid-state fermentation (GDSF) process. An option of suitable aperture ratio and fan power may be conducive to ADPs' industrial amplification.

  6. Stress State of Elastic Thick-Walled Ring With Self-Balanced Pressures Distributed on Its Internal and External Borders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kravchuk Aleksandr Stepanovich

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available For the first time with the help of the theory of analytic functions and Kolosov-Muskhelishvili formulas the problem of the two-dimensional theory of elasticity for a thickwalled ring with the uneven pressures, acting on its borders, was solved. The pressure on the inner and outer boundaries is represented by Fourier series. The authors represent the two complex functions which solve boundary problem in the form of Laurent series. The logarithmic terms in these series are absent because the boundary problem has the self-balancing loads on each boundary of ring. The coefficients in the Laurent series are calculated by the boundary conditions. Firstly, the equations were obtained in the general form. But the hypothesis about even distributions of pressures at borders of ring was used for constructing an example. It leads to the fact that all coefficients of analytic functions represented in Laurent series have to be only real. As a solving example, the representation of pressures in equivalent hypotrochoids was used. The application of the computer algebra system Mathematica greatly simplifies the calculation of the distribution of stresses and displacements in ring. It does not require manual formal separation of real and imaginary parts in terms of Kolosov-Muskhelishvili to display the distribution of the physical parameters. It separates them only for calculated numbers with the help of built-in functions.

  7. Causation and International State Responsibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castellanos-Jankiewicz, L.

    2012-01-01

    This work studies causation in the law of international State responsibility. It is submitted that the absence of causation as an element of the internationally wrongful act owes more to the structure of international law, than to the inadequateness of causation as a conceptual and legal construct

  8. Distribution of steady state temperatures and thermoelastic stresses in a cylindrical shell with internal heat generation and cooled on both sides or only on one side

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melese d'Hospital, G.B.

    1979-10-01

    General expressions for steady state temperatures and elastic thermal stress distributions are derived for a hollow fuel element cooled on both sides. The main simplifying assumptions consist of one dimensional heat transfer and a single medium. Dimensionless numerical results are plotted in the case of uniform internal heat generation and for constant thermal conductivity. Solid rods and flat plates are treated as special cases. As could be expected, cooling on both sides rather than on only one side, leads to significant reduction in maximum fuel temperature and thermal stresses for a given power density, or to a significant increase in power density for either given maximum temperature drop in the fuel or for maximum tensile thermal stress. Typically, for a rod diameter ratio of 2, the power density could be increased by a factor of 3 to 4 without increasing the maximum stress. Similarly, for the same power density, replacing internal cooling of a hollow fuel element by external cooling reduces the maximum fuel temperature drop by a factor of 1.5 and the average fuel temperature drop (or maximum tensile stress) by a factor of 2, with the same maximum compressive stress

  9. International Companies in Fragile States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patey, Luke; Kragelund, Peter

    Denmark must not fail to promote corporate social responsibility in fragile states. International companies remain active in these environments, and often worsen rather than alleviate poor governance. Financial transparency and human rights initiatives offer the first step in ensuring...

  10. Decoy State Quantum Key Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Hoi-Kwong

    2005-10-01

    Quantum key distribution (QKD) allows two parties to communicate in absolute security based on the fundamental laws of physics. Up till now, it is widely believed that unconditionally secure QKD based on standard Bennett-Brassard (BB84) protocol is limited in both key generation rate and distance because of imperfect devices. Here, we solve these two problems directly by presenting new protocols that are feasible with only current technology. Surprisingly, our new protocols can make fiber-based QKD unconditionally secure at distances over 100km (for some experiments, such as GYS) and increase the key generation rate from O(η2) in prior art to O(η) where η is the overall transmittance. Our method is to develop the decoy state idea (first proposed by W.-Y. Hwang in "Quantum Key Distribution with High Loss: Toward Global Secure Communication", Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 057901 (2003)) and consider simple extensions of the BB84 protocol. This part of work is published in "Decoy State Quantum Key Distribution", . We present a general theory of the decoy state protocol and propose a decoy method based on only one signal state and two decoy states. We perform optimization on the choice of intensities of the signal state and the two decoy states. Our result shows that a decoy state protocol with only two types of decoy states--a vacuum and a weak decoy state--asymptotically approaches the theoretical limit of the most general type of decoy state protocols (with an infinite number of decoy states). We also present a one-decoy-state protocol as a special case of Vacuum+Weak decoy method. Moreover, we provide estimations on the effects of statistical fluctuations and suggest that, even for long distance (larger than 100km) QKD, our two-decoy-state protocol can be implemented with only a few hours of experimental data. In conclusion, decoy state quantum key distribution is highly practical. This part of work is published in "Practical Decoy State for Quantum Key Distribution

  11. Bayesian Prior Probability Distributions for Internal Dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, G.; Inkret, W.C.; Little, T.T.; Martz, H.F.; Schillaci, M.E

    2001-07-01

    The problem of choosing a prior distribution for the Bayesian interpretation of measurements (specifically internal dosimetry measurements) is considered using a theoretical analysis and by examining historical tritium and plutonium urine bioassay data from Los Alamos. Two models for the prior probability distribution are proposed: (1) the log-normal distribution, when there is some additional information to determine the scale of the true result, and (2) the 'alpha' distribution (a simplified variant of the gamma distribution) when there is not. These models have been incorporated into version 3 of the Bayesian internal dosimetric code in use at Los Alamos (downloadable from our web site). Plutonium internal dosimetry at Los Alamos is now being done using prior probability distribution parameters determined self-consistently from population averages of Los Alamos data. (author)

  12. Distribution and diversity of flora and fauna in International Institute ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Distribution and diversity of flora and fauna in International Institute Of Tropical Agriculture (IITA) forest and nature reserve, Ibadan, Oyo state, Nigeria. ... was also sighted in the study site and several other birds which normally winter around the lake. Key words: Ecology, Distribution, Diversity, Forest, Nature Reserve, IITA, ...

  13. Seven rules of international distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, D

    2000-01-01

    A multinational entering a new market in a developing country knows that on its own, it cannot master local business practices, meet regulatory requirements, hire and manage local personnel, and gain access to potential customers. So it partners with a local distributor. At first, sales take off, revenues grow, and the entry seems like a smart move. But when sales plateau, the corporation begins blaming the distributor for not investing sufficiently in business growth or expanding markets, and the distributor claims that it hasn't received enough support and that the corporation's expectations are too high. The key to solving such problems lies in recognizing that the phases are predictable and can be planned for. As a new business grows in an emerging market, its marketing strategy needs to evolve, and each sequential phase requires different skills, financial investments, and management resources. The author offers seven strategies to manage the multinational-distributor partnership. He discusses what to consider when choosing a distributor, how to structure the relationship between the two partners, what resources the multinational should commit, and what can be expected in return. He states that a successful distributor must risk investing in training, information services, and advertising and promotion in order to implement the company's marketing strategy and grow the business. Paying attention at the start of a partnership can result in a better working relationship between a multinational and a distributor, along with more consistent sales and growth for the corporation.

  14. Distributed Autonomous Robotic Systems : the 12th International Symposium

    CERN Document Server

    Cho, Young-Jo

    2016-01-01

    This volume of proceedings includes 32 original contributions presented at the 12th International Symposium on Distributed Autonomous Robotic Systems (DARS 2014), held in November 2014. The selected papers in this volume are authored by leading researchers from Asia, Europe, and the Americas, thereby providing a broad coverage and perspective of the state-of-the-art technologies, algorithms, system architectures, and applications in distributed robotic systems. .

  15. Dose distribution following selective internal radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, R.A.; Klemp, P.F.; Egan, G.; Mina, L.L.; Burton, M.A.; Gray, B.N.

    1991-01-01

    Selective Internal Radiation Therapy is the intrahepatic arterial injection of microspheres labelled with 90Y. The microspheres lodge in the precapillary circulation of tumor resulting in internal radiation therapy. The activity of the 90Y injected is managed by successive administrations of labelled microspheres and after each injection probing the liver with a calibrated beta probe to assess the dose to the superficial layers of normal tissue. Predicted doses of 75 Gy have been delivered without subsequent evidence of radiation damage to normal cells. This contrasts with the complications resulting from doses in excess of 30 Gy delivered from external beam radiotherapy. Detailed analysis of microsphere distribution in a cubic centimeter of normal liver and the calculation of dose to a 3-dimensional fine grid has shown that the radiation distribution created by the finite size and distribution of the microspheres results in an highly heterogeneous dose pattern. It has been shown that a third of normal liver will receive less than 33.7% of the dose predicted by assuming an homogeneous distribution of 90Y

  16. Current distribution tomography for determination of internal current density distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gailey, P.C.

    1993-01-01

    A method is presented for determination of current densities inside a cylindrical object using measurements of the magnetic fields outside the object. The cross section of the object is discretized with the current assumed constant over each defined region. Magnetic fields outside the object are related to the internal current densities through a geometry matrix which can be inverted to yield a solution for the current densities in terms of the measured fields. The primary limitation of this technique results from singularities in the geometry matrix that arise due to cylindrical symmetry of the problem. Methods for circumventing the singularities to obtain information about the distribution of current densities are discussed. This process of current distribution tomography is designed to determine internal body current densities using measurements of the external magnetic field distribution. It is non-invasive, and relatively simple to implement. Although related to a more general study of magnetic imaging which has been used to investigate endogenous currents in the brain and other parts of the body, it is restricted to currents either applied directly or induced by exposure to an external field. The research is related to public concern about the possibility of health effects resulting from exposure to power frequency electric and magnetic fields

  17. 11th International Symposium on Distributed Autonomous Robotic Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Chirikjian, Gregory

    2014-01-01

    Distributed robotics is a rapidly growing and maturing interdisciplinary research area lying at the intersection of computer science, network science, control theory, and electrical and mechanical engineering. The goal of the Symposium on Distributed Autonomous Robotic Systems (DARS) is to exchange and stimulate research ideas to realize advanced distributed robotic systems. This volume of proceedings includes 31 original contributions presented at the 2012 International Symposium on Distributed Autonomous Robotic Systems (DARS 2012) held in November 2012 at the Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, MD USA. The selected papers in this volume are authored by leading researchers from Asia, Europa, and the Americas, thereby providing a broad coverage and perspective of the state-of-the-art technologies, algorithms, system architectures, and applications in distributed robotic systems. The book is organized into five parts, representative of critical long-term and emerging research thrusts in the multi-robot com...

  18. A just distribution of burdens? : Attitudes toward the social distribution of taxes in 26 welfare states

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roosma, F.; van Oorschot, W.J.H.; Gelissen, J.P.T.M.

    2016-01-01

    Whether people believe that tax burdens are fairly distributed is an important condition for welfare state legitimacy. This article examines how people evaluate this distribution of tax burdens in their country by using latent cluster analysis. We use 2006 International Social Survey Program data

  19. Bound-state momentum distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, Y.; Redish, E.F.; Wall, N.S.

    1977-01-01

    Proposed forms for nuclear momentum distributions are investigated. Calculations of (p,p') reactions using those forms are done in a plane-wave impulse approximation at angles where the quasielastic peak is seen and also at back angles. The parameters used are derived from (e,e') data, where the nuclear momenta probed overlap with those of the low angle (p,p') experiment. Although there is reasonable agreement for the (p,p') data at 180 0 , the inclusion of distortion necessitates a different parameter set to obtain agreement for the quasifree process. We conclude that the (p,p') reaction cannot be readily understood with a simple momentum distribution

  20. STATE NETWORK INTERNATIONAL POLITICAL INTERACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. Feldman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The processes of fragmentation (regionalization and localization and globalization turn the state as the basic system forming element of the state-centric world political system into the component of the world political network. The political relations between actors of the world political network are ruled by the effectiveness and not by legitimacy (“victory rules”, what is different from the participatory principles of interstate relations (“participation rules” accepted by the Westphalian state system. The article argues that the post-Westphalian world political system will witness the clashes between victory rules and participation rules and their eventual coexistence since the very nature of the victory rules hinders its institutionalization, consolidation and legitimation. The article suggests that the new system of state relations regardless of the name will be not less Westphalian than the preceding one thus new participation rules will have to be formulated and codified.

  1. State distribution and reliability of some multi- state systems with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mn : G series systems and second, the multi-state consecutive kn-out-of-mn : G parallel systems (see denitions 1 and 2).We begin by giving a non recursive formula which calculates the state distribution and the reliability of multi-state ...

  2. Identities of states in international organizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wessel, Ramses A.; Dekker, I.F.; Dekker, Ige F.

    2015-01-01

    In academic debates on the responsibility of international organizations and their member States the different identities of States play a crucial role. However, apart from the difficulty to clearly separate ‘State’ and ‘member State’ identities, it is even more complex to distinguish between the

  3. Distributed Graph-Based State Space Generation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, Stefan; Kant, Gijs; Rensink, Arend; De Lara, J.; Varro, D.

    LTSMIN provides a framework in which state space generation can be distributed easily over many cores on a single compute node, as well as over multiple compute nodes. The tool works on the basis of a vector representation of the states; the individual cores are assigned the task of computing all

  4. 76 FR 2711 - Cinram Distribution, LLC, a Subsidiary of Cinram International, Simi Valley Distribution Center...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-14

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-74,357] Cinram Distribution, LLC, a Subsidiary of Cinram International, Simi Valley Distribution Center, Including On-Site Leased... of Cinram Distribution, LLC, a subsidiary of Cinram International, Simi Valley Distribution Center...

  5. 10th International Symposium on Intelligent Distributed Computing

    CERN Document Server

    Seghrouchni, Amal; Beynier, Aurélie; Camacho, David; Herpson, Cédric; Hindriks, Koen; Novais, Paulo

    2017-01-01

    This book presents the combined peer-reviewed proceedings of the tenth International Symposium on Intelligent Distributed Computing (IDC’2016), which was held in Paris, France from October 10th to 12th, 2016. The 23 contributions address a range of topics related to theory and application of intelligent distributed computing, including: Intelligent Distributed Agent-Based Systems, Ambient Intelligence and Social Networks, Computational Sustainability, Intelligent Distributed Knowledge Representation and Processing, Smart Networks, Networked Intelligence and Intelligent Distributed Applications, amongst others.

  6. International consensus and States non-Parties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kellman, B.

    1996-01-01

    It is significant to recognize the contribution that international law can make to the promotion of consensus for arms control. Issues surface with a constancy that demand consistent, codified responses. International law should be more powerful, especially in addressing non-members and non-complying states. Successful negotiation of a multilateral treaty is not an end but a means to establish a law enforcement system capable of promoting important global interests. Accordingly arms control should generate the development of authoritative legal doctrines and institutions that can meet the challenge

  7. States of Cybersecurity: Electricity Distribution System Discussions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pena, Ivonne [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ingram, Michael [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Martin, Maurice [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-03-16

    State and local entities that oversee the reliable, affordable provision of electricity are faced with growing and evolving threats from cybersecurity risks to our nation's electricity distribution system. All-hazards system resilience is a shared responsibility among electric utilities and their regulators or policy-setting boards of directors. Cybersecurity presents new challenges and should be a focus for states, local governments, and Native American tribes that are developing energy-assurance plans to protect critical infrastructure. This research sought to investigate the implementation of governance and policy at the distribution utility level that facilitates cybersecurity preparedness to inform the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis; states; local governments; and other stakeholders on the challenges, gaps, and opportunities that may exist for future analysis. The need is urgent to identify the challenges and inconsistencies in how cybersecurity practices are being applied across the United States to inform the development of best practices, mitigations, and future research and development investments in securing the electricity infrastructure. By examining the current practices and applications of cybersecurity preparedness, this report seeks to identify the challenges and persistent gaps between policy and execution and reflect the underlying motivations of distinct utility structures as they play out at the local level. This study aims to create an initial baseline of cybersecurity preparedness within the distribution electricity sector. The focus of this study is on distribution utilities not bound by the cybersecurity guidelines of the North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC) to examine the range of mechanisms taken by state regulators, city councils that own municipal utilities, and boards of directors of rural cooperatives.

  8. Numerical calculation of impurity charge state distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crume, E.C.; Arnurius, D.E.

    1977-09-01

    The numerical calculation of impurity charge state distributions using the computer program IMPDYN is discussed. The time-dependent corona atomic physics model used in the calculations is reviewed, and general and specific treatments of electron impact ionization and recombination are referenced. The complete program and two examples relating to tokamak plasmas are given on a microfiche so that a user may verify that his version of the program is working properly. In the discussion of the examples, the corona steady-state approximation is shown to have significant defects when the plasma environment, particularly the electron temperature, is changing rapidly

  9. Time scaling internal state predictive control of a solar plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, R.N. [DEE-FCT/UNL, Caparica (Portugal); Rato, L.M. [INESC-ID/University, Evora (Portugal); Lemos, J.M. [INESC-ID/IST, Lisboa (Portugal)

    2003-12-01

    The control of a distributed collector solar field is addressed in this work, exploiting the plant's transport characteristic. The plant is modeled by a hyperbolic type partial differential equation (PDE) where the transport speed is the manipulated flow, i.e. the controller output. The model has an external distributed source, which is the solar radiation captured along the collector, approximated to depend only of time. From the solution of the PDE, a linear discrete state space model is obtained by using time-scaling and the redefinition of the control input. This method allows overcoming the dependency of the time constants with the operating point. A model-based predictive adaptive controller is derived with the internal temperature distribution estimated with a state observer. Experimental results at the solar power plant are presented, illustrating the advantages of the approach under consideration. (author)

  10. Secure quantum key distribution using squeezed states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gottesman, Daniel; Preskill, John

    2001-01-01

    We prove the security of a quantum key distribution scheme based on transmission of squeezed quantum states of a harmonic oscillator. Our proof employs quantum error-correcting codes that encode a finite-dimensional quantum system in the infinite-dimensional Hilbert space of an oscillator, and protect against errors that shift the canonical variables p and q. If the noise in the quantum channel is weak, squeezing signal states by 2.51 dB (a squeeze factor e r =1.34) is sufficient in principle to ensure the security of a protocol that is suitably enhanced by classical error correction and privacy amplification. Secure key distribution can be achieved over distances comparable to the attenuation length of the quantum channel

  11. The unitary space of particle internal states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perjes, Z.

    1978-09-01

    A relativistic theory of particle internal properties has been developed. Suppressing space-time information, internal wave functions and -observables are constructed in a 3-complex-dimensional space. The quantum numbers of a spinning point particle in this unitary space correspond with those of a low-mass hadron. Unitary space physics is linked with space-time notions via the Penrose theory of twistors, where new flavors may be represented by many-twistor systems. It is shown here that a four-twistor particle fits into the unitary space picture as a system of two points with equal masses and oppositely pointing unitary spins. Quantum states fall into the ISU(3) irreducible representations discovered by Sparling and the author. Full details of the computation involving SU(3) recoupling techniques are given. (author)

  12. The distribution choice for the threshold of solid state relay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Beiyun; Zhou Hui; Cheng Xiangyue; Mao Congguang

    2009-01-01

    Either normal distribution or Weibull distribution can be accepted as sample distribution of the threshold of solid state relay. By goodness-of-fit method, bootstrap method and Bayesian method, the Weibull distribution is chosen later. (authors)

  13. 9th International Symposium on Intelligent Distributed Computing

    CERN Document Server

    Camacho, David; Analide, Cesar; Seghrouchni, Amal; Badica, Costin

    2016-01-01

    This book represents the combined peer-reviewed proceedings of the ninth International Symposium on Intelligent Distributed Computing – IDC’2015, of the Workshop on Cyber Security and Resilience of Large-Scale Systems – WSRL’2015, and of the International Workshop on Future Internet and Smart Networks – FI&SN’2015. All the events were held in Guimarães, Portugal during October 7th-9th, 2015. The 46 contributions published in this book address many topics related to theory and applications of intelligent distributed computing, including: Intelligent Distributed Agent-Based Systems, Ambient Intelligence and Social Networks, Computational Sustainability, Intelligent Distributed Knowledge Representation and Processing, Smart Networks, Networked Intelligence and Intelligent Distributed Applications, amongst others.

  14. Vacuum arc ion charge state distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, I.G.; Godechot, X.

    1990-06-01

    We have measured vacuum arc ion charge state spectra for a wide range of metallic cathode materials. The charge state distributions were measured using a time-of-flight diagnostic to monitor the energetic ion beam produced by a metal vapor vacuum arc ion source. We have obtained data for 48 metallic cathode elements: Li, C, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ge, Sr, Y, Zr, Nb, Mo, Pd, Ag, Cd, In, Sn, Ba, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Gd, Dy, Ho, Er, Yb, Hf, Ta, W, Ir, Pt, Au, Pb, Bi, Th and U. The arc was operated in a pulsed mode with pulse length 0.25 msec; arc current was 100 A throughout. This array of elements extends and completes previous work by us. In this paper the measured distributions are cataloged and compared with our earlier results and with those of other workers. We also make some observations about the performance of the various elements as suitable vacuum arc cathode materials

  15. Vacuum arc ion charge-state distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, I.G.; Godechot, X.

    1991-01-01

    The authors have measured vacuum arc ion charge-state spectra for a wide range of metallic cathode materials. The charge-state distributions were measured using a time-of-flight diagnostic to monitor the energetic ion beam produced by a metal vapor vacuum arc ion source. They have obtained data for 48 metallic cathode elements: Li, C, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ge, Sr, Y, Zr, Nb, Mo, Pd, Ag, Cd, In, Sn, Ba, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Gd, Dy, Ho, Er, Yb, Hf, Ta, W, Ir, Pt, Au, Pb, Bi, Th, and U. The arc was operated in a pulsed mode with pulse length 0.25 ms; arc current was 100 A throughout. This array of elements extends and completes previous work by the authors. In this paper the measured distributions are cataloged and compared with their earlier results and those of other workers. They also make some observations about the performance of the various elements as suitable vacuum arc cathode materials

  16. 7th International Symposium on Intelligent Distributed Computing

    CERN Document Server

    Jung, Jason; Badica, Costin

    2014-01-01

    This book represents the combined peer-reviewed proceedings of the Seventh International Symposium on Intelligent Distributed Computing - IDC-2013, of the Second Workshop on Agents for Clouds - A4C-2013, of the Fifth International Workshop on Multi-Agent Systems Technology and Semantics - MASTS-2013, and of the International Workshop on Intelligent Robots - iR-2013. All the events were held in Prague, Czech Republic during September 4-6, 2013. The 41 contributions published in this book address many topics related to theory and applications of intelligent distributed computing and multi-agent systems, including: agent-based data processing, ambient intelligence, bio-informatics, collaborative systems, cryptography and security, distributed algorithms, grid and cloud computing, information extraction, intelligent robotics, knowledge management, linked data, mobile agents, ontologies, pervasive computing, self-organizing systems, peer-to-peer computing, social networks and trust, and swarm intelligence.  .

  17. Trade and the distributional politics of international labour standards

    OpenAIRE

    Oslington, Paul

    2005-01-01

    This paper constructs a simple general equilibrium model of the trade and distributional effects of spreading advanced country international labour standards to developing countries. Labour standards (including minimum safety requirements, prohibition of prison and child labour, and rights to unionise) are represented as a floor to the cost of employing labour. The model shows how the spread of standards affects the terms of trade and pattern of international specialisation, and can shift ...

  18. Intelligent Distributed Computing VI : Proceedings of the 6th International Symposium on Intelligent Distributed Computing

    CERN Document Server

    Badica, Costin; Malgeri, Michele; Unland, Rainer

    2013-01-01

    This book represents the combined peer-reviewed proceedings of the Sixth International Symposium on Intelligent Distributed Computing -- IDC~2012, of the International Workshop on Agents for Cloud -- A4C~2012 and of the Fourth International Workshop on Multi-Agent Systems Technology and Semantics -- MASTS~2012. All the events were held in Calabria, Italy during September 24-26, 2012. The 37 contributions published in this book address many topics related to theory and applications of intelligent distributed computing and multi-agent systems, including: adaptive and autonomous distributed systems, agent programming, ambient assisted living systems, business process modeling and verification, cloud computing, coalition formation, decision support systems, distributed optimization and constraint satisfaction, gesture recognition, intelligent energy management in WSNs, intelligent logistics, machine learning, mobile agents, parallel and distributed computational intelligence, parallel evolutionary computing, trus...

  19. International Review of Standards and Labeling Programs for Distribution Transformers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Letschert, Virginie [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Scholand, Michael [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Carreño, Ana María [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Hernandez, Carolina [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-06-20

    Transmission and distribution (T&D) losses in electricity networks represent 8.5% of final energy consumption in the world. In Latin America, T&D losses range between 6% and 20% of final energy consumption, and represent 7% in Chile. Because approximately one-third of T&D losses take place in distribution transformers alone, there is significant potential to save energy and reduce costs and carbon emissions through policy intervention to increase distribution transformer efficiency. A large number of economies around the world have recognized the significant impact of addressing distribution losses and have implemented policies to support market transformation towards more efficient distribution transformers. As a result, there is considerable international experience to be shared and leveraged to inform countries interested in reducing distribution losses through policy intervention. The report builds upon past international studies of standards and labeling (S&L) programs for distribution transformers to present the current energy efficiency programs for distribution transformers around the world.

  20. Convincing State-Builders? Disaggregating Internal Legitimacy in Abkhazia

    OpenAIRE

    Bakke, K. M.; O Loughlin, J.; Toal, G.; Ward, M. D.

    2013-01-01

    De facto states, functional on the ground but unrecognized by most states, have long been black boxes for systematic empirical research. This study investigates de facto states’ internal legitimacy—people's confidence in the entity itself, the regime, and institutions. While internal legitimacy is important for any state, it is particularly important for de facto states, whose lack of external legitimacy has made internal legitimacy integral to their quest for recognition. We propose that the...

  1. International Boundary United States Mexico Minute 315

    Data.gov (United States)

    International Boundary & Water Commission — This dataset was created to provide resource managers, public officials, researchers, and the general public with ready access to the location of the international...

  2. Analysis of the international distribution of per capita CO2 emissions using the polarization concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duro, Juan Antonio; Padilla, Emilio

    2008-01-01

    The concept of polarization is linked to the extent that a given distribution leads to the formation of homogeneous groups with opposing interests. This concept, which is basically different from the traditional one of inequality, is related to the level of inherent potential conflict in a distribution. The polarization approach has been widely applied in the analysis of income distribution. The extension of this approach to the analysis of international distribution of CO 2 emissions is quite useful as it gives a potent informative instrument for characterizing the state and evolution of the international distribution of emissions and its possible political consequences in terms of tensions and the probability of achieving agreements. In this paper we analyze the international distribution of per capita CO 2 emissions between 1971 and 2001 through the adaptation of the polarization concept and measures. We find that the most interesting grouped description deriving from the analysis is a two groups' one, which broadly coincide with Annex B and non-Annex B countries of the Kyoto Protocol, which shows the power of polarization analysis for explaining the generation of groups in the real world. The analysis also shows a significant reduction in international polarization in per capita CO 2 emissions between 1971 and 1995, but not much change since 1995, which might indicate that polarized distribution of emission is still one of the important factors leading to difficulties in achieving agreements for reducing global emissions. (author)

  3. 9th International conference on distributed computing and artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Santana, Juan; González, Sara; Molina, Jose; Bernardos, Ana; Rodríguez, Juan; DCAI 2012; International Symposium on Distributed Computing and Artificial Intelligence 2012

    2012-01-01

    The International Symposium on Distributed Computing and Artificial Intelligence 2012 (DCAI 2012) is a stimulating and productive forum where the scientific community can work towards future cooperation in Distributed Computing and Artificial Intelligence areas. This conference is a forum in which  applications of innovative techniques for solving complex problems will be presented. Artificial intelligence is changing our society. Its application in distributed environments, such as the internet, electronic commerce, environment monitoring, mobile communications, wireless devices, distributed computing, to mention only a few, is continuously increasing, becoming an element of high added value with social and economic potential, in industry, quality of life, and research. These technologies are changing constantly as a result of the large research and technical effort being undertaken in both universities and businesses. The exchange of ideas between scientists and technicians from both the academic and indus...

  4. Distributed computing and artificial intelligence : 10th International Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Neves, José; Rodriguez, Juan; Santana, Juan; Gonzalez, Sara

    2013-01-01

    The International Symposium on Distributed Computing and Artificial Intelligence 2013 (DCAI 2013) is a forum in which applications of innovative techniques for solving complex problems are presented. Artificial intelligence is changing our society. Its application in distributed environments, such as the internet, electronic commerce, environment monitoring, mobile communications, wireless devices, distributed computing, to mention only a few, is continuously increasing, becoming an element of high added value with social and economic potential, in industry, quality of life, and research. This conference is a stimulating and productive forum where the scientific community can work towards future cooperation in Distributed Computing and Artificial Intelligence areas. These technologies are changing constantly as a result of the large research and technical effort being undertaken in both universities and businesses. The exchange of ideas between scientists and technicians from both the academic and industry se...

  5. Distributed Computing and Artificial Intelligence, 12th International Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Malluhi, Qutaibah; Gonzalez, Sara; Bocewicz, Grzegorz; Bucciarelli, Edgardo; Giulioni, Gianfranco; Iqba, Farkhund

    2015-01-01

    The 12th International Symposium on Distributed Computing and Artificial Intelligence 2015 (DCAI 2015) is a forum to present applications of innovative techniques for studying and solving complex problems. The exchange of ideas between scientists and technicians from both the academic and industrial sector is essential to facilitate the development of systems that can meet the ever-increasing demands of today’s society. The present edition brings together past experience, current work and promising future trends associated with distributed computing, artificial intelligence and their application in order to provide efficient solutions to real problems. This symposium is organized by the Osaka Institute of Technology, Qatar University and the University of Salamanca.

  6. States' criminal jurisdiction under International Law: fostering a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Over the past few years, the extent to which international law allows States to exercise their jurisdiction in criminal matters has been a subject of diplomatic tensions between States. The purpose of this paper is to shed some light, on the question as to what extent a State, powerful or weak, has a right under international law ...

  7. Distribution of internal mammary lymphadenopathy in breast carcinoma: CT appraisal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scatarige, J.C.; Fishman, E.K.; Zinreich, E.S.; Almaraz, R.

    1987-01-01

    The authors studied the anatomic distribution of enlarged internal mammary lymph nodes in breast carcinoma by reviewing thoracic CT examinations in 219 women with operable, advanced or recurrent disease. Enlarged internal mammary lymph nodes were observed in 45 patients (20.5%); they were unilateral in 32 and bilateral in 13. Lymphadenopathy was limited to one anterior intercostal space in 43%, two spaces in 26%, and three or more species in 31%. Dominant modal disease was centered at the first anterior intercostal space in 14%, the second space in 60%, and the third space in 26%. Isolated adenopathy in the fourth intercostal space was not observed. The authors' data concur with current surgical practice when internal mammary lymph nodes are sampled. Implications for preoperative imaging strategy are discussed

  8. Experimental Entanglement Distribution by Separable States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmer, Christina E.; Schulze, Daniela; Eberle, Tobias; Händchen, Vitus; Fiurášek, Jaromír; Schnabel, Roman

    2013-12-01

    Distribution of entanglement between macroscopically separated parties is crucial for future quantum information networks. Surprisingly, it has been theoretically shown that two distant systems can be entangled by sending a third system that is not entangled with either of them. Here, we experimentally distribute entanglement and successfully prove that our transmitted light beam is indeed not entangled with the parties’ local systems. Our work demonstrates an unexpected variant of entanglement distribution and improves the understanding necessary to engineer multipartite quantum networks.

  9. Electron-beam-charged dielectrics: Internal charge distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beers, B. L.; Pine, V. W.

    1981-01-01

    Theoretical calculations of an electron transport model of the charging of dielectrics due to electron bombardment are compared to measurements of internal charge distributions. The emphasis is on the distribution of Teflon. The position of the charge centroid as a function of time is not monotonic. It first moves deeper into the material and then moves back near to the surface. In most time regimes of interest, the charge distribution is not unimodal, but instead has two peaks. The location of the centroid near saturation is a function of the incident current density. While the qualitative comparison of theory and experiment are reasonable, quantitative comparison shows discrepancies of as much as a factor of two.

  10. The Future of Electricity Distribution Regulation. Lessons from International Experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nillesen, P.H.L.

    2008-12-03

    This thesis contains five essays on the regulation of electricity distribution networks, each presenting a different point of view. Two essays use US data to demonstrate that incentive-based regulation has valuable application within a management setting and can lead to gaming behaviour within a regulatory setting. One essay discusses the lessons that can be drawn from the failed first electricity distribution price control review in the Netherlands. One essay presents the views of 75 international regulation managers and gives recommendations on ways to improve the regulatory quality and process. The final essay analyses the economic consequences of the forced ownership unbundling of the electricity distribution networks in 1998 in New Zealand, and draws lessons for future structural remedies that may be sought in other countries.

  11. The Future of Electricity Distribution Regulation. Lessons from International Experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nillesen, P.H.L.

    2008-01-01

    This thesis contains five essays on the regulation of electricity distribution networks, each presenting a different point of view. Two essays use US data to demonstrate that incentive-based regulation has valuable application within a management setting and can lead to gaming behaviour within a regulatory setting. One essay discusses the lessons that can be drawn from the failed first electricity distribution price control review in the Netherlands. One essay presents the views of 75 international regulation managers and gives recommendations on ways to improve the regulatory quality and process. The final essay analyses the economic consequences of the forced ownership unbundling of the electricity distribution networks in 1998 in New Zealand, and draws lessons for future structural remedies that may be sought in other countries

  12. Quantum key distribution using three basis states

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 54; Issue 5. Quantum key distribution using three ... This note presents a method of public key distribution using quantum communication of photons that simultaneously provides a high probability that the bits have not been tampered. It is a variant of the quantum ...

  13. The Obligations of States towards Refugees under International Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skordas, Achilles

    The main purpose of the current study is to discuss the obligations of States towards refugees under international law, and to argue that States have obligations towards refugees regardless of the ratification of the Geneva Convention....

  14. Effect of Smart Meter Measurements Data On Distribution State Estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pokhrel, Basanta Raj; Nainar, Karthikeyan; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2018-01-01

    Smart distribution grids with renewable energy based generators and demand response resources (DRR) requires accurate state estimators for real time control. Distribution grid state estimators are normally based on accumulated smart meter measurements. However, increase of measurements in the phy......Smart distribution grids with renewable energy based generators and demand response resources (DRR) requires accurate state estimators for real time control. Distribution grid state estimators are normally based on accumulated smart meter measurements. However, increase of measurements...... in the physical grid can enforce significant stress not only on the communication infrastructure but also in the control algorithms. This paper aims to propose a methodology to analyze needed real time smart meter data from low voltage distribution grids and their applicability in distribution state estimation...

  15. 13th International Conference on Distributed Computing and Artificial Intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Silvestri, Marcello; González, Sara

    2016-01-01

    The special session Decision Economics (DECON) 2016 is a scientific forum by which to share ideas, projects, researches results, models and experiences associated with the complexity of behavioral decision processes aiming at explaining socio-economic phenomena. DECON 2016 held in the University of Seville, Spain, as part of the 13th International Conference on Distributed Computing and Artificial Intelligence (DCAI) 2016. In the tradition of Herbert A. Simon’s interdisciplinary legacy, this book dedicates itself to the interdisciplinary study of decision-making in the recognition that relevant decision-making takes place in a range of critical subject areas and research fields, including economics, finance, information systems, small and international business, management, operations, and production. Decision-making issues are of crucial importance in economics. Not surprisingly, the study of decision-making has received a growing empirical research efforts in the applied economic literature over the last ...

  16. State-to-state and state-to-all-states reactive scattering angular distributions: F+H 2→HF+H

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emmons, R.W.; Suck, S.H.

    1983-01-01

    How each state-to-state reactive transition determines nonundulatory ''state-to-all-states'' angular distribution has not yet been investigated. Here we present a complete exposure of state-to-state distorted-wave Born-approximation angular distributions in order to examine how the nonoscillatory and backward-peaked state-to-all-states reactive scattering angular distribution occurs

  17. International medical cooperation project for State of Libya using international medical tourism system in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    奥寺, 敬; 坂本, 美重

    2013-01-01

    International medical cooperation project for State of Libya is reported. The concept of this project is to treat Libyan injured people using international medical tourism system in Thailand. Management of patient, including evaluation, domestic and international transportation arrangement of hospital, is supported by Normeca International Co., Ltd, (Pattaya, Thailand). Treatment of Libyan patient in two international hospitals (Bangpakok 9 Hospital and Navamin 9 Hopsital) in Bangkok was succ...

  18. Wind Power Forecasting Error Distributions: An International Comparison

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hodge, Bri-Mathias; Lew, Debra; Milligan, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Wind power forecasting is essential for greater penetration of wind power into electricity systems. Because no wind forecasting system is perfect, a thorough understanding of the errors that may occur is a critical factor for system operation functions, such as the setting of operating reserve...... levels. This paper provides an international comparison of the distribution of wind power forecasting errors from operational systems, based on real forecast data. The paper concludes with an assessment of similarities and differences between the errors observed in different locations....

  19. 11th International Conference on Distributed Computing and Artificial Intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Bersini, Hugues; Corchado, Juan; Rodríguez, Sara; Pawlewski, Paweł; Bucciarelli, Edgardo

    2014-01-01

    The 11th International Symposium on Distributed Computing and Artificial Intelligence 2014 (DCAI 2014) is a forum to present applications of innovative techniques for studying and solving complex problems. The exchange of ideas between scientists and technicians from both the academic and industrial sector is essential to facilitate the development of systems that can meet the ever-increasing demands of today’s society. The present edition brings together past experience, current work and promising future trends associated with distributed computing, artificial intelligence and their application in order to provide efficient solutions to real problems. This year’s technical program presents both high quality and diversity, with contributions in well-established and evolving areas of research (Algeria, Brazil, China, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Malaysia, Mexico, Poland, Portugal, Republic of Korea, Spain, Taiwan, Tunisia, Ukraine, United Kingdom), representing ...

  20. Jurisdiction in international law : United States and European perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Ryngaert, Cedric

    2007-01-01

    This study starts with a quote by Professor Meessen: “The function of scholars of international law offers less opportunity for creative thinking [compared to scholars of conflict of laws]: they may compile and analyze state practice, but they cannot replace it with their own concepts.”[1] This study, which primarily looks at the phenomenon of jurisdiction through a (public) international law lens, rejects that limiting claim. While the current state of the international law of jurisdiction ...

  1. Distribution Pattern of Healthcare Facilities in Osun State, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    `123456789jkl''''#

    existing spatial pattern of distribution of healthcare facilities play very prominent role in gauging the level of efficiency or ... distribution pattern of healthcare facilities in the thirty local government areas in Osun State, Nigeria. Twelve indices ... (Federal, State and Local) always budget huge .... This, we believe, will help policy.

  2. Distribution of standard deviation of an observable among superposed states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Chang-shui; Shao, Ting-ting; Li, Dong-mo

    2016-01-01

    The standard deviation (SD) quantifies the spread of the observed values on a measurement of an observable. In this paper, we study the distribution of SD among the different components of a superposition state. It is found that the SD of an observable on a superposition state can be well bounded by the SDs of the superposed states. We also show that the bounds also serve as good bounds on coherence of a superposition state. As a further generalization, we give an alternative definition of incompatibility of two observables subject to a given state and show how the incompatibility subject to a superposition state is distributed.

  3. Distribution of standard deviation of an observable among superposed states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chang-shui; Shao, Ting-ting; Li, Dong-mo

    2016-10-01

    The standard deviation (SD) quantifies the spread of the observed values on a measurement of an observable. In this paper, we study the distribution of SD among the different components of a superposition state. It is found that the SD of an observable on a superposition state can be well bounded by the SDs of the superposed states. We also show that the bounds also serve as good bounds on coherence of a superposition state. As a further generalization, we give an alternative definition of incompatibility of two observables subject to a given state and show how the incompatibility subject to a superposition state is distributed.

  4. International strategies in fragile states : expanding the toolbox?

    OpenAIRE

    Klotzle, Kurt

    2006-01-01

    "In recent years, international actors have taken significant strides in attempting to develop strategies and instruments that effectively address the problem of weak and failing states. On the one hand, the intensified focus on state failure has to do with general, fundamental shifts in the international security environment since the end of the Cold War. On the other hand, however, the sharpened concern with fragile states arises from the specific challenges, experiences, and interests of k...

  5. Grading Practices and Distributions Across Internal Medicine Clerkships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazio, Sara B; Torre, Dario M; DeFer, Thomas M

    2016-01-01

    Clerkship evaluation and grading practices vary widely between U.S. medical schools. Grade inflation continues to exist, and grade distribution is likely to be different among U.S. medical schools. Increasing the number of available grades curtails "grade inflation." A national survey of all Clerkship Directors in Internal Medicine members was administered in 2011. The authors assessed key aspects of grading. Response rate was 76%. Among clerkship directors (CDs), 61% of respondents agreed that grade inflation existed in the internal medicine clerkship at their school, and 43% believed that it helped students obtain better residency positions. With respect to grading practices, 79% of CDs define specific behaviors needed to achieve each grade, and 36% specify an ideal grade distribution. In addition, 44% have a trained core faculty responsible for evaluating students, 35% describe formal grading meetings, and 39% use the Reporter-Interpreter-Manager-Educator (RIME) scheme. Grading scales were described as follows: 4% utilize a pass/fail system, 13% a 3-tier (e.g., Honors/Pass/Fail), 45% 4-tier, 35% 5-tier, and 4% 6+-tier system. There was a trend to higher grades with more tiers available. Grade inflation continues in the internal medicine clerkship. Almost half of CDs feel that this practice assists students to obtain better residency positions. A minority of programs have a trained core faculty who are responsible for evaluation. About one third have formal grading meetings and use the RIME system; both have been associated with more robust and balanced grading practices. In particular, there is a wide variation between schools in the percentage of students who are awarded the highest grade, which has implications for residency applications. Downstream users of clinical clerkship grades must be fully aware of these variations in grading in order to appropriately judge medical student performance.

  6. Formation and distribution of international tourism flows in geographical space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleksandr Korol

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Properties of geographical space that are of key importance for international tourism, as length and discreteness, are analyzed in the article. Length makes tourists cover distances, whereas discreteness manifests itself in spatial heterogeneity. Tourism in conditions of homogeneous space is vain. That is, heterogeneity brings sense to travels as well as determines their direction. So, the effect of geographical space’s length and spatial heterogeneity on formation and distribution of tourism flows is assessed, international tourism’s geographical essence is disclosed also. Apperception of geographical space in usual environment and its effect on tourist’s original motives are described. Following the bases of behaviorism, the tourism original motives, in particular those for migration, comfort, contrast and aesthetics are substantiated. The motive for migration is a kind of “pushing” tourists outside their usual environment. To stop all fears that may cause anxiety in destination, the latter should guarantee satisfaction of those human needs which A. Maslow refers to as basic needs. The necessity to satisfy these needs forms in tourists the motive for comfort. Closely located destinations in neighboring countries can be of little difference form usual environment. Driven by the motive for contrast, tourists aspire to visit places that totally differ from their usual environment, and contrast (are exotic to it. Thus, the motive for contrast seemingly “pulls” the tourists up to certain (exotic destinations. Finally, following the considered spatial specificities of land surface and tourist-driving original motives, a conceptual model of formation and distribution of international tourism flows in geographical space is developed.

  7. A Database Approach to Distributed State Space Generation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, Stefan; Lisser, Bert; van de Pol, Jan Cornelis; Weber, M.

    2007-01-01

    We study distributed state space generation on a cluster of workstations. It is explained why state space partitioning by a global hash function is problematic when states contain variables from unbounded domains, such as lists or other recursive datatypes. Our solution is to introduce a database

  8. A Database Approach to Distributed State Space Generation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, Stefan; Lisser, Bert; van de Pol, Jan Cornelis; Weber, M.; Cerna, I.; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.H.M.

    2008-01-01

    We study distributed state space generation on a cluster of workstations. It is explained why state space partitioning by a global hash function is problematic when states contain variables from unbounded domains, such as lists or other recursive datatypes. Our solution is to introduce a database

  9. Distributed state estimation for multi-agent based active distribution networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, H.P.; Kling, W.L.

    2010-01-01

    Along with the large-scale implementation of distributed generators, the current distribution networks have changed gradually from passive to active operation. State estimation plays a vital role to facilitate this transition. In this paper, a suitable state estimation method for the active network

  10. Spatial distribution of absorbed dose onboard of International Space Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jadrnickova, I.; Spumy, F.; Tateyama, R.; Yasuda, N.; Kawashima, H.; Kurano, M.; Uchihori, Y.; Kitamura, H.; Akatov, Yu.; Shurshakov, V.; Kobayashi, I.; Ohguchi, H.; Koguchi, Y.

    2009-01-01

    The passive detectors (LD and PNTD) were exposed onboard of Russian Service Module Qn the International Space Station (ISS) from August 2004 to October 2005 (425 days). The detectors were located at 6 different positions inside the Service Module and also in 32 pockets on the surface of the spherical tissue-equivalent phantom located in crew cabin. Distribution of absorbed doses and dose equivalents measured with passive detectors, as well as LET spectra of fluences of registered particles, are presented as the function of detectors' location. The variation of dose characteristics for different locations can be up to factor of 2. In some cases, data measured with passive detectors are also compared with the data obtained by means of active instruments. (authors)

  11. The degenerate-internal-states approximation for cold collisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maan, A.C.; Tiesinga, E.; Stoof, H.T.C.; Verhaar, B.J.

    1990-01-01

    The Degenerate-Internal-States approximation as well as its first-order correction are shown to provide a convenient method for calculating elastic and inelastic collision amplitudes for low temperature atomic scattering.

  12. Needs Assessment of International Students at Eastern Oregon State College.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eid, Mamoud Taha; Jordan-Domschot, Theresa

    The purpose of the research project was to assess the needs, satisfaction, and concerns of international students attending Eastern Oregon State College. The international student population consisted of students from Micronesia, Netherlands, Somalia, Saudi Arabia, Jordan, Iran, Japan, Thailand, Zimbabwe, Belgium, Canada, Nigeria, China,…

  13. International survey on solid state nuclear track detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azimi-Garakani, D.; Wernli, C.

    1992-04-01

    The results of the 1990 international survey on solid state nuclear track detection are presented. The survey was performed in collaboration with the International Nuclear Track Society (INTS). These results include the data on principal investigator(s), collaborator(s), institution, field of application(s), material(s), and method(s) of track observation from 28 countries. (author)

  14. [State of internal communication in primary care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballvé Moreno, José Luis; Pujol Ribó, Gloria; Romaguera Lliso, Amparo; Bonet Esteve, Anna; Rafecas Ruiz, Montserrat; Zarza Carretero, Elvira

    2008-08-01

    To study internal communication between primary care health professionals Cross-sectional, descriptive. Catalan Health Institute Costa de Ponent Primary Care Area, Spain. All workers in the area (n=3565). Three part questionnaire: a) sociodemographic questions; b) questions scoring from 0 to 10 the current importance and operation of certain aspects; and c) questions on new communication tools. Of those sent a questionnaire, 39% (n=1388) responded, with a mean age of 43.2 years (95% CI, 42.75- 43.65), 28.9% being male. The major differences between importance and current events were said to be "to be informed of projects before they appear in the communication media," "by official routes and not by rumour," and "to be aware of projects of other teams." The least communicated within teams. The doctors considered upward communication to be more important. Doctors are those who appreciate communication within teams better and the professionals of the users services unit (UAU) less so. Doctors are the ones who give more importance to being informed of projects at the time. 55% do not use the intranet, mainly due to lack of time. The second reason is that they find it difficult. Sixty-two per cent read e-mail >2-3 times per week. Eighty-nine per cent want an electronic bulletin. The older workers use new technologies less. Downward, upward, and sideways communication needs to be improved, particularly upwards by doctors, and that of the teams for the UAU professionals. Intranet tools must be provided that make the work easier and training in handling new technologies must be offered.

  15. The Second International Workshop on Squeezed States and Uncertainty Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, D. (Editor); Kim, Y. S.; Manko, V. I.

    1993-01-01

    This conference publication contains the proceedings of the Second International Workshop on Squeezed States and Uncertainty Relations held in Moscow, Russia, on 25-29 May 1992. The purpose of this workshop was to study possible applications of squeezed states of light. The Workshop brought together many active researchers in squeezed states of light and those who may find the concept of squeezed states useful in their research, particularly in understanding the uncertainty relations. It was found at this workshop that the squeezed state has a much broader implication than the two-photon coherent states in quantum optics, since the squeeze transformation is one of the most fundamental transformations in physics.

  16. State policies and internal migration in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberai, A S

    1981-01-01

    The objective of this discussion is to identify policies and programs in Asia that are explicitly or implicitly designed to influence migration, to investigate why they were adopted and how far they have actually been implemented, and to assess their direct and indirect consequences. For study purposes, policies and programs are classified according to whether they prohibit or reverse migration, redirect or channel migration to specific rural or urban locations, reduce the total volume of migration, or encourage or discourage urban in-migration. Discussion of each type of policy is accompanied by a description of its rationale and implementation mechanism, examples of countries in Asia that have recourse to it, and its intended or actual effect on migration. Several countries in Asia have taken direct measures to reverse the flow of migration and to stop or discourage migration to urban areas. These measures have included administrative and legal controls, police registration, and direct "rustication" programs to remove urban inhabitants to the countryside. The availability of public land has prompted many Asian countries to adopt schemes that have been labeled resettlement, transmigration, colonization, or land development. These schemes have been designed to realize 1 or more of the following objectives: to provide land and income to the landless; increase agricultural production; correct spatial imbalances in the distribution of population; or exploit frontier lands for reasons of national security. 1 of the basic goals of decentralized industrialization and regional development policies has been the reduction of interregional disparities and the redirection of migrations from large metropolitan areas to smaller and medium sized towns. To encourage industry to move to small urban locations initial infrastructure investments, tax benefits, and other incentives have been offered. Policies to reduce the overall volume of migration have frequently included rural

  17. Automatic diagnosis and control of distributed solid state lighting systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dong, J.; van Driel, W.D.; Zhang, G.Q.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a new design concept of automatically diagnosing and compensating LED degradations in distributed solid state lighting (SSL) systems. A failed LED may significantly reduce the overall illumination level, and destroy the uniform illumination distribution achieved by a nominal

  18. Effect of Smart Meter Measurements Data On Distribution State Estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pokhrel, Basanta Raj; Nainar, Karthikeyan; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2018-01-01

    in the physical grid can enforce significant stress not only on the communication infrastructure but also in the control algorithms. This paper aims to propose a methodology to analyze needed real time smart meter data from low voltage distribution grids and their applicability in distribution state estimation...

  19. Waiting time distribution revealing the internal spin dynamics in a double quantum dot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ptaszyński, Krzysztof

    2017-07-01

    Waiting time distribution and the zero-frequency full counting statistics of unidirectional electron transport through a double quantum dot molecule attached to spin-polarized leads are analyzed using the quantum master equation. The waiting time distribution exhibits a nontrivial dependence on the value of the exchange coupling between the dots and the gradient of the applied magnetic field, which reveals the oscillations between the spin states of the molecule. The zero-frequency full counting statistics, on the other hand, is independent of the aforementioned quantities, thus giving no insight into the internal dynamics. The fact that the waiting time distribution and the zero-frequency full counting statistics give a nonequivalent information is associated with two factors. Firstly, it can be explained by the sensitivity to different timescales of the dynamics of the system. Secondly, it is associated with the presence of the correlation between subsequent waiting times, which makes the renewal theory, relating the full counting statistics and the waiting time distribution, no longer applicable. The study highlights the particular usefulness of the waiting time distribution for the analysis of the internal dynamics of mesoscopic systems.

  20. State Electricity Regulatory Policy and Distributed Resources: Distributed Resources and Electric System Reliability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowart, R.; Harrington, C.; Moskovitz, D.; Shirley, W.; Weston, F.; Sedano, R.

    2002-10-01

    Designing and implementing credit-based pilot programs for distributed resources distribution is a low-cost, low-risk opportunity to find out how these resources can help defer or avoid costly electric power system (utility grid) distribution upgrades. This report describes implementation options for deaveraged distribution credits and distributed resource development zones. Developing workable programs implementing these policies can dramatically increase the deployment of distributed resources in ways that benefit distributed resource vendors, users, and distribution utilities. This report is one in the State Electricity Regulatory Policy and Distributed Resources series developed under contract to NREL (see Annual Technical Status Report of the Regulatory Assistance Project: September 2000-September 2001, NREL/SR-560-32733). Other titles in this series are: (1) Accommodating Distributed Resources in Wholesale Markets, NREL/SR-560-32497; (2) Distributed Resources and Electric System Re liability, NREL/SR-560-32498; (3) Distribution System Cost Methodologies for Distributed Generation, NREL/SR-560-32500; (4) Distribution System Cost Methodologies for Distributed Generation Appendices, NREL/SR-560-32501.

  1. Distribution Pattern of Healthcare Facilities in Osun State, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper we employed the use of locational quotient, which is a measure of spatial pattern of services, to examine the distribution pattern of healthcare facilities in the thirty local government areas in Osun State, Nigeria. Twelve indices, representing the totality of healthcare delivery by State and local governments in the ...

  2. Income Distribution Policy in the United States [and] Discussion Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okner, Benjamin A.; Rivlin, Alice M.

    The focus of this paper is inequality - primarily, income - inequality - in the United States and the historical-political context in which policies that affect inequality are being discussed. The first section gives a brief description of recent trends in the distribution of income in the United States, a picture whose most remarkable feature is…

  3. Quantum Key Distribution Using Four-Qubit W State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Haijing; Song Heshan

    2006-01-01

    A new theoretical quantum key distribution scheme based on entanglement swapping is proposed, where four-qubit symmetric W state functions as quantum channel. It is shown that two legitimate users can secretly share a series of key bits by using Bell-state measurements and classical communication.

  4. Continuous variable quantum key distribution with modulated entangled states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Lars S; Usenko, Vladyslav C.; Lassen, Mikael

    2012-01-01

    Quantum key distribution enables two remote parties to grow a shared key, which they can use for unconditionally secure communication over a certain distance. The maximal distance depends on the loss and the excess noise of the connecting quantum channel. Several quantum key distribution schemes...... based on coherent states and continuous variable measurements are resilient to high loss in the channel, but are strongly affected by small amounts of channel excess noise. Here we propose and experimentally address a continuous variable quantum key distribution protocol that uses modulated fragile...... entangled states of light to greatly enhance the robustness to channel noise. We experimentally demonstrate that the resulting quantum key distribution protocol can tolerate more noise than the benchmark set by the ideal continuous variable coherent state protocol. Our scheme represents a very promising...

  5. Charge state distributions for heavy ions in carbon stripper foils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMahan, M.A.; Lebed, R.F.; Feinberg, B.

    1989-03-01

    We have extended the database of measured charge state distributions available in the literature through measurements at the SuperHILAC using carbon stripper foils in the energy range 1.2--8.5 MeV/u. Modifying a semi-empirical model to include the effect of electronic shells, we are able to correctly predict the mean charge state to within 1/2 a charge state for 6≤Z≤92 and energies from 30 keV/u to 16 MeV/u. We have determined parameters for the widths of the distributions for each electronic shell. For distributions lying across a shell boundary, we join the two Gaussians of different widths to get an asymmetric distribution. 18 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  6. Generation of distributed W-states over long distances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi

    2017-08-01

    Ultra-secure quantum communication between distant locations requires distributed entangled states between nodes. Various methodologies have been proposed to tackle this technological challenge, of which the so-called DLCZ protocol is the most promising and widely adopted scheme. This paper aims to extend this well-known protocol to a multi-node setting where the entangled W-state is generated between nodes over long distances. The generation of multipartite W-states is the foundation of quantum networks, paving the way for quantum communication and distributed quantum computation.

  7. Distributed Dynamic State Estimation with Extended Kalman Filter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, Pengwei; Huang, Zhenyu; Sun, Yannan; Diao, Ruisheng; Kalsi, Karanjit; Anderson, Kevin K.; Li, Yulan; Lee, Barry

    2011-08-04

    Increasing complexity associated with large-scale renewable resources and novel smart-grid technologies necessitates real-time monitoring and control. Our previous work applied the extended Kalman filter (EKF) with the use of phasor measurement data (PMU) for dynamic state estimation. However, high computation complexity creates significant challenges for real-time applications. In this paper, the problem of distributed dynamic state estimation is investigated. One domain decomposition method is proposed to utilize decentralized computing resources. The performance of distributed dynamic state estimation is tested on a 16-machine, 68-bus test system.

  8. The state of internal audit’s regulatory mandate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christo Ackermann

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The importance of an effective internal audit function in South African municipalities have been recognised insofar as internal audit functions are legally mandated to exist within municipalities. This also means that legally, internal audit has certain mandates which must be fulfilled in order to add value to management and audit committees, and ultimately, to the board of directors. Even though internal audit is sanctioned by this important legal mandate, evidence shows that internal audit does not always fulfil this mandate. This state of affairs has prompted a detailed review of the relevant laws and regulations governing the work of internal audit in South African municipalities in order to determine the extent to which key stakeholders find the regulatory work of internal audit useful in discharging their (stakeholders’ oversight responsibilities. Questionnaires were administered to audit committees. The results summarise the extent to which internal audit’s work assists audit committees in their oversight responsibilities as this ultimately affects the ability of audit committees to fulfil these responsibilities to the board of directors. The results indicate that audit committees are greatly dependent on internal audit as a provider of assurance on a variety of legally mandated variables. The results of this study can be used as a measure of best practice of the legally mandated duties performed by internal audit. It can also be used by other researchers in comparative studies and by practitioners to benchmark their work in order to better serve audit committees and ultimately, the board of directors

  9. Random graph states, maximal flow and Fuss-Catalan distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, BenoIt; Nechita, Ion; Zyczkowski, Karol

    2010-01-01

    For any graph consisting of k vertices and m edges we construct an ensemble of random pure quantum states which describe a system composed of 2m subsystems. Each edge of the graph represents a bipartite, maximally entangled state. Each vertex represents a random unitary matrix generated according to the Haar measure, which describes the coupling between subsystems. Dividing all subsystems into two parts, one may study entanglement with respect to this partition. A general technique to derive an expression for the average entanglement entropy of random pure states associated with a given graph is presented. Our technique relies on Weingarten calculus and flow problems. We analyze the statistical properties of spectra of such random density matrices and show for which cases they are described by the free Poissonian (Marchenko-Pastur) distribution. We derive a discrete family of generalized, Fuss-Catalan distributions and explicitly construct graphs which lead to ensembles of random states characterized by these novel distributions of eigenvalues.

  10. An Empirical Method to Fuse Partially Overlapping State Vectors for Distributed State Estimation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijs, J.; Hanebeck, U.; Noack, B.

    2013-01-01

    State fusion is a method for merging multiple estimates of the same state into a single fused estimate. Dealing with multiple estimates is one of the main concerns in distributed state estimation, where an estimated value of the desired state vector is computed in each node of a networked system.

  11. International thermodynamic tables of the fluid state propylene (propene)

    CERN Document Server

    Angus, S; De Reuck, K M

    2013-01-01

    International Thermodynamic Tables of the Fluid State - 7 Propylene (Propene) is a compilation of internationally agreed values of the equilibrium thermodynamic properties of propylene. This book is composed of three chapters, and begins with the presentation of experimental result of thermodynamic studies compared with the equations used to generate the tables. The succeeding chapter deals with correlating equations for thermodynamic property determination of propylene. The last chapter provides the tabulations of the propylene's thermodynamic properties and constants. This book will prove

  12. Semiquantum-key distribution using less than four quantum states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou Xiangfu; Qiu Daowen; Li Lvzhou; Wu Lihua; Li Lvjun

    2009-01-01

    Recently Boyer et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 140501 (2007)] suggested the idea of semiquantum key distribution (SQKD) in which Bob is classical and they also proposed a semiquantum key distribution protocol (BKM2007). To discuss the security of the BKM2007 protocol, they proved that their protocol is completely robust. This means that nonzero information acquired by Eve on the information string implies the nonzero probability that the legitimate participants can find errors on the bits tested by this protocol. The BKM2007 protocol uses four quantum states to distribute a secret key. In this paper, we simplify their protocol by using less than four quantum states. In detail, we present five different SQKD protocols in which Alice sends three quantum states, two quantum states, and one quantum state, respectively. Also, we prove that all the five protocols are completely robust. In particular, we invent two completely robust SQKD protocols in which Alice sends only one quantum state. Alice uses a register in one SQKD protocol, but she does not use any register in the other. The information bit proportion of the SQKD protocol in which Alice sends only one quantum state but uses a register is the double as that in the BKM2007 protocol. Furthermore, the information bit rate of the SQKD protocol in which Alice sends only one quantum state and does not use any register is not lower than that of the BKM2007 protocol.

  13. Rogue States as the Stigmatized Members of International Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gleb V. Kotsur

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available At the turn of the century, the rogue state concept has become an integral part of the theory of international relations. However, even contemporary approaches lack the appropriate academic tools to reach a comprehensive understanding of the international community’s role in determining the normative frameworks of the proper behavior of the states as the main actors of international system, leaving the relations between global community and the rogues almost an uncharted territory on the international stage. The article considers the category of rogue states as “excluded” members of the international community through the sociological lens of “stigma” (E. Goffman and “labelling theory” (H. Becker and E. Lemert. Engaging an empirical case of Iraqi foreign policy during and after the Gulf War 1991, the author demonstrates two thresholds of the labelling state as the rogue: public initiation of the offender and self-fulfilling prophecy. It is possible to define some specific features of the outsider’s behavior on the international stage: the high level of cooperation among the representatives of the same category, “unsustainable bravado” as the set of fluid and inconsistent actions of the rogue state in foreign policy, finally, the tendency toward obtaining the “secondary gains”. Contrariwise, global community tends to pay greater attention to rogue states and exercise some discrimination practices on the ground of their outcast position in the world normative structure with the category of “wise” actors, for example China, being an exception from the common mainstream and maintaining close cooperation ties with rogues.

  14. Using internal discharge data in a distributed conceptual model to reduce uncertainty in streamflow simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, J.; Halldin, S.; Xu, C.; Lundin, L.

    2011-12-01

    Distributed hydrological models are important tools in water management as they account for the spatial variability of the hydrological data, as well as being able to produce spatially distributed outputs. They can directly incorporate and assess potential changes in the characteristics of our basins. A recognized problem for models in general is equifinality, which is only exacerbated for distributed models who tend to have a large number of parameters. We need to deal with the fundamentally ill-posed nature of the problem that such models force us to face, i.e. a large number of parameters and very few variables that can be used to constrain them, often only the catchment discharge. There is a growing but yet limited literature showing how the internal states of a distributed model can be used to calibrate/validate its predictions. In this paper, a distributed version of WASMOD, a conceptual rainfall runoff model with only three parameters, combined with a routing algorithm based on the high-resolution HydroSHEDS data was used to simulate the discharge in the Paso La Ceiba basin in Honduras. The parameter space was explored using Monte-Carlo simulations and the region of space containing the parameter-sets that were considered behavioral according to two different criteria was delimited using the geometric concept of alpha-shapes. The discharge data from five internal sub-basins was used to aid in the calibration of the model and to answer the following questions: Can this information improve the simulations at the outlet of the catchment, or decrease their uncertainty? Also, after reducing the number of model parameters needing calibration through sensitivity analysis: Is it possible to relate them to basin characteristics? The analysis revealed that in most cases the internal discharge data can be used to reduce the uncertainty in the discharge at the outlet, albeit with little improvement in the overall simulation results.

  15. Distribution state estimation based voltage control for distribution networks; Koordinierte Spannungsregelung anhand einer Zustandsschaetzung im Verteilnetz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diwold, Konrad; Yan, Wei [Fraunhofer IWES, Kassel (Germany); Braun, Martin [Fraunhofer IWES, Kassel (Germany); Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Energieuebertragung und Hochspannungstechnik (IEH)

    2012-07-01

    The increased integration of distributed energy units creates challenges for the operators of distribution systems. This is due to the fact that distribution systems that were initially designed for distributed consumption and central generation now face decentralized feed-in. One imminent problem associated with decentralised fee-in are local voltage violations in the distribution system, which are hard to handle via conventional voltage control strategies. This article proposes a new voltage control framework for distribution system operation. The framework utilizes reactive power of distributed energy units as well on-load tap changers to mitigate voltage problems in the network. Using an optimization-band the control strategy can be used in situations where network information is derived from distribution state estimators and thus holds some error. The control capabilities in combination with a distribution state estimator are tested using data from a real rural distribution network. The results are very promising, as voltage control is achieved fast and accurate, preventing a majority of the voltage violations during system operation under realistic system conditions. (orig.)

  16. State Electricity Regulatory Policy and Distributed Resources: Accommodating Distributed Resources in Wholesale Markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weston, F.; Harrington, C.; Moskovitz, D.; Shirley, W.; Cowart, R.; Sedano, R.

    2002-10-01

    Distributed resources can provide cost-effective reliability and energy services - in many cases, obviating the need for more expensive investments in wires and central station electricity generating facilities. Given the unique features of distributed resources, the challenge facing policymakers today is how to restructure wholesale markets for electricity and related services so as to reveal the full value that distributed resources can provide to the electric power system (utility grid). This report looks at the functions that distributed resources can perform and examines the barriers to them. It then identifies a series of policy and operational approaches to promoting DR in wholesale markets. This report is one in the State Electricity Regulatory Policy and Distributed Resources series developed under contract to NREL (see Annual Technical Status Report of the Regulatory Assistance Project: September 2000-September 2001, NREL/SR-560-32733). Other titles in this series are: (1) Distributed Resource Distribution Credit Pilot Programs - Revealing the Value to Consumers and Vendors, NREL/SR-560-32499; (2) Distributed Resources and Electric System Reliability, NREL/SR-560-32498; (3) Distribution System Cost Methodologies for Distributed Generation, NREL/SR-560-32500; (4) Distribution System Cost Methodologies for Distributed Generation Appendices, NREL/SR-560-32501

  17. Knitting distributed cluster-state ladders with spin chains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronke, R.; D' Amico, I. [Department of Physics, University of York, York YO10 5DD, United Kingdom. (United Kingdom); Spiller, T. P. [School of Physics and Astronomy, E C Stoner Building, University of Leeds, Leeds, LS2 9JT (United Kingdom)

    2011-09-15

    Recently there has been much study on the application of spin chains to quantum state transfer and communication. Here we discuss the utilization of spin chains (set up for perfect quantum state transfer) for the knitting of distributed cluster-state structures, between spin qubits repeatedly injected and extracted at the ends of the chain. The cluster states emerge from the natural evolution of the system across different excitation number sectors. We discuss the decohering effects of errors in the injection and extraction process as well as the effects of fabrication and random errors.

  18. Knitting distributed cluster-state ladders with spin chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ronke, R.; D'Amico, I.; Spiller, T. P.

    2011-01-01

    Recently there has been much study on the application of spin chains to quantum state transfer and communication. Here we discuss the utilization of spin chains (set up for perfect quantum state transfer) for the knitting of distributed cluster-state structures, between spin qubits repeatedly injected and extracted at the ends of the chain. The cluster states emerge from the natural evolution of the system across different excitation number sectors. We discuss the decohering effects of errors in the injection and extraction process as well as the effects of fabrication and random errors.

  19. The Wigner distribution function for squeezed vacuum superposed state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zayed, E.M.E.; Daoud, A.S.; AL-Laithy, M.A.; Naseem, E.N.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we construct the Wigner distribution function for a single-mode squeezed vacuum mixed-state which is a superposition of the squeezed vacuum state. This state is defined as a P-representation for the density operator. The obtained Wigner function depends, beside the phase-space variables, on the mean number of photons occupied by the coherent state of the mode. This mean number relates to the mean free path through a given relation, which enables us to measure this number experimentally by measuring the mean free path

  20. Distribution of Standard deviation of an observable among superposed states

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Chang-shui; Shao, Ting-ting; Li, Dong-mo

    2016-01-01

    The standard deviation (SD) quantifies the spread of the observed values on a measurement of an observable. In this paper, we study the distribution of SD among the different components of a superposition state. It is found that the SD of an observable on a superposition state can be well bounded by the SDs of the superposed states. We also show that the bounds also serve as good bounds on coherence of a superposition state. As a further generalization, we give an alternative definition of in...

  1. Rod internal pressure quantification and distribution analysis using Frapcon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jessee, Matthew Anderson [ORNL; Wieselquist, William A [ORNL; Ivanov, Kostadin [Pennsylvania State University, University Park

    2015-09-01

    This report documents work performed supporting the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy (NE) Fuel Cycle Technologies Used Fuel Disposition Campaign (UFDC) under work breakdown structure element 1.02.08.10, ST Analysis. In particular, this report fulfills the M4 milestone M4FT- 15OR0810036, Quantify effects of power uncertainty on fuel assembly characteristics, within work package FT-15OR081003 ST Analysis-ORNL. This research was also supported by the Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors (http://www.casl.gov), an Energy Innovation Hub (http://www.energy.gov/hubs) for Modeling and Simulation of Nuclear Reactors under U.S. Department of Energy Contract No. DE-AC05-00OR22725. The discharge rod internal pressure (RIP) and cladding hoop stress (CHS) distributions are quantified for Watts Bar Nuclear Unit 1 (WBN1) fuel rods by modeling core cycle design data, operation data (including modeling significant trips and downpowers), and as-built fuel enrichments and densities of each fuel rod in FRAPCON-3.5. A methodology is developed which tracks inter-cycle assembly movements and assembly batch fabrication information to build individual FRAPCON inputs for each evaluated WBN1 fuel rod. An alternate model for the amount of helium released from the zirconium diboride (ZrB2) integral fuel burnable absorber (IFBA) layer is derived and applied to FRAPCON output data to quantify the RIP and CHS for these types of fuel rods. SCALE/Polaris is used to quantify fuel rodspecific spectral quantities and the amount of gaseous fission products produced in the fuel for use in FRAPCON inputs. Fuel rods with ZrB2 IFBA layers (i.e., IFBA rods) are determined to have RIP predictions that are elevated when compared to fuel rod without IFBA layers (i.e., standard rods) despite the fact that IFBA rods often have reduced fill pressures and annular fuel pellets. The primary contributor to elevated RIP predictions at burnups less than and greater than 30 GWd

  2. Income Distribution Determinants and Inequality – International Comparison

    OpenAIRE

    Škare, Marinko; Stjepanovic, Saša

    2014-01-01

    This study shows the relationship between income distribution and other relevant economic variables and their impact on income distribution. Panel data analysis is used to study 200 world economies and identify main income determinants. Using such a large panel to study income distribution and inequality of household income make empirical results of this study significant. Paper results show there is a large discrepancy of income distribution measured by household consumption for different cl...

  3. Attachment states of mind among internationally adoptive and foster parents

    OpenAIRE

    RABY, K. LEE; YARGER, HEATHER A.; LIND, TERESA; FRALEY, R. CHRIS; LEERKES, ESTHER; DOZIER, MARY

    2017-01-01

    The first aim of the current study was to examine the latent structure of attachment states of mind as assessed by the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) among three groups of parents of children at risk for insecure attachments: parents who adopted internationally (N = 147), foster parents (N = 300), and parents living in poverty and involved with Child Protective Services (CPS; N = 284). Confirmatory factor analysis indicated the state of mind rating scales loaded on two factors reflecting ad...

  4. North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the United States, and International Legitimacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-22

    compared to other Allied 17Walter McDougall , Promised Land, Crusader State: The American Encounter with the World Since 1776 (Boston: Mariner Books, 1998...Russia–Georgia War was carried out largely under EU, Organization for Security and Cooperation, and United States leadership. Bush assisted...Operation Unified Protector provided a means for the international community to carry out R2P in order to protect the Libyan population from the

  5. International migration: The state-sovereignty-migration nexus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Chigudu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Commonly, international human migration is blamed for corroding states sovereignty, especially stemming from policy circles, academic literature and citizens of the host countries. This has attracted the attention of the media highlighting hazards of being a migrant, with some countries viewing migrants as enemies; and, Cuba provides a vivid case. Yet in other countries, migrants are viewed as important contributors to social and economic development, with Mexico, the Dominican Republic and India serving as examples. This article locates migrants in the framework of human rights as guided by international law without prejudice to the demands of state sovereignty, but linking the two in the context of developing international standards. Migration is seen as a feature of human history dating back to primordial time. Nothing appears surprising in the movement of people across borders, defining a migrant through emigration and immigration while giving due respect to the sovereignty of states, both sending and receiving. The article discusses the nexus between migrants and state sovereignty in order to highlight the mutual benefit grounded in international law. It attempts to portray a more positive image of the migrant person in light of the global world, socio-economic development and human rights fundamentals. The main challenge remains that of implementing human rights, which appear to be at the crossroads of individual rights and state sovereignty. The paper reveals how the challenge can be overcome while maintaining the structure of rights and freedoms without infringement on states’ sovereignty. It concludes that migrants remain on the periphery of effective protection from the vagaries of the citizens, partly because the state has a tendency to confine certain rights to its citizenry. States possess discretionary authority to control the ingress of foreign nationals into their territories though sometimes they fail to do that as evidenced

  6. Aggregation of Distributed Generation Assets in New York State: Appendix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2004-04-01

    This report appendix describes aspects of a project to demonstrate the technical and economic feasibility of aggregating distributed generating resources in New York State. This project demonstrates a system that allows distributed generation (DG) to participate in competitive markets in much the same way as large central-station power plants. This approach involves aggregating the distributed demand-side resources into a single transaction entity consistent with the requirements of the New York Independent System Operator (NYISO). This single entity then buys or sells capacity and energy (i.e., curtailment) in NYISO markets.

  7. Income Distribution Determinants and Inequality – International Comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinko Škare

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study shows the relationship between income distribution and other relevant economic variables and their impact on income distribution. Panel data analysis is used to study 200 world economies and identify main income determinants. Using such a large panel to study income distribution and inequality of household income make empirical results of this study significant. Paper results show there is a large discrepancy of income distribution measured by household consumption for different classes (income deciles. Inflation, unemployment, export, labour force, population and unemployment however are the main determinants between income distribution dynamics according to the result of this study.

  8. International News in United States Media: Myths, Stereotypes and Realities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lent, John A.

    Research conducted during the past 20 years reveals that, except for the "New York Times,""Christian Science Monitor," and "Wall Street Journal," United States daily newspapers are not known for outstanding international news coverage; that European, English, Canadian, Latin American, and Asian newspapers use…

  9. Facial Expression Recognition of Various Internal States via Manifold Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Young-Suk Shin

    2009-01-01

    Emotions are becoming increasingly important in human-centered interaction architectures. Recognition of facial expressions, which are central to human-computer interactions, seems natural and desirable. However, facial expressions include mixed emotions, continuous rather than discrete, which vary from moment to moment. This paper represents a novel method of recognizing facial expressions of various internal states via manifold learning, to achieve the aim of humancentered interaction studies. A critical review of widely used emotion models is described, then, facial expression features of various internal states via the locally linear embedding (LLE) are extracted. The recognition of facial expressions is created with the pleasure-displeasure and arousal-sleep dimensions in a two-dimensional model of emotion. The recognition result of various internal state expressions that mapped to the embedding space via the LLE algorithm can effectively represent the structural nature of the two-dimensional model of emotion. Therefore our research has established that the relationship between facial expressions of various internal states can be elaborated in the two-dimensional model of emotion, via the locally linear embedding algorithm.

  10. Fifth International Conference on Squeezed States and Uncertainty Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, D. (Editor); Janszky, J. (Editor); Kim, Y. S. (Editor); Man'ko, V. I. (Editor)

    1998-01-01

    The Fifth International Conference on Squeezed States and Uncertainty Relations was held at Balatonfured, Hungary, on 27-31 May 1997. This series was initiated in 1991 at the College Park Campus of the University of Maryland as the Workshop on Squeezed States and Uncertainty Relations. The scientific purpose of this series was to discuss squeezed states of light, but in recent years the scope is becoming broad enough to include studies of uncertainty relations and squeeze transformations in all branches of physics including quantum optics and foundations of quantum mechanics. Quantum optics will continue playing the pivotal role in the future, but the future meetings will include all branches of physics where squeeze transformations are basic. As the meeting attracted more participants and started covering more diversified subjects, the fourth meeting was called an international conference. The Fourth International Conference on Squeezed States and Uncertainty Relations was held in 1995 was hosted by Shanxi University in Taiyuan, China. The fifth meeting of this series, which was held at Balatonfured, Hungary, was also supported by the IUPAP. In 1999, the Sixth International Conference will be hosted by the University of Naples in 1999. The meeting will take place in Ravello near Naples.

  11. Dynamic shared state maintenance in distributed virtual environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamza-Lup, Felix George

    Advances in computer networks and rendering systems facilitate the creation of distributed collaborative environments in which the distribution of information at remote locations allows efficient communication. Particularly challenging are distributed interactive Virtual Environments (VE) that allow knowledge sharing through 3D information. The purpose of this work is to address the problem of latency in distributed interactive VE and to develop a conceptual model for consistency maintenance in these environments based on the participant interaction model. An area that needs to be explored is the relationship between the dynamic shared state and the interaction with the virtual entities present in the shared scene. Mixed Reality (MR) and VR environments must bring the human participant interaction into the loop through a wide range of electronic motion sensors, and haptic devices. Part of the work presented here defines a novel criterion for categorization of distributed interactive VE and introduces, as well as analyzes, an adaptive synchronization algorithm for consistency maintenance in such environments. As part of the work, a distributed interactive Augmented Reality (AR) testbed and the algorithm implementation details are presented. Currently the testbed is part of several research efforts at the Optical Diagnostics and Applications Laboratory including 3D visualization applications using custom built head-mounted displays (HMDs) with optical motion tracking and a medical training prototype for endotracheal intubation and medical prognostics. An objective method using quaternion calculus is applied for the algorithm assessment. In spite of significant network latency, results show that the dynamic shared state can be maintained consistent at multiple remotely located sites. In further consideration of the latency problems and in the light of the current trends in interactive distributed VE applications, we propose a hybrid distributed system architecture for

  12. Developing a Distributed Computing Architecture at Arizona State University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armann, Neil; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Development of Arizona State University's computing architecture, designed to ensure that all new distributed computing pieces will work together, is described. Aspects discussed include the business rationale, the general architectural approach, characteristics and objectives of the architecture, specific services, and impact on the university…

  13. The United States initiative for international radioactive source management (ISRM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naraine, N.; Karhnak, J.

    1999-01-01

    The United States takes seriously the potential problems from uncontrolled radioactive sources. To address these problems, the United States Department of State is leading the development of an initiative for International Radioactive Source Management (ISRM). The Department of State, through a number of Federal and state agencies, regulatory bodies and private industry, will endeavor to provide coordinated support to the international community, particularly through IAEA, to assist in the development and implementation of risk-based clearance levels to support import/export of radioactive contaminated metals and the tracking, management, identification, remediation, and disposition of 'lost sources' entering nation states and targeted industries. The United States believes that the international control of radioactive sources is critical in avoiding wide-spread contamination of the world metal supply. Thus the initiative has four objectives: (1) Protect sources from becoming lost (Tracking management); (2) Identify primary locations where sources have been lost (Stop future losses); (3) Locate lost sources (monitor and retrieve); and (4) Educate and train (deploy knowledge and technology). A number of efforts already underway in the United States support the overall initiative. The EPA has provided a grant to the Conference of Radiation Program Control Directors (CRCPD) to develop a nation-wide program for the disposition of orphaned radioactive sources. This program now has internet visibility and a toll-free telephone number to call for assistance in the disposal of sources. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), the Department of Energy (DOE), and other government agencies as well as private companies are assisting CRCPD in this program. The NRC has begun a program to improve control of radioactive sources in the United States, and also intends to promulgate a regulation defining conditions for the release of materials from licensed facilities. The DOE is

  14. On the continuity of the stationary state distribution of DPCM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naraghi-Pour, Morteza; Neuhoff, David L.

    1990-03-01

    Continuity and singularity properties of the stationary state distribution of differential pulse code modulation (DPCM) are explored. Two-level DPCM (i.e., delta modulation) operating on a first-order autoregressive source is considered, and it is shown that, when the magnitude of the DPCM prediciton coefficient is between zero and one-half, the stationary state distribution is singularly continuous; i.e., it is not discrete but concentrates on an uncountable set with a Lebesgue measure of zero. Consequently, it cannot be represented with a probability density function. For prediction coefficients with magnitude greater than or equal to one-half, the distribution is pure, i.e., either absolutely continuous and representable with a density function, or singular. This problem is compared to the well-known and still substantially unsolved problem of symmetric Bernoulli convolutions.

  15. Three state quantum key distribution for small keys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batuwantudawe, J.; Boileau, J.-C.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Quantum key distribution (QKD) protocols allow two parties, Alice and Bob, to establish secure keys. The most well-known protocol is BB84, using four distinct states. Recently, Phoenix et al. proposed a three state protocol. We explain the protocol and discuss its security proof. The three state protocol also has an interesting structure that allows for errors estimation from the inconclusive results (i.e.. where Alice and Bob choose different bases). This eliminates the need for sampling, potentially useful when qubits are limited. We discuss the effectiveness of this approach compared to BB84 for the case where a good error estimate is required. (author)

  16. 76 FR 28954 - International Conservation and Management Measures Recognized by the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-19

    ... International Conservation and Management Measures Recognized by the United States AGENCY: National Marine... international conservation and management measures recognized by the United States. To fulfill this requirement, a list of agreements resulting in international conservation and management measures was first...

  17. Network integration of distributed generation: international research and development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, J.

    2003-07-01

    This report provides information on privately and publicly funded research and development programmes in distributed generation (DG) in the USA, the European Union and Japan. Protection systems for the installation of DG, power electronics for the connection of DG to electricity distribution systems, reliability modelling, power quality issues, connection standards, and simulation and computer modelling are examined. The relevance of the programmes to the UK is considered.

  18. Distribution of specialized care centers in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Henry E; Yealy, Donald M

    2012-11-01

    As a recommended strategy for optimally managing critical illness, regionalization of care involves matching the needs of the target population with available hospital resources. The national supply and characteristics of hospitals providing specialized critical care services is currently unknown. We seek to characterize the current distribution of specialized care centers in the United States. Using public data linked with the American Hospital Association directory and US Census, we identified US general acute hospitals providing specialized care for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) (≥40 annual primary percutaneous coronary interventions reported in Medicare Hospital Compare), stroke (The Joint Commission certified stroke centers), trauma (American College of Surgeons or state-designated, adult or pediatric, level I or II), and pediatric critical care (presence of a pediatric ICU) services. We determined the characteristics and state-level distribution and density of specialized care centers (centers per state and centers per state population). Among 4,931 acute care hospitals in the United States, 1,325 (26.9%) provided one of the 4 defined specialized care services, including 574 STEMI, 763 stroke, 508 trauma, and 457 pediatric critical care centers. Approximately half of the 1,325 hospitals provided 2 or more specialized services, and one fifth provided 3 or 4 specialized services. There was variation in the number of each type of specialized care center in each state: STEMI median 7 interquartile range (IQR 2 to 14), stroke 8 (IQR 3 to 17), trauma 6 (IQR 3 to 11), pediatric specialized care 6 (IQR 3 to 11). Similarly, there was variation in the number of each type of specialized care center per population: STEMI median 1 center per 585,135 persons (IQR 418,729 to 696,143), stroke 1 center per 412,188 persons (IQR 321,604 to 572,387), trauma 1 center per 610,589 persons (IQR 406,192 to 917,588), and pediatric critical care 1 center per 665

  19. The Rise of the Welfare State in International Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schouenborg, Laust

    2015-01-01

    In this article I seek to develop a case for viewing the welfare state as a primary institution in international society. This is with particular reference to Norden (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden), where in the course of the 1930s, and particularly in the post-1945 era, the welfare...... state was elevated to a core principle of legitimacy, largely defining the idea of nationhood for these countries. Furthermore, I will attempt to show how the adoption of this principle of legitimacy conditioned the Nordic countries’ interpretation of a number of other primary institutions...... in international society such as diplomacy, war and trade. A key contribution of this approach is that it aspires not only to examine the evolution of one institution in isolation, as has often been attempted in English School scholarship, but to actively explore how institutions interact with each other....

  20. International Disease Surveillance: United States Government Goals and Paths Forward

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    legal framework for improving global public health—were revised to require states parties to build and maintain the capacity to detect and respond to...threats. In 2005, the International Health Regulations (IHRs)—a legal framework for improving global public health—were revised to require that...mil $68.3 mil $55.0 mil $186.3 mil DoD Total $234.7 mil $201.6 mil $239.7 mil $676.0 mil State/ USAID Biosecurity Engagement Program ( BEP )5 $27.0

  1. Continuous Variable Quantum Key Distribution Using Polarized Coherent States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidiella-Barranco, A.; Borelli, L. F. M.

    We discuss a continuous variables method of quantum key distribution employing strongly polarized coherent states of light. The key encoding is performed using the variables known as Stokes parameters, rather than the field quadratures. Their quantum counterpart, the Stokes operators Ŝi (i=1,2,3), constitute a set of non-commuting operators, being the precision of simultaneous measurements of a pair of them limited by an uncertainty-like relation. Alice transmits a conveniently modulated two-mode coherent state, and Bob randomly measures one of the Stokes parameters of the incoming beam. After performing reconciliation and privacy amplification procedures, it is possible to distill a secret common key. We also consider a non-ideal situation, in which coherent states with thermal noise, instead of pure coherent states, are used for encoding.

  2. The international state of affairs in marine safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benkert, W.M.

    1978-01-01

    The three-fold objective of marine safety is examined with emphasis on international cooperation as a means of achievement. In this respect, the recent and present activities of the Intergovernmental Maritime Consultative organization are reviewed by looking at the accomplishments and goals of several subcommittees of the Maritime Safety Committee. The United States program for commercial vessel safety is briefly discussed along with a comment on the recent Tanker Safety initiatives

  3. Internal transport barrier physics for steady state operation in tokamaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakatani, Masahiro [Kyoto Univ., Graduate School of Engineering, Uji, Kyoto (Japan); Fukuda, Takeshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment; Connor, Jack W. [Culham Science Centre, EURATOM/UKAEA Association (United Kingdom); Garbet, Xavier [Culham Science Centre, EFDA-JET CSU (United Kingdom); Gormezano, Claude [Associazone EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione C.R. Frascati (Italy); Mukhovatov, Vladimir [ITER Naka Joint Work Site, ITER Physics Unit, Naka, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2003-07-01

    Experimental results for the ITB (Internal Transport Barrier) formation and sustainment are compiled in a unified manner to find common features of ITBs in tokamaks. Global scaling laws for threshold power to obtain the ITBs are discussed. Theoretical models for plasmas with ITBs are summarized from stability and transport point of view. Finally possibility to obtain steady-state ITBs will be discussed in addition to extrapolation to ITER. (author)

  4. Prosecuting Crimes of International Concern: Islamic State at the ICC?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cóman Kenny

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The rise of Islamic State (IS has fundamentally altered the conception of terrorism, a development which international criminal law is arguably unprepared for. Given the scale and gravity of the group’s crimes, questions abound as to how those responsible will be held accountable. In the absence of significant domestic prosecutions and short of the establishment of a dedicated accountability mechanism, the International Criminal Court (ICC stands as the forum of last resort in which IS members could stand trial. Such a proposition is not without significant challenges, however. This article addresses some key issues facing any potential prosecutions from the perspective of: (i jurisdiction; (ii applicable crimes; and (iii modes of liability. First, as Syria, Iraq, and Libya are not States Parties to the Rome Statute, the available avenues for asserting jurisdiction will be assessed, namely: a Security Council referral; jurisdiction over so called ‘foreign fighters’ who are State Party nationals; and jurisdiction over attacks on the territory of a State Party and whether they could be considered part of a broader series of criminal acts in IS held territory. Second, as there is no crime of terrorism in the Rome Statute, the question of prosecuting acts encapsulated in a systematic campaign of terror through existing provisions will be assessed. Third, the regime of accountability at the ICC will be analysed in light of IS’s purported structure and the crimes with which it stands accused. Focus will be directed to those responsible for the propagation of genocidal propaganda and individuals who provide aid or assistance to IS which contributes to its crimes. These questions are far from theoretical. The UN has designated IS a threat to international peace and security. There follows an expectation that international criminal law should play a role in tackling one of the major criminal concerns of our time and ensure that impunity for those

  5. Third International Workshop on Squeezed States and Uncertainty Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, D. (Editor); Kim, Y. S. (Editor); Rubin, Morton H. (Editor); Shih, Yan-Hua (Editor); Zachary, Woodford W. (Editor)

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of these workshops is to bring together an international selection of scientists to discuss the latest developments in Squeezed States in various branches of physics, and in the understanding of the foundations of quantum mechanics. At the third workshop, special attention was given to the influence that quantum optics is having on our understanding of quantum measurement theory. The fourth meeting in this series will be held in the People's Republic of China.

  6. New United States policies regarding international nuclear cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, H.R. Jr.

    1981-10-01

    This paper discusses the United States policy on international nuclear power development in the light of the priorities established by President Reagan in the guidelines for his Administration's nuclear co-operation policy. The aim is to establish a framework allowing for co-operation in peaceful nuclear development while remaining committed to the objective of preventing the further spread of nuclear weapons, in particular by supporting the Non-Proliferation Treaty, the IAEA Safeguards System and the Tlatelolco Treaty (NEA) [fr

  7. Modeling of a Pouch Lithium Ion Battery Using a Distributed Parameter Equivalent Circuit for Internal Non-Uniformity Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dafen Chen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A battery model that has the capability of analyzing the internal non-uniformity of local state variables, including the state of charge (SOC, temperature and current density, is proposed in this paper. The model is built using a set of distributed parameter equivalent circuits. In order to validate the accuracy of the model, a customized battery with embedded T-type thermocouple sensors inside the battery is tested. The simulated temperature conforms well with the measured temperature at each test point, and the maximum difference is less than 1 °C. Then, the model is applied to analyze the evolution processes of local state variables’ distribution inside the battery during the discharge process. The simulation results demonstrate drastic distribution changes of the local state variables inside the battery during the discharge process. The internal non-uniformity is originally caused by the resistance of positive and negative foils, while also influenced by the change rate of open circuit voltage and the total resistance of the battery. Hence, the factors that affect the distribution of the local state variables are addressed.

  8. Photoelastic Studies of Internal Stress Distributions of Unidirectional Composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-12-01

    34 verre a, If t nece, e.ry and Identify by block number) ..... ’Io-dimensional phutoelastli, models were used to determine internal taading-. and...Secretary of Defense for Research and Engineering, le Pe, ,tagon,, Uashington, D.C. 10301 ]2 Commandr, T)efens. lecn, ical Information Center, Cameron

  9. An Analysis of Freight Forwarder Operations in an International Distribution Channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    44 3. International Marketing Mix ....................... 45 4. Security Assistance Distribution Channel .......... 69 5...an item is ultimately derived from the interaction of variables in the marketing mix . Of those variables, the distribution functions seem to allow the...Component of the Marketing Mix ,"Proceedings, NCPDM Fall Meeting, National council of Physical Distribution Management, San Francisco, CA., 1982. 7

  10. Milk production and distribution in nine western states in the 1950s

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, G.M.; Whicker, F.W.

    1987-03-01

    This report provides information on milk distribution and dairy cattle feeding practices in Nevada, Utah and portions of seven other adjacent states during the 1950s. The information was gathered to support the US Department of Energy's ''Offsite Radiation Exposure Review Project (ORERP).'' This project is charged with providing radiation dose estimates for residents of Nevada, Utah, and surrounding states from nuclear weapons testing conducted at the Nevada Test Site from 1951 through 1962. The information on milk production and distribution is essential for assessment of the internal organ doses received by people as a result of ingesting radioactive fallout-contaminated foods. The information is used as input data for Colorado State University's PATHWAY computer code which estimates the ingestion of twenty radionuclides by people relative to a given level of fallout deposition

  11. Milk production and distribution in nine western states in the 1950s

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, G.M.; Whicker, F.W.

    1987-03-01

    This report provides information on milk distribution and dairy cattle feeding practices in Nevada, Utah and portions of seven other adjacent states during the 1950s. The information was gathered to support the US Department of Energy's ''Offsite Radiation Exposure Review Project (ORERP).'' This project is charged with providing radiation dose estimates for residents of Nevada, Utah, and surrounding states from nuclear weapons testing conducted at the Nevada Test Site from 1951 through 1962. The information on milk production and distribution is essential for assessment of the internal organ doses received by people as a result of ingesting radioactive fallout-contaminated foods. The information is used as input data for Colorado State University's PATHWAY computer code which estimates the ingestion of twenty radionuclides by people relative to a given level of fallout deposition.

  12. The United States and international climate cooperation: International 'pull' versus domestic 'push'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bang, Guri; Froyn, Camilla Bretteville; Hovi, Jon; Menz, Fredric C.

    2007-01-01

    The US government is being pressured by both international and domestic influences to re-engage in international climate control. This paper considers whether the international 'pull' and the domestic 'push' will be strong enough to accomplish this. First, we discuss whether changes in the architecture of the current climate regime might induce the United States to re-engage at the international level. We argue that the United States is unlikely to rejoin any global climate regime that is based on the Kyoto architecture, even if Kyoto were to be 'reformed'. Second, we discuss whether domestic political developments might eventually cause the United States to re-engage. We conclude that US re-engagement is likely to require the emergence of a new climate regime that basically extends US regulation to other countries. However, the forging of a unified US climate policy is still in the making. Furthermore, a new regime can gain widespread participation only if the Kyoto countries accept the idea of replacing Kyoto with some alternative architecture, which seems unlikely in the near future

  13. The United States and international climate cooperation: international ''pull'' versus domestic ''push''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bang, G.; Froyn, C.B.; Hovi, J.; Menz, F.C.; Clarkson University, Potsdam, NY

    2007-01-01

    The US government is being pressured by both international and domestic influences to re-engage in international climate control. This paper considers whether the international ''pull'' and the domestic ''push'' will be strong enough to accomplish this. First, we discuss whether changes in the architecture of the current climate regime might induce the United States to re-engage at the international level. We argue that the United States is unlikely to rejoin any global climate regime that is based on the Kyoto architecture, even if Kyoto were to be ''reformed''. Second, we discuss whether domestic political developments might eventually cause the United States to re-engage. We conclude that US re-engagement is likely to require the emergence of a new climate regime that basically extends US regulation to other countries. However, the forging of a unified US climate policy is still in the making. Furthermore, a new regime can gain widespread participation only if the Kyoto countries accept the idea of replacing Kyoto with some alternative architecture, which seems unlikely in the near future. (author)

  14. State-Level Comparison of Processes and Timelines for Distributed Photovoltaic Interconnection in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ardani, K. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Davidson, C. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Margolis, R. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Nobler, E. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-01-01

    This report presents results from an analysis of distributed photovoltaic (PV) interconnection and deployment processes in the United States. Using data from more than 30,000 residential (up to 10 kilowatts) and small commercial (10-50 kilowatts) PV systems, installed from 2012 to 2014, we assess the range in project completion timelines nationally (across 87 utilities in 16 states) and in five states with active solar markets (Arizona, California, New Jersey, New York, and Colorado).

  15. Fluid moderator control system reactor internals distribution system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fensterer, H.F.; Klassen, W.E.; Veronesi, L.; Boyle, D.E.; Salton, R.B.

    1987-01-01

    This patent describes a spectral shift pressurized water nuclear reactor employing a low neutron moderating fluid for the spectral shift including a reactor pressure vessel, a core comprising a plurality of fuel assemblies, a core support plate, apparatus comprising means for penetrating the reactor vessel for introducing the moderating fluid into the reactor vessel. Means associated with the core support plate for directly distributing the moderating fluid to and from the fuel assemblies comprises at least one inlet flow channel in the core plate; branch inlet feed lines connect to the inlet flow channel in the core plate; vertical inlet flow lines flow connected to the branch inlet feed lines; each vertical flow line communicates with a fuel assembly; the distribution means further comprise lines serving as return flow lines, each of which is connected to one of the fuel assemblies; branch exit flow lines in the core plate flow connected to the return flow lines of the fuel assembly; and at least one outlet flow channel flow connected to the branch exit flow lines; and a flow port interposed between the penetration means and the distribution means for flow connecting the penetration means with the distribution means

  16. Hospital nurses' individual priorities, internal psychological states and work motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toode, K; Routasalo, P; Helminen, M; Suominen, T

    2014-09-01

    This study looks to describe the relationships between hospital nurses' individual priorities, internal psychological states and their work motivation. Connections between hospital nurses' work-related needs, values and work motivation are essential for providing safe and high quality health care. However, there is insufficient empirical knowledge concerning these connections for the practice development. A cross-sectional empirical research study was undertaken. A total of 201 registered nurses from all types of Estonian hospitals filled out an electronic self-reported questionnaire. Descriptive statistics, Mann-Whitney, Kruskal-Wallis and Spearman's correlation were used for data analysis. In individual priorities, higher order needs strength were negatively correlated with age and duration of service. Regarding nurses' internal psychological states, central hospital nurses had less sense of meaningfulness of work. Nurses' individual priorities (i.e. their higher order needs strength and shared values with the organization) correlated with their work motivation. Their internal psychological states (i.e. their experienced meaningfulness of work, experienced responsibility for work outcomes and their knowledge of results) correlated with intrinsic work motivation. Nurses who prioritize their higher order needs are more motivated to work. The more their own values are compatible with those of the organization, the more intrinsically motivated they are likely to be. Nurses' individual achievements, autonomy and training are key factors which influence their motivation to work. The small sample size and low response rate of the study limit the direct transferability of the findings to the wider nurse population, so further research is needed. This study highlights the need and importance to support nurses' professional development and self-determination, in order to develop and retain motivated nurses. It also indicates a need to value both nurses and nursing in

  17. Improving Distribution Resiliency with Microgrids and State and Parameter Estimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuffner, Francis K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Williams, Tess L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Schneider, Kevin P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Elizondo, Marcelo A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Sun, Yannan [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Liu, Chen-Ching [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Xu, Yin [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Gourisetti, Sri Nikhil Gup [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-09-30

    Modern society relies on low-cost reliable electrical power, both to maintain industry, as well as provide basic social services to the populace. When major disturbances occur, such as Hurricane Katrina or Hurricane Sandy, the nation’s electrical infrastructure can experience significant outages. To help prevent the spread of these outages, as well as facilitating faster restoration after an outage, various aspects of improving the resiliency of the power system are needed. Two such approaches are breaking the system into smaller microgrid sections, and to have improved insight into the operations to detect failures or mis-operations before they become critical. Breaking the system into smaller sections of microgrid islands, power can be maintained in smaller areas where distribution generation and energy storage resources are still available, but bulk power generation is no longer connected. Additionally, microgrid systems can maintain service to local pockets of customers when there has been extensive damage to the local distribution system. However, microgrids are grid connected a majority of the time and implementing and operating a microgrid is much different than when islanded. This report discusses work conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory that developed improvements for simulation tools to capture the characteristics of microgrids and how they can be used to develop new operational strategies. These operational strategies reduce the cost of microgrid operation and increase the reliability and resilience of the nation’s electricity infrastructure. In addition to the ability to break the system into microgrids, improved observability into the state of the distribution grid can make the power system more resilient. State estimation on the transmission system already provides great insight into grid operations and detecting abnormal conditions by leveraging existing measurements. These transmission-level approaches are expanded to using

  18. Measurement of probability distributions for internal stresses in dislocated crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkinson, Angus J.; Tarleton, Edmund; Vilalta-Clemente, Arantxa; Collins, David M. [Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PH (United Kingdom); Jiang, Jun; Britton, T. Benjamin [Department of Materials, Imperial College London, Royal School of Mines, Exhibition Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2014-11-03

    Here, we analyse residual stress distributions obtained from various crystal systems using high resolution electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) measurements. Histograms showing stress probability distributions exhibit tails extending to very high stress levels. We demonstrate that these extreme stress values are consistent with the functional form that should be expected for dislocated crystals. Analysis initially developed by Groma and co-workers for X-ray line profile analysis and based on the so-called “restricted second moment of the probability distribution” can be used to estimate the total dislocation density. The generality of the results are illustrated by application to three quite different systems, namely, face centred cubic Cu deformed in uniaxial tension, a body centred cubic steel deformed to larger strain by cold rolling, and hexagonal InAlN layers grown on misfitting sapphire and silicon carbide substrates.

  19. preparation and distribution of microfiche in International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kajiro, Tadashi; Habara, Tadashi

    1981-01-01

    INIS started the activity in 1970 aiming at the unified treatment of atomic energy literatures in the world. At present, 66 countries and 13 international organs participate in it, and the INIS Section in IAEA supervises the system. The participants treat the atomic energy literatures published in respective countries and send to the INIS Section in the form of magnetic tapes and others. These informations are returned to respective countries through the publication of ''INIS Atomindex'' and the distribution of the magnetic tapes for mechanized retrieval. Recently, the number of abstracted papers reached about 80000/year. One of the features of this system is to utilize microfiche as the medium of literature distribution, and the literatures which cannot be bought through bookstores are available in the form of microfiche from the INIS Clearing House. The microfiche before the establishment of INIS, the troubles concerning the equipment and the problems of the originals to make microfiche, the change of duplicating films and the conversion of frame number, the adoption of the standard for microfiche production and quality inspection, the second change of duplicating films, the recent improvement of microfiche, and the present state of the production and distribution of microfiche in the INIS Section are described. (Kako, I.)

  20. ATTRIBUTION OF CONDUCT TO A STATE-THE SUBJECTIVE ELEMENT OF THE INTERNATIONAL RESPONSIBILITY OT THE STATE FOR INTERNATIONALLY WRONGFUL ACTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FELICIA MAXIM

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to establish responsibility of states for internationally wrongful act, two elements are identified. First, the conduct in question must be attributable to the State under international law. Secondly, for responsibility to attach to the act of the State, the conduct must constitute a breach of an international legal obligation in force for that State at that time. For particular conduct to be characterized as an internationally wrongful act, it must first be attributable to the State. The State is a real organized entity, a legal person with full authority to act under international law. But to recognize this is not to deny the elementary fact that the State cannot act of itself. States can act only by and through their agents and representatives. In determining what constitutes an organ of a State for the purposes of responsibility, the internal law and practice of each State are of prime importance. The structure of the State and the functions of its organs are not, in general, governed by international law. It is a matter for each State to decide how its administration is to be structured and which functions are to be assumed by government. But while the State remains free to determine its internal structure and functions through its own law and practice, international law has a distinct role. Conduct is thereby attributed to the State as a subject of international law and not as a subject of internal law. The State as a subject of international law is held responsible for the conduct of all the organs, instrumentalities and officials which form part of its organization and act in that capacity, whether or not they have separate legal personality under its internal law.

  1. INNOVATIVE ASPECTS OF DEVELOPMENT OF STATE INTERNAL FINANCIAL CONTROL AND INTERNAL FINANCIAL AUDIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. P. Voronchenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the innovative aspects of development of state internal fi nancial control and internal fi nancial audit in terms of the budgeting focused on result. A mechanism for implementing the functions of the Supervisory bodies in order to ensure the effi cient use of budgetary funds and eff ectiveness of budget expenditures. The main purpose of the article is justifi cation of implementing systems of internal fi nancial control and internal fi nancial audit in the structures of the major administrators and recipients of budgetary funds, with the allocation of the basic tools that ensure the functioning of the control mechanism, the combination of control procedures and sequence of their implementation. Methodological base of research is the generalization of domestic and foreign experience of internal fi nancial control and internal fi nancial audit, refl ecting an objective law and the necessity of development of state fi nancial control system in the conditions of innovative economy. The result of the implementation of the proposed mechanism and instruments for its implementation in key spending units and recipients of budget funds should be to ensure the eff ectiveness of the implementation of government programmes and projects. Signifi cance of the research contained in the article problems and their solutions is to ensure the effectiveness of the regulatory authorities at all stages of movement of budgetary funds and effective implementation of their Manager and recipient assigned to them socio-economic functions.

  2. Distributed and decentralized state estimation in gas networks as distributed parameter systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadian Behrooz, Hesam; Boozarjomehry, R Bozorgmehry

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, a framework for distributed and decentralized state estimation in high-pressure and long-distance gas transmission networks (GTNs) is proposed. The non-isothermal model of the plant including mass, momentum and energy balance equations are used to simulate the dynamic behavior. Due to several disadvantages of implementing a centralized Kalman filter for large-scale systems, the continuous/discrete form of extended Kalman filter for distributed and decentralized estimation (DDE) has been extended for these systems. Accordingly, the global model is decomposed into several subsystems, called local models. Some heuristic rules are suggested for system decomposition in gas pipeline networks. In the construction of local models, due to the existence of common states and interconnections among the subsystems, the assimilation and prediction steps of the Kalman filter are modified to take the overlapping and external states into account. However, dynamic Riccati equation for each subsystem is constructed based on the local model, which introduces a maximum error of 5% in the estimated standard deviation of the states in the benchmarks studied in this paper. The performance of the proposed methodology has been shown based on the comparison of its accuracy and computational demands against their counterparts in centralized Kalman filter for two viable benchmarks. In a real life network, it is shown that while the accuracy is not significantly decreased, the real-time factor of the state estimation is increased by a factor of 10. Copyright © 2015 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Quantifying evenly distributed states in exclusion and nonexclusion processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, Benjamin J.; Landman, Kerry A.

    2011-04-01

    Spatial-point data sets, generated from a wide range of physical systems and mathematical models, can be analyzed by counting the number of objects in equally sized bins. We find that the bin counts are related to the Pólya distribution. New measures are developed which indicate whether or not a spatial data set, generated from an exclusion process, is at its most evenly distributed state, the complete spatial randomness (CSR) state. To this end, we define an index in terms of the variance between the bin counts. Limiting values of the index are determined when objects have access to the entire domain and when there are subregions of the domain that are inaccessible to objects. Using three case studies (Lagrangian fluid particles in chaotic laminar flows, cellular automata agents in discrete models, and biological cells within colonies), we calculate the indexes and verify that our theoretical CSR limit accurately predicts the state of the system. These measures should prove useful in many biological applications.

  4. International thermodynamic tables of the fluid state helium-4

    CERN Document Server

    de Reuck, K M; McCarty, R D

    2013-01-01

    International Thermodynamic Tables of the Fluid State Helium-4 presents the IUPAC Thermodynamic Tables for the thermodynamic properties of helium. The IUPAC Thermodynamic Tables Project has therefore encouraged the critical analysis of the available thermodynamic measurements for helium and their synthesis into tables. This book is divided into three chapters. The first chapter discusses the experimental results and compares with the equations used to generate the tables. These equations are supplemented by a vapor pressure equation, which represents the 1958 He-4 scale of temperature that is

  5. Chlorine international thermodynamic tables of the fluid state

    CERN Document Server

    Angus, S; de Reuck, K M

    1985-01-01

    Chlorine: International Thermodynamic Tables of the Fluid State-8 is a four-chapter book that covers available and estimated data on chlorine; estimation of the element's properties; the correlating equations for the element; and how the tabulated properties are calculated from chosen equation. The tables in this book give the volume, entropy, enthalpy, isobaric heat capacity, compression factor, fugacity/pressure ratio, Joule-Thomson coefficient, ratio of the heat capacities, and speed of sound as a function of pressure and temperature. Given in the tables as well are the pressure, entropy, i

  6. China's international trade and air pollution in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jintai; Pan, Da; Davis, Steven J; Zhang, Qiang; He, Kebin; Wang, Can; Streets, David G; Wuebbles, Donald J; Guan, Dabo

    2014-02-04

    China is the world's largest emitter of anthropogenic air pollutants, and measurable amounts of Chinese pollution are transported via the atmosphere to other countries, including the United States. However, a large fraction of Chinese emissions is due to manufacture of goods for foreign consumption. Here, we analyze the impacts of trade-related Chinese air pollutant emissions on the global atmospheric environment, linking an economic-emission analysis and atmospheric chemical transport modeling. We find that in 2006, 36% of anthropogenic sulfur dioxide, 27% of nitrogen oxides, 22% of carbon monoxide, and 17% of black carbon emitted in China were associated with production of goods for export. For each of these pollutants, about 21% of export-related Chinese emissions were attributed to China-to-US export. Atmospheric modeling shows that transport of the export-related Chinese pollution contributed 3-10% of annual mean surface sulfate concentrations and 0.5-1.5% of ozone over the western United States in 2006. This Chinese pollution also resulted in one extra day or more of noncompliance with the US ozone standard in 2006 over the Los Angeles area and many regions in the eastern United States. On a daily basis, the export-related Chinese pollution contributed, at a maximum, 12-24% of sulfate concentrations over the western United States. As the United States outsourced manufacturing to China, sulfate pollution in 2006 increased in the western United States but decreased in the eastern United States, reflecting the competing effect between enhanced transport of Chinese pollution and reduced US emissions. Our findings are relevant to international efforts to reduce transboundary air pollution.

  7. Charge state distribution of ionic kryptons after photoionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Xiaohong

    1992-01-01

    Monochromatic X-rays from the 2.3 GeV synchrotron at University Bonn (Germany) are employed for inner shell excitation of krypton. Various ionic kryptons and a number of electrons are produced due to photoionization. In order to study the equilibrium charge state distribution of ionic kryptons, a time of flight mass spectrometer is set up and used to measure the resulting ionic charge spectra with photo energies near the L 1 - , L 2 - and L 3 - absorption edges of krypton. The energy dependence of relative probabilities is presented

  8. Quantum key distribution session with 16-dimensional photonic states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etcheverry, S.; Cañas, G.; Gómez, E. S.; Nogueira, W. A. T.; Saavedra, C.; Xavier, G. B.; Lima, G.

    2013-01-01

    The secure transfer of information is an important problem in modern telecommunications. Quantum key distribution (QKD) provides a solution to this problem by using individual quantum systems to generate correlated bits between remote parties, that can be used to extract a secret key. QKD with D-dimensional quantum channels provides security advantages that grow with increasing D. However, the vast majority of QKD implementations has been restricted to two dimensions. Here we demonstrate the feasibility of using higher dimensions for real-world quantum cryptography by performing, for the first time, a fully automated QKD session based on the BB84 protocol with 16-dimensional quantum states. Information is encoded in the single-photon transverse momentum and the required states are dynamically generated with programmable spatial light modulators. Our setup paves the way for future developments in the field of experimental high-dimensional QKD. PMID:23897033

  9. Stationary Distribution and Thermodynamic Relation in Nonequilibrium Steady States

    KAUST Repository

    Komatsu, Teruhisa S.; Nakagawa, Naoko; Sasa, Shin-ichi; Tasaki, Hal; Ito, Nobuyasu

    2010-01-01

    We describe our recent attempts toward statistical mechanics and thermodynamics for nonequilibrium steady states (NESS) realized, e.g., in a heat conducting system. Our first result is a simple expression of the probability distribution (of microscopic states) of a NESS. Our second result is a natural extension of the thermodynamic Clausius relation and a definition of an accompanying entropy in NESS. This entropy coincides with the normalization constant appearing in the above mentioned microscopic expression of NESS, and has an expression similar to the Shannon entropy (with a further symmetrization). The NESS entropy proposed here is a clearly defined measurable quantity even in a system with a large degrees of freedom. We numerically measure the NESS entropy in hardsphere fluid systems with a heat current, by observing energy exchange between the system and the heat baths when the temperatures of the baths are changed according to specified protocols.

  10. Radionuclides distribution in internal organs of wild animals in alienation zone of Chernobyl NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorbatova, T.A.; Kudryashov, V.P.; Mironov, V.P.

    2002-01-01

    Activities of caesium 137, strontium 90, plutonium isotopes and americium 241 are experimentally defined in the internal organs of bearer and wolf alienation zone of Chernobyl NPP. Radionuclides distribution in the internal organs of wild animals is defined by destruction of nuclear fuel particles

  11. Selective Internal Heat Distribution in Modified Trombe Wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szyszka, Jerzy; Kogut, Janusz; Skrzypczak, Izabela; Kokoszka, Wanda

    2017-12-01

    At present, the requirements for thermal insulation of the external walls in buildings are being increased. There is a need to reduce energy consumption for heating rooms during the winter season. This may be achieved by increasing the thermal resistance of the outer partitions, using solutions that utilize either recuperation or solar radiation. The most popular systems include either solar collectors, or heat pump links or ground exchangers. Trombe walls (TW) are a very promising passive heating system, which requires little or no effort to operate, and may be very convenient in different climate conditions. A typical TW consists of a masonry wall painted a dark, heat absorbing paint colour and faced with a single or double layer of glass. The principle of operation is based on the photothermal conversion of solar radiation. There are various modifications of TW. They may improve the energy efficiency in relation to the climate conditions in which they operate. The hybrid solutions are also known. The efficiency of walls is related to the use of proper materials. In TW, the compromise should be sought between the thermal resistance and the ability to distribute heat from the absorbed energy of solar radiation. The paper presents an overview of the most commonly used solutions and discusses its own concept dedicated to the climate conditions of Central Europe.

  12. Ethnic Distribution of Microscopic Colitis in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Kevin; Genta, Robert M; Sonnenberg, Amnon

    2015-11-01

    A large electronic database of histopathology reports was used to study the ethnic distribution of microscopic colitis in the United States. Miraca Life Sciences is a nation-wide pathology laboratory that receives biopsy specimens submitted by 1500 gastroenterologists distributed throughout the United States. In a case-control study, the prevalence of microscopic colitis in 4 ethnic groups (East Asians, Indians, Hispanics, and Jews) was compared with that of all other ethnic groups (composed of American Caucasians and African Americans), serving as reference group. A total of 11,706 patients with microscopic colitis were included in the analysis. In all ethnic groups alike, microscopic colitis was more common in women than men (78% versus 22%, odds ratio = 3.40, 95% confidence interval = 3.26-3.55). In all ethnic groups, the prevalence of microscopic colitis showed a continuous age-dependent rise. Hispanic patients with microscopic colitis were on average younger than the reference group (59.4 ± 16.2 years versus 64.2 ± 13.8 years, P variations of its occurrence among different ethnic groups. Such variations could point at differences in the exposure to environmental risk factors.

  13. The Concept of State Capacity: Comparative International Ratings against State Legitimacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Gennadievich Ivanov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the given article, the author analyzes the concept of state capacity, widely popular among political scientists and international relations specialists. The author proves that the evaluations of the level of state capacity of the developing and postcommunist countries based on popular comparative ratings are generally biased because of methodological defects and discrepancy of the whole theory as well as politicization and indoctrination of the given ratings. The negative evaluations of the quality of the government and state capacity of a country could be used to discredit and delegitimize the political regime as well as substantiation of mass protests and color revolutions and a tool of information war. The author concludes that numerous comparative international ratings are often used as a tool of political influence.

  14. Beowulf Distributed Processing and the United States Geological Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddox, Brian G.

    2002-01-01

    Introduction In recent years, the United States Geological Survey's (USGS) National Mapping Discipline (NMD) has expanded its scientific and research activities. Work is being conducted in areas such as emergency response research, scientific visualization, urban prediction, and other simulation activities. Custom-produced digital data have become essential for these types of activities. High-resolution, remotely sensed datasets are also seeing increased use. Unfortunately, the NMD is also finding that it lacks the resources required to perform some of these activities. Many of these projects require large amounts of computer processing resources. Complex urban-prediction simulations, for example, involve large amounts of processor-intensive calculations on large amounts of input data. This project was undertaken to learn and understand the concepts of distributed processing. Experience was needed in developing these types of applications. The idea was that this type of technology could significantly aid the needs of the NMD scientific and research programs. Porting a numerically intensive application currently being used by an NMD science program to run in a distributed fashion would demonstrate the usefulness of this technology. There are several benefits that this type of technology can bring to the USGS's research programs. Projects can be performed that were previously impossible due to a lack of computing resources. Other projects can be performed on a larger scale than previously possible. For example, distributed processing can enable urban dynamics research to perform simulations on larger areas without making huge sacrifices in resolution. The processing can also be done in a more reasonable amount of time than with traditional single-threaded methods (a scaled version of Chester County, Pennsylvania, took about fifty days to finish its first calibration phase with a single-threaded program). This paper has several goals regarding distributed processing

  15. Securing quantum key distribution systems using fewer states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Nurul T.; Lim, Charles Ci Wen; Cahall, Clinton; Kim, Jungsang; Gauthier, Daniel J.

    2018-04-01

    Quantum key distribution (QKD) allows two remote users to establish a secret key in the presence of an eavesdropper. The users share quantum states prepared in two mutually unbiased bases: one to generate the key while the other monitors the presence of the eavesdropper. Here, we show that a general d -dimension QKD system can be secured by transmitting only a subset of the monitoring states. In particular, we find that there is no loss in the secure key rate when dropping one of the monitoring states. Furthermore, it is possible to use only a single monitoring state if the quantum bit error rates are low enough. We apply our formalism to an experimental d =4 time-phase QKD system, where only one monitoring state is transmitted, and obtain a secret key rate of 17.4 ±2.8 Mbits/s at a 4 dB channel loss and with a quantum bit error rate of 0.045 ±0.001 and 0.037 ±0.001 in time and phase bases, respectively, which is 58.4% of the secret key rate that can be achieved with the full setup. This ratio can be increased, potentially up to 100%, if the error rates in time and phase basis are reduced. Our results demonstrate that it is possible to substantially simplify the design of high-dimensional QKD systems, including those that use the spatial or temporal degrees of freedom of the photon, and still outperform qubit-based (d =2 ) protocols.

  16. Fourth International Conference on Squeezed States and Uncertainty Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, D. (Editor); Peng, Kunchi (Editor); Kim, Y. S. (Editor); Manko, V. I. (Editor)

    1996-01-01

    The fourth International Conference on Squeezed States and Uncertainty Relations was held at Shanxi University, Taiyuan, Shanxi, China, on June 5 - 9, 1995. This conference was jointly organized by Shanxi University, the University of Maryland (U.S.A.), and the Lebedev Physical Institute (Russia). The first meeting of this series was called the Workshop on Squeezed States and Uncertainty Relations, and was held in 1991 at College Park, Maryland. The second and third meetings in this series were hosted in 1992 by the Lebedev Institute in Moscow, and in 1993 by the University of Maryland Baltimore County, respectively. The scientific purpose of this series was initially to discuss squeezed states of light, but in recent years, the scope is becoming broad enough to include studies of uncertainty relations and squeeze transformations in all branches of physics, including, of course, quantum optics and foundations of quantum mechanics. Quantum optics will continue playing the pivotal role in the future, but the future meetings will include all branches of physics where squeeze transformations are basic transformation. This transition took place at the fourth meeting of this series held at Shanxi University in 1995. The fifth meeting in this series will be held in Budapest (Hungary) in 1997, and the principal organizer will be Jozsef Janszky of the Laboratory of Crystal Physics, P.O. Box 132, H-1052. Budapest, Hungary.

  17. The effectiveness of international regimes in states with low internal capacity : a study of international refugee regime in Afghanistan, Iraq and Sudan

    OpenAIRE

    Güler, Arzu

    2013-01-01

    Ankara : The Department of International Relations, İhsan Doğramacı Bilkent University, 2013. Thesis (Ph. D.) -- Bilkent University, 2013. Includes bibliographical references. Nearly one out of the six states in the world is regarded with low internal capacity by the Failed State Index 2012. However, having a priori assumption on states’ internal capacity to take decisions and implement them within their own states, scholarly attention has been given to the factors that shap...

  18. Distribution of Cs137 in soils from Bahia state, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, T.

    1977-01-01

    A high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry method was developed in order to study the distribution of Cs 137 in topsoils of State of Bahia (Brazil). The results has shown concentrations varying between 0.6 and 6.0 nCi/m 2 . Correlation of the Cs 137 concentration with environmental and ohysico-chemical parameters has shown a tendency for greatest accumulation in soils with regions of greatest precipitation rates: 2.0 nCi/m 2 , on the average, for regions with 700mm to 1,000 mm/year and 2.8 nCi/m 2 , on the average, in regions with 1,700 mm to 2,000 mm/year. On the other hand, an anti-correlation between this radionuclide and both calcium and clay content, for soils of similar type and under similar climatic conditions is seen. (C.D.G.) [pt

  19. Temporal distribution of tuberculosis in the State of Amazonas, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlucia da Silva Garrido

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB is one of the infectious diseases that contributes most to the morbidity and mortality of millions of people worldwide. Brazil is one of 22 countries that accounts for 80% of the tuberculosis global burden. The highest incidence rates in Brazil occur in the States of Amazonas and Rio de Janeiro. The aim of this study was to describe the temporal distribution of TB in the State of Amazonas. Between 2001 and 2011, 28,198 cases of tuberculosis were reported in Amazonas, distributed among 62 municipalities, with the capital Manaus reporting the highest (68.7% concentration of cases. Tuberculosis was more prevalent among males (59.3% aged 15 to 34 years old (45.5%, whose race/color was predominantly pardo (64.7% and who had pulmonary TB (84.3%. During this period, 81 cases of multidrug-resistant TB were registered, of which the highest concentration was reported from 2008 onward (p = 0.002. The municipalities with the largest numbers of indigenous individuals affected were São Gabriel da Cachoeira (93%, Itamarati (78.1%, and Santa Isabel do Rio Negro (70.1%. The future outlook for this region includes strengthening the TB control at the primary care level, by expanding diagnostic capabilities, access to treatment, research projects developed in collaboration with the Dr. Heitor Vieira Dourado Tropical Medicine Foundation .;Fundação de Medicina Tropical Dr. Heitor Vieira Dourado (FMT-HVD.; and financing institutions, such as the project for the expansion of the Clinical Research Center and the creation of a hospital ward for individuals with transmissible respiratory diseases, including TB.

  20. Quantum-teleportation benchmarks for independent and identically distributed spin states and displaced thermal states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guta, Madalin; Bowles, Peter; Adesso, Gerardo

    2010-01-01

    A successful state-transfer (or teleportation) experiment must perform better than the benchmark set by the 'best' measure and prepare procedure. We consider the benchmark problem for the following families of states: (i) displaced thermal equilibrium states of a given temperature; (ii) independent identically prepared qubits with a completely unknown state. For the first family we show that the optimal procedure is heterodyne measurement followed by the preparation of a coherent state. This procedure was known to be optimal for coherent states and for squeezed states with the 'overlap fidelity' as the figure of merit. Here, we prove its optimality with respect to the trace norm distance and supremum risk. For the second problem we consider n independent and identically distributed (i.i.d.) spin-(1/2) systems in an arbitrary unknown state ρ and look for the measurement-preparation pair (M n ,P n ) for which the reconstructed state ω n :=P n circle M n (ρ xn ) is as close as possible to the input state (i.e., parallel ω n -ρ xn parallel 1 is small). The figure of merit is based on the trace norm distance between the input and output states. We show that asymptotically with n this problem is equivalent to the first one. The proof and construction of (M n ,P n ) uses the theory of local asymptotic normality developed for state estimation which shows that i.i.d. quantum models can be approximated in a strong sense by quantum Gaussian models. The measurement part is identical to 'optimal estimation', showing that 'benchmarking' and estimation are closely related problems in the asymptotic set up.

  1. THE JUST DRUG DISTRIBUTION IN THE PERSPECTIVE OF WELFARE STATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aktieva Tri Tjitrawati

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available States have obligations to improve equitability of welfare and prosperity of the community. Pharmaceutical is one of the important and strategic industries because of its vital role to support the development of health sector. Lack of regulation on pricing-products, and diversion of social aspects in the drugs trade, either by government or industry, are associated with the paradigm that underlies regulation of the distributions. Prospective policy analysis and functional approach of law are used to find a level of balance of various interest related to the subject, and to find concepts as a basis to construct new paradigm on drugs distribution. Negara berkewajiban untuk meningkatkan kesejahteraan dan kemakmuran masyarakat secara berkeadilan. Industri farmasi merupakan salah satu industri penting dan strategis karena perannya yang vital menunjang pembangunan bidang kesehatan.Terdapat kecenderungan kurangnya peran Pemerintah dalam pricing policy obat, serta diabaikannya aspek sosial dalam perdagangan produk farmasi, baik oleh Pemerintah maupun industri farmasi. Carut marut ini berkaitan dengan ketidakjelasan paradigma yang berujung pada ketidakjelasan kebijakan yang melandasi tatanan distribusi obat. Makalah ini menggunakan analisis kebijakan prospektif dan pendekatan fungsional hukum untuk mengkaji kebijakan distribusi obat yang bersifat multi disiplin dan menemukan konsep baru untuk menemukan titik keseimbangan dari berbagai kepentingan terkait.

  2. DISTRIBUTION ASPECTS OF THE DIRECT PAYMENTS BETWEEN EU MEMBER STATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gina FINTINERU

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available EC proposals concerning CAP reform for 2014-2020 try to cope both with the wide variety of agricultural systems and economic structures of the 27 EU MS but also with current global challenges that agriculture has to face: food security and poverty reduction, climate changes or biodiversity loss. This article aims to analyse the proposed measures consistency with the current situation of Romanian agriculture. Distribution aspects of the direct payments between Member States are concerned. The data are originated in FADN and Eurostat statistics, and a non parametric approach is used in order to better understand the correlation between the direct payments proposed for 2014 -2020 and some socio economic criteria.The paper provides a brief analysis of the existing research concerning the distributional aspects (studies and statistics and contributes to the debate by examining if the proposed redistribution is a consistent and coherent answer to the future challenges the agriculture has to meet in the future and to the targeted equity criteria.

  3. National states and international science: A comparative history of international science congresses in Hitler's Germany, Stalin's Russia, and cold war United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doel, Ronald E; Hoffmann, Dieter; Krementsov, Nikolai

    2005-01-01

    Prior studies of modern scientific internationalism have been written primarily from the point of view of scientists, with little regard to the influence of the state. This study examines the state's role in international scientific relations. States sometimes encouraged scientific internationalism; in the mid-twentieth century, they often sought to restrict it. The present study examines state involvement in international scientific congresses, the primary intersection between the national and international dimensions of scientists' activities. Here we examine three comparative instances in which such restrictions affected scientific internationalism: an attempt to bring an international aerodynamics congress to Nazi Germany in the late 1930s, unsuccessful efforts by Soviet geneticists to host the Seventh International Genetics Congress in Moscow in 1937, and efforts by U.S. scientists to host international meetings in 1950s cold war America. These case studies challenge the classical ideology of scientific internationalism, wherein participation by a nation in a scientist's fame spares the scientist conflict between advancing his science and advancing the interests of his nation. In the cases we consider, scientists found it difficult to simultaneously support scientific universalism and elitist practices. Interest in these congresses reached the top levels of the state, and access to patronage beyond state control helped determine their outcomes.

  4. Aerosol Hygroscopicity Distribution and Mixing State Determined by Cloud Condensation Nuclei (CCN) Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, H.; Rose, D.; Cheng, Y.; Gunthe, S. S.; Wiedensohler, A.; Andreae, M. O.; Pöschl, U.

    2009-12-01

    This paper presents, firstly the concept of hygroscopicity distribution and its application in the analysis of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) measurement data. The cumulative particle hygroscopicity distribution function N(κ) is defined as the number concentration of particles with a hygroscopicity parameter, κ, smaller than a certain value of κ. Since the measured CCN (at supersaturation S) can be considered as those particles with κ larger than a certain value, the CCN efficiency spectra (activation curve) can be easily converted to N(κ) distributions. Unlike studies calculating only one hygroscopicity parameter from a CCN activation curve, the concept of N(κ) shows the usefulness of all points on the activation curve. Modeling studies of three assumed N(κ) distributions are used to illustrate the new concept N(κ) and how it is related to the size-resolved CCN measurements. Secondly, we discuss the aerosol mixing state information that can be obtained from the shape of N(κ). A case study is performed based on the CCN measurements during the CAREBEIJING 2006 campaign. In the campaign-averaged N(κ) distribution, most particles (>80%) lie in a mode with a geometric mean κ around 0.2-0.4, and an increasing trend in the mean κ is found as particle size increases. There seems to be another less hygroscopic mode but the κ resolution (depending on the size resolution) in the campaign is not high enough to interpret it. It is also clear that N(κ) is not a monodisperse distribution (implying an internal mixture of the aerosols). The dispersion parameter σg,κ, which is the geometric standard deviation of N(κ), can be used as an indicator for the aerosol mixing state. The indicator σg,κ shows good agreement with the soot mixing state measured by a volatility tandem differential mobility analyzer (VTDMA) during the CAREBEIJING 2006 campaign. The concept of N(κ) can be widely used to study aerosol mixing states, especially in the lab experiment where a

  5. 30 CFR 285.540 - How will MMS equitably distribute revenues to States?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How will MMS equitably distribute revenues to... Financial Assurance Requirements Revenue Sharing with States § 285.540 How will MMS equitably distribute revenues to States? (a) The MMS will distribute among the eligible coastal States 27 percent of the...

  6. State of Global Pediatric Neurosurgery Outreach: Survey by the International Education Subcommittee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Matthew C.; Rocque, Brandon G.; Singhal, Ash; Ridder, Tom; Pattisapu, Jogi V.; Johnston, James M.

    2017-01-01

    Object Neurosurgical services are increasingly recognized as essential components of surgical care worldwide. Degree of interest among neurosurgeons regarding international work, and barriers to involvement in global neurosurgical outreach, are largely unexplored. We distributed a survey to members of the AANS/CNS Joint Section on Pediatric Neurosurgery to assess the state of global outreach among its members and identify barriers to involvement. Methods An internet-based questionnaire was developed by the International Education Subcommittee of the AANS/CNS Joint Section on Pediatric Neurosurgery, and distributed to pediatric neurosurgeons via the AANS/CNS Joint Section email contact list. Participants were surveyed on involvement in global neurosurgical outreach, geographic location, nature of participation, and barriers to further involvement. Results A 35.3% response rate was obtained, with 116 respondents completed the survey. 61% performed or taught neurosurgery in a developing country, 49% traveling at least annually. Africa was the most common region (54%), followed by South America (30%), through 29 separate organizing entities. Hydrocephalus was the most commonly treated condition (88%), followed by spinal dysraphism (74%) and tumor (68%). Most respondents obtained follow-up through communication from local surgeons (77%). 71% believed the international experience improved their practice, and 74% were very or extremely interested in working elsewhere. Interference with current practice (61%), cost (44%), and difficulty identifying international partners (43%) were the most commonly cited barriers to participation. Conclusion Any coordinated effort to expand global neurosurgical capacity begins with appreciation for the current state of outreach efforts. Increasing participation in global outreach will require addressing both real and perceived barriers to involvement. Creation and curation of a centralized online database of ongoing projects to facilitate

  7. Event-Triggered Distributed Approximate Optimal State and Output Control of Affine Nonlinear Interconnected Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Vignesh; Jagannathan, Sarangapani

    2017-06-08

    This paper presents an approximate optimal distributed control scheme for a known interconnected system composed of input affine nonlinear subsystems using event-triggered state and output feedback via a novel hybrid learning scheme. First, the cost function for the overall system is redefined as the sum of cost functions of individual subsystems. A distributed optimal control policy for the interconnected system is developed using the optimal value function of each subsystem. To generate the optimal control policy, forward-in-time, neural networks are employed to reconstruct the unknown optimal value function at each subsystem online. In order to retain the advantages of event-triggered feedback for an adaptive optimal controller, a novel hybrid learning scheme is proposed to reduce the convergence time for the learning algorithm. The development is based on the observation that, in the event-triggered feedback, the sampling instants are dynamic and results in variable interevent time. To relax the requirement of entire state measurements, an extended nonlinear observer is designed at each subsystem to recover the system internal states from the measurable feedback. Using a Lyapunov-based analysis, it is demonstrated that the system states and the observer errors remain locally uniformly ultimately bounded and the control policy converges to a neighborhood of the optimal policy. Simulation results are presented to demonstrate the performance of the developed controller.

  8. Collection and presentation of animal data relating to internally distributed radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lathrop, K.A.

    1981-01-01

    Data obtained from laboratory animals on the distribution of an internally administered radionuclide may be put to use by various people in ways quite different from the one for which the original observations were made. Consideration for these other scientists, sometimes in unrelated fields, can be shown by attention to a few details in the method of data collection and reporting that may improve the author's credibility, the reader's comprehension, and the value of the data. Briefly stated, two rules should be followed: Account for 100% of the administered radioactivity; and report data as fraction of administered activity per organ. The first rule serves as an internal check on the proper functioning of counting equipment, and may disclose excretion, contamination of counting tubes, or failure to inject the desired amount of activity. The second rule allows anyone to make use of the raw data. Presentation of the data only in complicated, manipulated form either totally prevents reconstruction of the raw data, or demands tedious, uncertain conversions. Examples of such manipulated data include percent dose per gram per 1% body weight and percent kilogram dose per gram. At the other extreme in reporting data for radioactivity, and to be equally avoided, are completely unprocessed values, such as counts per minute, with no reference made to the number of counts injected or to the time lapse between counts. Adherence to these two principles will permit the reader to follow through on any permutations of the data that the author may make, and to apply the data in unrelated situations

  9. Sixth International Conference on Squeezed States and Uncertainty Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, D. (Editor); Kim, Y. S. (Editor); Solimento, S. (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    These proceedings contain contributions from about 200 participants to the 6th International Conference on Squeezed States and Uncertainty Relations (ICSSUR'99) held in Naples May 24-29, 1999, and organized jointly by the University of Naples "Federico II," the University of Maryland at College Park, and the Lebedev Institute, Moscow. This was the sixth of a series of very successful meetings started in 1990 at the College Park Campus of the University of Maryland. The other meetings in the series were held in Moscow (1992), Baltimore (1993), Taiyuan P.R.C. (1995) and Balatonfuered, Hungary (1997). The present one was held at the campus Monte Sant'Angelo of the University "Federico II" of Naples. The meeting sought to provide a forum for updating and reviewing a wide range of quantum optics disciplines, including device developments and applications, and related areas of quantum measurements and quantum noise. Over the years, the ICSSUR Conference evolved from a meeting on quantum measurement sector of quantum optics, to a wide range of quantum optics themes, including multifacet aspects of generation, measurement, and applications of nonclassical light (squeezed and Schrodinger cat radiation fields, etc.), and encompassing several related areas, ranging from quantum measurement to quantum noise. ICSSUR'99 brought together about 250 people active in the field of quantum optics, with special emphasis on nonclassical light sources and related areas. The Conference was organized in 8 Sections: Squeezed states and uncertainty relations; Harmonic oscillators and squeeze transformations; Methods of quantum interference and correlations; Quantum measurements; Generation and characterisation of non-classical light; Quantum noise; Quantum communication and information; and Quantum-like systems.

  10. Predicting biological system objectives de novo from internal state measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maranas Costas D

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Optimization theory has been applied to complex biological systems to interrogate network properties and develop and refine metabolic engineering strategies. For example, methods are emerging to engineer cells to optimally produce byproducts of commercial value, such as bioethanol, as well as molecular compounds for disease therapy. Flux balance analysis (FBA is an optimization framework that aids in this interrogation by generating predictions of optimal flux distributions in cellular networks. Critical features of FBA are the definition of a biologically relevant objective function (e.g., maximizing the rate of synthesis of biomass, a unit of measurement of cellular growth and the subsequent application of linear programming (LP to identify fluxes through a reaction network. Despite the success of FBA, a central remaining challenge is the definition of a network objective with biological meaning. Results We present a novel method called Biological Objective Solution Search (BOSS for the inference of an objective function of a biological system from its underlying network stoichiometry as well as experimentally-measured state variables. Specifically, BOSS identifies a system objective by defining a putative stoichiometric "objective reaction," adding this reaction to the existing set of stoichiometric constraints arising from known interactions within a network, and maximizing the putative objective reaction via LP, all the while minimizing the difference between the resultant in silico flux distribution and available experimental (e.g., isotopomer flux data. This new approach allows for discovery of objectives with previously unknown stoichiometry, thus extending the biological relevance from earlier methods. We verify our approach on the well-characterized central metabolic network of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Conclusion We illustrate how BOSS offers insight into the functional organization of biochemical networks

  11. Geographic distribution of otolaryngologists in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickery, Thad W; Weterings, Robbie; Cabrera-Muffly, Cristina

    2016-06-01

    We conducted a study to determine the demographic traits, training characteristics, and geographic distribution of otolaryngologists in the United States using publicly available data. We then correlated our findings with U.S. census data. Univariate analysis was performed to analyze results, with a p value of <0.05 determined as significant. We used data from the American Board of Otolaryngology's list of 18,587 board-certified allopathic otolaryngologists through 2013 and the American Osteopathic Colleges of Ophthalmology & Otolaryngology-Head & Neck Surgery's list of 428 osteopathic otolaryngologists. From these two databases, 9,642 otolaryngologists met inclusion criteria, which included an active practice in the United States and an age of 70 years and younger. This group was made up of 8,185 men (84.9%) and 1,449 women (15.0%); we were not able to identify the sex of 8 otolaryngologists (0.1%). The median age of the women was significantly lower than that of the men (54 vs. 48 yr; p < 0.001). A total of 8,510 otolaryngologists (88.3%) graduated from a U.S. allopathic medical school, and 8,520 (88.4%) graduated from a U.S. allopathic residency program. We determined that 25.9% of otolaryngologists established their practice in the same metropolitan statistical area where they completed their residency training. Older practitioners (p < 0.001) and women (p < 0.001) were significantly more likely to stay in the same area than younger physicians and men. In terms of population, 61.8% of the otolaryngologists practiced in metropolitan areas with more than 1 million residents; by comparison, these areas represent only 55.3% of the total U.S. population, indicating that otolaryngologists are over-represented in larger U.S. cities.

  12. Expressing our internal states and understanding those of others.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Cesare, Giuseppe; Di Dio, Cinzia; Marchi, Massimo; Rizzolatti, Giacomo

    2015-08-18

    Vitality form is a term that describes the style with which motor actions are performed (e.g., rude, gentle, etc.). They represent one characterizing element of conscious and unconscious bodily communication. Despite their importance in interpersonal behavior, vitality forms have been, until now, virtually neglected in neuroscience. Here, using the functional MRI (fMRI) technique, we investigated the neural correlates of vitality forms in three different tasks: action observation, imagination, and execution. Conjunction analysis showed that, in all three tasks, there is a common, consistent activation of the dorsocentral sector of the insula. In addition, a common activation of the parietofrontal network, typically active during arm movements production, planning, and observation, was also found. We conclude that the dorsocentral part of the insula is a key element of the system that modulates the cortical motor activity, allowing individuals to express their internal states through action vitality forms. Recent monkey anatomical data show that the dorsocentral sector of the insula is, indeed, connected with the cortical circuit involved in the control of arm movements.

  13. State-wide performance criteria for international safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budlong-Sylvester, K.W.; Pilat, Joseph F.; Stanbro, W.D.

    2001-01-01

    Traditionally, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has relied upon prescriptive criteria to guide safeguards implementation. The prospect of replacing prescriptive safeguards criteria with more flexible performance criteria would constitute a structural change in safeguards and raises several important questions. Performance criteria imply that while safeguards goals will be fixed, the means of attaining those goals will not be explicitly prescribed. What would the performance objectives be under such a system? How would they be formulated? How would performance be linked to higher level safeguards objectives? How would safeguards performance be measured State-wide? The implementation of safeguards under performance criteria would also signal a dramatic change in the manner the Agency does business. A higher degree of flexibility could, in principle, produce greater effectiveness and efficiency, but would come with a need for increased Agency responsibility in practice. To the extent that reliance on prescriptive criteria decreases, the burden of justifying actions and ensuring their transparency will rise. Would there need to be limits to safeguards implementation? What would be the basis for setting such limits? This paper addresses these and other issues and questions relating to both the formulation and the implementation of performance-based criteria.

  14. Long-Range Goals in International Telecommunications and Information: An Outline for United States Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation.

    This report presents a comprehensive delineation of the principal issues in the field of international telecommunications and information, as well as an overview of United States policy in this area. The first part discusses international trends in protectionism and the politicization of international forums; it also outlines United States goals,…

  15. Correlation of United States Medical Licensing Examination and Internal Medicine In-Training Examination Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Jose A., Jr.; Greer, Sharon

    2009-01-01

    The Internal Medicine In-Training Examination (ITE) is administered during residency training in the United States as a self-assessment and program assessment tool. Performance on this exam correlates with outcome on the American Board of Internal Medicine Certifying examination. Internal Medicine Program Directors use the United States Medical…

  16. The United States: A Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court Non-Participant

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-03-19

    database on-line]; available from Questia; accessed 30 December 2003. 16 Paul C. Szasz , “The United States Should Join the International...Objections to the International Criminal Court” Szasz , Paul C. “The United States Should Join the International Criminal Court.” Database on

  17. DNN-state identification of 2D distributed parameter systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chairez, I.; Fuentes, R.; Poznyak, A.; Poznyak, T.; Escudero, M.; Viana, L.

    2012-02-01

    There are many examples in science and engineering which are reduced to a set of partial differential equations (PDEs) through a process of mathematical modelling. Nevertheless there exist many sources of uncertainties around the aforementioned mathematical representation. Moreover, to find exact solutions of those PDEs is not a trivial task especially if the PDE is described in two or more dimensions. It is well known that neural networks can approximate a large set of continuous functions defined on a compact set to an arbitrary accuracy. In this article, a strategy based on the differential neural network (DNN) for the non-parametric identification of a mathematical model described by a class of two-dimensional (2D) PDEs is proposed. The adaptive laws for weights ensure the 'practical stability' of the DNN-trajectories to the parabolic 2D-PDE states. To verify the qualitative behaviour of the suggested methodology, here a non-parametric modelling problem for a distributed parameter plant is analysed.

  18. Distribution of soil organic carbon in the conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bliss, Norman B.; Waltman, Sharon; West, Larry T.; Neale, Anne; Mehaffey, Megan; Hartemink, Alfred E.; McSweeney, Kevin M.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database provides detailed soil mapping for most of the conterminous United States (CONUS). These data have been used to formulate estimates of soil carbon stocks, and have been useful for environmental models, including plant productivity models, hydrologic models, and ecological models for studies of greenhouse gas exchange. The data were compiled by the U.S. Department of Agriculture Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) from 1:24,000-scale or 1:12,000-scale maps. It was found that the total soil organic carbon stock in CONUS to 1 m depth is 57 Pg C and for the total profile is 73 Pg C, as estimated from SSURGO with data gaps filled from the 1:250,000-scale Digital General Soil Map. We explore the non-linear distribution of soil carbon on the landscape and with depth in the soil, and the implications for sampling strategies that result from the observed soil carbon variability.

  19. Analysis of internal network requirements for the distributed Nordic Tier-1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Behrmann, G.; Fischer, L.; Gamst, Mette

    2010-01-01

    The Tier-1 facility operated by the Nordic DataGrid Facility (NDGF) differs significantly from other Tier-1s in several aspects: It is not located at one or a few locations but instead distributed throughout the Nordic, it is not under the governance of a single organisation but but is instead...... build from resources under the control of a number of different national organisations. Being physically distributed makes the design and implementation of the networking infrastructure a challenge. NDGF has its own internal OPN connecting the sites participating in the distributed Tier-1. To assess...

  20. A Look into International Graduate Students' Experience in the United States: A Grounded Theory Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujisaki, Shuko

    2013-01-01

    The number of international students in the United States has been increasing each year, but little is known about their experience. There are recent studies on international students, however, only a few research has focused on international students studying at graduate level. To best study international graduate students' experience, a…

  1. The Effect of Internal Salary Increment Distributions on Retention Behaviors of Western New York Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Michele M.

    2013-01-01

    This is a study of district internal salary distribution practices and its effect on retention. The study is a replication study as recommended by Jacobson (1986) and Lankford and Wyckoff (1997) whereby their research shows the prevalence of "back loading" and ineffectiveness relative to retention. In the case of this study, the…

  2. 76 FR 32231 - International Business Machines (IBM), Sales and Distribution Business Unit, Global Sales...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-03

    ... for the workers and former workers of International Business Machines (IBM), Sales and Distribution... reconsideration alleges that IBM outsourced to India and China. During the reconsideration investigation, it was..., Armonk, New York. The subject worker group supply computer software development and maintenance services...

  3. A distributed control algorithm for internal flow management in a multi-zone climate unit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Persis, C. De; Jessen, J.J.; Izadi-Zamanabadi, R.; Schiøler, H.

    2008-01-01

    We examine a distributed control problem for internal flow management in a multi-zone climate unit. The problem consists of guaranteeing prescribed indoor climate conditions in a cascade connection of an arbitrarily large number of communicating zones, in which air masses are exchanged to redirect

  4. 76 FR 21033 - International Business Machines (IBM), Sales and Distribution Business Unit, Global Sales...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-14

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-74,364] International Business Machines (IBM), Sales and Distribution Business Unit, Global Sales Solution Department, Off-Site Teleworker in Centerport, New York; Notice of Affirmative Determination Regarding Application for Reconsideration By application dated November 29, 2011,...

  5. Enabling International Safeguards Research and Development in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dwight, John E.; Schanfein, Mark J.; Bjornard, Trond A.

    2009-01-01

    Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is the lead laboratory in nuclear energy research and development within the U.S. Department of Energy national laboratory complex. INL is tasked with the advancement of nuclear energy research and development, and leadership in the renaissance of nuclear power globally. INL scientists have been central to the assessment of needs and the integration of technical programs aimed at the world-wide growth of nuclear power. One of the grand challenges of the nuclear energy resurgence is nuclear nonproliferation. Nonproliferation technology development is key to meeting this challenge. The needed advances in nonproliferation technologies are being made more difficult by the growing gap between increasing demands for nuclear materials to support technology development, and reduced availability of these materials. The gap is caused by the reduction, consolidation and more stringent lockdown of nuclear materials, made necessary by heightened and evolving security concerns, in the face of increased demand for materials to support technology development. Ironically, the increased demand for materials for technology development is made necessary by these same security concerns. The situation will continue to worsen if safeguards and security budgets remain limited for the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and many member states, while growth in global nuclear energy becomes a reality. Effective U.S. leadership in the closing of this gap is vital to homeland security and global stability. INL has taken positive steps, described in this paper, to close this gap by reestablishing a viable base for the development, testing and demonstration of safeguards and security technologies. Key attributes of this technology development base are (1) the availability of a wide variety of special nuclear materials in forms that allow for enhanced accessibility; (2) ease of access by U.S. government, national laboratory, industry and academic institution

  6. Non-state actors in control of territory as 'actors of protection' in international refugee law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karavias, M.

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the concept of non-state ‘actors of protection’ in international refugee law. This concept breaks with traditional State-centric readings of international law, as it connotes that a non-state actor may offer ‘protection’ against persecution, comparable to that normally offered

  7. 37 CFR 1.416 - The United States International Preliminary Examining Authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES International Processing Provisions General Information § 1.416 The United States International Preliminary... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false The United States...

  8. 37 CFR 1.413 - The United States International Searching Authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Processing Provisions General Information § 1.413 The United States International Searching Authority. (a... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false The United States International Searching Authority. 1.413 Section 1.413 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT...

  9. Measuring Distributional Inequality: Relative Body Mass Index Distributions by Gender, Race/Ethnicity, and Education, United States (1999–2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian C. Houle

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Few studies consider obesity inequalities as a distributional property. This study uses relative distribution methods to explore inequalities in body mass index (BMI; kg/m2. Data from 1999–2006 from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were used to compare BMI distributions by gender, Black/White race, and education subgroups in the United States. For men, comparisons between Whites and Blacks show a polarized relative distribution, with more Black men at increased risk of over or underweight. Comparisons by education (overall and within race/ethnic groups effects also show a polarized relative distribution, with more cases of the least educated men at the upper and lower tails of the BMI distribution. For women, Blacks have a greater probability of high BMI values largely due to a right-shifted BMI distribution relative to White women. Women with less education also have a BMI distribution shifted to the right compared to the most educated women.

  10. Climatological distribution of aragonite saturation state in the global oceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Li-Qing; Feely, Richard A.; Carter, Brendan R.; Greeley, Dana J.; Gledhill, Dwight K.; Arzayus, Krisa M.

    2015-10-01

    Aragonite saturation state (Ωarag) in surface and subsurface waters of the global oceans was calculated from up-to-date (through the year of 2012) ocean station dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and total alkalinity (TA) data. Surface Ωarag in the open ocean was always supersaturated (Ω > 1), ranging between 1.1 and 4.2. It was above 2.0 (2.0-4.2) between 40°N and 40°S but decreased toward higher latitude to below 1.5 in polar areas. The influences of water temperature on the TA/DIC ratio, combined with the temperature effects on inorganic carbon equilibrium and apparent solubility product (K'sp), explain the latitudinal differences in surface Ωarag. Vertically, Ωarag was highest in the surface mixed layer. Higher hydrostatic pressure, lower water temperature, and more CO2 buildup from biological activity in the absence of air-sea gas exchange helped maintain lower Ωarag in the deep ocean. Below the thermocline, aerobic decomposition of organic matter along the pathway of global thermohaline circulation played an important role in controlling Ωarag distributions. Seasonally, surface Ωarag above 30° latitudes was about 0.06 to 0.55 higher during warmer months than during colder months in the open-ocean waters of both hemispheres. Decadal changes of Ωarag in the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans showed that Ωarag in waters shallower than 100 m depth decreased by 0.10 ± 0.09 (-0.40 ± 0.37% yr-1) on average from the decade spanning 1989-1998 to the decade spanning 1998-2010.

  11. Branch current state estimation of three phase distribution networks suitable for paralellization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blaauwbroek, N.; Nguyen, H.P.; Gibescu, M.; Slootweg, J.G.

    2017-01-01

    The evolution of distribution networks from passive to active distribution systems puts new requirements on the monitoring and control capabilities of these systems. The development of state estimation algorithms to gain insight in the actual system state of a distribution network has resulted in a

  12. Multiagent-Based Distributed State of Charge Balancing Control for Distributed Energy Storage Units in AC Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Chendan; Coelho, Ernane Antônio Alves; Dragicevic, Tomislav

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, a multiagent-based distributed control algorithm has been proposed to achieve state of charge (SoC) balance of distributed energy storage (DES) units in an ac microgrid. The proposal uses frequency scheduling instead of adaptive droop gain to regulate the active power. Each DES unit...

  13. Advancing Direct Corporate Accountability in International Human Rights Law: The Role of State-Owned Enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Xili

    2017-01-01

    Resorting to the immensely State-centric international legal system to regulate corporate human rights abuses is often viewed as inadequate. Among many proposals aiming at filling the international regulatory gaps, imposing international human rights obligations directly on corporations is a bold one, which, due to profound doctrinal and practical challenges, has yet to be agreed upon or established. However, State-Owned Enterprises (SOEs), given its prima facie “State-Business nexus” that bl...

  14. Rendimentos crescentes e a distribuição internacional de renda Increasing returns and the international distribution of income

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre de Zagottis

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The existence of increasing returns in high technology industries assigns a path dependent character to the international division of labor. Rich countries, first entrants in these industries, enjoy permanent advantages that prevent, in a free market environment, the development of such industries in middle-income countries. This dynamics allows the former group of countries to experience a higher growth rate of labor productivity than the latter, and, as a result, increases the gap between the workers' standard of living in these countries. It is up to the States of middle-income countries the task of devising development strategies capable of breaking such pattern and improving the international distribution of income.

  15. Fluctuations of Internal Transmittance in Security of Measurement-Device-Independent Quantum Key Distribution with an Untrusted Source*

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yang; Bao Wan-Su; Chen Rui-Ke; Zhou Chun; Jiang Mu-Sheng; Li Hong-Wei

    2017-01-01

    Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution (MDI-QKD) is immune to detector side channel attacks, which is a crucial security loophole problem in traditional QKD. In order to relax a key assumption that the sources are trusted in MDI-QKD, an MDI-QKD protocol with an untrusted source has been proposed. For the security of MDI-QKD with an untrusted source, imperfections in the practical experiment should also be taken into account. In this paper, we analyze the effects of fluctuations of internal transmittance on the security of a decoy-state MDI-QKD protocol with an untrusted source. Our numerical results show that both the secret key rate and the maximum secure transmission distance decrease when taken fluctuations of internal transmittance into consideration. Especially, they are more sensitive when Charlie’s mean photon number per pulse is smaller. Our results emphasize that the stability of correlative optical devices is important for practical implementations . (paper)

  16. State of the Art of International Public Relations Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakefield, Gay; And Others

    To examine aspects of the political/economic/social/cultural environments (PESCE) affecting international public relations and their significance to the future of public relations practitioners, this paper reviews the 1980s literature regarding the current and projected trends in international public relations practice and their implications for…

  17. Dimensional Effects on the Momentum distribution of Bosonic Trimer States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    F. Bellotti, F.; Frederico, T.; T. Yamashita, M.

    2013-01-01

    -body contact parameter is universal and then demonstrate that the momentum distribution at next-to-leading order has a logarithmic dependence on momentum which is vastly different from the three-dimensional case. Based on this, we propose a scheme for measuring the effective dimensionality of a quantum many......-body system by exploiting the functional form of the momentum distribution....

  18. Distributive Justice in the State of Nature: An Egalitarian View ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Like many writers in the natural rights tradition, I take for granted that distributive justice consists in conformity to pre-political principles that apply to property regimes. Against the background of that assumption, the paper distinguishes between broadly Lockean and broadly Grotian conceptions of distributive justice in the ...

  19. State Electricity Regulatory Policy and Distributed Resources: Distributed Resource Distribution Credit Pilot Programs--Revealing the Value to Consumers and Vendors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moskovitz, D.; Harrington, C.; Shirley, W.; Cowart, R.; Sedano, R.; Weston, F.

    2002-10-01

    Designing and implementing credit-based pilot programs for distributed resources distribution is a low-cost, low-risk opportunity to find out how these resources can help defer or avoid costly electric power system (utility grid) distribution upgrades. This report describes implementation options for deaveraged distribution credits and distributed resource development zones. Developing workable programs implementing these policies can dramatically increase the deployment of distributed resources in ways that benefit distributed resource vendors, users, and distribution utilities. This report is one in the State Electricity Regulatory Policy and Distributed Resources series developed under contract to NREL (see Annual Technical Status Report of the Regulatory Assistance Project: September 2000-September 2001, NREL/SR-560-32733). Other titles in this series are: (1) Accommodating Distributed Resources in Wholesale Markets, NREL/SR-560-32497; (2) Distributed Resources and Electric System Re liability, NREL/SR-560-32498; (3) Distribution System Cost Methodologies for Distributed Generation, NREL/SR-560-32500; (4) Distribution System Cost Methodologies for Distributed Generation Appendices, NREL/SR-560-32501.

  20. Theoretical grounds of internal audit in the system of state financial control in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dikan Larysa V.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The article considers modern directions of reformation of the system of state financial control connected with introduction of the state internal financial control. It considers economic essence of the state internal financial control in the context of its components. It justifies the place of the internal audit in the system of the state internal financial control in Ukraine. It considers existing definitions of internal audit in legislative acts. It generalises views of scientists on interpretation of the “internal audit” notion. It provides definitions united in approaches. It conducts a critical analysis of generalised approaches. It offers the authors’ view on the essence of internal audit in budget institutions, which has certain positive features compared to existing ones.

  1. Spatially distributed effects of mental exhaustion on resting-state FMRI networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Fabrizio; Otto, Tobias; Zijlstra, Fred R H; Goebel, Rainer

    2014-01-01

    Brain activity during rest is spatially coherent over functional connectivity networks called resting-state networks. In resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging, independent component analysis yields spatially distributed network representations reflecting distinct mental processes, such as intrinsic (default) or extrinsic (executive) attention, and sensory inhibition or excitation. These aspects can be related to different treatments or subjective experiences. Among these, exhaustion is a common psychological state induced by prolonged mental performance. Using repeated functional magnetic resonance imaging sessions and spatial independent component analysis, we explored the effect of several hours of sustained cognitive performances on the resting human brain. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging was performed on the same healthy volunteers in two days, with and without, and before, during and after, an intensive psychological treatment (skill training and sustained practice with a flight simulator). After each scan, subjects rated their level of exhaustion and performed an N-back task to evaluate eventual decrease in cognitive performance. Spatial maps of selected resting-state network components were statistically evaluated across time points to detect possible changes induced by the sustained mental performance. The intensive treatment had a significant effect on exhaustion and effort ratings, but no effects on N-back performances. Significant changes in the most exhausted state were observed in the early visual processing and the anterior default mode networks (enhancement) and in the fronto-parietal executive networks (suppression), suggesting that mental exhaustion is associated with a more idling brain state and that internal attention processes are facilitated to the detriment of more extrinsic processes. The described application may inspire future indicators of the level of fatigue in the neural attention system.

  2. Internal stress distribution for generating closure domains in laser-irradiated Fe–3%Si(110) steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwata, Keiji; Imafuku, Muneyuki; Orihara, Hideto; Sakai, Yusuke; Ohya, Shin-Ichi; Suzuki, Tamaki; Shobu, Takahisa; Akita, Koichi; Ishiyama, Kazushi

    2015-01-01

    Internal stress distribution for generating closure domains occurring in laser-irradiated Fe–3%Si(110) steels was investigated using high-energy X-ray analysis and domain theory based on the variational principle. The measured triaxial stresses inside the specimen were compressive and the stress in the rolling direction became more dominant than stresses in the other directions. The calculations based on the variational principle of magnetic energy for closure domains showed that the measured triaxial stresses made the closure domains more stable than the basic domain without closure domains. The experimental and calculation results reveal that the laser-introduced internal stresses result in the occurrence of the closure domains

  3. Quantum field theory and the internal states of elementary particles

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Greben, JM

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A new application of quantum field theory is developed that gives a description of the internal dynamics of dressed elementary particles and predicts their masses. The fermionic and bosonic quantum fields are treated as interdependent fields...

  4. Distributed Submodular Minimization And Motion Coordination Over Discrete State Space

    KAUST Repository

    Jaleel, Hassan; Shamma, Jeff S.

    2017-01-01

    Submodular set-functions are extensively used in large-scale combinatorial optimization problems arising in complex networks and machine learning. While there has been significant interest in distributed formulations of convex optimization

  5. Regulation of distributed generation. A European Policy Paper on the Integration of Distributed Generation in the Internal Electricity Market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Sambeek, E.J.W.; Scheepers, M.J.J.

    2004-06-01

    In the SUSTELNET project criteria and guidelines have been developed that can create a level playing field in electricity markets between distributed generation (DG) and large scale power generation and will improve the network and market access of DG and electricity supply from renewable energy resources (RES). This report focuses on the European dimensions of DG regulation. The key findings of the SUSTELNET project are compared with the EU legislation, i.e. the current Electricity, Renewables and CHP Directives. Additional EU policy, regulation and initiatives are identified that can help Member States in developing future economically efficient and sustainable electricity supply systems

  6. Distributed Submodular Minimization And Motion Coordination Over Discrete State Space

    KAUST Repository

    Jaleel, Hassan

    2017-09-21

    Submodular set-functions are extensively used in large-scale combinatorial optimization problems arising in complex networks and machine learning. While there has been significant interest in distributed formulations of convex optimization, distributed minimization of submodular functions has not received significant attention. Thus, our main contribution is a framework for minimizing submodular functions in a distributed manner. The proposed framework is based on the ideas of Lovasz extension of submodular functions and distributed optimization of convex functions. The framework exploits a fundamental property of submodularity that the Lovasz extension of a submodular function is a convex function and can be computed efficiently. Moreover, a minimizer of a submodular function can be computed by computing the minimizer of its Lovasz extension. In the proposed framework, we employ a consensus based distributed optimization algorithm to minimize set-valued submodular functions as well as general submodular functions defined over set products. We also identify distributed motion coordination in multiagent systems as a new application domain for submodular function minimization. For demonstrating key ideas of the proposed framework, we select a complex setup of the capture the flag game, which offers a variety of challenges relevant to multiagent system. We formulate the problem as a submodular minimization problem and verify through extensive simulations that the proposed framework results in feasible policies for the agents.

  7. Ongoing nationwide outbreak of Salmonella Agona associated with internationally distributed infant milk products, France, December 2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jourdan-da Silva, Nathalie; Fabre, Laetitia; Robinson, Eve; Fournet, Nelly; Nisavanh, Athinna; Bruyand, Mathias; Mailles, Alexandra; Serre, Estelle; Ravel, Magali; Guibert, Véronique; Issenhuth-Jeanjean, Sylvie; Renaudat, Charlotte; Tourdjman, Mathieu; Septfons, Alexandra; de Valk, Henriette; Le Hello, Simon

    2018-01-01

    On 1 December 2017, an outbreak of Salmonella Agona infections among infants was identified in France. To date, 37 cases (median age: 4 months) and two further international cases have been confirmed. Five different infant milk products manufactured at one facility were implicated. On 2 and 10 December, the company recalled the implicated products; on 22 December, all products processed at the facility since February 2017. Trace-forward investigations indicated product distribution to 66 countries.

  8. Exchange rate pass-through and the role of international distribution channels

    OpenAIRE

    Desiraju, Ramarao; Shrikhande, Milind

    1996-01-01

    Manufacturers selling in foreign markets often do not completely pass on the effects of fluctuations in exchange rates to the prices of their products. Our paper addresses this puzzle and studies the effects of the international distribution channel on exchange rate pass-through. We develop an exchange rate pass-through model that takes into account the role of an intermediary between a domestic manufacturer and its consumers in a foreign market. We find that the magnitude of the pass-through...

  9. Tungsten heavy metal alloys relations between the crystallographic texture and the internal stress distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolas, G.; Voltz, M.

    2001-01-01

    Quite often the W-Ni-Fe-Co heavy alloys are subjected to a thermomechanical processing of swaging and aging in order to obtain the highest possible level of resistance. Within the framework of this plastic deformation on cylindrical parts, the swaging leads to the distribution of morphological and crystallographic texture as well as specific internal stresses. The resulting mechanical characteristics are correlated to structural and sub-structural variations. (author)

  10. Member States and International Legal Responsibility : Developments of the Institutional Veil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brölmann, C.

    2015-01-01

    The ‘institutional veil’ of international organizations is the linchpin for legal analysis and appraisal of the role and interrelation of international organizations, member States and organs. Through this lens the article examines in semi-broad strokes the position of international organizations’

  11. Words without Grammar: Linguists and the International Auxiliary Language Movements in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, Julia S.

    1995-01-01

    Discusses movements in the United States during the first half of the 20th century to develop an international language, focusing on proponents of the reestablishment of Latin as an international language and the work of the International Auxiliary Language Association to develop an entirely new language. (72 references) (MDM)

  12. 76 FR 10082 - Office of International Trade; State Trade and Export Promotion (STEP) Grant Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-23

    ... translation fees, The design of international marketing products or campaigns, An export trade show exhibit... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Office of International Trade; State Trade and Export Promotion... Administrator of the Office of International Trade (OIT) that does not duplicate the services of other SBA...

  13. 3 CFR - Designation of Officers of the United States Section, International Boundary and Water Commission...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Designation of Officers of the United States Section, International Boundary and Water Commission, United States and Mexico To Act as the Commissioner of the United... States and Mexico To Act as the Commissioner of the United States Section Memorandum for the Commissioner...

  14. A New Typology for State-Sponsored International Terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    tolerated the stacks of books with “ scary people” on the covers. xiv THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK 1 I. INTRODUCTION State sponsorship of...sponsors of terrorism list in August of 1993.133 The explanation of the State Department’s update to the list stated that despite warnings , “the... warning signs, Qaddafi directed his associates to attempt to re- establish communications with the U.S in 1992. At that point, however, the U.S. was not

  15. Moments of generalized Husimi distributions and complexity of many-body quantum states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugita, Ayumu

    2003-01-01

    We consider generalized Husimi distributions for many-body systems, and show that their moments are good measures of complexity of many-body quantum states. Our construction of the Husimi distribution is based on the coherent state of the single-particle transformation group. Then the coherent states are independent-particle states, and, at the same time, the most localized states in the Husimi representation. Therefore delocalization of the Husimi distribution, which can be measured by the moments, is a sign of many-body correlation (entanglement). Since the delocalization of the Husimi distribution is also related to chaoticity of the dynamics, it suggests a relation between entanglement and chaos. Our definition of the Husimi distribution can be applied not only to systems of distinguishable particles, but also to those of identical particles, i.e., fermions and bosons. We derive an algebraic formula to evaluate the moments of the Husimi distribution

  16. Spatio-Temporal Analysis of Rainfall Distribution in Kaduna State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    rainfall in Kaduna State, along a geographic transect, from the Southern to the Northern ... Kaduna State lies within the Guinea Savanna Ecological Zone with the .... was then used to compare the means of the sub-periods with the mean of the ...

  17. The Geographical Distribution of Water Supply in Ekiti State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The provision of potable water to every nock and crannies of the state must be pursed vigorously. To achieve this task in Ekiti State, the problems militating against the supply of clean water need to be tackled effectively. For this reason, the rehabilitation of existing dams provision of funds, completion of the 132 KVA ...

  18. Preliminary study of internal wave effects to chlorophyll distribution in the Lombok Strait and adjacent areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvelyna, Yessy; Oshima, Masaki

    2005-01-01

    This paper studies the effect of internal wave in the Lombok Strait to chlorophyll distribution in the surrounded areas using ERS SAR, ASTER, SeaWiFS and AVHRR-NOAA images data during 1996-2004 periods. The observation results shows that the internal waves were propagated to the south and the north of strait and mostly occurred during transitional season from dry to wet and wet season (rainy season) between September to December when the layers are strongly stratified. Wavelet transform of image using Meyer wavelet analysis is applied for internal wave detection in ERS SAR and ASTER images, for symmetric extension of data at the image boundaries, to prevent discontinuities by a periodic wrapping of data in fast algorithm and space-saving code. Internal wave created elongated pattern in detail and approximation of image from level 2 to 5 and retained value between 2-4.59 times compared to sea surface, provided accuracy in classification over than 80%. In segmentation process, the Canny edge detector is applied on the approximation image at level two to derive internal wave signature in image. The proposed method can extract the internal wave signature, maintain the continuity of crest line while reduce small strikes from noise. The segmentation result, i.e. the length between crest and trough, is used to compute the internal wave induced current using Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation. On ERS SAR data contains surface signature of internal wave (2001/8/20), we calculated that internal wave propagation speed was 1.2 m/s and internal wave induced current was 0.56 m/s, respectively. From the observation of ERS SAR and SeaWiFS images data, we found out that the distribution of maximum chlorophyll area at southern coastline off Bali Island when strong internal wave induced current occurred in south of the Lombok Strait was distributed further to westward, i.e. from 9.25°-10.25°LS, 115°-116.25°SE to 8.8°-10.7°LS, 114.5°-116°SE, and surface chlorophyll concentration

  19. 77 FR 65928 - The Secretary of State's International Council on Women's Business Leadership; Notice of Open...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-31

    ... Business Leadership; Notice of Open Meeting The Secretary of State's International Council on Women's... Secretary of State's International Council on Women's Business Leadership by C.O.B. November 20, 2012, by... Council on Women's Business Leadership at [email protected] ; send paper statements via facsimile to...

  20. 76 FR 81005 - The Secretary of State's International Council on Women's Business Leadership; Notice of Open...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-27

    ... Business Leadership; Notice of Open Meeting The Secretary of State's International Council on Women's... State's International Council on Women's Business Leadership by C.O.B. January 17, 2012, by either of... Women's Business Leadership at [email protected] ; send paper statements via facsimile to (202) 632...

  1. The immunity of states and their officials in international criminal law and international human rights law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Alebeek, R.

    2008-01-01

    * Provides an in-depth analysis of case law such as the Pinochet, Jones, Al-Adsani, the Arrest Warrant, and Taylor cases. * The first comprehensive treatment of the subject for both civil and criminal proceedings The development of international human rights law and international criminal law has

  2. Syria's predicament : state (de-) formation and international rivalries

    OpenAIRE

    Saouli, Adham

    2014-01-01

    Syria’s war raises important questions about the interaction between the domestic and external dimensions of the conflict. What are the main areas of contention, and how do they relate to regional and international dynamics? Why has the conflict developed into a regional and international battle, and who are the main actors in this rivalry? And, finally, what are the realistic options for ending the Syrian war? The aim of this paper is to answer these questions. In the first, the author exami...

  3. Graphic display of spatially distributed binary-state experimental data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, B.L.

    1981-01-01

    Experimental data collected from a large number of transducers spatially distributed throughout a three-dimensional volume has typically posed a difficult interpretation task for the analyst. This paper describes one approach to alleviating this problem by presenting color graphic displays of experimental data; specifically, data representing the dynamic three-dimensional distribution of cooling fluid collected during the reflood and refill of simulated nuclear reactor vessels. Color-coded binary data (wet/dry) are integrated with a graphic representation of the reactor vessel and displayed on a high-resolution color CRT. The display is updated with successive data sets and made into 16-mm movies for distribution and analysis. Specific display formats are presented and extension to other applications discussed

  4. The Role of the State | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2013-03-01

    Mar 1, 2013 ... The Role of the State analyzes the relationship between the state and the development of the national system of innovation. Combining original data and expert analysis, the book presents experience and knowledge that may impact how we understand the theory of innovation systems, and implement ...

  5. Norms and Politics of State Formation in the International System ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The emergence of state system in the history of mankind brought alongside issues that border on the modalities for its existence. There has actually not been any known rigid formula for its emergence. This has been eliciting excitement and, on many occasions, conflicts among proponents and opponents of rigid state ...

  6. STEM and Technology Education: International State-of-the-Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritz, John M.; Fan, Szu-Chun

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports the perceptions of 20 international technology education scholars on their country's involvement in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education. Survey research was used to obtain data. It was found that the concept of STEM education is being discussed differently by nations. Some consider STEM education…

  7. 77 FR 17525 - Cinram Distribution, LLC, a Subsidiary of Cinram International Income Fund, Including On-Site...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-26

    ... International Income Fund had their wages reported through a separate unemployment insurance (UI) tax account..., a Subsidiary of Cinram International Income Fund, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Good People..., 2012, applicable to workers of Cinram Distribution, LLC, a subsidiary of Cinram International Income...

  8. Distributed decay kinetics of charge separated state in solid film

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lehtivuori, Heli; Efimov, Alexander; Lemmetyinen, Helge; Tkachenko, Nikolai V.

    2007-01-01

    Photoinduced electron transfer in solid films of porphyrin-fullerene dyads was studied using femtosecond pump-probe method. The relaxation of the main photo-product, intramolecular exciplex, was found to be essentially non-exponential. To analyze the decays a model accounting for a distribution of

  9. Reptilia, Gymnophthalmidae, Micrablepharus maximiliani (Reinhardt and Lutken, 1861: Distribution extension, new state record and geographic distribution map.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moura, M. R.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We provide records for Micrablepharus maximiliani from state of Minas Gerais and present a map representingits distribution. The record of M. maximiliani from municipality of Resplendor, Minas Gerais, represents a distributionextension of 1,050 km southern from the type locality at the municipality of Maruim, Sergipe. Others 57 new recordsare presented based on specimens housed in several Brazilian and Paraguayan herpetological collections, improving theknowledge on geographic distribution of M. maximiliani in South America.

  10. Immigration impacts on internal migration of the poor: 1990 census evidence for U.S. states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, W H

    1995-09-01

    "This article presents newly-available migration data from the 1990 U.S. census to assess immigration and internal migration components as they affect state poverty populations. New immigrant waves are heavily focused on only a few 'port-of-entry' states. It is suggested that these immigrants have begun to impact upon internal migration into and out of these 'high immigration states', and have also altered the national system of internal migration patterns. This article addresses three questions: How do the magnitudes of poverty population out-migration from high immigration states compare with those of other states? Is this out-migration selective on particular social and demographic groups? Is immigration a significant determinant of internal migration of the poor population? The results of this analysis are consistent with the view that recent, focused immigration is associated with out-migration among a state's poor longer-term residents." excerpt

  11. World of Warcraft™ and the State of Territory in International Relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strandsbjerg, Jeppe

    According to conventional knowledge, the realist tradition in International Relations has maintained the world of International Politics in a perpetual state of ‘warcraft’ between sovereign territorial states. Since the early 1990s arguments associated with Historical Sociology have sought...... and transformative effect on the political role of territory. This is key to understand to spatial nature of the modern state and thus, also, the transformative possibilities within international relations...... to counter such a timeless image of states and politics. Yet, while this has done much to historicise state institutions and the international system, one of the fundamental features of the modern state remains poorly understood: that of territory. This is because, I argue, that the concept of space remains...

  12. The State of Evaluation in Internal Medicine Residency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmboe, Eric; Beasley, Brent W.

    2008-01-01

    Background There are no nationwide data on the methods residency programs are using to assess trainee competence. The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) has recommended tools that programs can use to evaluate their trainees. It is unknown if programs are adhering to these recommendations. Objective To describe evaluation methods used by our nation’s internal medicine residency programs and assess adherence to ACGME methodological recommendations for evaluation. Design Nationwide survey. Participants All internal medicine programs registered with the Association of Program Directors of Internal Medicine (APDIM). Measurements Descriptive statistics of programs and tools used to evaluate competence; compliance with ACGME recommended evaluative methods. Results The response rate was 70%. Programs were using an average of 4.2–6.0 tools to evaluate their trainees with heavy reliance on rating forms. Direct observation and practice and data-based tools were used much less frequently. Most programs were using at least 1 of the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME)’s “most desirable” methods of evaluation for all 6 measures of trainee competence. These programs had higher support staff to resident ratios than programs using less desirable evaluative methods. Conclusions Residency programs are using a large number and variety of tools for evaluating the competence of their trainees. Most are complying with ACGME recommended methods of evaluation especially if the support staff to resident ratio is high. PMID:18612734

  13. Equilibrium charge state distributions of high energy heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, R.B.; Grant, I.S.; King, R.; Eastham, D.A.; Joy, T.

    1976-01-01

    Equilibrium charge state fractions have been measured for N, O, Ne, S, Ar and Kr ions at 1.04 MeV/nucleon after passing through various stripping materials. Further data were obtained at higher energy for S ions (4.12 MeV/nucleon) and Ar ions (4.12 and 9.6 MeV/nucleon). The mean charge fractions can be fitted to universal curves for both solid and gaseous strippers. Measurements of the equilibrium fraction of krypton ions at 1.04 MeV/nucleon passing through heavy vapours have shown that a higher average charge state is obtained than for lighter gaseous strippers. (Auth.)

  14. Distributed Wind Resource Assessment: State of the Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fields, Jason [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tinnesand, Heidi [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Baring-Gould, Ian [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-06-01

    In support of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Wind and Water Power Technologies Office (WWPTO) goals, researchers from DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) are investigating the Distributed Wind Resource Assessment (DWRA) process, which includes pre-construction energy estimation as well as turbine site suitability assessment. DWRA can have a direct impact on the Wind Program goals of maximizing stakeholder confidence in turbine performance and safety as well as reducing the levelized cost of energy (LCOE). One of the major components of the LCOE equation is annual energy production. DWRA improvements can maximize the annual energy production, thereby lowering the overall LCOE and improving stakeholder confidence in the distributed wind technology sector by providing more accurate predictions of power production. Over the long term, one of the most significant benefits of a more defined DWRA process could be new turbine designs, tuned to site-specific characteristics that will help the distributed wind industry follow a similar trajectory to the low-wind-speed designs in the utility-scale industry sector. By understanding the wind resource better, the industry could install larger rotors, capture more energy, and as a result, increase deployment while lowering the LCOE. a direct impact on the Wind Program goals of maximizing stakeholder confidence in turbine performance and safety as well as reducing the levelized cost of energy (LCOE). One of the major components of the LCOE equation is annual energy production. DWRA improvements can maximize the annual energy production, thereby lowering the overall LCOE and improving stakeholder confidence in the distributed wind technology sector by providing more accurate predictions of power production. Over the long term, one of the most significant benefits of a more defined DWRA process could be new turbine designs, tuned to site-specific characteristics that

  15. Optical characteristic and gap states distribution of amorphous SnO2:(Zn, In) film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhi-Guo

    2010-01-01

    In this paper the fabrication technique of amorphous SnO 2 :(Zn, In) film is presented. The transmittance and gap-states distribution of the film are given. The experimental results of gap-states distribution are compared with the calculated results by using the facts of short range order and lattice vacancy defect of the gap states theory. The distribution of gap state has been proved to be discontinuous due to the short-range order of amorphous structure. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  16. Effect of dielectronic recombination on the charge-state distribution ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The effect of dielectronic recombination in determining charge-state distribu- tion and radiative emission from a laser-produced carbon plasma has been investigated in the collisional radiative ionization equilibrium. It is observed that the relative abundances of different ions in the plasma, and soft X-ray emission ...

  17. Distribution of quantum states in enclosures of finite size I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souto, J.H.; Chaba, A.N.

    1989-01-01

    The expression for the density of states of a particle in a three-dimensional rectangular box of finite size can be obtained directly by Poissons's Summation formula. The expression for the case of an enclosure in the form of an infinite rectangular slab is derived. (A.C.A.S.) [pt

  18. Spatial distribution of water supply in the coterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas C. Brown; Michael T. Hobbins; Jorge A. Ramirez

    2008-01-01

    Available water supply across the contiguous 48 states was estimated as precipitation minus evapotranspiration using data for the period 1953-1994. Precipitation estimates were taken from the Parameter- Elevation Regressions on Independent Slopes Model (PRISM). Evapotranspiration was estimated using two models, the Advection-Aridity model and the Zhang model. The...

  19. Braille in the United States: Its Production, Distribution, and Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldish, Louis Harvey

    The braille production system in the United States is described. Aspects treated are the following: the need for braille (the braille system), the market for braille (size and characteristics), sources of braille (producers and braille book source information), and present methods and costs of producing braille. Technological advances are…

  20. Manifest Destiny: The Relationship between the United States and the International Criminal Court in a Time of International Upheaval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sabharwal, Prashant

    2012-01-01

    Ever since the negotiations that culminated in the signing of the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court ("ICC" or "the Court"), the approach taken by various Administrations in the United States has been a reflection of domestic politics and a skeptical foreign policy establishment. In

  1. Approximation of the steady state system state distribution of the M/G/1 retrial queue with impatient customers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stihi Nadjet

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available For M/G/1 retrial queues with impatient customers, we review the results, concerning the steady state distribution of the system state, presented in the literature. Since the existing formulas are cumbersome (so their utilization in practice becomes delicate or the obtaining of these formulas is impossible, we apply the information theoretic techniques for estimating the above mentioned distribution. More concretely, we use the principle of maximum entropy which provides an adequate methodology for computing a unique estimate for an unknown probability distribution based on information expressed in terms of some given mean value constraints.

  2. The Current State of the International Security System

    OpenAIRE

    Ивашов, Леонид Григорьевич

    2013-01-01

    The author examines the modern geopolitical world and assesses the threats to Russia’s security. These threats are demonstrated to be hitched to the goals of the US National Strategy and, in particular, to the US plans on deployment of anti-ballistic missile system. The author argues that in this situation the mainstay of Russia’s foreign policy should become “security through cooperation.”Key words: international security, anti-ballistic missile, preemptive war, geopolitical centers, UN Secu...

  3. Internal Environmental Displacement: A Growing Challenge to the United States Welfare State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle A. Meyer

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available While the greatest potential for environmental displacement occurs in poorer nations, internal displacement has resulted from environmental change and disasters in the United States; and climate change will likely amplify this movement. I describe how environmental displacement is a policy drift that reduces the effectiveness of current welfare state policies to protect US populations from the risk of impoverishment. Evidence from previous disasters indicates environmental displacees have particular assistance needs. I identify the four main assistance needs in my Environmental Displacement and Resilience Model then use this model to evaluate whether current policies address housing, finances, health, and discrimination needs of those displaced. My analysis highlights a gap between the country’s response to disasters and the current welfare state social safety nets. Without disaster and welfare policy changes environmental displacement will continue to be a policy drift that leave displacees vulnerable to social and economic marginalization. Mientras que el mayor potencial de desplazamientos por causas medioambientales se da en los países más pobres, en los Estados Unidos se ha producido un desplazamiento interno como resultado de cambios ambientales y desastres; y es probable que el cambio climático aumente estos movimientos. Se describe cómo los desplazamientos por causas ambientales suponen un fallo político que reduce la eficacia de las actuales políticas del estado de bienestar que se deben desarrollar para proteger a la población de Estados Unidos contra el riesgo de empobrecimiento. Evidencias de desastres anteriores indican que los desplazados por causas medioambientales tienen necesidades de asistencia especiales. Se identifican las cuatro necesidades de asistencia principales que recoge Modelo de Desplazamiento Medioambiental y Resiliciencia de la autora, para después usar este modelo para evaluar si las políticas actuales

  4. Magnetization distribution of single-particle states and 2/sup +/ rotational states from muonic atoms

    CERN Document Server

    Backe, H; Engfer, R; Kankeleit, E; Link, R; Michaelsen, R; Petitjean, C; Schellenberg, L; Schneuwly, H; Schröder, W U; Vuilleumier, J L; Walter, H K; Zehnder, A

    1973-01-01

    The lowest states in muonic atoms are rather sensitive to the spatial distribution of the nuclear magnetization density, and several results were deduced from the broadening of the muonic 2p/sub 1/2/-1s/sub 1/2/ and 3d/sub 3/2/-2p/sub 1/2/ transitions. By measuring low energetic transitions such as the 2s/sub 1/2/-2p/sub 1/2/ transition or nuclear gamma -transitions, it is possible to resolve the magnetic hyperfine splittings. The magnetic hf splitting of the 2s/sub 1/2/-2p/sub 1/2/ transition in mu /sup 115/In and of the 3/2/sup +/-1/2/sup +/ nuclear gamma -transitions in mu /sup 203/Tl at 279 keV, and in mu /sup 205/Tl at 204 keV, have been resolved. For the 2/sup +/-0/sup +/ nuclear gamma -transition in mu /sup 190,192/Os at 187 keV and 206 keV, respectively, the magnetic hf splitting of the 2/sup +/ rotational levels and the intensities of the hf components were determined from a nearly resolved doublet splitting. (7 refs).

  5. 75 FR 82424 - The Secretary of State's International Council on Women's Business Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-30

    ... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice: 7237] The Secretary of State's International Council on Women's Business Leadership AGENCY: Department of State. ACTION: Notice of intent to establish an advisory... Business Leadership, in accordance with the Federal Advisory Committee Act. Nature and Purpose: The Council...

  6. Collusion in International Organizations: How States Benefit from the Authority of Secretariats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Hylke

    2017-01-01

    In the theoretical literature on the authority of international secretariats, academics often dichotomise between states and secretariats. Even when they account for the fact that states are often divided, they normally adopt a two-step approach: states first resolve their own differences before

  7. The spatial distribution of soil organic carbon in tidal wetland soils of the continental United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinson, Audra L; Feagin, Rusty A; Eriksson, Marian; Najjar, Raymond G; Herrmann, Maria; Bianchi, Thomas S; Kemp, Michael; Hutchings, Jack A; Crooks, Steve; Boutton, Thomas

    2017-12-01

    Tidal wetlands contain large reservoirs of carbon in their soils and can sequester carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) at a greater rate per unit area than nearly any other ecosystem. The spatial distribution of this carbon influences climate and wetland policy. To assist with international accords such as the Paris Climate Agreement, national-level assessments such as the United States (U.S.) National Greenhouse Gas Inventory, and regional, state, local, and project-level evaluation of CO 2 sequestration credits, we developed a geodatabase (CoBluCarb) and high-resolution maps of soil organic carbon (SOC) distribution by linking National Wetlands Inventory data with the U.S. Soil Survey Geographic Database. For over 600,000 wetlands, the total carbon stock and organic carbon density was calculated at 5-cm vertical resolution from 0 to 300 cm of depth. Across the continental United States, there are 1,153-1,359 Tg of SOC in the upper 0-100 cm of soils across a total of 24 945.9 km 2 of tidal wetland area, twice as much carbon as the most recent national estimate. Approximately 75% of this carbon was found in estuarine emergent wetlands with freshwater tidal wetlands holding about 19%. The greatest pool of SOC was found within the Atchafalaya/Vermilion Bay complex in Louisiana, containing about 10% of the U.S. total. The average density across all tidal wetlands was 0.071 g cm -3 across 0-15 cm, 0.055 g cm -3 across 0-100 cm, and 0.040 g cm -3 at the 100 cm depth. There is inherent variability between and within individual wetlands; however, we conclude that it is possible to use standardized values at a range of 0-100 cm of the soil profile, to provide first-order quantification and to evaluate future changes in carbon stocks in response to environmental perturbations. This Tier 2-oriented carbon stock assessment provides a scientific method that can be copied by other nations in support of international requirements. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Internalization of external cost for the production and distribution of electricity in Flanders, Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torfs, R.; De Nocker, L.; Schrooten, L.; Aernouts, K.; Liekens, I.

    2005-04-01

    This report elaborates the external costs of electricity production and distribution in Flanders, Belgium, and tests them against prices and taxes for electricity use. The authors examined whether these external costs decrease in time and whether such a decrease leads to internalization in the price for the users through taxes, levies or other economic instruments. The external costs mainly include external environmental costs caused by air pollution and greenhouse gases, but also damage caused by accidents, hindrance and radioactive substances that may be released. [nl

  9. 13th International Symposium on Distributed Computing and Artificial Intelligence 2016

    CERN Document Server

    Semalat, Ali; Bocewicz, Grzegorz; Sitek, Paweł; Nielsen, Izabela; García, Julián; Bajo, Javier

    2016-01-01

    The 13th International Symposium on Distributed Computing and Artificial Intelligence 2016 (DCAI 2016) is a forum to present applications of innovative techniques for studying and solving complex problems. The exchange of ideas between scientists and technicians from both the academic and industrial sector is essential to facilitate the development of systems that can meet the ever-increasing demands of today’s society. The present edition brings together past experience, current work and promising future trends associated with distributed computing, artificial intelligence and their application in order to provide efficient solutions to real problems. This symposium is organized by the University of Sevilla (Spain), Osaka Institute of Technology (Japan), and the Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (Malaysia).

  10. The Role of the State | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    1 mars 2013 ... Voici le premier ouvrage d'une collection qui en comptera cinq et qui colligera les résultats de recherches intensives sur les systèmes d'innovation nationaux dans les pays BRICS : le Brésil, la Russie, l'Inde, la Chine et l'Afrique du Sud. The Role of the State analyse le rôle de l'État dans le déploiement de ...

  11. 20th International Conference on Solid State Ionics (SSI 20)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-20

    Italy; 2CNST @PoliMI, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia , Milano, Italy; 3Physical Chemistry of Solids, Max Planck Institute for Solid State Research...Coughlin5; 1Chemical Sciences, University of Padova, Padova, Italy; 2Consorzio Interuniversitario Nazionale per la Scienza e la Tecnologia dei Materiali...Germany; 2Instituto de Tecnologia Quimica , Valencia, Spain; 3Ernst Ruska Center, Jülich, Germany. 4:50 PM J5.05 Hydrogen Permeation through CO2-Stable

  12. International Conference on Extreme States in Nuclear Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arlt, R.; Kuehn, B.

    1979-12-01

    The abstracts of contributed papers are arranged under the following headings: (1) nuclear matter, incl. elementary interactions, phase transitions, compression of nuclear matter; (2) heavy ion reactions, incl. nucleus-nucleus potential, mechanism of heavy ion reactions, role of non-equilibrium processes, nuclear quasimolecules, superheavy nuclei; (3) high spin states and nuclear structure; and (4) relativistic nuclear physics, incl. heavy ion reactions, particle production, role of nucleon associations. (author)

  13. Quality assessment of state land internal audit agency of Ukraine based on risk-oriented approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.G. Vugovska

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article stipulates that in modern conditions of development and reform of the national system of state financial control to the fore the issue of quality, which is an integral part of - or the provision of a service or product produced. In the context of our study on the evaluation of the quality of the internal audit system of the State Land Agency, is the efficiency of its operation. The authors have developed scientific and methodical approach to assessing the quality of the internal audit system of the State Land Agency of Ukraine by specifying the list of evaluation criteria and the implementation of risk-based model selection controlled entities, which allowed to determine the potential risk of financial irregularities and frequency of inspections by the State Financial Inspection. Determined that the planned inspections of the state Land Agency should be not less than once every two years. Applying the above approach will reduce the number of violations in budgetary institutions, improve the quality control organization by the internal audit work, increase the responsibility of the head of an effective, legitimate and proper use of funds. The authors were asked to form a report on the results of the internal audit quality in budgetary institutions and determined that for the cooperation of internal audit bodies of the State financial inspection need to be able to use the latest internal audit report to provide recommendations to improve the functioning of the internal control systems in controlled entities.

  14. Ascertaining the international state of the art of PSA methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linden, J. von

    1998-01-01

    Plant-specific PSAs, to be performed within the framework of the Periodic Safety Review of German Nuclear Power Plants require further development of the methodology. For that purpose foreign PSA-guidelines and PSA-reviewes as well as relevant literature are examined and appropriate insights are adopted within task A.2 of project SR 2096. The main goal of these activities is to achieve a comparison of the state of the art of PSA-methodologies applied abroad and in Germany. The German state of the art refers to the extent as is documented in the German PSA Guide (Leitfaden Probabilistische Sicherheitsanalyse /PSUe97/) which has to be used for the Periodic Safety Review of German Nuclear Power Plants. The structure for the evaluation is based on the working steps of a PSA. In total, according to the objectives of the Periodic Safety Review the German approach for plant-specific PSAs based on the German PSA Guide is conform to the state of the art abroad. Identified deviations in some details are evaluated reflecting the view of GRS. Particular aspects resulting from the evaluation should be considered for further development of the German PSA Guide. (orig.) [de

  15. International portfolio diversification: United States and south Asian equity markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mushtaq Rizwan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the dynamic liaison between US and three developing South Asian equity markets in short and long term. To gauge the long-term relationship, we applied Johansen co-integration procedure as all the representative indices are found to be non-stationary at level. The findings illustrate that the US equity market index exhibits a reasonably different movement over time in contrast to the three developing equity markets under consideration. However, the Granger-causality test divulge that the direction of causality scamper from US equity market to the three South Asian markets. It further indicates that within the three developing equity markets the direction of causality emanates from Bombay stock market to Karachi and Colombo. Overall, the results of the study suggest that the American investors can get higher returns through international diversification into developing equity markets, while the US stock market would also be a gainful upshot for South Asian investors.

  16. Reptilia, Squamata, Gymnophthalmidae, Arthrosaura reticulata (O'Shaughnessy, 1881: Distribution extension and new state record.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mott, T.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Arthrosaura reticulata (O´Shaugnessy, 1881 is reported from two localities in Mato Grosso, Brazil. It representsthe first state record for the species, extending its known distribution in 830 km southeastern of the southernmost recordin the state of Amazonas and 470 km eastern of the state of Rondônia, the southernmost record of the species.

  17. The United States and international climate cooperation: International 'pull' versus domestic 'push'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bang, Guri [Center for International Climate and Environmental Research, Oslo (Norway); Froyn, Camilla Bretteville [Center for International Climate and Environmental Research, Oslo (Norway); Hovi, Jon [Center for International Climate and Environmental Research, Oslo (Norway) and Department of Political Science, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1097, 0317 Oslo (Norway)]. E-mail: jon.hovi@stv.uio.no; Menz, Fredric C. [Center for International Climate and Environmental Research, Oslo (Norway); School of Business, Clarkson University, Potsdam, NY 13699 (United States)

    2007-02-15

    The US government is being pressured by both international and domestic influences to re-engage in international climate control. This paper considers whether the international 'pull' and the domestic 'push' will be strong enough to accomplish this. First, we discuss whether changes in the architecture of the current climate regime might induce the United States to re-engage at the international level. We argue that the United States is unlikely to rejoin any global climate regime that is based on the Kyoto architecture, even if Kyoto were to be 'reformed'. Second, we discuss whether domestic political developments might eventually cause the United States to re-engage. We conclude that US re-engagement is likely to require the emergence of a new climate regime that basically extends US regulation to other countries. However, the forging of a unified US climate policy is still in the making. Furthermore, a new regime can gain widespread participation only if the Kyoto countries accept the idea of replacing Kyoto with some alternative architecture, which seems unlikely in the near future.

  18. United States Commercial Shipbuilding Productivity: An International View

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-12-01

    produced, U.S. shipbuilders would have ranked 36th. The U.S. output is just above Malaysia (2758 GT), Peru (3136 GT) and Chile (3372 GT), but below...2 6,172 0.05 35 GREECE 4 5,219 0.04 36 UNITED STATES 10 4,078 0.03 37 CHILE 8 3,372 0.03 38 PERU 7 3,136 0.02 39 MALAYSIA 2 2,758 0.02 40 THAILAND 2...Korean shipbuilders’ rank second behind Japan in total GT produced. Collectively, the three major yards, Hyundai Heavy Industries (HH I), Samsung , and

  19. Charge-state distribution of MeV He ions scattered from the surface atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Kenji; Ohtsuka, Hisashi; Mannami, Michihiko

    1993-01-01

    The charge-state distribution of 500-keV He ions scattered from a SnTe (001) surface has been investigated using a new technique of high-resolution high-energy ion scattering spectroscopy. The observed charge-state distribution of ions scattered from the topmost atomic layer coincides with that of ions scattered from the subsurface region and does not depend on the incident charge state but depends on the exit angle. The observed exit-angle dependence is explained by a model which includes the charge-exchange process with the valence electrons in the tail of the electron distribution at the surface. (author)

  20. Case Study: Incorporating International Themes into the Business Curriculum at Missouri Southern State University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzzard, Janet; Block, Beverly

    2007-01-01

    Higher education is charged with preparing graduates to be successful in an international society. This paper will examine Missouri Southern State University's approach to internationalizing their campus and curriculum.

  1. The United States' Rejection of the International Criminal Court: A Strategic Error

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Watson, Rickey

    2008-01-01

    .... The United States was a major part of these negotiations but did not accept the result. The Bush administration and Congress have pursued a markedly hostile attitude towards the International Criminal Court (ICC...

  2. State Estimation of International Space Station Centrifuge Rotor With Incomplete Knowledge of Disturbance Inputs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sullivan, Michael J

    2005-01-01

    This thesis develops a state estimation algorithm for the Centrifuge Rotor (CR) system where only relative measurements are available with limited knowledge of both rotor imbalance disturbances and International Space Station (ISS...

  3. Theoretical expression of the internal conversion coefficient of a M1 transition between two atomic states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attallah, F.; Chemin, J.F.; Scheurer, J.N.; Karpeshin, F.; Harston, M.

    1997-01-01

    We have established a general relation for the expression of the internal conversion of an M 1 transition a 1s electronic state to an empty ns electronic bound state. Under the hypothesis that the density of the electron level ρ n satisfies the condition ρ n Γ >> 1 (where Γ is the total width of the excited atomic state) a calculation in the first order gives a relation for the internal conversion coefficient.This relation shows that the internal conversion coefficient takes a resonant character when the nuclear energy transition is smaller than the binding energy of the 1s electron. An application of this relation to an M 1 transition in the case of the ion 125 T e with a charge state Q = 45 and an 1s electron binding energy E B 45 = 35.581 KeV gives the value for the internal conversion coefficient R = 5.7

  4. Myxomycetes in Alagoas state (Brazil and notes on its distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Carla Caldas Bezerra

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2014v27n3p13 The state of Alagoas is located in the northeastern region of Brazil, and covers an area of 27,767 km2. Several different ecosystem types exist in this area, including mangroves forests and Atlantic rainforest on the coast, and Caatinga inland. The literature reports the occurrence of 43 species of Myxomycetes in Alagoas, all of which are recorded in humid forest environments, or in stored sugarcane bagasse. This study is the first one to record members of family Didymiaceae, and the genera Badhamia, Comatricha, Perichaena, Reticularia and Stemonaria in Alagoas. A species key is presented. Licea succulenticola, Reticularia jurana and Stemonaria longa are new references for the Caatinga biome. Licea succulenticola is also reported for the first time in Brazil.

  5. Voluntary league of peoples vs. coercive world federative state (Völkerstaat/Staatenverein of peoples as states: Kant's and Rawls' considerations concerning international relations: Similarities and

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stupar Milorad J.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Although similar in some respects, Rawls' and Kant' visions of world order fall apart on the question of sovereignty. Rawls never advocates of an international single state with international authority. Kant, on the other hand, inspired by the project of Enlightenment, as a final form of international sovereignty sees federative state of states as a provider for eternal peace among peoples.

  6. Formation of UAE State and Factors for Development of International Relations between UAE and African Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A K Voronkov

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on analyses of formation of UAE state and features formation of international relations between UAE and African countries including low level of political and economic ties between UAE and African countries and dominant role of economic and humanitarian assistance in their relations provided both through international organizations and on bilateral basis by Abu Dhabi Fund for Development. Islam and traditional values of Arab culture are considered defining factors for formation of such structure of international relations.

  7. The state of art of internal fire PSA in nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Xinli; Zhao Bo; Zheng Xiangyang

    2010-01-01

    The operational experiences of nuclear power plants (NPPs) show that the internal fires challenge effectively the nuclear safety of NPPs. Thus, the authorities having jurisdiction in the world have enhanced the supervision on fire safety in NPPs, asking the licensees to perform fire hazard analysis and evaluate the fire risk. This article mainly describes the state of art of internal fire probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) in the world, and compares the main methods and standards for internal fire PSA. (authors)

  8. International Tax Evasion, State Purchases of Confidential Bank Data and Voluntary Disclosures

    OpenAIRE

    Bethmann, Dirk; Kvasnicka, Michael

    2017-01-01

    State purchases of bank data on suspected tax evaders from international tax havens constitute a potential tool to combat international tax evasion. Using self-compiled data for North-Rhine Westphalia on the timing and content of such data acquisitions from whistleblowers and on monthly voluntary disclosures of international tax evasion involving Swiss banks, we show that purchases of data by tax authorities on potential tax evaders have a positive and sizeable effect on voluntary disclosures.

  9. Developments in Education and International Migrations in New Member States of the EU

    OpenAIRE

    Kultalahti, Olli

    2013-01-01

    The paper examines the development of education systems and international migrations in selected new Member States. The countries are Estonia, the Czech Republic and Slovakia. The paper focuses on various elements in the development of education systems making people able to cope with competition on global labour markets. The outcomes of these developments largely regulate the supply of labour and consequently its international demand. Some statistics on international migration and integratio...

  10. Domains of State-Owned, Privately Held, and Publicly Traded Firms in International Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascarenhas, Briance

    1989-01-01

    Hypotheses relating ownership to domain differences among state-owned, publicly traded, and privately held firms in international competition were examined in a controlled field study of the offshore drilling industry. Ownership explained selected differences in domestic market dominance, international presence, and customer orientation, even…

  11. The Factors That Influence Dietary Habits among International Students in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alakaam, Amir A.; Castellanos, Diana C.; Bodzio, Jessica; Harrison, Lee

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the dietary intake changes and factors related to dietary acculturation in international students attending an urban university in the United States. The researchers administered seven focus groups of college-age international students (n = 32) between June and August 2012. The participants were enrolled in Northeastern and…

  12. 40 CFR Appendix A to Subpart A of... - State Regulation of Nonroad Internal Combustion Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State Regulation of Nonroad Internal Combustion Engines A Appendix A to Subpart A of Part 89 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Nonroad Internal Combustion Engines This appendix sets forth the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's...

  13. Influence of Transformation Plasticity on the Distribution of Internal Stress in Three Water-Quenched Cylinders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu; Qin, Shengwei; Zhang, Jiazhi; Wang, Ying; Rong, Yonghua; Zuo, Xunwei; Chen, Nailu

    2017-10-01

    Based on the hardenability of three medium carbon steels, cylinders with the same 60-mm diameter and 240-mm length were designed for quenching in water to obtain microstructures, including a pearlite matrix (Chinese steel mark: 45), a bainite matrix (42CrMo), and a martensite matrix (40CrNiMo). Through the combination of normalized functions describing transformation plasticity (TP), the thermo-elasto-plastic constitutive equation was deduced. The results indicate that the finite element simulation (FES) of the internal stress distribution in the three kinds of hardenable steel cylinders based on the proposed exponent-modified (Ex-Modified) normalized function is more consistent with the X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements than those based on the normalized functions proposed by Abrassart, Desalos, and Leblond, which is attributed to the fact that the Ex-Modified normalized function better describes the TP kinetics. In addition, there was no significant difference between the calculated and measured stress distributions, even though TP was taken into account for the 45 carbon steel; that is, TP can be ignored in FES. In contrast, in the 42CrMo and 40CrNiMo alloyed steels, the significant effect of TP on the residual stress distributions was demonstrated, meaning that TP must be included in the FES. The rationality of the preceding conclusions was analyzed. The complex quenching stress is a consequence of interactions between the thermal and phase transformation stresses. The separated calculations indicate that the three steels exhibit similar thermal stress distributions for the same water-quenching condition, but different phase transformation stresses between 45 carbon steel and alloyed steels, leading to different distributions of their axial and tangential stresses.

  14. The Current State of Rural Neurosurgical Practice: An International Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyayula, Pavan S; Yue, John K; Yang, Jason; Birk, Harjus S; Ciacci, Joseph D

    2018-01-01

    Rural and low-resource areas have diminished capacity to care for neurosurgical patients due to lack of infrastructure, healthcare investment, and training programs. This review summarizes the range of rural neurosurgical procedures, novel mechanisms for delivering care, rapid training programs, and outcome differences across international rural neurosurgical practice. A comprehensive literature search was performed for English language manuscripts with keywords "rural" and "neurosurgery" using the National Library of Medicine PubMed database (01/1971-06/2017). Twenty-four articles focusing on rural non-neurosurgical practice were included. Time to care and/or surgery and shortage of trained personnel remain the strongest risk factors for mortality and poor outcome. Telemedicine consults to regional centers with neurosurgery housestaff have potential for increased timeliness of diagnosis/triage, improved time to surgery, and reductions in unnecessary transfers in remote areas. Mobile neurosurgery teams have been deployed with success in nations with large transport distances precluding initial transfers. Common neurosurgical procedures involve trauma mechanisms; accordingly, training programs for nonneurosurgery medical personnel on basic assessment and operative techniques have been successful in resource-deficient settings where neurosurgeons are unavailable. Protracted transport times, lack of resources/training, and difficulty retaining specialists are barriers to successful outcomes. Advances in telemedicine, mobile neurosurgery, and training programs for urgent operative techniques have been implemented efficaciously. Development of guidelines for paired partnerships between rural centers and academic hospitals, supplying surplus technology to rural areas, and rapid training of qualified local surgical personnel can create sustainable feed-forward programs for trainees and infrastructural solutions to address challenges in rural neurosurgery.

  15. The current state of rural neurosurgical practice: An international perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavan S Upadhyayula

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Rural and low-resource areas have diminished capacity to care for neurosurgical patients due to lack of infrastructure, healthcare investment, and training programs. This review summarizes the range of rural neurosurgical procedures, novel mechanisms for delivering care, rapid training programs, and outcome differences across international rural neurosurgical practice. Methods: A comprehensive literature search was performed for English language manuscripts with keywords “rural” and “neurosurgery” using the National Library of Medicine PubMed database (01/1971–06/2017. Twenty-four articles focusing on rural non-neurosurgical practice were included. Results: Time to care and/or surgery and shortage of trained personnel remain the strongest risk factors for mortality and poor outcome. Telemedicine consults to regional centers with neurosurgery housestaff have potential for increased timeliness of diagnosis/triage, improved time to surgery, and reductions in unnecessary transfers in remote areas. Mobile neurosurgery teams have been deployed with success in nations with large transport distances precluding initial transfers. Common neurosurgical procedures involve trauma mechanisms; accordingly, training programs for nonneurosurgery medical personnel on basic assessment and operative techniques have been successful in resource-deficient settings where neurosurgeons are unavailable. Conclusions: Protracted transport times, lack of resources/training, and difficulty retaining specialists are barriers to successful outcomes. Advances in telemedicine, mobile neurosurgery, and training programs for urgent operative techniques have been implemented efficaciously. Development of guidelines for paired partnerships between rural centers and academic hospitals, supplying surplus technology to rural areas, and rapid training of qualified local surgical personnel can create sustainable feed-forward programs for trainees and

  16. The Current State of Rural Neurosurgical Practice: An International Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyayula, Pavan S.; Yue, John K.; Yang, Jason; Birk, Harjus S.; Ciacci, Joseph D.

    2018-01-01

    Introduction: Rural and low-resource areas have diminished capacity to care for neurosurgical patients due to lack of infrastructure, healthcare investment, and training programs. This review summarizes the range of rural neurosurgical procedures, novel mechanisms for delivering care, rapid training programs, and outcome differences across international rural neurosurgical practice. Methods: A comprehensive literature search was performed for English language manuscripts with keywords “rural” and “neurosurgery” using the National Library of Medicine PubMed database (01/1971–06/2017). Twenty-four articles focusing on rural non-neurosurgical practice were included. Results: Time to care and/or surgery and shortage of trained personnel remain the strongest risk factors for mortality and poor outcome. Telemedicine consults to regional centers with neurosurgery housestaff have potential for increased timeliness of diagnosis/triage, improved time to surgery, and reductions in unnecessary transfers in remote areas. Mobile neurosurgery teams have been deployed with success in nations with large transport distances precluding initial transfers. Common neurosurgical procedures involve trauma mechanisms; accordingly, training programs for nonneurosurgery medical personnel on basic assessment and operative techniques have been successful in resource-deficient settings where neurosurgeons are unavailable. Conclusions: Protracted transport times, lack of resources/training, and difficulty retaining specialists are barriers to successful outcomes. Advances in telemedicine, mobile neurosurgery, and training programs for urgent operative techniques have been implemented efficaciously. Development of guidelines for paired partnerships between rural centers and academic hospitals, supplying surplus technology to rural areas, and rapid training of qualified local surgical personnel can create sustainable feed-forward programs for trainees and infrastructural solutions to

  17. Automated Finite State Workflow for Distributed Data Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajdu, L.; Didenko, L.; Lauret, J.; Amol, J.; Betts, W.; Jang, H. J.; Noh, S. Y.

    2016-10-01

    In statistically hungry science domains, data deluges can be both a blessing and a curse. They allow the narrowing of statistical errors from known measurements, and open the door to new scientific opportunities as research programs mature. They are also a testament to the efficiency of experimental operations. However, growing data samples may need to be processed with little or no opportunity for huge increases in computing capacity. A standard strategy has thus been to share resources across multiple experiments at a given facility. Another has been to use middleware that “glues” resources across the world so they are able to locally run the experimental software stack (either natively or virtually). We describe a framework STAR has successfully used to reconstruct a ~400 TB dataset consisting of over 100,000 jobs submitted to a remote site in Korea from STAR's Tier 0 facility at the Brookhaven National Laboratory. The framework automates the full workflow, taking raw data files from tape and writing Physics-ready output back to tape without operator or remote site intervention. Through hardening we have demonstrated 97(±2)% efficiency, over a period of 7 months of operation. The high efficiency is attributed to finite state checking with retries to encourage resilience in the system over capricious and fallible infrastructure.

  18. Automated Finite State Workflow for Distributed Data Production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajdu, L; Didenko, L; Lauret, J; Betts, W; Amol, J; Jang, H J; Noh, S Y

    2016-01-01

    In statistically hungry science domains, data deluges can be both a blessing and a curse. They allow the narrowing of statistical errors from known measurements, and open the door to new scientific opportunities as research programs mature. They are also a testament to the efficiency of experimental operations. However, growing data samples may need to be processed with little or no opportunity for huge increases in computing capacity. A standard strategy has thus been to share resources across multiple experiments at a given facility. Another has been to use middleware that “glues” resources across the world so they are able to locally run the experimental software stack (either natively or virtually). We describe a framework STAR has successfully used to reconstruct a ∼400 TB dataset consisting of over 100,000 jobs submitted to a remote site in Korea from STAR's Tier 0 facility at the Brookhaven National Laboratory. The framework automates the full workflow, taking raw data files from tape and writing Physics-ready output back to tape without operator or remote site intervention. Through hardening we have demonstrated 97(±2)% efficiency, over a period of 7 months of operation. The high efficiency is attributed to finite state checking with retries to encourage resilience in the system over capricious and fallible infrastructure. (paper)

  19. Internal migration, center-state grants, and economic growth in the states of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cashin, P; Sahay, R

    1996-03-01

    "This paper examines the growth experience of 20 states of India during 1961-91, using cross-sectional estimation and the analytical framework of the Solow-Swan neoclassical growth model. We find evidence of absolute convergence--initially poor states grew faster than their initially rich counterparts. Also, the dispersion of real per capita state incomes widened over the period 1961-91. However, relatively more grants were transferred from the central government to the poor states than to their rich counterparts. Significant barriers to population flows also exist, as net migration from poor to rich states responded only weakly to cross-state income differentials." excerpt

  20. Real-time measurements and their effects on state estimation of distribution power system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Han, Xue; You, Shi; Thordarson, Fannar

    2013-01-01

    between the estimated values (voltage and injected power) and the measurements are applied to evaluate the accuracy of the estimated grid states. Eventually, some suggestions are provided for the distribution grid operators on placing the real-time meters in the distribution grid.......This paper aims at analyzing the potential value of using different real-time metering and measuring instruments applied in the low voltage distribution networks for state-estimation. An algorithm is presented to evaluate different combinations of metering data using a tailored state estimator....... It is followed by a case study based on the proposed algorithm. A real distribution grid feeder with different types of meters installed either in the cabinets or at the customer side is selected for simulation and analysis. Standard load templates are used to initiate the state estimation. The deviations...

  1. Veterans Affairs Geographic Distribution of Expenditures FY07 by State and County

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Geographic Distribution of VA Expenditures (GDX) is an annual report that shows estimated VA expenditures for major programmatic areas by geographic area (state,...

  2. Distribution and Aggregate Thickness of Salt Deposits of the United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The map shows the distribution and aggregate thickness of salt deposits of the United States. This information is from contour map sheets, scanned and processed for...

  3. Veterans Affairs Geographic Distribution of Expenditures FY08 by State and County

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Geographic Distribution of VA Expenditures (GDX) is an annual report that shows estimated VA expenditures for major programmatic areas by geographic area (state,...

  4. The Golden Horde State in the System of International Relations »

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.М. Mirgaleev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present article examines the place of the Golden Horde in the system of international relations of the 13th–14th centuries as well as directions of its foreign policy. To determine the place of the ulus of Jochi in the international system the author suggests to disclose the subject through illumination of such important issues as: – the Mongol conquests and creation of the Chingisid state entities, the establishment of a new international order. – formation of the ulus of Jochi as an independent State and its role in the Chingisid States’ relations, the kurultai of 1269. – international activities of the Golden Horde State during the period of its might. – interstate coalitions in the global geopolitics and national interests of the ulus of Jochi in international systems. – The role and place of the Golden Horde in the international life of the second half of the 14th – early 15th centuries. The program activity of the Jochids in a new geopolitical situation of the late 14th – early 15th centuries. The author believes that the establishment of the Golden Horde State occurred in three phases (1207–1241, 1242–1259, 1260–1269. The Jochids’ policy towards their neighbors and other Chingisid states formed during this time. Both the Distemper of the 1360–70’s in the ulus of Jochi and destruction of all other Chingisid States resulted in the Golden Horde’s loss of its place in the system of international relations. Therefore, the program activity of the Jochids in a new geopolitical situation of the late 14th – early 15th centuries, was aimed at restoring the international authority of the State. The author considers the directions of the Golden Horde foreign policy, which were laid down during the reign of Berke khan and remained a priority until the end of the 14th century.

  5. International cooperation workshop on CTBTO international cooperation and national implementation for states from East and Southern Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-09-01

    In pursuant to its 2002 programme of work, the Provisional Technical Secretariat (PTS) of the Preparatory Commission of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization organized a workshop on CTBTO international cooperation and national implementation for states from East and Southern Africa in Nairobi, Kenya, from 18 to 20 June 2002. The summary report on the workshop has been provided, covering ways and means of promoting regional cooperation. The list of participants and the programme outline are annexed thereto

  6. International cooperation workshop on CTBTO international cooperation and national implementation for states from East and Southern Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-09-01

    In pursuant to its 2002 programme of work, the Provisional Technical Secretariat (PTS) of the Preparatory Commission of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization organized a workshop on CTBTO international cooperation and national implementation for states from East and Southern Africa in Nairobi, Kenya, from 18 to 20 June 2002. The summary report on the workshop has been provided, covering ways and means of promoting regional cooperation. The list of participants and the programme outline are annexed thereto.

  7. Slurry dispersion state as a parameter to control internal structure of alumina green compact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, M.; Shui, A.; Tanaka, S.; Uchida, N.; Uematsu, K. [Nagaoka Univ. of Technology, Niigata (Japan)

    2002-07-01

    The dispersion state of slurry must be controlled to produce granules with appropriated properties for pressing. In this study dispersion state of alumina slurry is changed to form granules with different morphology, deformation property and packing density, and the influence on the internal structure of green compact are presented. Novel methods applying liquid immersion technique coupled with different type of microscopy were used to characterize the internal structures of green compacts. Two types of granules were obtained: dimpled, hard and dense granule, and spherical, soft and loose granule. The respective internal structures of green compacts were totally different. (orig.)

  8. Atlas of current and potential future distributions of common trees of the eastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis R. Iverson; Anantha M. Prasad; Betsy J. Hale; Elaine Kennedy Sutherland

    1999-01-01

    This atlas documents the current and possible future distribution of 80 common tree species in the Eastern United States and gives detailed information on environmental characteristics defining these distributions. Also included are outlines of life history characteristics and summary statistics for these species. Much of the data are derived from Forest Inventory and...

  9. 75 FR 504 - U.S. Department of State Advisory Committee on Private International Law: Organization of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-05

    ... on consumer rights as part of its program on private international law. Three proposals have been put... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice 6255] U.S. Department of State Advisory Committee on Private International Law: Organization of American States (OAS) Specialized Conference on Private International Law...

  10. THE STRESS STATE OF THE RADIALLY INHOMOGENEOUS HEMISPHERICAL SHELL UNDER LOCALLY DISTRIBUTED VERTICAL LOAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreev Vladimir Igorevich

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Subject: one of the promising trends in the development of structural mechanics is the development of methods for solving problems in the theory of elasticity for bodies with continuous inhomogeneity of any deformation characteristics: these methods make it possible to use the strength of the material most fully. In this paper, we consider the two-dimensional problem for the case when a vertical, locally distributed load acts on the hemisphere and the inhomogeneity is caused by the influence of the temperature field. Research objectives: derive governing system of equations in spherical coordinates for determination of the stress state of the radially inhomogeneous hemispherical shell under locally distributed vertical load. Materials and methods: as a mechanical model, we chose a thick-walled reinforced concrete shell (hemisphere with inner and outer radii a and b, respectively, b > a. The shell’s parameters are a = 3.3 m, b = 4.5 m, Poisson’s ratio ν = 0.16; the load parameters are f = 10MPa - vertical localized load distributed over the outer face, θ0 = 30°, temperature on the internal surface of the shell Ta = 500 °C, temperature on the external surface of the shell Tb = 0 °C. The resulting boundary-value problem (a system of differential equations with variable coefficients is solved using the Maple software package. Results: maximal compressive stresses σr with allowance for material inhomogeneity are reduced by 10 % compared with the case when the inhomogeneity is ignored. But it is not so important compared with a 3-fold decrease in the tensile stress σθ on the inner surface and a 2-fold reduction in the tensile stress σθ on the outer surface of the hemisphere as concretes generally have a tensile strength substantially smaller than the compressive strength. Conclusions: the method presented in this article makes it possible to reduce the deformation characteristics of the material, i.e. it leads to a reduction in stresses

  11. Cigarette Smoking among Korean International College Students in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sa, Jaesin; Seo, Dong-Chul; Nelson, Toben F.; Lohrmann, David K.

    2013-01-01

    Objective and Participants: This study explored (1) the prevalence of cigarette smoking among South Korean international college students in the United States, (2) differences in smoking between on- and off-campus living arrangements, and (3) predictors of an increase in smoking over time in the United States Methods: An online survey was…

  12. Internal-state analysis in layered artificial neural network trained to categorize lung sounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oud, M

    2002-01-01

    In regular use of artificial neural networks, only input and output states of the network are known to the user. Weight and bias values can be extracted but are difficult to interpret. We analyzed internal states of networks trained to map asthmatic lung sound spectra onto lung function parameters.

  13. Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) detection or hot atom reaction product internal energy distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quick, C.R. Jr.; Moore, D.S.

    1983-01-01

    Coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) is being utilized to investigate the rovibrational energy distributions produced by reactive and nonreactive collisions of translationally hot atoms with simple molecules. Translationally hot H atoms are produced by ArF laser photolysis of HBr. Using CARS we have monitored, in a state-specific and time-resolved manner, rotational excitation of HBr (v = 0), vibrational excitation of HBr and H 2 , rovibrational excitation of H 2 produced by the reaction H + HBr → H 2 + Br, and Br atom production by photolysis of HBr

  14. Initial and Final State Interaction Effects in Small-x Quark Distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, Bo-Wen; Yuan, Feng

    2010-08-30

    We study the initial and final state interaction effects in the transverse momentum dependent parton distributions in the small-x saturation region. In particular, we discuss the quark distributions in the semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering, Drell-Yan lepton pair production and dijet-correlation processes in pA collisions. We calculate the quark distributions in the scalar-QED model and then extend to the color glass condensate formalism in QCD. The quark distributions are found universal between the DIS and Drell-Yan processes. On the other hand, the quark distribution from the qq'-->qq' channel contribution to the dijet-correlation process is not universal. However, we find that it can be related to the quark distribution in DIS process by a convolution with the normalized unintegrated gluon distribution in the CGC formalism in the large Nc limit.

  15. High-resolution internal state control of ultracold 23Na87Rb molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Mingyang; Ye, Xin; He, Junyu; Quéméner, Goulven; Wang, Dajun

    2018-02-01

    We report the full internal state control of ultracold 23Na87Rb molecules, including vibrational, rotational, and hyperfine degrees of freedom. Starting from a sample of weakly bound Feshbach molecules, we realize the creation of molecules in single hyperfine levels of both the rovibrational ground and excited states with a high-efficiency and high-resolution stimulated Raman adiabatic passage. This capability brings broad possibilities for investigating ultracold polar molecules with different chemical reactivities and interactions with a single molecular species. Moreover, starting from the rovibrational and hyperfine ground state, we achieve rotational and hyperfine control with one- and two-photon microwave spectroscopy to reach levels not accessible by the stimulated Raman transfer. The combination of these two techniques results in complete control over the internal state of ultracold polar molecules, which paves the way to study state-dependent molecular collisions and state-controlled chemical reactions.

  16. Presence of renewable sources of energy, cogeneration, energy efficiency and distributed generation in the International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pares Ferrer, Marianela; Oviedo Rivero, Irayda; Gonzalez Garcia, Alejandro

    2011-01-01

    The International Nuclear Information System (INIS) it was created in 1970 by the International Atomic Energy Agency (OIEA) with the objective of propitiating the exchange of scientific information and technique on the peaceful uses of the energy atomic. INIS processes most of scientific literature and technique in engineering matters nuclear, safeguard and non proliferation and applications in agriculture and health that it generates in the world and it contributes to create a repository of nuclear information for present and future generations. Additionally it includes economic aspects and environmental of other energy sources that facilitate comparative studies for the taking of decisions. The database INIS, is its main informative product and it counts with more than 3 million registrations. One of the services that lends the Center of Administration of the Information and Development of the Energy (CUBAENERGIA), like center INIS in Cuba, is the search of information on the peaceful use of the science and nuclear technology in the Countries Members and the registration of information on their applications in Cuba. More recently, it extends this service to the Renewable Sources application of Energy in the country; as part of the works of administration of the information that it carries out for the National Group of Renewable Energy, Cogeneration, Saving and Energy Efficiency, created in the 2007 and coordinated by the MINBAS with the participation of institutions belonging to Organisms of the Administration Central of the State. In this work the results of a preliminary study are presented on the witnesses in the INIS of the Renewable Sources of Energy, the Cogeneration, Energy Efficiency, and the Distributed Generation. As well as of the application of metric tools to the opposing registrations for the case of the Distributed generation, that which allowed to characterize their historical evolution, the participation for countries in their development and

  17. Power distribution, the environment, and public health. A state-level analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyce, James K.; Klemer, Andrew R.; Templet, Paul H.; Willis, Cleve E.

    1999-01-01

    This paper examines relationships among power distribution, the environment, and public health by means of a cross-sectional analysis of the 50 US states. A measure of inter-state variations in power distribution is derived from data on voter participation, tax fairness, Medicaid access, and educational attainment. We develop and estimate a recursive model linking the distribution of power to environmental policy, environmental stress, and public health. The results support the hypothesis that greater power inequality leads to weaker environmental policies, which in turn lead to greater environmental degradation and to adverse public health outcomes

  18. Power distribution, the environment, and public health. A state-level analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyce, James K. [Department of Economics, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Klemer, Andrew R. [Department of Biology, University of Minnesota, Duluth, MN (United States); Templet, Paul H. [Institute of Environmental Studies, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA (United States); Willis, Cleve E. [Department of Resource Economics, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States)

    1999-04-15

    This paper examines relationships among power distribution, the environment, and public health by means of a cross-sectional analysis of the 50 US states. A measure of inter-state variations in power distribution is derived from data on voter participation, tax fairness, Medicaid access, and educational attainment. We develop and estimate a recursive model linking the distribution of power to environmental policy, environmental stress, and public health. The results support the hypothesis that greater power inequality leads to weaker environmental policies, which in turn lead to greater environmental degradation and to adverse public health outcomes.

  19. Power distribution, the environment, and public health. A state-level analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyce, James K. [Department of Economics, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Klemer, Andrew R. [Department of Biology, University of Minnesota, Duluth, MN (United States); Templet, Paul H. [Institute of Environmental Studies, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA (United States); Willis, Cleve E. [Department of Resource Economics, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States)

    1999-04-15

    This paper examines relationships among power distribution, the environment, and public health by means of a cross-sectional analysis of the 50 US states. A measure of inter-state variations in power distribution is derived from data on voter participation, tax fairness, Medicaid access, and educational attainment. We develop and estimate a recursive model linking the distribution of power to environmental policy, environmental stress, and public health. The results support the hypothesis that greater power inequality leads to weaker environmental policies, which in turn lead to greater environmental degradation and to adverse public health outcomes

  20. Internal mammary chain irradiation in breast cancer: State of the art

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auberdiac, P.; Cartier, L.; Hau Desbat, N.H.; De Laroche, G.; Magne, N.; Chargari, C.; Zioueche, A.; Melis, A.; Kirova, Y.M.

    2011-01-01

    Radiation therapy has a major role in the management of infiltrative breast cancers. However, there is no consensus for the prophylactic treatment of the internal mammary chain (IMC), with strategies that show strong differences according to centers and physicians. Indications for internal mammary chain radiotherapy are debated, since this treatment significantly increases the dose delivered to the heart and leads to potential technical difficulties. Important prospective data recently suggested that internal mammary chain radiotherapy would not be necessary, even in cases of internal or central tumor locations, or in patients with positive axillary lymph nodes. Although these data warrant confirmation by two other prospective trials, there is evidence that the indications for internal mammary chain radiotherapy should be careful and that high quality techniques should be used for decreasing the dose delivered to the heart. This review of literature presents the state of art on the radiotherapy of internal mammary chain, with special focus on the indications, techniques, and potential toxicity. (authors)

  1. Geographic distribution of trauma centers and injury-related mortality in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Joshua B; Rosengart, Matthew R; Billiar, Timothy R; Peitzman, Andrew B; Sperry, Jason L

    2016-01-01

    Regionalized trauma care improves outcomes; however, access to care is not uniform across the United States. The objective was to evaluate whether geographic distribution of trauma centers correlates with injury mortality across state trauma systems. Level I or II trauma centers in the contiguous United States were mapped. State-level age-adjusted injury fatality rates per 100,000 people were obtained and evaluated for spatial autocorrelation. Nearest neighbor ratios (NNRs) were generated for each state. A NNR less than 1 indicates clustering, while a NNR greater than 1 indicates dispersion. NNRs were tested for difference from random geographic distribution. Fatality rates and NNRs were examined for correlation. Fatality rates were compared between states with trauma center clustering versus dispersion. Trauma center distribution and population density were evaluated. Spatial-lag regression determined the association between fatality rate and NNR, controlling for state-level demographics, population density, injury severity, trauma system resources, and socioeconomic factors. Fatality rates were spatially autocorrelated (Moran's I = 0.35, p center distribution. Fatality rate and NNR were correlated (ρ = 0.34, p = 0.03). Clustered states had a lower median injury fatality rate compared with dispersed states (56.9 [IQR, 46.5-58.9] vs. 64.9 [IQR, 52.5-77.1]; p = 0.04). Dispersed compared with clustered states had more counties without a trauma center that had higher population density than counties with a trauma center (5.7% vs. 1.2%, p distribution of trauma centers correlates with injury mortality, with more clustered state trauma centers associated with lower fatality rates. This may be a result of access relative to population density. These results may have implications for trauma system planning and require further study to investigate underlying mechanisms. Therapeutic/care management study, level IV.

  2. Using Distributed Operations to Enable Science Research on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bathew, Ann S.; Dudley, Stephanie R. B.; Lochmaier, Geoff D.; Rodriquez, Rick C.; Simpson, Donna

    2011-01-01

    In the early days of the International Space Station (ISS) program, and as the organization structure was being internationally agreed upon and documented, one of the principal tenets of the science program was to allow customer-friendly operations. One important aspect of this was to allow payload developers and principle investigators the flexibility to operate their experiments from either their home sites or distributed telescience centers. This telescience concept was developed such that investigators had several options for ISS utilization support. They could operate from their home site, the closest telescience center, or use the payload operations facilities at the Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama. The Payload Operations Integration Center (POIC) processes and structures were put into place to allow these different options to its customers, while at the same time maintain its centralized authority over NASA payload operations and integration. For a long duration space program with many scientists, researchers, and universities expected to participate, it was imperative that the program structure be in place to successfully facilitate this concept of telescience support. From a payload control center perspective, payload science operations require two major elements in order to make telescience successful within the scope of the ISS program. The first element is decentralized control which allows the remote participants the freedom and flexibility to operate their payloads within their scope of authority. The second element is a strong ground infrastructure, which includes voice communications, video, telemetry, and commanding between the POIC and the payload remote site. Both of these elements are important to telescience success, and both must be balanced by the ISS program s documented requirements for POIC to maintain its authority as an integration and control center. This paper describes both elements of distributed payload

  3. Diversity, distribution, and conservation status of the native freshwater fishes of the Southern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melvin L. Warren; Brooks M. Burr; Stephen J. Walsh; Henry L. Bart; Robert C. Cashner; David A. Etnier; Byron J. Freeman; Bernard R. Kuhajda; Richard L. Mayden; Henry W. Robison; Stephen T. Ross; Wayne C. Starnes

    2000-01-01

    The Southeastern Fishes Council Technical Advisory Committee reviewed the diversity, distribution, and status of all native freshwater and diadromous fishes across 51 major drainage units of the Southern United States. The Southern United States supports more native fishes than any area of comparable size on the North American continent north of Mexico, but also has a...

  4. Wellbeing in the Welfare State: level not higher, distribution not more equitable

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Veenhoven (Ruut)

    2000-01-01

    textabstract'Wellbeing' and 'welfare' are often bracketed together, in particular wellbeing and state-welfare. The level of wellbeing is believed to be higher in welfare states, and its distribution more equitable. This theory is tested in a comparative study of 40 nations 1980-1990. The size of

  5. Parasite Prevalence and the Distribution of Intelligence among the States of the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppig, Christopher; Fincher, Corey L.; Thornhill, Randy

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we tested the parasite-stress hypothesis for the distribution of intelligence among the USA states: the hypothesis proposes that intelligence emerges from a developmental trade-off between maximizing brain vs. immune function. From this we predicted that among the USA states where infectious disease stress was high, average…

  6. International safeguards in nuclear weapon states - Status and look into the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jorant, C.

    2013-01-01

    This paper shall recall the framework for the application of international safeguards in the 5 Nuclear Weapons States (USA, Russia, China, United-Kingdom and France) and give an overview on their implementation. It shall then discuss some reasons for an evolution of those States and IAEA's commitments to apply its safeguards and suggests ideas for an increased but efficient involvement of IAEA in those States fully taking into account the specificities of those States within the State Level Approach.The paper is followed by the slides of the presentation. (author)

  7. International Cooperation Among States in Globalized Era: The Decline of State Sovereignty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    - Koesrianti

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the national sovereignty and regionalism in the context of the membership of a state into regional economic organisations. It concludes that in nowadays-shrinking world the traditional concept of sovereignty is less relevant since states have suffered a loss in their sovereignty. It found that member states of regional economic organisations have to cede a degree of sovereignty, such as in the EU. This phenomenon however is not the case for NAFTA and AFTA.

  8. Comment on ''Semiquantum-key distribution using less than four quantum states''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyer, Michel; Mor, Tal

    2011-01-01

    For several decades it was believed that information-secure key distribution requires both the sender and receiver to have the ability to generate and/or manipulate quantum states. Earlier, we showed that quantum key distribution in which one party is classical is possible [Boyer, Kenigsberg, and Mor, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 140501 (2007)]. A surprising and very nice extension of that result was suggested by Zou, Qiu, Li, Wu, and Li [Phys. Rev. A 79, 052312 (2009)]. Their paper suggests that it is sufficient for the originator of the states (the person holding the quantum technology) to generate just one state. The resulting semiquantum key distribution, which we call here 'quantum key distribution with classical Alice' is indeed completely robust against eavesdropping. However, their proof (that no eavesdropper can get information without being possibly detected) is faulty. We provide here a fully detailed and direct proof of their very important result.

  9. State and multilateralism, a theoretical approach. Transformations in a globalized international society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paloma González del Miño

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The State, classical international actor, has had to readaption to the new dynamics in the International Society and has given prominence to other actors. In this logic, it´s relevant to analyze the role in the international system after the Cold War to evaluare whether it is still an actor capable of responding to the functional needs of the society. For this, reaffirms its commitment to multilateralism as a response to the main issue on the international agenda. Namely, is reactivated as an ideal tool to manage structural changes, despite the different interpretations of United States, the European Union or the BRICS. The object of this analysis contribute to the academic debate and focuses on studying the transformations of the State in the globalized international society where multilateralism has become a concept discussed and a common practice in the international discourse, despite its complexity and the different visions and interpretations by different actors. Multilateralism granted the State a path of cooperation and understanding as a guiding principle and foreign policy legitimizing discourse.

  10. Partial dissociative emission cross sections and product state distributions of the resulting photofragments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Picconi, David; Grebenshchikov, Sergy Yu., E-mail: Sergy.Grebenshchikov@ch.tum.de

    2016-12-20

    This paper relates the partial cross section of a continuous optical emission into a given scattering channel of the lower electronic state to the photofragment population. This allows one to infer partial emission cross sections ‘non-optically’ from product state distributions; in computations, explicit construction of exact scattering states is therefore avoided. Applications to the emission spectra of NaI, CO{sub 2}, and pyrrole are given. It is also demonstrated that a similar relationship holds between partial cross sections of dissociative photoionization and distributions of ionic fragments over final product channels.

  11. Cross-cultural differences in color preferences: implication for international film distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyung Jae

    2002-06-01

    This paper proposes the necessity of manipulating colors of movie contents to fit diverse audiences around the world. Since films are highly color-dependent messages, it is critical to understand how people in different cultures respond differently to color. In recent years, the international market for filmed entertainment has grown more than the U.S. market. However, a lack of research on audience preferences shows no constant guide for the motion picture industry. The film production stage is often disregarded to deliver the appropriate visual color contents for local audience when U.S. films are distributed to foreign markets. Therefore, it is assumed that it would cause distractions for local audiences and it could result in poor ticket sales. When the U.S. produced films are distributed in Asia, colors of original films are always shown without manipulation. It is common that when a U.S. manufactured car is imported to Japan, a driver seat is installed on the right side and also other parts are modified for local customers. Film development is also significantly dependent on audience behavior, so film content also needs to be localized for the different culture. This paper will only address a hypothesis of the implementation of color marketing methodology present in motion pictures.

  12. Tissue distribution patterns of solubilized metals from internalized tungsten alloy in the F344 rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vernieda B. Vergara

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Because of its unique physical and chemical properties, tungsten has been increasingly utilized in a variety of civilian and military applications. This expanded use also raises the risk of human exposure through internalization by various routes. In most cases the toxicological and carcinogenic properties of these tungsten-based compounds are not known nor are the dissolution biokinetics and ultimate fate of the associated metals. Using a laboratory rodent model system designed to assess the health effects of embedded metals, and a tungsten alloy comprised of tungsten (91.1%, nickel (6.0%, and cobalt (2.9%, we investigated the tissue distribution patterns of the metals over a six month period. Despite its perceived insolubility, tungsten rapidly solubilized from the implanted metal fragments, as did nickel and cobalt. All three metals distributed systemically over time with extremely elevated levels of all three metals found in kidney, liver, and spleen. Unexpectedly, tungsten was found to cross the blood-brain and blood-testis barriers and localize in those tissues. These results, along with recent reports suggesting that tungsten is a tumor promoter, raises serious concerns as to the long-term health effects of exposure to tungsten and tungsten-based compounds.

  13. Preparation of ring-shaped composite bonded magnets with continuously controlled anisotropy distribution for internal space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, F; Yamada, O; Ohya, S; Kobayashi, O; Nakano, M; Fukunaga, H

    2010-01-01

    We have already reported an advanced method for producing a radially-anisotropic rare earth composite bonded magnet with continuously controlled direction of anisotropy. The magnet has been applied to an inner rotor as a practical usage. In this study, the outstanding preparation method was adopted into the preparation of a magnet applied for an outer rotor. An optimized condition of extrusion and compaction at an elevated temperature could be obtained. In addition, a low pressure configuration to the ring-shaped magnet from plural preformed magnets was carried out, which had specific distribution of magnetic anisotropy for internal space for a small motor, by using self recoverability based on the viscous deformation without an alignment field. No deterioration of magnetic properties was detected through the process even if those magnets were miniaturized. Resultantly, the (BH) max of a ring-shaped magnet with the continuously controlled direction of magnetic anisotropy attained the value of 186 kJ/m 3 , and we obtained sine-wave magnetic anisotropy distribution, even if those magnets were miniaturized.

  14. Accelerated Electromechanical Modeling of a Distributed Internal Combustion Engine Generator Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serhiy V. Bozhko

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Distributed generation with a combustion engine prime mover is still widely used to supply electric power in a variety of applications. These applications range from backup power supply systems and combined wind-diesel generation to providing power in places where grid connection is either technically impractical or financially uneconomic. Modelling of such systems as a whole is extremely difficult due to the long-time load profiles needed and the computational difficulty of including small time-constant electrical dynamics with large time-constant mechanical dynamics. This paper presents the development of accelerated, reduced-order models of a distributed internal combustions engine generator unit. Overall these models are shown to achieve a massive improvement in the computational time required for long-time simulations while also achieving an extremely high level of dynamic accuracy. It is demonstrated how these models are derived, used and verified against benchmark models created using established techniques. Throughout the paper the modelling set as a whole, including multi level detail, is presented, detailed and finally summarised into a crucial tool for general system investigation and multiple target optimisation.

  15. Hybrid fuzzy charged system search algorithm based state estimation in distribution networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachidananda Prasad

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a new hybrid charged system search (CSS algorithm based state estimation in radial distribution networks in fuzzy framework. The objective of the optimization problem is to minimize the weighted square of the difference between the measured and the estimated quantity. The proposed method of state estimation considers bus voltage magnitude and phase angle as state variable along with some equality and inequality constraints for state estimation in distribution networks. A rule based fuzzy inference system has been designed to control the parameters of the CSS algorithm to achieve better balance between the exploration and exploitation capability of the algorithm. The efficiency of the proposed fuzzy adaptive charged system search (FACSS algorithm has been tested on standard IEEE 33-bus system and Indian 85-bus practical radial distribution system. The obtained results have been compared with the conventional CSS algorithm, weighted least square (WLS algorithm and particle swarm optimization (PSO for feasibility of the algorithm.

  16. Styles of International Mediation in Peace Processes Between States and Terrorist Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA THESIS Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited STYLES OF...Office of Management and Budget, Paperwork Reduction Project (0704-0188) Washington, DC 20503. 1. AGENCY USE ONLY (Leave blank) 2. REPORT DATE...June 2016 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE STYLES OF INTERNATIONAL MEDIATION IN PEACE PROCESSES BETWEEN

  17. Third Level of International Relations: Characteristics of Sub-State Actors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey P. Arteev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is in the genre of the review for textbook O. V. Plotnikova and O. Y. Dubrovina International relations of the regions States: characteristics and features (Moscow: Norma; INFRA-M, 2016. 192 p.. Textbook on international activities of sub-state/subnational actors in international relations. Under the sub-state/subnational actors refers to the regions of the States. The authors propose an along with interstate relations (first level and supranational organizations (second level to distinguish a third level of international relations - international relations of the regions in Federal and unitary States. The topic is very relevant due to the ongoing restructuring of the architecture of international relations and world politics. In addition, these processes lead to involvement in international relations new actors. The resulting configuration and the role of traditional players. In addition to long-term evolutionary processes, we should not forget about the position of Russia in the last few years. It is obvious that the current tensions around the Russian Federation may not be fully resolved with the old methods. At the same time, sub-state/ subnational actors as subjects of a combined nature, the role played by regions of the Russian Federation, able to combine harmoniously in its international activities as the techniques characteristic of the traditional actors - States and developments in the tools of non-traditional actors - international non-governmental and non-profit organizations etc. As a result of positive results can be achieved faster and at the interstate level. The review considers the subject and the relevance of the topic, presents the analysis of the content of the work. Marked strengths of the textbook, including those associated with the consideration of the diagonal ties and the political components in the international activities of the regions. In addition to the advantages, attention is paid to the analysis of

  18. Internal electric-field-lines distribution in CdZnTe detectors measured using X-ray mapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolotnikov, A.E.; Camarda, G.S.; Cui, Y.; Hossain, A.; Yang, G.; Yao, H.W.; James, R.B.

    2009-01-01

    The ideal operation of CdZnTe devices entails having a uniformly distributed internal electric field. Such uniformity especially is critical for thick long-drift-length detectors, such as large-volume CPG and 3-D multi-pixel devices. Using a high-spatial resolution X-ray mapping technique, we investigated the distribution of the electric field in real devices. Our measurements demonstrate that in thin detectors, 1 cm, with a large aspect ratio (thickness-to-width ratio), we observed two effects: the electric field lines bending away from or towards the side surfaces, which we called, respectively, the focusing field-line distribution and the defocusing field-line distribution. In addition to these large-scale variations, the field-line distributions were locally perturbed by the presence of extended defects and residual strains existing inside the crystals. We present our data clearly demonstrating the non-uniformity of the internal electric field

  19. The significance of neuroendocrine system state in estimation of nonstochastic effects of small doses of internal irradiation. (An experimental study)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dedov, V.I.; Norets, T.A.; Stepanenko, V.F.; Dedenkov, A.N.

    1987-01-01

    Data on long-term complex investigations of nonstochastic effects of low doses of internal irradiation on the level of a whole organism are presented. Experiments have been carried out with mongrel rats of both sexes and different ages up to the moment of introduction of radioactive compounds. Action of relatively and uniformly distributing in the organism radiactive compounds of selenium - 75 and sulfur - 35, which were introduced once intravenously in quantities forming absorbed doses in average on the whole body and ovaries (0.5 Gy), on endocrine glands and critical organs (up to 1.0 Gy) has been used as models of internal radiation. Data, testifying to the fact that the neuroendocrinal system, despite the existing opinion, is sensitive to action of low doses of internal irradiation compared with the recommended one as an ultimate permissible one for nonstochastic effects ( 0.5 Sv), that permits to suggest for using factors of the functional state of the neuroendocrine system as an informative and sensitive criterium of estimation of biological action of low doses of internal radiation, have been obtained. These factors along with doses on critical organs permit to estimate the degree of dangerous action of different radionuclides on the organism level. Dynamic studying of activity factors of the neuroendocrine system with simultaneous analysis of the state of harmonically dependent processes permits to estimate functional possibilities of irradiated organism, its viability, especially under conditions requiring increased stress, as well as to take into account such factors modifying a biological effect as age, animal sex, the character of absorbed dose distribution

  20. Effect of internal tides in the distribution and abundance of microzooplankton in Todos Santos Bay (Ensenada, B.C.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valencia, A.; Ibañez Tejero, L.; Ladah, L. B.; Sanchez Velasco, L.; Barton, E. D.

    2016-02-01

    Microzooplankton trophically connects phytoplankton and zooplanktonic adults. Their distribution and abundance can be directly related to the inherent physical processes in the marine environment. In coastal waters, the distribution and transport of zooplankton, including microzooplankton, can be influenced by high frequency effects such as internal tides. To date, most of the work on planktonic organisms and their interaction with the internal tide has been focused on a few species, such as barnacles, bryozoans and crabs. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of internal tide on the vertical distribution and abundance of microzooplankton, with an emphasis on copepod nauplii, during the evolution of the internal tide in a summer period of strong thermal stratification. Samples were obtained by vertical plankton net (150 micron mesh) hauls at three depth strata (surface, mid-water and bottom in 25 m depth), independently, with a sampling frequency of every hour. The internal tide was detected by rapid changes in temperature and currents observed with thermistor chains and a bottom-mounted upward looking ADCP. Preliminary results shows a strong mode-1 baroclinic tidal signal. The highest abundance of copepod nauplii and microzooplankton biomass occurred at depth, associated with a strong tidal current. The abundance of copepod nauplii and the abundance of microzooplankton biomass in the surface and intermediate strata showed strong vertical displacements between both strata. Data suggest the vertical distribution of microzooplankton can be dependent on the internal tide.

  1. Challenges of the International Criminal Court in the cooperation with the States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Anello

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available International cooperation is one of the main pillars on which the performance of the International Criminal Court is based. The experience, in particular, in the situ- ations referred by the Security Council of the United Nations, allows seeing the dif- ficulties derivates from the denial of States to cooperate with the Court. This paper analyzes the causes for which this breach occurs and what measures are proposed to strengthen cooperation with the Court as a precondition for effective action.

  2. Successful global assessments and monitoring: The roles of the international community and the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund, H.G.

    1991-01-01

    Successful global assessments and monitoring of natural resources requires teamwork between participating nations and the international communities charged with the responsibility for collecting and disseminating information. In an attempt to identify emerging information needs and to promote coordination, the International Union of Forestry Research Organizations (IUFRO) and other national and international groups held a major conference and workshop in Venice, Italy, on global monitoring last September. The results of the meeting and subsequent events in Montreal indicated a need for more aggressive leadership at the international level and more cooperation at the national level. This paper reports on the outcome of the Venice conference and list some things that the international community and the United States must do to make global assessments and monitoring a reality

  3. International issues: Obtaining an adult neurology residency position in the United States: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Justin T; Sellner, Johann; Struhal, Walter; Schneider, Logan; Mayans, David

    2014-04-08

    Around the world, there are marked differences in neurology training, including training duration and degree of specialization. In the United States, adult neurology residency is composed of 1 year of internal medicine training (preliminary year) and 3 years of neurology-specific training. Child neurology, which is not the focus of this article, is 2 years of pediatrics and 3 years of neurology training. The route to adult neurology residency training in the United States is standardized and is similar to most other US specialties. Whereas US medical graduates often receive stepwise guidance from their medical school regarding application for residency training, international graduates often enter this complex process with little or no such assistance. Despite this discrepancy, about 10%-15% of residency positions in the United States are filled by international medical graduates.(1,2) In adult neurology specifically, 35% of matched positions were filled by international graduates in 2013, 75% of whom were not US citizens.(1) In an effort to provide a preliminary understanding of the application process and related terminology (table 1) and thereby encourage international residency applicants, we describe the steps necessary to apply for neurology residency in the United States.

  4. International adoption among families in the United States: considerations of social justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollingsworth, Leslie Doty

    2003-04-01

    The practice of international adoption of children is critiqued, using Rawls' egalitarian concept of a distributive method of social justice. From this perspective, international adoption may be perceived as contradictory to principles of social justice by ignoring the social context within which it occurs. Social contexts that frequently surround international adoption are severe poverty and the disenfranchisement of the adopted child's biological family; the disenfranchisement of certain children because of their lower social status; gender oppression and discrimination against female children; risk to children's rights to the knowledge of their birth history and parentage; risk to children's rights to identification with their ethnic, cultural, and national group; and practices that may involve abduction, deceit, and trafficking in children. The article presents alternate views, including libertarian and utilitarian perspectives. Solutions from two international conventions are critiqued and implications are discussed for social work policy advocacy, practice, and research.

  5. Mathematical models and methods of assisting state subsidy distribution at the regional level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondarenko, Yu V.; Azarnova, T. V.; Kashirina, I. L.; Goroshko, I. V.

    2018-03-01

    One of the most common forms of state support in the world is subsidization. By providing direct financial support to businesses, local authorities get an opportunity to set certain performance targets. Successful achievement of such targets depends not only on the amount of the budgetary allocations, but also on the distribution mechanisms adopted by the regional authorities. Analysis of the existing mechanisms of subsidies distribution in Russian regions shows that in most cases the choice of subsidy calculation formula and its parameters depends on the experts’ subjective opinion. The authors offer a new approach to assisting subsidy distribution at the regional level, which is based on mathematical models and methods, allowing to evaluate the influence of subsidy distribution on the region’s social and economic development. The results of calculations were discussed with the regional administration representatives who confirmed their significance for decision-making in the sphere of state control.

  6. Concepts in context: Processing mental state concepts with internal or external focus involves different neural systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosterwijk, Suzanne; Mackey, Scott; Wilson-Mendenhall, Christine; Winkielman, Piotr; Paulus, Martin P.

    2015-01-01

    According to embodied cognition theories concepts are contextually-situated and grounded in neural systems that produce experiential states. This view predicts that processing mental state concepts recruits neural regions associated with different aspects of experience depending on the context in which people understand a concept. This neuroimaging study tested this prediction using a set of sentences that described emotional (e.g., fear, joy) and non-emotional (e.g., thinking, hunger) mental states with internal focus (i.e. focusing on bodily sensations and introspection) or external focus (i.e. focusing on expression and action). Consistent with our predictions, data suggested that the inferior frontal gyrus, a region associated with action representation, was engaged more by external than internal sentences. By contrast, the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, a region associated with the generation of internal states, was engaged more by internal emotion sentences than external sentence categories. Similar patterns emerged when we examined the relationship between neural activity and independent ratings of sentence focus. Furthermore, ratings of emotion were associated with activation in the medial prefrontal cortex, whereas ratings of activity were associated with activation in the inferior frontal gyrus. These results suggest that mental state concepts are represented in a dynamic way, using context-relevant interoceptive and sensorimotor resources. PMID:25748274

  7. International Students: A Comparison of Health Status and Physical Health before and after Coming to the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Msengi, Clementine M.; Msengi, Israel G.; Harris, Sandra; Hopson, Michael

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the health status and physical health of international students at five American universities. International students in the United States were asked to compare the status of their health before and after coming to the United States. Findings suggested that health status of international students declined…

  8. Distribution of 137Cs in Meat and Internal Organs of Wild Boar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babic, D.; Marovic, G.; Skoko, B.; Vickovic, I.

    2013-01-01

    Wild boar (Sus scrofa) is one of the most common species of game on the territory of Croatia. Similarly to other game, it can accumulate fission products more effectively than domestic animals. Therefore, it is a good biondicator for radioactive contamination of ecosystems. The purpose of our research has been to investigate current radioactive contamination of wild boars by 137Cs and its distribution inside the animal body. Therefore, during the winter of 2009 and summer of 2010, we collected samples of meat, internal organs (heart, lungs, spleen, kidney and liver) and bones from 11 animals. All the animals were from the area of the research locality S umbar . The average activity concentration of 137Cs found in meat samples was (1.47 ± 0.01) Bqkg -1 , and in bones (0.12 ± 0.01) Bqkg -1 . Activity concentration found in organs was (in ascending order): lungs (1.63 ± 0.01) Bqkg -1 , spleen (2.29 ± 0.04) Bqkg -1 , liver (2.54 ± 0.02) Bqkg -1 , heart (2.70 ± 0.02) Bqkg -1 , and kidney (3.18 ± 0.06) Bqkg -1 . We also calculated the values of the ratio of activity concentrations in internal organs and meat. Comparison of the obtained values with those for samples collected after the Chernobyl accident shows that the present ones are higher for liver and kidney, while those for heart are almost the same. Since vital organs of wild boars are more loaded than meat and bones, the impact of radioactive contamination on health of these animals should be more closely investigated. Also, these results imply that kidney is the most accumulating organ for 137Cs.(author)

  9. Robustness of spin-coupling distributions for perfect quantum state transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zwick, Analia; Alvarez, Gonzalo A.; Stolze, Joachim; Osenda, Omar

    2011-01-01

    The transmission of quantum information between different parts of a quantum computer is of fundamental importance. Spin chains have been proposed as quantum channels for transferring information. Different configurations for the spin couplings were proposed in order to optimize the transfer. As imperfections in the creation of these specific spin-coupling distributions can never be completely avoided, it is important to find out which systems are optimally suited for information transfer by assessing their robustness against imperfections or disturbances. We analyze different spin coupling distributions of spin chain channels designed for perfect quantum state transfer. In particular, we study the transfer of an initial state from one end of the chain to the other end. We quantify the robustness of different coupling distributions against perturbations and we relate it to the properties of the energy eigenstates and eigenvalues. We find that the localization properties of the systems play an important role for robust quantum state transfer.

  10. Investigation of unstable periodic space-time states in distributed active system with supercritical current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koronovskij, A.A.; Rempen, I.S.; Khramov, A.E.

    2003-01-01

    The set of the unstable periodic space-time states, characterizing the chaotic space-time dynamics of the electron beam with the supercritical current in the Pierce diode is discussed. The Lyapunov indicators of the revealed instable space-time states of the chaotic dynamics of the distributed self-excited system are calculated. It is shown that change in the set of the unstable periodic states in dependence on the Pierce parameter is determined by change in the various orbits stability, which is demonstrated by the values of senior Lyapunov unstable state index [ru

  11. Impact of smart metering data aggregation on distribution system state estimation

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Qipeng; Kaleshi, Dritan; Fan, Zhong; Armour, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Pseudo medium/low voltage (MV/LV) transformer loads are usually used as partial inputs to the distribution system state estimation (DSSE) in MV systems. Such pseudo load can be represented by the aggregation of smart metering (SM) data. This follows the government restriction that distribution network operators (DNOs) can only use aggregated SM data. Therefore, we assess the subsequent performance of the DSSE, which shows the impact of this restriction - it affects the voltage angle estimatio...

  12. Internal structures of self-organized relaxed states and self-similar decay phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondoh, Yoshiomi

    1992-03-01

    A thought analysis on relaxation due to nonlinear processes is presented to lead to a set of general thoughts applicable to general nonlinear dynamical systems for finding out internal structures of the self-organized relaxed state without using 'invariant'. Three applications of the set of general thoughts to energy relaxations in resistive MHD plasmas, incompressible viscous fluids, and incompressible viscous MHD fluids are shown to lead to the internal structures of the self-organized relaxed states. It is shown that all of the relaxed states in these three dynamical systems are followed by self-similar decay phase without significant change of the spatial structure. The well known relaxed state of ∇ x B = ±λ B is shown to be derived generally in the low β plasma limit. (author)

  13. Geographic Distribution of Trauma Centers and Injury Related Mortality in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Joshua B.; Rosengart, Matthew R.; Billiar, Timothy R.; Peitzman, Andrew B.; Sperry, Jason L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Regionalized trauma care improves outcomes; however access to care is not uniform across the US. The objective was to evaluate whether geographic distribution of trauma centers correlates with injury mortality across state trauma systems. Methods Level I/II trauma centers in the contiguous US were mapped. State-level age-adjusted injury fatality rates/100,000people were obtained and evaluated for spatial autocorrelation. Nearest neighbor ratios (NNR) were generated for each state. A NNR1 indicates dispersion. NNR were tested for difference from random geographic distribution. Fatality rates and NNR were examined for correlation. Fatality rates were compared between states with trauma center clustering versus dispersion. Trauma center distribution and population density were evaluated. Spatial-lag regression determined the association between fatality rate and NNR, controlling for state-level demographics, population density, injury severity, trauma system resources, and socioeconomic factors. Results Fatality rates were spatially autocorrelated (Moran's I=0.35, pcenter distribution. Fatality rate and NNR were correlated (ρ=0.34, p=0.03). Clustered states had a lower median injury fatality rate compared to dispersed states (56.9 [IQR 46.5–58.9] versus 64.9 [IQR 52.5–77.1], p=0.04). Dispersed compared to clustered states had more counties without a trauma center that had higher population density than counties with a trauma center (5.7% versus 1.2%, pdistribution of trauma centers correlates with injury mortality, with more clustered state trauma centers associated with lower fatality rates. This may be a result of access relative to population density. These results may have implications for trauma system planning and requires further study to investigate underlying mechanisms PMID:26517780

  14. The graviton vacuum as a distributional state in kinematic loop quantum gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varadarajan, Madhavan

    2005-01-01

    The quantum behaviour of weak gravitational fields admits an adequate, albeit approximate, description by those graviton states in which the expectation values and fluctuations of the linearized gravitational field are small. Such states must approximate corresponding states in full quantum gravity. We analyse the nature of this approximation for the graviton vacuum state in the context of kinematical loop quantum gravity (LQG) wherein the constraints are ignored. We identify the graviton vacuum state with kinematically non-normalizable, distributional states in LQG by demanding that relations between linearized operator actions on the former are mirrored by those of their nonlinear counterparts on the latter. We define a semi-norm on the space of kinematical distributions and show that the identification is approximate up to distributions which are small in this semi-norm. We argue that our candidate states are annihilated by the linearized constraints (expressed as operators in the full theory) to leading order in the parameter characterizing the approximation. This suggests the possibility, in a scheme such as ours, of solving the full constraints order by order in this parameter. The main drawback of our considerations is that they depend on certain auxilliary constructions which, though mathematically well defined, do not arise from physical insight. Our work is an attempt to implement an earlier proposal of Iwasaki and Rovelli

  15. The distribution of chlamydia, gonorrhoea and syphilis cases across states and counties in the USA, 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesson, Harrell W; Sternberg, Maya; Leichliter, Jami S; Aral, Sevgi O

    2010-12-01

    To examine the distribution of chlamydia, gonorrhoea and syphilis in the USA through the use of Lorenz curves and Gini coefficients. The distribution of three sexually transmitted diseases (STD; chlamydia, gonorrhoea and primary and secondary syphilis) was examined across states and counties in the USA in 2007, based on reported case numbers. Gini coefficients, which can range from 0 (equality in STD rates across geographical units) to 1 (complete inequality such that all STD occur in one geographical unit) were calculated. Overall, chlamydia was the most evenly distributed and syphilis was the most concentrated of the three STD examined. The Gini coefficients for chlamydia, gonorrhoea and syphilis were 0.121, 0.255 and 0.334, respectively, when examined across states, and 0.319, 0.494 and 0.630, respectively, when examined across counties. Differences in Gini coefficients were observed when the STD distributions were examined by sex, race/ethnicity and age group. The use of Lorenz curves and Gini coefficients can help to assess inequalities in the distribution of STD, to gauge the suitability of geographically targeted interventions, and to help in determining the epidemic phase of STD. Having a better understanding of the disparities in the distribution of STD across states and counties by sex, race/ethnicity and age group might help in understanding why disparities in STD rates exist across different groups and in developing interventions to address these disparities.

  16. 77 FR 52784 - U.S. Department of State Advisory Committee on Private International Law: Notice of Annual Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-30

    ... Choice of Court Agreements; international contract law; developments in major PIL organizations... International Law: Notice of Annual Meeting The Department of State's Advisory Committee on Private International Law (ACPIL) will hold its annual meeting on developments in private international law on Thursday...

  17. Problems of introduction of international standards of conscientious state financial management in Ukrainian practice

    OpenAIRE

    Anhelina, I.

    2014-01-01

    The m aintenance of the INTOSAI GOV standardssystem, which show by itself guidance from a conscientious state financial management in the field of internal control and standards of record-keeping, is generalized. The directions of the use of risk and control model COSO are determinated for the financial management of state sector in part of authentication of sources of risk, aims and duties of organization. The measures are worked out on introduction of standards of INTOSAI GOVand models of C...

  18. International Cooperation of Izmail State University for Humanities in 2015-2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mykola Kapliienko

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the state and perspectives of international cooperation of Izmail State University for Humanities with academic partners abroad. Special attention is given to the participation of the University in European research networks for educational and curricula quality promotion, as well as to improvement of academic staff professional qualification in view of social and regional needs for sustainable economic and social development.

  19. Light-cone distribution amplitudes of the ground state bottom baryons in HQET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, A.; Wang, W. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Hambrock, C. [Technische Univ. Dortmund (Germany); Parkhomenko, A.Ya. [P.G. Demidov Yaroslavl State Univ., Yaroslavl (Russian Federation)

    2012-12-15

    We provide the definition of the complete set of light-cone distribution amplitudes (LCDAs) for the ground state heavy bottom baryons with the spin-parities J{sup P}=1/2{sup +} and J{sup P}=3/2{sup +} in the heavy quark limit. We present the renormalization effects on the twist-2 light-cone distribution amplitudes and use the QCD sum rules to compute the moments of twist-2, twist-3, and twist-4 LCDAs. Simple models for the heavy baryon distribution amplitudes are analyzed with account of their scale dependence.

  20. A continuous variable quantum deterministic key distribution based on two-mode squeezed states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong, Li-Hua; Song, Han-Chong; Liu, Ye; Zhou, Nan-Run; He, Chao-Sheng

    2014-01-01

    The distribution of deterministic keys is of significance in personal communications, but the existing continuous variable quantum key distribution protocols can only generate random keys. By exploiting the entanglement properties of two-mode squeezed states, a continuous variable quantum deterministic key distribution (CVQDKD) scheme is presented for handing over the pre-determined key to the intended receiver. The security of the CVQDKD scheme is analyzed in detail from the perspective of information theory. It shows that the scheme can securely and effectively transfer pre-determined keys under ideal conditions. The proposed scheme can resist both the entanglement and beam splitter attacks under a relatively high channel transmission efficiency. (paper)

  1. Secure networking quantum key distribution schemes with Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Ying; Shi, Ronghua [School of Information Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Zeng, Guihua [Department of Electronic Engineering, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200030 (China)], E-mail: sdguoying@gmail.com, E-mail: rhshi@mail.edu.com, E-mail: ghzeng@sjtu.edu.cn

    2010-04-15

    A novel approach to quantum cryptography to be called NQKD, networking quantum key distribution, has been developed for secure quantum communication schemes on the basis of the complementary relations of entanglement Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) triplet states. One scheme distributes the private key among legal participants in a probabilistic manner, while another transmits the deterministic message with some certainty. Some decoy photons are employed for preventing a potential eavesdropper from attacking quantum channels. The present schemes are efficient as there exists an elegant method for key distributions. The security of the proposed schemes is exactly guaranteed by the entanglement of the GHZ quantum system, which is illustrated in security analysis.

  2. Secure networking quantum key distribution schemes with Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Ying; Shi, Ronghua; Zeng, Guihua

    2010-01-01

    A novel approach to quantum cryptography to be called NQKD, networking quantum key distribution, has been developed for secure quantum communication schemes on the basis of the complementary relations of entanglement Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) triplet states. One scheme distributes the private key among legal participants in a probabilistic manner, while another transmits the deterministic message with some certainty. Some decoy photons are employed for preventing a potential eavesdropper from attacking quantum channels. The present schemes are efficient as there exists an elegant method for key distributions. The security of the proposed schemes is exactly guaranteed by the entanglement of the GHZ quantum system, which is illustrated in security analysis.

  3. Synaptic Dynamics and Neuronal Network Connectivity are reflected in the Distribution of Times in Up states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khanh eDao Duc

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of neuronal networks connected by synaptic dynamics can sustain long periods of depolarization that can last for hundreds of milliseconds such as Up states recorded during sleep or anesthesia. Yet the underlying mechanism driving these periods remain unclear. We show here within a mean-field model that the residence times of the neuronal membrane potential in cortical Up states does not follow a Poissonian law, but presents several peaks. Furthermore, the present modeling approach allows extracting some information about the neuronal network connectivity from the time distribution histogram. Based on a synaptic-depression model, we find that these peaks, that can be observed in histograms of patch-clamp recordings are not artifacts of electrophysiological measurements, but rather are an inherent property of the network dynamics. Analysis of the equations reveals a stable focus located close to the unstable limit cycle, delimiting a region that defines the Up state. The model further shows that the peaks observed in the Up state time distribution are due to winding around the focus before escaping from the basin of attraction. Finally, we use in vivo recordings of intracellular membrane potential and we recover from the peak distribution, some information about the network connectivity. We conclude that it is possible to recover the network connectivity from the distribution of times that the neuronal membrane voltage spends in Up states.

  4. Recoil ion charge state distributions in low energy Arq+ - Ar collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vancura, J.; Marchetti, V.; Kostroun, V.O.

    1992-01-01

    We have measured the recoil ion charge state distributions in Ar q+ -- Ar (8≤q≤16) collisions at 2.3 qkeV and 0.18qkeV by time of flight (TOF) spectroscopy. For Ar 8-16+ , recoil ion charge states up to 6+ are clearly present, indicating that the 3p subshell in the target atom is being depleted, while for Ar 10-16+ , there is evidence that target 3s electrons are also being removed. Comparison of the recoil ion charge state spectra at 2.3 and 0.18 qkeV shows that for a given projectile charge, there is very little dependence of the observed recoil target charge state distribution on projectile energy

  5. Short-Term State Forecasting-Based Optimal Voltage Regulation in Distribution Systems: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Rui; Jiang, Huaiguang; Zhang, Yingchen

    2017-05-17

    A novel short-term state forecasting-based optimal power flow (OPF) approach for distribution system voltage regulation is proposed in this paper. An extreme learning machine (ELM) based state forecaster is developed to accurately predict system states (voltage magnitudes and angles) in the near future. Based on the forecast system states, a dynamically weighted three-phase AC OPF problem is formulated to minimize the voltage violations with higher penalization on buses which are forecast to have higher voltage violations in the near future. By solving the proposed OPF problem, the controllable resources in the system are optimally coordinated to alleviate the potential severe voltage violations and improve the overall voltage profile. The proposed approach has been tested in a 12-bus distribution system and simulation results are presented to demonstrate the performance of the proposed approach.

  6. Power-Law-Distributed Dark States are the Main Pathway for Photobleaching of Single Organic Molecules

    OpenAIRE

    Hoogenboom, J.P.; Hoogenboom, Jacob; van Dijk, E.M.H.P.; Hernando Campos, J.; van Hulst, N.F.; Garcia Parajo, M.F.

    2005-01-01

    We exploit the strong excitonic coupling in a superradiant trimer molecule to distinguish between long-lived collective dark states and photobleaching events. The population and depopulation kinetics of the dark states in a single molecule follow power-law statistics over 5 orders of magnitude in time. This result is consistent with the formation of a radical unit via electron tunneling to a time-varying distribution of trapping sites in the surrounding polymer matrix. We furthermore demonstr...

  7. Strategic Sequencing for State Distributed PV Policies: A Quantitative Analysis of Policy Impacts and Interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doris, E.; Krasko, V.A.

    2012-10-01

    State and local policymakers show increasing interest in spurring the development of customer-sited distributed generation (DG), in particular solar photovoltaic (PV) markets. Prompted by that interest, this analysis examines the use of state policy as a tool to support the development of a robust private investment market. This analysis builds on previous studies that focus on government subsidies to reduce installation costs of individual projects and provides an evaluation of the impacts of policies on stimulating private market development.

  8. Hydrogen generation, distribution and combustion under severe LWR accident conditions: a state-of-technology report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Postma, A.K.; Hilliard, R.K.

    1983-03-01

    This report reviews the current state of technology regarding hydrogen safety issues in light water reactor plants. Topics considered in this report include hydrogen generation, distribution in containment, and combustion characteristics. A companion report addresses hydrogen control. The objectives of the study were to identify the key safety issues related to hydrogen produced under severe accident conditions, to describe the state of technology for each issue, and to point out ongoing programs aimed at resolving the open issues

  9. Reptilia, Serpentes, Dipsadidae, Gomesophis brasiliensis (Gomes, 1918: Distribution extension in state of Santa Catarina, Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fortes, V. B.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian burrowing snake, Gomesophis brasiliensis, occurs in aquatic habitats such as swamps, from MinasGerais and Distrito Federal until Rio Grande do Sul. In spite of this wide distribution, the species’ geographic range stillremains unclear. This note reports the occurrence of G. brasiliensis in the municipality of Vargem Bonita, state of SantaCatarina, south Brazil, extending the species’ range ca. 80 km to the west in this state.

  10. The Design and Implementation of a Peer Mentoring Program for International Students at Morehead State University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Donell Cochran

    2017-01-01

    Peer mentoring is a way to help guide and form valuable relationships between two or more students and plays an important role in the success, both academically and socially, of students. At Morehead State University (MSU), the International Peer Mentoring Program (IPMP) was designed and implemented in the Fall of 2016 to assist in the academic…

  11. International Benchmarking and Determinants of Mathematics Achievement in Two Indian States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Kin Bing; Goldschmidt, Pete; Boscardin, Christy Kim; Sankar, Deepa

    2009-01-01

    Evidence from cross-country studies suggests that the sustainability of India's rapid economic growth will be conditioned by the quality of its education. This paper analyzed a 2005 World Bank-sponsored survey of Grade Nine students in the states of Rajasthan and Orissa. The survey used internationally comparable items from the 1999 Trends of…

  12. Narrative Competence and "Internal State Language" of Children with Asperger Syndrome and ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumpf, Anna-Lena; Kamp-Becker, Inge; Becker, Katja; Kauschke, Christina

    2012-01-01

    The central question of the present study was whether there are differences between children with Asperger Syndrome (AS), children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and healthy controls (HC) with respect to the organization of narratives and their verbalization of internal states. Oral narrations of a wordless picture book…

  13. The current state of international cooperation in case of a nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupuy, R. J.

    1988-01-01

    The state where the accident occurs is responsible for taking defence measures against the damaging effects of ionizing radiation inside and outside its frontiers. Since Chernobyl accident, the international Atomic Energy Agency has completed the rule specifying that the country responsible of the accident should notify all other countries susceptible to be affected by the consequences, with two conventions. (author)

  14. The Impact of International Financial Reporting Standards on Accounting Curriculum in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yallapragada, RamMohan R.; Toma, Alfred G.; Roe, C. William

    2011-01-01

    According to the time line presently specified by the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC), business firms in the United States (US) should switch from the existing US accounting reporting guidelines of the Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP) to International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) by the year 2014. The US business…

  15. Predicting a State’s Foreign Policy: State Preferences between Domestic and International Constraints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alons, G.C.

    2007-01-01

    In order to understand a state’s foreign policy preferences, we need to take both its domestic and international considerations into account. This article aims to contribute to the analysis of foreign policy by exploring the conditions under which states will either give precedence to domestic or

  16. United States Energy Association Final Report International Partnership for the Hydrogen Economy Ministerial Conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William L. Polen

    2006-04-05

    This report summarizes the activities of the United States Energy Association as it conducted the initial Ministerial Meeting of the International Partnership for the Hydrogen Economy in Washington, DC on November 18-21, 2003. The report summarizes the results of the meeting and subsequent support to the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy in its role as IPHE Secretariat.

  17. Applicable law in investor-state arbitration: the interplay between national and international law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kjos, H.E.

    2013-01-01

    This book examines the law, national and/or international, that arbitral tribunals apply on the merits to settle disputes between foreign investors and host states. In light of the freedom that the disputing parties and the arbitrators have when designating the applicable law, and because of the

  18. International responsability of state by the deleterius effects of ionising radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faria, N.M. de.

    1988-01-01

    International Responsability of State, considering the deleterius effects of ionising radiation on the human being, property, territory and environment which are under other jurisdiction, is focused. Conventional rules, costumary rules, the evolution of ''opinion juris'' as well as the decisions of tribunals related to the subject are analysed. (author) [pt

  19. International Trends in Health Science Librarianship Part 19: The Balkan States (Bulgaria and Croatia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirilova, Savina; Skoric, Lea

    2016-09-01

    This is the 19th in a series of articles exploring international trends in health science librarianship in the 21st century. The focus of the present issue is the Balkan Region (Bulgaria and Croatia). The next regular feature column will investigate two other Balkan states - Serbia and Slovenia. JM. © 2016 Health Libraries Group.

  20. Reforming Investor–State Dispute Settlement: A (Comparative and International) Constitutional Law Framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schill, S.W.

    As a result of the steep increase in investment arbitrations, and the problems this has brought to the fore, many reform efforts in international investment law focus on changes to investor–state dispute settlement (ISDS). Reform proposals, however, diverge widely (ranging from exiting the system

  1. Analysis of actual state on enterprise competitive intelligence at internal and abroad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Nansheng

    2010-01-01

    Based on the actual state of the enterprise competitive intelligence at internal and abroad and on the point of view of practice and theory, it sets forth the character of ci and the influence on the enterprise, analyzes objectivity the questions and the challenges in using CI in our country, brings up the methods and channels in setting up the CIS. (author)

  2. A Comparative Analysis of Internal Communication and Public Relations Audits. State of the Art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dozier, David M.; Hellweg, Susan A.

    A review of current literature regarding the state of the art in the conduct of internal communication and public relations audits by public relations practitioners reveals that these two related measurement activities are of considerable importance to the practice of public relations. Public relations audits are concerned with exploratory…

  3. Neural Correlates of Visual Aesthetics - Beauty as the Coalescence of Stimulus and Internal State

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, Richard H. A. H.; Renken, Remco; Cornelissen, Frans W.

    2012-01-01

    How do external stimuli and our internal state coalesce to create the distinctive aesthetic pleasures that give vibrance to human experience? Neuroaesthetics has so far focused on the neural correlates of observing beautiful stimuli compared to neutral or ugly stimuli, or on neural correlates of

  4. Distribution of oxygen-18 and deuteriun in river waters across the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, Carol; Coplen, Tyler B.

    2001-01-01

    Reconstruction of continental palaeoclimate and palaeohydrology is currently hampered by limited information about isotopic patterns in the modern hydrologic cycle. To remedy this situation and to provide baseline data for other isotope hydrology studies, more than 4800, depth- and width-integrated, stream samples from 391 selected sites within the USGS National Stream Quality Accounting Network (NASQAN) and Hydrologic Benchmark Network (HBN) were analysed for δ18O and δ2H (http://water.usgs.gov/pubs/ofr/ofr00-160/pdf/ofr00-160.pdf). Each site was sampled bimonthly or quarterly for 2·5 to 3 years between 1984 and 1987. The ability of this dataset to serve as a proxy for the isotopic composition of modern precipitation in the USA is supported by the excellent agreement between the river dataset and the isotopic compositions of adjacent precipitation monitoring sites, the strong spatial coherence of the distributions of δ18O and δ2H, the good correlations of the isotopic compositions with climatic parameters, and the good agreement between the ‘national’ meteoric water line (MWL) generated from unweighted analyses of samples from the 48 contiguous states of δ2H=8·11δ18O+8·99 (r2=0·98) and the unweighted global MWL of sites from the Global Network for Isotopes in Precipitation (GNIP) of the International Atomic Energy Agency and the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) of δ2H=8·17δ18O+10·35. The national MWL is composed of water samples that arise in diverse local conditions where the local meteoric water lines (LMWLs) usually have much lower slopes. Adjacent sites often have similar LMWLs, allowing the datasets to be combined into regional MWLs. The slopes of regional MWLs probably reflect the humidity of the local air mass, which imparts a distinctive evaporative isotopic signature to rainfall and hence to stream samples. Deuterium excess values range from 6 to 15‰ in the eastern half of the USA, along the northwest coast and on the Colorado

  5. Analysis Ability Professional Internal Auditor In The Three State-Owned Company In Bandung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Ait Novatiani

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to analysis professional skills of internal auditors in the three state-owned companies in Bandung. The research method used descriptive method the sampling technique used in this research is non probability sampling that the saturation sampling data collection techniques used primary data and secondary data. Based on the research results it can be concluded that the ability of professional internal auditors in the three companies in Bandung good meaning that the company State Owned Enterprises SOEs already meet the ability components of professional internal auditors that their conformity with the standards of the profession knowledge and skills human relations and communication continuing education and professional rigor.

  6. Decoy-state quantum key distribution with two-way classical postprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Xiongfeng; Fung, C.-H.F.; Chen Kai; Lo, H.-K.; Dupuis, Frederic; Tamaki, Kiyoshi

    2006-01-01

    Decoy states have recently been proposed as a useful method for substantially improving the performance of quantum key distribution (QKD) protocols when a coherent-state source is used. Previously, data postprocessing schemes based on one-way classical communications were considered for use with decoy states. In this paper, we develop two data postprocessing schemes for the decoy-state method using two-way classical communications. Our numerical simulation (using parameters from a specific QKD experiment as an example) results show that our scheme is able to extend the maximal secure distance from 142 km (using only one-way classical communications with decoy states) to 181 km. The second scheme is able to achieve a 10% greater key generation rate in the whole regime of distances. We conclude that decoy-state QKD with two-way classical postprocessing is of practical interest

  7. Quantum key distribution using continuous-variable non-Gaussian states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borelli, L. F. M.; Aguiar, L. S.; Roversi, J. A.; Vidiella-Barranco, A.

    2016-02-01

    In this work, we present a quantum key distribution protocol using continuous-variable non-Gaussian states, homodyne detection and post-selection. The employed signal states are the photon added then subtracted coherent states (PASCS) in which one photon is added and subsequently one photon is subtracted from the field. We analyze the performance of our protocol, compared with a coherent state-based protocol, for two different attacks that could be carried out by the eavesdropper (Eve). We calculate the secret key rate transmission in a lossy line for a superior channel (beam-splitter) attack, and we show that we may increase the secret key generation rate by using the non-Gaussian PASCS rather than coherent states. We also consider the simultaneous quadrature measurement (intercept-resend) attack, and we show that the efficiency of Eve's attack is substantially reduced if PASCS are used as signal states.

  8. Changes in forest biomass and tree species distribution under climate change in the northeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen J. Wang; Hong S. He; Frank R. Thompson; Jacob S. Fraser; William D. Dijak

    2016-01-01

    Context. Forests in the northeastern United States are currently in early- and mid-successional stages recovering from historical land use. Climate change will affect forest distribution and structure and have important implications for biodiversity, carbon dynamics, and human well-being. Objective. We addressed how aboveground biomass (AGB) and...

  9. Distribution and Availability of State and Areawide Water Quality Reports in Oklahoma Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Charles R.; Million, Anne

    This report examines the distribution and availability of water quality reports in the state of Oklahoma. Based on legislation from the Clean Water Act and regulations from the Environmental Protection Agency's "Public Participation Handbook for Water Quality Management," depository libraries must be established to provide citizen access to…

  10. An evaluation of the methods of determining excited state population distributions from sputtering sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snowdon, K.J.; Andresen, B.; Veje, E.

    1978-01-01

    The method of calculating relative initial level populations of excited states of sputtered atoms is developed in principle and compared with those in current use. The reason that the latter, although mathematically different, have generally led to similar population distributions is outlined. (Auth.)

  11. The distribution of mercury in a forest floor transect across the central United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles H. (Hobie) Perry; Michael C. Amacher; William Cannon; Randall K. Kolka; Laurel Woodruff

    2009-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) stored in soil organic matter may be released when the forest floor is consumed by fire. Our objective is to document the spatial distribution of forest floor Hg for a transect crossing the central United States. Samples collected by the Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture's Forest Inventory and Analysis Soil Quality Indicator were tested...

  12. Optimal Meter Placement for Distribution Network State Estimation: A Circuit Representation Based MILP Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Xiaoshuang; Lin, Jin; Wan, Can

    2016-01-01

    State estimation (SE) in distribution networks is not as accurate as that in transmission networks. Traditionally, distribution networks (DNs) are lack of direct measurements due to the limitations of investments and the difficulties of maintenance. Therefore, it is critical to improve the accuracy...... of SE in distribution networks by placing additional physical meters. For state-of-the-art SE models, it is difficult to clearly quantify measurements' influences on SE errors, so the problems of optimal meter placement for reducing SE errors are mostly solved by heuristic or suboptimal algorithms....... Under this background, this paper proposes a circuit representation model to represent SE errors. Based on the matrix formulation of the circuit representation model, the problem of optimal meter placement can be transformed to a mixed integer linear programming problem (MILP) via the disjunctive model...

  13. International legal problem in combating 'Islamic State' terrorist group in Syria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevanović Miroslav

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available 'Islamic State of Iraq and Syria' (ISIS has occupied parts of internationally recognized states and exerts further territorial pretensions. ISIS, also, implements a repressive rule, through violations of human rights and humanitarian law, which may constitute international crimes. In facing the threat od ISIS, the perception of international terrorism is important since this group has the features of a territorial entity. So far, facing with the threat of ISIS has been reduced to a model that is adopted by the UN Security Council against the terrorist network Al-Qaida. An international coalition of states, led by the United States, has undertaken air strikes on positions ISIS, on several grounds: the responsibility to protect, the protection of national security, and at the request of Iraq. At the same time, the strikes are applied in Syria, which can not be accountable for the actions of ISIS and has not requested international assistance. International law does not allow actions which would aim to destroy or jeopardize the territorial integrity or political independence of any sovereign and independent state, which is acting in accordance with the principle of equal rights and self-determination of peoples, and is hence governed by a representative government. The UNSC resolution 2249 remains short of recommending international armed action under the aegis of UNSC, but represents a step forward in recognizing the responsibility of this body in facing ISIS, at least as far as the 'destruction of refuge' is concerned. The use of force in the territory of Syria, without the express authorization of the UNSC is illegal, because terrorism does not constitute grounds for the use of force against countries. But, it opens broader issues of responsibility for the development of ISIS and the humanitarian crisis in the Middle East, as well as the functioning of the system of collective security. Overcoming the current crisis UNSC implies not just a

  14. Quantum Distributed Ballot Scheme Based on Greenberger-Home-Zeilinger State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Ronghua; Wu Ying; Guo Ying; Zeng Guihua

    2010-01-01

    Motivated by the complementary relations of the Greenherger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) entangled triplet-particle states, a novel way of realizing quantum distributed ballot scheme is proposed. The ballot information is encoded by local operations performed on the particles of entangled GHZ triplet states, which ensures the security of the present scheme. In order to guarantee the security of this scheme, the checking phase is designed in detail on the basis of the entangled GHZ triplet state. The analysis shows the security of the proposed scheme. (general)

  15. Assessing Faculty Experiences with and Perceptions of an Internal Quality Assurance Process for Undergraduate Distributed Learning Courses: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rucker, Ryan; Edwards, Karen; Frass, Lydia R.

    2015-01-01

    To ensure that online courses match traditional classes' quality, some institutions are implementing internal standards for online course design and quality review. The University of South Carolina created the Distributed Learning Quality Review program, based on "Quality Matters'" standards. It was designed to be faculty-guided, as…

  16. Receptor activation and 2 distinct COOH-terminal motifs control G-CSF receptor distribution and internalization kinetics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.H.J. Aarts (Bart); O. Roovers (Onno); A.C. Ward (Alister); I.P. Touw (Ivo)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractWe have studied the intracellular distribution and internalization kinetics of the granulocyte colony-stimulating factor receptor (G-CSF-R) in living cells using fusion constructs of wild-type or mutant G-CSF-R and enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP). Under

  17. The Effect of Interacting with Two Devices when Creating the Illusion of Internal State in Tangible Widgets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Christoffer; Bork, Andreas Heldbjerg; Memborg, Jakob Birch

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates whether the illusion of internal state in passive tangible widgets is stronger when using one touchscreen device or two devices. Passive tangible widgets are an increasingly popular way to interact with tablet games. Since the production of passive widgets is usually cheaper...... than the production of widgets with internal state, it is much more cost-efficient to induce the illusion of internal state in passive widgets than to use tangible widgets with an actual internal state. An experiment was conducted where the participants’ belief in the illusion was determined by means...

  18. Distributed State Estimation Using a Modified Partitioned Moving Horizon Strategy for Power Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tengpeng; Foo, Yi Shyh Eddy; Ling, K V; Chen, Xuebing

    2017-10-11

    In this paper, a distributed state estimation method based on moving horizon estimation (MHE) is proposed for the large-scale power system state estimation. The proposed method partitions the power systems into several local areas with non-overlapping states. Unlike the centralized approach where all measurements are sent to a processing center, the proposed method distributes the state estimation task to the local processing centers where local measurements are collected. Inspired by the partitioned moving horizon estimation (PMHE) algorithm, each local area solves a smaller optimization problem to estimate its own local states by using local measurements and estimated results from its neighboring areas. In contrast with PMHE, the error from the process model is ignored in our method. The proposed modified PMHE (mPMHE) approach can also take constraints on states into account during the optimization process such that the influence of the outliers can be further mitigated. Simulation results on the IEEE 14-bus and 118-bus systems verify that our method achieves comparable state estimation accuracy but with a significant reduction in the overall computation load.

  19. High-dimensional quantum key distribution with the entangled single-photon-added coherent state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yang [Zhengzhou Information Science and Technology Institute, Zhengzhou, 450001 (China); Synergetic Innovation Center of Quantum Information and Quantum Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Bao, Wan-Su, E-mail: 2010thzz@sina.com [Zhengzhou Information Science and Technology Institute, Zhengzhou, 450001 (China); Synergetic Innovation Center of Quantum Information and Quantum Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Bao, Hai-Ze; Zhou, Chun; Jiang, Mu-Sheng; Li, Hong-Wei [Zhengzhou Information Science and Technology Institute, Zhengzhou, 450001 (China); Synergetic Innovation Center of Quantum Information and Quantum Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China)

    2017-04-25

    High-dimensional quantum key distribution (HD-QKD) can generate more secure bits for one detection event so that it can achieve long distance key distribution with a high secret key capacity. In this Letter, we present a decoy state HD-QKD scheme with the entangled single-photon-added coherent state (ESPACS) source. We present two tight formulas to estimate the single-photon fraction of postselected events and Eve's Holevo information and derive lower bounds on the secret key capacity and the secret key rate of our protocol. We also present finite-key analysis for our protocol by using the Chernoff bound. Our numerical results show that our protocol using one decoy state can perform better than that of previous HD-QKD protocol with the spontaneous parametric down conversion (SPDC) using two decoy states. Moreover, when considering finite resources, the advantage is more obvious. - Highlights: • Implement the single-photon-added coherent state source into the high-dimensional quantum key distribution. • Enhance both the secret key capacity and the secret key rate compared with previous schemes. • Show an excellent performance in view of statistical fluctuations.

  20. High-dimensional quantum key distribution with the entangled single-photon-added coherent state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yang; Bao, Wan-Su; Bao, Hai-Ze; Zhou, Chun; Jiang, Mu-Sheng; Li, Hong-Wei

    2017-01-01

    High-dimensional quantum key distribution (HD-QKD) can generate more secure bits for one detection event so that it can achieve long distance key distribution with a high secret key capacity. In this Letter, we present a decoy state HD-QKD scheme with the entangled single-photon-added coherent state (ESPACS) source. We present two tight formulas to estimate the single-photon fraction of postselected events and Eve's Holevo information and derive lower bounds on the secret key capacity and the secret key rate of our protocol. We also present finite-key analysis for our protocol by using the Chernoff bound. Our numerical results show that our protocol using one decoy state can perform better than that of previous HD-QKD protocol with the spontaneous parametric down conversion (SPDC) using two decoy states. Moreover, when considering finite resources, the advantage is more obvious. - Highlights: • Implement the single-photon-added coherent state source into the high-dimensional quantum key distribution. • Enhance both the secret key capacity and the secret key rate compared with previous schemes. • Show an excellent performance in view of statistical fluctuations.

  1. Policy and technical issues for international safeguards in nuclear weapons states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markin, J.T.; Stanbro, W.D.

    1994-01-01

    Expansion of international safeguards into the military and commercial fuel cycles of the nuclear weapons states (NWS) -- the subject of previous proposals in international safeguards discussions and of studies in the safeguards literature -- has been given impetus by recent US government initiatives for safeguards on excess weapons materials and a verified fissile materials production cutoff. These proposals, if implemented, would have implications on the safeguards objectives, approaches, and technologies that are traditionally employed in international safeguards. This paper examines the modifications and innovations that might be required to the current international safeguards regime in meeting these proposed new roles. Although the examples given are in the context of the US materials and facilities, many of the conclusions are valid for other NWS. None of the statements in this paper represent official US position on policy for international safeguards in weapons states. Instead, the purpose is to identify policy and technical issues and to offer, where possible, options for their resolution. This paper limits consideration to the potential role of the IAEA in verifying these proposed initiatives for declared facilities, recognizing that there may also be a role for bilateral, multilateral, or regional verification regimes. Indeed, in some cases verification of weapons materials may be more appropriate for a bilateral arrangement. Because traditional IAEA safeguards may not be admissible for weapons materials, the concept of ''transparency'' is suggested as a less intrusive alternative providing some confidence that materials are as declared

  2. Model of charge-state distributions for electron cyclotron resonance ion source plasmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. H. Edgell

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available A computer model for the ion charge-state distribution (CSD in an electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS plasma is presented that incorporates non-Maxwellian distribution functions, multiple atomic species, and ion confinement due to the ambipolar potential well that arises from confinement of the electron cyclotron resonance (ECR heated electrons. Atomic processes incorporated into the model include multiple ionization and multiple charge exchange with rate coefficients calculated for non-Maxwellian electron distributions. The electron distribution function is calculated using a Fokker-Planck code with an ECR heating term. This eliminates the electron temperature as an arbitrary user input. The model produces results that are a good match to CSD data from the ANL-ECRII ECRIS. Extending the model to 1D axial will also allow the model to determine the plasma and electrostatic potential profiles, further eliminating arbitrary user input to the model.

  3. State-age-dependent maintenance policies for deteriorating systems with Erlang sojourn time distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeh, R.H.

    1997-01-01

    This paper investigates state-age-dependent maintenance policies for multistate deteriorating systems with Erlang sojourn time distributions. Since Erlang distributions are serial combinations of exponential phases, the deteriorating process can be modeled by a multi-phase Markovian model and hence easily analyzed. Based on the Markovian model, the optimal phase-dependent inspection and replacement policy can be obtained by using a policy improvement algorithm. However, since phases are fictitious and can not be identified by inspections, two procedures are developed to construct state-age-dependent policies based on the optimal phase-dependent policy. The properties of the constructed state-age-dependent policies are further investigated and the performance of the policy is evaluated through a numerical example

  4. Automatic Regionalization Algorithm for Distributed State Estimation in Power Systems: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Dexin; Yang, Liuqing; Florita, Anthony; Alam, S.M. Shafiul; Elgindy, Tarek; Hodge, Bri-Mathias

    2016-08-01

    The deregulation of the power system and the incorporation of generation from renewable energy sources recessitates faster state estimation in the smart grid. Distributed state estimation (DSE) has become a promising and scalable solution to this urgent demand. In this paper, we investigate the regionalization algorithms for the power system, a necessary step before distributed state estimation can be performed. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first investigation on automatic regionalization (AR). We propose three spectral clustering based AR algorithms. Simulations show that our proposed algorithms outperform the two investigated manual regionalization cases. With the help of AR algorithms, we also show how the number of regions impacts the accuracy and convergence speed of the DSE and conclude that the number of regions needs to be chosen carefully to improve the convergence speed of DSEs.

  5. Quantum key distribution with a single photon from a squeezed coherent state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuoka, Masahiro; Hirano, Takuya

    2003-01-01

    Squeezing of the coherent state by optical parametric amplifier is shown to efficiently produce single-photon states with reduced multiphoton probabilities compared with the weak coherent light. It can be a better source for a longer-distance quantum key distribution and also for other quantum optical experiments. The necessary condition for a secure quantum key distribution given by Brassard et al. is analyzed as functions of the coherent-state amplitude and squeeze parameter. Similarly, the rate of the gained secure bits G after error correction and privacy amplification given by Luetkenhaus is calculated. Compared with the weak coherent light, it is found that G is about ten times larger and its high level continues on about two times longer distance. By improvement of the detector efficiency it is shown that the distance extends further. Measurement of the intensity correlation function and the relation to photon antibunching are discussed for the experimental verification of the single-photon generation

  6. Long-distance measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution with coherent-state superpositions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, H-L; Cao, W-F; Fu, Y; Tang, Y-L; Liu, Y; Chen, T-Y; Chen, Z-B

    2014-09-15

    Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution (MDI-QKD) with decoy-state method is believed to be securely applied to defeat various hacking attacks in practical quantum key distribution systems. Recently, the coherent-state superpositions (CSS) have emerged as an alternative to single-photon qubits for quantum information processing and metrology. Here, in this Letter, CSS are exploited as the source in MDI-QKD. We present an analytical method that gives two tight formulas to estimate the lower bound of yield and the upper bound of bit error rate. We exploit the standard statistical analysis and Chernoff bound to perform the parameter estimation. Chernoff bound can provide good bounds in the long-distance MDI-QKD. Our results show that with CSS, both the security transmission distance and secure key rate are significantly improved compared with those of the weak coherent states in the finite-data case.

  7. Accelerated Enveloping Distribution Sampling: Enabling Sampling of Multiple End States while Preserving Local Energy Minima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perthold, Jan Walther; Oostenbrink, Chris

    2018-05-17

    Enveloping distribution sampling (EDS) is an efficient approach to calculate multiple free-energy differences from a single molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. However, the construction of an appropriate reference-state Hamiltonian that samples all states efficiently is not straightforward. We propose a novel approach for the construction of the EDS reference-state Hamiltonian, related to a previously described procedure to smoothen energy landscapes. In contrast to previously suggested EDS approaches, our reference-state Hamiltonian preserves local energy minima of the combined end-states. Moreover, we propose an intuitive, robust and efficient parameter optimization scheme to tune EDS Hamiltonian parameters. We demonstrate the proposed method with established and novel test systems and conclude that our approach allows for the automated calculation of multiple free-energy differences from a single simulation. Accelerated EDS promises to be a robust and user-friendly method to compute free-energy differences based on solid statistical mechanics.

  8. Coherent Motion Reveals Non‐Ergodic Nature of Internal Conversion between Excited States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhlman, Thomas Scheby; Sølling, Theis I.; Møller, Klaus Braagaard

    2012-01-01

    for smaller molecules. Specifically, we focus on the S2→S1 internal conversion in cyclobutanone, cyclopentanone, and cyclohexanone. By means of time‐resolved mass spectrometry and photoelectron spectroscopy the relative rate of this transition is determined to be 13:2:1. Remarkably, we observe coherent......We found that specific nuclear motion along low‐frequency modes is effective in coupling electronic states and that this motion prevail in some small molecules. Thus, in direct contradiction to what is expected based on the standard models, the internal conversion process can proceed faster...

  9. Presidential elections in the United States: implications for international and European security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. S. Vonsovych

    2016-10-01

    In conclusion it should be noted that the full implementation of D. Trump’s plans for international and European security will depend on how the declared initiatives will correspond to his real actions. Perhaps this would require more than a year, but now the world and the European community must be ready for serious structural and geopolitical changes. The presence of a number of acute problems makes the role of the United States in the process of ensuring international and European security hardly predictable.

  10. Internal States and Behavioral Decision-Making: Toward an Integration of Emotion and Cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Ann; Asahina, Kenta; Hoopfer, Eric; Inagaki, Hidehiko; Jung, Yonil; Lee, Hyosang; Remedios, Ryan; Anderson, David J

    2014-01-01

    Social interactions, such as an aggressive encounter between two conspecific males or a mating encounter between a male and a female, typically progress from an initial appetitive or motivational phase, to a final consummatory phase. This progression involves both changes in the intensity of the animals' internal state of arousal or motivation and sequential changes in their behavior. How are these internal states, and their escalating intensity, encoded in the brain? Does this escalation drive the progression from the appetitive/motivational to the consummatory phase of a social interaction and, if so, how are appropriate behaviors chosen during this progression? Recent work on social behaviors in flies and mice suggests possible ways in which changes in internal state intensity during a social encounter may be encoded and coupled to appropriate behavioral decisions at appropriate phases of the interaction. These studies may have relevance to understanding how emotion states influence cognitive behavioral decisions at higher levels of brain function. Copyright © 2014 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  11. Climate policy in India: what shapes international, national and state policy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atteridge, Aaron; Shrivastava, Manish Kumar; Pahuja, Neha; Upadhyay, Himani

    2012-01-01

    At the international level, India is emerging as a key actor in climate negotiations, while at the national and sub-national levels, the climate policy landscape is becoming more active and more ambitious. It is essential to unravel this complex landscape if we are to understand why policy looks the way it does, and the extent to which India might contribute to a future international framework for tackling climate change as well as how international parties might cooperate with and support India's domestic efforts. Drawing on both primary and secondary data, this paper analyzes the material and ideational drivers that are most strongly influencing policy choices at different levels, from international negotiations down to individual states. We argue that at each level of decision making in India, climate policy is embedded in wider policy concerns. In the international realm, it is being woven into broader foreign policy strategy, while domestically, it is being shaped to serve national and sub-national development interests. While our analysis highlights some common drivers at all levels, it also finds that their influences over policy are not uniform across the different arenas, and in some cases, they work in different ways at different levels of policy. We also indicate what this may mean for the likely acceptability within India of various climate policies being pushed at the international level.

  12. Experiences of internationally educated nurses holding management positions in the United States: Descriptive phenomenological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Lilian A

    2018-02-12

    The purpose of this study was to explore the experiences of internationally educated nurses in management positions in United States health care organisations to understand the obstacles and support these individuals' experience when pursuing and working in managerial roles. Although internationally educated nurses are an integral part of the US health care industry, few work in managerial roles. Little is known about the experiences of internationally educated nurses who do obtain management positions. In this qualitative, phenomenological study, seven internationally educated nurses who were managers in Chicago, Illinois, responded to open-ended interview questions. Supervisors contributed to the participants' acceptance of management positions. The participants experienced challenges such as cultural differences, language, and communication. Despite these challenges, the participants had positive working relationships with staff and supervisors. Further, the participants had opportunities for education and professional growth. Internationally educated nurses benefit from participating in organisational committees. They face challenges related to work responsibilities, cultural differences and communication but can succeed in management roles through developing strategies to overcome the challenges and through receiving support from staff, colleagues and supervisors. More internationally educated nurses may obtain managerial positions if supervisors provide encouragement and support. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Comment on ``Semiquantum-key distribution using less than four quantum states''

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Michel; Mor, Tal

    2011-04-01

    For several decades it was believed that information-secure key distribution requires both the sender and receiver to have the ability to generate and/or manipulate quantum states. Earlier, we showed that quantum key distribution in which one party is classical is possible [Boyer, Kenigsberg, and Mor, Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.99.140501 99, 140501 (2007)]. A surprising and very nice extension of that result was suggested by Zou, Qiu, Li, Wu, and Li [Phys. Rev. APLRAAN1050-294710.1103/PhysRevA.79.052312 79, 052312 (2009)]. Their paper suggests that it is sufficient for the originator of the states (the person holding the quantum technology) to generate just one state. The resulting semiquantum key distribution, which we call here “quantum key distribution with classical Alice” is indeed completely robust against eavesdropping. However, their proof (that no eavesdropper can get information without being possibly detected) is faulty. We provide here a fully detailed and direct proof of their very important result.

  14. A scheme for distributed quantum search through simultaneous state transfer mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, M.; Pathak, A.

    2007-01-01

    Using a quantum network model, we present a scheme for distributed implementation of Grover's algorithm. The proposed scheme can implement a quantum search over data bases stored in different computers. Entanglement is used to carry out different non-local operations over the spatially distributed quantum computers. A method to transfer the combined state of many qubits over the entanglement and subsequently refreshing the entangled pair is presented. This method of simultaneous s tate transfer from one computer to the other, is shown to result in a constant communication complexity. (Abstract Copyright [2007], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  15. Determination of binder distributions in green-state ceramics by NMR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garrido, L.; Ackerman, J.L.; Ellingson, W.A.; Weyand, J.D.

    1988-03-01

    The manufacture of reliable high performance structural ceramics requires a good understanding of the different steps involved in the process. The presence of nonuniformities in the distribution of the polymeric binder could give rise to local fluctuations of density that could produce failure of the ceramic piece. Specimens prepared from Al 2 O 3 with 15 and 2.5% ww binder were imaged using NMR in order to measure binder distribution maps. Results show that NMR imaging could be a useful technique to nondestructively evaluate the quality of green-state specimens. 5 refs., 5 figs

  16. Distribution of natural radionuclides and radiation level measurements in Karnataka State, India. An overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rangaswamy, D.R.; Sannappa, J.

    2016-01-01

    The exposure of human beings to ionizing radiation from natural sources is a continuing and inescapable feature of life on earth. A large number of natural radioactivity measurements were conducted throughout world, in order to know their distribution and to assess their radiological health hazards. In this regard, considerable studies have been conducted by different research groups in Karnataka state and more data are reported. In this article, all the studies of natural radioactivity measurements have been combined and reviewed. The majority of the reported articles are about monitoring, distribution and assessment of the radiological health hazards of naturally occurring radionuclides. (author)

  17. Multi-user quantum key distribution based on Bell states with mutual authentication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Song; Huang Chuan; Liu Xiaofen

    2013-01-01

    A new multi-user quantum key distribution protocol with mutual authentication is proposed on a star network. Here, two arbitrary users are able to perform key distribution with the assistance of a semi-trusted center. Bell states are used as information carriers and transmitted in a quantum channel between the center and one user. A keyed hash function is utilized to ensure the identities of three parties. Finally, the security of this protocol with respect to various kinds of attacks is discussed. (paper)

  18. DDR and the Internal Organization of Non-State Armed Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian McQuinn

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues that demobilization, disarmament and reintegration (DDR trajectories of non-state armed groups are shaped by a group’s internal organization. Extensive research by political scientists has demonstrated a correlation between internal features of armed groups and their behaviour (e.g. extent of violence used against local communities. I extend this analysis to DDR outcomes by illustrating how two features of an armed group’s internal organization – command profile and financing architecture – influence post-conflict DDR trajectories. To substantiate the theory, four case studies from Colombia, Nepal and Libya are reviewed. The article concludes with the limitations and opportunities of this approach, including the potential of predicting DDR challenges.

  19. Fast nuclear reactors. Associated international projects. State of the art and assessment of the concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azpitarte, O.; Ramilo, L.

    2013-01-01

    The recognition of the strategic importance of nuclear energy as a source of sustainable energy may be perceived in the continuous development, in many countries, of the technology of fast nuclear reactors with an associated closed fuel cycle, assuming that these Generation IV innovative systems will be required in the future. These reactors fulfill international requirements for safety and reliability, economic competitiveness, sustainability and proliferation resistance. They have the potential of using more efficiently the natural resources of Uranium and of reducing the volume and radiotoxicity of the nuclear waste by partitioning and transmutation of Minor Actinides. The national and international programs being carried out today are concentrated in the following concepts: Sodium Fast Reactor (SFR), Lead Fast Reactor (LFR), Gas Fast Reactor (GFR), Super Critical Water Reactor (SCWR) and Molten Salt Reactor (MSR). This article presents a short review of the technology of the mentioned concepts and details the current state of the main national and international related projects. (author)

  20. The state of the international organ trade: a provisional picture based on integration of available information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimazono, Yosuke

    2007-12-01

    Organ transplantation is widely practised worldwide. The expansion of organ transplantation has led to a critical shortage of organs and the development of the organ trade. Many patients travel to areas where organs are obtainable through commercial transactions. Although the international organ trade is regarded as an important health policy issue, its current state remains obscure because of scarce data and the lack of efforts to synthesize available data. This paper is an attempt to integrate information about the current international organ trade and create a tentative global picture based on a systematic review of 309 media reports, journal articles and other documents. The international organ trade is described in terms of its forms, the organ-exporting countries, the organ-importing countries and its outcomes and consequences.

  1. Legal protection of private persons in the case of acts of foreign states contrary to international law - with special reference to international environmental law

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwarze, J

    1986-01-01

    The author describes the basis for claims following to international law for a case like Chernobyl. He examines possibilities of enforcement of private claims, regarding legal protection in courts of the state where the incident occurred, and of the state where the damage was suffered, of the International Court of Justice, and by way of diplomatic protection. Individual guarantees of procedure still can be improved at present.

  2. Legal protection of private persons in the case of acts of foreign states contrary to international law - with special reference to international environmental law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarze, J.

    1986-01-01

    The author describes the basis for claims following to international law for a case like Chernobyl. He examines possibilities of enforcement of private claims, regarding legal protection in courts of the state where the incident occurred, and of the state where the damage was suffered, of the International Court of Justice, and by way of diplomatic protection. Individual guarantees of procedure still can be improved at present. (CW) [de

  3. NATION-STATE COMING BACK ON THE SCENE OF INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Moisoiu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper is trying to present the hypothesis of nation-state’s return as a relevant actor in foreign relations. Globalization, together with pax Americana, as a main nuclei of globalization, have extrapolated the idea of natural order and market economy, as it seemed that any discussion related to the role of state becomes obsolete. The recent events, with political and economic resonance, the market failures and instability, which required interventionist measures of the state for recovery and stability, major changes and trends of political spectrum, especially in the Western world have contradicted the prospect of natural order. Nevertheless, the discussion surrounding the role of state in economy, the invigoration of nation-state in international relations with possible future implications is regaining momentum.

  4. The international right to health: state obligations and private actors in the health care system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Paula

    2013-09-01

    Most health systems have historically used a mix of public and private actors for financing and delivering care. But the last 30 years have seen many rich and middle-income countries moving to privatise parts of their health care systems. This phenomenon has generated concerns, especially about equitable access to health care. This article examines what the international right to the highest attainable standard of health in Art 12 of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights says about the obligations of states which use private actors in health care. The article involves a close study of the primary documents of the key institutions responsible for interpreting and promoting Art 12. From this study, the article concludes that in mixed public-private health care systems, states not only retain primary responsibility for fulfilling the right to health but are subject to a range of additional specific responsibilities.

  5. Comparative Study Between Internal Ohmic Resistance and Capacity for Battery State of Health Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Nisvo Ramadan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to avoid battery failure, a battery management system (BMS is necessary. Battery state of charge (SOC and state of health (SOH are part of information provided by a BMS. This research analyzes methods to estimate SOH based lithium polymer battery on change of its internal resistance and its capacity. Recursive least square (RLS algorithm was used to estimate internal ohmic resistance while coloumb counting was used to predict the change in the battery capacity. For the estimation algorithm, the battery terminal voltage and current are set as the input variables. Some tests including static capacity test, pulse test, pulse variation test and before charge-discharge test have been conducted to obtain the required data. After comparing the two methods, the obtained results show that SOH estimation based on coloumb counting provides better accuracy than SOH estimation based on internal ohmic resistance. However, the SOH estimation based on internal ohmic resistance is faster and more reliable for real application

  6. 77 FR 530 - Department of State Advisory Committee on Private International Law: Notice of Renewal of Charter

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-05

    ... transactions; online dispute resolution; international leasing and franchising; and other topics of current... International Law: Notice of Renewal of Charter The Charter of the Department of State's Advisory Committee on Private International Law has been renewed, effective for a two-year period. Pursuant to the Federal...

  7. 76 FR 6171 - U.S. Department of State Advisory Committee on Private International Law (ACPIL): Public Meeting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-03

    ... International Law (ACPIL): Public Meeting on Family Law The Department of State, Office of Legal Adviser, Office of Private International Law would like to give notice of a public meeting to discuss preparations for the upcoming Special Commission of the Hague Conference on Private International Law on the 1980...

  8. 25 CFR 542.4 - How do these regulations affect minimum internal control standards established in a Tribal-State...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How do these regulations affect minimum internal control... COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS § 542.4 How do these regulations affect minimum internal control standards established in a Tribal-State compact? (a) If there is a...

  9. Teleportation of displaced Fock states: Fidelity and their teleported photon number distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quintero, William; Ladera, Celso L, E-mail: clladera@usb.ve [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Simon BolIvar, Apdo. 89000, Caracas 1086 (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of)

    2011-01-01

    We consider the teleportation of displaced Fock states which are highly non-classical states of the quantized electromagnetic field which have a set of remarkable quantum properties that include the peculiar oscillations of their photon number distributions. We use the transfer operator formalism to show that the quantum teleportation of a DFS renders a finite superposition of orthonormal DFS's and find its explicit mathematical expression in terms of the compression parameter of the correlated EPR states of the quantum channel. The expression for a teleported Fock state is also derived as a particular case of DFS's teleportation. We finally apply these results to study the fidelity of the teleportation of DFS's and the teleportation of their photon number statistics.

  10. Teleportation of displaced Fock states: Fidelity and their teleported photon number distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quintero, William; Ladera, Celso L

    2011-01-01

    We consider the teleportation of displaced Fock states which are highly non-classical states of the quantized electromagnetic field which have a set of remarkable quantum properties that include the peculiar oscillations of their photon number distributions. We use the transfer operator formalism to show that the quantum teleportation of a DFS renders a finite superposition of orthonormal DFS's and find its explicit mathematical expression in terms of the compression parameter of the correlated EPR states of the quantum channel. The expression for a teleported Fock state is also derived as a particular case of DFS's teleportation. We finally apply these results to study the fidelity of the teleportation of DFS's and the teleportation of their photon number statistics.

  11. Security proof of continuous-variable quantum key distribution using three coherent states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brádler, Kamil; Weedbrook, Christian

    2018-02-01

    We introduce a ternary quantum key distribution (QKD) protocol and asymptotic security proof based on three coherent states and homodyne detection. Previous work had considered the binary case of two coherent states and here we nontrivially extend this to three. Our motivation is to leverage the practical benefits of both discrete and continuous (Gaussian) encoding schemes creating a best-of-both-worlds approach; namely, the postprocessing of discrete encodings and the hardware benefits of continuous ones. We present a thorough and detailed security proof in the limit of infinite signal states which allows us to lower bound the secret key rate. We calculate this is in the context of collective eavesdropping attacks and reverse reconciliation postprocessing. Finally, we compare the ternary coherent state protocol to other well-known QKD schemes (and fundamental repeaterless limits) in terms of secret key rates and loss.

  12. 75 FR 32834 - U.S. Department of State Advisory Committee on Private International Law Study Group Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice 7041] U.S. Department of State Advisory Committee on Private International Law Study Group Notice of Meeting on the United Nations Commission on International Trade Law (UNCITRAL) Draft Legislative Guide on Secured Transactions and Its Treatment of Security Rights in...

  13. The Development of Internal State Language during the Third Year of Life: A Longitudinal Parent Report Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristen, Susanne; Sodian, Beate; Licata, Maria; Thoermer, Claudia; Poulin-Dubois, Diane

    2012-01-01

    Children's talk about the mind has been scarcely studied in non-English speakers. For this reason, this longitudinal study documents age-related changes in German-speaking children's internal state language. At 24, 30 and 36?months, children were administered general language tests and their internal state vocabulary levels were obtained via…

  14. Security bound of continuous-variable quantum key distribution with noisy coherent states and channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Yong; Yang Jian; Guo Hong

    2009-01-01

    Security of a continuous-variable quantum key distribution protocol based on noisy coherent states and channel is analysed. Assuming that the noise of coherent states is induced by Fred, a neutral party relative to others, we prove that the prepare-and-measurement scheme (P and M) and entanglement-based scheme (E-B) are equivalent. Then, we show that this protocol is secure against Gaussian collective attacks even if the channel is lossy and noisy, and, further, a lower bound to the secure key rate is derived.

  15. The solid state track detectors for α-particles angular distribution measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakr, M.H.S.

    1978-01-01

    The solid state track detectors technique is described in details from the point of view of applying them in nuclear reactions research. Using an optimum developing solution, the etching rate of polycarbonate detector was found to be 10.5 μ/hour. The energy resolution of this detector was estimated using 241 Am α-source at α-energies between 1 and 3 Mev. The scattering chamber designed for angular distribution measurements using solid state track detectors is described. A special schematic normograph for range-energy-degrading foils relation is given

  16. Security bound of continuous-variable quantum key distribution with noisy coherent states and channel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen Yong; Yang Jian; Guo Hong, E-mail: hongguo@pku.edu.c [CREAM Group, State Key Laboratory of Advanced Optical Communication Systems and Networks (Peking University) and Institute of Quantum Electronics, School of Electronics Engineering and Computer Science, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2009-12-14

    Security of a continuous-variable quantum key distribution protocol based on noisy coherent states and channel is analysed. Assuming that the noise of coherent states is induced by Fred, a neutral party relative to others, we prove that the prepare-and-measurement scheme (P and M) and entanglement-based scheme (E-B) are equivalent. Then, we show that this protocol is secure against Gaussian collective attacks even if the channel is lossy and noisy, and, further, a lower bound to the secure key rate is derived.

  17. Quantum Key Distribution with High Order Fibonacci-like Orbital Angular Momentum States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Ziwen; Cai, Jiarui; Wang, Chuan

    2017-08-01

    The coding space in quantum communication could be expanded to high-dimensional space by using orbital angular momentum (OAM) states of photons, as both the capacity of the channel and security are enhanced. Here we present a novel approach to realize high-capacity quantum key distribution (QKD) by exploiting OAM states. The innovation of the proposed approach relies on a unique type of entangled-photon source which produces entangled photons with OAM randomly distributed among high order Fiboncci-like numbers and a new physical mechanism for efficiently sharing keys. This combination of entanglement with mathematical properties of high order Fibonacci sequences provides the QKD protocol immunity to photon-number-splitting attacks and allows secure generation of long keys from few photons. Unlike other protocols, reference frame alignment and active modulation of production and detection bases are unnecessary.

  18. Load sharing in distributed real-time systems with state-change broadcasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Kang G.; Chang, Yi-Chieh

    1989-01-01

    A decentralized dynamic load-sharing (LS) method based on state-change broadcasts is proposed for a distributed real-time system. Whenever the state of a node changes from underloaded to fully loaded and vice versa, the node broadcasts this change to a set of nodes, called a buddy set, in the system. The performance of the method is evaluated with both analytic modeling and simulation. It is modeled first by an embedded Markov chain for which numerical solutions are derived. The model solutions are then used to calculate the distribution of queue lengths at the nodes and the probability of meeting task deadlines. The analytical results show that buddy sets of 10 nodes outperform those of less than 10 nodes, and the incremental benefit gained from increasing the buddy set size beyond 15 nodes is insignificant. These and other analytical results are verified by simulation. The proposed LS method is shown to meet task deadlines with a very high probability.

  19. Single-Particle Momentum Distributions of Efimov States in Mixed-Species Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    T. Yamashita, M.; F. Bellotti, F.; Frederico, T.

    2013-01-01

    to derive formulas for the scaling factor of the Efimov spectrum for any mass ratio assuming either that two or three of the two-body subsystems have a bound state at zero energy. We consider the single-particle momentum distribution analytically and numerically and analyse the tail of the momentum......We solve the three-body bound state problem in three dimensions for mass imbalanced systems of two identical bosons and a third particle in the universal limit where the interactions are assumed to be of zero-range. The system displays the Efimov effect and we use the momentum-space wave equation...... distribution to obtain the three-body contact parameter. Our finding demonstrate that the functional form of the three-body contact term depends on the mass ratio and we obtain an analytic expression for this behavior. To exemplify our results, we consider mixtures of Lithium with either two Caesium or Rubium...

  20. Performance during internal medicine residency training and subsequent disciplinary action by state licensing boards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadakis, Maxine A; Arnold, Gerald K; Blank, Linda L; Holmboe, Eric S; Lipner, Rebecca S

    2008-06-03

    Physicians who are disciplined by state licensing boards are more likely to have demonstrated unprofessional behavior in medical school. Information is limited on whether similar performance measures taken during residency can predict performance as practicing physicians. To determine whether performance measures during residency predict the likelihood of future disciplinary actions against practicing internists. Retrospective cohort study. State licensing board disciplinary actions against physicians from 1990 to 2006. 66,171 physicians who entered internal medicine residency training in the United States from 1990 to 2000 and became diplomates. Predictor variables included components of the Residents' Annual Evaluation Summary ratings and American Board of Internal Medicine (ABIM) certification examination scores. 2 performance measures independently predicted disciplinary action. A low professionalism rating on the Residents' Annual Evaluation Summary predicted increased risk for disciplinary action (hazard ratio, 1.7 [95% CI, 1.3 to 2.2]), and high performance on the ABIM certification examination predicted decreased risk for disciplinary action (hazard ratio, 0.7 [CI, 0.60 to 0.70] for American or Canadian medical school graduates and 0.9 [CI, 0.80 to 1.0] for international medical school graduates). Progressively better professionalism ratings and ABIM certification examination scores were associated with less risk for subsequent disciplinary actions; the risk ranged from 4.0% for the lowest professionalism rating to 0.5% for the highest and from 2.5% for the lowest examination scores to 0.0% for the highest. The study was retrospective. Some diplomates may have practiced outside of the United States. Nondiplomates were excluded. Poor performance on behavioral and cognitive measures during residency are associated with greater risk for state licensing board actions against practicing physicians at every point on a performance continuum. These findings support

  1. Internal models of limb dynamics and the encoding of limb state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Eun Jung; Shadmehr, Reza

    2005-09-01

    Studies of reaching suggest that humans adapt to novel arm dynamics by building internal models that transform planned sensory states of the limb, e.g., desired limb position and its derivatives, into motor commands, e.g., joint torques. Earlier work modeled this computation via a population of basis elements and used system identification techniques to estimate the tuning properties of the bases from the patterns of generalization. Here we hypothesized that the neural representation of planned sensory states in the internal model might resemble the signals from the peripheral sensors. These sensors normally encode the limb's actual sensory state in which movement errors occurred. We developed a set of equations based on properties of muscle spindles that estimated spindle discharge as a function of the limb's state during reaching and drawing of circles. We then implemented a simulation of a two-link arm that learned to move in various force fields using these spindle-like bases. The system produced a pattern of adaptation and generalization that accounted for a wide range of previously reported behavioral results. In particular, the bases showed gain-field interactions between encoding of limb position and velocity, very similar to the gain fields inferred from behavioral studies. The poor sensitivity of the bases to limb acceleration predicted behavioral results that were confirmed by experiment. We suggest that the internal model of limb dynamics is computed by the brain with neurons that encode the state of the limb in a manner similar to that expected of muscle spindle afferents.

  2. Anatomy of an Oil-Based Welfare State: Rent Distribution in Kuwait

    OpenAIRE

    El-Katiri, Laura; Fattouh, Bassam; Segal, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Oil wealth has transformed Kuwait within decades from a modest, trade-based desert emirate into a modern city-state. It has also created a relatively egalitarian economy based on an extensive distributive system that provides Kuwaiti citizens with essential services including free healthcare, education and social security. Therefore, the most important fact about Kuwait’s oil wealth is that it has been successfully used to benefit its citizens. This feat has been achieved through a broad dist...

  3. The effect of gas double-dynamic on mass distribution in solid-state fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hong-Zhang; Zhao, Zhi-Min; Li, Hong-Qiang

    2014-05-10

    The mass distribution regularity in substrate of solid-state fermentation (SSF) has rarely been reported due to the heterogeneity of solid medium and the lack of suitable instrument and method, which limited the comprehensive analysis and enhancement of the SSF performance. In this work, the distributions of water, biomass, and fermentation product in different medium depths of SSF were determined using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and the developed models. Based on the mass distribution regularity, the effects of gas double-dynamic on heat transfer, microbial growth and metabolism, and product distribution gradient were systematically investigated. Results indicated that the maximum temperature of substrate and the maximum carbon dioxide evolution rate (CER) were 39.5°C and 2.48mg/(hg) under static aeration solid-state fermentation (SASSF) and 33.9°C and 5.38mg/(hg) under gas double-dynamic solid-state fermentation (GDSSF), respectively, with the environmental temperature for fermentation of 30±1°C. The fermentation production (cellulase activity) ratios of the upper, middle, and lower levels were 1:0.90:0.78 at seventh day under SASSF and 1:0.95:0.89 at fifth day under GDSSF. Therefore, combined with NIRS analysis, gas double-dynamic could effectively strengthen the solid-state fermentation performance due to the enhancement of heat transfer, the stimulation of microbial metabolism and the increase of the homogeneity of fermentation products. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Resilient Coordination of Networked Multiagent Systems Based on Distributed State Emulators

    OpenAIRE

    Yucelen, Tansel; De La Torre, Gerardo

    2014-01-01

    This note studies resilient coordination of networked multiagent systems in the presence of misbehaving agents, i.e., agents that are subject to adversaries modeled as exogenous disturbances. Apart from the existing relevant literature that make specific assumptions on the graph topology and/or the fraction of misbehaving agents, we present an adaptive control architecture based on distributed state emulators and show that the nominal networked multiagent system behavior can be retrieved even...

  5. Reconsidering the smart metering data collection frequency for distribution state estimation

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Qipeng; Kaleshi, Dritan; Armour, Simon; Fan, Zhong

    2015-01-01

    The current UK Smart Metering Technical Specification requires smart meter readings to be collected once a day, primarily to support accurate billing without violating users' privacy. In this paper we consider the use of Smart Metering data for Distribution State Estimation (DSE), and compare the effectiveness of daily data collection strategy with a more frequent, half-hourly SM data collection strategy. We first assess the suitability of using the data for load forecasting at Low Voltage (L...

  6. Tree mortality estimates and species distribution probabilities in southeastern United States forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin A. Spetich; Zhaofei Fan; Zhen Sui; Michael Crosby; Hong S. He; Stephen R. Shifley; Theodor D. Leininger; W. Keith Moser

    2017-01-01

    Stresses to trees under a changing climate can lead to changes in forest tree survival, mortality and distribution.  For instance, a study examining the effects of human-induced climate change on forest biodiversity by Hansen and others (2001) predicted a 32% reduction in loblolly–shortleaf pine habitat across the eastern United States.  However, they also...

  7. By-pass flows and temperature distribution in a hot gas duct internally insulated by carbon stone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konuk, A.A.

    1979-01-01

    A mathematical model has been developed to calculate by-pass flows and temperature distribution in a hot gas duct internally insulated by carbon stone rings. The equations of conservation of mass and momentum are solved for a piping system to obtain axial and radial by-pass velocities. The energy equation is solved next by a marching method to obtain the radial temperature distribution along the duct. The results, although qualitative due to simplifications in the model, are useful to study the effects of duct geometry on its performance. (Author) [pt

  8. X-ray spectroscopy: An experimental technique to measure charge state distribution during ion–solid interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Prashant, E-mail: prashant@iuac.res.in; Nandi, Tapan

    2016-01-08

    Charge state distributions of {sup 56}Fe and {sup 58}Ni projectile ions passing through thin carbon foils have been studied in the energy range of 1.65–2.69 MeV/u using a novel method involving the X-ray spectroscopy technique. Interestingly the charge state distribution in the bulk shows Lorentzian behavior instead of usual Gaussian distribution. Further, different parameters of charge state distribution like mean charge state, distribution width and asymmetric parameter are determined and compared with the empirical calculations and ETACHA predictions. It is found that the X-ray measurement technique is appropriate to determine the mean charge state during the ion–solid interaction or in the bulk. Interestingly, empirical formalism predicts much lower mean charge states of the projectile ions compared to X-ray measurements which clearly indicate multi-electron capture from the target surface. The ETACHA predictions and experimental results are found to be comparable for the present energy regime. - Highlights: • New method is proposed to determine charge state distribution using X-ray technique. • Charge state distribution parameters are calculated and compared with various theoretical predictions. • X-ray technique is found to be appropriate to segregate the charge state distribution in the bulk from the target surface. • ETACHA predictions are found satisfactory in the energy range of ≥1.65 MeV/u.

  9. Entanglement of Gaussian states and the applicability to quantum key distribution over fading channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usenko, Vladyslav C; Filip, Radim; Heim, Bettina; Peuntinger, Christian; Wittmann, Christoffer; Marquardt, Christoph; Leuchs, Gerd

    2012-01-01

    Entanglement properties of Gaussian states of light as well as the security of continuous variable quantum key distribution with Gaussian states in free-space fading channels are studied. These qualities are shown to be sensitive to the statistical properties of the transmittance distribution in the cases when entanglement is strong or when channel excess noise is present. Fading, i.e. transmission fluctuations, caused by beam wandering due to atmospheric turbulence, is a frequent challenge in free-space communication. We introduce a method of fading discrimination and subsequent post-selection of the corresponding sub-states and show that it can improve the entanglement resource and restore the security of the key distribution over a realistic fading link. Furthermore, the optimal post-selection strategy in combination with an optimized entangled resource is shown to drastically increase the protocol's robustness to excess noise, which is confirmed for experimentally measured fading channel characteristics. The stability of the result against finite data ensemble size and imperfect channel estimation is also addressed. (paper)

  10. Statement at NRC International Regulators Conference on Nuclear Security, 4 December 2012, Washington, United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amano, Y.

    2012-01-01

    I would like to begin by thanking NRC Chairman Allison Macfarlane for hosting this first regulatory Conference on nuclear security involving regulators, law enforcement agencies and the IAEA. The United States has been a very important partner in the IAEA's nuclear security activities right from the start. It is by far the largest donor to our Nuclear Security Fund. It has actively supported our programmes and has been generous in providing funding, equipment and training to other Member States. When President Obama hosted the first Nuclear Security Summit in April 2010, he said it was important that that event should be part of a ''serious and sustained effort'' to improve nuclear security throughout the world. Since then, a growing number of governments have given high-level attention to this vitally important issue. This is very encouraging. Today, I am especially pleased to see regulators coming together to focus on this subject. I am confident that your meeting will make a valuable contribution to strengthening global nuclear security. I would like to share with you some important recent milestones in the IAEA's nuclear security work. As you know, primary responsibility for ensuring nuclear security lies with national governments. However, governments have recognized that international cooperation is vital. Terrorists and other criminals do not respect international borders and no country can respond effectively on its own to the threat which they pose. In September, our Member States - there are now 158 - reaffirmed the central role of the IAEA in e nsuring coordination of international activities in the field of nuclear security, while avoiding duplication and overlap . Our central role reflects the Agency's extensive membership, our mandate, our unique expertise and our long experience of providing technical assistance and specialist, practical guidance to countries. To put it simply, our work focuses on helping to minimize the risk of nuclear and other

  11. Towards a global system of compensation for transboundary nuclear damage: reflexions on the interrelationship of civil and international state liability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Handl, G.

    1993-01-01

    International state liability is an essential complementary element of any global and comprehensive nuclear compensation system. Civil liability alone will not be able to fully compensate victims of a nuclear accident and will therefore not fully internalize the costs of nuclear activities. To make it effective and politically acceptable, state liability must be fully integrated procedurally with any civil liability system as a last tier of compensation following a simple process for handling together both civil and state liability claims at the international level, with individuals being able to sue Installation States. 69 refs

  12. The State Supervision (Control in the Sphere of Economic Activity: International Experience Relevant for Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vdovychenko Larysa Yu.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The attempts in the process of decentralization in Ukraine to implement the best international practices of the State supervision (control in the sphere of economic activity, in the process which depends on the status of deregulation and development of entrepreneurship, have caused the topicality of the problem set. The article is aimed at analyzing the international experience of application of the State supervision (control instruments in the sphere of economic activity and determination of the directions of their use in Ukraine. The stages of reforms of the control and supervision activity both in foreign countries and in Ukraine were considered. The directions and measures on creation of effective system of the State supervision (control in the sphere of economic activity, applied in the world countries, were systematized. Both the positive and the negative aspects of use of foreign instruments of the State supervision (control in the sphere of economic activity in Ukraine have been defined. Recommendations on formation of the national complex system of functioning of control-supervision activity have been given.

  13. Influence of microorganisms on the oxidation state distribution of multivalent actinides under anoxic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reed, Donald Timothy; Borkowski, Marian; Lucchini, Jean-Francois; Ams, David; Richmann, M.K.; Khaing, H.; Swanson, J.S.

    2010-01-01

    The fate and potential mobility of multivalent actinides in the subsurface is receiving increased attention as the DOE looks to cleanup the many legacy nuclear waste sites and associated subsurface contamination. Plutonium, uranium and neptunium are the near-surface multivalent contaminants of concern and are also key contaminants for the deep geologic disposal of nuclear waste. Their mobility is highly dependent on their redox distribution at their contamination source as well as along their potential migration pathways. This redox distribution is often controlled, especially in the near-surface where organic/inorganic contaminants often coexist, by the direct and indirect effects of microbial activity. Under anoxic conditions, indirect and direct bioreduction mechanisms exist that promote the prevalence of lower-valent species for multivalent actinides. Oxidation-state-specific biosorption is also an important consideration for long-term migration and can influence oxidation state distribution. Results of ongoing studies to explore and establish the oxidation-state specific interactions of soil bacteria (metal reducers and sulfate reducers) as well as halo-tolerant bacteria and Archaea for uranium, neptunium and plutonium will be presented. Enzymatic reduction is a key process in the bioreduction of plutonium and uranium, but co-enzymatic processes predominate in neptunium systems. Strong sorptive interactions can occur for most actinide oxidation states but are likely a factor in the stabilization of lower-valent species when more than one oxidation state can persist under anaerobic microbiologically-active conditions. These results for microbiologically active systems are interpreted in the context of their overall importance in defining the potential migration of multivalent actinides in the subsurface.

  14. Correlation of United States Medical Licensing Examination and Internal Medicine In-Training Examination performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Jose A; Greer, Sharon

    2009-12-01

    The Internal Medicine In-Training Examination (ITE) is administered during residency training in the United States as a self-assessment and program assessment tool. Performance on this exam correlates with outcome on the American Board of Internal Medicine Certifying examination. Internal Medicine Program Directors use the United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) to make decisions in recruitment of potential applicants. This study was done to determine a correlation of USMLE Steps 1, 2 and 3 results with ITE scores in each level of Internal Medicine training. A retrospective review of all residents graduating from an Internal Medicine program from 1999 to 2006 was done. Subjects included had data for all USMLE Steps and ITE during all years of training. Thirty-one subjects were included in the study. Correlations of USMLE Steps 1, 2 and 3 were done with ITE scores (percent correct) in each year of training. Pearson's correlation coefficient (r) was determined for each pairing and a t test to determine statistical significance of the correlation was done. Statistical significance was defined as P value ITE percent correct in PGY I, II and III were 0.46, 0.55 and 0.51 respectively. Corresponding r values for USMLE Step 2 and ITE percent correct were 0.79, 0.70 and 0.72; for USMLE Step 3 these values were 0.51, 0.37 and 0.51 respectively for each training year. USMLE scores are correlated with ITE scores. This correlation was strongest for USMLE Step 2.

  15. The distribution of common construction materials at risk to acid deposition in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipfert, Frederick W.; Daum, Mary L.

    Information on the geographic distribution of various types of exposed materials is required to estimate the economic costs of damage to construction materials from acid deposition. This paper focuses on the identification, evaluation and interpretation of data describing the distributions of exterior construction materials, primarily in the United States. This information could provide guidance on how data needed for future economic assessments might be acquired in the most cost-effective ways. Materials distribution surveys from 16 cities in the U.S. and Canada and five related databases from government agencies and trade organizations were examined. Data on residential buildings are more commonly available than on nonresidential buildings; little geographically resolved information on distributions of materials in infrastructure was found. Survey results generally agree with the appropriate ancillary databases, but the usefulness of the databases is often limited by their coarse spatial resolution. Information on those materials which are most sensitive to acid deposition is especially scarce. Since a comprehensive error analysis has never been performed on the data required for an economic assessment, it is not possible to specify the corresponding detailed requirements for data on the distributions of materials.

  16. Mental states inside out: switching costs for emotional and nonemotional sentences that differ in internal and external focus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosterwijk, Suzanne; Winkielman, Piotr; Pecher, Diane; Zeelenberg, René; Rotteveel, Mark; Fischer, Agneta H

    2012-01-01

    Mental states-such as thinking, remembering, or feeling angry, happy, or dizzy-have a clear internal component. We feel a certain way when we are in these states. These internal experiences may be simulated when people understand conceptual references to mental states. However, mental states can also be described from an "external" perspective, for example when referring to "smiling." In those cases, simulation of visible outside features may be more relevant for understanding. In a switching costs paradigm, we presented semantically unrelated sentences describing emotional and nonemotional mental states while manipulating their internal or external focus. The results show that switching costs occur when participants shift between sentences with an internal and an external focus. This suggests that different forms of simulation underlie understanding these sentences. In addition, these effects occurred for emotional and nonemotional mental states, suggesting that they are grounded in a similar way-through the process of simulation.

  17. State Estimation of International Space Station Centrifuge Rotor With Incomplete Knowledge of Disturbance Inputs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Michael J.

    2005-01-01

    This thesis develops a state estimation algorithm for the Centrifuge Rotor (CR) system where only relative measurements are available with limited knowledge of both rotor imbalance disturbances and International Space Station (ISS) thruster disturbances. A Kalman filter is applied to a plant model augmented with sinusoidal disturbance states used to model both the effect of the rotor imbalance and the 155 thrusters on the CR relative motion measurement. The sinusoidal disturbance states compensate for the lack of the availability of plant inputs for use in the Kalman filter. Testing confirms that complete disturbance modeling is necessary to ensure reliable estimation. Further testing goes on to show that increased estimator operational bandwidth can be achieved through the expansion of the disturbance model within the filter dynamics. In addition, Monte Carlo analysis shows the varying levels of robustness against defined plant/filter uncertainty variations.

  18. Distribution and abundance of saltcedar and Russian olive in the western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagler, Pamela L.; Glenn, Edward P.; Jarnevich, Catherine S.; Shafroth, Patrick B.

    2011-01-01

    Over the past century, two introduced Eurasian trees, saltcedar (Tamarix spp.) and Russian olive (Elaeagnus angustifolia) have become wide spread on western United States of American (U.S.) rivers. This paper reviews the literature on the following five key areas related to their distribution and abundance in the western United States: (1) the history of introduction, planting, and spread of saltcedar and Russian olive; (2) their current distribution; (3) their current abundance; (4) factors controlling their current distribution and abundance; and (5) models that have been developed to predict their future distribution and abundance. Saltcedar and Russian olive are now the third and fourth most frequently occurring woody riparian plants and the second and fifth most abundant species (out of 42 native and non-native species) along rivers in the western United States. Currently there is not a precise estimate of the areas that these species occupy in the entire West. Climatic variables are important determinants of their distribution and abundance. For example, saltcedar is limited by its sensitivity to hard freezes, whereas Russian olive appears to have a chilling requirement for bud break and seed germination, and can presumably survive colder winter temperatures. Either species can be dominant, co-dominant or sub-dominant relative to native species on a given river system. A number of environmental factors such as water availability, soil salinity, degree of stream flow regulation, and fire frequency can influence the abundance of these species relative to native species. Numerous studies suggest that both species have spread on western rivers primarily through a replacement process, whereby stress-tolerant species have moved into expanded niches that are no longer suitable for mesic native pioneer species. Better maps of current distribution and rigorous monitoring of distributional changes though time can help to resolve differences in predictions of potential

  19. Spatial distribution of specialized cardiac care units in the state of Santa Catarina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silviana Cirino

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To analyze the methodology used for assessing the spatial distribution of specialized cardiac care units. METHODS A modeling and simulation method was adopted for the practical application of cardiac care service in the state of Santa Catarina, Southern Brazil, using the p-median model. As the state is divided into 21 health care regions, a methodology which suggests an arrangement of eight intermediate cardiac care units was analyzed, comparing the results obtained using data from 1996 and 2012. RESULTS Results obtained using data from 2012 indicated significant changes in the state, particularly in relation to the increased population density in the coastal regions. The current study provided a satisfactory response, indicated by the homogeneity of the results regarding the location of the intermediate cardiac care units and their respective regional administrations, thereby decreasing the average distance traveled by users to health care units, located in higher population density areas. The validity of the model was corroborated through the analysis of the allocation of the median vertices proposed in 1996 and 2012. CONCLUSIONS The current spatial distribution of specialized cardiac care units is more homogeneous and reflects the demographic changes that have occurred in the state over the last 17 years. The comparison between the two simulations and the current configuration showed the validity of the proposed model as an aid in decision making for system expansion.

  20. Distribution Log Normal of 222 Rn in the state of Zacatecas, Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, M.L.; Mireles, F.; Quirino, L.; Davila, I.; Rios, C.; Pinedo, J.L.

    2006-01-01

    In this work the evaluation of the concentration of 222 Rn in air for Zacatecas is shown. The Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors were used as the technique for the realization of the measurements in large scale with cellulose nitrate LR-115, type 2, in open chambers of 222 Rn. The measurements were carried out during three months in different times of the year. In the results it is presented the log normal distribution, arithmetic mean and geometric media for the concentration at indoor and outdoor of residence constructions, the concentration at indoor of occupational constructions and in the 57 municipal heads of the state of Zacatecas. The statistics of the values in the concentration showed variation according to the time of the year, obtaining high quantities in winter seasons for both cases. The distribution of the concentration of 222 Rn is presented in the state map for each one of the municipalities, representing the measurement places in the entire state of Zacatecas. Finally the places where the values in the concentration of 222 Rn in air are near to the one limit settled down by the EPA of 148 Bq/m 3 are presented. (Author)

  1. Nonclassicality of Photon-Added Displaced Thermal State via Quantum Phase-Space Distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ran; Meng, Xiang-Guo; Du, Chuan-Xun; Wang, Ji-Suo

    2018-02-01

    We introduce a new kind of nonclassical mixed state generated by adding arbitrary photons to a displaced thermal state, i.e., the photon-added displaced thermal state (PADTS), and obtain the normalization factor, which is simply related to two-variable Hermite polynomials. We also discuss the nonclassicality of the PADTS by considering quantum phase-space distributions. The results indicate that the value of the photon count statistics is maximum when the number of detected photons is equal to the number of added photons, and that the photon-added operation has a similar modulation effect with increasing displacement. Moreover, the negative volume of the Wigner function for the PADTS takes a maximal value for a specific photon-added number.

  2. Distribution, morphological variability, ecology and the present state of Nitella from Lake Ohrid and its surroundings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trajanovska Sonja

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Our research into 52 profiles of the littoral zone of the Macedonian part of Lake Ohrid and numerous samples taken from its surroundings has resulted in a detailed picture of the composition of the Charophyta vegetation in the lake. The results of the research also include data regarding the species composition and present state of Nitella. The dominant species of Nitella is Nitella opaca, which is characterized by a specific distribution, morphological variability and ecology. The present state of Nitella is not steady, especially in the watershed of the lake, since in this area there are some permanent changes in the hydrology of the terrain. Therefore, there is a need to establish long-term and complex monitoring which will result in the prompt detection of risk factors and influences, thereby enabling a rapid reaction to a possible newly emerged negative state.

  3. Semiclassical Wigner distribution for a two-mode entangled state generated by an optical parametric oscillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dechoum, K.; Hahn, M. D.; Khoury, A. Z.; Vallejos, R. O.

    2010-01-01

    We derive the steady-state solution of the Fokker-Planck equation that describes the dynamics of the nondegenerate optical parametric oscillator in the truncated Wigner representation of the density operator. We assume that the pump mode is strongly damped, which permits its adiabatic elimination. When the elimination is correctly executed, the resulting stochastic equations contain multiplicative noise terms and do not admit a potential solution. However, we develop a heuristic scheme leading to a satisfactory steady-state solution. This provides a clear view of the intracavity two-mode entangled state valid in all operating regimes of the optical parametric oscillator. A non-Gaussian distribution is obtained for the above threshold solution.

  4. Influence of mass-asymmetry and ground state spin on fission fragment angular distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, R.G.; Biswas, D.C.; Saxena, A.; Pant, L.M.; Nayak, B.K.; Vind, R.P.; Sahu, P.K.; Sinha, Shrabani; Choudhury, R.K.

    2001-01-01

    The strong influence of the target or/and projectile ground state spin on the anomalously large anisotropies of fission fragments produced in the heavy-ion induced fission of actinide targets were reported earlier. Interestingly, all those systems studied were having a mass asymmetry greater than the Businaro-Gallone critical asymmetry and hence the presence of pre-equilibrium fission was unambiguously ruled out. The observed anisotropies were successfully explained using the ECD-K-States model. It is of interest to know the influence of the target/projectile ground state spin on systems having an entrance channel mass asymmetry less than the critical value where pre-equilibrium fission cannot be ignored. With this motivation we performed measurements of fission fragment angular distributions of the 16 O+ 235 U (spin=7/2) system

  5. Internal mammary chain irradiation in breast cancer: State of the art; Radiotherapie de la chaine mammaire interne dans les cancers du sein: etat des lieux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auberdiac, P.; Cartier, L.; Hau Desbat, N.H.; De Laroche, G.; Magne, N. [Unite de curietherapie, departement de radiotherapie, institut de cancerologie de la Loire, 108 bis, avenue Albert-Raimond, BP 60008, 42271 Saint-Priest-en-Jarez cedex (France); Chargari, C. [Service d' oncologie radiotherapie, hopital d' instruction des armees du Val-de-Grace, 74, boulevard Port-Royal, 75230 Paris cedex 5 (France); Zioueche, A. [Service de radiotherapie, CHU Dupuytren, 2, avenue Martin-Luther-King, 87000 Limoges (France); Melis, A. [Departement d' oncologie medicale, institut de cancerologie de la Loire, 108 bis, avenue Albert-Raimond, 42271 Saint-Priest-en-Jarez cedex (France); Kirova, Y.M. [Service de radiotherapie oncologique, institut Curie, 26, rue d' Ulm, 75005 Paris (France)

    2011-04-15

    Radiation therapy has a major role in the management of infiltrative breast cancers. However, there is no consensus for the prophylactic treatment of the internal mammary chain (IMC), with strategies that show strong differences according to centers and physicians. Indications for internal mammary chain radiotherapy are debated, since this treatment significantly increases the dose delivered to the heart and leads to potential technical difficulties. Important prospective data recently suggested that internal mammary chain radiotherapy would not be necessary, even in cases of internal or central tumor locations, or in patients with positive axillary lymph nodes. Although these data warrant confirmation by two other prospective trials, there is evidence that the indications for internal mammary chain radiotherapy should be careful and that high quality techniques should be used for decreasing the dose delivered to the heart. This review of literature presents the state of art on the radiotherapy of internal mammary chain, with special focus on the indications, techniques, and potential toxicity. (authors)

  6. Advanced international training course on state systems of accounting for and control of nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-10-01

    This report incorporates all lectures and presentations at the Advanced International Training Course on State Systems of Accounting for and Control of Nuclear Material held April 27 through May 12, 1981 at Santa Fe and Los Alamos, New Mexico, and Richland, Washington, USA. Authorized by the US Nuclear Non-Proliferation Act and sponsored by the US Department of Energy in cooperation with the International Atomic Energy Agency, the course was developed to provide practical training in the design, implementation, and operation of a state system of nuclear materials accountability and control that satisfies both national and international safeguards. Major emphasis for the 1981 course was placed on safeguards methods used at bulk-handling facilities, particularly low-enriched uranium conversion and fuel fabrication plants. The course was conducted by the University of California's Los Alamos National Laboratory, the Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratory, and Exxon Nuclear Company, Inc. Tours and demonstrations were arranged at both the Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico, and the Exxon Nuclear fuel fabrication plant, Richland, Washington

  7. Advanced international training course on state systems of accounting for and control of nuclear materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-10-01

    This report incorporates all lectures and presentations at the Advanced International Training Course on State Systems of Accounting for and Control of Nuclear Material held April 27 through May 12, 1981 at Santa Fe and Los Alamos, New Mexico, and Richland, Washington, USA. Authorized by the US Nuclear Non-Proliferation Act and sponsored by the US Department of Energy in cooperation with the International Atomic Energy Agency, the course was developed to provide practical training in the design, implementation, and operation of a state system of nuclear materials accountability and control that satisfies both national and international safeguards. Major emphasis for the 1981 course was placed on safeguards methods used at bulk-handling facilities, particularly low-enriched uranium conversion and fuel fabrication plants. The course was conducted by the University of California's Los Alamos National Laboratory, the Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratory, and Exxon Nuclear Company, Inc. Tours and demonstrations were arranged at both the Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico, and the Exxon Nuclear fuel fabrication plant, Richland, Washington.

  8. Analysis of internal stress and anelasticity in the shock-compressed state from unloading wave data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, J.N.; Lomdahl, P.S.; Wills, J.M.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on time resolved shock-wave measurements have often been used to infer microstructural behavior in crystalline solids. The authors apply this approach to an interpretation of the release-wave response of an aluminum alloy (6061-T6) as it is dynamically unloaded from a shock-compressed state of 20.7 GPa. The anelastic behavior in the initial portion of the unloading wave is attributed to the accumulation of internal stresses created by the shock process. Specific internal-stress models which are investigated are the double pile-up, the single pile-up, and single dislocation loops between pinning points. It is found that the essential characteristics of double and single pile-ups can be represented by a single dislocation between two pinned dislocations of like sing. Calculations of anelastic wave speeds at constant unloading strain rate are then compared with experimental data. The results suggest that the residual internal stress is due to pinned loops of density 10 15 M - 2 , and the viscous drag coefficient in the shock-compressed state is on the order of 10 - 7 MPa s (approximately two orders of magnitude greater than expected under ambient conditions)

  9. Variation in Emergency Department vs Internal Medicine Excess Charges in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tim; Park, Angela; Bai, Ge; Joo, Sarah; Hutfless, Susan M; Mehta, Ambar; Anderson, Gerard F; Makary, Martin A

    2017-08-01

    Uninsured and insured but out-of-network emergency department (ED) patients are often billed hospital chargemaster prices, which exceed amounts typically paid by insurers. To examine the variation in excess charges for services provided by emergency medicine and internal medicine physicians. Retrospective analysis was conducted of professional fee payment claims made by the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services for all services provided to Medicare Part B fee-for-service beneficiaries in calendar year 2013. Data analysis was conducted from January 1 to July 31, 2016. Markup ratios for ED and internal medicine professional services, defined as the charges submitted by the hospital divided by the Medicare allowable amount. Our analysis included 12 337 emergency medicine physicians from 2707 hospitals and 57 607 internal medicine physicians from 3669 hospitals in all 50 states. Services provided by emergency medicine physicians had an overall markup ratio of 4.4 (340% excess charges), which was greater than the markup ratio of 2.1 (110% excess charges) for all services performed by internal medicine physicians. Markup ratios for all ED services ranged by hospital from 1.0 to 12.6 (median, 4.2; interquartile range [IQR], 3.3-5.8); markup ratios for all internal medicine services ranged by hospital from 1.0 to 14.1 (median, 2.0; IQR, 1.7-2.5). The median markup ratio by hospital for ED evaluation and management procedure codes varied between 4.0 and 5.0. Among the most common ED services, laceration repair had the highest median markup ratio (7.0); emergency medicine physician review of a head computed tomographic scan had the greatest interhospital variation (range, 1.6-27.7). Across hospitals, markups in the ED were often substantially higher than those in the internal medicine department for the same services. Higher ED markup ratios were associated with hospital for-profit ownership (median, 5.7; IQR, 4.0-7.1), a greater percentage of uninsured patients seen

  10. Charge state distributions from highly charged ions channeled at a metal surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Folkerts, L.; Meyer, F.W.; Schippers, S.

    1994-01-01

    The vast majority of the experimental work in the field of multicharged ion-surface interactions, to date, has focused on x-ray and particularly on electron emission. These experiments include measurements of the total electron yield, the emission statistics of the electrons, and, most of all, the electron energy distributions. So far, little attention has been paid to the fate of the multicharged projectile ions after the scattering. To our knowledge, the only measurement of the charge state distribution of the scattered ions is the pioneering experiment of de Zwart et al., who measured the total yield of scattered 1+, 2+, and 3+ ions as a function of the primary charge state q (q = 1--11) for 20 key Ne, Ar, and Kr ions after reflection from a polycrystalline tungsten target. Their main finding is the sudden onset of scattered 3+ ions when inner-shell vacancies are present in the primary particles. This suggests that a certain fraction of the inner-shell vacancies survives the entire collision event, and decays via autoionization on the outgoing path. Since the projectiles scattered in the neutral charge state could not be detected in the experiment of de Zwart et al., they were not able to provide absolute charge state fractions. In our present experiment, we focus on the scattered projectiles, measuring both the final charge state and the total scattering angle with a single 2D position sensitive detector (PSD). This method gives us the number of positive, as well as neutral and negative, scattered ions, thus allowing us to extract absolute charge state fractions. Using a well-prepared single Au(110) crystal and a grazing incidence geometry, we were able to observe surface channeling along the [001] channels

  11. Benchmark calculation for the steady-state temperature distribution of the HTR-10 under full-power operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Fubing; Dong Yujie; Zheng Yanhua; Shi Lei; Zhang Zuoyi

    2009-01-01

    Within the framework of a Coordinated Research Project on Evaluation of High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor Performance (CRP-5) initiated by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the calculation of steady-state temperature distribution of the 10 MW High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor-Test Module (HTR-10) under its initial full power experimental operation has been defined as one of the benchmark problems. This paper gives the investigation results obtained by different countries who participate in solving this benchmark problem. The validation works of the THERMIX code used by the Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology (INET) are also presented. For the benchmark items defined in this CRP, various calculation results correspond well with each other and basically agree the experimental results. Discrepancies existing among various code results are preliminarily attributed to different methods, models, material properties, and so on used in the computations. Temperatures calculated by THERMIX for the measuring points in the reactor internals agree well with the experimental values. The maximum fuel center temperatures calculated by the participants are much lower than the limited value of 1,230degC. According to the comparison results of code-to-code as well as code-to-experiment, THERMIX is considered to reproduce relatively satisfactory results for the CRP-5 benchmark problem. (author)

  12. The distribution of selected elements and minerals in soil of the conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, Laurel G.; Cannon, William F.; Smith, David; Solano, Federico

    2015-01-01

    In 2007, the U.S. Geological Survey initiated a low-density (1 site per 1600 km2, 4857 sites) geochemical and mineralogical survey of soil of the conterminous United States as part of the North American Soil Geochemical Landscapes Project. Three soil samples were collected, if possible, from each site; (1) a sample from a depth of 0 to 5 cm, (2) a composite of the soil A-horizon, and (3) a deeper sample from the soil C-horizon or, if the top of the C-horizon was at a depth greater than 100 cm, from a depth of approximately 80–100 cm. The The major mineralogical components in samples from the soil A- and C-horizons were determined by a quantitative X-ray diffraction method using Rietveld refinement. Sampling ended in 2010 and chemical and mineralogical analyses were completed in May 2013. Maps of the conterminous United States showing predicted element and mineral concentrations were interpolated from actual soil data for each soil sample type by an inverse distance weighted (IDW) technique using ArcGIS software. Regional- and national-scale map patterns for selected elements and minerals apparent in interpolated maps are described here in the context of soil-forming factors and possible human inputs. These patterns can be related to (1) soil parent materials, for example, in the distribution of quartz, (2) climate impacts, for example, in the distribution of feldspar and kaolinite, (3) soil age, for example, in the distribution of carbonate in young glacial deposits, and (4) possible anthropogenic loading of phosphorus (P) and lead (Pb) to surface soil. This new geochemical and mineralogical data set for the conterminous United States represents a major step forward from prior national-scale soil geochemistry data and provides a robust soil data framework for the United States now and into the future.

  13. The Cost of Distribution System Upgrades to Accommodate Increasing Penetrations of Distributed Photovoltaic Systems on Real Feeders in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horowitz, Kelsey A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ding, Fei [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mather, Barry A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Palmintier, Bryan S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-04-05

    The increasing deployment of distributed photovoltaic systems (DPV) can impact operations at the distribution level and the transmission level of the electric grid. It is important to develop and implement forward-looking approaches for calculating distribution upgrade costs that can be used to inform system planning, market and tariff design, cost allocation, and other policymaking as penetration levels of DPV increase. Using a bottom-up approach that involves iterative hosting capacity analysis, this report calculates distribution upgrade costs as a function of DPV penetration on three real feeders - two in California and one in the Northeastern United States.

  14. The relationship between the TMJ internal derangement state including rotational displacement and perforation and the clinical characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Hwan Seok; You Dong Soo

    1998-01-01

    This study was designed to reveal the correlationship between the internal derangement state of TMJ and clinical characteristics including pain and mandibular dysfuntion. One hundred and twenty five subjects with TMJ signs and symptoms were chosen for two years. The level of pain and mandibular dysfuntion were evaluated by Visual Analog Scale (VAS) and Craniomandibular Index (CMI). The diagnostic categories of TMJ internal derangement were determined by arthrography and they included normal disc position, anterior disc displacement with reduction (ADDR), rotational disc displacement with reduction (RDDR), andterior disc displacement without reduction (ADDNR), and rotational disc displacement without reduction (RDDNR). Also disc perforation was used as a criteria to divide the diagnostic subgroups. The obtained results were as follows ; 1. The patient distribution of each group was 5 in normal disc position (4%), 40 in ADDR (32%), 30 in RDDR (24%), 34 in ADDNR (27%), and 16 in RDDNR (13%). 2. Perforation was observed in 8% of ADDR, 10% of RDDR, 32% of ADDNR, and 19% of RDDNR. 3. CMI of perforation group was higher than that of reduction or normal group(p 0.05).

  15. Internal stress distribution of X-ring using photoelastic experimental hybrid method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernard, Alunda Ouma [Dedan Kimathi University of Technology, Nyeri (Kenya); Hawong, Jai Sug; Lim, Hyun Seok [Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Dong Chul [Koje College, Geoje (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    Sealing elements are essential parts of many machines, and are used to prevent the loss of a fluid or gas. When such fluids are not properly sealed, catastrophic failures may result. Many different types of rings have been developed to suit various industrial needs. Considerable research has been done on the O-ring. We analyze the internal stresses developed in an X-ring under a uniform squeeze rate of 20%, which is suitable for static applications, using a photoelastic experimental hybrid method. The internal pressures applied were 0.98, 1.96, 2.94, 3.92, 4.90, and 5.88 MPa. We show that sealing rings with X geometry have considerably higher internal stresses than O-ring seals. In addition, we demonstrate that after extrusion, for an internal pressure of 5.88 MPa, the two lobes on the upper contact surface merge, thereby increasing the contact length of the upper side significantly. Extrusion in the X-ring occurred when the internal pressure was 4.90 MPa.

  16. Reassessment of fission fragment angular distributions from continuum states in the context of transition-state theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaz, L.C.; Alexander, J.M.

    1983-01-01

    Fission angular distributions have been studied for years and have been treated as classic examples of transition-state theory. Early work involving composite nuclei of relatively low excitation energy Esup(*) ( 2 0 (K 2 0 = Psub(eff)T/(h/2π) 2 ) are presented along with comparissons of Psub(eff) to moments of inertia for saddle-point nuclei from the rotating liquid drop model. This model gives an excellent guide for the intermediate spin zone (30 < or approx. I < or approx. 65), while strong shell and/or pairing effects are evident for excitations less than < or approx. 35 MeV. Observations of strong anisotropies for very high-spin systems signal the demise of certain approximations commonly made in the theory, and suggestions are made toward this end. (orig.)

  17. English Name Transition from Taiwan to the United States: A Case Study of Taiwanese International Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-An Jason Chen

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The way in which Taiwanese students use English names to construct their identities in a new sociocultural setting has received minimal scholarly attention. Drawing on semi-structured interviews with 10 Taiwanese international students, I focused on how the use of ethnic names and English names is structured through social interaction and cultural context at an American university. The results suggest that the acquisition of an English name is not a personal choice, but an authoritative order that originates from private English education in Taiwan. Even though the choice of ethnic and English names in the United States is often constrained by linguistic factors, the use of English names by Taiwanese international students not only discloses their attitudes toward English name adoption, but also greatly influences their identity and acculturation.

  18. Internal migration effectiveness and income effectiveness in the most populous cities in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambinakudige, Shrinidhi; Parisi, Domenico

    2010-01-01

    In this study, migration data compiled by the Internal Revenue Serve (IRS) and the US Census Bureau for 2006-07 were used to analyse internal migration patterns using migration and income effectiveness for the counties containing the 25 most populous cities in the United States. The results indicated that both large metropolitan and rural counties have lost population and income due to migration. Small metropolitan and non-metropolitan counties closer to cities gained population and income. Counties in South Florida attracted a large number of higher-income migrants from the largest cities in the US. In the last 13 years, New York, Los Angeles and Chicago, the three most populous cities in the US, had negative migration effectiveness. Suburban areas and second-tier cities continued to attract people from large metropolitan areas.

  19. International comparison of radon measurement using solid state nuclear track detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Dan; Yang Weigen; Song Jianfeng

    2011-01-01

    It introduces the radon measurements international comparison using solid state track detectors among Zhejiang Environmental Radiation Monitoring Center (RMTC), Japan Chemical Analysis Center (JCAC) and National Institute for Radiological Protection of China CDC (NIRP). The results of the international comparison show that: Compared to the reference values, the measurements' relative deviations of detectors from 3 labs were 2%∼22%, which were exposed in radon chambers with different radon concentration, while the measurements' relative deviations were 0.5%∼13% when exposed in the environment. The measurement's relative deviations of RMTC were 5%∼3% in radon chambers and 0.5%∼9% in the environment, the results met requirements of the relative standards both at home and abroad. (authors)

  20. Improved spin squeezing of an atomic ensemble through internal state control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmer, Daniel; Montano, Enrique; Deutsch, Ivan; Jessen, Poul

    2016-05-01

    Squeezing of collective atomic spins is typically generated by quantum backaction from a QND measurement of the relevant spin component. In this scenario the degree of squeezing is determined by the measurement resolution relative to the quantum projection noise (QPN) of a spin coherent state (SCS). Greater squeezing can be achieved through optimization of the 3D geometry of probe and atom cloud, or by placing the atoms in an optical cavity. We explore here a complementary strategy that relies on quantum control of the large internal spin available in alkali atoms such as Cs. Using a combination of rf and uw magnetic fields, we coherently map the internal spins in our ensemble from the SCS (| f = 4, m = 4>) to a ``cat'' state which is an equal superposition of | f = 4, m = 4>and | f = 4, m = -4>. This increases QPN by a factor of 2 f = 8 relative to the SCS, and therefore the amount of backaction and spin-spin entanglement produced by our QND measurement. In a final step, squeezing generated in the cat state basis can be mapped back to the SCS basis, where it corresponds to increased squeezing of the physical spin. Our experiments suggest that up to 8dB of metrologically useful squeezing can be generated in this way, compared to ~ 3 dB in an otherwise identical experiment starting from a SCS.

  1. Heterogeneous distribution of water in the mantle transition zone beneath United States inferred from seismic observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y.; Pavlis, G. L.; Li, M.

    2017-12-01

    The amount of water in the Earth's deep mantle is critical for the evolution of the solid Earth and the atmosphere. Mineral physics studies have revealed that Wadsleyite and Ringwoodite in the mantle transition zone could store several times the volume of water in the ocean. However, the water content and its distribution in the transition zone remain enigmatic due to lack of direct observations. Here we use seismic data from the full deployment of the Earthscope Transportable Array to produce 3D image of P to S scattering of the mantle transition zone beneath the United States. We compute the image volume from 141,080 pairs of high quality receiver functions defined by the Earthscope Automated Receiver Survey, reprocessed by the generalized iterative deconvolution method and imaged by the plane wave migration method. We find that the transition zone is filled with previously unrecognized small-scale heterogeneities that produce pervasive, negative polarity P to S conversions. Seismic synthetic modeling using a point source simulation method suggests two possible structures for these objects: 1) a set of randomly distributed blobs of slight difference in size, and 2) near vertical diapir structures from small scale convections. Combining with geodynamic simulations, we interpret the observation as compositional heterogeneity from small-scale, low-velocity bodies that are water enriched. Our results indicate there is a heterogeneous distribution of water through the entire mantle transition zone beneath the contiguous United States.

  2. Distributed Input and State Estimation Using Local Information in Heterogeneous Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dzung Tran

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A new distributed input and state estimation architecture is introduced and analyzed for heterogeneous sensor networks. Specifically, nodes of a given sensor network are allowed to have heterogeneous information roles in the sense that a subset of nodes can be active (that is, subject to observations of a process of interest and the rest can be passive (that is, subject to no observation. Both fixed and varying active and passive roles of sensor nodes in the network are investigated. In addition, these nodes are allowed to have non-identical sensor modalities under the common underlying assumption that they have complimentary properties distributed over the sensor network to achieve collective observability. The key feature of our framework is that it utilizes local information not only during the execution of the proposed distributed input and state estimation architecture but also in its design in that global uniform ultimate boundedness of error dynamics is guaranteed once each node satisfies given local stability conditions independent from the graph topology and neighboring information of these nodes. As a special case (e.g., when all nodes are active and a positive real condition is satisfied, the asymptotic stability can be achieved with our algorithm. Several illustrative numerical examples are further provided to demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed architecture.

  3. Experimental study of humidity distribution inside electronic enclosure and effect of internal heating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conseil, Helene; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl; Ambat, Rajan

    2016-01-01

    on the humidity and temperature profile inside typical electronic enclosures. Defined parameters include external temperature and humidity conditions, temperature and time of the internal heat cycle, thermal mass, and ports/openings size. The effect of the internal humidity on electronic reliability has been......Corrosion reliability of electronic products is a key factor for electronics industry, and today there is a large demand for performance reliability in a wide range of temperature and humidity during day and night time periods. Corrosion failures are still a challenge due to the combined effects...... of temperature, humidity and corrosion accelerating species in the atmosphere. Moreover the surface region of printed circuit board assemblies is often contaminated by various aggressive chemical species.This study describes the overall effect of the exposure to severe climate conditions and internal heat cycles...

  4. [International legal aspects of responsibility of states and international organizations for the spread of epidemics, pandemics and mass disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kholikov, I V; Sazonova, K L

    2015-08-01

    The present article deals with international legal issues that arise in case when various mass diseases go beyond any national jurisdiction. The emphasis is made on the problem of international responsibility, which different actors have to bear in such cases. The authors also examine the implementation of responsibility mechanism, including the indentication of the relevant international court, authorized to establish such liability and identify the specific forms of its realization.

  5. Concluding remarks of international symposium on highly excited states in nuclear reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernstein, A. M.; Ikegami, H.; Muraoka, M. [eds.

    1980-01-01

    This is the concluding remarks in the international symposium on highly excited states in nuclear reactions. The remarks concentrate on the giant quadrupole states. In the framework of the distorted wave Born approximation (DWB), the differential cross section can be deduced. The relevant transition matrix elements are defined, and the quantities which are measured in inelastic hadron (h, h') reactions are shown. These are used to obtain both neutron and proton transition multipole matrix elements. This is equivalent to make the isospin decomposition of the electromagnetic transition matrix elements. The ratios of the transition matrix elements of neutrons and protons of the lowest 2/sup +/ states in even-even single closed shell nuclei are evaluated and compared with experimental results. For each nucleus, the consistency between various measurements is generally good. The effect of the virtual excitation of giant 2/sup +/ states into the ground and first excited states of even-even nuclei is discussed. The accuracy of (h, h') results can be tested.

  6. Crosslinguistic Developmental Consistency in the Composition of Toddlers’ Internal State Vocabulary: Evidence from Four Languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Kristen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mental state language, emerging in the second and third years of life in typically developing children, is one of the first signs of an explicit psychological understanding. While mental state vocabulary may serve a variety of conversational functions in discourse and thus might not always indicate psychological comprehension, there is evidence for genuine references to mental states (desires, knowledge, beliefs, and emotions early in development across languages. This present study presents parental questionnaire data on the composition of 297 toddler-aged (30-to 32-month-olds children’s internal state vocabulary in four languages: Italian, German, English, and French. The results demonstrated that across languages expressions for physiological states (e.g., hungry and tired were among the most varied, while children’s vocabulary for cognitive entities (e.g., know and think proved to be least varied. Further, consistent with studies on children’s comprehension of these concepts, across languages children’s mastery of volition terms (e.g., like to do and want preceded their mastery of cognition terms. These findings confirm the cross-linguistic consistency of children’s emerging expression of abstract psychological concepts.

  7. Analytical models of probability distribution and excess noise factor of solid state photomultiplier signals with crosstalk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinogradov, S.

    2012-01-01

    Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPM), also called Solid State Photomultipliers (SSPM), are based on Geiger mode avalanche breakdown that is limited by a strong negative feedback. An SSPM can detect and resolve single photons due to the high gain and ultra-low excess noise of avalanche multiplication in this mode. Crosstalk and afterpulsing processes associated with the high gain introduce specific excess noise and deteriorate the photon number resolution of the SSPM. The probabilistic features of these processes are widely studied because of its significance for the SSPM design, characterization, optimization and application, but the process modeling is mostly based on Monte Carlo simulations and numerical methods. In this study, crosstalk is considered to be a branching Poisson process, and analytical models of probability distribution and excess noise factor (ENF) of SSPM signals based on the Borel distribution as an advance on the geometric distribution models are presented and discussed. The models are found to be in a good agreement with the experimental probability distributions for dark counts and a few photon spectrums in a wide range of fired pixels number as well as with observed super-linear behavior of crosstalk ENF.

  8. Spatial distribution of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the state of Paraná, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Helen Aline; Rossoni, Diogo Francisco; Teodoro, Ueslei

    2017-01-01

    The geographic distribution of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) makes it a disease of major clinical importance in Brazil, where it is endemic in the state of Paraná. The objective of this study was to analyze the spatial distribution of CL in Paraná between 2001 and 2015, based on data from the Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação (Information System for Notifiable Diseases) regarding autochthonous CL cases. Spatial autocorrelation was performed using Moran's Global Index and the Local Indicator of Spatial Association (LISA). The construction of maps was based on categories of association (high-high, low-low, high-low, and low-high). A total of 4,557 autochthonous cases of CL were registered in the state of Paraná, with an annual average of 303.8 (± 135.2) and a detection coefficient of 2.91. No correlation was found between global indices and their respective significance in 2001 (I = -0.456, p = 0.676), but evidence of spatial autocorrelation was found in other years (pCinzas-Laranjinha, and Ribeira areas. The state of Paraná should keep a constant surveillance over CL due to the prominent presence of socioeconomic and environmental factors such as the favorable circumstances for the vectors present in peri-urban and agriculture áreas.

  9. Simulation Model of Microsphere Distribution for Selective Internal Radiation Therapy Agrees With Observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Högberg, Jonas, E-mail: jonas.hogberg@radfys.gu.se [Department of Radiation Physics, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg (Sweden); Rizell, Magnus [Department of Surgery, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg (Sweden); Hultborn, Ragnar; Svensson, Johanna [Department of Oncology, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg (Sweden); Henrikson, Olof [Department of Radiology, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg (Sweden); Mölne, Johan [Department of Pathology, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg (Sweden); Gjertsson, Peter [Department of Clinical Physiology, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg (Sweden); Bernhardt, Peter [Department of Radiation Physics, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg (Sweden); Department of Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg (Sweden)

    2016-10-01

    Purpose: To perform a detailed analysis of microsphere distribution in biopsy material from a patient treated with {sup 90}Y-labeled resin spheres and characterize microsphere distribution in the hepatic artery tree, and to construct a novel dichotomous bifurcation model for microsphere deposits and evaluate its accuracy in simulating the observed microsphere deposits. Methods and Materials: Our virtual model consisted of arteries that successively branched into 2 new generations of arteries at 20 nodes. The artery diameter exponentially decreased from the lowest generation to the highest generation. Three variable parameters were optimized to obtain concordance between simulations and measure microsphere distributions: an artery coefficient of variation (ACV) for the diameter of all artery generations and the microsphere flow distribution at the nodes; a hepatic tree distribution volume (HDV) for the artery tree; and an artery diameter reduction (ADR) parameter. The model was tested against previously measured activity concentrations in 84 biopsies from the liver of 1 patient. In 16 of 84 biopsies, the microsphere distribution regarding cluster size and localization in the artery tree was determined via light microscopy of 30-μm sections (mean concentration, 14 microspheres/mg; distributions divided into 3 groups with mean microsphere concentrations of 4.6, 14, and 28 microspheres/mg). Results: Single spheres and small clusters were observed in terminal arterioles, whereas large clusters, up to 450 microspheres, were observed in larger arterioles. For 14 microspheres/mg, the optimized parameter values were ACV=0.35, HDV = 50 cm{sup 3}, and ADR=6 μm. For 4.6 microspheres/mg, ACV and ADR decreased to 0.26 and 0 μm, respectively, whereas HDV increased to 130 cm{sup 3}. The opposite trend was observed for 28 microspheres/mg: ACV = 0.49, HDV = 20 cm{sup 3}, and ADR = 8 μm. Conclusion: Simulations and measurements reveal that microsphere clusters are

  10. SPECTRAL ENERGY DISTRIBUTION OF MARKARIAN 501: QUIESCENT STATE VERSUS EXTREME OUTBURST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acciari, V. A.; Benbow, W.; Arlen, T.; Aune, T.; Beilicke, M.; Buckley, J. H.; Bugaev, V.; Dickherber, R.; Boettcher, M.; Boltuch, D.; Bradbury, S. M.; Cannon, A.; Cesarini, A.; Ciupik, L.; Cui, W.; Finley, J. P.; Duke, C.; Errando, M.; Falcone, A.; Finnegan, G.

    2011-01-01

    The very high energy (VHE; E > 100 GeV) blazar Markarian 501 (Mrk 501) has a well-studied history of extreme spectral variability and is an excellent laboratory for studying the physical processes within the jets of active galactic nuclei. However, there are few detailed multiwavelength studies of Mrk 501 during its quiescent state, due to its low luminosity. A short-term multiwavelength study of Mrk 501 was coordinated in 2009 March, focusing around a multi-day observation with the Suzaku X-ray satellite and including γ-ray data from VERITAS, MAGIC, and the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope with the goal of providing a well-sampled multiwavelength baseline measurement of Mrk 501 in the quiescent state. The results of these quiescent-state observations are compared to the historically extreme outburst of 1997 April 16, with the goal of examining variability of the spectral energy distribution (SED) between the two states. The derived broadband SED shows the characteristic double-peaked profile. We find that the X-ray peak shifts by over two orders of magnitude in photon energy between the two flux states while the VHE peak varies little. The limited shift in the VHE peak can be explained by the transition to the Klein-Nishina (KN) regime. Synchrotron self-Compton models are matched to the data and the implied KN effects are explored.

  11. Remote interactions on two distributed quantum systems: nonlocal unambiguous quantum-state discrimination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Libing; Jin Ruibo; Lu Hong

    2008-01-01

    Remote quantum-state discrimination is a critical step for the implementation of quantum communication network and distributed quantum computation. We present a protocol for remotely implementing the unambiguous discrimination between nonorthogonal states using quantum entanglements, local operations, and classical communications. This protocol consists of a remote generalized measurement described by a positive operator valued measurement (POVM). We explicitly construct the required remote POVM. The remote POVM can be realized by performing a nonlocal controlled-rotation operation on two spatially separated qubits, one is an ancillary qubit and the other is the qubit which is encoded by two nonorthogonal states to be distinguished, and a conventional local Von Neumann orthogonal measurement on the ancilla. The particular pair of states that can be remotely and unambiguously distinguished is specified by the state of the ancilla. The probability of successful discrimination is not optimal for all admissible pairs. However, for some subset it can be very close to an optimal value in an ordinary local POVM

  12. Future prospects for ECR ion sources with improved charge state distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alton, G.D.

    1995-01-01

    Despite the steady advance in the technology of the ECR ion source, present art forms have not yet reached their full potential in terms of charge state and intensity within a particular charge state, in part, because of the narrow band width. single-frequency microwave radiation used to heat the plasma electrons. This article identifies fundamentally important methods which may enhance the performances of ECR ion sources through the use of: (1) a tailored magnetic field configuration (spatial domain) in combination with single-frequency microwave radiation to create a large uniformly distributed ECR ''volume'' or (2) the use of broadband frequency domain techniques (variable-frequency, broad-band frequency, or multiple-discrete-frequency microwave radiation), derived from standard TWT technology, to transform the resonant plasma ''surfaces'' of traditional ECR ion sources into resonant plasma ''volume''. The creation of a large ECR plasma ''volume'' permits coupling of more power into the plasma, resulting in the heating of a much larger electron population to higher energies, thereby producing higher charge state ions and much higher intensities within a particular charge state than possible in present forms of' the source. The ECR ion source concepts described in this article offer exciting opportunities to significantly advance the-state-of-the-art of ECR technology and as a consequence, open new opportunities in fundamental and applied research and for a variety of industrial applications

  13. Spectral Energy Distribution of Markarian 501: Quiescent State Versus Extreme Outburst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acciari, V. A.; Arlen, T.; Aune, T.; Beilicke, M.; Benbow, W.; Böttcher, M.; Boltuch, D.; Bradbury, S. M.; Buckley, J. H.; Bugaev, V.; Cannon, A.; Cesarini, A.; Ciupik, L.; Cui, W.; Dickherber, R.; Duke, C.; Errando, M.; Falcone, A.; Finley, J. P.; Finnegan, G.; Fortson, L.; Furniss, A.; Galante, N.; Gall, D.; Godambe, S.; Grube, J.; Guenette, R.; Gyuk, G.; Hanna, D.; Holder, J.; Huang, D.; Hui, C. M.; Humensky, T. B.; Imran, A.; Kaaret, P.; Karlsson, N.; Kertzman, M.; Kieda, D.; Konopelko, A.; Krawczynski, H.; Krennrich, F.; Madhavan, A. S.; Maier, G.; McArthur, S.; McCann, A.; Moriarty, P.; Ong, R. A.; Otte, A. N.; Pandel, D.; Perkins, J. S.; Pichel, A.; Pohl, M.; Quinn, J.; Ragan, K.; Reyes, L. C.; Reynolds, P. T.; Roache, E.; Rose, H. J.; Schroedter, M.; Sembroski, G. H.; Steele, D.; Swordy, S. P.; Theiling, M.; Thibadeau, S.; Varlotta, A.; Vassiliev, V. V.; Vincent, S.; Wakely, S. P.; Ward, J. E.; Weekes, T. C.; Weinstein, A.; Weisgarber, T.; Williams, D. A.; Wood, M.; Zitzer, B.; VERITAS Collaboration; Aleksić, J.; Antonelli, L. A.; Antoranz, P.; Backes, M.; Barrio, J. A.; Bastieri, D.; Becerra González, J.; Bednarek, W.; Berdyugin, A.; Berger, K.; Bernardini, E.; Biland, A.; Blanch, O.; Bock, R. K.; Boller, A.; Bonnoli, G.; Bordas, P.; Borla Tridon, D.; Bosch-Ramon, V.; Bose, D.; Braun, I.; Bretz, T.; Camara, M.; Carmona, E.; Carosi, A.; Colin, P.; Colombo, E.; Contreras, J. L.; Cortina, J.; Covino, S.; Dazzi, F.; De Angelis, A.; De Cea del Pozo, E.; De Lotto, B.; De Maria, M.; De Sabata, F.; Delgado Mendez, C.; Diago Ortega, A.; Doert, M.; Domínguez, A.; Dominis Prester, D.; Dorner, D.; Doro, M.; Elsaesser, D.; Errando, M.; Ferenc, D.; Fonseca, M. V.; Font, L.; García López, R. J.; Garczarczyk, M.; Gaug, M.; Giavitto, G.; Godinović, N.; Hadasch, D.; Herrero, A.; Hildebrand, D.; Höhne-Mönch, D.; Hose, J.; Hrupec, D.; Jogler, T.; Klepser, S.; Krähenbühl, T.; Kranich, D.; Krause, J.; La Barbera, A.; Leonardo, E.; Lindfors, E.; Lombardi, S.; Longo, F.; López, M.; Lorenz, E.; Majumdar, P.; Makariev, M.; Maneva, G.; Mankuzhiyil, N.; Mannheim, K.; Maraschi, L.; Mariotti, M.; Martínez, M.; Mazin, D.; Meucci, M.; Miranda, J. M.; Mirzoyan, R.; Miyamoto, H.; Moldón, J.; Moralejo, A.; Nieto, D.; Nilsson, K.; Orito, R.; Oya, I.; Paoletti, R.; Paredes, J. M.; Partini, S.; Pasanen, M.; Pauss, F.; Pegna, R. G.; Perez-Torres, M. A.; Persic, M.; Peruzzo, L.; Pochon, J.; Prada, F.; Prada Moroni, P. G.; Prandini, E.; Puchades, N.; Puljak, I.; Reichardt, I.; Reinthal, R.; Rhode, W.; Ribó, M.; Rico, J.; Rissi, M.; Rügamer, S.; Saggion, A.; Saito, K.; Saito, T. Y.; Salvati, M.; Sánchez-Conde, M.; Satalecka, K.; Scalzotto, V.; Scapin, V.; Schultz, C.; Schweizer, T.; Shayduk, M.; Shore, S. N.; Sierpowska-Bartosik, A.; Sillanpää, A.; Sitarek, J.; Sobczynska, D.; Spanier, F.; Spiro, S.; Stamerra, A.; Steinke, B.; Storz, J.; Strah, N.; Struebig, J. C.; Suric, T.; Takalo, L.; Tavecchio, F.; Temnikov, P.; Terzić, T.; Tescaro, D.; Teshima, M.; Torres, D. F.; Vankov, H.; Wagner, R. M.; Weitzel, Q.; Zabalza, V.; Zandanel, F.; Zanin, R.; MAGIC Collaboration; Paneque, D.; Hayashida, M.

    2011-03-01

    The very high energy (VHE; E > 100 GeV) blazar Markarian 501 (Mrk 501) has a well-studied history of extreme spectral variability and is an excellent laboratory for studying the physical processes within the jets of active galactic nuclei. However, there are few detailed multiwavelength studies of Mrk 501 during its quiescent state, due to its low luminosity. A short-term multiwavelength study of Mrk 501 was coordinated in 2009 March, focusing around a multi-day observation with the Suzaku X-ray satellite and including γ-ray data from VERITAS, MAGIC, and the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope with the goal of providing a well-sampled multiwavelength baseline measurement of Mrk 501 in the quiescent state. The results of these quiescent-state observations are compared to the historically extreme outburst of 1997 April 16, with the goal of examining variability of the spectral energy distribution (SED) between the two states. The derived broadband SED shows the characteristic double-peaked profile. We find that the X-ray peak shifts by over two orders of magnitude in photon energy between the two flux states while the VHE peak varies little. The limited shift in the VHE peak can be explained by the transition to the Klein-Nishina (KN) regime. Synchrotron self-Compton models are matched to the data and the implied KN effects are explored.

  14. Four-State Continuous-Variable Quantum Key Distribution with Photon Subtraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fei; Wang, Yijun; Liao, Qin; Guo, Ying

    2018-06-01

    Four-state continuous-variable quantum key distribution (CVQKD) is one of the discretely modulated CVQKD which generates four nonorthogonal coherent states and exploits the sign of the measured quadrature of each state to encode information rather than uses the quadrature \\hat {x} or \\hat {p} itself. It has been proven that four-state CVQKD is more suitable than Gaussian modulated CVQKD in terms of transmission distance. In this paper, we propose an improved four-state CVQKD using an non-Gaussian operation, photon subtraction. A suitable photon-subtraction operation can be exploited to improve the maximal transmission of CVQKD in point-to-point quantum communication since it provides a method to enhance the performance of entanglement-based (EB) CVQKD. Photon subtraction not only can lengthen the maximal transmission distance by increasing the signal-to-noise rate but also can be easily implemented with existing technologies. Security analysis shows that the proposed scheme can lengthen the maximum transmission distance. Furthermore, by taking finite-size effect into account we obtain a tighter bound of the secure distance, which is more practical than that obtained in the asymptotic limit.

  15. International conference. Mental health consequences of the Chernobyl disaster: current state and future prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyagu, A.I.

    1995-01-01

    Proceedings of the International Conference on the mental health consequences of the Chernobyl disaster: current state and future prospects was introduced.The questions connected with: 1. Mental health disorders biological basis after ionizing radiation influence; 2. Psychiatric aspects of the Chernobyl disaster; 3. Social stress following contradictory information: ways for its overcoming; 4. Rehabilitation and prophylactic measures for mental and nervous disorders. Psycho social rehabilitation of survivors; 5. Psychosomatic effects and somato-neurological consequences of the Chernobyl disaster; 6. Psychosomatic health of children and adolescents survivors of the Chernobyl disaster; 7. Brain damage as result of prenatal irradiation

  16. Observation of the Distribution of Molecular Spin States by Resonant Quantum Tunneling of the Magnetization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wernsdorfer, W.; Ohm, T.; Sangregorio, C.; Sessoli, R.; Mailly, D.; Paulsen, C.

    1999-05-01

    Below 360 mK, Fe8 magnetic molecular clusters are in the pure quantum relaxation regime and we show that the predicted ``square-root time'' relaxation is obeyed, allowing us to develop a new method for watching the evolution of the distribution of molecular spin states in the sample. We measure as a function of applied field H the statistical distribution P\\(ξH\\) of magnetic energy bias ξH acting on the molecules. Tunneling initially causes rapid transitions of molecules, thereby ``digging a hole'' in P\\(ξH\\) (around the resonant condition ξH = 0). For small initial magnetization values, the hole width shows an intrinsic broadening which may be due to nuclear spins.

  17. Oxidation-state distribution of plutonium in surface and subsurface waters at Thule, northwest Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McMahon, C.A.; Vintró, L.L.; Mitchell, P.I.

    2000-01-01

    (V, VI) (mean, 68 +/- 6%; n = 6), with little if any distinction apparent between surface and bottom waters. Further, the oxidation state distribution at stations close to the accident site is similar to that measured at Upernavik, remote from this site. It is also similar to the distribution observed...... in shelf waters at midlatitudes, suggesting that the underlying processes controlling plutonium speciation are insensitive to temperature over the range 0-25 degrees C. Measurements using tangential-flow ultrafiltration indicate that virtually all of the plutonium (including the fraction in a reduced...... chemical form) is present as fully dissolved species. Most of this plutonium would seem to be of weapons fallout origin, as the mean Pu-238/Pu-239,Pu-240 activity ratio in the water column (dissolved phase) at Thule (0.06 +/- 0.02; n = 10) is similar to the global fallout ratio at this latitude...

  18. Inventory management and control at the central distribution center for Univar Products International B.V.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pholnukulkit, Pimara

    2008-01-01

    This report presents the outcome of the Logistics Design Project carried out for Univar Products International B.V. The goal of this project is to design an inventory control system and implement an inventory control tool that supports decisions in managing inventory of all products in the central

  19. International finance, Lévy distributions, and the econophysics of exchange rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Silva, Sergio; Matsushita, Raul; Gleria, Iram; Figueiredo, Annibal; Rathie, Pushpa

    2005-06-01

    This paper surveys the developments in the field of international finance, in particular the research of economists on foreign exchange rates. That might be of interest to physicists working on the econophysics of exchange rates. We show how the econophysics agenda might follow naturally from the economists' research. We also present our own work on the econophysics of exchange rates.

  20. The Distribution of Talent and the Pattern and Consequences of International Trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Gene M.

    2004-01-01

    The author studies the interaction between imperfect labor contracts and international trade in a setting in which workers have private information about their own abilities. When an individual's contribution to firm output can be measured accurately in some activities but not in others, the most able workers select occupations in which their pay…

  1. A sensor network architecture for urban traffic state estimation with mixed eulerian/lagrangian sensing based on distributed computing

    KAUST Repository

    Canepa, Edward S.; Odat, Enas M.; Dehwah, Ahmad H.; Mousa, Mustafa; Jiang, Jiming; Claudel, Christian G.

    2014-01-01

    This article describes a new approach to urban traffic flow sensing using decentralized traffic state estimation. Traffic sensor data is generated both by fixed traffic flow sensor nodes and by probe vehicles equipped with a short range transceiver. The data generated by these sensors is sent to a local coordinator node, that poses the problem of estimating the local state of traffic as a mixed integer linear program (MILP). The resulting optimization program is then solved by the nodes in a distributed manner, using branch-and-bound methods. An optimal amount of noise is then added to the maps before dissemination to a central database. Unlike existing probe-based traffic monitoring systems, this system does not transmit user generated location tracks nor any user presence information to a centralized server, effectively preventing privacy attacks. A simulation of the system performance on computer-generated traffic data shows that the system can be implemented with currently available technology. © 2014 Springer International Publishing Switzerland.

  2. China’s international trade and air pollution in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jintai; Pan, Da; Davis, Steven J.; Zhang, Qiang; He, Kebin; Wang, Can; Streets, David G.; Wuebbles, Donald J.; Guan, Dabo

    2014-01-01

    China is the world’s largest emitter of anthropogenic air pollutants, and measurable amounts of Chinese pollution are transported via the atmosphere to other countries, including the United States. However, a large fraction of Chinese emissions is due to manufacture of goods for foreign consumption. Here, we analyze the impacts of trade-related Chinese air pollutant emissions on the global atmospheric environment, linking an economic-emission analysis and atmospheric chemical transport modeling. We find that in 2006, 36% of anthropogenic sulfur dioxide, 27% of nitrogen oxides, 22% of carbon monoxide, and 17% of black carbon emitted in China were associated with production of goods for export. For each of these pollutants, about 21% of export-related Chinese emissions were attributed to China-to-US export. Atmospheric modeling shows that transport of the export-related Chinese pollution contributed 3–10% of annual mean surface sulfate concentrations and 0.5–1.5% of ozone over the western United States in 2006. This Chinese pollution also resulted in one extra day or more of noncompliance with the US ozone standard in 2006 over the Los Angeles area and many regions in the eastern United States. On a daily basis, the export-related Chinese pollution contributed, at a maximum, 12–24% of sulfate concentrations over the western United States. As the United States outsourced manufacturing to China, sulfate pollution in 2006 increased in the western United States but decreased in the eastern United States, reflecting the competing effect between enhanced transport of Chinese pollution and reduced US emissions. Our findings are relevant to international efforts to reduce transboundary air pollution. PMID:24449863

  3. Security of a single-state semi-quantum key distribution protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Qiu, Daowen; Mateus, Paulo

    2018-06-01

    Semi-quantum key distribution protocols are allowed to set up a secure secret key between two users. Compared with their full quantum counterparts, one of the two users is restricted to perform some "classical" or "semi-quantum" operations, which potentially makes them easily realizable by using less quantum resource. However, the semi-quantum key distribution protocols mainly rely on a two-way quantum channel. The eavesdropper has two opportunities to intercept the quantum states transmitted in the quantum communication stage. It may allow the eavesdropper to get more information and make the security analysis more complicated. In the past ten years, many semi-quantum key distribution protocols have been proposed and proved to be robust. However, there are few works concerning their unconditional security. It is doubted that how secure the semi-quantum ones are and how much noise they can tolerate to establish a secure secret key. In this paper, we prove the unconditional security of a single-state semi-quantum key distribution protocol proposed by Zou et al. (Phys Rev A 79:052312, 2009). We present a complete proof from information theory aspect by deriving a lower bound of the protocol's key rate in the asymptotic scenario. Using this bound, we figure out an error threshold value such that for all error rates that are less than this threshold value, the secure secret key can be established between the legitimate users definitely. Otherwise, the users should abort the protocol. We make an illustration of the protocol under the circumstance that the reverse quantum channel is a depolarizing one with parameter q. Additionally, we compare the error threshold value with some full quantum protocols and several existing semi-quantum ones whose unconditional security proofs have been provided recently.

  4. Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    John R. Jones

    1985-01-01

    Quaking aspen is the most widely distributed native North American tree species (Little 1971, Sargent 1890). It grows in a great diversity of regions, environments, and communities (Harshberger 1911). Only one deciduous tree species in the world, the closely related Eurasian aspen (Populus tremula), has a wider range (Weigle and Frothingham 1911)....

  5. Experiences of Nigerian Internationally Educated Nurses Transitioning to United States Health Care Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iheduru-Anderson, Kechinyere C; Wahi, Monika M

    2018-04-01

    Successful transition to practice of internationally educated nurses (IENs) can critically affect quality of care. The aim of this study was to characterize the facilitators and barriers to transition of Nigerian IENs (NIENs) to the United States health care setting. Using a descriptive phenomenology approach, 6 NIENs were interviewed about their transitional experiences in the United States. Thematic methods were used for data analysis. The three major themes identified from the participants' stories were "fear/anger and disappointment" (FAD), "road/journey to success/overcoming challenges" (RJO), and "moving forward" (MF). The FAD theme predominated, including experiences of racism, bullying, and inequality. The RJO theme included resilience, and the MF theme encompassed personal growth. NIENs face personal and organizational barriers to adaptation, especially fear, anger and disappointment. Future research should seek to develop a model for optimal adaptation that focuses on improving both personal and organizational facilitators and decreasing barriers.

  6. A Composed Protocol of Quantum Identity Authentication Plus Quantum Key Distribution Based on Squeezed States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Sheng; Wang Jian; Tang Chaojing; Zhang Quan

    2011-01-01

    It is established that a single quantum cryptography protocol usually cooperates with other cryptographic systems, such as an authentication system, in the real world. However, few protocols have been proposed on how to combine two or more quantum protocols. To fill this gap, we propose a composed quantum protocol, containing both quantum identity authentication and quantum key distribution, using squeezed states. Hence, not only the identity can be verified, but also a new private key can be generated by our new protocol. We also analyze the security under an optimal attack, and the efficiency, which is defined by the threshold of the tolerant error rate, using Gaussian error function. (general)

  7. Impact of electric vehicles in the steady state operation of distribution systems

    OpenAIRE

    Erasmo Saraiva de Castro

    2015-01-01

    This work aims to quantify the impact in the steady state operation of a distribution system when electric vehicles are connected. It is worth noting that the connection of them may cause significant changes in the voltage profile, in the degree of voltage unbalance and in the electrical losses of the system. In order to make this analysis, a three-phase power flow program was developed in MATLAB language. This program is based on the Ladder Iterative Technique and it contains models of overh...

  8. Error Distributions on Large Entangled States with Non-Markovian Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McCutcheon, Dara; Lindner, Netanel H.; Rudolph, Terry

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the distribution of errors on a computationally useful entangled state generated via the repeated emission from an emitter undergoing strongly non-Markovian evolution. For emitter-environment coupling of pure-dephasing form, we show that the probability that a particular patten...... of errors occurs has a bound of Markovian form, and thus, accuracy threshold theorems based on Markovian models should be just as effective. Beyond the pure-dephasing assumption, though complicated error structures can arise, they can still be qualitatively bounded by a Markovian error model....

  9. The Prediction of States' PK-12 Funding Effort and Distribution Based on Their Ideological Makeups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malin, Joel R.

    2016-01-01

    States differ markedly in their funding for public schools, both in terms of the fiscal effort their citizens demonstrate and the progressivity with which funds are distributed. Yet, less is known about why different states have enacted such different policies and financing systems. In this study, the relationships between a measure of states'…

  10. Common body of knowledge in internal auditing : A state of the art in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allegrini, M.; Paape, L.; D'Onza, G.; Melville, L.; Sarens, R.

    2008-01-01

    Based on a global research program about internal auditing in practice this research report delivers valuable insights into current and future trends in internal auditing. You will gain benchmarking information on organizational characteristics, internal audit function and staffing, internal

  11. The effect of state of health on organ distribution and excretion of systemic plutonium in the Mayak workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suslova, K.G.; Khokhryakov, V.F.; Tokarskaya, Z.B.; Nifatov, A.P.; Sokolova, A.B.; Kudryavtzeva, T.I.; Miller, S.C.; Krahenbuhl, M.P.

    2003-01-01

    The extrapulmonary distribution of plutonium in 20 organs (excluding the respiratory tract) was studied in workers who chronically inhaled plutonium at the radiochemical plants of the Mayak Production Association (Ozyorsk, Russia). The data were obtained by radiochemical analysis of soft tissue and bones samples collected at autopsy of 591 workers. The systemic plutonium distribution was determined in healthy individuals as well as in those with health impairment, specifically for those with liver diseases. Twenty-five years after the beginning of inhalation, systemic fractions in the liver and skeleton of individuals who were healthy at the time of death approximate the ratio 45%:45% proposed in the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) Publication 30. Pathological process in the liver, accompanied by fatty dystrophy of hepatocytes, increased plutonium clearance from the liver. There was a considerable shift of the plutonium from the liver to the skeleton in individuals who died from liver disease. The average fractions of systemic plutonium in the liver and skeleton of those individuals were 14% and 78% respectively, which did not correspond to ICRP models, indicating a significant effect of disease conditions. Plutonium that was not redistributed was excreted. The urinary excretion rate of plutonium also correlated with state of health. The observed excretion as a fraction of systemic content was 1.64 x 10 -5 d -1 for individuals of good health and 2.34 x 10 -5 d -1 for individuals with various chronic diseases. The current models do not account for the influence of different pathological processes in the body on plutonium distribution and retention in systemic organs. This could have significant consequences for dosimetry calculations and risk estimations. (author)

  12. Multi-party Measurement-Device-Independent Quantum Key Distribution Based on Cluster States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chuanqi; Zhu, Changhua; Ma, Shuquan; Pei, Changxing

    2018-03-01

    We propose a novel multi-party measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution (MDI-QKD) protocol based on cluster states. A four-photon analyzer which can distinguish all the 16 cluster states serves as the measurement device for four-party MDI-QKD. Any two out of four participants can build secure keys after the analyzers obtains successful outputs and the two participants perform post-processing. We derive a security analysis for the protocol, and analyze the key rates under different values of polarization misalignment. The results show that four-party MDI-QKD is feasible over 280 km in the optical fiber channel when the key rate is about 10- 6 with the polarization misalignment parameter 0.015. Moreover, our work takes an important step toward a quantum communication network.

  13. Hacking on decoy-state quantum key distribution system with partial phase randomization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shi-Hai; Jiang, Mu-Sheng; Ma, Xiang-Chun; Li, Chun-Yan; Liang, Lin-Mei

    2014-04-01

    Quantum key distribution (QKD) provides means for unconditional secure key transmission between two distant parties. However, in practical implementations, it suffers from quantum hacking due to device imperfections. Here we propose a hybrid measurement attack, with only linear optics, homodyne detection, and single photon detection, to the widely used vacuum + weak decoy state QKD system when the phase of source is partially randomized. Our analysis shows that, in some parameter regimes, the proposed attack would result in an entanglement breaking channel but still be able to trick the legitimate users to believe they have transmitted secure keys. That is, the eavesdropper is able to steal all the key information without discovered by the users. Thus, our proposal reveals that partial phase randomization is not sufficient to guarantee the security of phase-encoding QKD systems with weak coherent states.

  14. Hacking on decoy-state quantum key distribution system with partial phase randomization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shi-Hai; Jiang, Mu-Sheng; Ma, Xiang-Chun; Li, Chun-Yan; Liang, Lin-Mei

    2014-04-23

    Quantum key distribution (QKD) provides means for unconditional secure key transmission between two distant parties. However, in practical implementations, it suffers from quantum hacking due to device imperfections. Here we propose a hybrid measurement attack, with only linear optics, homodyne detection, and single photon detection, to the widely used vacuum + weak decoy state QKD system when the phase of source is partially randomized. Our analysis shows that, in some parameter regimes, the proposed attack would result in an entanglement breaking channel but still be able to trick the legitimate users to believe they have transmitted secure keys. That is, the eavesdropper is able to steal all the key information without discovered by the users. Thus, our proposal reveals that partial phase randomization is not sufficient to guarantee the security of phase-encoding QKD systems with weak coherent states.

  15. Development and distribution of radon risk maps in New York State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitto, M.E.; Kunz, C.O.; New York State Univ., Albany, NY; Green, J.G.

    2001-01-01

    Radon maps for each county in New York State have been developed on the township level indicating the percent of homes with ≥ 148 Bq/m 3 (4 pCi/l) in the indoor air of the basement and living area. Estimates are based on a combination of nearly 45,000 basement-screening measurements and correlations to surficial geology. Many of the towns and cities in the State with the highest average indoor radon concentrations are located on highly-permeable gravelly soils formed during the retreat of the Wisconsinan Glaciation. As many towns (32% of total) had ≤ 5 measurements, a project to obtain additional measurements in high-risk towns produced results comparable to estimates based on correlations to surficial geology. Radon risk maps for each county have been distributed to municipal governments, schools, and professionals in activities related to homes, buildings, and indoor air quality. (author)

  16. Radiation monitoring and dose distribution of medical workers in A.P. state 1999-2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, D.R.; Reddy, K.S.; Kamble, M.K.; Roy, Madhumita

    2001-01-01

    Individual monitoring for external ionizing radiation is being conducted for all radiation workers in Andhra Pradesh State by TLD Unit located in Nuclear Fuel Complex, Hyderabad.The Unit comes under Personnel Monitoring Section of Bhabha Atomic Research Center, Mumbai. The aim of monitoring is to confirm that the radiation safety standards are strictly adhered in the institutions and also to investigate excessive exposures, if any. Personnel monitoring also provides data for epidemiological studies. In view of ICRP/AERB recommendations of 100 mSv dose limit for the five years block of 1994-98, the dose distribution among radiation workers in Andhra Pradesh State is analyzed for the period 1994-98. In continuation of above work, we have analyzed the data for the year 1999-2000 for various medical diagnostic procedures and these are presented

  17. Optimal allocation of sensors for state estimation of distributed parameter systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sunahara, Yoshifumi; Ohsumi, Akira; Mogami, Yoshio.

    1978-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present a method for finding the optimal allocation of sensors for state estimation of linear distributed parameter systems. This method is based on the criterion that the error covariance associated with the state estimate becomes minimal with respect to the allocation of the sensors. A theorem is established, giving the sufficient condition for optimizing the allocation of sensors to make minimal the error covariance approximated by a modal expansion. The remainder of this paper is devoted to illustrate important phases of the general theory of the optimal measurement allocation problem. To do this, several examples are demonstrated, including extensive discussions on the mutual relation between the optimal allocation and the dynamics of sensors. (author)

  18. Occurrence and distribution of microplastics at selected coastal sites along the southeastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xubiao; Ladewig, Samantha; Bao, Shaowu; Toline, Catherine A; Whitmire, Stefanie; Chow, Alex T

    2018-02-01

    To investigate the occurrence and distribution of microplastics in the southeastern coastal region of the United States, we quantified the amount of microplastics in sand samples from multiple coastal sites and developed a predictive model to understand the drift of plastics via ocean currents. Sand samples from eighteen National Park Service (NPS) beaches in the Southeastern Region were collected and microplastics were isolated from each sample. Microplastic counts were compared among sites and local geography was used to make inferences about sources and modes of distribution. Samples were analyzed to identify the composition of particles using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). To predict the spatiotemporal distribution and movements of particles via coastal currents, a Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) was applied. Microplastics were detected in each of the sampled sites although abundance among sites was highly variable. Approximately half of the samples were dominated by thread-like and fibrous materials as opposed to beads and particles. Results of FTIR suggested that 24% consisted of polyethylene terephthalate (PET), while about 68% of the fibers tested were composed of man-made cellulosic materials such as rayon. Based on published studies examining sources of microplastics, the shape of the particles found here (mostly fibers) and the presence of PET, we infer the source of microplastics in coastal areas is mainly from urban areas, such as wastewater discharge, rather than breakdown of larger marine debris drifting in the ocean. Local geographic features, e.g., the nearness of sites to large rivers and urbanized areas, explain variance in amount of microplastics among sites. Additionally, the distribution of simulated particles is explained by ocean current patterns; computer simulations were correlated with field observations, reinforcing the idea that ocean currents can be a good predictor of the fate and distribution of microplastics

  19. Whither the Pulmonary Ward Attending? Preserving Subspecialty Exposure in United States Internal Medicine Residency Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhosh, Lekshmi; Babik, Jennifer; Looney, Mark R; Hollander, Harry

    2017-04-01

    Twenty years ago, the term "hospitalist" was coined at the University of California-San Francisco (San Francisco, CA), heralding a new specialty focused on the care of inpatients. There are now more than 50,000 hospitalists practicing in the United States. At many academic medical centers, hospitalists are largely replacing subspecialists as attendings on the inpatient medicine wards. At University of California-San Francisco, this has been accompanied by declining percentages of residency graduates who enter subspecialty training in internal medicine. The decline in subspecialty medicine interest can be attributed to many factors, including differences in compensation, decreased subspecialist exposure, and a changing research funding landscape. Although there has not been systematic documentation of this trend in pulmonary and critical care medicine, we have noted previously pulmonary and critical care-bound trainees switching to hospital medicine instead. With our broad, multiorgan system perspective, pulmonary and critical care faculty should embrace teaching general medicine. Residency programs have instituted creative solutions to encourage more internal medicine residents to pursue careers in subspecialty medicine. Some solutions include creating rotations that promote more contact with subspecialists and physician-scientists, creating clinician-educator tracks within fellowship programs, and appointing subspecialists to internal medicine residency leadership positions. We need more rigorous research to track the trends and implications of the generalist-specialist balance of inpatient ward teams on resident career choices, and learn what interventions affect those choices.

  20. Outside the Continental United States International Travel and Contagion Impact Quick Look Tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corley, Courtney D.; Lancaster, Mary J.; Brigantic, Robert T.; Kunkel, Brenda M.; Muller, George; McKenzie, Taylor K.

    2012-11-09

    ABSTRACT This paper describes a tool that will allow public health analysts to estimate infectious disease risk at the country level as a function of different international transportation modes. The prototype focuses on a cholera epidemic originating within Latin America or the Caribbean, but it can be expanded to consider other pathogens as well. This effort leverages previous work in collaboration with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to develop the International Travel to Community Impact (IT-CI) model, which analyzes and assesses potential international disease outbreaks then estimates the associated impacts to U.S. communities and the nation as a whole and orient it for use Outside the Continental United States (OCONUS). For brevity, we refer to this refined model as OIT-CI. First, we developed an operationalized meta-population spatial cholera model for Latin America and the Caribbean at the secondary administrative-level boundary. Secondly, we developed a robust function of human airline critical to approximating mixing patterns in the meta- population model. In the prototype version currently presented here, OIT-CI models a cholera epidemic originating in a Latin American or Caribbean country and spreading via airline transportation routes. Disease spread is modeled at the country level using a patch model with a connectivity function based on demographic, geospatial, and human transportation data. We have also identified data to estimate the water and health-related infrastructure capabilities of each country to include this potential impact on disease transmission.