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Sample records for internal radiation treatment

  1. Prevention and treatment of complications of selective internal radiation therapy: Expert guidance and systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangro, Bruno; Martínez-Urbistondo, Diego; Bester, Lourens; Bilbao, Jose I; Coldwell, Douglas M; Flamen, Patrick; Kennedy, Andrew; Ricke, Jens; Sharma, Ricky A

    2017-09-01

    Selective internal radiation therapy (or radioembolization) by intra-arterial injection of radioactive yttrium-90-loaded microspheres is increasingly used for the treatment of patients with liver metastases or primary liver cancer. The high-dose beta-radiation penetrates an average of only 2.5 mm from the source, thus limiting its effects to the site of delivery. However, the off-target diversion of yttrium-90 microspheres to tissues other than the tumor may lead to complications. The most prominent of these complications include radiation gastritis and gastrointestinal ulcers, cholecystitis, radiation pneumonitis, and radioembolization-induced liver disease, which may occur despite careful pretreatment planning. Thus, selective internal radiation therapy demands an expert multidisciplinary team approach in order to provide comprehensive care for patients. This review provides recommendations to multidisciplinary teams on the optimal medical processes in order to ensure the safe delivery of selective internal radiation therapy. Based on the best available published evidence and expert opinion, we recommend the most appropriate strategies for the prevention, early diagnosis, and management of potential radiation injury to the liver and to other organs. (Hepatology 2017;66:969-982). © 2017 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  2. Conformal external beam radiation or selective internal radiation therapy-a comparison of treatment outcomes for hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oladeru, Oluwadamilola T; Miccio, Joseph A; Yang, Jie; Xue, Yaqi; Ryu, Samuel; Stessin, Alexander M

    2016-06-01

    Non-operative treatment for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has expanded significantly with the use of selective internal radiotherapy (SIRT) mostly with yttrium 90 ((90)Y) tagged microspheres and highly conformal external beam radiation therapy such as stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) to treat unresectable liver tumors for local tumor control. SBRT is a noninvasive procedure using external radiation source under image guidance, while SIRT delivers radioactive particles by transarterial radioembolization (TARE). However, the survival benefits of SBRT versus SIRT have never been compared. The aim of the present study is to compare the outcomes of overall and disease specific survival (DSS) using SIRT versus SBRT to treat HCC. The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) registry database [2004-2011] was queried for cases of unresectable HCC. Patients with missing data and those who received surgery were excluded from the study. A total of 189 patients with unresectable HCC were identified and used for statistical analysis, with 112 receiving SBRT and 77 receiving SIRT. Overall and disease-specific survival was compared using multivariable cox proportional hazard models. After adjusting for confounding factors (age at diagnosis, gender, race, grade, stage, AFP level and type of surgery), there were no significant difference in overall survival (OS) [hazard ratio (HR), 0.72; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.49-1.07; P=0.1077] and DSS (HR, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.46-1.05; P=0.0880) for SIRT compared to SBRT. However, patients with elevated AFP level were associated with higher death risk (P=0.0459) and disease specific death risk (P=0.0233) than those with AFP within normal limits in both treatment groups. The retrospective analysis serves as the first comparison of SIRT to SBRT in treatment of unresectable HCC. Our findings suggest both treatment approaches result in similar outcomes in overall and disease-specific survival benefit. Future prospective randomized

  3. Steps towards an individual treatment planning with the internal dosimetry of 18F-FDG as example for nuclear diagnostics and perspectives for internal radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaickner, M.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Moving towards a more individual treatment planning, the studies below describe the perspectives and methods both in nuclear diagnostics and in internal radiation therapy. With 18 F-FDG as example in nuclear diagnostics, a more precise estimation of the effective dose to the patient is achieved by the calculation of physiognomy-dependent S-values. This project is a work in progress and the results are expected soon. Additionally the future possibilities of individual treatment planning in internal radiation therapy, such as the use of β-nuclide pairs and the potentials of combining CT and PET, are outlined. (author)

  4. Ischemic Cardiac Events Following Treatment of the Internal Mammary Nodal Region Using Contemporary Radiation Planning Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dess, Robert T; Liss, Adam L; Griffith, Kent A; Marsh, Robin B; Moran, Jean M; Mayo, Charles; Koelling, Todd M; Jagsi, Reshma; Hayman, James A; Pierce, Lori J

    2017-12-01

    Regional nodal irradiation, including radiation therapy (RT) to the internal mammary node (IMN) region, improves oncologic outcomes in patients with node-positive breast cancer. Concern remains, however, given the proximity of the IMNs to the heart and the association between cardiac RT exposure and toxicity. The objective of the study was to evaluate rates of ischemic cardiac events (ICEs) and associated risk with treatment of the IMN region. The cardiac outcomes of 2126 patients treated with adjuvant breast RT or breast and nodal RT from 1984 to 2007 at a single institution were reviewed. The primary endpoint was an ICE following RT initiation. The association between IMN RT and ICEs was assessed using Cox proportional hazards models. Treatment with both IMN RT and 3-dimensional (3D) conformal radiation therapy (CRT) began in 1997; therefore, subset analyses of patients with only 3D CRT were performed to minimize bias associated with improved treatment technique. The median follow-up period was 9.3 years. An ICE occurred in 87 patients (4.1%). No increased 10-year rate of ICEs was observed with IMN RT compared with no IMN RT in the total cohort (3.2% [95% confidence interval (CI), 2.4%-4.3%] vs 3.4% [95% CI, 1.5%-7.5%]; hazard ratio [HR], 0.88; P=.73). Similarly, no statistically significant difference was noted in the 3D CRT-planned, left-sided disease subset (5.1% [95% CI, 1.8%-14.1%] vs 4.0% [95% CI, 2.0%-8.0%]; HR, 1.18, P=.76). On multivariate analysis, adjusting for cardiac risk factor imbalances, no significantly increased hazard was noted with IMN RT (HR, 1.84; P=.28) in the 3D CRT-planned, left-sided disease subset. No statistically significant association between IMN RT and ICEs was demonstrated in a review of patients treated at a single institution from 1984 to 2007. Given the long natural history and low overall rate of ICEs, continued follow-up of this study, as well as additional studies in the 3D CRT era, is warranted to confirm these results

  5. Modeling Internal Radiation Therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Broek, Egon; Schouten, Theo E.; Pellegrini, M.; Fred, A.; Filipe, J.; Gamboa, H.

    2011-01-01

    A new technique is described to model (internal) radiation therapy. It is founded on morphological processing, in particular distance transforms. Its formal basis is presented as well as its implementation via the Fast Exact Euclidean Distance (FEED) transform. Its use for all variations of internal

  6. Internal radiation dosimetry in radionuclide therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyeong Min; Lim, Sang Moo

    2006-01-01

    Radionuclide therapy has been continued for treatment of incurable diseases for past decades. Relevant evaluation of absorbed dose in radionuclide therapy in important to predict treatment output and essential for making treatment planning to prevent unexpected radiation toxicity. Many scientists in the field related with nuclear medicine have made effort to evolve concept and technique for internal radiation dosimetry. In this review, basic concept of internal radiation dosimetry if described and recent progress in method for dosimetry is introduced

  7. Radiation treatment of foodstuffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luther, T.; Huebner, G.

    1990-10-01

    In addition to fundamental demands on radiation and safety engineering of irradiation facilities, the necessity arises to optimize irradiation conditions by using facilities to capacity and thus reducing irradiation costs. The following subjects are dealt with in detail: rehabilitation of a pilot plant for radiation treatment of onions; examination of radiation resistance of components and equipment parts of food irradiation facilities; chemical dosimetry; relative measurement of the intensity of radioactive sources; thermo- and chemiluminescence to prove irradiation of foodstuffs; radiation induced sprout inhibition of potatoes; laboratory tests of delayed maturation of tomatoes; radiation treatment of strawberries; radiation treatment of forage; radiation induced sprout inhibition of acid-treated onions; radiation treatment of starch and potatoe products; radiation treatment of cosmetics; the universal radiation source UNI 88/26 for gamma irradiation facilities; microbiological aspects of food irradiation, and introduction of chicken irradiation on an industrial scale. (BBR) [de

  8. International Conference Medical Radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    Full text : The second edition of the international conference Medical radiation : research and applications which took place in Marrakech (Morocco) from 7 to 9 April 2010, was designed to bring together researchers and physicians from different countries who dedicated their talents and time to this endeavour. The conference's program defined goals were is to identify the most reliable techniques among the several tested so far and to establish the most practical standardized methodologies, taking into account such recent technological development in radiation medical research. The scientific objectives of this conference are as follows : present the state of the art of the various topics of the congress, give a progress report on the impact of the interaction of the various scientific and technical disciplinary fields (Medicine, Biology, Mathematics, Physics,..) on the applications of radiations in medicine, promote the interdisciplinary efforts of research among researchers, present new technologies and research and development tasks prepared in the field of medical radiations, contribute to the emergence of new ideas of research and development of new collaborations [fr

  9. Glass Microspheres 90Y Selective Internal Radiation Therapy and Chemotherapy as First-Line Treatment of Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edeline, Julien; Du, Fanny Le; Rayar, Michel; Rolland, Yan; Beuzit, Luc; Boudjema, Karim; Rohou, Tanguy; Latournerie, Marianne; Campillo-Gimenez, Boris; Garin, Etienne; Boucher, Eveline

    2015-11-01

    Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma's incidence is increasing. We studied the efficacy of Y selective internal radiation therapy (SIRT) as first-line treatment, with chemotherapy, and compared with the results of chemotherapy alone. We retrospectively studied data from patients treated at our institution with glass microspheres SIRT for intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma as part of first-line treatment in combination with chemotherapy. We compared results with those of similar patients treated in the ABC-02 study (a study in advanced biliary tract cancer that defined the current standard chemotherapy), assessed as not progressing after the first evaluation. We assessed progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). Twenty-four patients were treated with SIRT. Chemotherapy was given concomitantly in 10 (42%), as induction before SIRT in 13 (54%) or after SIRT in 1 (4%). Grade 3 adverse events were reported in 1 (4%). Median PFS after SIRT was 10.3 months. Longer PFS was observed when chemotherapy was given concomitantly than when chemotherapy was given before SIRT, with respective median of 20.0 versus 8.8 months (P = 0.001). Median OS after SIRT was not reached. Eleven patients went to surgery (46%). Thirty-three patients in ABC-02 had locally advanced nonextrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma, not progressing after first evaluation. From the start of any treatment, the median PFS was 16.0 months in our cohort versus 11.3 months in ABC-02 (P = 0.25), whereas the median OS was significantly higher in our cohort, not reached versus 17.9 months, respectively (P = 0.026). Selective internal radiation therapy combined with concomitant chemotherapy seems a promising strategy as first-line treatment for unresectable intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma.

  10. Nursing care update: Internal radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowdermilk, D.L.

    1990-01-01

    Internal radiation therapy has been used in treating gynecological cancers for over 100 years. A variety of radioactive sources are currently used alone and in combination with other cancer treatments. Nurses need to be able to provide safe, comprehensive care to patients receiving internal radiation therapy while using precautions to keep the risks of exposure to a minimum. This article discusses current trends and issues related to such treatment for gynecological cancers.20 references

  11. Radiation safety: New international standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, A.J.

    1994-01-01

    This article highlights an important result of this work for the international harmonization of radiation safety: specifically, it present an overview of the forthcoming International Basic Safety Standards for Protection Against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources - the so-called BSS. They have been jointly developed by six organizations - the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the International Labour Organization (ILO), the Nuclear Energy Agency of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (NEA/OECD), the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO), and the World Health Organization (WHO)

  12. Liver Selective Internal Radiation Therapy with (90)Y resin microspheres: comparison between pre-treatment activity calculation methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardini, M; Smadja, C; Faraggi, M; Orio, S; Petitguillaume, A; Desbrée, A; Ghazzar, N

    2014-11-01

    Different methods to calculate (90)Y resin microspheres activity for Selective Internal Radiation Therapy (SIRT) were compared. Such comparison is not yet available and is needed in clinical practice to optimize patient specific treatment planning. 32 (99m)Tc-macroagregates (MAA) evaluations were performed, followed by 26 treatments. Four methods to calculate (90)Y-activity were applied retrospectively: three based on Body Surface Area and one based on MIRD formalism, partition model (PM). Relationships between calculated activities, lung breakthrough (LB), the activity concentration ratio between lesions and healthy liver (T/N) and tumour involvement were investigated, where lobar and whole liver treatments were analysed separately. Without attenuation correction, overestimation of LB was 65%. In any case, the estimated lungs' doses remained below 30 Gy. Thus, the maximal injectable activity (MIA) is not limited by lungs' irradiation. Moreover, LB was not significantly related to T/N, neither to tumour involvement nor radiochemical purity (RP). Differences in calculated activity with the four methods were extremely large, in particular they were greater between BSA-based and PM activities for lobar treatments (from -85% to 417%) compared to whole liver treatments (from -49% to 61%). Two values of T/N ratio were identified as thresholds: for BSA-based methods, healthy liver doses are much higher than 30 Gy when T/N  4. As PM accounts for uptake ratio between normal and tumour liver, this method should be employed over BSA-based methods. Copyright © 2014 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Endovascular treatment of radiation-induced petrous internal carotid artery aneurysm presenting with acute haemorrhage. A report of two cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, K.-M.; Chiu, H.-M.; Chan, C.-M.; Cheung, Y.-L.; Tang, K.-W.; Law, C.-K.

    2001-01-01

    Hemorrhage from rupture of petrous ICA aneurysm can be life threatening and emergency treatment is required. We report 2 cases of radiation-induced petrous internal carotid artery (ICA) aneurysm presenting with acute hemorrhage (epistaxis and otorrhagia) after radiotherapy (RT) for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Both patients had a history of RT treatment for NPC. The first patient, a 54-year-old man, presented with sudden severe epistaxis and hemorrhagic shock. The second patient, a 35-year-old man, presented with episodes of severe otorrhagia. The first patient was immediately resuscitated. Obliteration of the aneurysm was performed by endovascular occlusion of the ICA with Guglielmi detachable coils and fibered platinum coils. For the second patient, the aneurysm was treated by deploying a self-expandable stent across the aneurysm neck. In an emergency situation, ruptured petrous ICA aneurysm can be treated with endovascular occlusion of the ICA with micro-coils if there is a good collateral blood flow. Alternatively, the aneurysm can be treated by deployment of a stent, which can induce stasis and eventual thrombosis of the aneurysm. (author)

  14. Cysticercosis of the nervous system. Treatment by means of specific internal radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skromne-Kadlubik, G.; Celis, C.

    1981-01-01

    Five hundred patients with cysticercosis of the nervous system were evaluated by scanning that used anti-Cysticercus antibodies labeled with indium 113. The same antibodies, labeled with iodine 131, were used for radioimmunotreatment. Ninety-six percent of the patients had good or excellent results, whereas only 4% had poor results. None of the patients showed intolerance or radiotoxicity during three months of clinical and laboratory follow-up. The diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of cysticercosis of the nervous system are dramatically changing, due to the development of anti-Cysticercus antibodies labeled with radionuclides

  15. International radiation protection standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aghayev, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: Today the recommendations of ICRP have a profound influence on radiation protection all over the world. The latest recommendations were issued as publication no 60 (ICRP 60 1991). This document elaborated a conceptual framework for radiation protection based on ethics, experimental work, and risk assessment. The justification principle prohibits practices involving additional radiation exposures unless they produce sufficient societal benefits. The three main principles of the ICRP for proposed or continuing radiation-protection practices are: 1) the justification principle; 2)the optimization principle; 3) the dose limitation principle.The optimization principle requires managers to keep radiation exposures as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA), taking into account economic and social factors. the dose-limitation principle limits exposure of individuals to radiation. The system of radiological protection recommended by CRP for intervention is based on two additional principles: the proposed intervention should do more good than harm; one should optimize the form, scale and duration of intervention. Although the ICRP does not employ the term precautionary principle it does use the concept, at least implicitly

  16. Radiation treatment of food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wills, P.A.

    1986-01-01

    The techniques involved in the treatment of food by ionising radiation are explained. Radiation plant design, nutrition, microbiology and standards for irradiated foods are discussed. The potential applications for food irradiation in Australia are in the fields of quarantine control to disinfest fruit from fruit fly or mangoes from seed weevil, and decontamination of dried foods such as spices

  17. Selective internal radiation therapy for liver tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundram, Francis X; Buscombe, John R

    2017-10-01

    Primary and secondary liver malignancies are common and associated with a poor prognosis. Surgical resection is the treatment of choice; however, many patients have unresectable disease. In these cases, several liver directed therapies are available, including selective internal radiation therapy (SIRT). SIRT is a multidisciplinary treatment involving nuclear medicine, interventional radiology and oncology. High doses of localised internal radiation are selectively delivered to liver tumour tissues, with relative sparing of adjacent normal liver parenchyma. Side effects are minimal and radiation protection measures following treatment are straightforward. In patients who have progressed following chemotherapy, clinical trials demonstrate prolonged liver progression-free survival. SIRT is offered at 10 centres in England via the NHS England Commissioning through Evaluation programme and is approved by the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence for certain liver malignancies. SIRT holds unique promise for personalised treatment of liver tumours. © Royal College of Physicians 2017. All rights reserved.

  18. International standards for radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambrosi, P.

    2011-01-01

    International standards for radiation protection are issued by many bodies. These bodies differ to a large extent in their organisation, in the way the members are designated and in the way the international standards are authorised by the issuing body. Large differences also exist in the relevance of the international standards. One extreme is that the international standards are mandatory in the sense that no conflicting national standard may exist, the other extreme is that national and international standards conflict and there is no need to resolve that conflict. Between these extremes there are some standards or documents of relevance, which are not binding by any formal law or contract but are de facto binding due to the scientific reputation of the issuing body. This paper gives, for radiation protection, an overview of the main standards issuing bodies, the international standards or documents of relevance issued by them and the relevance of these documents. (authors)

  19. Role and liabilities of the medical physicist in the validation of oncologic treatments in internal vectorized radiation therapy. S.F.P.M. report nr 31, June 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farman, Bardia; Defez, Didier; Martineau, Antoine; Vrigneaud, Jean-Marc; Dieudonne, Arnaud; Giraud, Fabienne; Divry, Guillaume; Bardies, Manuel; Laffont, Sophie; Santoro, Lore; Ferrer, Ludovic; Guilhem, Marie-Therese; Meyer, Philippe; Simon, Luc

    2015-06-01

    According to legal arrangements and decrees, the medical physicist must validate the preparation of each treatment based on the use of radio-elements in non-sealed sources. As the medical physicist is therefore liable of this validation, this report addresses the approach to be followed to comply with the law. The authors first outline that this report only concerns oncologic internal vectorized radiation therapy, and does not address the dosimetric aspect of these treatments. After having recalled the principles of internal vectorized radiography, they describe the role of the different actors: nuclear physician, medical physicist, radio-pharmacist, radio-pharmacy dispenser, medical electro-radiology operator, state nurse. They address the various aspects of the process of validation of a treatment preparation: technical prerequisites, organisational prerequisite, validation process, traceability, dosimetry. Several examples are proposed in appendix regarding traceability, dosimetry software, examples of PRM files

  20. Radiation treatment of polypropylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeNicola, A.J.; Galambos, A.F.; Wolkowicz, M.D.

    1992-01-01

    Structural changes in polypropylene resulting from high energy electron beam irradiation have been examined. Polymer irradiated in a nitrogen atmosphere is characterized as containing long chain branch structures. A branching index, defined as the ratio of intrinsic viscosity of irradiated polymer to the intrinsic viscosity of linear polymer of equivalent molecular weight, is used to quantify the extent of branching. Polymer crystallization and solution properties undergo significant changes as a result of radiation treatment. Treated polypropylene is highly nucleated. Nucleation density is several orders of magnitude greater than linear polypropylene. Temperature rising elution fractionation (TREF) indicates that the long-chain branched structure contributes to increasing the solubility of polypropylene without greatly reducing the crystallizability and melting point of the solubilized fractions. The presence of long chain branching has a pronounced effect on the polymers extensional rheology in the molten state. Radiation treated polymer exhibits strain hardening elongational viscosity

  1. Y90 selective internal radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Edward W; Thakor, Avnesh S; Tafti, Bashir A; Liu, David M

    2015-01-01

    Primary liver malignancies and liver metastases are affecting millions of individuals worldwide. Because of their late and advanced stage presentation, only 10% of patients can receive curative surgical treatment, including transplant or resection. Alternative treatments, such as systemic chemotherapy, ablative therapy, and chemoembolization, have been used with marginal survival benefits. Selective internal radiation therapy (SIRT), also known as radioembolization, is a compelling alternative treatment option for primary and metastatic liver malignancies with a growing body of evidence. In this article, an introduction to SIRT including background, techniques, clinical outcomes, and complications is reviewed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Radiation Litigation and Internal Dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jose, D.E.

    1987-01-01

    Radiation Litigation refers to those lawsuits filed by individuals who claim to have been injured by some past exposure to ionizing radiation. Law classifies these cases as personal injury or tort cases. However, they are a new breed of such cases and the law is presently struggling with whether these cases can be resolved using the traditional methods of legal analysis or whether new forms of analysis, such as probability of causation, need to be applied. There are no absolutely certain rules concerning how these particular lawsuits will be tried and analyzed. The United States presently is defending cases filed by approximately 7000 plaintiffs. The private nuclear industry is defending cases filed by over 2000 plaintiffs. While not all of these cases will actually be tried on their merits, at least some will and internal dosimetry will play a very important part in many of these trials

  3. Radiation Therapy: Additional Treatment Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... novel targeted therapies can act as radiosensitizers. Systemic Radiation Therapy Certain cancers may be treated with radioactive drugs ... intravenous). This type of treatment is called systemic radiation therapy because the medicine goes to the entire body. ...

  4. Single-institution experience with selective internal radiation therapy (SIRT) for the treatment of unresectable colorectal liver metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, Cathal; Greally, Megan; McCaffrey, John; Hughes, Peter; Lawler, Leo L P; O'Connell, Martin; Geoghegan, Tony; Farrelly, Cormac

    2018-03-06

    Liver metastases are the commonest cause of death for patients with colorectal cancer. Growing evidence supports the use of selective internal radiation therapy (SIRT) in combination with conventional chemotherapy regimens for liver-only or liver-dominant unresectable metastatic colorectal cancer. To measure and evaluate outcomes of the first 20 consecutive patients with unresectable colorectal liver metastasis selected for SIRT in addition to their chemotherapy at a single Irish institution. Retrospective case series was performed. Patient charts and medical records were reviewed. All 20 patients (100%) selected for angiographic workup were subsequently successfully treated with radioembolization. All patients were discharged 1 day post-SIRT. At initial imaging evaluation, 12 (60%) had a partial response in their liver, 2 (10%) had stable disease, and 6 (30%) had liver-specific progressive disease. Median follow up was 10 months (range 6-26). At last follow up, 14 (70%) patients were alive and 6 (30%) deceased. Most recent imaging demonstrated 2 (10%) with a complete response, 7 (35%) had a partial response, 2 (10%) had stable disease, and 9 (45%) had progressive disease within their liver. One patient was downstaged to hepatic resection, and one with a complete hepatic response had his primary sigmoid tumor resected 11 months post-SIRT. SIRT is a safe and effective therapy for certain patients with unresectable colorectal liver metastases. This case series supports our opinion that selected patients should be offered SIRT in concert with their medical oncologist, concomitant with their chemotherapy. Larger multi-center studies are required to more clearly define the patient groups that will derive most benefit from SIRT.

  5. Radiation treatment of waste water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballantine, D.S.

    1978-01-01

    The radiation treatment of waste water is reviewed. The aspects considered are: effect on chemical oxygen demand or biochemical oxygen demand; effect on specific pollutants; effect on sewage sludge; disinfection. The basic radiation interactions are given. Potential radiation sources -accelerators or radioisotopes - are considered, and operating pilot plant systems are described. (U.K.)

  6. Diagnosis and treatment of radiation injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalci, D.; Doerter, G.; Gueclue, I.

    2005-01-01

    This publication is the translation of IAEA Safety Reports Series No.2 ,Diagnosis and Treatment of Radiation Injuries. This report is directed at medical professionals who may be involved in the management of radiation injuries starting from the first few hours or days after an exposure of undefined severity. The principal aim of this publication is to provide guidelines to enable medical professionals to carry out prompt diagnostic measure and to offer emergency treatment. This report provides information in tabulated form on clinical criteria for dose assesment. Additionally, it discusses the appropriate dose-effect relationship in cases of external radiation involving either total body or local exposures, as well as internal contamination

  7. Radiation treatment of food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sedlackova, J.

    1987-01-01

    The effects of gamma radiation and electron radiation on foodstuffs, and the required radiation doses for different purposes are discussed. Chemical and biological changes take place during the irradiation of foods. A detailed description is presented of chemical changes in amino acids, proteins, enzymes, saccharides, lipids and vitamins, also described are the effects of radiation on viruses, bacteria, insects and parasites. Some legislative provisions enacted in recent years are referred to and a table is published listing irradiation sources for foods on a world scale. Examples are given of existing industrial irradiation plants in the world. (M.D.)

  8. Preoperative Y-90 microsphere selective internal radiation treatment for tumor downsizing and future liver remnant recruitment: a novel approach to improving the safety of major hepatic resections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulec Seza A

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Extended liver resections are being performed more liberally than ever. The extent of resection of liver metastases, however, is restricted by the volume of the future liver remnant (FLR. An intervention that would both accomplish tumor control and induce compensatory hypertrophy, with good patient tolerability, could improve clinical outcomes. Case presentation A 53-year-old woman with a history of cervical cancer presented with a large liver mass. Subsequent biopsy indicated poorly differentiated carcinoma with necrosis suggestive of squamous cell origin. A decision was made to proceed with pre-operative chemotherapy and Y-90 microsphere SIRT with the intent to obtain systemic control over the disease, downsize the hepatic lesion, and improve the FLR. A surgical exploration was performed six months after the first SIRT (three months after the second. There was no extrahepatic disease. The tumor was found to be significantly decreased in size with central and peripheral scarring. The left lobe was satisfactorily hypertrophied. A formal right hepatic lobectomy was performed with macroscopic negative margins. Conclusion Selective internal radiation treatment (SIRT with yttrium-90 (Y-90 microspheres has emerged as an effective liver-directed therapy with a favorable therapeutic ratio. We present this case report to suggest that the portal vein radiation dose can be substantially increased with the intent of inducing portal/periportal fibrosis. Such a therapeutic manipulation in lobar Y-90 microsphere treatment could accomplish the end points of PVE with avoidance of the concern regarding tumor progression.

  9. Use of 18F-FDG PET-CT imaging to determine internal mammary lymph node location for radiation therapy treatment planning in breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Tima; Ben-David, Merav; Galper, Shira; Haskin, Tess; Howes, Megan; Scaife, Roland; Kanana, Nayroz; Amit, Uri; Weizman, Noam; Chikman, Bar; Goshen, Elinor; Ben-Haim, Simona; Symon, Zvi; Goldstein, Jeffrey

    Adjuvant internal mammary lymph node (IMN) radiation is often delivered with 2-dimensional techniques that use anatomic landmarks and predetermined depths for field placement and dose specification. In contrast, 3-dimensional planning uses the internal mammary vessels (IMVs) to localize the IMNs for planning. Our purpose was to determine if localization of the involved IMN (i-IMN) by 18 F-labeled fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography ( 18 F-FDG PET-CT) offers opportunities to improve treatment. Breast cancer patients (n = 80) who had i-IMNs (n = 112) on PET-CT for initial staging (n = 40) or recurrence (n = 40) were studied. Size, intercostal space (IC), and distance from skin, sternum, and IMVs were recorded. Effects on 2- and 3-dimensional planning were evaluated. Most i-IMNs (94.6%) were in the first to third ICs. Few were in the fourth (4.5%) or fifth (0.9%) IC. Mean i-IMN depth was 3.4 cm (range, 1.1-7.3 cm). Prescriptive depths of 4, 5, and 6 cm would result in undertreatment of 25%, 10.7%, and 5.3% of IMNs, respectively. Most IMNs (86.6%) were lateral or adjacent to the sternal edge. Only 13.4% of IMNs were posterior to the sternum. Use of the ipsilateral or contralateral sternal edge for field placement increases the risk of geographic miss or excess normal tissue exposure. Most i-IMNs were adjacent to (83%) or ≤0.5 cm (14%) from the IMV edge. Three (3%) were >0.5 cm beyond the IMV edge. The clinical target volume (CTV) defined by the first to third ICs encompassed 78% of i-IMNs. IMN-CTV coverage of i-IMNs increased with inclusion of the fourth IC (82%), 0.5 cm medial and lateral margin expansion (93%), or both (96.5%). Two-dimensional treatment techniques risk geographic miss of IMNs and exposure of excess normal tissue to radiation. An IMN-CTV defined by the IMVs from the first to third ICs with 0.5-cm medial and lateral margin expansion encompasses almost all i-IMNs identified on PET-CT imaging. Inclusion of the fourth IC

  10. Improvement of internal tumor volumes of non-small cell lung cancer patients for radiation treatment planning using interpolated average CT in PET/CT.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao-Ching Wang

    Full Text Available Respiratory motion causes uncertainties in tumor edges on either computed tomography (CT or positron emission tomography (PET images and causes misalignment when registering PET and CT images. This phenomenon may cause radiation oncologists to delineate tumor volume inaccurately in radiotherapy treatment planning. The purpose of this study was to analyze radiology applications using interpolated average CT (IACT as attenuation correction (AC to diminish the occurrence of this scenario. Thirteen non-small cell lung cancer patients were recruited for the present comparison study. Each patient had full-inspiration, full-expiration CT images and free breathing PET images by an integrated PET/CT scan. IACT for AC in PET(IACT was used to reduce the PET/CT misalignment. The standardized uptake value (SUV correction with a low radiation dose was applied, and its tumor volume delineation was compared to those from HCT/PET(HCT. The misalignment between the PET(IACT and IACT was reduced when compared to the difference between PET(HCT and HCT. The range of tumor motion was from 4 to 17 mm in the patient cohort. For HCT and PET(HCT, correction was from 72% to 91%, while for IACT and PET(IACT, correction was from 73% to 93% (*p<0.0001. The maximum and minimum differences in SUVmax were 0.18% and 27.27% for PET(HCT and PET(IACT, respectively. The largest percentage differences in the tumor volumes between HCT/PET and IACT/PET were observed in tumors located in the lowest lobe of the lung. Internal tumor volume defined by functional information using IACT/PET(IACT fusion images for lung cancer would reduce the inaccuracy of tumor delineation in radiation therapy planning.

  11. Role of the International Radiation Protection Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kase, Kenneth R; Metcalf, Phil

    2011-01-01

    Global concerns over energy supply and climate change have given rise to an increase in uranium prospecting, mining and extraction. The changing world economy is spreading the use of advanced nuclear and radiation-related technologies to many parts of the world, giving rise to global initiatives on nuclear energy and operation of nuclear fuel cycle facilities. The emerging global nuclear safety regime promotes and encourages high standards of radiation safety worldwide. These developments call for increasing capacity and capabilities in radiation protection expertise and continue to present both challenges and opportunities to the International Radiation Protection Association (IRPA), an association of 46 societies representing 58 countries with an individual membership of approximately 17,000. IRPA's objectives include: (1) assisting the development of competent radiation protection programs; (2) fostering the exchange of scientific and technical information through its international and regional congresses; (3) promoting the scientific and professional recognition of the radiation protection expert; and (4) supporting continuing education programs at each IRPA congress. IRPA has adopted a Code of Ethics and Guiding Principles for the Conduct of Stakeholder Engagement. Recently work began to develop guidance for maintaining and improving current levels of radiation protection and transferring this culture to future radiation protection professionals. These IRPA projects are developed through the Associate Society Forum discussions that are held at each IRPA international and regional congress. Finally, IRPA maintains a close working relationship with various international organizations and is also represented on the Inter-Agency Committee on Radiation Safety. Copyright © 2010 Health Physics Society

  12. Internal conversion of gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dragoun, O.

    1982-01-01

    The process of the gamma-ray internal conversion is reviewed. The principle of the calculations of the internal conversion coefficients is outlined and methods of conversion electron measurements are described. The extensive utilization of internal conversion in nuclear physics, as well as several applications in chemistry and solid state physics are also discussed. (author)

  13. Liver cancer and selective internal radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutton, C.

    2002-01-01

    Liver cancer is the biggest cancer-related killer of adults in the world. Liver cancer can be considered as two types: primary and secondary (metastatic). Selective Internal Radiation Therapy (SIRT) is a revolutionary treatment for advanced liver cancer that utilises new technologies designed to deliver radiation directly to the site of tumours. SIRT, on the other hand, involves the delivery of millions of microscopic radioactive spheres called SIR-Spheres directly to the site of the liver tumour/s, where they selectively irradiate the tumours. The anti-cancer effect is concentrated in the liver and there is little effect on cancer at other sites such as the lungs or bones. The SIR-Spheres are delivered through a catheter placed in the femoral artery of the upper thigh and threaded through the hepatic artery (the major blood vessel of the liver) to the site of the tumour. The microscopic spheres, each approximately 35 microns (the size of four red blood cells or one-third the diameter of a strand of hair), are bonded to yttrium-90 (Y-90), a pure beta emitter with a physical half-life of 64.1 hours (about 2.67 days). The microspheres are trapped in the tumour's vascular bed, where they destroy the tumour from inside. The average range of the radiation is only 2.5 mm, so it is wholly contained within the patient's body; after 14 days, only 2.5 percent of the radioactive activity remains. The microspheres are suspended in water for injection. The vials are shipped in lead shields for radiation protection. Treatment with SIR-Spheres is generally not regarded as a cure, but has been shown to shrink the cancer more than chemotherapy alone. This can increase life expectancy and improve quality of life. On occasion, patients treated with SIR-Spheres have had such marked shrinkage of the liver cancer that the cancer can be surgically removed at a later date. This has resulted in a long-term cure for some patients. SIRTeX Medical Limited has developed three separate cancer

  14. Computerized radiation treatment planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laarse, R. van der.

    1981-01-01

    Following a general introduction, a chain consisting of three computer programs which has been developed for treatment planning of external beam radiotherapy without manual intervention is described. New score functions used for determination of optimal incidence directions are presented and the calculation of the position of the isocentre for each optimum combination of incidence directions is explained. A description of how a set of applicators, covering fields with dimensions of 4 to 20 cm, for the 6 to 20 MeV electron beams of a MEL SL75-20 linear accelerator was developed, is given. A computer program for three dimensional electron beam treatment planning is presented. A microprocessor based treatment planning system for the Selectron remote controlled afterloading system for intracavitary radiotherapy is described. The main differences in treatment planning procedures for external beam therapy with neutrons instead of photons is discussed. A microprocessor based densitometer for plotting isodensity lines in film dosimetry is described. A computer program for dose planning of brachytherapy is presented. Finally a general discussion about the different aspects of computerized treatment planning as presented in this thesis is given. (Auth.)

  15. Current treatments for radiation retinopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giuliari, Gian Paolo; Simpson, E. Rand (Princess Margaret Hospital, Univ. of Toronto, Dept. of Ophthalmology and Vision Sciences, Toronto (Canada)), e-mail: gpgiuliari@gmail.com; Sadaka, Ama (Schepens Eye Research Inst., Boston, MA (United States)); Hinkle, David M. (Massachusetts Eye Research and Surgery Institution, Cambridge, MA (United States))

    2011-01-15

    Background. To review the currently available therapeutic modalities for radiation retinopathy (RR), including newer investigational interventions directed towards specific aspects of the pathophysiology of this refractory complication. Methods. A review of the literature encompassing the pathogenesis of RR and the current therapeutic modalities available was performed. Results. RR is a chronic and progressive condition that results from exposure to any source of radiation. It might be secondary to radiation treatment of intraocular tumors such as choroidal melanomas, retinoblastomas, and choroidal metastasis, or from unavoidable exposure to excessive radiation from the treatment of extraocular tumors like cephalic, nasopharyngeal, orbital, and paranasal malignancies. After the results of the Collaborative Ocular Melanoma Study, most of the choroidal melanomas are being treated with plaque brachytherapy increasing by that the incidence of this radiation complication. RR has been reported to occur in as many as 60% of eyes treated with plaque radiation, with higher rates associated with larger tumors. Initially, the condition manifests as a radiation vasculopathy clinically seen as microaneurysms and telangiectasis, with posterior development of retinal hard exudates and hemorrhages, macular edema, neovascularization and tractional retinal detachment. Regrettably, the management of these eyes remains limited. Photodynamic therapy, laser photocoagulation, oral pentoxyphylline and hyperbaric oxygen have been attempted as treatment modalities with inconclusive results. Intravitreal injections of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor such as bevacizumab, ranibizumab and pegaptanib sodium have been recently used, also with variable results. Discussion. RR is a common vision threatening complication following radiation therapy. The available therapeutic options are limited and show unsatisfactory results. Further large investigative studies are required for developing

  16. Current treatments for radiation retinopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giuliari, Gian Paolo; Simpson, E. Rand; Sadaka, Ama; Hinkle, David M.

    2011-01-01

    Background. To review the currently available therapeutic modalities for radiation retinopathy (RR), including newer investigational interventions directed towards specific aspects of the pathophysiology of this refractory complication. Methods. A review of the literature encompassing the pathogenesis of RR and the current therapeutic modalities available was performed. Results. RR is a chronic and progressive condition that results from exposure to any source of radiation. It might be secondary to radiation treatment of intraocular tumors such as choroidal melanomas, retinoblastomas, and choroidal metastasis, or from unavoidable exposure to excessive radiation from the treatment of extraocular tumors like cephalic, nasopharyngeal, orbital, and paranasal malignancies. After the results of the Collaborative Ocular Melanoma Study, most of the choroidal melanomas are being treated with plaque brachytherapy increasing by that the incidence of this radiation complication. RR has been reported to occur in as many as 60% of eyes treated with plaque radiation, with higher rates associated with larger tumors. Initially, the condition manifests as a radiation vasculopathy clinically seen as microaneurysms and telangiectasis, with posterior development of retinal hard exudates and hemorrhages, macular edema, neovascularization and tractional retinal detachment. Regrettably, the management of these eyes remains limited. Photodynamic therapy, laser photocoagulation, oral pentoxyphylline and hyperbaric oxygen have been attempted as treatment modalities with inconclusive results. Intravitreal injections of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor such as bevacizumab, ranibizumab and pegaptanib sodium have been recently used, also with variable results. Discussion. RR is a common vision threatening complication following radiation therapy. The available therapeutic options are limited and show unsatisfactory results. Further large investigative studies are required for developing

  17. Multibeam radiation therapy treatment application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manens, J.P.; Le Gall, G.; Chenal, C.; Ben Hassel, M.; Fresne, F.; Barillot, C.; Gibaud, B.; Lemoine, D.; Bouliou, A.; Scarabin, J.M.

    1991-01-01

    A software package has been developed for multibeam radiation therapy treatment application. We present in this study a computer-assisted dosimetric planning procedure which includes: i), an analytical stage for setting up the large volume via 2D and 3D displays; ii), a planning stage for issue of a treatment strategy including dosimetric simulations; and iii), a treatment stage to drive the target volume to the radiation unit isocenter. The combined use of stereotactic methods and multimodality imagery ensures spatial coherence and makes target definition and cognition of structure environment more accurate. The dosimetric planning suited to the spatial reference (the stereotactic frame) guarantees optimal distribution of the dose, computed by the original 3D volumetric algorithm. A computer-driven chair-framework cluster was designed to position the target volume at the radiation unit isocenter [fr

  18. Ionizing radiation quarantine treatments

    OpenAIRE

    Hallman, Guy J.

    1998-01-01

    Irradiation is a viable quarantine disinfestation treatment which has been studied for 40 years although it has received very little commercial use. Two principal obstacles to commercial application, 1) the fact that insects are not killed immediately, and 2) consumer opposition to irradiation, have been allayed to some extent, but the remaining impediment to large-scale commercial use is development of approved protocols by government regulatory agencies in importing countries. The United St...

  19. Surgical treatment of radiation enteritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cross, M.J.; Frazee, R.C. (Department of General Surgery, Scott and White Memorial Hospital, Temple TX (United States))

    1992-02-01

    Radiation enteritis is a progressive, disease process that causes intestinal fibrosis and obliterative endarteritis, which results in significant morbidity and mortality. The authors' clinical experience involving 20 patients over a 22-year period from 1967 through 1989 who underwent various surgical procedures to alleviate chronic symptoms secondary to radiation enteritis is described. Eight men and 12 women with a mean age of 52 years (24 to 81 years) underwent a total of 27 procedures for complications of radiation enteritis. Radiation therapy was delivered for treatment of gynecologic malignancies (55%), colorectal cancer (20%), prostate malignancies (10%), and others (15%). The mean average dose of radiation delivered was 5,514 rads with a range of 2,613 to 7,000 rads. The interval from radiation treatment to time of surgery averaged 9 years. Operative procedures consisted of 12 resection and primary anastomosis procedures and 15 resections with stoma creation. Formation of a stoma was used in patients with more severe disease. The 30-day operative mortality was 0% and morbidity was 55%. There were no anastomotic leaks or intra-abdominal abscesses. The authors conclude that resection and primary anastomosis can safely be performed in selected patients but that judicious use of stoma formation can avoid major mortality and morbidity associated with surgery in this setting.

  20. Surgical treatment of radiation enteritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cross, M.J.; Frazee, R.C.

    1992-01-01

    Radiation enteritis is a progressive, disease process that causes intestinal fibrosis and obliterative endarteritis, which results in significant morbidity and mortality. The authors' clinical experience involving 20 patients over a 22-year period from 1967 through 1989 who underwent various surgical procedures to alleviate chronic symptoms secondary to radiation enteritis is described. Eight men and 12 women with a mean age of 52 years (24 to 81 years) underwent a total of 27 procedures for complications of radiation enteritis. Radiation therapy was delivered for treatment of gynecologic malignancies (55%), colorectal cancer (20%), prostate malignancies (10%), and others (15%). The mean average dose of radiation delivered was 5,514 rads with a range of 2,613 to 7,000 rads. The interval from radiation treatment to time of surgery averaged 9 years. Operative procedures consisted of 12 resection and primary anastomosis procedures and 15 resections with stoma creation. Formation of a stoma was used in patients with more severe disease. The 30-day operative mortality was 0% and morbidity was 55%. There were no anastomotic leaks or intra-abdominal abscesses. The authors conclude that resection and primary anastomosis can safely be performed in selected patients but that judicious use of stoma formation can avoid major mortality and morbidity associated with surgery in this setting

  1. History of international symbol for ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franic, Z.

    1996-01-01

    The year 1996 marks the 50th anniversary of the radiation warning symbol as we currently know it. It was (except the colours used) doodled out at the University of California, Berkeley, sometime in 1946 by a small group of people. The key guy responsible was Nelson Garden, then the head of the Health Chemistry Group, at the Radiation Laboratory. The radiation warning symbol should not be confused with the civil defence symbol (circle divided into six equal sections, three of these being black and three yellow), designed to identify fallout shelters. The basic radiation symbol was eventually internationally standardized by ISO code: 361-1975 (E). Variations of this symbol are frequently used in logotypes radiation protection organizations or associations. Particularly nice are those of International Radiation Protection Association (IRPA) and Croatian Radiation Protection Association (CRPA) that combines traditional Croatian motives with high technology. However, apart from speculations, there is no definite answer why did the Berkeley people chose this particular symbol. Whatever the reason was, it was very good choice because the ionizing radiation symbol is simple, readily identifiable, i.e., not similar to other warning symbols, and discernible at a large distance. (author)

  2. High energy radiation in cancer treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1959-01-01

    Certain basic recommendations on the use of supervoltage radiation and radioisotope teletherapy in the treatment of malignant growths have been made by an expert study group which met in Vienna in August this y ear. The group, convened jointly by the International Atomic Energy Agency and the World Health Organization, was composed of 20 radiotherapists and radiation physicists from 12 countries. High energy radiation, used in the treatment of malignant tumours, can be either in the form of gamma- or X-rays or in the form of beams of accelerated electrons. The source of radiation is kept at a certain distance from the patient. The study group was agreed on the value of supervoltage radiotherapy, including gamma-ray and high voltage x-ray therapy as well as electron beam therapy. The required gamma radiation can be obtained from large sources of radioactive materials like cobalt 60 or caesium 137, while electron beams are produced by high voltage accelerators. The experts considered the sources in four broad categories: large supervoltage units, intermediate units, small isotope units and units of electron beams or very high energy x-rays. Each group of source was described including its usage. The experts made it clear that while supervoltage radiation should be a part of an organized radiotherapy department, the radiation facilities at any particular establishment should not be of the supervoltage type alone. The high energy facilities could be fruitfully used only when there was a background of general radiotherapy. The group emphasized that supervoltage radiotherapy, in common with other forms of radiotherapy, should be conducted only by adequately trained and qualified personnel, including radiation physicists, and specified the training and qualifications required of such personnel. It was felt that specialized training was one of the main requirements at the present stage and the training programmes of IAEA and WHO should be utilized extensively for this

  3. Gemstone enhancement by radiation treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desai, Shripal N.

    1998-01-01

    Since the discovery of radioactivity, investigations on the effects of atomic rays on precious stones began and Crookes established that alpha rays from radium produced green colour in diamonds. Gamma rays, x-rays, electrons, neutrons, protons etc. are effective in producing colour in precious stone like topaz and corundum. Some of these also produce considerable amount of radioactivity which is not acceptable if the radioactivity exceeds permissible limits. Colour enhancement by radiation treatment, different radiations, safety of irradiated gem stones and market related aspects are discussed. (author)

  4. International regulations for radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daw, H.T.

    1982-01-01

    A review of the development of the IAEA Radiological Protection standards is given. The basic features of the latest revision recently adopted by the governing bodies of the sponsoring organizations, i.e. IAEA, WHO, ILO, NEA/OECD are discussed and some of the features of the future Agency programme for its implementation will be outlined. In particular, attention will be given to development of the basic principles for setting release limits of radioactive materials into the environment. An important aspect of this is when the release of radioactive materials into the environment crosses international boundaries. The Agency is best suited to try to reach a consensus on the minimum monetary value for the unit collective dose. (orig./RW)

  5. Radiation treatment of sewage effluent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawai, Teruko; Sekiguchi, Masayuki; Sawai, Takeshi

    1990-01-01

    The water demand of the past several years increased rapidly. Recycling of municipal wastewater is the effective means of coping with water shortage in Tokyo. We studied the radiation treatment method of further purification of the effluent from sewage treatment plant. By gamma irradiation the refractory organic substances in effluent were decomposed. The COD values decreased and the light brown color faded with increasing dose. The high molecular weight components in effluent were degraded to lower molecular weight substances and were decomposed finally to carbon dioxide. Recent attention has been given to the disadvantages of using chlorine as a disinfectant of municipal wastewater effluents. It has been shown that the chlorination of organic substances in water may produce chlorinated hydrocarbons with carcinogenic properties. So a development of the effective sterilization method for the effluent has been needed instead of chlorine. The radiation sterilization of coliforms and total bacteria in primary effluent, secondary effluent and rapid sand filtered effluent were studied. Coliforms were very sensitive to radiation treatment in comparison with total bacteria. Especially, coliforms in secondary and rapid sand filtered effluents were disinfected to 10 % of initial at 0.1 kGy. (author)

  6. Treatment charts in radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macia, M.; De Blas, R.; Monfa, C.; Bonet, A.; Rubio, A.M.

    1993-01-01

    The radiotherapy treatment chart (dose prescription, set-up parameters, dose computation and daily dose recording form) represents an important working tool in radiotherapy, not only as a compilation of data, but also as a method of communication among physicians, physicists and technicians. In addition to administrative and medical data, physical and simulation data that are indispensable for the daily accurate reproduction of the therapy procedures should be recorded, as well as accurate daily entries of the fractional and cumulative absorbed doses. Moreover, any radiation therapy quality assurance programme must rely on the accessibility of the radiation treatment history and a correct record of the therapy protocol in order to be verifiable. We have analysed the treatment charts of 92 European Departments of Radiation Oncology, with the aim of identifying their salient characteristics and data recorded. The study shows strong differences among the charts analysed, not only in the amount of information recorded, but also in the kind of data and concepts used. (author) 6 refs., 1 fig

  7. Radiation treatment of spinal cord neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnov, R.V.

    1982-01-01

    Results of radiation treatment of spinal cord neoplasms are presented. The results of combined (surgical and radiation) treatment of tumors are studied. On the whole it is noted that radiation treatment of initial spinal cord tumours is not practised on a large scale because of low radiostability of spinal cord

  8. Radiation treatment for breast cancer. Recent advances.

    OpenAIRE

    Chow, Edward

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review recent advances in radiation therapy in treatment of breast cancer. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: MEDLINE and CANCERLIT were searched using the MeSH words breast cancer, ductal carcinoma in situ, sentinel lymph node biopsy, and postmastectomy radiation. Randomized studies have shown the efficacy of radiation treatment for ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and for invasive breast cancer. MAIN MESSAGE: Lumpectomy followed by radiation is effective treatment for DCIS. In early breast c...

  9. International Radiation Monitoring and Information System (IRMIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Sanjoy; Baciu, Florian; Stowisek, Jan; Saluja, Gurdeep; Kenny, Patrick; Albinet, Franck

    2017-09-01

    This article describes the International Radiation Monitoring Information System (IRMIS) which was developed by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) with the goal to provide Competent Authorities, the IAEA and other international organizations with a client server based web application to share and visualize large quantities of radiation monitoring data. The data maps the areas of potential impact that can assist countries to take appropriate protective actions in an emergency. Ever since the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident in April of 19861 European Community (EC) has worked towards collecting routine environmental radiological monitoring data from national networked monitoring systems. European Radiological Data Exchange Platform (EURDEP) was created in 19952 to that end - to provide radiation monitoring data from most European countries reported in nearly real-time. During the response operations for the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident (March 2011) the IAEA Incident and Emergency Centre (IEC) managed, harmonized and shared the large amount of data that was being generated from different organizations. This task underscored the need for a system which allows sharing large volumes of radiation monitoring data in an emergency. In 2014 EURDEP started the submission of the European radiological data to the International Radiation Monitoring Information System (IRMIS) as a European Regional HUB for IRMIS. IRMIS supports the implementation of the Convention on Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident by providing a web application for the reporting, sharing, visualizing and analysing of large quantities of environmental radiation monitoring data during nuclear or radiological emergencies. IRMIS is not an early warning system that automatically reports when there are significant deviations in radiation levels or when values are detected above certain levels. However, the configuration of the visualization features offered by IRMIS may

  10. International Society of Radiology and Radiation Protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Standertskjoeld-Nordenstam, C.G.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of the International Society of Radiology (ISR), as being the global organization of radiologists, is to promote and help co-ordinate the progress of radiology throughout the world. In this capacity and as a co-operating organization of the IAEA, the ISR has a specific responsibility in the global radiological protection of patients. Globally, there are many users of medical radiation, and radiology may be practised in the most awkward circumstances. The individuals performing X ray studies as well as those interpreting them may be well trained, as in industrialized parts of the world, but also less knowledgeable, as in developing areas. The problems of radiological protection, both of patients and of radiation workers, still exist, and radiation equipment is largely diffused throughout the world. That is why a conference like this is today as important as ever. Radiation protection is achieved through education, on the one hand, and legislation, on the other. Legislation and regulation are the instruments of national authorities. The means of the ISR are education and information. Good radiological practice is something that can be taught. The ISR is doing this mainly through the biannual International Congress of Radiology (ICR), now arranged in an area of radiological need; the three previous ICRs were in China, in India and in South America; the next one is going to be in Mexico in 2002. The goal of the ICR is mainly to be an instructive and educational event, especially designed for the needs of its surrounding region. The ISR is aiming at producing educational material. The International Commission on Radiological Education (ICRE), as part of the ISR, is launching the production of a series of educational booklets, which also include radiation protection. The ICRE is actively involved in shaping and organizing the educational and scientific programme of the ICRs

  11. Effect of respiratory motion on internal radiation dosimetry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xie, Tianwu; Zaidi, Habib

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Estimation of the radiation dose to internal organs is essential for the assessment of radiation risks and benefits to patients undergoing diagnostic and therapeutic nuclear medicine procedures including PET. Respiratory motion induces notable internal organ displacement, which influences

  12. Selective internal radiation therapy for liver malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moir, J A G; Burns, J; Barnes, J; Colgan, F; White, S A; Littler, P; Manas, D M; French, J J

    2015-11-01

    Selective internal radiation therapy (SIRT) is a non-ablative technique for the treatment of liver primaries and metastases, with the intention of reducing tumour bulk. This study aimed to determine optimal patient selection, and elucidate its role as a downsizing modality. Data were collected retrospectively on patients who underwent SIRT between 2011 and 2014. The procedure was performed percutaneously by an expert radiologist. Response was analysed in two categories, based on radiological (CT/MRI according to Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumours (RECIST)) and biological (α-fetoprotein, carcinoembryonic antigen, carbohydrate antigen 19-9, chromogranin A) parameters. Forty-four patients were included. Liver metastases from colorectal cancer (22 patients) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) (9) were the most common pathologies. Radiological response data were collected from 31 patients. A reduction in sum of diameters (SOD) was observed in patients with HCC (median -24.1 (95 per cent c.i. -43.4 to -3.8) per cent) and neuroendocrine tumours (-30.0 (-45.6 to -7.7) per cent), whereas a slight increase in SOD was seen in patients with colorectal cancer (4.9 (-10.6 to 55.3) per cent). Biological response was assessed in 17 patients, with a reduction in 12, a mixed response in two and no improvement in three. Six- and 12-month overall survival rates were 71 and 41 per cent respectively. There was no difference in overall survival between the RECIST response groups (median survival 375, 290 and 214 days for patients with a partial response, stable disease and progressive disease respectively; P = 0.130), or according to primary pathology (P = 0.063). Seven patients underwent liver resection with variable responses after SIRT. SIRT may be used to downsize tumours and may be used as a bridge to surgery in patients with tumours deemed borderline for resection. © 2015 BJS Society Ltd Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Revision of the recommended international general standard for irradiated foods and of the recommended international code of practice for the operation of radiation facilities used for the treatment of foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-11-01

    In view of the findings and statements of the Joint FAO/IAEA/WHO Expert Committee on the Wholesomeness of Irradiated Food, convened in Geneva from 27 October to 3 November 1980, a Consultation Group, convened in Geneva from 1 to 3 July 1981 suggested the revision of the Recommended International General Standard for Irradiated Foods and of the Recommended International Code of Practice for the Operation of Radiation Facilities. The proposed changes are given and justified and the revised wording of the documents presented

  14. Long term nuclear data needs for internal radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burrows, T.W.

    2001-01-01

    The Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File (ENSDF) is the principle source of nuclear data for internal radiation dosimetry and is, therefore, described briefly. Nuclear data needs and accuracy requirements for internal radiation dosimetry are summarized. Currently available sources of internal radiation dosimetry data are outlined and the need for traceability and documentation of these data is discussed. (author)

  15. Radiation dosimetry in radiotherapy with internal emitters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stabin, Michael G.

    1997-01-01

    Full text. Radiation dosimetry radionuclides are currently being labeled to various biological agents used in internal emitter radiotherapy. This talk will review the various technologies and types of radiolabel in current use, with focus on the characterization of the radiation dose to the various important tissues of the body. Methods for obtaining data, developing kinetic models, and calculating radiation doses will be reviewed. Monoclonal antibodies are currently being labeled with both alpha and beta emitting radionuclides in attempts to find effective agents against cancer. Several radionuclides are also being used as bone pain palliation agents. These agents must be studied in clinical trials to determine the biokinetics and radiation dosimetry prior to approval for general use. In such studies, it is important to ensure the collection of the appropriate kinds of data and to collect the data at appropriate time intervals. The uptake and retention of activity in all significant source organs and in excreta be measured periodically (with at least 2 data points phase of uptake or clearance). Then, correct dosimetry methods must be applied - the best available methods for characterizing the radionuclide kinetic and for estimating the dosimetry in the various organs of the body especially the marrow, should be used. Attempts are also under way to develop methods for estimating true patient-specific dosimetry. Cellular and animal studies are also. Valuable in evaluating the efficacy of the agents in shrinking or eliminating tumors; some results from such studies will also be discussed. The estimation of radiation doses to patients in therapy with internal emitters involves several complex phases of analysis. Careful attention to detail and the use of the best available methods are essential to the protection of the patient and a successful outcome

  16. Radiation and society: Comprehending radiation risk. V. 2. Poster papers. Proceedings of an international conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This IAEA international conference on Radiation and Society was the first major international meeting devoted to the comprehension of radiation risk, public attitude towards radiation risk and hazards encountered by the general public in contaminated areas. Volume two of the proceedings mainly deals with assessment of radiation exposure levels, radiation health effects, impact of radiation on the environment, perception of and managing radiation risk. Refs, figs, tabs

  17. Recommendations of International Commission of Radiation Protection 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The book summarizes the recommendations on radiation protection of International of Radiation Protection. The main chapters are: 1.- Rates in radiation protection 2.- Biological aspects of radiation protection 3.- Framework of radiation protection. 4.- System of protection. 5.- Implantation of commission's recommendations. 6.- Summary of recommendations

  18. The physics of radiation treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, S.

    1998-01-01

    X-rays are routinely used to diagnose and treat disease, and researchers are now developing new techniques that will make X-ray treatment more effective than ever before. Wilhelm Roentgen discovered X-rays over 100 years ago in Wuerzberg, Germany. Like many contemporary physicists, he was studying what happened when energetic electrons were made to hit a target inside a vacuum tube. While Roentgen himself coined the ''X'' for unknown, the mysteries of these ''Roentgen rays'' were quickly unravelled and harnessed for medical purposes. Imaging the human body with X-rays is now one of a suite of methods used to detect disease, and, specifically, to identify malignant disease or cancerous tumours. Generations have now benefited from the ability to see inside the human body effortlessly, painlessly and at least in more recent years almost instantaneously. As well as detecting disease, X-rays also provide the means for treatment: radiotherapy. Both X-ray imaging and radiotherapy have evolved steadily over the past century, interspersed with several significant breakthroughs. Recently innovations in therapeutic radiology aim to improve the way in which X-rays are delivered to diseased tissue, in the hope of treating a greater range of tumours more effectively than ever before. In this article the author presents a new form of cancer treatment known as intensity-modulated radiation therapy. (UK)

  19. INTERNATIONAL ACCOUNTING TREATMENT REGARDING REVENUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ECOBICI NICOLAE

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the news on international accounting treatments of revenue arising from the extensive process of convergence between IASB and FASB that began in 2002. The starting point of this approach is to identify the treatments currently applicable to income. Finally we presented a summary of the main provisions of the new standard IFRS 15 “Revenue from Contracts with Customers”, which replaces IAS 11 and IAS 18 (as well as a number of SIC and IFRIC interpretations required to be applied from January 1, 2017, emphasizing the potential impact on entities.

  20. International symposium on radiative heat transfer: Book of abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The international symposium on radiative heat transfer was held on 14-18 August 1995 Turkey. The specialists discussed radiation transfer in materials processing and manufacturing, solution of radiative heat transfer equation, transient radiation problem and radiation-turbulence interactions, raditive properties of gases, atmospheric and stellar radiative transfer , radiative transfer and its applications, optical and radiative properties of soot particles, inverse radiation problems, partticles, fibres,thermophoresis and waves and modelling of comprehensive systems at the meeting. Almost 79 papers were presented in the meeting

  1. Three-dimensional personalized dosimetry for 188Re liver selective internal radiation therapy based on quantitative post-treatment SPECT studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shcherbinin, S.; Grimes, J.; Bator, A.; Cwikla, J. B.; Celler, A.

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate that accurate patient-specific distributions of microspheres labeled with 188Re and resulting absorbed doses can be obtained from single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) studies performed after 188Re selective internal radiation therapy when accurate correction methods are employed in image reconstruction. Our quantitative image reconstruction algorithm includes corrections for attenuation, resolution degradations and scatter as well as a window-based compensation for contamination. The procedure has been validated using four phantom experiments containing an 18 ml cylindrical source (82-93 MBq of 188Re activity) simulating a liver tumor. In addition, we applied our approach to post-therapy SPECT studies of ten patients with progressive primary or metastatic liver carcinomas. Our quantitative algorithm accurately (within 9%) recovered 188Re activity from four phantom experiments. In addition, for two patients that received three scans, deviations remained consistent between the measured and the reconstructed activities that were determined from studies with differing severity of the dead-time effect. The analysis of absorbed doses for patient studies allowed us to hypothesize that D90 (the minimum dose received by 90% of the tumor volume) may be a reliable metric relating therapy outcomes to the calculated doses. Among several considered metrics, only D90 showed statistically significant correlation with the overall survival.

  2. Abstracts of 20. International Symposium Radiation Protection Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    51 papers are presented as titles with abstracts which are processed individually for the INIS data base. They deal with general aspects of radiation protection physics, international activities in radiation protection, solid state dosimetry, models and calculation methods in radiation protection, and measuring techniques in radiation protection

  3. Treatment optimisation using external beam radiation in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The majority of patients with gynaecological cancers present with advanced stages in which external beam radiation forms a major component of the treatment. These patients undergo simulation for treatment planning prior to radiation. Currently the lower extent of the disease is evaluated by vaginal examination and ...

  4. Main trends of radiation application for food stuff treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pertsovskij, E.S.; Sakharov, Eh.V.; Dolinin, V.A.

    1980-01-01

    The methods of radiation treatment of food stuff using γ, X-rays and electrons are presented. Radiation doses of various products permitted by the Expert Committee of WHO and other international organizations are presented. The problem of grain disinfestation permitted irradiation doses are in the interval between 50 and 100 krad is stiudied. The harmless effect of these doses for products is shown. The experience of raw fish, fish products, raw meat, meat and vegetable products radappertization is reviewed. The intensification of technological processes of food production using radiation treatment is also considered. The advantages and disadvantages of radiation devices with different radiation sources are shown. It is shown that the choice of this or that type should be primarily determined by the parameter of irradiated objects, the periodicity of their coming to the device and conditions of treating these objects [ru

  5. International radiation commissions 1896 to 2008. Research into atmospheric radiation from IMO to IAMAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolle, H.J. (comp.); Moeller, F.; London, J.

    2008-05-15

    The document covers a historical compilation on research into atmospheric radiation from 1896 to 2008. The first part is a brief history of the radiation commissions of IMO (International Meteorological Organization) and IUGG (International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics) for the period 1824 to 1948. Part 2 Covers the International Radiation Commission (IRC) of IAM (International Association of Meteorology)/IAMAS (International Association of Meteorology and Atmospheric Sciences)/IAMAP (International Association of Meteorology and Atmospheric Physics); the Re-constitution of the IUGG Radiation Commision, the Officers of the International Radiation Commission of IUUG 1948-2008, and the activities of the Radiation Commision of the IUGG 1948-2008. The appendices include the Radiation Commission Members, the summaries of presented papers from 1954 and 1957, the IRC publications, and acronyms.

  6. International radiation commissions 1896 to 2008. Research into atmospheric radiation from IMO to IAMAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolle, H.J.; Moeller, F.; London, J.

    2008-01-01

    The document covers a historical compilation on research into atmospheric radiation from 1896 to 2008. The first part is a brief history of the radiation commissions of IMO (International Meteorological Organization) and IUGG (International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics) for the period 1824 to 1948. Part 2 Covers the International Radiation Commission (IRC) of IAM (International Association of Meteorology)/IAMAS (International Association of Meteorology and Atmospheric Sciences)/IAMAP (International Association of Meteorology and Atmospheric Physics); the Re-constitution of the IUGG Radiation Commision, the Officers of the International Radiation Commission of IUUG 1948-2008, and the activities of the Radiation Commision of the IUGG 1948-2008. The appendices include the Radiation Commission Members, the summaries of presented papers from 1954 and 1957, the IRC publications, and acronyms

  7. Space Radiation Research Unit, International Open Laboratory in NIRS

    OpenAIRE

    Uchihori, Yukio; Hei, Tom K.; Konishi, Teruaki; Kobayashi, Alisa; Kitamura, Hisashi; Kodaira, Satoshi; Kobayashi, Shingo

    2014-01-01

    The radiation environment encountered by astronauts during spaceflight is far more complex than any radiation field existed on Earth. Space crew living and working in the International Space Station (ISS) are exposed to a mixed radiation field comprises primary high-energy cosmic rays, including energetic protons and heavy ions, and to secondary radiations, including energetic neutrons, produced when the primary radiation interacts with the mass of the space station and its contents. The dose...

  8. Radiation doses and risks from internal emitters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, John; Day, Philip

    2008-01-01

    This review updates material prepared for the UK Government Committee Examining Radiation Risks from Internal Emitters (CERRIE) and also refers to the new recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and other recent developments. Two conclusions from CERRIE were that ICRP should clarify and elaborate its advice on the use of its dose quantities, equivalent and effective dose, and that more attention should be paid to uncertainties in dose and risk estimates and their implications. The new ICRP recommendations provide explanations of the calculation and intended purpose of the protection quantities, but further advice on their use would be helpful. The new recommendations refer to the importance of understanding uncertainties in estimates of dose and risk, although methods for doing this are not suggested. Dose coefficients (Sv per Bq intake) for the inhalation or ingestion of radionuclides are published as reference values without uncertainty. The primary purpose of equivalent and effective dose is to enable the summation of doses from different radionuclides and from external sources for comparison with dose limits, constraints and reference levels that relate to stochastic risks of whole-body radiation exposure. Doses are calculated using defined biokinetic and dosimetric models, including reference anatomical data for the organs and tissues of the human body. Radiation weighting factors are used to adjust for the different effectiveness of different radiation types, per unit absorbed dose (Gy), in causing stochastic effects at low doses and dose rates. Tissue weighting factors are used to take account of the contribution of individual organs and tissues to overall detriment from cancer and hereditary effects, providing a simple set of rounded values chosen on the basis of age- and sex-averaged values of relative detriment. While the definition of absorbed dose has the scientific rigour required of a basic physical quantity

  9. Radiation treatment of toxic chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, M.J.; Jung, I.H.; Jo, S.K.

    2010-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were commercially produced from 1920s as complex mixtures containing multiple isomers for a variety of applications. They are very toxic, chemically stable and resist microbial, photochemical, chemical, and thermal degradation. The public, legal, and scientific concerns about PCBs arose from research indicating they were environmental contaminants that had a potential to adversely impact the environment, and, therefore, were undesirable as commercial products. Eventually, most producers reduced or stopped production of PCBs in the 1970s. Stockholm convention on POPs (Persistent Organic Pollutants), which was effective on May 2004 and 151 nations including Korea were joined on June 2005, asked to dispose of PCBs by 2028 with environmental friendly methods. Korean government also has declared to conduct by 2015. According to the Environmental law of Korea, over 2 ppm of PCBs has to be decomposed by legal methods of incineration and thermal destruction. But those are inapplicable owing to the environmental groups. KAERI(Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute) has recently developed a remarkable technology for radiation treatment of toxic chemicals including chlorides using an electron beam accelerator. Electron beam accelerator of 2.5 MeV energy and 100 kW power capacity was used to decompose of PCBs having been used as a commercial transformer oil for more than 30 years. The oil were irradiated with ∼ 0.1 percent of TEA (Triethyl Amin) to make chloride ion aparted off from the PCBs into precipitate at the conditions of normal temperature and pressure. The concentrations of PCBs were measured by GC (Gas Chromatography) with ECD (Electron Capture Detector) following the KS (Korean Standard) test procedure. Electron beam should be a useful tool for environmental conservation. Residual concentrations of PCBs after irradiation were depended on the absorption dose of electron beam energy. Advantages comparing to other methods such as

  10. Explanation of diagnosis criteria for radiation sickness from internal exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xing Zhiwei; Jiang Enhai; Du Jianying; Bai Guang

    2012-01-01

    A revised edition of the Diagnostic Criteria for Radiation Sickness from Internal Exposure has been approved and issued by the Ministry of Health. It is necessary to research the internal radiation sickness to adapt to the current serious anti-terrorism situation. This standard was enacted based on the extensive research of related literature, from which 12 cases with internal radiation sickness and screened out were involving 7 types of radionuclide. The Development of Emergency Response Standard Extension Framework: Midterm Evaluation Report is the main reference which approved by the International Atomic Energy Agency and World Health Organization. This amendment contains many new provisions such as internal radiation sickness effects models and threshold dose, and the appendix added threshold dose of serious deterministic effects induced by radionuclide intake and radiotoxicology parameters of some radionuclides. In order to understand and implement this standard, and to diagnose and treat the internal radiation sickness correctly, the contents of this standard were interpreted in this article. (authors)

  11. Radiation treatment and radiation reactions in dermatology. 2. ed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panizzon, Renato G. [Univ. Hospital CHUV, Lausanne (Switzerland). Dept. of Dermatology; Seegenschmiedt, M. Heinrich (ed.) [Strahlenzentrum Hamburg (Germany)

    2015-03-01

    Explains the use of radiation treatment in the full range of skin cancers and precancerous lesions. Covers physical and radiobiological principles, dose definitions, radiation reactions, and risk assessments. Revised and updated edition that includes new chapters and numerous additional figures. In this book, leading experts in the dermatological and oncological field describe the use of radiation therapy for the treatment of the full range of dermatological malignancies - including basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, cutaneous lymphomas, Kaposi's sarcoma, melanoma, and Merkel cell tumor - as well as those precancerous lesions and non-malignant dermatological disorders which are amenable to radiation therapy. In each case the specific indications for the use of radiotherapy and its application are clearly explained with the aid of numerous high-quality illustrations. In addition, the book provides a concise introduction to physical and radiobiological principles, selection of radiation factors, dose definitions, radiation reactions, and risk assessments. The new edition has been thoroughly revised and updated to reflect advances in practical knowledge and clinical practice. It will be an invaluable source of information on the management of skin tumors and related non-malignant disorders for both dermatologists, oncologists and radiation oncologists.

  12. RADIATION SYNOVECTOMY: TREATMENT OPTION FOR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-12-01

    Dec 1, 2009 ... haematology and radiation medicine journals, as well as conference presentations of .... Injection of the radiopharceutical into the joint is usually carried out by the musculoskeletal or nuclear medicine physician. Physiotherapy and nursing care ... reactions associated with rapidly decaying isotopes. (35).

  13. Proceedings of international symposium on radiation education (ISRE 98)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Symposium on Radiation Education, which commemorates the centenary of the discovery of radium by the Curies, was held on December 11-14, 1998 in Kanagawa, Japan. At present, radiation and radioactivity are not indispensable in medical diagnosis and treatment, but also are widely used in scientific research and industrial activities. Nuclear power generation is also playing an important role in saving nonrenewable natural energy resources, and without producing the potentially hazardous carbon dioxide. However, a majority of people has a insufficient knowledge or information about radiation and radioactivity. The symposium intended to generalize the scientific knowledge about radiation and radioactivity and also about various aspects of risks associated with the life in the civilized society, by discussing how to improve education in general and young generations at schools in particular, and by exchanging the newest scientific information relevant to the education. The symposium consisted of 5 sessions with 61 submitted papers, and involved about 170 participants from Australia, Bangladesh, France, Germany, Hungary, Indonesia, Korea, Philippine, Pakistan, Thailand, Turkey, UK and USA. (author)

  14. Proceedings of international symposium on radiation education (ISRE 98)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-09-01

    The International Symposium on Radiation Education, which commemorates the centenary of the discovery of radium by the Curies, was held on December 11-14, 1998 in Kanagawa, Japan. At present, radiation and radioactivity are not indispensable in medical diagnosis and treatment, but also are widely used in scientific research and industrial activities. Nuclear power generation is also playing an important role in saving nonrenewable natural energy resources, and without producing the potentially hazardous carbon dioxide. However, a majority of people has a insufficient knowledge or information about radiation and radioactivity. The symposium intended to generalize the scientific knowledge about radiation and radioactivity and also about various aspects of risks associated with the life in the civilized society, by discussing how to improve education in general and young generations at schools in particular, and by exchanging the newest scientific information relevant to the education. The symposium consisted of 5 sessions with 61 submitted papers, and involved about 170 participants from Australia, Bangladesh, France, Germany, Hungary, Indonesia, Korea, Philippine, Pakistan, Thailand, Turkey, UK and USA. (author)

  15. International meeting on radiation chemistry and processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-04-01

    The conference heard 76 papers; the abstracts of 74 of them were inputted in INIS. They deal with the basic principles and mechanisms of radiation chemistry, with radiolysis, radiation cross-linking of polymers, with methods and instruments for irradiation beam dosimetry, and with radiation application in the irradiation of foods and wastes. (M.D.)

  16. Nonsurgical treatment for cancer using radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogi, Yasuo

    2012-01-01

    The number of people who are dying from cancer has been increasing in association with population aging. Radiation therapy is now one of the three major cancer treatment methods, along with surgery and chemotherapy. People used to consider radiation therapy only as a ''noninvasive cancer treatment''; however, with the ceaseless effort by medical experts and corporations, different radiation therapy types and techniques including the latest technical advances have come out one after another, and the improvements in radiation therapies have provided treatments that are not only less traumatizing to patients but also as effective and therapeutic as surgery in certain body regions. The importance of radiation therapy has become and will become even greater in the society with more elderly cancer patients who do not have the physical strength to undergo surgery. In this article, the history of radiation therapy, rapidly developed high-precision radiation therapy techniques, and unsolved issues are discussed, and then, ''MHI vero4DRT'', which is the high-precision image-guided radiation therapy equipment developed for solving such issues, is introduced. (author)

  17. Direct determination of internal radiation dose in human blood

    OpenAIRE

    Tanır, Ayse Güneş; Güleç, Özge

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to measure the internal radiation dose using a human blood sample. In the literature, there is no process that allows the direct measurement of the internal radiation dose received by a person. The luminescence counts from a blood sample having a laboratory-injected radiation dose and the waste blood of the patient injected with a radiopharmaceutical for diagnostic purposes were both measured. The decay and dose-response curves were plotted for the different doses...

  18. Cutaneous reaction to radiation and their treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamoto, Shoji

    1989-01-01

    Acute radiation dermatitis were reported of iridium 172 under poor administration which radiated locally on the skin of hands and fingers of oil company workers. Atomic bomb over Hiroshima and Nagasaki killed many people by total body skin exposure. Many workers and firemen were radiated by beta and gamma rays in the Chernobyl' accident, where 19 of 28 death cases died by radiation burn. 8 patients with 60-100% burn area died in 15-24 days after the explosion. Of 12 patients with 30-60% burn area, 6 died by burn. 21 cases of 30% burn area did not die in spite of mild or severe bone marrow depression. In all these cases, areas of skin ulcers epithelized with dry and wet scales till 50-60 days after the explosion, except large area (20-25cm 2 ) transplanted. In this accident, severe radiation burn due to the beta ray irradiation occured with endogeneous intoxication, renal disturbance, blood biochemical changes and bleeding. Oral, pharyngeal and intestinal membrane were irradiated by beta ray and were ulcerated so they could hardly eat. The treatment of these cases with acute radiation dermatitis should be performed by the procedure of treatment of burn, locally and systematically. Local treatment should be performed by topical application of antibiotic ointment or adrenocortical steroid ointment with antibiotics. In severe burn, systemic treatment with plasma and other fluids for burn shock should be performed, corresponding to the area and depth of radiation burn. (A.Y.)

  19. Internal radiation therapy: a neglected aspect of nuclear medicine in the molecular era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yansong

    2015-09-01

    With increasing evidence, internal radiation therapy, also known as brachytherapy, has become a neglected aspect of nuclear medicine in the molecular era. In this paper, recent developments regarding internal radiation therapy, including developments in radioiodine-131 ((131)I) and thyroid, radioimmunotherapy (RIT) for non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), and radiopharmaceuticals for bone metastases. Relevant differences and status of their applications in China were mentioned as well. These molecular mediated internal radiation therapies are gaining increasing importance by providing palliative and curative treatments for an increasing number of diseases and becoming one of the important parts of molecular nuclear medicine.

  20. Improving sewage wastewater characteristics using radiation treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Motaium, R.A.; Sabry, A.; El-Ammari, M.F.

    2005-01-01

    Raw and treated sewage wastewater, collected from El-Gabal El-Asfar wastewater treatment plant (WWTP), irradiated and non-irradiated, were tested in order to determine the lethal radiation dose for total coliform and the effect of radiation on biological oxygen demand (BOD) and chemical oxygen demand (COD). Various gamma radiation and electron beam doses (0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0, 3.5, 4.0 KGy) were used in this study. A negative relationship between the radiation dose and the total coliform population was recorded. The increase in the radiation dose was accompanied by a decrease in total coliform count. The lethal doses of gamma radiation for total coliform in raw and treated sewage wastewater were 1.5 and 1.0 KGy, respectively, whereas the lethal doses of the electron beam for total coliform in raw and treated sewage wastewater were 3.0 and 2.0 KGy, respectively. Gamma radiation resulted in a reduction of BOD and COD by about 70% whereas the electron beam resulted in 55% reduction in BOD and COD at a dose of 4 KGy. The different sources of radiation (gamma and electron beam) used in this study caused variations in the magnitude of total coliform elimination. At any radiation dose received, gamma radiation proved to be more efficient than electron beam in total coliform elimination

  1. Interaction of radiation with solids. Proceedings of 9. International conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anishchik, V.M.; Uglov, V.V.; Baran, L.V.; Azarko, I.I.

    2011-09-01

    In the collection are the papers presented at the 9 International Conference 'Interaction of radiation with solids' (20-22 September 2011) and covering the following topics: processes of interaction of radiation with solids, radiation effects in solids, interaction of plasma with the surface, modification of material properties, formation, structure and properties of coatings, equipment for radiation technologies. Addressed to researchers and students of natural science faculties.

  2. Interaction of radiation with solids. Proceedings of 11. International conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anishchik, V.M.

    2015-09-01

    In the collection are the papers presented at the 11 International Conference 'Interaction of radiation with solids' (23-25 September 2015) and covering the following topics: processes of interaction of radiation and plasma with solids, radiation effects in solids, ray methods of formation of nanomaterials and nanostructures, modification of material properties, structure and properties of coatings, equipment for radiation technologies. Addressed to researchers and students of natural science faculties. (authors)

  3. 11th International Conference of Radiation Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-18

    Topics discussed in the conference included the following: Radiation Physics, Radiation Chemistry and modelling--Radiation physics and dosimetry; Electron transfer in biological media; Radiation chemistry; Biophysical and biochemical modelling; Mechanisms of DNA damage; Assays of DNA damage; Energy deposition in micro volumes; Photo-effects; Special techniques and technologies; Oxidative damage. Molecular and cellular effects-- Photobiology; Cell cycle effects; DNA damage: Strand breaks; DNA damage: Bases; DNA damage Non-targeted; DNA damage: other; Chromosome aberrations: clonal; Chromosomal aberrations: non-clonal; Interactions: Heat/Radiation/Drugs; Biochemical effects; Protein expression; Gene induction; Co-operative effects; ``Bystander'' effects; Oxidative stress effects; Recovery from radiation damage. DNA damage and repair -- DNA repair genes; DNA repair deficient diseases; DNA repair enzymology; Epigenetic effects on repair; and Ataxia and ATM.

  4. Influence of internal fixation systems on radiation therapy for spinal tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jingfeng; Yan, Lei; Wang, Jianping; Cai, Lin; Hu, Dongcai

    2015-07-08

    In this study, the influence of internal fixation systems on radiation therapy for spinal tumor was investigated in order to derive a theoretical basis for adjustment of radiation dose for patients with spinal tumor and internal fixation. Based on a common method of internal fixation after resection of spinal tumor, different models of spinal internal fixation were constructed using the lumbar vertebra of fresh domestic pigs and titanium alloy as the internal fixation system. Variations in radiation dose in the vertebral body and partial spinal cord in different types of internal fixation were studied under the same radiation condition (6 MV and 600 mGy) in different fixation models and compared with those irradiated based on the treatment planning system (TPS). Our results showed that spinal internal fixation materials have great impact on the radiation dose absorbed by spinal tumors. Under the same radiation condition, the influence of anterior internal fixation material or combined anterior and posterior approach on radiation dose at the anterior border of the vertebral body was the greatest. Regardless of the kinds of internal fixation method employed, radiation dose at the anterior border of the vertebral body was significantly different from that at other positions. Notably, the influence of posterior internal fixation material on the anterior wall of the vertebral canal was the greatest. X-ray attenuation and scattering should be taken into consideration for most patients with bone metastasis that receive fixation of metal implants. Further evaluation should then be conducted with modified TPS in order to minimize the potentially harmful effects of inappropriate radiation dose.

  5. Experience of the international network in radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medina Gironzini, Eduardo

    2008-01-01

    With the aim of exchanging information on various subjects about radiation protection and designing a site where the members can send and receive information on courses, scientific activities, articles, technical opinions, commentaries and everything that promotes the communication, collaboration and integration, the 15th March 2002 the networking: 'radioproteccion' is created with 11 persons from 11 countries. The number of members had been increased. By the first month it had 117 members and by the end of the year 2002 it had already 179 members, 315 messages were send by then. By December 2007, there were 726 members from 28 countries mainly from Latin America: Argentina, Brazil, Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay and Venezuela. There were also members from Austria, Canada, France, Israel, Italy, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, United Kingdom and United States. There have been distributed 2049 messages about Congress, courses and activities on national and international radiation protection and related issues which initially were in Latin American and the Caribbean. This has allowed diverse specialists that work in different themes to interchange experiences and information about subjects of common interest. This objective is the continuation of the spreading of activities that since 1991 and for 10 consecutive years had been made through the Bulletin 'Proteccion Radiologica', from which 65000 samples were published and distributed to specialists from 40 countries thanks to the support of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the Pan-American Health Organization (PAHO). This idea is complemented by the Web: www.radioproteccion.org. Interesting topics have been discussed in the network for example: Pregnancy and medical radiation, emergency response, occupational exposure, radiation protection responsibilities, lessons learned from accidental

  6. Radiation treatment of drugs, biochemicals and vaccines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordheim, W.; Braeuniger, S.; Kirsch, B.; Kotowski, H.; Teupel, D.

    1984-12-01

    The concise and tabulated review reports experimental results on the effects of radiation treatment on drugs, vaccines, biochemicals and adjuvants including enzymes as well. Irradiation was mostly performed by γ-radiation using 60 Co and to a lesser extent by 137 Cs, 182 Ta, X-rays and accelerators. Ionizing radiation proved to be a useful tool for sterilization and inactivation in producing drugs, vaccines, and bioactive agents and will contribute to realize procedures difficultly solvable as to engineering and economy, respectively. 124 refs

  7. New modalities in radiation therapy for treatment of cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Deepak

    2013-01-01

    -RAY used). Stereotactic radiation type of external beam radiation therapy, is focused radiation beam targeting a well-defined tumor, these treatment include gamma knife surgery. Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) is an advanced type of high-precision radiation which improves the treatment volume to concave tumor shapes. In 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3DCRT), the profile of each radiation beam is shaped to fit the profile of the target using a multi leaf collimator (MLC) and a variable number of beams. In image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) or four-dimensional radiation therapy, real time imaging combined with real time adjustment of the therapeutic beams use. Brachytherapy (internal radiation therapy) is an effective treatment for cervical, prostate, breast, and skin cancer and can also be used to treat tumors in many other body sites. Radioisotopes therapy (RIT) is a form of targeted therapy which is used for the treatment of certain specific types of tumors. (author)

  8. Residual water treatment for gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendez, L.

    1990-01-01

    The treatment of residual water by means of gamma radiation for its use in agricultural irrigation is evaluated. Measurements of physical, chemical, biological and microbiological contamination indicators were performed. For that, samples from the treatment center of residual water of San Juan de Miraflores were irradiated up to a 52.5 kGy dose. The study concludes that gamma radiation is effective to remove parasites and bacteria, but not for removal of the organic and inorganic matter. (author). 15 refs., 3 tabs., 4 figs

  9. Radiation and society: Comprehending radiation risk. V. 3. Proceedings of an international conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This IAEA international conference on Radiation and Society was the first major international meeting devoted to the comprehension of radiation risk, public attitude towards radiation risk and hazards encountered by the general public in contaminated areas. Volume three of the proceedings contains the speeches, ten introductory papers, summaries of the technical discussion sessions, the key note paper on uncertainties in the health impact of environmental pollutants. Refs, figs, tabs

  10. International cooperation in the field of radiation application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Shoichi

    1993-01-01

    Bilateral and multilateral research cooperations have been implemented at TRCRE, JAERI, producing favourable results in the field of radiation application. Frameworks and some achievements are described and the significance of the international cooperation is discussed. (Author)

  11. Radiation dosimetry onboard the International Space Station ISS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Besides the effects of the microgravity environment, and the psychological and psychosocial problems encountered in confined spaces, radiation is the main health detriment for long duration human space missions. The radiation environment encountered in space differs in nature front that on earth, consisting mostly of high energetic ions from protons up to iron, resulting in radiation levels far exceeding the ones encountered on earth for occupational radiation workers. Therefore the determination and the control of the radiation load on astronauts is a moral obligation of the space faring nations. The requirements for radiation detectors in space are very different to that on earth. Limitations in mass, power consumption and the complex nature of the space radiation environment define and limit the overall construction of radiation detectors. Radiation dosimetry onboard the International Space Station (ISS) is accomplished to one part as ''operational'' dosimetry aiming for area monitoring of the radiation environment as well as astronaut surveillance. Another part focuses on ''scientific'' dosimetry aiming for a better understanding of the radiation environment and its constitutes. Various research activities for a more detailed quantification of the radiation environment as well as its distribution in and outside the space station have been accomplished in the last years onboard the ISS. The paper will focus on the current radiation detectors onboard the ISS, their results, as well as on future planned activities. (orig.)

  12. Modern Radiation Therapy for Extranodal Lymphomas: Field and Dose Guidelines From the International Lymphoma Radiation Oncology Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yahalom, Joachim; Illidge, Tim; Specht, Lena; Hoppe, Richard T.; Li, Ye-Xiong; Tsang, Richard; Wirth, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Extranodal lymphomas (ENLs) comprise about a third of all non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL). Radiation therapy (RT) is frequently used as either primary therapy (particularly for indolent ENL), consolidation after systemic therapy, salvage treatment, or palliation. The wide range of presentations of ENL, involving any organ in the body and the spectrum of histological sub-types, poses a challenge both for routine clinical care and for the conduct of prospective and retrospective studies. This has led to uncertainty and lack of consistency in RT approaches between centers and clinicians. Thus far there is a lack of guidelines for the use of RT in the management of ENL. This report presents an effort by the International Lymphoma Radiation Oncology Group (ILROG) to harmonize and standardize the principles of treatment of ENL, and to address the technical challenges of simulation, volume definition and treatment planning for the most frequently involved organs. Specifically, detailed recommendations for RT volumes are provided. We have applied the same modern principles of involved site radiation therapy as previously developed and published as guidelines for Hodgkin lymphoma and nodal NHL. We have adopted RT volume definitions based on the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU), as has been widely adopted by the field of radiation oncology for solid tumors. Organ-specific recommendations take into account histological subtype, anatomy, the treatment intent, and other treatment modalities that may be have been used before RT

  13. Three-dimensional radiation treatment planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohan, R.

    1989-01-01

    A major aim of radiation therapy is to deliver sufficient dose to the tumour volume to kill the cancer cells while sparing the nearby health organs to prevent complications. With the introduction of devices such as CT and MR scanners, radiation therapy treatment planners have access to full three-dimensional anatomical information to define, simulate, and evaluate treatments. There are a limited number of prototype software systems that allow 3D treatment planning currently in use. In addition, there are more advanced tools under development or still in the planning stages. They require sophisticated graphics and computation equipment, complex physical and mathematical algorithms, and new radiation treatment machines that deliver dose very precisely under computer control. Components of these systems include programs for the identification and delineation of the anatomy and tumour, the definition of radiation beams, the calculation of dose distribution patterns, the display of dose on 2D images and as three dimensional surfaces, and the generation of computer images to verify proper patient positioning in treatment. Some of these functions can be performed more quickly and accurately if artificial intelligence or expert systems techniques are employed. 28 refs., figs

  14. Development of Radiation Technique for Environmental Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Myun Joo; Kuk, Il Hiun; Jin, Joon Ha

    2007-02-01

    The purpose of this research is to development of technologies for 1) the removal of toxic organic chemicals in sewage sludges and the volume reduction of the sewage sludge 2) the recycling/reuse of sewage sludge 3) the reconvey of resource from fishery waste by using radiation technologies. This research project focused on the study of treatment, disposal, and recycling/reuse of sewage sludge by radiation technology, and recovery of highly value-added resources from the wastes. As basic studies with a radiation technology, an enhancement of dewaterbilities of sewage sludge, development of dewatering conditioner, reduction of trace toxic organic chemicals, and the toxicities of the byproducts were studied. Based on the basic experimental results, we developed the pilot-scale system with the continuous e-beam and dewatering unit and the advanced treatment system with the use of carbon source recovered from sewage sludge

  15. Development of Radiation Technique for Environmental Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Myun Joo; Kuk, Il Hiun; Jin, Joon Ha (and others)

    2007-02-15

    The purpose of this research is to development of technologies for 1) the removal of toxic organic chemicals in sewage sludges and the volume reduction of the sewage sludge 2) the recycling/reuse of sewage sludge 3) the reconvey of resource from fishery waste by using radiation technologies. This research project focused on the study of treatment, disposal, and recycling/reuse of sewage sludge by radiation technology, and recovery of highly value-added resources from the wastes. As basic studies with a radiation technology, an enhancement of dewaterbilities of sewage sludge, development of dewatering conditioner, reduction of trace toxic organic chemicals, and the toxicities of the byproducts were studied. Based on the basic experimental results, we developed the pilot-scale system with the continuous e-beam and dewatering unit and the advanced treatment system with the use of carbon source recovered from sewage sludge.

  16. Treatment of coffee wastewater by gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilera, Y.; Consuegra, R.; Rapado, M.

    1998-01-01

    Radiation energy can be an important resource in the treatment of wastewaters from different industries both directly and in combination with other processes to improve economics. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of an ionizing radiation on coffee wastewater in order to decompose chemical organic refractory substances which cannot be degradated by biological treatment. One of the approaches employed in the survey was the chemical treatment followed by the irradiation of the samples since no nuclear changes of the coagulant solution or wastewater samples were expected. Irradiation is a high cost treatment although it has increased its applications nowadays. The method is safe, fast and effective and it does not generate any pollution

  17. 7. international congress of radiation research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musilek, L.

    1984-01-01

    The congress was held in Amsterdam on July 3 to 8, 1983, with the participation of 1305 specialists from 44 countries. The number of papers came close to one thousand, most of them being posters. The congress met in 44 sessions grouped by problem areas of which there were five: A. Chemistry and Physics; B. Biology; C. Somatic and genetic effects; D. Biology and therapy of tumours; E. Dosimetry, radionuclides and technology. The congress brought out the immense quantitative growth of knowledge in the field of radiation biology and biochemistry. A general idea of the effects of radiation on organisms is yet to be attained. (Ha)

  18. Classification and treatment of radiation maculopathy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Horgan, Noel

    2012-02-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Radiation maculopathy is a sight-limiting consequence of radiotherapy in the management of uveal melanoma and other intraocular tumors. In this review, we consider clinical, fluorescein angiographic and optical coherence tomographic findings, propose a classification for radiation maculopathy and discuss the management of this condition. RECENT FINDINGS: Radiation macular edema (RME) can be classified by optical coherence tomography into noncystoid or cystoid edema, with foveolar or extrafoveolar involvement. Optical coherence tomographic grading of RME has been found to correlate with visual acuity. Focal argon laser might have some limited benefit in the treatment of RME. Intravitreal triamcinolone and intravitreal antivascular endothelial growth factor agents can be of short-term benefit in the treatment of RME. In a randomized controlled trial, periocular triamcinolone significantly reduced rates of RME and vision loss up to 18 months following plaque radiotherapy for uveal melanoma. SUMMARY: Currently, there is no proven treatment for established RME, though periocular triamcinolone has been shown to have a preventive benefit. An accepted classification system for radiation maculopathy would be of benefit in planning and comparing future treatment trials.

  19. Volume visualization in radiation treatment planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelizzari, C A; Chen, G T

    2000-12-01

    Radiation treatment planning (RTP), historically an image-intensive discipline and one of the first areas in which 3D information from imaging was clinically applied, has become even more critically dependent on accurate 3D definition of target and non-target structures in recent years with the advent of conformal radiation therapy. In addition to the interactive display of wireframe or shaded surface models of anatomic objects, proposed radiation beams, beam modifying devices, and calculated dose distributions, recently significant use has been made of direct visualization of relevant anatomy from image data. Dedicated systems are commercially available for the purpose of geometrically optimizing beam placement, implementing in virtual reality the functionality of standard radiation therapy simulators. Such "CT simulation" systems rely heavily on 3D visualization and on reprojection of image data to produce simulated radiographs for comparison with either diagnostic-quality radiographs made on a simulator or megavoltage images made using the therapeutic beams themselves. Although calculation and analysis of dose distributions is an important component of radiation treatment design, geometric targeting with optimization based on 3D anatomic information is frequently performed as a separate step independent of dose calculations.

  20. Radiation during deep inspiration allows loco-regional treatment of left breast and axillary-, supraclavicular- and internal mammary lymph nodes without compromising target coverage or dose restrictions to organs at risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjelstuen, Mari H B; Mjaaland, Ingvil; Vikström, Johan; Dybvik, Kjell Ivar

    2012-03-01

    Loco-regional radiotherapy of left-sided breast cancer represents a treatment planning challenge when the internal mammary chain (IMC) lymph nodes are included in the target volume. This treatment planning study evaluates the reduction in cardiopulmonary doses when radiation is given during deep inspiration breath-hold (DIBH). This was achieved without compromising dose coverage to the planning target volume (PTV). Seventeen patients with early breast cancer, referred for adjuvant radiotherapy, were included. For each patient two computed tomography (CT)-scans were acquired; the first during free breathing (FB) and the second during DIBH. The scans were monitored by the Varian RPM respiratory gating system. Audio-visual guidance was used. The treatment planning of the two CT studies was performed focusing on good coverage (V95% > 98%) of the PTV. Doses to the heart, left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery, lungs and contralateral breast were assessed. With equal PTV coverage, average mean heart dose was reduced from 6.2 Gy to 3.1 Gy in DIBH plans as compared to FB. Average volume receiving 25 Gy or more (V25Gy) was reduced from 6.7% to 1.2%, and the number of patients with V25Gy > 5% was reduced from 8 to 1 utilizing DIBH. The average mean dose to the LAD coronary artery was reduced from 25.0 Gy to 10.9 Gy. The average ipsilateral lung volume receiving 20 Gy or more (V20Gy) was reduced from 44.5% to 32.7% with DIBH. In 11 of the DIBH plans V20Gy was lower than 35%, in accordance with national guidelines, while none of the FB plans fulfilled this recommendation. Respiratory gated radiotherapy during DIBH is a suitable technique for loco-regional breast irradiation even when IMC lymph nodes are included in the PTV. Cardiopulmonary doses are considerably decreased for all dose levels without compromising the dose coverage to PTV.

  1. Treatment of radiation enteritis: a comparison study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loiudice, T.A.; Lang, J.A.

    1983-01-01

    Twenty-four patients with severe radiation injury to the small bowel seen over a 4-year period were randomized to four treatment groups: 1) methylprednisolone 80 mg intravenously plus Vivonex-HN, 2 L/day po, 2) methylprednisolone 80 mg intravenously plus total parenteral nutrition, 2.5 L/day, 3) total parenteral nutrition, 2.5 L/day, and 4) Vivonex-HN, 2 L/day po. Patients received nothing by mouth except water in groups II and III, and only Vivonex-HN in groups I and IV. Patients were treated for 8-wk periods. Improvement was gauged by overall nutritional assessment measurements, nitrogen balance data and by radiological and clinical parameters. No significant difference between groups I, II, III, and IV could be found for age, sex, mean radiation dosage, time of onset after radiation therapy, or initial nutritional assessment data. Differences statistically could be found between groups II and III and I and IV regarding nutritional assessment data, nitrogen balance, radiographic and clinical parameters after therapy, with marked improvement noted in groups II and III. We conclude that a treatment regimen consisting of total parenteral nutrition and bowel rest is beneficial in the treatment of radiation enteritis. Methylprednisolone appears to enhance this effect and indeed, may be responsible for a longer lasting response

  2. Radiation in the treatment of meningeal leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkin, R.D.

    1979-01-01

    At the present time, a successful regimen for the eradication of occult meningeal leukemia is the combination of cranial radiotherapy in a dose of 1800 rads in 10 fractions in 12 to 14 days with six doses of intrathecal methotrexate. This regimen, when given with prednisone and vincristine can be expected to give a relapse rate for isolated meningeal leukemia of approximately 5% during the first 2 years of follow-up. A modification of this regimen utilizing craniospinal radiation with prior and concurrent intrathecal methotrexate is given for the treatment of overt meningeal leukemia at diagnosis or for an isolated first relapse with meningeal leukemia. Radiation technique and morbidity are discussed

  3. Radiation treatment of polluted water and wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-09-01

    Strategies to tackle environmental pollution have been receiving increasing attention throughout the world in recent years. Radiation processing using electron beam accelerators and gamma irradiators has shown very promising results in this area. Radiation processing in wastewater treatment is an additive-free process that uses the short lived reactive species formed during the radiolysis of water for efficient decomposition of pollutants therein. The rapid growth of the global population, together with the increased development of agriculture and industry, have led to the generation of large quantities of polluted industrial and municipal wastewater. The recognition that these polluted waters may pose a serious threat to humans has led technologists to look for cost effective technologies for their treatment. A variety of methods based on biological, chemical, photochemical and electrochemical processes are being explored for decomposing the chemical and biological contaminants present in the wastewaters. Studies in recent years have demonstrated the effectiveness of ionizing radiation such as, gamma rays and electron beams or in combination with other treatments, in the decomposition of refractory organic compounds in aqueous solutions and in the effective removal or inactivation of various microorganisms and parasites. The application of electron beam processing for drinking water, wastewater and groundwater treatment offers the promise of a cost effective process. The installation of the first full scale electron beam plant in Daegu, Republic of Korea, to treat 10 000 m 3 day -1 textile wastewater has demonstrated that the process is a cost effective technology when compared to conventional treatment. The regular operation of this facility provides operational data on reliability and additional data for a detailed economic evaluation. The IAEA has been supporting activities in this area by organizing advisory group meetings, consultants meetings, symposia and

  4. Dosimetry studies during breast cancer radiation treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, M. O. M.

    2005-06-01

    Previous studies indicated that breast cancer is wildly spread especially in women as compared to men. It is increased after an age of thirty five years in women so it is important to study the effect of exposure to the radiation on the intact breast during the treatment of the breast suffering from cancer. In this work the scattered doses for the intact breast during the treatment of the breast suffering from cancer were measured and also the probability of inducing cancer in it is also discussed. The study was performed for a group of patients composed of twenty five females. Also the backscattered doses to the intact breast were measured for thirteen female patients. During the treatment using gamma rays from Co-60 source the two tangential fields (lateral and medial) were selected for the measurements. The results of exposure to gamma radiation for the lateral and medial fields showed that the mean scattered and backscattered doses to the intact breast were (241.26 cGY,47.49 cGY) and (371.6 cGY,385.4 cGY), respectively. Beside that the somatic risk of induced cancer to the intact breast was found to be (6 .1X10 -3 ,1.2X10 -3 ) and (9.29X10 -3 , 9.63X10 -3 ), respectively. From the results obtained it was concluded that the intact breast received small amounts of radiation doses which may lead to breast cancer for the healthy breast. The recommendations from the present study are to take care of radiation protection to the patient, and also to take care of the patient treatment conditions like temperature, pressure and humidity during the radiation exposure.(Author)

  5. Internal contamination as a problem of radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loessner, V.

    1978-01-01

    An overview is given of the most important problems associated with internal contamination. Topics discussed include the various routes of entry into the body and the metabolism of radionuclides, methods for assessing internal doses and specifying maximum permissible values for internal contamination as well as direct and indirect methods for detecting incorporated radionuclides. The material should be of value to participants in radiation protection courses. (author)

  6. Delayed radiation effects of the skin - malignization and treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bardychev, M.S. (Akademiya Meditsinskikh Nauk SSSR, Obninsk. Nauchno-Issledovatel' skij Inst. Meditsinskoj Radiologii)

    1982-01-01

    44 cases of radiation cancer are analyzed. The malignization is related to late radiation ulcera and other radiation-induced changes such as fibrosis and dermatitis. The types of malignization are described and treatment plans are discussed.

  7. Radiation internal exposure measurements archiving system (REMAS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bitar, A.; Maghrabi, M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a personal-computer-based software, REMAS, which helps users to estimate intake activity and resulting internal doses for all radionuclides existing in (International Commission on Radiological Protection) ICRP 78 and other important elements. In addition to its use in internal dose calculations, it facilitates management of data of monitored persons who are occupationally exposed to unsealed radioactive substances. Furthermore, REMAS offers the possibility to generate different reports of results. The program is suitable for laboratories working in the field of assessment of occupational intake and also for users of radioactive material who are routinely monitored. REMAS, which is bilingual program (English and Arabic), was built with GUI environment and was developed using Microsoft FoxPro. It runs on Microsoft Windows XP operating systems. (authors)

  8. Prognostic factors for prediction of survival of hepatocellular cancer patients after selective internal radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soydal, Cigdem; Keskin, Onur; Kucuk, Ozlem N; Ozkan, Elgin; Bilgic, Sadik; Idilman, Ramazan; Kir, Metin K

    2015-06-01

    In this study, it was aimed to explore the prognostic factors in patients who received selective internal radiation therapy for hepatocellular cancer. A retrospective evaluation was made of 28 (24 male, 4 female, mean age 65.4 ± 6.8 years) hepatocellular cancer patients who received selective internal radiation therapy with Y-90 resin microspheres. Using Cox proportional hazards regression analysis, the relationship between age, gender, MELD score, serum albumin and AFP levels, number of liver lesions, size of the largest lesion, absence of (18)F-FDG uptake, maximum standardized uptake value and overall survival times was analyzed. Treatment was applied to the right lobe in 22 and both in 6 patients. Mean treatment dose was 1.5 ± 0.2 GBq. Number of liver lesions were 1, internal radiation therapy.

  9. Radiation treatment of secondary effluent from a sewage treatment plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Jinho; Yoon, J.-H.; Chung, H.-H.; Lee, M.-J.

    2002-01-01

    Radiation treatment using gamma-rays was investigated in order to reclaim the secondary effluent from a sewage treatment plant. The radiation treatment reduced BOD by 85% irrespective of absorbed dose, and the removals of COD, TOC and color were up to 64%, 34% and 88%, respectively, at a dose of 15 kGy. Gamma-rays effectively disinfected microorganisms and completely removed them at a dose of 0.3 kGy. The combination of gamma-rays and titanium dioxide significantly improved the treatment process. The increases of COD, TOC and color removals were 40%, 10% and 20%, respectively. As confirmed by EPR and the spin-trapping method, this increase was partly caused by the increase of hydroxyl radicals in the presence of titanium dioxide

  10. Single administration of Selective Internal Radiation Therapy versus continuous treatment with sorafeNIB in locally advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (SIRveNIB): study protocol for a phase iii randomized controlled trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gandhi, Mihir; Choo, Su Pin; Thng, Choon Hua; Tan, Say Beng; Low, Albert Su Chong; Cheow, Peng Chung; Goh, Anthony Soon Whatt; Tay, Kiang Hiong; Lo, Richard Hoau Gong; Goh, Brian Kim Poh; Wong, Jen San; Ng, David Chee Eng; Soo, Khee Chee; Liew, Wei Ming; Chow, Pierce K. H.

    2016-01-01

    Approximately 20 % of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients diagnosed in the early stages may benefit from potentially curative ablative therapies such as surgical resection, transplantation or radiofrequency ablation. For patients not eligible for such options, prognosis is poor. Sorafenib and Selective Internal Radiation Therapy (SIRT) are clinically proven treatment options in patients with unresectable HCC, and this study aims to assess overall survival following either SIRT or Sorafenib therapy for locally advanced HCC patients. This investigator-initiated, multi-centre, open-label, randomized, controlled trial will enrol 360 patients with locally advanced HCC, as defined by Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer stage B or stage C, without distant metastases, and which is not amenable to immediate curative treatment. Exclusion criteria include previous systemic therapy, metastatic disease, complete occlusion of the main portal vein, or a Child-Pugh score of >7. Eligible patients will be randomised 1:1 and stratified by centre and presence or absence of portal vein thrombosis to receive either a single administration of SIRT using yttrium-90 resin microspheres (SIR-Spheres®, Sirtex Medical Limited, Sydney, Australia) targeted at HCC in the liver by the trans-arterial route or continuous oral Sorafenib (Nexavar®, Bayer Pharma AG, Berlin, Germany) at a dose of 400 mg twice daily until disease progression, no further response, complete regression or unacceptable toxicity. Patients for both the Sorafenib and SIRT arms will be followed-up every 4 weeks for the first 3 months and 12 weekly thereafter. Overall survival is the primary endpoint, assessed for the intention-to-treat population. Secondary endpoints are tumour response rate, time-to-tumour progression, progression free survival, quality of life and down-staging to receive potentially curative therapy. Definitive data comparing these two therapies will help to determine clinical practice in the large group of

  11. Simulation and radiation treatment in external radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singer, E.

    1996-01-01

    It is well known that in order to obtain a uniform dose in the treated volume as defined in ICRU 50, there should be a 10% maximum difference between maximum and minimum dose values in treatment planning. Clinical target volume (CTV) should be related to external areas of body sections where tumour is located. These areas are important because different radiation beams enter through them. Therefore, verification of the planning target volume (PTV) through the external areas is highly significant. In this work we point out the importance of controlling that PTV is irradiated as planned considering some error sources usually found in radiotherapy practice with equipment that has been intensively used for a long time. Moreover, I think this experience will be helpful for those centers around the world where radiation treatment is carried out with reconditioned units. (author)

  12. Radiation treatment for sterilization of packaging materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haji-Saeid, Mohammad; Sampa, Maria Helena O.; Chmielewski, Andrzej G.

    2007-01-01

    Treatment with gamma and electron radiation is becoming a common process for the sterilization of packages, mostly made of natural or synthetic plastics, used in the aseptic processing of foods and pharmaceuticals. The effect of irradiation on these materials is crucial for packaging engineering to understand the effects of these new treatments. Packaging material may be irradiated either prior to or after filling. The irradiation prior to filling is usually chosen for dairy products, processed food, beverages, pharmaceutical, and medical device industries in the United States, Europe, and Canada. Radiation effects on packaging material properties still need further investigation. This paper summarizes the work done by different groups and discusses recent developments in regulations and testing procedures in the field of packaging technology

  13. Modern Radiation Therapy for Hodgkin Lymphoma: Field and Dose Guidelines From the International Lymphoma Radiation Oncology Group (ILROG)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Specht, Lena, E-mail: lena.specht@regionh.dk [Department of Oncology and Hematology, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen (Denmark); Yahalom, Joachim [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Illidge, Tim [Institute of Cancer Sciences, University of Manchester, Manchester Academic Health Sciences Centre, Christie Hospital NHS Trust, Manchester (United Kingdom); Berthelsen, Anne Kiil [Department of Radiation Oncology and PET Centre, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen (Denmark); Constine, Louis S. [Department of Radiation Oncology and Pediatrics, James P. Wilmot Cancer Center, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, New York (United States); Eich, Hans Theodor [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Münster (Germany); Girinsky, Theodore [Department of Radiation Oncology, Institut Gustave-Roussy, Villejuif (France); Hoppe, Richard T. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, California (United States); Mauch, Peter [Department of Radiation Oncology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital and Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard University, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Mikhaeel, N. George [Department of Clinical Oncology and Radiotherapy, Guy' s and St Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust, London (United Kingdom); Ng, Andrea [Department of Radiation Oncology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital and Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard University, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)

    2014-07-15

    Radiation therapy (RT) is the most effective single modality for local control of Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) and an important component of therapy for many patients. These guidelines have been developed to address the use of RT in HL in the modern era of combined modality treatment. The role of reduced volumes and doses is addressed, integrating modern imaging with 3-dimensional (3D) planning and advanced techniques of treatment delivery. The previously applied extended field (EF) and original involved field (IF) techniques, which treated larger volumes based on nodal stations, have now been replaced by the use of limited volumes, based solely on detectable nodal (and extranodal extension) involvement at presentation, using contrast-enhanced computed tomography, positron emission tomography/computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, or a combination of these techniques. The International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements concepts of gross tumor volume, clinical target volume, internal target volume, and planning target volume are used for defining the targeted volumes. Newer treatment techniques, including intensity modulated radiation therapy, breath-hold, image guided radiation therapy, and 4-dimensional imaging, should be implemented when their use is expected to decrease significantly the risk for normal tissue damage while still achieving the primary goal of local tumor control. The highly conformal involved node radiation therapy (INRT), recently introduced for patients for whom optimal imaging is available, is explained. A new concept, involved site radiation therapy (ISRT), is introduced as the standard conformal therapy for the scenario, commonly encountered, wherein optimal imaging is not available. There is increasing evidence that RT doses used in the past are higher than necessary for disease control in this era of combined modality therapy. The use of INRT and of lower doses in early-stage HL is supported by available data. Although the

  14. Modern Radiation Therapy for Hodgkin Lymphoma: Field and Dose Guidelines From the International Lymphoma Radiation Oncology Group (ILROG)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Specht, Lena; Yahalom, Joachim; Illidge, Tim; Berthelsen, Anne Kiil; Constine, Louis S.; Eich, Hans Theodor; Girinsky, Theodore; Hoppe, Richard T.; Mauch, Peter; Mikhaeel, N. George; Ng, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Radiation therapy (RT) is the most effective single modality for local control of Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) and an important component of therapy for many patients. These guidelines have been developed to address the use of RT in HL in the modern era of combined modality treatment. The role of reduced volumes and doses is addressed, integrating modern imaging with 3-dimensional (3D) planning and advanced techniques of treatment delivery. The previously applied extended field (EF) and original involved field (IF) techniques, which treated larger volumes based on nodal stations, have now been replaced by the use of limited volumes, based solely on detectable nodal (and extranodal extension) involvement at presentation, using contrast-enhanced computed tomography, positron emission tomography/computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, or a combination of these techniques. The International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements concepts of gross tumor volume, clinical target volume, internal target volume, and planning target volume are used for defining the targeted volumes. Newer treatment techniques, including intensity modulated radiation therapy, breath-hold, image guided radiation therapy, and 4-dimensional imaging, should be implemented when their use is expected to decrease significantly the risk for normal tissue damage while still achieving the primary goal of local tumor control. The highly conformal involved node radiation therapy (INRT), recently introduced for patients for whom optimal imaging is available, is explained. A new concept, involved site radiation therapy (ISRT), is introduced as the standard conformal therapy for the scenario, commonly encountered, wherein optimal imaging is not available. There is increasing evidence that RT doses used in the past are higher than necessary for disease control in this era of combined modality therapy. The use of INRT and of lower doses in early-stage HL is supported by available data. Although the

  15. Modern radiation therapy for Hodgkin lymphoma: field and dose guidelines from the international lymphoma radiation oncology group (ILROG).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Specht, Lena; Yahalom, Joachim; Illidge, Tim; Berthelsen, Anne Kiil; Constine, Louis S; Eich, Hans Theodor; Girinsky, Theodore; Hoppe, Richard T; Mauch, Peter; Mikhaeel, N George; Ng, Andrea

    2014-07-15

    Radiation therapy (RT) is the most effective single modality for local control of Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) and an important component of therapy for many patients. These guidelines have been developed to address the use of RT in HL in the modern era of combined modality treatment. The role of reduced volumes and doses is addressed, integrating modern imaging with 3-dimensional (3D) planning and advanced techniques of treatment delivery. The previously applied extended field (EF) and original involved field (IF) techniques, which treated larger volumes based on nodal stations, have now been replaced by the use of limited volumes, based solely on detectable nodal (and extranodal extension) involvement at presentation, using contrast-enhanced computed tomography, positron emission tomography/computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, or a combination of these techniques. The International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements concepts of gross tumor volume, clinical target volume, internal target volume, and planning target volume are used for defining the targeted volumes. Newer treatment techniques, including intensity modulated radiation therapy, breath-hold, image guided radiation therapy, and 4-dimensional imaging, should be implemented when their use is expected to decrease significantly the risk for normal tissue damage while still achieving the primary goal of local tumor control. The highly conformal involved node radiation therapy (INRT), recently introduced for patients for whom optimal imaging is available, is explained. A new concept, involved site radiation therapy (ISRT), is introduced as the standard conformal therapy for the scenario, commonly encountered, wherein optimal imaging is not available. There is increasing evidence that RT doses used in the past are higher than necessary for disease control in this era of combined modality therapy. The use of INRT and of lower doses in early-stage HL is supported by available data. Although the

  16. Compatibilization of recycled polymers through radiation treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czvikovszky, T.; Hargitai, H.

    1999-08-01

    The use of compatibilizers is crucial in composites of apolar polymer matrix such as PP, and fibrous, polar reinforcement such as viscose, flax, hemp and similar fibers. Radiation treatment using small EB dose of 8 kGy may enhance the effect of reactive compatibilizers of acrylic oligomer type, involving both matrix and reinforcement into a chemically attached system. In the present work we applied by-products of the textile industry as reinforcing additives for polypropylene reprocessed from recollected car-bumpers.

  17. Radiation protection instrumentation: A comparison of US and international standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selby, J.M.; Hickey, E.E.; Swinth, K.L.

    1988-09-01

    The quality and performance of radiation protection instruments are extremely important in providing conservative protection to radiation workers. The recent American National Standards Institute (ANSI) draft standards on radiation protection instrumentation provide more specific performance requirements and definitive performance tests. International standards for radiation protection instrumentation, published by the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC), specify general performance, type, and acceptance test requirements. This paper discusses the similarities and differences between the two sets of standards. The results of testing selected instruments against the new draft ANSI standards also are presented. Pacific Northwest Laboratory has tested more than 100 instruments against criteria in draft ANSI N42.17A, which has resulted in changes in the standard. For example, the test for temperature performance was changed to permit more time for equilibration at each test temperature, and the instrument precision requirement was changed from ≤2.5% to ≤10%. 2 refs., 2 tabs

  18. Current radiation protection activities of the International Atomic Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, G.A.M.

    1996-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) program of the Radiation Safety Section is described in this paper. The Section has two main components: (1) the development of consensus safety documentation and (2) the use of that documentation as the basis for assisting countries to deal safely with their applications of radiation and radioactivity. Main activities of the section are listed for each of these components. Activities include documentation, coordinated research programs, and assistance to developing countries. 14 tabs

  19. Chernobyl accident. The crisis of the international radiation community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malko, Mikhail V.

    2016-01-01

    The information given in the present report about the Chernobyl accident and its radiological consequences indicates a serious crisis of the international radiation community. The following signs of this crises can be discerned: The international radiation community did not recognize the real reasons of the accident for a long time. It could not make a correct assessment of the damage to the thyroid of the affected populations of Belarus, Russia and the Ukraine. Up to present time it rejects the reliable data on hereditary malformations. It is not able to accept reliable data on the increase in the incidence in all categories of people affected by the Chernobyl accident. The international radiation community supported the Soviet authorities in their attempts to play down the radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident for a long time. (author)

  20. Chernobyl accident: the crisis of the international radiation community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malko, M.V.

    1998-01-01

    The information given in the present report about the Chernobyl accident and its radiological consequences indicates a serious crisis of the international radiation community. The following signs of this crises can be discerned: The international radiation community did not recognize the real reasons of the accident for a long time. It could not make a correct assessment of the damage to the thyroid of the affected populations of Belarus, Russia and the Ukraine. Up to present time it rejects the reliable data on hereditary malformations. It is not able to accept reliable data on the increase in the incidence in all categories of people affected by the Chernobyl accident. The international radiation community supported the Soviet authorities in their attempts to play down the radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident for a long time. (author)

  1. Stereotactic radiation therapy combined with immunotherapy: augmenting the role of radiation in local and systemic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharabi, Andrew B; Tran, Phuoc T; Lim, Michael; Drake, Charles G; Deweese, Theodore L

    2015-05-01

    Stereotactic radiosurgery and stereotactic body radiation therapy are two contemporary radiation modalities that can treat tumors in any area of the body using highly focused radiation. Recently, immunotherapy has established itself as a viable and powerful anticancer treatment. In this review we detail the rationale supporting a combination of immunotherapy and stereotactic radiation. Additionally, we discuss the evidence for the immune stimulatory effects of focused radiation and the role that radiation may play in enhancing the systemic treatment effects of immunotherapy.

  2. Radiation treatment of sewage effluent, (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawai, Teruko; Sekiguchi, Masayuki; Sawai, Takeshi; Shimokawa, Toshinari; Tanabe, Hiroko

    1991-01-01

    The water demand of the past several years has increased rapidly. Recycling of municipal waste water is an effective mean of coping with the water shortage in Tokyo. We studied the radiation treatment method of further purification of the effluent from sewage treatment plants. By gamma irradiation the refractory organic substances in the effluent were decomposed and the COD values decreased with increasing dose. The high molecular weight components in the effluent were degraded to lower molecular weight substances and were decomposed finally to carbon dioxide. In this paper we studied on the fading color and the reducing of order of sewage effluent. (author)

  3. Internal dipole radiation as a tool for particle identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Yu; Kattawar, George W; Li, Changhui; Yang, Ping

    2006-12-20

    A numerical approach for the calculation of the internal dipole radiation associated with particles of arbitrary morphology is investigated by using the discrete-dipole approximation (DDA) method. The DDA and analytical solutions for the total radiated power and radiation pattern are compared in the case of spherical host particles. It is shown that the DDA can be quite accurate under the condition that m lambda is the wavenumber in vacuum, and d is the distance between two adjacent dipoles in the DDA cubic dipole array. Furthermore, the DDA solutions for the dipole radiation patterns associated with nonspherical host particles are compared with their corresponding counterparts obtained from the finite-difference time-domain method. Excellent agreement between the two results is noted. The DDA method is also applied to the computation of the internal dipole radiation associated with simulated nonspherical sporelike particles. The results suggest that the internal dipole radiation patterns contain a great deal of information about the morphology and composition of the host particle.

  4. Radiation protection planning for the international FAIR project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fehrenbacher, G.; Belousov, A.; Conrad, I.

    2015-01-01

    FAIR (=Facility for AntiProton and Ion Research) is an international accelerator facility which will be built near the GSI site in Darmstadt, where protons and heavy ion beams can be accelerated in a synchrotron to energies up to 30 GeV/nucleon with intensities partially up to 1E13/sec. The accelerated particles will be used for experiments in atomic, nuclear and plasma physics as well as for radiation biology and medicine and materials research. The radiation protection planning focuses on the estimation of radiation fields produced by heavy ions and its shielding. As examples, the radiation protection planning for the heavy ion synchrotron SIS100 as well as for two experiment caves are presented. Moreover, further important topics in this radiation protection planning are the estimation of the distribution and production of radionuclides in media and the handling before disposal.

  5. Lightweight space radiator with leakage control by internal electrostatic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, H.; Bankoff, S.G.; Miksis, M.J.

    1991-01-01

    An electrostatic liquid film space radiator is proposed. This will employ an internal electrostatic field to prevent leakage of the liquid-metal coolant out of a puncture. This overcomes the major disadvantage of membrane radiators, which is their vulnerability to micrometeorite impacts. Calculations show that leaks of liquid lithium at 700 degree K can easily be stopped from punctures which are several mm in diameter, with very large safety factors. The basic idea lends itself to a variety of radiator concepts, both rotating and non-rotating. Some typical film thickness and pressure calculations in the presence of an electric field are shown

  6. Towards an international regime on radiation and nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, A.J.

    2000-01-01

    The 1990s have seen the de facto emergence of what might be called an 'international regime on nuclear and radiation safety'. It may be construed to encompass three key elements: legally binding international undertakings among States; globally agreed international safety standards; and provisions for facilitating the application of those standards. While nuclear and radiation safety are national responsibilities, governments have long been interested in formulating harmonised approaches to radiation and nuclear safety. A principal mechanism for achieving harmonisation has been the establishment of internationally agreed safety standards and the promotion of their global application. The development of nuclear and radiation safety standards is a statutory function of the IAEA, which is unique in the United Nations system. The IAEA Statute expressly authorises the Agency 'to establish standards of safety' and 'to provide for the application of these standards'. As the following articles and supplement in this edition of the IAEA Bulletin point out, facilitating international conventions; developing safety standards; and providing mechanisms for their application are high priorities for the IAEA. (author)

  7. Internal dose assessment in radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toohey, R.E.

    2003-01-01

    Although numerous models have been developed for occupational and medical internal dosimetry, they may not be applicable to an accident situation. Published dose coefficients relate effective dose to intake, but if acute deterministic effects are possible, effective dose is not a useful parameter. Consequently, dose rates to the organs of interest need to be computed from first principles. Standard bioassay methods may be used to assess body contents, but, again, the standard models for bioassay interpretation may not be applicable because of the circumstances of the accident and the prompt initiation of decorporation therapy. Examples of modifications to the standard methodologies include adjustment of biological half-times under therapy, such as in the Goiania accident, and the same effect, complicated by continued input from contaminated wounds, in the Hanford 241 Am accident. (author)

  8. Novel tracer for radiation treatment planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarzenboeck, S.; Krause, B.J.; Herrmann, K.; Gaertner, F.; Souvatzoglou, M.; Klaesner, B.

    2011-01-01

    PET and PET/CT with innovative tracers gain increasing importance in diagnosis and therapy management, and radiation treatment planning in radio-oncology besides the widely established FDG. The introduction of [ 18 F]Fluorothymidine ([ 18 F]FLT) as marker of proliferation, [ 18 F]Fluoromisonidazole ([ 18 F]FMISO) and [ 18 F]Fluoroazomycin-Arabinoside ([ 18 F]FAZA) as tracer of hypoxia, [ 18 F]Fluoroethyltyrosine ([ 18 F]FET) and [ 11 C]Methionine for brain tumour imaging, [ 68 Ga]DOTATOC for somatostatin receptor imaging, [ 18 F]FDOPA for dopamine synthesis and radioactively labeled choline derivatives for imaging phospholipid metabolism have opened novel approaches to tumour imaging. Some of these tracers have already been implemented into radio-oncology: Amino acid PET and PET/CT have the potential to optimise radiation treatment planning of brain tumours through accurate delineation of tumour tissue from normal tissue, necrosis and edema. Hypoxia represents a major therapeutic problem in radiation therapy. Hypoxia imaging is very attractive as it may allow to increase the dose in hypoxic tumours potentially allowing for a better tumour control. Advances in hybrid imaging, i.e. the introduction of MR/PET, may also have an impact in radio-oncology through synergies related to the combination of molecular signals of PET and a high soft tissue contrast of MRI as well as functional MRI capabilities. (orig.)

  9. Definition of treatment geometry in radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aaltonen, P.

    1996-01-01

    When accurate systems for quality assurance and treatment optimization are employed, a precise system for fixation and dosimetric and portal verification are as important as a continued and standardized code of practice for dosimetry and patient follow-up, including registration of tumour responses and acute and late normal tissue reactions. To improve the accuracy of existing dose response relations in order to improve future therapy the treatment geometry and dose delivery concepts have to be accurately defined and uniformly employed. A Nordic working group was set up in 1991 (by Nordic Association of Clinica Physics) to standardize the concepts and quantities used during the whole radiotherapy process in the Nordic countries. Now the group is finalizing its report ''Specification of Dose Delivery in Radiation Therapy''. The report emphasizes that the treatment geometry shall be consistent with the geometry used during the diagnostic work up. The patient fixation is of importance early in the diagnostic phase to ensure that the same reference points and patients position will be used both during the diagnostic work up, simulation and treatment execution. Reference Coordinate System of the patient is a concept based on defined anatomic reference points. This Patient Reference System is a local system which has validity for the tissues, organs and volumes defined during radiotherapy. The reference points of the Patient Reference System should in turn be used for beam set-up. The treatment geometry is then defined by using different concepts describing tissues which are mobile in the Patient Reference System, and finally, volumes which are fixed in this coordinate system. A Set-up Margin has to be considered for movements of the volumes defined in the Reference Coordinate System of the Patient in relation to the radiation beam. The Set-up Margin is dependent on the treatment technique and it is needed in the treatment planning procedure to ensure that the prescribed

  10. Selective Internal Radiation Therapy (SIRT) with yttrium-90 resin microspheres plus standard systemic chemotherapy regimen of FOLFOX versus FOLFOX alone as first-line treatment of non-resectable liver metastases from colorectal cancer: the SIRFLOX study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Peter; Gebski, Val; Van Buskirk, Mark; Thurston, Kenneth; Cade, David N; Van Hazel, Guy A

    2014-12-01

    In colorectal cancer (CRC), unresectable liver metastases are linked to poor prognosis. Systemic chemotherapy with regimens such as FOLFOX (combination of infusional 5-fluorouracil, leucovorin and oxaliplatin) is the standard first-line treatment. The SIRFLOX trial was designed to assess the efficacy and safety of combining FOLFOX-based chemotherapy with Selective Internal Radiation Therapy (SIRT or radioembolisation) using yttrium-90 resin microspheres (SIR-SpheresR; Sirtex Medical Limited, North Sydney, Australia). SIRFLOX is a randomised, multicentre trial of mFOLFOX6 chemotherapy+/-SIRT as first-line treatment of patients with liver-only or liver-predominant metastatic CRC (mCRC). The trial aims to recruit adult chemotherapy-naive patients with proven liver metastases with or without limited extra-hepatic disease, a life expectancy of >=3 months and a WHO performance status of 0-1. Patients will be randomised to receive either mFOLFOX6 or SIRT+mFOLFOX6 (with a reduced dose of oxaliplatin in cycles 1-3 following SIRT). Patients in both arms can receive bevacizumab at investigator discretion. Protocol chemotherapy will continue until there is unacceptable toxicity, evidence of tumour progression, complete surgical resection or ablation of cancerous lesions, or the patient requests an end to treatment. The primary endpoint of the SIRFLOX trial is progression-free survival (PFS). Secondary endpoints include: PFS in the liver; tumour response rate (liver and any site); site of tumour progression; health-related quality of life; toxicity and safety; liver resection rate; and overall survival. Assuming an increase in the median PFS from 9.4 months to 12.5 months with the addition of SIRT to mFOLFOX6, recruiting >=450 patients will be sufficient for 80% power and 95% confidence. The SIRFLOX trial will establish the potential role of SIRT+standard systemic chemotherapy in the first-line management of mCRC with non-resectable liver metastases. SIRFLOX Clinical

  11. Eating habits and internal radiation exposures in Japanese

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiraishi, Kunio

    1995-01-01

    Recently, annual dose equivalent for Japanese was estimated to be 3.75 mSv. Medical radiation exposures (2.25 mSv/y) and exposures from natural sources of radiation (1.48 mSv/y) were the major contributors to this dose. Dietary intakes of both natural and man-made radionuclides directly related to internal exposures. In this paper, internal doses received only through ingestion of radionuclides in food are described; internal doses through inhalation have been excluded. First, the representative intakes of radionuclides for Japanese were estimated from the literature. Second, the annual dose equivalents were calculated according to intakes of individual radionuclides and weighted committed dose equivalents (Sv/Bq) of the International Commission on Radiological Protection Pub. 30. Total annual doses through radiation of natural sources and man-made sources, were estimated as 0.35 mSv and 0.001 mSv, respectively. Furthermore, the effects of imported foods on internal dose in Japanese were calculated preliminarily, because the contribution of imported foods to Japanese eating habits is increasing annually and will not be negligible when assessing internal dose in the near future. (author)

  12. A Prospective Cohort Study of Gated Stereotactic Liver Radiation Therapy Using Continuous Internal Electromagnetic Motion Monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Worm, Esben S; Høyer, Morten; Hansen, Rune

    2018-01-01

    PURPOSE: Intrafraction motion can compromise the treatment accuracy in liver stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). Respiratory gating can improve treatment delivery; however, gating based on external motion surrogates is inaccurate. The present study reports the use of Calypso-based internal.......0 percentage points (range 0.7-22.0) without gating and 0.8 percentage point (range 0.2-2.0) with gating. CONCLUSIONS: Gating using internal motion monitoring was successfully applied for liver SBRT. It markedly improved the geometric and dosimetric accuracy compared with nongated standard treatment....

  13. Overview of radiation emergencies: international perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindell, B.

    1986-01-01

    The author gives an international perspective to emergency planning focusing on the situation in Sweden after the Chernobyl accident. The situation in Sweden, as in other European countries outside the USSR, was not covered by emergency plans. There was no accident site within the country and, therefore, no local authority responsible for remedial action. Nevertheless, the central authorities had to deal with the immediate situation. The most urgent task was to find areas where milk-producing cattle could be released to the fields. The Swedish authorities decided that an appropriate level for rejecting food on the market would be 300 Bq/kg. In order to ascertain that dairy milk would not exceed 300 Bq/l, the Swedish authorities requested farmers in the most contaminated regions to keep milk-producing cattle indoors about six weeks. Sweden, like many other countries, was lucky that the accident did not happen later in the grazing season and that the rain-out of radioactive material from the cloud did not occur over the main agricultural areas; otherwise, the consequences would have been much worse

  14. International Outreach: What Is the Responsibility of ASTRO and the Major International Radiation Oncology Societies?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayr, Nina A., E-mail: ninamayr@uw.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, Washington (United States); Hu, Kenneth S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Beth Israel Medical Center, New York, New York (United States); Liao, Zhongxing [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Viswanathan, Akila N. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber/Brigham and Women' s Cancer Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Wall, Terry J. [St. Luke' s Cancer Institute, Kansas City, Missouri (United States); Amendola, Beatriz E. [Innovative Cancer Institute, Miami, Florida (United States); Calaguas, Miriam J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, St. Luke' s Medical Center, Quezon City (Philippines); Palta, Jatinder R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia (United States); Yue, Ning J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Rutgers Cancer Institute of New Jersey, New Brunswick, New Jersey (United States); Rengan, Ramesh [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, Washington (United States); Williams, Timothy R. [Lynn Cancer Institute, Boca Raton Regional Hospital, Boca Raton, Florida (United States)

    2014-07-01

    In this era of globalization and rapid advances in radiation oncology worldwide, the American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) is committed to help decrease profound regional disparities through the work of the International Education Subcommittee (IES). The IES has expanded its base, reach, and activities to foster educational advances through a variety of educational methods with broad scope, in addition to committing to the advancement of radiation oncology care for cancer patients around the world, through close collaboration with our sister radiation oncology societies and other educational, governmental, and organizational groups.

  15. International Outreach: What Is the Responsibility of ASTRO and the Major International Radiation Oncology Societies?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayr, Nina A.; Hu, Kenneth S.; Liao, Zhongxing; Viswanathan, Akila N.; Wall, Terry J.; Amendola, Beatriz E.; Calaguas, Miriam J.; Palta, Jatinder R.; Yue, Ning J.; Rengan, Ramesh; Williams, Timothy R.

    2014-01-01

    In this era of globalization and rapid advances in radiation oncology worldwide, the American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) is committed to help decrease profound regional disparities through the work of the International Education Subcommittee (IES). The IES has expanded its base, reach, and activities to foster educational advances through a variety of educational methods with broad scope, in addition to committing to the advancement of radiation oncology care for cancer patients around the world, through close collaboration with our sister radiation oncology societies and other educational, governmental, and organizational groups

  16. International Society of Radiographers and Radiological Technologists and radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yule, A.

    2001-01-01

    The ISRRT was formed in 1962 with 15 national societies and by the year 2000 has grown to comprise more than 70 member societies. The main objects of the organization are to: Improve the education of radiographers; Support the development of medical radiation technology worldwide; Promote a better understanding and implementation of radiation protection standards. The ISRRT has been a non-governmental organization in official relations with the World Health Organization (WHO) since 1967. It is the only international radiographic organization that represents radiation medicine technology and has more than 200 000 members within its 70 member countries. Representatives of the ISRRT have addressed a number of assemblies of WHO regional committees on matters relating to radiation protection and radiation medicine technology. In this way, the expertise of radiographers worldwide contributes to the establishment of international standards in vital areas, such as: Quality control; Legislation for radiation protection; Good practice in radiographic procedures; Basic radiological services. The ISRRT believes that good and consistent standards of practice throughout the world are essential

  17. Radiation therapy. 1990-2001. International Atomic Energy Agency publications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-04-01

    This catalog lists all sales publications of the International Atomic Energy Agency dealing with Radiation Therapy, and issued during the period 1 January 1990 - 30 April 2001. Most publications are issued in English, though some are also available in other languages. These are noted in the catalogue

  18. Research on international cooperation for nuclear and radiation safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Jianxiu

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the importance and related requirements of international cooperation on nuclear and radiation safety, analyzes the current status, situation and challenges faced, as well as the existing weakness and needs for improvement, and gives some proposals for reference. (author)

  19. An international intercomparison of absorbed dose measurements for radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taiman Kadni; Noriah Mod Ali

    2002-01-01

    Dose intercomparison on an international basis has become an important component of quality assurance measurement i.e. to check the performance of absorbed dose measurements in radiation therapy. The absorbed dose to water measurements for radiation therapy at the SSDL, MINT have been regularly compared through international intercomparison programmes organised by the IAEA Dosimetry Laboratory, Seibersdorf, Austria such as IAEA/WHO TLD postal dose quality audits and the Intercomparison of therapy level ionisation chamber calibration factors in terms of air kerma and absorbed dose to water calibration factors. The results of these intercomparison in terms of percentage deviations for Cobalt 60 gamma radiation and megavoltage x-ray from medical linear accelerators participated by the SSDL-MINT during the year 1985-2001 are within the acceptance limit. (Author)

  20. Dosimetry services for internal and external radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The Canadian Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB) sets radiation dose limits for the operation of nuclear facilities and the possession of prescribed substances within Canada. To administer these regulations the AECB must be satisfied that the dosimetry services used by a licensee meet adequate standards. Licensees are required to use the Occupational Dosimetry Service operated by the Bureau of Radiation and Medical Devices, Department of National Health and Welfare (BRMD) to determine doses from external sources of radiation, except where a detailed rationale is given for using another service. No national dosimetry service exists for internal sources of radiation. Licensees who operate or use a dosimetry service other than the BRMD must provide the AECB with evidence of the competence of the staff and adequacy of the equipment, techniques and procedures; provide the AECB with evidence that a quality assurance program has been implemented; and send individual dose or exposure data to the National Dose Registry. (L.L.)

  1. Single administration of Selective Internal Radiation Therapy versus continuous treatment with sorafeNIB in locally advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (SIRveNIB): study protocol for a phase iii randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, Mihir; Choo, Su Pin; Thng, Choon Hua; Tan, Say Beng; Low, Albert Su Chong; Cheow, Peng Chung; Goh, Anthony Soon Whatt; Tay, Kiang Hiong; Lo, Richard Hoau Gong; Goh, Brian Kim Poh; Wong, Jen San; Ng, David Chee Eng; Soo, Khee Chee; Liew, Wei Ming; Chow, Pierce K H

    2016-11-07

    Approximately 20 % of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients diagnosed in the early stages may benefit from potentially curative ablative therapies such as surgical resection, transplantation or radiofrequency ablation. For patients not eligible for such options, prognosis is poor. Sorafenib and Selective Internal Radiation Therapy (SIRT) are clinically proven treatment options in patients with unresectable HCC, and this study aims to assess overall survival following either SIRT or Sorafenib therapy for locally advanced HCC patients. This investigator-initiated, multi-centre, open-label, randomized, controlled trial will enrol 360 patients with locally advanced HCC, as defined by Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer stage B or stage C, without distant metastases, and which is not amenable to immediate curative treatment. Exclusion criteria include previous systemic therapy, metastatic disease, complete occlusion of the main portal vein, or a Child-Pugh score of >7. Eligible patients will be randomised 1:1 and stratified by centre and presence or absence of portal vein thrombosis to receive either a single administration of SIRT using yttrium-90 resin microspheres (SIR-Spheres®, Sirtex Medical Limited, Sydney, Australia) targeted at HCC in the liver by the trans-arterial route or continuous oral Sorafenib (Nexavar®, Bayer Pharma AG, Berlin, Germany) at a dose of 400 mg twice daily until disease progression, no further response, complete regression or unacceptable toxicity. Patients for both the Sorafenib and SIRT arms will be followed-up every 4 weeks for the first 3 months and 12 weekly thereafter. Overall survival is the primary endpoint, assessed for the intention-to-treat population. Secondary endpoints are tumour response rate, time-to-tumour progression, progression free survival, quality of life and down-staging to receive potentially curative therapy. Definitive data comparing these two therapies will help to determine clinical practice in the large group

  2. History of International Workshop on Mini-Micro- and Nano- Dosimetry (MMND) and Innovation Technologies in Radiation Oncology (ITRO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfeld, Anatoly B.; Zaider, Marco; Yamada, Josh; Zelefsky, Michael J.

    2017-01-01

    The biannual MMND (former MMD) - IPCT workshops was founded in collaboration between the Centre for Medical Radiation Physics, University of Wollongong and the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) in 2001 and has become an important international multidisciplinary forum for the discussion of advanced quality assurance (QA) dosimetry technology for radiation therapy and space science, as well as advanced technologies for clinical cancer treatment.

  3. Protocol for Combined Analysis of FOXFIRE, SIRFLOX, and FOXFIRE-Global Randomized Phase III Trials of Chemotherapy +/- Selective Internal Radiation Therapy as First-Line Treatment for Patients With Metastatic Colorectal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virdee, Pradeep S; Moschandreas, Joanna; Gebski, Val; Love, Sharon B; Francis, E Anne; Wasan, Harpreet S; van Hazel, Guy; Gibbs, Peter; Sharma, Ricky A

    2017-03-28

    In colorectal cancer (CRC), unresectable liver metastases are associated with a poor prognosis. The FOXFIRE (an open-label randomized phase III trial of 5-fluorouracil, oxaliplatin, and folinic acid +/- interventional radioembolization as first-line treatment for patients with unresectable liver-only or liver-predominant metastatic colorectal cancer), SIRFLOX (randomized comparative study of FOLFOX6m plus SIR-Spheres microspheres versus FOLFOX6m alone as first-line treatment in patients with nonresectable liver metastases from primary colorectal carcinoma), and FOXFIRE-Global (assessment of overall survival of FOLFOX6m plus SIR-Spheres microspheres versus FOLFOX6m alone as first-line treatment in patients with nonresectable liver metastases from primary colorectal carcinoma in a randomized clinical study) clinical trials were designed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of combining first-line chemotherapy with selective internal radiation therapy (SIRT) using yttrium-90 resin microspheres, also called transarterial radioembolization. The aim of this analysis is to prospectively combine clinical data from 3 trials to allow adequate power to evaluate the impact of chemotherapy with SIRT on overall survival. Eligible patients are adults with histologically confirmed CRC and unequivocal evidence of liver metastases which are not treatable by surgical resection or local ablation with curative intent at the time of study entry. Patients may also have limited extrahepatic metastases. Final analysis will take place when all participants have been followed up for a minimum of 2 years. Efficacy and safety estimates derived using individual participant data (IPD) from SIRFLOX, FOXFIRE, and FOXFIRE-Global will be pooled using 2-stage prospective meta-analysis. Secondary outcome measures include progression-free survival (PFS), liver-specific PFS, health-related quality of life, response rate, resection rate, and adverse event profile. The large study population will

  4. Intra-operative radiation treatment of cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubois, J.B.; Joyeux, H.; Solassol, C.; Pujol, H.

    1986-01-01

    Intra-operative radiation treatment (I.O.R.T.) is concerning the treatment either of an unresectable tumor or of tumor bed after complete excision of a primary tumor and its first draining lymph nodes. We describe X-ray and electrons techniques and we discuss the delivered doses according to experimental and clinical data. According to the residual disease (macroscopic or microscopic), to the healthy tissues in the target volume, and the histological type, single doses from 20 Gy to 40 Gy can be delivered. Our preliminary results are reported: 25 patients with resectable tumors of the cardia, the stomach and the pancreas, 5 patients with pelvic recurrences of colon and rectum carcinomas. Therapeutic results of the I.O.R.T. providing from the literature are discussed. The I.O.R.T. indications are defined as palliative (unresectable tumors) and curative (irradiation of tumor bed after complete excision of the tumor) [fr

  5. Operative treatment of radiation-induced fistulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balslev, I.; Harling, H.

    1987-01-01

    Out of 136 patients with radiation-induced intestinal complications, 45 had fistulae. Twenty-eight patients had rectovaginal fistulae while the remainder had a total of 13 different types of fistulae. Thirty-seven patients were treated operatively and eight were treated conservatively. Thirty-three patients were submitted to operation for rectal fistulae. Of these, 28 were treated by defunctioning colostomy, three were treated by Hartmann's method and resection and primary anastomosis was carried out in two patients. In the course of the period of observation, 35% of the patients developed new radiation damage. The frequency in the basic material without fistulae was 21% (0.05< p<0.10). Following establishment of defunctioning colostomy on account of rectovaginal fistulae in 25 patients, eight patients developed new fistulae, Significantly more patients with fistulae died of recurrence as compared with patients with other lesions (p<0.01). Defunctioning colostomy in the treatment of rectal fistula is a reasonable form of treatment in elderly patients and in case of recurrence. Younger patients should be assessed in a special department in view of the possibility of a sphincter-preserving procedure following resection of the rectum and restorative anastomosis. (author)

  6. Operative treatment of radiation-induced fistulae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balslev, I.; Harling, H.

    1987-01-01

    Out of 136 patients with radiation-induced intestinal complications, 45 had fistulae. Twenty-eight patients had rectovaginal fistulae while the remainder had a total of 13 different types of fistulae. Thirty-seven patients were treated operatively and eight were treated conservatively. Thirty-three patients were submitted to operation for rectal fistulae. Of these, 28 were treated by defunctioning colostomy, three were treated by Hartmann's method and resection and primary anastomosis was carried out in two patients. In the course of the period of observation, 35% of the patients developed new radiation damage. The frequency in the basic material without fistulae was 21% (0.05treatment of rectal fistula is a reasonable form of treatment in elderly patients and in case of recurrence. Younger patients should be assessed in a special department in view of the possibility of a sphincter-preserving procedure following resection of the rectum and restorative anastomosis. 11 refs.

  7. Radiation treatment of polymers containing isobutylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shurpik, A.

    1976-01-01

    Homopolymers of isobutylene and copolymers thereof with isoprene (butyl rubber) are subjected to high energy ionizing radiation in the presence of halogenated hydrocarbon radiation catalysts. 5 claims

  8. Enhanced radiation therapy with internalized polyelectrolyte modified nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peipei; Qiao, Yong; Wang, Chaoming; Ma, Liyuan; Su, Ming

    2014-08-01

    A challenge of X-ray radiation therapy is that high dose X-ray under therapeutic conditions damages normal cells. This paper describes a nanoparticle-based method to enhance X-ray radiation therapy by delivering radio-sensitizing gold nanoparticles into cancer cells. The nanoparticles have been modified with cationic polyelectrolytes to allow internalization. Upon X-ray irradiation of nanoparticles, more photoelectrons and Auger electrons are generated to cause water ionization, leading to formation of free radicals that damage DNA of cancer cells. The X-ray dose required for DNA damage and cell killing is reduced by delivering gold nanoparticles inside cancer cells.

  9. Fifth International Symposium on the Natural Radiation Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porstendoerfer, J.; Swedjemark, G.A.; Baeverstam, U.; Lowder, W.M.; Miller, K.M.; Fisenne, I.M.

    1993-01-01

    The fifth International Symposium on the Natural Radiation Environment organized a series of tutorial sessions. One of the five major fields concerned with the radon issue. The tutorials dealt with important issues of the radon problem and covered the following aspects: Cosmic and Terrestrial Gamma Radiation Measurement, Properties and Behaviour of Radon and Thoron and Their Decay Products in the Air, Radon and Radon Daughters Metrology: Basic Aspects Long Lived Radionuclides in the Environment, in Food and in Human Beings, Design and Analysis of Radon Surveys with Epidemiological Utility

  10. Explanation of application standards of hematopoietic stimulating factors in the treatment of acute radiation sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xing Zhiwei; Jiang Enhai; Wang Guilin; Luo Qingliang

    2012-01-01

    Occupational standard of the Ministry of health-Application Standards of Hematopoietic Stimulating Factors in the Treatment of Acute Radiation Sickness has been completed as a draft standard. Based on the wide study and analysis of related animal experimental literature about hematopoietic stimulating factor in the treatment of acute radiation sickness and domestic and foreign clinical reports about application of hematopoietic stimulating factor in radiation accidents in the past decade, the standard was enacted according to the suggestions of International Atomic Energy Agency and the United States Strategic National Stockpile Radiation Working Group and European countries about the application of hematopoietic stimulating factor. It is mainly used for nuclear accident emergency and the treatment of the bone marrow form of acute radiation sickness caused by radiation accidents. It also applies to other hematopoietic failure diseases. In order to implement this standard correctly, the relevant contents of the standard were interpreted in this article. (authors)

  11. Internal and external radiation exposures of Fukushima residents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayano, Ryugo

    2014-01-01

    The soil at Fukushima prefecture and its outskirts was heavily contaminated with radioactive materials from the troubled Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, and the residents suffered risk from internal and external radiation exposure. At first, the average dose of internal radiation exposure was estimated to be several mSv based upon the results of Chernobyl nuclear disaster. But the result of massive measurements using whole body counters shows that the average quantity of internal radioactive cesium is less than that at the Cold Water period. In the meantime, someone shows exposure dose much higher than the average. The distribution of these abnormal doses is called 'Long Tail'. One must pay attention to the long tail at the assessment of the internal radiation exposure by Fukushima nuclear disaster. The main origin of the long tail is related to frequency eating of special food. It is thus important to find persons situated in the long tail and give them guidance on the meals. (J.P.N.)

  12. Radiation chemical studies on the treatment of waste water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakumoto, Akihisa; Miyata, Teijiro; Arai, Michimasa; Arai, Hidehiko

    1982-10-01

    The radiation induced reaction in aqueous solution was studied to develope the radiation treatment as a new technique for waste water and to elevate the effectiveness of radiation. The effectiveness of radiation was enhanced by combination of radiation induced reaction with conventional methods such as biological treatment and coagulation treatment. The synergistic effect of radiation and ozone was studied by using phenol and ethylene glycol. The chain reaction was observed in the radiation induced oxidation. The combination of radiation and ozone is considered to be one of the most useful method. In this report, the mechanism of each reaction and the applicability of the reaction to the treatment of waste water are discussed. (author)

  13. Radiation methods for purification of water, wastewater and flue gases at international chemical congress of Pacific basic societies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pikaev, A.K.

    1996-01-01

    Content of report, presented at the symposium Ecological applications of ionizing radiation (water, waste water and technological waste products), which took place within the frames of the International Chemical Congress of the Pacific Ocean Region counters (the PacifiChem'95, December 17-22, 1995, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA) is briefly presented. The problems on electron-radiation purification of natural water, domestic and technological waste waters, flue gases and contaminated soils, radiation treatment of the waste water sediments, ionizing radiation sources, applied in this area of technology and economics of radiation purification methods were discussed

  14. Cosmic radiation dosimetry in international flights argentine airlines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciancio, Vicente R.; Oliveri, Pedro V.; Di Giovan B, Gustavo; Ciancio, Vanina L.; Lewis, Brent J.; Green, Anna R.; Bennet, L.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Introduction: In commercial aviation the most important determinants of radiation exposure in humans are the altitude, latitude, flight duration and the solar cycle's period. This study was conducted to address this type of exposure trough radiation dosimetry. Method: The study was performed in the business-class cabin of an Airbus 340-200 aircraft, provided by Argentine Airlines, during 2 flights routes: New York-Miami-Buenos Aires (trans equatorial) and Buenos Aires-Auckland (circumpolar). Measurements addressed the electromagnetic spectrum or low Linear Energy Transfer (LET) and corpuscular radiation (High LET). The instruments used were an Ion Chamber (IC), to measure the ionizing component of radiation (i.e., gamma radiation), the SWENDI, to measure only the neutron component, and the Tissue Equivalent Proportional Counter (TEPC) for measuring all radiation types. Results: The routes' dose rates are presented in the table. TEPC rates agreed with the LET findings. The total dose rates of high latitude flights were higher than those of low latitude flights. The SWENDI (High LET) results for the flights over the equator, at low latitude, represented only 1/3 of the total radiation. The New York-Miami and Buenos Aires-Auckland flights, at high latitude, represented just under 1/2 of the Total radiation (-45%). Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, the annual dose rates of radiation exposure of air crew personnel serving on international flights offered by Argentine Airlines is between 3 and 7 mSv. This rate is higher than the maximum recommended for the general population by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), which is 1 milli Sv./y. Therefore, these personnel must be officially considered 'Occupationally Exposed to Radiation' in way to provide the appropriate measures that must be implemented for their protection in accordance to ICRP guidelines. Dose(uSv): Route N Y-Miami, IC 6.07, SWENDI 5.07, TEPC 11.04; Route

  15. Effects of radiation treatment on foodstuffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dehne, L.; Boegl, W.

    1980-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to discuss and compile methods and results of irradiation experiments carried out on 54 plant and animal foodstuffs in order to obtain a survey on chemical changes, in particular as regards the reduction of nutritional value and savoriness of irradiated foodstuffs. According to this task, microbiological aspects as well as an interpretation of the experimental results as to the physiology of nutrition and toxicology were not included. The results published by the authors of the original papers were compiled in a kind of dictionary which contains all relevant information such as radiation sources, irradiation conditions, investigation methods, results of chemical or organoleptical changes etc. The most important results were summarized in tables and can be found at the end of this study. Because of the abundance of existing literature the series 'Effects of radiation treatment on foodstuffs' will be continued in Part IV, and the final discussion of the results will be published separately after further data have been included. (orig.) [de

  16. Method of radiation therapy treatment planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodes, L.

    1976-01-01

    A technique of radiation therapy treatment planning designed to allow the assignment of dosage limits directly to chosen points in the computer-displayed cross-section of the patient. These dosage limits are used as constraints in a linear programming attempt to solve for beam strengths, minimizing integral dosage. If a feasible plan exists, the optimized plan will be displayed for approval as an isodose pattern. If there is no feasible plan, the operator/therapist can designate some of the point dosage constraints as ''relaxed.'' Linear programming will then optimize for minimum deviation at the relaxed points. This process can be iterated and new points selected until an acceptable plan is realized. In this manner the plan is optimized for uniformity as well as overall low dosage. 6 claims, 6 drawing figures

  17. Intracavitary radiation treatment planning and dose evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, L.L.; Masterson, M.E.; Nori, D.

    1987-01-01

    Intracavitary radiation therapy with encapsulated radionuclide sources has generally involved, since the advent of afterloading techniques, inserting the sources in tubing previously positioned within a body cavity near the region to be treated. Because of the constraints on source locations relative to the target region, the functions of treatment planning and dose evaluation, usually clearly separable in interstitial brachytherapy, tend to merge in intracavitary therapy. Dose evaluation is typically performed for multiple source-strength configurations in the process of planning and thus may be regarded as complete when a particular configuration has been selected. The input data for each dose evaluation, of course, must include reliable dose distribution information for the source-applicator combinations used. Ultimately, the goal is to discover the source-strength configuration that results in the closest possible approach to the dose distribution desired

  18. Radiation treatment planning using a microcomputer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lunsqui, A.R.; Calil, S.J.; Rocha, J.R.O.; Alexandre, A.C.

    1990-01-01

    The radiation treatment planning requires a lenght manipulation of data from isodose charts to obtain the best irradiation technique. Over the past 25 years this tedious operation has been replaced by computerized methods. These can reduce the working time by at least 20 times. It is being developed at the Biomedical Engineering Center a software to generate a polychromatic image of dose distribution. By means of a digitizing board, the patient contour and the beam data are transfered to the computer and stored as polinomial and Fourier series respectively. To calculate the dose distribution, the irradiated region is represented by a variable size bidimensional dot matrix. The dose at each point is calculated by correcting and adding the stored data for each beam. An algorithm for color definition according to the dose intensity was developed to display on a computer monitor the resultant matrix. A hard copy can be obtained be means of a six color plotter. (author)

  19. Methodologies in the modeling of combined chemo-radiation treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassberger, C.; Paganetti, H.

    2016-11-01

    The variety of treatment options for cancer patients has increased significantly in recent years. Not only do we combine radiation with surgery and chemotherapy, new therapeutic approaches such as immunotherapy and targeted therapies are starting to play a bigger role. Physics has made significant contributions to radiation therapy treatment planning and delivery. In particular, treatment plan optimization using inverse planning techniques has improved dose conformity considerably. Furthermore, medical physics is often the driving force behind tumor control and normal tissue complication modeling. While treatment optimization and outcome modeling does focus mainly on the effects of radiation, treatment modalities such as chemotherapy are treated independently or are even neglected entirely. This review summarizes the published efforts to model combined modality treatments combining radiation and chemotherapy. These models will play an increasing role in optimizing cancer therapy not only from a radiation and drug dosage standpoint, but also in terms of spatial and temporal optimization of treatment schedules.

  20. Frontiers International Conference on Wastewater Treatment

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book describes the latest research advances, innovations, and applications in the field of water management and environmental engineering as presented by leading researchers, engineers, life scientists and practitioners from around the world at the Frontiers International Conference on Wastewater Treatment (FICWTM), held in Palermo, Italy in May 2017. The topics covered are highly diverse and include the physical processes of mixing and dispersion, biological developments and mathematical modeling, such as computational fluid dynamics in wastewater, MBBR and hybrid systems, membrane bioreactors, anaerobic digestion, reduction of greenhouse gases from wastewater treatment plants, and energy optimization. The contributions amply demonstrate that the application of cost-effective technologies for waste treatment and control is urgently needed so as to implement appropriate regulatory measures that ensure pollution prevention and remediation, safeguard public health, and preserve the environment. The contrib...

  1. Current problems of prevention diagnosis and treatment of radiation sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gus'kova, A.K.

    1986-01-01

    Causes of increasing interest to the problems of prevention, diagnosis and treatment of radiation sickness are presented. On the basis of recent publications some new aspects as quantitative criteria in radiobiology, organization problems of medical aid at radiation incidents estimation of efficiency of preventive medicine and radiation sickness therapy, theoretical development of radiotherapy of different organs et al., are characterized

  2. Current status of radiation treatment of water and wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pikaev, A.K.

    1997-01-01

    This is a brief review of the current status of radiation treatment of surface water, groundwater, wastewaters, and sewage sludges. Sources of ionizing radiation, and combination radiation methods for purification are described in some detail. Special attention is paid to pilot and industrial facilities. (author)

  3. Superselective Internal Radiation With Yttrium-90 Microspheres in the Management of a Chemorefractory Testicular Liver Metastasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sideras, Panagiotis A.; Sofocleous, Constantinos T.; Brody, Lynn A.; Siegelbaum, Robert H.; Shah, Rajesh P.; Taskar, Neeta-Pandit

    2012-01-01

    We treated a patient with biopsy-proven, chemotherapy-resistant testicular cancer liver metastasis using Y-90 selective internal radiation treatment. We chose yttrium-90 rather than surgery and ablation due to tumor location and size as well as the patient’s clinical history. The result was marked tumor response by positron emission tomography and computed tomography as well as significant improvement of the patient’s quality of life accompanied by a substantial decrease of his tumor markers.

  4. Internal pigment cells respond to external UV radiation in frogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco-Belussi, Lilian; Nilsson Sköld, Helen; de Oliveira, Classius

    2016-05-01

    Fish and amphibians have pigment cells that generate colorful skins important for signaling, camouflage, thermoregulation and protection against ultraviolet radiation (UVR). However, many animals also have pigment cells inside their bodies, on their internal organs and membranes. In contrast to external pigmentation, internal pigmentation is remarkably little studied and its function is not well known. Here, we tested genotoxic effects of UVR and its effects on internal pigmentation in a neotropical frog, Physalaemus nattereri We found increases in body darkness and internal melanin pigmentation in testes and heart surfaces and in the mesenterium and lumbar region after just a few hours of UVR exposure. The melanin dispersion in melanomacrophages in the liver and melanocytes in testes increased after UV exposure. In addition, the amount of melanin inside melanomacrophages cells also increased. Although mast cells were quickly activated by UVR, only longer UVR exposure resulted in genotoxic effects inside frogs, by increasing the frequency of micronuclei in red blood cells. This is the first study to describe systemic responses of external UVR on internal melanin pigmentation, melanomacrophages and melanocytes in frogs and thus provides a functional explanation to the presence of internal pigmentation. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  5. National treatment in international trade: National law and international standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divljak Drago

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject of the paper is the principle of national treatment, namely one of the basic principles of international trade. The objective is to determine its outreach and contents set in the forms of international trade organising, primarily in the World Trade Organization, from a legal perspective, naturally, all in the context of the Serbian law. The analysis that has been carried out indicates that there is an obvious intention of our legislators to harmonise in principle our legislation with the WTO requirements and standards, which are incomplete themselves and cause disputes that are not resolved in the practice of dispute resolving either entirely or consistently. In our law, a step forward has been made in relation to the situation from the previous relevant legislation, because the application of this principle is extended not only to trade with goods but also to trade with services, and to industrial property rights. However, in the most significant, basic field, namely trade with goods, it is still being done in a general way, by simplifying the entire topic and bringing it down only to protection against discrimination and neglecting the sphere of protectionism. Such acting does not include all the complexity of this matter and it is not entirely harmonised with the WTO requirements. However, a good side of such an approach is that it gives the state more freedom for acting in this sphere, which may be acceptable in the transition period until full membership of Serbia in this organization.

  6. Radiation Recall Pneumonitis During Systemic Treatment With Everolimus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Douglas; Gauchan, Dron; Ramaekers, Ryan; Norvell, Max; Copur, Mehmet Sitki

    2014-01-01

    Radiation recall syndrome is an acute inflammatory reaction developing at anatomical sites of previously irradiated tissue, weeks to months after the completion of radiation therapy. The distribution pattern of inflammation typically involves, and remains limited to, the boundaries of prior radiation treatment fields. Several classical chemotherapy drugs have been reported to have the potential for causing radiation recall syndrome. With the increasing availability and expanding use of novel biologic and targeted therapy anticancer drugs, isolated reports of radiation recall syndrome secondary to this class of agents are starting to appear in the literature. We describe a case of everolimus-induced radiation recall pneumonitis in a patient with metastatic renal cell cancer.

  7. Radiation Therapy for Primary Cutaneous Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma: An International Lymphoma Radiation Oncology Group Multi-institutional Experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Million, Lynn; Yi, Esther J.; Wu, Frank; Von Eyben, Rie; Campbell, Belinda A.; Dabaja, Bouthaina; Tsang, Richard W.; Ng, Andrea; Wilson, Lynn D.; Ricardi, Umberto; Kirova, Youlia; Hoppe, Richard T.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To collect response rates of primary cutaneous anaplastic large cell lymphoma, a rare cutaneous T-cell lymphoma, to radiation therapy (RT), and to determine potential prognostic factors predictive of outcome. Methods and Materials: The study was a retrospective analysis of patients with primary cutaneous anaplastic large cell lymphoma who received RT as primary therapy or after surgical excision. Data collected include initial stage of disease, RT modality (electron/photon), total dose, fractionation, response to treatment, and local recurrence. Radiation therapy was delivered at 8 participating International Lymphoma Radiation Oncology Group institutions worldwide. Results: Fifty-six patients met the eligibility criteria, and 63 tumors were treated: head and neck (27%), trunk (14%), upper extremities (27%), and lower extremities (32%). Median tumor size was 2.25 cm (range, 0.6-12 cm). T classification included T1, 40 patients (71%); T2, 12 patients (21%); and T3, 4 patients (7%). The median radiation dose was 35 Gy (range, 6-45 Gy). Complete clinical response (CCR) was achieved in 60 of 63 tumors (95%) and partial response in 3 tumors (5%). After CCR, 1 tumor recurred locally (1.7%) after 36 Gy and 7 months after RT. This was the only patient to die of disease. Conclusions: Primary cutaneous anaplastic large cell lymphoma is a rare, indolent cutaneous lymphoma with a low death rate. This analysis, which was restricted to patients selected for treatment with radiation, indicates that achieving CCR was independent of radiation dose. Because there were too few failures (<2%) for statistical analysis on dose response, 30 Gy seems to be adequate for local control, and even lower doses may suffice.

  8. Diagnosis, injury and prevention of internal radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatsuzaki, Hideo

    2012-01-01

    Radiation exposure is classified into three categories: external exposure, surface contamination, and internal exposure (also called internal contamination). Internal exposure is an exposure by the ionizing radiation emitted from radioactive materials taken into a human body. Uptake of radioactive materials can go through inhalation, ingestion, or wound contamination. Not like external exposure, alpha ray or beta ray, which has a limited penetration, is also important in internal exposure. Diagnosis of internal exposure is based on measurement and dose assessment in addition to the history taking. Two methods, direct measurement and/or bioassay (indirect measurement), are used for the measurement. These measurements provide information of radioactive materials in the body at the time of the measurement. The exposure dose to the body needs to be calculated in a process of dose assessment, based on the results of these measurements and history of intake, either acute intake or chronic intake. Another method, measurement of environmental samples or food stuff, is also used for dose assessment. For internal exposure, radiation dose to the body is expressed as committed effective dose or committed equivalent dose, which are accumulation of dose over a defined period. Radioactive materials taken into body are transferred among many body components depending on the type of radionuclide or chemicals etc. Some radioactive materials concentrate in a specific organ. Symptoms and signs depend on the distribution of the radioactive materials in the body. Monitoring the concentration in air or foods is conducted in order to control human activities and foods and consequently reduce the amount of intake to human bodies as a preventive measure. Prevention of internal exposure is also conducted by protective gears such as full face masks. Iodine prophylaxis could be used against radioactive iodine intake. Stable iodine, mostly potassium iodide, could be taken into the thyroid and

  9. International cooperative effort to establish dosimetry standardization for radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrar, Harry IV

    1990-01-01

    Radiation processing is a rapidly developing technology with numerous applications in food treatment, sterilization, and polymer modification. The effectiveness of the process depends, however, on the proper application of dose and its measurement. These aspects are being considered by a wide group of experts from around the world who have joined together to write a comprehensive set of standards for dosimetry for radiation processing. Originally formed in 1984 to develop standards for food processing dosimetry, the group has now expanded into a full subcommittee of the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), with 97 members from 19 countries. The scope of the standards now includes dosimetry for all forms and applications of radiation processing. To date, the group has completed and published four standards, and is working on an additional seven. Three are specifically for food applications and the others are for all radiation applications, including food processing. Together, this set of standards will specify acceptable guidelines and methods for accomplishing the required irradiation treatment. This set will be available for adoption by national regulatory agencies or other standards-setting organizations for their procedures and protocols. (author)

  10. International cooperative effort to establish dosimetry standardization for radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrar, H. IV.

    1989-01-01

    Radiation processing is a rapidly developing technology with numerous applications in food treatment, sterilization, and polymer modification. The effectiveness of the process depends, however, on the proper application of dose and its measurement. These aspects are being considered by a wide group of experts from around the world who have joined together to write a comprehensive set of standards for dosimetry for radiation processing. Originally formed in 1984 to develop standards for food processing dosimetry, the group has now expanded into a full subcommittee of the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), with 97 members from 19 countries. The scope of the standards now includes dosimetry for all forms of radiation processing. The group has now completed and published four standards, and is working on an additional seven. Three are specifically for food applications and the others are for all radiation applications, including food processing. Together, this set of standards will specify acceptable guidelines and methods for accomplishing the required irradiation treatment, and will be available for adoption by national regulatory agencies in their procedures and protocols. 1 tab

  11. Truffles decontamination treatment by ionizing radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamo, M.; Capitani, D.; Mannina, L.; Cristinzio, M.; Ragni, P.; Tata, A.; Coppola, R.

    2004-09-01

    A research project, funded by the Italian Ministry of Research and the European Union, is in progress aimed to develop processes to enhance, by irradiation, the safety and the wholesomeness of fresh products relevant for Italian food industry. Irradiation was performed on truffles, since the bacterial contamination impairs their trade in foreign countries. The microbial population and the shelf life under refrigeration were studied either on samples untreated or on samples submitted to γ-rays in a 1-2.5 kGy dose range. The effect of the treatment was monitored by UV and NMR techniques. Total microbial population and the shelf life prolongation were investigated. The synergistic effect of the dose, the packaging under vacuum and the storage/irradiation temperature resulted in a direct effect on the microbial load, spoilage and shelf life. After the irradiation, small variations in the intensity of some NMR resonances due to aromatic compounds and other unassigned compounds were observed. As confirmed by UV spectrophotometric data, these phenomena seemed to originate from a small degradation of polyphenols; the induced growth of soluble phenols suggested that the 1.5 kGy dose can be considered as the radiation dose threshold beyond which clear chemical modifications on truffles appear.

  12. Compatibilization of recycled polymers through radiation treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czvikovszky, T.; Hargitai, H.

    1998-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. The use of compatibilizers is crucial in composites of apolar, synthetic matrix such as PP and fibrous, polar, natural reinforcement. Radiation treatment using small EB- or gamma dose of about 8 kGy - may enhance the effect of reactive compatibilizer, involving both matrix and reinforcement into a chemically attached system. In the present work we applied byproducts of textile- and woodworking industry as reinforcing additives for polypropylene (PP), reprocessed from waste car-bumpers and recollected bottle-caps. Hemp fibers and waste-wood fibers can be mixed into the PP on a continuously operating twin-screw extruder. Various additives have been tries out in our laboratory including maleic acid anhydride, acrylic-acid grafted compatibilizers, unsaturated oligomers and vinylsilanes. The effect of different compatibilizing methods have been evaluated by comparing mechanical properties (tensile- and flexural strength, modulus of elasticity etc.), dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) and rheological properties. The ensemble of properties is clearly enhanced by the efficient compatibilization. The reinforced - recycled products can be applied in advanced sandwich molding processing technologies of coextrusion and co-injection molding, where the dark coloured, recycled product forms the inner core of the product, covered on both side with virgin thermoplastic

  13. Truffles decontamination treatment by ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamo, M.; Capitani, D.; Mannina, L.; Cristinzio, M.; Ragni, P.; Tata, A.; Coppola, R.

    2004-01-01

    A research project, funded by the Italian Ministry of Research and the European Union, is in progress aimed to develop processes to enhance, by irradiation, the safety and the wholesomeness of fresh products relevant for Italian food industry. Irradiation was performed on truffles, since the bacterial contamination impairs their trade in foreign countries. The microbial population and the shelf life under refrigeration were studied either on samples untreated or on samples submitted to γ-rays in a 1-2.5 kGy dose range. The effect of the treatment was monitored by UV and NMR techniques. Total microbial population and the shelf life prolongation were investigated. The synergistic effect of the dose, the packaging under vacuum and the storage/irradiation temperature resulted in a direct effect on the microbial load, spoilage and shelf life. After the irradiation, small variations in the intensity of some NMR resonances due to aromatic compounds and other unassigned compounds were observed. As confirmed by UV spectrophotometric data, these phenomena seemed to originate from a small degradation of polyphenols; the induced growth of soluble phenols suggested that the 1.5 kGy dose can be considered as the radiation dose threshold beyond which clear chemical modifications on truffles appear

  14. Truffles decontamination treatment by ionizing radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamo, M.; Capitani, D.; Mannina, L.; Cristinzio, M.; Ragni, P. E-mail: pietro.ragni@imc.cnr.it; Tata, A.; Coppola, R

    2004-10-01

    A research project, funded by the Italian Ministry of Research and the European Union, is in progress aimed to develop processes to enhance, by irradiation, the safety and the wholesomeness of fresh products relevant for Italian food industry. Irradiation was performed on truffles, since the bacterial contamination impairs their trade in foreign countries. The microbial population and the shelf life under refrigeration were studied either on samples untreated or on samples submitted to {gamma}-rays in a 1-2.5 kGy dose range. The effect of the treatment was monitored by UV and NMR techniques. Total microbial population and the shelf life prolongation were investigated. The synergistic effect of the dose, the packaging under vacuum and the storage/irradiation temperature resulted in a direct effect on the microbial load, spoilage and shelf life. After the irradiation, small variations in the intensity of some NMR resonances due to aromatic compounds and other unassigned compounds were observed. As confirmed by UV spectrophotometric data, these phenomena seemed to originate from a small degradation of polyphenols; the induced growth of soluble phenols suggested that the 1.5 kGy dose can be considered as the radiation dose threshold beyond which clear chemical modifications on truffles appear.

  15. A comprehensive centralized control system for radiation waste treatment facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong Jinsong

    2014-01-01

    A comprehensive centralized control system is designed for the radiation waste treatment facility that lacking of coordinated operational mechanism for the radiation waste treatment. The centralized control and alarm linkage of various systems is implemented to ensure effectively the safety of nuclear facility and materials, improve the integral control ability through advanced informatization ways. (author)

  16. International and national radiation protection standards and recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swindon, T.N.

    1989-01-01

    The recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and their basis are discussed with particular emphasis on the extensive review of its earlier recommendations undertaken by the ICRP during the 1970s. The new recommendations issued in 1977 after this review are described. The dose limits for various organs and tissues before and after 1977 are compared. The optimization principle contained in the 1977 recommendations is assessed. The implementation of the 1977 recommendations, the subsequent changes to them and the ICRP's 1987 statement on cancer risk assessments are discussed. The National Radiological Protection Board's October 1987 radiation protection recommendations are outlined. 8 refs., 1 fig

  17. OMINEX: Survey of internal dose monitoring programmes for radiation workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahola, T.; Etherington, G.; Berard, P.; Le Guen, B.; Hurtgen, C.

    2003-01-01

    Monitoring of the workforce in the nuclear industries is carried out primarily in order to demonstrate compliance with European Union (EU) legislation and the Basic Safety Standards for the protection of the health of workers against the dangers arising from ionising radiation recommended by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). There is, however, no common strategy for internal dose monitoring programmes currently in use in the EU countries. Surveys have been carried out in which organisations were asked to provide information on the design of their internal dose monitoring programmes and on the costs of these programmes. Information was requested from both EU countries and Associated States. Databases for storage and reporting of all gained information were constructed, and results from the surveys have been compiled. This work was carried out within the EC 5th Framework Programme project, OMINEX, which aims to provide advice and guidance on designing and implementing internal dose monitoring programmes in the workplace in such a way that best use is made of available resources, while minimising costs. (author)

  18. International workshop on non-ionizing radiation protection in medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sienkiewicz, Zenon

    2013-11-01

    An international workshop brought together a range of stakeholders to consider protection from non-ionizing radiation used in medicine, research and cosmetics. Presentations on specific topics were followed by a general discussion on possible improvements in protection. Participants considered that adherence to science-based, harmonized exposure guidelines to limit exposures for clinical staff and other workers was a key prerequisite to safety in all situations. In addition, to engender an awareness of the risks involved to both the patient as well as the operator, equipment should be operated only by suitably qualified persons who have received appropriate training in the safe use of that device. This training should be carried out under the auspices of an accredited safety provider, and preferably offer a recognized qualification. Specific advice included the necessity for correct eye protection with higher power optical radiation sources, and avoiding the use of ultrasound for all exposures without medical benefit. Finally, the possibility of a harmonized approach to safety for both non-ionizing and ionizing radiation was considered worthy of further discussion.

  19. International conference on individual monitoring of ionising radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanhavere, Filip

    2016-01-01

    This special issue of the journal Radiation Protection Dosimetry is dedicated to the Proceedings of the International Conference on Individual Monitoring of Ionising Radiation (IM2015), which is the fifth of a series of conferences dealing with individual monitoring. This conference series is initiated by EURADOS, the European Radiation Dosimetry Group, and is organised every 5 years. In 2015, the conference was jointly organised by the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre (SCK.CEN), AV Controlatom, and the Vrije Universiteit Brussel. It brought together scientists from regulatory authorities, individual monitoring services (IMS), research bodies, European networks and companies, for the purpose of facilitating the dissemination of knowledge, exchanging experiences and promoting new ideas in the field of individual monitoring. After the conference, 124 papers were submitted for publication in these peer-reviewed proceedings. From these, 103 were finally accepted for publication. The help of the numerous referees and the guest editors is very much appreciated. These proceedings provide a full image of the IM2015 conference. The high-level publications will be useful to improve the state of individual monitoring all over the world and aim to inspire many scientists to continue their work on a better monitoring of radiologically exposed workers

  20. [Treatment of cloud radiative effects in general circulation models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, W.C.

    1993-01-01

    This is a renewal proposal for an on-going project of the Department of Energy (DOE)/Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program. The objective of the ARM Program is to improve the treatment of radiation-cloud in GCMs so that reliable predictions of the timing and magnitude of greenhouse gas-induced global warming and regional responses can be made. The ARM Program supports two research areas: (I) The modeling and analysis of data related to the parameterization of clouds and radiation in general circulation models (GCMs); and (II) the development of advanced instrumentation for both mapping the three-dimensional structure of the atmosphere and high accuracy/precision radiometric observations. The present project conducts research in area (I) and focuses on GCM treatment of cloud life cycle, optical properties, and vertical overlapping. The project has two tasks: (1) Development and Refinement of GCM Radiation-Cloud Treatment Using ARM Data; and (2) Validation of GCM Radiation-Cloud Treatment

  1. Hodgkin lymphoma: Evolution and dilemma in radiation treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girinsky, T.; Ghalibafian, M.; Paumier, A.; Ghalibafian, M.

    2009-01-01

    Multiple new developments in the treatments of patients with Hodgkin lymphoma have occurred in the last 10 years. Radiation treatments have become extremely precise in localized Hodgkin lymphomas, on the other hand, they have almost completely disappeared in advanced stages. For patients with refractory or recurrent disease, it is strongly advocated, whenever feasible, to deliver a mantle field radiation treatment after an autologous stem cell transplant to avoid any further recurrence of the disease. (authors)

  2. What to Know about Brachytherapy (A Type of Internal Radiation Therapy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What To Know About Brachytherapy (A Type of Internal Radiation Therapy) “I asked questions. My doctor took the time ... most. Understanding Radiation Therapy: Brachytherapy (A Type of Internal Radiation Therapy) Types of brachytherapy: Low-dose rate (LDR) implants ...

  3. [Medical prevention and treatment of radiation-induced pulmonary complications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallard, A; Rancoule, C; Le Floch, H; Guy, J-B; Espenel, S; Le Péchoux, C; Deutsch, É; Magné, N; Chargari, C

    2017-08-01

    Radiation-induced lung injuries mainly include the (acute or sub-acute) radiation pneumonitis, the lung fibrosis and the bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia (BOOP). The present review aims at describing the diagnostic process, the current physiopathological knowledge, and the available (non dosimetric) preventive and curative treatments. Radiation-induced lung injury is a diagnosis of exclusion, since clinical, radiological, or biological pathognomonic evidences do not exist. Investigations should necessarily include a thoracic high resolution CT-scan and lung function tests with a diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide. No treatment ever really showed efficacy to prevent acute radiation-induced lung injury, or to treat radiation-induced lung fibrosis. The most promising drugs in order to prevent radiation-induced lung injury are amifostine, angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors and pentoxifylline. Inhibitors of collagen synthesis are currently tested at a pre-clinical stage to limit the radiation-induced lung fibrosis. Regarding available treatments of radiation-induced pneumonitis, corticoids can be considered the cornerstone. However, no standardized program or guidelines concerning the initial dose and the gradual tapering have been scientifically established. Alternative treatments can be prescribed, based on clinical cases reporting on the efficacy of immunosuppressive drugs. Such data highlight the major role of the lung dosimetric protection in order to efficiently prevent radiation-induced lung injury. Copyright © 2017 Société française de radiothérapie oncologique (SFRO). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Gaps in Radiation Therapy Awareness: Results From an Educational Multi-institutional Survey of US Internal Medicine Residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaverdian, Narek; Yoo, Sun Mi; Cook, Ryan; Chang, Eric M; Jiang, Naomi; Yuan, Ye; Sandler, Kiri; Steinberg, Michael; Lee, Percy

    2017-08-01

    Internists and primary care providers play a growing role in cancer care. We therefore evaluated the awareness of radiation therapy in general and specifically the clinical utility of stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) among current US internal medicine residents. A web-based institutional review board-approved multi-institutional survey was distributed to US internal medicine residency programs. The survey evaluated trainee demographic characteristics, baseline radiation oncology awareness, knowledge of the role of SBRT for early-stage NSCLC, and whether the survey successfully improved awareness. Thirty US internal medicine programs participated, with an overall participant response rate of 46% (1177 of 2551). Of the trainees, 93% (n=1076) reported no radiation oncology education in their residency, 39% (n=452) reported confidence in knowing when to consult radiation oncology in an oncologic emergency, and 26% (n=293) reported confidence in knowing when to consult radiation oncology in the setting of a newly diagnosed cancer. Of the participants, 76% (n=850) correctly identified that surgical resection is the standard treatment in operable early-stage NSCLC, but only 50% (n=559) of participants would recommend SBRT to a medically inoperable patient, followed by 31% of participants (n=347) who were unsure of the most appropriate treatment, and 10% (n=117) who recommended waiting to offer palliative therapy. Ninety percent of participants (n=1029) agreed that they would benefit from further training on when to consult radiation oncology. Overall, 96% (n=1072) indicated that the survey increased their knowledge and awareness of the role of SBRT. The majority of participating trainees received no education in radiation oncology in their residency, reported a lack of confidence regarding when to consult radiation oncology, and overwhelmingly agreed that they would benefit from further training. These findings

  5. Treatment of cloud radiative effects in general circulation models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, W.C.; Dudek, M.P.; Liang, X.Z.; Ding, M. [State Univ. of New York, Albany, NY (United States)] [and others

    1996-04-01

    We participate in the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program with two objectives: (1) to improve the general circulation model (GCM) cloud/radiation treatment with a focus on cloud verticle overlapping and layer cloud optical properties, and (2) to study the effects of cloud/radiation-climate interaction on GCM climate simulations. This report summarizes the project progress since the Fourth ARM Science Team meeting February 28-March 4, 1994, in Charleston, South Carolina.

  6. Use of ionizing radiation in waste water treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cech, R.

    1976-01-01

    A survey is presented of methods and possibilities of applying ionizing radiation in industrial waste water treatment. The most frequently used radiation sources include the 60 Co and 137 Cs isotopes and the 90 Sr- 90 Y combined source. The results are reported and the methods used are described of waste water treatment by sedimenting impurities and decomposing organic and inorganic compounds by ionizing radiation. It was found that waste water irradiation accelerated sedimentation and decomposition processes. The doses used varied between 50 and 500 krads. Ionizing radiation may also be used in waste water disinfection in which the effects are used of radiation on microorganisms and of the synthesis of ozone which does not smell like normally used chlorine. The described methods are still controversial from the economic point of view but the cost of waste water treatment by irradiation will significantly be reduced by the use of spent fuel elements. (J.B.)

  7. Related radiation effects on the intestine and their treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bardychev, M.S.; Kurpeshcheva, A.K.; Kaplan, M.A.

    1978-01-01

    Late radiation injuries of the intestine are frequent after radiation therapy of malignant tumours of female genitalia and some other tumours due to which the intestine gets into the irradiation field. On the basis of the analysis of 80 patients with late radiation injuries of intestine which developed at remote terms after radiation therapy of cervix uteri cancer and corpus uteri (65 patients) and other tumours, peculiarities of the clinical course and treatment of radiation enterocolitis, rectosigmoidites and rectites are discussed. In 39 patients these injuries were concomitant with late radiation injuries of the skin and subcutaneous soft tissues. The clinical course of radiation unjuries of the intestine was defined by the character of the pathological process in the intestine and was more sharply marked in patients suffering from radiation enterocolites. It was established that one of the pathogenetic mechanisms of late radiation injuries of the intestine was a disorder of the absorption function of the intestine. Local treatment of radiation injuries of the intestine should be combined with a general one the important component of which is a parenteral diet

  8. Progresses in studies on radiation treatment of environmental pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Min; Shen Zhongqun; Yang Ruiyuan; Ma Hongjuan; Zhao Jun; Wang Wenfeng

    2007-01-01

    The paper gives a review on recent progresses in E-beam purification of flue gases, radiation degra- dation of volatile organic compounds, and radiation treatment of sewerage and industrial wastewater. And research activities in this area at Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics are given in particular details. (authors)

  9. Radiation protection and safety of radiation sources international basic safety standards

    CERN Document Server

    International Atomic Energy Agency. Vienna

    2014-01-01

    The Board of Governors of the IAEA first approved Basic Safety Standards in June 1962; they were published by the IAEA as IAEA Safety Series No. 9. A revised edition was issued in 1967. A third revision was published by the IAEA as the 1982 Edition of IAEA Safety Series No. 9 ; this edition was jointly sponsored by the IAEA, ILO, OECD/NEA and the WHO. The next edition was International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources, published by the IAEA as IAEA Safety Series No. 115 in February 1996, and jointly sponsored by the FAO, IAEA, ILO, OECD/NEA, PAHO and the WHO.

  10. Fertility of women after exposure to internal and external radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polednak, A.P.

    1982-01-01

    Fertility was examined in 199 women exposed to internal and external radiation while employed in the radium watch-dial painting industry in Illinois between 1916 and 1929. In women with at least one live birth, mean log live-birth rate was significantly lower in the highest (estimated) ovarian-dose group (i.e., greater than or equal to 20 rem) than in the lowest group (<5 rem). In multiple regression analysis, intake dose (proportional to alpha-particle dose to ovaries) but not duration of employment (relevant to external gamma-ray dose to ovaries) was a statistically significant predictor of log live-birth rate. There was no evidence for an increase in fetal deaths with increasing ovarian dose level (rem). This suggests that the findings on live-birth rate may not involve post-implantation dominant lethal mutations, but pre-implantation losses could not be evaluated. Some possible explanations for these findings are discussed

  11. Fertility of women after exposure to internal and external radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polednak, A.P.

    1980-01-01

    Fertility was examined in 199 women exposed to internal and external radiation while employed in the radium watch-dial painting industry in Illinois between 1916 and 1929. In women with at least one live birth, mean log live-birth rate was significantly lower in the highest (estimated) ovarian-dose group (i.e., greater than or equal to 20 rem) than in th lowest group (<5 rem). In multiple regression analysis, intake dose (proportional to alpha-particle dose to ovaries) but not duration of employment (relevant to external gamma-ray dose to ovaries) was a statistically significant predictor of log live-birth rate. There was no evidence for an increase in fetal deaths with increasing ovarian dose level (rem). This suggests that the findings on live-birth rate may not involve post-implantation dominant lethal mutations, but preimplantation losses could not be evaluated. Some possible explanations for these findings are discussed

  12. Internal radiation dosimetry of F-18-5 fluorouracil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shani, J.; Schlesinger, T.

    1980-01-01

    18 F-5-fluorouracil is currently used in a few nuclear centers as a diagnostic aid in predicting response to 5-fluorouracil chemotherapy. The advantage of this radiopharmaceutical, which has a radionuclide with a short physical half-life (tsub(1/2) = 110 minutes), in addition to its permitting a non-invasive diagnostic technique is balanced by the fact that high doses of the drug must be administered in order to obtain a good scan 12 hours after its administration. This is the optimal time for obtaining a high tumor:blood ratio and involves doses of up to 20 mCi of the drug injected intravenously as a bolus. Assuming the same distribution of the label in humans as in the investigated rat models, we calculated the radiation-dose to the various organs in millirad per mCi injected, according to the MIRD system. This was estimated to 12 main target organs of a reference-man, as if injected with 18 F-5-fluorouracil. The organs are: liver, muscle, kidneys, blood, bone, lungs, pancreas, spleen, heart, genitals, thyroid and adrenals. The calculated values suggest that diagnostic doses of up to 20 mCi 18 F-5-fluorouracil emit internal absorbed radiation which is within the doses experienced in similar procedures of Nuclear Medicine. (author)

  13. Internal radiation dose calculations with the INREM II computer code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunning, D.E. Jr.; Killough, G.G.

    1978-01-01

    A computer code, INREM II, was developed to calculate the internal radiation dose equivalent to organs of man which results from the intake of a radionuclide by inhalation or ingestion. Deposition and removal of radioactivity from the respiratory tract is represented by the Internal Commission on Radiological Protection Task Group Lung Model. A four-segment catenary model of the gastrointestinal tract is used to estimate movement of radioactive material that is ingested, or swallowed after being cleared from the respiratory tract. Retention of radioactivity in other organs is specified by linear combinations of decaying exponential functions. The formation and decay of radioactive daughters is treated explicitly, with each radionuclide in the decay chain having its own uptake and retention parameters, as supplied by the user. The dose equivalent to a target organ is computed as the sum of contributions from each source organ in which radioactivity is assumed to be situated. This calculation utilizes a matrix of dosimetric S-factors (rem/μCi-day) supplied by the user for the particular choice of source and target organs. Output permits the evaluation of components of dose from cross-irradiations when penetrating radiations are present. INREM II has been utilized with current radioactive decay data and metabolic models to produce extensive tabulations of dose conversion factors for a reference adult for approximately 150 radionuclides of interest in environmental assessments of light-water-reactor fuel cycles. These dose conversion factors represent the 50-year dose commitment per microcurie intake of a given radionuclide for 22target organs including contributions from specified source organs and surplus activity in the rest of the body. These tabulations are particularly significant in their consistent use of contemporary models and data and in the detail of documentation

  14. Radiation processing technology for industrial waste water treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    Radiation sterilization technology, cross-linked polymers and curing, food and environmental applications of the radiation is widely used for many years. At the same time, drinking water and wastewater treatment are the part of the radiation technology applications. For this purpose, drinking water and wastewater treatment plants in various countries has been established. In this project, gamma / electron beam radiation treatment is intended to be used for the treatment of alkaloid, textiles and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) wastewater. In this regard, the chemical characterization of wastewater, the interaction with radiation, biological treatment and determination of toxicological properties are the laboratory studies milestones. After laboratory studies, the establishment of a pilot scale treatment plant has been planned. Within the framework of the project a series of dye used in textile industry were examined. Besides the irradiation, the changes in treatment efficiency were investigated by using of oxygen and hydrogen peroxide in conjunction with the irradiation. Same working methods were implemented in the wastewater treatment of Bolvadin Opium Alkaloid Factory as well. In addition to chemical analysis in this study, aerobic and anaerobic biological treatment process also have been applied. Standard reference materials has been used for the marine sediment study contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls.

  15. Radiation synovectomy: treatment option for haemophilia patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Papers from reputable haematology and radiation medicine journals, as well as conference presentations of the World Federation of Hemophilia were also included. Data selection: The searches for papers, abstracts and reviews were limited to English language, haemophilia, haemarthrosis, synovectomy, RS, ...

  16. Coordination systems for three-dimension radiation treatment planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Dailun; Wu Zhangwen; Luo Zhengming

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the coordination systems of a three dimension radiation treatment plan. The coordination systems refer to the body coordination, the isocenter coordination and the beam coordination. The authors have derived the analytical equations for coordination transforms, indicated the applications of the coordination systems, and provided corresponding treating means. With strict construction and perfect structure, the systems have an important significance for increasing the whole capability of a three dimension radiation treatment plan, and can be extensively and flexibly used. (authors)

  17. Heat transfer analysis of a volumetric solar receiver by coupling the solar radiation transport and internal heat transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Xue; Xia, Xin-Lin; Liu, Hua; Li, Yang; Liu, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A model coupling solar radiation transport and internal heat transfer is developed. • Two other treatment approaches for the concentrated solar radiation are compared. • Porous parameters significantly affect the distribution of absorbed solar radiation. • The TBC approach overestimates the solid temperature with a deviation up to 76.4%. • The CIR approach provides acceptable temperature field with deviation less than 3.4%. - Abstract: Volumetric receivers have become a promising technology for the solar thermal conversion. The absorption of concentrated solar radiation and the heat transfer to the working fluid are the two dominant processes. To effectively investigate the thermal performance of receiver, a numerical model coupling the solar radiation transport and the internal heat transfer is presented. Solar radiation transport from the dish concentrator to the interior of receiver is simulated with the Monte Carlo ray tracing method. Combining the distribution of absorbed solar energy in the receiver, the local thermal non-equilibrium model with P1 approximation is used to solve the internal heat transfer. Two other treatment approaches for the concentrated solar radiation are compared. One considers the solar radiation on the front surface of receiver as thermal boundary condition (TBC) and the other as a collimated incident radiation (CIR) beam. The results show that the porosity and mean cell size have a great effect on the distribution of absorbed solar radiation. Compared with the coupling approach, the TBC approach overestimates the solid temperature near the front surface with a deviation up to 76.4%, while the CIR approach provides acceptable temperature field with a deviation less than 3.4%. In addition, the fluid and solid temperatures both decrease as the slope error of concentrator increases.

  18. ISRE04. Proceedings of the third international symposium on radiation education

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-03-01

    The Third International Symposium on Radiation Education was held on August 23-26, 2004 at Nagasaki, Japan. The fundamental knowledge of radiation and related nuclear matters should be properly communicated to students and general public. The symposium has been devoted for developing an effective method of radiation education. To remove unnecessary fears for radiation and to utilize radiation and nuclear energy to contribute to the human welfare, the spirit of radiation education was first announced internationally in 1998 at Hayama, Japan, and then confirmed in 2002 at Debrecen, Hungary, and now was reassured in August 2004 at Nagasaki. The 80 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  19. Assessment of the international meeting of radiation protection professionals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikodemova, Denisa; Cabanekova, Helena

    2012-01-01

    The conclusions from and main agenda of the conference are summarized. The conference was divided into 8 sections, dealing with biological effects of ionizing radiation, general aspects of radiation protection, dosimetry and metrology of ionizing radiation, radiation protection problems in nuclear power plants, management of nuclear radiation emergencies, radiation load of patients and staff during medical applications of ionizing radiation (radiodiagnosis, nuclear medicine and radiation oncology), control of exposure to radiation from natural sources in the environment and at workplaces, and education in radiation protection. The programme included round-table discussions devoted to the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident, optimization of the radiation load of children in radiology, and recent advances in the radon risk countermeasures area. (orig.)

  20. Surgical treatment of delayed radiation effects in the skin and its indication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tilkorn, H.; Drepper, H.

    1987-01-01

    Since 1960 a total of 1200 patients with skin disease as delayed radiation effects were treated at the Hornheide special clinic, 40% of whom received plastic surgery. This requires knowledge of the type of radiation applied and when it was applied, additional harmful influences, exposure, differentiation in cases of ulcers between primary, cumulative, and combination effect, early radiation effects, and late radiation effects. Secondary factors leading possibly to necrosis may be: recidivation of the primary tumours, benign or malignant neoplasms, traumatic injuries such as injections, sampling, tight clothing, chemical factors like therapeuticals for local application, allergies, infections of the skin with bacteria or fungi, osteomyelitis, non-infections skin disease, and internal disease. A precondition for successful dermatological and surgical treatment are a careful review of the previous case history and exact diagnosis. Some clinical cases serve to illustrate the theoretical explanations and point out possibilities for surgical treatment. (TRV) [de

  1. [Symptoms and treatment of radiation-induced reactions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzozowska, Anna; Idziak, Magdalena; Burdan, Franciszek; Mazurkiewicz, Maria

    2015-05-01

    Radiotherapy is one of the main methods of cancer treatment alone or in combination with chemotherapy. It is applied in about 60% of oncological patients. However, in spite of its clinical usefulness, radiotherapy is associated with a high risk of radiation-induced side effects, including dermatitis, enteritis, cystitis, pericarditis, pneumonia or depression, sexual function disorders, cardiomiopathy, coronary heart disease, anomalies of heart valves and development of second malignant tumor. The early diagnosis and proper treatment of radiation-induced side effects have a major impact on patients` quality of life and future prognosis. Radiation reactions can be categorized as acute or late, occurring before and after six months after radiotherapy. Among the most common acute reactions there were observed: skin rash, mucositis, nausea, vomiting, fever and radiation pneumonitis. Within reference to the late complications, we distinguish for instance fibrosis of organs, a radiation necrosis of bone, ulcers, fistulas, sexual dysfunction and the development of second malignant carcinomas. © 2015 MEDPRESS.

  2. Challenges With the Diagnosis and Treatment of Cerebral Radiation Necrosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chao, Samuel T., E-mail: chaos@ccf.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Rose Ella Burkhardt Brain Tumor and Neuro-oncology Center, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Ahluwalia, Manmeet S. [Department of Medical Oncology, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Rose Ella Burkhardt Brain Tumor and Neuro-oncology Center, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Barnett, Gene H. [Department of Neurosurgery, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Rose Ella Burkhardt Brain Tumor and Neuro-oncology Center, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Stevens, Glen H.J. [Department of Neurology, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Rose Ella Burkhardt Brain Tumor and Neuro-oncology Center, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Murphy, Erin S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Rose Ella Burkhardt Brain Tumor and Neuro-oncology Center, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Stockham, Abigail L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Shiue, Kevin [Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Suh, John H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Rose Ella Burkhardt Brain Tumor and Neuro-oncology Center, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States)

    2013-11-01

    The incidence of radiation necrosis has increased secondary to greater use of combined modality therapy for brain tumors and stereotactic radiosurgery. Given that its characteristics on standard imaging are no different that tumor recurrence, it is difficult to diagnose without use of more sophisticated imaging and nuclear medicine scans, although the accuracy of such scans is controversial. Historically, treatment had been limited to steroids, hyperbaric oxygen, anticoagulants, and surgical resection. A recent prospective randomized study has confirmed the efficacy of bevacizumab in treating radiation necrosis. Novel therapies include using focused interstitial laser thermal therapy. This article will review the diagnosis and treatment of radiation necrosis.

  3. Treatment of arterial lesions after radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergqvist, D.; Jonsson, K.; Nilsson, M.; Takolander, R.

    1987-01-01

    Of 1,724 patients who underwent peripheral vascular operation, 12 (0.7 per cent) underwent radiation therapy of the areas including the relevant arteries one and one-half to 28 years (a mean of 15 years) previously; one patient had carcinoma of the breast, three had tumors of the neck and eight patients had malignant gynecologic disease. One patient with an occluded carotid artery was not actively treated, two underwent percutaneous transluminal angioplasty and the remaining patients underwent different types of vascular reconstructions. These patients frequently have other radiation lesions as well with involvement of the skin, bladder or intestine, which may make them problematic from a surgical point of view. Extra-anatomic reconstructions or percutaneous transluminal angioplasty can be recommended. One patient died of malignant disease three years after arterial operation. Otherwise, the results of follow-up study for these patients did not differ from other patients who underwent arterial reconstruction

  4. Insights from radiation treatment for benign disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bleehen, N.M.

    1987-08-29

    This note compares mortality figures for patients treated with low dose ionizing radiation for benign conditions between the 1920's and 1950's with figures available from the Japanese A-bomb survivors. X radiation for ringworm, ankylosing spondylitis and post-partum mastitis are considered. Figures for leukemia are roughly comparable between radiotherapy groups and A-bomb survivors. Figures for the increased relative risk of breast cancer in spondylitis patients were in marked contrast to bomb survivors who received comparable doses, but compatible with the increase among women given x-rays for acute post-partum mastitis in the 1940's and 1950's. This study also suggests the possibility of different time patterns of risk between different cancers. (U.K.).

  5. Proceedings of the 4. International Symposium on Radiation Physics - Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The studies on: fundamental processes in radiation physics; radiation sources and detectors; physical, chemical and biological radiation effects; plasma technology; radioisotope application in medicine and agriculture; environment; use of radiation in material science and; reactor technology, are presented. (M.C.K.) [pt

  6. Radiation treatment of herb tea for the reduction of microbial contamination (Flores chamomillae). [Gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katusin-Razem, B.; Razem, D.; Dvornik, I. (Institut Rudjer Boskovic, Zagreb (Yugoslavia)); Matic, S. (Institute of Public Health of Croatia, Zagreb (Yugoslavia))

    1983-01-01

    A survey of microbiological contamination of dried chamomile flowers indicates the presence of thermophilic bacteria up to the level of 10/sup 4/ per gram. This material often contains insecticides which have been used to reduce post-harvest losses. This work was undertaken in order to study the feasibility of radiation treatment of dried chamomile flowers as the only acceptable process for reduction of microbial contamination and as an alternative to chemical treatment. The main microbial contaminants were identified and typical contamination levels established. Survival curves of the irradiated microflora were obtained as a function of gamma radiation dose. Chemical composition of chamomile oil was followed by spectroscopy, thin layer and gas chromatography. No untoward effects of radiation treatment on active components were found, which indicates the usefulness of radiation treatment of dry flowers.

  7. Sexuality in gynecological patients undergoing radiation therapy treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolan, M.E.

    1987-01-01

    The gynecology patient undergoing radiation therapy treatments may experience physiological and psychological problems related to sexuality. The needs of this group must be met by the radiation oncology staff by their being informed, interested, and experienced in dealing with sexual problems created by radiation therapy treatments. Opportunities to obtain information and for discussion about how the disease and its treatments will affect sexual functioning must be provided for the patient and partner. It is important to remember that the ability to seek and preserve gratifying sexual function is of great importance to almost all women, regardless of age. The patient may feel much personal distress related to the disease, the treatments, and how they affect the way she feels as a sexual human being. Opportunities must be provided to share the feelings created by the treatment process and trained therapists should be available when intensive sexual counseling is needed

  8. Rapid and Decentralized Human Waste Treatment by Microwave Radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Tu Anh; Babel, Sandhya; Boonyarattanakalin, Siwarutt; Koottatep, Thammarat

    2017-07-01

      This study evaluates the technical feasibility of using microwave radiation for the rapid treatment of human feces. Human feces of 1000 g were radiated with a commercially available household microwave oven (with rotation) at different exposure time lengths (30, 50, 60, 70, and 75 mins) and powers (600, 800, and 1000 W). Volume reduction over 90% occurred after 1000 W microwave radiation for 75 mins. Pathogen eradiation performances of six log units or more at a high range of microwave powers were achieved. Treatments with the same energy input of 1000 Wh, but at lower powers with prolonged exposure times, significantly enhanced moisture removal and volume reduction. Microwave radiation caused carbonization and resulted in a more stable end product. The energy content of the samples after microwave treatment at 1000 W and 75 mins is 3517 ± 8.85 calories/g of dried sample, and the product can also be used as compost.

  9. Large area radiation source for water and wastewater treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Michael T.; Lee, Seungwoo; Kloba, Anthony; Hellmer, Ronald; Kumar, Nalin; Eaton, Mark; Rambo, Charlotte; Pillai, Suresh

    2011-06-01

    There is a strong desire for processes that improve the safety of water supplies and that minimize disinfection byproducts. Stellarray is developing mercury-free next-generation x-ray and UV-C radiation sources in flat-panel and pipe form factors for water and wastewater treatment applications. These new radiation sources are designed to sterilize sludge and effluent, and to enable new treatment approaches to emerging environmental concerns such as the accumulation of estrogenic compounds in water. Our UV-C source, based on cathodoluminescent technology, differs significantly from traditional disinfection approaches using mercury arc lamps or UV LEDs. Our sources accelerate electrons across a vacuum gap, converting their energy into UV-C when striking a phosphor, or x-rays when striking a metallic anode target. Stellarray's large area radiation sources for wastewater treatment allow matching of the radiation source area to the sterilization target area for maximum coverage and improved efficiency.

  10. Analytical signals from cancer patients following radiation treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wielopolski, L.; Meek, A.G.; Reinstein, L.E.

    1986-01-01

    Cancer patients are treated with high energy (8 to 30 MeV) gamma radiation. This treatment modality provides better depth dose distribution than more conventional low-energy gamma treatments, in particular for deeply located tumors. A by-product of the high-energy treatment is gamma-induced activity in the treatment volume following photonuclear reactions. These reactions are endogenic and require that the gamma radiation energy be above threshold value in order for the reaction to take place. For most elements, the threshold value is above 8 MeV; however, for low Z elements, this threshold may reach 18 MeV as is the case for oxygen. The cross sections for the (γ, n) reactions are few millibarns for low Z elements and increases up to few hundreds of millibarns for the heavy elements. The radionuclides resulting from photonuclear reaction are typically positron emitter or decay by electron capture. Thus, it is possible to monitor either the annihilation radiation (511 KeV) or the characteristic gamma radiation. The present work demonstrates that the activity induced in cancer patients following a single treatment (300 rad) enables the monitoring of nitrogen and phosphorus in the irradiated volume. The results from measurements in phantom, cadavers, and cancer patients from different regions in the body are presented. The hypothesis to be tested is whether there are local changes in these two elements during the course of radiation treatment which might correlate with the efficacy of the treatment

  11. Status of radiation treatment of liquid sample in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Myun-Joo

    2003-01-01

    For the wastewater treatment, electron beam pilot plant for treating 1,000 m 3 /day of wastewater from 60,000 m 3 /day of total dyeing wastewater was constructed and has been successfully operated. In addition to this pilot plant study, construction of commercial scale plant for treatment of dyeing wastewater is being done under TC project organized by IAEA together with E-B Tech. Co., Ltd., Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) and dye wastewater treatment station in Korea. On the other hand, several studies using radiation are being carried out in the field of treatment of polluted groundwater, advanced treatment of sewage, sterilization of discharged water from sewage treatment plants. Many researches on water and wastewater treatment using radiation will be carried out under support of long term basis nuclear R and D program by government. (author)

  12. Proton Radiation Therapy for the Treatment of Retinoblastoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mouw, Kent W. [Harvard Radiation Oncology Program, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Sethi, Roshan V.; Yeap, Beow Y.; MacDonald, Shannon M.; Chen, Yen-Lin E.; Tarbell, Nancy J.; Yock, Torunn I.; Munzenrider, John E.; Adams, Judith [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Grabowski, Eric [Department of Pediatrics, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Mukai, Shizuo [Retina Service, Department of Ophthalmology, Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Shih, Helen A., E-mail: hshih@partners.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)

    2014-11-15

    Purpose: To investigate long-term disease and toxicity outcomes for pediatric retinoblastoma patients treated with proton radiation therapy (PRT). Methods and Materials: This is a retrospective analysis of 49 retinoblastoma patients (60 eyes) treated with PRT between 1986 and 2012. Results: The majority (84%) of patients had bilateral disease, and nearly half (45%) had received prior chemotherapy. At a median follow-up of 8 years (range, 1-24 years), no patients died of retinoblastoma or developed metastatic disease. The post-PRT enucleation rate was low (18%), especially in patients with early-stage disease (11% for patients with International Classification for Intraocular Retinoblastoma [ICIR] stage A-B disease vs 23% for patients with ICIR stage C-D disease). Post-PRT ophthalmologic follow-up was available for 61% of the preserved eyes (30 of 49): 14 of 30 eyes (47%) had 20/40 visual acuity or better, 7 of 30 (23%) had moderate visual acuity (20/40-20/600), and 9 of 30 (30%) had little or no useful vision (worse than 20/600). Twelve of 60 treated eyes (20%) experienced a post-PRT event requiring intervention, with cataracts the most common (4 eyes). No patients developed an in-field second malignancy. Conclusions: Long-term follow-up of retinoblastoma patients treated with PRT demonstrates that PRT can achieve high local control rates, even in advanced cases, and many patients retain useful vision in the treated eye. Treatment-related ocular side effects were uncommon, and no radiation-associated malignancies were observed.

  13. Selective internal radiation therapy (SIRT) for liver metastases secondary to colorectal adenocarcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welsh, James S.; Kennedy, Andrew S.; Thomadsen, Bruce

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: Selective internal radiation therapy (SIRT) is a relatively new commercially available microbrachytherapy technique for treatment of malignant hepatic lesions using 9 Y embedded in resin microspheres, which are infused directly into the hepatic arterial circulation. It is FDA approved for liver metastases secondary to colorectal carcinoma and is under investigation for treatment of other liver malignancies, such as hepatocellular carcinoma and neuroendocrine malignancies. Materials/Methods: A modest number of clinical trials, preclinical animal studies, and dosimetric studies have been reported. Here we review several of the more important results. Results: High doses of beta radiation can be selectively delivered to tumors, resulting in impressive local control and survival rates. Ex vivo analyses have shown that microspheres preferentially cluster around the periphery of tumor nodules with a high tumor:normal tissue ratio of up to 200:1. Toxicity is usually mild, featuring fatigue, anorexia, nausea, abdominal discomfort, and slight elevations of liver function tests. Conclusions: Selective internal radiation therapy represents an effective means of controlling liver metastases from colorectal adenocarcinoma. Clinical trials have demonstrated improved local control of disease and survival with relatively low toxicity. Investigations of SIRT for other hepatic malignancies and in combination with newer chemotherapy agents and targeted biologic therapies are under way or in planning. A well-integrated team involving interventional radiology, nuclear medicine, medical oncology, surgical oncology, medical physics, and radiation oncology is essential for a successful program. Careful selection of patients through the combined expertise of the team can maximize therapeutic efficacy and reduce the potential for adverse effects

  14. Radiation Therapy Planning for Early-Stage Hodgkin Lymphoma: Experience of the International Lymphoma Radiation Oncology Group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maraldo, Maja V., E-mail: dra.maraldo@gmail.com [Departments of Clinical Oncology and Hematology, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen (Denmark); Dabaja, Bouthaina S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, MD Anderson Cancer Center, Texas (United States); Filippi, Andrea R. [Department of Oncology, University of Torino School of Medicine, Torino (Italy); Illidge, Tim [Department of Oncology, Christie Hospital, Manchester (United Kingdom); Tsang, Richard [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Ricardi, Umberto [Department of Oncology, University of Torino School of Medicine, Torino (Italy); Petersen, Peter M.; Schut, Deborah A. [Departments of Clinical Oncology and Hematology, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen (Denmark); Garcia, John [Department of Radiation Oncology, MD Anderson Cancer Center, Texas (United States); Headley, Jayne [Department of Oncology, Christie Hospital, Manchester (United Kingdom); Parent, Amy; Guibord, Benoit [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Ragona, Riccardo [Department of Oncology, University of Torino School of Medicine, Torino (Italy); Specht, Lena [Departments of Clinical Oncology and Hematology, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2015-05-01

    Purpose: Early-stage Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) is a rare disease, and the location of lymphoma varies considerably between patients. Here, we evaluate the variability of radiation therapy (RT) plans among 5 International Lymphoma Radiation Oncology Group (ILROG) centers with regard to beam arrangements, planning parameters, and estimated doses to the critical organs at risk (OARs). Methods: Ten patients with stage I-II classic HL with masses of different sizes and locations were selected. On the basis of the clinical information, 5 ILROG centers were asked to create RT plans to a prescribed dose of 30.6 Gy. A postchemotherapy computed tomography scan with precontoured clinical target volume (CTV) and OARs was provided for each patient. The treatment technique and planning methods were chosen according to each center's best practice in 2013. Results: Seven patients had mediastinal disease, 2 had axillary disease, and 1 had disease in the neck only. The median age at diagnosis was 34 years (range, 21-74 years), and 5 patients were male. Of the resulting 50 treatment plans, 15 were planned with volumetric modulated arc therapy (1-4 arcs), 16 with intensity modulated RT (3-9 fields), and 19 with 3-dimensional conformal RT (2-4 fields). The variations in CTV-to-planning target volume margins (5-15 mm), maximum tolerated dose (31.4-40 Gy), and plan conformity (conformity index 0-3.6) were significant. However, estimated doses to OARs were comparable between centers for each patient. Conclusions: RT planning for HL is challenging because of the heterogeneity in size and location of disease and, additionally, to the variation in choice of treatment techniques and field arrangements. Adopting ILROG guidelines and implementing universal dose objectives could further standardize treatment techniques and contribute to lowering the dose to the surrounding OARs.

  15. 21 CFR 179.26 - Ionizing radiation for the treatment of food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ionizing radiation for the treatment of food. 179... HANDLING OF FOOD Radiation and Radiation Sources § 179.26 Ionizing radiation for the treatment of food. Ionizing radiation for treatment of foods may be safely used under the following conditions: (a) Energy...

  16. 21 CFR 579.22 - Ionizing radiation for treatment of animal diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ionizing radiation for treatment of animal diets..., AND HANDLING OF ANIMAL FEED AND PET FOOD Radiation and Radiation Sources § 579.22 Ionizing radiation for treatment of animal diets. Ionizing radiation for treatment of complete diets for animals may be...

  17. Proceedings of the International Conference on Modern Radiotherapy. Advances and Challenges in Radiation Protection of Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-12-01

    The use of ionizing radiation in medicine has led to major improvements in the diagnosis and treatment of human diseases. While bringing new benefits for cancer treatment, modern radiotherapy also poses new challenges in terms of radiation protection of patients. Prevention of radiotherapy incidents and accidents is a major issue in this area. In December 2009, the French Nuclear Safety Authority (ASN) organised the 1. international conference on radiation protection of patients in radiotherapy. The major objective of the conference was to provide a platform for exchanging experience, and reviewing the actions implemented to improve the radiation safety in radiotherapy both at national and international level. The expected result was: - to reach a consensus about the necessity to strengthen existing international actions for prevention of incidents and accidents, - to set up an international cooperation to improve management for overexposed patients, - to outline a strategy for strengthening regulation, - to contribute to the elaboration of an international scale to rate patient related events for communication and reporting purpose. 360 delegates from 50 countries across the world participated at the 3-day conference. 41 presentations were made and 67 posters were displayed. The conference brought together a broad spectrum of expertise: scientists, health professionals, medical devices manufacturers, risk management specialists, radiation protection experts, representatives from Radiation Protection and Health Authorities as well as patient's associations. The programme covered both scientific and medical issues, such as patient sensitivity to ionising radiation and the treatment of complications. It also provided scope to discuss the benefits and risks of modern radiotherapy and to explore treatment safety issues from various perspectives, including human resources, expertise, education and training along with control and prevention strategies. The conference

  18. Computational hybrid anthropometric paediatric phantom library for internal radiation dosimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Tianwu; Kuster, Niels; Zaidi, Habib

    2017-04-01

    Hybrid computational phantoms combine voxel-based and simplified equation-based modelling approaches to provide unique advantages and more realism for the construction of anthropomorphic models. In this work, a methodology and C++ code are developed to generate hybrid computational phantoms covering statistical distributions of body morphometry in the paediatric population. The paediatric phantoms of the Virtual Population Series (IT’IS Foundation, Switzerland) were modified to match target anthropometric parameters, including body mass, body length, standing height and sitting height/stature ratio, determined from reference databases of the National Centre for Health Statistics and the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The phantoms were selected as representative anchor phantoms for the newborn, 1, 2, 5, 10 and 15 years-old children, and were subsequently remodelled to create 1100 female and male phantoms with 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th and 90th body morphometries. Evaluation was performed qualitatively using 3D visualization and quantitatively by analysing internal organ masses. Overall, the newly generated phantoms appear very reasonable and representative of the main characteristics of the paediatric population at various ages and for different genders, body sizes and sitting stature ratios. The mass of internal organs increases with height and body mass. The comparison of organ masses of the heart, kidney, liver, lung and spleen with published autopsy and ICRP reference data for children demonstrated that they follow the same trend when correlated with age. The constructed hybrid computational phantom library opens up the prospect of comprehensive radiation dosimetry calculations and risk assessment for the paediatric population of different age groups and diverse anthropometric parameters.

  19. Alleviation of acute radiation damages by post-irradiation treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurishita, A.; Ono, T.

    1992-01-01

    Radiation induced hematopoietic and gastro-intestinal damages in mice were tried to alleviate experimentally by post-treatment. Combined treatment of OK-432 and aztreonam clearly prevented the radiation induced sepsis and elevated the survival rate in mice; the survival was 80% in the OK-432 plus aztreonam group while it was 55% in the group treated with OK-432 alone and 0% with saline. Irsogladine maleate, an anti-ulcer drug, increased the survival rate of jejunal crypt stem cells with a clear dose-related trend. The D 0 for irsogladine maleate was 2.8 Gy although it was 2.3 Gy for saline, These findings suggest that some conventional drugs are effective for radiation induced hematopoietic and gastro-intestinal damages and the possibility that they can be applied for people exposed to radiation accidentally. (author)

  20. Radiation treatment for endocrine disrupters in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taguchi, Mitsumasa

    2003-01-01

    The radiation-induced decomposition of a trace amount of 17 β-estradiol (E2) in water was studied as a function of the dose of 60Co γ-rays. Concentration of both E2 and E2 activity were estimated by LC-MS and ELISA, and decreased with an increase in the dose of γ-rays. E2 at 1.8-nM in water was degraded almost completely by irradiation at 10 Gy (=J/kg), but the E2 activity of the same sample still remained, and decreased by 30 Gy to be lower than the threshold level of contamination to induce some estrogenic effects on the environmental ecology. (author)

  1. Proceedings of the International Workshop on Radiation and Thyroid Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiners, Christoph; Yasumura, Seiji; Ishikawa, Tetsuya; Suzuki, Shinichi; Shimura, Hiroki; Matsui, Shiro; Ohtsuru, Akira; Sakai, Akira; Kamiya, Kenji; Abe, Masafumi; Schuez, Joachim; Miyauchi; Gamhewage, Gaya; Van Deventer, Emilie; Kurihara, Osamu; Tokonami, Shinji; Hosoda, M.; Akiba, S.; Chung, Jae Hoon; Jacob, Peter; Ulanovsky, Alexander; Kaiser, Christian; Bouville, Andre; Hatch, Maureen; Drozdovitch, Vladimir; Shore, Roy; Furukawa, Kyoji; Imaizumi, Misa; Ivanov, Victor; Tronko, Mykola; Bogdanova, T.; Oliynik, V.; Shpak, V.; Tereshchenko, V.; Zurnadzgy, L.; Zamotaeva, G.; Mabuchi, K.; Hatch, M.; Bouville, A.; Brenner, A.; Likhtarev, I.; Gulak, L.; Shchepotin, I.; Demidchik, Yuri; Fridman, M.; Vaswani, Ashok; Sobue, Tomotaka; Yoshinaga, Shinji; Taniguchi, Nobuyuki; Miyakawa, Megumi; Momose, Takumaro; Siemann, Michael; Lazo, Ted; ); Lochard, Jacques; Schneider, Thierry; Takamura, Noboru; Bolch, Wesley

    2014-02-01

    The objective of this workshop was to develop a state-of-the-art scientific understanding of radiation-induced thyroid cancer, and to share knowledge and experience in this area in order to support the efforts of the Japanese government and the Fukushima Prefecture to enhance public health. Experience in holding effective social dialogues, in order to best understand and appropriately address social concerns, was also a workshop focus. The workshop began with a half-day tutorial session, followed by two days of plenary presentations and discussion, including panel sessions summarising the results of each session. A closing panel provided overall results and conclusions from the workshop. A Rapporteur provided a workshop summary report and assisted the session co-chairs in summarising key points. This document brings together the available presentations (slides), dealing with: 1.1 - Overview of Radiation-induced Thyroid Cancer (C. Reiners); 1.2 - Overview of the Fukushima Health Management Survey (S. Yasumura); 1.3 - Overview of Epidemiology of Thyroid Cancer in the Context of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Accident (J. Schuez); 1.4 - Overview of the Clinical Features of Thyroid Cancer (Miyauchi); 1.5 - Dialogue with Stakeholders in Complex Radiological Circumstances (G. Gamhewage); 1.6 - Session 1 (tutorial session): Radiation and Thyroid Cancer - Summary Discussion and Questions. 2.1 - WHO Thyroid Dose Estimation (E. van Deventer); 2.2 - Basic Survey External Dose Estimation (T. Ishikawa); 2.3 - NIRS Estimation of Internal Dose to the Thyroid (O. Kurihara); 2.4 - Estimation of Internal Dose to the Thyroid (S. Tokonami); 3.1 - FMU Thyroid Ultrasound Surveys in the Fukushima Prefecture (S. Suzuki); 3.2 - FMU Thyroid Ultrasound Surveys in the Yamanashi Prefecture and Review of Latent Thyroid (H. Shimura); 3.3 - Childhood Thyroid Cancer in Korea: Results of Recent Surveys (J. H. Chung); 4.1 - Ultrasonography Surveys and Thyroid Cancer in the Fukushima Prefecture (P

  2. Radiation proctopathy in the treatment of prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garg, Amit K.; Mai Weiyan; McGary, John E.; Grant, Walter H.; Butler, E. Brian; Teh, B.S.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To compile and review data on radiation proctopathy in the treatment of prostate cancer with respect to epidemiology, clinical manifestations, pathogenesis, risk factors, and treatment. Methods: Medical literature databases including PubMed and Medline were screened for pertinent reports, and critically analyzed for relevance in the scope of our purpose. Results: Rectal toxicity as a complication of radiotherapy has received attention over the past decade, especially with the advent of dose-escalation in prostate cancer treatment. A number of clinical criteria help to define acute and chronic radiation proctopathy, but lack of a unified grading scale makes comparing studies difficult. A variety of risk factors, related to either radiation delivery or patient, are the subject of intense study. Also, a variety of treatment options, including medical therapy, endoscopic treatments, and surgery have shown varied results, but a lack of large randomized trials evaluating their efficacy prevents forming concrete recommendations. Conclusion: Radiation proctopathy should be an important consideration for the clinician in the treatment of prostate cancer especially with dose escalation. With further study of possible risk factors, the advent of a standardized grading scale, and more randomized trials to evaluate treatments, patients and physicians will be better armed to make appropriate management decisions

  3. Radiation proctopathy in the treatment of prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Amit K; Mai, Wei-Yuan; McGary, John E; Grant, Walter H; Butler, E Brian; Teh, Bin S

    2006-12-01

    To compile and review data on radiation proctopathy in the treatment of prostate cancer with respect to epidemiology, clinical manifestations, pathogenesis, risk factors, and treatment. Medical literature databases including PubMed and Medline were screened for pertinent reports, and critically analyzed for relevance in the scope of our purpose. Rectal toxicity as a complication of radiotherapy has received attention over the past decade, especially with the advent of dose-escalation in prostate cancer treatment. A number of clinical criteria help to define acute and chronic radiation proctopathy, but lack of a unified grading scale makes comparing studies difficult. A variety of risk factors, related to either radiation delivery or patient, are the subject of intense study. Also, a variety of treatment options, including medical therapy, endoscopic treatments, and surgery have shown varied results, but a lack of large randomized trials evaluating their efficacy prevents forming concrete recommendations. Radiation proctopathy should be an important consideration for the clinician in the treatment of prostate cancer especially with dose escalation. With further study of possible risk factors, the advent of a standardized grading scale, and more randomized trials to evaluate treatments, patients and physicians will be better armed to make appropriate management decisions.

  4. Assessment of leukemia caused deaths due to internal radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raicevic, J.J.

    2002-01-01

    A problem of finding the number of cancers, which are developed due to internal exposure to radioactive material, is not a trivial task. This problem is generally rather complex, because in case of protracted exposures, latency period may exceed the time of an individual's natural death, i.e. the age at death due to 'natural causes'. In this paper the model for calculating risk caused by an internal exposure (inhalation or ingestion of radioactive material) is modeled as a continuous irradiation till the end of an individual's life, taking into account natural deaths in the observed population. The basic tool in constructing the model were risk coefficients per unit dose, developed earlier [1]. Since an important role in radiation exposure of the people in South Serbia may play internal exposure to depleted uranium (DU), which was extensively used during the NATO bombing of Yugoslavia, the leukemia was chosen as a stochastic effect which is to be considered. For this purpose, some different (artificial) amounts of DU intake were assumed. In order to present the continuous exposure of the whole population living on the contaminated area, the model separately considers those born after the environmental contamination. Therefore, the overall population is divided into two parts: the one which was alive at the time of the release, (LG-Living Generation), and the second one, born after that (FG- Following Generations). The paper primarily intends to present the model for risk calculation for the LG part of population. However, just for the purpose of demonstration of the overall risk model, the contribution of the FG is added to get an overall risk assessment for the case of leukaemia's deaths. Besides cumulative number of cases, which are usually calculated by other models, this model is able to assess differential values, what means it is able to predict the number of cases within a certain specified age and/or time intervals. According to results obtained by the

  5. Radiation Induced Treatment of Organic Pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ergun, E.; Öztürk, Ş.; Kantoğlu, Ö.

    2012-01-01

    In this period of the research, aerobic and anaerobic digestion, characterization of alkaloids present and radiolysis products formed after irradiation, under different conditions of ambient and additives, optimization of dose to achieve desired end characteristics for discharge of waste water were aimed. In this regard, unirradiated and irradiated wastewaters were subjected to aerobic and anaerobic digestions. Substrate removal efficiencies of unirradiated and irradiated wastewater with various initial COD values were determined with SBR aerobic digestion treatment method. On the other hand Fenton’s advanced oxidation treatment method was also applied for pre-treatment. BMP tests of anaerobic digestion were also completed. LC/MS studies were carried out on unirradiated and irradiated alkaloid standard solutions of morphine, codeine, thebaine, papaverine, and noscapine to determine the degradation mechanisms and byproducts. Dose optimization studies were completed and found to be a lower dose of 5 kGy rather than 40 kGy for ambient irradiation conditions. (author)

  6. Interaction of radiation with solids. Proceedings of the 10th international conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anishchik, V.M.; Uglov, V.V.; Baran, L.V.; Azarko, I.I.

    2013-09-01

    In the collection are the papers presented at the 10 International Conference 'Interaction of radiation with solids' (24-27 September 2013) and covering the following topics: processes of interaction of radiation with solids, radiation effects in solids, interaction of plasma with the surface, modification of material properties, formation, structure and properties of coatings, equipment for radiation technologies. Addressed to researchers and students of natural science faculties.

  7. Pathophysiology and surgical treatment for radiation enteritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onodera, Hisashi; Park, Tae Bun; Hasegawa, Masato

    1993-01-01

    We analyzed 23 patients (5 males and 18 females, mean age 60) who had been operated on in our department for radiation enteritis. 1) These patients were divided into two types according to the time of surgery. Sixteen of 23 (79%) patients were operated on a median of 12 months after radiotherapy, while 7 (30%) underwent surgery more than 10 years later. 2) They were also divided according to the dominant symptoms. Fourteen of 23 (60%) complained of nausea and abdominal distension suggestive of small bowel injury, whereas 7 (30%) had tenesmus and anal bleeding indicating proctitis. Two patients developed perforative peritonitis. 3) The operations performed were as follows: extensive intestinal resection and anastomosis (13), pull-through procedure (3), rectal excision (2), ileostomy (3), by-pass operation (2). Two patients with peritonitis died despite open drainage. Nineteen intestinal anastomoses were all successfully performed. Patients who underwent extensive small bowel resection could resume ordinary daily life without symptoms. Our analysis showed that small bowel injury should be treated by generous resection of the affected bowels followed by anastomosis of the disease-free ends, while rectal lesions are best dealt with by restorative proctectomy. This may provide a good quality of life and minimize major postoperative complications such as leakage. (author)

  8. Pathophysiology and surgical treatment for radiation enteritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onodera, Hisashi; Park, Tae Bun; Hasegawa, Masato (Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine) (and others)

    1993-12-01

    We analyzed 23 patients (5 males and 18 females, mean age 60) who had been operated on in our department for radiation enteritis. (1) These patients were divided into two types according to the time of surgery. Sixteen of 23 (79%) patients were operated on a median of 12 months after radiotherapy, while 7 (30%) underwent surgery more than 10 years later. (2) They were also divided according to the dominant symptoms. Fourteen of 23 (60%) complained of nausea and abdominal distension suggestive of small bowel injury, whereas 7 (30%) had tenesmus and anal bleeding indicating proctitis. Two patients developed perforative peritonitis. (3) The operations performed were as follows: extensive intestinal resection and anastomosis (13), pull-through procedure (3), rectal excision (2), ileostomy (3), by-pass operation (2). Two patients with peritonitis died despite open drainage. Nineteen intestinal anastomoses were all successfully performed. Patients who underwent extensive small bowel resection could resume ordinary daily life without symptoms. Our analysis showed that small bowel injury should be treated by generous resection of the affected bowels followed by anastomosis of the disease-free ends, while rectal lesions are best dealt with by restorative proctectomy. This may provide a good quality of life and minimize major postoperative complications such as leakage. (author).

  9. Radiation Treatment of Wastewater Containing Pharmaceutical Compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takács, E.; Wojnárovits, L.; Homlok, R.; Illés, E.; Csay, T.; Szabó, L.; Rácz, G.

    2012-01-01

    High-energy ionizing radiation induced degradation of maleic acid, fumaric acid and 20 aromatic molecules was investigated in air saturated aqueous solutions. Hydroxyl radicals were generated water radiolysis. The decomposition was followed by chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total organic carbon content (TOC) measurements. Up to ∼50% decrease of COD the dose dependence was linear. By the ratio of the decrease of COD and the amount of reactive radiolysis intermediates introduced into the solution the oxidation efficiencies were calculated. Efficiencies around 0.5-1 (O 2 molecule built in products/OH) found for most of the compounds show that the one-electron-oxidant OH induces 2-4 electron oxidations. The high oxidation rates were explained by OH addition to unsaturated bonds and subsequent reactions of the dissolved O 2 with organic radicals. In amino substituted molecules or in Acid Red 1 azo dye, O 2 cannot compete efficiently with the unimolecular transformation of organic radicals and the efficiency is lower (0.2-0.5). (author)

  10. Proceedings of the 2009 International Conference on Advances in Radiation Oncology (ICARO)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    Cancer has become the second leading cause of death worldwide. At least half of all cancer cases occur in low and middle income (LMI) countries. However, all countries are facing an increased demand for health services for cancer treatment, and a changing and more expensive environment in diagnosis, and treatment, including radiation therapy. The use of radiation therapy in cancer treatment has brought tremendous benefits to cancer patients globally. It is a very cost effective modality for cancer treatment and has a major role in both the cure and palliation of cancer in a multidisciplinary setting. Advances in imaging and treatment delivery have changed radiation therapy approaches in many diseases in high income countries, but are expensive and often difficult to deliver. In particular, the benefits of radiotherapy are not evenly distributed in the world since countries with high income can provide access to the most advanced technology as opposed to what is available for cancer patients in countries with limited resources. The acquisition of advanced technology is often based on consumer demand rather than real clinical need. New techniques of treatment - if they are to use resources from available services - should be introduced to clinical practice only either in the framework of clinical studies or after critical and objective assessment has shown clinical benefits to be superior to previous practice. The International Conference on Advances in Radiation Oncology (ICARO) was organized, at the request of the Member States, to discuss and assess new advances in radiation oncology in the context of physical and economic challenges that all countries face today. Participants submitted research studies, which were reviewed by members of the scientific committee and presented in the form of 46 lectures and 103 posters. The programme dealt with the requirements - when transferring to advanced radiation technology - for staff training, treatment planning and

  11. External radiation dose and cancer mortality among French nuclear workers: considering potential confounding by internal radiation exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, L; Laurent, O; Samson, E; Caër-Lorho, S; Laroche, P; Le Guen, B; Laurier, D; Leuraud, K

    2016-11-01

    French nuclear workers have detailed records of their occupational exposure to external radiation that have been used to examine associations with subsequent cancer mortality. However, some workers were also exposed to internal contamination by radionuclides. This study aims to assess the potential for bias due to confounding by internal contamination of estimates of associations between external radiation exposure and cancer mortality. A cohort of 59,004 workers employed for at least 1 year between 1950 and 1994 by CEA (Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique), AREVA NC, or EDF (Electricité de France) and badge-monitored for external radiation exposure were followed through 2004 to assess vital status and cause of death. A flag based on a workstation-exposure matrix defined four levels of potential for internal contamination. Standardized mortality ratios were assessed for each level of the internal contamination indicator. Poisson regression was used to quantify associations between external radiation exposure and cancer mortality, adjusting for potential internal contamination. For solid cancer, the mortality deficit tended to decrease as the levels of potential for internal contamination increased. For solid cancer and leukemia excluding chronic lymphocytic leukemia, adjusting the dose-response analysis on the internal contamination indicator did not markedly change the excess relative risk per Sievert of external radiation dose. This study suggests that in this cohort, neglecting information on internal dosimetry while studying the association between external dose and cancer mortality does not generate a substantial bias. To investigate more specifically the health effects of internal contamination, an effort is underway to estimate organ doses due to internal contamination.

  12. External radiation dose and cancer mortality among French nuclear workers. Considering potential confounding by internal radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fournier, L.; Laurent, O.; Samson, E.; Caer-Lorho, S.; Laurier, D.; Leuraud, K. [Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety, Fontenay aux Roses (France). Ionizing Radiation Epidemiology Lab.; Laroche, P. [AREVA, Paris (France); Le Guen, B. [EDF, Saint Denis (France)

    2016-11-15

    French nuclear workers have detailed records of their occupational exposure to external radiation that have been used to examine associations with subsequent cancer mortality. However, some workers were also exposed to internal contamination by radionuclides. This study aims to assess the potential for bias due to confounding by internal contamination of estimates of associations between external radiation exposure and cancer mortality. A cohort of 59,004 workers employed for at least 1 year between 1950 and 1994 by CEA (Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique), AREVA NC, or EDF (Electricite de France) and badge-monitored for external radiation exposure were followed through 2004 to assess vital status and cause of death. A flag based on a workstation-exposure matrix defined four levels of potential for internal contamination. Standardized mortality ratios were assessed for each level of the internal contamination indicator. Poisson regression was used to quantify associations between external radiation exposure and cancer mortality, adjusting for potential internal contamination. For solid cancer, the mortality deficit tended to decrease as the levels of potential for internal contamination increased. For solid cancer and leukemia excluding chronic lymphocytic leukemia, adjusting the dose-response analysis on the internal contamination indicator did not markedly change the excess relative risk per Sievert of external radiation dose. This study suggests that in this cohort, neglecting information on internal dosimetry while studying the association between external dose and cancer mortality does not generate a substantial bias. To investigate more specifically the health effects of internal contamination, an effort is underway to estimate organ doses due to internal contamination.

  13. Application of Ionizing Radiation on the Cork Wastewater Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melo, R.; Madureira, J.; Verde, S. Cabo; Nunes, I.; Santos, P.M.P.; Silva, T.; Leal, J.P.; Botelho, M.L.

    2012-01-01

    In the framework of the CRP on “Radiation treatment of wastewater for reuse with particular focus on wastewaters containing organic pollutants” Portuguese team is been developed studies on the implementation of ionizing radiation technology as a complementary treatment for industrial effluents and increase the added value of these wastewaters. Based on these assumptions, preliminary studies of the gamma radiation effects on the antioxidant compounds present in cork cooking water were carried out. Radiation studies were performed by using radiation between 20 and 50 kGy at 0.4 kGy/h and 2.4 kGy/h. The radiation effects on organic matter content were evaluated by Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD). The antioxidant activity was measured by Ferric Reducing Power (FRAP) assay. The total phenolic content was studied by Folin-Ciocalteau method. Results point out that gamma radiation increases both the amount of phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity of cork cooking water. By the other hand, the radiolytic degradation by ionizing radiation of gallic acid and esculetin as models for recalcitrants were studied. The objective of this study was to find out if radiolytic degradation, followed by microbial degradation could increase the treatment efficiency. A natural cork wastewater bacterium was selected from the irradiated wastewater at 9 kGy. The applied methodology was based on the evaluation of growth kinetics of the selected bacteria by turbidimetry and colony forming units, in minimal salt medium with non-irradiated and irradiated phenolic as substrate. The overall obtained results highlights the potential of this technology for increase the add value of cork waters and raised some issues to explain by new methodological setup on biodegradation studies. (author)

  14. The International radiation protection association (IRPA) 2010-2011 strategic plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kase, K.

    2010-01-01

    The membership of IRPA consists of 46 national or regional associate societies, 58 countries and about 17,000 individual members. The goals of IRPA strategic Plan 2008-2012 are: Promote excellence in the conduct of IRPA Promote excellence in national and regional associate societies Promote excellence in radiation protection professionals IRPA is recognized by its members and stakeholders as the international voice of the radiation protection profession. The role of IRPA is to: Provide a medium for communication and advancement of radiation protection throughout the world Encourage the establishment of radiation protection societies Support international meetings Encourage international publications dedicated to radiation protection Encourage the establishment and continuous review of universally acceptable radiation protection standards and recommendations Encourage professional enhancement

  15. Treatment of Radiation Induced Biological Changes by Bone Marrow Transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Missiry, M.A.; Shehata, G.; Roushdy, H.M; Fayed, Th.A.

    1999-01-01

    Preventing the propagation of radiation induced oxidative damage has been a subject of considerable investigations. The ultimate goal of the present study is to use bone marrow cells to ameliorate or to treat the radiation sickness. Transplantation of bone marrow cell has shown promising results in the present experimental radiation treatment. In this report, suspension of bone marrow cells was injected into rats 12 h. after exposure to 4.5 Gy whole body gamma irradiation. Significant results were recorded on the successful control of the radiation induced disorders in a number of biochemical parameters including certain enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidants (superoxide dismutase and glutathione) and certain parameters related to kidney function including creatinine, urea as well as Atpase Activity in blood serum, urine and kidney tissue

  16. Probabilistic safety analysis of radiation treatments with linear accelerator (Spanish Ed.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-02-01

    This publication addresses the issue of accidental exposures of radiotherapy patients and how to avoid them. More proactive approaches are required to anticipate and thus avoid situations that could lead to accidental exposures. In this context, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the Ibero American Forum of Radiation and Nuclear and Safety Regulatory Agencies (the FORO) have applied proactive methods, such as probabilistic safety assessment to radiotherapy treatments with accelerators. The methodology and results of this exercise are described in this publication.

  17. Treatment of radiation-induced vesicovaginal fistulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parm Ulhoei, B.; rosgaard, A.; Harling, H.

    1994-01-01

    The records of 23 patients with vesicovaginal fistulae (VVF) probably caused by irradiation treatment for cancer of the uterine cervix were analyzed. The median latency between irradiation and fistula formation was 17 years. Ten patients had histologically verified cancer recurrence besides a VVF. In addition, nine patients had a rectovaginal- and one an ileovaginal fistula. Twelve patients were treated primarily with ureteroileocutaneostomy a.m. Bricker. Six had bladder drainage, and four of these had ureteroileocutaneostomy performed at a later stage. Four patients initially underwent percutaneous nephrostomy. One patients had a unilateral ureteroileocutaneostomy performed. Eight patients are alive today (median observation time 2.5 years), and all of these had had ureteroileocutaneostomy performed. Three of these patients (39%) were completely relieved of symptoms while the rest occasionally experienced pain, vaginal discharge and bladder empyema. We conclude that ureteroilocutaneostomy a.m. Bricker is a satisfactory procedure for vesicovaginal fistulae because the socially incapacitating symptoms disappear or are considerably diminished. (au) (9 refs.)

  18. International Patterns of Practice in the Management of Radiation Therapy-induced Nausea and Vomiting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dennis, Kristopher; Zhang Liying [Odette Cancer Centre, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Lutz, Stephen [Blanchard Valley Health Systems, Findlay, Ohio (United States); Baardwijk, Angela van [Department of Radiation Oncology (MAASTRO Clinic), GROW-School for Oncology and Developmental Biology, Maastricht University Medical Centre, Maastricht (Netherlands); Linden, Yvette van der [Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden (Netherlands); Holt, Tanya [Radiation Oncology Mater Centre, Princess Alexandra Hospital, Brisbane (Australia); Arnalot, Palmira Foro [Parc de Salut Mar. Universitat Pompeu Fabra Barcelona (Spain); Lagrange, Jean-Leon [AP-HP Hopital Henri-Mondor, Universite Paris Est Creteil, Creteil (France); Maranzano, Ernesto [' S. Maria' Hospital, Terni (Italy); Liu, Rico [Queen Mary Hospital, Hong Kong (China); Wong, Kam-Hung [Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Wong, Lea-Choung [National University Cancer Institute (Singapore); Vassiliou, Vassilios [Bank of Cyprus Oncology Centre, Nicosia (Cyprus); Corn, Benjamin W. [Tel Aviv Medical Center, Tel Aviv (Israel); De Angelis, Carlo; Holden, Lori; Wong, C. Shun [Odette Cancer Centre, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Chow, Edward, E-mail: Edward.Chow@sunnybrook.ca [Odette Cancer Centre, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2012-09-01

    Purpose: To investigate international patterns of practice in the management of radiation therapy-induced nausea and vomiting (RINV). Methods and Materials: Oncologists prescribing radiation therapy in the United States, Canada, The Netherlands, Australia, New Zealand, Spain, Italy, France, Hong Kong, Singapore, Cyprus, and Israel completed a Web-based survey that was based on 6 radiation therapy-only clinical cases modeled after the minimal-, low-, moderate-, and high-emetic risk levels defined in the antiemetic guidelines of the American Society of Clinical Oncology and the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer. For each case, respondents estimated the risks of nausea and vomiting separately and committed to an initial management approach. Results: In total, 1022 responses were received. Risk estimates and management decisions for the minimal- and high-risk cases varied little and were in line with guideline standards, whereas those for the low- and moderate-risk cases varied greatly. The most common initial management strategies were as follows: rescue therapy for a minimal-risk case (63% of respondents), 2 low-risk cases (56% and 80%), and 1 moderate-risk case (66%); and prophylactic therapy for a second moderate-risk case (75%) and a high-risk case (95%). The serotonin (5-HT){sub 3} receptor antagonists were the most commonly recommended prophylactic agents. On multivariate analysis, factors predictive of a decision for prophylactic or rescue therapy were risk estimates of nausea and vomiting, awareness of the American Society of Clinical Oncology antiemetic guideline, and European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology membership. Conclusions: Risk estimates and management strategies for RINV varied, especially for low- and moderate-risk radiation therapy cases. Radiation therapy-induced nausea and vomiting are under-studied treatment sequelae. New observational and translational studies are needed to allow for individual patient risk

  19. International Patterns of Practice in the Management of Radiation Therapy-induced Nausea and Vomiting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dennis, Kristopher; Zhang Liying; Lutz, Stephen; Baardwijk, Angela van; Linden, Yvette van der; Holt, Tanya; Arnalot, Palmira Foro; Lagrange, Jean-Léon; Maranzano, Ernesto; Liu, Rico; Wong, Kam-Hung; Wong, Lea-Choung; Vassiliou, Vassilios; Corn, Benjamin W.; De Angelis, Carlo; Holden, Lori; Wong, C. Shun; Chow, Edward

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate international patterns of practice in the management of radiation therapy-induced nausea and vomiting (RINV). Methods and Materials: Oncologists prescribing radiation therapy in the United States, Canada, The Netherlands, Australia, New Zealand, Spain, Italy, France, Hong Kong, Singapore, Cyprus, and Israel completed a Web-based survey that was based on 6 radiation therapy-only clinical cases modeled after the minimal-, low-, moderate-, and high-emetic risk levels defined in the antiemetic guidelines of the American Society of Clinical Oncology and the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer. For each case, respondents estimated the risks of nausea and vomiting separately and committed to an initial management approach. Results: In total, 1022 responses were received. Risk estimates and management decisions for the minimal- and high-risk cases varied little and were in line with guideline standards, whereas those for the low- and moderate-risk cases varied greatly. The most common initial management strategies were as follows: rescue therapy for a minimal-risk case (63% of respondents), 2 low-risk cases (56% and 80%), and 1 moderate-risk case (66%); and prophylactic therapy for a second moderate-risk case (75%) and a high-risk case (95%). The serotonin (5-HT) 3 receptor antagonists were the most commonly recommended prophylactic agents. On multivariate analysis, factors predictive of a decision for prophylactic or rescue therapy were risk estimates of nausea and vomiting, awareness of the American Society of Clinical Oncology antiemetic guideline, and European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology membership. Conclusions: Risk estimates and management strategies for RINV varied, especially for low- and moderate-risk radiation therapy cases. Radiation therapy-induced nausea and vomiting are under-studied treatment sequelae. New observational and translational studies are needed to allow for individual patient risk

  20. Meeting report: the 5th International expert symposium in Fukushima on radiation and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saenko, Vladimir A; Thomas, Geraldine A; Yamashita, Shunichi

    2017-01-18

    The symposium entitled "Chernobyl +30, Fukushima +5: Lessons and Solutions for Fukushima's Thyroid Question" was held in September, 2016 in Fukushima. The aim of the Symposium was to revisit and recapitulate evidence from the studies in Chernobyl in order to share multidisciplinary opinions and views on the likely reason for the high rate of thyroid cancer detected by the Thyroid Ultrasound Examination program in Fukushima Prefecture. The high prevalence of thyroid cancer in young individuals causes concerns among Fukushima residents and the general public that it might be due to putative radiation exposure from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. Twenty-six experts from Japan and abroad, including participants affiliated with international organizations, reviewed the results of radiation epidemiology investigations in Chernobyl, presented clinical experience of diagnosis, treatment and follow-up of patients with radiation-related thyroid cancer, and scrutinized the findings on thyroid cancer in Fukushima. Conclusions drawn at the symposium included understanding that in contrast to Chernobyl, doses to the public from the accident in Fukushima were too low to give rise to a discernible excess risk for thyroid cancer. The high detection rate of thyroid cancer and benign abnormalities resulted from the use of highly sensitive ultrasound equipment and sophisticated protocol of examination used in the Thyroid Ultrasound Examination, and therefore not attributable to radiation. Coordinated efforts will be necessary to avoid overdiagnosis and overtreatment, which may carry its own health disbenefits. Clear communication to the screening participants and their families is recommended in regard to why the examination is being conducted and to explain the likely outcomes and risks, including the means and options for treatment if a thyroid disorder is detected.

  1. Quality control in radiotherapy treatment: Radiation induced myelopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez-Vicioso, E.; Ruiz-Cruces, R.

    2001-01-01

    Direct injury of the spinal cord has been reported many times, particularly in cases of overexposures with radiotherapy of neoplasm that occurred outside the Central Nervous System. Permanent damage to the spinal cord is the most feared complication of radiation therapy treatments and one of the relatively common causes of litigation for medical malpractice in the context of cancer treatment. We have learned from clinical experience, data from randomized trials and animal experimentation, the dose tolerance as well as the interfraction interval for hyperfractionation regimes. We are still lacking precious clinical information, in particular the dose tolerance in combined modality treatments that represent the vast majority of modern treatments. (author)

  2. Slaughterhouse sewage treatment using gamma radiation - economical feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melo, Rita; Botelho, M. Luisa [Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, Sacavem (Portugal). Dept. de Fisica]. E-mail: ritamelo@itn.pt; mlb@itn.pt; Branco, Joaquim [Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, Sacavem (Portugal). Dept. de Quimica]. E-mail: jbranco@itn.pt

    2005-07-01

    This paper presents preliminary results of a financial viability study for the implementation of gamma radiation technology on a slaughterhouse wastewater treatment industry. Five scenarios were studied, including the current practice, representing different types of treatments and goals, e.g.: water reuse and/or sludge add value as agriculture fertilizers. Cost-benefit analysis, including the net present value (NPV) of each scenario, was used as a technique to compare the relative value of various strategies. Taking in account that the initial investment is amortized after 20 years, the implementation of Co-60 treatment with 20% water reuse and sludge application as agriculture fertilizers represents the most profitable project with the highest NPV. Therefore, the implementation of gamma radiation technology on a slaughterhouse wastewater treatment industry is not only technically viable as well as economically feasible. (author)

  3. Selective internal radiation therapy in patients with progressive neuroendocrine liver metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbier, Charlotte Ebeling; Garske-Román, Ulrike; Sandström, Mattias; Nyman, Rickard; Granberg, Dan

    2016-07-01

    To evaluate the safety and efficacy of selective internal radiation therapy (SIRT) in patients with unresectable liver metastases from neuroendocrine tumours (NETLMs). This retrospective study included 40 patients with progressive NETLMs (22 women, 18 men, mean age 61.6 years) who underwent SIRT with (90)Y-labelled resin microspheres. Tumour response was evaluated according to the modified Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (mRECIST) on CT or MR images. Medical records were reviewed. In the 40 patients, 54 evaluable SIRT procedures were performed, 33 to the right liver lobe (mean activity 1.31 GBq), 13 to the left lobe (mean activity 0.85 GBq), and 8 to both lobes (mean activity 1.61 GBq). Late follow-up imaging (mean 20 months) was performed after 44 of the treatments. Objective tumour response and disease control rates were 54 % (29 of 54 treatments) and 94 % (51 treatments), respectively, at the early follow-up examination (mean 3 months) and 34 % (15 treatments) and 57 % (25 treatments), respectively at the late follow-up examination. Mean overall survival from the first SIRT was 34,8 months and survival rates at 1, 2, 3 and 5 years were 76 %, 59 %, 52 % and 35 % respectively. Adverse effects were generally mild and easily manageable, except in one patient who died from radiation-induced liver failure. Of the 45 patients, 18 (45 %) had received peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) prior to SIRT. SIRT with (90)Y-labelled resin microspheres is a safe and effective treatment for patients with progressive NETLM, and also for those who have received prior PRRT.

  4. Reducing Toxicity of Radiation Treatment of Advanced Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    Specifically, the administration of a brief course of RTA 408 treatment beginning 24 h after bone marrow lethal doses of radiation significantly increased...the synthetic triterpenoid, RTA 408. The administration of a brief course of RTA 408 treatment beginning 24 h after bone marrow lethal doses of...water. Recipient mice received 7.5 Gy in a single fraction using an RS2000 Xray irradiator (Rad Source, Alpharetta, Georgia) with a dose rate of ~1.36

  5. Radiation injuries to the skeleton and their orthopedic treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franz, R.; Rahnfeld, R.

    1978-01-01

    70 patients subjected to orthopedic treatment and radiotherapy for skeletal tumors have been examined. It was found that serious radiation injuries frequently occurred. Above all there were contractures, disordered healing of wounds, ulcerations, and scolioses and kyphoses of the growing skeleton. Therefore, in the case of diseases of the skeleton, it is recommended to restrain radiotherapy. It has to be rejected in child's age

  6. Radiation therapy in the treatment of cancer of the cervix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, G.S.

    1987-01-01

    The success of radiotherapy in dealing with cancer of the cervix lies in the understanding of its natural history and staging as well as the major forms of treatment. It is, therefore, imperative that all gynecological and radiation oncologists have at their command a thorough understanding of carcinoma of the cervix

  7. International Standardization of the Clinical Dosimetry of Beta Radiation Brachytherapy Sources: Progress of an ISO Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Christopher

    2006-03-01

    In 2004 a new work item proposal (NWIP) was accepted by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) Technical Committee 85 (TC85 -- Nuclear Energy), Subcommittee 2 (Radiation Protection) for the development of a standard for the clinical dosimetry of beta radiation sources used for brachytherapy. To develop this standard, a new Working Group (WG 22 - Ionizing Radiation Dosimetry and Protocols in Medical Applications) was formed. The standard is based on the work of an ad-hoc working group initiated by the Dosimetry task group of the Deutsches Insitiut für Normung (DIN). Initially the work was geared mainly towards the needs of intravascular brachytherapy, but with the decline of this application, more focus has been placed on the challenges of accurate dosimetry for the concave eye plaques used to treat ocular melanoma. Guidance is given for dosimetry formalisms, reference data to be used, calibrations, measurement methods, modeling, uncertainty determinations, treatment planning and reporting, and clinical quality control. The document is currently undergoing review by the ISO member bodies for acceptance as a Committee Draft (CD) with publication of the final standard expected by 2007. There are opportunities for other ISO standards for medical dosimetry within the framework of WG22.

  8. A Report on Health Resource Use in Internal Radiation Therapy with Radium Chloride (223Ra) (2nd Survey).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinuya, Seigo; Kato, Katsuhiko; Kamioka, Takeshi; Shimmura, Toshiyuki; Matoba, Yoshinori; Ito, Kengo

    2017-01-01

    Internal radiation therapy using radium ( 223 Ra) chloride injection ( 223 Ra injection) is already being applied in actual clinical practice, however the NHI medical technical fee for the use of 223 Ra injection has not yet been set. The Japanese Society of Nuclear Medicine surveyed health resource use for internal radiation therapy using 223 Ra via questionnaires sent to medical institutions that have used 223 Ra injection. Results showed that the necessary cost per patient is 1,005,567 JPY, based on the Draft Proposal for Medical Examination Value (Ver. 7.1) of the Japanese Health Insurance Federation for Surgery. 223 Ra injection is supposed to be administered 6 times to each patient at 4-week intervals, and the fee per treatment was calculated to be 167,595 JPY. The appropriate NHI medical technical fee is thus considered to be 16,759 points per patient per treatment, which can be claimed 6 times per patient.

  9. Development, Implementation and Compliance of Treatment Pathways in Radiation Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis ePotters

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: While much emphasis on safety in the radiation oncology clinic is placed on process, there remains considerable opportunity to increase safety, enhance outcomes and avoid ad-hoc care by instituting detailed treatment pathways. The purpose of this study was to review the process of developing evidence and consensus-based, outcomes-oriented treatment pathways that standardize treatment and patient management in a large multicenter radiation oncology practice. Further, we reviewed our compliance in incorporating these directives into our day-to-day clinical practice. METHODS: Using the Institute of Medicine guideline for developing treatment pathways, 87 disease specific pathways were developed and incorporated into the electronic medical system in our multi-facility radiation oncology department. Compliance in incorporating treatment pathways was assessed by mining our EMR data from January 1, 2010 through February 2012 for patients with breast and prostate cancer. RESULTS: This retrospective analysis of data from electronic medical records found overall compliance to breast and prostate cancer treatment pathways to be 97% and 99%, respectively. The reason for non-compliance proved to be either a failure to complete the prescribed care based on grade II or III toxicity (n=1 breast, 3 prostate or patient elected discontinuance of care (n=1 prostate or the physician chose a higher dose for positive/close margins (n=3 breast. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates that consensus and evidence-based treatment pathways can be developed and implemented in a multi-center department of radiation oncology. And that for prostate and breast cancer there was a high degree of compliance using these directives. The development and implementation of these pathways serve as a key component of our safety program, most notably in our effort to facilitate consistent decision-making and reducing variation between physicians.

  10. Use of continuous infusion pumps during radiation treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bak, Kate; Gutierrez, Eric; Lockhart, Elizabeth; Sharpe, Michael; Green, Esther; Costa, Sarah; Hertz, Sherrie; Kaizer, Leonard; Whitton, Anthtony; Warde, Padraig

    2013-03-01

    Despite increasing chemoradiotherapy treatment, there is a paucity of information regarding the effects of radiation exposure on ambulatory infusion pumps used to deliver chemotherapy or other essential medications. The aim of this overview is to present the available evidence on this subject, heighten awareness within the clinical community, provide considerations for minimizing possible negative effects on patient care, and encourage the monitoring of infusion devices after exposure to radiation or electromagnetic interference. Published literature was systematically searched using MEDLINE and EMBASE; gray literature was searched using Google and an environmental scan of relevant Web sites. A multidisciplinary working group reviewed the compiled evidence, and a draft of the document was sent to health professionals from various disciplines for an external review. Four reports and three manufacturer device alerts were identified that suggest a risk of pump malfunction as a result of radiation exposure. The estimated cumulative dose at which pump failure has been reported ranges from 28.5 to 42 Gy; however, additional clinical investigations should be undertaken. Pump relocation, pump shielding, and assessment of the pump after radiation exposure are most commonly suggested to minimize pump malfunction related to radiation exposure. A list of additional considerations is offered for those developing institution specific policies and procedures based on the available evidence and expert consensus. The varied and unpredictable results of radiation exposure on infusion devices suggest that additional testing should be carried out to determine the limits of dose exposure and to raise awareness around this patient safety issue.

  11. Performances of Kevlar and Polyethylene as radiation shielding on-board the International Space Station in high latitude radiation environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narici, Livio; Casolino, Marco; Di Fino, Luca; Larosa, Marianna; Picozza, Piergiorgio; Rizzo, Alessandro; Zaconte, Veronica

    2017-05-10

    Passive radiation shielding is a mandatory element in the design of an integrated solution to mitigate the effects of radiation during long deep space voyages for human exploration. Understanding and exploiting the characteristics of materials suitable for radiation shielding in space flights is, therefore, of primary importance. We present here the results of the first space-test on Kevlar and Polyethylene radiation shielding capabilities including direct measurements of the background baseline (no shield). Measurements are performed on-board of the International Space Station (Columbus modulus) during the ALTEA-shield ESA sponsored program. For the first time the shielding capability of such materials has been tested in a radiation environment similar to the deep-space one, thanks to the feature of the ALTEA system, which allows to select only high latitude orbital tracts of the International Space Station. Polyethylene is widely used for radiation shielding in space and therefore it is an excellent benchmark material to be used in comparative investigations. In this work we show that Kevlar has radiation shielding performances comparable to the Polyethylene ones, reaching a dose rate reduction of 32 ± 2% and a dose equivalent rate reduction of 55 ± 4% (for a shield of 10 g/cm 2 ).

  12. 13th Workshop on Radiation Monitoring for the International Space Station - Final Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The Workshop on Radiation Monitoring for the International Space Station (WRMISS) has been held annually since 1996. The major purpose of WRMISS is to provide a forum for discussion of technical issues concerning radiation dosimetry aboard the International Space Station. This includes discussion of new results, improved instrumentation, detector calibration, and radiation environment and transport models. The goal of WRMISS is to enhance international efforts to provide the best information on the space radiation environment in low-Earth orbit and on the exposure of astronauts and cosmonauts in order to optimize the radiation safety of the ISS crew. During the 13 th Annual WRMISS, held in the Institute of Nuclear Physics (Krakow, Poland) on 8-10 September 2008, participants presented 47 lectures

  13. Role of Radiation Therapy in the Treatment of Hodgkin Lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Victor J

    2017-06-01

    Radiation therapy has historically been the pillar of curative treatment for Hodgkin lymphoma (HL). With improved efficacy of systemic therapy and the ever-increasing recognition of treatment-related morbidity in long-term survivors, the role of radiotherapy has evolved significantly. Modern combined modality therapy (CMT) with multi-agent chemotherapy followed by involved site radiation therapy (ISRT) to initially involved sites of disease remains the gold standard for the majority of patients with HL. Reduction of long-term treatment-related toxicity has become the major driver in clinical trial design for early-stage HL while improved disease-specific survival remains the goal in patients with more advanced and unfavorable disease. This review will address the data supporting the use of radiotherapy in HL as well as specific methods for reducing late toxicity from radiotherapy.

  14. Treatment and Recycling Process for Biosolids by Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J. K.; Yoo, D. H.; Lee, B. J.; Park, C. K.; Lee, M. J.

    2005-01-01

    The volume of sludge is increasing rapidly on a yearly basis in Korea. Liquid sewage sludge generated in Korea has been treated as reuse (7%), landfill (5%), incineration (12%) and ocean dump (72%) in 2003 [1]. Ocean dump is the main treatment of sewage sludge up to date but incineration and landfill will be increased because Korean government will restrict ocean dump in the near future. Desirable treatment of sewage sludge is still a sensitive issue though many scientists have vigorously studied the safe and environmentally sound treatment of sewage sludge and reducing sludge cake. Therefore reduction of moisture content in sludge and recycling by radiation is the main objective in this work. Here we studied the radiation technique as a pretreatment process to enhance sludge dewaterability, to disinfect micro-organisms, and to remove the toxic organics in sewage sludge simultaneously. The improvement of sludge compost after irradiation was also observed to develop the method for recycling of sludge

  15. Present and future prospects of external radiation cancer treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valuckas, K. P.; Aleknavicius, E.; Grybauskas, M.

    2004-01-01

    Radiotherapy is the most applicable method in the treatment of cancer patients. Rapid advances in radiotherapy and imaging techniques allow improvement in definition of target margins, volumes, and organs at risk. Conformal radiotherapy using multileaf collimator was introduced towards the end of the 1980s. Further improvements in dose distribution were possible through intensity modulation radiation therapy based on the use of computer-controlled multileaf collimators for creating the desired dose variation inside a radiation field. The dose of definite radiotherapy is limited by dose tolerance of organs or tissues at risk near the target. In the last 50 years radiotherapy modalities achieved rapid developments, particularly in field of treatment planning and dose distribution. The main goal of that development is to apply definite radiotherapy dose to target and minimize normal tissue irradiation, leaving the patient free of treatment related morbidity. (author)

  16. Effects of Yttrium-90 selective internal radiation therapy on non-conventional liver tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuei, Andrew; Saab, Sammy; Cho, Sung-Ki; Kee, Stephen T; Lee, Edward Wolfgang

    2015-07-21

    The liver is a common site of metastasis, with essentially all metastatic malignancies having been known to spread to the liver. Nearly half of all patients with extrahepatic primary cancer have hepatic metastases. The severe prognostic implications of hepatic metastases have made surgical resection an important first line treatment in management. However, limitations such as the presence of extrahepatic spread or poor functional hepatic reserve exclude the majority of patients as surgical candidates, leaving chemotherapy and locoregional therapies as next best options. Selective internal radiation therapy (SIRT) is a form of catheter-based locoregional cancer treatment modality for unresectable tumors, involving trans-arterial injection of microspheres embedded with a radio-isotope Yttrium-90. The therapeutic radiation dose is selectively delivered as the microspheres permanently embed themselves within the tumor vascular bed. Use of SIRT has been conventionally aimed at treating primary hepatic tumors (hepatocellular carcinoma) or colorectal and neuroendocrine metastases. Numerous reviews are available for these tumor types. However, little is known or reviewed on non-colorectal or non-neuroendocrine primaries. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to systematically review the current literature to evaluate the effects of Yttrium-90 radioembolization on non-conventional liver tumors including those secondary to breast cancer, cholangiocarcinoma, ocular and percutaneous melanoma, pancreatic cancer, renal cell carcinoma, and lung cancer.

  17. Oesophageal ulceration after selective internal radiation therapy in a patient with carcinoma of unknown primary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubisch, C H; Beigel, F; Ihrler, S; Goke, B; Reiser, M F; Hoffmann, R T

    2010-05-01

    Cancer of unknown primary (CUP) is defined as histologically confirmed metastases in the absence of an identifiable primary tumor. Patients with solely liver metastases from adenocarinomas represent the most frequent subgroup with an unfavourable prognosis. The medium survival averages 6 to 9 months. No chemotherapheutic standard has been established. We present a patient with hepatic CUP. After cycles of chemotherapy and hemihepatectomy the tumor returned and showed hepatic progression. The patient was evaluated for selective internal radiation therapy (SIRT). Three years after diagnosis she is still alive and tumorfree. Despite a good result and disease control our patient suffered radiation-induced ulceration in the oesophagus, stomach, and duodenum. This side effect appears in up to 12 % of patients, often very late after treatment, is refractory to pharmacotherapy and persistent over a long time. SIRT is a new, effective treatment in patients with hepatic CUP. Because of the anticipated increase of this therapy, adverse side effects such as ulcerations in the upper-GI tract secondary to ectopic implantation of microspheres may be seen more commonly. Awareness of this and the recognition of microspheres in biopsies is cardinal for appropriate management and maintenance of the patient's quality of life.

  18. Theranostic Nanoseeds for Efficacious Internal Radiation Therapy of Unresectable Solid Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeendarbari, Sina; Tekade, Rakesh; Mulgaonkar, Aditi; Christensen, Preston; Ramezani, Saleh; Hassan, Gedaa; Jiang, Ruiqian; Öz, Orhan K.; Hao, Yaowu; Sun, Xiankai

    2016-02-01

    Malignant tumors are considered “unresectable” if they are adhere to vital structures or the surgery would cause irreversible damages to the patients. Though a variety of cytotoxic drugs and radiation therapies are currently available in clinical practice to treat such tumor masses, these therapeutic modalities are always associated with substantial side effects. Here, we report an injectable nanoparticle-based internal radiation source that potentially offers more efficacious treatment of unresectable solid tumors without significant adverse side effects. Using a highly efficient incorporation procedure, palladium-103, a brachytherapy radioisotope in clinical practice, was coated to monodispersed hollow gold nanoparticles with a diameter about 120 nm, to form 103Pd@Au nanoseeds. The therapeutic efficacy of 103Pd@Au nanoseeds were assessed when intratumorally injected into a prostate cancer xenograft model. Five weeks after a single-dose treatment, a significant tumor burden reduction (>80%) was observed without noticeable side effects on the liver, spleen and other organs. Impressively, >95% nanoseeds were retained inside the tumors as monitored by Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) with the gamma emissions of 103Pd. These findings show that this nanoseed-based brachytherapy has the potential to provide a theranostic solution to unresectable solid tumors.

  19. Translating international HIV treatment guidelines into local priorities in Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Tromp; Prawiranegara, R. (Rozar); Siregar, A. (Adiatma); R. Wisaksana (Rudi); Pinxten, L. (Lucas); Pinxten, J. (Juul); Lesmana Putra, A. (Arry); Kurnia Sunjaya, D. (Deni); Jansen, M. (Maarten); J.A.C. Hontelez (Jan); Maurits, S. (Scott); Maharani, F. (Febrina); Bijlmakers, L. (Leon); R. Baltussen (R.)

    2018-01-01

    textabstractObjective: International guidelines recommend countries to expand antiretroviral therapy (ART) to all HIV-infected individuals and establish local-level priorities in relation to other treatment, prevention and mitigation interventions through fair processes. However, no practical

  20. The Ionizing Radiation Environment on the International Space Station: Performance vs. Expectations for Avionics and Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koontz, Steven L.; Boeder, Paul A.; Pankop, Courtney; Reddell, Brandon

    2005-01-01

    The role of structural shielding mass in the design, verification, and in-flight performance of International Space Station (ISS), in both the natural and induced orbital ionizing radiation (IR) environments, is reported.

  1. Ionizing Radiation Environment on the International Space Station: Performance vs. Expectations for Avionics and Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koontz, Steven L.; Boeder, Paul A.; Pankop, Courtney; Reddell, Brandon

    2005-01-01

    The role of structural shielding mass in the design, verification, and in-flight performance of International Space Station (ISS), in both the natural and induced orbital ionizing radiation (IR) environments, is reported. Detailed consideration of the effects of both the natural and induced ionizing radiation environment during ISS design, development, and flight operations has produced a safe, efficient manned space platform that is largely immune to deleterious effects of the LEO ionizing radiation environment. The assumption of a small shielding mass for purposes of design and verification has been shown to be a valid worst-case approximation approach to design for reliability, though predicted dependences of single event effect (SEE) effects on latitude, longitude, SEP events, and spacecraft structural shielding mass are not observed. The Figure of Merit (FOM) method over predicts the rate for median shielding masses of about 10g/cm(exp 2) by only a factor of 3, while the Scott Effective Flux Approach (SEFA) method overestimated by about one order of magnitude as expected. The Integral Rectangular Parallelepiped (IRPP), SEFA, and FOM methods for estimating on-orbit (Single Event Upsets) SEU rates all utilize some version of the CREME-96 treatment of energetic particle interaction with structural shielding, which has been shown to underestimate the production of secondary particles in heavily shielded manned spacecraft. The need for more work directed to development of a practical understanding of secondary particle production in massive structural shielding for SEE design and verification is indicated. In contrast, total dose estimates using CAD based shielding mass distributions functions and the Shieldose Code provided a reasonable accurate estimate of accumulated dose in Grays internal to the ISS pressurized elements, albeit as a result of using worst-on-worst case assumptions (500 km altitude x 2) that compensate for ignoring both GCR and secondary particle

  2. Combination of internal radiation therapy and hyperthermia to treat liver cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grady, E.D.; McLaren, J.; Auda, S.P.; McGinley, P.H.

    1983-09-01

    Sixteen patients were treated for liver cancer (primary and metastatic) by a combination of internal radiation therapy with intra-arterial yttrium 90 microspheres and regional hyperthermia with electromagnetic radiation. Four patients have their liver disease apparently controlled; two had a partial regression of more than 50%; and two had a partial regression of less than 50%. The complications consisted of one case of radiation hepatitis and one of peptic ulcer.

  3. 3-D conformal radiation therapy - Part I: Treatment planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mageras, Gikas S.

    1996-01-01

    Conformal radiation therapy shapes the high-dose volume so as to conform to the target volume while minamizing the dose to surrounding normal tissues. The advances that have been achieved in conformal therapy are in part due to the development of 3-dimensional treatment planning, which in turn has capitalized on 3-D imaging for tumor and normal tissue localization, as well as on available computational power for the calculation of 3-D dose distributions, visualization of anatomical and dose volumes, and numerical evaluation of treatment plans. The objective of this course is to give an overview of how 3-D conformal treatments are designed and transferred to the patient. Topics will include: 1) description of the major components of a 3-D treatment planning system, 2) techniques for designing treatments, 3) evaluation of treatment plans using dose distribution displays, dose-volume histograms and normal tissue complication probabilities, 4) implementation of treatments using shaped blocks and multileaf collimators, 5) verification of treatment delivery using portal films and electronic portal imaging devices. We will also discuss some future trends in 3D treatment planning, such as computerized treatment plan optimization, including the use of nonuniform beam profiles (intensity modulation), and incorporating treatment uncertainties due to patient positioning errors and organ motion into the treatment planning process

  4. Investigation of the electromagnetic radiation field level in the vicinity of Damascus international airport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abukassem, I.

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this work is to estimate the electromagnetic radiation exposure of Damascus international airport workers.Different kinds of electromagnetic wave sources exist in the vicinity of the airport, for example, mobile phone base stations. It was found that the exposure level in all studied points (offices, halls, traffic control tour, etc) is lower than the international restriction levels. Few recommendations were given for some work situation or places where the measured electromagnetic radiation levels were relatively high.(author)

  5. Radiation treatment for age-related macular degeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taniguchi, Tomoko; Mandai, Michiko; Honjo, Megumi; Matsuda, Naoko; Miyamoto, Hideki; Takahashi, Masayo; Ogura, Yuichiro; Sasai, Keisuke [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine

    1996-11-01

    Fifteen eyes of age-related macular degeneration were treated by low-dose radiation. All the affected eyes had subfoveal neovascular membrane. Seventeen nontreated eyes with similar macular lesion served as control. Radiation was performed using photon beam at 6MV. Each eye received daily dose of 2 Gy for 5 consecutive days. When evaluated 9 to 12 months after treatment, the size of neovascular membrane had decreased in 47% of treated eyes and 7% of control eyes. The visual acuity improved by 2 lines or more in 13% of treated eyes and in none of control eyes. When the initial neovascular membrane was less than 1.5 disc diameter in size, the visual acuity had improved or remained stationary in 90% of treated eyes and in 36% of control eyes. The findings show the potential beneficial effect of radiation for age-related macular degeneration. (author)

  6. Effects on radiation oncology treatments involving various neuromodulation devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gossman, Michael S; Paralikar, Kunal J; Hebb, Adam O; Wilkinson, Jeffrey D; Graves-Calhoun, Alison R; Lawson, Raymond C; Lopez, Jeffrey P; Powell, James S

    2011-01-01

    Where no society-based or manufacturer guidance on radiation limits to neuromodulation devices is available, this research provides the groundwork for neurosurgeons and radiation oncologists who rely on the computerized treatment plan clinically for cancer patients. The focus of the article is to characterize radiation parameters of attenuation and scatter when an incident therapeutic x-ray beam is directed upon them. At the time of this writing, manufacturers of Neuromodulation products do not recommend direct exposure of the device in the beam nor provide guidance for the maximum dose for these devices. Ten neuromodulation models were chosen to represent the finite class of devices marketed by Medtronic before 2011. CT simulations permitted computer treatment modeling for dose distribution analysis as used routinely in radiation oncology for patients. Phantom case results were directly compared to actual clinical patient cases. Radiation detection measurements were then correlated to computational results. Where the x-ray beam passes through the device and is attenuated, dose reduction was identified with Varian Eclipse computer modeling for these posterior locations. Although the computer algorithm did not identify physical processes of side-scatter and back-scatter, these phenomena were proven by radiation measurement to occur. In general, the computer results underestimated the level of change seen by measurement. For these implantable neurostimulators, the spread in dose changes were found to be -6.2% to -12.5% by attenuation, +1.7% to +3.8% by side-scatter, and +1.1% to +3.1% by back-scatter at 6 MV. At 18 MV, these findings were observed to be -1.4% to -7.0% by attenuation, +1.8% to 5.7% by side-scatter, and 0.8% to 2.7% by back-scatter. No pattern for the behavior of these phenomena was deduced to be a direct consequence of device size.

  7. Application of Hydrocyclone and UV Radiation as a Ballast Water Treatment Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Željko Kurtela

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The ballast water exchange methods in open sea are, for the time being, the prevailing procedures accepted by shipowners. However, such methods do not guarantee full efficacy in elimination of allochthonous organisms. Besides, in some navigation zones, in particular in the closed seas, not even the criteria prescribed by international regulations can be fulfilled, i.e. the position of a ship exchanging ballast must be farther than 200Nm from the shore (alternatively 50Nm at the sea depth exceeding 200m. Numerous research attempts on various treatment methods lead to the conclusion that there is still no scientific opinion on the final choice of methods for wide application on board. The treatment methods, such as hydrocyclone separation in the first stage and UV radiation in the second stage, stand a good chance for application on board. Advantages of such a combined method are in the very application of treatment that can be performed during all stages of ballast water treatment, i.e. loading ballast, voyage in ballast and discharging ballast. In closed seas and on shorter routes the operational advantages of hydrocyclone and UV radiation could be the prevailing factor for application. Within the research on the possible application of ballast water treatment by hydrocyclone and UV radiation, a pilot plant with hydrocyclone cluster and UV device was constructed. The research carried out on the pilot plant installed on board the m/v ‘’Naše more’’ proved the effectiveness of such ballast water treatment method and offered a new approach in using hydrocyclone for the inactivation of organisms by hydrodynamic forces. This approach has largely increased the efficacy of the device and a new method for utilization of hydrocyclone in ballast water treatment on board has been discovered. KEY WORDS: ballast water treatment, hydrocyclone, UV radiation, application of method, pilot plant, hydrodynamic forces

  8. Requirements for the approval of dosimetry services under the Ionising Radiations Regulations 1985: Pt. 2: Internal radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    Guidance for dosimetry services on the requirements for approval by the Health and Safety Executive (HSE) is provided in three parts. This part sets out the procedures and criteria that will be used by HSE in the assessment of dosimetry services seeking approval in relation to internal radiations (including radon decay products). (author)

  9. 6th International School “Synchrotron Radiation and Magnetism”

    CERN Document Server

    Bulou, Hervé; Joly, Loic; Scheurer, Fabrice; Magnetism and Synchrotron Radiation : Towards the Fourth Generation Light Sources

    2013-01-01

     Advances in the synthesis of new materials with often complex, nano-scaled structures require increasingly sophisticated experimental techniques that can probe the electronic states, the atomic magnetic moments and the magnetic microstructures responsible for the properties of these materials. At the same time, progress in synchrotron radiation techniques has ensured that these light sources remain a key tool of investigation, e.g. synchrotron radiation sources of the third generation are able to support magnetic imaging on a sub-micrometer scale. With the Sixth Mittelwihr School on Magnetism and Synchrotron Radiation the tradition of teaching the state-of-the-art on modern research developments continues and is expressed through the present set of extensive lectures provided in this volume. While primarily aimed at postgraduate students and newcomers to the field, this volume will also benefit researchers and lecturers actively working in the field.

  10. European developments on radiation protection in health care. An international public health perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neira, M.; Del Rosario Perez, M.

    2010-01-01

    The World Health Organisation's Programme on Radiation and Environmental Health is engaged in a range of global, regional and national collaborations to protect patients, workers and the public from planned, existing and emergency radiation exposures. Collaboration with European countries in this field is very active, with the ultimate goal of ensuring appropriate use of radiation worldwide. The WHO 'Global Initiative on Radiation Safety in Health Care Settings' is now being developed to mobilize the health sector towards safer and effective use of radiation in medicine. European collaboration in this initiative can have impact not only regionally but globally. This article provides an overview of relevant European developments in radiation protection in health care, from an international public health perspective. The 'Global Initiative' presents new opportunities for European countries to expand the horizons of their achievements globally, therefore contributing to improved radiation protection worldwide. (authors)

  11. International conference. The problems of radiation genetics at the turn of the century. Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    Information concerning International conference: The problems of radiation genetics at the turn of the century - held in Moscow, November, 2000, is presented. The conference is dedicated to the memory of Timofeev-Resovsky (centenary of birth). Analysis of the development of concepts of the radiation genetics founder concerning study of genetic radiation effects on plants, animals and man is given. Molecular-genetic mechanisms of radiation mutagenesis are considered. Problems related to the analysis of delayed genetic radiation effects on the different types. Populations and regularities in radiation-induced mutagenesis at cellular, tissue and body levels are discussed. Great attention is paid to the genetic consequences for population, flora and fauna of Chernobyl and Kyshtym accidents, nuclear explosions at Semipalatinsk test site and other emergency radiation situations [ru

  12. The application of ionising radiation in industrial wastewater treatment technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kos, L.; Perkowski, J.; Ledakowicz, S.

    2003-01-01

    An attempt was made to apply radiation techniques in the treatment of industrial wastewater from a dairy, brewery and sugar factory. For degradation of pollutants present in the wastewater, the following methods were used: irradiation, irradiation combined with aeration, ozonation, and combined irradiation and ozonation. For all three types of wastewater, the best method among these listed above appeared to be the method of irradiation combined with ozonation. Most degradable was the wastewater produced in sugar factories, and the least biodegradable appeared to be dairy wastewater. Depending on the dose of ozone and radiation, a maximum 60% reduction of COD was obtained. No effect of the wastewater aeration on its degradation by radiation was found. Changes in the content of mineral compounds were observed in none of the cases. The process of biological treatment of wastewater was carried out in a low-loaded, wetted bed. Pretreatment of the wastewater had no significant effect on the improvement of the biological step operation. Some effect was observed only in the case of the wastewater coming from a sugar factory. For medium concentrated wastewater from food industry, it is not economically justified to apply the pretreatment with the use of ionising radiation. (orig.)

  13. Recent developments in radiation therapy planning and treatment optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brahne, A.

    1996-01-01

    Radiation therapy of cancer is today going through a very dynamic development with the introduction of a large number of new treatment principles, new types of treatment units and new radiobiologically based optimization algorithms for treatment planning. All of these make use of the recent developments in three dimensional tumor diagnostics, molecular biology of cancer, the fractionation sensitivity of different tissues and most recently predictive assays of radiation sensitivity. The most efficient but also least developed area of treatment optimization is to use a few non uniform radiation beams directed towards the tumor. Today patient individual collimation with beam blocks or multi leaf collimators protect organs at risk laterally outside the tumor volume. Non uniform dose delivery also allows protection of normal tissues anterior, posterior and even inside the target volume by shaping the isodoses tightly around the tumor tissues and thereby also allowing longitudinal protection of normal tissues. Some of the most advanced new algorithms are even treating therapy optimization as an inverse problem where the optimal incident beam shapes are determined directly from the location of gross disease, presumed microscopic tumor spread and organs at risk. The optimization is then performed such that the probability, P+, to eradicate all clonogenic tumor cells without severely damaging healthy normal tissues is as high as possible. Already with a few non uniform beams the treatment outcome is within a few percent of what can be achieved with infinitely many co-planar beams in a dynamic mood. With such optimized non uniform treatments it should be possible to improve the treatment outcome by as much as 20% and more, particularly in patients with a local complex spread of the disease or several organs at risk. 78 refs., 1 tab., 7 figs

  14. IR Thermography of International Space Station Radiator Panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshti, Ajay; Winfree, WIlliam; Morton, Richard; Howell, Patricia

    2010-01-01

    Several non-flight qualification test radiators were inspected using flash thermography. Flash thermography data analysis used raw and second derivative images to detect anomalies (Echotherm and Mosaic). Simple contrast evolutions were plotted for the detected anomalies to help in anomaly characterization. Many out-of-family indications were noted. Some out-of-family indications were classified as cold spot indications and are due to additional adhesive or adhesive layer behind the facesheet. Some out-of-family indications were classified as hot spot indications and are due to void, unbond or lack of adhesive behind the facesheet. The IR inspection helped in assessing expected manufacturing quality of the radiators.

  15. Acupuncture treatment of patients with radiation-induced xerostomia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blom, M.; Dawidson, I.; Johnson, G.; Angmar-Maansson, B.; Fernberg, J.-O.

    1996-01-01

    Xerostomia is a common and usually irreversible side effect in patients receiving radiation therapy (>50 Gy) for head and neck cancer. Of 38 patients with radiation-induced xerostomia, 20 in the experimental group were treated with classical acupuncture and 18 patients in the control group received superficial acupuncture as placebo. Within both groups the patients showed significantly increased salivary flow rates after the acupuncture treatment. In the experimental group 68% and in the control group 50% of the patients had increased salivary flow rates at the end of the observation period. Among those patients who had had all their salivary glands irradiated, 50% in both groups showed increased salivary flow rates (>20%) by the end of the observation period of 1 year. The study indicates that among the patients who had increased salivary flow rates already after the first 12 acupuncture sessions, the majority had high probability of continual improvement after the completion of acupuncture treatment. (Author)

  16. Acupuncture treatment of patients with radiation-induced xerostomia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blom, M.; Dawidson, I.; Johnson, G.; Angmar-Maansson, B. [Karolinska Inst., Huddinge (Sweden). Dept. of Cardiology; Fernberg, J.-O. [Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of General Oncology

    1996-05-01

    Xerostomia is a common and usually irreversible side effect in patients receiving radiation therapy (>50 Gy) for head and neck cancer. Of 38 patients with radiation-induced xerostomia, 20 in the experimental group were treated with classical acupuncture and 18 patients in the control group received superficial acupuncture as placebo. Within both groups the patients showed significantly increased salivary flow rates after the acupuncture treatment. In the experimental group 68% and in the control group 50% of the patients had increased salivary flow rates at the end of the observation period. Among those patients who had had all their salivary glands irradiated, 50% in both groups showed increased salivary flow rates (>20%) by the end of the observation period of 1 year. The study indicates that among the patients who had increased salivary flow rates already after the first 12 acupuncture sessions, the majority had high probability of continual improvement after the completion of acupuncture treatment. (Author).

  17. Treatment of radiation- and chemotherapy-induced stomatitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carnel, S.B.; Blakeslee, D.B.; Oswald, S.G.; Barnes, M. (Fitzsimons Army Medical Center, Aurora, CO (USA))

    1990-04-01

    Severe stomatitis is a common problem encountered during either radiation therapy or chemotherapy. Most therapeutic regimens are empirical, with no scientific basis. The purpose of this study is to determine the efficacy of various topical solutions in the treatment of radiation- or chemotherapy-induced stomatitis. Eighteen patients were entered into a prospective double-blinded study to test several topical solutions: (1) viscous lidocaine with 1% cocaine; (2) dyclonine hydrochloride 1.0% (Dyclone); (3) kaolin-pectin solution, diphenhydramine plus saline (KBS); and (4) a placebo solution. Degree of pain relief, duration of relief, side effects, and palatability were evaluated. The results showed that Dyclone provided the most pain relief. Dyclone and viscous lidocaine with 1% cocaine provided the longest pain relief, which averaged 50 minutes This study provides objective data and defines useful guidelines for treatment of stomatitis.

  18. Technologically enhanced natural radiation (TENR II). Proceedings of an international symposium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-02-01

    Natural radiation is ubiquitous. In recent decades, there has been a developing interest in fully documenting exposure of human beings to radiation of natural origin. Radiation experts have recognized that natural sources of radiation can cause exposure of members of the general public and workers to levels that warrant consideration of whether controls should be applied. The second International Symposium on Technologically Enhanced Natural Radiation (TENR II) was held in Rio de Janeiro from 12 to 17 September 1999. The objective of the symposium was to provide a forum for the international exchange of information on the scientific and technical aspects of those components of exposure to natural radiation that warrant consideration. These components were examined under the headings: the technological enhancement of natural radiation in mining and non-nuclear industries; radon indoors and outdoors; mobility and transfer of natural radionuclides; natural radiation and health effects; analytical techniques and methodologies; the remediation of contaminated sites; and regulatory and legal aspects. The symposium found that exposures to natural sources of radiation should be considered from the point of view of their amenability to control. This approach is reflected in the International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources (BSS) and the associated IAEA documents on occupational exposure and rehabilitation of contaminated lands. The concepts of exclusion and intervention are particularly relevant to the amenability to control of natural sources of radiation. Indeed, the BSS specify that any exposure whose magnitude is essentially unamenable to control through the requirements of the BSS is out of the scope of the BSS. The BSS further indicate that protective or remedial actions shall be undertaken whenever they are justified in terms of the benefit to be obtained. Following their deliberations, the

  19. Age-Dependent Small-Animal Internal Radiation Dosimetry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xie, Tianwu; Zaidi, Habib

    Rats at various ages were observed to present with different radiosensitivity and bioavailability for radiotracers commonly used in preclinical research. We evaluated the effect of age-induced changes in body weight on radiation dose calculations. A series of rat models at different age periods were

  20. Gamma radiation induced effects on slaughterhouse wastewater treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melo, Rita; Cabo Verde, Sandra; Branco, Joaquim; Botelho, M. Luisa

    2008-01-01

    A preliminary study using gamma radiation on slaughterhouse wastewater samples was carried out. Chemical oxygen demand (COD), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and total suspended solids (TSS) results were obtained at a dose rate of 0.9 kGy h -1 . A decrease of COD, BOD and colour was observed after irradiation at high absorbed doses. The microbiological results, following irradiation in the same conditions, correlated with the BOD results. The results obtained highlight the potential of this technology for wastewater treatment

  1. Should internal mammary lymph nodes in breast cancer be a target for the radiation oncologist?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freedman, Gary M.; Fowble, Barbara L.; Nicolaou, Nicos; Sigurdson, Elin R.; Torosian, Michael H.; Boraas, Marcia C.; Hoffman, John P.

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: The elective treatment of internal mammary lymph nodes (IMNs) in breast cancer is controversial. Previous randomized trials have not shown a benefit to the extended radical mastectomy or elective IMN irradiation overall, but a survival benefit has been suggested by some for subgroups of patients with medial tumors and positive axillary lymph nodes. The advent of effective systemic chemotherapy and potential for serious cardiac morbidity have also been factors leading to the decreased use of IMN irradiation during the past decade. The recent publishing of positive trials testing postmastectomy radiation that had included regional IMN irradiation has renewed interest in their elective treatment. The purpose of this study is to critically review historical and new data regarding IMNs in breast cancer. Methods and Materials: The historical incidence of occult IMN positivity in operable breast cancer is reviewed, and the new information provided by sentinel lymph node studies also discussed. The results of published randomized prospective trials testing the value of elective IMN dissection and/or radiation are analyzed. The data regarding patterns of failure following elective IMN treatment is studied to determine its impact on local-regional control, distant metastases, and survival. A conclusion is drawn regarding the merits of elective IMN treatment based on this review of the literature. Results: Although controversial, the existing data from prospective, randomized trials of IMN treatment do not seem to support their elective dissection or irradiation. While it has not been shown to contribute to a survival benefit, the IMN irradiation increases the risk of cardiac toxicity that has effaced the value of radiation of the chest wall in reducing breast cancer deaths in previous randomized studies and meta-analyses. Sentinel lymph node mapping provides an opportunity to further evaluate the IMN chain in early stage breast cancer. Biopsy of 'hot' nodes may be

  2. Sucralfate for the treatment of radiation induced mucositis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belka, C.; Hoffmann, W.; Paulsen, F.; Bamberg, M.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: Radiotherapy, a cornerstone in the management of head and neck cancer, pelvic cancer, and esophageal cancer is associated with a marked mucosal toxicity. Pain, malnutrition and diarrhea are the most prevalent clinical symptoms of radiation induced mucosal damage. Because there is no known way to obviate radiation mucositis all efforts to prevent aggravation and accelerate healing of mucosal changes are of great importance. Numerous agents including antimicrobials, local and systemic analgesics, antiinflammatory drugs, antidiarrheal drugs, in combination with intensive dietetic care are used to relieve symptoms. Recently coating agents like the polyaluminum-sucrose complex sucralfate were suggested for the prevention and treatment of mucosal reactions. Since sucralfate protects ulcerated epithelium by coating, liberates protective prostaglandins and increases the local availability of protective factors this drug might directly interact with the pathogenesis of mucositis. Patients and Method: The results of available studies are analysed and discussed. Results: The results of several studies indicate that sucralfate treatment especially during radiotherapy for pelvic cancer leads to a significant amelioration of clinical symptoms and morphological changes. An application of sucralfate during radiotherapy of head and neck cancer reveals only limited benefits in most studies performed. Conclusion: Nevertheless sucralfate is a save, cheap and active drug for the prevention and treatment of radiation mucositis especially in patients with pelvic irradiation. (orig.) [de

  3. Palliative or curative treatment intent affects communication in radiation therapy consultations.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmermans, L.; Maazen, R.W.M. van der; Leer, J.W.H.; Kraaimaat, F.W.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess whether communication in radiotherapy consultations is affected by palliative or curative treatment intent. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The study involved 160 patients and 8 radiation oncologists. Eighty patients visited the radiation oncologist (RO) for palliative treatment and 80

  4. International conference on the protection of the environment from the effects of ionizing radiation. Contributed papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    An International Conference on the Protection of the Environment from the Effects of Ionizing Radiation, organized by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in co-operation with the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR), the European Commission (EC) and the International Union of Radioecology (IUR), will be held in Stockholm, Sweden, from 6-10 October 2003. This Conference will be hosted by the Government of Sweden through the Swedish Radiation Protection Authority (SSI). This publication contains contributed papers submitted on issues within the scope of the conference, which were accepted following a review by the Conference Programme Committee. The primary objective of this Conference is to foster information exchange, with the aim of promoting the development of a coherent international policy on the protection of the environment from effects attributable to ionizing radiation. This Conference is one in a series of meetings organized by, or held in co-operation with, the IAEA on this subject. It will include a review of recent developments in this area, and consideration of their implications for future work at national and international levels. The topics on which contributed papers were requested are as follows: Existing environmental protection approaches; Development of an international assessment framework; The scientific basis for environmental radiation assessment; Development of management approaches

  5. Prospective study to determine early hypertrophy of the contra-lateral liver lobe after unilobar, Yttrium-90, selective internal radiation therapy in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, Jin Yao; Allen, John Carson; Ng, David Chee Eng; Abdul Latiff, Julianah Bee; Choo, Su Pin; Tai, David Wai-Meng; Low, Albert Su Chong; Cheah, Foong Koon; Chang, Jason Pik Eu; Kam, Juinn Huar; Lee, Victor T W; Chung, Alexander Yaw Fui; Chan, Chung Yip; Chow, Pierce Kah Hoe; Goh, Brian K P

    2018-01-03

    Liver resection is a major curative option in patients presenting with hepatocellular carcinoma. An inadequate functional liver remnant is a major limiting factor precluding liver resection. In recent years, hypertrophy of the functional liver remnant after selective internal radiation therapy hypertrophy has been observed, but the degree of hypertrophy in the early postselective internal radiation therapy period has not been well studied. We conducted a prospective study on patients undergoing unilobar, Yttrium-90 selective internal radiation therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma to evaluate early hypertrophy at 4-6 weeks and 8-12 weeks after selective internal radiation therapy. In the study, 24 eligible patients were recruited and had serial volumetric measurements performed. The median age was 66 years (38-75 years). All patients were either Child-Pugh Class A or B, and 6/24 patients had documented, clinically relevant portal hypertension; 15 of the 24 patients were hepatitis B positive. At 4-6 weeks, modest hypertrophy was seen (median 3%; range -12 to 42%) and this increased at 8-12 weeks (median 9%; range -12 to 179%). No preprocedural factors predictive of hypertrophy were identified. Hypertrophy of the functional liver remnant after selective internal radiation therapy with Yttrium-90 occurred in a subset of patients but was modest and unpredictable in the early stages. Selective internal radiation therapy cannot be recommended as a standard treatment modality to induce early hypertrophy for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. (Surgery 2017;160:XXX-XXX.). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma in a transplant liver--selective internal radiation therapy followed by right hemihepatectomy: report of a case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperling, Jens; Justinger, Christoph; Schuld, Jochen; Ziemann, Christian; Seidel, Roland; Kollmar, Otto

    2014-07-01

    Intra- or extrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas are the second most common primary liver malignancies behind hepatocellular carcinoma. Whereas the incidence for intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma is rising, the occurrence of extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma is trending downwards. The treatment of choice for intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma remains liver resection. However, a case of liver resection after selective internal radiation therapy in order to treat a recurrent intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma in a transplant liver is unknown in the literature so far. Herein, we present a case of a patient undergoing liver transplantation for Wilson's disease with an accidental finding of an intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma within the explanted liver. Due to a recurrent intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma after liver transplantation, a selective internal radiation therapy with yttrium-90 microspheres was performed followed by right hemihepatectomy. Four years later, the patient is tumor-free and in a healthy condition.

  7. Basophilic round bodies in gastric biopsies little known by pathologists: iatrogenic yttrium 90 microspheres deriving from selective internal radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Dong-Lan; Chan, John K C

    2013-10-01

    Selective internal radiation therapy is a relatively new technique that irradiates primary and metastatic liver cancer using yttrium 90 microspheres. Increasing reports have shown this to be a useful treatment for unresectable primary hepatocellular carcinoma and others metastases from colon, lung, breast, sarcoma, and ocular melanoma. On the other hand, more and more therapy-related complications have been described. Since the morphologic description of injured organs are relatively uncommon, we report 2 cases of selective internal radiation therapy-related gastric injury, which represent basophilic round bodies in gastric biopsies little known by pathologists. The appearances in esophagogastroduodenoscopy include gastrointestinal ulcer, edema, and bleeding. Histological findings are mucosal atrophy, mild to moderate cytologic atypia, edema of the stroma, and inflammatory infiltration. The most characteristic feature is the presence of round blue and dark microspheres in the stromal blood vessels.

  8. Therapeutic effect of beta radiation on onychomycosis: An innovative treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afroz, S.; Islam, N.; Rashid, H.; Shahidullah, M.; Ali, S.; Islam, S.K.M.; Hossain, S.; Ali, N.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Onychomycosis is the most frequent cause of nail disease and the most prevalent type of dermatophytosis in Bangladesh. The humid and warm climate of this tropical country is congenial for the growth of fungi. Therapeutic limitations of conventional antimycotic agents in respect of low cure rates, high relapse rate, inherent side effects, long duration of treatment and high cost in treating onychomycosis have provided clear incentives to explore alternative forms of treatment procedure. The objectives of the present thesis work were: (i) To use beta radiation as a curative therapy for Onychomycosis, optimisation of its dosages and to promote an innovative clinical development in the field of therapeutic application of nuclear medicine; (ii) To assess the efficacy of beta radiation either alone or in combination with conventional antifungal therapy; and (iii) To reduce the duration of drug exposure and cost of treatment for onychomycosis. This is a PhD research work under the University of Dhaka and was sponsored by the Ministry of Science and Information and Communication Technology, Government of the people's republic of Bangladesh. This study is an open, randomised and controlled trial to verify the efficacy of beta radiation in patients with onychomycosis. Using the appropriate statistical formula, sample size of the study population was determined and in each group 92 patients were assigned. With an assumption of patients drop out and for better statistical analysis, a total of 330 patients, who fulfilled the inclusion criterion having diagnosed to have onychomycosis clinically and mycological were randomly allocated to enter in therapeutic regimen. Study population was randomised in three groups. Group A (n =110) received griseofulvin orally 500 mg once daily for 12-16 weeks; Group B (n=110) received beta radiation, 500 rads bi-weekly for 3 weeks (total 2500 rads); and Group C (n=110) received combined beta radiation (total 2500 rads in 3 weeks) and

  9. Radiation monitoring. Lecture 26, course on advances in radiation: International School of Radiation Damage and Protection, Erice, Italy, September 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, R.H.

    1979-09-01

    The practices and rationales of radiation monitoring as applied at high-energy accelerator laboratories are presented. Area, environmental, and personal techniques are discussed and examples given. (ACR)

  10. Enhancing Nanoparticle Accumulation and Retention in Desmoplastic Tumors via Vascular Disruption for Internal Radiation Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satterlee, Andrew B; Rojas, Juan D; Dayton, Paul A; Huang, Leaf

    2017-01-01

    Aggressive, desmoplastic tumors are notoriously difficult to treat because of their extensive stroma, high interstitial pressure, and resistant tumor microenvironment. We have developed a combination therapy that can significantly slow the growth of large, stroma-rich tumors by causing massive apoptosis in the tumor center while simultaneously increasing nanoparticle uptake through a treatment-induced increase in the accumulation and retention of nanoparticles in the tumor. The vascular disrupting agent Combretastatin A-4 Phosphate (CA4P) is able to increase the accumulation of radiation-containing nanoparticles for internal radiation therapy, and the retention of these delivered radioisotopes is maintained over several days. We use ultrasound to measure the effect of CA4P in live tumor-bearing mice, and we encapsulate the radio-theranostic isotope 177 Lutetium as a therapeutic agent as well as a means to measure nanoparticle accumulation and retention in the tumor. This combination therapy induces prolonged apoptosis in the tumor, decreasing both the fibroblast and total cell density and allowing further tumor growth inhibition using a cisplatin-containing nanoparticle.

  11. Usefulness of radiation treatment planning allpied respiration factor for streotatic body radiation therapy in the lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Sung Pil; Kim, Tae Hyung; So, Woon Young; Back, Geum Mun [Dept. of Medical Health Science, Graduate School, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    We are evaluated the usefulness of radiation treatment planning applied respiration factor for stereotactic body radiation therapy in the lung cancer. Four dimensional computed tomography images were obtained in 10 patients with lung cancer. The radiation treatment plans were established total lung volume according to respiration images (new method) and conventional method. We was analyzed in the lung volume, radiation absorbed dose of lung and main organs (ribs, tracheobronchus, esophagus, spinal cord) around the tumor, respectively. We were confirmed that lung volume and radiation absorbed dose of lung and main organs around the tumor deference according to applied respiration. In conclusion, radiation treatment planning applied respiration factor seems to be useful for stereotactic body radiation therapy in the lung cancer.

  12. Analysis of the experience of providing radiation protection of population and environment within the international collaboration network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sergei Aleksanin; Eugene Zheleznyakov; Regina Fedortseva

    2007-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. The All-Russian Center of Emergency and Radiation Medicine (ARCERM) in St. Petersburg is a specialized radiation health institution and World Health Organization (WHO) collaborating center within the Radiation Emergency Medical Preparedness and Assistance Network (REMPAN), which primary objectives are: - To promote medical preparedness for radiation accidents and radio-nuclear threats among WHO Member States; - To provide medical and public health advice, assistance and coordination of medical management at international and regional levels in the case of a nuclear accident or radiological emergency; - To assist in follow-up studies and rehabilitation. ARCERM serves as a national focal point for advice and possible medical care in cases of radiation injuries in humans as well as assists WHO to prepare relevant documents and guidelines, provides training in radiation medicine, distributes relevant information to the medical community and the public and carries out scientific investigations on radiation effects on humans. The Center is prepared to undertake actions on medical management of possible radiation emergencies both on national and international level as a member of REMPAN network. The assistance provided by ARCERM may also include providing radiation medicine and other appropriate specialists, scientific services and expertise, equipment and medical services for diagnosis, prognosis, medical treatment and medical follow-up of persons affected by radiation. In case of radiation accident the Center has standard operating procedures at country level. It includes the system of warning and data collection, setting up special wards for receiving radiation victims, radioactivity control station, primary deactivation and treatment as well as providing personal protection for staff. WHO, as well as other co-operating international organizations, are notified and provided with relevant information through the International Atomic

  13. Treatment of radiation-induced normal tissue lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rezvani, M.

    2003-01-01

    Normal tissue damage is the most important limiting factor in radiotherapy. It must be possible, at least theoretically, to eradicate a localised tumour if a large enough dose of radiation could be delivered to tumour, however, practically, there is always the danger of damaging normal tissues adjacent to the tumour. Factors such as the total radiation dose, overall treatment time, dose per fraction, dose-rate and the effects of changing the irradicated volume of the spinal cord have been examined in order to improve therapeutic ratio in radiotherapy. The majority of these studies have concentrated on optimizing dose fractionation schedules. Only recently have attempts been made to modify this effect by the administration of therapeutic agents after irradiation but before the development of the lesion. Despite this interest the problem still exists. At present there is no effective clinically applied treatment towards radiation-induced normal tissue injury, however, some symptoms for example swelling or pain during inflammatory phase may respond to corticosteroids. There are a number of agents, which have been used experimentally, some clinically, to alleviate radiation damage. The results of these studies are reviewed. A number of substances, generally named Biological Response Modifiers, with diverse mode of actions have been used in post irradiation modification of normal tissue reactions. The effect and mode of action of a number of these treatments are discussed. Classical radioprotectors, that are mainly thiol-containing substances such as Amifostine, are used for prophylaxis and should be administered before or at the time of irradiation. These substances have been deliberately excluded in this article

  14. A Prospective Cohort Study of Gated Stereotactic Liver Radiation Therapy Using Continuous Internal Electromagnetic Motion Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worm, Esben S; Høyer, Morten; Hansen, Rune; Larsen, Lars P; Weber, Britta; Grau, Cai; Poulsen, Per R

    2018-02-13

    Intrafraction motion can compromise the treatment accuracy in liver stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). Respiratory gating can improve treatment delivery; however, gating based on external motion surrogates is inaccurate. The present study reports the use of Calypso-based internal electromagnetic motion monitoring for gated liver SBRT. Fifteen patients were included in a study of 3-fraction respiratory gated liver SBRT guided by 3 implanted electromagnetic transponders. The planning target volume was created by a 5-mm axial and 7-mm (n = 12) or 10-mm (n = 3) craniocaudal expansion of the clinical target volume (CTV) and covered with 67% of the prescribed CTV mean dose. Treatment was gated to the end-exhale phase of the respiratory cycle with beam-on when the target deviated 1 to 2 mm occurred. Log files of transponder motion were used to determine the geometric error and reconstruct the delivered CTV dose in the actual gated treatments and in simulated nongated treatments. No severe side effects were observed in relation to transponder implantation. All 45 treatment fractions were successfully guided using the Calypso system. The mean number of couch corrections during each gated fraction was 2.8 (range 0-7). The mean duty cycle during gated treatment was 62.5% (range 29.1%-84.9%). Without gating, the mean 3-dimensional geometric error during a fraction would have been 5.4 mm (range 2.7-12.1). Gating reduced this error to 2.0 mm (range 1.2-3.0). The patient mean reduction in minimum dose to 95% of the CTV relative to the planned dose was 6.0 percentage points (range 0.7-22.0) without gating and 0.8 percentage point (range 0.2-2.0) with gating. Gating using internal motion monitoring was successfully applied for liver SBRT. It markedly improved the geometric and dosimetric accuracy compared with nongated standard treatment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Gamma radiation treatment activates glucomoringin synthesis in Moringa oleifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsifhiwa Ramabulana

    Full Text Available Abstract Plants are a very rich source of pharmacologically relevant metabolites. However, the relative concentrations of these compounds are subject to the genetic make-up, the physiological state of the plant as well as environmental effects. Recently, metabolic perturbations through the use of abiotic stressors have proven to be a valuable strategy for increasing the levels of these compounds. Oxidative stress-associated stressors, including ionizing radiation, have also been reported to induce metabolites with various biological activities in plants. Hence, the aim of the current study was to investigate the effect of gamma radiation on the induction of purported anti-cancerous metabolites, glucomoringin and its derivatives, in Moringa oleifera Lam., Moringaceae. Here, an UHPLC-qTOF-MS-based targeted metabolic fingerprinting approach was used to evaluate the effect of gamma radiation treatment on the afore-mentioned health-beneficial secondary metabolites of M. oleifera. Following radiation, an increase in glucomoringin and three acylated derivatives was noted. As such, these molecules can be regarded as components of the inducible defense mechanism of M. oleifera as opposed to being constitutive components as it has previously been assumed. This might be an indication of a possible, yet unexplored role of moringin against the effects of oxidative stress in M. oleifera plants. The results also suggest that plants undergoing photo-oxidative stress could accumulate higher amounts of glucomoringin and related molecules.

  16. PREFACE: 7th International Conference on 3D Radiation Dosimetry (IC3DDose)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thwaites, David; Baldock, Clive

    2013-06-01

    IC3DDose 2013, the 7th International Conference on 3D Radiation Dosimetry held in Sydney, Australia from 4-8 November 2012, grew out of the DosGel series, which began as DosGel99, the 1st International Workshop on Radiation Therapy Gel Dosimetry in Lexington, Kentucky. Since 1999 subsequent DoSGel conferences were held in Brisbane, Australia (2001), Ghent, Belgium (2004), Sherbrooke, Canada (2006) and Crete, Greece (2008). In 2010 the conference was held on Hilton Head Island, South Carolina and underwent a name-change to IC3DDose. The aim of the first workshop was to bring together individuals, both researchers and users, with an interest in 3D radiation dosimetry techniques, with a mix of presentations from basic science to clinical applications, which has remained an objective for all of the meetings. One rationale of DosGel99 was stated as supporting the increasing clinical implementation of gel dosimetry, as the technique appeared, at that time, to be leaving the laboratories of gel dosimetry enthusiasts and entering clinical practice. Clearly by labelling the first workshop as the 1st, there was a vision of a continuing series, which has been fulfilled. On the other hand, the expectation of widespread clinical use of gel dosimetry has perhaps not been what was hoped for and anticipated. Nevertheless the rapidly increasing demand for advanced high-precision 3D radiotherapy technology and techniques has continued apace. The need for practical and accurate 3D dosimetry methods for development and quality assurance has only increased. By the 6th meeting, held in South Carolina in 2010, the Conference Scientific Committee recognised the wider developments in 3D systems and methods and decided to widen the scope, whilst keeping the same span from basic science to applications. This was signalled by a change of name from 'Dosgel' to 'IC3DDose', a name that has continued to this latest conference. The conference objectives were: to enhance the quality and accuracy of

  17. Effects of body habitus on internal radiation dose calculations using the 5-year-old anthropomorphic male models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xie, Tianwu; Kuster, Niels; Zaidi, Habib

    2017-01-01

    Computational phantoms are commonly used in internal radiation dosimetry to assess the amount and distribution pattern of energy deposited in various parts of the human body from different internal radiation sources. Radiation dose assessments are commonly performed on predetermined reference com...

  18. International basic safety standards for protecting against ionizing radiation and for the safety of radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of the Standards is to establish basic requirements for protection against the risks associated with exposure to ionizing radiation (hereinafter termed radiation) and for the safety of radiation sources that may deliver such exposure. The Standards have been developed from widely accepted radiation protection and safety principles, such as those published in the Annals of the ICRP and the IAEA Safety Series. They are intended to ensure the safety of all types of radiation sources and, in doing so, to complement standards already developed for large and complex radiation sources, such as nuclear reactors and radioactive waste management facilities. For the sources, more specific standards, such as those issued by the IAEA, are typically needed to achieve acceptable levels of safety. As these more specific standards are generally consistent with the Standards, in complying with them, such more complex installations will also generally comply with the Standards. The Standards are limited to specifying basic requirements of radiation protection and safety, with some guidance on how to apply them. General guidance on applying some of the requirements is available in the publications of the Sponsoring Organizations and additional guidance will be developed as needed in the light of experience gained in the application of the Standards. Tabs

  19. Limited internal radiation exposure associated with resettlements to a radiation-contaminated homeland after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaharu Tsubokura

    Full Text Available Resettlement to their radiation-contaminated hometown could be an option for people displaced at the time of a nuclear disaster; however, little information is available on the safety implications of these resettlement programs. Kawauchi village, located 12-30 km southwest of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, was one of the 11 municipalities where mandatory evacuation was ordered by the central government. This village was also the first municipality to organize the return of the villagers. To assess the validity of the Kawauchi villagers' resettlement program, the levels of internal Cesium (Cs exposures were comparatively measured in returnees, commuters, and non-returnees among the Kawauchi villagers using a whole body counter. Of 149 individuals, 5 villagers had traceable levels of Cs exposure; the median detected level was 333 Bq/body (range, 309-1050 Bq/kg, and 5.3 Bq/kg (range, 5.1-18.2 Bq/kg. Median annual effective doses of villagers with traceable Cs were 1.1 x 10(-2 mSv/y (range, 1.0 x 10(-2-4.1 x 10(-2 mSv/y. Although returnees had higher chances of consuming locally produced vegetables, Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel test showed that their level of internal radiation exposure was not significantly higher than that in the other 2 groups (p=0.643. The present findings in Kawauchi village imply that it is possible to maintain internal radiation exposure at very low levels even in a highly radiation-contaminated region at the time of a nuclear disaster. Moreover, the risks for internal radiation exposure could be limited with a strict food control intervention after resettlement to the radiation-contaminated village. It is crucial to establish an adequate number of radio-contaminated testing sites within the village, to provide immediate test result feedback to the villagers, and to provide education regarding the importance of re-testing in reducing the risk of high internal radiation exposure.

  20. Definitive Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy (SBRT) for Extracranial Oligometastases: An International Survey of >1000 Radiation Oncologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Stephen L; Porceddu, Sandro; Nakamura, Naoki; Palma, David A; Lo, Simon S; Hoskin, Peter; Moghanaki, Drew; Chmura, Steven J; Salama, Joseph K

    2017-08-01

    Stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) is often used to treat patients with oligometastases (OM). Yet, patterns of SBRT practice for OM are unknown. Therefore, we surveyed radiation oncologists internationally, to understand how and when SBRT is used for OM. A 25-question survey was distributed to radiation oncologists. Respondents using SBRT for OM were asked how long they have been treating OM, number of patients treated, organs treated, primary reason for use, doses used, and future intentions. Respondents not using SBRT for OM were asked reasons why SBRT was not used and intentions for future adoption. Data were analyzed anonymously. We received 1007 surveys from 43 countries. Eighty-three percent began using SBRT after 2005 and greater than one third after 2010. Eighty-four percent cited perceived treatment response/durability as the primary reason for using SBRT in OM patients. Commonly treated organs were lung (90%), liver (75%), and spine (70%). SBRT dose/fractionation schemes varied widely. Most would offer a second course to new OM. Nearly all (99%) planned to continue and 66% planned to increase SBRT for OM. Of those not using SBRT, 59% plan to start soon. The most common reason for not using SBRT was lack of clinical efficacy (48%) or lack of necessary image guidance equipment (34%). Radiation oncologists are increasingly using SBRT for OM. The main reason for not using SBRT for OM is a perceived lack of evidence demonstrating clinical advantages. These data strengthen the need for robust prospective clinical trials (ongoing and in development) to demonstrate clinical efficacy given the widespread adoption of SBRT for OM.

  1. Pilocarpine and carbacholine in treatment of radiation-induced xerostomia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joensuu, H.; Bostroem, P.; Makkonen, T.

    1993-01-01

    Twenty-four patients with radiation-related xerostomia were treated with oral pilocarpine solution 6 mg t.i.d., and after a 4-week drug-free period 16 of these patients were treated with carbacholine 2 mg tablets t.i.d. Basal and stimulated whole saliva flow rates were measured before commencing the drug treatment, and after 1 and 12 weeks on treatment. On a subjective linear scale both pilocarpine (p=0.01) and carbacholine (p=0.02) improved mouth moistness. Only 2 of the 8 patients with no basal or stimulated saliva flow reported some subjective benefit from the drug treatment, whereas all 8 patients with less severe xerostomia improved (p=0.007). However, the salivary flow rates measured 12 h after the last drug dose did not improve with either drug. Both drugs were generally well tolerated. It is concluded that both drugs may be useful in the treatment of radiation-induced xerostomia among patients with residual salivary function. (author). 6 refs., tabs

  2. Benchmark studies of the effectiveness of structural and internal materials as radiation shielding for the international space station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, J.; Zeitlin, C.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Heilbronn, L.; Stephens, D.; Wilson, J. W.

    2003-01-01

    Accelerator-based measurements and model calculations have been used to study the heavy-ion radiation transport properties of materials in use on the International Space Station (ISS). Samples of the ISS aluminum outer hull were augmented with various configurations of internal wall material and polyethylene. The materials were bombarded with high-energy iron ions characteristic of a significant part of the galactic cosmic-ray (GCR) heavy-ion spectrum. Transmitted primary ions and charged fragments produced in nuclear collisions in the materials were measured near the beam axis, and a model was used to extrapolate from the data to lower beam energies and to a lighter ion. For the materials and ions studied, at incident particle energies from 1037 MeV/nucleon down to at least 600 MeV/nucleon, nuclear fragmentation reduces the average dose and dose equivalent per incident ion. At energies below 400 MeV/nucleon, the calculation predicts that as material is added, increased ionization energy loss produces increases in some dosimetric quantities. These limited results suggest that the addition of modest amounts of polyethylene or similar material to the interior of the ISS will reduce the dose to ISS crews from space radiation; however, the radiation transport properties of ISS materials should be evaluated with a realistic space radiation field. Copyright 2003 by Radiation Research Society.

  3. Clinician and therapist perceptions on radiation therapist-led treatment reviews in radiation oncology practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Joanna; Cox, Jennifer; Atyeo, John; Loh, Yvonne; Choung, Wong Lea; Back, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Background and purpose: To determine whether radiation therapists (RTTs) and radiation oncologists (ROs) believe RTTs can lead patient treatment reviews. Materials and methods: Phase 1 involved the construction of a checklist of the procedures followed during RO treatment reviews. Phase 2 employed the checklist to monitor the frequency of review procedures. From these data, questionnaires regarding RTTs' ability to carry out these procedures to be used in Phase 3 were developed. The questionnaires were distributed to RTTs and ROs at two large public cancer centres. Results: The majority of RTTs and ROs believed that RTTs could provide assurance and answer questions about side effects, treatment techniques, cancer, nutrition and logistics. ROs and RTTs agreed that RTTs were not capable of recommending medication or answering medical questions. Most RTTs thought they could decide if a patient should take a break from treatment if a standard protocol existed, but the ROs disagreed (P < 0.01). ROs believed that RTTs were capable of using the Common Toxicity Criteria system to grade side effects, but RTTs disagreed (P < 0.01). Concerns were raised about training, legalities, workloads, logistics, cost, patients' perspectives and remuneration. Conclusion: RTTs and ROs believed RTTs could lead treatment reviews with training, and support this role development

  4. Quality of Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy Treatment Plans Using a (60)Co Magnetic Resonance Image Guidance Radiation Therapy System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wooten, H Omar; Green, Olga; Yang, Min

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: This work describes a commercial treatment planning system, its technical features, and its capabilities for creating (60)Co intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatment plans for a magnetic resonance image guidance radiation therapy (MR-IGRT) system. METHODS AND MATERIALS...

  5. Computing radiation dose to reactor pressure vessel and internals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    Within the next twenty years many of the nuclear reactors currently in service will reach their design lifetime. One of the key factors affecting decisions on license extensions will be the ability to confidently predict the integrity of the reactor pressure vessel and core structural components which have been subjected to many years of cumulative radiation exposure. This report gives an overview of the most recent scientific literature and current methodologies for computational dosimetry in the OECD/NEA Member countries. Discussion is extended to consider some related issues of materials science, such as the metals, and limitations of the models in current use. Proposals are made for further work. (author)

  6. Radiation-beam technologies of structural materials treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalin, B.A.

    2001-01-01

    Considered in the paper are the most advanced and prospective radiation-beam technologies (RBT) for treatment of structural materials, as applied to modifying the structural-phase state in the surface layers of half-finished products and articles with the purpose to improve their service properties. Ion-beam, plasma, and ion-plasma, as well as the technologies based on the use of concentrated fluxes of energy, generated by laser radiation, high-power pulsed electron and ion beams, and high-temperature pulsed plasma fluxes are analysed. As applied to improvement of the corrosion and erosion resistance, breaking strength, friction and wear resistance, and crack resistance, the directions of the choice and the use of RBT have been considered for changes of the surface layer state by applying covers and films, and by a change of the surface topography (relief), surface structure and defects, and the element composition and phase state of materials [ru

  7. Modern Radiation Therapy for Nodal Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma—Target Definition and Dose Guidelines From the International Lymphoma Radiation Oncology Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Illidge, Tim; Specht, Lena; Yahalom, Joachim

    2014-01-01

    Radiation therapy (RT) is the most effective single modality for local control of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) and is an important component of therapy for many patients. Many of the historic concepts of dose and volume have recently been challenged by the advent of modern imaging and RT planning...... tools. The International Lymphoma Radiation Oncology Group (ILROG) has developed these guidelines after multinational meetings and analysis of available evidence. The guidelines represent an agreed consensus view of the ILROG steering committee on the use of RT in NHL in the modern era. The roles...... of reduced volume and reduced doses are addressed, integrating modern imaging with 3-dimensional planning and advanced techniques of RT delivery. In the modern era, in which combined-modality treatment with systemic therapy is appropriate, the previously applied extended-field and involved-field RT...

  8. Pentoxifylline in the treatment of radiation-induced fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okunieff, Paul; Augustine, Elizabeth; Hicks, Jeanne E; Cornelison, Terri L; Altemus, Rosemary M; Naydich, Boris G; Ding, Ivan; Huser, Amy K; Abraham, Edward H; Smith, Judith J; Coleman, Norman; Gerber, Lynn H

    2004-06-01

    Fibrotic sequelae remain the most important dose-limiting toxicity of radiation therapy to soft tissue. Functionally, this is reflected in loss of range of motion and muscle strength and the development of limb edema and pain. Tumor necrosis factor alpha and fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2), which are abnormally elevated in irradiated tissues, may mediate radiation fibrovascular injury. In an open label drug trial, we studied the effects of pentoxifylline (400 mg orally tid for 8 weeks) on 30 patients who displayed late, radiation-induced fibrosis at 1 to 29 years posttreatment (40 to 84 Gy). The primary outcome measurement was change in physical impairments thought to be secondary to radiation, including active and passive range of motion (AROM and PROM), muscle strength, limb edema, and pain. Plasma levels of cytokines (tumor necrosis factor alpha and FGF2) also were measured. Twenty-seven patients completed baseline and 8-week assessments, and 24 patients completed baseline, 8-week, and 16-week assessments. After 8 weeks of pentoxifylline intervention, 20 of 23 patients with impaired AROM and 19 of 22 with impaired PROM improved; 11 of 19 patients with muscle weakness showed improved motor strength; five of seven patients with edema had decreased limb girth; and nine of 20 patients had decreased pain. Pretreatment FGF2 levels dropped from an average of 44.9 pg/mL to 24.0 pg/mL after 8 weeks of treatment. Patients receiving pentoxifylline demonstrated improved AROM, PROM, and muscle strength and decreased limb edema and pain. Reversal of these delayed radiation effects was associated with a decrease in circulating FGF2.

  9. Treatment of retinoblastoma by precision megavoltage radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schipper, J.; Peperzeel, H.A. van; Tan, K.E.W.P.

    1985-01-01

    The principal treatment concept in the Utrecht Retinoblastoma Centre is megavoltage irradiation, followed by light coagulation and/or cryotherapy if there is any doubt as to whether the residual tumour is still active. Radiation therapy is administered by means of a simple but highly accurate temporal beam technique. A standardized dose of 45 Gy is given in 15 fractions of 3 Gy at 3 fractions per week. From 1971 to 1982, 39 children with retinoblastoma have been irradiated in at least one eye. Of the 73 affected eyes, 18 were primarily enucleated, one received light coagulation only, and 54 received radiation therapy. Of the 54 irradiated eyes, 32 were additionally treated by light coagulation and/or cryotherapy for suspicious residual tumour (in 29 eyes), recurrent tumour (in 1 eye), and/or new tumour (in 3 eyes) and 10 were ultimately enucleated. Two eyes also received hyperthermia. The percentages of cure of the irradiated eyes with a minimum follow-up of 2 years were 100% (14/14), 100% (9/9,) 83% (10/12), 79% (11/14) and 0% (0/5) in the Reese-Ellsworth groups I to V-A, respectively. Of the saved eyes 95% achieved useful vision. Eighteen eyes developed a clinically detectable radiation cataract; in five of these the lens was aspirated. Cataracts developed exclusively in those lenses of which a posterior portion of more than 1 mm had to be included in the treatment field. The likelihood and the degree of cataract formation was found to be directly related to the dose of radiation to the germinative zone of the lens epithelium. The minimum cataractogenic dose found in this series was 8 Gy. (Auth.)

  10. Treatment of retinoblastoma by precision megavoltage radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schipper, J.; Peperzeel, H.A. van (Rijksuniversiteit Utrecht (Netherlands). Academisch Ziekenhuis); Tan, K.E.W.P. (Royal Dutch Eye Hospital, Utrecht, Netherlands)

    1985-02-01

    The principal treatment concept in the Utrecht Retinoblastoma Centre is megavoltage irradiation, followed by light coagulation and/or cryotherapy if there is any doubt as to whether the residual tumour is still active. Radiation therapy is administered by means of a simple but highly accurate temporal beam technique. A standardized dose of 45 Gy is given in 15 fractions of 3 Gy at 3 fractions per week. From 1971 to 1982, 39 children with retinoblastoma have been irradiated in at least one eye. Of the 73 affected eyes, 18 were primarily enucleated, one received light coagulation only, and 54 received radiation therapy. Of the 54 irradiated eyes, 32 were additionally treated by light coagulation and/or cryotherapy for suspicious residual tumour (in 29 eyes), recurrent tumour (in 1 eye), and/or new tumour (in 3 eyes) and 10 were ultimately enucleated. Two eyes also received hyperthermia. The percentages of cure of the irradiated eyes with a minimum follow-up of 2 years were 100% (14/14), 100% (9/9), 83% (10/12), 79% (11/14) and 0% (0/5) in the Reese-Ellsworth groups I to V-A, respectively. Of the saved eyes 95% achieved useful vision. Eighteen eyes developed a clinically detectable radiation cataract; in five of these the lens was aspirated. Cataracts developed exclusively in those lenses of which a posterior portion of more than 1 mm had to be included in the treatment field. The likelihood and the degree of cataract formation was found to be directly related to the dose of radiation to the germinative zone of the lens epithelium. The minimum cataractogenic dose found in this series was 8 Gy.

  11. A systematic review of contralateral liver lobe hypertrophy after unilobar selective internal radiation therapy with Y90.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, Jin-Yao; Allen, John C; Ng, David C; Choo, Su-Pin; Tai, David W M; Chang, Jason P E; Cheah, Foong-Khoon; Chow, Pierce K H; Goh, Brian K P

    2016-01-01

    Curative liver resection is the treatment of choice for both primary and secondary liver malignancies. However, an inadequate future liver remnant (FLR) frequently precludes successful surgery. Portal vein embolization is the gold-standard modality for inducing hypertrophy of the FLR. In recent times, unilobar Yttrium-90 selective internal radiation therapy (SIRT) has been reported to induce hypertrophy of the contralateral, untreated liver lobe. The aim of this study is to review the current literature reporting on contralateral liver hypertrophy induced by unilobar SIRT. A systematic review of the English-language literature between 2000 and 2014 was performed using the search terms "Yttrium 90" OR "selective internal radiation therapy" OR "radioembolization" AND "hypertrophy". Seven studies, reporting on 312 patients, were included. Two hundred and eighty four patients (91.0%) received treatment to the right lobe. Two hundred and fifteen patients had hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), 12 had intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma, and 85 had liver metastases from mixed primaries. Y90 SIRT resulted in contralateral liver hypertrophy which ranged from 26 to 47% at 44 days-9 months. All studies were retrospective in nature, and heterogeneous, with substantial variations relative to pathology treated, underlying liver disease, dosage and delivery of Y90, number of treatment sessions and time to measurement of hypertrophy. Unilobar Y90 SIRT results in significant hypertrophy of the contralateral liver lobe. The rate of hypertrophy seems to be slower than that achieved by other methods. Copyright © 2015 International Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Association Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Impact of Internal Metallic Ports in Temporary Tissue Expanders on Postmastectomy Radiation Dose Distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Susie A.; Ogunleye, Tomiwa; Dhabbaan, Anees; Huang, Eugene H.; Losken, Albert; Gabram, Sheryl; Davis, Lawrence; Torres, Mylin A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Temporary tissue expanders (TTE) with an internal magnetic metal port (IMP) have been increasingly used for breast reconstruction in post-mastectomy patients who receive radiation therapy (XRT). We evaluated XRT plans of patients with IMP to determine its effect on XRT dose distribution. Methods and Materials: Original treatment plans with CT simulation scans of 24 consecutive patients who received XRT (ORI), planned without heterogeneity corrections, to a reconstructed breast containing an IMP were used. Two additional treatment plans were then generated: one treatment plan with the IMP assigned the electron density of the rare earth magnet, nickel plated neodymium-iron-boron (HET), and a second treatment plan with the IMP assigned a CT value of 1 to simulate a homogeneous breast without an IMP (BRS). All plans were prescribed 50 Gy to the reconstructed breast (CTV). Results: CTV coverage by 50 Gy was significantly lower in the HET (mean 87.7% CTV) than in either the ORI (mean 99.7% CTV, P<.001) or BRS plans (mean 95.0% CTV, P<.001). The effect of the port was more pronounced on CT slices containing the IMP with prescription dose coverage of the CTV being less in the HET than in either ORI (mean difference 33.6%, P<.01) or BRS plans (mean difference 30.1%, P<.001). HET had a less homogeneous and conformal dose distribution than BRS or ORI. Conclusion: IMPs increase dose heterogeneity and reduce dose to the breast CTV through attenuation of the beam. For optimal XRT treatment, heterogeneity corrections should be used in XRT planning for patients with TTE with IMP, as the IMP impacts dose distribution

  13. Impact of Internal Metallic Ports in Temporary Tissue Expanders on Postmastectomy Radiation Dose Distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Susie A.; Ogunleye, Tomiwa; Dhabbaan, Anees [Department of Radiation Oncology, Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Huang, Eugene H. [North Coast Cancer Care, Sandusky, Ohio (United States); Losken, Albert [Division of Plastic Surgery and Reconstructive Surgery, Department of Surgery, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Gabram, Sheryl [Division of Surgical Oncology, Department of Surgery, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Davis, Lawrence [Department of Radiation Oncology, Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Torres, Mylin A., E-mail: matorre@emory.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Purpose: Temporary tissue expanders (TTE) with an internal magnetic metal port (IMP) have been increasingly used for breast reconstruction in post-mastectomy patients who receive radiation therapy (XRT). We evaluated XRT plans of patients with IMP to determine its effect on XRT dose distribution. Methods and Materials: Original treatment plans with CT simulation scans of 24 consecutive patients who received XRT (ORI), planned without heterogeneity corrections, to a reconstructed breast containing an IMP were used. Two additional treatment plans were then generated: one treatment plan with the IMP assigned the electron density of the rare earth magnet, nickel plated neodymium-iron-boron (HET), and a second treatment plan with the IMP assigned a CT value of 1 to simulate a homogeneous breast without an IMP (BRS). All plans were prescribed 50 Gy to the reconstructed breast (CTV). Results: CTV coverage by 50 Gy was significantly lower in the HET (mean 87.7% CTV) than in either the ORI (mean 99.7% CTV, P<.001) or BRS plans (mean 95.0% CTV, P<.001). The effect of the port was more pronounced on CT slices containing the IMP with prescription dose coverage of the CTV being less in the HET than in either ORI (mean difference 33.6%, P<.01) or BRS plans (mean difference 30.1%, P<.001). HET had a less homogeneous and conformal dose distribution than BRS or ORI. Conclusion: IMPs increase dose heterogeneity and reduce dose to the breast CTV through attenuation of the beam. For optimal XRT treatment, heterogeneity corrections should be used in XRT planning for patients with TTE with IMP, as the IMP impacts dose distribution.

  14. 9. International symposium on nuclear chemistry, radiochemistry and radiation chemistry. Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The report presents the abstracts of 30 contributions covering mainly photochemical reactions, irradiation of organic chemicals, gamma-radiation in wastewater treatment, PIXE analysis, and some aspects of nuclear spectroscopic instrumentation in radiochemical analysis

  15. 3D dosimetry estimation for selective internal radiation therapy (SIRT) using SPECT/CT images: a phantom study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debebe, Senait A.; Franquiz, Juan; McGoron, Anthony J.

    2015-03-01

    Selective Internal Radiation Therapy (SIRT) is a common way to treat liver cancer that cannot be treated surgically. SIRT involves administration of Yttrium - 90 (90Y) microspheres via the hepatic artery after a diagnostic procedure using 99mTechnetium (Tc)-macroaggregated albumin (MAA) to detect extrahepatic shunting to the lung or the gastrointestinal tract. Accurate quantification of radionuclide administered to patients and radiation dose absorbed by different organs is of importance in SIRT. Accurate dosimetry for SIRT allows optimization of dose delivery to the target tumor and may allow for the ability to assess the efficacy of the treatment. In this study, we proposed a method that can efficiently estimate radiation absorbed dose from 90Y bremsstrahlung SPECT/CT images of liver and the surrounding organs. Bremsstrahlung radiation from 90Y was simulated using the Compton window of 99mTc (78keV at 57%). 99mTc images acquired at the photopeak energy window were used as a standard to examine the accuracy of dosimetry prediction by the simulated bremsstrahlung images. A Liqui-Phil abdominal phantom with liver, stomach and two tumor inserts was imaged using a Philips SPECT/CT scanner. The Dose Point Kernel convolution method was used to find the radiation absorbed dose at a voxel level for a three dimensional dose distribution. This method will allow for a complete estimate of the distribution of radiation absorbed dose by tumors, liver, stomach and other surrounding organs at the voxel level. The method provides a quantitative predictive method for SIRT treatment outcome and administered dose response for patients who undergo the treatment.

  16. FOXFIRE protocol: an open-label, randomised, phase III trial of 5-fluorouracil, oxaliplatin and folinic acid (OxMdG) with or without interventional Selective Internal Radiation Therapy (SIRT) as first-line treatment for patients with unresectable liver-only or liver-dominant metastatic colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutton, Susan J; Kenealy, Nicola; Love, Sharon B; Wasan, Harpreet S; Sharma, Ricky A

    2014-07-09

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second most common malignancy in Europe and a leading cause of cancer-related death. Almost 50% of patients with CRC develop liver metastases, which heralds a poor prognosis unless metastases can be downsized to surgical resection or ablation. The FOXFIRE trial examines the hypothesis that combining radiosensitising chemotherapy (OxMdG: oxaliplatin, 5-fluorouracil and folic acid) with Selective Internal Radiation Therapy (SIRT or radioembolisation) using yttrium-90 resin microspheres (SIR-Spheres®; Sirtex Medical Limited, North Sydney, Australia) as a first-line treatment for liver-dominant metastatic CRC will improve clinical outcomes when compared to OxMdG chemotherapy alone. FOXFIRE is an open-label, multicentre, randomised controlled trial of OxMdG with or without the addition of SIRT (1:1 randomisation). Eligible adult patients have histologically confirmed colorectal adenocarcinoma, liver metastases measurable on computed tomography scan and untreatable by either surgical resection or local ablation, and they may have limited extra-hepatic disease, defined as ≤5 nodules in the lung and/or one other metastatic site which is amenable to future definitive treatment. Eligible patients may have received adjuvant chemotherapy following resection of the primary tumour, but are not permitted to have previously received chemotherapy for metastatic disease, and must have a life expectancy of ≥3 months and a WHO performance status of 0-1. The primary outcome is overall survival. Secondary outcomes include progression free survival (PFS), liver-specific PFS, patient-reported outcomes, safety, response rate, resection rate and cost-effectiveness. FOXFIRE shares a combined statistical analysis plan with an international sister trial called SIRFLOX. This trial is establishing a network of SIRT centres and 'feeder' chemotherapy-only centres to standardise the delivery of SIRT across the whole of the UK and to provide greater equity of

  17. New developments in the treatment of the acute radiation syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagemaker, G.

    1996-01-01

    Radiation accidents associated with the use of nuclear power, radiation devices and industrial applications have resulted in a number of individuals with significant partial or total body exposures, in a limited number with lethal outcome. Such exposures generally result in life-threatening suppression of bone marrow and immune functions and may be accompanied by high doses to the skin and underlying tissues. In recent years, new methods of diagnosis and treatment of such patients have entered development, while experience with relatively large-scale accidents, such as the Chernobyl cases, have clearly demonstrated the limitations of previous approaches. In particular bone marrow transplantation has met with limited success, mostly due to the inhomogeneous nature of accidental exposures as well as the frequent occurrence of other injuries other man bone marrow damage. Present day technology allows for direct estimates of the number of residual bone marrow stem cells to enable a rapid decision on the type of treatment indicated, while some twenty-five recombinant hemopoietic growth factors are under investigation to accelerate the recovery of white blood cells and platelets, as well as immune functions. If applied appropriately, such growth factor treatment will successfully replace bone marrow transplantation in the majority of accident cases. Advances in hemopoietic stem cell biology, both in terms of source of stem cells as well as their isolation, will on the other hand make stem cell infusion a much less risky operation than bone marrow transplantation has been in the past

  18. Synthesis and in vitro evaluation of radioiodinated indolequinones targeting NAD(P)H: quinone oxidoreductase 1 for internal radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Junichi; Sano, Kohei; Hagimori, Masayori; Yoshikawa, Mai; Maeda, Minoru; Mukai, Takahiro

    2014-11-01

    quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) is an obligate two-electron reductase and is highly expressed in many human solid cancers. Because NQO1 can be induced immediately after exposure to ionizing radiation, we aimed to develop an NQO1-targeted radiolabeled agent to establish a novel internal radiation therapy that amplifies the therapeutic effects when combined with external radiation therapy. We designed three NQO1-targeted radioiodinated compounds including two ether linkage compounds ([(125)I]1 and [(125)I]2) and a sulfide linkage compound ([(125)I]3) based on the selective binding of indolequinone analogs to the active site of NQO1 by the stacking effect. These compounds were successfully prepared using an oxidative iododestannylation reaction with high radiochemical yields and purity. In NQO1-expressing tumor cells, [(125)I]1 and [(125)I]2 were readily metabolized to p-[(125)I]iodophenol or m-[(125)I]iodophenol and [(125)I]I(-), whereas over 85% of the initial radioactivity of [(125)I]3 was observed as an intact form at 1h after incubation. The cellular uptake of [(125)I]3 was significantly higher than those of [(125)I]1 and [(125)I]2. The uptake of [(125)I]3 was specific and was dependent on the expression of NQO1. These data suggest that the novel NQO1-targeted radioiodinated compound [(125)I]3 could be used as a novel internal radiation agent for the treatment of cancer. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Interfractional Uncertainty in the Treatment of Pancreatic Cancer With Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayachandran, Priya; Minn, A. Yuriko; Van Dam, Jacques; Norton, Jeffrey A.; Koong, Albert C.; Chang, Daniel T.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the interfractional variation in pancreatic tumor position using bony anatomy and implanted fiducial markers. Methods and Materials: Five consecutively treated patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma who received definitive intensity-modulated radiation therapy at Stanford University (Stanford, CA) underwent fiducial seed placement and treatment on the Varian Trilogy system (Varian, Palo Alto, CA) with respiratory gating. Daily orthogonal kilovoltage imaging was performed to verify patient positioning, and isocenter shifts were made initially to match bony anatomy. Next, a final shift to the fiducial seeds was made under fluoroscopic guidance to confirm the location of the pancreatic tumor during the respiratory gated phase. All shifts were measured along three axes, left (+)-right (-), anterior (-)-posterior (+), and superior (+)-inferior (-), and the overall interfractional tumor movement was calculated based on these values. Results: A total of 140 fractions were analyzed. The mean absolute shift to fiducial markers after shifting to bony anatomy was 1.6 mm (95th percentile, 7 mm; range, 0-9 mm), 1.8 mm (95th percentile, 7 mm; range, 0-13 mm), and 4.1 mm (95th percentile, 12 mm; range, 0-19 mm) in the anterior-posterior, left-right, and superior-inferior directions, respectively. The mean interfractional vector shift distance was 5.5 mm (95th percentile, 14.5 mm; range, 0-19.3 mm). In 28 of 140 fractions (20%) no fiducial shift was required after alignment to bony anatomy. Conclusions: There is substantial residual uncertainty after alignment to bony anatomy when radiating pancreatic tumors using respiratory gating. Bony anatomy matched tumor position in only 20% of the radiation treatments. If bony alignment is used in conjunction with respiratory gating without implanted fiducials, treatment margins need to account for this uncertainty.

  20. [International multicenter studies of treatment of severe traumatic brain injury].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talypov, A E; Kordonsky, A Yu; Krylov, V V

    2016-01-01

    Despite the introduction of new diagnostic and therapeutic methods, traumatic brain injury (TBI) remains one of the leading cause of death and disability worldwide. Standards and recommendations on conservative and surgical treatment of TBI patients should be based on concepts and methods with proven efficacy. The authors present a review of studies of the treatment and surgery of severe TBI: DECRA, RESCUEicp, STITCH(TRAUMA), CRASH, CRASH-2, CAPTAIN, NABIS: H ll, Eurotherm 3235. Important recommendations of the international group IMPACT are considered.

  1. Respiratory gating based on internal electromagnetic motion monitoring during stereotactic liver radiation therapy: First results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulsen, Per Rugaard; Worm, Esben Schjødt; Hansen, Rune; Larsen, Lars Peter; Grau, Cai; Høyer, Morten

    2015-01-01

    Intrafraction motion may compromise the target dose in stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) of tumors in the liver. Respiratory gating can improve the treatment delivery, but gating based on an external surrogate signal may be inaccurate. This is the first paper reporting on respiratory gating based on internal electromagnetic monitoring during liver SBRT. Two patients with solitary liver metastases were treated with respiratory-gated SBRT guided by three implanted electromagnetic transponders. The treatment was delivered in end-exhale with beam-on when the centroid of the three transponders deviated less than 3 mm [left-right (LR) and anterior-posterior (AP) directions] and 4mm [cranio-caudal (CC)] from the planned position. For each treatment fraction, log files were used to determine the transponder motion during beam-on in the actual gated treatments and in simulated treatments without gating. The motion was used to reconstruct the dose to the clinical target volume (CTV) with and without gating. The reduction in D95 (minimum dose to 95% of the CTV) relative to the plan was calculated for both treatment courses. With gating the maximum course mean (standard deviation) geometrical error in any direction was 1.2 mm (1.8 mm). Without gating the course mean error would mainly increase for Patient 1 [to -2.8 mm (1.6 mm) (LR), 7.1 mm (5.8 mm) (CC), -2.6 mm (2.8mm) (AP)] due to a large systematic cranial baseline drift at each fraction. The errors without gating increased only slightly for Patient 2. The reduction in CTV D95 was 0.5% (gating) and 12.1% (non-gating) for Patient 1 and 0.3% (gating) and 1.7% (non-gating) for Patient 2. The mean duty cycle was 55%. Respiratory gating based on internal electromagnetic motion monitoring was performed for two liver SBRT patients. The gating added robustness to the dose delivery and ensured a high CTV dose even in the presence of large intrafraction motion.

  2. Internal radiation doses from radioactivity of drinking water in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahlos, H.; Asikainen, M.

    1980-01-01

    A study of the radioactivity of drinking water in Finland was carried out from 1974 to 1978. Samples were collected from nearly all water supply plants with more than 200 users and from privately dug or drilled wells. This paper considers drinking water as a factor in increasing the natural radiation exposure of the population and estimates the collective and per capita dose rates caused by the 222 Rn present in water. Instead of performing dose calculations, the significance of 226 Ra and uranium is assessed by means of daily intake. The assessment is made for both the whole population and three subgroups using the water from water supply plants and privately dug or drilled wells. (author)

  3. Diagnosis and emergency treatment of human exposures to ionizing radiations: practical aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, A.

    1980-01-01

    In case of accidental exposure, occupational physicians in nuclear power plants are faced with problems of diagnosis and early treatment. External irradiation, external and internal contamination will be considered successively. The experience is large as the first unit of the nuclear plant, the second in the world for the capacity, was started up 8 years ago. Of course, problems of radiation protection are different from those encountered in a research center or a hospital and cannot be solved in the same manner. The information gathered should be useful to all those that are faced with such problems [fr

  4. Radiation and health: International Conference. Ber Sheva, Israel, November 3-7, 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsyb, A.F.; Kondrashova, T.V.

    1997-01-01

    Main problems being discussed at the International Conference Radiation and Health held in Ber Sheva, Israel, in November 3-7, 1996. Three basic trends in the reports topics are marked: modern data on radiobiological researches, epidemiological characteristics of the delayed radiation effects, analysis of psychosocial phenomena of the post-Chernobyl period. Problems of the first 10 years following the Chernobyl accident were the head topic of the conference

  5. The role of radiation therapy in the multidisciplinary treatment of patients with malignant tumors. Radiation pathological stand point

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niibe, Hideo

    1998-01-01

    Estimations suggest that about 60% of all cancer patients will require some form of radiation therapy during their lifetime. Although 40 to 50% of cancer patients in Europe and the United States receive radiation therapy, only about 20% of patients with cancer in Japan undergo such treatment. This is largely due to the lack of understanding of the role of radiation therapy by many medical personnel in Japan, as well as to ''''radiation allergy'''' among many of the general population in Japan, a country that has been undergone atomic bombing. From our perspective as specialists in radiation therapy, the chronic shortage of radiation oncologist also poses a serious problem. Although there are approximately 700 hospitals throughout Japan where radiation therapy is available, no more than half this number of medical facilities have a full-time radiation oncologist. Perhaps the reason for this is that radiation therapy is perceived as unnecessary in Japan. However, it is absolutely essential. In our experience, the 5-year relative survival rate of patients with malignant tumors who have undergone radiation therapy in our clinic is 65 percent. Thus, radiation therapy has proven very useful in the treatment of malignant tumors. Moreover, better estimates of prognosis of cancer patients treated with radiation therapy are becoming possible. This article discusses the role of radiation therapy, from a radiation pathological perspective, in a multidisciplinary approach to treatment of cancer patients. I also emphasize the critical importance of training radiation oncologists who can function as part of multidisciplinary teams that care for patients with malignant tumors. (author). 50 refs

  6. Gamma radiation induced effects on slaughterhouse wastewater treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melo, Rita [Departamento de Fisica, Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, Estrada Nacional 10, Apartado 21, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal)], E-mail: ritamelo@itn.pt; Cabo Verde, Sandra [Departamento de Fisica, Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, Estrada Nacional 10, Apartado 21, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal); Branco, Joaquim [Departamento de Quimica, Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, Estrada Nacional 10, Apartado 21, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal); Botelho, M. Luisa [Departamento de Fisica, Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, Estrada Nacional 10, Apartado 21, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal)

    2008-01-15

    A preliminary study using gamma radiation on slaughterhouse wastewater samples was carried out. Chemical oxygen demand (COD), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and total suspended solids (TSS) results were obtained at a dose rate of 0.9 kGy h{sup -1}. A decrease of COD, BOD and colour was observed after irradiation at high absorbed doses. The microbiological results, following irradiation in the same conditions, correlated with the BOD results. The results obtained highlight the potential of this technology for wastewater treatment.

  7. Consensus Recommendations for Radiation Therapy Contouring and Treatment of Vulvar Carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaffney, David K., E-mail: david.gaffney@hci.utah.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Huntsman Cancer Hospital, Salt Lake City, Utah (United States); King, Bronwyn [Department of Radiation Oncology and Cancer Imaging, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre and Epworth Radiation Oncology, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Viswanathan, Akila N. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber/Brigham and Women' s Cancer Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Barkati, Maroie [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre hospitalier de l' universite de Montreal, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Beriwal, Sushil [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States); Eifel, Patricia [Department of Radiation Oncology, MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Erickson, Beth [Department of Radiation Oncology, Proedtert and Medical College Clinical Cancer Center, Milwaukee, Wisconsin (United States); Fyles, Anthony [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Goulart, Jennifer [Department of Radiation Oncology, British Columbia Cancer Agency, Victoria, British Columbia (Canada); Harkenrider, Matthew [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stritch School of Medicine, Loyola University, Maywood, Illinois (United States); Jhingran, Anuja; Klopp, Ann [Department of Radiation Oncology, MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Koh, Wui-Jin [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington (United States); Lim, Karen [Liverpool Cancer Therapy Centre, Radiation Oncology Unit, Sydney, New South Wales (Australia); Petersen, Ivy [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Portelance, Lorraine [Radiation Oncology Department, Miller School of Medicine, University of Miami, Miami, Florida (United States); and others

    2016-07-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to develop a radiation therapy (RT) contouring atlas and recommendations for women with postoperative and locally advanced vulvar carcinoma. Methods and Materials: An international committee of 35 expert gynecologic radiation oncologists completed a survey of the treatment of vulvar carcinoma. An initial set of recommendations for contouring was discussed and generated by consensus. Two cases, 1 locally advanced and 1 postoperative, were contoured by 14 physicians. Contours were compared and analyzed using an expectation-maximization algorithm for simultaneous truth and performance level estimation (STAPLE), and a 95% confidence interval contour was developed. The level of agreement among contours was assessed using a kappa statistic. STAPLE contours underwent full committee editing to generate the final atlas consensus contours. Results: Analysis of the 14 contours showed substantial agreement, with kappa statistics of 0.69 and 0.64 for cases 1 and 2, respectively. There was high specificity for both cases (≥99%) and only moderate sensitivity of 71.3% and 64.9% for cases 1 and 2, respectively. Expert review and discussion generated consensus recommendations for contouring target volumes and treatment for postoperative and locally advanced vulvar cancer. Conclusions: These consensus recommendations for contouring and treatment of vulvar cancer identified areas of complexity and controversy. Given the lack of clinical research evidence in vulvar cancer radiation therapy, the committee advocates a conservative and consistent approach using standardized recommendations.

  8. Process of coping with intracavity radiation treatment for gynecologic cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nail, L.M.D.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the process of coping with the experience of receiving intracavity radiation treatment (ICR) for gynecologic cancer. Data were collected on the outcomes of coping, emotion (Profile of Mood States) and level of function (Sickness Impact Profile), and symptom severity and upset the evening before, during, the day after, and 1 to 2 weeks after treatment. The subjects (N = 28) had a mean age of 52 years, 39% were employed full-time, 56% had occupations as manual workers, 57% had completed 12 or more years of education, and 68% were married or widowed. The treatment required the subjects to be hospitalized on complete bedrest with radiation precautions for an average of 48 hours. Intrauterine devices were used to treat 18 subjects and vaginal applications were used to treat 10 subjects. Negative mood and level of disruption in function were generally low. Repeated measures ANOVA showed no change in negative mood over time while the change in function was attributable to the increase in disruption during treatment. Utilization of affective coping strategies and problem-oriented coping strategies was positively correlated with negative mood and disruption in function over the points of measurement. The results indicate that subjects tolerated ICR well and rapidly resumed usual function following discharge from the hospital, despite the persistence of some symptoms 1 to 2 weeks after treatment. The positive association between the utilization of coping strategies and negative outcomes of coping suggests a need to examine the measurement of coping strategies and consider the possibility that these actions represent a response to a stressful situation rather than a method of dealing with the situation

  9. International consensus for the treatment of autoimmune pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okazaki, Kazuichi; Chari, Suresh T; Frulloni, Luca; Lerch, Markus M; Kamisawa, Terumi; Kawa, Shigeyuki; Kim, Myung-Hwan; Lévy, Philippe; Masamune, Atsushi; Webster, George; Shimosegawa, Tooru

    The International Consensus Diagnostic Criteria (ICDC) for AIP has proposed two distinctive type of AIP, type 1 and type 2, and enabled us first to differentiate two types of AIP each other. By initial steroid treatment for induction of remission, remission can be successfully induced in almost all subjects with type 1 and type 2 AIP. As relapse rate in type 1 AIP is significantly higher than in type 2 AIP, there has been ongoing debate on how to treat effectively relapse of type 1 AIP. By a modified Delphi approach, a panel of international experts has proposed an international consensus on the treatment of AIP after intense discussion and deliberation during an international consensus symposium of the International Association of Pancreatology (IAP) 2016. Individual statements for nine clinical questions with recommendation levels and the therapeutic strategy have been proposed. The recommendations are based on the available evidence, and eastern and western experts' opinions to find standard treatment of AIP worldwide. These recommendations can be tailored according to the local expertise and context in the management of individual patients. Copyright © 2016 IAP and EPC. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Radiation Dose to the Esophagus From Breast Cancer Radiation Therapy, 1943-1996: An International Population-Based Study of 414 Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamart, Stephanie; Stovall, Marilyn; Simon, Steven L.; Smith, Susan A.; Weathers, Rita E.; Howell, Rebecca M.; Curtis, Rochelle E.; Aleman, Berthe M.P.; Travis, Lois; Kwon, Deukwoo; Morton, Lindsay M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To provide dosimetric data for an epidemiologic study on the risk of second primary esophageal cancer among breast cancer survivors, by reconstructing the radiation dose incidentally delivered to the esophagus of 414 women treated with radiation therapy for breast cancer during 1943-1996 in North America and Europe. Methods and Materials: We abstracted the radiation therapy treatment parameters from each patient’s radiation therapy record. Treatment fields included direct chest wall (37% of patients), medial and lateral tangentials (45%), supraclavicular (SCV, 64%), internal mammary (IM, 44%), SCV and IM together (16%), axillary (52%), and breast/chest wall boosts (7%). The beam types used were 60 Co (45% of fields), orthovoltage (33%), megavoltage photons (11%), and electrons (10%). The population median prescribed dose to the target volume ranged from 21 Gy to 40 Gy. We reconstructed the doses over the length of the esophagus using abstracted patient data, water phantom measurements, and a computational model of the human body. Results: Fields that treated the SCV and/or IM lymph nodes were used for 85% of the patients and delivered the highest doses within 3 regions of the esophagus: cervical (population median 38 Gy), upper thoracic (32 Gy), and middle thoracic (25 Gy). Other fields (direct chest wall, tangential, and axillary) contributed substantially lower doses (approximately 2 Gy). The cervical to middle thoracic esophagus received the highest dose because of its close proximity to the SCV and IM fields and less overlying tissue in that part of the chest. The location of the SCV field border relative to the midline was one of the most important determinants of the dose to the esophagus. Conclusions: Breast cancer patients in this study received relatively high incidental radiation therapy doses to the esophagus when the SCV and/or IM lymph nodes were treated, whereas direct chest wall, tangentials, and axillary fields contributed lower doses

  11. Possibility of radiation application to sludge treatment in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takehisa, Masaaki

    1980-01-01

    Interest in the effective use of sludge, which is generated increasingly with the propagation of sewerage, is being enhanced in Japan. On the other hand, attention is given to the return of sludge to soil in agriculture for the purpose of putting organic material into agricultural land. For this purpose, of course heavy metals and toxic chemicals must not be contained in sludge, but further inactivation of the pathogens, parasite ova and seeds in sludge is considered to be required. Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute investigated the radiation disinfection of dehydrated cake forming 80% of the sludge taken out of treatment plants in Japan. As a result of the examination of the change in the number of bacteria by γ irradiation, 0.5 Mrad was decided to be the suitable dose for sanitating sludge regardless of season, at which coliform group decreased greatly. It seems that sludges are required to be composted in Japan. Radiation disinfection has the advantage of composting under the optimum temperature condition for fermentation, because it is not required to keep high temperature during fermentation aiming at the sterilization of pathogens. However, it is desirable to use large output accelerators combining with the radiation process for the purpose of reusing treated water in order to reduce the process cost. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  12. Bone marrow transplantation and other treatment after radiation injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balner, H.

    1977-01-01

    This review deals mainly with current concepts about bone marrow transplantation as therapy for serious radiation injury. Such injury can be classified according to the following broadly defined dose ranges: (1) the supralethal range, leading mainly to the cerebral and intestinal syndromes; (2) the potentially lethal or therapeutic range which causes the bone marrow syndrome, and (3) the sublethal range which rarely leads to injury requiring therapy. The bone marrow syndrome of man and animals is discussed in detail. The optimal therapy for this syndrome is bone marrow transplantation in conjunction with conventional supportive treatment. The principal complications of such therapy are Graft versus Host Disease and a slow recovery of the recipient's immune system. Concerted research activities in a number of institutions have led to considerable progress in the field of bone marrow transplantation. Improved donor selection, new techniques for stem-cell separation and preservation, as well as effective barrier-nursing and antibiotic decontamination, have made bone marrow transplantation an accepted therapy for marrow depression, including the aplasia caused by excessive exposure to radiation. The review also contains a number of guidelines for the handling of serious radiation accidents. (Auth.)

  13. Radiation microsphere-induced GI ulcers after selective internal radiation therapy for hepatic tumors: an underrecognized clinical entity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konda, Amulya; Savin, Michael A; Cappell, Mitchell S; Duffy, Michael C

    2009-09-01

    Intra-arterial infusion of yttrium-90 (Y-90) microspheres is locoregional radiation therapy for unresectable hepatic neoplasms. Literature on GI complications of this novel therapy is sparse. Clinically and pictorially characterize selective internal radiation therapy (SIRT)-induced GI injury and review the published literature. Retrospective chart analysis. Single-center tertiary referral community hospital. One hundred three patients treated with SIRT for hepatic neoplasms between 2006 and 2008. SIRT for unresectable hepatic neoplasms followed by upper endoscopy with biopsy in symptomatic patients. GI ulcers after SIRT. Five patients with suspected GI injury after SIRT were identified. Significant postprocedural symptoms included nausea/vomiting, odynophagia, hematemesis, and melena. Radiation ulcers occurred mostly in the gastric antrum, pylorus, and duodenum. Biopsy specimens of ulcer margins in 4 patients showed pathognomonic radiation microspheres. Angiographic review of the fifth patient revealed a previously unrecognized arterial branch supplying the corresponding region of GI ulceration noted on endoscopy. Small retrospective study and follow-up limited by terminal disease states in most patients. The reported incidence of GI complications after SIRT for hepatic neoplasia varies from 3% to 24% of patients. Incidence can be minimized by strict adherence to published SIRT protocols. Diagnosis requires a high degree of clinical suspicion along with endoscopy and biopsy of ulcer margins. Characteristic radiation microspheres in biopsy specimens are pathognomonic. Gastroenterologists and pathologists must be cognizant of this complication.

  14. Radiation protection planning for the international FAIR project; Strahlenschutzplanung fuer das internationale FAIR-Projekt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fehrenbacher, G. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); FAIR - Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research in Europe GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Belousov, A.; Conrad, I. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); and others

    2015-07-01

    FAIR (=Facility for AntiProton and Ion Research) is an international accelerator facility which will be built near the GSI site in Darmstadt, where protons and heavy ion beams can be accelerated in a synchrotron to energies up to 30 GeV/nucleon with intensities partially up to 1E13/sec. The accelerated particles will be used for experiments in atomic, nuclear and plasma physics as well as for radiation biology and medicine and materials research. The radiation protection planning focuses on the estimation of radiation fields produced by heavy ions and its shielding. As examples, the radiation protection planning for the heavy ion synchrotron SIS100 as well as for two experiment caves are presented. Moreover, further important topics in this radiation protection planning are the estimation of the distribution and production of radionuclides in media and the handling before disposal.

  15. The Eleventh International Ural Seminar Radiation damage physics of metals and alloys. Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    The book includes abstracts of the Eleventh International Ural Seminar Radiation damage physics of metals and alloys (Kyshtym, 23 February - 1 March, 2015). General issues of radiation damage physics of metals and alloys are discussed. Materials for nuclear and thermonuclear power engineering, new approaches to the development of radiation-resistant structural steels are in the view of participants. The new trends in the physics of strongly correlated d- and f-electron systems, radiation technologies for creating materials with desired properties are considered. Much attention is paid to the impact of external influences on the structural and phase changes in the actinides, areas related with the study of radiation effects in dielectrics and semiconductors, the development of new devices and techniques for carrying out experiments. During the seminar the traditional School of the young speaker is held [ru

  16. Internal endoprosthesis as treatment of obstructive jaundice in pancreatitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burcharth, F.; Holst Pedersen, J.

    1981-01-01

    In five patients with pancreatitis, obstructive jaundice was relieved by internal drainage of the biliary tract with an endoprosthesis inserted by percutaneous transhepatic technique. The average duration of treatment was 3.5 months. The endoprosthesis was removed by means of a duodenoscope, and jaundice did not recur. (orig.) [de

  17. The Principle of National Treatment in international economic law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamperman Sanders, A.W.J.

    2014-01-01

    This second volume in the European IP Institutes Network Series provides an exhaustive overview on the principle of national treatment that is enshrined in a number of international treaties. The non-discrimination principle ensures that foreign nationals, goods, services or investments are not

  18. Proceedings of the Third international conference 'Interaction of radiation with solids'. Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anishchik, V.M.; Zhukova, S.I.; Ponaryadov, V.V.; Popok, V.N.; Prikhod'ko, Zh.L.

    1999-10-01

    The 128 collected papers form the Proceedings of the International Conference 'Interaction of Radiation with Solids'. This Conference is the third forum biennially gathering in Minsk the specialists from different countries. The scope of the problems considered at the Conference is widening steadily from year to year including the recent results and most advanced leads in the field of radiation physics of condensed matter. In the first part of the proceedings consideration is being given to 'Processes of ion interaction with solids', 'Plasma interaction with surface' and 'Radiation effects in solids'

  19. VII International scientific conference Radiation-thermal effects and processes in inorganic materials. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    In the collection there are the reports of the VII International scientific conference and the VII All-Russian school-conference Radiation-thermal effects and processes in inorganic materials which were conducted on October 2-10, 2010, in Tomsk. The reports deal with new developments of charged particles high-intensity beam sources, high-temperature metrology of high-current beams and work materials, radiation-thermal stimulated effects and processes in inorganic materials, physical basics of technological processes, radiation-thermal technologies and equipment for their realization, allied branches of science and technology, specifically, nanotechnologies [ru

  20. Wakefield radiation from the open end of an internally coated metallic tube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ivanyan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the problem of radiation from the open end of a semi-infinite circular metallic waveguide with perfectly conducting walls and a thin internal low-conducting metal coating is considered. Electromagnetic fields are generated by the ultrarelativistic point charge moving along the axis of the waveguide. The far fields of radiation are obtained using the near-field to far-field recovery technique. The technique is extended for the nonmonochromatic waves. It is shown that the radiation has a narrow-band and narrow-directional character.

  1. Proceedings of the Fourth international conference 'Interaction of radiation with solids'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anishchik, V.M.; Zhukova, S.I.; Azarko, I.I.; Prikhod'ko, Zh.L.

    2001-10-01

    The 132 collected papers form the Proceedings of the International Conference 'Interaction of Radiation with Solids'. This Conference is the fourth forum biennially gathering in Minsk the specialists from different countries. The scope of the problems considered at the Conference is widening steadily from year to year including the recent results and most advanced leads in the field of radiation physics of condensed matter. In the proceedings consideration is being given to 'Processes of ion interaction with solids', 'Plasma interaction with surface' and 'Radiation effects in solids'

  2. Yttrium-90 microsphere selective internal radiation therapy for liver metastases following systemic chemotherapy and surgical resection for metastatic adrenocortical carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makary, Mina S; Krishner, Lawrence S; Wuthrick, Evan J; Bloomston, Mark P; Dowell, Joshua D

    2018-02-10

    Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare malignancy with generally poor outcomes and limited treatment options. While surgical resection can be curative for early local disease, most patients present with advanced ACC owing to nonspecific symptoms. For those patients, treatment options include systemic chemotherapy and locoregional therapies including radiofrequency ablation and transarterial chemoembolization. We present the first reported case of utilizing yttrium-90 microsphere selective internal radiation therapy (SIRT) in combination with first line EDP-M (Etoposide, Doxorubicin, Cisplatin, Mitotane) chemotherapy and debulking surgical primary tumor resection for treatment of metastatic ACC. Stable complete radiologic response has been maintained after twelve months with resolution of clinical symptoms. These findings prompt the need for further consideration and studies to elucidate the role of SIRT in combination with systemic and surgical treatment for metastatic ACC.

  3. Adverse event reporting and developments in radiation biology after normal tissue injury: International Atomic Energy Agency consultation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yuhchyau; Trotti, Andy; Coleman, C. Norman; Machtay, Mitchell; Mirimanoff, Rene O.; Hay, John; O'Brien, Peter C.; El-Gueddari, Brahim; Salvajoli, Joao V.; Jeremic, Branislav

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Recent research has enhanced our understanding of radiation injury at the molecular-cellular and tissue levels; significant strides have occurred in standardization of adverse event reporting in clinical trials. In response, the International Atomic Energy Agency, through its Division of Human Health and its section for Applied Radiation Biology and Radiotherapy, organized a consultation meeting in Atlanta (October 2, 2004) to discuss developments in radiobiology, normal tissue reactions, and adverse event reporting. Methods and Materials: Representatives from cooperative groups of African Radiation Oncology Group, Curriculo Radioterapeutica Ibero Latino Americana, European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer, National Cancer Institute of Canada Clinical Trials Group, Radiation Therapy Oncology Group, and Trans-Tasman Radiation Oncology Group held the meeting discussion. Results: Representatives of major radiotherapy groups/organizations and prominent leaders in radiotherapy discussed current understanding of normal tissue radiobiologic effects, the design and implementation of future clinical and translational projects for normal tissue injury, and the standardization of adverse-event reporting worldwide. Conclusions: The consensus was to adopt NCI comprehensive adverse event reporting terminology and grading system (CTCAE v3.0) as the new standard for all cooperative group trials. Future plans included the implementation of coordinated research projects focusing on normal tissue biomarkers and data collection methods

  4. Delineation of Internal Mammary Nodal Target Volumes in Breast Cancer Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jethwa, Krishan R.; Kahila, Mohamed M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Hunt, Katie N. [Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Brown, Lindsay C.; Corbin, Kimberly S.; Park, Sean S.; Yan, Elizabeth S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Boughey, Judy C. [Department of Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Mutter, Robert W., E-mail: mutter.robert@mayo.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States)

    2017-03-15

    Purpose: The optimal clinical target volume for internal mammary (IM) node irradiation is uncertain in an era of increasingly conformal volume-based treatment planning for breast cancer. We mapped the location of gross internal mammary lymph node (IMN) metastases to identify areas at highest risk of harboring occult disease. Methods and Materials: Patients with axial imaging of IMN disease were identified from a breast cancer registry. The IMN location was transferred onto the corresponding anatomic position on representative axial computed tomography images of a patient in the treatment position and compared with consensus group guidelines of IMN target delineation. Results: The IMN location in 67 patients with 130 IMN metastases was mapped. The location was in the first 3 intercostal spaces in 102 of 130 nodal metastases (78%), whereas 18 of 130 IMNs (14%) were located caudal to the third intercostal space and 10 of 130 IMNs (8%) were located cranial to the first intercostal space. Of the 102 nodal metastases within the first 3 intercostal spaces, 54 (53%) were located within the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group consensus volume. Relative to the IM vessels, 19 nodal metastases (19%) were located medially with a mean distance of 2.2 mm (SD, 2.9 mm) whereas 29 (28%) were located laterally with a mean distance of 3.6 mm (SD, 2.5 mm). Ninety percent of lymph nodes within the first 3 intercostal spaces would have been encompassed within a 4-mm medial and lateral expansion on the IM vessels. Conclusions: In women with indications for elective IMN irradiation, a 4-mm medial and lateral expansion on the IM vessels may be appropriate. In women with known IMN involvement, cranial extension to the confluence of the IM vein with the brachiocephalic vein with or without caudal extension to the fourth or fifth interspace may be considered provided that normal tissue constraints are met.

  5. Delineation of Internal Mammary Nodal Target Volumes in Breast Cancer Radiation Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jethwa, Krishan R; Kahila, Mohamed M; Hunt, Katie N; Brown, Lindsay C; Corbin, Kimberly S; Park, Sean S; Yan, Elizabeth S; Boughey, Judy C; Mutter, Robert W

    2017-03-15

    The optimal clinical target volume for internal mammary (IM) node irradiation is uncertain in an era of increasingly conformal volume-based treatment planning for breast cancer. We mapped the location of gross internal mammary lymph node (IMN) metastases to identify areas at highest risk of harboring occult disease. Patients with axial imaging of IMN disease were identified from a breast cancer registry. The IMN location was transferred onto the corresponding anatomic position on representative axial computed tomography images of a patient in the treatment position and compared with consensus group guidelines of IMN target delineation. The IMN location in 67 patients with 130 IMN metastases was mapped. The location was in the first 3 intercostal spaces in 102 of 130 nodal metastases (78%), whereas 18 of 130 IMNs (14%) were located caudal to the third intercostal space and 10 of 130 IMNs (8%) were located cranial to the first intercostal space. Of the 102 nodal metastases within the first 3 intercostal spaces, 54 (53%) were located within the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group consensus volume. Relative to the IM vessels, 19 nodal metastases (19%) were located medially with a mean distance of 2.2 mm (SD, 2.9 mm) whereas 29 (28%) were located laterally with a mean distance of 3.6 mm (SD, 2.5 mm). Ninety percent of lymph nodes within the first 3 intercostal spaces would have been encompassed within a 4-mm medial and lateral expansion on the IM vessels. In women with indications for elective IMN irradiation, a 4-mm medial and lateral expansion on the IM vessels may be appropriate. In women with known IMN involvement, cranial extension to the confluence of the IM vein with the brachiocephalic vein with or without caudal extension to the fourth or fifth interspace may be considered provided that normal tissue constraints are met. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Enhancing international radiation/nuclear detection training opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Thomas L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bersell, Bridget M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Booker, Paul M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Anderson, Gerald E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Leitch, Rosalyn M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Meagher, John B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Siefken, Rob R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Spracklen, James L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-09-23

    The United States has worked domestically to develop and provide radiological and nuclear detection training and education initiatives aimed at interior law enforcement, but the international community has predominantly focused efforts at border and customs officials. The interior law enforcement officials of a State play a critical role in maintaining an effective national-level nuclear detection architecture. To meet this vital need, DNDO was funded by the U.S. Department of State (DOS) to create and deliver a 1-week course at the International Law Enforcement Academy (ILEA) in Budapest, Hungary to inform interior law enforcement personnel of the overall mission, and to provide an understanding of how the participants can combat the threats of radiological and nuclear terrorism through detection efforts. Two courses, with approximately 20 students in each course, were delivered in fiscal year (FY) 2013, two were delivered in FY 2014 and FY 2015, and as of this report’s writing more are planned in FY 2016. However, while the ILEA courses produced measurable success, DNDO requested Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) research potential avenues to further increase the course impact.In a multi-phased approach, PNNL researched and analyzed several possible global training locations and venues, and other possible ways to increase the impact of the course using an agreed-to data-gathering format.

  7. A computer aided treatment event recognition system in radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia, Junyi; Mart, Christopher; Bayouth, John

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To develop an automated system to safeguard radiation therapy treatments by analyzing electronic treatment records and reporting treatment events. Methods: CATERS (Computer Aided Treatment Event Recognition System) was developed to detect treatment events by retrieving and analyzing electronic treatment records. CATERS is designed to make the treatment monitoring process more efficient by automating the search of the electronic record for possible deviations from physician's intention, such as logical inconsistencies as well as aberrant treatment parameters (e.g., beam energy, dose, table position, prescription change, treatment overrides, etc). Over a 5 month period (July 2012–November 2012), physicists were assisted by the CATERS software in conducting normal weekly chart checks with the aims of (a) determining the relative frequency of particular events in the authors’ clinic and (b) incorporating these checks into the CATERS. During this study period, 491 patients were treated at the University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics for a total of 7692 fractions. Results: All treatment records from the 5 month analysis period were evaluated using all the checks incorporated into CATERS after the training period. About 553 events were detected as being exceptions, although none of them had significant dosimetric impact on patient treatments. These events included every known event type that was discovered during the trial period. A frequency analysis of the events showed that the top three types of detected events were couch position override (3.2%), extra cone beam imaging (1.85%), and significant couch position deviation (1.31%). The significant couch deviation is defined as the number of treatments where couch vertical exceeded two times standard deviation of all couch verticals, or couch lateral/longitudinal exceeded three times standard deviation of all couch laterals and longitudinals. On average, the application takes about 1 s per patient when

  8. Internal stray radiation measurement for cryogenic infrared imaging systems using a spherical mirror.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Qijie; Chang, Songtao; He, Fengyun; Li, Zhou; Qiao, Yanfeng

    2017-06-10

    Internal stray radiation is a key factor that influences infrared imaging systems, and its suppression level is an important criterion to evaluate system performance, especially for cryogenic infrared imaging systems, which are highly sensitive to thermal sources. In order to achieve accurate measurement for internal stray radiation, an approach is proposed, which is based on radiometric calibration using a spherical mirror. First of all, the theory of spherical mirror design is introduced. Then, the calibration formula considering the integration time is presented. Following this, the details regarding the measurement method are presented. By placing a spherical mirror in front of the infrared detector, the influence of internal factors of the detector on system output can be obtained. According to the calibration results of the infrared imaging system, the output caused by internal stray radiation can be acquired. Finally, several experiments are performed in a chamber with controllable inside temperatures to validate the theory proposed in this paper. Experimental results show that the measurement results are in good accordance with the theoretical analysis, and demonstrate that the proposed theories are valid and can be employed in practical applications. The proposed method can achieve accurate measurement for internal stray radiation at arbitrary integration time and ambient temperatures. The measurement result can be used to evaluate whether the suppression level meets the system requirement.

  9. Decontamination of waste radioactive polluted solutions in radiation treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simova, G.; Boyadzhiev, A.; Mikhajlov, M.G.; Shopov, N.

    1979-01-01

    The decontamination capacity of solutions of the trivial cleaning Bulgarian preparations ''Mipro'', ''Sana'', ''Synthek'' and ''Univer'' for different surfaces (steel, glass, PVC and linoleum) contaminated with cesium-134, strontium-85 or cerium-144 chlorides, was studied. Concentrations from 5 to 15 g/l of the solutions used in this study displayed a degree of cleaning over 90%. Higher concentration of the solution does not improve its cleaning capacity. For evaluation of foam formation by the solutions, the so called ''foam column stability coefficient'' has been adopted. This coefficient represents the ratio between the height of the foam column and the time of its half life, referred to the time for the foam column formation when blown through with a constant air current. On the basis of this index, solutions of the preparation ''Mipro'' proved to be the best ones for decontamination - in the whole investigated concentration span, the foam column stability coefficient for the solutions of this preparation is with two orders lower than the respective coefficient of the other preparations. It was experimentally established that radiation treatment of radio-contaminated solutions reduces the foam column stability coefficient. Radiation treatment should be carried out in a gamma field, realizing at least one megarad within an acceptable for the liquid wastes time period. (A.B.)

  10. Diagnosis and treatment of radiation-induced burns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portas, Mercedes; Pomerane, Armando; Genovese, Jorge; Perez, Maria R.; Gisone, Pablo

    2002-01-01

    The utilization of radioactive sources in medicine, industry and research is associated with a probability of accidental overexposures to ionizing radiation, among which localized irradiation are the most frequent events. Moreover, between 5 and 8 % of the patients undergoing therapeutical irradiations could exhibit a higher individual radiosensitivity which could account for severe skin reactions. Localized overexposures may damage not only epidermis and dermis but also deeper connective tissue, vessels, muscles and even bones. Within the framework of a cooperation agreement between the Buenos Aires Burn Hospital and the National Board of Nuclear Regulation, a Radio pathology Committee has been established in 1997 with the purpose of carrying out a collaborative project concerning diagnosis and treatment of radiological burns. The present document particularly considers radiological burns form the point of view of their physiopathology, physical and biological dosimetry, diagnosis prognosis and treatment. It also includes basic concepts of radiation biology and radio pathology. It could be an useful tool for training medical practitioners and also a practical guidance for organizing medical response in accidental overexposures. (author)

  11. Radiation exposure to parents nursing their child during treatment with 131-I-meta-iodobenzyl guanidine for neuroblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcuse, H.R.; van der Steen, J.; Maessen, H.J.M.; Hoefnagel, C.A.; Voute, P.A.

    1986-01-01

    After 22 treatments involving eight patients the radiation dose equivalent received by parents is described. Patients received 1.5-5.5 GBq I-131 as MIBG by 1-24 hours infusion. Selection for therapy was made after a diagnostic examination of MIBG uptake with quantities less than 40 Mbq. The decision for treatment was based on estimations of the radiation dose delivered to the tumor and to normal organs and the general condition of the patient. The hospital is licensed to discharge patients if a number of conditions concerning the administered radioactivity are satisfied. It is shown that the dose equivalent to the parent can be kept to an acceptable level of approximately 1 mSv per treatment. This dose equivalent is mainly due to external radiation since blocking the parent's thyroid leads to negligible dose equivalent from internal contamination. 2 references, 2 figures, 1 table

  12. Proceedings of the international conference on radiation environment - assessment, measurement and its impact: abstract and souvenir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The international conference on radiation environment-assessment, measurement and its impact is a major step for evolving a consensual perspective on the future course of research in radiation physics and safety aspects in the entire country and global village in wider perspectives. The attempt is to welcome novel ideas and identify the strategies for enhancing safe lives without comprising the immense benefits of radiation sciences. The conference would present progress in radiation physics research. This international conference would strengthen the chain of research activities as well act as a catalyst. In the wake of the disaster at Fukushima, Japan such research activities are the need of the hour. While radiation hazards are immense and one might be quite impulsive in criticizing the so called radiation word, but we have to invite knowledge heads all over to further this science, despite its hazards, so that it may cater to the needs of young generation in present era. The discussion between learned teachers, far sighted scientists and scholars is very relevant and need of the hour. It is expected that a sharing of the current international experiences in radiation physics research through this international exposure will help in enriching understanding of our requirements in a globalised world. We must harness maximum benefit out of this science. It is quite encouraging that the main objective of the seminar is to probe critically the state of the art expertise available and hence deciphering the future prospects available with the field which can be achieved given proper utilization of the available resources. This conference touches many such aspects. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  13. Current state of methodological and decisions for radiation treatment of blood, its components and products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordeev A.V.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents currently used blood transfusion media — components and blood products, therapeutic effects, reactions and complications of blood transfusion, use of radiation treatment for blood transfusion fluids. There had been discussed in detail the practice of radiation processing of blood components and for the prevention of reaction "graft versus host" and studies of plasma radiation treatment for its infectious safety. There was presented the current state of techniques and technical solutions of radiation treatment of transfusion-transmissible environments. There were also considered an alternative to radiation treatment of blood.

  14. Image registration: An essential part of radiation therapy treatment planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenman, Julian G.; Miller, Elizabeth P.; Tracton, Gregg; Cullip, Tim J.

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: We believe that a three-dimensional (3D) registration of nonplanning (diagnostic) imaging data with the planning computed tomography (CT) offers a substantial improvement in tumor target identification for many radiation therapy patients. The purpose of this article is to review and discuss our experience to date. Methods and Materials: We reviewed the charts and treatment planning records of all patients that underwent 3D radiation treatment planning in our department from June 1994 to December 1995, to learn which patients had image registration performed and why it was thought they would benefit from this approach. We also measured how much error would have been introduced into the target definition if the nonplanning imaging data had not been available and only the planning CT had been used. Results: Between June 1994 and December 1995, 106 of 246 (43%) of patients undergoing 3D treatment planning had image registration. Four reasons for performing registration were identified. First, some tumor volumes have better definition on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) than on CT. Second, a properly contrasted diagnostic CT sometimes can show the tumor target better than can the planning CT. Third, the diagnostic CT or MR may have been preoperative, with the postoperative planning CT no longer showing the tumor. Fourth, the patient may have undergone cytoreductive chemotherapy so that the postchemotherapy planning CT no longer showed the original tumor volume. In patients in whom the planning CT did not show the tumor volume well an analysis was done to determine how the treatment plan was changed with the addition of a better tumor-defining nonplanning CT or MR. We have found that the use of this additional imaging modality changed the tumor location in the treatment plan at least 1.5 cm for half of the patients, and up to 3.0 cm for ((1)/(4)) of the patients. Conclusions: Multimodality and/or sequential imaging can substantially aid in better tumor

  15. Radiation protection - Monitoring of workers occupationally exposed to a risk of internal contamination with radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    In the course of employment, individuals might work with radioactive materials that, under certain circumstances, could be taken into the body. Protecting workers against risks of incorporated radionuclides requires the monitoring of potential intakes and/or the quantification of actual intakes and exposures. The selection of measures and programmes for this purpose requires decisions concerning methods, techniques, frequencies etc. for measurements and dose assessment. The criteria permitting the evaluation of the necessity of such a monitoring programme or for the selection of methods and frequencies of monitoring usually depend upon the legislation, the purpose of the radiation protection programme, the probabilities of potential radionuclide intakes, and the characteristics of the materials handled. This International Standard offers guidance for the decision whether a monitoring programme is required and how it should be designed. Its intention is to optimise the efforts for such a monitoring programme consistent with legal requirements and with the purpose of the radiation protection programme. Recommendations of international expert bodies and international experience with the practical application of these recommendations in radiation protection programmes have been considered in the development of this International Standard. Its application facilitates the exchanges of information between authorities, supervisory institutions and employers. The International Standard is not a substitute for legal requirements. In the International Standard, the word 'shall' is used to denote a requirement and no deviation is allowed. The word 'should' is used to denote a recommendation from which justified deviations are allowed. The word 'may' is used to denote permission

  16. Very fast simulated reannealing in radiation therapy treatment plan optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrill, Steven M.; Lam, Kam Shing; Lane, Richard G.; Langer, Mark; Rosen, Isaac I.

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: Very Fast Simulated Reannealing is a relatively new (1989) and sophisticated algorithm for simulated annealing applications. It offers the advantages of annealing methods while requiring shorter execution times. The purpose of this investigation was to adapt Very Fast Simulated Reannealing to conformal treatment planning optimization. Methods and Materials: We used Very Fast Simulated Reannealing to optimize treatments for three clinical cases with two different cost functions. The first cost function was linear (minimum target dose) with nonlinear dose-volume normal tissue constraints. The second cost function (probability of uncomplicated local control) was a weighted product of normal tissue complication probabilities and the tumor control probability. Results: For the cost functions used in this study, the Very Fast Simulated Reannealing algorithm achieved results within 5-10% of the final solution (100,000 iterations) after 1000 iterations and within 3-5% of the final solution after 5000-10000 iterations. These solutions were superior to those produced by a conventional treatment plan based on an analysis of the resulting dose-volume histograms. However, this technique is a stochastic method and results vary in a statistical manner. Successive solutions may differ by up to 10%. Conclusion: Very Fast Simulated Reannealing, with modifications, is suitable for radiation therapy treatment planning optimization. It produced results within 3-10% of the optimal solution, produced using another optimization algorithm (Mixed Integer Programming), in clinically useful execution times

  17. Radiation and combined treatment of Itsenko -Cushing's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barkanov, A.I.; Morozov, A.I.; Pirogov, A.I.; Postnikov, D.A.; Shadyeva, M.M.; Roshchina, V.S.; Devyatykh, Yu.N.

    1980-01-01

    The authors made observations of 123 patients with the Itsenko - Cushing disease. The mild form of the disease was diagnosed in 27.7 per cent of the patients; moderate in 52 percent, and severe in 20.3 per cent of the patients. A total of 78 patients underwent tele-gamma-therapy in doses of 40-45 Gy, and 45 patients underwent combined treatment consisting in unilateral adrenalectomy and irradiation with the same doses. Protracted remissions with a reverse development of the symptoms of the disease were reached in 69.2 per cent of the patients who had undergone radiation treatment and in 64.4 per cent of the patients who had undergone combined treatment. Radiotherapy was most effective in patients with mild and moderate forms of Itsenko-Cushing's disease, in case of a severe form combined treatment is indicated. Optimal single focal doses are 1.6-1.8 Gy, and cumulative ones 40-45 Gy

  18. Clinical radiation doses for spinal cord: the 1988 international questionnaire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, J.F.; Bogaert, W. vanden; Scheuren, E. van der; Bentzen, S.M.; Bond, S.J.; Ang, K.K.; Kogel, A.J. van der

    2000-01-01

    Emmanuel van der Schueren gave a keynote lecture at the 1988 ASTRO annual conference pointing out that the spinal cord 'tolerance doses' then prescribed were probably unnecessarily cautious, resulting in probable underdosing of some tumours. This lecture was supported both by an international questionnaire which he and two of the present authors had conducted, and by animal experimental data. In 1997 he initiated a 10-year follow-up questionnaire, the results of which are summarised here. The present report analyses the chance in prescriptions from 1988 to 1998 and the variation in prescriptions among various regions of the World. The main conclusion is that prescribed dose levels have increased significantly in this period. Large geographical variations still exist. Among responders who use a formula to correct for changed dose per fraction, 90% are now using the linear-quadratic model vs. 33% in 1988. The current status of clinically acceptable doses to spinal cord in 2-Gy fractions is discussed briefly. Further details from the responses to the 1998 questionnaire will be presented in another publication. (author)

  19. Selective internal radiation therapy compared with sorafenib for hepatocellular carcinoma with portal vein thrombosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edeline, Julien [Centre Eugene Marquis, Medical Oncology Department, Rennes (France); Inserm UMR991, Rennes (France); Crouzet, Laurence; Pracht, Marc; Boucher, Eveline [Centre Eugene Marquis, Medical Oncology Department, Rennes (France); Campillo-Gimenez, Boris [Centre Eugene Marquis, Clinical Research Department, Rennes (France); Rolland, Yan; Rohou, Tanguy [Centre Eugene Marquis, Imaging Department, Rennes (France); Guillygomarc' h, Anne [CHU Pontchaillou, Hepatology Department, Rennes (France); Boudjema, Karim [CHU Pontchaillou, Hepatobiliary Surgery, Rennes (France); Lenoir, Laurence [Centre Eugene Marquis, Nuclear Medicine Department, Rennes (France); Adhoute, Xavier [Hopital Saint-Joseph, Hepato-Gastroenterology Department, Marseille (France); Clement, Bruno [Inserm UMR991, Rennes (France); Blanc, Jean-Frederic [Hopital Saint-Andre, Hepato-Gastroenterology Department, Bordeaux (France); Garin, Etienne [Inserm UMR991, Rennes (France); Centre Eugene Marquis, Nuclear Medicine Department, Rennes (France)

    2016-04-15

    Tumoural portal vein thrombosis (PVT) is a major prognostic factor in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The efficacy of sorafenib, the only treatment approved at an advanced stage, is limited. Based on previous data, selective internal radiation therapy (SIRT), or {sup 90}Y radioembolization, seems an interesting option. We aimed to compare both treatments in this population. We retrospectively compared patients treated in two centres for HCC with tumoural PVT. We compared overall survival (OS) between patients treated with SIRT and patients treated with sorafenib. Analyses were performed before and after 1:1 matching with a propensity score for controlling indication bias, using a Cox proportional hazards model. A total of 151 patients were analysed, 34 patients treated with SIRT and 117 patients treated with sorafenib only. In the whole population, SIRT was associated with a higher median OS as compared with sorafenib: 18.8 vs 6.5 months (log-rank p < 0.001). There was an imbalance of baseline characteristics between patients treated by SIRT and sorafenib, which justified patient matching with use of a propensity score: 24 patients treated with SIRT could be matched with 24 patients treated with sorafenib. OS was estimated with a median of 26.2 vs 8.7 months in patients treated with SIRT vs sorafenib, respectively (log-rank p = 0.054). Before and after patient matching, the adjusted hazard ratio related to treatment by SIRT was estimated at 0.62 [95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.39-0.97] (p = 0.037) and 0.40 (95 % CI 0.19-0.82) (p = 0.013), respectively. SIRT seems more effective than sorafenib in patients presenting with HCC and tumoural PVT. This hypothesis is being tested in prospective randomized trials. (orig.)

  20. Selective internal radiation therapy compared with sorafenib for hepatocellular carcinoma with portal vein thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edeline, Julien; Crouzet, Laurence; Campillo-Gimenez, Boris; Rolland, Yan; Pracht, Marc; Guillygomarc'h, Anne; Boudjema, Karim; Lenoir, Laurence; Adhoute, Xavier; Rohou, Tanguy; Boucher, Eveline; Clément, Bruno; Blanc, Jean-Frédéric; Garin, Etienne

    2016-04-01

    Tumoural portal vein thrombosis (PVT) is a major prognostic factor in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The efficacy of sorafenib, the only treatment approved at an advanced stage, is limited. Based on previous data, selective internal radiation therapy (SIRT), or (90)Y radioembolization, seems an interesting option. We aimed to compare both treatments in this population. We retrospectively compared patients treated in two centres for HCC with tumoural PVT. We compared overall survival (OS) between patients treated with SIRT and patients treated with sorafenib. Analyses were performed before and after 1:1 matching with a propensity score for controlling indication bias, using a Cox proportional hazards model. A total of 151 patients were analysed, 34 patients treated with SIRT and 117 patients treated with sorafenib only. In the whole population, SIRT was associated with a higher median OS as compared with sorafenib: 18.8 vs 6.5 months (log-rank p < 0.001). There was an imbalance of baseline characteristics between patients treated by SIRT and sorafenib, which justified patient matching with use of a propensity score: 24 patients treated with SIRT could be matched with 24 patients treated with sorafenib. OS was estimated with a median of 26.2 vs 8.7 months in patients treated with SIRT vs sorafenib, respectively (log-rank p = 0.054). Before and after patient matching, the adjusted hazard ratio related to treatment by SIRT was estimated at 0.62 [95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.39-0.97] (p = 0.037) and 0.40 (95 % CI 0.19-0.82) (p = 0.013), respectively. SIRT seems more effective than sorafenib in patients presenting with HCC and tumoural PVT. This hypothesis is being tested in prospective randomized trials.

  1. Pilot randomized trial of selective internal radiation therapy vs. chemoembolization in unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolligs, Frank T; Bilbao, Jose I; Jakobs, Tobias; Iñarrairaegui, Mercedes; Nagel, Jutta M; Rodriguez, Macarena; Haug, Alexander; D'Avola, Delia; op den Winkel, Mark; Martinez-Cuesta, Antonio; Trumm, Christoph; Benito, Alberto; Tatsch, Klaus; Zech, Christoph J; Hoffmann, Ralf-Thorsten; Sangro, Bruno

    2015-06-01

    To compare selective internal radiation therapy (SIRT) with transarterial chemoembolization (TACE), the standard-of-care for intermediate-stage unresectable, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), as first-line treatment. SIRTACE was an open-label multicenter randomized-controlled pilot study, which prospectively compared primarily safety and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) changes following TACE and SIRT. Patients with unresectable HCC, Child-Pugh ≤B7, ECOG performance status ≤2 and ≤5 liver lesions (≤20 cm total maximum diameter) without extrahepatic spread were randomized to receive either TACE (at 6-weekly intervals until tumour enhancement was not observed on MRI or disease progression) or single-session SIRT (yttrium-90 resin microspheres). Twenty-eight patients with BCLC stage A (32.1%), B (46.4%) or C (21.4%) received either a mean of 3.4 (median 2) TACE interventions (N = 15) or single SIRT (N = 13). Both treatments were well tolerated. Despite SIRT patients having significantly worse physical functioning at baseline, at week-12, neither treatment had a significantly different impact on HRQoL as measured by Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Hepatobiliary total or its subscales. Both TACE and SIRT were effective for the local control of liver tumours. Best overall response-rate (RECIST 1.0) of target lesions were 13.3% and 30.8%, disease control rates were 73.3% and 76.9% for TACE and SIRT, respectively. Two patients in each group were down-staged for liver transplantation (N = 3) or radiofrequency ablation (N = 1). Single-session SIRT appeared to be as safe and had a similar impact on HRQoL as multiple sessions of TACE, suggesting that SIRT might be an alternative option for patients eligible for TACE. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Basic safety standards for radiation protection and their application to internal exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dousset, M.

    Following a summary of the basic concepts on radiation protection units, the safety standards now in effect in France and those recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP Publication 9, 1965) to be used as a basis to the next Euratom regulations are developed [fr

  3. International symposium on radiation technology for conservation of the environment. Extended synopses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-09-01

    This document includes extended synopses of 54 presentations given at the International Symposium on Radiation Technology for the conservation of the Environment held in Zakopane near Cracow), Poland, 8-12 September 1997. Each presentation is separately indexed. Refs, figs, tabs

  4. Dosimetric Advantages of Midventilation Compared With Internal Target Volume for Radiation Therapy of Pancreatic Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lens, Eelco; van der Horst, Astrid; Versteijne, Eva; van Tienhoven, Geertjan; Bel, Arjan

    2015-01-01

    The midventilation (midV) approach can be used to take respiratory-induced pancreatic tumor motion into account during radiation therapy. In this study, the dosimetric consequences for organs at risk and tumor coverage of using a midV approach compared with using an internal target volume (ITV) were

  5. Control of the beam-internal target interaction at the nuclotron by means of light radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Artiomov, A.S. [Laboratory of High Energies, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna 141980 (Russian Federation)]. E-mail: artiomov@moonhe.jinr.ru; Anisimov, Yu.S. [Laboratory of High Energies, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna 141980 (Russian Federation); Afanasiev, S.V. [Laboratory of High Energies, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna 141980 (Russian Federation); Bazilev, S.N. [Laboratory of High Energies, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna 141980 (Russian Federation); Zolin, L.S. [Laboratory of High Energies, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna 141980 (Russian Federation); Issinsky, I.B. [Laboratory of High Energies, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna 141980 (Russian Federation); Kliman, J. [Laboratory of High Energies, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna 141980 (Russian Federation); Institute of Physics, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Bratislava (Slovakia); Malakhov, A.I. [Laboratory of High Energies, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna 141980 (Russian Federation); Matousek, V. [Institute of Physics, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Bratislava (Slovakia); Morhac, M. [Laboratory of High Energies, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna 141980 (Russian Federation); Institute of Physics, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Bratislava (Slovakia); Nikitin, V.A. [Laboratory of High Energies, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna 141980 (Russian Federation); Nikiforov, A.S. [Laboratory of High Energies, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna 141980 (Russian Federation); Nomokonov, P.V. [Laboratory of High Energies, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna 141980 (Russian Federation); Pilyar, A.V. [Laboratory of High Energies, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna 141980 (Russian Federation); Turzo, I. [Institute of Physics, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2005-02-11

    The light radiation from various internal targets at the nuclotron can be utilized for the operative control and time optimization of the interaction intensity of the beam. The examples presented in the paper illustrate information about the space characteristics of the circulating beam during one cycle of the accelerator run at the stages of injection, acceleration and during the physical experiments, respectively.

  6. 6th international conference on biophysics and synchrotron radiation. Program/Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pittroff, Connie; Strasser, Susan Barr

    1999-01-01

    This STI product consists of the Program/Abstracts book that was prepared for the participants in the Sixth International Conference on Biophysics and Synchrotron Radiation that was held August 4-8, 1998, at the Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory. This book contains the full conference program and abstracts of the scientific presentations

  7. International responsability of state by the deleterius effects of ionising radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faria, N.M. de.

    1988-01-01

    International Responsability of State, considering the deleterius effects of ionising radiation on the human being, property, territory and environment which are under other jurisdiction, is focused. Conventional rules, costumary rules, the evolution of ''opinion juris'' as well as the decisions of tribunals related to the subject are analysed. (author) [pt

  8. International workshop on the 'Physics of interfaces by synchrotron radiation and other high energy probes'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krummacher, S.; Gudat, W.

    1986-05-01

    The present 'book of abstracts' consists of the abstracts of 23 lectures, held at the international workshop on the 'Physics of interfaces by synchrotron radiation and other high energy probes', April 1986, Bad Honnef, FRG. The subjects are: The use of photoemission in the study of interfaces and adsorbates, EEL spectroscopy applications, spin polarization, photoionization processes and EXAFS. (BHO)

  9. 6th international conference on biophysics and synchrotron radiation. Program/Abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pittroff, Connie; Strasser, Susan Barr [lead editors

    1999-08-03

    This STI product consists of the Program/Abstracts book that was prepared for the participants in the Sixth International Conference on Biophysics and Synchrotron Radiation that was held August 4-8, 1998, at the Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory. This book contains the full conference program and abstracts of the scientific presentations.

  10. Low internal radiation alters innate immune status in children with clinical symptom of irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh Sajjadieh, Mohammad Reza; Kuznetsova, L V; Bojenko, V B

    2010-09-01

    Adverse health effect of low radiation is clear. The aim of this study was to determine effect of internal low radiation on innate immune status in Ukrainian children with spastic colitis as a result of Chernobyl disaster. The test population consisted of 95 participants: 75 rural participants with clinical symptom of irritable bowel syndrome, aged 4 to 18, who lived in a contaminated area exposed to radio nucleotide due to the disaster in reactor in Chernobyl nuclear power plant (categorized in three groups) and 20 healthy urban participants from Kiev, aged 5 to 15, as the control group. Internal radiation activity has been measured by gamma-ray spectrometry. Peripheral blood leukocytes were analyzed for CD16(+) subset, serum concentration of circulation immune complex was measured by the polyethylene glycol method. Phagocytic activity function was assessed by using latex article and phagocytic index were calculated. p control group (p control group (p control group (p reactor in Chernobyl nuclear power plant.

  11. Evaluation of planning dose accuracy in case of radiation treatment on inhomogeneous organ structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chan Yong; Lee, Jae Hee; Kwak, Yong Kook; Ha, Min Yong [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-09-15

    We are to find out the difference of calculated dose of treatment planning system (TPS) and measured dose in case of inhomogeneous organ structure. Inhomogeneous phantom is made with solid water phantom and cork plate. CT image of inhomogeneous phantom is acquired. Treatment plan is made with TPS (Pinnacle3 9.2. Royal Philips Electronics, Netherlands) and calculated dose of point of interest is acquired. Treatment plan was delivered in the inhomogeneous phantom by ARTISTE (Siemens AG, Germany) measured dose of each point of interest is obtained with Gafchromic EBT2 film (International Specialty Products, US) in the gap between solid water phantom or cork plate. To simulate lung cancer radiation treatment, artificial tumor target of paraffin is inserted in the cork volume of inhomogeneous phantom. Calculated dose and measured dose are acquired as above. In case of inhomogeneous phantom experiment, dose difference of calculated dose and measured dose is about -8.5% at solid water phantom-cork gap and about -7% lower in measured dose at cork-solid water phantom gap. In case of inhomogeneous phantom inserted paraffin target experiment, dose difference is about 5% lower in measured dose at cork-paraffin gap. There is no significant difference at same material gap in both experiments. Radiation dose at the gap between two organs with different electron density is significantly lower than calculated dose with TPS. Therefore, we must be aware of dose calculation error in TPS and great care is suggested in case of radiation treatment planning on inhomogeneous organ structure.

  12. Evaluation of planning dose accuracy in case of radiation treatment on inhomogeneous organ structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Chan Yong; Lee, Jae Hee; Kwak, Yong Kook; Ha, Min Yong

    2013-01-01

    We are to find out the difference of calculated dose of treatment planning system (TPS) and measured dose in case of inhomogeneous organ structure. Inhomogeneous phantom is made with solid water phantom and cork plate. CT image of inhomogeneous phantom is acquired. Treatment plan is made with TPS (Pinnacle3 9.2. Royal Philips Electronics, Netherlands) and calculated dose of point of interest is acquired. Treatment plan was delivered in the inhomogeneous phantom by ARTISTE (Siemens AG, Germany) measured dose of each point of interest is obtained with Gafchromic EBT2 film (International Specialty Products, US) in the gap between solid water phantom or cork plate. To simulate lung cancer radiation treatment, artificial tumor target of paraffin is inserted in the cork volume of inhomogeneous phantom. Calculated dose and measured dose are acquired as above. In case of inhomogeneous phantom experiment, dose difference of calculated dose and measured dose is about -8.5% at solid water phantom-cork gap and about -7% lower in measured dose at cork-solid water phantom gap. In case of inhomogeneous phantom inserted paraffin target experiment, dose difference is about 5% lower in measured dose at cork-paraffin gap. There is no significant difference at same material gap in both experiments. Radiation dose at the gap between two organs with different electron density is significantly lower than calculated dose with TPS. Therefore, we must be aware of dose calculation error in TPS and great care is suggested in case of radiation treatment planning on inhomogeneous organ structure

  13. Radiation treatment planning techniques for lymphoma of the stomach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Della Biancia, Cesar; Hunt, Margie; Furhang, Eli; Wu, Elisa; Yahalom, Joachim

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Involved-field radiation therapy of the stomach is often used in the curative treatment of gastric lymphoma. Yet, the optimal technique to irradiate the stomach with minimal morbidity has not been well established. This study was designed to evaluate treatment planning alternatives for stomach irradiation, including intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), to determine which approach resulted in improved dose distribution and to identify patient-specific anatomic factors that might influence a treatment planning choice. Methods and Materials: Fifteen patients with lymphoma of the stomach (14 mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphomas and 1 diffuse large B-cell lymphoma) were categorized into 3 types, depending on the geometric relationship between the planning target volume (PTV) and kidneys. AP/PA and 3D conformal radiation therapy (3DCRT) plans were generated for each patient. IMRT was planned for 4 patients with challenging geometric relationship between the PTV and the kidneys to determine whether it was advantageous to use IMRT. Results: For type I patients (no overlap between PTV and kidneys), there was essentially no benefit from using 3DCRT over AP/PA. However, for patients with PTVs in close proximity to the kidneys (type II) or with high degree of overlap (type III), the 4-field 3DCRT plans were superior, reducing the kidney V 15Gy by approximately 90% for type II and 50% for type III patients. For type III, the use of a 3DCRT plan rather than an AP/PA plan decreased the V 15Gy by approximately 65% for the right kidney and 45% for the left kidney. In the selected cases, IMRT led to a further decrease in left kidney dose as well as in mean liver dose. Conclusions: The geometric relationship between the target and kidneys has a significant impact on the selection of the optimum beam arrangement. Using 4-field 3DCRT markedly decreases the kidney dose. The addition of IMRT led to further incremental improvements in the left kidney and liver

  14. Croatian Participation at National Symposia and International Congresses on Radiation Protection 1992-2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krajcar Bronic, I.; Ranogajec-Komor, M

    2003-01-01

    Croatian Radiation Protection Association (CRPA) was formed as an independent association in 1991, and since 1992 it is a member of the International Radiation Protection Association (IRPA). CRPA organises regular national symposia with international participation, and takes part in organisation of regional IRPA congresses. The members of CRPA take part also in international and European congresses. In this paper we analyse the participation of Croatian authors in national symposia and international congresses in the period from 1992 to 2002. The number of papers in proceedings of the national symposia is rather constant (about 60), while at the First symposium in 1992 it was slightly higher (68). The fraction of papers by Croatian authors was also the highest at the First Symposium (∼ 90%), while at the following symposia it varied between 70% and 80%. Although the analysed period is rather short, one can see slight changes in the research topics. Radioecology, including radon and related topics, was the most frequent research area (36% of all papers) at the national CRPA symposia 1992-1998, followed by the biological effects of radiation and radiation protection in medicine (24%), dosimetry, methods and instrumentation (21%), general topics (11%) and radioactive waste (7%). The distribution of topics at the Fifth symposium is: 27% radioecology and radon, 30% biological and medical topics, as well as professional and public exposure, 24% dosimetry, 14% general topics and 5% non-ionising radiations. In this Symposium we have separate sections for non-ionising radiations and public exposure, although several papers on these subjects were presented already at the previous symposia. (author)

  15. Integrated thermal treatment systems study. Internal review panel report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cudahy, J.; Escarda, T.; Gimpel, R. [and others

    1995-04-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development (OTD) commissioned two studies to evaluate nineteen thermal treatment technologies for treatment of DOE mixed low-level waste. These studies were called the Integrated Thermal Treatment System (ITTS) Phase I and Phase II. With the help of the DOE Office of Environmental Management (EM) Mixed Waste Focus Group, OTD formed an ITTS Internal Review Panel to review and comment on the ITTS studies. This Panel was composed of scientists and engineers from throughout the DOE complex, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the California EPA, and private experts. The Panel met from November 15-18, 1994 to review the ITTS studies and to make recommendations on the most promising thermal treatment systems for DOE mixed low-level wastes and on research and development necessary to prove the performance of the technologies. This report describes the findings and presents the recommendations of the Panel.

  16. Integrated thermal treatment systems study. Internal review panel report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cudahy, J.; Escarda, T.; Gimpel, R.

    1995-04-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development (OTD) commissioned two studies to evaluate nineteen thermal treatment technologies for treatment of DOE mixed low-level waste. These studies were called the Integrated Thermal Treatment System (ITTS) Phase I and Phase II. With the help of the DOE Office of Environmental Management (EM) Mixed Waste Focus Group, OTD formed an ITTS Internal Review Panel to review and comment on the ITTS studies. This Panel was composed of scientists and engineers from throughout the DOE complex, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the California EPA, and private experts. The Panel met from November 15-18, 1994 to review the ITTS studies and to make recommendations on the most promising thermal treatment systems for DOE mixed low-level wastes and on research and development necessary to prove the performance of the technologies. This report describes the findings and presents the recommendations of the Panel

  17. 175th International School of Physics "Enrico Fermi" : Radiation and Particle Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Bottigli, U; Oliva, P

    2010-01-01

    High energy physics (HEP) has a crucial role in the context of fundamental physics. HEP experiments make use of a massive array of sophisticated detectors to analyze the particles produced in high-energy scattering events. This book contains the papers from the workshop 'Radiation and Particle Detectors', organized by the International School of Physics, and held in Varenna in July 2009. Its subject is the use of detectors for research in fundamental physics, astro-particle physics and applied physics. Subjects covered include the measurement of: the position and length of ionization trails, time of flight velocity, radius of curvature after bending the paths of charged particles with magnetic fields, coherent transition radiation, synchrotron radiation, electro-magnetic showers produced by calorimetric methods and nuclear cascades produced by hadrons in massive steel detectors using calorimetry. Detecting muons and the detection of Cherenkov radiation are also covered, as is the detection of neutrinos by ste...

  18. Radiation treatment parameters for re-irradiation of malignant glioma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niyazi, M.; Soehn, M.; Schwarz, S.B.; Lang, P.; Belka, C.; Ganswindt, U. [Ludwig-Maximilians-Univ., Muenchen (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncology

    2012-04-15

    Background and purpose: Most patients with malignant glioma ultimately fail locally or loco-regionally after the first treatment, with re-irradiation being a reasonable treatment option. However, only limited data are presently available allowing for a precise selection of patients suitable for re-treatment with regard to safety and efficacy. Material and methods: Using the department database, 39 patients with a second course of radiation were identified. Doses to gross tumor volume (GTV), planning target volume (PTV), and relevant organs at risk (OARs; brainstem, optic chiasm, optic nerves, brain) were retrospectively analyzed and correlated to outcome parameters. Relevant treatment parameters including D{sub max}, D{sub min}, D{sub mean}, and volume (ml) were obtained. Equivalent uniform dose (EUD) values were calculated for the tumor and OARs. To address the issue of radiation necrosis/leukoencephalopathy posttherapeutic MRI images were routinely examined every 3 months. Results: Median follow-up was 147 days. The time interval between first and second irradiation was regularly greater than 6 months. Median EUDs to the OARs were 11.9 Gy (range 0.7-27.4 Gy) to the optic chiasm, 17.6 Gy (range 0.7-43.0 Gy) to the brainstem, 4.9/2.1 Gy (range 0.3-24.5 Gy) to the right/left optic nerve, and 29.4 Gy (range 25.2-32.5 Gy) to the brain. No correlation between treated volume and survival was observed. Cold spots and dose did not correlate with survival. Re-irradiated volumes were treated with on average lower doses if they were larger and vice versa. Conclusion: In general, re-irradiation is a safe and feasible re-treatment option. No relevant toxicity was observed after re-irradiation in our patient cohort during follow-up. In this regard, this analysis provides baseline data for the selection of putative patients. EUD values are derived and may serve as reference for further studies, including intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) protocols. (orig.)

  19. Clinical evaluation of the partition model for estimating radiation doses from yttrium-90 microspheres in the treatment of hepatic cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, S.; Lau, W.Y.; Leung, T.W.T.; Chan, M.; Johnson, P.J.; Li, A.K.C.

    1997-01-01

    Radiation doses to the tumour and non-tumorous liver compartments from yttrium-90 microspheres in the treatment of hepatic cancer, as estimated by a partition model, have been verified by correlation with the actual doses measured with a beta probe at open surgery. The validity of the doses to the lungs, the tumour and non-tumours liver compartment as estimated by the partition model was further evaluated in clinical settings. On the basis of the observation that one of three patients who received more than 30 Gy from a single treatment and one of two patients who received more than 50 Gy from multiple treatments developed radiation pneumonitis, it was deduced that an estimated lung dose 30 Gy as estimated by the partition model and were predicted to develop radiation pneumonitis, did so despite the use of partial hepatic embolization to reduce the degree of lung shunting. Furthermore, a higher radiological response rate and prolonged survival were found in the group of patients who received higher tumour doses, as estimated by the partition model, than in the group with lower estimated tumour doses. Thus the radiation doses estimated by the partition model can be used to predict (a) complication rate, (b) response rate and (c) duration of survival in the same manner as the actual radiation doses measured with a beta probe at open surgery. The partition model has made selective internal radiation therapy using 90 Y microspheres safe and repeatable without laparotomy. (orig.)

  20. Photocoagulation treatment for clinically significant radiation macular oedema

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinyoun, J.L.; Zamber, R.W.; Lawrence, B.S.; Barlow, W.E.; Arnold, A.M. [Washington Univ., Seattle, WA (United States)

    1995-02-01

    Macular oedema is a leading cause of vision loss in patients with radiation retinopathy. In an effort to find an effective treatment for this vision threatening complication, 12 eyes (eight patients) were treated with photocoagulation for clinically significant radiation macular oedema (CSRMO) defined as central macular thickening, exudates threatening the macular centre, or one disc area of thickening in the macula. Median visual acuity improved from 20/100 pre-operatively to 20/90 at the initial post-operative examination (mean follow up 5 months) and to 20/75 at the final post-operative examination (mean follow up 39 months). At the final post-operative examination, visual acuity had improved in eight (67%) eyes and six (50%) eyes had complete resolution of the CSRMO; two (17%) other eyes had improved anatomically in that fewer CSRMO criteria were present. These results suggest that macular photocoagulation is effective in decreasing macular oedema and improving vision in eyes with CSRMO. (author).

  1. Photocoagulation treatment for clinically significant radiation macular oedema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinyoun, J.L.; Zamber, R.W.; Lawrence, B.S.; Barlow, W.E.; Arnold, A.M.

    1995-01-01

    Macular oedema is a leading cause of vision loss in patients with radiation retinopathy. In an effort to find an effective treatment for this vision threatening complication, 12 eyes (eight patients) were treated with photocoagulation for clinically significant radiation macular oedema (CSRMO) defined as central macular thickening, exudates threatening the macular centre, or one disc area of thickening in the macula. Median visual acuity improved from 20/100 pre-operatively to 20/90 at the initial post-operative examination (mean follow up 5 months) and to 20/75 at the final post-operative examination (mean follow up 39 months). At the final post-operative examination, visual acuity had improved in eight (67%) eyes and six (50%) eyes had complete resolution of the CSRMO; two (17%) other eyes had improved anatomically in that fewer CSRMO criteria were present. These results suggest that macular photocoagulation is effective in decreasing macular oedema and improving vision in eyes with CSRMO. (author)

  2. Radiation induced sarcoma after treatment of glioblastoma: case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosa, Victor Domingos Lisita; Anjos, Caroline Souza dos; Candido, Priscila Barile Marchi; Dias Junior, Antonio Soares; Santos, Evandro Airton Sordi dos; Godoy, Antonio Carlos Cavalcante; Saggioro, Fabiano P.; Carlotti Junior, Carlos Gilberto; Oliveira, Harley Francisco de; Peria, Fernanda Maris

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Glioblastoma multiform is the most lethal central nervous system neoplasm, with a median survival of around 13 months and the worst prognosis among all gliomas. The therapeutic approach of glioblastoma consists in neurosurgery with maximum possible resection of tumor volume, followed by radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Radiotherapy reduces the risk of tumor recurrence through direct and indirect damage to tumor deoxyribonucleic acid. The long-term effects of radiation therapy include tissue necrosis, vasculopathy, and radiation-induced neoplasia. The most reported secondary intracranial malignant tumors include meningiomas, gliomas, and sarcomas. The latency period between skull radiotherapy and the appearance of radioinduced lesions varies in the literature from six months to 47 years, with an average of 18.7 years. Case report: The present report describes the appearance of high-grade spindle cell sarcoma after ten months in a patient who received glioblastoma treatment at Hospital das Clínicas of Ribeirão Preto of the University of São Paulo. Conclusion: The rarity of this association is probably due to the poor survival of patients with glioblastoma, thus limiting the time to development of secondary neoplasia

  3. Immobilization for the radiation therapy treatment of the pelvic region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van den Heuvel, F.; De Beukeleer, M.; Nys, F.; Bijdekerke, P.; Robberechts, M.; Van Cauwenbergh, R. [Brussels Univ. (Belgium). Dept. of Radiotherapy

    1995-12-01

    Previous experience with the treatment of the pelvic region has shown that geometric setup errors are considerable in extent and incidence. A proposal to alleviate this problem is the introduction of immobilization devices in analogy with head and neck treatment. The practicality and efficacy of such a technique is investigated and compared with an earlier proposed technique using interactive adjustment and Electronic Portal Imaging (EPI). A group of 13 patients treated in the pelvic region using external radiation therapy was immobilized using an Orfit-like cast. Every fraction for every patients was imaged using an EPID. Immediately after obtaining an image it was compared to a digitized simulation image using the in-house developed OPIDUM system. Patient position was adjusted when an error in one of the main directions (transversal or longitudinal) exceeded 5 mm. Time measurements were carried out in order to asses the impact of the immobilization procedure on the patient throughput. In 68% of the cases a corrective action was necessary. The fraction of total treatment time was 50% for 26% of the fields. The range of errors measured in the longitudinal direction was between 29 and -22 mm. In the transversal direction the range was from -7 to 60 mm. A full analysis 13 patients yielding statistics for more than 200 fields is presented. Special attention has been paid to the determination of the nature of the errors (random or systematic) and the impact on patient throughput.

  4. Immobilization for the radiation therapy treatment of the pelvic region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van den Heuvel, F.; De Beukeleer, M.; Nys, F.; Bijdekerke, P.; Robberechts, M.; Van Cauwenbergh, R.

    1995-01-01

    Previous experience with the treatment of the pelvic region has shown that geometric setup errors are considerable in extent and incidence. A proposal to alleviate this problem is the introduction of immobilization devices in analogy with head and neck treatment. The practicality and efficacy of such a technique is investigated and compared with an earlier proposed technique using interactive adjustment and Electronic Portal Imaging (EPI). A group of 13 patients treated in the pelvic region using external radiation therapy was immobilized using an Orfit-like cast. Every fraction for every patients was imaged using an EPID. Immediately after obtaining an image it was compared to a digitized simulation image using the in-house developed OPIDUM system. Patient position was adjusted when an error in one of the main directions (transversal or longitudinal) exceeded 5 mm. Time measurements were carried out in order to asses the impact of the immobilization procedure on the patient throughput. In 68% of the cases a corrective action was necessary. The fraction of total treatment time was 50% for 26% of the fields. The range of errors measured in the longitudinal direction was between 29 and -22 mm. In the transversal direction the range was from -7 to 60 mm. A full analysis 13 patients yielding statistics for more than 200 fields is presented. Special attention has been paid to the determination of the nature of the errors (random or systematic) and the impact on patient throughput

  5. Treatment of Wastewater Containing Organic Pollutants by Ionizing Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, A.; Taguchi, M.; Maruyama, A.

    2012-01-01

    We have investigated the treatment of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and halogented organic compounds (HOCs) in wastewater by ionizing radiation in the CRP. Three samples of the actual wastewater having estrogen activity were analyzed by the yeast two-hybrid assay, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and total organic carbon (TOC) analysis. Treatment of the wastewater is required to decrease the estrogen activity to less than 1 ng / L; the lower limit concentration of appearance of endocrine disrupting property. Medaka estrogen activity (mEA) initially increased and then decreased by β-ray irradiation, indicating that decomposition products in the real wastewaters also have the estrogen activity. The doses required to decrease in mEA of samples 1 to 3 below 1 ng / L, D 1ng , were estimated to be 100, 200 and 150 Gy (J kg -1 ), respectively. Since the D 1ng of 17 β-stradiol (E2) at 500 ng/L (1.8 nmol/L) in pure water was estimated to be 5 Gy as mentioned in the previous CRP, the elimination of estrogen activity of real wastewater is considered to be interfered by organic impurities. The economic cost of the treatment process of EDCs using electron beam was estimated at 17 yen m -3 . (author)

  6. International Scientific Conference on 'Radiation-Thermal Effects and Processes in Inorganic Materials'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    The International Scientific Conference on 'Radiation-Thermal Effects and Processes in Inorganic Materials' is a traditional representative forum devoted to the discussion of fundamental problems of radiation physics and its technical applications. The first nine conferences were held four times in Tomsk, then in Ulan-Ude (Russia), Bishkek (Kyrgyzstan), Tashkent (Uzbekistan), Sharm El Sheikh (Egypt), and the island of Cyprus. The tenth conference was held in Tomsk, Russia. The program of the Conference covers a wide range of technical areas and modern aspects of radiation physics, its applications and related matters. Topics of interest include, but are not limited to: • Physical and chemical phenomena in inorganic materials in radiation, electrical and thermal fields; • Research methods and equipment modification states and properties of materials; • Technologies and equipment for their implementation; • The use of radiation-thermal processes in nanotechnology; • Adjacent to the main theme of the conference issues The conference was attended by leading scientists from countries near and far abroad who work in the field of radiation physics of solid state and of radiation material science. The School-Conference of Young Scientists was held during the conference. The event was held with the financial support of the Russian Foundation for Basic Research, projects № 14-38-10210 and № 14-02-20376. (introduction)

  7. Surface treatment of CFRP composites using femtosecond laser radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, V.; Sharma, S. P.; de Moura, M. F. S. F.; Moreira, R. D. F.; Vilar, R.

    2017-07-01

    In the present work, we investigate the surface treatment of carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) composites by laser ablation with femtosecond laser radiation. For this purpose, unidirectional carbon fiber-reinforced epoxy matrix composites were treated with femtosecond laser pulses of 1024 nm wavelength and 550 fs duration. Laser tracks were inscribed on the material surface using pulse energies and scanning speeds in the range 0.1-0.5 mJ and 0.1-5 mm/s, respectively. The morphology of the laser treated surfaces was investigated by field emission scanning electron microscopy. We show that, by using the appropriate processing parameters, a selective removal of the epoxy resin can be achieved, leaving the carbon fibers exposed. In addition, sub-micron laser induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) are created on the carbon fibers surface, which may be potentially beneficial for the improvement of the fiber to matrix adhesion in adhesive bonds between CFRP parts.

  8. Experimental treatment of gastrointestinal radiation syndrome in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao Bingzhi; Chen Dezheng; Liu Zuobin

    1986-01-01

    Gastrointestinal radiation syndrome occurred in 27 mongrel dogs irradiated with 9-12 Gy of 60 Co γ-rays. Six of them received autologous bone marrow transplantation (auto-BMT), 10 animals were treated with symptomatic and supportive measures only, and the remaining 11 dogs served as controls without any treatment. All animals of the latter two groups died between 3 and 11 days after irradiation without any evidence of hematopoietic recovery. Recovery of gastrointestinal injury was found in 7 dogs treated with symptomatic and supportive measures only. Of 6 dogs having received auto-BMT 2 died 15 days after irradiation, 3 survived over 30 days with recovery of gastrointestinal and hematopoietic injury but died of distemper later, and the other one, still alive, has survived for more than 4 years. The results show that the effective measures for gastrointestinal radiatin syndrome are BMT and symptomatic therapy

  9. Accidents and incidents with external and/or internal radiation-exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    An individual radiation exposure accident is an unexpected and unintended event which gives rise to an overexposure (external or internal). By overexposure one means all external or internal exposure which could lead to the exceeding of the regulatory norms. Going beyond these limits does not always produce pathological manifestations. The term radiological accident is, in practice, used only when there is an occurrence of some biological or clinical response, or when some therapeutic action is required. A radio-exposure accident can occur: within or from a nuclear power plant or from a center employing ionizing radiation. These are the most frequent; and during the transport of radioactive materials. These are exceptional events. The tanks and containers used in the transport of highly radioactive substances are exhaustively studied for their resistance to accidents, and the conditions of transport determined by very strict national and international regulations. The transport of substances of low radioactivity (labelled molecules, radiopharmaceuticals...) carries only minor risks

  10. Decontamination treatment of the skin contamined with radiation iodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milivojevicj, K.; Stojanovicj, D.

    1977-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to study the possibility of decontamination of the skin contamined with solution of radiodine, which is a very important radiocontaminant in accidental situations. The decontamination effect has been examined in dependence on means applied, state of contact barriere, duration time of contamination, as well as on time of decontamination performance. Efficiency of decontamination treatment has been evaluated on the basis of the penetrated quantities of radioactive iodine and residual activite in the contaminated region. The results obtained show, that duration time of contamination has an important influence on degree of internal contamination with radioiodine. By use of detergent and soap a high efficiency of decontamination treatment has been obtained. Appliance of the commercial protective cream gives not expressive prophylactic effect

  11. Nonlinear Ultrasonic Techniques to Monitor Radiation Damage in RPV and Internal Components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobs, Laurence [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Kim, Jin-Yeon [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Qu, Jisnmin [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States); Ramuhalli, Pradeep [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wall, Joe [Electric Power Research Inst. (EPRI), Knoxville, TN (United States)

    2015-11-02

    The objective of this research is to demonstrate that nonlinear ultrasonics (NLU) can be used to directly and quantitatively measure the remaining life in radiation damaged reactor pressure vessel (RPV) and internal components. Specific damage types to be monitored are irradiation embrittlement and irradiation assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC). Our vision is to develop a technique that allows operators to assess damage by making a limited number of NLU measurements in strategically selected critical reactor components during regularly scheduled outages. This measured data can then be used to determine the current condition of these key components, from which remaining useful life can be predicted. Methods to unambiguously characterize radiation related damage in reactor internals and RPVs remain elusive. NLU technology has demonstrated great potential to be used as a material sensor – a sensor that can continuously monitor a material’s damage state. The physical effect being monitored by NLU is the generation of higher harmonic frequencies in an initially monochromatic ultrasonic wave. The degree of nonlinearity is quantified with the acoustic nonlinearity parameter, β, which is an absolute, measurable material constant. Recent research has demonstrated that nonlinear ultrasound can be used to characterize material state and changes in microscale characteristics such as internal stress states, precipitate formation and dislocation densities. Radiation damage reduces the fracture toughness of RPV steels and internals, and can leave them susceptible to IASCC, which may in turn limit the lifetimes of some operating reactors. The ability to characterize radiation damage in the RPV and internals will enable nuclear operators to set operation time thresholds for vessels and prescribe and schedule replacement activities for core internals. Such a capability will allow a more clear definition of reactor safety margins. The research consists of three tasks: (1

  12. A Novel Approach for the Treatment of Radiation-Induced Hemorrhagic Cystitis with the GreenLight™ XPS Laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Roberto Martinez

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTIntroduction:The treatment of pelvic malignancies with radiotherapy can develop severe sequelae, especially radiation-induced hemorrhagic cystitis. It is a progressive disease that can lead to the need for blood transfusion, hospitalizations, and surgical interventions. This tends to affect the quality of life of these patients, and management can at times be difficult. We have evaluated the GreenLight Xcelerated Performance System (XPS with TruCoag, although primarily used for management of benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH, for the treatment of radiation-induced hemorrhagic cystitis.Materials and Methods:After International Review Board (IRB approval, a retrospective chart review was performed in addition to a literature search. A series of four male patients, mean age of 81 years, with radiation-induced hemorrhagic cystitis secondary to radiotherapy for pelvic malignancies (3 prostate cancer, 1 rectal cancer were successfully treated with the GreenLight laser after unsuccessful treatment with current therapies described in the literature.Results:All four patients treated with the GreenLight laser had resolution of their hematuria after one treatment and were discharge from the hospital with clear urine.Conclusion:The GreenLight XPS laser shows promising results for the treatment of patients with radiation-induced hemorrhagic cystitis, and deserves further evaluation and validation, especially since there is limited data available in the literature regarding the use of this technology for the treatment of this devastating condition.

  13. XVII International Conference on the Use of Computers in Radiation Therapy (ICCR 2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    Editorial Dear colleagues, From a professional perspective there is nothing quite as enjoyable as attending a good conference with colleagues that share not only interest for the same topic but also a similar vision for their field of work. Proceedings cannot replace the direct contact and lively conversations between participants who are at the same time at the same place sharing ideas and discussion. However, proceedings complement the actual conference by 1. giving the ideas, research findings and debates which characterise the conference lasting presence 2. giving participants an opportunity to refresh their memory about issues they would like to follow up on and 3. providing an opportunity for others who were not able to attend the meeting to share in the thoughts and issues discussed at the conference. For the proceedings of the International Conferences on the Use of Computers in Radiation Therapy (ICCR) all this has been important in the past as the high citation rates for ICCR proceedings show. We hope that also the present proceedings will appeal to participants and others who are interested in cancer and ways to treat patients affected by it. It is exciting to note that what sounded like a small niche field (''Computers in Radiation Therapy'') has become a very broad forum to discuss all aspects of cancer diagnosis and therapy. Of particular interest for the 17th ICCR have been data and how to collect, organise and use it effectively. This is relevant for most areas in medicine and we believe that radiation therapy with its focus on evidence based practice and measurable and standardised activities has an important and possibly leading role to play. The 100 manuscripts combined in the present proceedings can hopefully contribute to this. The proceedings are organised into five different streams which reflect the foci of the conference: • Dose Calculation • Imaging for treatment planning and Motion Management • Treatment planning and optimisation

  14. Acquired-resistance of bevacizumab treatment for radiation brain necrosis: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Zhuang, Hongqing; Yuan, Xiangkun; Sun, Dayong; Bian, Jianliang; Chang, Joe Y.; Yuan, Zhiyong; Wang, Ping

    2016-01-01

    The case study reported on acquired bevacizumab resistance in one patient receiving re-treatment with bevacizumab following radiation brain necrosis progression after bevacizumab was discontinued. This case offers novel and additional insight for bevacizumab treatment. Low-dose bevacizumab is effective for radiation brain necrosis, and radiation brain necrosis may progress after bevacizumab discontinuation, whereas too many cycles of bevacizumab treatment may induce drug-resistance and re-tre...

  15. International RADAGAST Experiment in Niamey, Niger: Changes and Drivers of Atmospheric Radiation Balance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kassianov, Evgueni I.; McFarlane, Sally A.; Barnard, James C.; Flynn, Connor J.; Slingo, A.; Bharmal, N.; Robinson, G. J.; Turner, David D.; Miller, Mark; Ackerman, Thomas P.; Miller, R.

    2009-03-11

    The Sahara desert is notorious as a source of massive dust storms. This dust dramatically influences the Earth-atmosphere energy budget through reflecting and absorbing the incoming sunlight. However, this budget is poorly understood, and in particular, we lack quantitative understanding of how the diurnal and seasonal variation of meteorological variables and aerosol properties influence the propagation of solar irradiance through the desert atmosphere. To improve our understanding of these influences, coincident and collocated observations of fluxes, measured from both space and the surface, are highly desirable. Recently, the unique capabilities of the African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis (AMMA) Experiment, the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Mobile Facility (AMF), the Geostationary Earth Radiation Budget (GERB) instrument, and the Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) were combined effectively as part of a large international project: the Radiative Atmospheric Divergence using AMF, GERB data and AMMA Stations (RADAGAST), which took place in Niamey, Niger, in 2006. The RADAGAST objectives, instrumentation, and scientific background are presented in [1]. Initial results from RADAGAST documented the strong radiative impact of a major Saharan dust storm on the Earth’s radiation budget [2]. A special issue of the Journal of Geophysical Research will include a collection of papers with the more complete results from RADAGAST (e.g., [1,3], and references therein). In particular, a year-long time series from RADAGAST are used to investigate (i) the factors that control the radiative fluxes and the divergence of radiation across the atmosphere [3-5], (ii) seasonal changes in the surface energy balance and associated variations in atmospheric constituents (water vapor, clouds, aerosols) [6], and (iii) sensitivity of microphysical, chemical and optical properties of aerosols to their sources and the atmospheric conditions [7]. Here we show

  16. A History of the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repacholi, M H

    2017-10-01

    Concern about health risks from exposure to non-ionizing radiation (NIR) commenced in the 1950s after tracking radars were first introduced during the Second World War. Soon after, research on possible biological effects of microwave radiation in the former Soviet Union and the U.S. led to public and worker exposure limits being much lower in Eastern European than in Western countries, mainly because of different protection philosophies. As public concern increased, national authorities began introducing legislation to limit NIR exposures from domestic microwave ovens and workplace devices such as visual display units. The International Radiation Protection Association (IRPA) was formed in 1966 to represent national radiation protection societies. To address NIR protection issues, IRPA established a Working Group in 1974, then a Study Group in 1975, and finally the International NIR Committee (INIRC) in 1977. INIRC's publications quickly became accepted worldwide, and it was logical that it should become an independent commission. IRPA finally established the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP), chartering its remit in 1992, and defining NIR as electromagnetic radiation (ultraviolet, visible, infrared), electromagnetic waves and fields, and infra- and ultrasound. ICNIRP's guidelines have been incorporated into legislation or adopted as standards in many countries. While ICNIRP has been subjected to criticism and close scrutiny by the public, media, and activists, it has continued to issue well-received, independent, science-based protection advice. This paper summarizes events leading to the formation of ICNIRP, its key activities up to 2017, ICNIRP's 25th anniversary year, and its future challenges.

  17. The effect of selective internal radiation therapy with yttrium-90 resin microspheres on lung carbon monoxide diffusion capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ones, Tunc; Eryuksel, Emel; Baltacioglu, Feyyaz; Ceyhan, Berrin; Erdil, Tanju Yusuf

    2017-12-29

    Selective internal radiation therapy (SIRT) with embolization of branches of the hepatic artery is a valuable therapeutic tool for patients with hepatic malignancies; however, it is also associated with lung injury risk due to shunting. Diffusion capacity of the lungs for carbon monoxide (DLCO) is a clinically significant lung function test, and worsening in DLCO is suggested to reflect a limited gas exchange reserve caused by the potential toxicity of chemoradiotherapy or it may be a marker of related lung injury. This study aimed to examine the changes in DLCO during SIRT with resin microspheres in newly treated and retreated patients. Forty consecutive patients who received SIRT for a variety of malignant conditions were included. All subjects were treated with Yttrium-90 labelled resin microspheres. DLCO tests were performed after the procedures. In addition, patients were specifically followed for radiation pneumonitis. The mean DLCO did not significantly change after the first (82.8 ± 19.4 vs. 83.1 ± 20.9, p = 0.921) and the second treatments (87.4 ± 19.7 vs. 88.6 ± 23.2, p = 0.256). Proportion of patients with impaired DLCO at baseline was not altered significantly after the first (37.5 vs. 45.0%, p = 0.581) and the second treatments (27.3 vs. 27.3%, p = 1.000). Also, percent change in DLCO values did not correlate with radiation dose, lung shunt fraction, or lung exposure dose (p > 0.05 for all comparisons). None of the patients developed radiation pneumonitis. Our results suggest that no significant change in DLCO in association with SIRT occurs, both after the first or the second treatment sessions. Further larger studies possibly with different protocols are warranted to better delineate DLCO changes after SIRT in a larger spectrum of patients.

  18. Abstracts of 3. International School and Symposium on Synchrotron Radiation in Natural Science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    Third International School and Symposium on Synchrotron Radiation in Natural Science gave the state of art in the subject of application of synchrotron radiation in many different branches of basic and applied science. The most of studies have been done in the range of solid state physics. The synchrotron methods give unique possibilities for investigating crystal structure and defects, molecular structure, bulk and surface properties as well as magnetic and electrical properties in different physical conditions. The great progress,due to synchrotrons application, has also been attained in medical diagnosis, earth science, materials engineering and testing

  19. Abstracts of 3. International School and Symposium on Synchrotron Radiation in Natural Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    Third International School and Symposium on Synchrotron Radiation in Natural Science gave the state of art in the subject of application of synchrotron radiation in many different branches of basic and applied science. The most of studies have been done in the range of solid state physics. The synchrotron methods give unique possibilities for investigating crystal structure and defects, molecular structure, bulk and surface properties as well as magnetic and electrical properties in different physical conditions. The great progress,due to synchrotrons application, has also been attained in medical diagnosis, earth science, materials engineering and testing.

  20. Malignant mesothelioma after radiation treatment for Hodgkin lymphoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bruin, Marie L.; Burgers, Jacobus A.; Baas, Paul; van 't Veer, Mars B.; Noordijk, Evert M.; Louwman, Marieke W. J.; Zijlstra, Josée M.; van den Berg, Hendrik; Aleman, Berthe M. P.; van Leeuwen, Flora E.

    2009-01-01

    Malignant mesothelioma is a relatively uncommon malignancy. Although the pathogenesis is primarily related to asbestos, the disease may be associated with radiation exposure. Recently, increased risks for second primary mesothelioma after radiation for lymphoma have been reported. Because these

  1. Book of abstracts of the international conference on high levels of natural radiation held in Ramsar, Islamic Republic of Iran, 3-7 Nov 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohrabi, M.; Borhan Azad, S.; Katouzi, M.

    1990-01-01

    Papers presented in international conference on high levels of natural radiation was in the following subjects: A review of world natural radiation, environmental transfer pathway,technologically enhanced natural radiation environment,radon in the environment,radium determination in water,cytogenetic studies in high natural radiation areas,epidemiological studies in high natural radiation areas and radiation measurements methods

  2. How can laparoscopic management assist radiation treatment in cervix carcinoma?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerbaulet, A.; Lartigau, E.; Haie-Meder, C.; Castaigne, D.; Morice, P.; Breton, C.; Pautier, P.; Duvillard, P.

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the role of laparoscopic lymphadenectomy (pelvis ± para-aortic nodes) and laparoscopic hysterectomy in cervical cancer compared to 'classic radical surgery' in patients undergoing surgery in comparison with modern imaging in patients treated with radiotherapy alone.Materials and methods: The limitations of modern imaging are presented as well as how complication rates can be increased when classic laparotomy is followed by radiation therapy.Laparoscopic procedures are described with particular emphasis on how to provide information on lymph node metastases with the risk of overlooking microscopic involvement. A number of clinical experiences are cited to illustrate this problem and show how treatment approaches can be adapted.Results: The role of laparoscopy is evaluated according to different clinical situations and treatment protocols emphasizing the possibilities offered by this method to the radiotherapist. Conclusion: When developing laparoscopic techniques for the management of cervical carcinoma, caution must be exercised to ensure that these techniques are not detrimental to the prognosis. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  3. Economic evaluation of radiation processing in urban solid wastes treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carassiti, F.; Lacquaniti, L.; Liuzzo, G.

    During the last few years, quite a number of studies have been done, or are still in course, on disinfection of urban liquid wastes by means of ionizing radiations. The experience gained by SANDIA pilot plant of irradiation on dried sewage sludge, together with the recently presented conceptual design of another plant handling granular solids, characterized by high efficiency and simple running, have shown the possibility of extending this process to the treatment of urban solid wastes. As a matter of fact, the problems connected to the pathogenic aspects of sludge handling are often similar to those met during the disposal of urban solid wastes. This is even more so in the case of their reuse in agriculture and zootechny. The present paper introduces the results of an analysis carried out in order to evaluate the economical advantage of inserting irradiation treatment in some process scheme for management of urban solid wastes. Taking as an example a comprehensive pattern of urban solid wastes management which has been analysed and estimated economically in previous works, we first evaluated the extra capital and operational costs due to the irradiation and then analysed economical justification, taking into account the increasing commercial value of the by-products.

  4. Molecular targeted treatment and radiation therapy for rectal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marquardt, Friederike; Roedel, Franz; Capalbo, Gianni; Weiss, Christian; Roedel, Claus [Dept. of Radiation Therapy, Univ. of Frankfurt/Main (Germany)

    2009-06-15

    Background: EGFR (epidermal growth factor receptor) and VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) inhibitors confer clinical benefit in metastatic colorectal cancer when combined with chemotherapy. An emerging strategy to improve outcomes in rectal cancer is to integrate biologically active, targeted agents as triple therapy into chemoradiation protocols. Material and methods: cetuximab and bevacizumab have now been incorporated into phase I-II studies of preoperative chemoradiation therapy (CRT) for rectal cancer. The rationale of these combinations, early efficacy and toxicity data, and possible molecular predictors for tumor response are reviewed. Computerized bibliographic searches of Pubmed were supplemented with hand searches of reference lists and abstracts of ASCO and ASTRO meetings. Results: the combination of cetuximab and CRT can be safely applied without dose compromises of the respective treatment components. Disappointingly low rates of pathologic complete remission have been noted in several phase II studies. The K-ras mutation status and the gene copy number of EGFR may predict tumor response. The toxicity pattern (radiation-induced enteritis, perforations) and surgical complications (wound healing, fistula, bleeding) observed in at least some of the clinical studies with bevacizumab and CRT warrant further investigations. Conclusion: longer follow-up (and, finally, randomized trials) is needed to draw any firm conclusions with respect to local and distant failure rates, and toxicity associated with these novel treatment approaches. (orig.)

  5. Primary radiation therapy in the treatment of anal carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantril, S.T. (Children' s Hospital of San Francisco, CA); Green, J.P.; Schall, G.L.; Schaupp, W.C.

    1983-09-01

    From 1966 to 1981, 47 patients with a diagnosis of anal carcinoma were irradiated. This group was composed of 23 males and 24 females, with age ranging from 38 to 84 years (average 64.4 years). Five patients were treated preoperatively and 34 were treated definitively with cancericidal doses of irradiation. Acute radiation reactions requiring a rest-break were noted in 28% of patients, but all were managed as outpatients without untoward chronic sequelae. Chronic complications were noted in 13 patients, including two patients who required colostomy for severe anal stenosis and two who required A-P resection for large painful ulcers. Twenty-eight of 35 patients (80%) treated with irradiation alone have remained locally controlled without further treatment. An additional four have been salvaged by surgery. Only three patients had interstitial implants as part of their treatment course. Actuarial survival at five years for the N/sub 0/ patients and the group as a whole are 95.6 and 79.3%, respectively. It is concluded that external beam irradiation alone, properly fractionated to cancericidal doses, can control anal carcinoma with acceptable morbidity rates and without the use of either chemotherapy or interstitial implants in most cases. There is also a strong correlation suggesting that anal intercourse and male homosexuality play a significant role in the etiology of this disease.

  6. Primary radiation therapy in the treatment of anal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cantril, S.T.; Green, J.P.; Schall, G.L.; Schaupp, W.C.

    1983-01-01

    From 1966 to 1981, 47 patients with a diagnosis of anal carcinoma were irradiated. This group was composed of 23 males and 24 females, with age ranging from 38 to 84 years (average 64.4 years). Five patients were treated preoperatively and 34 were treated definitively with cancericidal doses of irradiation. Acute radiation reactions requiring a rest-break were noted in 28% of patients, but all were managed as outpatients without untoward chronic sequelae. Chronic complications were noted in 13 patients, including two patients who required colostomy for severe anal stenosis and two who required A-P resection for large painful ulcers. Twenty-eight of 35 patients (80%) treated with irradiation alone have remained locally controlled without further treatment. An additional four have been salvaged by surgery. Only three patients had interstitial implants as part of their treatment course. Actuarial survival at five years for the N 0 patients and the group as a whole are 95.6 and 79.3%, respectively. It is concluded that external beam irradiation alone, properly fractionated to cancericidal doses, can control anal carcinoma with acceptable morbidity rates and without the use of either chemotherapy or interstitial implants in most cases. There is also a strong correlation suggesting that anal intercourse and male homosexuality play a significant role in the etiology of this disease

  7. Modern Radiation Therapy for Nodal Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma—Target Definition and Dose Guidelines From the International Lymphoma Radiation Oncology Group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Illidge, Tim, E-mail: Tim.Illidge@ics.manchester.ac.uk [Institute of Cancer Sciences, University of Manchester, Manchester Academic Health Sciences Centre, The Christie National Health Service Foundation Trust, Manchester (United Kingdom); Specht, Lena [Department of Oncology and Hematology, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen (Denmark); Yahalom, Joachim [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Aleman, Berthe [Department of Radiotherapy, The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Berthelsen, Anne Kiil [Department of Radiation Oncology and PET Centre, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen (Denmark); Constine, Louis [Departments of Radiation Oncology and Pediatrics, James P. Wilmot Cancer Center, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, New York (United States); Dabaja, Bouthaina [Division of Radiation Oncology, Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Dharmarajan, Kavita [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Ng, Andrea [Department of Radiation Oncology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital and Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard University, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Ricardi, Umberto [Radiation Oncology Unit, Department of Oncology, University of Torino, Torino (Italy); Wirth, Andrew [Division of Radiation Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Institute, St. Andrews Place, East Melbourne (Australia)

    2014-05-01

    Radiation therapy (RT) is the most effective single modality for local control of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) and is an important component of therapy for many patients. Many of the historic concepts of dose and volume have recently been challenged by the advent of modern imaging and RT planning tools. The International Lymphoma Radiation Oncology Group (ILROG) has developed these guidelines after multinational meetings and analysis of available evidence. The guidelines represent an agreed consensus view of the ILROG steering committee on the use of RT in NHL in the modern era. The roles of reduced volume and reduced doses are addressed, integrating modern imaging with 3-dimensional planning and advanced techniques of RT delivery. In the modern era, in which combined-modality treatment with systemic therapy is appropriate, the previously applied extended-field and involved-field RT techniques that targeted nodal regions have now been replaced by limiting the RT to smaller volumes based solely on detectable nodal involvement at presentation. A new concept, involved-site RT, defines the clinical target volume. For indolent NHL, often treated with RT alone, larger fields should be considered. Newer treatment techniques, including intensity modulated RT, breath holding, image guided RT, and 4-dimensional imaging, should be implemented, and their use is expected to decrease significantly the risk for normal tissue damage while still achieving the primary goal of local tumor control.

  8. Image gently, step lightly: increasing radiation dose awareness in pediatric interventions through an international social marketing campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidhu, Manrita K; Goske, Marilyn J; Coley, Brian J; Connolly, Bairbre; Racadio, John; Yoshizumi, Terry T; Utley, Tara; Strauss, Keith J

    2009-09-01

    In the past several decades, advances in imaging and interventional techniques have been accompanied by an increase in medical radiation dose to the public. Radiation exposure is even more important in children, who are more sensitive to radiation and have a longer lifespan during which effects may manifest. To address radiation safety in pediatric computed tomography, in 2008 the Alliance for Radiation Safety in Pediatric Imaging launched an international social marketing campaign entitled Image Gently. This article describes the next phase of the Image Gently campaign, entitled Step Lightly, which focuses on radiation safety in pediatric interventional radiology.

  9. International symposium on standards and codes of practice in medical radiation dosimetry. Book of extended synopses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The development of radiation measurement standards by National Metrology Institutes (NMIs) and their dissemination to Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratories (SSDLs), cancer therapy centres and hospitals represent essential aspects of the radiation dosimetry measurement chain. Although the demands for accuracy in radiotherapy initiated the establishment of such measurement chains, similar traceable dosimetry procedures have been implemented, or are being developed, in other areas of radiation medicine (e.g. diagnostic radiology and nuclear medicine), in radiation protection and in industrial applications of radiation. In the past few years the development of primary standards of absorbed dose to water in 60 Co for radiotherapy dosimetry has made direct calibrations in terms of absorbed dose to water available in many countries for the first time. Some laboratories have extended the development of these standards to high energy photon and electron beams and to low and medium energy x-ray beams. Other countries, however, still base their dosimetry for radiotherapy on air kerma standards. Dosimetry for conventional external beam radiotherapy was probably the field where standardized procedures adopted by medical physicists at hospitals were developed first. Those were related to exposure and air kerma standards. The recent development of Codes of Practice (or protocols) based on the concept of absorbed dose to water has led to changes in calibration procedures at hospitals. The International Code of Practice for Dosimetry Based on Standards of Absorbed Dose to Water (TRS 398) was sponsored by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), World Health Organization (WHO), Pan-American Health Organization (PAHO) and the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (ESTRO) and is expected to be adopted in many countries worldwide. It provides recommendations for the dosimetry of all types of beams (except neutrons) used in external radiotherapy and satisfies

  10. Joint Radiation Emergency Management Plan of the International Organizations. Date Effective: 1 January 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this Plan is to describe the inter-agency framework for preparedness for and response to a radiation5 incident or emergency irrespective of its cause. In particular, its objectives are: 1. To provide a common understanding of the emergency preparedness and response roles and responsibilities, objectives, authorities, capabilities and arrangements of each participating international organization, and any relevant inter-agency arrangements; 2. To provide an overall concept of operations between the international organizations based on the emergency response objectives, responsibilities, authorities, capabilities and arrangements of each participating international organization, and any existing inter-agency arrangements, in order to facilitate a timely, effective and co-ordinated response; 3. To facilitate development of agreements among the participating international organizations on practical issues, if appropriate; 4. To provide a common understanding of the process for improving and changing the inter-agency response arrangements; 5. To provide a common understanding of roles and responsibilities of the participating international organizations with respect to: international standards, supporting national capabilities through provision of guidance and training, relevant research, emergency exercises and other preparedness considerations; 6. To guide the managers in each participating organization who need to ensure that all appropriate arrangements are given the necessary support within their organization; 7. To facilitate the well founded development, maintenance and training of plans and procedures for each organization; 8. To draw the attention of personnel in States and international organizations6 to these arrangements and to facilitate the development of compatible arrangements, if appropriate. The Joint Plan describes the arrangements of the participating international organizations7 for responding to a radiation incident or emergency

  11. The ICRP 66 Internal Radiation Exposure Control and Dose Evaluation of The Institute of Nuclear Energy Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pang, H. F.; Hwang, W. S.; Chiu, J. H.

    2004-01-01

    The Atomic Energy Council (AEC) is the regulatory body of ionization radiation protection in Taiwan. To effectively control the safety in ionization radiation, AEC brought into force the Ionization Radiation Protection Act on 1 February, 2003 with clear statements of the penalty for violating the Law. The Article 5 of the Act provides: In order to limit the radiation exposure from radiation sources or practices, the Competent Authority shall refer to the latest standards of the International Commission on Radiological Protection to lay down the Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation. Thus, AEC is going to draft new safety standards of ionization radiation protection of Taiwan according to ICRP Publication 60. The Institute of Nuclear Energy Research (INER), the governmental institute working on ionization radiation research in Taiwan, took the responsibility of assisting AEC in establishing guidelines on the control of internal radiation exposure and responding to the regulations in the new standards as soon as possible. So, according to the recommendations of ICRP Publications 60, 66,67,68,69,71,78,88, and IAEA Safety Standard Series No. RS-G- 1.1 and 1.2, INER undertook researches on the internal radiation exposure control and dose evaluations for INER's radiation workers as well as dose evaluations for the general public. The research accomplishments not only can be the reference of AEC when making new standards, but also can be followed by other radiation protection businesses. (Author) 23 refs

  12. The role of PET/CT in radiation treatment planning for cancer patient treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-10-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) and, more recently, integrated positron emission tomography/X ray computed tomography (PET/CT) have appeared as significant diagnostic imaging systems in clinical medicine. Accurate recognition of cancers in patients by means of PET scanning with Fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose ( 18 F-FDG) has illustrated a need to determine a mode of therapy to achieve better prognoses. The clinical management of cancer patients has improved dramatically with the introduction of clinical PET. For treatment of cancer patients, on the other hand, radiation therapy (RT) plays an important role as a non-invasive therapy. It is crucial that cancers are encompassed by high dose irradiation, particularly in cases of curative RT. Irradiation should precisely target the entire tumour and aim to minimise the size of microscopic extensions of the cancer, as well as minimize radiation damage to normal tissues. A new imaging technique has therefore been sought to allow precise delineation of the cancer target to be irradiated. Clinical PET, combined with utilization of 18 F-FDG, may have an important role in radiation treatment planning (RTP) in lung cancer. In addition to determining if RT is appropriate and whether therapy will be given with curative or palliative intent, 18 F-FDG-PET is useful for determining therapy ports. It can be used both to limit ports to spare normal tissue and to include additional involved regions. Several studies have shown that PET has an impact on RTP in an important proportion of patients. It is to be hoped that treatment plans that include all the 18 F-FDG-avid lesions or the 18 F-FDG-avid portions of a complex mass will result in more effective local control with less unnecessary tissue being treated. The IAEA has placed emphasis on the issue of application of clinical PET for radiation treatment planning in various cancer patients. Two consultants meetings were held in 2006 and their results are summarized into this IAEA

  13. Global view on the radiological protection of patients: Position paper by the International Society for Radiation Oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svensson, H.

    2001-01-01

    The International Society for Radiation Oncology (ISRO) is a federation of regional and national societies. These societies include about 80 000 radiation oncologists, physicists and related specialists. The incidence of cancer per year in developing countries is about 0.08 to about 0.2% of the population. In some developed countries, up to 0.5% of the population will be diagnosed with cancer each year - this is a very high figure. You must also look at prevalence: that is, how many of those that have had the diagnosis 'cancer' are still alive. In some developed countries, up to 3% of the population have had the diagnosis 'cancer' at some stage in their life. The projected number of new cases in the year 2000 is five million for developing and five million for developed countries. On the basis of practices exercised today in many advanced developed countries, it is estimated that 50% of these would need radiotherapy. In some countries, up to 60% of cancer cases receive at least one course of radiation treatment. Of course, good quality assurance is a matter of life and death for the patient, and radiation protection and quality assurance are in many situations much the same thing. What can the international societies do in this context? We can try to inform and teach our friends in less developed countries. For this reason, many educational meetings have been organized by the ISRO. The society tries to hold these meetings outside developed areas such as Europe and north America, and to convene them in developing regions of the world, instead. By including experienced teachers from more developed areas, the society seeks to help those who do not yet have all the knowledge they need

  14. The us of low-energy laser for prevention and treatment of local radiation injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popovich, V.I.

    1992-01-01

    Possibilities for usage of laser biostimulation therapy in medicine were considered. Laser radiation stimulates activity of enzymatic systems. Nucleic acid synthesis increases under the action of laser radiation (LR). Stimulation of LR was observed at tissue level. Low-energy laser therapy was used to cut short early skin radiation injuries during photon radiotherapy of tumors. Efficiency of laser radiation methods for treatment of early and delayed radiation injuries was shown. Lasers of unimpaired intensity are used for prophylaxis of radiation injuries during radiotherapy of malignant tumors

  15. Detection of DNA damage by space radiation in human fibroblasts flown on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Tao; Zhang, Ye; Wong, Michael; Feiveson, Alan; Gaza, Ramona; Stoffle, Nicholas; Wang, Huichen; Wilson, Bobby; Rohde, Larry; Stodieck, Louis; Karouia, Fathi; Wu, Honglu

    2017-02-01

    Although charged particles in space have been detected with radiation detectors on board spacecraft since the discovery of the Van Allen Belts, reports on the effects of direct exposure to space radiation in biological systems have been limited. Measurement of biological effects of space radiation is challenging due to the low dose and low dose rate nature of the radiation environment, and due to the difficulty in distinguishing the radiation effects from microgravity and other space environmental factors. In astronauts, only a few changes, such as increased chromosome aberrations in their lymphocytes and early onset of cataracts, are attributed primarily to their exposure to space radiation. In this study, cultured human fibroblasts were flown on the International Space Station (ISS). Cells were kept at 37 °C in space for 14 days before being fixed for analysis of DNA damage with the γ-H2AX assay. The 3-dimensional γ-H2AX foci were captured with a laser confocal microscope. Quantitative analysis revealed several foci that were larger and displayed a track pattern only in the Day 14 flight samples. To confirm that the foci data from the flight study was actually induced from space radiation exposure, cultured human fibroblasts were exposed to low dose rate γ rays at 37 °C. Cells exposed to chronic γ rays showed similar foci size distribution in comparison to the non-exposed controls. The cells were also exposed to low- and high-LET protons, and high-LET Fe ions on the ground. Our results suggest that in G1 human fibroblasts under the normal culture condition, only a small fraction of large size foci can be attributed to high-LET radiation in space.

  16. Updated Mortality Analysis of Radiation Workers at Rocketdyne (Atomics International), 1948-2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boice Jr JD, Colen SS, Mumma MT, Ellis ED, Eckerman DF, Leggett RW, Boecker BB, Brill B, Henderson BE

    2011-08-01

    Updated analyses of mortality data are presented on 46,970 workers employed 1948-1999 at Rocketdyne (Atomics International). Overall, 5,801 workers were involved in radiation activities, including 2,232 who were monitored for intakes of radionuclides, and 41,169 workers were engaged in rocket testing or other non-radiation activities. The worker population is unique in that lifetime occupational doses from all places of employment were sought, updated and incorporated into the analyses. Further, radiation doses from intakes of 14 different radionuclides were calculated for 16 organs or tissues using biokinetic models of the International Commission on Radiation Protection (ICRP). Because only negligible exposures were received by the 247 workers monitored for radiation activities after 1999, the mean dose from external radiation remained essentially the same at 13.5 mSv (maximum 1 Sv) as reported previously, as did the mean lung dose from external and internal radiation combined at 19.0 mSv (maximum 3.6 Sv). An additional 9 years of follow-up, from December 31,1999 through 2008, increased the person-years of observation for the radiation workers by 21.7% to 196,674 (mean 33.9 years) and the number of cancer deaths by 50% to 684. Analyses included external comparisons with the general population and the computation of standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) and internal comparisons using proportional hazards models and the computation of relative risks (RRs). A low SMR for all causes of death (SMR 0.82; 95% CI 0.78-0.85) continued to indicate that the Rocketdyne radiation workers were healthier than the general population and were less likely to die. The SMRs for all cancers taken together (SMR 0.88; 95% CI 0.81-0.95), lung cancer (SMR 0.87; 95% CI 0.76-1.00) and leukemia other than chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) (SMR 1.04; 95% 0.67-1.53) were not significantly elevated. Cox regression analyses revealed no significant dose-response trends for any cancer. For all

  17. Low doses of ionizing radiation: Biological effects and regulatory control. Invited papers and discussions. Proceedings of an international conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The levels and biological effects resulting from exposure to ionizing radiation are continuously reviewed by the United Nations Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR). Since its creation in 1928, the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has issued recommendations on protection against ionizing radiation. The UNSCEAR estimates and the ICRP recommendations have served as the basis for national and international safety standards on radiation safety, including those developed by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the World Health Organization (WHO). Concerning health effects of low doses of ionizing radiation, the international standards are based on the plausible assumption that, above the unavoidable background radiation dose, the probability of effects increases linearly with dose, i.e. on a 'linear, no threshold' (LNT) assumption. However, in recent years the biological estimates of health effects of low doses of ionizing radiation and the regulatory approach to the control of low level radiation exposure have been much debated. To foster information exchange on the relevant issues, an International Conference on Low Doses of Ionizing Radiation: Biological Effects and Regulatory Control, jointly sponsored by the IAEA and WHO in co-operation with UNSCEAR, was held from 17-21 November 1997 at Seville, Spain. These Proceedings contain the invited special reports, keynote papers, summaries of discussions, session summaries and addresses presented at the opening and closing of the Conference

  18. Analysis of internal radiation and radiotoxicity source base on aerosol distribution in RMI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuwono, I.

    2000-01-01

    Destructive testing of nuclear fuel element during post irradiation examination in radio metallurgy installation may cause air contamination in the working area in the form of radioactive aerosol. Inhalation of the radioactive aerosol by worker will to become internal radiation source. Potential hazard of radioactive particle in the body also depends on the particle size. Analysis of internal radiation source and radiotoxicity showed that in the normal operation only natural radioactive materials are found with high radiotoxicity, i.e. Pb-212 and Ac-228. High deposit in the alveolar instersial (Ai) is 95 % and lower in the bronchial area (BB) is 1 % for particle size 11.7 nm and 350 nm respectively. (author)

  19. EURATOM radiation protection policy - in expectation of the European Internal Market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eriskat, H.

    1991-01-01

    Everything should be avoided in order that varying radiation protection regulations of individual member states may not hamper the realization of the EC Internal Market, whereby the EURATOM Treaty does not really allow variability because of the following: It is the task of the Community to set up and implement uniform safety standards for the public health of the population and the working force. From this can be deduced that member states may not deviate from EURATOM basic norms when putting these standards into practice. Summarizing, it can be said that on the basis of the EURATOM Treaty the implementation of industrial targets and of the aims of public health policy do not compete with each other in principle. When observing the regulations of the European Atomic Community Treaty, no serious obstacles are to be expected for radiation protection when the European Internal Market becomes reality. (orig./HSCH) [de

  20. An analysis on international trends of radiation application and security of radioactive sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, J. S.; Yang, M. H.

    2003-01-01

    Radiation technologies are being utilized in a wide range of daily modern life and provide the public with valuable benefits through applications in fields of medical, industrial, agricultural, and science and engineering research. On the other hand, there is a high possibility that radioactive materials could be used for potentially malevolent purposes such as dirty bombs. International community, therefore, has made efforts to improve security of radioactive sources for protecting the public from radiological terrorism. This study investigated current status of radiation technologies and radioactive sources which could be used by radiological dispersal devices. This paper also reviewed the possibility of radiological weapon attacks, international trends and our methods to enhance security of radioactive sources

  1. Minimal Internal Radiation Exposure in Residents Living South of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiyama, Junichi; Kato, Shigeaki; Tsubokura, Masaharu; Mori, Jinichi; Tanimoto, Tetsuya; Abe, Koichiro; Sakai, Shuji; Hayano, Ryugo; Tokiwa, Michio; Shimmura, Hiroaki

    2015-01-01

    Following the Fukushima nuclear power plant disaster, assessment of internal radiation exposure was indispensable to predict radiation-related health threats to residents of neighboring areas. Although many evaluations of internal radiation in residents living north and west of the crippled Fukushima nuclear power plant are available, there is little information on residents living in areas south of the plant, which were similarly affected by radio-contamination from the disaster. To assess the internal radio-contamination in residents living in affected areas to the south of the plant or who were evacuated into Iwaki city, a whole body counter (WBC) screening program of internal radio-contamination was performed on visitors to the Jyoban hospital in Iwaki city, which experienced less contamination than southern areas adjacent to the nuclear plant. The study included 9,206 volunteer subjects, of whom 6,446 were schoolchildren aged 4-15 years. Measurements began one year after the incident and were carried out over the course of two years. Early in the screening period only two schoolchildren showed Cs-137 levels that were over the detection limit (250 Bq/body), although their Cs-134 levels were below the detection limit (220 Bq/body). Among the 2,760 adults tested, 35 (1.3%) had detectable internal radio-contamination, but only for Cs-137 (range: 250 Bq/body to 859 Bq/body), and not Cs-134. Of these 35 subjects, nearly all (34/35) showed elevated Cs-137 levels only during the first year of the screening. With the exception of potassium 40, no other radionuclides were detected during the screening period. The maximum annual effective dose calculated from the detected Cs-137 levels was 0.029 and 0.028 mSv/year for the schoolchildren and adults, respectively, which is far below the 1 mSv/year limit set by the government of Japan. Although the data for radiation exposure during the most critical first year after the incident are unavailable due to a lack of systemic

  2. SIRveNIB: Selective Internal Radiation Therapy Versus Sorafenib in Asia-Pacific Patients With Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Pierce K H; Gandhi, Mihir; Tan, Say-Beng; Khin, Maung Win; Khasbazar, Ariunaa; Ong, Janus; Choo, Su Pin; Cheow, Peng Chung; Chotipanich, Chanisa; Lim, Kieron; Lesmana, Laurentius A; Manuaba, Tjakra W; Yoong, Boon Koon; Raj, Aloysius; Law, Chiong Soon; Cua, Ian H Y; Lobo, Rolley R; Teh, Catherine S C; Kim, Yun Hwan; Jong, Yun Won; Han, Ho-Seong; Bae, Si-Hyun; Yoon, Hyun-Ki; Lee, Rheun-Chuan; Hung, Chien-Fu; Peng, Cheng-Yuan; Liang, Po-Chin; Bartlett, Adam; Kok, Kenneth Y Y; Thng, Choon-Hua; Low, Albert Su-Chong; Goh, Anthony S W; Tay, Kiang Hiong; Lo, Richard H G; Goh, Brian K P; Ng, David C E; Lekurwale, Ganesh; Liew, Wei Ming; Gebski, Val; Mak, Kenneth S W; Soo, Khee Chee

    2018-03-02

    Purpose Selective internal radiation therapy or radioembolization (RE) shows efficacy in unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) limited to the liver. This study compared the safety and efficacy of RE and sorafenib in patients with locally advanced HCC. Patients and Methods SIRveNIB (selective internal radiation therapy v sorafenib), an open-label, investigator-initiated, phase III trial, compared yttrium-90 ( 90 Y) resin microspheres RE with sorafenib 800 mg/d in patients with locally advanced HCC in a two-tailed study designed for superiority/detriment. Patients were randomly assigned 1:1 and stratified by center and presence of portal vein thrombosis. Primary end point was overall survival (OS). Efficacy analyses were performed in the intention-to-treat population and safety analyses in the treated population. Results A total of 360 patients were randomly assigned (RE, 182; sorafenib, 178) from 11 countries in the Asia-Pacific region. In the RE and sorafenib groups, 28.6% and 9.0%, respectively, failed to receive assigned therapy without significant cross-over to either group. Median OS was 8.8 and 10.0 months with RE and sorafenib, respectively (hazard ratio, 1.1; 95% CI, 0.9 to 1.4; P = .36). A total of 1,468 treatment-emergent adverse events (AEs) were reported (RE, 437; sorafenib, 1,031). Significantly fewer patients in the RE than sorafenib group had grade ≥ 3 AEs (36 of 130 [27.7%]) v 82 of 162 [50.6%]; P radiation hepatitis (two [1.5%] v zero [0%] patients). Fewer patients in the RE group (27 of 130 [20.8%]) than in the sorafenib group (57 of 162 [35.2%]) had serious AEs. Conclusion In patients with locally advanced HCC, OS did not differ significantly between RE and sorafenib. The improved toxicity profile of RE may inform treatment choice in selected patients.

  3. Generic ionizing radiation quarantine treatments against fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) proposed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallman, Guy J; Loaharanu, Paisan

    2002-10-01

    Tephritid fruit flies comprise the most important group of quarantined pests of fresh produce. Most quarantine treatments of fresh agricultural commodities are directed against these pests, and considerable effort in detection, trapping, and population control is expended worldwide to prevent these pests from invading new territories. Ionizing radiation has been studied for 70 yr for its possible use as a quarantine treatment against fruit flies, but has only been applied commercially on a limited basis since 1995. The treatment has great potential and will probably be used extensively in the future as it is tolerated by more species of fruits than any other major treatment. The U.S. Department Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service only recently proposed allowing irradiation for fresh agricultural imports from other countries, and other countries are studying proposals to do likewise. In 1991, the International Consultative Group on Food Irradiation recommended a generic dose against all tephritid fruit flies of 150 Gy. This article examines the literature dealing with irradiation quarantine treatments against fruit flies and recommends minimum absorbed doses of 70 Gy for Anastrepha spp., 101 Gy for Bactrocera jarvisi and B. tryoni, and 150 Gy for all Tephritidae except when fruits have been stored in hypoxic atmospheres.

  4. Development of a Quality and Safety Competency Curriculum for Radiation Oncology Residency: An International Delphi Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adleman, Jenna [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Gillan, Caitlin [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Caissie, Amanda [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada); Saint John Regional Hospital, Saint John, New Brunswick (Canada); Davis, Carol-Anne [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada); Nova Scotia Cancer Centre, Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada); Liszewski, Brian [Odette Cancer Centre, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); McNiven, Andrea [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Giuliani, Meredith, E-mail: Meredith.Giuliani@rmp.uhn.ca [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2017-06-01

    Purpose: To develop an entry-to-practice quality and safety competency profile for radiation oncology residency. Methods and Materials: A comprehensive list of potential quality and safety competency items was generated from public and professional resources and interprofessional focus groups. Redundant or out-of-scope items were eliminated through investigator consensus. Remaining items were subjected to an international 2-round modified Delphi process involving experts in radiation oncology, radiation therapy, and medical physics. During Round 1, each item was scored independently on a 9-point Likert scale indicating appropriateness for inclusion in the competency profile. Items indistinctly ranked for inclusion or exclusion were re-evaluated through web conference discussion and reranked in Round 2. Results: An initial 1211 items were compiled from 32 international sources and distilled to 105 unique potential quality and safety competency items. Fifteen of the 50 invited experts participated in round 1: 10 radiation oncologists, 4 radiation therapists, and 1 medical physicist from 13 centers in 5 countries. Round 1 rankings resulted in 80 items included, 1 item excluded, and 24 items indeterminate. Two areas emerged more prominently within the latter group: change management and human factors. Web conference with 5 participants resulted in 9 of these 24 items edited for content or clarity. In Round 2, 12 participants rescored all indeterminate items resulting in 10 items ranked for inclusion. The final 90 enabling competency items were organized into thematic groups consisting of 18 key competencies under headings adapted from Deming's System of Profound Knowledge. Conclusions: This quality and safety competency profile may inform minimum training standards for radiation oncology residency programs.

  5. Equivalence of internal and external mixture schemes of single scattering properties in vector radiative transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Lipi; Zhai, Peng-Wang; Hu, Yongxiang; Winker, David M

    2017-05-10

    Polarized radiation fields in a turbid medium are influenced by single-scattering properties of scatterers. It is common that media contain two or more types of scatterers, which makes it essential to properly mix single-scattering properties of different types of scatterers in the vector radiative transfer theory. The vector radiative transfer solvers can be divided into two basic categories: the stochastic and deterministic methods. The stochastic method is basically the Monte Carlo method, which can handle scatterers with different scattering properties explicitly. This mixture scheme is called the external mixture scheme in this paper. The deterministic methods, however, can only deal with a single set of scattering properties in the smallest discretized spatial volume. The single-scattering properties of different types of scatterers have to be averaged before they are input to deterministic solvers. This second scheme is called the internal mixture scheme. The equivalence of these two different mixture schemes of scattering properties has not been demonstrated so far. In this paper, polarized radiation fields for several scattering media are solved using the Monte Carlo and successive order of scattering (SOS) methods and scattering media contain two types of scatterers: Rayleigh scatterers (molecules) and Mie scatterers (aerosols). The Monte Carlo and SOS methods employ external and internal mixture schemes of scatterers, respectively. It is found that the percentage differences between radiances solved by these two methods with different mixture schemes are of the order of 0.1%. The differences of Q/I, U/I, and V/I are of the order of 10 -5 ∼10 -4 , where I, Q, U, and V are the Stokes parameters. Therefore, the equivalence between these two mixture schemes is confirmed to the accuracy level of the radiative transfer numerical benchmarks. This result provides important guidelines for many radiative transfer applications that involve the mixture of

  6. 7th International Workshop on Microbeam Probes of Cellular Radiation Response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brenner, David J.

    2009-07-21

    The extended abstracts that follow present a summary of the Proceedings of the 7th International Workshop: Microbeam Probes of Cellular Radiation Response, held at Columbia University’s Kellogg Center in New York City on March 15–17, 2006. These International Workshops on Microbeam Probes of Cellular Radiation Response have been held regularly since 1993 (1–5). Since the first workshop, there has been a rapid growth (see Fig. 1) in the number of centers developing microbeams for radiobiological research, and worldwide there are currently about 30 microbeams in operation or under development. Single-cell/single-particle microbeam systems can deliver beams of different ionizing radiations with a spatial resolution of a few micrometers down to a few tenths of a micrometer. Microbeams can be used to addressquestions relating to the effects of low doses of radiation (a single radiation track traversing a cell or group of cells), to probe subcellular targets (e.g. nucleus or cytoplasm), and to address questions regarding the propagation of information about DNA damage (for example, the radiation-induced bystander effect). Much of the recent research using microbeams has been to study low-dose effects and ‘‘non-targeted’’ responses such as bystander effects, genomic instability and adaptive responses. This Workshop provided a forum to assess the current state of microbeam technology and current biological applications and to discuss future directions for development, both technological and biological. Over 100 participants reviewed the current state of microbeam research worldwide and reported on new technological developments in the fields of both physics and biology.

  7. Development of a Quality and Safety Competency Curriculum for Radiation Oncology Residency: An International Delphi Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adleman, Jenna; Gillan, Caitlin; Caissie, Amanda; Davis, Carol-Anne; Liszewski, Brian; McNiven, Andrea; Giuliani, Meredith

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To develop an entry-to-practice quality and safety competency profile for radiation oncology residency. Methods and Materials: A comprehensive list of potential quality and safety competency items was generated from public and professional resources and interprofessional focus groups. Redundant or out-of-scope items were eliminated through investigator consensus. Remaining items were subjected to an international 2-round modified Delphi process involving experts in radiation oncology, radiation therapy, and medical physics. During Round 1, each item was scored independently on a 9-point Likert scale indicating appropriateness for inclusion in the competency profile. Items indistinctly ranked for inclusion or exclusion were re-evaluated through web conference discussion and reranked in Round 2. Results: An initial 1211 items were compiled from 32 international sources and distilled to 105 unique potential quality and safety competency items. Fifteen of the 50 invited experts participated in round 1: 10 radiation oncologists, 4 radiation therapists, and 1 medical physicist from 13 centers in 5 countries. Round 1 rankings resulted in 80 items included, 1 item excluded, and 24 items indeterminate. Two areas emerged more prominently within the latter group: change management and human factors. Web conference with 5 participants resulted in 9 of these 24 items edited for content or clarity. In Round 2, 12 participants rescored all indeterminate items resulting in 10 items ranked for inclusion. The final 90 enabling competency items were organized into thematic groups consisting of 18 key competencies under headings adapted from Deming's System of Profound Knowledge. Conclusions: This quality and safety competency profile may inform minimum training standards for radiation oncology residency programs.

  8. Safety of selective internal radiation therapy (SIRT) with yttrium-90 microspheres combined with systemic anticancer agents: expert consensus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Andrew; Brown, Daniel B; Feilchenfeldt, Jonas; Marshall, John; Wasan, Harpreet; Fakih, Marwan; Gibbs, Peter; Knuth, Alexander; Sangro, Bruno; Soulen, Michael C; Pittari, Gianfranco; Sharma, Ricky A

    2017-12-01

    Selective internal radiation therapy (SIRT) with microspheres labelled with the β-emitter yttrium-90 (Y-90) enables targeted delivery of radiation to hepatic tumors. SIRT is primarily used to treat inoperable primary or metastatic liver tumors. Eligible patients have usually been exposed to a variety of systemic anticancer therapies, including cytotoxic agents, targeted biologics, immunotherapy and peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT). All these treatments have potential interactions with SIRT; however, robust evidence on the safety of these potential combinations is lacking. This paper provides current clinical experiences and expert consensus guidelines for the use of SIRT in combination with the anticancer treatment agents likely to be encountered in clinical practice. It was agreed by the expert panel that precautions need to be taken with certain drugs, but that, in general, systemic therapies do not necessarily have to be stopped to perform SIRT. The authors recommend stopping vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitors 4-6 weeks before SIRT, and restart after the patient has recovered from the procedure. It may also be prudent to stop potent radiosensitizers such as gemcitabine therapy 4 weeks before SIRT, and restart treatment at least 2‒4 weeks later. Data from phase III studies combining SIRT with fluorouracil (5FU) or folinic acid/5FU/oxaliplatin (FOLFOX) suggest that hematological toxicity is more common from the combination than it is from chemotherapy without SIRT. There is no evidence to suggest that chemotherapy increases SIRT-specific gastro-intestinal or liver toxicities.

  9. A development of computer code for evaluating internal radiation dose through ingestion and inhalation pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jeong Ho; Lee, Chang Woo; Choi, Yong Ho; Chun, Ki Jung; Kim, Kook Chan; Kim, Sang Bok; Kim, Jin Kyu

    1991-07-01

    The computer codes were developed to evaluate internal radiation dose when radioactive isotopes released from nuclear facilities are taken through ingestion and inhalation pathways. Food chain models and relevant data base representing the agricultural and social environment of Korea are set up. An equilibrium model-KFOOD, which can deal with routine releases from a nuclear facility and a dynamic model-ECOREA, which is suitable for the description of acute radioactivity release following nuclear accident. (Author)

  10. Safety of radiation sources and security of radioactive materials. Proceedings of an international conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This International Conference, hosted by the Government of France and co-sponsored by the European Commission, the International Criminal Police Organization (Interpol) and the World Customs Organization (WCO), was the first one devoted to the safety of radiation sources and the security of radioactive materials and - for the first time - brought together radiation safety experts, regulators, and customs and police officers, who need to closely co-operate for solving the problem of illicit trafficking. The technical sessions reviewed the state of the art of twelve major topics, divided into two groups: the safety of radiation sources and the security of radioactive materials. The safety part comprised regulatory control, safety assessment techniques, engineering and managerial measures, lessons from experience, international cooperation through reporting systems and databases, verification of safety through inspection and the use of performance indicators for a regulatory programme. The security part comprised measures to prevent breaches in the security of radioactive materials, detection and identification techniques for illicit trafficking, response to detected cases and seized radioactive materials, strengthening awareness, training and exchange of information. The Conference was a success in fostering information exchange through the reviews of the state of the art and the frank and open discussions. It raised awareness of the need for Member States to ensure effective systems of control and for preventing, detecting and responding to illicit trafficking in radioactive materials. The Conference finished by recommending investigating whether international undertakings concerned with an effective operation of national systems for ensuring the safety of radiation sources and security of radioactive materials

  11. Positron emission tomography in pediatric radiation oncology: integration in the treatment-planning process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krasin, M.J.; Hudson, M.M.; Kaste, S.C.

    2004-01-01

    The application of PET imaging to pediatric radiation oncology allows new approaches to targeting and selection of radiation dose based not only on the size of a tumor, but also on its metabolic activity. In order to integrate PET into treatment planning for radiation oncology, logistical issues regarding patient setup, image fusion, and target selection must be addressed. Through prospective study, the role of PET in pediatric malignancies will be established for diagnosis, treatment, and surveillance. To explore the potential role of PET and its incorporation into treatment planning in pediatric radiation oncology, an example case of pediatric Hodgkin's disease is discussed. (orig.)

  12. Computer-assisted planning and dosimetry for radiation treatment of head and neck cancer in Cameroon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yomi, J.; Ngniah, A.; Kingue, S.; Muna, W.F.T.; Durosinmi-Etti, F.A.

    1995-01-01

    This evaluation was part of a multicenter, multinational study sponsored by the International Agency for Atomic Energy (Vienna) to investigate a simple, reliable computer-assisted planning and dosimetry system for radiation treatment of head and neck cancers in developing countries. Over a 13-month period (April 1992-April 1993), 120 patients with histologically-proven head or neck cancer were included in the evaluation. In each patient, planning and dosimetry were done both manually and using the computer-assisted system. The manual and computerized systems were compared on the basis of accuracy of determination of the outer contour, target volume, and critical organs; volume inequality resolution; structure heterogeneity correction; selection of the number, angle, and size of beams; treatment time calculation; availability of dosimetry predictions; and duration and cost of the procedure. Results demonstrated that the computer-assisted procedure was superior over the manual procedure, despite less than optimal software. The accuracy provided by the completely computerized procedure is indispensable for Level II radiation therapy, which is particularly useful in tumors of the sensitive, complex structures in the head and neck. (authors). 7 refs., 3 tabs

  13. Passive estimation of internal temperatures making use of broadband ultrasound radiated by the body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anosov, Andrey A; Kazansky, Alexandr S; Subochev, Pavel V; Mansfel'd, Anatoly D; Klinshov, Vladimir V

    2015-04-01

    The internal temperatures of plasticine models and the human forearm in vivo were determined, based on remote measurements of their intrinsic ultrasonic radiation. For passive detection of the thermal ultrasonic radiation an acoustic radiometer was developed, based on a broadband 0.8-3.3 MHz disk-shaped ultrasonic detector with an 8 mm aperture. To reconstruct temperature profiles using the experimentally measured spectra of thermal acoustic radiation a priori information was used regarding the temperature distribution within the objects being investigated. The temperature distribution for heated plasticine was considered to be a monotonic function. The distribution for the human forearm was considered to fit a heat equation incorporating blood flow parameters. Using sampling durations of 45 s the accuracy of temperature measurement inside a plasticine model was 0.5 K. The measured internal temperature of the forearm in vivo, at 36.3 °C, corresponded to existing physiological data. The results obtained verify the applicability of this passive method of wideband ultrasonic thermometry to medical applications that involve local internal heating of biological tissue.

  14. International perspectives on quality assurance and new techniques in radiation medicine: outcomes of an IAEA conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shortt, Ken; Davidsson, Lena; Hendry, Jolyon; Dondi, Maurizio; Andreo, Pedro

    2008-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency organized an international conference called, "Quality Assurance and New Techniques in Radiation Medicine" (QANTRM). It dealt with quality assurance (QA) in all aspects of radiation medicine (diagnostic radiology, nuclear medicine, and radiotherapy) at the international level. Participants discussed QA issues pertaining to the implementation of new technologies and the need for education and staff training. The advantage of developing a comprehensive and harmonized approach to QA covering both the technical and the managerial issues was emphasized to ensure the optimization of benefits to patient safety and effectiveness. The necessary coupling between medical radiation imaging and radiotherapy was stressed, particularly for advanced technologies. However, the need for a more systematic approach to the adoption of advanced technologies was underscored by a report on failures in intensity-modulated radiotherapy dosimetry auditing tests in the United States, which could imply inadequate implementation of QA for these new technologies. A plenary session addressed the socioeconomic impact of introducing advanced technologies in resource-limited settings. How shall the dual gaps, one in access to basic medical services and the other in access to high-quality modern technology, be addressed?

  15. Television system for verification and documentation of treatment fields during intraoperative radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraass, B.A.; Harrington, F.S.; Kinsella, T.J.; Sindelar, W.F.

    1983-01-01

    Intraoperative radiation therapy (IORT) involves direct treatment of tumors or tumor beds with large single doses of radiation. The verification of the area to be treated before irradiation and the documentation of the treated area are critical for IORT, just as for other types of radiation therapy. A television system which allows the target area to be directly imaged immediately before irradiation has been developed. Verification and documentation of treatment fields has made the IORT television system indispensable

  16. Techniques for Minimizing Radiation Exposure During Evaluation, Surgical Treatment, and Follow-up of Urinary Lithiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arenas, Javier L; Baldwin, D Duane

    2015-07-01

    Patients receive significant radiation exposure during the diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up of urinary stone disease. This radiation exposure may result in patient harm and is believed to contribute to the risk for malignancy. This review will present current information to allow surgeons to optimize their diagnostic, treatment, and follow-up regimens to allow optimal care of stone disease patients at the lowest radiation dose possible.

  17. Biomechanical based image registration for head and neck radiation treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mayah, Adil; Moseley, Joanne; Hunter, Shannon; Velec, Mike; Chau, Lily; Breen, Stephen; Brock, Kristy

    2010-02-01

    Deformable image registration of four head and neck cancer patients was conducted using biomechanical based model. Patient specific 3D finite element models have been developed using CT and cone beam CT image data of the planning and a radiation treatment session. The model consists of seven vertebrae (C1 to C7), mandible, larynx, left and right parotid glands, tumor and body. Different combinations of boundary conditions are applied in the model in order to find the configuration with a minimum registration error. Each vertebra in the planning session is individually aligned with its correspondence in the treatment session. Rigid alignment is used for each individual vertebra and to the mandible since deformation is not expected in the bones. In addition, the effect of morphological differences in external body between the two image sessions is investigated. The accuracy of the registration is evaluated using the tumor, and left and right parotid glands by comparing the calculated Dice similarity index of these structures following deformation in relation to their true surface defined in the image of the second session. The registration improves when the vertebrae and mandible are aligned in the two sessions with the highest Dice index of 0.86+/-0.08, 0.84+/-0.11, and 0.89+/-0.04 for the tumor, left and right parotid glands, respectively. The accuracy of the center of mass location of tumor and parotid glands is also improved by deformable image registration where the error in the tumor and parotid glands decreases from 4.0+/-1.1, 3.4+/-1.5, and 3.8+/-0.9 mm using rigid registration to 2.3+/-1.0, 2.5+/-0.8 and 2.0+/-0.9 mm in the deformable image registration when alignment of vertebrae and mandible is conducted in addition to the surface projection of the body.

  18. Radiation recall dermatitis after docetaxel chemotherapy. Treatment by antioxidant ointment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duncker-Rohr, Viola; Freund, Ulrich; Momm, Felix [Ortenau-Klinikum Offenburg-Gengenbach Lehrkrankenhaus der Albert-Ludwigs-Universitaet Freiburg i. Br., Radio-Onkologie, Offenburg (Germany)

    2014-05-15

    Radiation recall dermatitis (RRD) is an acute skin toxicity caused by different anticancer or antibiotic drugs within a former completely healed irradiation field. Predictive factors for RRD are not known and its mechanisms are not completely understood. A case of RRD induced by docetaxel and successfully treated by an antioxidant ointment (Mapisal {sup registered}) is presented here. Such an ointment might be useful not only in RRD therapy, but also in the treatment of high-grade dermatitis induced by radiotherapy and thus may contribute to the improvement of patients' quality of life and to the scheduled completion of cancer therapies. (orig.) [German] Die Strahlen-Recall-Dermatitis (RRD) ist eine akute Hauttoxizitaet, die durch verschiedene Chemotherapeutika oder Antibiotika innerhalb eines frueheren, komplett abgeheilten Bestrahlungsfelds hervorgerufen wird. Praediktive Faktoren fuer die RRD sind nicht bekannt und ihr Mechanismus ist nicht vollstaendig geklaert. Es wird ein Fallbericht einer durch Docetaxel induzierten RRD dargestellt, die erfolgreich mit einer antioxidativen Salbe (Mapisal {sup registered}) behandelt wurde. Solche Salben koennten nicht nur zur Therapie der RRD, sondern auch bei der Behandlung einer akuten Dermatitis waehrend der Strahlentherapie nuetzlich sein und damit zur Verbesserung der Lebensqualitaet der Patienten und zur planmaessigen Durchfuehrung der Tumortherapie beitragen. (orig.)

  19. Treatment of Experimental Acute Radiation Disease in Mice with Probiotics, Quinolones, and General Gnotobiological Isolation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-09-01

    Armed Forces Ra ioloy Research Institute Treatment of Experimental Acute Radiation Disease in Mice with Probiotics , Quinolones, and General...Gnotobiological Isolation Russia State Medical University 19990119 114 Treatment of Experimental Acute Radiation Disease in Mice with Probiotics , Quinolones...subsyndromes: hematopoietic, gastrointestinal (or GI), and cardiovascular/CNS syndrome. The range for hematopoietic syndrome is considered to be 1-6 Gy, roughly

  20. Dosimetric Advantages of Midventilation Compared With Internal Target Volume for Radiation Therapy of Pancreatic Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lens, Eelco; van der Horst, Astrid; Versteijne, Eva; van Tienhoven, Geertjan; Bel, Arjan

    2015-07-01

    The midventilation (midV) approach can be used to take respiratory-induced pancreatic tumor motion into account during radiation therapy. In this study, the dosimetric consequences for organs at risk and tumor coverage of using a midV approach compared with using an internal target volume (ITV) were investigated. For each of the 18 patients, 2 treatment plans (25 × 2.0 Gy) were created, 1 using an ITV and 1 using a midV approach. The midV dose distribution was blurred using the respiratory-induced motion from 4-dimensional computed tomography. The resulting planning target volume (PTV) coverage for this blurred dose distribution was analyzed; PTV coverage was required to be at least V95% >98%. In addition, the change in PTV size and the changes in V10Gy, V20Gy, V30Gy, V40Gy, Dmean and D2cc for the stomach and for the duodenum were analyzed; differences were tested for significance using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Using a midV approach resulted in sufficient target coverage. A highly significant PTV size reduction of 13.9% (P<.001) was observed. Also, all dose parameters for the stomach and duodenum, except the D2cc of the duodenum, improved significantly (P≤.002). By using the midV approach to account for respiratory-induced tumor motion, a significant PTV reduction and significant dose reductions to the stomach and to the duodenum can be achieved when irradiating pancreatic tumors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Dosimetric Advantages of Midventilation Compared With Internal Target Volume for Radiation Therapy of Pancreatic Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lens, Eelco; Horst, Astrid van der; Versteijne, Eva; Tienhoven, Geertjan van; Bel, Arjan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The midventilation (midV) approach can be used to take respiratory-induced pancreatic tumor motion into account during radiation therapy. In this study, the dosimetric consequences for organs at risk and tumor coverage of using a midV approach compared with using an internal target volume (ITV) were investigated. Methods and Materials: For each of the 18 patients, 2 treatment plans (25 × 2.0 Gy) were created, 1 using an ITV and 1 using a midV approach. The midV dose distribution was blurred using the respiratory-induced motion from 4-dimensional computed tomography. The resulting planning target volume (PTV) coverage for this blurred dose distribution was analyzed; PTV coverage was required to be at least V 95% >98%. In addition, the change in PTV size and the changes in V 10Gy , V 20Gy , V 30Gy , V 40Gy , D mean and D 2cc for the stomach and for the duodenum were analyzed; differences were tested for significance using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Results: Using a midV approach resulted in sufficient target coverage. A highly significant PTV size reduction of 13.9% (P<.001) was observed. Also, all dose parameters for the stomach and duodenum, except the D 2cc of the duodenum, improved significantly (P≤.002). Conclusions: By using the midV approach to account for respiratory-induced tumor motion, a significant PTV reduction and significant dose reductions to the stomach and to the duodenum can be achieved when irradiating pancreatic tumors

  2. Dosimetric Advantages of Midventilation Compared With Internal Target Volume for Radiation Therapy of Pancreatic Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lens, Eelco, E-mail: e.lens@amc.uva.nl; Horst, Astrid van der; Versteijne, Eva; Tienhoven, Geertjan van; Bel, Arjan

    2015-07-01

    Purpose: The midventilation (midV) approach can be used to take respiratory-induced pancreatic tumor motion into account during radiation therapy. In this study, the dosimetric consequences for organs at risk and tumor coverage of using a midV approach compared with using an internal target volume (ITV) were investigated. Methods and Materials: For each of the 18 patients, 2 treatment plans (25 × 2.0 Gy) were created, 1 using an ITV and 1 using a midV approach. The midV dose distribution was blurred using the respiratory-induced motion from 4-dimensional computed tomography. The resulting planning target volume (PTV) coverage for this blurred dose distribution was analyzed; PTV coverage was required to be at least V{sub 95%} >98%. In addition, the change in PTV size and the changes in V{sub 10Gy}, V{sub 20Gy}, V{sub 30Gy}, V{sub 40Gy}, D{sub mean} and D{sub 2cc} for the stomach and for the duodenum were analyzed; differences were tested for significance using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Results: Using a midV approach resulted in sufficient target coverage. A highly significant PTV size reduction of 13.9% (P<.001) was observed. Also, all dose parameters for the stomach and duodenum, except the D{sub 2cc} of the duodenum, improved significantly (P≤.002). Conclusions: By using the midV approach to account for respiratory-induced tumor motion, a significant PTV reduction and significant dose reductions to the stomach and to the duodenum can be achieved when irradiating pancreatic tumors.

  3. Health regulations about radiation oncology in Spain: The legislative dilemma between radiation protection and treatment of cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esco, R.; Biete, A.; Pardo, J.; Carceller, J.A.; Veira, C.; Palacios, A.; Vazquez, M.G.

    2001-01-01

    The Royal Decree 1566/1998 of July 17th establishes the criteria on quality in radiation therapy and is a cornerstone in Spanish regulation of this medical field. The Royal Decree gives some rules that, from a medical point of view, are considered as a good practice. Radiation protection of patients is necessary to achieve a high quality radiation oncology treatments. That is the reason why Royal decree 1566/1998 is titled 'quality criteria in radiation therapy'. A quality control program must be tailored to every single radiation oncology department and, for this reason, its standardization is difficult. Nevertheless, some medical procedures are defined by the royal decree and such procedures are the minimum criteria that all the departments must follow in the development of its own quality control program. The authors make some reflections about health regulations about radiation oncology in Spain, pointing out that a legislative dilemma between radiation protection and treatment of cancer due to application of the legislative rules may occur. The social and medical cost of rigid bureaucratic procedures is pointed out. A large amount of equipment controls and measurements takes time that could be used in treating patients. This is more important in an environment of limited technical and human resources. (author)

  4. Gamma radiation and HZE treatment of seedlings in Arabidopsis

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Plants exhibit a robust transcriptional response to gamma radiation which includes the induction of transcripts required for homologous recombination and the...

  5. External Validation and Optimization of International Consensus Clinical Target Volumes for Adjuvant Radiation Therapy in Bladder Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddy, Abhinav V. [Department of Radiation and Cellular Oncology, University of Chicago Pritzker School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois (United States); Christodouleas, John P. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Wu, Tianming [Department of Radiation and Cellular Oncology, University of Chicago Pritzker School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois (United States); Smith, Norman D.; Steinberg, Gary D. [Section of Urology, Department of Surgery, University of Chicago Pritzker School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois (United States); Liauw, Stanley L., E-mail: sliauw@radonc.uchicago.edu [Department of Radiation and Cellular Oncology, University of Chicago Pritzker School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois (United States)

    2017-03-15

    Purpose: International consensus (IC) clinical target volumes (CTVs) have been proposed to standardize radiation field design in the treatment of patients at high risk of locoregional failure (LRF) after radical cystectomy. The purpose of this study was to externally validate the IC CTVs in a cohort of postsurgical patients followed up for LRF and identify revisions that might improve the IC CTVs' performance. Methods and Materials: Among 334 patients with pT3 to pT4 bladder cancer treated with radical cystectomy, LRF developed in 58 (17%), of whom 52 had computed tomography scans available for review. Images with LRF were exported into a treatment planning system, and IC CTVs were contoured and evaluated for adequacy of coverage of each LRF with respect to both the patient and each of 6 pelvic subsites: common iliac (CI) region, obturator region (OR), external and internal iliac region, presacral region, cystectomy bed, or other pelvic site. Revisions to the IC contours were proposed based on the findings. Results: Of the 52 patients with documented LRF, 13 (25%) had LRFs that were outside of the IC CTV involving 17 pelvic subsites: 5 near the CI CTV, 5 near the OR CTV, 1 near the external and internal iliac region, and 6 near the cystectomy bed. The 5 CI failures were located superior to the CTV, and the 5 OR failures were located medial to the CTV. Increasing the superior boundary of the CI to a vessel-based definition of the aortic bifurcation, as well as increasing the medial extension of the OR by an additional 9 mm, decreased the number of patients with LRF outside of the IC CTV to 7 (13%). Conclusions: Modified IC CTVs inclusive of a slight adjustment superiorly for the CI region and medially for the OR may reduce the risk of pelvic failure in patients treated with adjuvant radiation therapy.

  6. Translating international HIV treatment guidelines into local priorities in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tromp, Noor; Prawiranegara, Rozar; Siregar, Adiatma; Wisaksana, Rudi; Pinxten, Lucas; Pinxten, Juul; Lesmana Putra, Arry; Kurnia Sunjaya, Deni; Jansen, Maarten; Hontelez, Jan; Maurits, Scott; Maharani, Febrina; Bijlmakers, Leon; Baltussen, Rob

    2018-03-01

    International guidelines recommend countries to expand antiretroviral therapy (ART) to all HIV-infected individuals and establish local-level priorities in relation to other treatment, prevention and mitigation interventions through fair processes. However, no practical guidance is provided for such priority-setting processes. Evidence-informed deliberative processes (EDPs) fill this gap and combine stakeholder deliberation to incorporate relevant social values with rational decision-making informed by evidence on these values. This study reports on the first-time implementation and evaluation of an EDP in HIV control, organised to support the AIDS Commission in West Java province, Indonesia, in the development of its strategic plan for 2014-2018. Under the responsibility of the provincial AIDS Commission, an EDP was implemented to select priority interventions using six steps: (i) situational analysis; (ii) formation of a multistakeholder Consultation Panel; (iii) selection of criteria; (iv) identification and assessment of interventions' performance; (v) deliberation; and (vi) selection of funding and implementing institutions. An independent researcher conducted in-depth interviews (n = 21) with panel members to evaluate the process. The Consultation Panel included 23 stakeholders. They identified 50 interventions and these were evaluated against four criteria: impact on the epidemic, stigma reduction, cost-effectiveness and universal coverage. After a deliberative discussion, the Consultation Panel prioritised a combination of several treatment, prevention and mitigation interventions. The EDP improved both stakeholder involvement and the evidence base for the strategic planning process. EDPs fill an important gap which international guidelines and current tools for strategic planning in HIV control leave unaddressed. © 2018 The Authors. Tropical Medicine & International Health Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Radiation therapy in the multimodal treatment approach of pituitary adenoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, G. [Klinik am Eichert, Goeppingen (Germany). Dept. of Radiooncology and Radiation Therapy; Radiooncologic Univ. Clinic, Tuebingen (Germany); Kocher, M.; Mueller, R.P. [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Clinic of Radiation Therapy; Kortmann, R.D.; Paulsen, F.; Jeremic, B.; Bamberg, M. [Radiooncologic Univ. Clinic, Tuebingen (Germany)

    2002-04-01

    In this paper, literature will be reviewed to assess the role of modern radiotherapy and radiosurgery in the management of pituitary adenomas. Material and Methods: Nowadays, magnetic resonance imaging for the definition of the target volume and a real three-dimensional (3-D) treatment planning with field conformation and the possibility for non-coplanar irradiation has to be recommended. Most groups irradiate these benign tumors with single doses of 1.8-2.0 Gy up to a total dose of 45 Gy or 50.4 Gy in extensive parasellar adenomas. Adenomas are mostly small, well circumscribed lesions, and have, therefore, attracted the use of stereotactically guided high-precision irradiation techniques which allow extreme focussing and provide steep dose gradients with selective treatment of the target and optimal protection of the surrounding brain tissue. Results: Radiation therapy controls tumor growth in 80-98% of patients with non-secreting adenomas and 67-89% for endocrine active tumors. Reviewing the recent literature including endocrine active and non-secreting adenomas, irradiated postoperatively or in case of recurrence the 5-, 10- and 15-year local control rates amount 92%, 89% and 79%. In cases of microprolactinoma primary therapy consists of dopamine agonists. Irradiation should be preferred in patients with macroprolactinomas, when drug therapy and/or surgery failed or for patients medically unsuitable for surgery. Reduction and control of prolactin secretion can be achieved in 44-70% of patients. After radiotherapy in acromegaly patients somatomedin-C and growth hormone concentrations decrease to normal levels in 70-90%, with a decrease rate of 10-30% per year. Hypercortisolism is controlled in 50-83% of adults and 80% of children with Cushing's disease, generally in less than 9 months. Hypopituitarism is the most common side effect of pituitary irradiation with an incidence of 13-56%. Long-term overall risk for brain necrosis in a total of 1,388 analyzed

  8. Effects of gamma-radiation treatment in somatic cell culture of indica rice Basmati 370 selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min Shaokai; Qi Xiufang; Xiong Zhenmin; Zhao Chengzhang

    1990-01-01

    Full text: Radiation treatment was applied at different doses to germinating embryo, callus, callus with green spots and callus with developing shoots. Results indicate: (1) induction rate of the callus was reduced with increased radiation dose applied to germinating embryos; (2) radiation effect on redifferentiation percentage and/or green plantlets percentage of the callus varied with different treatment dates in the order of callus treatment > treatment of callus with green spots > treatment of callus with developing shoots > treatment of germinating embryo; (3) in vitro irradiation reduced the fertility of regenerated plants, but was able to increase their exerted stigma rate and the frequency of early maturing variation in their progenies; (4) a number of promising mutants including 2 male sterile plants were obtained from the progenies of in vitro irradiation. The radiation treatment with 2.5-5.OkR to callus with green spots or shoots is a method worthy of adoption in rice improvement. (author)

  9. How Space Radiation Risk from Galactic Cosmic Rays at the International Space Station Relates to Nuclear Cross Sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zi-Wei; Adams, J. H., Jr.

    2005-01-01

    Space radiation risk to astronauts is a major obstacle for long term human space explorations. Space radiation transport codes have thus been developed to evaluate radiation effects at the International Space Station (ISS) and in missions to the Moon or Mars. We study how nuclear fragmentation processes in such radiation transport affect predictions on the radiation risk from galactic cosmic rays. Taking into account effects of the geomagnetic field on the cosmic ray spectra, we investigate the effects of fragmentation cross sections at different energies on the radiation risk (represented by dose-equivalent) from galactic cosmic rays behind typical spacecraft materials. These results tell us how the radiation risk at the ISS is related to nuclear cross sections at different energies, and consequently how to most efficiently reduce the physical uncertainty in our predictions on the radiation risk at the ISS.

  10. Fully radiative relaxation of silicon nanocrystals in colloidal ensemble revealed by advanced treatment of decay kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greben, Michael; Khoroshyy, Petro; Liu, Xiangkai; Pi, Xiaodong; Valenta, Jan

    2017-07-01

    A comprehensive study of the spectrally resolved photoluminescence (PL) decay kinetics of dodecyl-passivated colloidal silicon nanocrystals (Si NCs) is presented. The correct treatment of average decay lifetime is demonstrated. We report on importance to distinguish the external quantum efficiency (QE) from the internal QE. The external QE of the ensemble of Si NCs is measured to be ˜60%, while the internal QE of Si NCs emitting around ˜1.5 eV is evaluated to be near unity. This difference between internal and external QE is attributed to a fraction of "dark" (absorbing but non-emitting) Si NCs in the ensemble. This conclusion is based on the analysis of deconvoluted size-selected decay curves retrieved by the presented mathematical procedure. The homogeneous line-broadening is estimated to be around 180 meV by experimentally challenging single-NC PL measurements. In addition, radiative lifetimes are calculated by the envelope function approximation and confirm the observed exponential increase of lifetime with decreasing emission photon energy.

  11. Radiation therapy in the treatment of hilar cholangiocarcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jing Jin; Zhai Renyou

    2007-01-01

    The incidence of hilar cholangiocarcinoma is very rare worldwide. Radical resection is the only prognostic factor for long survival in patients with hilar cholangiocarcinoma. Postoperative radiation therapy can improve local control and survival rates for patients with palliative resection, but it remains controversial in patients with radical resection. Biliary drainage can effectively release bile duct obstruction for the majority of patients with locally advanced disease, and may even prolong survival when combined with radiation therapy. Radiation therapy includes extrernal beam therapy alone, external beam therapy with intraluminal brachytheapy and new radiation technique, such as three dimentional conformal therapy and intensity modulated radiation therapy. The propective randomized clinical study is needed for further investigation in the role of combined modality therapy especially for hilar cholangiocarcinoma. (authors)

  12. Elimination of Listeria monocytogenes in sausage meat by combination treatment: Radiation and radiation-resistant bacteriocins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turgis, Mélanie; Stotz, Viviane; Dupont, Claude; Salmieri, Stéphane; Khan, Ruhul A.; Lacroix, Monique

    2012-08-01

    Two new bacteria were isolated from human feces and were designated MT 104 and MT 162. They were able to produce bacteriocins that are active against five strains of Listeria monocytogenes. Bacteriocins produced by these isolated strains had 100% and 82.35% residual activity when they were treated by gamma radiation at doses of 4 and 40 kGy, respectively. A reduction of 1.0, 1.5 and 3 log CFU/g of L. monocytogenes was observed in sausage meat when treated with bacteriocins from MT 104, MT 162, and nisin, respectively. For synergic effect, the D10 value in presence of the bacteriocins produced by MT 104 showed a 1.08 fold increased relative sensitivity of L. monocytogenes as compared to control after 5 days. The highest synergic effect was observed in presence of nisin which led to 1.61 fold increased relative sensitivity. Combined treatments with nisin and γ-irradiation showed a synergic antimicrobial effect in meat after 24 h and 5 days of storage. A synergic effect was observed only after 5 days at 4 °C for the bacteriocin from MT 104, as compared to the bacteriocin produced by MT 162 that had only an additive antimicrobial effect in all conditions.

  13. FOREWORD: IX International Symposium on Radiation from Relativistic Electrons in Periodic Structures (RREPS-2011)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potylitsyn, Alexander; Karataev, Pavel

    2012-05-01

    This volume contains papers presented at the IX International Symposium on Radiation from Relativistic Electrons in Periodic Structures (RREPS'11) which was held at Royal Holloway, University of London on September 12-16, Egham, United Kingdom. The symposium was organized jointly by Royal Holloway, University of London and Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk, Russia. RREPS is a biennial series of symposia founded in September 1993 as an initiative of the Nuclear Physics Institute at Tomsk Polytechnic University. The intention was to strengthen the basic and applied research focused on radiation from relativistic electrons in condensed media, particularly from natural and artificial periodic structures, and to review the research activity in this area. Since then, the symposium has developed into a forum attracting young scientists from different areas of research and from many countries. Previous successful symposia were held at Tomsk, Russia (1993, 1995, 1997, 2003), Lake Baikal, Russia (1999), Lake Aiya, Altai, Russia (2001), Czech Technical University in Prague, Czech Republic (2007) and Zvenigorod, Moscow region, Russia (2009). As an outcome of the symposia the conference proceedings have been published in Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section B (Vol. 145 No 1-2, October 1998; Vol. 173 No 1-2, January 2001; Vol. 201 No 1 January 2003; Vol. 227 No 1-2, January 2005; Vol. 266 No 17, September 2008) and Journal of Physics: Conference Series (Vol. 236, June 2010). The purpose of the present RREPS'11 symposium was to review the up-to-date situation in the area of electromagnetic radiation generated by relativistic charged particles in condensed media, and to discuss the research strategy for the near future. Nowadays, electromagnetic radiation studies cover electron energies from a few MeV up to hundreds of GeV in many laboratories throughout the world. The goal is to study the physics of the generation of various kinds of radiation and their

  14. The role of the International Atomic Energy Agency in radiation and waste safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wrixon, A.D.; Ortiz-Lopez, P.

    1999-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency is specifically required by its Statute 'to establish or adopt ... standards of safety for protection of health and minimization of danger to life and property ... and to provide for the application of these standards ...'. Standards encompass three main elements: legally binding international undertakings among States; globally agreed international safety standards; and the provision for facilitating the application of those standards. Radiation safety standards are national responsibilities, but there is considerable value in formulating harmonized approaches throughout the world. The Agency has attempted to do this by establishing internationally agreed safety standards and by prompting their application. Of prime importance are the Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources. These deal with the basic requirements that must be met in order to ensure an adequate standard of safety. More detailed guidance on the application of these requirements is given in Safety Guides established under them. Fuller technical support is given in a series of Safety Reports. A number of Safety Guides are relevant to this meeting. An existing Safety Guide on exemption is being revised to cover related topics such as exclusion and clearance, and this is the subject of a separate presentation. As part of the programme to combat illicit trafficking in radioactive materials, a new Safety Guide on the topic is being developed. Both are near completion. Another Safety Guide is being produced to elaborate the requirements in the Basic Safety Standards on the safety of radioactive sources. The topics of illicit trafficking in radioactive materials and the safety of radioactive sources were given added impetus by resolutions of the last General Conference of the Agency. This paper provides an overview of these activities of the Agency. (author)

  15. Yttrium-90 selective internal radiation therapy with glass microspheres for hepatocellular carcinoma: Current and updated literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Edward Wolfgang; Alanic, Lourdes; Cho, Sung Ki; Saab, Sammy

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma is the most common primary liver cancer and it represents the majority of cancer-related deaths in the world. More than 70% of patients present at an advanced stage, beyond potentially curative options. Ytrrium-90 selective internal radiation therapy (Y90-SIRT) with glass microspheres is rapidly gaining acceptance as a potential therapy for intermediate and advanced stage primary hepatocellular carcinoma and liver metastases. The technique involves delivery of Y90 infused glass microspheres via the hepatic arterial blood flow to the appropriate tumor. The liver tumor receives a highly concentrated radiation dose while sparing the healthy liver parenchyma due to its preferential blood supply from portal venous blood. There are two commercially available devices: TheraSphere® and SIR-Spheres®. Although, Y90-SIRT with glass microspheres improves median survival in patients with intermediate and advanced hepatocellular carcinoma and has the potential to downstage hepatocellular carcinoma so that the selected candidates meet the transplantable criteria, it has not gained widespread acceptance due to the lack of large randomized controlled trials. Currently, there are various clinical trials investigating the use of Y90-SIRT with glass microspheres for treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma and the outcomes of these trials may result in the incorporation of Y90-SIRT with glass microspheres into the treatment guidelines as a standard therapy option for patients with intermediate and advanced stage hepatocellular carcinoma

  16. Yttrium-90 Selective Internal Radiation Therapy with Glass Microspheres for Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Current and Updated Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Edward Wolfgang; Alanis, Lourdes; Cho, Sung-Ki; Saab, Sammy

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma is the most common primary liver cancer and it represents the majority of cancer-related deaths in the world. More than 70% of patients present at an advanced stage, beyond potentially curative options. Ytrrium-90 selective internal radiation therapy (Y90-SIRT) with glass microspheres is rapidly gaining acceptance as a potential therapy for intermediate and advanced stage primary hepatocellular carcinoma and liver metastases. The technique involves delivery of Y90 infused glass microspheres via the hepatic arterial blood flow to the appropriate tumor. The liver tumor receives a highly concentrated radiation dose while sparing the healthy liver parenchyma due to its preferential blood supply from portal venous blood. There are two commercially available devices: TheraSphere® and SIR-Spheres®. Although, Y90-SIRT with glass microspheres improves median survival in patients with intermediate and advanced hepatocellular carcinoma and has the potential to downstage hepatocellular carcinoma so that the selected candidates meet the transplantable criteria, it has not gained widespread acceptance due to the lack of large randomized controlled trials. Currently, there are various clinical trials investigating the use of Y90-SIRT with glass microspheres for treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma and the outcomes of these trials may result in the incorporation of Y90-SIRT with glass microspheres into the treatment guidelines as a standard therapy option for patients with intermediate and advanced stage hepatocellular carcinoma.

  17. Yttrium-90 Selective Internal Radiation Therapy with Glass Microspheres for Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Current and Updated Literature Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Edward Wolfgang; Alanis, Lourdes; Cho, Sung-Ki; Saab, Sammy

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma is the most common primary liver cancer and it represents the majority of cancer-related deaths in the world. More than 70% of patients present at an advanced stage, beyond potentially curative options. Ytrrium-90 selective internal radiation therapy (Y90-SIRT) with glass microspheres is rapidly gaining acceptance as a potential therapy for intermediate and advanced stage primary hepatocellular carcinoma and liver metastases. The technique involves delivery of Y90 infused glass microspheres via the hepatic arterial blood flow to the appropriate tumor. The liver tumor receives a highly concentrated radiation dose while sparing the healthy liver parenchyma due to its preferential blood supply from portal venous blood. There are two commercially available devices: TheraSphere® and SIR-Spheres®. Although, Y90-SIRT with glass microspheres improves median survival in patients with intermediate and advanced hepatocellular carcinoma and has the potential to downstage hepatocellular carcinoma so that the selected candidates meet the transplantable criteria, it has not gained widespread acceptance due to the lack of large randomized controlled trials. Currently, there are various clinical trials investigating the use of Y90-SIRT with glass microspheres for treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma and the outcomes of these trials may result in the incorporation of Y90-SIRT with glass microspheres into the treatment guidelines as a standard therapy option for patients with intermediate and advanced stage hepatocellular carcinoma

  18. Yttrium-90 selective internal radiation therapy with glass microspheres for hepatocellular carcinoma: Current and updated literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Edward Wolfgang; Alanic, Lourdes [Div. of Interventional Radiology, Dept. of Radiology, UCLA Medical Center, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles (United States); Cho, Sung Ki [Div. of Interventional Radiology, Dept. of Radiology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Saab, Sammy [Div. of Hepatology, Dept. of Medicine, Pfleger Liver Institute, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles (United States)

    2016-07-15

    Hepatocellular carcinoma is the most common primary liver cancer and it represents the majority of cancer-related deaths in the world. More than 70% of patients present at an advanced stage, beyond potentially curative options. Ytrrium-90 selective internal radiation therapy (Y90-SIRT) with glass microspheres is rapidly gaining acceptance as a potential therapy for intermediate and advanced stage primary hepatocellular carcinoma and liver metastases. The technique involves delivery of Y90 infused glass microspheres via the hepatic arterial blood flow to the appropriate tumor. The liver tumor receives a highly concentrated radiation dose while sparing the healthy liver parenchyma due to its preferential blood supply from portal venous blood. There are two commercially available devices: TheraSphere® and SIR-Spheres®. Although, Y90-SIRT with glass microspheres improves median survival in patients with intermediate and advanced hepatocellular carcinoma and has the potential to downstage hepatocellular carcinoma so that the selected candidates meet the transplantable criteria, it has not gained widespread acceptance due to the lack of large randomized controlled trials. Currently, there are various clinical trials investigating the use of Y90-SIRT with glass microspheres for treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma and the outcomes of these trials may result in the incorporation of Y90-SIRT with glass microspheres into the treatment guidelines as a standard therapy option for patients with intermediate and advanced stage hepatocellular carcinoma.

  19. Yttrium-90 Selective Internal Radiation Therapy with Glass Microspheres for Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Current and Updated Literature Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Edward Wolfgang; Alanis, Lourdes [Division of Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology, UCLA Medical Center, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Cho, Sung-Ki [Division of Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul 06351 (Korea, Republic of); Saab, Sammy [Division of Hepatology, Department of Medicine, Pfleger Liver Institute, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90024 (United States)

    2016-11-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma is the most common primary liver cancer and it represents the majority of cancer-related deaths in the world. More than 70% of patients present at an advanced stage, beyond potentially curative options. Ytrrium-90 selective internal radiation therapy (Y90-SIRT) with glass microspheres is rapidly gaining acceptance as a potential therapy for intermediate and advanced stage primary hepatocellular carcinoma and liver metastases. The technique involves delivery of Y90 infused glass microspheres via the hepatic arterial blood flow to the appropriate tumor. The liver tumor receives a highly concentrated radiation dose while sparing the healthy liver parenchyma due to its preferential blood supply from portal venous blood. There are two commercially available devices: TheraSphere® and SIR-Spheres®. Although, Y90-SIRT with glass microspheres improves median survival in patients with intermediate and advanced hepatocellular carcinoma and has the potential to downstage hepatocellular carcinoma so that the selected candidates meet the transplantable criteria, it has not gained widespread acceptance due to the lack of large randomized controlled trials. Currently, there are various clinical trials investigating the use of Y90-SIRT with glass microspheres for treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma and the outcomes of these trials may result in the incorporation of Y90-SIRT with glass microspheres into the treatment guidelines as a standard therapy option for patients with intermediate and advanced stage hepatocellular carcinoma.

  20. Space radiation risks for astronauts on multiple International Space Station missions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis A Cucinotta

    Full Text Available Mortality and morbidity risks from space radiation exposure are an important concern for astronauts participating in International Space Station (ISS missions. NASA's radiation limits set a 3% cancer fatality probability as the upper bound of acceptable risk and considers uncertainties in risk predictions using the upper 95% confidence level (CL of the assessment. In addition to risk limitation, an important question arises as to the likelihood of a causal association between a crew-members' radiation exposure in the past and a diagnosis of cancer. For the first time, we report on predictions of age and sex specific cancer risks, expected years of life-loss for specific diseases, and probability of causation (PC at different post-mission times for participants in 1-year or multiple ISS missions. Risk projections with uncertainty estimates are within NASA acceptable radiation standards for mission lengths of 1-year or less for likely crew demographics. However, for solar minimum conditions upper 95% CL exceed 3% risk of exposure induced death (REID by 18 months or 24 months for females and males, respectively. Median PC and upper 95%-confidence intervals are found to exceed 50% for several cancers for participation in two or more ISS missions of 18 months or longer total duration near solar minimum, or for longer ISS missions at other phases of the solar cycle. However, current risk models only consider estimates of quantitative differences between high and low linear energy transfer (LET radiation. We also make predictions of risk and uncertainties that would result from an increase in tumor lethality for highly ionizing radiation reported in animal studies, and the additional risks from circulatory diseases. These additional concerns could further reduce the maximum duration of ISS missions within acceptable risk levels, and will require new knowledge to properly evaluate.

  1. Space radiation risks for astronauts on multiple International Space Station missions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucinotta, Francis A

    2014-01-01

    Mortality and morbidity risks from space radiation exposure are an important concern for astronauts participating in International Space Station (ISS) missions. NASA's radiation limits set a 3% cancer fatality probability as the upper bound of acceptable risk and considers uncertainties in risk predictions using the upper 95% confidence level (CL) of the assessment. In addition to risk limitation, an important question arises as to the likelihood of a causal association between a crew-members' radiation exposure in the past and a diagnosis of cancer. For the first time, we report on predictions of age and sex specific cancer risks, expected years of life-loss for specific diseases, and probability of causation (PC) at different post-mission times for participants in 1-year or multiple ISS missions. Risk projections with uncertainty estimates are within NASA acceptable radiation standards for mission lengths of 1-year or less for likely crew demographics. However, for solar minimum conditions upper 95% CL exceed 3% risk of exposure induced death (REID) by 18 months or 24 months for females and males, respectively. Median PC and upper 95%-confidence intervals are found to exceed 50% for several cancers for participation in two or more ISS missions of 18 months or longer total duration near solar minimum, or for longer ISS missions at other phases of the solar cycle. However, current risk models only consider estimates of quantitative differences between high and low linear energy transfer (LET) radiation. We also make predictions of risk and uncertainties that would result from an increase in tumor lethality for highly ionizing radiation reported in animal studies, and the additional risks from circulatory diseases. These additional concerns could further reduce the maximum duration of ISS missions within acceptable risk levels, and will require new knowledge to properly evaluate.

  2. PROBABILISTIC FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS OF A HEAVY DUTY RADIATOR UNDER INTERNAL PRESSURE LOADING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROBIN ROY P.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Engine cooling is vital in keeping the engine at most efficient temperature for the different vehicle speed and operating road conditions. Radiator is one of the key components in the heavy duty engine cooling system. Heavy duty radiator is subjected to various kinds of loading such as pressure, thermal, vibration, internal erosion, external corrosion, creep. Pressure cycle durability is one of the most important characteristic in the design of heavy duty radiator. Current design methodologies involve design of heavy duty radiator using the nominal finite element approach which does not take into account of the variations occurring in the geometry, material and boundary condition, leading to over conservative and uneconomical designs of radiator system. A new approach is presented in the paper to integrate traditional linear finite element method and probabilistic approach to design a heavy duty radiator by including the uncertainty in the computational model. As a first step, nominal run is performed with input design variables and desired responses are extracted. A probabilistic finite elementanalysis is performed to identify the robust designs and validated for reliability. Probabilistic finite element includes the uncertainty of the material thickness, dimensional and geometrical variation. Gaussian distribution is employed to define the random variation and uncertainty. Monte Carlo method is used to generate the random design points.Output response distributions of the random design points are post-processed using different statistical and probability technique to find the robust design. The above approach of systematic virtual modelling and analysis of the data helps to find efficient and reliable robust design.

  3. Influence of planning time and treatment complexity on radiation therapy errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gensheimer, Michael F; Zeng, Jing; Carlson, Joshua; Spady, Phil; Jordan, Loucille; Kane, Gabrielle; Ford, Eric C

    2016-01-01

    Radiation treatment planning is a complex process with potential for error. We hypothesized that shorter time from simulation to treatment would result in rushed work and higher incidence of errors. We examined treatment planning factors predictive for near-miss events. Treatments delivered from March 2012 through October 2014 were analyzed. Near-miss events were prospectively recorded and coded for severity on a 0 to 4 scale; only grade 3-4 (potentially severe/critical) events were studied in this report. For 4 treatment types (3-dimensional conformal, intensity modulated radiation therapy, stereotactic body radiation therapy [SBRT], neutron), logistic regression was performed to test influence of treatment planning time and clinical variables on near-miss events. There were 2257 treatment courses during the study period, with 322 grade 3-4 near-miss events. SBRT treatments had more frequent events than the other 3 treatment types (18% vs 11%, P = .04). For the 3-dimensional conformal group (1354 treatments), univariate analysis showed several factors predictive of near-miss events: longer time from simulation to first treatment (P = .01), treatment of primary site versus metastasis (P < .001), longer treatment course (P < .001), and pediatric versus adult patient (P = .002). However, on multivariate regression only pediatric versus adult patient remained predictive of events (P = 0.02). For the intensity modulated radiation therapy, SBRT, and neutron groups, time between simulation and first treatment was not found to be predictive of near-miss events on univariate or multivariate regression. When controlling for treatment technique and other clinical factors, there was no relationship between time spent in radiation treatment planning and near-miss events. SBRT and pediatric treatments were more error-prone, indicating that clinical and technical complexity of treatments should be taken into account when targeting safety interventions. Copyright © 2015 American

  4. Topical issues in nuclear, radiation and radioactive waste safety. Proceedings of an international conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The objective of the conference was to foster the exchange of information on topical issues in nuclear, radiation and radioactive waste safety, with the aim of consolidating an international consensus on the current status of these issues, priorities for future work and the need for strengthening international co-operation, including recommendations for the IAEA's future activities. The topical issues were grouped under the following six major headings: safety management; occupational radiation protection - trends and developments; backfitting, upgrading and modernization of nuclear power plants; situations of chronic exposure to residual radioactive materials - decommissioning and rehabilitation and reclamation of land; radiation safety in the distant future - the issue of long tern waste disposal; regulatory strategies. This volume contains the topical issue papers, the keynote presentations, the current issue presentations, the conclusions of the six technical sessions, and the conference chairperson's summary of findings and conclusions. Each of these papers has been provided with an abstract and indexed separately. Individual contributions to this conference have been published separately in the IAEA-TECDOC-1031. A CD-ROM containing contributed papers is attached to this book

  5. Endodontic radiology, practice, and knowledge of radiation biology, hazard, and protection among clinical dental students and interns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Emien Enabulele

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the practice and knowledge of endodontic radiology as well as assess the knowledge of radiation biology, hazard, and protection among clinical dental students and interns. Materials and Methods: Cross-sectional study of clinical dental students and interns at University of Benin and University of Benin Teaching hospital respectively. Data was collected using a questionnaire which covered practice and knowledge of endodontic radiography, knowledge of radiation biology, hazard, and protection. Data was analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version 17.0. Result: Seventy participants were included in the study, 40% were final year students and 24.3% house officers. Majority (95.7% agreed that they exposed radiographs as part of endodontic treatment. Only 18.6% knew that the apices of teeth should be 3mm from the border of the X-ray film, while 24.3% knew that 3mm of periapical bone should be visible on X-ray. Less than half (31.4% knew that paralleling technique was the technique of choice for endodontic radiography and this was statistically Significant in relationship to the status of the of the respondents. A few (4.3% of the respondents had knowledge of new horizons in endodontic imaging. Half of the respondents knew that damage by X-rays is mainly due to formation of free radicals. The most frequently reported radiation hazards was reduced salivary flow, while the least reported was rampant caries. Most knew how to protect patients, themselves, and other persons while exposing radiographs. Conclusion: There is need for inclusion of endodontic radiography in the undergraduate curriculum to ensure proper and correct radiographs during endodontic procedure.

  6. Pharmaceutical wastewater treatment by internal micro-electrolysis--coagulation, biological treatment and activated carbon adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kangle; Liu, Suiqing; Zhang, Qiang; He, Yiliang

    2009-12-01

    Treatment of pharmaceutical wastewater by the combined process of internal micro-electrolysis and coagulation, biological treatment and activated carbon adsorption was studied. Internal micro-electrolysis and coagulation served as the pretreatment for the wastewater before biological treatment to reduce the contaminants' toxicity to microbes and improve the biodegradability of wastewater to guarantee the smooth operation of the biological process. Biological treatment was the main body of the whole process which took an unparalleled role in removing COD (chemical oxygen demand). Activated carbon adsorption was adopted as the post-treatment process to further remove the remaining non-biodegradable particles. Results showed that the removal rates of COD and S2- (sulphide ion) by pretreatment were 66.9% and 98.9%, respectively, and the biodegradability, as measured by the ratio of biodegradable COD to initial COD, of the wastewater was greatly improved from 0.16 +/- 0.02 to 0.41 +/- 0.02. The overall removal rate of COD in the wastewater achieved by this combined treatment process was up to 96%, and the effluent COD met the Chinese tertiary discharge standard (GB 8978-1996).

  7. Radiation-induced fibrosarcoma following treatment for breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adam, Y.G.; Reif, R.

    1977-01-01

    A patient with radiation-induced fibrosarcoma following mastectomy and postoperative radiation for bilateral breast carcinoma is described. Only six such cases have been reported in the literature. In this patient erosion of the axillary artery produced massive hemorrhage, and emergency transthoracic ligation of the subclavian artery caused gangrene of the extremity and empyema and sepsis. Interscapulothoracic amputation not only was life-saving but offered the patient a reasonable chance for long-term survival. Only aggressive surgical management can salvage a patient with radiation-induced sarcoma

  8. Features of patients with comorbid pathology treatment in internal medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. F. Kuznetsova

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Nowadays more attention is paid to the comorbid pathologies in the internal medicine as they have important social and medical value. Different combinations of the arterial hypertension, chronic kidney disease, osteoartrosis and anemia influences are now studied. The article underlines the main features of the therapeutic tactics in these patients. Methods and results. The paper presents a case of a patient with mentioned pathology, sets out the main guidelines for the management of patients with such comorbid conditions. Conclusion. Treatment tactics should include: minimum interoperability path of excretion, metabolic neutrality, good tolerability and a positive impact on the affected organ, all of which may contribute not only to improve health and improve the quality of life of patients, but also its extension.

  9. Treatment of a symptomatic intrathoracic internal carotid artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher R. Brown

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Intrathoracic common carotid artery bifurcations are an anatomic anomaly with such rarity that only six cases have been reported to date. The true incidence of and preferred treatment options for a diseased intrathoracic common carotid artery bifurcation or internal carotid artery (ICA have not been clearly described. This case report describes a 72-year-old man who experienced a postoperative right hemispheric stoke after an aortic valve replacement, radiofrequency maze procedure, and left atrial appendage clip. Postoperative cerebrovascular evaluation revealed a severely diseased intrathoracic ICA that was treated by ligation of the diseased proximal ICA and transposition of the distal ICA to the disease-free external carotid artery. The patient provided written consent to present the history, data, and images in this manuscript.

  10. Joint Radiation Emergency Management Plan of the International Organizations. Date Effective: 1 July 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The Convention on Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident (the 'Early Notification Convention') and the Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency (the 'Assistance Convention') are prime legal instruments that establish an international framework to facilitate the exchange of information and the prompt provision of assistance in the event of a radiation emergency, with the aim of minimizing the consequences. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has specific functions assigned to it under these Conventions, to which the the European Commission, through the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom), the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), the World Health Organization (WHO) and the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) are full Parties. The arrangements between the IAEA, States and international intergovernmental organizations ('international organizations') for facilitating the practical implementation of those articles of the two Conventions that are operational in nature are documented in the IAEA's Operations Manual for Incident and Emergency Communication (IEComm). In addition to the IEComm arrangements and pursuant to the obligations placed on the IAEA by the Conventions, the IAEA regularly convenes the Inter-Agency Committee on Radiological and Nuclear Emergencies (IACRNE), whose purpose is to coordinate the arrangements of the relevant international organizations for preparing for and responding to radiation incidents or emergencies. Although the Conventions assign specific response functions and responsibilities to the IAEA and the Parties, various international organizations have - by virtue of their statutory functions or of related legal instruments (including, for example, the WHO International Health Regulations 2005) - functions and responsibilities that encompass aspects of preparedness and response in this context. Moreover, some regional organizations/bodies (e.g. the

  11. Symptom management during the radiation oncology treatment course: a practical guide for the oncology clinician.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogh, Shannon; Yom, Sue S

    2014-12-01

    Symptom management during radiation therapy is critical to providing high-quality care for patients receiving treatment. Symptoms are varied and dependent on the site irradiated. Common symptoms associated with radiation therapy include dermatitis, xerostomia, mucositis, and pneumonitis. Treatment strategies include prevention, anticipation, and development of clinical practice enabling rapid identification and management of emerging symptoms. Understanding the spectrum of symptomatology affecting irradiated patients is integral to improved quality of life and treatment efficacy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The chapter one presents the composition of matter and atomic theory; matter structure; transitions; origin of radiation; radioactivity; nuclear radiation; interactions in decay processes; radiation produced by the interaction of radiation with matter

  13. Radiation treatment of materials - elaboration bases of radiation technology; Obrobka radiacyjna materialow - zasady opracowywania technologii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panta, P.P. [Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, Warsaw (Poland)

    1997-10-01

    The basic rules in design of radiation technologies have been presented and discussed. The recommendations for achieving of assigned goal in respect of obliged regulations have been done and explained on the example of radiation technology of adhesive materials and glue production.

  14. Opening Address by U. Heinen-Esser [International Conference on Radiation Protection In Medicine, Bonn (Germany), 3-7 December 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinen-Esser, U.

    2015-01-01

    Ten years ago, the IAEA invited us to Malaga to discuss radiation protection in medicine. The outcome of that conference was the adoption of an Action Plan, which has guided international efforts on protecting patients from ionizing radiation ever since. Since then, developments in medicine have progressed at a rapid pace. New diagnosis and treatment techniques using ionizing radiation and radioactive substances have become well established. At the same time, there is also a growing awareness of both the benefits and risks of using ionizing radiation on humans. In the face of such rapid progress, and all opportunities currently available for using ionizing radiation, we should continue to be guided by the following three pillars of radiation protection: (1) Justification — weighing up the benefits and risks, i.e. the benefits of treatment must outweigh the risks. The increasing use of ionizing radiation in medicine worldwide (4 billion diagnostic procedures in 2008) is an indication of its benefits. However, it must benefit all countries. Radiation supported health services (e.g. for cancer diagnosis and treatment) must also be made accessible to developing countries. Conversely, with the wide range of diagnostic techniques using ionizing radiation, we must never lose sight of the associated risks. This is particularly true of early detection screening. Clear framework conditions on the admissibility of such screening must be drawn up. (2) Optimization — achieving the treatment objectives with the lowest possible dose. Whichever diagnostic method or treatment is chosen, it should always be performed with the lowest possible radiation dose for both the patient and the medical personnel. We have a social and an ethical responsibility to control exposure appropriately. The protection and safe treatment of children is particularly key in this regard. Optimizing exposure is an ongoing challenge. (3) Risk minimization — limiting the risk (for example, when setting

  15. INTDOS: a computer code for estimating internal radiation dose using recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, M.T.

    1981-09-01

    INTDOS is a user-oriented computer code designed to calculate estimates of internal radiation dose commitment resulting from the acute inhalation intake of various radionuclides. It is designed so that users unfamiliar with the details of such can obtain results by answering a few questions regarding the exposure case. The user must identify the radionuclide name, solubility class, particle size, time since exposure, and the measured lung burden. INTDOS calculates the fractions of the lung burden remaining at time, t, postexposure considering the solubility class and particle size information. From the fraction remaining in the lung at time, t, the quantity inhaled is estimated. Radioactive decay is accounted for in the estimate. Finally, effective committed dose equivalents to various organs and tissues of the body are calculated using inhalation committed dose factors presented by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). This computer code was written for execution on a Digital Equipment Corporation PDP-10 computer and is written in Fortran IV. A flow chart and example calculations are discussed in detail to aid the user who is unfamiliar with computer operations

  16. International movement on radiation safety related to the ICRP and the IAEA-RADWASS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosako, Toshiso

    1994-01-01

    Nowadays discussion on Radiation Safety has a spread of world wide range. The main framework on radiation safety was constructed by ICRP (International Commission on Radiological Protection), which was established in 1928. This term of the committee was from June 1993 to May 1997 and the first plenary meeting was held at the Queen's hotel in Bournemouth of the United Kingdom on September 1993. The outline of this meeting, especially related items to the Committee 4, were summarized in this paper. The second point of our workshop considerations is radioactive waste problems, which are now under discussion in RADWASS (Radioactive Waste Safety Standards) project of IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency). This IAEA-RADWASS will last nearly 10 years to cover whole subjects. These discussed items are arranged into various international standards; the safety fundamental, the safety standards, the safety guides and the safety practices. These systematic approach, if we could summarize, would be effective not only to the specialists but also to a general public to get an acceptance of radioactive waste problem. Here, this IAEA-RADWASS project is reviewed. (author)

  17. Independent verification of monitor unit calculation for radiation treatment planning system.