WorldWideScience

Sample records for internal standard solution

  1. LIMITS IN APPLICATION OF INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS TO INNOVATIVE CERAMIC SOLUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Fragassa

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Gres Porcelain stoneware is a ceramic with a compact, hard, coloured and non-porous body. It is largely used as building materials, for a quality architecture, offering high resistance to impact, stress, wear, scratching, frost, chemical attach and stains. It is produced in flat tiles, billions of tons per year. A very prominent technology, based on a pyroclastic deformation, permits to obtain bended porcelain tiles as innovative solutions for a modern architecture. This technology is grounded on a proper combination of heavy machining by cutting tools and secondary firing in a kiln. This new element, the bended tile, can be used in several innovative applications (as steps, shelves, benches, radiators.... But, new functions require a better and in-depth knowledge of these materials, especially referring to the mechanical proprieties. This paper investigates the limits of applicability of ISO standards for the quality classification of ceramics and experimental measures of their mechanical proprieties.

  2. Preparation and certification of solutions of perdeuterated polycyclic aromatic compounds intended for use as surrogate internal standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quilliam, M.A.; Hardstaff, W.R.; Anacleto, J.F.; LeBlanc, M.D.; Stergiopoulos, V.; Dick, K.L.; Bowser, M.T.; Curtis, J.M.; Embree, D.J.; Sim, P.G.; Boyd, R.K.

    1994-01-01

    Two standard solutions of deuterated polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) have been prepared for use as surrogate internal standards. Solution DPAC-1 contains 21 deuterated PACs, and is intended for use with mass spectrometric (MS) detection. Most of the difficulties in certifying concentrations in DPAC-1 arose from the fact that none of the individual compounds was 100% deuterated, so that effects of mass spectrometric fragmentation are convoluted with those of isotopic distributions. The best methods are discussed for using such internal standards so as to minimize these problems, together with those arising from kinetic isotope effects. Solution DPAC-2 contains 6 deuterated PACs, and is primarily intended for use with reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detection (FLD, dural programmed wavelength mode), in which the signals for analyte and internal standard are separated chromatographically rather than via the detector. Full details of the preparation of these solutions are described. In addition, examples of their use in the analysis of a certified coal-tar extract (NIST SRM 1597) are described briefly. In one example a novel HPLC-MS technique was employed, and in the other the HPLC-FLD technique was used. (orig.)

  3. Accurate determination of arsenic in arsenobetaine standard solutions of BCR-626 and NMIJ CRM 7901-a by neutron activation analysis coupled with internal standard method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Tsutomu; Chiba, Koichi; Kuroiwa, Takayoshi; Narukawa, Tomohiro; Hioki, Akiharu; Matsue, Hideaki

    2010-09-15

    Neutron activation analysis (NAA) coupled with an internal standard method was applied for the determination of As in the certified reference material (CRM) of arsenobetaine (AB) standard solutions to verify their certified values. Gold was used as an internal standard to compensate for the difference of the neutron exposure in an irradiation capsule and to improve the sample-to-sample repeatability. Application of the internal standard method significantly improved linearity of the calibration curve up to 1 microg of As, too. The analytical reliability of the proposed method was evaluated by k(0)-standardization NAA. The analytical results of As in AB standard solutions of BCR-626 and NMIJ CRM 7901-a were (499+/-55)mgkg(-1) (k=2) and (10.16+/-0.15)mgkg(-1) (k=2), respectively. These values were found to be 15-20% higher than the certified values. The between-bottle variation of BCR-626 was much larger than the expanded uncertainty of the certified value, although that of NMIJ CRM 7901-a was almost negligible. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. International Construction Measurement Standard

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, Charles

    2016-01-01

    The International Construction Measurement Standard Coalition (the Coalition) was formed on 17 June 2015 after meeting at the International Monetary Fund in Washington DC, USA. The Coalition, comprising the organisations listed below at the date of publication, aims to bring about consistency in construction cost reporting standards internationally. This is achieved by the creation and adoption of this ICMS, an agreed international standard for the structuring and presentation of cost reports...

  5. International radiofrequency standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lincoln, J.

    2001-01-01

    Of the various radiofrequency standards in use around the world, many are based on or similar to the Guidelines published by ICNIRP (The International Commission on Non-ionising Radiation Protection). This organisation is a working group operating in co-operation with the Environmental Health division of the World Health Organisation (WHO). This paper presents a very brief overview of current international standards, beginning with a summary of the salient points of the ICNIRP Guidelines. It should be remembered that these are guidelines only and do not exist as a separate standard. Copyright (2001) Australasian Radiation Protection Society Inc

  6. Thermodynamic stability of radioactivity standard solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iroulard, M.G.

    2007-04-01

    The basic requirement when preparing radioactivity standard solutions is to guarantee the concentration of a radionuclide or a radioelement, expressed in the form of activity concentration (Ac = A/m (Bq/g), with A: activity and m: mass of solution). Knowledge of the law of radioactive decay and the half-life of a radionuclide or radioelement makes it possible to determine the activity concentration at any time, and this must be confirmed subsequently by measurement. Furthermore, when radioactivity standard solutions are prepared, it is necessary to establish optimal conditions of thermodynamic stability of the standard solutions. Radioactivity standard solutions are prepared by metrology laboratories from original solutions obtained from a range of suppliers. These radioactivity standard solutions must enable preparation of liquid and/or solid radioactivity standard sources of which measurement by different methods can determine, at a given instant, the activity concentration of the radionuclide or radioelement present in the solution. There are a number of constraints associated with the preparation of such sources. Here only those that relate to the physical and chemical properties of the standard solution are considered, and therefore need to be taken into account when preparing a radioactivity standard solution. These issues are considered in this document in accordance with the following plan: - A first part devoted to the chemical properties of the solutions: - the solubilization media: ultra-pure water and acid media, - the carriers: concentration, oxidation state of the radioactive element and the carrier element. - A second part describing the methodology of the preparation, packaging and storage of standard solutions: - glass ampoules: the structure of glasses, the mechanisms of their dissolution, the sorption phenomenon at the solid-solution interface, - quartz ampoules, - cleaning and packaging: cleaning solutions, internal surface coatings and

  7. Thermodynamic stability of radioactivity standard solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iroulard, M.G

    2007-04-15

    The basic requirement when preparing radioactivity standard solutions is to guarantee the concentration of a radionuclide or a radioelement, expressed in the form of activity concentration (Ac = A/m (Bq/g), with A: activity and m: mass of solution). Knowledge of the law of radioactive decay and the half-life of a radionuclide or radioelement makes it possible to determine the activity concentration at any time, and this must be confirmed subsequently by measurement. Furthermore, when radioactivity standard solutions are prepared, it is necessary to establish optimal conditions of thermodynamic stability of the standard solutions. Radioactivity standard solutions are prepared by metrology laboratories from original solutions obtained from a range of suppliers. These radioactivity standard solutions must enable preparation of liquid and/or solid radioactivity standard sources of which measurement by different methods can determine, at a given instant, the activity concentration of the radionuclide or radioelement present in the solution. There are a number of constraints associated with the preparation of such sources. Here only those that relate to the physical and chemical properties of the standard solution are considered, and therefore need to be taken into account when preparing a radioactivity standard solution. These issues are considered in this document in accordance with the following plan: - A first part devoted to the chemical properties of the solutions: - the solubilization media: ultra-pure water and acid media, - the carriers: concentration, oxidation state of the radioactive element and the carrier element. - A second part describing the methodology of the preparation, packaging and storage of standard solutions: - glass ampoules: the structure of glasses, the mechanisms of their dissolution, the sorption phenomenon at the solid-solution interface, - quartz ampoules, - cleaning and packaging: cleaning solutions, internal surface coatings and

  8. International Financial Reporting Standards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pontoppidan, Caroline Aggestam

    2011-01-01

    The advance of International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) across the globe has accelerated over the last few years. This is placing increasing demands on educators to respond to these changes by an increased focus on IFRS in the curricula of accounting students. This paper reviews a range...

  9. EVALUATION OF DIFFERENT INTERNAL STANDARDS FOR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    internal standard addition method was evaluated with the variation in solution ... background emissions involved in generating accurate and reliable .... The most suitable atomic and ionic wavelengths (λ) for the internal standards and precious ..... spectral interferences occur and using validation parameters is currently ...

  10. International standards for radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambrosi, P.

    2011-01-01

    International standards for radiation protection are issued by many bodies. These bodies differ to a large extent in their organisation, in the way the members are designated and in the way the international standards are authorised by the issuing body. Large differences also exist in the relevance of the international standards. One extreme is that the international standards are mandatory in the sense that no conflicting national standard may exist, the other extreme is that national and international standards conflict and there is no need to resolve that conflict. Between these extremes there are some standards or documents of relevance, which are not binding by any formal law or contract but are de facto binding due to the scientific reputation of the issuing body. This paper gives, for radiation protection, an overview of the main standards issuing bodies, the international standards or documents of relevance issued by them and the relevance of these documents. (authors)

  11. The International Standards Organisation offshore structures standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snell, R.O.

    1994-01-01

    The International Standards Organisation has initiated a program to develop a suite of ISO Codes and Standards for the Oil Industry. The Offshore Structures Standard is one of seven topics being addressed. The scope of the standard will encompass fixed steel and concrete structures, floating structures, Arctic structures and the site specific assessment of mobile drilling and accommodation units. The standard will use as base documents the existing recommended practices and standards most frequently used for each type of structure, and will develop them to incorporate best published and recognized practice and knowledge where it provides a significant improvement on the base document. Work on the Code has commenced under the direction of an internationally constituted sub-committee comprising representatives from most of the countries with a substantial offshore oil and gas industry. This paper outlines the background to the code and the format, content and work program

  12. Spillover effects of international standards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trifkovic, Neda

    Most studies focus on trade effects and organizational outcomes of international standards, neglecting the effect of standards on employees. Using a two-year matched firm–employee panel dataset, this paper finds that the application of standards improves work conditions in small and medium....... The study reveals unexpected benefits from certification, calling for higher investment in standards....

  13. International hearing protector standardization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Torben

    2002-01-01

    Hearing protectors shall fulfill some minimum requirements to their performance. As hearing protector manufacturers sell the products all over the world, the testing and certification of hearing protectors has become an international issue. The ISO working group WG17 under the headlines Acoustics...

  14. INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL REPORTING STANDARDS AND ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PUBLICATIONS1

    across borders led many economies to adopt the. International ... Keywords: Reporting Standards, Value, Relevance, Earnings, Management ..... nal of Applied Economics and Business Re- search ... accounting in emerging markets: Evidence.

  15. Digital forensic standards: international progress

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Grobler, MM

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available With the explosion of digital crime, digital forensics is more often applied. The digital forensic discipline developed rather rapidly, but up to date very little international standardization with regard to processes, procedures or management has...

  16. Towards an international address standard

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Coetzee, S

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available in a better user experience. Standards compliance allows for the separation of concerns: HTML for content, Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) for presentation and JavaScript for dynamic behaviour. Standards compliant documents are also...) and cascading style sheets through CSS (CSS n.d.), whilst the JavaScript specification has been standardised by Ecma International (another standards organisation for information and communication systems), in the form of EcmaScript (Ecma...

  17. Radiation safety: New international standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, A.J.

    1994-01-01

    This article highlights an important result of this work for the international harmonization of radiation safety: specifically, it present an overview of the forthcoming International Basic Safety Standards for Protection Against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources - the so-called BSS. They have been jointly developed by six organizations - the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the International Labour Organization (ILO), the Nuclear Energy Agency of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (NEA/OECD), the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO), and the World Health Organization (WHO)

  18. on International Financial Reporting Standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edyta Łazarowicz

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses and assesses proposals for changes concerning the objective of financial reportingbased on International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS, presented in comments on the exposuredraft of the Conceptual Framework for Financial Reporting (2015. The majority of respondents thinkthat the objective of financial reporting should give more prominence to the importance of providinginformation about management’s stewardship. Moreover, some respondents suggest introducing thedefinition of stewardship into the Conceptual Framework and presenting implications of shifts in theobjective of financial reporting for the future standard setting and for preparing financial statements.Based on the analysis of comment letters and the review of accounting literature, the conclusion is thatthe objective of financial reporting should be changed. It is, however, disputable, if stewardship should bea separate object. There is too little research on the relation between the stewardship and decisionusefulnessobjectives. The findings of this research could show accounting standard-setters the potentialtrade-offs and conflicts between these objectives.

  19. Development of standardized radioactive 46Sc solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Hongshan; Jia Zhang; Yu Yiguang; Sun Naiyao

    1988-01-01

    A method of preparation of standardized radioactive 46 Sc solution is developed. The separation of 46 Sc, the composition of 46 Sc solution and its stability, and radioactivity measurement of 46 Sc are systematically studied. The results obtained in the study and in the applications in many laboratories have shown that our method is effective and reliable

  20. Standardization of {sup 32}P radioactive solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marques, Caio Pinheiros; Koskinas, Marina Fallone; Almeida, Jamille da Silveira; Yamazaki, Ione M.; Dias, Mauro da Silva, E-mail: cpmarques@usp.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    The standardization of {sup 32}P radioactive solution using three different methods is presented. The disintegration rate was determined by the CIEMAT/NIST and TDCR methods in liquid scintillator systems and self-absorption extrapolation method using 4π(PC)-β system. The results obtained for the activity of the {sup 32}P solution were compared and they agree within the experimental uncertainties. (author)

  1. EPR meeting international safety standards with margin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazurkiewicz, S.M.; Brauns, J.; Blombach, J.

    2005-01-01

    The EPR provides technology that offers a solution to the market's need for safe, economic power. The EPR was originally developed through a joint effort between Framatome ANP and Siemens by incorporating the best technological features from the French and German nuclear reactor fleets into a cost-competitive product capable of international licensing. As such, the EPR is a global product with commercial units currently being built in Finland at the Olkiluoto site, and planned for France, at the Flamanville site. Framatome ANP has recently proposed four EPR units to China in response to a request for vendor bids. In addition, Framatome ANP has announced their intent to pursue design certification with the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). This paper discusses how EPR's innovative safety philosophy ensures compliance with international safety standards for advanced light-water reactors (ALWRs). (author)

  2. EPR meeting international safety standards with margin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazurkiewicz, S.M.; Brauns, J.; Blombach, J.

    2005-01-01

    The EPR provides technology that offers a solution to the market's need for safe, economic power. The EPR was originally developed through a joint effort between Framatome ANP and Siemens by incorporating the best technological features from the French and German nuclear reactor fleets into a cost-competitive product capable of international licensing. As such, the EPR is a global product with commercial units currently being built in Finland at the Olkiluoto site, and planned for France, at the Flamanville site. Framatome ANP has recently proposed four EPR units to China in response to a request for vendor bids. In addition, Framatome ANP has announced their intent to pursue design certification in with the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). This paper discusses how EPR's innovative safety philosophy ensures compliance with international safety standards for advanced light-water reactors (ALWRs). (author)

  3. The international dimensions of nuclear safety standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reed, J.M.

    1992-01-01

    The paper reviews the activities of the major international organisations in the field of nuclear safety standards; the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the OECD's Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) and the Commission of the European Communities. Each organisation encourages the concept of international nuclear safety standards. After Chernobyl, there were calls for some form of binding international nuclear safety standards. Many Member States of IAEA accepted these Codes as a suitable basis for formulating their national safety standards, but the prevailing view was that voluntary compliance with the Codes was the preferred path. With few reactor vendors in a limited international market, the time may be approaching when an internationally licensable nuclear reactor is needed. Commonly accepted safety standards would be a prerequisite. The paper discusses the issues involved and the complexities of standards making in the international arena. (author)

  4. 77 FR 43196 - Minimum Internal Control Standards and Technical Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-24

    ... NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION 25 CFR Parts 543 and 547 Minimum Internal Control Standards [email protected] . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Part 543 addresses minimum internal control standards (MICS) for Class II gaming operations. The regulations require tribes to establish controls and implement...

  5. International Financial Reporting Standards and differential reporting

    OpenAIRE

    Jarvis, Robin; Collis, Jill

    2003-01-01

    This paper examines the international development of financial reporting standards for smaller entities from a UK perspective. It examines the three elements of differential reporting: abbreviated accounts, the Financial Reporting Standard for Smaller Entities and exemption from the statutory audit.

  6. The political economy of international accounting standards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perry, J.; Nolke, A.

    2006-01-01

    On 1 January 2005, all stock exchange listed companies in the European Union (EU) began using International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) written by the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB). This article argues that the IASB's introduction of fair value accounting reflects and

  7. INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL REPORTING STANDARDS AND ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PUBLICATIONS1

    (IFRS) on the quality of financial reporting in Nigeria. The study utilises a ... cial reporting by public interest entities world- wide. In Nigeria ... Keywords: Reporting Standards, Value, Relevance, Earnings, Management ... of the. IFRS, the adoption is wrought with challenges. ... and transitional economies still have ineffective.

  8. The International harmonisation process of Accounting Standards

    OpenAIRE

    Fritz, Susanne; Lämmle, Christina

    2003-01-01

    Background: Growth in international trade and capital flows has triggered a rising economic integration. Because of these developments there has been an international homogenising effect upon many customs, practices and institutions. In business life it led among other things to a desire to harmonise Accounting Standards among countries. Purpose: Our purpose is to answer the question: What is the international harmonisation process of Accounting Standards, what is its status quo and how impo...

  9. Importance of international standards on hydrogen technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bose, T.K.; Gingras, S.

    2001-01-01

    This presentation provided some basic information regarding standards and the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). It also explained the importance of standardization activities, particularly ISO/TC 197 which applies to hydrogen technologies. Standards are established by consensus. They define the minimum requirements that will ensure that products and services are reliable and effective. Standards contribute to the elimination of technical barriers to trade (TBT). The harmonization of standards around the world is desirable in a free trade environment. The influence of the TBT on international standardization was discussed with particular reference to the objectives of ISO/TC 197 hydrogen technologies. One of the priorities for ISO/TC 197 is a hydrogen fuel infrastructure which includes refuelling stations, fuelling connectors, and storage technologies for gaseous and liquid hydrogen. Other priorities include an agreement between the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) and the ISO, in particular the IEC/TC 105 and ISO/TC 197 for the development of fuel cell standards. The international standards that have been published thus far include ISO 13984:1999 for liquid hydrogen, land vehicle fuelling system interface, and ISO 14687:1999 for hydrogen fuel product specification. Standards are currently under development for: liquid hydrogen; airport hydrogen fuelling facilities; gaseous hydrogen blends; basic considerations for the safety of hydrogen systems; gaseous hydrogen and hydrogen blends; and gaseous hydrogen for land vehicle filling connectors. It was concluded that the widespread use of hydrogen is dependent on international standardization

  10. Interoperable and standard e-Health solution over Bluetooth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, I; Del Valle, P; Munoz, P; Trigo, J D; Escayola, J; Martínez-Espronceda, M; Muñoz, A; Serrano, L; Garcia, J

    2010-01-01

    The new paradigm of e-Health demands open sensors and middleware components that permit transparent integration and end-to-end interoperability of new personal health devices. The use of standards seems to be the internationally adopted way to solve these problems. This paper presents the implementation of an end-to-end standards-based e-Health solution. This includes ISO/IEEE11073 standard for the interoperability of the medical devices in the patient environment and EN13606 standard for the interoperable exchange of the Electronic Healthcare Record. The design strictly fulfills all the technical features of the most recent versions of both standards. The implemented prototype has been tested in a laboratory environment to demonstrate its feasibility for its further transfer to the healthcare system.

  11. Observations on International Labor Standards and Trade

    OpenAIRE

    Alan B. Krueger

    1996-01-01

    This paper reviews the theoretical arguments for and against linking international labor standards to trade. Based on theory alone it is difficult to generalize about the effect of labor standards on efficiency and equity. Some economists have argued that international labor standards are merely disguised protectionism. An evaluation of determinants of support for legislation that would ban imports to the United States of goods made with child labor provides little support for the prevailing ...

  12. International standardization in the field of environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehmann, K.

    1991-01-01

    The ISO (International Organization for Standardization) is an international federation of national standards bodies. Its activities increasingly take health and environmental effects into account; in the future, standardization will also focus on identification systems that could facilitate recycling and proper disposal. Three technical committees in particular are concerned with standardization as it relates to air, water and soil quality. Other ISO work concerns product-oriented standardization, e.g. in the fields of fire protection equipment, refrigeration, thermal insulation, fibre-reinforced cement, and material and equipment used in the petroleum and natural gas industries. (author)

  13. International Electrotechnical Commission standards and French material control standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furet, J.; Weill, J.

    1978-01-01

    There are reported the international standards incorporated into the IEC Subcommitee 45 A (Nuclear Reactor Instrumentation) and the national standards elaborated by the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique, CEA, Group of normalized control equipment, the degree of application of those being reported on the base design, call of bids and exploitation of nuclear power plants. (J.E. de C)

  14. International young physicists' tournament problems & solutions 2014

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, Wenli

    2016-01-01

    International Young Physicists' Tournament (Iypt), is one of the most prestigious international physics contests among high school students. This book is based on the solutions of 2014 Iypt problems. The authors are undergraduate students who participated in the Cupt (Chinese Undergraduate Physics Tournament). It is intended as a college level solution to the challenging open-ended problems. It provides original, quantitative solutions in fulfilling seemingly impossible tasks. This book is not limited to the tasks required by the problems and it is not confined to the models and methods in present literatures. Many of the articles include modification and extension to existing models in references, or derivation and computation based on fundamental physics. This book provides quantitative solutions to practical problems in everyday life. This is a good reference book for undergraduates, advanced high-school students, physics educators and curious public interested in the intriguing phenomena in daily life.

  15. China and IEC international standardization activities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Su Zhongmin; Guo Chenguang

    2006-01-01

    @@ International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC), one of the currently worlswide largest and most authoritative international standardization organizations,is specialized in developing and promulgating international standards for the electric and electronic fields, which are widespread adopted through out the world and play an important role in the international trade of electric and electronic products. Moreover, according to the 2005 statistics by the World Bank, the population of countries participating in the IEC activities accounts for 92% of the world total and their trade volume accounts for 95% of the global total.

  16. International Standardization of Library and Documentation Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Federation for Documentation, The Hague (Netherlands).

    This comparative study of the national and international standards, rules and regulations on library and documentation techniques adopted in various countries was conducted as a preliminary step in determining the minimal bases for facilitating national and international cooperation between documentalists and librarians. The study compares and…

  17. Standards: An international framework for nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Versteeg, J.

    2000-01-01

    The IAEA, uniquely among international organizations concerned with the use of radiation, radioactive materials and nuclear energy, has statutory functions to establish safety standards and to provide for their application in Member States. The IAEA also contributes towards another major element of the 'global safety culture', namely the establishment of legally binding international agreements on safety related issues. (author)

  18. Adoption of International Financial Accounting Reporting Standards ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examines the International Financial Accounting Reporting Standards adoption practices around the world and the way these practices are reflected in the financial statements of companies in different countries. It also examines the incentives/ motivations for the variations in the type of International Financial ...

  19. International standards and agreements in food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cetinkaya, N.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: The economies of both developed and developing countries have been effected by their exported food and agricultural products. Trading policies of food and agricultural products are governed by international agreement as well as national regulations. Trade in food and agricultural commodities may be affected by both principal Agreements within the overall World Trade Organization (WTO) Agreement, though neither specifically refers to irradiation or irradiated foods. The principal Agreements are the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Agreement and the Sanitary and Phyto sanitary (SPS) Agreement. The SPS of the WTO requires governments to harmonize their sanitary and phyto sanitary measures on as wide basis as possible. Related standards, guidelines and recommendations of international standard setting bodies such as the Codex Alimentarius Commission (food safety); the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC) (plant health and quarantine); and International Office of Epizootic (animal health and zoo noses) should be used in such a harmonization. International Standards for Phyto sanitary Measures (ISPM) no.18 was published under the IPPC by FAO (April 2003, Rome-Italy). ISPM standard provides technical guidance on the specific procedure for the application of ionizing radiation as a phyto sanitary treatment for regulated pests or articles. Moreover, Codex Alimentarius Commission, Codex General Standard for Irradiated Foods (Stand 106-1983) and Recommended International Code of Practice were first published in 1983 and revised in March 2003. Scope of this standard applies to foods processed by ionizing radiation that is used in conjunction with applicable hygienic codes, food standards and transportation codes. It does not apply to foods exposed to doses imparted by measuring instruments used for inspection purposes. Codex documents on Principles and Guidelines for the Import/Export Inspection and Certification of Foods have been prepared to guide

  20. International standards and agreements in food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cetinkaya, N.

    2004-01-01

    The economies of both developed and developing countries have been effected by their exported food and agricultural products. Trading policies of food and agricultural products are governed by international agreement as well as national regulations. Trade in food and agricultural commodities may be affected by both principal Agreements within the overall World Trade Organization (WTO) Agreement, though neither specifically refers to irradiation or irradiated foods. The principal Agreements are the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Agreement and the Sanitary and Phyto sanitary (SPS) Agreement. The SPS of the WTO requires governments to harmonize their sanitary and phyto sanitary measures on as wide basis as possible. Related standards, guidelines and recommendations of international standard setting bodies such as the Codex Alimentarius Commission (food safety); the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC) (plant health and quarantine); and International Office of Epizootic (animal health and zoo noses) should be used in such a harmonization. International Standards for Phyto sanitary Measures (ISPM) no.18 was published under the IPPC by FAO (April 2003, Rome-Italy). ISPM standard provides technical guidance on the specific procedure for the application of ionizing radiation as a phyto sanitary treatment for regulated pests or articles. Moreover, Codex Alimentarius Commission, Codex General Standard for Irradiated Foods (Stand 106-1983) and Recommended International Code of Practice were first published in 1983 and revised in March 2003. Scope of this standard applies to foods processed by ionizing radiation that is used in conjunction with applicable hygienic codes, food standards and transportation codes. It does not apply to foods exposed to doses imparted by measuring instruments used for inspection purposes. Codex documents on Principles and Guidelines for the Import/Export Inspection and Certification of Foods have been prepared to guide international

  1. International standards in mitigating trade risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiermann, A B

    2011-04-01

    This paper describes the role of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE), as a science-based and democratic standard-setting organisation that provides guidance on preventing the spread of animal diseases, including zoonoses, in international trade. The World Trade Organization is identified as the international institution with the legal power to encourage adherence to international standards and mediate trade disputes. The importance of assuring good governance and the credibility of national Veterinary Services through a process of official certification is identified as an essential component in the safety of trade. Private-public partnerships and the evolution of responsibilities are also identified as essential for the implementation of health guarantees such as compartmentalisation. The rapid emergence of private standards is described as a potential complement to the implementation of sanitary standards, as long as they are applied globally and in support of the OIE standards. Ultimately, the biggest challenge is for the international community to create the incentives and generate the political will for fair trade and for the universal recognition and application of the established international sanitary standards.

  2. Internal emitter research and standard setting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stannard, J.N.

    1981-01-01

    The history of the use of data from internal emitter research in the derivation of safety standards is reviewed. At first, observed biological effects were correlated with body burdens or exposure levels. This direct approach is illustrated by detailed accounts of the cases of uranium and plutonium. In the 1950's, when it was decided to provide standards for over 200 isotopes, the direct approach was replaced by a system of calculations. This necessitated changes in internal emitter research programs to provide metabolic data, and the development of models such as Reference Man and the Lung and Gastrointestinal Tract models. The continuing contribution of internal emitter research to standard setting can be seen in the references quoted in the metabolic data section of the new ICRP report (ICRP Publication 30). Present trends suggest a possible return to the direct use of internal emitter effects data for obtaining risk estimates. (U.K.)

  3. Minimum quality standards and international trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baltzer, Kenneth Thomas

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of a non-discriminating minimum quality standard (MQS) on trade and welfare when the market is characterized by imperfect competition and asymmetric information. A simple partial equilibrium model of an international Cournot duopoly is presented in which a domes...... prefer different levels of regulation. As a result, international trade disputes are likely to arise even when regulation is non-discriminating....

  4. International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 15189.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Frank; Maurer, Caroline; Friedberg, Richard C

    2017-09-01

    The College of American Pathologists (CAP) offers a suite of laboratory accreditation programs, including one specific to accreditation to the international organization for standardization (ISO) 15189 standard for quality management specific to medical laboratories. CAP leaders offer an overview of ISO 15189 including its components, internal audits, occurrence management, document control, and risk management. The authors provide a comparison of its own ISO 15189 program, CAP 15189, to the CAP Laboratory Accreditation Program. The authors conclude with why laboratories should use ISO 15189. © The Korean Society for Laboratory Medicine.

  5. The CMMI Product Suite and International Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-07-01

    standards: “2.3 Reference Documents 2.3.1 Applicable ISO /IEC documents, including ISO /IEC 12207 and ISO /IEC 15504.” “3.1 Development User Requirements...related international standards such as ISO 9001:2000, 12207 , 15288 © 2006 by Carnegie Mellon University Page 12 Key Supplements Needed...the Measurement Framework in ISO /IEC 15504; and • the Process Reference Model included in ISO /IEC 12207 . A possible approach has been developed for

  6. 78 FR 18321 - International Code Council: The Update Process for the International Codes and Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-26

    ... Energy Conservation Code. International Existing Building Code. International Fire Code. International... Code. International Property Maintenance Code. International Residential Code. International Swimming Pool and Spa Code International Wildland-Urban Interface Code. International Zoning Code. ICC Standards...

  7. ISO: international standards development for nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, K.

    1981-01-01

    The importance of internationally recognized standards for nuclear technology and safety is rapidly increasing for technical as well as economical and political reasons such as public acceptance and nuclear technology transfer to developing countries. The need for such standards is also evident because of the large number of nuclear installations sited close to international borders, and the export of nuclear installations from relatively few supplier countries to a large number of user countries. It is the purpose of this report to describe briefly the history, organizational structures and procedures, goals, accomplishments, problems, and future needs of the relevant activities of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). ISO is composed of the partly governmental, partly non-governmental national standards bodies of 86 countries including China. The work of its Technical Committee (TC) 85 'Nuclear Energy' is mostly concerned with industrial applications, contractual aspects and international communication, for the benefit of both developed and developing countries. It works in close liaison with IAEA, which develops Codes and Guides addressed mainly to the regulatory aspects of nuclear power plants in developing countries. ISO/TC 85 has four sub-committees dealing with: (a) Terminology, Definitions, Units and Symbols (Secretariat USA, four working groups (WGs)); (b) Radiation Protection (Secretariat France, ten WGs); (c) Power Reactor Technology (Secretariat Sweden, nine WGs); (d) Nuclear Fuel Technology (Secretariat F.R. Germany, seven WGs). (author)

  8. Data standards for the international virtual observatory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R J Hanisch

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available A primary goal of the International Virtual Observatory Alliance, which brings together Virtual Observatory Projects from 16 national and international development projects, is to develop, evaluate, test, and agree upon standards for astronomical data formatting, data discovery, and data delivery. In the three years that the IVOA has been in existence, substantial progress has been made on standards for tabular data, imaging data, spectroscopic data, and large-scale databases and on managing the metadata that describe data collections and data access services. In this paper, I describe how the IVOA operates and give my views as to why such a broadly based international collaboration has been able to make such rapid progress.

  9. International Financial Reporting Standards for SMEs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cicilia IONESCU

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available • IFRS for SMEs give the response to an international requirement of the developed and emerging economies in the process of globalization to have a rigorous and common set of international accounting provisions (standard, rule, regulation specifically for SMEs, to be much more simplified than the complete IFRSs. The area where are applicable the IFRS for SMEs includes all the profit-oriented entities that prepare the general financial statements and do not have the public accountability and there are excluded the entities whose securities are publicly traded and the financial institutions like banks and the insurance companies.

  10. Study of International Standards of Risk Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dykan Volodymyr L.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the article lies in the study of existing international standards of risk management, an important factor of improvement of risk management in domestic corporations and enterprises and development of recommendations on application of international standards in Ukraine, in particular, within the framework of building corporate systems of risk management. The conducted study shows that approaches on organisation of the process of risk management, used in standards of risk management, are of general character and differ with the degree of detailing. Their undoubted value in development of risk management in Ukraine is identification of a general direction of building corporate systems of risk management in practice. The said approaches at the national and corporate levels of standardisation in Ukraine within the framework of building corporate systems of risk management would allow improvement of risk management in corporations and enterprises. The prospect of further studies of domestic specialists in the field of risk management is development of the domestic standard of risk management with consideration of modern domestic specific features of development of risk management in Ukraine and leading foreign experience.

  11. Problems with the implementation of international standards for financial reporting and international audit standards

    OpenAIRE

    Dimitrova, Janka

    2012-01-01

    The International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) are designed for application in the financial reports with general purpose and the other financial reporting in all profit-oriented entities. The International Auditing Standards (IAS) are setting out the framework for carrying out the review process of financial reporting from entities referred to audit in order to verify the authenticity of the information and raising up the credibility of financial statements. Quality implementation...

  12. A Metadata Standard for Hydroinformatic Data Conforming to International Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notay, Vikram; Carstens, Georg; Lehfeldt, Rainer

    2017-04-01

    The affordable availability of computing power and digital storage has been a boon for the scientific community. The hydroinformatics community has also benefitted from the so-called digital revolution, which has enabled the tackling of more and more complex physical phenomena using hydroinformatic models, instruments, sensors, etc. With models getting more and more complex, computational domains getting larger and the resolution of computational grids and measurement data getting finer, a large amount of data is generated and consumed in any hydroinformatics related project. The ubiquitous availability of internet also contributes to this phenomenon with data being collected through sensor networks connected to telecommunications networks and the internet long before the term Internet of Things existed. Although generally good, this exponential increase in the number of available datasets gives rise to the need to describe this data in a standardised way to not only be able to get a quick overview about the data but to also facilitate interoperability of data from different sources. The Federal Waterways Engineering and Research Institute (BAW) is a federal authority of the German Federal Ministry of Transport and Digital Infrastructure. BAW acts as a consultant for the safe and efficient operation of the German waterways. As part of its consultation role, BAW operates a number of physical and numerical models for sections of inland and marine waterways. In order to uniformly describe the data produced and consumed by these models throughout BAW and to ensure interoperability with other federal and state institutes on the one hand and with EU countries on the other, a metadata profile for hydroinformatic data has been developed at BAW. The metadata profile is composed in its entirety using the ISO 19115 international standard for metadata related to geographic information. Due to the widespread use of the ISO 19115 standard in the existing geodata infrastructure

  13. Developing and enforcing internal information systems standards: InduMaker’s Standards Management Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Loebbecke

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It is widely agreed that standards provide numerous benefits when available and enforced. Company-internal Information Systems (IS management procedures and solutions, in the following coined IS ‘standards’, allow for harmonizing operations between company units, locations and even different service providers. However, many companies lack an organized process for defining and managing internal IS standards, which causes uncertainties and delays in decision making, planning, and design processes. In this case study of the globally operating InduMaker (anonymized company name, an established manufacturing supplier, we look into the company-internal management of IS standards. Theoretically grounded in the organizational and IS-focused literature on business process modelling and business process commoditization, we describe and investigate InduMaker’s newly developed Standard Management Process (SMP for defining and managing company-internal business and IS standards, with which the multinational pursues offering clear answers to business and IT departments about existing IS standards, their degree of obligation, applicability, and scope at any time.

  14. International Standards on stability of digital prints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adelstein, Peter Z

    2010-01-01

    The International Standards Organization (ISO) is a worldwide recognized standardizing body which has responsibility for standards on permanence of digital prints. This paper is an update on the progress made to date by ISO in writing test methods in this area. Three technologies are involved, namely ink jet, dye diffusion thermal transfer (dye-sublimation) and electrophotography. Two types of test methods are possible, namely comparative tests and predictive tests. To date a comparative test on water fastness has been published and final balloting is underway on a comparative test on humidity fastness. Predictive tests are being finalized on thermal stability and pollution susceptibility. The test method on thermal stability is intended to predict the print life during normal aging. One of the testing concerns is that some prints do not show significant image change in practical testing times. The test method on pollution susceptibility only deals with ozone and assumes that the reciprocity law applies. This law assumes that a long time under a low pollutant concentration is equivalent to a short time under the high concentration used in the test procedure. Longer term studies include a predictive test for light stability and the preparation of a material specification. The latter requires a decision about the proper colour target to be used and what constitutes an unacceptable colour change. Moreover, a specification which gives a predictive life is very dependent upon the conditions the print encounters and will only apply to specific levels of temperature, ozone and light.

  15. Free viewpoint TV and its international standardization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanimoto, Masayuki

    2009-05-01

    We have developed a new type of television named FTV (Free-viewpoint TV). FTV is an innovative visual media that enables us to view a 3D scene by freely changing our viewpoints. We proposed the concept of FTV and constructed the world's first real-time system including the complete chain of operation from image capture to display. We also realized FTV on a single PC and FTV with free listening-point audio. FTV is based on the ray-space method that represents one ray in real space with one point in the ray-space. We have also developed new type of ray capture and display technologies such as a 360-degree mirror-scan ray capturing system and a 360 degree ray-reproducing display. MPEG regarded FTV as the most challenging 3D media and started the international standardization activities of FTV. The first phase of FTV is MVC (Multi-view Video Coding) and the second phase is 3DV (3D Video). MVC was completed in March 2009. 3DV is a standard that targets serving a variety of 3D displays. It will be completed within the next two years.

  16. National and International Standardization (International Organization for Standardization and European Committee for Standardization Relevant for Sustainability in Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Morbiducci

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability in construction has a short history in terms of principles, standardizations and applications. From the Brundtland Report “Our Common Future”, a new vision of the resource deficits, climate impacts and the social responsibility gave growth to the idea of sustainability also in design and construction. Consequently, in around 2000, the international and national organizations for standardization started to develop standards for the application of sustainable principles. This paper gives an overview of existing and planned standards, and examples on how to use them as a framework for the development of methods and tools for assessment.

  17. National treatment in international trade: National law and international standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divljak Drago

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject of the paper is the principle of national treatment, namely one of the basic principles of international trade. The objective is to determine its outreach and contents set in the forms of international trade organising, primarily in the World Trade Organization, from a legal perspective, naturally, all in the context of the Serbian law. The analysis that has been carried out indicates that there is an obvious intention of our legislators to harmonise in principle our legislation with the WTO requirements and standards, which are incomplete themselves and cause disputes that are not resolved in the practice of dispute resolving either entirely or consistently. In our law, a step forward has been made in relation to the situation from the previous relevant legislation, because the application of this principle is extended not only to trade with goods but also to trade with services, and to industrial property rights. However, in the most significant, basic field, namely trade with goods, it is still being done in a general way, by simplifying the entire topic and bringing it down only to protection against discrimination and neglecting the sphere of protectionism. Such acting does not include all the complexity of this matter and it is not entirely harmonised with the WTO requirements. However, a good side of such an approach is that it gives the state more freedom for acting in this sphere, which may be acceptable in the transition period until full membership of Serbia in this organization.

  18. Russian seismic standards and demands for equipment and their conformity with international standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaznovsky, S.; Ostretsov, I.

    1993-01-01

    The principle regulations of standard documents concerning seismic safety of NPPs and demands for reactor equipment conformity with international standards are presented in this report. General state of NPP safety standards is reviewed, with a special emphasis on the state of seismic design standards for NPP equipment and piping. Russian standards documents on seismic resistance of NPPs and requirements are compared to international ones

  19. The Inclusion of Standard Terms in International Sales Contracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Eiselen

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The problem dealing with the inclusion of standard terms and conditions in contracts is a problem that has engaged most legal systems. The United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods, Vienna 1980 (CISG does not expressly deal with this problem. Accordingly the solution to the issue must be found in an interpretation and application of the general principles found in articles 8, 14 and 18. One of the main objects of the CISG is the harmonisation of international trade law. It is generally recognised that in order to achieve harmonisation it isnecessary that courts should interpret and apply the convention in a consistent and harmonious manner. Unfortunately a number of approaches have emerged from courts around the world in regard to the inclusion of standard terms. German courts have developed a strict approach which requires that the standard terms be madeavailable to the addressee at the time of the conclusion of the contract. They also require that the standard terms be couched in the language of the main contract. In stark contrast an American court has used an approach which is very lax in regard to incorporation, even allowing incorporation after the conclusion of the contract. There is, however a more moderate approach set out in decisions of the Austrian Supreme Court where the court adopted an approach which is more akin to that found in most legal systems, namely that a clear incorporation clause in the contract is sufficient for the effective incorporation of standard terms. The author critically examines the case law, the various approaches and the underlying arguments on which they are based, before reaching the conclusion that the two extreme approaches should be rejected in favour of the more moderate approach. This approach is founded on aproper interpretation of the provisions of the CISG as well as being in step with international trade practice.

  20. MULTIVARIATE ACCOUNTING IN INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL REPORTING STANDARDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. IEVDOKYMOV

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The necessity of the research on the basis of the positivist model of scientific knowledge is proved. The value of the conceptual framework in the process of bookkeeping selection is analyzed. The differences of the accounting selection adjustment procedure in US GAAP and IFRS are considered. The role and importance of the qualitative characteristics of financial reporting in the implementation of accounting selection are substantiated. The structure of the qualitative characteristics of financial reporting and their limitations under the Conceptual Framework for the preparation and presentation of financial statements are examined. The correlation between the accounting rules and alternatives adopted in US GAAP and IAS / IFRS is analyzed. The necessity to discuss the issue of the feasibility of «rule-oriented» or «principle-oriented» accounting model in the context of multivariate concept is studied. The authors prove the necessity of the application of institutional theory to solve the problems of accounting opportunism that arises when using the concept of multivariate accounting in International Financial Reporting Standards.

  1. Investigating multiple solutions in the constrained minimal supersymmetric standard model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allanach, B.C. [DAMTP, CMS, University of Cambridge,Wilberforce Road, Cambridge, CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); George, Damien P. [DAMTP, CMS, University of Cambridge,Wilberforce Road, Cambridge, CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge,JJ Thomson Avenue, Cambridge, CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Nachman, Benjamin [SLAC, Stanford University,2575 Sand Hill Rd, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States)

    2014-02-07

    Recent work has shown that the Constrained Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (CMSSM) can possess several distinct solutions for certain values of its parameters. The extra solutions were not previously found by public supersymmetric spectrum generators because fixed point iteration (the algorithm used by the generators) is unstable in the neighbourhood of these solutions. The existence of the additional solutions calls into question the robustness of exclusion limits derived from collider experiments and cosmological observations upon the CMSSM, because limits were only placed on one of the solutions. Here, we map the CMSSM by exploring its multi-dimensional parameter space using the shooting method, which is not subject to the stability issues which can plague fixed point iteration. We are able to find multiple solutions where in all previous literature only one was found. The multiple solutions are of two distinct classes. One class, close to the border of bad electroweak symmetry breaking, is disfavoured by LEP2 searches for neutralinos and charginos. The other class has sparticles that are heavy enough to evade the LEP2 bounds. Chargino masses may differ by up to around 10% between the different solutions, whereas other sparticle masses differ at the sub-percent level. The prediction for the dark matter relic density can vary by a hundred percent or more between the different solutions, so analyses employing the dark matter constraint are incomplete without their inclusion.

  2. Interpeace: local solutions, lasting peace | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-10-27

    Oct 27, 2010 ... With funding from IDRC, a UN pilot initiative, the War-torn Societies Project, sought durable, locally rooted solutions to the conflicts in four test countries: Somalia ... "The issues the projects were working on were defined by the ...

  3. Supporting food security solutions | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2013-10-04

    Oct 4, 2013 ... Including women in the crusade against hunger ... The knowledge, production practices, and defining of food conservation, preparation, and consumption ... and international leadership in vaccine development and research on human and ... Given equal treatment, farmers will fulfill their potential as worthy ...

  4. Lessons learned in streamlining the preparation of SNM standard solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, J.P.; Johnson, S.R.

    1986-01-01

    Improved safeguard measurements have produced a demand for greater quantities of reliable SNM solution standards. At the Savannah River Plant (SRP), the demand for these standards has been met by several innovations to improve the productivity and reliability of standards preparations. With the use of computer controlled balance, large batches of SNM stock solutions are prepared on a gravimetric basis. Accurately dispensed quantities of the stock solution are weighed and stored in bottles. When needed, they are quantitatively transferred to tared containers, matrix adjusted to target concentrations, weighed, and measured for density at 25 0 C. Concentrations of SNM are calculated both gravimetrically and volumetrically. Calculated values are confirmed analytically before the standards are used in measurement control program (MCP) activities. The lessons learned include: MCP goals include error identification and management. Strategy modifications are required to improve error management. Administrative controls can minimize certain types of errors. Automation can eliminate redundancy and streamline preparations. Prudence and simplicity enhance automation success. The effort expended to increase productivity has increased the reliability of standards and provided better documentation for quality assurance

  5. International Standards for Neurological Classification of Spinal Cord Injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirshblum, S C; Biering-Sorensen, F; Betz, R

    2014-01-01

    The International Standards for the Neurological Classification of Spinal Cord Injury (ISNCSCI) is routinely used to determine the levels of injury and to classify the severity of the injury. Questions are often posed to the International Standards Committee of the American Spinal Injury Associat......The International Standards for the Neurological Classification of Spinal Cord Injury (ISNCSCI) is routinely used to determine the levels of injury and to classify the severity of the injury. Questions are often posed to the International Standards Committee of the American Spinal Injury...

  6. Asset Accounting According to National and International Standards

    OpenAIRE

    Karina Utenkova

    2014-01-01

    The Article overviews the issues of complying National Accounting Standards at the enterprises of Ukraine with International Financial Reporting Standards. Key provisions of national and international standards governing the accounting of fixed assets (NP(S)A 7 'Property, Plant, Equipment', IFRS 16 'Fixed Assets') have been analyzed. It has been found that the list of PPE regulated by both accounting standard frameworks is not identical. Specifics of fixed assets recognition, their classifica...

  7. Internal Performance Measurement Systems: Problems and Solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Morten; Mitchell, Falconer; Nørreklit, Hanne

    2010-01-01

    This article pursues two aims: to identify problems and dangers related to the operational use of internal performance measurement systems of the Balanced Scorecard (BSC) type and to provide some guidance on how performance measurement systems may be designed to overcome these problems....... The analysis uses and extends N rreklit's (2000) critique of the BSC by applying the concepts developed therein to contemporary research on the BSC and to the development of practice in performance measurement. The analysis is of relevance for many companies in the Asia-Pacific area as an increasing numbers...

  8. Measurement of Henry's Law Constants Using Internal Standards: A Quantitative GC Experiment for the Instrumental Analysis or Environmental Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Chang; Boisvert, Susanne M.; Arida, Ann-Marie C.; Day, Shannon E.

    2008-01-01

    An internal standard method applicable to undergraduate instrumental analysis or environmental chemistry laboratory has been designed and tested to determine the Henry's law constants for a series of alkyl nitriles. In this method, a mixture of the analytes and an internal standard is prepared and used to make a standard solution (organic solvent)…

  9. Enabling conformity to international standards within SeaDataNet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaap, Dick M. A.; Boldrini, Enrico; de Korte, Arjen; Santoro, Mattia; Manzella, Giuseppe; Nativi, Stefano

    2010-05-01

    SeaDataNet objective is to construct a standardized system for managing the large and diverse data sets collected by the oceanographic fleets and the new automatic observation systems. The aim is to network and enhance the currently existing infrastructures, which are the national oceanographic data centres and satellite data centres of 36 countries, active in data collection. The networking of these professional data centres, in a unique virtual data management system will provide integrated data sets of standardized quality on-line. The Common Data Index (CDI) is the middleware service adopted by SeaDataNet for discovery and access of the available data. In order to develop an interoperable and effective system, the use of international de facto and de jure standards is required. In particular the new goal object of this presentation is to introduce and discuss the solutions for making SeaDataNet compliant with the European Union (EU) INSPIRE directive and in particular with its Implementing Rules (IR). The European INSPIRE directive aims to rule the creation of an European Spatial Data Infrastructure (ESDI). This will enable the sharing of environmental spatial information among public sector organisations and better facilitate public access to spatial information across Europe. To ensure that the spatial data infrastructures of the European Member States are compatible and usable in a community and transboundary context, the directive requires that common IRs are adopted in a number of specific areas (Metadata, Data Specifications, Network Services, Data and Service Sharing and Monitoring and Reporting). Often the use of already approved digital geographic information standards is mandated, drawing from international organizations like the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) and the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), the latter by means of its Technical Committee 211 (ISO/TC 211). In the context of geographic data discovery a set of mandatory

  10. 5th international conference on certification and standardization in NDT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    Certification for Railway Maintenance Personnel in France; 10 Years of the CFCM. 30. NDT Personnel Certification - Service for Industry. 31. Certification of Personnel Performing Automated Non-destructive Testing of Pipes and Flat Products. Problems and Solutions. 32. Stress Testing is a New NDT Type in the Russian Standard GOST R 52330-2005 and International Standard ISO-9712. 33. Accreditation of Ultrasonic Thickness Measurement Methods - Practical Aspects. 34. Results of Approval of Certification Body ''SPEKTRCert'' by Auditors of EFNDT. 35. The Program for Specialists Training and Certification in Stress-Strained State Determination and Residual Life Assesment of Technical Devices and Contructions. 36. NDT Personnel Certification System at Turkish Standards Instiution (TSE) and Developments in Turkey. 37. Nondestructive Testing Personnel Certification in Turkish Aerospace Industries and National Aerospace Nondestructive Testing Board in the Turkey

  11. Trendy solutions: Why do states adopt Sustainable Energy Portfolio Standards?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandler, Jess [Georgia Institute of Technology, 685 Cherry Street, Atlanta, GA 30332-0345 (United States)], E-mail: jess.chandler@gatech.edu

    2009-08-15

    Thirty-four states had adopted Sustainable Energy Portfolio Standards (SEPS) or similar goals by the end of 2008, with 14 adoptions since 2006. There appears to be something trendy about SEPS and states may adopt SEPS when internal variables would indicate otherwise. This analysis extends the current discussion of SEPS adoption beyond internal variables, relying on innovation and diffusion theory. Logistic regression with SEPS adoption as the dependent variable is used to test internal determinants and diffusion measures for the years 1997-2008. Of the internal determinants variables, affluence and government ideology were found to be positive and significant. The results show that regional and neighbor diffusion variables are significant in SEPS adoption decisions-even when accounting for ideological distance from previous adopters.

  12. Trendy solutions. Why do states adopt Sustainable Energy Portfolio Standards?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandler, Jess [Georgia Institute of Technology, 685 Cherry Street, Atlanta, GA 30332-0345 (United States)

    2009-08-15

    Thirty-four states had adopted Sustainable Energy Portfolio Standards (SEPS) or similar goals by the end of 2008, with 14 adoptions since 2006. There appears to be something trendy about SEPS and states may adopt SEPS when internal variables would indicate otherwise. This analysis extends the current discussion of SEPS adoption beyond internal variables, relying on innovation and diffusion theory. Logistic regression with SEPS adoption as the dependent variable is used to test internal determinants and diffusion measures for the years 1997-2008. Of the internal determinants variables, affluence and government ideology were found to be positive and significant. The results show that regional and neighbor diffusion variables are significant in SEPS adoption decisions - even when accounting for ideological distance from previous adopters. (author)

  13. Trendy solutions: Why do states adopt Sustainable Energy Portfolio Standards?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandler, Jess

    2009-01-01

    Thirty-four states had adopted Sustainable Energy Portfolio Standards (SEPS) or similar goals by the end of 2008, with 14 adoptions since 2006. There appears to be something trendy about SEPS and states may adopt SEPS when internal variables would indicate otherwise. This analysis extends the current discussion of SEPS adoption beyond internal variables, relying on innovation and diffusion theory. Logistic regression with SEPS adoption as the dependent variable is used to test internal determinants and diffusion measures for the years 1997-2008. Of the internal determinants variables, affluence and government ideology were found to be positive and significant. The results show that regional and neighbor diffusion variables are significant in SEPS adoption decisions-even when accounting for ideological distance from previous adopters.

  14. Separation of Ionic Solutes: Abstracts of the sixth international conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-05-01

    The publication has been set up as a abstracts of the international conference dealing with separation of ionic solutes. The book consists of the sections: (A) Theory of solutions and processes; (B) Solvent extraction, liquid membranes and biphasic separations; (C) Capillary electrophoresis and isotachophoresis; (D) Selective and natural sorbents; (E) Fractionation of radionuclides and metals in natural systems - transfer and speciation

  15. Separation of Ionic Solutes: Abstracts of the sixth international conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    The publication has been set up as a abstracts of the international conference dealing with separation of ionic solutes. The book consists of the sections: (A) Theory of solutions and processes; (B) Solvent extraction, liquid membranes and biphasic separations; (C) Capillary electrophoresis and isotachophoresis; (D) Selective and natural sorbents; (E) Fractionation of radionuclides and metals in natural systems - transfer and speciation.

  16. Streamlining the Bankability Process using International Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtz, Sarah [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Repins, Ingrid L [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kelly, George [Sunset Technology, Mount Airy, MD; Ramu, Govind [SunPower, San Jose, California; Heinz, Matthias [TUV Rheinland, Cologne, Germany; Chen, Yingnan [CGC (China General Certification Center), Beijing; Wohlgemuth, John [PowerMark, Union Hall, VA; Lokanath, Sumanth [First Solar, Tempe, Arizona; Daniels, Eric [Suncycle USA, Frederick MD; Hsi, Edward [Swiss RE, Zurich, Switzerland; Yamamichi, Masaaki [RTS, Trumbull, CT

    2017-09-27

    NREL has supported the international efforts to create a streamlined process for documenting bankability and/or completion of each step of a PV project plan. IECRE was created for this purpose in 2014. This poster describes the goals, current status of this effort, and how individuals and companies can become involved.

  17. International Standards for Neurological Classification of Spinal Cord Injury:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirshblum, S C; Biering-Sørensen, Fin; Betz, R

    2014-01-01

    The International Standards for the Neurological Classification of Spinal Cord Injury (ISNCSCI) is routinely used to determine levels of injury and to classify the severity of the injury. Questions are often posed to the International Standards Committee of the American Spinal Injury Association...

  18. AUDIT OF FINANCIAL REPORTS, BASED ON INTERNATIONAL ACCOUNTING STANDARDS

    OpenAIRE

    Islom Kuziev

    2011-01-01

    In this article are given main notion about international standard of financial reporting, order of the auditing on the base of IFRS, scheduling the report of the auditor, auditor conclusions and are given analysis of reporting based on the auditor procedures. At the audit of financial reporting are taken into account international standard to financial reporting 29 "Financial reporting in hyperinflationary economies".

  19. 46 CFR 133.03 - Relationship to international standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Relationship to international standards. 133.03 Section 133.03 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS LIFESAVING SYSTEMS General § 133.03 Relationship to international standards. This subpart and subpart B of...

  20. 46 CFR 108.503 - Relationship to international standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Relationship to international standards. 108.503 Section 108.503 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Lifesaving Equipment § 108.503 Relationship to international standards. For...

  1. 78 FR 63873 - Minimum Internal Control Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-25

    ...--though less stringent than--the drop and count process for player interfaces and card tables. By removing... count standards for player interfaces and card games, and intends to address the issue comprehensively... surveillance of kiosks and for the collection and count of their contents. The Commission published a proposed...

  2. 77 FR 58707 - Minimum Internal Control Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-21

    ..., if any), counted, inventoried, and secured by an authorized agent. (ii) Bingo card inventory records... comprehensive standards for the entire Class II gaming environment. The new sections include, for example: Card games; drop and count; surveillance; and gaming promotions and player tracking. The amendments also...

  3. Vehicular ad hoc networks standards, solutions, and research

    CERN Document Server

    Molinaro, Antonella; Scopigno, Riccardo

    2015-01-01

    This book presents vehicular ad-hoc networks (VANETs) from the their onset, gradually going into technical details, providing a clear understanding of both theoretical foundations and more practical investigation. The editors gathered top-ranking authors to provide comprehensiveness and timely content; the invited authors were carefully selected from a list of who’s who in the respective field of interest: there are as many from Academia as from Standardization and Industry sectors from around the world. The covered topics are organized around five Parts starting from an historical overview of vehicular communications and standardization/harmonization activities (Part I), then progressing to the theoretical foundations of VANETs and a description of the day-one standard-compliant solutions (Part II), hence going into details of vehicular networking and security (Part III) and to the tools to study VANETs, from mobility and channel models, to network simulators and field trial methodologies (Part IV), and fi...

  4. Trade and the distributional politics of international labour standards

    OpenAIRE

    Oslington, Paul

    2005-01-01

    This paper constructs a simple general equilibrium model of the trade and distributional effects of spreading advanced country international labour standards to developing countries. Labour standards (including minimum safety requirements, prohibition of prison and child labour, and rights to unionise) are represented as a floor to the cost of employing labour. The model shows how the spread of standards affects the terms of trade and pattern of international specialisation, and can shift ...

  5. International Standardization of Pure Beta Emitters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Los Arcos, Jose Maria; Rodriguez, Leonor

    2006-01-01

    The paper describes the traditional methods of standardization of Pure Beta Emitters, their principal characteristics, advantage and drawbacks. It does comparisons between two metrological LSC methods: Triple to double coincidence ratio (TDCR) method and the CIEMAT/NIST method and presents the result obtained with several Key Comparisons serving as practical test of both methods. Both of them represent the siferrit of methods of standardization of pure (and mixed decay) radionuclides. ESIR WG of CCRI(II) is to implement a reference exchange system for the permanent equivalence of β, α and electron capture nuclides, similar to traditional SIR gamma. ESIR project is currently testing a new XAN scintillator and operational tests of the whole system at BIPM are expected by the end of 2006 (test restricted to ESIR NMI members)

  6. Current situation of International Organization for Standardization/Technical Committee 249 international standards of traditional Chinese medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu-Qi; Wang, Yue-Xi; Shi, Nan-Nan; Han, Xue-Jie; Lu, Ai-Ping

    2017-05-01

    To review the current situation and progress of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) international standards, standard projects and proposals in International Organization for Standardization (ISO)/ technical committee (TC) 249. ISO/TC 249 standards and standard projects on the ISO website were searched and new standard proposals information were collected from ISO/TC 249 National Mirror Committee in China. Then all the available data were summarized in 5 closely related items, including proposed time, proposed country, assigned working group (WG), current stage and classifification. In ISO/TC 249, there were 2 international standards, 18 standard projects and 24 new standard proposals proposed in 2014. These 44 standard subjects increased year by year since 2011. Twenty-nine of them were proposed by China, 15 were assigned to WG 4, 36 were in preliminary and preparatory stage and 8 were categorized into 4 fifields, 7 groups and sub-groups based on International Classifification Standards. A rapid and steady development of international standardization in TCM can be observed in ISO/TC 249.

  7. Standards: The Keys to Domestic and International Competitiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Robert D.

    1993-01-01

    Demonstrates the importance of standards for the competitiveness of U.S. companies and for international trade. The value of standards in research and development, marketing, design, purchasing, manufacturing, installation, and service is explained. Examples of specific standards and their application to the computer industry are included. (10…

  8. Nuclear Data Center International Standard Towards TSO Initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raja Murzaferi Raja Moktar; Mohd Fauzi Haris; Siti Nurbahyah Hamdan

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear Data Center is the main facility for Nuclear Malaysia Agency IT infrastructure comprising of main critical servers, research and operational data storage, HPC-clusters system and vital network core equipment. In recent years, international body such as TIA-Telecommunication Industry Association and Up time Institute have came out with proper international data center standards in order to ensure data center operation on achieving maximum operational up time and minimal downtime. The standard are currently being rated as tier level ranging from Data Center tier I up to tier IV, differentiate by facility standard and up time/ downtime percentage ratio. This paper will discuss Nuclear Data Center adopting international standards in supporting Nuclear Malaysia TSO initiative thus ensuring the critical core component of agency IT services availability and further more International standard recognitions. (author)

  9. European and International Standards on health and safety in welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howe, A

    2009-01-01

    A number of European and International Standards on health and safety in welding have been published in recent years and work on several more is nearing completion. These standards have been prepared jointly by the International Standards Organization (ISO) and the European Committee for Standardization (CEN). The standards development work has mostly been led by CEN/TC 121/SC 9, with excellent technical input from experts within Europe; but work on the revision of published standards, which has recently gathered pace, is now being carried out by ISO/TC 44/SC 9, with greater international involvement. This paper gives an overview of the various standards that have been published, are being revised or are under development in this field of health and safety in welding, seeking to (i) increase international awareness of published standards, (ii) encourage wider participation in health and safety in welding standards work and (iii) obtain feedback and solicit comments on standards that are currently under development or revision. Such an initiative is particularly timely because work is currently in progress on the revision of one of the more important standards in this field, namely EN ISO 10882:2001 Health and safety in welding and allied processes- Sampling of airborne particles and gases in the operator's breathing zone - Part 1: Sampling of airborne particles.

  10. Improving the efficiency of quantitative (1)H NMR: an innovative external standard-internal reference approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yande; Su, Bao-Ning; Ye, Qingmei; Palaniswamy, Venkatapuram A; Bolgar, Mark S; Raglione, Thomas V

    2014-01-01

    The classical internal standard quantitative NMR (qNMR) method determines the purity of an analyte by the determination of a solution containing the analyte and a standard. Therefore, the standard must meet the requirements of chemical compatibility and lack of resonance interference with the analyte as well as a known purity. The identification of such a standard can be time consuming and must be repeated for each analyte. In contrast, the external standard qNMR method utilizes a standard with a known purity to calibrate the NMR instrument. The external standard and the analyte are measured separately, thereby eliminating the matter of chemical compatibility and resonance interference between the standard and the analyte. However, the instrumental factors, including the quality of NMR tubes, must be kept the same. Any deviations will compromise the accuracy of the results. An innovative qNMR method reported herein utilizes an internal reference substance along with an external standard to assume the role of the standard used in the traditional internal standard qNMR method. In this new method, the internal reference substance must only be chemically compatible and be free of resonance-interference with the analyte or external standard whereas the external standard must only be of a known purity. The exact purity or concentration of the internal reference substance is not required as long as the same quantity is added to the external standard and the analyte. The new method reduces the burden of searching for an appropriate standard for each analyte significantly. Therefore the efficiency of the qNMR purity assay increases while the precision of the internal standard method is retained. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The international development of forensic science standards - A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson-Wilde, Linzi

    2018-04-16

    Standards establish specifications and procedures designed to ensure products, services and systems are safe, reliable and consistently perform as intended. Standards can be used in the accreditation of forensic laboratories or facilities and in the certification of products and services. In recent years there have been various international activities aiming at developing forensic science standards and guidelines. The most significant initiative currently underway within the global forensic community is the development of International Organization for Standardization (ISO) standards. This paper reviews the main bodies working on standards for forensic science, the processes used and the implications for accreditation. This paper specifically discusses the work of ISO Technical Committee TC272, the future TC272 work program for the development of forensic science standards and associated timelines. Also discussed, are the lessons learnt to date in navigating the complex environment of multi-country stakeholder deliberations in standards development. Crown Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Gamma radiation effects on vitamin C standard solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amaro, Jose Daniel V.; Mansur Netto, Elias

    1995-01-01

    This word shows the physical - chemical effects of gamma radiation on standard solutions of vitamin C. Samples with concentration of 50 mg/ml were exposed to different doses of gamma radiations: 1,0 2,5 and 5,0 kGy, using a cobalt-60 source, with storing periods of 0,15 and 30 days. The results showed a vitamin C concentration loss, with a minimum of 17% for the dose of 1,0 kGy immediately after irradiation and a maximum of 81% for the dose of 5 kGy and 30 days after irradiation. (author). 3 refs., 2 tabs

  13. Using PISA as an International Benchmark in Standard Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Gary W; Jiang, Tao

    2015-01-01

    This study describes how the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) can be used to internationally benchmark state performance standards. The process is accomplished in three steps. First, PISA items are embedded in the administration of the state assessment and calibrated on the state scale. Second, the international item calibrations are then used to link the state scale to the PISA scale through common item linking. Third, the statistical linking results are used as part of the state standard setting process to help standard setting panelists determine how high their state standards need to be in order to be internationally competitive. This process was carried out in Delaware, Hawaii, and Oregon, in three subjects-science, mathematics and reading with initial results reported by Phillips and Jiang (2011). An in depth discussion of methods and results are reported in this article for one subject (mathematics) and one state (Hawaii).

  14. Housekeeping genes as internal standards: use and limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thellin, O; Zorzi, W; Lakaye, B; De Borman, B; Coumans, B; Hennen, G; Grisar, T; Igout, A; Heinen, E

    1999-10-08

    Quantitative studies are commonly realised in the biomedical research to compare RNA expression in different experimental or clinical conditions. These quantifications are performed through their comparison to the expression of the housekeeping gene transcripts like glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (G3PDH), albumin, actins, tubulins, cyclophilin, hypoxantine phsophoribosyltransferase (HRPT), L32. 28S, and 18S rRNAs are also used as internal standards. In this paper, it is recalled that the commonly used internal standards can quantitatively vary in response to various factors. Possible variations are illustrated using three experimental examples. Preferred types of internal standards are then proposed for each of these samples and thereafter the general procedure concerning the choice of an internal standard and the way to manage its uses are discussed.

  15. International developments. Research and standardization; Internationale Entwicklungen. Forschung und Standardisierung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breustedt, Bastian [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (KIT), Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany). Inst. fuer Strahlenforschung

    2017-08-01

    The methods and models for the determination of incorporated doses are developed and published by the international radiation protection commission ICRP. The ICRP recommendations were adopted into the international basic safety standards of IAEA and the European Commission The implementation of the safety standards into the national radiation protection regulations yield the legal basis for incorporation surveillance. In Germany this is the Strahlenschutzverordnung and the guideline for the physical radiation protection control for the determination of body doses.

  16. Barriers and Solutions to Conducting Large International, Interdisciplinary Research Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pischke, Erin C.; Knowlton, Jessie L.; Phifer, Colin C.; Gutierrez Lopez, Jose; Propato, Tamara S.; Eastmond, Amarella; de Souza, Tatiana Martins; Kuhlberg, Mark; Picasso Risso, Valentin; Veron, Santiago R.; Garcia, Carlos; Chiappe, Marta; Halvorsen, Kathleen E.

    2017-12-01

    Global environmental problems such as climate change are not bounded by national borders or scientific disciplines, and therefore require international, interdisciplinary teamwork to develop understandings of their causes and solutions. Interdisciplinary scientific work is difficult enough, but these challenges are often magnified when teams also work across national boundaries. The literature on the challenges of interdisciplinary research is extensive. However, research on international, interdisciplinary teams is nearly non-existent. Our objective is to fill this gap by reporting on results from a study of a large interdisciplinary, international National Science Foundation Partnerships for International Research and Education (NSF-PIRE) research project across the Americas. We administered a structured questionnaire to team members about challenges they faced while working together across disciplines and outside of their home countries in Argentina, Brazil, and Mexico. Analysis of the responses indicated five major types of barriers to conducting interdisciplinary, international research: integration, language, fieldwork logistics, personnel and relationships, and time commitment. We discuss the causes and recommended solutions to the most common barriers. Our findings can help other interdisciplinary, international research teams anticipate challenges, and develop effective solutions to minimize the negative impacts of these barriers to their research.

  17. Barriers and Solutions to Conducting Large International, Interdisciplinary Research Projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pischke, Erin C; Knowlton, Jessie L; Phifer, Colin C; Gutierrez Lopez, Jose; Propato, Tamara S; Eastmond, Amarella; de Souza, Tatiana Martins; Kuhlberg, Mark; Picasso Risso, Valentin; Veron, Santiago R; Garcia, Carlos; Chiappe, Marta; Halvorsen, Kathleen E

    2017-12-01

    Global environmental problems such as climate change are not bounded by national borders or scientific disciplines, and therefore require international, interdisciplinary teamwork to develop understandings of their causes and solutions. Interdisciplinary scientific work is difficult enough, but these challenges are often magnified when teams also work across national boundaries. The literature on the challenges of interdisciplinary research is extensive. However, research on international, interdisciplinary teams is nearly non-existent. Our objective is to fill this gap by reporting on results from a study of a large interdisciplinary, international National Science Foundation Partnerships for International Research and Education (NSF-PIRE) research project across the Americas. We administered a structured questionnaire to team members about challenges they faced while working together across disciplines and outside of their home countries in Argentina, Brazil, and Mexico. Analysis of the responses indicated five major types of barriers to conducting interdisciplinary, international research: integration, language, fieldwork logistics, personnel and relationships, and time commitment. We discuss the causes and recommended solutions to the most common barriers. Our findings can help other interdisciplinary, international research teams anticipate challenges, and develop effective solutions to minimize the negative impacts of these barriers to their research.

  18. Transmission investment problems in Europe: Going beyond standard solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buijs, Patrik; Bekaert, David; Cole, Stijn; Van Hertem, Dirk; Belmans, Ronnie

    2011-01-01

    The European transmission grid is facing an investment challenge. There is a strong call for more transmission capacity. At the same time, the investment climate is fierce and troubled by public opposition, a complex regulatory framework, etc. Many transmission capacity expansion projects are delayed or canceled. In this paper different technology options suitable for increasing transmission capacity are discussed. The aim is to provide policy-makers with information on technologies without going too much into technical details. The focus is on opportunities and limitations to implement various technological alternatives in practice, including technical solutions that go beyond constructing new connection lines. The criteria used in this technology assessment are based on the obstacles reported in the European Priority Interconnection Plan. This ensures a realistic approach based on problems encountered in real projects. Although AC overhead lines (OHL) will remain the standard solution for grid expansion, it is argued that different technology options can overcome many obstacles that OHL face. Additionally, it is illustrated that the higher investment costs for some solutions can be offset with an increased benefit, e.g. by accomplishing investments with smaller delays due to fewer obstacles encountered. - Research highlights: → Assessment of real problems encountered in transmission investments. → Comparison of transmission technologies. → Techno-economic evaluation of transmission technologies.

  19. An Approach to Establishing International Quality Standards for Medical Travel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ondřej eKácha

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Traveling abroad to receive a non-elective treatment is expanding each year. Such rising popularity of medical travel and the absence of clear minimum quality requirements in this area urgently calls for setting international standards to ensure good practice and patient safety. The aim of this study is to identify the key domains in medical travel where such quality standards should be established. Drawing from the evidence-based OECD framework and an extensive literature review, this study proposes three critical areas for international quality standards in medical travel: minimum standards of health care facilities and third-party agencies, financial responsibility and patient-centeredness. Several cultural challenges are subsequently introduced that may pose a barrier to the development of the guidelines and should be additionally taken into consideration. Establishing international quality standards in medical travel enhances the benefits to patients and providers, which is urgently needed given the rapid growth in this industry.

  20. International standards, Agreements and Policy of food Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, P.B.

    1997-01-01

    There are few internationally recognised standards and agreements related to irradiated foods. Codex Alimentarius has its General standard for Irradiated foods. This sets standards for the production of irradiated foods that are safe and nutritionally adequate. Guidelines for the proper processing of foods by irradiation are covered in the Codex Recommended International Code of Practice for the Operation of Radiation Facilities Used for the Treatment of Food. For irradiation as a quarantine treatment for fruit, vegetables and other plants, the relevant international organization is the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC), IPPC has no standards or guidelines for irradiation treatments. However, regional organizations within IPPC are moving towards recognition of irradiation as a technically viable and effective method of insect disinfestation. Especially notable are actions within the North American Plant Protection Organisation (NAPPO). NAPPO has endorsed a standard on the use of irradiation as a quarantine treatment. Other speakers have provided considerable detail on the Codex standard and on the situation with regard to quarantine issues. In this talk I will concentrate on irradiated foods as commodities that will be traded internationally in increasing amounts as we approach the next century. International trade is governed by bilateral arrangements. However, these arrangements should be consistent with the overarching multilateral agreements of the World trade Organization (WTO). The WTO Agreements do not refer directly to irradiation or irradiated foods. However, in this talk I will try to interpret the implications of the Agreements for trade in irradiated food. (Author)

  1. International standards, Agreements and Policy of food Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, P.B. [Industrial and Biological Section. Institute of Geological and Nuclear Science. P.O. Box 31. Lower Hutt (New Zealand)

    1997-12-31

    There are few internationally recognised standards and agreements related to irradiated foods. Codex Alimentarius has its General standard for Irradiated foods. This sets standards for the production of irradiated foods that are safe and nutritionally adequate. Guidelines for the proper processing of foods by irradiation are covered in the Codex Recommended International Code of Practice for the Operation of Radiation Facilities Used for the Treatment of Food. For irradiation as a quarantine treatment for fruit, vegetables and other plants, the relevant international organization is the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC), IPPC has no standards or guidelines for irradiation treatments. However, regional organizations within IPPC are moving towards recognition of irradiation as a technically viable and effective method of insect disinfestation. Especially notable are actions within the North American Plant Protection Organisation (NAPPO). NAPPO has endorsed a standard on the use of irradiation as a quarantine treatment. Other speakers have provided considerable detail on the Codex standard and on the situation with regard to quarantine issues. In this talk I will concentrate on irradiated foods as commodities that will be traded internationally in increasing amounts as we approach the next century. International trade is governed by bilateral arrangements. However, these arrangements should be consistent with the overarching multilateral agreements of the World trade Organization (WTO). The WTO Agreements do not refer directly to irradiation or irradiated foods. However, in this talk I will try to interpret the implications of the Agreements for trade in irradiated food. (Author)

  2. 46 CFR 199.03 - Relationship to international standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Relationship to international standards. 199.03 Section 199.03 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LIFESAVING APPLIANCES AND ARRANGEMENTS LIFESAVING SYSTEMS FOR CERTAIN INSPECTED VESSELS General § 199.03 Relationship to international...

  3. Accounting for financial investments according to international and national accounting standards and financial reporting: a comparative aspect

    OpenAIRE

    Здреник, Василь Степанович; Рафальська, Наталія Олександрівна

    2012-01-01

    The main aspects of accounting for financial investments according to  national and international standards have been considered, as well as differences between them have been revealed and solutions to these issues have been offered

  4. Providers and Patients Caught Between Standardization and Individualization: Individualized Standardization as a Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansmann, Lena; Pfaff, Holger

    2018-01-01

    In their 2017 article, Mannion and Exworthy provide a thoughtful and theory-based analysis of two parallel trends in modern healthcare systems and their competing and conflicting logics: standardization and customization. This commentary further discusses the challenge of treatment decision-making in times of evidence-based medicine (EBM), shared decision-making and personalized medicine. From the perspective of systems theory, we propose the concept of individualized standardization as a solution to the problem. According to this concept, standardization is conceptualized as a guiding framework leaving room for individualization in the patient physician interaction. The theoretical background is the concept of context management according to systems theory. Moreover, the comment suggests multidisciplinary teams as a possible solution for the integration of standardization and individualization, using the example of multidisciplinary tumor conferences and highlighting its limitations. The comment also supports the authors’ statement of the patient as co-producer and introduces the idea that the competing logics of standardization and individualization are a matter of perspective on macro, meso and micro levels. PMID:29626403

  5. International accounting standards and their effect on mergers and acquisitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca I. Vega Castro

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to investigate whether the international accounting harmonization has favored the globalization process. This investigation examined the relationship between international accounting standards and the international merger and acquisition activities in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, México, Peru and Venezuela from 1995 to 2004. This research tested four hypotheses and used analytics such as panel data analysis, correlation, nonparametric tests and logistic regression.

  6. Standard physics solution to the solar neutrino problem?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dar, A [Technion-Israel Inst. of Tech., Haifa (Israel). Dept. of Physics

    1996-11-01

    The {sup 8}B solar neutrino flux predicted by the standard solar model (SSM) is consistent within the theoretical and experimental uncertainties with that at Kamiokande. The Gallium and Chlorine solar neutrino experiments, however, seem to imply that the {sup 7}Be solar neutrino flux is strongly suppressed compared with that predicted by the SSM. If the {sup 7}Be solar neutrino flux is suppressed, still it can be due to astrophysical effects not included in the simplistic SSM. Such effects include short term fluctuations or periodic variation of the temperature in the solar core, rotational mixing of {sup 3}He in the solar core, and dense plasma effects which may strongly enhance p-capture by {sup 7}Be relative to e-capture. The new generation of solar observations which already look non stop deep into the sun, like Superkamiokande through neutrinos, and SOHO and GONG through acoustic waves, may point at the correct solution. Only Superkamiokande and/or future solar neutrino experiments, such as SNO, BOREXINO and HELLAZ, will be able to find out whether the solar neutrino problem is caused by neutrino properties beyond the minimal standard electroweak model or whether it is just a problem of the too simplistic standard solar model. (author) 1 fig., 3 tabs., refs.

  7. Determinants of Effective Information Transfer in International Regulatory Standards Adoption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popescu, Denisa

    2010-01-01

    The role of international regulatory standards within the current global environment has become of the most importance. The age of the global system and free market capitalism carried us into the unprecedented age of regulations, and standard setting. Regulations are now becoming the emerging mode of global governance. This study focuses on…

  8. The main requirements of the International Basic Safety Standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, G.A.M.

    1998-01-01

    The main requirements of the new international basic safety standards are discussed, including such topics as health effects of ionizing radiations, the revision of basic safety standards, the requirements for radiation protection practices, the requirements for intervention,and the field of regulatory infrastructures. (A.K.)

  9. Human Rights and Values Education: Using the International Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reardon, Betty A.

    1994-01-01

    Asserts that, in teaching about human rights, the international standards should be the fundamental core of the content and values to be communicated. Recommends that teachers should use the Universal Declaration of Human Rights as the standard by which the actions of individuals and governments should be compared. (CFR)

  10. Adaptations of International Standards on Educational Leadership Preparation in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purinton, Ted; Khalil, Dalia

    2016-01-01

    This paper is a case study of one leadership preparation program, utilizing US school leadership standards and practices, offered in Egypt. This case study illuminates how cultural and policy distinctions impact differing necessities of educational leadership, and how those necessities conflict or concur with the international standards and…

  11. Review international standards for grid connected photovoltaic systems in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mekhilef, S.; Rahim, N.A.

    2006-01-01

    Grid connected PV is being applied on variety application including large centralised stations, commercial building and individual houses. There is a need for specific standard to address distinctive new issue created by grid connected PV power system. Internationally many countries are attempting to develop standards for building integration, Dc side issues and grid connection issues. This paper surveys the current development state of the major countries standards in this area, comparing and contrasting, standards and guideline under development, also addressing the need of standards for grid connected in Malaysia

  12. Implementation of International Standards in Russia's Foreign Trade Statistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia E. Grigoruk

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the basic documents of international organizations in recent years, which have become the global standard for the development and improvement of statistics of foreign economic relations of most countries, including the Russian Federation. The article describes the key features of the theory and practice of modern foreign trade statistics in Russia and abroad, with an emphasis on the methodological problems of its main parts - the external trade statistics. It shows their interpretation in the most recent recommendations by UN statistical apparatus and other international organizations; considers a range of problems associated with the implementation of the national statistical practices of countries, including Russia and the countries of the Customs Union, the main international standard of foreign trade statistics - UN document "International Merchandise Trade Statistics". The main attention is paid to methodological issues such as: the criteria for selecting the objects of statistical accounting in accordance with international standards, quantitative and cost parameters of foreign trade statistics, statistical methods and estimates of commodity exports and imports, the problems of comparability of data; to a comparison of international standards in 2010 with documents on key precursor methodology of foreign trade statistics, characterized by the practice of introducing these standards in the foreign trade statistics of Russia and the countries of the Customs Union. The article analyzes the content given in the official statistical manuals of Russia foreign trade and foreign countries, covers the main methodological problems of World Trade in conjunction with the major current international statistical standards - System of National Accounts, Manual on Statistics of International Trade in Services and other documents; provides specific data describing the current structure of Russian foreign trade and especially its

  13. Standard methods for sampling freshwater fishes: opportunities for international collaboration

    OpenAIRE

    Bonar, Scott A.; Mercado-Silva, Norman; Hubert, Wayne A.; Beard, T. Douglas; Dave, Göran; Kubečka, Jan; Graeb, Brian D.S.; Lester, Nigel P.; Porath, Mark; Winfield, Ian J.

    2017-01-01

    With publication of Standard Methods for Sampling North American Freshwater Fishes in 2009, the American Fisheries Society (AFS) recommended standard procedures for North America. To explore interest in standardizing at intercontinental scales, a symposium attended by international specialists in freshwater fish sampling was convened at the 145th Annual AFS Meeting in Portland, Oregon, in August 2015. Participants represented all continents except Australia and Antarctica and were employed by...

  14. Thirty years of international nuclear standards in ISO and IEC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, K.

    1991-01-01

    Of over 4700 nuclear and radiation protection standards, laws, regulations, recommendations, etc., which have been issued by 52 countries and several governmental international organizations such as IAEA, or non-government organizations such as ICRP, ICRU, ISO and IEC, more than 90% are national, and more than half of those of a non-regulatory nature. Both number and importance of international standards are, however, increasing. The two most important non-governmental international standards organizations are the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), which founded a Technical Committee (TC) 85 'Nuclear Energy' with several Sub-Committees in 1957, and the closely associated International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) with its TC 45 'Nuclear Instrumentation' formed in 1960. There are over 20 member countries actively participating in the work in each of them, with additional observer countries and liaison to the relevant other international organizations. A brief review is given on some of the experience which has been gained by ISO/TC 85 and IEC/TC 45, and its work program and accomplishments, considering in particular recent developments. It covers nuclear safety and instrumentation, radiation protection, and the nuclear fuel cycle, as well as interface issues including definitions and terminology, interaction of the activities with the work of other national and international bodies, etc. Some problem areas are also briefly discussed. (orig.)

  15. International Safety Regulation and Standards for Space Travel and Commerce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelton, J. N.; Jakhu, R.

    The evolution of air travel has led to the adoption of the 1944 Chicago Convention that created the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), headquartered in Montreal, Canada, and the propagation of aviation safety standards. Today, ICAO standardizes and harmonizes commercial air safety worldwide. Space travel and space safety are still at an early stage of development, and the adoption of international space safety standards and regulation still remains largely at the national level. This paper explores the international treaties and conventions that govern space travel, applications and exploration today and analyzes current efforts to create space safety standards and regulations at the national, regional and global level. Recent efforts to create a commercial space travel industry and to license commercial space ports are foreseen as means to hasten a space safety regulatory process.

  16. International physical protection standards: support for development and implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soo Hoo, M.S.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Since 1972, the IAEA has been a recognized organization in promoting the development of international standards on the physical protection of nuclear materials. This responsibility has continued through the present in the 1999 publication of the fourth revision of INFCIRC/225, the physical protection of nuclear material and nuclear facilities and in being the repository for the convention on the physical protection of nuclear material which was originally published in 1980 as INFCIRC/274. The IAEA has also published other reference documents in support these two standards. With changing world events and greater concern for the physical protection of nuclear materials and facilities, IAEA member states have increased IAEA physical protection responsibilities. Currently, the IAEA is serving as the secretariat for drafting revisions to the physical protection convention. The proposed revisions will strengthen international physical protection standards through the incorporation of physical protection fundamentals that should apply to all nuclear materials in international or domestic use, storage and transport. Furthermore, the physical protection fundamentals would also extend to include nuclear facilities. Presently, the physical protection convention applies only to nuclear materials that are in international transport. To complement efforts to develop and promote international physical protection standards, the IAEA is actively involved in assisting member states with the implementation of the standards. This is accomplished through the delivery of training courses, workshops and hosting other international forums for the exchange of information. Through review services such as the international physical protection advisory service (IPPAS), the IAEA provides advice to member states on the application of international standards at national and facility-specific levels. These services can be followed up with technical support to implement the

  17. Standard methods for sampling freshwater fishes: Opportunities for international collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonar, Scott A.; Mercado-Silva, Norman; Hubert, Wayne A.; Beard, Douglas; Dave, Göran; Kubečka, Jan; Graeb, Brian D. S.; Lester, Nigel P.; Porath, Mark T.; Winfield, Ian J.

    2017-01-01

    With publication of Standard Methods for Sampling North American Freshwater Fishes in 2009, the American Fisheries Society (AFS) recommended standard procedures for North America. To explore interest in standardizing at intercontinental scales, a symposium attended by international specialists in freshwater fish sampling was convened at the 145th Annual AFS Meeting in Portland, Oregon, in August 2015. Participants represented all continents except Australia and Antarctica and were employed by state and federal agencies, universities, nongovernmental organizations, and consulting businesses. Currently, standardization is practiced mostly in North America and Europe. Participants described how standardization has been important for management of long-term data sets, promoting fundamental scientific understanding, and assessing efficacy of large spatial scale management strategies. Academics indicated that standardization has been useful in fisheries education because time previously used to teach how sampling methods are developed is now more devoted to diagnosis and treatment of problem fish communities. Researchers reported that standardization allowed increased sample size for method validation and calibration. Group consensus was to retain continental standards where they currently exist but to further explore international and intercontinental standardization, specifically identifying where synergies and bridges exist, and identify means to collaborate with scientists where standardization is limited but interest and need occur.

  18. South African address standard and initiatives towards an international address standard

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cooper, Antony K

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available ; visiting friends; and providing a reference context for presenting other information. The benefits of an international address standards include: enabling address interoperability across boundaries; reducing service delivery costs; enabling development...

  19. Internationally Comparable Measures of Occupational Status for the 1988 International Standard Classification of Occupations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ganzeboom, H.B.G.; Treiman, D.J.

    1996-01-01

    This paper provides operational procedures for coding internationally comparable measures of occupational status from the recently published International Standard Classification of Occupation 1988 (ISCO88) of the International Labor Office (ILO, 1990). We first discuss the nature of the ISCO88

  20. Manual of engineering drawing to British and international standards

    CERN Document Server

    Simmons, Colin H; Maguire, Dennis E

    2004-01-01

    The Manual of Engineering Drawing has long been recognised as the student and practising engineer's guide to producing engineering drawings that comply with ISO and British Standards. The information in this book is equally applicable to any CAD application or manual drawing. The second edition is fully in line with the requirements of the new British Standard BS8888: 2002, and will help engineers, lecturers and students with the transition to the new standards.BS8888 is fully based on the relevant ISO standards, so this book is also ideal for an international readership. The comprehen

  1. Advancements in internationally accepted standards for radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrar, H. IV; Derr, D.D.; Vehar, D.W.

    1993-01-01

    Subcommittees of the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) are developing standards on various aspects of radiation processing. Nine standards on how to select and calibrate dosimeters, where to put them, how many to use, and how to use individual types of dosimeter systems have been published. The group is also developing standards on how to use gamma, electron beam, and X-ray facilities for radiation processing, and a standard on how to treat dose uncertainties. Efforts are underway to promote inclusion of these standards into procedures now being developed by government agencies and by international groups such as the United Nations' International Consultative Group on Food Irradiation (ICGFI) in order to harmonize regulations and help avoid trade barriers. Standards on good irradiation practices for meat and poultry and for fresh fruits, and for the irradiation of seafood and spices have been developed. These food-related standards are based on practices previously published by ICGFI. Standards for determining doses for radiation hardness testing of electronics have been developed. Standards on the Fricke and TLD dosimetry systems are equally useful in other radiation processing applications. (Author)

  2. CONVERGENCE OF INTERNATIONAL AUDIT STANDARDS AND AMERICAN AUDIT STANDARDS REGARDING SAMPLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chis Anca Oana

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Sampling is widely used in market research, scientific analysis, market analysis, opinion polls and not least in the financial statement audit. We wonder what is actually sampling and how did it appear? Audit sampling involves the application of audit procedures to less than 100% of items within an account balance or class of transactions. Nowadays the technique is indispensable, the economic entities operating with sophisticated computer systems and large amounts of data. Economic globalization and complexity of capital markets has made possible not only the harmonization of international accounting standards with the national ones, but also the convergence of international accounting and auditing standards with the American regulations. International Standard on Auditing 530 and Statement on Auditing Standard 39 are the two main international and American normalized referentials referring to audit sampling. This article discusses the origin of audit sampling, mentioning a brief history of the method and different definitions from literature review. The two standards are studied using Jaccard indicators in terms of the degree of similarity and dissimilarity concerning different issues. The Jaccard coefficient measures the degree of convergence of international auditing standards (ISA 530 and U.S. auditing standards (SAS 39. International auditing standards and American auditing standards, study the sampling problem, both regulations presenting common points with regard to accepted sampling techniques, factors influencing the audit sample, treatment of identified misstatements and the circumstances in which sampling is appropriate. The study shows that both standards agree on application of statistical and non-statistical sampling in auditing, that sampling is appropriate for tests of details and controls, the factors affecting audit sampling being audit risk, audit objectives and population\\'s characteristics.

  3. LEASE AGREEMENTS FINANCIAL REPORTING ISSUES ACCORDING TO THE INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina MAISURADZE

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available On January 13th 2016, the Board for International Accounting Standards  published the  new International Standard 16 of Financial Reporting,   named as “Lease”, which will substitute the International Accounting Standard 17 of financial reporting “Lease”. ISFR 16 ensures reflection of practically all lease agreements in the financial reporting, which, in is part, meets the requirements of investors regarding reliability and transparency of the information related to a financial state of an enterprise. The Article considers the changes caused by ISFR 16, which relate to recognition of the lease agreements as the asset, their accounting and, impact on the financial reporting. Relevant conclusions are provided regarding the above mentioned issues.

  4. EPA STANDARDS NETWORK FACT SHEET: ISO 14000: INTERNATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT STANDARDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This flyer provides an overview of the ISO 14000 series of International standards, supplying a brief history, structure of the Technical Committee (TC) 207, structure of the U.S. Technical Advisory Group (TAG) to ISO TC-207, status of the Standards development as of June 1997, w...

  5. International Banking Standards, Private Law, and the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wouters, Jan; Odermatt, Jed

    2016-01-01

    This chapter seeks to provide an insight into the dynamics that take place between the EU and international standard-setting bodies, by first examining some of the features of global financial regulation which make it a unique area of global governance, then by investigating the wide variety of n...... the crisis. These reforms have been highly influenced by non-binding commitments made in informal bodies at the international level....

  6. International standards for phytosanitary measures (ISPM), publication No. 15

    CERN Multimedia

    Tom Wegelius

    2006-01-01

    GUIDELINES FOR REGULATING WOOD PACKAGING MATERIAL IN INTERNATIONAL TRADE SCOPE This standard describes phytosanitary measures to reduce the risk of introduction and/or spread of quarantine pests associated with wood packaging material (including dunnage), made of coniferous and non-coniferous raw wood, in use in international trade. For more information, contact the Shipping Service (FI-LS-SH) at 79947. Table of guidelines

  7. Domestic and International Nuclear Energy Voluntary Consensus Standards Needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopper, Calvin Mitchell

    2013-01-01

    This report introduces the reader to the domestic and international standards development organizations (SDOs) and their structures and operations. It also identifies some of the support and subject matter needs for the development of standards on the subject of nuclear energy. The support needs are described with regard to organizational structure and subject-matter-expert (SME) participation that is required for producing voluntary consensus standards. The subject matter needs are described with regard to growing technologies and objectives that approach the boundaries of existing standards; implementation of knowledge; and safety of people, facilities, and the environment. Standards are proposed, developed, and produced by SMEs with the support of industry and government organizations. The voluntary consensus standards development process is, as its name implies, a voluntary effort. The problem in today's competitive market, impacted by global economic uncertainty, is that the voluntary participation is shifting from a collaborative industry and SME effort to a nearly SME-only one. This shift places a financial and/or time burden on the SMEs to the point that they are purposely withdrawing from the standards development process, both domestically and internationally. The standards development process desperately needs participation from more and younger SMEs. The report includes several suggestions on how this can be addressed.

  8. Specifications of the International Atomic Energy Agency's international project on safety assessment driven radioactive waste management solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghannadi, M.; Asgharizadeh, F.; Assadi, M. R.

    2008-01-01

    Radioactive waste is produced in the generation of nuclear power and the production and use of radioactive materials in the industry, research, and medicine. The nuclear waste management facilities need to perform a safety assessment in order to ensure the safety of a facility. Nuclear safety assessment is a structured and systematic way of examining a proposed facility, process, operation and activity. In nuclear waste management point of view, safety assessment is a process which is used to evaluate the safety of radioactive waste management and disposal facilities. In this regard the International Atomic Energy Agency is planed to implement an international project with cooperation of some member states. The Safety Assessment Driving Radioactive Waste Management Solutions Project is an international programme of work to examine international approaches to safety assessment in aspects of p redisposal r adioactive waste management, including waste conditioning and storage. This study is described the rationale, common aspects, scope, objectives, work plan and anticipated outcomes of the project with refer to International Atomic Energy Agency's documents, such as International Atomic Energy Agency's Safety Standards, as well as the Safety Assessment Driving Radioactive Waste Management Solutions project reports

  9. Effect of standards on new equipment design by new international standards and industry restraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endelman, Lincoln L.

    1991-01-01

    The use of international standards to further trade is one of the objectives of creating a standard. By having form fit and function compatible the free interchange of manufactured goods can be handled without hindrance. Unfortunately by setting up standards that are peculiar to a particular country or district it is possible to exclude competition from a group of manufacturers. A major effort is now underway to develop international laser standards. In the May I 990 issue of Laser Focus World Donald R. Johnson the director of industrial technology services for the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST formerly the National Bureau of Standards) is quoted as follows: " The common means of protectionism has been through certification for the market place. " The article goes on to say " Mr. Johnson expects this tradition to continue and that the new European Community (EC) will demand not just safety standards but performance standards as well. . . . the American laser industry must move very quickly on this issue or risk being left behind the European standards bandwagon. " The article continues laser companies must get involved in the actual standards negotiating process if they are to have a say in future policy. A single set of standards would reduce the need to repeatedly recalibrate products for different national markets. " As a member of ISO TC-72 SC9 I am

  10. Internationally Standardized Cost Item Definitions for Decommissioning of Nuclear Installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucien Teunckens; Kurt Pflugrad; Candace Chan-Sands; Ted Lazo

    2000-01-01

    The European Commission (EC), the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), and the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development/Nuclear Energy Agency (OECD/NEA) have agreed to jointly prepare and publish a standardized list of cost items and related definitions for decommissioning projects. Such a standardized list would facilitate communication, promote uniformity, and avoid inconsistency or contradiction of results or conclusions of cost evaluations for decommissioning projects carried out for specific purposes by different groups. Additionally, a standardized structure would also be a useful tool for more effective cost management. This paper describes actual work and result thus far

  11. Guidelines for drafting national and international seismic standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Podrouzek, J.

    1989-01-01

    The main principles of engineering reliability are discussed in relation to the formation of seismic standards. The basic recommendations of the International Association of Earthquake Engineering in the field of inspection and earthquake resistance evaluation of engineering structures and systems are characterized. Attention is also paid to efforts aimed at a unification of standards and regulations, based on the fact that quasistatic and response spectra methods are largely common to the standards amd regulations. However, as the potential of computer techniques increases, more complex computer programs appear and the amount of tenuous input data increases, and this can affect the quality of seismic inspections. (Z.M.). 5 figs., 1 ref

  12. 77 FR 33811 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-07

    ... 63 National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines; New Source Performance Standards for Stationary Internal Combustion Engines; Proposed Rule #0;#0... Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines; New Source...

  13. 77 FR 37361 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-21

    ... National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines; New Source Performance Standards for Stationary Internal Combustion Engines AGENCY: Environmental Protection... Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines; New Source Performance...

  14. Amendments to the Audit Report for the Review of International Standards on Auditing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mortură Laura-Alexandra

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available As a result of the last economic and financial crisis, the auditors' impact on its triggering wasquestioned, as the opinion expressed by the auditors directly influenced, the decisions taken by theusers of the financial and accounting information, namely the investors. The sign of question on theauditors 'work was also due to a lack of knowledge of the auditors' responsibility by the users. Theopinion issued by the auditor provides reasonable, but not absolute, assurance on the informationprovided by the financial statements, in which case the auditor's responsibility is limited. Tomitigate these discrepancies, the International Auditing and Assurance Standards Board (IAASBhas developed projects that have generated solutions to improve International Standards onAuditing. Thus, in 2015, the IAASB issued a new edition of the International Auditing Standards,which made changes in the drafting of the audit report.

  15. International financial reporting standards and foreign ownership in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Previous literature suggests that the adoption of International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) can facilitate cross-border capital flows, as it results in an increase in market liquidity and comparability benefits. Using foreign ownership levels in South African listed companies during the period 2003 to 2007, we test ...

  16. How to Integrate International Financial Reporting Standards into Accounting Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Robert A.

    2012-01-01

    It is expected the SEC will require U.S. domestic companies to prepare and file their annual 10Ks in accordance with international financial reporting standards (IFRS) by 2016. Given the probability that the FASB-IASB convergence project (i.e., Norwalk Agreement) will continue subsequent to mandatory adoption, US accounting programs will be…

  17. Effects of national accounting standards convergence to international accounting standards on foreign direct investment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asieh Farazandehnia

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important factors on attracting foreign investors to invest on Tehran Stock Exchange is to have transparent accounting rules and regulations. When there are some consistency between national accounting standards and international accounting standards, we may, at least, expect foreign investors to have better understanding on financial statements. In 2006, there were some changes on Iranian national accounting standards in an attempt to make them closer to international accounting standards. In this study, we select the information of 153 firms five years before and after this regulation and study the effect of convergence from national accounting standards to international accounting standards on foreign direct investment. Using some statistical tests, the study has determined that there was no meaningful relationship between foreign direct investment before and after change on accounting standards. In addition, there was no difference on the information quality before and after change on accounting standards. However, there was some meaningful relationship between the information quality and foreign direct investment.

  18. ASTM International Workshop on Standards & Measurements for Tissue Engineering Scaffolds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Carl G.; Yaszemski, Michael J.; Ratcliffe, Anthony; Tomlins, Paul; Luginbuehl, Reto; Tesk, John A.

    2016-01-01

    The “Workshop on Standards & Measurements for Tissue Engineering Scaffolds” was held on May 21, 2013 in Indianapolis, IN and was sponsored by the ASTM International (ASTM). The purpose of the workshop was to identify the highest priority items for future standards work for scaffolds used in the development and manufacture of tissue engineered medical products (TEMPs). Eighteen speakers and 78 attendees met to assess current scaffold standards and to prioritize needs for future standards. A key finding was that the ASTM TEMPs subcommittees (F04.41-46) have many active “guide” documents for educational purposes, but that few standard “test methods” or “practices” have been published. Overwhelmingly, the most clearly identified need was standards for measuring the structure of scaffolds, followed by standards for biological characterization, including in vitro testing, animal models and cell-material interactions. The third most pressing need was to develop standards for assessing the mechanical properties of scaffolds. Additional needs included standards for assessing scaffold degradation, clinical outcomes with scaffolds, effects of sterilization on scaffolds, scaffold composition and drug release from scaffolds. Discussions also highlighted the need for additional scaffold reference materials and the need to use them for measurement traceability. Finally, dialogue emphasized the needs to promote the use of standards in scaffold fabrication, characterization, and commercialization and to assess the use and impact of standards in the TEMPs community. Many scaffold standard needs have been identified and focus should now turn to generating these standards to support the use of scaffolds in TEMPs. PMID:25220952

  19. An overview of prisons, prisoners and international human rights standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Coyle

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the principal international human rights standards that exist for the treatment of prisoners. Given the increase in the use of  imprisonment in many countries, the administration of prisons poses certain challenges. The author addresses this issue by first examining the purposes of imprisonment, which is the only way to evaluate if the penitentiary system is achieving the goals that have been set for it. The author then analyzes five elements that must be taken into account when complying with international standards regarding the treatment of prisoners: living conditions for prisoners; the contact that prisoners have with their families and other persons; special conditions that apply to incarcerated persons according to specific situations (gender, nationality, age, illness, etc.; prison personnel and independent oversight of prisons. In the end, what all of these  standards have in common is the importance of upholding human dignity when dealing with incarcerated persons.

  20. International standardization of nuclear reactor designs - the way forward

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raetzke, Christian

    2010-01-01

    The concept of 'International Standardization of Nuclear Reactor Designs' means that vendors could build their designs in every country without having to adapt it specifically to national safety requirements. Such standardization would have two main effects. It would greatly facilitate nuclear new build worldwide by giving greater efficiency and certainty to the national licensing procedures; by taking into account the fact that vendors, and nowadays also utilities, are active across borders; by helping developing countries to establish their nuclear new build programmes; and by reducing the strain on human resources on both the regulators' and the industry's side. The second valuable effect of standardization would be to further enhance safety by improving the exchange of construction and operating experience among a number of reactors belonging to fleets of the same design. The World Nuclear Association's CORDEL (Cooperation in Reactor Design Evaluation and Licensing) Group has developed a concept for implementation of international standardization of reactor designs. It has defined a number of steps to be taken by industry. At the same time, possibilities offered by national and international regulatory mechanisms would have to be fully made use of, and some changes in regulatory frameworks might be necessary. Some steps especially towards greater cooperation of regulators have already been taken; however, much still remains to be done. The concept of deploying standardized reactor designs across a number of countries supposes an alignment and, if possible, harmonization of national safety standards; a streamlining of national licensing procedures, making them more efficient and predictable; and the willingness of national regulators to take into account licensing done in other countries. In the end, this should lead to a mutual acceptance of design approvals or, in a more distant future, even to a multinational design approval process. All in all, the concept

  1. International Reserves Crises, Monetary Integration and the Payments System during the International Gold Standard

    OpenAIRE

    Paula Hernandez-Verme

    2009-01-01

    I model an international payments system with a financial center and periphery to reproduce various aspects of the International Gold Standard. This period was characterized by frequent crises associated with scarce stocks of reserves, high short-term interest rates with subsequent gold inflows and transmission of output contractions across countries. I find that a common international currency and no legal restrictions on exchange help the periphery share reserves with the financial center, ...

  2. International Companies Withdrawal from Lithuania: Problematics and Alternative Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktorija Tauraitė

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The main attention in this article is focused on the problematic of international companies’ withdrawal from Lithuania and presentation of alternative solutions of this problem. The macro(Sweden, Austria, Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia, Poland level analysis and micro (“Coca-Cola”, “Nordea” and DNB, “Orkla” level analysis showed that competitiveness, business conditions, employment relations, institutional environment and innovation should be improved and the corruption should be reduced in Lithuania. It is advisable that current Lithuanian Labour Code should be revised in order to increase the efficiency of labour relations. It is found out that the significance of “Coca-Cola”company is the highest in the context of the withdrawing companies from Lithuania. It is assumed that the most rational solution for each company is to move from Lithuania to another country.

  3. 78 FR 14773 - U.S. Environmental Solutions Toolkit-Landfill Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-07

    ...--Landfill Standards AGENCY: International Trade Administration, DOC. ACTION: Notice and Request for Comment... or services relevant to landfill environmental standards. The Department of Commerce continues to..., Web site address, contact information, and landfill environmental standards category of interest from...

  4. International implications of nuclear Q.A. standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoddart, D.E.

    1976-01-01

    The work of the International Atomic Energy Agency (I.A.E.A.) in the field of Quality Assurance is aimed at preparing a Code of Practice covering recommendations on safety aspects only which is designed to be usable by all nations. This Code is followed up by a series of Safety Guides as aids to developing nations faced with the need to regulate and assure safety, reliability and quality. The I.A.E.A. Code is not written as a mandatory document and it can only recommend and therefore the term 'should' is used throughout. The International Organization for Standardization (I.S.O.) is concerned with producing standards and as such the proposed I.S.O. draft standard on 'Quality Assurance for Nuclear Power Plants' is written in mandatory language, it uses the word 'shall'. The I.S.O. standard will also cover not only safety aspects but also those of a successfully operating nuclear power plant. The I.S.O. Working Group is charged with producing standards on quality assurance covering the design, procurement, fabrication, construction, operation, maintenance and decommissioning of structure, systems and components of nuclear power plants. The work of both organizations is discussed briefly. (author)

  5. KUALITAS INFORMASI AKUNTANSI PADA TAHAP KONVERGENSI INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL REPORTING STANDARD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Putu Fery Karyada

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Accounting Information Quality in Convergence International Financial Reporting Standard (IFRS. This study aims to examine the differences of accounting information quality in the IFRS convergence. The method used in this research is multiple regression analysis in non banking and finance companies in 2012-2014. The research shows that overall application of IFRS tended to reduce the quality of accounting information. This research finds that overall application of IFRS tends to reduce the quality of accounting information. This occurs because the differences of IFRS with existing standards, weak law enforcement, and a lack of manager incentives. This result can be an input for various parties in making policy.

  6. How Do Firms Comply with International Sustainability Standards?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vigneau, Laurence; Humphreys, Michael; Moon, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses the issue of the influence of global governance institutions, particularly international sustainability standards, on a firm’s intra-organizational practices. More precisely, we provide an exploratory empirical view of the impact of the Global Reporting Initiative (GRI......, the relationships between subsidiaries, the temporal dimension of CSR management and the interpretation of CSR performance. We also highlight the need to look at the relationship dynamics (or lack of) between standards. Finally, we illustrate and discuss the role of reporting and its influence on management...

  7. Finite element analyses for Seismic Shear Wall International Standard Problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Y.; Hofmayer, C.; Chokshi, N.

    1997-01-01

    In the seismic design of shear wall structures, e.g., nuclear reactor buildings, a linear FEM analysis is frequently used to quantify the stresses under the design loading condition. The final design decisions, however, are still based on empirical design rules established over decades from accumulated laboratory test data. This paper presents an overview of the state-of-the-art on the application of nonlinear FEM analysis to reinforced concrete (RC) shear wall structures under severe earthquake loadings based on the findings obtained during the Seismic Shear Wall International Standard Problem (SSWISP) Workshop in 1996. Also, BNL's analysis results of the International Standard Problem (ISP) shear walls under monotonic static, cyclic static and dynamic loading conditions are described

  8. INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS FOR FINANCIAL REPORTING: HARMONIZATION IN MACEDONIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasho Kozuharov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A continuous flow of reliable, relevant and financially important information is necessary for making economically justified and strategic investment decisions. Economic globalization has contributed to the need of creating a unified language for communication, a single set of international financial reporting standards with the sole purpose of enhancing transparency for investors and reducing the cost of capital. Harmonization of financial reporting provides more efficient use of global resources, easier consolidation of multinational companies foreign subsidiaries, alleviation of accounting staff mobility and reducing of audit costs. The research is based on the benefits that the national economy can gain if the international financial reporting standards are successfully implemented. Special attention in the paper is devoted to the factors that determine the harmonization of financial reporting. The analysis of the results show the managers' perception of financial reporting, and emphasize the effects of the implementation of IFRS in Republic of Macedonia.

  9. Regulatory practices and standards: the international scene and trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinck, W.; Essler, W.; Maurer, H.A.; Reijen, G. van.

    1978-01-01

    At national level, codification of standards governing the licensing and operation of nuclear installations is very different, ranging from criteria to regulations, according to the degree of the obligation imposed by national authorities; it also reflects the variety of national situations and the peculiarities of the legal and political systems. The need to agree upon a level of nuclear safety which is generally recognised as satisfactory and to exchange scientific and technological information in this field has greatly stimulated international co-operation, in particular within the framework of specialized international organisations such as IAEA, ISO, Euratom and OECD/NEA. Harmonization of such standards is particularly important from the viewpoint of public opinion in the countries concerned. In addition, the intrinsic safety of nuclear power plants, assurances as to the duration of plant life should increasingly be highlighted in future. (NEA) [fr

  10. Decarbonizing the international shipping industry: Solutions and policy recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Zheng; El Makhloufi, Abdel; Chen, Yang; Tang, Jiayuan

    2018-01-01

    Ship-source greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions could increase by up to 250% by 2050 from their 2012 levels, owing to increasing global freight volumes. Binding international legal agreements to regulate GHGs, however, are lacking as technical solutions remain expensive, and crucial industrial support is absent. In 2003, the International Maritime Organization adopted Resolution A.963 (23) to regulate shipping CO 2 emissions via technical, operational, and market-based routes. However, progress has been slow and uncertain; there is no concrete emission reduction target or definitive action plan. Yet, a full-fledged roadmap may not even emerge until 2023. In this policy analysis, we revisit the progress of technical, operational, and market-based routes and the associated controversies. We argue that 1) a performance-based index, though good-intentioned, has loopholes affecting meaningful CO 2 emission reductions driven by technical advancements; 2) using slow steaming to cut energy consumption stands out among all operational solutions thanks to its immediate and obvious results, but with the already slow speed in practice, this single source has limited emission reduction potential; 3) without a technology-savvy shipping industry, a market-based approach is essentially needed to address the environmental impact. To give shipping a 50:50 chance for contributing fairly and proportionately to keep global warming below 2°C, deep emission reductions should occur soon. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Analysing public relations education through international standards: The Portuguese case

    OpenAIRE

    Gonçalves, Gisela Marques Pereira; Spínola, Susana de Carvalho; Padamo, Celma

    2013-01-01

    By using international reports on PR education as a benchmark we analyse the status of PR higher education in Portugal. Despite differences among the study programs, the findings reveal that the standard five courses recommendation by the Commission on Public Relations Education (CPRE) are a part of Portuguese undergraduate curriculum. This includes 12 of the 14 content field guidelines needed to achieve the ideal master's program. Data shows, however, the difficulty of positioning public rel...

  12. International standards for financial reporting: Harmonization in Macedonia

    OpenAIRE

    Kozuharov, Sasho; Ristovska, Natasha; Blazeska, Daliborka

    2015-01-01

    A continuous flow of reliable, relevant and financially important information is necessary for making economically justified and strategic investment decisions. Economic globalization has contributed to the need of creating a unified language for communication, a single set of international financial reporting standards with the sole purpose of enhancing transparency for investors and reducing the cost of capital. Harmonization of financial reporting provides more efficient use of...

  13. International standardization of instruments for neutron irradiation tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanimoto, Masataka; Shibata, Akira; Nakamura, Jinichi; Tsuchiya, Kunihiko; Cho, M.; Lee, C.; Park, S.; Choo, K.

    2012-01-01

    The JMTR in JAEA and HANARO in KAERI are the foremost testing/research reactors in the world and these are expected to contribute to many nuclear fields. As a part of instrument development in irradiation field, information exchange of instruments started from 2010 under the cooperation agreements between KAERI and JAEA. The instruments developed in JMTR and HANARO are introduced and cooperation experiments as future plan are discussed for international standardization. (author)

  14. Housekeeping Genes as Internal Standards: Use and Limits

    OpenAIRE

    Thellin, Olivier; Zorzi, Willy; Lakaye, Bernard; De Borman, B.; Coumans, Bernard; Hennen, Georges; Grisar, Thierry; Igout, Ahmed; Heinen, Ernst

    1999-01-01

    Quantitative studies are commonly realised in the biomedical research to compare RNA expression in different experimental or clinical conditions. These quantifications are performed through their comparison to the expression of the housekeeping gene transcripts like glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (G3PDH), albumin, actins, tubulins, cyclophilin, hypoxantine phsophoribosyltransferase (HRPT), L32. 28S, and 18S rRNAs are also used as internal standards. In this paper, it is recalled tha...

  15. International Standards for Radiation Sterilization of Medical Devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, A.

    2007-01-01

    For a terminally sterilized medical device to be designated '' STERILE '', probability of finding the viable micro-organisms in the device shall be equal to or less than 1 x 10 -6 (EN 556-1:2001: Sterilization of medical devices - Requirements for medical devices to be designated '' STERILE '' - Part 1: Requirements for terminally sterilized medical devices). Author presents the main legal aspects of the international standards for radiation sterilization of medical devices

  16. International collaborative study for the calibration of proposed International Standards for thromboplastin, rabbit, plain and for thromboplastin, recombinant, human, plain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van den Besselaar, A M H P; Chantarangkul, V; Angeloni, F

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The availability of International Standards for thromboplastin is essential for the calibration of routine reagents and hence the calculation of the International Normalized Ratio (INR). Stocks of the current 4(th) International Standards are running low. Candidate replacement materia......) international standard (rTF/09). The candidate materials have been accepted by WHO as the 5(th) International Standards for thromboplastin, rabbit plain, and thromboplastin, recombinant, human, plain. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.......BACKGROUND: The availability of International Standards for thromboplastin is essential for the calibration of routine reagents and hence the calculation of the International Normalized Ratio (INR). Stocks of the current 4(th) International Standards are running low. Candidate replacement materials...... have been prepared. This report describes the calibration of the proposed 5(th) International Standards for thromboplastin, rabbit, plain (coded RBT/16) and for thromboplastin, recombinant, human, plain (coded rTF/16). METHODS: An international collaborative study was carried out for the assignment...

  17. Nuclear data standards - International Evaluation Co-operation volume 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, A.D.; Shibata, K.; Vonach, H.; Hambsch, F.J.; Chen, Z.; Hofmann, H.M.; Oh, S.Y.; Badikov, S.A.; Gai, E.V.; Pronyaev, V.G.; Smith, D.L.; Hale, G.M.; Kawano, T.; Larson, N.M.

    2006-01-01

    A Working Party on International Evaluation Co-operation was established under the sponsorship of the OECD/NEA Nuclear Science Committee (NSC) to promote the exchange of information on nuclear data evaluations, validation and related topics. Its aim is also to provide a framework for co-operative activities between members of the major nuclear data evaluation projects. This includes the possible exchange of scientists in order to encourage co-operation. Requirements for experimental data resulting from this activity are compiled. The working party determines common criteria for evaluated nuclear data files with a view to assessing and improving the quality and completeness of evaluated data. The parties to the project are: ENDF (United States), JEFF/EFF (NEA Data Bank member countries) and JENDL (Japan). Co-operation with evaluation projects of non-OECD countries is organised through the Nuclear Data Section of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). This report was issued by Subgroup 7, which was in charge of producing new evaluated neutron cross-section standards. When starting the project, there was a general consensus on the need to update these standards, as significant improvements had been made to the experimental database since 1991 when the last evaluation of these standards was performed. The present work was accomplished through efficient collaboration between a task force of the US Cross-section Evaluation Working Group (CSEWG), a Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and Subgroup 7 of the Working Party on International Evaluation Co-operation (WPEC) of the NEA Nuclear Science Committee. Work is reported on the results of an international effort to evaluate the neutron cross-section standards. The evaluations include the H(n,n), 6 Li(n,t), 10 B(n,α), 10 B(n,α1γ), 197 Au(n,γ), 235 U(n,f) and 238 U(n,f) standard reactions. Evaluations were also produced for the non-standard 238 U(n,γ) and 239 Pu

  18. The new international standard ISO 14001: 2004 environmental management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oheba, Jamal Basher

    2006-01-01

    ISO 14001 is one standard in the ISO 14000 series of standards developed by International Organization of Standardization (ISO). Since it was published in 19096, it has rapidly become the most important environmental standard in the world. ISO 14001 is an environmental management system (EMS) that can be classified into environmental technologies provides a systematic procedure to all kind of organizations to prevent pollutions, protect environment and to improve their overall environmental performance. This new standard ISO 14001 2004 was published on November 15, 2004. It cancels and replaced the old ISO 14001-1996. Because the important of the previous standard for our local industries, firms, ...etc, this paper presents ISO 14001 concepts, issues, benefits and focuses on the stages of implementation to achieve ISO 14001-2004 certification which includes general requirements environmental policy, planning (objectives, targets ..), implementation and operations, checking and management review ...etc and presents how to apply isotop time saver software to design records, and to save time to implement ISO 14001 2004 and finally a conclusion is provided.(Author)

  19. 77 FR 60341 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-03

    ... National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines; New Source Performance Standards for Stationary Internal Combustion Engines AGENCY: Environmental Protection... Pollutants for Stationary Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines to solicit comment on specific issues...

  20. 78 FR 54606 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-05

    ... Combustion Engines; New Source Performance Standards for Stationary Internal Combustion Engines AGENCY... hazardous air pollutants for stationary reciprocating internal combustion engines and the standards of performance for stationary internal combustion engines. Subsequently, the EPA received three petitions for...

  1. COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGES THROUGH THE IMPLEMENTATION OF INTERNATIONAL ENERGY MANAGEMENT STANDARDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PALIEKHOVA L. L.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The purpose of the presented research is to explore the potential of international energy management standards to increase competitiveness of industrial enterprises under conditions of Ukrainian transitional economy. The study had the following objectives: to trace the evolution of fundamental energy efficiency standards; to discuss experience in their use in various countries; to identify factors that are key to achieving competitive advantage under the implementation ISO 50001. Methodology. This article presents a historical overview of the standardisation of principles and approaches for the purpose of the energy-efficient management. The research was carried out by studying the international documents, voluntary standards and national practices in the field of energy efficiency. Conclusions. The study examines the experiences of different countries in the field of energy management systems. The authors conducted a comparative analysis of the ISO 50001 with the other basic standards for the organisation of management. The system approach enables to identify the main factors and their impact on capacity to achieve competitive advantages, which are possible to obtain after certification to ISO 50001. Originality. The study reviewed and analysed the energy management penetration within its dynamics at time and country level. After analysing the statistical data and the results of the interviews, the authors identified 20 key factors affecting the competitiveness of enterprises that are certified to ISO 50001. All of these factors were divided into four groups, two groups represent external environment – opportunities and threats, and two groups – internal capacity – strengths and weaknesses of enterprises. Practical value. The proposed system of factors may be useful for the planning of actions towards strengthening the capacity of energy management systems in the context of the formation competitive advantages on the industrial

  2. CSNI International standard problems (ISP). Brief descriptions (1975-1999)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-03-01

    Over the last twenty-five years the NEA Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations (CSNI) has sponsored a considerable number of international activities to promote the exchange of experience between its Member countries in the use of nuclear safety codes and testing materials. A primary goal of these activities is to increase confidence in the validity and accuracy of analytical tools or testing procedures which are needed in warranting the safety of nuclear installations, and to demonstrate the competence of involved institutions. International Standard Problems (ISPs) exercises are comparative exercises in which predictions or recalculations of a given physical problem with different best-estimate computer code are compared with each other and above all with the results of a carefully specified experimental study. ISP exercises are performed as 'open' or 'blind' problems. In an open Standard Problem exercise the results of the experiment are available to the participants before performing the calculations, while in a blind Standard Problem exercise the experimental results are locked until the calculation results are made available for comparison. The CSNI-promoted ISP activity started in the early 70's and is still underway. Parallel to other national and international programs the CSNI has sponsored over more than 25 years forty-seven International Standard Problem exercises. This program has been focused mainly on the applicability of large thermal-hydraulic code systems simulating the behaviour of nuclear coolant and containment systems, fuel behaviour under accident conditions, hydrogen distribution, core-concrete interactions and fission product release and transport. One ISP exercise was organised in connection with a seismic ultimate dynamic response test. ISP exercises have proven to be very valuable to participating countries. They have been fruitful to identify code application problems and to amplify the contacts between the experimental and

  3. CSNI International Standard Problems (ISP). Brief descriptions (1975-1994)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-07-01

    Between 1975 and 1994 the NEA Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations (CSNI) has sponsored some forty International Standard Problems (ISPs) in the fields of in-vessel thermal-hydraulic behaviour, fuel behaviour under accident conditions, fission product release and transport, core/concrete interactions, hydrogen distribution and mixing, containment thermal-hydraulics. ISPs are comparative exercises in which predictions of different computer codes for a given physical problem are compared with each other or with the results of a carefully controlled experimental study. The main goal of ISP exercises is to increase confidence in the validity and accuracy of tools which are used in assessing the safety of nuclear installations. Moreover, they enable code users to gain experience and demonstrate their competence. ISPs are performed as 'open' or 'blind' problems. In an open Standard Problem the results of the experiment are available to the participants before performing the calculations, while in a blind Standard Problem the results are locked until the calculational results are made available for comparison. Experiments selected to support ISP exercises are exceptionally well documented; they provide the framework for several code validation matrices. This report briefly describes 36 ISPs and 3 containment analysis standard problems (CASP)

  4. Primary standardization of cesium-137 for international intercomparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, P.K.

    1977-01-01

    Primary standards of cesium-137 are of great importance for precise radiation measurements because, due to its simple decay-scheme and long half-life, it is widely used for the calibration of radiation detectors. Also 137 Cs is used for the measurement of fission-yield and uranium burn-up in reactor engineering studies. In view of these, an international intercomparison was organised on a limited scale to correlate the standards established at the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC), Bombay(India) and Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), West Germany. The ''efficiency tracing technique'' was developed at BARC for the primary standardization of 137 Cs for this intercomparison. Two tracers, namely 82 Br and 60 Co, were employed to trace the beta efficiency of the 4 πβ-γ coincidence counting system. It is shown that this technique offers high accuracy and inherent reliability. The ''tracing-technique'' for 137 Cs standardization is briefly described. The gravimetric method of dilution and preparation of mixed sources of 137 Cs - 82 Br and 137 Cs - 60 Co are given. The various counting parameters and settings are included. Data reduction and the estimation of systematic and statistical errors are discussed. The results of the intercomparison, which are also included, show that the agreement between the measurments of BARC and PTB is within 0.5%. (author)

  5. The protection of migrant workers and international labour standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohning, W R

    1988-06-01

    International labor standards take the form of Conventions and Recommendations that embody the agreements reached by a 2/3 majority of the representatives of Governments, Employers, and Workers of International Labour Office (ILO) member states. Originally designed to guard against the danger that 1 country or other would keep down wages and working conditions to gain competitive advantage and thereby undermine advances elsewhere, international labor standards have also been inspired by humanitarian concerns--the visible plight of workers and the physical dangers of industrialization and by the notion of social justice, which embraces wellbeing and dignity, security, and equality as well as a measure of participation in economic and social matters. ILO standards apply to workers generally and therefore also to migrant workers, irrespective of the fact that the general standards are complemented by standards especially for migrant workers. The social security protection of migrant workers has been dealt with in ILO instruments primarily from the angle of equality of treatment but also from that of the maintenance of acquired rights and rights in course of acquisition, including the payment of benefits to entitled persons resident abroad. The ILO Conventions on migrant workers and the Recommendations which supplement them deal with practically all aspects of the work and life of non-nationals such as recruitment matters, information to be made available, contract conditions, medical examination and attention, customs, exemption for personal effects, assistance in settling into their new environment, vocational training, promotion at work, job security and alternative employment, liberty of movement, participation in the cultural life of the state as well as maintenance of their own culture, transfer of earnings and savings, family reunification and visits, appeal against unjustified termination of employment or expulsion, and return assistance. ILO's supervisory

  6. International Standardization of the Clinical Dosimetry of Beta Radiation Brachytherapy Sources: Progress of an ISO Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Christopher

    2006-03-01

    In 2004 a new work item proposal (NWIP) was accepted by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) Technical Committee 85 (TC85 -- Nuclear Energy), Subcommittee 2 (Radiation Protection) for the development of a standard for the clinical dosimetry of beta radiation sources used for brachytherapy. To develop this standard, a new Working Group (WG 22 - Ionizing Radiation Dosimetry and Protocols in Medical Applications) was formed. The standard is based on the work of an ad-hoc working group initiated by the Dosimetry task group of the Deutsches Insitiut für Normung (DIN). Initially the work was geared mainly towards the needs of intravascular brachytherapy, but with the decline of this application, more focus has been placed on the challenges of accurate dosimetry for the concave eye plaques used to treat ocular melanoma. Guidance is given for dosimetry formalisms, reference data to be used, calibrations, measurement methods, modeling, uncertainty determinations, treatment planning and reporting, and clinical quality control. The document is currently undergoing review by the ISO member bodies for acceptance as a Committee Draft (CD) with publication of the final standard expected by 2007. There are opportunities for other ISO standards for medical dosimetry within the framework of WG22.

  7. 25 CFR 542.14 - What are the minimum internal control standards for the cage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What are the minimum internal control standards for the... SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS § 542.14 What are the minimum internal control standards for... and/or procedures that provide at least the level of control described by the standards in this...

  8. 25 CFR 542.8 - What are the minimum internal control standards for pull tabs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What are the minimum internal control standards for pull... SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS § 542.8 What are the minimum internal control standards for... and/or procedures that provide at least the level of control described by the standards in this...

  9. Massive-scale data management using standards-based solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Shiers, J

    1999-01-01

    In common with many large institutes, CERN has traditionally developed and maintained its own data management solutions. Recently, a significant change of direction has taken place and we have now adopted commercial tools, together with a small amount of site- specific code, for this task. The solutions chosen were originally studied as part of research and development projects oriented towards the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), which is currently under construction at CERN. They have since been adopted not only by the LHC collaborations, which are due to take production data starting in 2005, but also by numerous current experiments, both at CERN and at other High Energy Physics laboratories. Previous experiments, that used data management tools developed in-house, are also studying a possible move to the new environment. To meet the needs of today's experiments, data rates of up to 35 MB/second and data volumes of many hundred TB per experiment must be supported. Data distribution to multiple sites must be pr...

  10. Characterizing multiple solutions to the time-energy canonical commutation relation via internal symmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caballar, Roland Cristopher F.; Ocampo, Leonard R.; Galapon, Eric A.

    2010-01-01

    Internal symmetries can be used to classify multiple solutions to the time-energy canonical commutation relation (TE-CCR). The dynamical behavior of solutions to the TE-CCR possessing particular internal symmetries involving time reversal differ significantly from solutions to the TE-CCR without those particular symmetries, implying a connection between the internal symmetries of a quantum system, its internal unitary dynamics, and the TE-CCR.

  11. Occupational exposures worldwide and revision of international standards for protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czarwinski, R.; Crick, M. J.

    2011-01-01

    United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) has become the world authority on the levels and effects of ionising radiation. Since 1975, UNSCEAR has evaluated inter alia the level of occupational exposure worldwide. Based on revised questionnaires, more detailed information is now available. The results of the last evaluation (1995-2002) will be shown in the paper. Lessons learned from the responses by UN Member States will be given, as well as an outline of plans for data collection in future cycles. The requirements for protection against exposure to ionising radiation of workers, the public and patients are established in the International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionising Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources (BSS), published in 1996. As a result of a review of the BSS in 2006, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) started a process for the revision of these standards in 2007. International organisations including the joint sponsoring organisations of the BSS-IAEA, FAO, ILO, OECD/NEA, PAHO and WHO-as well as potential new joint sponsoring organisations of the revised BSS-the European Commission and UNEP-were involved from the beginning in the revision process. The paper also provides a summary of the status of the Draft Revised BSS and describes the new format. The paper focuses, in particular, on requirements for the protection of workers as well as record keeping requirements, which provide the legal basis for the collection of specific data; these data are of the type that can be used by UNSCEAR. (authors)

  12. Refugees and Internally Displaced Persons in Montenegro – A Durable Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragana Radević

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available For over a decade the issues of refugees and internally displaced persons in Montenegro have been very imminent. This paper reviews the current situation in Montenegro, in regard to the number and socio-economic status of refugees and internally displaced persons, with special emphasis on the Roma, internal displacees from Kosovo, who due to their low education level and the language barrier are seen as the most vulnerable population. In addition to concrete data on the living standards of the mentioned groups, special attention is given to the interrelationship between displacees on the one hand, and the domicile population and the local government, on the other. The paper presents the results of qualitative surveys carried out on representative sample of displacees and representatives of local communities, as well as among competent representatives of local governments. These results confirm that in everyday life people disregard politics and history and focus on issues of survival. Furthermore, the paper presents the solutions proposed by the Strategy for durable solutions of the issues of refugees and internally displaced persons in Montenegro, the implementation of which, within the next 1000 days, in the context of overall regional events and activities, predicts the closing of “refugee files” in Montenegro.

  13. Concrete blocks. Analysis of UNE, ISO en standards and comparison with other international standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvarez Alonso, Marina

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to describe the recently approved UNE standards through a systematic analysis of the main specifications therein contained and the values considered for each of them, as well as the drafts for ISO and EN concrete block standards. Furthermore, the study tries to place the set of ISO standards in the international environment through a comparative analysis against a representative sample of the standards prevailing in various geographical regions of the globe to determine the analogies and differences among them. PALABRAS CLAVE: albañilería, análisis de sistemas, bloque de hormigón, muros de fábrica, normativa KEY WORDS: masonry, system analysis, concrete blocks, masonry walls, standards

    En este trabajo se pretende describir la reciente aprobada normativa UNE, analizando sistemáticamente las principales prescripciones contempladas y los valores considerados para cada una de ellas, así como los proyectos de Norma ISO, y EN sobre bloques de hormigón. Asimismo se intenta situar la normativa UNE en al ámbito internacional, haciendo un análisis comparativo con una representación de Normas de distintas regiones geográficas del mundo, determinando sus analogías y diferencias.

  14. Brief International Cognitive Assessment for MS (BICAMS): international standards for validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedict, Ralph H B; Amato, Maria Pia; Boringa, Jan; Brochet, Bruno; Foley, Fred; Fredrikson, Stan; Hamalainen, Paivi; Hartung, Hans; Krupp, Lauren; Penner, Iris; Reder, Anthony T; Langdon, Dawn

    2012-07-16

    An international expert consensus committee recently recommended a brief battery of tests for cognitive evaluation in multiple sclerosis. The Brief International Cognitive Assessment for MS (BICAMS) battery includes tests of mental processing speed and memory. Recognizing that resources for validation will vary internationally, the committee identified validation priorities, to facilitate international acceptance of BICAMS. Practical matters pertaining to implementation across different languages and countries were discussed. Five steps to achieve optimal psychometric validation were proposed. In Step 1, test stimuli should be standardized for the target culture or language under consideration. In Step 2, examiner instructions must be standardized and translated, including all information from manuals necessary for administration and interpretation. In Step 3, samples of at least 65 healthy persons should be studied for normalization, matched to patients on demographics such as age, gender and education. The objective of Step 4 is test-retest reliability, which can be investigated in a small sample of MS and/or healthy volunteers over 1-3 weeks. Finally, in Step 5, criterion validity should be established by comparing MS and healthy controls. At this time, preliminary studies are underway in a number of countries as we move forward with this international assessment tool for cognition in MS.

  15. International Longitudinal Paediatric Reference Standards for Bone Mineral Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter-Jones, Adam DG; McKay, Heather; Burrows, Melonie; Bachrach, Laura K; Lloyd, Tom; Petit, Moira; Macdonald, Heather; Mirwald, Robert L; Bailey, Don

    2014-01-01

    To render a diagnosis pediatricians rely upon reference standards for bone mineral density or bone mineral content, which are based on cross-sectional data from a relatively small sample of children. These standards are unable to adequately represent growth in a diverse pediatric population. Thus, the goal of this study was to develop sex and site specific standards for BMC using longitudinal data collected from four international sites in Canada and the United States. Data from four studies were combined; Saskatchewan Paediatric Bone Mineral Accrual Study (n=251), UBC Healthy Bones Study (n=382); Penn State Young Women’s Health Study (n=112) and Stanford’s Bone Mineral Accretion study (n=423). Males and females (8 to 25 years) were measured for whole body (WB), total proximal femur (PF), femoral neck (FN) and lumbar spine (LS) BMC (g). Data were analyzed using random effects models. Bland-Altman was used to investigate agreement in predicted and actual data. Age, height, weight and ethnicity independently predicted BMC accrual across sites (P accrual; Hispanic 75.4 (28.2) g less BMC accrual; Blacks 82.8 (26.3) g more BMC accrual with confounders of age, height and weight controlled. Similar findings were found for PF and FN. Female models for all sites were similar with age, height and weight all independent significant predictors of BMC accrual (P accounting for age, size, sex and ethnicity. In conclusion, when interpreting BMC in paediatrics we recommend standards that are sex, age, size and ethnic specific. PMID:19854308

  16. International longitudinal pediatric reference standards for bone mineral content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter-Jones, Adam D G; Burrows, Melonie; Bachrach, Laura K; Lloyd, Tom; Petit, Moira; Macdonald, Heather; Mirwald, Robert L; Bailey, Don; McKay, Heather

    2010-01-01

    To render a diagnosis pediatricians rely upon reference standards for bone mineral density or bone mineral content, which are based on cross-sectional data from a relatively small sample of children. These standards are unable to adequately represent growth in a diverse pediatric population. Thus, the goal of this study was to develop sex and site-specific standards for BMC using longitudinal data collected from four international sites in Canada and the United States. Data from four studies were combined; Saskatchewan Paediatric Bone Mineral Accrual Study (n=251), UBC Healthy Bones Study (n=382); Penn State Young Women's Health Study (n=112) and Stanford's Bone Mineral Accretion study (n=423). Males and females (8 to 25 years) were measured for whole body (WB), total proximal femur (PF), femoral neck (FN) and lumbar spine (LS) BMC (g). Data were analyzed using random effects models. Bland-Altman was used to investigate agreement between predicted and actual data. Age, height, weight and ethnicity independently predicted BMC accrual across sites (Paccrual; Hispanic 75.4 (28.2) g less BMC accrual; Blacks 82.8 (26.3) g more BMC accrual with confounders of age, height and weight controlled. We report similar findings for the PF and FN. Models for females for all sites were similar with age, height and weight as independent significant predictors of BMC accrual (Paccounting for age, size, sex and ethnicity. In conclusion, when interpreting BMC in pediatrics we recommend standards that are sex, age, size and ethnic specific. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Prospects of implementation of "Basel III" international standards for domestic banks based on international experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baha Oksana

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This article summarizes the main requirements of the "Basel III" new standards in the context of banks capital regulation and identifies prospects for implementation of domestic banks based on analysis of international experience. The urgency of the problem is formulated in the need to restore the stability of the banking system of Ukraine with the new standards, which purpose is to increase the stability of banks and to protect the rights of financial services consumers. The main threats faced by the banking systems of developed countries and possible for the Ukrainian financial system were determined. The ways of achieving maximum benefits of new banking reform introduction were proposed.

  18. Contribution from twenty two years of CSNI International Standard Problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-03-01

    This report provides a brief overview on the contribution of some CSNI International Standard Problems (ISPs) to nuclear reactor safety issues (41 ISPs performed over the last 22 years). This CSNI activity on ISPs has been one of the major activities of the Principal Working Group no.2 on Coolant System Behaviour. Its domain extended from thermal-hydraulics to several other accident domains following the main concerns of nuclear reactor safety, e.g., LOCA predictions fuel behaviour, operator procedures, containment thermal-hydraulics severe accidents, VVERs, etc. ISPs are providing unique material and benefits for some safety related issues. Clearly, all the technical findings and benefits provided by ISPs are still needed and contribute to advancement of nuclear safety. The report provides some overview on the general objectives of ISPs, content and types of ISPs, and technical domains covered by ISPs, followed by a synthesis of technical findings and benefits to the scientific community

  19. International standard for the charging of electric vehicles; Internationaler Standard fuer das Laden von Elektrofahrzeugen - Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathoy, A.

    2001-12-15

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) reports on the situation regarding the standardisation of battery charging systems for electric vehicles. The advantages of an international standard both for users and manufacturers of electrically-powered vehicles are discussed. The work done in the IEC and CENELEC technical committees is reviewed. Developments achieved since 1999 are reviewed and further developments and work to be done are examined. The most important points in the IEC standard 61851 are looked at and various connector interfaces are described. Direct and inductive charging systems according to IEC 61980 are examined and the special situation in Italy, where power available in homes for the charging of electrical vehicles is more limited, is reviewed.

  20. The European Union CREATE project: a model for international standardization of allergy diagnostics and vaccines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chapman, Martin D.; Ferreira, Fatima; Villalba, Mayte; Cromwell, Oliver; Bryan, Donna; Becker, Wolf-Meinhard; Fernández-Rivas, Montserrat; Durham, Stephen; Vieths, Stefan; van Ree, Ronald; Aalbers, M.; Notten, S.; Ooievaar-de Heer, P.; Ferreira, F.; Gademaier, G.; Wallner, M.; Villalba, M.; Rodriguez, R.; Becker, W.-M.; Eberhardt, F.; Lepp, U.; Raulf-Heimsoth, M.; Valenta, R.; Focke, M.; Bryan, D.; Dolman, C.; Das, R. G.; Vieths, S.; Fötisch, K.; Di Felice, G.; Pini, C.; Cromwell, O.; Fiebig, H.; Weber, B.; van Schijndel, H.; Dorpema, J. W.; Marco, F. M.; Monsalve, R.; Barber, D.; Caldas, E. Fernandez; Moingeon, P.; Didierlaurent, A.; André, C.; Kroon, A.; Neubauer, A.; Chapman, M.; Vailes, L.; Tsay, A.; Durham, S.; Custovic, A.; Simpson, B.; Knulst, A.; Rivas, M. Fernández; Mancebo, E. Gonzalez; Bahima, A. Cistero; Moncin, M. M. San Miguel; Mari, A.; Kinaciyan, T.; Quiralte, J.; Pauli, G.; de Blay, F.; Purohit, A.; Rak, S.

    2008-01-01

    Allergen measurements are used extensively in the formulation of allergy diagnostics and vaccines, yet no purified international allergen standards are available for calibration purposes. The aims of the European Union CREATE project were to develop international standards with verifiable allergen

  1. International Review of Standards and Labeling Programs for Distribution Transformers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Letschert, Virginie [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Scholand, Michael [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Carreño, Ana María [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Hernandez, Carolina [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-06-20

    Transmission and distribution (T&D) losses in electricity networks represent 8.5% of final energy consumption in the world. In Latin America, T&D losses range between 6% and 20% of final energy consumption, and represent 7% in Chile. Because approximately one-third of T&D losses take place in distribution transformers alone, there is significant potential to save energy and reduce costs and carbon emissions through policy intervention to increase distribution transformer efficiency. A large number of economies around the world have recognized the significant impact of addressing distribution losses and have implemented policies to support market transformation towards more efficient distribution transformers. As a result, there is considerable international experience to be shared and leveraged to inform countries interested in reducing distribution losses through policy intervention. The report builds upon past international studies of standards and labeling (S&L) programs for distribution transformers to present the current energy efficiency programs for distribution transformers around the world.

  2. International comparison of activity measurements of a solution of 75Se

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratel, Guy

    2002-04-01

    Activity measurements of a solution of 75Se, supplied by the BIPM, have been carried out by 21 laboratories within the framework of an international comparison. Seven different methods were used. Details on source preparation, experimental facilities and counting data are reported. The measured activity-concentration values show a total spread of 6.62% before correction and 6.02% after correction for delayed events, with standard deviations of the unweighted means of 0.45% and 0.36%, respectively. The correction for delayed events was measured directly by four laboratories. Unfortunately no consensus on the activity value could be deduced from their results. The results of the comparison have been entered in the tables of the International Reference System (SIR) for γ-ray emitting radionuclides. The half-life of the metastable state was also determined by two laboratories and found to be in good agreement with the values found in the literature.

  3. International Financial Reporting Standards and Earnings Management in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Augusto Timm Rathke

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the level of earnings management in Latin America after the adoption of the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS and analyzes the role of cross-listing in the United States. The literature on earnings management in less developed countries is still under construction, and few studies focus on this issue, especially with respect to Latin America, despite its relevant role in the global economy. This paper fills this gap in the literature as it analyzes the level of IFRS earnings management regarding the first and main Latin American countries applying IFRS (Brazil and Chile, when compared to the main Anglo-Saxon countries with IFRS tradition (United Kingdom and Australia, and with the main Continental European economies (France and Germany. The results show that Latin American firms present a higher level of earnings management than Continental European and Anglo-Saxon firms, and this opportunistic behavior remains significant when only global players with cross-listing in the United States are analyzed. Thus, even with a unique set of high quality accounting standards (IFRS and strong reporting incentives, countries’ specific characteristics still play an important role in the way IFRS is implemented in each country.

  4. CSNI International standard problems (ISP): brief descriptions (1975-1997)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-07-01

    Over the last twenty years (1975-1999) the NEA Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations (CSNI) has sponsored more than forty International Standard Problems (ISPs) in the fields of in-vessel thermal-hydraulic behaviour, fuel behaviour under accident conditions, fission product release and transport, core/concrete interactions, hydrogen distribution and mixing, containment thermal-hydraulic, and iodine behaviour in the containment. ISPs are comparative exercises in which predictions of different computer codes for a given physical problem are compared with each other or with the results of a carefully controlled experimental study. The main goal of ISP exercises is to increase confidence in the validity and accuracy of analytical tools or testing procedures which are needed in warranting the safety of nuclear installations, and to demonstrate the competence of involved institutions. ISP exercises are performed as 'open' or 'blind' problems. The main characteristics of 41 ISPs completed between 1975 and 1999, and 3 containment analysis standard problems (CASPs) are briefly presented

  5. ASTEC participation in the international standard problem on KAEVER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spitz, P.; Van Dorsselaere, J.P.; Schwinges, B.; Schwarz, S.

    2001-01-01

    The objectives of the International Standard Problem no 44 was aerosol depletion behaviour under severe accident conditions in a LWR containment examined in the KAEVER test facility of Battelle (Germany). Nine organisations participated with 5 different codes in the ISP44, including a joint participation of GRS and IPSN with the integral code ASTEC (and in particular the CPA module) they have commonly developed. Five tests were selected from the KAEVER test matrix: K123, K148, K186 and K188 as open standard problems and the three-component test K187 as blind standard problem. All these tests were performed in supersaturated conditions and with slight fog formation, which are the most ambitious conditions for the coupled problem of thermal hydraulics and aerosol processes. The comparison between calculation and test showed a good agreement for all the tests with respect to the thermal-hydraulic conditions in the vessel, i.e. total pressure, atmosphere temperature, sump water and nitrogen mass, etc.... As for aerosol depletion, the ASTEC results were in a good overall agreement with the measured data. The code in particular predicted well the fast depletion of the hygroscopic and mixed aerosols and the slow depletion of insoluble silver aerosol. The important effects of bulk condensation, solubility and the Kelvin effect on the aerosol depletion were well predicted. However the code overestimation of steam condensation on hygroscopic aerosols in supersaturated conditions indicates that some slight improvements of the appropriate ASTEC models are needed in the future. In the final ISP44 workshop, the deviations of the ASTEC results with respect to the experiments were considered to be small compared to those of most other codes. (authors)

  6. 25 CFR 542.7 - What are the minimum internal control standards for bingo?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What are the minimum internal control standards for bingo... SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS § 542.7 What are the minimum internal control standards for... utilized, alternate documentation and/or procedures that provide at least the level of control described by...

  7. 78 FR 40740 - Advisory Council on the Standards for Internal Control in the Federal Government

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-08

    ... GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE Advisory Council on the Standards for Internal Control in the... on the Green Book Advisory Council and the Standards for Internal Control in the Federal Government.... SUMMARY: The US Government Accountability Office (GAO) is preparing to revise the Standards for Internal...

  8. 78 FR 68447 - Exposure Draft-Standards for Internal Control in the Federal Government

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-14

    ... GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE Exposure Draft--Standards for Internal Control in the Federal... revisions to the Standards for Internal Control in the Federal Government, known as the ``Green Book,'' to... proposed changes contained in the 2013 Exposure Draft update to the Standards for Internal Control in the...

  9. 78 FR 22263 - Advisory Council on the Standards for Internal Control in the Federal Government; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-15

    ... GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE Advisory Council on the Standards for Internal Control in the... Standards for Internal Control in the Federal Government; Notice of Meeting. SUMMARY: The US Government Accountability Office (GAO) is initiating efforts to revise the Standards for Internal Control in the Federal...

  10. 75 FR 75937 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-07

    ... National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines... internal combustion engines. Subsequently, the Administrator received two petitions for reconsideration... Any industry using a stationary 2211 Electric power reciprocating internal generation, combustion...

  11. 76 FR 12923 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-09

    ... National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines... pollutants for existing stationary spark ignition reciprocating internal combustion engines. The final rule... reciprocating internal combustion generation, engine. transmission, or distribution. 622110 Medical and surgical...

  12. THE PARTICIPATION OF INTERNATIONAL ENTITIES ON THE PUBLIC CONSULTATION PROCESS OF PUBLIC INTERNATIONAL ACCOUNTING STANDARD ABOUT INTANGIBLE ASSETS

    OpenAIRE

    Salaroli, Abner Ribeiro; de Almeida, José Elias Feres; Gama, Janyluce Rezende

    2015-01-01

    The public accounting follows the same direction of financial accounting on the search for convergence to international standards, where IFAC is the body responsible for issuing international standards of public accounting. In this context, this study aims to analyze the process of development of the international public accounting standard about public intangible assets. The analysis was performed based on the suggestions available in comment letters sent to the consultation process. As a th...

  13. The preparation of primary standard solutions for each of the noble metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallett, R.C.; Wall, G.J.; Jones, E.A.; Royal, S.J.

    1977-01-01

    A revised method for the preparation of primary standard solutions for each of the noble metals is described. It is now recommended that standard noble-metal solutions should be made from the pure metals and not from salts as previously described. Metals should have a certified purity of 99,95 per cent or better, and the purity should be confirmed by analysis, the techniques of emission spectography or spark-source mass spectrography being used. After the metals have been dissolved, the solutions are made up to volume and the metal content of the standard solutions is checked. For most instrumental techniques for which the standards are intended, the check analysis should be within 0,3 per cent of the certified value

  14. International comparison of AC-DC current transfer standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heine, G.; Garcocz, M.; Waldmann, W.

    2017-01-01

    The measurements of the international comparison of ac-dc current transfer standards identified as EURAMET.EM-K12 started in June 2012 and were completed in December 2014. Twenty NMIs in the EURAMET region and one NMI in the AFRIMET region took part: BEV (Austria), CMI (Czech Republic), PTB (Germany), METAS (Switzerland), JV (Norway), UME (Turkey), GUM (Poland), IPQ (Portugal), CEM (Spain), INRIM (Italy), SP (Sweden), DANIAmet-MI-Trescal (Denmark), BIM (Bulgaria), MKEH (Hungary), SIQ (Slovenia), LNE (France), NSAI NML (Ireland), VSL (The Netherlands), NPL (United Kingdom), Metrosert (Estonia), NIS (Egypt). The comparison was proposed to link the National Metrology Institutes organised in EURAMET to the key comparison CCEM-K12. The ac-dc current transfer difference of each travelling standard had been measured at its nominal current 10 mA and 5 A at the following frequencies: 10 Hz, 55 Hz, 1 kHz, 10 kHz, 20 kHz, 50 kHz, 100 kHz. The test points were selected to link the results with the equivalent CCEM Key Comparison (CCEM-K12), through five NMIs participating in both EURAMET and CCEM key comparisons (PTB, JV, NPL, SP and BEV). The report shows the degree of equivalence in the EURAMET region and also the degree of equivalence with the corresponding CCEM reference value. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCEM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  15. 75 FR 19944 - International Code Council: The Update Process for the International Codes and Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-16

    ... documents from ICC's Chicago District Office: International Code Council, 4051 W Flossmoor Road, Country... Energy Conservation Code. International Existing Building Code. International Fire Code. International...

  16. International comparison of calibration standards for exposure and absorbed dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horakova, I.; Wagner, R.

    1990-01-01

    A comparison was performed of the primary calibration standards for 60 Co gamma radiation dose from Czechoslovakia (UDZ CSAV, Prague), Austria (OEFZS/BEV Seibersdorf) and Hungary (OMH Budapest) using ND 1005 (absolute measurement) and V-415 (by means of N x ) graphite ionization chambers. BEV achieved agreement better than 0.1%, OMH 0.35%. Good agreement was also achieved for the values of exposure obtained in absolute values and those obtained via N x , this for the ND 1005/8105 chamber. The first ever international comparison involving Czechoslovakia was also performed of the unit of absorbed gamma radiation in a water and/or graphite phantom. The participants included Czechoslovakia (UDZ CSAV Prague), the USSR (VNIIFTRI Moscow) and Austria (OEFZS/BEV Seibersdorf). In all measurements, the agreement was better than 1%, which, in view of the differences in methodologies (VNIIFTRI, BEV: calorimetry, UDZ, UVVVR: ionometry) and the overall inaccuracies in determining the absorbed dose values, is a good result. (author)

  17. International standardization of safety requirements for fast reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-06-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) is conducting the FaCT (Fast Reactor Cycle Technology Development) project in cooperation with Japan Atomic Power Company (JAPC) and Mitsubishi FBR systems inc. (MFBR), where an advanced loop-type fast reactor named JSFR (Japan Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor) is being developed. It is important to develop software technologies (a safety guideline, safety design criteria, safety design standards etc.) of FBRs as well as hardware ones (a reactor plant itself) in order to address prospective worldwide utilization of FBR technology. Therefore, it is expected to establish a rational safety guideline applicable to the JSFR and harmonized with national nuclear-safety regulations as well, including Japan, the United States and the European Union. This report presents domestic and international status of safety guideline development for sodium-cooled fast reactors (SFRs), results of comparative study for safety requirements provided in existing documents and a proposal for safety requirements of future SFRs with a roadmap for their refinement and worldwide utilization. (author)

  18. Massive bosons interacting with gravity: No standard solutions in Robertson-Walker space-time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zecca, A.

    2009-01-01

    The problem of the interaction of boson and gravitational field is formulated in the Robertson-Walker space-time. It consist the simultaneous solution of the boson and of the Einstein field equation whose source is the energy momentum tensor of the boson field. By direct verification it is shown that the problem does not admit solutions in the class of massive standard solutions, previously determined, of the boson field equation. Also there cannot be solutions, in case of massive interacting boson, that are superpositions of standard solutions. The case of massless boson field is left open. The result is essentially due to the very special form of the Einstein tensor in Robertson-Walker metric.

  19. Smart solutions to a worsening water crisis | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2013-01-23

    Jan 23, 2013 ... Innovative policies and new technologies that reduce water waste are helping countries across the Middle East and North Africa deal with chronic ... Home · Resources · Publications. Smart solutions to a worsening water crisis.

  20. Multiculturalism and international law : discussing universal standards / Alexandra Xanthaki

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Xanthaki, Alexandra

    2010-01-01

    Multikultuurilisuse tõlgendamisest rahvusvahelistes lepingutes (ICESCR - International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights; ICERD -International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination ; CESCR - Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights)

  1. Multi-party arbitration in international trade: problems and solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siig, Kristina

    2007-01-01

    Legal disputes regarding international trade frequently involve more than two parties. This leads to problems, as the preferred means of dispute resolution within international trade - arbitration - tends to be ill-equipped to handle such disputes. The topic of the paper is arbitration as a means...... of dispute resolution in a multy-party set-up. Both the possible legal bases and the problems encountered are considere. It is concluded that arbitration is still the only real option to the parties in international business disputes and that many of the shortcomings  may be contered by skilful drafting...

  2. Finite element analyses for seismic shear wall international standard problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Y.J.; Hofmayer, C.H.

    1998-04-01

    Two identical reinforced concrete (RC) shear walls, which consist of web, flanges and massive top and bottom slabs, were tested up to ultimate failure under earthquake motions at the Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation's (NUPEC) Tadotsu Engineering Laboratory, Japan. NUPEC provided the dynamic test results to the OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development), Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) for use as an International Standard Problem (ISP). The shear walls were intended to be part of a typical reactor building. One of the major objectives of the Seismic Shear Wall ISP (SSWISP) was to evaluate various seismic analysis methods for concrete structures used for design and seismic margin assessment. It also offered a unique opportunity to assess the state-of-the-art in nonlinear dynamic analysis of reinforced concrete shear wall structures under severe earthquake loadings. As a participant of the SSWISP workshops, Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) performed finite element analyses under the sponsorship of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC). Three types of analysis were performed, i.e., monotonic static (push-over), cyclic static and dynamic analyses. Additional monotonic static analyses were performed by two consultants, F. Vecchio of the University of Toronto (UT) and F. Filippou of the University of California at Berkeley (UCB). The analysis results by BNL and the consultants were presented during the second workshop in Yokohama, Japan in 1996. A total of 55 analyses were presented during the workshop by 30 participants from 11 different countries. The major findings on the presented analysis methods, as well as engineering insights regarding the applicability and reliability of the FEM codes are described in detail in this report. 16 refs., 60 figs., 16 tabs

  3. 75 FR 77664 - Honeywell International, Inc., Automation and Control Solutions Division, Including On-Site...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-13

    ..., Inc., Automation and Control Solutions Division, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Manpower... Solutions Division. The Department has determined that these workers were sufficiently under the control of Honeywell International, Inc., Automation and Control Solutions Division to be considered leased workers...

  4. International trade with peat and peat products - a challenge to international standardization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmilewski, G; Guenther, J [Institut fuer Torf- und Humusforschung GmbH (ITH), Bad Zwischenahn (Germany, F.R.)

    1990-01-01

    On a worldwide scale raised bog peat is the most important basic material for the production of growing media. Peat has greatly contributed to the realization of modern, standardized and even computer-controlled growing techniques in commercial horticulture. No other material can truly compete with the outstanding physical, chemical and biological properties of peat. All present and future substitutes will have to stand comparison with peat. Nonetheless, many other organic, mineral and synthetic materials are use in horticulture mainly to adjust the physical properties of growing media to new growing methods. As a direct or indirect consequence thereof, the spared raw material peat is a fact which is considered progressive in industrial countries strongly characterized by nature conservational ideas also. Some peat consuming countries do not have any indigenous peat resources and meet their demands with imports. Other countries, such as the Fed. Rep. of Germany, the Scandinavian countries and the USSR export considerable amounts of peat and peat products. International transactions have not only increased for big industries, but also for the peat industry. For the grower and for the producer of growing media alike, the knowledge of growing media properties are of fundamental importance. Various standard methods for the analysis of peat and growing media have been developed by national organizations and are being used just as manifold. In some cases national standards have derived from these.

  5. The quantitative analysis of Bowen's kale by PIXE using the internal standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navarrete, V.R.; Izawa, G.; Shiokawa, T.; Kamiya, M.; Morita, S.

    1978-01-01

    The internal standard method was used for non-destructive quantitative determination of trace elements by PIXE. The uniform distribution of the internal standard element in the Bowen's kale powder sample was obtained by using homogenization technique. Eleven elements are determined quantitatively for the sample prepared into self-supporting targets having lower relative standard deviations than non-self-supporting targets. (author)

  6. Solutions for a food-secure future | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-10-05

    Oct 5, 2016 ... ... of people in developing countries lift themselves out of hunger and poverty. Through the Centre's Agriculture and Food Security program, IDRC invested more than CAD$179 million from 2009-2015 to develop, test, and scale up solutions that improve food security and nutrition in the developing world.

  7. Social Innovations vs international Trade? Core labour standards and exports

    OpenAIRE

    Siroën, Jean-Marc

    2011-01-01

    Labour standards defined by the ILO in 1998 are universal but applied very differently in countries. They are much better respected in high income countries. However, the causality between labour standards and growth remains a controversial issue. The strategies of export-led growth might encourage developing countries to contain the rising process of standards, first to increase their unskilled labour endowments for strengthening their comparative advantage relative to complying countries, a...

  8. Issues and Solutions of International Understanding Education in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Li

    2013-01-01

    School in China has actively implemented International Understanding Education to foster a cosmopolitan perspective. The educational principle is to respect people of various socio-cultural backgrounds through comparing China's culture with that of other countries. However, my survey revealed that such education in practice is limited to…

  9. Internal displacement in Kenya: the quest for durable solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy Kiama

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Internal displacement in Kenya has been a challenge since the colonial era but only recently has a legal framework been developed to address IDP protection issues. The process of developing this framework offers some useful lessons for stakeholders in similar situations.

  10. Evolving minimum standards in responsible international sperm donor offspring quota

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssens, Pim M. W.; Thorn, Petra; Castilla, Jose A.; Frith, Lucy; Crawshaw, Marilyn; Mochtar, Monique; Bjorndahl, Lars; Kvist, Ulrik; Kirkman-Brown, Jackson C.

    2015-01-01

    An international working group was established with the aim of making recommendations on the number of offspring for a sperm donor that should be allowable in cases of international use of his sperm. Considerations from genetic, psychosocial, operational and ethical points of view were debated. For

  11. Monitoring the International Standardization Process Theoretical Choices and Methodological Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brigitte Juanals

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Many organizations are in charge of global security management. This paper outlines and argues for the construction of a theoretical and methodological framework in order to critically assess the new technopolitics currently being developed in the field of global security and which are materialized in standards. The main purpose is to design both a methodology and specific text mining tools to investigate these standards. These tools will be implemented in a platform designed to provide cartographic representations of standards and to assist the navigation of an end-user through a corpus of standards.

  12. Scintillation detector with anticoincidence shield for determination of the radioactive concentration of standard solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broda, R.; Radoszewski, T.

    1982-01-01

    The construction and parameters of the prototype liquid scintillation detector for disintegration rate determination of standard solutions is described. The detector is equipped with a liquid scintillation anticoincidence shield with a volume of 40 l. The instrument is placed in the building of the Radioisotope Production and Distribution Centre in the Institute of Nuclear Research at Swierk. The results of instrument background reduction are described. The counting efficiency of several beta-emitters 3 H, 63 Ni, 14 C and 90 Sr + 90 Y is given, as well as the examples of a disintegration rate determination of low radioactivity concentration of standard solutions. (author)

  13. Solution standards for quality control of nuclear-material analytical measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, J.P.

    1981-01-01

    Analytical chemistry measurement control depends upon reliable solution standards. At the Savannah River Plant Control Laboratory over a thousand analytical measurements are made daily for process control, product specification, accountability, and nuclear safety. Large quantities of solution standards are required for a measurement quality control program covering the many different analytical chemistry methods. Savannah River Plant produced uranium, plutonium, neptunium, and americium metals or oxides are dissolved to prepare stock solutions for working or Quality Control Standards (QCS). Because extensive analytical effort is required to characterize or confirm these solutions, they are prepared in large quantities. These stock solutions are diluted and blended with different chemicals and/or each other to synthesize QCS that match the matrices of different process streams. The target uncertainty of a standard's reference value is 10% of the limit of error of the methods used for routine measurements. Standard Reference Materials from NBS are used according to special procedures to calibrate the methods used in measuring the uranium and plutonium standards so traceability can be established. Special precautions are required to minimize the effects of temperature, radiolysis, and evaporation. Standard reference values are periodically corrected to eliminate systematic errors caused by evaporation or decay products. Measurement control is achieved by requiring analysts to analyze a blind QCS each shift a measurement system is used on plant samples. Computer evaluation determines whether or not a measurement is within the +- 3 sigma control limits. Monthly evaluations of the QCS measurements are made to determine current bias correction factors for accountability measurements and detect significant changes in the bias and precision statistics. The evaluations are also used to plan activities for improving the reliability of the analytical chemistry measurements

  14. 75 FR 37732 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-30

    ... National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines... hazardous air pollutants for existing stationary compression ignition reciprocating internal combustion... combustion engines. 40 CFR 63.6590 was amended by revising paragraphs (b)(1) and (3). Inadvertently...

  15. International laser safety standardization. From the European perspective with an emphasis on materials processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulmeister, K [Div. of Life Sciences, Dept. of Radiation Protection, Oesterreichisches Forschungszentrum Seibersdorf, 2444 Seibersdorf (Austria)

    1997-08-01

    This report reviews international standards relevant to the safety of laser products and laser installations, with an emphasis on the safety of laser materials processing from the European perspective. In the first paragraphs an overview of the international standards organisations, their relative roles and ways of developing new standards is given. In the second part of the report, work currently underway in the respective standards committees is summarised and specific standards dealing with different aspects of laser safety are discussed. An appendix contains a list of standards organised in standards organisations (IEC, ISO and EN). (author)

  16. International laser safety standardization. From the European perspective with an emphasis on materials processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulmeister, K.

    1997-08-01

    This report reviews international standards relevant to the safety of laser products and laser installations, with an emphasis on the safety of laser materials processing from the European perspective. In the first paragraphs an overview of the international standards organisations, their relative roles and ways of developing new standards is given. In the second part of the report, work currently underway in the respective standards committees is summarised and specific standards dealing with different aspects of laser safety are discussed. An appendix contains a list of standards organised in standards organisations IEC, ISO and EN). (author)

  17. IFRS for SMEs: Is this the solution to the problem for the application of the international regulation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Molina Llopis

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The IFRS for SMEs is of the size of its scope, a key player in the international accounting harmonization process. After a brief reference to the IASB’s role in this process, this paper makes a description of the steps followed for the issuance of IFRS for SMEs and their relevant characteristics, to continue with a comparative analysis of the main differences with full IFRS. Finally, the document contains some reflections related to the practical difficulties facing the process of implementing international standards and possible solutions, according to the author, be considered.

  18. Protein-bound solute removal during extended multipass versus standard hemodialysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eloot, Sunny; Van Biesen, Wim; Axelsen, Mette

    2015-01-01

    and middle molecules compared to standard hemodialysis (SHD). Since protein-bound solutes (PBS) exert important pathophysiological effects, we investigated whether MPHD results in improved removal of PBS as well. METHODS: A cross-over study (Clinical Trial NCT01267760) was performed in nine stable HD......), hippuric acid (HA), indole acetic acid (IAA), indoxyl sulfate (IS), and p-cresylsulfate (PCS). Dialyser extraction ratio, reduction ratio, and solute removal were calculated for these solutes. RESULTS: Already at 60 min after dialysis start, the extraction ratio in the hemodialyser was a factor 1.4-4 lower...

  19. Cultural impact on the harmonisation of Russian Accounting Standards with the International Financial Reporting Standards: A practitioner's perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Combs, A; Samy, M; Myachina, A

    2013-01-01

    Purpose\\ud – The purpose of this paper is to explore cultural impact on the harmonisation of Russian Accounting Standards with International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS).\\ud \\ud Design/methodology/approach\\ud – A theoretical review established that differences still exist between the two sets of accounting standards. For decades, Russia was a socialist state of planned economy. Accounting was a tool of centralised control, and accountants had a job of gathering information for statist...

  20. An determination of man-made γ-emitting radionuclides in coal fly ash and standard solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Cuihua; Zhou Qiang

    2004-01-01

    We participated an international comparison on the determination of man-made γ-emitting radionuclides in coal fly ash and in standard solution organized by the Analytical Quality Control Service of the IAEA in 2002. The sample was dispensed in 100.0 ± 0.1 g aliquots in plastic container and was spiked with known amounts of certified standard γ-emitting radionuclides 54 Mn, 57 Co, 60 Co, 65 Zn, 88 Y, 134 Cs, 137 Cs and 241 Am. The determination of the anthropogenic )γ-emitting radionuclides in the test samples was carried out with an ORTEC gamma-ray spectrometry system coupled with a HPGe detector with resolution of 1.75 keV and relative efficiency of 55% for 137 Cs, located in a 10 cm thick lead container. The energy and efficiency calibration were with home-made volume calibration sources containing some of the radionuclides to be analyzed. The analysis procedure is described elsewhere. Table 1 lists the results of the determination and the comparisons with IAEA reference data and evaluation. Overall our results are agreeable in ±8.6% with the IAEA reference data, except for 60 Co. The differences for 60 Co was -10.8%. It may be caused by the 60 Co calibration source made with residual of quiet old standard solution. The difference for 241 Am is due to self-absorption in the fly ash sample. This bias was small for the solution sample. For standard solution sample, the results are agreeable within ±3.7% for all radionuclides except for 60 Co, being 12%. (authors)

  1. Ouvrir la voie à des solutions audacieuses | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    3 nov. 2010 ... Le commerce international des produits agricoles a augmenté depuis la création de l'Organisation mondiale du commerce (OMC) il y a 15 ans, mais beaucoup de pays en développement n'en tirent aucun avantage. N'ayant pas les moyens de se conformer aux normes plus sévères établies pour assurer ...

  2. Preparation of uranium standard solutions for x-ray fluorescence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, C.M.; Cate, J.L.; Pickles, W.L.

    1978-03-01

    A method has been developed for gravimetrically preparing uranium nitrate standards with an estimated mean error of 0.1% (1 sigma) and a maximum error of 0.2% (1 sigma) for the total uranium weight. Two source materials, depleted uranium dioxide powder and NBS Standard Reference Material 960 uranium metal, were used to prepare stock solutions. The NBS metal proved to be superior because of the small but inherent uncertainty in the stoichiometry of the uranium oxide. These solutions were used to prepare standards in a freeze-dried configuration suitable for x-ray fluorescence analysis. Both gravimetric and freeze-drying techniques are presented. Volumetric preparation was found to be unsatisfactory for 0.1% precision for the sample size of interest. One of the primary considerations in preparing uranium standards for x-ray fluorescence analysis is the development of a technique for dispensing a 50-μl aliquot of a standard solution with a precision of 0.1% and an accuracy of 0.1%. The method developed corrects for variation in aliquoting and for evaporation loss during weighing. Two sets, each containing 50 standards have been produced. One set has been retained by LLL and one set retained by the Savannah River project

  3. International Financial Reporting Standards Convergence and Quality of Accounting Information: Evidence from Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Yusrina, Hasyyati; Mukhtaruddin, Mukhtaruddin; Fuadah, Luk Luk; Sulong, Zunaidah

    2017-01-01

    The International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) initiated by International Accounting Standard Board (IASB) are principle-based standard that require extensive disclosure of financial statements and accounting information as compared to prior standard that is the Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP) to better reflect the overall quality of company’s performance. Therefore, the IFRS convergence is expected to improve the reliability of financial reporting by limiting opportun...

  4. Fairness : A Dire International Tax Standard with No Meaning?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgers, I.J.J.; Mosquera, Valderrama I.J.

    2017-01-01

    In their discussions on corporate income tax systems the International Organizations (IOs) OECD, UN, IMF and World Bank, Supranational Organizations (SOs), Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs), associations of practitioners and Governments often refer to the concept of fairness without proper

  5. Experience from implementing international standards in national emergency response planning national adjustments and suggestions for improvements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naadland Holo, E.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: A process has been going on for some time in Norway to establish a harmonized background for emergency response planning for any kind of nuclear or radiological accident. The national emergency preparedness organisation with the crisis committee for nuclear accident, consisting of representatives from civil defence, defence, police-, health-, and food control authorities, has the authority to implement countermeasures to protect health, environment and national interests in case of an accident or in case of nuclear terrorism. However, in an early phase, the response plans need to be fully harmonized to ensure that every operational level knows their responsibility and the responsibilities of others. Our intention is to implement the IAEA standard 'preparedness and response for a nuclear or radiological emergency'. We believe this will simplify national and international communication and also simplify the crisis management if an accident occurs. In revising the national plans, and also the planning basis at regional and local level, as well as the planning basis for response to accidents at national nuclear facilities and in connection with arrival of nuclear submarines in Norwegian harbours, we have seen the need to make national adjustments to the international standards. In addition to the standard, there exist several other processes and routines for reporting different kinds of incidents. We have seen a need to coordinate this internally at the competent authority to simplify the routines. This paper will focus on the challenges we have met, our national solutions and some suggestions for simplification. National adjustments to the international standard. - Firstly, the threat categorization needs to be adjusted. First of all, we do not have nuclear power plants in Norway. In the aftermath of 11 September 2001 we also have focused more an the potential for nuclear terrorism. Nuclear terrorism is unlikely but puts up some new requirements in the

  6. Efficiency of Management Systems, Based on International Standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena B. Gafforova

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The article considers major trends of management systems standardization development and efficiency. The authors determine possible structure of effects in the process of integrated management systems implementation.

  7. A note on the standard electron transfer potential at the interface between two immiscible electrolyte solutions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Samec, Zdeněk

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 2 (2009), s. 75-81 ISSN 0034-6691 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA203/07/1257 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : interface between two immiscible electrolyte solutions * interfacial electron transfer * standard electron trasfer potential * homogeneous electron transfer Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry

  8. International cooperative effort to establish dosimetry standardization for radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrar, Harry IV

    1990-01-01

    Radiation processing is a rapidly developing technology with numerous applications in food treatment, sterilization, and polymer modification. The effectiveness of the process depends, however, on the proper application of dose and its measurement. These aspects are being considered by a wide group of experts from around the world who have joined together to write a comprehensive set of standards for dosimetry for radiation processing. Originally formed in 1984 to develop standards for food processing dosimetry, the group has now expanded into a full subcommittee of the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), with 97 members from 19 countries. The scope of the standards now includes dosimetry for all forms and applications of radiation processing. To date, the group has completed and published four standards, and is working on an additional seven. Three are specifically for food applications and the others are for all radiation applications, including food processing. Together, this set of standards will specify acceptable guidelines and methods for accomplishing the required irradiation treatment. This set will be available for adoption by national regulatory agencies or other standards-setting organizations for their procedures and protocols. (author)

  9. Globalization quickly increased need for moving from local to international standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cappelli, Cataldo

    2005-07-01

    'Standardization' quickly changed in the past few years, due to the market's globalization that needs international standards as important instruments in eliminating technical barriers to trade. The 'Petroleum Sector' chose moving to international standards jointly processed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and the American Petroleum Institute (API) that played the role of historical reference. Taking into account that oil industry wants only one Standard worldwide used, also Europe decided for adopting these ISO Standards as European Standards. The result is much better considering that also Russia and China seem to adopt these ISO documents as their national standards. It is so becoming much more significant the 'motto' that ISO TC 67 'Materials, equipment and offshore structures for petroleum, petrochemical and natural gas industries' adopted for its standardization activities: 'Do it once, do it right, do it internationally'. Examples of such international Standards worldwide used as National Standards are: ISO 11960:2004 - 'Steel pipes for use as casing or tubing for wells' and; ISO/DIS 3183 - 'Steel pipe for pipeline transportation systems' (under preparation). Standardization has so grown from technical to management tool and countries are also moving, including standards in more areas of its legislations. (author)

  10. Globalization quickly increased need for moving from local to international standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cappelli, Cataldo

    2005-07-01

    'Standardization' quickly changed in the past few years, due to the market's globalization that needs international standards as important instruments in eliminating technical barriers to trade. The 'Petroleum Sector' chose moving to international standards jointly processed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and the American Petroleum Institute (API) that played the role of historical reference. Taking into account that oil industry wants only one Standard worldwide used, also Europe decided for adopting these ISO Standards as European Standards. The result is much better considering that also Russia and China seem to adopt these ISO documents as their national standards. It is so becoming much more significant the 'motto' that ISO TC 67 'Materials, equipment and offshore structures for petroleum, petrochemical and natural gas industries' adopted for its standardization activities: 'Do it once, do it right, do it internationally'. Examples of such international Standards worldwide used as National Standards are: ISO 11960:2004 - 'Steel pipes for use as casing or tubing for wells' and; ISO/DIS 3183 - 'Steel pipe for pipeline transportation systems' (under preparation). Standardization has so grown from technical to management tool and countries are also moving, including standards in more areas of its legislations. (author)

  11. Standard specification for leak detector solutions intended for use on brasses and other copper alloys

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2005-01-01

    1.1 This specification covers the requirements for leak detector solutions suitable for use in checking the leakage of valves, pipes, fittings, joints, and so forth of a pressurized gas system fabricated from brasses and other copper alloys. 1.2 This specification deals with the stress corrosion cracking aspect of leak detector solutions. The effectiveness, chemical, physical and mechanical properties of leak detector solutions are not within the scope of this specification. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and to determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  12. Providers and Patients Caught Between Standardization and Individualization: Individualized Standardization as a Solution Comment on "(Re) Making the Procrustean Bed? Standardization and Customization as Competing Logics in Healthcare".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansmann, Lena; Pfaff, Holger

    2017-08-12

    In their 2017 article, Mannion and Exworthy provide a thoughtful and theory-based analysis of two parallel trends in modern healthcare systems and their competing and conflicting logics: standardization and customization. This commentary further discusses the challenge of treatment decision-making in times of evidence-based medicine (EBM), shared decision-making and personalized medicine. From the perspective of systems theory, we propose the concept of individualized standardization as a solution to the problem. According to this concept, standardization is conceptualized as a guiding framework leaving room for individualization in the patient physician interaction. The theoretical background is the concept of context management according to systems theory. Moreover, the comment suggests multidisciplinary teams as a possible solution for the integration of standardization and individualization, using the example of multidisciplinary tumor conferences and highlighting its limitations. The comment also supports the authors' statement of the patient as co-producer and introduces the idea that the competing logics of standardization and individualization are a matter of perspective on macro, meso and micro levels. © 2018 The Author(s); Published by Kerman University of Medical Sciences. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

  13. International cooperative effort to establish dosimetry standardization for radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrar, H. IV.

    1989-01-01

    Radiation processing is a rapidly developing technology with numerous applications in food treatment, sterilization, and polymer modification. The effectiveness of the process depends, however, on the proper application of dose and its measurement. These aspects are being considered by a wide group of experts from around the world who have joined together to write a comprehensive set of standards for dosimetry for radiation processing. Originally formed in 1984 to develop standards for food processing dosimetry, the group has now expanded into a full subcommittee of the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), with 97 members from 19 countries. The scope of the standards now includes dosimetry for all forms of radiation processing. The group has now completed and published four standards, and is working on an additional seven. Three are specifically for food applications and the others are for all radiation applications, including food processing. Together, this set of standards will specify acceptable guidelines and methods for accomplishing the required irradiation treatment, and will be available for adoption by national regulatory agencies in their procedures and protocols. 1 tab

  14. International Review of Frameworks for Standard Setting & Labeling Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Nan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Khanna, Nina Zheng [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fridley, David [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Romankiewicz, John [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-09-01

    As appliance energy efficiency standards and labeling (S&L) programs reach a broader geographic and product scope, a series of sophisticated and complex technical and economic analyses have been adopted by different countries in the world to support and enhance these growing S&L programs. The initial supporting techno-economic and impact analyses for S&L development make up a defined framework and process for setting and developing appropriate appliance efficiency standards and labeling programs. This report reviews in-depth the existing framework for standards setting and label development in the well-established programs of the U.S., Australia and the EU to identify and evaluate major trends in how and why key analyses are undertaken and to understand major similarities and differences between each of the frameworks.

  15. AGRARIAN ACCOUNTANCY IN THE VISUAL CONE OF INTERNATIONAL ACCOUNTING STANDARDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela SIMTION

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available After a long period during which agriculture did not have a standard of its own and applied for that matter the IAS 2 rules regarding inventories; IAS 16 regarding property, plant and equipment and IAS 18 regarding revenues, one last standard is being born – IAS 41. The late appearance of this standard is compensated by the great attention granted from the IASC, as agriculture is very important for those countries in course of development. IAS 41 is operative for those financial statements starting with the 1 of January 2003. The current standard is applied to account those elements regarding agricultural activities. IAS 41 is does not deal: with genuine exploiting activities, with harvested agricultural products, which are non biological products, or with the agricultural production, which is incorporated in the processing process. The activity will follow the financial reporting guidelines imposed by IAS 41 if: (athe plants or animals, that represent the object of the activities, are living and suitable for transformation; (b the change must be controlled, a fact which implies a range of activities like ground fertilizing and crop cultivation, feeding and medical assistance while breeding animals;(cthere have to exist fundamentals for evaluating changes like: the degree at which plants ripen, the animals weight, the trees circumference. The most important feature of this standard is the request for evaluating the biological assets at each balance sheet date at its fair value. Taking into consideration the limited framework of the current standard, beside of the explicit exceptions, all IAS must also be applied in agriculture.

  16. Convergence Of US-GAAP And International Standards: The Critical Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Steven W. Smalt; John P. McAllister

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides readers with: 1)An update on an institutional change that will focus the attention of worldwide accounting and financial reporting standard setters on the convergence of international and national standards, and 2)An analysis of in-process issues in the international accounting arena that will be critical to the success / failure of this convergence effort.

  17. Discourse Surrounding the International Education Standards for Professional Accountants (IES): A Content Analysis Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugahara, Satoshi; Wilson, Rachel

    2013-01-01

    The development and implementation of the International Education Standards (IES) for professional accountants is currently an important issue in accounting education and for educators interested in a shift toward international education standards more broadly. The purpose of this study is to investigate professional and research discourse…

  18. ANALYSIS OF THE IMPLEMENTATION OF INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL REPORTING STANDARDS BY COUNTRIES WITH ECONOMIES IN TRANSITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Zasadnyi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with experience of application of international financial reporting standards in different countries with economies in transition. The main advantages and disadvantages of the implementation of international financial reporting standards for financial reporting for Ukrainian companies are based on this experience.

  19. International standards to document remaining autonomic function after spinal cord injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krassioukov, Andrei; Biering-Sørensen, Fin; Donovan, William

    2012-01-01

    This is the first guideline describing the International Standards to document remaining Autonomic Function after Spinal Cord Injury (ISAFSCI). This guideline should be used as an adjunct to the International Standards for Neurological Classification of Spinal Cord Injury (ISNCSCI) including the ...

  20. 78 FR 14457 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-06

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 60 and 63 [EPA-HQ-OAR-2008-0708, FRL-9756-4] RIN 2060-AQ58 National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines; New Source Performance Standards for Stationary Internal Combustion Engines Correction In rule...

  1. 76 FR 12863 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-09

    ... National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines... combustion engines. The final rule was published on August 20, 2010. This direct final action amends certain... Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant for Stationary Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines...

  2. Brief International Cognitive Assessment for MS (BICAMS): international standards for validation.

    OpenAIRE

    Benedict, R; Amato, Mp; Boringa, J; Brochet, B; Foley, F; Fredrikson, S; Hamalainen, P; Hartung, H; Krupp, L; Penner, I; Reder, A; Langdon, D.

    2012-01-01

    An international expert consensus committee recently recommended a brief battery of tests for cognitive evaluation in multiple sclerosis. The Brief International Cognitive Assessment for MS (BICAMS) battery includes tests of mental processing speed and memory. Recognizing that resources for validation will vary internationally, the committee identified validation priorities, to facilitate international acceptance of BICAMS. Practical matters pertaining to implementation across different langu...

  3. New International Reference Standards of Voltage and Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirvastava, V. P.

    1991-01-01

    The introduction of the quantum standards of resistance and voltage, based on the Quantum Hall Effect (QHE) and the Josephson Effect, can be used to establish highly reproducible and uniform representations of the ohm and volt worldwide. Discussed are the QHE and the Josephson Effect. (KR)

  4. Teacher Assessment Literacy: A Review of International Standards and Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLuca, Christopher; LaPointe-McEwan, Danielle; Luhanga, Ulemu

    2016-01-01

    Assessment literacy is a core professional requirement across educational systems. Hence, measuring and supporting teachers' assessment literacy have been a primary focus over the past two decades. At present, there are a multitude of assessment standards across the world and numerous assessment literacy measures that represent different…

  5. International Criminal Responsibility After Katanga: Old Challenges, New Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olena Kucher

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available On March 7, 2014, the International Criminal Court delivered its most recent judgment convicting Mr. Katanga as an accessory of crime against humanity in the form of murder and four counts of war crimes within the meaning of Art. 25(3(d of the Rome Statute. This decision along with its previous final decisions in the Lubanga and Ngudjolo cases has raised similar concerns about individual criminal responsibility regarding, inter alia, application of control over a crime doctrine as evidenced from the dissenting / separate opinions to them. This doctrine has already firmly settled within the ICC jurisprudence and yet some judges doubt if its application is justified, especially given the peculiarities of national origin irrelevant in the realm of the Rome Statute. The other raised concern is a potential application of the legality principle, since both Ngudjolo and Katanga judgments have investigated the same situations and come to the completely different results.While the Rome Statute contains the most complete provision determining the modes of individual responsibility, Art. 25 thus appears to be far from being out of debates. To dispel some of them, this article analyzes practical application of Art. 25(3(a and (d by the ICC and different approaches in this regard as well as general grounds for raising question on the necessity for individual criminal responsibility. 

  6. COMMUNICATION SKILLS, A SOLUTION DIMINISHING RISKS IN INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anisoara Duica

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available According to the latest approaches in the field, the integrated marketing communication requires a planned organizational approach, creating and maintaining in time good relations with the customers of its products or services, but also with its other stakeholders. According to the data provided by the National Statistics Institute (INS, the year 2014 is the first year in history when the Romanian exports exceeded the amount of EUR 50 billion. However, within the context of the economic crisis, numerous Romanian brands have disappeared from the market and Romania risks becoming a simple outlet market if the local companies do not improve their communication processes and skills, as sources of competitive advantage by which the Romanian products and services may differ in relation to those of the E.U. member countries. Within the context of business globalization and of the knowledge society, the present paper is trying to identify ways of developing the communication skills, which can be integrated in a formal risk management system, allowing the decrease of the risks triggered by the cultural differences specific of communication in international business.

  7. International collaborative study for the calibration of proposed International Standards for thromboplastin, rabbit, plain, and for thromboplastin, recombinant, human, plain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Besselaar, A M H P; Chantarangkul, V; Angeloni, F; Binder, N B; Byrne, M; Dauer, R; Gudmundsdottir, B R; Jespersen, J; Kitchen, S; Legnani, C; Lindahl, T L; Manning, R A; Martinuzzo, M; Panes, O; Pengo, V; Riddell, A; Subramanian, S; Szederjesi, A; Tantanate, C; Herbel, P; Tripodi, A

    2018-01-01

    Essentials Two candidate International Standards for thromboplastin (coded RBT/16 and rTF/16) are proposed. International Sensitivity Index (ISI) of proposed standards was assessed in a 20-centre study. The mean ISI for RBT/16 was 1.21 with a between-centre coefficient of variation of 4.6%. The mean ISI for rTF/16 was 1.11 with a between-centre coefficient of variation of 5.7%. Background The availability of International Standards for thromboplastin is essential for the calibration of routine reagents and hence the calculation of the International Normalized Ratio (INR). Stocks of the current Fourth International Standards are running low. Candidate replacement materials have been prepared. This article describes the calibration of the proposed Fifth International Standards for thromboplastin, rabbit, plain (coded RBT/16) and for thromboplastin, recombinant, human, plain (coded rTF/16). Methods An international collaborative study was carried out for the assignment of International Sensitivity Indexes (ISIs) to the candidate materials, according to the World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines for thromboplastins and plasma used to control oral anticoagulant therapy with vitamin K antagonists. Results Results were obtained from 20 laboratories. In several cases, deviations from the ISI calibration model were observed, but the average INR deviation attributabled to the model was not greater than 10%. Only valid ISI assessments were used to calculate the mean ISI for each candidate. The mean ISI for RBT/16 was 1.21 (between-laboratory coefficient of variation [CV]: 4.6%), and the mean ISI for rTF/16 was 1.11 (between-laboratory CV: 5.7%). Conclusions The between-laboratory variation of the ISI for candidate material RBT/16 was similar to that of the Fourth International Standard (RBT/05), and the between-laboratory variation of the ISI for candidate material rTF/16 was slightly higher than that of the Fourth International Standard (rTF/09). The candidate materials

  8. Economic consequences of the adoption of the International Financial Reporting Standards: evidences in the research literature

    OpenAIRE

    Irina-Doina Pãºcan; Ramona Neag

    2015-01-01

    Along with the economic globalization, the international accounting regulation bodies faced the need to issue internationally accepted global accounting standards. The effect was the issuance and the widespread of the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS). At European level, the IFRS gained legitimacy in 2002, when the European Parliament and Council have decided that all European publicly traded entities must prepare their consolidated financial statements in accordance with IFR...

  9. Development of Proliferation Resistance Assessment Methodology Based on International Standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yong Deok; Lee, Jung Won; Lee, Kwang Seok

    2009-03-01

    Proliferation resistance is one of the requirement to be met in GEN IV and INPRO for next generation nuclear energy system. Internationally, the evaluation methodology on PR had been already initiated from 1980, but the systematic development was started at 2000s. In Korea, for the export of nuclear energy system and the increase of international credibility and transparence of domestic nuclear system and fuel cycle development, the independent development of PR evaluation methodology was started in 2007 as a nuclear long term R and D project and the development is being performed for the model of PR evaluation methodology. In 1st year, comparative study of GEN-IV/INPRO, PR indicator development, quantification of indicator and evaluation model development, analysis of technology system and international technology development trend had been performed. In 2nd year, feasibility study of indicator, allowable limit of indicator, review of technical requirement of indicator were done. The results of PR evaluation must be applied in the beginning of conceptual design of nuclear system. Through the technology development of PR evaluation methodology, the methodology will be applied in the regulatory requirement for authorization and permission to be developed

  10. Kandungan Prinsip Konservatisme dalam Standar Akuntansi Keuangan Berbasis IFRS (International Financial Reporting Standard)

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad Juanda

    2012-01-01

    Kandungan Prinsip Konservatisme DalamStandar Akuntansi Keuangan Berbasis IFRS(International Financial Reporting Standard)Ahmad JuandaStaf Pengajar Jurusan Akutansi, Fakultas Ekonomi dan BisnisUniversitas Muhammadiyah This study aims to reveal the content of the principle of conservatism contained in financial accounting standards (GAAP) results of the convergence of International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS). The use of the principle of conservatism still...

  11. CAMAC-an international standard for data machine instrumentation

    CERN Document Server

    Johnsen, P J

    1973-01-01

    CAMAC is a standard for on-line computer instrumentation and control. Owing to the world-wide acceptance of CAMAC, standardized and mutually compatible equipment is now offered by a great number of manufacturers. CAMAC systems are modular, and with the range of modules commercially available, it is possible to build up flexible and complex data processing systems. Use of CAMAC requires a CAMAC- compatible entrance (interface) to the computer. Once established, users are later on completely independent of the type of computer used. General aspects, CAMAC systems for NORD-1 and NORD-10 are presented. The former is developed at Physics Institute, Oslo, and the latter is developed as a result of the CERN-contract gained by NORSK DATAELEKTRONIKK.

  12. New international and national standards concerning quality systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrick, K.; Reihlen, H.

    1987-01-01

    The history and contents of the latest standards DIN ISO 9000 through DIN ISO 9004 concerning quality systems are outlined. Information is given referring to the establishment of an in-house quality system, and to quality assurance requirements put down in a three-step quality assurance system for contractual purposes. The services available for certification of quality systems by the 'DQS' and legal aspects are mentioned. (HP)

  13. The First International Records Management Standard: A Point of View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahrettin Özdemirci

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work, The First Internatonal Records Management Standart ISO 15489 for the use of records management is examined in regard to its preparatory stu­dies, its content, and its relation and contribution to archive management. In adi- tion to these, the provisions of the standard that can contribute to handling of Turkish records are mentioned and recommendations are offered for steps to be taken.

  14. Recommendations for the Technical Infrastructure for Standardized International Rights Statements

    OpenAIRE

    Charles, Valentine; Cowles, Esmé; Estlund, Karen; Isaac, Antoine; Johnson, Tom; Matienzo, Mark A.; Peiffer, Patrick; Urban, Richard J.; Zeinstra, Maarten

    2015-01-01

    This white paper is the product of a joint Digital Public Library of America (DPLA)-Europeana working group organized to develop minimum rights statement metadata standards for organizations that contribute to DPLA and Europeana. This white paper deals specifically with the technical infrastructure of a common namespace (rightsstatements.org) that hosts the rights statements to be used by (at minimum) the DPLA and Europeana. These recommendations for a common technical infrastructure for righ...

  15. International standards for monoclonal antibodies to support pre- and post-marketing product consistency: Evaluation of a candidate international standard for the bioactivities of rituximab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior, Sandra; Hufton, Simon E; Fox, Bernard; Dougall, Thomas; Rigsby, Peter; Bristow, Adrian

    2018-01-01

    The intrinsic complexity and heterogeneity of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies is built into the biosimilarity paradigm where critical quality attributes are controlled in exhaustive comparability studies with the reference medicinal product. The long-term success of biosimilars will depend on reassuring healthcare professionals and patients of consistent product quality, safety and efficacy. With this aim, the World Health Organization has endorsed the need for public bioactivity standards for therapeutic monoclonal antibodies in support of current controls. We have developed a candidate international potency standard for rituximab that was evaluated in a multi-center collaborative study using participants' own qualified Fc-effector function and cell-based binding bioassays. Dose-response curve model parameters were shown to reflect similar behavior amongst rituximab preparations, albeit with some differences in potency. In the absence of a common reference standard, potency estimates were in poor agreement amongst laboratories, but the use of the candidate preparation significantly reduced this variability. Our results suggest that the candidate rituximab standard can support bioassay performance and improve data harmonization, which when implemented will promote consistency of rituximab products over their life-cycles. This data provides the first scientific evidence that a classical standardization exercise allowing traceability of bioassay data to an international standard is also applicable to rituximab. However, we submit that this new type of international standard needs to be used appropriately and its role not to be mistaken with that of the reference medicinal product.

  16. The International Accounting Standards Board’s Progress in Promoting Judgement Through Objectives-Oriented Accounting Standards

    OpenAIRE

    Tanja Lakovic; Jayne Fuglister

    2013-01-01

    This study analyzes how the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB) promotes professional judgement by issuing objectives-oriented accounting standards and exposure drafts.  We focus on the the role of judgement as outlined in Phase I of the IASB Conceptual Framework (CF), Chapter 1, “Objective of General Purpose Financial Statements” and Chapter 3, “Qualitative Characteristics of Useful Financial Information” (IASB 2010). We discuss how the framework, when viewed through the prism of...

  17. Finding a solution to internal diesel injector deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbour, Robert; Quigley, Robert; Panesar, Avtar; Payne, James [Lubrizol Limited, Derby (United Kingdom); Arters, David; Bush, Jim; Stevens, Andrew [Lubrizol Corporation, Wickliffe, OH (United States)

    2013-06-01

    Internal diesel injector deposits (IDIDs) have caused widespread problems in the automotive industry since around 2005. Modem injectors that have been precisely engineered to operate highly controlled injection strategies are experiencing problems in the field due to deposits that have formed on their critical moving parts, such as the needle and control valve. Problems range from rough idling to a failure to start, when the moving parts become stuck. Early studies showed that the composition of these deposits is variable. In some cases the deposit contained noticeable amounts of sodium carboxylate; these are now generally referred to as 'sodium soaps'. In other incidences the dominant chemical functionality observed was an amide group, and hence these deposits are referred to as 'amide lacquers'. A combination of both types has been observed in many cases and other metals, like calcium, have also been detected. Further studies have shown that the sodium soap type can be formed from specific types of corrosion inhibitors. The source of the amide lacquers is less certain, but there are indications that they originate from specific fuel additives that contain critical levels of low molecular weight species. This paper broadly explores this area of high interest. It will report results on the analysis of deposits and the conditions needed to reproduce both types of IDID in bench engine testing. It will also investigate the types of contaminants that are likely to form IDIDs and explore difference in chemical structure that can lead to pro-fouling, non-fouling and anti-fouling behaviour. It will then show that a deposit control additive, specifically designed to control nozzle tip deposits in modem direct injection diesels, is equally effective in controlling IDIDs; both in terms of prevention and removal. Since IDIDS are formed from multiple sources, some of which are difficult to control in today' s market, the use of a broadly acting fuel

  18. The international standard for protection from ionizing radiation and safety of radiation sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlesinger, T [Israel Atomic Energy Commission, Yavne (Israel). Soreq Nuclear Research Center

    1995-06-01

    This document is a review in hebrew of the new 1994 international standard of the IAEA. The new standard title is `Basic safety standards for radiation protection and for the safety of radiation sources`, which were published in the ICRP Pub. 9.

  19. International and national radiation protection standards and recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swindon, T.N.

    1989-01-01

    The recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and their basis are discussed with particular emphasis on the extensive review of its earlier recommendations undertaken by the ICRP during the 1970s. The new recommendations issued in 1977 after this review are described. The dose limits for various organs and tissues before and after 1977 are compared. The optimization principle contained in the 1977 recommendations is assessed. The implementation of the 1977 recommendations, the subsequent changes to them and the ICRP's 1987 statement on cancer risk assessments are discussed. The National Radiological Protection Board's October 1987 radiation protection recommendations are outlined. 8 refs., 1 fig

  20. The protection of the accused in international criminal law according to the Human Rights Law Standard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Kremens

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The presented paper discusses the influence of international human rights law on international criminal law. It tries to give an answer to the question of whether rules protecting the accused in international criminal proceedings meet the human rights law standard provided by international declarations and covenants. Meaning, if the proceedings before the International Criminal Tribunal for Former Yugoslavia (ICTY, International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR and International Criminal Court (ICC meet the standard provided by international human rights law, in particular the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights. The paper proves that international human rights law has affected international criminal law tremendously. Moreover, it is argued that the protection of the accused in the law of the international courts and tribunals with regard to his rights has improved when compared to the international human rights law standard. In particular the Rome Statute of the ICC provides the accused with the most comprehensive protection. This is especially visible in the case of such rights as the presumption of innocence, right to an interpreter and right to remain silent. Nevertheless, some shortcomings in the law of the ad hoc tribunals and ICC can be observed, in particular when it comes to identifying the commencement of protection of the accused.

  1. The upstream oil and gas industry's initiative in the development of international standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, G.A.N.; Thorp, G.

    1993-01-01

    The paper describes the international work of the oil industry to formalize as International Standards many of the industry standards used world-wide. It also describes how matters have been developing in Europe. E and P Forum, representing the international exploration and production oil and gas industry, provides a forum for coordinating industry standardization, to ensure that the necessary standards are maintained by the appropriate technical body. The paper discusses the development of the standardization program in ISO/TC67, the Technical Committee directing the transformation of some 70 API Standards into ISO Standards and the relationship to CEN (the European standardization body). The objective of the upstream industry is to operate worldwide to consistent international standards. Company standards can then concentrate on functional and performance requirements. This will facilitate international trade and communication, open competition and the global market. For a practical realization of this objective the oil industry must foster a special relationship between the relevant US bodies, ISO and CEN. The sustained support of all sides of industry is required

  2. Recently aspects regarding International Auditing Standard 200 „Overall Objectives of the Independent Auditor and the Conduct of an Audit in Accordance with International Standards on Auditing”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Botez

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of an audit is to enhance the degree of confidence of intended users in the financial statements. This is achieved by the expression of an opinion by the auditor on whether the financial statements are prepared, in all material respects, in accordance with an applicable financial reporting framework. The International Standard on Auditing 200 (ISA 200 deals with the independent auditor’s overall responsibilities when conducting an audit of financial statements in accordance with International Standards on Auditing (ISAs.

  3. Conservation and human rights: the need for international standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oviedo, Gonzalo [International Union for the Conservation of Nature (International organizations without location); Pabon, Luis [The Nature Conservancy (United States); Painter, Michael; Redford, Kent [The Wildlife Conservation Society (United States); Siegele, Linda [Foundation for International Environmental Law and Development (United Kingdom); Springer, Jenny [WWF-US (United States); Thomas, David [Birdlife International (International organizations without location); Painemilla, Kristen Walker [Conservation International (United States); Roe, Dilys

    2010-05-15

    Conservation doesn't happen in a vacuum. In recent years, awareness has grown of the relationship of international conservation practice to indigenous peoples and local communities, and especially the links between conservation and human rights. The impacts protected areas can have on rural communities – such as evictions and lost access to natural resources – are now under particular scrutiny. Concern is meanwhile rising over the human rights implications of some climate change mitigation and adaptation measures. But awareness is also growing of the positive contributions of nature conservation to the rights of people to secure their livelihoods, enjoy healthy and productive environments, and live with dignity. International NGOs can play a central role in supporting and promoting conservation actions that respect the rights of indigenous peoples and local communities, and help sustain their livelihoods. Many conservation organisations have long worked towards this. It is vital that they hold to consistent principles and implement measures that ensure their application, so their action on conservation remains accountable, transparent and sustainable.

  4. Archival-grade optical disc design and international standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Toru; Kojyo, Shinichi; Endo, Akihisa; Kodaira, Takuo; Mori, Fumi; Shimizu, Atsuo

    2015-09-01

    Optical discs currently on the market exhibit large variations in life span among discs, making them unsuitable for certain business applications. To assess and potentially mitigate this problem, we performed accelerated degradation testing under standard ISO conditions, determined the probable disc failure mechanisms, and identified the essential criteria necessary for a stable disc composition. With these criteria as necessary conditions, we analyzed the physical and chemical changes that occur in the disc components, on the basis of which we determined technological measures to reduce these degradation processes. By applying these measures to disc fabrication, we were able to develop highly stable optical discs.

  5. International cooperative analysis of standard substance, IAEA-0390

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamoto, Keizo; Takada, Jitsuya; Moriyama, Hirotake; Akaboshi, Mitsuhiko

    1999-01-01

    Three kinds of algae (IAEA-0391, IAEA-0392 and IAEA-0393) were defined as the biological standard substance to monitor environmental pollution by Analytical Quality Control Service of IAEA (IAEA-AQCS). In this study, analysis of these standard substances were made using ICP-MS to compare with the results of simultaneously conducted radioactivation analysis (INAA). The respective cultures of the three algae were cooperatively prepared by IAEA-AQCS and microbial Institute of Czechoslovakia. After drying and sterilizing by Co-60 exposure, these samples were sent to KURRI. When the results from the experiment in KURRI were compared with the values recommended through statistical treatment of the data obtained by IAEA, these values of 5 elements, Fe, Cr, Mg, Mn and Na were well coincident for either of IAEA-0391, IAEA-0392 and IAEA-0393 and the values of As, Ca, Cd, Co, Cu, K and Zn were nearly coincident between them. Regarding Hg and La, the data from INAA and ICP-MS were very different from the recommended values of IAEA for either of samples. (M.N.)

  6. Improvement of precision method of spectrophotometry with inner standardization and its use in plutonium solutions analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stepanov, A.V.; Stepanov, D.A.; Nikitina, S.A.; Gogoleva, T.D.; Grigor'eva, M.G.; Bulyanitsa, L.S.; Panteleev, Yu.A.; Pevtsova, E.V.; Domkin, V.D.; Pen'kin, M.V.

    2006-01-01

    Precision method of spectrophotometry with inner standardization is used for analysis of pure Pu solutions. Improvement of the spectrophotometer and spectrophotometric method of analysis is done to decrease accidental constituent of relative error of the method. Influence of U, Np impurities and corrosion products on systematic constituent of error of the method, and effect of fluoride-ion on completeness of Pu oxidation in sample preparation are studied [ru

  7. The developments of international hydrogen and fuel cell technology standards and the response strategies in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tso, C.

    2009-01-01

    The application of hydrogen and fuel cells has expanded as the technology in international markets has improved. Leading countries have focused on establishing hydrogen and fuel cell technology standards. Both the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) continuously release new hydrogen and fuel cell related standards. Although the government of Taiwan is promoting the development of a hydrogen and fuel cell industry, it may delay the commercialized schedule if there are no hydrogen and fuel cell related standards and regulations in place. Standards and regulations must be established as quickly as possible in order to accelerate the progress of the hydrogen and fuel cell industry. This presentation reviewed the international progress in hydrogen and fuel cell development and explained Taiwan's response strategies regarding the adoption of hydrogen and fuel cell products in niche Taiwanese markets

  8. Experience with nuclear safety standards development in non-governmental international organizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, K.

    1985-01-01

    Besides the IAEA as a 'governmental' organization dealing with basic safety recommendations addressed primarily to the national regulatory bodies in developing countries, two closely related non-governmental international standards organizations have gained extensive experience in the field of nuclear standardization. Over more than 25 years since their formation, both (a) the International Organization for Standardization's (ISO) Technical Committee 85 'Nuclear Energy', in particular in its Sub-Committee 3 'Reactor Technology and Safety' and (b) the International Electrotechnical Commission's (IEC) Technical Committee 45 'Nuclear Instrumentation' have published numerous standards. A brief review is given of these, draft standards, and other documents planned to become international standards. Many of them deal with rather specialized topics typical for 'industrial' standards such as standardized procedures, instruments, methods, materials, test methods, terminology, and signs and symbols, but others are directly related to more basic safety issues. In some areas such as quality assurance, seismic aspects of siting and terminology, there has been in the past occasional overlap in the activities of the NUSS programme, IEC and ISO. Letters of Understanding have since 1981 contributed to clarifying the borderlines and to avoiding redundant efforts. Also, some experiences and problems are described arising, for example, from the harmonization of different national safety philosophies and traditions into universally accepted international standards, and the transfer of international standards into national standards systems. Finally, based on a recent comprehensive compilation of some 3300 nuclear standards and standards projects, an attempt is made to present a cost/benefit analysis and an outlook on future developments. (author)

  9. Standard Gibbs free energies for transfer of actinyl ions at the aqueous/organic solution interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitatsuji, Yoshihiro; Okugaki, Tomohiko; Kasuno, Megumi; Kubota, Hiroki; Maeda, Kohji; Kimura, Takaumi; Yoshida, Zenko; Kihara, Sorin

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Standard Gibbs free energies for ion-transfer of tri- to hexavalent actinide ions. → Determination is based on distribution method combined with ion-transfer voltammetry. → Organic solvents examined are nitrobenzene, DCE, benzonitrile, acetophenone and NPOE. → Gibbs free energies of U(VI), Np(VI) and Pu(VI) are similar to each other. → Gibbs free energies of Np(V) is very large, comparing with ordinary monovalent cations. - Abstract: Standard Gibbs free energies for transfer (ΔG tr 0 ) of actinyl ions (AnO 2 z+ ; z = 2 or 1; An: U, Np, or Pu) between an aqueous solution and an organic solution were determined based on distribution method combined with voltammetry for ion transfer at the interface of two immiscible electrolyte solutions. The organic solutions examined were nitrobenzene, 1,2-dichloroethane, benzonitrile, acetophenone, and 2-nitrophenyl octyl ether. Irrespective of the type of organic solutions, ΔG tr 0 of UO 2 2+ ,NpO 2 2+ , and PuO 2 2+ were nearly equal to each other and slightly larger than that of Mg 2+ . The ΔG tr 0 of NpO 2 + was extraordinary large compared with those of ordinary monovalent cations. The dependence of ΔG tr 0 of AnO 2 z+ on the type of organic solutions was similar to that of H + or Mg 2+ . The ΔG tr 0 of An 3+ and An 4+ were also discussed briefly.

  10. Building physics from physical principles to international standards

    CERN Document Server

    Pinterić, Marko

    2017-01-01

    This textbook provides thorough coverage of the most important building physics phenomena: heat transfer, moisture, sound/acoustics, and illumination. Since the book is primarily aimed at engineers, it addresses professional issues with due pragmatism, and by including many practical examples and related ISO standards. Nevertheless, in order to guarantee full comprehension, it also explains the underlying physical principles and relates them to practical aspects in a simple and clear way. This is achieved with the aid of more than 100 figures and consistent cross-referencing of formulas and ideas. In addition, interrelationships between the different building physics phenomena are elucidated in a way that will enable readers to develop performance specifications that inform the design process. The book will primarily appeal to students of civil engineering and architecture, as well as to all practitioners in these areas who wish to broaden their fundamental understanding of topics in building physics.

  11. The development of international safety standards on geological disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCartin, T.

    2005-01-01

    The IAEA is developing a set of safety requirements for geologic disposal to be used by both developers and regulators for planning, designing, operating, and closing a geologic disposal facility. Safety requirements would include quantitative criteria for assessing safety of geologic disposal facilities as well as requirements for development of the facility and the safety strategy including the safety case. Geologic disposal facilities are anticipated to be developed over a period of at least a few decades. Key decisions, e.g., on the disposal concept, siting, design, operational management and closure, are expected to be made in a series of steps. Decisions will be made based on the information available at each step and the confidence that may be placed in that information. A safety strategy is important for ensuring that at each step during the development of the disposal facility, an adequate understanding of the safety implications of the available options is developed such that the ultimate goal of providing an acceptable level of operational and post closure safety will be met. A safety case for a geologic disposal facility would present all the safety relevant aspects of the site, the facility design and the managerial and regulatory controls. The safety case and its supporting assessments illustrates the level of protection provided and shall give reasonable assurance that safety standards will be met. Overall, the safety case provides confidence in the feasibility of implementing the disposal system as designed, convincing estimates of the performance of the disposal system and a reasonable assurance that safety standards will be met. (author)

  12. Persian Agricultural Journals and Standard: Degree of Compatibility of Persian Scientific Agricultural Journals with International Standard Organization (ISO Publishing standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Gilvari

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Standard is a collection of recipes, guidelines or recommendations which use in production, creating or making of goods, products, documents or special resources. Extent of adaptation of Persian Agricultural scientific journals which are publishing in Iran with ISO publishing standards was evaluated in this research. The information items which were necessary to be presented in different sections of Agricultural scientific journals were examined. Items which were needed to be present in cover page, content, title page, running title, and endnote, abstract, first page of an article, references and its structure were among the information items. 47 Agricultural scientific journals were publishing until February 2009 consisted of the research population. Descriptive survey method is used. Results showed the adaption rate with ISO standards in research population was 53.47 percent. There was no private publisher which publishes agricultural scientific journals. The extent of adaptation with ISO standards was high in journal sections such as abstracts and keywords.

  13. Evaluation of the impact of matrix effect on quantification of pesticides in foods by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry using isotope-labeled internal standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarita, Takashi; Aoyagi, Yoshie; Otake, Takamitsu

    2015-05-29

    The impact of the matrix effect in GC-MS quantification of pesticides in food using the corresponding isotope-labeled internal standards was evaluated. A spike-and-recovery study of nine target pesticides was first conducted using paste samples of corn, green soybean, carrot, and pumpkin. The observed analytical values using isotope-labeled internal standards were more accurate for most target pesticides than that obtained using the external calibration method, but were still biased from the spiked concentrations when a matrix-free calibration solution was used for calibration. The respective calibration curves for each target pesticide were also prepared using matrix-free calibration solutions and matrix-matched calibration solutions with blank soybean extract. The intensity ratio of the peaks of most target pesticides to that of the corresponding isotope-labeled internal standards was influenced by the presence of the matrix in the calibration solution; therefore, the observed slope varied. The ratio was also influenced by the type of injection method (splitless or on-column). These results indicated that matrix-matching of the calibration solution is required for very accurate quantification, even if isotope-labeled internal standards were used for calibration. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Study on a Threat-Countermeasure Model Based on International Standard Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Horacio Ramirez Caceres

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Many international standards exist in the field of IT security. This research is based on the ISO/IEC 15408, 15446, 19791, 13335 and 17799 standards. In this paper, we propose a knowledge base comprising a threat countermeasure model based on international standards for identifying and specifying threats which affect IT environments. In addition, the proposed knowledge base system aims at fusing similar security control policies and objectives in order to create effective security guidelines for specific IT environments. As a result, a knowledge base of security objectives was developed on the basis of the relationships inside the standards as well as the relationships between different standards. In addition, a web application was developed which displays details about the most common threats to information systems, and for each threat presents a set of related security control policies from different international standards, including ISO/IEC 27002.

  15. Development of proliferation resistance assessment methodology based on international standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, W. I.; Chang, H. L.; Lee, Y. D.; Lee, J. W.; Park, J. H.; Kim, Y. I.; Ryu, J. S.; Ko, H. S.; Lee, K. W.

    2012-04-01

    Nonproliferation is one of the main requirements to be satisfied by the advanced future nuclear energy systems that have been developed in the Generation IV and INPRO studies. The methodologies to evaluate proliferation resistance has been developed since 1980s, however, the systematic evaluation approach has begun from around 2000. Domestically a study to develop national method to evaluate proliferation resistance (PR) of advanced future nuclear energy systems has started in 2007 as one of the long-term nuclear R and D subjects in order to promote export and international credibility and transparency of national nuclear energy systems and nuclear fuel cycle technology development program. In the first phase (2007-2010) development and improvement of intrinsic evaluation parameters for the evaluation of proliferation resistance, quantification of evaluation parameters, development of evaluation models, and development of permissible ranges of evaluation parameters have been carried out. In the second phase (2010-2012) generic principle of to evaluate PR was established, and techincal guidelines, nuclear material diversion pathway analysis method, and a method to integrate evaluation parameters have been developed. which were applied to 5 alternative nuclear fuel cycles to estimate their appicability and objectivity. In addition, measures to enhance PR of advanced future nuclear energy systems and technical guidelines of PR assessment using intrinsic PR evaluation parameters were developed. Lastly, requlatory requirements to secure nonproliferation requirements of nuclear energy systems from the early design stage, operation and to decommissioning which will support the export of newly developed advanced future nuclear energy system

  16. Water quality - Determination of tritium activity concentration - Liquid scintillation counting method (International Standard Publication ISO 9698:1989)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanik, J.

    1999-01-01

    This International Standard specifies a method for the determination of tritiated water ([ 3 H]H 2 O) activity concentration in water by liquid scintillation counting. The method is applicable to all types of water including seawater with tritium activity concentrations of up to 10 6 Bq/m 3 when using 20 ml counting vials. Below tritium activity concentrations of about 5 x 10 4 Bq/m 3[ 8], a prior enrichment step and/or the measurement of larger sample volumes can significantly improve the accuracy of the determination and lower the limit of detection. Tritium activity concentrations higher than 10 6 Bq/m 3 may be determined after appropriate dilution with distilled water of proven low tritium content. An alternative method for the determination of these higher activities involves increasing the tritium activity concentrations of the internal standard solution. The method is not applicable to the analysis of organically bound tritium; its determination requires an oxidative digestion

  17. ISO 639-1 and ISO 639-2: International Standards for Language Codes. ISO 15924: International Standard for Names of Scripts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrum, John D.

    This paper describes two international standards for the representation of the names of languages. The first (ISO 639-1), published in 1988, provides two-letter codes for 136 languages and was produced primarily to meet terminological needs. The second (ISO 639-2) appeared in late 1998 and includes three-letter codes for 460 languages. This list…

  18. Establishing the traceability of a uranyl nitrate solution to a standard reference material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, C.H.; Clark, J.P.

    1978-01-01

    A uranyl nitrate solution for use as a Working Calibration and Test Material (WCTM) was characterized, using a statistically designed procedure to document traceability to National Bureau of Standards Reference Material (SPM-960). A Reference Calibration and Test Material (PCTM) was prepared from SRM-960 uranium metal to approximate the acid and uranium concentration of the WCTM. This solution was used in the characterization procedure. Details of preparing, handling, and packaging these solutions are covered. Two outside laboratories, each having measurement expertise using a different analytical method, were selected to measure both solutions according to the procedure for characterizing the WCTM. Two different methods were also used for the in-house characterization work. All analytical results were tested for statistical agreement before the WCTM concentration and limit of error values were calculated. A concentration value was determined with a relative limit of error (RLE) of approximately 0.03% which was better than the target RLE of 0.08%. The use of this working material eliminates the expense of using SRMs to fulfill traceability requirements for uranium measurements on this type material. Several years' supply of uranyl nitrate solution with NBS traceability was produced. The cost of this material was less than 10% of an equal quantity of SRM-960 uranium metal

  19. Convergence and periodic solutions for the input impedance of a standard ladder network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ucak, C; Acar, C

    2007-01-01

    The input impedance of an infinite ladder network is computed by using the recursive relation and by assuming that the input impedance does not change when a new block is added to the network. However, this assumption is not true in general and standard textbooks do not always treat these networks correctly. This paper develops a general solution to obtain the input impedance of a standard ladder network of impedances and admittances for any number of blocks. Then, this result is used to provide the convergence condition for the infinite ladder network. The conditions which lead to periodic input impedance are exploited. It is shown that there are infinite numbers of periodic points and no paradoxical behaviour exists in the standard ladder network

  20. (No) Limits to Anglo-American Accounting? Reconstructing the History of the International Accounting Standards Committee ; A Review Article

    OpenAIRE

    Botzem, S.; Quack, S.

    2009-01-01

    The development of the current International Accounting Standards Board (IASB) from the earlier International Accounting Standards Committee (IASC) provides insight into many issues of international financial reporting, among them the characteristics of international accounting standards themselves. This article reviews Camfferman and Zeff’s [Camfferman, K., & Zeff, S. A. (2007). Financial reporting and global capital markets. A history of the international accounting standards committee 1973...

  1. [From manual workshop to international standard maker: exploration on production standard of acupuncture needle by Chengjiang acupuncture school].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jie; Cao, Yang; Xia, Youbing

    2015-02-01

    ABSTRACT The exploration course on production standard of acupuncture needle by Chengjiang acupuncture school is reviewed in this paper. After new China was established, acupuncture needle standard was unified by Mr. CHENG Dan-an, which guided Suzhou Hua Erfang (predecessor of Suzhou Medical Supplies Factory) to make the quality standards and testing methods of acupuncture needle and improved the production process to make the modern acupuncture needle. Based on this, Suzhou Medical Supplies Factory followed the time development pace, ac tively introduced new technology, carried out technological innovation, and constantly improved the level of production technology, as a result, it gradually developed into one of the world's largest acupuncture needle production suppliers. Meanwhile, after establishing China's first national standard on acupuncture needle (GB 2024-1980), the Suzhou Medical Supplies Factory took the lead to draft "ISO) 17218:2014 the disposable use asepsis acupuncture needle", which was officially published as an international standard. The Suzhou Medical Supplies Factory developed from a manual workshop to an international standard maker.

  2. The International Accounting Standards Board’s Progress in Promoting Judgement Through Objectives-Oriented Accounting Standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Lakovic

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes how the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB promotes professional judgement by issuing objectives-oriented accounting standards and exposure drafts.  We focus on the the role of judgement as outlined in Phase I of the IASB Conceptual Framework (CF, Chapter 1, “Objective of General Purpose Financial Statements” and Chapter 3, “Qualitative Characteristics of Useful Financial Information” (IASB 2010. We discuss how the framework, when viewed through the prism of 'objectives-oriented accounting standards' as recommended by the United States Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC Report in its “Study Pursuant to Section 108(d of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 on the Adoption by the United States Financial Reporting System of a Principles-Based Accounting System” (July 2003, encourages professional judgement. We analyze International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS and Exposure Drafts (ED issued by the IASB since its inception in 2002 to determine if those documents are consistent with objectives-oriented accounting standards. Our analysis is useful for gaining insights into how the IASB integrates the CF with the SEC’s recommended objectives-oriented accounting approach to promote judgement in the interest of IASB/FASB convergence of accounting standards.

  3. The internal consistency of the standard gamble: tests after adjusting for prospect theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Adam

    2003-07-01

    This article reports a study that tests whether the internal consistency of the standard gamble can be improved upon by incorporating loss weighting and probability transformation parameters in the standard gamble valuation procedure. Five alternatives to the standard EU formulation are considered: (1) probability transformation within an EU framework; and, within a prospect theory framework, (2) loss weighting and full probability transformation, (3) no loss weighting and full probability transformation, (4) loss weighting and no probability transformation, and (5) loss weighting and partial probability transformation. Of the five alternatives, only the prospect theory formulation with loss weighting and no probability transformation offers an improvement in internal consistency over the standard EU valuation procedure.

  4. Existing and future international standards for the safety of radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linsley, G.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper the essential features of the current international safety standards are summarised and the issues being raised for inclusion in future standards are discussed. The safety standards of the IAEA are used as the basis for the review and discussion. The IAEA has established a process for establishing international standards of safety for radioactive waste management through its Radioactive Waste Safety Standards (RADWASS) programme. The RADWASS documents are approved by a comprehensive process involving regulatory and other experts from all concerned IAEA Member States. A system of committees for approving the IAEAs safety standards has been established. For radioactive waste safety the committee for review and approval is the Waste Safety Standards Advisory Committee (WASSAC). In 1995 the IAEA published 'The Principles of Radioactive Waste Management' as the top level document in the RADWASS programme. The report sets out the basis principles which most experts believe are fundamental to the safe management of radioactive wastes

  5. International standards for optical wireless communications: state-of-the-art and future directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marciniak, Marian

    2017-10-01

    As the number of active OWC installations is growing fast, the standards for compatibility of co-existing neighbouring systems are being developed. The paper addresses the Laser Safety (IEC standards), ITU-T Study Group 15 standards (G.640 Co-location longitudinally compatible interfaces for free space optical systems), ITU-Radiocommunication Sector standards (P.1817-1 Propagation data required for the design of terrestrial free-space optical links), and the IEEE Work in Progress - standardization activity on Visible Light Communications. International standards of FSO communications have been reviewed and discussed. ITU, IEC, and IEEE International standards for Free-Space Optical links have been reviewed. The system reliability and availability as well as security issues will be addressed as well in the talk.

  6. International Standards to Develop and Promote Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    International Standards are a powerful tool for disseminating new technologies and good practices, developing global markets and supporting the harmonization of government policies on energy efficiency and renewable sources on a global scale.

  7. METHODOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF CONTENT ANALYSIS OF CONVERGENCE BETWEEN UKRAINIAN GAAP AND INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL REPORTING STANDARDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Kuzina

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective conditions of Ukraine’s integration into the global business environment the need to strengthen the accounting and financial re-porting. At the stage of attracting investment in the country there is a need in the preparation of financial statements generally accepted basic prin-ciples of which are based on common international financial reporting standards (IFRS . Relevant is the assessment of convergence of national standards and International Financial Reporting Standards. However, before you conduct content analysis necessary to determine compliance with standards of methodological approaches to the selection of key indicators for the assessment of convergence. The article is to define the methodo-logical approaches to the selection and development of indicators IFRSs list of key elements for further evaluation convergence of national and international standards. To assess the convergence was allocated 187 basic key elements measuring the level of convergence to IFRS. Sampling was carried out based on the professional judgment of the author, the key indicators of the standard, based on the evaluation of the usefulness of accounting information. These figures make it possible to calculate the specific level of convergence of international and national standards and determine how statements prepared by domestic standards corresponding to IFRS. In other words, can with some certainty assert that Ukraine has made (“good practices in IFRS implementation” or not? This calculation will assess the regulatory efforts of government agencies (Ministry of Finance on the approximation of Ukrainian standards and IFRS.

  8. Photon and proton activation analysis of iron and steel standards using the internal standard method coupled with the standard addition method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masumoto, K.; Hara, M.; Hasegawa, D.; Iino, E.; Yagi, M.

    1997-01-01

    The internal standard method coupled with the standard addition method has been applied to photon activation analysis and proton activation analysis of minor elements and trace impurities in various types of iron and steel samples issued by the Iron and Steel Institute of Japan (ISIJ). Samples and standard addition samples were once dissolved to mix homogeneously, an internal standard and elements to be determined and solidified as a silica-gel to make a similar matrix composition and geometry. Cerium and yttrium were used as an internal standard in photon and proton activation, respectively. In photon activation, 20 MeV electron beam was used for bremsstrahlung irradiation to reduce matrix activity and nuclear interference reactions, and the results were compared with those of 30 MeV irradiation. In proton activation, iron was removed by the MIBK extraction method after dissolving samples to reduce the radioactivity of 56 Co from iron via 56 Fe(p, n) 56 Co reaction. The results of proton and photon activation analysis were in good agreement with the standard values of ISIJ. (author)

  9. International Standards: Past Free Trade Agreements and the Prospects in the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliasson Leif Johan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership represents a strategic vision of transatlantic relations, including job creation, global leadership, and establishing high international standards. This paper discusses how three recent bi-lateral and regional agreements, along with positions adopted in transatlantic negotiations, convey respective side's acceptable parameters, and how international standards are emerging from and disseminated through agreements involving the European Union and the United States

  10. Selecting International Standards for Accrual-Based Accounting in the Public Sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pontoppidan, Caroline Aggestam

    2011-01-01

    The article discusses the definition of a government business enterprise (GBE), as provided in the International Public Sector Accounting Standards (IPSAS), as a determinant for applying IPSAS or the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) for a public sector entity. The work...... of the IPSASB is focused on the accounting and financial reporting needs of national, regional and local governments, and related governmental agencies, while the IFRS serves the private sector....

  11. Succeeding in process standardization: Explaining the fit with international management strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahimi, Fatemeh; Møller, Charles; Hvam, Lars

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the fit between process standardization and international management strategy of multinational corporations (MNCs) by assessing the compatibility between process standardization and corporate structural characteristics in terms of asset configuration...... and headquarters-subsidiary relationships. Design/methodology/approach: First, after a literature review on MNCs’ strategy and process standardization, the study suggests two propositions on the fit between corporate international management strategy and process standardization. Second, to empirically examine....../value: The study provides in-depth understanding of how the international management strategy and consequent structural characteristics of MNCs affects process standardization in the course of a global enterprise resource planning implementation. The study proposes conditions of fit for aligning process...

  12. Language standardization in sociolinguistics and international business: Theory and practice across the table

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linn, Andrew; Sanden, Guro Refsum; Piekkari, Rebecca

    2018-01-01

    Haugen to explain the history of modern Norwegian. The table is then turned and a model from international business by Piekkari, Welch and Welch is used to illuminate recent Norwegian language planning. It is found that the Grundfos case works well with the Haugen model, and the international business......This chapter addresses the issue of language standardization from two perspectives, bringing together a theoretical perspective offered by the discipline of sociolinguistics with a practical example from international business. We introduce the broad concept of standardization and embed the study...... of language standardization in the wider discussion of standards as a means of control across society. We analyze the language policy and practice of the Danish multinational, Grundfos, and use it as a “sociolinguistic laboratory” to “test” the theory of language standardization initially elaborated by Einar...

  13. International Cooperation to Establish Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) for Quarantine Management of Irradiated Foods in International Trade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J. W.; Byun, M. W.; Kim, J. H.; Choi, J. I.; Song, B. S.; Yoon, Y. H.; Kim, D. H.; Kim, W. G.; Kim, K. P.

    2010-02-15

    {center_dot} Development of SOPs through various research activities such as building international cooperation, and analysing current status of food irradiation in domestic and international markets, export and import, international market size, and of R and D - Analysis of examples for quarantine management in agricultural product exporting countries and use of irradiation technology for agricultural product quarantine, and changes in international quarantine management - Analysis of SOPs for food irradiation quarantine in international organization (CODEX, IPPC, WHO). U.S, EU, China, India, and Australia. - Collaborative researches of India/Korea and China/Korea entered into an agreement for market trials {center_dot} Publishment of irradiation quarantine management SOPs agreed to CODEX standards - Collaborative researches for quarantine management, avoiding Technical Barrier to Trade (TBT), and Sanitary Phytosanitary Measures were conducted, and advanced SOPs agreed with WTO/FTA system were published

  14. International Cooperation to Establish Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) for Quarantine Management of Irradiated Foods in International Trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J. W.; Byun, M. W.; Kim, J. H.; Choi, J. I.; Song, B. S.; Yoon, Y. H.; Kim, D. H.; Kim, W. G.; Kim, K. P.

    2010-02-01

    · Development of SOPs through various research activities such as building international cooperation, and analysing current status of food irradiation in domestic and international markets, export and import, international market size, and of R and D - Analysis of examples for quarantine management in agricultural product exporting countries and use of irradiation technology for agricultural product quarantine, and changes in international quarantine management - Analysis of SOPs for food irradiation quarantine in international organization (CODEX, IPPC, WHO). U.S, EU, China, India, and Australia. - Collaborative researches of India/Korea and China/Korea entered into an agreement for market trials · Publishment of irradiation quarantine management SOPs agreed to CODEX standards - Collaborative researches for quarantine management, avoiding Technical Barrier to Trade (TBT), and Sanitary Phytosanitary Measures were conducted, and advanced SOPs agreed with WTO/FTA system were published

  15. Internal standardization in atomic-emission spectrometry using inductively coupled plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, G.L.

    1985-01-01

    The principle of internal standardization has been used in quantitative analytical emission spectroscopy since 1925 to minimize the errors arising from fluctuations in sample preparation, excitation-source conditions, and detection parameters. Although modern spectroscopic excitation sources are far more stable and electronic detection methods are more precise than before, the system for the introduction of the sample in spectrometric analysis using inductively coupled plasma (ICP) introduces significant errors, and internal standardization can still play a useful role in improving the overall precision of the analytical results. The criteria for the selection of the elements to be used as internal standards in arc and spark spectrographic analysis apply to a much lesser extent in ICP-spectrometric analysis. Internal standardization is recommended for use in routine ICP-simultaneous spectrometric analysis to improve its accuracy and precision and to provide a monitor for the reassurance of the analyst. However, the selection of an unsuitable reference element can result in misuse of the principle of internal standardization and, although internal standardization can be applied when a sequential monochromator is used, the main sources of error will not be minimized

  16. Relationship between internal medicine program board examination pass rates, accreditation standards, and program size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcone, John L; Gonzalo, Jed D

    2014-01-19

    To determine Internal Medicine residency program compliance with the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education 80% pass-rate standard and the correlation between residency program size and performance on the American Board of Internal Medicine Certifying Examination. Using a cross-sectional study design from 2010-2012 American Board of Internal Medicine Certifying Examination data of all Internal Medicine residency pro-grams, comparisons were made between program pass rates to the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education pass-rate standard. To assess the correlation between program size and performance, a Spearman's rho was calculated. To evaluate program size and its relationship to the pass-rate standard, receiver operative characteristic curves were calculated. Of 372 Internal Medicine residency programs, 276 programs (74%) achieved a pass rate of =80%, surpassing the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education minimum standard. A weak correlation was found between residency program size and pass rate for the three-year period (p=0.19, pInternal Medicine residency programs complied with Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education pass-rate standards, a quarter of the programs failed to meet this requirement. Program size is positively but weakly associated with American Board of Internal Medicine Certifying Examination performance, suggesting other unidentified variables significantly contribute to program performance.

  17. International Standards Development for Marine and Hydrokinetic Renewable Energy - Final Report on Technical Status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rondorf, Neil E.; Busch, Jason; Kimball, Richard

    2011-10-29

    This report summarizes the progress toward development of International Standards for Marine and Hydrokinetic Renewable Energy, as funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) under the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) Technical Committee 114. The project has three main objectives: 1. Provide funding to support participation of key U.S. industry technical experts in 6 (originally 4) international working groups and/or project teams (the primary standards-making committees) and to attend technical meetings to ensure greater U.S. involvement in the development of these standards. 2. Provide a report to DOE and industry stakeholders summarizing the IEC standards development process for marine and hydrokinetic renewable energy, new international standards and their justifications, and provide standards guidance to industry members. 3. Provide a semi-annual (web-based) newsletter to the marine renewable energy community. The newsletter will educate industry members and stakeholders about the processes, progress, and needs of the US efforts to support the international standards development effort. The newsletter is available at www.TC114.us

  18. Software database creature for investment property measurement according to international standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponomareva, S. V.; Merzliakova, N. A.

    2018-05-01

    The article deals with investment property measurement and accounting problems at the international, national and enterprise levels. The need to create the software for investment property measurement according to International Accounting Standards was substantiated. The necessary software functions and the processes were described.

  19. Comparison report for CSNI International Standard Problem 12 (ROSA-III Run 912)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tasaka, Kanji; Anoda, Yoshinari; Kumamaru, Hiroshige; Nakamura, Hideo; Iriko, Masanori; Yonomoto, Taisuke; Shiba, Masayoshi

    1982-09-01

    ROSA-III Run 912 was identified as International Standard Problem 12 by the Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations. Run 912 simulated a 5% split break LOCA condition in a BWR at the pump suction in the recirculation line with the HPCS failure. Comparisons between the test data and the calculations by eight international participants were made and discussed. (author)

  20. Applying international standards and guidelines on corporate social responsibility: An action plan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cramer, J.M.

    2005-01-01

    How can a company start the process of corporate social responsibility in an international context, thereby makinge use of diverse standards and guidelines? This question immediately came to the fore emerged after the start of the programme ‘Corporate social responsibility in international context’

  1. Review of international standards related to the design for control rooms on nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitamura, Masashi; Yoshikawa, Hidekazu; Fujita, Yushi

    2005-01-01

    The improvement of Human-Machine Interface (HMI) design for control rooms on nuclear power plants (NPP) has been accomplished world wide, especially after the TMI-2 accident. The design process and guidelines are standardized in IEC60964 and supplemental standards as international standard. However, technological update is required due to the increased use of computerized control and monitoring equipment and systems in control rooms on NPP in recent years. Standards are becoming more important for computerized control rooms because there is more freedom to design than conventional hardware based system. For computerized control rooms, standards for hardware and software of HMI systems should be also considered. Standards and guidelines for computerized control rooms on NPP have been developed recently in each body such as IEC, ISO, and IEEE etc. Therefore, reviewing these standards and guidelines related to control rooms design of NPP can be useful not only for revision of the international standards such as IEC60964, but also for users of the standards and guidelines. In this paper, we reviewed the international standards related to the design for control rooms, in the two aspects of HMI design and hardware and software design, considering the undergoing revision work and their application. (author)

  2. 5{sup th} international conference on certification and standardization in NDT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    Certification. 29. NDT Certification for Railway Maintenance Personnel in France; 10 Years of the CFCM. 30. NDT Personnel Certification - Service for Industry. 31. Certification of Personnel Performing Automated Non-destructive Testing of Pipes and Flat Products. Problems and Solutions. 32. Stress Testing is a New NDT Type in the Russian Standard GOST R 52330-2005 and International Standard ISO-9712. 33. Accreditation of Ultrasonic Thickness Measurement Methods - Practical Aspects. 34. Results of Approval of Certification Body ''SPEKTRCert'' by Auditors of EFNDT. 35. The Program for Specialists Training and Certification in Stress-Strained State Determination and Residual Life Assesment of Technical Devices and Contructions. 36. NDT Personnel Certification System at Turkish Standards Instiution (TSE) and Developments in Turkey. 37. Nondestructive Testing Personnel Certification in Turkish Aerospace Industries and National Aerospace Nondestructive Testing Board in the Turkey.

  3. Bias in the absorption coefficient determination of a fluorescent dye, standard reference material 1932 fluorescein solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeRose, Paul C.; Kramer, Gary W.

    2005-01-01

    The absorption coefficient of standard reference material[registered] (SRM[registered]) 1932, fluorescein in a borate buffer solution (pH=9.5) has been determined at λ=488.0, 490.0, 490.5 and 491.0 nm using the US national reference UV/visible spectrophotometer. The purity of the fluorescein was determined to be 97.6% as part of the certification of SRM 1932. The solution measured was prepared gravimetrically by diluting SRM 1932 with additional borate buffer. The value of the absorption coefficient was corrected for bias due to fluorescence that reaches the detector and for dye purity. Bias due to fluorescence was found to be on the order of -1% for both monochromatic and polychromatic (e.g., diode-array based) spectrophotometers

  4. Calibrating NIST SRM 683 as A New International Reference Standard for Zn Isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y.; Zhang, X.; Yu, H.; Huang, F.

    2017-12-01

    Zinc isotopes have been widely applied in the cosmochemical, geochemical, and environmental studies (Moynier et al. 2017). Obtaining precise Zn isotopic data for inter-laboratory comparison is a prerequisite to these applications. Currently, the JMC3-0749L is the primary reference standard for Zn isotopes (Albarède 2004), but it is not commercially available now. Thus, it is necessary to calibrate a new international primary reference standard for Zn isotopic analysis. Chen et al. (2016) showed that NIST SRM 683 (a pure Zn metal nugget of 140 grams) has a δ66ZnJMC of 0.12‰, which is falling within the range of natural Zn isotopic compositions, and it may a good candidate for the next generation of international reference standard (Chen et al. 2016). In order to further examine whether NIST SRM 683 has a homogeneous Zn isotopic composition, we measured more NIST SRM 683 by double-spike methods using MC-ICPMS (Conway et al. 2013). The metal nuggets of NIST SRM 683 were intensively sampled by micro-drilling. Zinc isotope analyses for two nuggets show that they have δ66Zn of 0.14 ± 0.02‰ (2SD, N = 32) and 0.13 ± 0.02‰ (2SD, N = 33), respectively. These values are similar to those of two Zn metal nuggets (0.11 ± 0.02‰ vs. 0.12 ± 0.02‰) reported previously by Chen et al. (2016). We fully dissolved one nugget, producing pure Zn solution with identical Zn isotopic composition with the drilling samples. All results strongly support that NIST SRM 683 is homogeneous in Zn isotopic compositions which could be an ideal candidate for the next reference for Zn isotopes. Tests on more metal nuggets will be performed in a few months for further confirming the Zn isotope compositions and homogeneity. Reference: Albarède et al., 2004. 'The stable isotope geochemistry of copper and zinc', Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry, 55: 409-27. Chen et al., 2016. 'Zinc Isotopic Compositions of NIST SRM 683 and Whole-Rock Reference Materials', Geostandards and

  5. International standards for the indoor environment. Where are we and do they apply to Asian countries?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2003-01-01

    On the international level, ISO (International Organization for Standardization), CEN (European Committee for Standardization) and ASHRAE (American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers) are writing and reviewing standards relating to the indoor environment on a regular...... basis. This presentation will focus on the development of standards for the indoor thermal environment and indoor air quality (ventilation). In the future, recommendations for acceptable indoor environments will be specified as classes. This allows for national differences in the requirements as well...... as for designing buildings for different quality levels. Several of these standards have been developed mainly by experts from Europe, North America and Japan. Are there, however, special considerations relating to South-East Asia (lifestyle, outdoor climate, economy) that are not dealt with in these standards...

  6. International Financial Reporting standard for Small and Medium-sized entities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Koppeschaar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The International Financial Reporting Standard for Small and Medium-sized entities (IFRS for SMEs was published as a standard by the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB during July 2009. During 2007 South Africa became one of the first countries and the first country in Africa to early accept the proposed accounting standard (exposure draft of an IFRS for SMEs. The accounting standard will probably also be accepted by numerous other countries. The aim of this article is to investigate the applicability of this accounting standard. The results indicated that the IFRS for SMEs remains too comprehensive for the majority of small companies. The IFRS for SMEs does not satisfy the needs of South African users of small company financial statements, and as a result the accounting requirements should be simplified. KEYWORDS: Financial accounting; Financial reporting requirements; IFRS for SMEs; Small companies; Users of financial statements; Small company financial statements.

  7. Development of an international standard on instruments setpoints based on ISA S67.04 - 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinn, E.L.

    1996-01-01

    This is a summary of the application for and development of an international standard on instrument setpoints, based on the Instrument Society of America (ISA) Standard S67.04 - 1994. The forum this new standard was proposed in is the International Electrotechnique Commission (IEC), based in Geneva, Switzerland, which is the international commission which oversees electrical and instrumentation standards for all applications around the world. The Instrument Society of America (ISA) is a United States based Society for the advancement of instrumentation and controls related science and technology and has 30,000 members. A division within the ISA is the Standard and Practices board which has over 5000 members actively involved in standards development and approval. In 1994, the ISA SP67, Nuclear Power Plant Standards Committee authorized that the IEC be approached to develop and issue an IEC standard on Instrument Setpoints. This application was formally submitted in January, 1995 to the IEC and approved for ballot to member countries in June, 1995. Approval for standard development by IEC was received in October, 1995 and the first draft vas issued in February, 1996, and is currently under review by the IEC working group. It is very important to focus on the approach that the U.S. and other countries are taking toward development of IEC standards that can apply to all nuclear instrumentation applications around the world. By referencing IEC standards in design specification, vendors can be solicited from many different countries, thereby ensuring that the highest quality products can be used. This also offsets the need to specify individual standards in the specification, based on the country that each vendor solicited, represents. In summary, this standard development process, with support from the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) will assist U.S. suppliers in competing in the global market for products and services into the next century. (author)

  8. Determination of avermectins by the internal standard recovery correction - high performance liquid chromatography - quantitative Nuclear Magnetic Resonance method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Huang, Ting; Li, Hongmei; Dai, Xinhua; Quan, Can; He, Yajuan

    2017-09-01

    Quantitative Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (qNMR) is widely used to determine the purity of organic compounds. For the compounds with lower purity especially molecular weight more than 500, qNMR is at risk of error for the purity, because the impurity peaks are likely to be incompletely separated from the peak of major component. In this study, an offline ISRC-HPLC-qNMR (internal standard recovery correction - high performance liquid chromatography - qNMR) was developed to overcome this problem. It is accurate by excluding the influence of impurity; it is low-cost by using common mobile phase; and it extends the applicable scope of qNMR. In this method, a mix solution of the sample and an internal standard was separated by HPLC with common mobile phases, and only the eluents of the analyte and the internal standard were collected in the same tube. After evaporation and re-dissolution, it was determined by qNMR. A recovery correction factor was determined by comparison of the solutions before and after these procedures. After correction, the mass fraction of analyte was constant and it was accurate and precise, even though the sample loss varied during these procedures, or even in bad resolution of HPLC. Avermectin B 1 a with the purity of ~93% and the molecular weight of 873 was analyzed. Moreover, the homologues of avermectin B 1 a were determined based on the identification and quantitative analysis by tandem mass spectrometry and HPLC, and the results were consistent with the results of traditional mass balance method. The result showed that the method could be widely used for the organic compounds, and could further promote qNMR to become a primary method in the international metrological systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Reliable structural interpretation of small-angle scattering data from bio-molecules in solution--the importance of quality control and a standard reporting framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacques, David A; Guss, Jules Mitchell; Trewhella, Jill

    2012-05-17

    Small-angle scattering is becoming an increasingly popular tool for the study of bio-molecular structures in solution. The large number of publications with 3D-structural models generated from small-angle solution scattering data has led to a growing consensus for the need to establish a standard reporting framework for their publication. The International Union of Crystallography recently established a set of guidelines for the necessary information required for the publication of such structural models. Here we describe the rationale for these guidelines and the importance of standardising the way in which small-angle scattering data from bio-molecules and associated structural interpretations are reported.

  10. A New International Standard for "Actions from Waves and Currents on Coastal Structures"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tørum, Alf; Burcharth, Hans F.; Goda, Yoshimi

    2007-01-01

    The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) is going to issue a new standard concerning "Actions from Waves and Currents on Coastal Structures," which becomes the first international standard in coastal engineering. It is composed of a normative part (29 pages), an informative part (80...... pages) and Bibliography ( 17 pages). The normative part describes what is considered as the norm of the matters in concern, while the informative part provides the information on recommended practice. The paper introduces the main points of the normative part and discusses the influence of the new...

  11. International Graduate Students' Academic Writing Practices in Malaysia: Challenges and Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Manjet Kaur Mehar

    2015-01-01

    This article focuses on the challenges faced by non-native English speaking international graduate students in their academic writing practices while they studied at a university in Malaysia as well as the solutions they employed when faced with the challenges. Academic Literacies Questionnaire was used to collect data. Based on 131 participants,…

  12. Development of international standards for instrumentation used for detection of illicit trafficking of radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voytchev, M.; Chiaro, P.; Radev, R.

    2006-01-01

    Subcommittee 45 B 'Radiation Protection Instrumentation' of the International Electrotechnical Commission (I.E.C.) is charged with the development of international standards for instrumentation used for monitoring of illicit trafficking of radioactive material through international boarders and territories, as well as inside countries. Currently three I.E.C. standards are in advanced stages of development. They are expected to be approved and published in 2006-2007. The international participation and the main characteristics of the following three standards are discussed and presented: I.E.C. 62327 'Hand-held Instruments for the Detection and Identification of Radionuclides and Additionally for the Indication of Ambient Dose Equivalent Rate from Photon Radiation', I.E.C. 62401 'Alarming Personal Radiation Devices for Detection of Illicit Trafficking of Radioactive Material' and I.E.C. 62244 'Installed Radiation Monitors for the Detection of Radioactive and Special Nuclear Materials at National Borders'

  13. Ice crystallization in ultrafine water-salt aerosols: nucleation, ice-solution equilibrium, and internal structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudait, Arpa; Molinero, Valeria

    2014-06-04

    Atmospheric aerosols have a strong influence on Earth's climate. Elucidating the physical state and internal structure of atmospheric aqueous aerosols is essential to predict their gas and water uptake, and the locus and rate of atmospherically important heterogeneous reactions. Ultrafine aerosols with sizes between 3 and 15 nm have been detected in large numbers in the troposphere and tropopause. Nanoscopic aerosols arising from bubble bursting of natural and artificial seawater have been identified in laboratory and field experiments. The internal structure and phase state of these aerosols, however, cannot yet be determined in experiments. Here we use molecular simulations to investigate the phase behavior and internal structure of liquid, vitrified, and crystallized water-salt ultrafine aerosols with radii from 2.5 to 9.5 nm and with up to 10% moles of ions. We find that both ice crystallization and vitrification of the nanodroplets lead to demixing of pure water from the solutions. Vitrification of aqueous nanodroplets yields nanodomains of pure low-density amorphous ice in coexistence with vitrified solute rich aqueous glass. The melting temperature of ice in the aerosols decreases monotonically with an increase of solute fraction and decrease of radius. The simulations reveal that nucleation of ice occurs homogeneously at the subsurface of the water-salt nanoparticles. Subsequent ice growth yields phase-segregated, internally mixed, aerosols with two phases in equilibrium: a concentrated water-salt amorphous mixture and a spherical cap-like ice nanophase. The surface of the crystallized aerosols is heterogeneous, with ice and solution exposed to the vapor. Free energy calculations indicate that as the concentration of salt in the particles, the advance of the crystallization, or the size of the particles increase, the stability of the spherical cap structure increases with respect to the alternative structure in which a core of ice is fully surrounded by

  14. An Audit of Emergency Department Accreditation Based on Joint Commission International Standards (JCI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behrooz Hashemi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Despite thousands of years from creation of medical knowledge, it not much passes from founding the health care systems. Accreditation is an effective mechanism for performance evaluation, quality enhancement, and the safety of health care systems. This study was conducted to assess the results of emergency department (ED accreditation in Shohadaye Tajrish Hospital, Tehran, Iran, 2013 in terms of domesticated standards of joint commission international (JCI standards. Methods: This is a cohort study with a four months follow up which was conducted in the ED of Shohadaye Tajrish hospital in December 2013. The standard evaluation check list of Iran hospitals (based on JCI standards included 24 heading and 337 subheading was used for this purpose. The effective possible causes of weak spots were found and their solutions considered. After correction, assessment of accreditation were repeated again. Finally, the achieved results of two periods were analyzed using SPSS version 20. Results: Quality improvement, admission in department and patient assessment, competency and capability test for staffs, collection and analysis of data, training of patients, and facilities had the score of below 50%. The mean of total score for accreditation in ED in the first period was 60.4±30.15 percent and in the second period 68.9±22.9 (p=0.005. Strategic plans, head of department, head nurse, resident physician, responsible nurse for the shift, and personnel file achieved the score of 100%. Of total headings below 50% in the first period just in two cases, collection and analysis of data with growth of 40% as well as competency and capability test for staffs with growth of 17%, were reached to more than 50%. Conclusion: Based on findings of the present study, the ED of Shohadaye Tajrish hospital reached the score of below 50% in six heading of quality improvement, admission in department and patient assessment, competency and capability test for

  15. An Audit of Emergency Department Accreditation Based on Joint Commission International Standards (JCI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi, Behrooz; Motamedi, Maryam; Etemad, Mania; Rahmati, Farhad; Forouzanfar, Mohammad Mehdi; Kaghazchi, Fatemeh

    2014-01-01

    Despite thousands of years from creation of medical knowledge, it not much passes from founding the health care systems. Accreditation is an effective mechanism for performance evaluation, quality enhancement, and the safety of health care systems. This study was conducted to assess the results of emergency department (ED) accreditation in Shohadaye Tajrish Hospital, Tehran, Iran, 2013 in terms of domesticated standards of joint commission international (JCI) standards. This cohort study with a four-month follow up was conducted in the ED of Shohadaye Tajrish Hospital in 2013. The standard evaluation checklist of Iran hospitals (based on JCI standards) included 24 heading and 337 subheading was used for this purpose. The effective possible causes of weak spots were found and their solutions considered. After correction, assessment of accreditation were repeated again. Finally, the achieved results of two periods were analyzed using SPSS version 20. Quality improvement, admission in department and patient assessment, competency and capability test for staffs, collection and analysis of data, training of patients, and facilities had the score of below 50%. The mean of total score for accreditation in ED in the first period was 60.4±30.15 percent and in the second period 68.9±22.9 (p=0.005). Strategic plans, head of department, head nurse, resident physician, responsible nurse for the shift, and personnel file achieved the score of 100%. Of total headings below 50% in the first period just in two cases, collection and analysis of data with growth of 40% as well as competency and capability test for staffs with growth of 17%, were reached to more than 50%. Based on findings of the present study, the ED of Shohadaye Tajrish hospital reached the score of below 50% in six heading of quality improvement, admission in department and patient assessment, competency and capability test for staffs, collection and analysis of data, training of patients, and facilities. While

  16. INTERDEPENDENCIES OF THE INTERNAL / MANAGERIAL CONTROL STANDARD NO. 6 - ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionut-Cosmin BĂLOI

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Our initiative of analyzing the internal control standard which deals with the organizational structure comes from the observations on the significance of these essential aspects of modern management and on the sensitivity with which this standard is treated in most of the public institutions considered representative for the Oltenia region. Although the administrators of public institutions strive to optimize the systems of internal/managerial control, they frequently face many issues concerning the misunderstanding of these standards, vaguely explained, for example throughout some guidelines or other documents. The hypothesis of our study is that most of public institutions face gaps in understanding, interpreting, adapting and implementing an effective model of organizational structure, and the causes are due to the lack of an interdependent, correlated approach of the pillars that support the internal/managerial control system: the 25 standards required by the Romanian legislation. Our study critically describes the superficial approach founded in the self-evaluation reports of the public institutions, if we refer only to the conformity of the organizational structure and the four standards that we consider inextricably related with this internal/managerial control standard. From the methodological point of view, our study tests the correlation between the level of compliance of these standards and the functionality of the system composed by them in the public organizations that we have investigated.

  17. 25 CFR 542.17 - What are the minimum internal control standards for complimentary services or items?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What are the minimum internal control standards for... THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS § 542.17 What are the minimum internal control standards for complimentary services or items? (a) Each Tribal gaming regulatory authority or...

  18. 25 CFR 542.11 - What are the minimum internal control standards for pari-mutuel wagering?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What are the minimum internal control standards for pari... INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS § 542.11 What are the minimum internal control... documentation and/or procedures that provide at least the level of control described by the standards in this...

  19. Lorentz-violating vortex solutions in the CPT-even electrodynamics of the Standard Model Extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casana, Rodolfo; Ferreira Junior, Manoel M.; Hora, E. da

    2011-01-01

    Full text: In this work, we investigate the formation of static rotationally symmetric solutions on the (1+3) dimensional CPT-even and Lorentz-violating photonic sector of the Standard Model Extension (SME). The main goal of this work is to show the possibility of obtaining these solutions, even in the presence of Lorentz-breaking fields. A secondary goal is to examine the effects of these fields on topologically non-trivial configurations. In order to obtain these results, we focus on specific components of Lorentz-violating background, dealing with static Euler-Lagrange equations, from which we fix temporal gauge (absence of electric field) as a proper gauge choice. We assume the usual rotationally symmetric Ansatz, inserting it in the Euler-Lagrange equations previously obtained. This Ansatz describes the Higgs and gauge fields via profile functions g(r) and a(r), respectively. From this Ansatz, we construct suitable boundary conditions near the origin. Also, we write the energy density in terms of these two profile functions, obtaining from it asymptotic boundary conditions. This set of conditions is used to numerically solve the Euler-Lagrange equations (by means of the shooting method). Finally, we plot solutions for some physical quantities (Higgs field, magnetic field and energy density) for several values of the Lorentz-violating parameters. From these plots, we discuss the influence of these coefficients on the topologically non-trivial rotationally symmetric configurations, focusing on the profiles of both magnetic field and energy density. (author)

  20. [International Standards of Tuberculosis Care (ISTC)--comments from the German point of view].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castell, S; Bauer, T; Diel, R; Hedrich, A; Magdorf, K; Rüsch-Gerdes, S; Schaberg, T; Loddenkemper, R

    2012-04-01

    The "International Standards for Tuberculosis Care" (ISTC) were developed by the World Health Organisation (WHO) and others to provide internationally agreed and, if possible, evidence-based standards for tuberculosis care including the care by private providers who are not part of national tuberculosis programmes or health-care systems. Hence, the ISTC primarily address resource-restrained countries with high tuberculosis prevalence. In this article, the German translation of the 21 standards from 2009 is presented - addressing diagnostic and therapeutic standards, co-infection (especially with HIV) and public-health issues. The accompanying comments show how these standards have to be modified for Germany due to the medical resources available here and country-specific characteristics respectively. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  1. Financing the energy renovation of public buildings through Internal Contracting. Infinite Solutions Guidebook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schilken, Peter; Turner, Ian; Kuehnbach, Matthias; Simic, Ivan; Kuharic, Boris; Laranjeira, Celia; Rodrigues, Carlos; Couceiro, Carla; Presotto, Agnese; Mazzeschi, Alessandro; Cleto, Joao

    2017-02-01

    Meeting the European energy and climate policy objectives will require the mobilisation of substantial energy efficiency and renewable energy investments at the local level. Given both the substantial effort necessary to finance the energy transition and restricted municipal budgets, it is clear that these objectives cannot be met through traditional public financing such as grants or direct investment, but by finding a new approach to financing solutions. This Energy Cities guidebook is built upon a comprehensive analysis of Stuttgart's Internal Contracting scheme and a detailed questioning of it by the learning authorities within the INFINITE Solutions project. It is intended to offer guidelines to municipalities as well as universities, hospitals or other institutions interested in applying Internal Contracting to improve their energy consumption and efficiency performance. The approach of this guidebook is developed as follows: The concept of contracting - especially Internal Contracting - is introduced. Universal guidance is offered on how to implement an Internal Contracting scheme and keep it working over the long term. The Internal Contracting scheme is presented in practice. Several cities describe their individual approaches to Internal Contracting and the various ways they have been able to adapt the scheme

  2. Proceedings of the international symposium on radioactive waste disposal: Health and environmental criteria and standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hultcrantz, K.

    1999-04-01

    The co-organisers of the International Symposium on Health and Environmental Criteria and Standards for Radioactive Waste Disposal are pleased to present these proceedings. This Symposium succeeded in bringing together a wide range of participants and perspectives in order to address in a common forum the technical and non-technical issues related to long-term storage of radioactive waste. The papers presented herein reflect both the diversity of the participants and the complexity of the issues addressed. The sessions, panels, and papers developed for the symposium focused on some of the daunting challenges posed by long-term isolation and storage of high level radioactive waste. Panel sessions addressed the basic principles of criteria and standards, the context of the risks involved, and an overview of relevant philosophical, social, and ethical issues. Paper sessions considered national laws, policies and experiences; criteria formulation; environmental protection; compliance; human intrusion; and fundamental philosophical, social, and ethical issues. The presentations stimulated lively discussion and debate, and the contributors received valuable feedback. The interplay between technical and social aspects reflected in some papers and in the discussion highlights the changing role of the public in radioactive waste issues. The average citizen has become more aware of and more involved in radioactive waste matters in recent years. Solutions that were previously analysed through a technological lens are now being viewed in a much broader perspective that better addresses the concerns of local communities as well as national and international interests. Public involvement must begin earlier, last longer, and improve in quality so as to create an ongoing dialogue and debate rather than cycles of dictates and discord. The symposium has offered suggestions as to how government, industry, and the public can foster a broader dialogue on the formulation and

  3. EXPERIENCE OF IMPLEMENTATION OF THE LABOR PROTECTION CONTROL SYSTEM AT RUP «BMZ» IN ACCORDANCE WITH INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS OHSAS 180001 AND STATE STANDARD STB 18001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. N. Zhuk

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Experience of introduction of the control system by labour protection at RUP «BMZ» in accordance with international standard OHSAS 18001 and State standard STB 18001 is described.

  4. The standardization of 133Ba: international comparison of results (June 1984)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, B.R.

    1985-01-01

    Participation in an international intercomparison of measurements of the activity of a 133 Ba solution is described. The 4π (LS) -γ coincidence extrapolation method was used. Results for two different γ-channels were obtained. A graphical representation of the results obtained by the different participating laboratories is given

  5. Convergence Between Kazakhstan’S Financial Systemand International Standards: Overcoming Difficulties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uvarova Natalya

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the convergence of the Kazakh financial system with international standards in light of the new, enhanced agreement with the European Union on partnership and cooperation (January 19, 2015. Based on this research, the approaches used by the Kazakh financial system to converge with the European Union (EU and the mechanism of implementing international standards in the national regulatory framework are determined. In practice, the study provides justification for the necessity of arranging the systematization of existing rules and regulations covering financial activity in the Republic, eliminating discrepancies between the national regulatory framework and international standards, and determining clear security guarantees for foreign investors’ financial activity in the Republic. The research results are primarily focused on the development of public finance management theory. Theories and conclusions present in the study can be used in the educational processes of economic and legal institutions and in the policymaking activity of public finance management bodies.

  6. Language standardization in sociolinguistics and international business: Theory and practice across the table

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linn, Andrew; Sanden, Guro Refsum; Piekkari, Rebecca

    2018-01-01

    Haugen to explain the history of modern Norwegian. The table is then turned and a model from international business by Piekkari, Welch and Welch is used to illuminate recent Norwegian language planning. It is found that the Grundfos case works well with the Haugen model, and the international business...... model provides a valuable practical lesson for national language planners, both showing that a “comparative standardology” is a valuable undertaking. More voices “at the table” will allow both theory and practice to be further refined and for the role of standards across society to be better understood.......This chapter addresses the issue of language standardization from two perspectives, bringing together a theoretical perspective offered by the discipline of sociolinguistics with a practical example from international business. We introduce the broad concept of standardization and embed the study...

  7. Review of international solutions to NEACRP benchmark BWR lattice cell problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halsall, M.J.

    1977-12-01

    This paper summarises international solutions to a set of BWR benchmark problems. The problems, posed as an activity sponsored by the Nuclear Energy Agency Committee on Reactor Physics, were as follows: 9-pin supercell with central burnable poison pin, mini-BWR with 4 pin-cells and water gaps and control rod cruciform, full 7 x 7 pin BWR lattice cell with differential U 235 enrichment, and full 8 x 8 pin BWR lattice cell with water-hole, Pu-loading, burnable poison, and homogenised cruciform control rod. Solutions have been contributed by Denmark, Japan, Sweden, Switzerland and the UK. (author)

  8. 2nd International Workshop on the Numerical Solution of Markov Chains

    CERN Document Server

    1995-01-01

    Computations with Markov Chains presents the edited and reviewed proceedings of the Second International Workshop on the Numerical Solution of Markov Chains, held January 16--18, 1995, in Raleigh, North Carolina. New developments of particular interest include recent work on stability and conditioning, Krylov subspace-based methods for transient solutions, quadratic convergent procedures for matrix geometric problems, further analysis of the GTH algorithm, the arrival of stochastic automata networks at the forefront of modelling stratagems, and more. An authoritative overview of the field for applied probabilists, numerical analysts and systems modelers, including computer scientists and engineers.

  9. Review and Outlook of China Electronic and IT Industry Footprints in IEC International Standardization Activities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu Jingping

    2006-01-01

    @@ Year 2006 is the year marking the 100th anniversary of the founding of International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC). IEC is mainly engaged in the international standardization for electrical and electronic technology field aiming at promoting international trade and technology cooperation and exchange, improving product and service quality, upgrading productivity and protecting the environment as well as human health and safety. Most countries worldwide adopt standards developed and promulgated by IEC, providing a platform to international trade and technical exchange. China has being a member since 1957. Electronic and IT are the most developed and energetic filed in recent decades. Number of IEC TC/SC specialized in electronic and IT amounts up to 52.

  10. Implementing standardized, inter-unit communication in an international setting: handoff of patients from emergency medicine to internal medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balhara, Kamna S; Peterson, Susan M; Elabd, Mohamed Moheb; Regan, Linda; Anton, Xavier; Al-Natour, Basil Ali; Hsieh, Yu-Hsiang; Scheulen, James; Stewart de Ramirez, Sarah A

    2018-04-01

    Standardized handoffs may reduce communication errors, but research on handoff in community and international settings is lacking. Our study at a community hospital in the United Arab Emirates characterizes existing handoff practices for admitted patients from emergency medicine (EM) to internal medicine (IM), develops a standardized handoff tool, and assesses its impact on communication and physician perceptions. EM physicians completed a survey regarding handoff practices and expectations. Trained observers utilized a checklist based on the Systems Engineering Initiative for Patient Safety model to observe 40 handoffs. EM and IM physicians collaboratively developed a written tool encouraging bedside handoff of admitted patients. After the intervention, surveys of EM physicians and 40 observations were subsequently repeated. 77.5% of initial observed handoffs occurred face-to-face, with 42.5% at bedside, and in four different languages. Most survey respondents considered face-to-face handoff ideal. Respondents noted 9-13 patients suffering harm due to handoff in the prior month. After handoff tool implementation, 97.5% of observed handoffs occurred face-to-face (versus 77.5%, p = 0.014), with 82.5% at bedside (versus 42.5%, p face-to-face and bedside handoff, positively impacted workflow, and increased perceptions of safety by EM physicians in an international, non-academic setting. Our three-step approach can be applied towards developing standardized, context-specific inter-specialty handoff in a variety of settings.

  11. Analysis of Radio communication solutions in small and isolated communities under the IEEE 802.22 standard

    OpenAIRE

    Arroyo Arzubi, Alejandro; Castro Lechtaler, Antonio; Foti, Antonio Roberto; Fusario, Rubén J.; García Guibout, Jorge; Sens, Lorena

    2013-01-01

    In recent years the use of wireless communications has increased significantly. Rural communities without cable network communication have found a solution in wireless technologies. Based on previous fieldwork, this paper analyzes software development of integration based technologies for communication equipment. It focuses on the feasibility of the IEEE 802.22 standard as a solution to the wireless problem.

  12. International standards: the World Organisation for Animal Health Terrestrial Animal Health Code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiermann, A B

    2015-04-01

    This paper provides a description of the international standards contained in the TerrestrialAnimal Health Code of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) that relate to the prevention and control of vector-borne diseases. It identifies the rights and obligations of OIE Member Countries regarding the notification of animal disease occurrences, as well as the recommendations to be followed for a safe and efficient international trade of animals and their products.

  13. Analysis And Comments On The Consultative Document: International Framework For Liquidity Risk Measurement, Standards And Monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Jacques Prefontaine; Jean Desrochers; Lise Godbout

    2010-01-01

    The market turmoil that began in mid-2007 re-emphasized the importance of liquidity to the functioning of financial markets and the banking sector. In December 2009, the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision (BCBS) of the Bank for International Settlements (BIS) released a consultative document entitled: “International Framework for Liquidity Risk Measurement, Standards and Monitoring”. Interested parties were invited to provide written comments by April 16th 2010. Given our interest in prom...

  14. Mass fragmentographic analysis of total cholesterol in serum using a heptadeuterated internal standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolthers, B.G.; Hindriks, F.R.; Muskiet, F.A.J.; Groen, A.

    1980-01-01

    A mass fragmentographic method for the determination of total cholesterol in serum using heptadeuterated [25,26,26,26,27,27,27- 2 H] cholesterol as internal standard is presented. The results obtained are compared with a colorimetric and gas chromatographic method which were previously proposed as reference methods. Criteria for the development of absolute measurement by means of mass fragmentography and stable isotopically labelled internal standards are given. The conclusion is drawn that, at present, mass fragmentographic methods for the determination of total cholesterol in serum do not fulfil the criteria required for absolute methods. (Auth.)

  15. [The revised Dutch College of General Practitioners' standard on COPD and the first international WHO standard: differences and similarities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Schayck, C P

    2002-02-23

    Two standards on COPD have recently been published: the revised national standard from the Dutch College of General Practitioners and the first international standard published by the World Health Organization and the US National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute. The reduced emphasis on the role of spirometry in the monitoring and evaluation of treatment is an important change in these new standards compared to previous ones. Cessation of smoking is considered to be central to the prevention and treatment of COPD. Doctors should strongly support this approach and, more than before, are urged to view COPD as a disease caused by addiction. Bronchodilators are the cornerstone of symptomatic treatment of COPD, particularly the long-acting ones due to their ease of administration and effective treatment of morning dyspnoea. Inhalation corticosteroids should only be administered as a trial treatment and only under certain conditions. Continuation of treatment with these agents is only justified if there is a demonstrated improvement in lung function, exacerbations or symptoms, although the precise area of indication is not yet clear.

  16. Two-loop renormalization in the standard model, part III. Renormalization equations and their solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Actis, S.; Passarino, G.

    2006-12-01

    In part I and II of this series of papers all elements have been introduced to extend, to two loops, the set of renormalization procedures which are needed in describing the properties of a spontaneously broken gauge theory. In this paper, the final step is undertaken and finite renormalization is discussed. Two-loop renormalization equations are introduced and their solutions discussed within the context of the minimal standard model of fundamental interactions. These equations relate renormalized Lagrangian parameters (couplings and masses) to some input parameter set containing physical (pseudo-)observables. Complex poles for unstable gauge and Higgs bosons are used and a consistent setup is constructed for extending the predictivity of the theory from the Lep1 Z-boson scale (or the Lep2 WW scale) to regions of interest for LHC and ILC physics. (orig.)

  17. Two-loop renormalization in the standard model, part III. Renormalization equations and their solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Actis, S. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Passarino, G. [Torino Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica Teorica; INFN, Sezione di Torino (Italy)

    2006-12-15

    In part I and II of this series of papers all elements have been introduced to extend, to two loops, the set of renormalization procedures which are needed in describing the properties of a spontaneously broken gauge theory. In this paper, the final step is undertaken and finite renormalization is discussed. Two-loop renormalization equations are introduced and their solutions discussed within the context of the minimal standard model of fundamental interactions. These equations relate renormalized Lagrangian parameters (couplings and masses) to some input parameter set containing physical (pseudo-)observables. Complex poles for unstable gauge and Higgs bosons are used and a consistent setup is constructed for extending the predictivity of the theory from the Lep1 Z-boson scale (or the Lep2 WW scale) to regions of interest for LHC and ILC physics. (orig.)

  18. Bismuth as a general internal standard for lead in atomic absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bechlin, Marcos A.; Fortunato, Felipe M.; Ferreira, Edilene C.; Neto, José A. Gomes; Nóbrega, Joaquim A.; Donati, George L.; Jones, Bradley T.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Single internal standard is commonly proposed for definite application in AAS. • Internal standard for general use in AAS techniques is original. • Bi showed efficiency as internal standard for Pb determinations by FAAS and GFAAS. • Assorted samples were analyzed and accurate results were found. - Abstract: Bismuth was evaluated as internal standard for Pb determination by line source flame atomic absorption spectrometry (LS FAAS), high-resolution continuum source flame atomic absorption spectrometry (HR-CS FAAS) and line source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (LS GFAAS). Analysis of samples containing different matrices indicated close relationship between Pb and Bi absorbances. Correlation coefficients of calibration curves built up by plotting A Pb /A Bi versus Pb concentration were higher than 0.9953 (FAAS) and higher than 0.9993 (GFAAS). Recoveries of Pb improved from 52–118% (without IS) to 97–109% (IS, LS FAAS); 74–231% (without IS) to 96–109% (IS, HR-CS FAAS); and 36–125% (without IS) to 96–110% (IS, LS GFAAS). The relative standard deviations (n = 12) were reduced from 0.6–9.2% (without IS) to 0.3–4.3% (IS, LS FAAS); 0.7–7.7% (without IS) to 0.1–4.0% (IS, HR-CS FAAS); and 2.1–13% (without IS) to 0.4–5.9% (IS, LS GFAAS)

  19. The role of food standards on international trade: assessing the Brazilian beef chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Marques Vieira

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to identify how Brazilian beef managers have responded to a rapid expansion and intensification of standards for beef exports. This issue relates to how some Brazilian beef exporters are strategically repositioning themselves in the supply chains. The literature of this study reviews global chain governance and international standards. The method uses case studies consisting of six medium and large scale beef exporters who export fresh beef to the European Union. The main findings describe the kinds of governance that stimulate upgrading and transferral of the best practices and, consequently, full compliance with mandatory standards. This study suggests that standards do matter for companies trying to increase international competitiveness. These results contribute an understanding of the Brazilian beef chain, and also of other supply chains coping with demanding and changing international markets. Managerial implications show the challengesfacing Brazilian beef exporters in their efforts to sustain exports to the European Union and how they are using chain governance to improve their compliance with international standards and increase competitiveness.

  20. Problems of introduction of international standards of conscientious state financial management in Ukrainian practice

    OpenAIRE

    Anhelina, I.

    2014-01-01

    The m aintenance of the INTOSAI GOV standardssystem, which show by itself guidance from a conscientious state financial management in the field of internal control and standards of record-keeping, is generalized. The directions of the use of risk and control model COSO are determinated for the financial management of state sector in part of authentication of sources of risk, aims and duties of organization. The measures are worked out on introduction of standards of INTOSAI GOVand models of C...

  1. Accountants’ Perceptions on the Adoption of International Financial Reporting Standards in Yemen

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Absy, Mujeeb Saif Mohsen; Ismail, Ku Nor Izah Ku; Al-Dubai, Shehabaddin Abdullah A.

    2016-01-01

    Developments in the global capital market have made the adoption of International Financial Reporting Standard (IFRSs) more significant than ever before. The purpose of this study is to examine the accountants’ perception of IFRSs adoption in Yemen. We also seek the accountants’ view on whether Yemen should adopt the IFRSs or not, and on the expected time taken to adopt the accounting standards. We also examine the difference in opinion between academicians and practitioners regarding the ado...

  2. Model Manajemen Laba Akrual Dan Riil Berbasis Implementasi International Financial Reporting Standards

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmar, Nurmala; Rokhmania, Nuraini; Samekto, Agus

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of inplementasi International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) on accrual earnings management and real earnings management. Adoption of accounting standards have an impact on the way of assessment, measurement and presentation. Samples are manufacturing companies listed in Indonesia Stock Exchange. Accrual earnings measurement method using five measurement approach, and three approaches to the measurement of real earnings management. The...

  3. Norms and international standards related to reduce risk management: A literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Fuentes

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The current work aims to develop a revision of the literature within the main concepts in the international rules and standards related to risk management in companies. By this way, there will be an analysis of issues such as the COSO - ERM model, an introduction to the ISO 27000 and 31000 standards; and the Project Management according to PMI targeted at risk management

  4. A change of course: The importance to DoD of international standards for electronic commerce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Judith E.

    1991-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) is committed to using electronic commerce in the future with the over 300,000 vendors interested in doing business with DoD. Electronic commerce will move DoD from a paper-based world to one based on electronic transactions enabled by the exchange of formatted, electronic messages referred to as electronic data interchange (EDI). With electronic commerce, DoD plans to reduce costs, increase effectiveness, and make it easier for vendors to deal with DoD. Benefits from electronic commerce are enhanced when many businesses use the same standards for EDI messages themselves and their transmission. The fewer standards used, the less time and resources must be spent translating messages and agreeing on how to use different standards. To enhance benefits and smooth the transition to electronic commerce for itself and its vendors, DoD has chosen to use the widely accepted American National Standards Institute (ANSI) X12 standards for EDI messages, coupled with international standards for delivering messages and organizing addresses. In the past 18 months, EDI standards sponsored by a United Nations body and serving the same purpose as ANSI X12 message standards have begun to gain wider acceptance internationally.

  5. Standardization of a 89Sr solution from a BIPM intercomparison using a liquid scintillation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz, P.A.L.; Loureiro, J.S.; Bernardes, E.M.O.

    2002-01-01

    A procedure to standardize 89 Sr (as strontium chloride) solutions, within the frame of a BIPM intercomparison, by the CIEMAT/NIST method was presented for Instagel Plus, HiSafe III and Ultima Gold liquid scintillation cocktails. The stability was studied for two types of samples: those obtained by direct addition of the 89 Sr solution and those by the extra addition of 0.5 ml of HCl (0.1 mol l -1 ) to the cocktails. The results only showed good stability with the three scintillants used when additional HCl was added to the cocktails. The activities per unit mass determined for 89 Sr were: 26.344 kBq g -1 for Instagel Plus; 26.335 kBq g -1 for HiSafe III; and 26.310 kBq g -1 for Ultima Gold (at a reference time of 2000.10.01, 00 h UT) with a total uncertainty of 0.5% in each case (k=1)

  6. Mengukur Tingkat Kesesuaian antara Standar Akuntansi Keuangan dengan International Financial Reporting Standards per 1 Januari 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosinta Ria Panggabean

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available International accounting topic was rare to adress between accounting practices, especially International Accounting Standard. It occured due to the restrictive source and difficulty in finding the source. However, recently the standard has been an addressed issue since Indonesia Chartered of Accountant (IAI plans to comply the Indonesia Accounting Standard (SAK with the International Financialreporting(IFRSon1stJanuary2012.The purpose of the research is to measure the compliance of the (SAK per 1st January 2008 with the IFRS per 1st January 2008 and attain the association between those two standards. Hence, the difference between the two standards and the neccessary steps to be taken for complying can be obtained. The methodology will be used in the paper are Jaccard’s Coefficients, Spearman’s Correlation Coefficient,Euclidean Distances.The sample for the paper will be 43 accounting issues adressed on both standards that have been chosen and investigated. The paper concludes that there are significant equalities (75% between SAK per 1st January 2008 and IFRS 1st January 2008. (using Jaccard’s Coefficients. Due to several problems that have been found in the research, the author wish that the further researchers could widen the research’s samples, so the result will be more accurate and comprehensive. 

  7. Legal Principles and Solutions to Combat Money Laundering in the International System

    OpenAIRE

    Majid Karimi

    2013-01-01

    This study focuse on combat money laundering legal principles and solutions to in the International System. As its clear Money laundering is the attempt to disguise the proceeds of illegal activity so that they appear to come from legitimate sources. Money is laundered through banking systems and credit institutions, non financial institutions and non financial economic activities. Combating money laundering phenomenon dates back to the 1980s. In 1989, Financial Action Task Force was set up t...

  8. South Ural State University Campus: Architectural Development Concept in Accordance with International Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabiev, S. G.

    2017-11-01

    The article deals with the vital problem of the implementation of the Program to enhance the competitiveness of the South Ural State University (SUSU) among other scientific and educational centers, which defines the main objective - to form a world-class university. According to the set objective, the most important task is to build a landscaped campus, which can be efficiently solved by the architectural means. The solution of this task is based on the scientific methods of the territorial and architectural improvement of the main university building complex development in the northern academic area and the architectural and aesthetic improvement of the space structural arrangement of the buildings. The author analyzes the global practice of modern campuses in Russia and abroad based on the Internet resources. The author carried out some additional on-site surveys of foreign campuses in Australia, Canada and China. The essence of the architectural concept of the first university campus development stage lies in the science-based achievement of a harmonious architectural and space unity of solid and plane elements of the site development, landscape arrangement of the main building’s courtyard and the adjacent territories with an efficient use of the relief, water areas and planting, allotment of additional spaces for landscaped areas due to a split-level arrangement, including a landscaped platform, increase of the underground space utilization share with the arrangement of an underground car parking and an underground walkway considering the environmental requirements. Further, it is planned to use the author’s methodological approach for the southern academic and the northern residential university areas, which will allow to create a duly completed landscaped SUSU campus with a developed infrastructure according to the international standards.

  9. Developing international safety standards for the geological disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metcalf, P.

    2001-01-01

    In the context of the International Atomic Energy Agency's (IAEA) programme to create a corpus of internationally accepted Radioactive Waste Safety Standards (RADWASS), focus is currently being placed on establishing standards for the 'geological disposal of radioactive waste'. This is a challenging task and to help the standards development process there is a need to stimulate discussion of some of the associated scientific and technical issues. A number of position papers developed in recent years by a subgroup of the Waste Safety Standards Committee (WASSC), the subgroup on Principles and Criteria for Radioactive Waste Disposal, address many of the relevant issues. These include a common safety based framework for radioactive waste disposal, appropriate time frames for safety assessment, different possible indicators of long-term safety, the safety implications of reversibility and retrievability, the assessment of possible human intrusion into the repository, the role and limitations of institutional control, establishing reference critical groups and biospheres for long-term assessment, and what is meant by 'compliance' with the standards. These papers will be discussed at a Specialists Meeting to be held at the IAEA in June 2001 as a means of establishing the extent to which they enjoy the general support of experts. In order to broaden that consensus, the conclusions reached at the Specialists Meeting on the issues listed above will be presented and discussed with participants at a number of international meetings. Later this year, a draft safety standard on the geological disposal of radioactive waste which takes account of the consensus positions reached through the various consultations will be submitted for the consideration of Waste Safety Standards Committee (WASSC), the officially approved body within the IAEA for the review and approval of waste safety standards. The Committee is made up of government appointed radioactive waste regulators

  10. [Problems and ways of solutions to harmonize standards for air pollution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avaliani, S L; Novikov, S M; Shashina, T A; Skvortsova, N S; Kislitsin, V A; Mishina, A L

    2012-01-01

    In the article the basic problems of harmonization of domestic regulatory framework of air pollution with the WHO recommendations and normative values adopted in the EU, U.S. and other countries are considered. The important role of health risk analysis methodology in the process of harmonization of regulation and control of air quality has been pointed out. The necessity of radical changes in the structure and content of the basic normative document GN 2.1.6.1338-03 "maximum permissible concentration (MPC) of pollutants in the air of populated areas" has been shown. The algorithm of the procedure that justifies the new list of normative values in the air harmonized with international recommendations and standards of developed countries has been proposed.

  11. Rare earths analysis of rock samples by instrumental neutron activation analysis, internal standard method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silachyov, I.

    2016-01-01

    The application of instrumental neutron activation analysis for the determination of long-lived rare earth elements (REE) in rock samples is considered in this work. Two different methods are statistically compared: the well established external standard method carried out using standard reference materials, and the internal standard method (ISM), using Fe, determined through X-ray fluorescence analysis, as an element-comparator. The ISM proved to be the more precise method for a wide range of REE contents and can be recommended for routine practice. (author)

  12. [Criteria for the assessment of the noise-induced occupational hearing loss: international and national standards].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izmerov, N F; Denisov, É I; Adeninskaia, E E; Gorblianskiĭ, Iu Iu

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the present paper was to review international and national standards for the criteria of assessment of the noise-induced occupational loss of hearing. The importance of healthy hearing for the occupational safety is emphasized which implies the necessity of the more rigorous criteria for hearing conservation in the workers engaged in the noisy technological environment compared with those for the general population. A rationale for the development of the standard program of hearing conservation in the workers engaged in the noisy technological environment is proposed including hygienic norms and rules or national state standards.

  13. Trend of the bioceramics (for the international standardization); Baioseramikkusu no doko. Kokusai hyojunka nimukete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurita, Manabu

    1999-11-01

    The Ministry of International Trade and Industry Agency of Industrial Science and Technology would carry out development research of the standardization of test evaluation method of fine ceramics for the organism as research and development business of the international standardization promotion plan since this fiscal year. The fine ceramics becomes not possible material of lacking as alternative material of the organism. The public standard which appropriately evaluates the quality material in the other has not been established. JIS in the home of the result which there is Japan Fine Ceramics Association standard (test methods such as porosity and specific gravity, grain size, pore distribution, specific surface, Vickers hardness, crystal structure, bending strength, compressive strength, elastic modulus, fracture toughness, effluent of the bioceramics) JIS has not been instituted. It is present state that it becomes the Europe and America initiative artificial joint artificial bone expert committee TC-150 surgical internal burying agent ISO (ISO) and takes the one step delay. And, security of the reliability is necessary in order to fulfil the popularization in the market. The standardization must be hurried up. Research and development of test evaluation method of fine ceramics for the organism was carried out in order to attempt market expansion taking the reliability of fine ceramics material performance for the organism in our country as a sure thing, and standardizing into JIS and international standardization would be systematically advanced. Efforts would be made in fiscal 99 for research and development of evaluation method on abrasion resistance of artificial bone member subject, mechanical property such as strength degradation and biocompatibility. The technical committee of the industry-government-university from the specialist which consists in this inside is founded, and the deliberation for plan execution of this study development is got and will be

  14. International cooperation in the solution to trade-related invasive species risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrings, Charles; Burgiel, Stas; Lonsdale, Mark; Mooney, Harold; Williamson, Mark

    2010-05-01

    In this paper, we consider the factors behind the growth of invasive species as a global problem, and the scope for international cooperation and coordination in addressing that problem. This is limited by the terms of the various international agreements governing trade, health, and biodiversity. The default strategy in most cases has two parts: border protection and the control of or adaptation to introduced species that have escaped detection at the border. Most invasive species policy involves unilateral national defensive action as opposed to coordinated international action. We argue that an important part of the solution to the problem lies in global coordination and cooperation in the management of both pathways and sanitary and phytosanitary risks at all scales. More particularly, because invasive species are an externality of trade, transport, and travel that involve public goods, they require collective regulation of international markets that goes beyond that admitted under the World Trade Organization's (WTO) Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures. We argue that it is important to bring that agreement into conformity with the International Health Regulations (IHR), and to develop an international mechanism to generate and disseminate information on invasive species risks and their impacts.

  15. Electromagnetic field standards in Central and Eastern European countries: current state and stipulations for international harmonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajsek, P; Pakhomov, A G; Klauenberg, B J

    2002-04-01

    Electromagnetic field standards in the West are based on well-established acute biological effects that could be considered as signaling a potentially adverse health effect. The specific absorption rate, which is proportional to the tissue heating (thermal effects), represents the basic restriction of exposure to Radio-Frequency (RF) fields. On the other hand, Eastern European standards are designed to protect from potential non-thermal effects that might be caused by chronic exposure to very low intensities, where a so-called "power load" (a product of field intensity and duration of exposure) represents the basic limitation. Thus, electromagnetic field standards in Eastern European countries differ considerably from those which are proposed by the International Commission of Non-ionizing Radiation Protection and the Standards Coordinating Committee 28 of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc. In the present paper, the strategies for development of exposure limit values in electromagnetic fields standards currently in force in Eastern and Central European countries are discussed. Some differences as well as similarities of the national health and safety standards and the main obstacles to harmonization of these standards with those being established by Western national and international organizations and agencies are presented.

  16. Primary standardization of a {sup 177}Lu solution; Padronizacao primaria de uma solucao de {sup 177}Lu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwahara, Akira; Silva, Carlos Jose da; Tauhata, Luiz; Oliveira, Estela Maria de, E-mail: iwahara@ird.gov.b, E-mail: carlos@ird.gov.b, E-mail: tauhata@ird.gov.b, E-mail: estela@ird.gov.b [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Rezende, Eduarda Alexandre, E-mail: eduarda@ird.gov.b [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica de Quimica (CEFET), Nilopolis, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    For the purpose to make available reliable standards of {sup 177}Lu to the users and producers, a radionuclide solution was standardized using the primary methods of coincidence 4{pi}{beta}(PC)-{gamma}(NaI(Tl)) and of 4{pi}{beta}(LS)-{gamma}(NaI(Tl)). The results presented a convergence in the range of evaluated uncertainties. The standard uncertainties were of the 0.50 and 0.74% for the anticoincidence and coincidence respectively

  17. Internal friction and dislocation collective pinning in disordered quenched solid solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Anna, G.; Benoit, W.; Vinokur, V. M.

    1997-12-01

    We introduce the collective pinning of dislocations in disordered quenched solid solutions and calculate the macroscopic mechanical response to a small dc or ac applied stress. This work is a generalization of the Granato-Lücke string model, able to describe self-consistently short and long range dislocation motion. Under dc applied stress the long distance dislocation creep has at the microscopic level avalanche features, which result in a macroscopic nonlinear "glassy" velocity-stress characteristic. Under ac conditions the model predicts, in addition to the anelastic internal friction relaxation in the high frequency regime, a linear internal friction background which remains amplitude-independent down to a crossover frequency to a strongly nonlinear internal friction regime.

  18. An International Standard Set of Patient-Centered Outcome Measures After Stroke

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salinas, J. (Joel); Sprinkhuizen, S.M. (Sara M.); Ackerson, T. (Teri); Bernhardt, J. (Julie); Davie, C. (Charlie); George, M.G. (Mary G.); Gething, S. (Stephanie); Kelly, A.G. (Adam G.); Lindsay, P. (Patrice); Liu, L. (Liping); Martins, S.C.O. (Sheila C.O.); Morgan, L. (Louise); B. Norrving (Bo); Ribbers, G.M. (Gerard M.); Silver, F.L. (Frank L.); Smith, E.E. (Eric E.); Williams, L.S. (Linda S.); Schwamm, L.H. (Lee H.)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:__ Value-based health care aims to bring together patients and health systems to maximize the ratio of quality over cost. To enable assessment of healthcare value in stroke management, an international standard set of patient-centered stroke outcome measures

  19. National tax regulation, voluntary international standards and the GATS : Argentina – financial services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delimatsis, Panagiotis; Hoekman, Bernard

    2018-01-01

    Can a WTO Member discriminate against foreign suppliers of services located in jurisdictions that refuse to share information with a government to permit it to determine if its nationals engage in tax evasion? Does it matter if the Member uses standards developed by an international body as the

  20. Media Representations of National and International Standardized Testing in the Israeli Education System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yemini, Miri; Gordon, Noa

    2017-01-01

    This study applies discourse analysis to Israeli media coverage of national and international standardized examinations within Israel's public education system. Through systematic analysis of the topic in the two main Israeli financial publications between the years 2000 and 2013, we explore the nature and narrative of the media and compare the…

  1. The unstable core of global finance: contingent valuation and governance of international accounting standards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mügge, D.; Stellinga, B.

    2015-01-01

    Accounting standards are the foundations of the financial regulatory edifice, and global financial governance is no more stable than the asset valuations that feed it. Yet for two decades and up to this day, no international accounting rule for financial instruments - the bulk of banks' balance

  2. A new internal standard for HPLC assay of conjugated linoleic acid in animal tissues and milk

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Czauderna, M.; Kowalczyk, J.; Marounek, Milan; Michalski, J. P.; Rozbicka-Wieczorek, A. J.; Krajewska, K. A.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 1 (2011), s. 23-29 ISSN 1212-1819 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : sorbic acid * internal standard * CLA isomers Subject RIV: GH - Livestock Nutrition Impact factor: 1.079, year: 2011

  3. 75 FR 55269 - Minimum Internal Control Standards for Class II Gaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Indian Gaming Commission 25 CFR Parts 542 and 543 RIN 3141-AA-37 Minimum Internal Control Standards for Class II Gaming AGENCY: National Indian Gaming Commission. ACTION: Delay of effective date of final rule; request for comments. SUMMARY: The National Indian Gaming...

  4. 76 FR 53817 - Minimum Internal Control Standards for Class II Gaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-30

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Indian Gaming Commission 25 CFR Parts 542 and 543 Minimum Internal Control Standards for Class II Gaming AGENCY: National Indian Gaming Commission, Interior. ACTION: Final rule; delay of effective date and request for comments. SUMMARY: The National Indian Gaming...

  5. 77 FR 60625 - Minimum Internal Control Standards for Class II Gaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Indian Gaming Commission 25 CFR Parts 542 and 543 RIN 3141-AA-37 Minimum Internal Control Standards for Class II Gaming AGENCY: National Indian Gaming Commission. ACTION: Final rule; delay of effective date; suspension. SUMMARY: The National Indian Gaming Commission...

  6. Processes in the development of international specialist competencies and standards: the Sports Physiotherapy for All Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulley, Catherine; Donaghy, Marie

    2008-01-01

    In a world of rapidly developing knowledge it is important that professions describe their roles and capabilities. The need for a thorough description of sports physiotherapy was addressed through collaboration between the International Federation of Sports Physiotherapy (IFSP) and five European higher education institutions. This resulted in the Sports Physiotherapy for All Project, which has been successful in developing internationally accepted competencies and standards for sports physiotherapists. This article describes and reflects on the process to communicate useful lessons. A competency model was chosen to facilitate differentiation and communication of aspects of sports physiotherapy practice. Documentation relating to sports physiotherapy practice was collected from 16 countries and analysed thematically. A cut and paste method was used by a panel of experts to allocate themes to areas of practice within the competency model. Theme groups were used to select areas of practice for description in competency form. Standards were derived from competencies following in depth discussion with the expert panel, and triangulation with themes derived from international documentation. A rigorous process of international review and revision led to the final list of 11 competencies and related standards, both accepted by the IFSP. This work provides a foundation for the development of an audit toolkit to guide demonstration and evaluation of competencies and standards. This provides a foundation for targeted career development activities, appropriate provision of training opportunities, and quality enhancement. The experiences gained during this project can inform other health professions and their specialisms when embarking on a similar journey.

  7. INTERNATIONAL ACCOUNTING STANDARDS AND THEIR INFLUENCE ON THE MANAGEMENT OF A COMPANY.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANA - MARIA MĂLĂESCU

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The accounting standardization process is in progress at international and regional level, more and more countries have reached the same conclusion of enforcing high quality accounting standards like IAS / IFRS. There are various reasons for Romania adopting the international accounting referential most of them subordinated to its central aim, respectively EU accession. In our country the accounting system is subordinated to the taxation system, financing still comes prevalent from banks and very few Romanian companies are listed on foreign capital markets. Romania is an ex-communist emergent country in wich changes in the economic and political environment merely started only after the end of the communist regime in the early 1990s. Many European companies already observed that by enforcing IFRS standards they have access to international capital markets, they could reduce expenses and unroll international transactions easier. It is improbable that a financial reporting, which is not easy understood by all its users, would offer new business opportunities or additional capital.Therefore, a significant number of companies, either voluntarily enforce IFRS standards, or they are pledged by the government to do this.

  8. A Principles-Based Approach to Teaching International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persons, Obeua

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses the principles-based approach that emphasizes a "why" question by using the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB) "Conceptual Framework for Financial Reporting" to question and understand the basis for specific differences between IFRS and U.S. generally accepted accounting principles (U.S.…

  9. The Effect of International Financial Reporting Standards Convergence on U. S. Accounting Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Homer L.; Waldrup, Bobby E.; Shea, Vincent

    2011-01-01

    Major changes are coming to U.S. financial accounting and accounting education as U. S. generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP) and international financial reporting standards (IFRS) converge within the next few years. In 2008, the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) published a proposed "road map" for the potential…

  10. The Impact of International Financial Reporting Standards on Accounting Curriculum in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yallapragada, RamMohan R.; Toma, Alfred G.; Roe, C. William

    2011-01-01

    According to the time line presently specified by the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC), business firms in the United States (US) should switch from the existing US accounting reporting guidelines of the Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP) to International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) by the year 2014. The US business…

  11. Basic safety standards for radiation protection and their application to internal exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dousset, M.

    Following a summary of the basic concepts on radiation protection units, the safety standards now in effect in France and those recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP Publication 9, 1965) to be used as a basis to the next Euratom regulations are developed [fr

  12. International Comparisons of Foundation Phase Number Domain Mathematics Knowledge and Practice Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human, Anja; van der Walt, Marthie; Posthuma, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Poor mathematics performance in schools is both a national and an international concern. Teachers ought to be equipped with relevant subject matter knowledge and pedagogical content knowledge as one way to address this problem. However, no mathematics knowledge and practice standards have as yet been defined for the preparation of Foundation Phase…

  13. International standard on auditing 800 the auditor`s report on special purpose audit engagements

    OpenAIRE

    Jovanova, Blagica

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to show the main characteristics of the international standard on auditing 800. ISA 800 explains requirements by making a report on financial statements prepared in accordance with another comprehensive basis of accounting, on a component of financial statements, on compliance with contractual agreements or reports on summarized financial statements.

  14. Medical laboratories in sub-Saharan Africa that meet international quality standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Lee F; Amukele, Timothy

    2014-06-01

    A recent survey of laboratories in Kampala, Uganda, demonstrated that only 0.3% of laboratories (3/954) met international quality standards. To benchmark laboratory quality throughout the rest of sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), we compiled a list of SSA laboratories meeting international quality standards. Accrediting bodies were queried via online registries or direct communication in May 2013. There were 380 laboratories accredited to international standards in SSA. Ninety-one percent were in South Africa. Thirty-seven of 49 countries had no laboratories accredited to international quality standards. Accredited laboratory density (per million people) in South Africa, Namibia, and Botswana were similar to those in many European countries. Single variable linear regression showed a correlation between accredited laboratory density and health expenditures per person (adjusted R(2) = 0.81, P clinical laboratory. For those that do, there is a strong correlation between country-specific accredited laboratory density and per-capita health expenditures. Copyright© by the American Society for Clinical Pathology.

  15. Knowledge about plant is basis for successful cultivation : new international standard handbook on plant physiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Esch, van H.; Heuvelink, E.; Kierkels, T.

    2015-01-01

    ‘Plant physiology in Greenhouses’ is the new international standard handbook on plant knowledge for the commercial greenhouse grower. It relates the functioning of the plant to the rapid developments in greenhouse cultivation. It is based on a continuing series of plant physiology articles published

  16. 75 FR 80761 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-23

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 63 [EPA-HQ-OAR-2008-0708, FRL-9244-2] RIN 2060-AP36 National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines... combustion engines and requesting public comment on one issue arising from the final rule. Specifically, EPA...

  17. Differences in Students' Reading Comprehension of International Financial Reporting Standards: A South African Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coetzee, Stephen A.; Janse van Rensburg, Cecile; Schmulian, Astrid

    2016-01-01

    This study explores differences in students' reading comprehension of International Financial Reporting Standards in a South African financial reporting class with a heterogeneous student cohort. Statistically significant differences were identified for prior academic performance, language of instruction, first language and enrolment in the…

  18. Adopting the international financial reporting standards: a positive impact on 2004 income and consolidated equity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallet, O.

    2005-03-01

    This document provides preliminary information on the quantitative impact of transition to the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) on AREVA 2004 financial position, in accordance with AMF recommendations regarding financial communications during the transition period.The basis for preparing 2004 information on transition to the IFRS comes from: the International Accounting Standards (IAS)/IFRS, as approved by the European Union. The impact of IAS 32/39 and IFRS 4 will not be recognized in shareholders equity until January 1, 2005; AREVA anticipation of the resolution of technical issues and ongoing projects under discussion by the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB) and the International Financial Reporting Interpretations Committee (IFRIC). Uncertainty factors on practical methods for applying certain standards and ongoing interpretations by IFRIC and regulatory organizations could impact the exactness of restatements identified at this stage. For all of these reasons, it is conceivable that the opening balance sheet at January 1, 2004, as presented in this document, will not be the balance sheet actually used to establish the consolidated financial statements for 2005. (author)

  19. 25 CFR 542.4 - How do these regulations affect minimum internal control standards established in a Tribal-State...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How do these regulations affect minimum internal control... COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS § 542.4 How do these regulations affect minimum internal control standards established in a Tribal-State compact? (a) If there is a...

  20. ASTM international workshop on standards and measurements for tissue engineering scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Carl G; Yaszemski, Michael J; Ratcliffe, Anthony; Tomlins, Paul; Luginbuehl, Reto; Tesk, John A

    2015-07-01

    The "Workshop on Standards & Measurements for Tissue Engineering Scaffolds" was held on May 21, 2013 in Indianapolis, IN, and was sponsored by the ASTM International (ASTM). The purpose of the workshop was to identify the highest priority items for future standards work for scaffolds used in the development and manufacture of tissue engineered medical products (TEMPs). Eighteen speakers and 78 attendees met to assess current scaffold standards and to prioritize needs for future standards. A key finding was that the ASTM TEMPs subcommittees (F04.41-46) have many active "guide" documents for educational purposes, but few standard "test methods" or "practices." Overwhelmingly, the most clearly identified need was standards for measuring the structure of scaffolds, followed by standards for biological characterization, including in vitro testing, animal models and cell-material interactions. The third most pressing need was to develop standards for assessing the mechanical properties of scaffolds. Additional needs included standards for assessing scaffold degradation, clinical outcomes with scaffolds, effects of sterilization on scaffolds, scaffold composition, and drug release from scaffolds. Discussions highlighted the need for additional scaffold reference materials and the need to use them for measurement traceability. Workshop participants emphasized the need to promote the use of standards in scaffold fabrication, characterization, and commercialization. Finally, participants noted that standards would be more broadly accepted if their impact in the TEMPs community could be quantified. Many scaffold standard needs have been identified and focus is turning to generating these standards to support the use of scaffolds in TEMPs. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. The role of the international radiation protection association in development and implementation of radiation protection standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metcalf, P.; Lochard, J.; Webb, G.

    2002-01-01

    The International Radiation Protection Association (IRPA) is an affiliation of national and regional professional societies. Its individual membership is approaching some 20 000 professionals from 42 societies and covering 50 countries. Its primary objective is to provide a platform for collaboration between members of its affiliate societies to further radiation protection and safety. The IRPA is mandated to promote and facilitate the establishment of radiation protection societies, support international meetings and to encourage international publications, research and education and the establishment and review of standards. Through its membership base and its observer status on bodies such as the ICRP and the safety standards committees of the IAEA, the IRPA is in a position to provide valuable input to the safety standards development process. This factor has been increasingly recognised more recently within the IRPA and the various organisations involved in the development of safety standards. This paper addresses the mechanisms that have been established to enhance the input of the IRPA into the safety standards development process and for their subsequent implementation. (author)

  2. Inequality of living standards in Russia: internal and international context (the early 1990s and the 2000s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vyacheslav Nikolaevich Bobkov

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The article studies the relationship of social groups about income distribution and goods consumption. It is dedicated to the internal and international aspects of inequality of living standards in Russia during the period of capitalist transformations of 1990-2000’s. Problems of the dynamics of inequality in living standards are analyzed. Methods of comparative analysis and comparison of performance indicators with normative social standards are used. On this basis, the population is classified into social groups and then follows the analysis of their social position. Such indicators are used: income inequality by consumption; inequality by housing, by education and health care availability. Russia is compared with countries of G20. Social inequality reasons in Russia are revealed. The obtained results can be applied within national economic and social policy. The findings indicated that the high social inequality in Russia undermines the ability of a large part of the population to be «included» in economic growth, for it limits access to its results. In such situation, an attempt to solve both the problem of speeding up economic growth and the eradication of poverty cannot lead to success if appropriate measures to reduce social inequality are not developed and implemented.

  3. Occupational radiation exposure in international recommendations on radiation protection: Basic standards under review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraus, W.

    1996-01-01

    The ICRP publication 60 contains a number of new recommendations on the radiological protection of occupationally exposed persons. The recommendations have been incorporated to a very large extent in the BSS, the International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources, a publication elaborated by the IAEA in cooperation with many other international organisations, and in the Euratom Basic Safety Standards (EUR) to be published soon. However, there exist some considerable discrepancies in some aspects of the three publications. The ICRP committee has set up a task group for defining four general principles of occupational radiation protection, and a safety guide is in preparation under the responsibility of the IAEA. ''StrahlenschutzPraxis'' will deal with this subject in greater detail after publication of these two important international publications. The article in hand discusses some essential aspects of the recommendations published so far. (orig.) [de

  4. Photon activation analysis using internal standards: some studies of the analysis of environmental materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masumoto, K; Yagi, M

    1986-01-01

    The authors report the application of the internal standard method to the simultaneous determination of trace elements in environmental reference materials. The standard soil material used was IAEA CRM Soil-5. The power plant fly ash reference used was NBS SRM-1633a. Fifteen target elements, including As, Ba and Ce, were determined. Internal standards were supplied by six elements, including Na and Mg. Although there were several interfering elements, their effect could be eliminated by utilizing more than one gamma-ray peak and carrying out appropriate corrections. The values determined for most of the target elements were well within the certified range. Measured concentrations were of the orders of 10 to 1000 ..mu..g/g. 6 references, 2 figures, 5 tables.

  5. Concept of Draft International Standard for a Unified Approach to Space Program Quality Assurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stryzhak, Y.; Vasilina, V.; Kurbatov, V.

    2002-01-01

    For want of the unified approach to guaranteed space project and product quality assurance, implementation of many international space programs has become a challenge. Globalization of aerospace industry and participation of various international ventures with diverse quality assurance requirements in big international space programs requires for urgent generation of unified international standards related to this field. To ensure successful fulfillment of space missions, aerospace companies should design and process reliable and safe products with properties complying or bettering User's (or Customer's) requirements. Quality of the products designed or processed by subcontractors (or other suppliers) should also be in compliance with the main user (customer)'s requirements. Implementation of this involved set of unified requirements will be made possible by creating and approving a system (series) of international standards under a generic title Space Product Quality Assurance based on a system consensus principle. Conceptual features of the baseline standard in this system (series) should comprise: - Procedures for ISO 9000, CEN and ECSS requirements adaptation and introduction into space product creation, design, manufacture, testing and operation; - Procedures for quality assurance at initial (design) phases of space programs, with a decision on the end product made based on the principle of independence; - Procedures to arrange incoming inspection of products delivered by subcontractors (including testing, audit of supplier's procedures, review of supplier's documentation), and space product certification; - Procedures to identify materials and primary products applied; - Procedures for quality system audit at the component part, primary product and materials supplier facilities; - Unified procedures to form a list of basic performances to be under configuration management; - Unified procedures to form a list of critical space product components, and unified

  6. Concept for an International Standard related to Space Weather Effects on Space Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobiska, W. Kent; Tomky, Alyssa

    There is great interest in developing an international standard related to space weather in order to specify the tools and parameters needed for space systems operations. In particular, a standard is important for satellite operators who may not be familiar with space weather. In addition, there are others who participate in space systems operations that would also benefit from such a document. For example, the developers of software systems that provide LEO satellite orbit determination, radio communication availability for scintillation events (GEO-to-ground L and UHF bands), GPS uncertainties, and the radiation environment from ground-to-space for commercial space tourism. These groups require recent historical data, current epoch specification, and forecast of space weather events into their automated or manual systems. Other examples are national government agencies that rely on space weather data provided by their organizations such as those represented in the International Space Environment Service (ISES) group of 14 national agencies. Designers, manufacturers, and launchers of space systems require real-time, operational space weather parameters that can be measured, monitored, or built into automated systems. Thus, a broad scope for the document will provide a useful international standard product to a variety of engineering and science domains. The structure of the document should contain a well-defined scope, consensus space weather terms and definitions, and internationally accepted descriptions of the main elements of space weather, its sources, and its effects upon space systems. Appendices will be useful for describing expanded material such as guidelines on how to use the standard, how to obtain specific space weather parameters, and short but detailed descriptions such as when best to use some parameters and not others; appendices provide a path for easily updating the standard since the domain of space weather is rapidly changing with new advances

  7. ICA contribution to the development of international standards of competence for nautical cartographers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furness, Ron; Tsoulos, Lysandros

    2018-05-01

    All professions face challenges as how best to ensure the achievement and continuance of the highest standards as they seek to determine and promulgate best practices. In the essentially linked professions of hydrographic surveying and nautical cartography these challenges become immediately international in their impacts and require close cooperation between the professional bodies representing surveyors, hydrographers and cartographers. The Standards of Competence for Nautical Cartographers are known in short form as S-8 and they describe the minimum required competencies for nautical cartographers. They indicate the minimum degree of knowledge and experience considered necessary for nautical cartographers and provide a set of programme outlines against which the FIG/IHO/ICA International Board on Standards of Competence for Hydrographic Surveyors and Nautical Cartographers may evaluate programmes submitted for recognition. The Standards recognize two levels of competence: Cate- gory A and Category B. In nautical charting communities, Category A programmes offer levels of comprehensive and broad-based knowledge in all aspects of the theory and practice of nautical cartography. Category B programmes provide a level of practical comprehension, along with the essential theoretical background, necessary for individuals to carry out the various nautical cartography tasks. The Standards have recently undergone complete review and should be ratified during 2017/18. This paper aims to bring the existence and aims of the Standards to the wider notice of ICA members and to describe the philosophy and aims of the review in meeting the professional competency needs of the nautical cartographic community.

  8. The Development Standard Agreement Influences on National and International Business Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cindawati Cindawati

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The rapidly growing business traffic either nationally or internationally forces the business practices to establish a standard agreement to secure the products and to protect the buyer from any risks. The standard agreement successfully meets the demand of international trade which urgently need the high speed and the accuracy. The objective of this research is to find out how does the development of agreement affect to the commerce practices and what are the requirements of standard agreement in accordance with the right and obligation. A qualitative method is applied in searching data of business practices. This study uses a normative research which guides the rule of law or determines some business standards and norms. The finding of this study show that the development of agreement strongly affects to the commerce practices, and standar agreement is urgently needed by business practices as a guideline to perform business traffic as smooth as buyer and seller expect, then both seller and buyer should know the three alternative way used as the procedures of standard agreement, namely; contract signing, notification document agreement, and notification by bulletin board. At last, a standard agreement could be accepted as legal agreement corresponding to willingness and trustworthy.

  9. Application of Internal Standard Method for Several 3d-Transition Metallic Elements in Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry Using a Multi-wavelength High-resolution Spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toya, Yusuke; Itagaki, Toshiko; Wagatsuma, Kazuaki

    2017-01-01

    We investigated a simultaneous internal standard method in flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS), in order to better the analytical precision of 3d-transition metals contained in steel materials. For this purpose, a new spectrometer system for FAAS, comprising a bright xenon lamp as the primary radiation source and a high-resolution Echelle monochromator, was employed to measure several absorption lines at a wavelength width of ca. 0.3 nm at the same time, which enables the absorbances of an analytical line and also an internal standard line to be estimated. In considering several criteria for selecting an internal standard element and the absorption line, it could be suggested that platinum-group elements: ruthenium, rhodium, or palladium, were suitable for an internal standard element to determine the 3d-transition metal elements, such as titanium, iron, and nickel, by measuring an appropriate pair of these absorption lines simultaneously. Several variances of the absorption signal, such as a variation in aspirated amounts of sample solution and a short-period drift of the primary light source, would be corrected and thus reduced, when the absorbance ratio of the analytical line to the internal standard line was measured. In Ti-Pd, Ni-Rh, and Fe-Ru systems chosen as typical test samples, the repeatability of the signal respnses was investigated with/without the internal standard method, resulting in better precision when the internal standard method was applied in the FAAS with a nitrous oxide-acetylene flame rather than an air-acetylene flame.

  10. Collaborative study to assess the suitability of a candidate International Standard for yellow fever vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Morag; Heath, Alan

    2004-12-01

    Yellow fever vaccines are routinely assayed by plaque assay. However, the results of these assays are then converted into mouse LD(50) using correlations/conversion factors which, in many cases, were established many years ago. The minimum required potency in WHO Recommendations is 10(3) LD(50)/dose. Thirteen participants from 8 countries participated in a collaborative study whose aim was to assess the suitability of two candidate preparations to serve as an International Standard for yellow fever vaccine. In addition, the study investigated the relationship between the mouse LD(50) test and plaque forming units with a view to updating the WHO recommendations. Plaque assays were more reproducible than mouse assays, as expected. Differences in sensitivities of plaque assays were observed between laboratories but these differences appear to be consistent within a laboratory for all samples and the expression of potency relative to the candidate standard vaccine improved the reproducibility of assays between laboratories. However, the use of potencies had little effect on the between laboratory variability in mouse LD(50) assays. There appears to be a consistent relationship between overall mean LD(50) and plaques titre for all study preparations other than sample E. The slope of the correlation curve is >1 and it would appear that 10(3) LD(50) is approximately equivalent to 10(4) plaque forming units (PFU), based on the overall means of all laboratory results. The First International Standard for yellow fever vaccine, NIBSC Code 99/616, has been established as the First International Standard for yellow fever vaccine by the Expert Committee of Biological Standards of the World Health Organisation. The International Standard has been arbitrarily assigned a potency of 10(4.5) International Units (IU) per ampoule. Manufacturers and National Control Laboratories are including the First International Standard for yellow fever vaccine in routine assays so that the minimum

  11. International symposium on standards and codes of practice in medical radiation dosimetry. Book of extended synopses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The development of radiation measurement standards by National Metrology Institutes (NMIs) and their dissemination to Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratories (SSDLs), cancer therapy centres and hospitals represent essential aspects of the radiation dosimetry measurement chain. Although the demands for accuracy in radiotherapy initiated the establishment of such measurement chains, similar traceable dosimetry procedures have been implemented, or are being developed, in other areas of radiation medicine (e.g. diagnostic radiology and nuclear medicine), in radiation protection and in industrial applications of radiation. In the past few years the development of primary standards of absorbed dose to water in 60 Co for radiotherapy dosimetry has made direct calibrations in terms of absorbed dose to water available in many countries for the first time. Some laboratories have extended the development of these standards to high energy photon and electron beams and to low and medium energy x-ray beams. Other countries, however, still base their dosimetry for radiotherapy on air kerma standards. Dosimetry for conventional external beam radiotherapy was probably the field where standardized procedures adopted by medical physicists at hospitals were developed first. Those were related to exposure and air kerma standards. The recent development of Codes of Practice (or protocols) based on the concept of absorbed dose to water has led to changes in calibration procedures at hospitals. The International Code of Practice for Dosimetry Based on Standards of Absorbed Dose to Water (TRS 398) was sponsored by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), World Health Organization (WHO), Pan-American Health Organization (PAHO) and the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (ESTRO) and is expected to be adopted in many countries worldwide. It provides recommendations for the dosimetry of all types of beams (except neutrons) used in external radiotherapy and satisfies

  12. International symposium on standards and codes of practice in medical radiation dosimetry. Book of extended synopses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    The development of radiation measurement standards by National Metrology Institutes (NMIs) and their dissemination to Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratories (SSDLs), cancer therapy centres and hospitals represent essential aspects of the radiation dosimetry measurement chain. Although the demands for accuracy in radiotherapy initiated the establishment of such measurement chains, similar traceable dosimetry procedures have been implemented, or are being developed, in other areas of radiation medicine (e.g. diagnostic radiology and nuclear medicine), in radiation protection and in industrial applications of radiation. In the past few years the development of primary standards of absorbed dose to water in {sup 60}Co for radiotherapy dosimetry has made direct calibrations in terms of absorbed dose to water available in many countries for the first time. Some laboratories have extended the development of these standards to high energy photon and electron beams and to low and medium energy x-ray beams. Other countries, however, still base their dosimetry for radiotherapy on air kerma standards. Dosimetry for conventional external beam radiotherapy was probably the field where standardized procedures adopted by medical physicists at hospitals were developed first. Those were related to exposure and air kerma standards. The recent development of Codes of Practice (or protocols) based on the concept of absorbed dose to water has led to changes in calibration procedures at hospitals. The International Code of Practice for Dosimetry Based on Standards of Absorbed Dose to Water (TRS 398) was sponsored by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), World Health Organization (WHO), Pan-American Health Organization (PAHO) and the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (ESTRO) and is expected to be adopted in many countries worldwide. It provides recommendations for the dosimetry of all types of beams (except neutrons) used in external radiotherapy and

  13. Standardization of uveitis nomenclature for reporting clinical data. Results of the First International Workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabs, Douglas A; Nussenblatt, Robert B; Rosenbaum, James T

    2005-09-01

    To begin a process of standardizing the methods for reporting clinical data in the field of uveitis. Consensus workshop. Members of an international working group were surveyed about diagnostic terminology, inflammation grading schema, and outcome measures, and the results used to develop a series of proposals to better standardize the use of these entities. Small groups employed nominal group techniques to achieve consensus on several of these issues. The group affirmed that an anatomic classification of uveitis should be used as a framework for subsequent work on diagnostic criteria for specific uveitic syndromes, and that the classification of uveitis entities should be on the basis of the location of the inflammation and not on the presence of structural complications. Issues regarding the use of the terms "intermediate uveitis," "pars planitis," "panuveitis," and descriptors of the onset and course of the uveitis were addressed. The following were adopted: standardized grading schema for anterior chamber cells, anterior chamber flare, and for vitreous haze; standardized methods of recording structural complications of uveitis; standardized definitions of outcomes, including "inactive" inflammation, "improvement'; and "worsening" of the inflammation, and "corticosteroid sparing," and standardized guidelines for reporting visual acuity outcomes. A process of standardizing the approach to reporting clinical data in uveitis research has begun, and several terms have been standardized.

  14. Russian Law on Discrimination in Employment: Can it be Compatible with International Labor Standards?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikita Lyutov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Law concerning discrimination in employment in Russia was expected to undergo a serious transformation after the fall of the Soviet system, when the Iron Curtain was lifted and the country became more open to Western legal concepts and international law. Nevertheless, most existing anti-discrimination norms in Russian law are based on the traditional concept of “uniformity and differentiation in regulation of labor” that is ill-suited to meet the challenges of amarket economy and the emergence of employment by privately owned enterprises which may have greater motivation to discriminate than state-owned-enterprises. The aim of the author is not to present an encyclopedic overview of all aspects of the topic of discrimination, but rather to concentrate on the most significant areas in which Russian law and practices diverge from international labor standards. To do so, this article analyzes current Russian legislation and landmark cases concerning gender, disability, age and some other areas of discrimination in employment with respect to their effectiveness and conformity to international labor standards on the matter. The issues of a clear definition of discrimination in employment, of protection from indirect discrimination, and of alleviation from the burden of proof are also examined. The author concludes this work by offering the reader several suggestions about how to harmonize Russian domestic law on employment discrimination with international labor standards while giving due respect to national legal and societal traditions and the current economic environment.

  15. Development of international standards for instrumentation used for detection of illicit trafficking of radioactive material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voytchev, M. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN/DSU/SERAC/CTHIR), 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France); Chiaro, P. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Radev, R. [LLNL, Livermore, CA (United States)

    2006-07-01

    Subcommittee 45 B 'Radiation Protection Instrumentation' of the International Electrotechnical Commission (I.E.C.) is charged with the development of international standards for instrumentation used for monitoring of illicit trafficking of radioactive material through international boarders and territories, as well as inside countries. Currently three I.E.C. standards are in advanced stages of development. They are expected to be approved and published in 2006-2007. The international participation and the main characteristics of the following three standards are discussed and presented: I.E.C. 62327 'Hand-held Instruments for the Detection and Identification of Radionuclides and Additionally for the Indication of Ambient Dose Equivalent Rate from Photon Radiation', I.E.C. 62401 'Alarming Personal Radiation Devices for Detection of Illicit Trafficking of Radioactive Material' and I.E.C. 62244 'Installed Radiation Monitors for the Detection of Radioactive and Special Nuclear Materials at National Borders'.

  16. International standards for the exploration and production industry -- Their development and use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansen, A.R.; Loppinet, A.; Reeve, P.T.N.; Thomas, G.A.N.; Thorp, G.; Vanzini, R.

    1995-01-01

    A single global market for procurement is of crucial importance to the E and P industry. The resulting benefits, including cost reductions and shorter delivery times, could even be the key to the economic development of marginal fields. International Standards that cater for the needs of users, manufacturers and the public at large can provide a common basis for companies to procure and provide goods and services that will deliver the required performance throughout the field life. The savings to industry could be billions of dollars per year. The E and P Forum, on behalf of the industry, has developed proposals to increase the efficiency of this managerial procedure and to speed up the ''internationalization'' of selected standards. Details are given at the end of the paper. It is argued that the E and P industry should rally to the cause of international standardization. Companies should lend their full support by committing their valuable expert resources. It is in the interests of the industry to do this for, without suitably skilled expert representation in ISO and the elimination of duplication as well as waste of resources through performing similar work at company or national level, the large potential benefits of international standardization will elude the E and P industry

  17. Problems of the development of international standards of “green building” in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meshcheryakova, Tatiana

    2017-10-01

    Problems of environmental friendliness and energy efficiency in recent decades have become not only the most important issues of economic development of the main industrial economies, but also the basis for the processes of maintaining the security and relative stability of the global ecosystem. The article presents the results of the study of the status and trends of the development of environmental standards for the construction and maintenance of real estate in the world and particularly in Russia. Special market instruments for assessing the compliance with the quality of real estate projects under construction and modern principles of environmental friendliness and energy efficiency include voluntary building certification systems that are actively used in international practice. In Russia there is active use of the following international systems of certification: BREEAM, LEED, DGNB, HQE. Also in the Russian certification market, the national standard STO NOSTROY 2.35.4-2011 “Residential and public buildings” is being implemented, which summarizes the best international experience of the rating evaluation procedure. Comparative characteristics of the “green” standards and the principles of rating assessments of the ecological compatibility of buildings give an idea of applying these standards in Russia.

  18. Specific Features of Reflection of Information Regarding Lease Operations in the National and International Standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolenko Nataliya V.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article identifies the degree of correspondence of the national Provisions (Standard of Business Accounting (PSBA Lease with the international standard and provides recommendations with respect to their closing up. On the results of the study the author provides specific features of international and national standards – the existing IFRS 17 Lease and national PSBA 14 Lease by the following components: definition of lease, its classification and reflection in accounting. Also the text of PSBA 31 Financial Expenditures is supplemented with provisions on capitalisation of financial expenditures prospectively, which would allow avoidance of correction of the balance of the retained income and provision of comparative information for previous periods. The article provides an algorithm of division of lease for accounting purposes on the basis of international standards. Its use would ensure correctness of reflection of lease operations in accounting and would serve as a basis for development of methodical provisions with respect to accounting. By the result of the study the author forms definition of the qualification asset as an asset which requires considerable time for its creation, preparation for target use, sales or acquisition of the ownership right. Capitalisation of such expenditures would allow non-reduction of the accounting income and also would provide a possibility to reflect financial expenditures in accordance with their economic essence.

  19. Harmonization of the Ukrainian civil service with international and EU standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Prudyus

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In the article the issue on harmonization of the civil service with the international and EU standards as one of the key direction of implementation of the Reform Strategy of civil service and service in local self­government bodies for the period up to 2017 was researched. It was established that examples of the most effective management practice can be considered as a standard on which could be oriented states that seek to move to a more efficient and effective public administration. It was approached the issue «European standards of the public administration» as the complex of principles and standards of the establishing and implementation of politics, requirements to the management system. These concepts create will­free and subsequent application to harmonize with the model on building and realization of the modern people oriented public power; «European standards of the civil service» as the requirements to the organization, functionality, structure and management of the civil service system of the EU countries, which established by the legislation and informal cooperation for the ensuring the mission, aim and tasks of the EU and were established by founding treaties. It was summarized that good governance became in the EU as the paradigm for ensuring of the real effect to the democracy values and standards, human rights protection, rule of law, obligatory public administration in all levels. It was implemented according to 12 principles: 1 fair elections, representation and participation; 2 sensitivity to the citizens needs and expectations; 3 efficiency and effectiveness; 4 openness and transparency; 5 the rule of law; 6 ethical behavior; 7 the ability and competence; 8 innovation and openness to change; 9 sustainability and focus on long­term results; 10 sound financial management; 11 human rights, cultural diversity and social cohesion; 12 accountability. It was proven that civil service harmonization with the international and

  20. An International Standard for specifying the minimum potency of anti-D blood-grouping reagents: evaluation of a candidate preparation in an international collaborative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thorpe, S. J.; Fox, B.; Heath, A. B.; Scott, M.; de Haas, M.; Kochman, S.; Padilla, A.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate a lyophilized monoclonal immunoglobulin M (IgM) anti-D preparation for use as an International Standard to specify a recommended minimum acceptable potency of anti-D blood-grouping reagents. The candidate International Standard (99/836) for specifying the

  1. Development of international standards for surface analysis by ISO technical committee 201 on surface chemical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, C.J.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) established Technical Committee 201 on Surface Chemical Analysis in 1991 to develop documentary standards for surface analysis. ISO/TC 201 met first in 1992 and has met annually since. This committee now has eight subcommittees (Terminology, General Procedures, Data Management and Treatment, Depth Profiling, AES, SIMS, XPS, and Glow Discharge Spectroscopy (GDS)) and one working group (Total X-Ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy). Each subcommittee has one or more working groups to develop standards on particular topics. Australia has observer-member status on ISO/TC 201 and on all ISO/TC 201 subcommittees except GDS where it has participator-member status. I will outline the organization of ISO/TC 201 and summarize the standards that have been or are being developed. Copyright (1999) Australian X-ray Analytical Association Inc

  2. Upgrade of internal events PSA model using the AESJ level-1 PSA standard for operating state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Teruyoshi; Yoneyama, Mitsuru; Hirokawa, Naoki; Sato, Chikahiro; Sato, Eisuke; Tomizawa, Shigeatsu

    2009-01-01

    In 2003, the Atomic Energy Society of Japan (AESJ) started to develop the Level-1 Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) standard of internal events for operating state (AESJ standard). The AESJ standard has been finished to be asked for public comment. Using the AESJ standard (draft version), the authors have upgraded the PSA model for Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO) BWR-5 plant not only to reflect latest knowledge but also to ensure high quality of PSA model (not yet peer-reviewed) for the purpose of better operation and maintenance management of TEPCO BWR plants. For example, the categorization of structures, systems and components (SSCs) will be performed to improve nuclear reactor safety using information of risk importance. (author)

  3. International performance-oriented packaging standards adopted in the united states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCall, D.L.

    1993-01-01

    On January 1, 1991, the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) initiated a transition to adopting a modified version of current international standards for packaging and transporting hazardous materials and hazardous wastes. This transition permits a 5-year phase-in period that will impact all phases of hazardous material transportation including material classification and description, packaging for shipment, and hazard communication standards. These changes are being enacted through the DOT Federal Docket HM-181, 'Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards.' These regulatory standards will have dramatic impact on nearly 5 billion tons of hazardous materials transported within the United States each year. This paper summarizes the principal elements of the new DOT regulations, the latest implementation schedule and impacts on U.S. shipping activities, and discusses outstanding issues that remain to be solved through the next 5 years. (author)

  4. Updating the International Standards for Tuberculosis Care. Entering the era of molecular diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopewell, Philip C; Fair, Elizabeth L; Uplekar, Mukund

    2014-03-01

    The International Standards for Tuberculosis Care, first published in 2006 (Lancet Infect Dis 2006;6:710-725.) with a second edition in 2009 ( www.currytbcenter.ucsf.edu/international/istc_report ), was produced by an international coalition of organizations funded by the United States Agency for International Development. Development of the document was led jointly by the World Health Organization and the American Thoracic Society, with the aim of promoting engagement of all care providers, especially those in the private sector in low- and middle-income countries, in delivering high-quality services for tuberculosis. In keeping with World Health Organization recommendations regarding rapid molecular testing, as well as other pertinent new recommendations, the third edition of the Standards has been developed. After decades of dormancy, the technology available for tuberculosis care and control is now rapidly evolving. In particular, rapid molecular testing, using devices with excellent performance characteristics for detecting Mycobacterium tuberculosis and rifampin resistance, and that are practical and affordable for use in decentralized facilities in low-resource settings, is being widely deployed globally. Used appropriately, both within tuberculosis control programs and in private laboratories, these devices have the potential to revolutionize tuberculosis care and control, providing a confirmed diagnosis and a determination of rifampin resistance within a few hours, enabling appropriate treatment to be initiated promptly. Major changes have been made in the standards for diagnosis. Additional important changes include: emphasis on the recognition of groups at increased risk of tuberculosis; updating the standard on antiretroviral treatment in persons with tuberculosis and human immunodeficiency virus infection; and revising the standard on treating multiple drug-resistant tuberculosis.

  5. A quality control of proteomic experiments based on multiple isotopologous internal standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adele Bourmaud

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The harmonization of proteomics experiments facilitates the exchange and comparison of results. The definition of standards and metrics ensures reliable and consistent data quality. An internal quality control procedure was developed to assess the different steps of a proteomic analysis workflow and perform a system suitability test. The method relies on a straightforward protocol using a simple mixture of exogenous proteins, and the sequential addition of two sets of isotopically labeled peptides added to reference samples. This internal quality control procedure was applied to plasma samples to demonstrate its easy implementation, which makes it generic for most proteomics applications.

  6. Internationally Standardized Reporting (Checklist) on the Sustainable Development Performance of Uranium Mining and Processing Sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, Frank

    2014-01-01

    The Internationally Standardized Reporting Checklist on the Sustainable Development Performance of Uranium Mining and Processing Sites: • A mutual and beneficial work between a core group of uranium miners and nuclear utilities; • An approach based on an long term experience, international policies and sustainable development principles; • A process to optimize the reporting mechanism, tools and efforts; • 11 sections focused on the main sustainable development subject matters known at an operational and headquarter level. The WNA will make available the sustainable development checklist for member utilities and uranium suppliers. Utilities and suppliers are encouraged to use the checklist for sustainable development verification.

  7. Harmonization of the Ukrainian civil service with international and EU standards

    OpenAIRE

    L. V. Prudyus

    2016-01-01

    In the article the issue on harmonization of the civil service with the international and EU standards as one of the key direction of implementation of the Reform Strategy of civil service and service in local self­government bodies for the period up to 2017 was researched. It was established that examples of the most effective management practice can be considered as a standard on which could be oriented states that seek to move to a more efficient and effective public administration. ...

  8. To recognize the use of international standards for making harmonized regulation of medical devices in Asia-pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, K; Saini, Ks; Chopra, Y; Binod, Sk

    2010-07-01

    'Medical Devices' include everything from highly sophisticated, computerized, medical equipment, right down to simple wooden tongue depressors. Regulations embody the public expectations for how buildings and facilities are expected to perform and as such represent public policy. Regulators, who develop and enforce regulations, are empowered to act in the public's interest to set this policy and are ultimately responsible to the public in this regard. Standardization contributes to the basic infrastructure that underpins society including health and environment, while promoting sustainability and good regulatory practice. The international organizations that produce International Standards are the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC), the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), and the International Telecommunication Union (ITU). With the increasing globalization of markets, International Standards (as opposed to regional or national standards) have become critical to the trading process, ensuring a level playing field for exports, and ensuring that imports meet the internationally recognized levels of performance and safety. The development of standards is done in response to sectors and stakeholders that express a clearly established need for them. An industry sector or other stakeholder group typically communicates its requirement for standards to one of the national members. To be accepted for development, a proposed work item must receive a majority support of the participating members, who verify the global relevance of the proposed item. The regulatory authority (RA) should provide a method for the recognition of international voluntary standards and for public notification of such recognition. The process of recognition may vary from country to country. Recognition may occur by periodic publication of lists of standards that a regulatory authority has found will meet the Essential Principles. In conclusion, International standards

  9. Investigation into the temporal stability of aqueous standard solutions of psilocin and psilocybin using high performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastos, N; Barnett, N W; Pfeffer, F M; Lewis, S W

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports an investigation into the temporal stability of aqueous solutions of psilocin and psilocybin reference drug standards over a period of fourteen days. This study was performed using high performance liquid chromatography utilising a (95:5% v/v) methanol: 10 mM ammonium formate, pH 3.5 mobile phase and absorption detection at 269 nm. It was found that the exclusion of light significantly prolonged the useful life of standards, with aqueous solutions of both psilocin and psilocybin being stable over a period of seven days.

  10. Burnout and stress amongst interns in Irish hospitals: contributing factors and potential solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannan, E; Breslin, N; Doherty, E; McGreal, M; Moneley, D; Offiah, G

    2018-05-01

    The transition from medical school to internship can be daunting for newly qualified doctors. High rates of stress and burnout have been reported, with negative impacts on patient care and physician wellbeing. We surveyed interns in our hospital group to evaluate rates of stress and burnout, as well as identify the causative factors and propose potential solutions to these. A hundred and one interns working in four different hospitals over a 2-year period were invited to participate in an anonymous survey. The survey collected basic demographic details and surveyed aspects of mental health using the burnout scale, Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) and the stress scale and 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12). Interns were also asked to rate a variety of workplace factors on a Likert scale based on the degree of stress caused. Finally, they were surveyed on their awareness of support services available to them. Our results showed that 37% of interns met the criteria for psychological distress, high levels of emotional exhaustion, high depersonalisation and a low sense of personal accomplishment were reported in 55.4, 51.5 and 41.6%, respectively. Inadequate preparation for practice, financial worries, poor role definition and sleep deprivation were reported as significant stressors. Most were unaware of available support services and expressed interest in leaving Ireland after internship. Burnout and stress are significant problems amongst doctors in Irish hospitals. Ensuring better preparation for clinical practice and awareness of support services is vital to tackle this issue.

  11. Tangible fixed assets of a company pursuant to the czech accounting law and international accounting standards

    OpenAIRE

    Patrik Svoboda; Emil Svoboda

    2007-01-01

    The valuation of assets is a challenging activity as well as a scientific discipline having an impact on the amount of the reported assets and economic result process. The report deals with the issue of valuation of the tangible fixed assets in the accounting entities compiling the financial statements pursuant to the Czech national legislation and in conformity with the requirements of the International Accounting Standards IAS/IFRS and US GAAP. The substantial differences in the definitions...

  12. Understanding the case of international labour standards – methodological insights into an ongoing debate

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, Oliver

    2005-01-01

    "By globalization, national economies strengthen their ties towards each other; the same process causes growing interdependence" (Duwendag 2003, p. 119). Internationally agreed standards are regularly called for to guide and direct the process of globalisation. E. g. the German Vice-chancellor (who is also the minister responsible for labour market regulation) warned that profit-orientation threatened democracy if it would not allow for social responsibility of employers (Muentefering 2005). ...

  13. International Financial Reporting Standards And Accounting Education in Turkey: an Investigation On Accounting Academians’ Perceptions

    OpenAIRE

    DURER, Salih; AKBAŞ, Halil Emre; ZEYTİNOĞLU, Emin

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to examine the perceptions of accountingacademicians about incorporating International Financial ReportingStandards (IFRS) into the accounting education. Results of thestudy indicate that uncertainty in the implementation of IFRS isseen as the most challenging aspect of incorporating IFRS into theaccounting education and the most appropriate path that shouldbe followed in accounting education is to give equal weight to AccountingSystem Implementation General Communiqués, tax l...

  14. The value relevance of direct cash flows under international financial reporting standards

    OpenAIRE

    Clacher, I; de Ricquebourg, AD; Hodgson, A

    2013-01-01

    This study examines if there has been a change in the value relevance of direct cash flow components since the adoption of International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) in Australia. Our results show that for both industrial and extractive firms direct cash flow statements are value relevant under Australian Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (AGAAP) and remain so after the adoption of IFRS. In addition, for industrial firms there is a significant increase in the value relevance of...

  15. Austrian contributions to fuel rod failure models shown at the International Standard Problem ISP-14

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sdouz, G.

    1984-04-01

    The computer code BALON-2A was improved to perform the International Standard Problem ISP-14. The main extensions are the implementation of input-options and the development of a model to predict the pressure in the fuel rod gap. With these improvements and some calculations for input values satisfying results have been obtained. This is remarkable because loss of coolant accident analyses are performed usually with larger computer codes. (Author) [de

  16. International labor standards and the political economy of child labor regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Doepke, Matthias; Zilibotti, Fabrizio

    2008-01-01

    Child labor is a persistent phenomenon in many developing countries. In recent years, support has been growing among rich-country governments and consumer groups for the use of trade policies, such as product boycotts and the imposition of international labor standards, to reduce child labor in poor countries. In this paper, we discuss research on the long-run implications of such policies. In particular, we demonstrate that such measures may have the unintended side effect of lowering domest...

  17. FY 1999 project on the development of new industry support type international standards. Comprehensive survey research on the promotion of international standardization; 1999 nendo shinki sangyo shiengata kokusai hyojun kaihatsu jigyo seika hokokusho. Kokusai hyojunka suishin ni kakawaru sogo chosa kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    For the purpose of promoting the international standardization effectively/strategically, a comprehensive survey was made, and the FY 1999 results were summarized. In the trend survey on the comprehensive international standardization, survey was conducted for companies in the material field (plastics, rubber and iron steel) and in the mechanical field (robot, machinery, aircraft, etc.). As a result of the survey, it was found out that they have few headquarters systems and experts, but they tackle it strategically and defensively, taking the standardization as business. Also as to the trend of CEN/CENELEC, importance of the continued trend survey was pointed out. In the survey of policy for the international standardization, survey was carried out on the trend of the process for working out the international standards (TS, ITS and SDO). Further, in relation to the technology standards and intellectual property rights in the hi-tech field, survey was made on the present situation of rules for handling intellectual property rights of organizations, groups, etc. for standardization, how to handle intellectual property rights in the standardization process, problems and the solution, etc. (NEDO)

  18. FY 2000 Project of developing international standards for supporting new industries. Comprehensive study for promotion of the international standardization; 2000 nendo shinki sangyo shiengata kokusai hyojun kaihatsu jigyo seika hokokusho. Kokusai hyojunka suishin ni kakawaru hokatsuteki chosa kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    This project studies the schemes for the international standardization, trends of the international standardization by the international standardization organizations and related organizations, and activities for the international standardization by the enterprises in the advanced countries, among others, in order to promote the international standardization for the 8 research and development themes. These themes are SMIL (synchronized multimedia integration language) tag standard of the three-dimensional image data, based on MXL; systems for detecting gene recombination products; methods for testing mileage of gas-fueled automobiles; measurement of multi-colors; testing/evaluation methods for highly coherent lasers; methods of evaluating optical performance of microlenses for optical information processing; recycled CFRPs; and devices for measuring marine environments. The study results indicate that progress of the development of the international standardization of the advanced technologies can be followed by investigating the characteristics of the ISO publications; ISO is studying the business plans being developed by each TC, in order to improve market adaptability of the international standards; and the European countries add conditions for standardization when the research and development themes are contracted. (NEDO)

  19. Global, National, and Local Goals: English Language Policy Implementation in an Indonesian International Standard School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eddy Haryanto

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the achievement of students in math and science subjects as the impact of using English as a medium of instruction at an international standard school. A questionnaire was used as a research instrument to 190 students at one international standard school in Jambi Province, Indonesia. A focus group discussion (FGD approach was undertaken to validate and verify the data gathered through the questionnaire and clarify some issues raised in the questionnaire. Data were analyzed by using descriptive statistics and Pearson Product Moment Correlation. It was found that the students’ demographic profile, attitude toward English and grades in math and science subjects were significantly related with their academic achievement. However, students’ perception on methods and techniques was not significantly related with their academic achievement in English, math, and the science subjects. The result showed that the implementation of English as a medium of instruction was not done well in the international standard school. This is perhaps due to the difficulty of learning science and math in English. This study provided information for policy makers, school leaders, researchers, and teacher educators to understand how the policy is implemented at the school level. The challenges of attempting too ambitious linguistic and academic goals in the school were discussed as were policy implications and future research.

  20. Choosing a standard reactor: International competition and domestic politics in Chinese nuclear policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramana, M.V.; Saikawa, Eri

    2011-01-01

    China has ambitious plans to expand its nuclear power capacity. One of the policy goals that high-level policymakers have desired is to base the nuclear program on a standardized reactor design. However, this has not materialized so far. By examining its nuclear reactor choices for individual projects, we argue that China’s policymaking process has been greatly influenced by international competition and domestic politics. Multiple international nuclear vendors are intent upon maintaining their respective niches in the expanding Chinese reactor market, and they have used various forms of economic and political pressure to achieve their objectives. On the other hand, China’s policymaking process is fragmented and the shifting power balances among powerful domestic actors do not allow a fixed path to be followed. Further, because of the high costs and potential profits involved, nuclear reactor choices in China have been driven not just by technical considerations but also by foreign and trade policy objectives. All of these make it unlikely that China will standardize the reactor type it constructs in the near future. -- Highlights: ► China’s nuclear power policymaking has been fragmented and without central control. ► Multiple domestic actors have pursued independent agendas. ► International nuclear vendors have intensely competed for Chinese reactor contracts. ► Economic, political and foreign policy goals have driven reactor contract decisions. ► China is unlikely to construct only a standardized reactor design.

  1. Assess of the Status of the Karaj Operating Rooms in Comparison with International Standards in 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.H. Naseri

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Because of making money, the operating room (OR is known as the beating heart of any clinical & health center. The effective and regular activity of the operating room guarantees a sustainable income for the hospital. So, in order to provide high quality treatment and care services, and to save the health and safety of OR staff, exploiting standard equipments and spaces as well as employing professional and skilled personnel is necessary. This study was aimed to assess the status of the Karaj operating rooms from physical, safety, sterilization, staffing and equipment aspects in comparison to the International Standards. Methods: This sectional descriptive study was conducted in Alborz University of Medical Sciences in 2011. Samples were 10 operating room wards from 10 surgical hospitals. Data were collected by a 70 items check-list at 5 fields of physical, safety, sterilization, staffing and equipment conditions and then compared to the international standards. The data were recorded in SPSS software and analyzed by statistical methods. Results: The results showed that compared to the international standards, the physical aspect was 60.5%, safety aspect 66%, sterilization aspect 68%, staffing aspect 63%, and equipment aspect was 80% close to the standard criteria. On the whole, in 10 assessed hospitals, equipment aspect with 80% had the best and the physical aspect with 60.5% had the worst conditions respectively. Conclusion: Due to admission in different medical and paramedical programs in Alborz University of Medical Sciences, renovation of the ORs is essential for training skilled students. Considering the results of this study could help the University authorities to improve the current condition.

  2. Organizational aspects of integrated reporting preparation according to international standard «Integrated reporting»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.O. Maksymchuk

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Integrated Reporting is an innovative reporting for business entities, therefore the issue of the organization the preparation of this reporting is an actual. The absence of legislative regulation of integrated reporting at national level of legal documents has greatly affected the issue, because the only document, that specifies the requirements for integrated reporting is the international standard «integrated reporting». The article considers the organizational principles of integrated reporting preparation. Taking into account the requirements of the international standard «integrated reporting», the authors make the attempts to define the basic organizational stages of such reporting, that allows to introduce the integrated reporting in a structured way and logically. It is proposed on the enterprises preparing the integrated reporting to constitute the schedule of the formation of the integrated reporting. In addition, the important thing is to develop the internal policy for determining materiality by the use of the professional judgment. The appropriate internal policy is assigned to disclose the materiality process in an integrated reporting for decision-making on the inclusion or exclusion issues to be understandable for users.

  3. Approaches to the international standards application in healthcare and public health in different countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitaliy Sarancha

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available As a result of consequent development, and guided by an increasing demand of different types of the organizations regarding structured management, the system of standardization has been established. The idea behind standardization is adjusting the characteristics of a product, process or a production cycle to make them consistent and in line with the rules regarding what is proper and acceptable. The “standard” is a document that specifies such established set of criteria covering a broad range of topics and applicable to commissioners of health, specialists in primary care, public health staff, and social care providers, as well as the local authorities and service users. Health products, ranging from medical devices and health informatics to traditional medicines and unconventional healing tools are all in the focus of standards’ application. Different countries have their own quality management traditions based on their history, mentality, socio-economic environment and the local regulations. Taking into consideration that community social system organization and the quality of social infrastructure are the main foundations of social relations and future prosperity, here we review the existing standardization environment in the health sector in different countries, both developed and those on a convergence path. We focused on standardization environment in the United States of America, Great Britain, Germany, Ukraine, Russian Federation, Croatia and Albania. In order to simplify comprehension, we also demonstrate the algorithm of standardization, as well as the opportunities for application of the international standards in healthcare and public health.

  4. The international growth standard for preadolescent and adolescent children: statistical considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, T J

    2006-12-01

    This article discusses statistical considerations for the design of a new study intended to provide an International Growth Standard for Preadolescent and Adolescent Children, including issues such as cross-sectional, longitudinal, and mixed designs; sample-size derivation for the number of populations and number of children per population; modeling of growth centiles of height, weight, and other measurements; and modeling of the adolescent growth spurt. The conclusions are that a mixed longitudinal design will provide information on both growth distance and velocity; samples of children from 5 to 10 sites should be suitable for an international standard (based on political rather than statistical arguments); the samples should be broadly uniform across age but oversampled during puberty, and should include data into adulthood. The LMS method is recommended for constructing measurement centiles, and parametric or semiparametric approaches are available to estimate the timing of the adolescent growth spurt in individuals. If the new standard is to be grafted onto the 2006 World Health Organization (WHO) reference, caution is needed at the join point of 5 years, where children from the new standard are likely to be appreciably more obese than those from the WHO reference, due to the rising trends in obesity and the time gap in data collection between the two surveys.

  5. International standards for tuberculosis care: Relevance and implications for laboratory professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pai M

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available On World Tuberculosis (TB Day 2006, the International Standards for Tuberculosis Care (ISTC was officially released and widely endorsed by several agencies and organizations. The ISTC release was the culmination of a year long global effort to develop and set internationally acceptable, evidence-based standards for tuberculosis care. The ISTC describes a widely endorsed level of care that all practitioners, public and private, should seek to achieve in managing individuals who have or are suspected of having, TB and is intended to facilitate the effective engagement of all healthcare providers in delivering high quality care for patients of all ages, including those with smear-positive, smear-negative and extra-pulmonary TB, TB caused by drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis and TB/HIV coinfection. In this article, we present the ISTC, with a special focus on the diagnostic standards and describe their implications and relevance for laboratory professionals in India and worldwide. Laboratory professionals play a critical role in ensuring that all the standards are actually met by providing high quality laboratory services for smear microscopy, culture and drug susceptibility testing and other services such as testing for HIV infection. In fact, if the ISTC is widely followed, it can be expected that there will be a greater need and demand for quality assured laboratory services and this will have obvious implications for all laboratories in terms of work load, requirement for resources and trained personnel and organization of quality assurance systems.

  6. The Involvement of IRPA in the Development of ICRP and Other International Standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, G.A.M.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: One of the main items in the IRPA constitution is to encourage the establishment and continuous review of universally acceptable radiation protection standards or recommendations through the international bodies concerned. This matter was discussed in depth at the Associate Societies Forum during the IRPA-10 Congress in Hiroshima in May 2000. A clear consensus existed among societies present that IRPA must play a larger role in the standard setting process. The mechanisms to fulfil this role have still to be elaborated but two processes have been identified. One for collecting and transmitting societies views on proposals by standards-setting bodies and another for quickly informing societies about the developments within international bodies on which IRPA acts as an observer. An example of the first was when IRPA invited its Member Societies to comment on Professor Roger Clarke's Controllable Dose proposal. The IRPA 10 Congress in May 2000 in Hiroshima provided the obvious focus for discussing the responses from the various Societies. These have been brought together in a report entitled IRPA Member Societies' Contributions to the development of new ICRP Recommendations and transmitted to ICRP by the IRPA Secretariat. The second procedure is more established as IRPA has observer status with a number of organisations including ICRP, IAEA and NEA and on interagency committees such as the Interagency Committee on Radiation Safety Standards (IACRS). (author)

  7. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) standards and recommendations on radioactive waste and transport safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warnecke, E.; Rawl, R.

    1996-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) publishes standards and recommendations on all aspects of nuclear safety in its Safety Series, which includes radioactive waste management and transport of radioactive materials. Safety Series documents may be adopted by a State into its national legal framework. Most of the States used the IAEA transport regulations (Safety Series No. 6) as a basis for their national regulation. The two highest ranking documents of the Radioactive Waste Safety Standards (RADWASS) programme, the Safety Fundamentals and the Safety Standard on the national waste management system, have been published. Both provide impetus into the waste management safety convention, a legally binding document for signatory states, which is being drafted. The already existing Convention on Nuclear Safety covers the management of radioactive waste at land-based civil nuclear power plants. (author) 1 fig., 18 refs

  8. THE CURRENT STATE OF APPLICATION OF INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL REPORTING STANDARDS IN UKRAINE.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Zasadnyi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzed the process of reforming the system of accounting and reporting in Ukraine in accordance with International Financial Reporting Standards. The main results of the tasks of the Strategy of application IFRS in Ukraine approved by the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine in 2007 are identified. The results of analysis showed that only 1% of the total number of enterprises form the financial statements in accordance with IFRS, the others apply national standards of accounting. The proportion of small enterprises is 95% that do not have the financial capacity, qualified staff and the necessary motivation for the formation of financial statements in accordance with IFRS. As a result, one of the main objectives of the reform of the accounting and reporting is to improve the legislation on accounting for small enterprises and develop national accounting standards of the simplified procedure for accounting of assets, liabilities, equity and financial results of the calculation for small enterprises.

  9. Manual of engineering drawing technical product specification and documentation to British and international standards

    CERN Document Server

    Simmons, Colin H; Simmons, Colin

    2012-01-01

    Manual of Engineering Drawing is a comprehensive guide for experts and novices for producing engineering drawings and annotated 3D models that meet the recent BSI and ISO standards of technical product documentation and specifications. This fourth edition of the text has been updated in line with recent standard revisions and amendments. The book has been prepared for international use, and includes a comprehensive discussion of the fundamental differences between the ISO and ASME standards, as well as recent updates regarding legal components, such as copyright, patents, and other legal considerations. The text is applicable to CAD and manual drawing, and it covers the recent developments in 3D annotation and surface texture specifications. Its scope also covers the concepts of pictorial and orthographic projections, geometrical, dimensional and surface tolerancing, and the principle of duality. The text also presents numerous examples of hydraulic and electrical diagrams, applications, bearings, adhesives, ...

  10. Register of international standard NP on IT based wireless application in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, I. S.; Hong, S. B.; Cho, I. W.; Choi, Y. S.; Lee, J. C.

    2011-04-01

    DC draft of standard technical report for wireless applications in NPP is developed, which is a Korean IT technologies. Wireless technologies are forwardwd to converging technologies nuclear and IT area. These technologies are supported to reduce vulnerability against cyber attacks and are forwarded to international standards which met with the nuclear environment requirements. DC draft of standard technical report is provided and circulated. Korean experts participate in Plenary meeting for IEC TC45/SC45A and intermediate meeting for IEC SC45A/WGA3 and 9. Korean expert takes the chair of wireless session at ANS winter conference. Visible light communication is experimented for feasibility study on reducing vulnerability against cyber attacks. VLC is capable of robust wireless communication against cyber attacks. This is suggested to describe a method for technical report. Issue DTR for wireless applications in NPP in 2012

  11. The International Standards for Solar Thermal Collectors and Components as a Medium of Quality Assurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alkishriwi, Nouri; Schorn, Christian A.; Theis, Danjana

    2014-01-01

    Within this publication a detailed overview about the national and international solal't1lel1nai standards is made. The various tests are described and a cross reference list for comparing the different standards is given. Moreover a certification model is presented and the advantage of third party assessment is carried out. The requirement for a solar thermal test laboratory to conduct independent third party assessment by means of an ISO/IEC17065 accreditation is given. Finally the concept of a quality system for solar thermal markets is explained and major advantages are outlined. Solar thermal systems and their components are described in various national and international standards. In Europe the standard EN12975 defines the regulations and requirements for solar thermal collectors. The standard EN12976 is established for the evaluation of factory made solar thermal systems. The EN12977 is the state of the art standard for the evaluation of custom build systems. Nowadays in Libya the standard ISO9806 for solar collectors and the standard ISO9459 for domestic water heating systems define the regulations and requirements for solar thermal collectors and systems. In the meanwhile, empowered Center for Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Certification Body is under construction. This body is working now to set the minimum requirements of the testing facilities of solar thermal systems. The international standard for collector testing is the ISO9806 and the standard ISO9459 Part 2, 4, 5 for domestic water heating systems. Within the year 2013 a revision of the ISO9806 will be published and, for the first time, a consistent harmonized standard for the main solar thermal markets will be set in force. Besides the various standards for solar thermal products a meaningful element for the quality assurance and the customer protection is third party certification. Third party certification involves an independent assessment, declaring that specified requirements

  12. Internal electric fields of electrolytic solutions induced by space-charge polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawada, Atsushi

    2006-10-01

    The dielectric dispersion of electrolytic solutions prepared using chlorobenzene as a solvent and tetrabutylammonium tetraphenylborate as a solute is analyzed in terms of space-charge polarization in order to derive the ionic constants, and the Stokes radius obtained is discussed in comparison with the values that have been measured by conductometry. A homogeneous internal electric field is assumed for simplicity in the analysis of the space-charge polarization. The justification of the approximation by the homogeneous field is discussed from two points of view: one is the accuracy of the Stokes radius value observed and the other is the effect of bound charges on electrodes in which they level the highly inhomogeneous field, which has been believed in the past. In order to investigate the actual electric field, numerical calculations based on the Poisson equation are carried out by considering the influence of the bound charges. The variation of the number of bound charges with time is clarified by determining the relaxation function of the dielectric constant attributed to the space-charge polarization. Finally, a technique based on a two-field approximation, where homogeneous and hyperbolic fields are independently applied in relevant frequency ranges, is introduced to analyze the space-charge polarization of the electrolytic solutions, and further improvement of the accuracy in the determination of the Stokes radius is achieved.

  13. Reliable structural interpretation of small-angle scattering data from bio-molecules in solution - the importance of quality control and a standard reporting framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques David A

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Small-angle scattering is becoming an increasingly popular tool for the study of bio-molecular structures in solution. The large number of publications with 3D-structural models generated from small-angle solution scattering data has led to a growing consensus for the need to establish a standard reporting framework for their publication. The International Union of Crystallography recently established a set of guidelines for the necessary information required for the publication of such structural models. Here we describe the rationale for these guidelines and the importance of standardising the way in which small-angle scattering data from bio-molecules and associated structural interpretations are reported.

  14. Evaluation of Patient-Oriented Standards of Joint Commission International in Gilan and Mazandaran Teaching Hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghaseminejhad

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Medical tourism, a multi-million-dollar industry, has had a significant effect in economic flourishing, creating jobs, and preventing the outflow of currency. Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate teaching hospitals affiliated to Gilan and Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, according to joint commission international (JCI standards. Methods This was a descriptive cross sectional study conducted among teaching hospitals affiliated to Gilan and Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences during year 2015. To collect data and evaluate the hospitals, patient-oriented standards of JCI was applied. Results Amongst the eight standards, international patient safety goals (IPSG (with a score of 87.5% had the highest, and patient and family education (PFE (with a score of 53.75% had the lowest score. Hospital “4” with a score of 90.41%, had the highest, and hospital “7” with 58.90%, had the lowest rate of compliance to the standards. According to the Mann-Whitney test, the observed statistics considering a P value of ≤ 0.05 level, was not significant, therefore on a 95% certainty level, there was no significant difference between hospitals in Gilan and Mazandaran, regarding compliance with standards. Overall, the hospitals under study were relatively prepared for attracting medical tourists. Conclusions According to the results, it seems that more planning and implementation of projects is required to strengthen the axes of the joint commission regarding accreditation of hospitals and attraction of medical tourists to these centers, especially foreign tourists. Researchers are recommended to pay special attention to the university of medical sciences of two provinces for the establishment of standards and utilization of professional consultants.

  15. Trace element analysis of water using radioisotope induced X-ray fluorescence (Cd-109) and a preconcentration-internal standard method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, M.; Cano, W.

    1986-10-01

    Radioisotope induced X-ray fluorescence using Cd-109 was used for the determination of iron, nickel, copper, zinc, lead and mercury in water. These metals were concentrated by precipitation with the chelating agent APDC. The precipitated formed was filtered using a membrane filter. Cobalt was added as an internal standard. Minimum detection limit, sensitivities and calibration curves linearities have been obtained to find the limits of the method. The usefulness of the method is illustrated analysing synthetic standard solutions. As an application analytical results are given for water of a highly polluted river area. (Author)

  16. Improvement of security techniques and protection of biometric data in biometric systems: Presentation of International Standard ISO 24745

    OpenAIRE

    Milinković, Milorad

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the International Standard ISO 24745 as a potential security tool for biometric information protection, more precisely as a tool for privacy protection in biometric systems. This is one of the latest internationally accepted standards that address the security issues of biometric systems.

  17. Starworld: Preparing Accountants for the Future: A Case-Based Approach to Teach International Financial Reporting Standards Using ERP Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragan, Joseph M.; Savino, Christopher J.; Parashac, Paul; Hosler, Jonathan C.

    2010-01-01

    International Financial Reporting Standards now constitute an important part of educating young professional accountants. This paper looks at a case based process to teach International Financial Reporting Standards using integrated Enterprise Resource Planning software. The case contained within the paper can be used within a variety of courses…

  18. Standard test method for isotopic analysis of hydrolyzed uranium hexafluoride and uranyl nitrate solutions by thermal ionization mass spectrometry

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2005-01-01

    1.1 This method applies to the determination of isotopic composition in hydrolyzed nuclear grade uranium hexafluoride. It covers isotopic abundance of 235U between 0.1 and 5.0 % mass fraction, abundance of 234U between 0.0055 and 0.05 % mass fraction, and abundance of 236U between 0.0003 and 0.5 % mass fraction. This test method may be applicable to other isotopic abundance providing that corresponding standards are available. 1.2 This test method can apply to uranyl nitrate solutions. This can be achieved either by transforming the uranyl nitrate solution to a uranyl fluoride solution prior to the deposition on the filaments or directly by depositing the uranyl nitrate solution on the filaments. In the latter case, a calibration with uranyl nitrate standards must be performed. 1.3 This test method can also apply to other nuclear grade matrices (for example, uranium oxides) by providing a chemical transformation to uranyl fluoride or uranyl nitrate solution. 1.4 This standard does not purport to address al...

  19. Combined low-volume polyethylene glycol solution plus stimulant laxatives versus standard-volume polyethylene glycol solution: A prospective, randomized study of colon cleansing before colonoscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hookey, Lawrence C; Depew, William T; Vanner, Stephen J

    2006-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The effectiveness of polyethylene glycol solutions (PEG) for colon cleansing is often limited by the inability of patients to drink adequate portions of the 4 L solution. The aim of the present study was to determine whether a reduced volume of PEG combined with stimulant laxatives would be better tolerated and as or more effective than the standard dose. METHODS Patients undergoing outpatient colonoscopy were randomly assigned to receive either low-volume PEG plus sennosides (120 mg oral sennosides syrup followed by 2 L PEG) or the standard volume preparation (4 L PEG). The subjects rated the tolerability of the preparations and their symptoms. Colonoscopists were blind to the colonic cleansing preparation and graded the cleansing efficacy using a validated tool (the Ottawa scale). RESULTS The low-volume PEG plus sennosides preparation was significantly better tolerated than the standard large volume PEG (Psennosides preparation was better tolerated, it was not as effective as standard large-volume PEG. However, in view of the significant difference in tolerance, further research investigating possible improvements in the reduced-volume regimen seems warranted. PMID:16482236

  20. A third-order KdV solution for internal solitary waves and its application in the numerical wave tank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qicheng Meng

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A third-order KdV solution to the internal solitary wave is derived by a new method based on the weakly nonlinear assumptions in a rigid-lid two-layer system. The solution corrects an error by Mirie and Su (1984. A two-dimensional numerical wave tank has been established with the help of the open source CFD library OpenFOAM and the third-party software waves2Foam. Various analytical solutions, including the first-order to third-order KdV solutions, the eKdV solution and the MCC solution, have been used to initialise the flow fields in the CFD simulations of internal solitary waves. Two groups including 11 numerical cases have been carried out. In the same group, the initial wave amplitudes are the same but the implemented analytical solutions are different. The simulated wave profiles at different moments have been presented. The relative errors in terms of the wave amplitude between the last time step and the initial input have been analysed quantitatively. It is found that the third-order KdV solution results in the most stable internal solitary wave in the numerical wave tank for both small-amplitude and finite-amplitude cases. The finding is significant for the further simulations involving internal solitary waves.

  1. HARMONIZATION OF NATIONAL REGULATION AND INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL REPORTING STANDARDS – PARTICULAR CASE OF NONCURRENT ASSETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coste Andreea Ioana

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In the scientific literature, accounting harmonization is a top topic because it helps to increase the comparability of financial statements. Also in Romania in the last 10 years becames a topic that is very often debated. The harmonization is trying to reduce differences of financial reporting statements between countries or, in the other words, it is trying to bring to a common denominator of existing rules when appear conflicts of comparability between them. The purpose of this paper is to measure the harmonisation between national and international regulation for a significant element of financial position statement, such as noncurrent assets. This paper provides an empirical research of information that must be presented by entities which apply national accounting standards or international ones when financial statements are prepared, trying to measure the harmonization between the two referential. Thus, in trying to determine the harmonisation, we use the Jaccard coefficient in order to provide an overview of the degree of harmonization of accounting practice. When measuring the degree of comparability of Romanian accounting regulations with International Accounting Standards we analyzed noncurrent assets and impairment of assets using the Jaccard coefficient for accounting treatments and we calculated an average of similarities between the two regulations. Further, the results suggest that there is an average level of harmonization for the accounting treatment of noncurrent assets and for determining the impairment of the assets, the methods are the same. The study contributes to the development of accounting literature about the harmonisation between national regulation and international standards regarding the noncurrent assets and impairment of the assets, which together with the other elements define the activity of the business. In addition, the study provides an analysis of how the regulations treats noncurrent assets, during the

  2. Standardization of the 192Ir within the framework of an international comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwahara, A.; Delgado, J.U.; Silva, T.A. da

    1998-01-01

    In 1997, six national metrology laboratories of several countries, including the Laboratorio Nacional de Metrologias das Radiacoes Ionizantes (LNMRI), participated of an international comparison of activity concentration measurements of a 1 92 I r solution. The measuring method used by LNMRI was the 4 ΠΒ-Γ absolute coincidence counting. Other indirect methods such as germanium detector spectroemtry and 4 ΠΓ ionization chamber used in order to check the absolute measurement. The reported results by the participant laboratories showed good agreeement and the metrological traceability to Bureau International des Poids et Mesures was established for the activity measurements of 1 92 I r. The half time was also determined following its decay by using the 4 4 ΠΓ ionization chambers

  3. Where does the standard application end and where does the solution made-to measure begin?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chovan, P.

    2004-01-01

    Aim of this presentation is to explain necessity of made-to measure solutions and their extent within the enterprise information systems development. The author presents DELTA E S, Plc approach to these questions, explains possible risks and benefits from these tailored made solutions. All the presentation is going to be supported by experiences and results from the realised or active projects

  4. International Review of the Development and Implementation of Energy Efficiency Standards and Labeling Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Nan; Zheng, Nina; Fridley, David

    2012-02-28

    Appliance energy efficiency standards and labeling (S&L) programs have been important policy tools for regulating the efficiency of energy-using products for over 40 years and continue to expand in terms of geographic and product coverage. The most common S&L programs include mandatory minimum energy performance standards (MEPS) that seek to push the market for efficient products, and energy information and endorsement labels that seek to pull the market. This study seeks to review and compare some of the earliest and most well-developed S&L programs in three countries and one region: the U.S. MEPS and ENERGY STAR, Australia MEPS and Energy Label, European Union MEPS and Ecodesign requirements and Energy Label and Japanese Top Runner programs. For each program, key elements of S&L programs are evaluated and comparative analyses across the programs undertaken to identify best practice examples of individual elements as well as cross-cutting factors for success and lessons learned in international S&L program development and implementation. The international review and comparative analysis identified several overarching themes and highlighted some common factors behind successful program elements. First, standard-setting and programmatic implementation can benefit significantly from a legal framework that stipulates a specific timeline or schedule for standard-setting and revision, product coverage and legal sanctions for non-compliance. Second, the different MEPS programs revealed similarities in targeting efficiency gains that are technically feasible and economically justified as the principle for choosing a standard level, in many cases at a level that no product on the current market could reach. Third, detailed survey data such as the U.S. Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS) and rigorous analyses provide a strong foundation for standard-setting while incorporating the participation of different groups of stakeholders further strengthen the process

  5. EFFECT OF ADDING THE INTERNAL STANDARD TO BLOOD SAMPLES, PRIOR TO THE PREPARATION OF BLOOD SPOTS FOR ACYLCARNITINE ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Osorio, José Henry; Pourfarzam, Morteza

    2010-01-01

    Background: some general factors can influence when determining acylcarnitines through tandem mass spectrometry. Objective: to study the effect of adding the internal standard to blood samples before the preparation of filter paper cards compared with the addition of internal standard after having the filter paper cards prepared for determining acylcarnitines in blood for tandem mass spectrometry. Methodology: two groups of blood samples were prepared: group one without adding internal standa...

  6. Investigations on international standardization of environmental management systems. 3; Kankyo kanri system no kokusai hyojunka ni kansuru chosa. 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    Japan as an ISO member country identifies the state of discussions in the environmental management standard deliberation committee at ISO. Investigations were performed on international standardization of environmental management systems for the purpose of participating and cooperating in preparing and establishing international standards related to environmental management, and playing part in working, solving and improving environmental problems. Under the circumstances that environmental problems are drawing worldwide interest, the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) has been carrying out since 1993 deliberations on environmental management standards to institutionalize environmental management rules to check effects of business activities on the environment. The International Organization for Standardization/Environmental Management Technical Committee (ISO/TC207) was installed, at which series number of 1400 order was allotted for environmental management related standards, and major standards have come to a final stage of standard formulation at the TC207 Oslo conference in June 1995. In Japan, the Ministry of International Trade and Industry has established an environmental management standard deliberation committee composed of people of experience or academic standing to advance discussions on how the environmental management should be in business entities through deliberations on ISO standards.

  7. Selected Lessons Learned over the ISS Design, Development, Assembly, and Operations: Applicability to International Cooperation for Standardization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, David B.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews some of the lessons learned in the sphere of international cooperation during the development, assembly and operation of the International Space Station. From the begining all Partners shared a common objective to build, operate and utilize a crewed laboratory in low orbit as an international partnership. The importance of standards is emphasized.

  8. Are standards effective in improving automobile fuel economy? An international panel analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clerides, Sofronis; Zachariadis, Theodoros

    2007-01-01

    Although the adoption of fuel economy standards has induced fuel savings in new motor vehicles, there are arguments against standards and in favour of fuel tax increases because the latter may have lower welfare costs. We therefore attempted to analyze the impact of standards and fuel prices in the fuel consumption of new cars with the aid of cross-section time series analysis of data from 18 countries. To our knowledge, this study is the first one that attempts to explore econometrically this issue at an international level. We built an unbalanced panel comprising 384 observations from the US, Canada, Australia, Japan, Switzerland and 13 EU countries spanning a period between 1975 and 2003. We specified a dynamic panel model of fuel economy and estimated the model for the whole sample and also for North America and Europe separately. Based on these estimates, we derived three important policy conclusions. Firstly, it seems that if there were no FE standards or voluntary targets in force, transportation energy use would increase more rapidly. Secondly, if CO 2 targets are not to be tightened in Europe, retail fuel prices might have to double in order to attain the currently discussed target of 120 g CO 2 /km in the future. Thirdly, without higher fuel prices and/or tighter FE standards, one should not expect any marked improvements in fuel economy under 'business as usual' conditions. European policy makers might need to consider this issue carefully because some recent European studies tend to be optimistic in this respect

  9. Quantitation of biological retinoids by high-pressure liquid chromatography: primary internal standardization using tritiated retinoids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cullum, M.E.; Zile, M.H.

    1986-01-01

    A single method is described for quantitation of 14 retinoids found in biological material. The method consists of reversed-phase HPLC, internal standardization, and carrier extraction procedures with three synthetic retinoids. Primary standardization of HPLC uv detector is achieved using tritiated all-trans-retinoic acid, all-trans-retinol, all-trans-retinyl palmitate, and all-trans-retinyl acetate. Extraction methods are standardized by correlating the uv absorbance of retinoids at 340 nm with radioactivity of tritiated retinoids of known specific activity. Quantitation of 10 pg of tritiated or 5 ng of nonradioactive retinoid per 0.1 g sample in a polarity range from 4-oxo-retinoic acid to retinyl stearate can be achieved in a single, 50-min chromatographic run. A single HPLC pump, a C 18 reversed-phased analytical column, a multistep three-solvent gradient, and inexpensive solvents based on methanol, water, and chloroform comprise this cost-effective chromatographic system. Our primary standardization method allows investigators employing different procedures to compare results between laboratories by standardizing the HPLC uv detector with commercially available tritiated retinoids. With this method we were able to quantitate nanomolar amounts of endogenous retinoic acids and retinyl esters, that HPLC uv only conditions usually would not detect in the circulation and liver of rats under physiological conditions

  10. The adoption of ‘International Accounting Standard (IAS) 12 Income Taxes’: Convergence or divergence with local accounting standards in selected ASEAN countries?

    OpenAIRE

    Prem W.S. Yapa; Diane Kraal; Mahesh Joshi

    2015-01-01

    This article concerns inter-disciplinary research on questions about the socio-economic impact of the adoption and convergence of International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) with local standards in selected countries. The article approaches the research in two stages. The first stage concerns the findings and analysis relating to the general impact of the IFRS standards on Singapore and Malaysia. Findings reveal that respondents expressed reservations about cited IFRS adoption benefits...

  11. Normalization method for metabolomics data using optimal selection of multiple internal standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yetukuri Laxman

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Success of metabolomics as the phenotyping platform largely depends on its ability to detect various sources of biological variability. Removal of platform-specific sources of variability such as systematic error is therefore one of the foremost priorities in data preprocessing. However, chemical diversity of molecular species included in typical metabolic profiling experiments leads to different responses to variations in experimental conditions, making normalization a very demanding task. Results With the aim to remove unwanted systematic variation, we present an approach that utilizes variability information from multiple internal standard compounds to find optimal normalization factor for each individual molecular species detected by metabolomics approach (NOMIS. We demonstrate the method on mouse liver lipidomic profiles using Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry, and compare its performance to two commonly utilized normalization methods: normalization by l2 norm and by retention time region specific standard compound profiles. The NOMIS method proved superior in its ability to reduce the effect of systematic error across the full spectrum of metabolite peaks. We also demonstrate that the method can be used to select best combinations of standard compounds for normalization. Conclusion Depending on experiment design and biological matrix, the NOMIS method is applicable either as a one-step normalization method or as a two-step method where the normalization parameters, influenced by variabilities of internal standard compounds and their correlation to metabolites, are first calculated from a study conducted in repeatability conditions. The method can also be used in analytical development of metabolomics methods by helping to select best combinations of standard compounds for a particular biological matrix and analytical platform.

  12. [The International Standards for Tuberculosis Care (ISTC): what is the importance for Japan?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Paula I

    2008-07-01

    In 2005, the World Health Assembly resolved that all Member States should ensure that all persons with tuberculosis (TB) "have access to the universal standard of care based on proper diagnosis, treatment and reporting consistent with the DOTS strategy..." The purpose of the International Standards for Tuberculosis Care (ISTC) is to define the widely accepted level of care of persons either suspected of, or diagnosed with, TB by all health practitioners, especially those in the private sector, who often lack guidance and systematic evaluation of outcomes provided by government programs. Since their publication in 2006 on World TB Day, the standards have been endorsed by the major international health organizations as well as many country-level professional societies. The intention is to complement local and national control polices consistent with those of the World Health Organization: they are not intended to replace local guidelines, but are written to accommodate local differences in practice. The ISTC comprise seventeen evidence-based standards on tuberculosis diagnosis and treatment, as well as the responsibility of the public health sector. These are based on the basic principles of TB care: prompt and accurate diagnosis, standardized treatment regimens of proven efficacy, appropriate treatment support and supervision, monitoring of response to treatment and the carrying out of essential public health responsibilities. The relevance of the ISTC to the Japanese context is highlighted, in terms of when persons should be suspected of TB; the appropriate diagnostic modalities, including the use of chest radiographs; the advantages of fixed dose combinations; the importance of follow-up laboratory tests to document response to treatment, the importance of recordkeeping and reporting to public health authorities, the value of HIV testing of TB patients and the use of anti-retrovirals for those dually infected; and the assessment of drug resistance and the

  13. Protocol for Usability Testing and Validation of the ISO Draft International Standard 19223 for Lung Ventilators

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Background Clinicians, such as respiratory therapists and physicians, are often required to set up pieces of medical equipment that use inconsistent terminology. Current lung ventilator terminology that is used by different manufacturers contributes to the risk of usage errors, and in turn the risk of ventilator-associated lung injuries and other conditions. Human factors and communication issues are often associated with ventilator-related sentinel events, and inconsistent ventilator terminology compounds these issues. This paper describes our proposed protocol, which will be implemented at the University of Waterloo, Canada when this project is externally funded. Objective We propose to determine whether a standardized vocabulary improves the ease of use, safety, and utility as it relates to the usability of medical devices, compared to legacy medical devices from multiple manufacturers, which use different terms. Methods We hypothesize that usage errors by clinicians will be lower when standardization is consistently applied by all manufacturers. The proposed study will experimentally examine the impact of standardized nomenclature on performance declines in the use of an unfamiliar ventilator product in clinically relevant scenarios. Participants will be respiratory therapy practitioners and trainees, and we propose studying approximately 60 participants. Results The work reported here is in the proposal phase. Once the protocol is implemented, we will report the results in a follow-up paper. Conclusions The proposed study will help us better understand the effects of standardization on medical device usability. The study will also help identify any terms in the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) Draft International Standard (DIS) 19223 that may be associated with recurrent errors. Amendments to the standard will be proposed if recurrent errors are identified. This report contributes a protocol that can be used to assess the effect of

  14. Partial synthesis of ganglioside and lysoganglioside lipoforms as internal standards for MS quantification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gantner, Martin; Schwarzmann, Günter; Sandhoff, Konrad; Kolter, Thomas

    2014-12-01

    Within recent years, ganglioside patterns have been increasingly analyzed by MS. However, internal standards for calibration are only available for gangliosides GM1, GM2, and GM3. For this reason, we prepared homologous internal standards bearing nonnatural fatty acids of the major mammalian brain gangliosides GM1, GD1a, GD1b, GT1b, and GQ1b, and of the tumor-associated gangliosides GM2 and GD2. The fatty acid moieties were incorporated after selective chemical or enzymatic deacylation of bovine brain gangliosides. For modification of the sphingoid bases, we developed a new synthetic method based on olefin cross metathesis. This method was used for the preparation of a lyso-GM1 and a lyso-GM2 standard. The total yield of this method was 8.7% for the synthesis of d17:1-lyso-GM1 from d20:1/18:0-GM1 in four steps. The title compounds are currently used as calibration substances for MS quantification and are also suitable for functional studies. Copyright © 2014 by the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  15. Certifying a university ENT clinic using the ISO 9001:2000 international standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helbig, Matthias; Helbig, Silke; Kahla-Witzsch, Heike A; Kroll, Tobias; May, Angelika

    2010-01-01

    Against statutory duties to introduce quality management systems, the increased importance of this subject has led to numerous activities in various public health institutions. Following the International Standardization Organization (ISO 9001:2000) prerequisites, Frankfurt Goethe University Hospital ENT clinic staff introduced a quality management system. This paper aims to investigate this process. Designing, planning and implementing the quality management system is described. Under the supervision of an executive quality management board, clinic quality goals were defined. Thereafter, several quality management teams performed an actual state analysis as well as developing and realising improvement proposals. Finally a quality management manual containing binding standards and working instructions concerning all patient care, research and teaching aspects was written. Successful certification by a neutral body ascertained that the clinic's quality management system conformed to current national and international standards while restructuring and reform improved procedural efficiency. The paper shows that mplementing the quality management system requires considerable effort but patients as well as staff profit considerably from the innovation. On the whole, the positive impact on structure and workflow in a specialist clinic predominates. Therefore, implementing a quality management system in all the clinic's wards and departments is recommended.

  16. Matrix-Matched Iron-Oxide Laser Ablation ICP-MS U–Pb Geochronology Using Mixed Solution Standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liam Courtney-Davies

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available U–Pb dating of the common iron-oxide hematite (α-Fe2O3, using laser-ablation inductively-coupled-plasma mass-spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS, provides unparalleled insight into the timing and processes of mineral deposit formation. Until now, the full potential of this method has been negatively impacted by the lack of suitable matrix-matched standards. To achieve matrix-matching, we report an approach in which a U–Pb solution and ablated material from 99.99% synthetic hematite are simultaneously mixed in a nebulizer chamber and introduced to the ICP-MS. The standard solution contains fixed U- and Pb-isotope ratios, calibrated independently, and aspiration of the isotopically homogeneous solution negates the need for a matrix-matched, isotopically homogenous natural iron-oxide standard. An additional advantage of using the solution is that the individual U–Pb concentrations and isotope ratios can be adjusted to approximate that in the unknown, making the method efficient for dating hematite containing low (~10 ppm to high (>1 wt % U concentrations. The above-mentioned advantage to this solution method results in reliable datasets, with arguably-better accuracy in measuring U–Pb ratios than using GJ-1 Zircon as the primary standard, which cannot be employed for such low U concentrations. Statistical overlaps between 207Pb/206Pb weighted average ages (using GJ-1 Zircon and U–Pb upper intercept ages (using the U–Pb mixed solution method of two samples from iron-oxide copper-gold (IOCG deposits in South Australia demonstrate that, although fractionation associated with a non-matrix matched standard does occur when using GJ-1 Zircon as the primary standard, it does not impact the 207Pb/206Pb or upper intercept age. Thus, GJ-1 Zircon can be considered reliable for dating hematite using LA-ICP-MS. Downhole fractionation of 206Pb/238U is observed to occur in spot analyses of hematite. The use of rasters in future studies will hopefully minimize

  17. Concentration in the European electricity industry: The internal market as solution?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domanico, Fabio

    2007-01-01

    This article offers an analysis of the present competitive and regulatory framework of the European electricity sector and the results achieved with the liberalisation process. Considering the reactions of incumbents to the liberalisation, the focus in this work is mainly on the problem of market concentration in the sector. The new trends toward the creation of 'national champions' as well as recent mergers between gas suppliers and electricity producers raise serious concerns about abuses of market power and risk of future collusion. In particular, the strategic linkage of existing markets and the expansion into new ones are analyzed in the light of the multimarket contact theory. Considering investment in interconnection among Member States, the internal market issue is investigated as a solution to the 'risks' coming from liberalisation

  18. Concentration in the European electricity industry: The internal market as solution?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domanico, Fabio [Department of Economics, Luiss Guido Carli University, 1, Via O. Tommasini, 00162 Roma (Italy)

    2007-10-15

    This article offers an analysis of the present competitive and regulatory framework of the European electricity sector and the results achieved with the liberalisation process. Considering the reactions of incumbents to the liberalisation, the focus in this work is mainly on the problem of market concentration in the sector. The new trends toward the creation of 'national champions' as well as recent mergers between gas suppliers and electricity producers raise serious concerns about abuses of market power and risk of future collusion. In particular, the strategic linkage of existing markets and the expansion into new ones are analyzed in the light of the multimarket contact theory. Considering investment in interconnection among Member States, the internal market issue is investigated as a solution to the 'risks' coming from liberalisation. (author)

  19. National and international standards and recommendations on fire protection and fire safety assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, H.P.

    2007-01-01

    Experience feedback from events in nuclear facilities worldwide has shown that fire can represent a safety significant hazard. Thus, the primary objectives of fire protection programmes are to minimize both the probability of occurrence and the consequences of a fire. The regulator body expects that the licensees justify their arrangements for identifying how fires can occur and spread, assess the vulnerability of plant equipment and structures, determine how the safe operation of a plant is affected, and introduce measures to prevent a fire hazard from developing and propagating as well as to mitigate its effects in case the fire cannot be prevented. For that purpose usually a comprehensive regulatory framework for fire protection has been elaborated, based on national industrial regulations, nuclear specific regulations as well as international recommendations or requirements. Examples of such national and international standards and recommendations on fire protection and fire safety assessment as well as ongoing activities in this field are described. (orig.)

  20. Comparison of National and International Standards of Good Egg Production Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GP Sousa

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Egg production is an important economic activity in Brazil, with about 697 million eggs produced annually. The conventional cage system is commonly used for egg production. However, there has been a growing concern for the welfare of laying hens around the world. In this context, many countries have issued laws, protocols, and other normative technical specifications to ensure the welfare of layers. This study aims at identifying similarities and differences between international standards and Brazilian protocols using the Comparative Law perspective. This article reports an analytical study of selected protocols, performing three analyses using the Comparative Law method. The research concludes that some items of the Brazilian protocols of good egg production practices, such as farm inspection, treatment of diseases, temperature, ventilation, beak trimming, feed and water supply, correspond to international specifications, whereas others, such as housing, freedom movement, use of equipment, and transport, are less strict.

  1. Traditional Knowledge and Patent Protection: Conflicting Views On International Patent Standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Andrzejewski

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available As diseases continue to spread around the globe, pharmaceutical and biotech companies continue to search for new and better drugs to treat them. Most of these companies have realised that useful compounds for these purposes may be found in the natural resources that indigenous and local communities use. And yet, even though the importance of these biological resources to global health and economic livelihood is well recognised, the legal ownership and control of this traditional knowledge is still very controversial. This article undertakes a comparative analysis of American and European, as well as international legal regulations on patent law and traditional knowledge. Key questions include: What is traditional knowledge? How have the national patent laws of these countries treated the protection of plant variety and plant genetic resources? What are the existing international standards for patents, and what implications do they have for protecting traditional knowledge? And finally, what protection systems are emerging for the future?

  2. Development and pilot of an internationally standardized measure of cardiovascular risk management in European primary care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szecsenyi Joachim

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Primary care can play an important role in providing cardiovascular risk management in patients with established Cardiovascular Diseases (CVD, patients with a known high risk of developing CVD, and potentially for individuals with a low risk of developing CVD, but who have unhealthy lifestyles. To describe and compare cardiovascular risk management, internationally valid quality indicators and standardized measures are needed. As part of a large project in 9 European countries (EPA-Cardio, we have developed and tested a set of standardized measures, linked to previously developed quality indicators. Methods A structured stepwise procedure was followed to develop measures. First, the research team allocated 106 validated quality indicators to one of the three target populations (established CVD, at high risk, at low risk and to different data-collection methods (data abstraction from the medical records, a patient survey, an interview with lead practice GP/a practice survey. Secondly, we selected a number of other validated measures to enrich the assessment. A pilot study was performed to test the feasibility. Finally, we revised the measures based on the findings. Results The EPA-Cardio measures consisted of abstraction forms from the medical-records data of established Coronary Heart Disease (CHD-patients - and high-risk groups, a patient questionnaire for each of the 3 groups, an interview questionnaire for the lead GP and a questionnaire for practice teams. The measures were feasible and accepted by general practices from different countries. Conclusions An internationally standardized measure of cardiovascular risk management, linked to validated quality indicators and tested for feasibility in general practice, is now available. Careful development and pilot testing of the measures are crucial in international studies of quality of healthcare.

  3. Does science speak clearly and fairly in trade and food safety disputes? The search for an optimal response of WTO adjudication to problematic international standard-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Kuei-Jung

    2013-01-01

    Most international health-related standards are voluntary per se. However, the incorporation of international standard-making into WTO agreements like the SPS Agreement has drastically changed the status and effectiveness of the standards. WTO members are urged to follow international standards, even when not required to comply fully with them. Indeed, such standards have attained great influence in the trade system. Yet evidence shows that the credibility of the allegedly scientific approach of these international standard-setting institutions, especially the Codex Alimentarius Commission (Codex) governing food safety standards, has been eroded and diluted by industrial and political influences. Its decision-making is no longer based on consensus, but voting. The adoption of new safety limits for the veterinary drug ractopamine in 2012, by a very close vote, is simply another instance of the problematic operations of the Codex. These dynamics have led skeptics to question the legitimacy of the standard setting body and to propose solutions to rectify the situation. Prior WTO rulings have yet to pay attention to the defect in the decision-making processes of the Codex. Nevertheless, the recent Appellate Body decision on Hormones II is indicative of a deferential approach to national measures that are distinct from Codex formulas. The ruling also rejects the reliance on those experts who authored the Codex standards to assess new measures of the European Community. This approach provides an opportunity to contemplate what the proper relationship between the WTO and Codex ought to be. Through a critical review of WTO rulings and academic proposals, this article aims to analyze how the WTO ought to define such interactions and respond to the politicized standard-making process in an optimal manner. This article argues that building a more systematic approach and normative basis for WTO judicial review of standard-setting decisions and the selection of technical

  4. Role of the IAEA in establishment of the international standards of radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinak, M.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the presentation is to highlight the existing challenges in radiation protection, and provide insight into the role of the IAEA in establishment of the radiation safety standards. It will, inter alia, cover from the following areas: 1. global outreach of safety principles in radiation protection and safety; 2. IAEA and establishment of Safety Standards; 3. IAEA Standards and national regulations; 4. IAEA members states role in drafting and review of IAEA Safety Standards; 5. existing, novel issues and challenges. The role of the IAEA is to establish fundamental safety objectives in radiation protection and safety following fundamental safety objectives, safety principles and concepts. The main aim of Safety Standards is to provide for the establishment of a system for protection of people and the environment from harmful effects of ionizing radiation. The requirements as included in the Safety Standards aim to assess, manage and control exposure to radiation so that radiation risks, including risks of health effects and risks to the environment, are reduced to the extent reasonably achievable.One of the novel feature adopted in the revised Basic Safety Standards (BSS) is the classification of exposures - planned, emergency and existing - each of them including several categories of exposure (occupational, public and medical), where appropriate.The revised BSS also addresses areas like exemption and clearance being particularly important in international trade and transport; significantly increases the number of requirements in medicine, in response to novel and/or expanding techniques in medicine using ionizing radiation; incorporates new regulatory limits for exposure to radon, and in protection of the lens of the eyes, as recommended by WHO and ICRP; newly introduces requirements for specific practices like, for example, airport security screenings; and addresses many other areas.While the principal approach to regulatory aspects in emergency exposure

  5. International financial reporting standards (IFRS as a change agent in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Hong Yang

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to examine the perception of key actors regarding the costs and benefits that result from adopting International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS in Ukraine. Design/Methodology/Approach – The authors conducted a questionnaire survey in order to identify perceptions of financial managers of Ukrainian listed firms regarding the benefits and the costs associated with transition to IFRS. Our results showed that IFRS implementation impacts on internal reporting quality, the relationship with customers, creditors and shareholders, the access to international markets and external financing. It also indicated that financial managers have serious concerns about implementation costs related to the introduction of IFRS. These costs relate to training, instruction on IFRS adoption and translation of current IFRS, changes in software systems, double purpose accounting and deadlines for IFRS adoption and consulting services. Whilst this research has established a general model that consists of six factors, affecting IFRS relevance to Ukraine, the extent of interrelations between these factors is not clear. Thus, it may be of a great interest for future research to explore this issue in more detail and, in particular, conduct empirical research to determine the extent of interdependency between six factors in the model. The results and conclusions of this research can be of a great interest to policy makers and business practitioners since all public companies in Ukraine are obliged to adopt IFRS from 2012. It might be of interest to conduct this research on results of mandatory implementation of IFRS in Ukraine while taking into account the circumstances that suggested almost no relevance of the international accounting standards to the country at the moment of their application. This is the first metrical study that discusses the relevance of IFRS to Ukraine’s national needs

  6. International Standardization in the Design of "Shore to Ship" - Power Supply Systems of Ships in Port

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarnapowicz, Dariusz; German-Galkin, Sergiej

    2018-03-01

    The decisive source of air pollution emissions in ports is the berthed ships. This is primarily caused by the work of ship's autonomous generator sets. One way of reducing the air pollution emissions in ports is the supply of ships from electricity inland system. The main problem connected with the power connection of ships to the inland network is caused by different values of levels and frequencies of voltages in these networks (in various countries) in relation to different values of levels and frequencies of voltages present in the ship's network. It is also important that the source power can range from a few hundred kW up to several MW. In order to realize a universal „Shore to Ship" system that allows the connection of ships to the electricity inland network, the international standardization is necessary. This article presents the current recommendations, standards and regulations for the design of „Shore to Ship" systems.

  7. Radiation protection and safety of radiation sources international basic safety standards

    CERN Document Server

    International Atomic Energy Agency. Vienna

    2014-01-01

    The Board of Governors of the IAEA first approved Basic Safety Standards in June 1962; they were published by the IAEA as IAEA Safety Series No. 9. A revised edition was issued in 1967. A third revision was published by the IAEA as the 1982 Edition of IAEA Safety Series No. 9 ; this edition was jointly sponsored by the IAEA, ILO, OECD/NEA and the WHO. The next edition was International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources, published by the IAEA as IAEA Safety Series No. 115 in February 1996, and jointly sponsored by the FAO, IAEA, ILO, OECD/NEA, PAHO and the WHO.

  8. Double standards and the international trade of pesticides: the Brazilian case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porto, Marcelo Firpo; Milanez, Bruno; Soares, Wagner Lopes; Meyer, Armando

    2010-01-01

    Despite bans on certain pesticides and their replacement by others considered less hazardous, the widespread use of these substances in agriculture continues to threaten the environment and the health of millions of people. This article discusses the current double standard in the international trade of pesticides and focuses on Brazil, one of the main users of pesticides in the world, analyzing the trends in foreign trade (imports and exports) of selected pesticides as a function of changes in legislation in the United States, the European Union, and Brazil from 1989 to 2006. We applied time line analysis to eight organochlorines already banned in Brazil and conducted a case-by-case qualitative and quantitative analysis of nine other pesticides. The results indicate the existence of double standards, as demonstrated by the continued exports to Brazil of some pesticides banned in the United States and Europe.

  9. Methodological aspects of clinical trials in tinnitus: A proposal for an international standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landgrebe, Michael; Azevedo, Andréia; Baguley, David; Bauer, Carol; Cacace, Anthony; Coelho, Claudia; Dornhoffer, John; Figueiredo, Ricardo; Flor, Herta; Hajak, Goeran; van de Heyning, Paul; Hiller, Wolfgang; Khedr, Eman; Kleinjung, Tobias; Koller, Michael; Lainez, Jose Miguel; Londero, Alain; Martin, William H.; Mennemeier, Mark; Piccirillo, Jay; De Ridder, Dirk; Rupprecht, Rainer; Searchfield, Grant; Vanneste, Sven; Zeman, Florian; Langguth, Berthold

    2013-01-01

    Chronic tinnitus is a common condition with a high burden of disease. While many different treatments are used in clinical practice, the evidence for the efficacy of these treatments is low and the variance of treatment response between individuals is high. This is most likely due to the great heterogeneity of tinnitus with respect to clinical features as well as underlying pathophysiological mechanisms. There is a clear need to find effective treatment options in tinnitus, however, clinical trials differ substantially with respect to methodological quality and design. Consequently, the conclusions that can be derived from these studies are limited and jeopardize comparison between studies. Here, we discuss our view of the most important aspects of trial design in clinical studies in tinnitus and make suggestions for an international methodological standard in tinnitus trials. We hope that the proposed methodological standard will stimulate scientific discussion and will help to improve the quality of trials in tinnitus. PMID:22789414

  10. Model Manajemen Laba Akrual dan Riil Berbasis Implementasi International Financial Reporting Standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurmala Ahmar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of inplementasi International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS on accrual earnings management and real earnings management. Adoption of accounting standards have an impact on the way of assessment, measurement and presentation. Samples are manufacturing companies listed in Indonesia Stock Exchange. Accrual earnings measurement method using five measurement approach, and three approaches to the measurement of real earnings management. The results showed that there were differences in real earnings management approach diskretioner costs and production costs. Three of the five methods used accrual earnings management (Modified Jones, Piecewise Linear and Kothari proved to be the difference between before than after IFRS. While, Stubben Model not proved in this research. Results of this study are expected to have positive contribution on the development some policies related to the adoption of IFRS and the, particularly related to the accrual earnings management and real earnings management.

  11. Simulation of International Standard Problem No. 44 'KAEVER' experiments on aerosol behaviour with the CONTAIN code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kljenak, I.

    2001-01-01

    Experiments on aerosol behavior in a vapor-saturated atmosphere, which were performed in the KAEVER experimental facility and proposed for the OECD International Standard Problem No. 44, were simulated with the CONTAIN thermal-hydraulic computer code. The purpose of the work was to assess the capability of the CONTAIN code to model aerosol condensation and deposition in a containment of a light-water-reactor nuclear power plant at severe accident conditions. Results of dry and wet aerosol concentrations are presented and analyzed.(author)

  12. PANDA experiment and International Standard Problem for passive cooling systems for afterheat removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yadigaroglu, G.; Aksan, N.S.

    1999-01-01

    In the context of OECD/NEA, Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI) is working on an International Standard Problem which is to provide information on the efficiency and use of computer program systems for passive afterheat removal systems. The PANDA test facility of PSI was designed for these investigations. A six-phase PANDA experiment provides a basis for pre-calculation and recalculation of selected phases covering a limited number of system-typical operating states and phenomena. The experiment was specified and carried out in the year under report [de

  13. Error analysis of isotope dilution mass spectrometry method with internal standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rizhinskii, M.W.; Vitinskii, M.Y.

    1989-02-01

    The computation algorithms of the normalized isotopic ratios and element concentration by isotope dilution mass spectrometry with internal standard are presented. A procedure based on the Monte-Carlo calculation is proposed for predicting the magnitude of the errors to be expected. The estimation of systematic and random errors is carried out in the case of the certification of uranium and plutonium reference materials as well as for the use of those reference materials in the analysis of irradiated nuclear fuels. 4 refs, 11 figs, 2 tabs

  14. International Scientific Data, Standards, and Digital Libraries: An NSF NSDL (U.S. and CODATA Workshop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura M Bartolo

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available There is little debate that recent advances in information technology (IT are revolutionizing the practice of science and expanding its impact on global society. It is still debatable whether the transformation can take full advantage of these advances without open, international standards, embraced by the scientific community. Accompanying the increases in computing power and bandwidth, considerable discussion has surfaced about the availability and exchange of scientific data. Common themes in the dialogue underscore the need for new visions of data organization, storage, and dissemination (Nature Editorial, 2005.

  15. Standardization and determination of the total internal conversion coefficient of In-111.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matos, Izabela T; Koskinas, Marina F; Nascimento, Tatiane S; Yamazaki, Ione M; Dias, Mauro S

    2014-05-01

    The standardization of (111)In by means of a 4πβ-γ coincidence system, composed of a proportional counter in 4π geometry, coupled to a 20% relative efficiency HPGe crystal, for measuring gamma-rays is presented. The data acquisition was performed by means of the software coincidence system (SCS) and the activity was determined by the extrapolation technique. Two gamma-ray windows were selected: at 171 keV and 245 keV total absorption peaks, allowing the determination of the total internal conversion coefficient for these two gamma transitions. The results were compared with those available in the literature. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Standardization of radioactive gaseous waste radiation monitoring equipment from the International Electrotechnical Commission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitoussi, L.

    1983-01-01

    After having introduced the works performed by the International Electrotechnical Commission, the authors report on the results of the studies carried out to achieve the standardization of the radiation monitoring equipment concerning the control of the gaseous waste from nuclear installations. The authors present the most interesting aspects of the regulations and recommendations, which include not only a description of the minimum permissible levels of sensitivity for the monitors, but also a description of the set of assays to be established in order to verify the level of performance of the monitors

  17. Current Methods Applied to Biomaterials - Characterization Approaches, Safety Assessment and Biological International Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Justine P R; Ortiz, H Ivan Melendez; Bucio, Emilio; Alves, Patricia Terra; Lima, Mayara Ingrid Sousa; Goulart, Luiz Ricardo; Mathor, Monica B; Varca, Gustavo H C; Lugao, Ademar B

    2018-04-10

    Safety and biocompatibility assessment of biomaterials are themes of constant concern as advanced materials enter the market as well as products manufactured by new techniques emerge. Within this context, this review provides an up-to-date approach on current methods for the characterization and safety assessment of biomaterials and biomedical devices from a physicalchemical to a biological perspective, including a description of the alternative methods in accordance with current and established international standards. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  18. The use of international standards in ethics education in the Tunisian audit context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arfaoui Feten

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the educational tools used in teaching ethics in the Tunisian audit context. Data collection was based observation of ethics education sessions. The findings identified a large difference between the observed teaching practices of ethics education and the requirements of international education standards. The data collected and the discussion of the findings revealed the main challenges in teaching ethics to auditors in addition to certain innovative educational tools that can be used by future professionals when confronted with difficult situations in the workplace.

  19. Do international labor standards contribute to the persistence of the child-labor problem?

    OpenAIRE

    Doepke, Matthias; Zilibotti, Fabrizio

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, a number of governments and consumer groups in rich countries have tried to discourage the use of child labor in poor countries through measures such as product boycotts and the imposition of international labor standards. The purported objective of such measures is to reduce the incidence of child labor in developing countries and thereby improve children�s welfare. In this paper, we examine the effects of such policies from a political-economy perspective. We show that th...

  20. The Children's Body Image Scale: reliability and use with international standards for body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truby, Helen; Paxton, Susan J

    2008-03-01

    To test the reliability of the Children's Body Image Scale (CBIS) and assess its usefulness in the context of new body size charts for children. Participants were 281 primary schoolchildren with 50% being retested after 3 weeks. The CBIS figure scale was compared with a range of international body mass index (BMI) reference standards. Children had a high degree of body image dissatisfaction. The test-retest reliability of the CBIS was supported. The CBIS is a useful tool for assessing body image in children with sound scale properties. It can also be used to identify the body size of children, which lies outside the healthy weight range of BMI.

  1. Solutions obtained to international heat transfer benchmarking problems for nuclear fuel casks using Q/TRAN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, L.C.

    1987-02-01

    In 1985 Sandia National Laboratories participated in the Nuclear Energy Agency Committee on Reactor Physics (NEACRP) Specialists' Meeting on Heat Transfer Assessment of Transportation Packages. The objective of the meeting was to establish a set of model problems for use in comparing the performance of thermal analysis computer codes that may be used in the design of nuclear fuel shipping casks. The selected problems are to be used to compare code results for the thermal phenomena of conduction, convection, and radiation in cask-like problems. Two model problems were used in this study. The first problem required the determination of the steady-state temperatures of a 16 x 16 array of heated and unheated pins (representing fuel and control rod positions) of a simulated PWR fuel assembly. The second problem required the determination of transient temperatures of a finned surface (representing the external surface of a cask) subjected to an internal heat flux and to an external engulfing fire. Solutions to the problems were obtained with the code ''Q/TRAN.'' Solutions and descriptions of the necessary modeling techniques are given in this report

  2. International Society for the Advancement of Cytometry cell sorter biosafety standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Kevin L; Fontes, Benjamin; Hogarth, Philip; Konz, Richard; Monard, Simon; Pletcher, Charles H; Wadley, Robert B; Schmid, Ingrid; Perfetto, Stephen P

    2014-05-01

    Flow cytometric cell sorting of biological specimens has become prevalent in basic and clinical research laboratories. These specimens may contain known or unknown infectious agents, necessitating precautions to protect instrument operators and the environment from biohazards arising from the use of sorters. To this end the International Society of Analytical Cytology (ISAC) was proactive in establishing biosafety guidelines in 1997 (Schmid et al., Cytometry 1997;28:99-117) and subsequently published revised biosafety standards for cell sorting of unfixed samples in 2007 (Schmid et al., Cytometry Part A J Int Soc Anal Cytol 2007;71A:414-437). Since their publication, these documents have become recognized worldwide as the standard of practice and safety precautions for laboratories performing cell sorting experiments. However, the field of cytometry has progressed since 2007, and the document requires an update. The new Standards provides guidance: (1) for laboratory design for cell sorter laboratories; (2) for the creation of laboratory or instrument specific Standard Operating Procedures (SOP); and (3) on procedures for the safe operation of cell sorters, including personal protective equipment (PPE) and validation of aerosol containment. Published © 2014 Wiley Periodicals Inc.

  3. International safety standards and regulatory practices and their application to Brazilian nuclear power plants - a realistic view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, Claudio; Camargo, Claudio

    1999-01-01

    An international nuclear safety regime is being established through a series of binding safety conventions, voluntarily adopted international safety standards and an accompanying peer review process. The basis for the evaluation of each country performance within this international regime should be the international practices. However, local conditions should be taken into account to avoid undue stress of the limited resources available to countries with a limited nuclear power programme. This work reviews the current international nuclear safety and discusses the application of some international practices to the Brazilian situation, considering the peculiarities of the national nuclear power programme and the limitations of the available financial and human resources. (author)

  4. Internal combustion engine cold-start efficiency: A review of the problem, causes and potential solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, Andrew; Brooks, Richard; Shipway, Philip

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The sources of I.C. engine cold start efficiency are reviewed and quantified. • Potential solutions are reviewed and the benefit quantified together. • Potential conflicts between different engine sub-systems are discussed. • Fuel consumption benefits of up to 7% are observed during cold start. • Emission reductions of up to 40% during cold start are observed. - Abstract: Legislation on vehicle emissions continues to become more stringent in an effort to minimise the impact of internal combustion engines on the environment. One area of significant concern in this respect is that of the cold-start; the thermal efficiency of the internal combustion engine is significantly lower at cold-start than when the vehicle reaches steady state temperatures owing to sub-optimal lubricant and component temperatures. The drive for thermal efficiency (of both the internal combustion engine and of the vehicle as a whole) has led to a variety of solutions being trialled to assess their merits and effects on other vehicle systems during this warm-up phase (and implemented where appropriate). The approaches have a common theme of attempting to reduce energy losses so that systems and components reach their intended operating temperature range as soon as possible after engine start. In the case of the engine, this is primarily focused on the lubricant system. Lubricant viscosity is highly sensitive to temperature and the increased viscosity at low temperatures results in higher frictional and pumping losses than would be observed at the target operating temperature. The approaches used to tackle the problem include the use of phase change materials (to reduce the cool-down rate during a period following engine running) [1,2] and the use of thermal barrier coatings in an attempt to insulate the cylinder bore and prevent heat loss (thus increasing the amount of energy utilised as brake work [3]). A range of system alterations have also been trialled including

  5. High-performance liquid chromatographic analysis of cyclosporin A in rat blood and liver using a commercially available internal standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chimalakonda, Anjaneya P; Shah, Rakhi B; Mehvar, Reza

    2002-05-25

    All the available HPLC assays of cyclosporin A (CyA) use internal standards that are not commercially available. Our purpose was to develop an HPLC assay for measurements of CyA in rat blood and liver using a commercially available internal standard (I.S.). After the addition of tamoxifen (I.S.), blood (0.25 ml) or the liver homogenate (1 ml) samples were extracted into a mixture of ether:methanol (95:5). The residue after evaporation of the organic layer was dissolved in 200 microl of an injection solution and washed with 1 ml of hexane before analysis. The separation was achieved using an LC-1 column (70 degrees C) with a mobile phase of methanol-acetonitrile-0.01 M KH(2)PO(4) (50:25:25, v/v) and a flow-rate of 1 ml/min. Detection was at 205 nm. Cyclosporin A and I.S. eluted at 5 and 7 min, respectively, free from endogenous peaks. Linear relationships (r>0.98) were observed between the CyA:I.S. peak area ratios and the CyA concentrations within the range of 0.2-10 microg/ml for blood and 0.1-4 microg/ml for the liver homogenates. The intra- and inter-run C.V.s and errors for both the blood and liver samples were <15%. The extraction efficiency (n=5) was close to 100% for both CyA and I.S. in both blood and liver homogenates. The lower limit of quantitation of the assay was 0.2 or 0.1 microg/ml based on 250 microl of blood or 1 ml of liver homogenate, respectively. The assay was capable of measuring blood and liver concentrations of CyA in a rat injected intravenously with a single 5-mg/kg dose of the drug.

  6. THE VALUE RELEVANCE OF INTERNATIONAL ACCOUNTING STANDARD IMPLEMENTATION AND AUDIT QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanifa Zulhaimi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of international accounting standards in Indonesia has significantly affected financial reporting. It increases information relevance for the investors because a fair value comprehensively represents assets and liabilities of an entity as of the balance sheet date. However, this triggers polemics over the value relevance of International Financial Reporting Standard (IFRS. This can be seen from stock price decline. This study aims to find out the effect of net income and other comprehensive income on stock price and to observe the effect of other comprehensive income moderated by audit quality. Furthermore this study also aims to find out the effect of  the subjectivity of OCI components. Using a sample of 79 companies, the writer analyzes 2014 financial statements derived from Indonesia Stock Exchange. Based on the result, the predetermined hypotheses are unable to prove. Net income is the only variable that affects stock return. Thus it can be concluded that net income has a value relevance for the investors in making economic decisions.

  7. The environment, international standards, asset health management and condition monitoring: An integrated strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roe, S. [CSD, British Institute of Non-Destructive Testing (BINDT) (United Kingdom); Mba, D. [School of Engineering, Cranfield University, MK43 0AL, Bedfordshire (United Kingdom)], E-mail: d.mba@cranfield.ac.uk

    2009-02-15

    Asset Health Management (AHM), supported by condition monitoring (CM) and performance measuring technologies, together with trending, modelling and diagnostic frameworks, is not only critical to the reliability of high-value machines, but also to a companies Overall Equipment Efficiency (OEE), system safety and profitability. In addition these protocols are also critical to the global concern of the environment. Industries involved with monitoring key performances indicators (KPI) to improve OEE would benefit from a standardised qualification and certification scheme for their personnel, particularly if it is based on internationally accepted procedures for the various CM technologies that also share the same objectives as AH and CM. Furthermore, the development of 'models' for implementation of a Carbon tax is intrinsically dependent on the integrity and accuracy of measurements contributing to these indicators. This paper reviews the global picture of condition monitoring, the environment and related international standards and then considers their relationship and equivalent global objectives. In addition, it presents the methods behind the development of such standards for certification of competence in personnel involved with data collection, modelling and measurements of KPIs. Two case studies are presented that highlight the integrated strategy in practise.

  8. Biological effects of tritium on fish cells in the concentration range of international drinking water standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Marilyne; Festarini, Amy; Schleicher, Krista; Tan, Elizabeth; Kim, Sang Bog; Wen, Kendall; Gawlik, Jilian; Ulsh, Brant

    2016-10-01

    To evaluate whether the current Canadian tritium drinking water limit is protective of aquatic biota, an in vitro study was designed to assess the biological effects of low concentrations of tritium, similar to what would typically be found near a Canadian nuclear power station, and higher concentrations spanning the range of international tritium drinking water standards. Channel catfish peripheral blood B-lymphoblast and fathead minnow testis cells were exposed to 10-100,000 Bq l(-1) of tritium, after which eight molecular and cellular endpoints were assessed. Increased numbers of DNA strand breaks were observed and ATP levels were increased. There were no increases in γH2AX-mediated DNA repair. No differences in cell growth were noted. Exposure to the lowest concentrations of tritium were associated with a modest increase in the viability of fathead minnow testicular cells. Using the micronucleus assay, an adaptive response was observed in catfish B-lymphoblasts. Using molecular endpoints, biological responses to tritium in the range of Canadian and international drinking water standards were observed. At the cellular level, no detrimental effects were noted on growth or cycling, and protective effects were observed as an increase in cell viability and an induced resistance to a large challenge dose.

  9. The environment, international standards, asset health management and condition monitoring: An integrated strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roe, S.; Mba, D.

    2009-01-01

    Asset Health Management (AHM), supported by condition monitoring (CM) and performance measuring technologies, together with trending, modelling and diagnostic frameworks, is not only critical to the reliability of high-value machines, but also to a companies Overall Equipment Efficiency (OEE), system safety and profitability. In addition these protocols are also critical to the global concern of the environment. Industries involved with monitoring key performances indicators (KPI) to improve OEE would benefit from a standardised qualification and certification scheme for their personnel, particularly if it is based on internationally accepted procedures for the various CM technologies that also share the same objectives as AH and CM. Furthermore, the development of 'models' for implementation of a Carbon tax is intrinsically dependent on the integrity and accuracy of measurements contributing to these indicators. This paper reviews the global picture of condition monitoring, the environment and related international standards and then considers their relationship and equivalent global objectives. In addition, it presents the methods behind the development of such standards for certification of competence in personnel involved with data collection, modelling and measurements of KPIs. Two case studies are presented that highlight the integrated strategy in practise

  10. The need for international standardization in clinical beta dosimetry for brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quast, U.; Boehm, J.; Kaulich, T.W.

    2002-01-01

    Beta radiation has found increasing interest in radiotherapy. Besides the curative treatment of small and medium-sized intraocular tumors by means of ophthalmic beta radiation plaques, intravascular brachytherapy has proven to successfully overcome the severe problem of restenosis after interventional treatment of arterial stenosis in coronaries and peripheral vessels in many clinical trials with a large number of patients. Prior to initiating procedures applying beta radiation in radiotherapy, however, there is a common need to specify methods for the determination and specification of the absorbed dose to water or tissue and their spatial distributions. The IAEA-TECDOC-1274 Calibration of photon and beta ray sources used in brachytherapy (2002) is a help for photon brachytherapy calibration. But, for beta seed and line sources, IAEA recommends well type ionization chambers as working standards which are far from measuring absorbed dose to water of the radiation clinically used. Although the application of such working standards seems to be more precise, large errors can occur when the medical physicist has to convert the calibration data to absorbed dose to water of the beta radiation emitted. The user must believe that the source is equally activated and that the manufacturer did not change the design and construction of the source encapsulation. With the DGMP Report 16 (2001) Guidelines for medical physical aspects of intravascular brachytherapy a very detailed code of practice is given, especially for the calibration and clinical dosimetry of intravascular beta radiation sources. As there is a global need for standardization in clinical dosimetry for intravascular brachytherapy utilizing beta radiation, the DIN-NAR, the German committee on standardization in radiology, task group dosimetry, has initiated an international adhoc working group for a new ISO work item proposal on the standardization of procedures in clinical dosimetry to guarantee reliable

  11. Software life cycle management standards real-world solutions and scenarios for savings

    CERN Document Server

    Wright, David

    2011-01-01

    Software Life Cycle Management Standards will help you apply ISO/IEC 19770 to your business and enjoy the rewards it offers. David Wright calls on his vast experience to explain how the Standard applies to the whole of the software life cycle, not just the software asset management aspects. His informative guide gives up-to-date information using practical examples, clear diagrams and entertaining anecdotes.

  12. Draft I.E.C. standard for monitoring PWR internal structures; Projet de norme C.E.I. pour la surveillance des structures internes des REP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trenty, A.

    1994-06-01

    EDF has proposed to the International Electrotechnical Commission a draft standard for monitoring the vessel internal structures of PWRs. The standard applies to systems used for monitoring the vibratory behavior of the internal structures of PWRs (core barrel, thermal shield, fuel assemblies) on the basis of neutron fluctuations observed outside the vessel as well as of vessel vibrations. It covers the systems characteristics and the monitoring procedures. It should facilitate standardization of monitoring and comparisons on an international level. This paper presents the main features of the draft standard: -principles of measurement: correlation between movements of internals and ex core neutron noise on the one hand, forced vibrations of the vessel on the other hand; -sampling and conditioning of the signals; -monitoring equipment and in particular spectral analysis device; -functions of the monitoring software used for spectral analysis, peak detection and calculation of structure displacement; -studies preliminary to setting up the monitoring (calculation of internal vibratory modes, defect simulation on mockup, qualification on reactor during hot test...); -monitoring procedures (periodicity of analysis and what to do in case of anomaly); -documentation necessary to the monitoring. A diagnostic procedure is given as an example. The draft standard, written in 1994, will be presented in Frankfurt (Germany) in February 1995. (author). 1 annexe.

  13. The 1993 QUASIMEME laboratory-performance study: chlorobiphenyls in fish oil and standard solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wells, D.E.; Boer, de J.

    1994-01-01

    A laboratory-performance study has been undertaken to improve the measurement of chlorobiphenyls in marine biota as part of the QUASIMEME (EU - Measurement and Testing) project. Fifty-two laboratories were invited to participate, of which 47 returned data on nine congeners in iso-octane solution and

  14. Cost and Fuel Efficient SCR-only Solution for post-2010 HD Emission Standards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cloudt, R.P.M.; Willems, F.P.T.; Heijden, van der P.

    2009-01-01

    A promising SCR-only solution is presented to meetpost-2010 NOx emission targets for heavy dutyapplications. The proposed concept is based on anengine from a EURO IV SCR application, which isconsidered optimal with respect to fuel economy andcosts. The addition of advanced SCR after

  15. Cost and fuel efficient SCR-only solution for post-2010 HD emission standards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cloudt, R.P.M.; Willems, F.P.T.; Heijden, P.V.A.M. van der

    2009-01-01

    A promising SCR-only solution is presented to meet post-2010 NOx emission targets for heavy duty applications. The proposed concept is based on an engine from a EURO IV SCR application, which is considered optimal with respect to fuel economy and costs. The addition of advanced SCR after treatment

  16. Efficacy of handrubbing with alcohol based solution versus standard handwashing with antiseptic soap: randomised clinical trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girou, Emmanuelle; Loyeau, Sabrina; Legrand, Patrick; Oppein, Françoise; Brun-Buisson, Christian

    2002-01-01

    Objective To compare the efficacy of handrubbing with an alcohol based solution versus conventional handwashing with antiseptic soap in reducing hand contamination during routine patient care. Design Randomised controlled trial during daily nursing sessions of 2 to 3 hours. Setting Three intensive care units in a French university hospital. Participants 23 healthcare workers. Interventions Handrubbing with alcohol based solution (n=12) or handwashing with antiseptic soap (n=11) when hand hygiene was indicated before and after patient care. Imprints taken of fingertips and palm of dominant hand before and after hand hygiene procedure. Bacterial counts quantified blindly. Main outcome measures Bacterial reduction of hand contamination. Results With handrubbing the median percentage reduction in bacterial contamination was significantly higher than with handwashing (83% v 58%, P=0.012), with a median difference in the percentage reduction of 26% (95% confidence interval 8% to 44%). The median duration of hand hygiene was 30 seconds in each group. Conclusions During routine patient care handrubbing with an alcohol based solution is significantly more efficient in reducing hand contamination than handwashing with antiseptic soap. What is already known on this topicTo improve compliance with hand hygiene during patient care, handrubbing with an alcohol based solution has been proposed as a substitute for handwashing because of its rapid action and accessibilityExperimental studies show that handrubbing is at least as effective as medicated soap in reducing artificial contamination of handsMany healthcare workers still have reservations regarding its efficacy and are reluctant to use this techniqueWhat this study addsWhen used in routine practice, handrubbing with an alcohol based solution after contact with patients achieved a greater reduction in bacterial contamination of hands than conventional handwashing with medicated soap PMID:12183307

  17. Opacity of financial information, adoption of international standards and legal origins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Turola Takamatsu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – The goal of this study was to investigate the relationship between the level of Earnings Opacity and a company’s informational environment, specifically considering accounting standards and the legal origins of the system. Design/methodology/approach – The sample consisted of publicly traded companies from 20 countries classified as emerging, based on agency Standard & Poor’s index. The sample included data from 2004 to 2013. In order to compare the indicators among the group of countries, taking into account their institutional characteristics, the Mann-Whitney test and the Kruskal-Wallis test were performed. Findings – The assessment of the informational environment measures’ behavior in emerging countries revealed that these measures were correlated, suggesting that, despite different behaviors, opacity proxies share information. The fact that earnings opacity was lower in countries that had already adopted international standards during the analyzed period was also observed. In the same sense, a higher level of income smoothing was detected in countries of French code law origins. Originality/value – This article contributes to the understanding of the relationship between the characteristics of an accounting informational environment and the levels of opacity of the information emitted by accounting. Thus, this article has helped managers, investors and regulators to understand users’ needs and how country-specific characteristics change their perspectives.

  18. The legitimacy of transnational private governance arrangements related to nanotechnologies: the case of international organization for standardization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kica, Evisa

    2015-01-01

    The core of this thesis consists of developing a comprehensive empirical assessment on the legitimacy of nanotechnology related transnational private governance arrangements (TPGAs), explored through the case study of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) Technical Committee on

  19. Strategies for using international domain standards within a national context: The case of the Dutch temporary staffing industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Folmer, Erwin Johan Albert; van Bekkum, Michael; Verhoosel, Jack

    2009-01-01

    This paper will discuss strategies for using international domain standards within a national context. The various strategies are illustrated by means of a case study of the temporary staffing industry.

  20. Compensation of matrix effects in gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of pesticides using a combination of matrix matching and multiple isotopically labeled internal standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchiyama, Tomoyuki; Katsuhara, Miki; Nakajima, Masahiro

    2017-11-17

    In the multi-residue analysis of pesticides using GC-MS, the quantitative results are adversely affected by a phenomenon known as the matrix effect. Although the use of matrix-matched standards is considered to be one of the most practical solutions to this problem, complete removal of the matrix effect is difficult in complex food matrices owing to their inconsistency. As a result, residual matrix effects can introduce analytical errors. To compensate for residual matrix effects, we have developed a novel method that employs multiple isotopically labeled internal standards (ILIS). The matrix effects of ILIS and pesticides were evaluated in spiked matrix extracts of various agricultural commodities, and the obtained data were subjected to simple statistical analysis. Based on the similarities between the patterns of variation in the analytical response, a total of 32 isotopically labeled compounds were assigned to 338 pesticides as internal standards. It was found that by utilizing multiple ILIS, residual matrix effects could be effectively compensated. The developed method exhibited superior quantitative performance compared with the common single-internal-standard method. The proposed method is more feasible for regulatory purposes than that using only predetermined correction factors and is considered to be promising for practical applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.