WorldWideScience

Sample records for internal quantum efficiency

  1. Internal quantum efficiency enhancement of GaInN/GaN quantum-well structures using Ag nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iida, Daisuke; Fadil, Ahmed; Ou, Yiyu; Kopylov, Oleksii; Ou, Haiyan; Chen, Yuntian; Iwaya, Motoaki; Takeuchi, Tetsuya; Kamiyama, Satoshi; Akasaki, Isamu

    2015-01-01

    We report internal quantum efficiency enhancement of thin p-GaN green quantum-well structure using self-assembled Ag nanoparticles. Temperature dependent photoluminescence measurements are conducted to determine the internal quantum efficiency. The impact of excitation power density on the enhancement factor is investigated. We obtain an internal quantum efficiency enhancement by a factor of 2.3 at 756 W/cm 2 , and a factor of 8.1 at 1 W/cm 2 . A Purcell enhancement up to a factor of 26 is estimated by fitting the experimental results to a theoretical model for the efficiency enhancement factor

  2. Internal quantum efficiency in yellow-amber light emitting AlGaN-InGaN-GaN heterostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ngo, Thi Huong; Gil, Bernard; Valvin, Pierre [Laboratoire Charles Coulomb – UMR 5221, CNRS and University Montpellier, Case courier 074, 34095 Montpellier Cedex 5 (France); Damilano, Benjamin; Lekhal, Kaddour; De Mierry, Philippe [CRHEA-CNRS Centre de Recherche sur l' Hétéro-Epitaxie et ses Applications, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, rue Bernard Gregory, 06560 Valbonne (France)

    2015-09-21

    We determine the internal quantum efficiency of strain-balanced AlGaN-InGaN-GaN hetero-structures designed for yellow-amber light emission, by using a recent model based on the kinetics of the photoluminescence decay initiated by Iwata et al. [J. Appl. Phys. 117, 075701 (2015)]. Our results indicate that low temperature internal quantum efficiencies sit in the 50% range and we measure that adding an AlGaN layer increases the internal quantum efficiency from 50% up to 57% with respect to the GaN-InGaN case. More dramatic, it almost doubles from 2.5% up to 4.3% at room temperature.

  3. High internal quantum efficiency in AlGaN multiple quantum wells grown on bulk AlN substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryan, Zachary, E-mail: zabryan@ncsu.edu; Bryan, Isaac; Sitar, Zlatko; Collazo, Ramón [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 (United States); Xie, Jinqiao; Mita, Seiji [HexaTech, Inc., 991 Aviation Pkwy., Suite 800, Morrisville, North Carolina 27560 (United States)

    2015-04-06

    The internal quantum efficiency (IQE) of Al{sub 0.55}Ga{sub 0.45}N/AlN and Al{sub 0.55}Ga{sub 0.45}N/Al{sub 0.85}Ga{sub 0.15}N UVC MQW structures was analyzed. The use of bulk AlN substrates enabled us to undoubtedly distinguish the effect of growth conditions, such as V/III ratio, on the optical quality of AlGaN based MQWs from the influence of dislocations. At a high V/III ratio, a record high IQE of ∼80% at a carrier density of 10{sup 18 }cm{sup −3} was achieved at ∼258 nm. The high IQE was correlated with the decrease of the non-radiative coefficient A and a reduction of midgap defect luminescence, all suggesting that, in addition to dislocations, point defects are another major factor that strongly influences optical quality of AlGaN MQW structures.

  4. Significant internal quantum efficiency enhancement of GaN/AlGaN multiple quantum wells emitting at ~350 nm via step quantum well structure design

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Feng

    2017-05-03

    Significant internal quantum efficiency (IQE) enhancement of GaN/AlGaN multiple quantum wells (MQWs) emitting at similar to 350 nm was achieved via a step quantum well (QW) structure design. The MQW structures were grown on AlGaN/AlN/sapphire templates by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). High resolution x-ray diffraction (HR-XRD) and scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) were performed, showing sharp interface of the MQWs. Weak beam dark field imaging was conducted, indicating a similar dislocation density of the investigated MQWs samples. The IQE of GaN/AlGaN MQWs was estimated by temperature dependent photoluminescence (TDPL). An IQE enhancement of about two times was observed for the GaN/AlGaN step QW structure, compared with conventional QW structure. Based on the theoretical calculation, this IQE enhancement was attributed to the suppressed polarization-induced field, and thus the improved electron-hole wave-function overlap in the step QW.

  5. Efficient quantum walk on a quantum processor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiang, Xiaogang; Loke, Thomas; Montanaro, Ashley; Aungskunsiri, Kanin; Zhou, Xiaoqi; O'Brien, Jeremy L; Wang, Jingbo B; Matthews, Jonathan C F

    2016-05-05

    The random walk formalism is used across a wide range of applications, from modelling share prices to predicting population genetics. Likewise, quantum walks have shown much potential as a framework for developing new quantum algorithms. Here we present explicit efficient quantum circuits for implementing continuous-time quantum walks on the circulant class of graphs. These circuits allow us to sample from the output probability distributions of quantum walks on circulant graphs efficiently. We also show that solving the same sampling problem for arbitrary circulant quantum circuits is intractable for a classical computer, assuming conjectures from computational complexity theory. This is a new link between continuous-time quantum walks and computational complexity theory and it indicates a family of tasks that could ultimately demonstrate quantum supremacy over classical computers. As a proof of principle, we experimentally implement the proposed quantum circuit on an example circulant graph using a two-qubit photonics quantum processor.

  6. Efficient quantum walk on a quantum processor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiang, Xiaogang; Loke, Thomas; Montanaro, Ashley; Aungskunsiri, Kanin; Zhou, Xiaoqi; O'Brien, Jeremy L.; Wang, Jingbo B.; Matthews, Jonathan C. F.

    2016-01-01

    The random walk formalism is used across a wide range of applications, from modelling share prices to predicting population genetics. Likewise, quantum walks have shown much potential as a framework for developing new quantum algorithms. Here we present explicit efficient quantum circuits for implementing continuous-time quantum walks on the circulant class of graphs. These circuits allow us to sample from the output probability distributions of quantum walks on circulant graphs efficiently. We also show that solving the same sampling problem for arbitrary circulant quantum circuits is intractable for a classical computer, assuming conjectures from computational complexity theory. This is a new link between continuous-time quantum walks and computational complexity theory and it indicates a family of tasks that could ultimately demonstrate quantum supremacy over classical computers. As a proof of principle, we experimentally implement the proposed quantum circuit on an example circulant graph using a two-qubit photonics quantum processor. PMID:27146471

  7. Efficient quantum circuits for Szegedy quantum walks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loke, T.; Wang, J. B.

    2017-07-01

    A major advantage in using Szegedy's formalism over discrete-time and continuous-time quantum walks lies in its ability to define a unitary quantum walk by quantizing a Markov chain on a directed or weighted graph. In this paper, we present a general scheme to construct efficient quantum circuits for Szegedy quantum walks that correspond to classical Markov chains possessing transformational symmetry in the columns of the transition matrix. In particular, the transformational symmetry criteria do not necessarily depend on the sparsity of the transition matrix, so this scheme can be applied to non-sparse Markov chains. Two classes of Markov chains that are amenable to this construction are cyclic permutations and complete bipartite graphs, for which we provide explicit efficient quantum circuit implementations. We also prove that our scheme can be applied to Markov chains formed by a tensor product. We also briefly discuss the implementation of Markov chains based on weighted interdependent networks. In addition, we apply this scheme to construct efficient quantum circuits simulating the Szegedy walks used in the quantum Pagerank algorithm for some classes of non-trivial graphs, providing a necessary tool for experimental demonstration of the quantum Pagerank algorithm.

  8. Accounting for Interference, Scattering, and Electrode Absorption to Make Accurate Internal Quantum Efficiency Measurements in Organic and Other Thin Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Burkhard, George F.

    2010-05-31

    Accurately measuring internal quantum efficiency requires knowledge of absorption in the active layer of a solar cell. The experimentally accessible total absorption includes significant contributions from the electrodes and other nonactive layers. We suggest a straightforward method for calculating the active layer contribution that minimizes error by subtracting optically-modeled electrode absorption from experimentally measured total absorption. (Figure Presented) © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Efficiency of quantum volume hologram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilyev, D. V.; Sokolov, I. V.

    2012-11-01

    We discuss storage and retrieval efficiency of parallel spatially multimode quantum memory for light - quantum volume hologram. The introduced in [D.V. Vasyliev, I.V. Sokolov, E.S. Polzik, Phys. Rev. A 81, 020302(R) (2010)] scheme is based on the counter-propagating (non-collinear in general case) quantum signal wave and strong classical reference wave in presence of the Raman-type off-resonant interaction with atomic spins rotating in the magnetic field. By the forward-propagating retrieval the quantum volume hologram is less sensitive to diffraction [D.V. Vasyliev, I.V. Sokolov, E.S. Polzik, Phys. Rev. A 81, 020302(R) (2010)] and therefore is capable of achieving high density of storage of spatial modes. We propose to use for the forward-propagating retrieval the signal temporal eigenmodes of the whole write-in and readout memory cycle. As compared to the approach when there are used the eigenmodes optimal only for the write-in stage of the memory, our proposal allows for better efficiencies for given physical parameters of the scheme, and, hence, for higher quantum capacity of parallel quantum memory. We also demonstrate that for the backward-propagating retrieval of quantum volume hologram the collective spin wave momentum inversion is needed, which is achieved by means of the π-pulse of stimulated Raman scattering of counter-propagating classical waves.

  10. Efficient quantum memory for light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedges, Morgan P; Longdell, Jevon J; Li, Yongmin; Sellars, Matthew J

    2010-06-24

    Storing and retrieving a quantum state of light on demand, without corrupting the information it carries, is an important challenge in the field of quantum information processing. Classical measurement and reconstruction strategies for storing light must necessarily destroy quantum information as a consequence of the Heisenberg uncertainty principle. There has been significant effort directed towards the development of devices-so-called quantum memories-capable of avoiding this penalty. So far, successful demonstrations of non-classical storage and on-demand recall have used atomic vapours and have been limited to low efficiencies, of less than 17 per cent, using weak quantum states with an average photon number of around one. Here we report a low-noise, highly efficient (up to 69 per cent) quantum memory for light that uses a solid-state medium. The device allows the storage and recall of light more faithfully than is possible using a classical memory, for weak coherent states at the single-photon level through to bright states of up to 500 photons. For input coherent states containing on average 30 photons or fewer, the performance exceeded the no-cloning limit. This guaranteed that more information about the inputs was retrieved from the memory than was left behind or destroyed, a feature that will provide security in communications applications.

  11. Evaluation of carrier collection probability in bifacial interdigitated-back-contact crystalline silicon solar cells by the internal quantum efficiency mapping method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachibana, Tomihisa; Tanahashi, Katsuto; Mochizuki, Toshimitsu; Shirasawa, Katsuhiko; Takato, Hidetaka

    2018-04-01

    Bifacial interdigitated-back-contact (IBC) silicon solar cells with a high bifaciality of 0.91 were fabricated. Screen printing and firing technology were used to reduce the production cost. For the first time, the relationship between the rear side structure and carrier collection probability was evaluated using internal quantum efficiency (IQE) mapping. The measurement results showed that the screen-printed electrode and back surface field (BSF) area led to low IQE. The low carrier collection probability by BSF area can be explained by electrical shading effects. Thus, it is clear that the IQE mapping system is useful to evaluate the IBC cell.

  12. Efficiency and formalism of quantum games

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Chiu Fan; Johnson, Neil

    2002-01-01

    We pursue a general theory of quantum games. We show that quantum games are more efficient than classical games, and provide a saturated upper bound for this efficiency. We demonstrate that the set of finite classical games is a strict subset of the set of finite quantum games. We also deduce the quantum version of the Minimax Theorem and the Nash Equilibrium Theorem.

  13. Efficient universal blind quantum computation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovannetti, Vittorio; Maccone, Lorenzo; Morimae, Tomoyuki; Rudolph, Terry G

    2013-12-06

    We give a cheat sensitive protocol for blind universal quantum computation that is efficient in terms of computational and communication resources: it allows one party to perform an arbitrary computation on a second party's quantum computer without revealing either which computation is performed, or its input and output. The first party's computational capabilities can be extremely limited: she must only be able to create and measure single-qubit superposition states. The second party is not required to use measurement-based quantum computation. The protocol requires the (optimal) exchange of O(Jlog2(N)) single-qubit states, where J is the computational depth and N is the number of qubits needed for the computation.

  14. Efficiency of fermionic quantum distillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herbrych, Jacek W. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Feiguin, Adrian E. [Northeastern Univ., Boston, MA (United States); Dagotto, Elbio R. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Heidrich-Meisner, F. [Ludwig-Maximilians-Univ. Munchen, Munchen (Germany)

    2017-09-13

    Here, we present a time-dependent density-matrix renormalization group investigation of the quantum distillation process within the Fermi-Hubbard model on a quasi-one-dimensional ladder geometry. The term distillation refers to the dynamical, spatial separation of singlons and doublons in the sudden expansion of interacting particles in an optical lattice, i.e., the release of a cloud of atoms from a trapping potential. Remarkably, quantum distillation can lead to a contraction of the doublon cloud, resulting in an increased density of the doublons in the core region compared to the initial state. As a main result, we show that this phenomenon is not limited to chains that were previously studied. Interestingly, there are additional dynamical processes on the two-leg ladder such as density oscillations and self-trapping of defects that lead to a less efficient distillation process. An investigation of the time evolution starting from product states provides an explanation for this behavior. Initial product states are also considered since in optical lattice experiments, such states are often used as the initial setup. We propose configurations that lead to a fast and efficient quantum distillation.

  15. Efficiency and formalism of quantum games

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, C.F.; Johnson, Neil F.

    2003-01-01

    We show that quantum games are more efficient than classical games and provide a saturated upper bound for this efficiency. We also demonstrate that the set of finite classical games is a strict subset of the set of finite quantum games. Our analysis is based on a rigorous formulation of quantum games, from which quantum versions of the minimax theorem and the Nash equilibrium theorem can be deduced

  16. Quantum entanglement helps in improving economic efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Jiangfeng; Ju Chenyong; Li Hui

    2005-01-01

    We propose an economic regulation approach based on quantum game theory for the government to reduce the abuses of oligopolistic competition. Theoretical analysis shows that this approach can help government improve the economic efficiency of the oligopolistic market, and help prevent monopoly due to incorrect information. These advantages are completely attributed to the quantum entanglement, a unique quantum mechanical character

  17. Hardware-efficient autonomous quantum memory protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leghtas, Zaki; Kirchmair, Gerhard; Vlastakis, Brian; Schoelkopf, Robert J; Devoret, Michel H; Mirrahimi, Mazyar

    2013-09-20

    We propose to encode a quantum bit of information in a superposition of coherent states of an oscillator, with four different phases. Our encoding in a single cavity mode, together with a protection protocol, significantly reduces the error rate due to photon loss. This protection is ensured by an efficient quantum error correction scheme employing the nonlinearity provided by a single physical qubit coupled to the cavity. We describe in detail how to implement these operations in a circuit quantum electrodynamics system. This proposal directly addresses the task of building a hardware-efficient quantum memory and can lead to important shortcuts in quantum computing architectures.

  18. Efficient Multiphoton Generation in Waveguide Quantum Electrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Tudela, A.; Paulisch, V.; Kimble, H. J.; Cirac, J. I.

    2017-05-01

    Engineering quantum states of light is at the basis of many quantum technologies such as quantum cryptography, teleportation, or metrology among others. Though, single photons can be generated in many scenarios, the efficient and reliable generation of complex single-mode multiphoton states is still a long-standing goal in the field, as current methods either suffer from low fidelities or small probabilities. Here we discuss several protocols which harness the strong and long-range atomic interactions induced by waveguide QED to efficiently load excitations in a collection of atoms, which can then be triggered to produce the desired multiphoton state. In order to boost the success probability and fidelity of each excitation process, atoms are used to both generate the excitations in the rest, as well as to herald the successful generation. Furthermore, to overcome the exponential scaling of the probability of success with the number of excitations, we design a protocol to merge excitations that are present in different internal atomic levels with a polynomial scaling.

  19. Quantum autoencoders for efficient compression of quantum data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Jonathan; Olson, Jonathan P.; Aspuru-Guzik, Alan

    2017-12-01

    Classical autoencoders are neural networks that can learn efficient low-dimensional representations of data in higher-dimensional space. The task of an autoencoder is, given an input x, to map x to a lower dimensional point y such that x can likely be recovered from y. The structure of the underlying autoencoder network can be chosen to represent the data on a smaller dimension, effectively compressing the input. Inspired by this idea, we introduce the model of a quantum autoencoder to perform similar tasks on quantum data. The quantum autoencoder is trained to compress a particular data set of quantum states, where a classical compression algorithm cannot be employed. The parameters of the quantum autoencoder are trained using classical optimization algorithms. We show an example of a simple programmable circuit that can be trained as an efficient autoencoder. We apply our model in the context of quantum simulation to compress ground states of the Hubbard model and molecular Hamiltonians.

  20. High External Quantum Efficiency in van der Waals Heterostructures for Ultrathin Photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Joeson; Jariwala, Deep; Tat, Kevin; Tagliabue, Giulia; Davoyan, Artur; Sherrott, Michelle; Atwater, Harry

    High external radiative efficiency and high external quantum efficiency are prerequisites for an efficient photovoltaic cell. In transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs), previous work has demonstrated that near-unity external radiative efficiency is possible through superacid passivation. Yet, near-unity external quantum efficiency has remained elusive. In this work, we experimentally demonstrate that high external quantum efficiencies (>50%) are possible in vertical van der Waals heterostructures consisting of graphene, tungsten diselenide, and molybdenum disulfide, on metallic substrates. We achieve near-unity absorption in ultrathin (internal quantum efficiency, a measure of the carrier collection efficiency. Moreover, the internal quantum efficiency is shown to exhibit exciton resonances with peak efficiencies >70%. In summary, our results presented here will serve as design considerations and principles towards achieving near-unity external quantum efficiency in van der Waals materials.

  1. Efficient entanglement distillation without quantum memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelkhalek, Daniela; Syllwasschy, Mareike; Cerf, Nicolas J; Fiurášek, Jaromír; Schnabel, Roman

    2016-05-31

    Entanglement distribution between distant parties is an essential component to most quantum communication protocols. Unfortunately, decoherence effects such as phase noise in optical fibres are known to demolish entanglement. Iterative (multistep) entanglement distillation protocols have long been proposed to overcome decoherence, but their probabilistic nature makes them inefficient since the success probability decays exponentially with the number of steps. Quantum memories have been contemplated to make entanglement distillation practical, but suitable quantum memories are not realised to date. Here, we present the theory for an efficient iterative entanglement distillation protocol without quantum memories and provide a proof-of-principle experimental demonstration. The scheme is applied to phase-diffused two-mode-squeezed states and proven to distil entanglement for up to three iteration steps. The data are indistinguishable from those that an efficient scheme using quantum memories would produce. Since our protocol includes the final measurement it is particularly promising for enhancing continuous-variable quantum key distribution.

  2. Efficient quantum circuits for one-way quantum computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanamoto, Tetsufumi; Liu, Yu-Xi; Hu, Xuedong; Nori, Franco

    2009-03-13

    While Ising-type interactions are ideal for implementing controlled phase flip gates in one-way quantum computing, natural interactions between solid-state qubits are most often described by either the XY or the Heisenberg models. We show an efficient way of generating cluster states directly using either the imaginary SWAP (iSWAP) gate for the XY model, or the sqrt[SWAP] gate for the Heisenberg model. Our approach thus makes one-way quantum computing more feasible for solid-state devices.

  3. Efficient quantum computing using coherent photon conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langford, N K; Ramelow, S; Prevedel, R; Munro, W J; Milburn, G J; Zeilinger, A

    2011-10-12

    Single photons are excellent quantum information carriers: they were used in the earliest demonstrations of entanglement and in the production of the highest-quality entanglement reported so far. However, current schemes for preparing, processing and measuring them are inefficient. For example, down-conversion provides heralded, but randomly timed, single photons, and linear optics gates are inherently probabilistic. Here we introduce a deterministic process--coherent photon conversion (CPC)--that provides a new way to generate and process complex, multiquanta states for photonic quantum information applications. The technique uses classically pumped nonlinearities to induce coherent oscillations between orthogonal states of multiple quantum excitations. One example of CPC, based on a pumped four-wave-mixing interaction, is shown to yield a single, versatile process that provides a full set of photonic quantum processing tools. This set satisfies the DiVincenzo criteria for a scalable quantum computing architecture, including deterministic multiqubit entanglement gates (based on a novel form of photon-photon interaction), high-quality heralded single- and multiphoton states free from higher-order imperfections, and robust, high-efficiency detection. It can also be used to produce heralded multiphoton entanglement, create optically switchable quantum circuits and implement an improved form of down-conversion with reduced higher-order effects. Such tools are valuable building blocks for many quantum-enabled technologies. Finally, using photonic crystal fibres we experimentally demonstrate quantum correlations arising from a four-colour nonlinear process suitable for CPC and use these measurements to study the feasibility of reaching the deterministic regime with current technology. Our scheme, which is based on interacting bosonic fields, is not restricted to optical systems but could also be implemented in optomechanical, electromechanical and superconducting

  4. Parallel state transfer and efficient quantum routing on quantum networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chudzicki, Christopher; Strauch, Frederick W

    2010-12-31

    We study the routing of quantum information in parallel on multidimensional networks of tunable qubits and oscillators. These theoretical models are inspired by recent experiments in superconducting circuits. We show that perfect parallel state transfer is possible for certain networks of harmonic oscillator modes. We extend this to the distribution of entanglement between every pair of nodes in the network, finding that the routing efficiency of hypercube networks is optimal and robust in the presence of dissipation and finite bandwidth.

  5. Efficient quantum pseudorandomness with simple graph states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezher, Rawad; Ghalbouni, Joe; Dgheim, Joseph; Markham, Damian

    2018-02-01

    Measurement based (MB) quantum computation allows for universal quantum computing by measuring individual qubits prepared in entangled multipartite states, known as graph states. Unless corrected for, the randomness of the measurements leads to the generation of ensembles of random unitaries, where each random unitary is identified with a string of possible measurement results. We show that repeating an MB scheme an efficient number of times, on a simple graph state, with measurements at fixed angles and no feedforward corrections, produces a random unitary ensemble that is an ɛ -approximate t design on n qubits. Unlike previous constructions, the graph is regular and is also a universal resource for measurement based quantum computing, closely related to the brickwork state.

  6. Quantum Confined Semiconductors for High Efficiency Photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beard, Matthew

    2014-03-01

    Semiconductor nanostructures, where at least one dimension is small enough to produce quantum confinement effects, provide new pathways for controlling energy flow and therefore have the potential to increase the efficiency of the primary photon-to-free energy conversion step. In this discussion, I will present the current status of research efforts towards utilizing the unique properties of colloidal quantum dots (NCs confined in three dimensions) in prototype solar cells and demonstrate that these unique systems have the potential to bypass the Shockley-Queisser single-junction limit for solar photon conversion. The solar cells are constructed using a low temperature solution based deposition of PbS or PbSe QDs as the absorber layer. Different chemical treatments of the QD layer are employed in order to obtain good electrical communication while maintaining the quantum-confined properties of the QDs. We have characterized the transport and carrier dynamics using a transient absorption, time-resolved THz, and temperature-dependent photoluminescence. I will discuss the interplay between carrier generation, recombination, and mobility within the QD layers. A unique aspect of our devices is that the QDs exhibit multiple exciton generation with an efficiency that is ~ 2 to 3 times greater than the parental bulk semiconductor.

  7. Sterically Shielded Electron Transporting Material with Nearly 100% Internal Quantum Efficiency and Long Lifetime for Thermally Activated Delayed Fluorescent and Phosphorescent OLEDs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dongdong; Wei, Pengcheng; Zhang, Deqiang; Duan, Lian

    2017-06-07

    A high triplet energy (T 1 ) is usually taken as the prerequisite of the good exciton confinement of electron transporting materials (ETMs); however, there is usually a tradeoff with large mobility and stability. Here, we demonstrated that good exciton confinement can also be realized utilizing a low-T 1 ETM with a sterically shielding low-T 1 unit. Given the short-range interaction of the Dexter energy transfer, the large steric side groups of the low-T 1 ETM can effectively hinder the T 1 of the emitters from being quenched by increasing the intermolecular distance. Based on this concept, a maximum external quantum efficiency (EQE max ) as high as 21.3% was observed in the sky-blue thermally activated delayed fluorescence device using a low-T 1 ETM, with the EQE remaining at 21.2% at 1000 cd/m 2 and 17.8% at 5000 cd/m 2 . Further, an EQE max as high as 25.5%, a low turn-on voltage of 2.3 V, as well as a long T 90 of over 400 h at an initial luminance of 5000 cd/m 2 were achieved for green phosphorescent devices. This work highlights a viable strategy for developing high-performance ETMs, paving their way toward practical applications.

  8. Duality quantum computer and the efficient quantum simulations

    OpenAIRE

    Wei, Shi-Jie; Long, Gui-Lu

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we firstly briefly review the duality quantum computer. Distinctly, the generalized quantum gates, the basic evolution operators in a duality quantum computer are no longer unitary, and they can be expressed in terms of linear combinations of unitary operators. All linear bounded operators can be realized in a duality quantum computer, and unitary operators are just the extreme points of the set of generalized quantum gates. A d-slits duality quantum computer can be realized in...

  9. Efficient error estimation in quantum key distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mo; Treeviriyanupab, Patcharapong; Zhang, Chun-Mei; Yin, Zhen-Qiang; Chen, Wei; Han, Zheng-Fu

    2015-01-01

    In a quantum key distribution (QKD) system, the error rate needs to be estimated for determining the joint probability distribution between legitimate parties, and for improving the performance of key reconciliation. We propose an efficient error estimation scheme for QKD, which is called parity comparison method (PCM). In the proposed method, the parity of a group of sifted keys is practically analysed to estimate the quantum bit error rate instead of using the traditional key sampling. From the simulation results, the proposed method evidently improves the accuracy and decreases revealed information in most realistic application situations. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant Nos.2011CBA00200 and 2011CB921200) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos.61101137, 61201239, and 61205118).

  10. Efficient multiparty quantum key agreement with collective detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wei; Su, Qi; Liu, Bin; He, Yuan-Hang; Fan, Fan; Xu, Bing-Jie

    2017-11-10

    As a burgeoning branch of quantum cryptography, quantum key agreement is a kind of key establishing processes where the security and fairness of the established common key should be guaranteed simultaneously. However, the difficulty on designing a qualified quantum key agreement protocol increases significantly with the increase of the number of the involved participants. Thus far, only few of the existing multiparty quantum key agreement (MQKA) protocols can really achieve security and fairness. Nevertheless, these qualified MQKA protocols are either too inefficient or too impractical. In this paper, an MQKA protocol is proposed with single photons in travelling mode. Since only one eavesdropping detection is needed in the proposed protocol, the qubit efficiency and measurement efficiency of it are higher than those of the existing ones in theory. Compared with the protocols which make use of the entangled states or multi-particle measurements, the proposed protocol is more feasible with the current technologies. Security and fairness analysis shows that the proposed protocol is not only immune to the attacks from external eavesdroppers, but also free from the attacks from internal betrayers.

  11. Highly Efficient Spontaneous Emission from Self-Assembled Quantum Dots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Jeppe; Lund-Hansen, Toke; Hvam, Jørn Märcher

    2006-01-01

    We present time resolved measurements of spontaneous emission (SE) from InAs/GaAs quantum dots (QDs). The measurements are interpreted using Fermi's Golden Rule and from this analysis we establish the parameters for high quantum efficiency.......We present time resolved measurements of spontaneous emission (SE) from InAs/GaAs quantum dots (QDs). The measurements are interpreted using Fermi's Golden Rule and from this analysis we establish the parameters for high quantum efficiency....

  12. Enhancement of Radiative Efficiency with Staggered InGaN Quantum Well Light Emitting Diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tansu, Nelson; Dierolf, Volkmar; Huang, Gensheng; Penn, Samson; Zhao, Hongping; Liu, Guangyu; Li, Xiaohang; Poplawsky, Jonathan

    2011-07-14

    The technology on the large overlap InGaN QWs developed in this program is currently implemented in commercial technology in enhancing the internal quantum efficiency in major LED industry in US and Asia. The scientific finding from this work supported by the DOE enabled the implementation of this step-like staggered quantum well in the commercial LEDs.

  13. Efficient one-way quantum computations for quantum error correction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Wei; Wei Zhaohui

    2009-01-01

    We show how to explicitly construct an O(nd) size and constant quantum depth circuit which encodes any given n-qubit stabilizer code with d generators. Our construction is derived using the graphic description for stabilizer codes and the one-way quantum computation model. Our result demonstrates how to use cluster states as scalable resources for many multi-qubit entangled states and how to use the one-way quantum computation model to improve the design of quantum algorithms.

  14. Duality quantum algorithm efficiently simulates open quantum systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Shi-Jie; Ruan, Dong; Long, Gui-Lu

    2016-01-01

    Because of inevitable coupling with the environment, nearly all practical quantum systems are open system, where the evolution is not necessarily unitary. In this paper, we propose a duality quantum algorithm for simulating Hamiltonian evolution of an open quantum system. In contrast to unitary evolution in a usual quantum computer, the evolution operator in a duality quantum computer is a linear combination of unitary operators. In this duality quantum algorithm, the time evolution of the open quantum system is realized by using Kraus operators which is naturally implemented in duality quantum computer. This duality quantum algorithm has two distinct advantages compared to existing quantum simulation algorithms with unitary evolution operations. Firstly, the query complexity of the algorithm is O(d3) in contrast to O(d4) in existing unitary simulation algorithm, where d is the dimension of the open quantum system. Secondly, By using a truncated Taylor series of the evolution operators, this duality quantum algorithm provides an exponential improvement in precision compared with previous unitary simulation algorithm. PMID:27464855

  15. Efficient multiuser quantum cryptography network based on entanglement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Peng; Wang, Kunkun; Wang, Xiaoping

    2017-04-04

    We present an efficient quantum key distribution protocol with a certain entangled state to solve a special cryptographic task. Also, we provide a proof of security of this protocol by generalizing the proof of modified of Lo-Chau scheme. Based on this two-user scheme, a quantum cryptography network protocol is proposed without any quantum memory.

  16. High Efficiency Colloidal Quantum Dot Phosphors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kahen, Keith

    2013-12-31

    The project showed that non-Cd containing, InP-based nanocrystals (semiconductor materials with dimensions of ~6 nm) have high potential for enabling next-generation, nanocrystal-based, on chip phosphors for solid state lighting. Typical nanocrystals fall short of the requirements for on chip phosphors due to their loss of quantum efficiency under the operating conditions of LEDs, such as, high temperature (up to 150 °C) and high optical flux (up to 200 W/cm2). The InP-based nanocrystals invented during this project maintain high quantum efficiency (>80%) in polymer-based films under these operating conditions for emission wavelengths ranging from ~530 to 620 nm. These nanocrystals also show other desirable attributes, such as, lack of blinking (a common problem with nanocrystals which limits their performance) and no increase in the emission spectral width from room to 150 °C (emitters with narrower spectral widths enable higher efficiency LEDs). Prior to these nanocrystals, no nanocrystal system (regardless of nanocrystal type) showed this collection of properties; in fact, other nanocrystal systems are typically limited to showing only one desirable trait (such as high temperature stability) but being deficient in other properties (such as high flux stability). The project showed that one can reproducibly obtain these properties by generating a novel compositional structure inside of the nanomaterials; in addition, the project formulated an initial theoretical framework linking the compositional structure to the list of high performance optical properties. Over the course of the project, the synthetic methodology for producing the novel composition was evolved to enable the synthesis of these nanomaterials at a cost approximately equal to that required for forming typical conventional nanocrystals. Given the above results, the last major remaining step prior to scale up of the nanomaterials is to limit the oxidation of these materials during the tens of

  17. Quantum efficiency and oscillator strength of site-controlled InAs quantum dots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albert, F.; Stobbe, Søren; Schneider, C.

    2010-01-01

    We report on time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy to determine the oscillator strength (OS) and the quantum efficiency (QE) of site-controlled InAs quantum dots nucleating on patterned nanoholes. These two quantities are determined by measurements on site-controlled quantum dot (SCQD...

  18. Quantum efficiency and oscillator strength of site-controlled InGaAs quantum dots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albert, F.; Schneider, C.; Stobbe, Søren

    2010-01-01

    We report on time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy to determine the oscillator strength (OS) and the quantum efficiency (QE) of site-controlled In(Ga)As quantum dots nucleating on patterned nanoholes. These two quantities are determined by measurements on site-controlled quantum dot (SCQD...

  19. A Comparison of the recombination efficiency in green-emitting InGaN quantum dots and quantum wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Il-Kyu; Kwon, Min-Ki; Park, Seong-Ju

    2012-01-01

    A comparative investigation of the recombination efficiency of green-emitting InGaN quantum dots (QDs) and quantum wells (QWs) is reported in this paper. Optical investigations using temperature dependent photoluminescence (PL) results showed that the internal quantum efficiency of InGaN QDs at room temperature was 8.7 times larger than that found for InGaN QWs because they provided dislocation-free recombination sites for the electrical charge carriers. The excitation power-dependent PL and electroluminescence results showed that the effect of the polarization induced electric field on the recombination process of electrical charge carriers in the QDs was negligibly small whereas it was dominant in the QWs. These results indicate that InGaN QDs are more beneficial than QWs in improving the luminescence efficiency of LEDs in the green spectral range.

  20. Quantum enhanced estimation of optical detector efficiencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbieri Marco

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Quantum mechanics establishes the ultimate limit to the scaling of the precision on any parameter, by identifying optimal probe states and measurements. While this paradigm is, at least in principle, adequate for the metrology of quantum channels involving the estimation of phase and loss parameters, we show that estimating the loss parameters associated with a quantum channel and a realistic quantum detector are fundamentally different. While Fock states are provably optimal for the former, we identify a crossover in the nature of the optimal probe state for estimating detector imperfections as a function of the loss parameter using Fisher information as a benchmark. We provide theoretical results for on-off and homodyne detectors, the most widely used detectors in quantum photonics technologies, when using Fock states and coherent states as probes.

  1. Efficient deterministic secure quantum communication protocols using multipartite entangled states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joy, Dintomon; Surendran, Supin P.; Sabir, M.

    2017-06-01

    We propose two deterministic secure quantum communication protocols employing three-qubit GHZ-like states and five-qubit Brown states as quantum channels for secure transmission of information in units of two bits and three bits using multipartite teleportation schemes developed here. In these schemes, the sender's capability in selecting quantum channels and the measuring bases leads to improved qubit efficiency of the protocols.

  2. International Conference on Coherence and Quantum Optics

    CERN Document Server

    RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN QUANTUM OPTICS

    1993-01-01

    This volume is composed of papers (invited and contributed) presented at the International Conference on Coherence and Quantum Optics held at the University of Hyderabad January 5-January 10, 1991. It has been organized by Professor Girish Agarwal and his colleagues at the School of Physics, University of Hyderabad, Hyder­ abad, India under partial support from the Department of Science and Technology, Government of India, International Center for Theoretical Physics, Trieste, Italy and the National Science Foundation, USA. Without the untiring efforts of Prof. Girish Agarwal and the members of his quantum office group, the Conference and the present volume would not have been possible. Some extraordinary circumstances resulted in a delay of the publication of the present volume. Our sincere apologies to all the authors. We deeply regret the inconvenience caused due to the delay. A debt of gratitude is due to Ms. Kim Bella for the excellent typing job of the different versions and the final version of the ma...

  3. Quasi-Resonant Absorption for Quantum Efficiency Improvement in Detectors

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Quasi-resonant absorption has been demonstrated to enhance the quantum efficiency of devices across the spectrum, but specifically it is a challenge in the UV...

  4. The Quantum Efficiency and Thermal Emittance of Metal Photocathodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dowell, D.

    2009-01-01

    Modern electron beams have demonstrated the brilliance needed to drive free electron lasers at x-ray wavelengths, with the principle improvements occurring since the invention of the photocathode gun. The state-of-the-art normalized emittance electron beams are now becoming limited by the thermal emittance of the cathode. In both DC and RF photocathode guns, details of the cathode emission physics strongly influence the quantum efficiency and the thermal emittance. Therefore improving cathode performance is essential to increasing the brightness of beams. It is especially important to understand the fundamentals of cathode quantum efficiency and thermal emittance. This paper investigates the relationship between the quantum efficiency and the thermal emittance of metal cathodes using the Fermi-Dirac model for the electron distribution. We derive the thermal emittance and its relationship to the quantum efficiency, and compare our results to those of others

  5. PREFACE: International Conference on Quantum Optics and Quantum Information (icQoQi) 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    Quantum Information can be understood as being naturally derived from a new understanding of information theory when quantum systems become information carriers and quantum effects become non negligible. Experiments and the realization of various interesting phenomena in quantum information within the established field of quantum optics have been reported, which has provided a very convenient framework for the former. Together, quantum optics and quantum information are among the most exciting areas of interdisciplinary research in modern day science which cover a broad spectrum of topics, from the foundations of quantum mechanics and quantum information science to the introduction of new types of quantum technologies and metrology. The International Conference on Quantum Optics and Quantum Information (icQoQi) 2013 was organized by the Faculty of Science, International Islamic University Malaysia with the objective of bringing together leading academic scientists, researchers and scholars in the domain of interest from around the world to share their experiences and research results about all aspects of quantum optics and quantum information. While the event was organized on a somewhat modest scale, it was in fact a rather fruitful meeting for established researchers and students as well, especially for the local scene where the field is relatively new. We would therefore, like to thank the organizing committee, our advisors and all parties for having made this event successful and last but not least would extend our sincerest gratitude to IOP for publishing these selected papers from icQoQi2013 in Journal of Physics: Conference Series.

  6. Efficient Luminescence from Perovskite Quantum Dot Solids

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Younghoon

    2015-11-18

    © 2015 American Chemical Society. Nanocrystals of CsPbX3 perovskites are promising materials for light-emitting optoelectronics because of their colloidal stability, optically tunable bandgap, bright photoluminescence, and excellent photoluminescence quantum yield. Despite their promise, nanocrystal-only films of CsPbX3 perovskites have not yet been fabricated; instead, highly insulating polymers have been relied upon to compensate for nanocrystals\\' unstable surfaces. We develop solution chemistry that enables single-step casting of perovskite nanocrystal films and overcomes problems in both perovskite quantum dot purification and film fabrication. Centrifugally cast films retain bright photoluminescence and achieve dense and homogeneous morphologies. The new materials offer a platform for optoelectronic applications of perovskite quantum dot solids.

  7. Efficiency of quantum vs. classical annealing in nonconvex learning problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldassi, Carlo; Zecchina, Riccardo

    2018-02-13

    Quantum annealers aim at solving nonconvex optimization problems by exploiting cooperative tunneling effects to escape local minima. The underlying idea consists of designing a classical energy function whose ground states are the sought optimal solutions of the original optimization problem and add a controllable quantum transverse field to generate tunneling processes. A key challenge is to identify classes of nonconvex optimization problems for which quantum annealing remains efficient while thermal annealing fails. We show that this happens for a wide class of problems which are central to machine learning. Their energy landscapes are dominated by local minima that cause exponential slowdown of classical thermal annealers while simulated quantum annealing converges efficiently to rare dense regions of optimal solutions. Copyright © 2018 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  8. Research on quantum efficiency of GaN wire photocathode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Sihao; Liu, Lei; Diao, Yu; Kong, Yike

    2017-02-01

    On the basis of three-dimensional continuity equation in semiconductors and finite difference method, the carrier concentration and the quantum efficiency of GaN wire photocathode as a function of incident photon energy are achieved. Results show that the quantum efficiency of the wire photocathode is largely enhanced compared with the conventional planar photocathode. The superiority of the wire photocathode is reflected in its structure with surrounding surfaces. The quantum efficiency of the wire photocathode largely depends on the wire width, surface reflectivity, surface escape probability and incident angle of light. The back interface recombination rate, however, has little influences on the quantum efficiency of the wire photocathode. The simulation results suggest that the optimal width for photoemission is 150-200 nm. Besides, the quantum efficiency increases and decreases linearly with increasing surface escape probability and surface reflectivity, respectively. With increasing ratio of wire spacing to wire height, the optimal incident angle of light is reduced. These simulations are expected to guide the preparation of a better performing GaN wire photocathode.

  9. Efficient decoding of random errors for quantum expander codes

    OpenAIRE

    Fawzi , Omar; Grospellier , Antoine; Leverrier , Anthony

    2017-01-01

    We show that quantum expander codes, a constant-rate family of quantum LDPC codes, with the quasi-linear time decoding algorithm of Leverrier, Tillich and Z\\'emor can correct a constant fraction of random errors with very high probability. This is the first construction of a constant-rate quantum LDPC code with an efficient decoding algorithm that can correct a linear number of random errors with a negligible failure probability. Finding codes with these properties is also motivated by Gottes...

  10. The Efficiency of Quantum Identity Testing of Multiple States

    OpenAIRE

    Kada, Masaru; Nishimura, Harumichi; Yamakami, Tomoyuki

    2008-01-01

    We examine two quantum operations, the Permutation Test and the Circle Test, which test the identity of n quantum states. These operations naturally extend the well-studied Swap Test on two quantum states. We first show the optimality of the Permutation Test for any input size n as well as the optimality of the Circle Test for three input states. In particular, when n=3, we present a semi-classical protocol, incorporated with the Swap Test, which approximates the Circle Test efficiently. Furt...

  11. Quantum Fest 2016 International Conference on Quantum Phenomena, Quantum Control and Quantum Optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    The Quantum Fest is a periodic annual festival on Quantum Phenomena, Quantum Control and Geometry of Quantum States, organized by the Center for Research and Advanced Studies (Cinvestav by its acronym in Spanish) and Unidad Profesional Interdisciplinaria en Ingeniería y Tecnologías Avanzadas del Instituto Politécnico Nacional (UPIITA-IPN) in México City, Mexico. The aim of this meeting is to bring together students and researchers which are engaged in the subjects of the festival, from both theoretical and experimental approaches, in order to get lively discussions and to enable a closer contact between them.The Quantum Fest was celebrated for the first time in the Physics Department of Cinvestav (2010), since then it has been hosted in Cinvestav, UPIITA-IPN and the Tecnológico de Monterrey, Campus Estado de México (ITESM-CEM).The Quantum Fest 2016 is the seventh edition of the festival, it took place from October 17 to 21 in the Sala de Usos Múltiples, Edificio I of UPIITA-IPN, and was addressed to join the celebration of the first eighty years of the Instituto Politécnico Nacional as well as the first twenty years of the Unidad Profesional Interdisciplinaria en Ingeniería y Tecnologías Avanzadas del Instituto Politécnico Nacional. We would like to thank the willing of the UPIITA-IPN to offer its facilities as the venue of the festival; all its help provided to simplify the logistics and organization of the conference has been welcomed and is acknowledged.The topics addressed at the short courses of the Quantum Fest 2016 were time asymmetric quantum mechanics, quantum resonances, models of quantum field theory in metamaterials, singular potentials and self-adjoint extensions, nonclassical states of light, Hardy functions and Hilbert space operators.The Lecturers of Quantum Fest 2016 were:Manuel Gadella (Valladolid University, Spain)Maribel Loaiza (Department of Mathematics, Cinvestav, Mexico)Luis Miguel Nieto (Valladolid University, Spain)Oscar Rosas

  12. Quantum Dot Spectrum Converters for Enhanced High Efficiency Photovoltaics, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This research proposes to enhance solar cell efficiency, radiation resistance and affordability. The Quantum Dot Spectrum Converter (QDSC) disperses quantum dots...

  13. Nano-patterned superconducting surface for high quantum efficiency cathode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hannon, Fay; Musumeci, Pietro

    2017-03-07

    A method for providing a superconducting surface on a laser-driven niobium cathode in order to increase the effective quantum efficiency. The enhanced surface increases the effective quantum efficiency by improving the laser absorption of the surface and enhancing the local electric field. The surface preparation method makes feasible the construction of superconducting radio frequency injectors with niobium as the photocathode. An array of nano-structures are provided on a flat surface of niobium. The nano-structures are dimensionally tailored to interact with a laser of specific wavelength to thereby increase the electron yield of the surface.

  14. Quantum Efficiency of Hybrid Photon Detectors for the LHCb RICH

    CERN Document Server

    Lambert, R W

    2008-01-01

    The production of Hybrid Photon Detectors to be used as the single-photon sensors for the RICH detectors of the LHCb experiment has recently finished. We present the quantum efficiency measurements of the entire sample of 550 tubes. The manufacturer has succeeded in consistently improving the quantum efficiency of the employed S20-type multi-alkali photocathode above our expectations, by a relative 27 % integrated over the energy spectrum. We also report measurements of the vacuum quality using the photocurrent of the device as a monitor for possible vacuum degradation.

  15. Efficiently characterizing the total error in quantum circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carignan-Dugas, Arnaud; Wallman, Joel J.; Emerson, Joseph

    A promising technological advancement meant to enlarge our computational means is the quantum computer. Such a device would harvest the quantum complexity of the physical world in order to unfold concrete mathematical problems more efficiently. However, the errors emerging from the implementation of quantum operations are likewise quantum, and hence share a similar level of intricacy. Fortunately, randomized benchmarking protocols provide an efficient way to characterize the operational noise within quantum devices. The resulting figures of merit, like the fidelity and the unitarity, are typically attached to a set of circuit components. While important, this doesn't fulfill the main goal: determining if the error rate of the total circuit is small enough in order to trust its outcome. In this work, we fill the gap by providing an optimal bound on the total fidelity of a circuit in terms of component-wise figures of merit. Our bound smoothly interpolates between the classical regime, in which the error rate grows linearly in the circuit's length, and the quantum regime, which can naturally allow quadratic growth. Conversely, our analysis substantially improves the bounds on single circuit element fidelities obtained through techniques such as interleaved randomized benchmarking. This research was supported by the U.S. Army Research Office through Grant W911NF- 14-1-0103, CIFAR, the Government of Ontario, and the Government of Canada through NSERC and Industry Canada.

  16. Origins of low energy-transfer efficiency between patterned GaN quantum well and CdSe quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Xingsheng, E-mail: xsxu@semi.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Integration Optoelectronics, Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2015-03-02

    For hybrid light emitting devices (LEDs) consisting of GaN quantum wells and colloidal quantum dots, it is necessary to explore the physical mechanisms causing decreases in the quantum efficiencies and the energy transfer efficiency between a GaN quantum well and CdSe quantum dots. This study investigated the electro-luminescence for a hybrid LED consisting of colloidal quantum dots and a GaN quantum well patterned with photonic crystals. It was found that both the quantum efficiency of colloidal quantum dots on a GaN quantum well and the energy transfer efficiency between the patterned GaN quantum well and the colloidal quantum dots decreased with increases in the driving voltage or the driving time. Under high driving voltages, the decreases in the quantum efficiency of the colloidal quantum dots and the energy transfer efficiency can be attributed to Auger recombination, while those decreases under long driving time are due to photo-bleaching and Auger recombination.

  17. International Conference on Laser Physics and Quantum Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Xie, Shengwu; Zhu, Shi-Yao; Scully, Marlan

    2000-01-01

    Since the advent of the laser about 40 years ago, the field of laser physics and quantum optics have evolved into a major discipline. The early studies included the optical coherence theory and the semiclassical and quantum mechanical theories of the laser. More recently many new and interesting effects have been predicted. These include the role of coherent atomic effects in lasing without inversion and electromagnetically induced transparency, atom optics, laser cooling and trapping, teleportation, the single-atom micromaser and its role in quantum measurement theory, to name a few. The International Conference on Laser Physics and Quantum Optics was held in Shanghai from August 25 to August 28, 1999, to discuss these and many other exciting developments in laser physics and quantum optics. The international character of the conference was manifested by the fact that scientists from over 13 countries participated and lectured at the conference. There were four keynote lectures delivered by Nobel laureate Wi...

  18. Effects of image processing on the detective quantum efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hye-Suk; Kim, Hee-Joung; Cho, Hyo-Min; Lee, Chang-Lae; Lee, Seung-Wan; Choi, Yu-Na [Yonsei University, Wonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-02-15

    The evaluation of image quality is an important part of digital radiography. The modulation transfer function (MTF), the noise power spectrum (NPS), and the detective quantum efficiency (DQE) are widely accepted measurements of the digital radiographic system performance. However, as the methodologies for such characterization have not been standardized, it is difficult to compare directly reported the MTF, NPS, and DQE results. In this study, we evaluated the effect of an image processing algorithm for estimating the MTF, NPS, and DQE. The image performance parameters were evaluated using the international electro-technical commission (IEC 62220-1)-defined RQA5 radiographic techniques. Computed radiography (CR) posterior-anterior (PA) images of a hand for measuring the signal to noise ratio (SNR), the slit images for measuring the MTF, and the white images for measuring the NPS were obtained, and various multi-Scale image contrast amplification (MUSICA) factors were applied to each of the acquired images. All of the modifications of the images obtained by using image processing had a considerable influence on the evaluated image quality. In conclusion, the control parameters of image processing can be accounted for evaluating characterization of image quality in same way. The results of this study should serve as a baseline for based on evaluating imaging systems and their imaging characteristics by MTF, NPS, and DQE measurements.

  19. Effects of image processing on the detective quantum efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hye-Suk; Kim, Hee-Joung; Cho, Hyo-Min; Lee, Chang-Lae; Lee, Seung-Wan; Choi, Yu-Na

    2010-04-01

    Digital radiography has gained popularity in many areas of clinical practice. This transition brings interest in advancing the methodologies for image quality characterization. However, as the methodologies for such characterizations have not been standardized, the results of these studies cannot be directly compared. The primary objective of this study was to standardize methodologies for image quality characterization. The secondary objective was to evaluate affected factors to Modulation transfer function (MTF), noise power spectrum (NPS), and detective quantum efficiency (DQE) according to image processing algorithm. Image performance parameters such as MTF, NPS, and DQE were evaluated using the international electro-technical commission (IEC 62220-1)-defined RQA5 radiographic techniques. Computed radiography (CR) images of hand posterior-anterior (PA) for measuring signal to noise ratio (SNR), slit image for measuring MTF, white image for measuring NPS were obtained and various Multi-Scale Image Contrast Amplification (MUSICA) parameters were applied to each of acquired images. In results, all of modified images were considerably influence on evaluating SNR, MTF, NPS, and DQE. Modified images by the post-processing had higher DQE than the MUSICA=0 image. This suggests that MUSICA values, as a post-processing, have an affect on the image when it is evaluating for image quality. In conclusion, the control parameters of image processing could be accounted for evaluating characterization of image quality in same way. The results of this study could be guided as a baseline to evaluate imaging systems and their imaging characteristics by measuring MTF, NPS, and DQE.

  20. Effects of image processing on the detective quantum efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hye-Suk; Kim, Hee-Joung; Cho, Hyo-Min; Lee, Chang-Lae; Lee, Seung-Wan; Choi, Yu-Na

    2010-01-01

    The evaluation of image quality is an important part of digital radiography. The modulation transfer function (MTF), the noise power spectrum (NPS), and the detective quantum efficiency (DQE) are widely accepted measurements of the digital radiographic system performance. However, as the methodologies for such characterization have not been standardized, it is difficult to compare directly reported the MTF, NPS, and DQE results. In this study, we evaluated the effect of an image processing algorithm for estimating the MTF, NPS, and DQE. The image performance parameters were evaluated using the international electro-technical commission (IEC 62220-1)-defined RQA5 radiographic techniques. Computed radiography (CR) posterior-anterior (PA) images of a hand for measuring the signal to noise ratio (SNR), the slit images for measuring the MTF, and the white images for measuring the NPS were obtained, and various multi-Scale image contrast amplification (MUSICA) factors were applied to each of the acquired images. All of the modifications of the images obtained by using image processing had a considerable influence on the evaluated image quality. In conclusion, the control parameters of image processing can be accounted for evaluating characterization of image quality in same way. The results of this study should serve as a baseline for based on evaluating imaging systems and their imaging characteristics by MTF, NPS, and DQE measurements.

  1. High-quantum efficiency, long-lived luminescing refractory oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y.; Gonzalez, R.; Summers, G.P.

    A crystal having a high-quantum efficiency and a long period of luminescence is formed of MgO or CaO and possessing a concentration ratio of H/sup -/ ions to F centers in the range of about 0.05 to about 10.

  2. Efficient eco-friendly inverted quantum dot sensitized solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Park, Jinhyung; Sajjad, Muhammad T.; Jouneau, Pierre-Henri; Ruseckas, Arvydas; Faure-Vincent, Jérôme; Samuel, Ifor D. W.; Reiss, Peter; Aldakov, Dmitry

    2016-01-01

    Recent progress in quantum dot (QD) sensitized solar cells has demonstrated the possibility of low-cost and efficient photovoltaics. However, the standard device structure based on n-type materials often suffers from slow hole injection rate, which may lead to unbalanced charge transport. We have

  3. Detective quantum efficiency of medical x-ray image intensifiers

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Thirlwall, JT

    1998-11-01

    Full Text Available The recognition of small features of low contrast in the image recorded by an x-ray image intensifier is usually limited by photon noise. This detail-contrast perceptibility is dependent on the detective quantum efficiency (DQE) and the modulation...

  4. High Quantum Efficiency OLED Lighting Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiang, Joseph [General Electric (GE) Global Research, Fairfield, CT (United States)

    2011-09-30

    The overall goal of the program was to apply improvements in light outcoupling technology to a practical large area plastic luminaire, and thus enable the product vision of an extremely thin form factor high efficiency large area light source. The target substrate was plastic and the baseline device was operating at 35 LPW at the start of the program. The target LPW of the program was a >2x improvement in the LPW efficacy and the overall amount of light to be delivered was relatively high 900 lumens. Despite the extremely difficult challenges associated with scaling up a wet solution process on plastic substrates, the program was able to make substantial progress. A small molecule wet solution process was successfully implemented on plastic substrates with almost no loss in efficiency in transitioning from the laboratory scale glass to large area plastic substrates. By transitioning to a small molecule based process, the LPW entitlement increased from 35 LPW to 60 LPW. A further 10% improvement in outcoupling efficiency was demonstrated via the use of a highly reflecting cathode, which reduced absorptive loss in the OLED device. The calculated potential improvement in some cases is even larger, ~30%, and thus there is considerable room for optimism in improving the net light coupling efficacy, provided absorptive loss mechanisms are eliminated. Further improvements are possible if scattering schemes such as the silver nanowire based hard coat structure are fully developed. The wet coating processes were successfully scaled to large area plastic substrate and resulted in the construction of a 900 lumens luminaire device.

  5. Efficient quantum algorithm for computing n-time correlation functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedernales, J S; Di Candia, R; Egusquiza, I L; Casanova, J; Solano, E

    2014-07-11

    We propose a method for computing n-time correlation functions of arbitrary spinorial, fermionic, and bosonic operators, consisting of an efficient quantum algorithm that encodes these correlations in an initially added ancillary qubit for probe and control tasks. For spinorial and fermionic systems, the reconstruction of arbitrary n-time correlation functions requires the measurement of two ancilla observables, while for bosonic variables time derivatives of the same observables are needed. Finally, we provide examples applicable to different quantum platforms in the frame of the linear response theory.

  6. Design of Efficient Mirror Adder in Quantum- Dot Cellular Automata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Prashant Kumar; Chattopadhyay, Manju K.

    2018-03-01

    Lower power consumption is an essential demand for portable multimedia system using digital signal processing algorithms and architectures. Quantum dot cellular automata (QCA) is a rising nano technology for the development of high performance ultra-dense low power digital circuits. QCA based several efficient binary and decimal arithmetic circuits are implemented, however important improvements are still possible. This paper demonstrate Mirror Adder circuit design in QCA. We present comparative study of mirror adder cells designed using conventional CMOS technique and mirror adder cells designed using quantum-dot cellular automata. QCA based mirror adders are better in terms of area by order of three.

  7. International Conference on Quantum Science and Applications (ICQSA-2016)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Algin, A.; Arik, M.; Gavrilik, A. M.

    2016-01-01

    This special volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series is dedicated to the proceedings of “International Conference on Quantum Science and Applications (ICQSA-2016)”. The conference was organized by the Centre for Quantum Research and Applications at Eskisehir Osmangazi University, Eskisehir, Turkey. It was held in Eskisehir Osmangazi University Congress and Culture Centre during May 25-27, 2016 http://icqsa2016.ogu.edu.tr. It gathered actively 143 participants from different disciplines in natural and applied sciences coming from 16 different countries from all over the word. It was the first international conference in its content on the scientific research fields of quantum science and applications in Turkey. It also consisted of 12 plenary lectures and 119 contributed oral presentations covering interdisciplinary fields of research. The ICQSA-2016 conference focused on recent modern theoretical and experimental developments of quantum science in multi-disciplinary aspects of areas of mathematics, physics, statistics, chemistry, biology, computer science, electronics, informatics, medicine, education, etc. It served as an interaction platform for students, researchers, public, and private sector delegates for sharing new scientific and technological ideas on quantum applications in science and technology. The topics of the conference were: Quantum theory and quantum computing, quantum information theory and its applications, quantum statistics and its applications, quantum thermodynamics, quantum cryptography, classical and quantum symmetries, quantum calculus in science, engineering, medicine, education, etc., classical and quantum integrable systems, modeling and numerical methods in quantum systems, other modern mathematical methods in science and technology. Each of the submitted papers for this special volume of the proceedings of ICQSA-2016 has been reviewed by external referees. There are 36 accepted papers. Besides, it is worth pointing out

  8. Coherence-enhanced efficiency of feedback-driven quantum engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandner, Kay; Bauer, Michael; Schmid, Michael T.; Seifert, Udo

    2015-06-01

    A genuine feature of projective quantum measurements is that they inevitably alter the mean energy of the observed system if the measured quantity does not commute with the Hamiltonian. Compared to the classical case, Jacobs proved that this additional energetic cost leads to a stronger bound on the work extractable after a single measurement from a system initially in thermal equilibrium (2009 Phys. Rev. A 80 012322). Here, we extend this bound to a large class of feedback-driven quantum engines operating periodically and in finite time. The bound thus implies a natural definition for the efficiency of information to work conversion in such devices. For a simple model consisting of a laser-driven two-level system, we maximize the efficiency with respect to the observable whose measurement is used to control the feedback operations. We find that the optimal observable typically does not commute with the Hamiltonian and hence would not be available in a classical two level system. This result reveals that periodic feedback engines operating in the quantum realm can exploit quantum coherences to enhance efficiency.

  9. Conservation of quantum efficiency in quantum well intermixing by stress engineering with dielectric bilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Seval; Demir, Abdullah; Şahin, Seval; Aydınlı, Atilla

    2018-02-01

    In semiconductor lasers, quantum well intermixing (QWI) with high selectivity using dielectrics often results in lower quantum efficiency. In this paper, we report on an investigation regarding the effect of thermally induced dielectric stress on the quantum efficiency of quantum well structures in impurity-free vacancy disordering (IFVD) process using photoluminescence and device characterization in conjunction with microscopy. SiO2 and Si x O2/SrF2 (versus SrF2) films were employed for the enhancement and suppression of QWI, respectively. Large intermixing selectivity of 75 nm (125 meV), consistent with the theoretical modeling results, with negligible effect on the suppression region characteristics, was obtained. Si x O2 layer compensates for the large thermal expansion coefficient mismatch of SrF2 with the semiconductor and mitigates the detrimental effects of SrF2 without sacrificing its QWI benefits. The bilayer dielectric approach dramatically improved the dielectric–semiconductor interface quality. Fabricated high power semiconductor lasers demonstrated high quantum efficiency in the lasing region using the bilayer dielectric film during the intermixing process. Our results reveal that stress engineering in IFVD is essential and the thermal stress can be controlled by engineering the dielectric strain opening new perspectives for QWI of photonic devices.

  10. Biexciton Dissociation Efficiency at Quantum Dot-Oxide Interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonn, Mischa; Wang, Hai; Canovas, Enrique

    Harvesting multiexcitons populating semiconductor quantum dots (generated by carrier multiplication, CM) has been proposed as a path towards higher efficiencies in photovoltaic devices. Although CM efficiency has been widely interrogated in colloidal QD solutions, less focus has been placed on the physics regarding biexciton collection at electrodes. We investigate interfacial biexciton transfer dynamics from PbS quantum dots directly nucleated onto mesoporous SnO2 films as a function of impinging photon flux and photon energy. A priori, this system seems very well-suited for achieving efficient biexciton dissociation, as the ultrafast QD-to-oxide transfer rate for 800nm excitation is substantially faster than Auger relaxation. Remarkably, the biexciton dissociation efficiency is below the detection efficiency, i.e. essentially zero. This seemingly counterintuitive result can be understood by noting that efficient hot electron transfer at the QD-oxide interface can compete with CM within the QDs. Hot electron transfer is observed to occur on sub-100 fs timescales, nulling the CM efficiency. Implications of these results for solar energy conversion are discussed.

  11. Computationally Efficient Nonlinear Bell Inequalities for Quantum Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Ming-Xing

    2018-04-01

    The correlations in quantum networks have attracted strong interest with new types of violations of the locality. The standard Bell inequalities cannot characterize the multipartite correlations that are generated by multiple sources. The main problem is that no computationally efficient method is available for constructing useful Bell inequalities for general quantum networks. In this work, we show a significant improvement by presenting new, explicit Bell-type inequalities for general networks including cyclic networks. These nonlinear inequalities are related to the matching problem of an equivalent unweighted bipartite graph that allows constructing a polynomial-time algorithm. For the quantum resources consisting of bipartite entangled pure states and generalized Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) states, we prove the generic nonmultilocality of quantum networks with multiple independent observers using new Bell inequalities. The violations are maximal with respect to the presented Tsirelson's bound for Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen states and GHZ states. Moreover, these violations hold for Werner states or some general noisy states. Our results suggest that the presented Bell inequalities can be used to characterize experimental quantum networks.

  12. Study on Quantum Efficiency Stability of Reflection-Mode GaN Negative Electronic Affinity Photocathode

    OpenAIRE

    Wei Liu; Jiangtao Fu; Guoqiang Zheng

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the decaying and recovering mechanism of the quantum efficiency for reflection-mode GaN NEA photocathode. One kind of reflection-mode GaN NEA photocathode is designed and grown in the laboratory. The quantum efficiency curves are obtained immediately and six hours later after the sample is fully activated, the quantum efficiency data at different wavelengths are acquired according to the two different quantum efficiency curves, Through the analysis of exper...

  13. Efficient calculation of dissipative quantum transport properties in semiconductor nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greck, Peter

    2012-11-26

    We present a novel quantum transport method that follows the non-equilibrium Green's function (NEGF) framework but side steps any self-consistent calculation of lesser self-energies by replacing them by a quasi-equilibrium expression. We termed this method the multi-scattering Buettiker-Probe (MSB) method. It generalizes the so-called Buettiker-Probe model but takes into account all relevant individual scattering mechanisms. It is orders of magnitude more efficient than a fully selfconsistent non-equilibrium Green's function calculation for realistic devices, yet accurately reproduces the results of the latter method as well as experimental data. This method is fairly easy to implement and opens the path towards realistic three-dimensional quantum transport calculations. In this work, we review the fundamentals of the non-equilibrium Green's function formalism for quantum transport calculations. Then, we introduce our novel MSB method after briefly reviewing the original Buettiker-Probe model. Finally, we compare the results of the MSB method to NEGF calculations as well as to experimental data. In particular, we calculate quantum transport properties of quantum cascade lasers in the terahertz (THz) and the mid-infrared (MIR) spectral domain. With a device optimization algorithm based upon the MSB method, we propose a novel THz quantum cascade laser design. It uses a two-well period with alternating barrier heights and complete carrier thermalization for the majority of the carriers within each period. We predict THz laser operation for temperatures up to 250 K implying a new temperature record.

  14. Non-Markovian quantum processes: Complete framework and efficient characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, Felix A.; Rodríguez-Rosario, César; Frauenheim, Thomas; Paternostro, Mauro; Modi, Kavan

    2018-01-01

    Currently, there is no systematic way to describe a quantum process with memory solely in terms of experimentally accessible quantities. However, recent technological advances mean we have control over systems at scales where memory effects are non-negligible. The lack of such an operational description has hindered advances in understanding physical, chemical, and biological processes, where often unjustified theoretical assumptions are made to render a dynamical description tractable. This has led to theories plagued with unphysical results and no consensus on what a quantum Markov (memoryless) process is. Here, we develop a universal framework to characterize arbitrary non-Markovian quantum processes. We show how a multitime non-Markovian process can be reconstructed experimentally, and that it has a natural representation as a many-body quantum state, where temporal correlations are mapped to spatial ones. Moreover, this state is expected to have an efficient matrix-product-operator form in many cases. Our framework constitutes a systematic tool for the effective description of memory-bearing open-system evolutions.

  15. Bohm's quantum potential as an internal energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dennis, Glen, E-mail: gdennis502@gmail.com [TPRU, Birkbeck College, University of London, London, WC1E 7HX (United Kingdom); Gosson, Maurice A. de, E-mail: maurice.de.gosson@univie.ac.at [University of Vienna, Faculty of Mathematics, NuHAG, Oskar-Morgenstern-Platz 1, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Hiley, Basil J., E-mail: b.hiley@bbk.ac.uk [TPRU, Birkbeck College, University of London, London, WC1E 7HX (United Kingdom)

    2015-06-26

    Highlights: • The quantum potential is seen as internal energy associated with a phase space region. • Fermi's trick shows that Bohm's particle is an extended structure in phase space. • We associate Bohm's quantum potential with a context-dependent energy redistribution. • A physically motivated derivation of Schrodinger's equation is provided. • We show the Fermi set associated with a 3-D coherent state contains a quantum blob. - Abstract: We pursue our discussion of Fermi's surface initiated by Dennis, de Gosson and Hiley and show that Bohm's quantum potential can be viewed as an internal energy of a quantum system, giving further insight into its role in stationary states. This implies that the ‘particle’ referred to in Bohm's theory is not a classical point-like object but rather has an extended structure in phase space which can be linked to the notion of a symplectic capacity, a topological feature of the underlying symplectic geometry. This structure provides us with a new, physically motivated derivation of Schrödinger's equation provided we interpret Gleason's theorem as a derivation of the Born rule from fundamental assumptions about quantum probabilities.

  16. Indistinguishable and efficient single photons from a quantum dot in a planar nanobeam waveguide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirsanské, Gabija; Nielsen, Henri Thyrrestrup; Daveau, Raphaël Sura

    2017-01-01

    We demonstrate a high-purity source of indistinguishable single photons using a quantum dot embedded in a nanophotonic waveguide. The source features a near-unity internal coupling efficiency and the collected photons are efficiently coupled off chip by implementing a taper that adiabatically...... allows pinpointing the residual decoherence processes, notably the effect of phonon broadening. Strict resonant excitation is implemented as well as another means of suppressing photon jitter, and the additional complexity of suppressing the excitation laser source is addressed. The paper opens a clear...

  17. "High Quantum Efficiency of Band-Edge Emission from ZnO Nanowires"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GARGAS, DANIEL; GAO, HANWEI; WANG, HUNGTA; PEIDONG, YANG

    2010-12-01

    External quantum efficiency (EQE) of photoluminescence as high as 20 percent from isolated ZnO nanowires were measured at room temperature. The EQE was found to be highly dependent on photoexcitation density, which underscores the importance of uniform optical excitation during the EQE measurement. An integrating sphere coupled to a microscopic imaging system was used in this work, which enabled the EQE measurement on isolated ZnO nanowires. The EQE values obtained here are significantly higher than those reported for ZnO materials in forms of bulk, thin films or powders. Additional insight on the radiative extraction factor of one-dimensional nanostructures was gained by measuring the internal quantum efficiency of individual nanowires. Such quantitative EQE measurements provide a sensitive, noninvasive method to characterize the optical properties of low-dimensional nanostructures and allow tuning of synthesis parameters for optimization of nanoscale materials.

  18. Optimal power and efficiency of quantum Stirling heat engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Yong; Chen, Lingen; Wu, Feng

    2017-01-01

    A quantum Stirling heat engine model is established in this paper in which imperfect regeneration and heat leakage are considered. A single particle which contained in a one-dimensional infinite potential well is studied, and the system consists of countless replicas. Each particle is confined in its own potential well, whose occupation probabilities can be expressed by the thermal equilibrium Gibbs distributions. Based on the Schrödinger equation, the expressions of power output and efficiency for the engine are obtained. Effects of imperfect regeneration and heat leakage on the optimal performance are discussed. The optimal performance region and the optimal values of important parameters of the engine cycle are obtained. The results obtained can provide some guidelines for the design of a quantum Stirling heat engine.

  19. Efficiency studies on semipolar GaInN-GaN quantum well structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scholz, Ferdinand; Meisch, Tobias; Elkhouly, Karim [Institute of Optoelectronics, Ulm University (Germany)

    2016-12-15

    In order to clarify the reasons for the fairly poor electroluminescence (EL) performance of semipolar LED structures grown on patterned sapphire wafers, we have analyzed both, pure photoluminescence (PL) test structures without doping only containing 5 GaInN quantum wells and full EL test structures, all emitting at a wavelength of about 510 nm. Evaluating the PL intensity over a wide range of temperatures and excitation powers, we conclude that such quantum wells possess a fairly large internal quantum efficiency of about 20%. However, on EL test structures containing nominally the same quantum wells, we obtained an optical output power of only about 150μW at an applied current of 20 mA. This may be due partly to some thermal destruction of the quantum wells by the overgrowth with p-GaN. Even more important seems to be the not yet finally optimized p-doping of these structures. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  20. External quantum efficiency exceeding 100% in a singlet-exciton-fission-based solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldo, Marc

    2013-03-01

    Singlet exciton fission can be used to split a molecular excited state in two. In solar cells, it promises to double the photocurrent from high energy photons, thereby breaking the single junction efficiency limit. We demonstrate organic solar cells that exploit singlet exciton fission in pentacene to generate more than one electron per incident photon in the visible spectrum. Using a fullerene acceptor, a poly(3-hexylthiophene) exciton confinement layer, and a conventional optical trapping scheme, the peak external quantum efficiency is (109 +/-1)% at λ = 670 nm for a 15-nm-thick pentacene film. The corresponding internal quantum efficiency is (160 +/-10)%. Independent confirmation of the high internal efficiency is obtained by analysis of the magnetic field effect on photocurrent, which determines that the triplet yield approaches 200% for pentacene films thicker than 5 nm. To our knowledge, this is the first solar cell to generate quantum efficiencies above 100% in the visible spectrum. Alternative multiple exciton generation approaches have been demonstrated previously in the ultraviolet, where there is relatively little sunlight. Singlet exciton fission differs from these other mechanisms because spin conservation disallows the usual dominant loss process: a thermal relaxation of the high-energy exciton into a single low-energy exciton. Consequently, pentacene is efficient in the visible spectrum at λ = 670 nm because only the collapse of the singlet exciton into twotriplets is spin-allowed. Supported as part of the Center for Excitonics, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences under Award Number DE-SC0001088.

  1. Quantum efficiency of GaN photocathode under different illumination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaohui; Chang, Benkang; Du, Yujie; Qiao, Jianliang

    2011-07-01

    GaN samples are activated by Cs/O under illumination of deuterium lamp, 300 nm monochromatic light with power of 70 μW and 300 nm monochromatic light with power of 35 μW, respectively. Photocurrent is detected before activation under illumination of deuterium lamp. Quantum efficiency (QE) is tested after activation. The results indicate that GaN activated under 300 nm monochromatic light have higher QE than that under deuterium lamp, and no obvious difference is detected between different power 300 nm monochromatic light. The photocurrent before activation inhibits the adsorption of Cs on the GaN surface, which decrease the QE of GaN.

  2. GaN-based photocathodes with extremely high quantum efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchiyama, Shoichi; Takagi, Yasufumi; Niigaki, Minoru; Kan, Hirofumi; Kondoh, Haruyasu

    2005-03-01

    We have fabricated phototubes with photocathodes consisting of the Mg-doped GaN films. The spectral shapes of the response and the quantum efficiency (QE) strongly depend on the Mg-doping concentration. The calibrated QE of the photocathode is maximized to be 71.9% at a photon energy of 5.4 eV by a Mg-doping concentration of 3.0×1019cm-3. Consequently, a phototube with the GaN-based photocathode is realized to demonstrate a very high QE, more than 50% and sharp cutoff characteristic over three orders of magnitude.

  3. Efficient generation of graph states for quantum computation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, S R; Alves, C Moura; Jaksch, D

    2005-01-01

    We present an entanglement generation scheme which allows arbitrary graph states to be efficiently created in a linear quantum register via an auxiliary entangling bus (EB). The dynamical evolution of the EB is described by an effective non-interacting fermionic system undergoing mirror-inversion in which qubits, encoded as local fermionic modes, become entangled purely by Fermi statistics. We discuss a possible implementation using two species of neutral atoms stored in an optical lattice and find that the scheme is realistic in its requirements even in the presence of noise

  4. Photocurrent extraction efficiency in colloidal quantum dot photovoltaics

    KAUST Repository

    Kemp, K. W.

    2013-01-01

    The efficiency of photocurrent extraction was studied directly inside operating Colloidal Quantum Dot (CQD) photovoltaic devices. A model was derived from first principles for a thin film p-n junction with a linearly spatially dependent electric field. Using this model, we were able to clarify the origins of recent improvement in CQD solar cell performance. From current-voltage diode characteristics under 1 sun conditions, we extracted transport lengths ranging from 39 nm to 86 nm for these materials. Characterization of the intensity dependence of photocurrent extraction revealed that the dominant loss mechanism limiting the transport length is trap-mediated recombination. © 2013 AIP Publishing LLC.

  5. Exceeding Conventional Photovoltaic Efficiency Limits Using Colloidal Quantum Dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pach, Gregory F.

    Colloidal quantum dots (QDs) are a widely investigated field of research due to their highly tunable nature in which the optical and electronic properties of the nanocrystal can be manipulated by merely changing the nanocrystal's size. Specifically, colloidal quantum dot solar cells (QDSCs) have become a promising candidate for future generation photovoltaic technology. Quantum dots exhibit multiple exciton generation (MEG) in which multiple electron-hole pairs are generated from a single high-energy photon. This process is not observed in bulk-like semiconductors and allows for QDSCs to achieve theoretical efficiency limits above the standard single-junction Shockley-Queisser limit. However, the fast expanding field of QDSC research has lacked standardization of synthetic techniques and device design. Therefore, we sought to detail methodology for synthesizing PbS and PbSe QDs as well as photovoltaic device fabrication techniques as a fast track toward constructing high-performance solar cells. We show that these protocols lead toward consistently achieving efficiencies above 8% for PbS QDSCs. Using the same methodology for building single-junction photovoltaic devices, we incorporated PbS QDs as a bottom cell into a monolithic tandem architecture along with solution-processed CdTe nanocrystals. Modeling shows that near-peak tandem device efficiencies can be achieved across a wide range of bottom cell band gaps, and therefore the highly tunable band gap of lead-chalcogenide QDs lends well towards a bottom cell in a tandem architecture. A fully functioning monolithic tandem device is realized through the development of a ZnTe/ZnO recombination layer that appropriately combines the two subcells in series. Multiple recent reports have shown nanocrystalline heterostructures to undergo the MEG process more efficiency than several other nanostrucutres, namely lead-chalcogenide QDs. The final section of my thesis expands upon a recent publication by Zhang et. al., which

  6. Efficient Embedding of Integer Programming Problems on Quantum Annealers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venturelli, Davide; Trummer, Immanuel

    Quantum Annealers are being considered as a possible platform to solve challenging Integer Optimization Problems (IOP). Hard-coding an IOP as an Ising model onto an annealer is however no easy task due to the severe restrictions imposed mostly by the connectivity of the graph implemented by the hardware architecture, as it has widely discussed for the D-Wave machines. The current approaches employ graph minor embedding algorithms that require a significant overhead of resources (number of qubits, computing power) with respect to the number of logical variables in the IOP. This overhead is arguably the primary problems for practitioners of quantum annealing. We present a new method to deterministically embed an arbitrary IOP in a generic class of annealing chip layouts such that the asymptotic scaling beats all the current methods. It is shown on the latest D-Wave chips to allow programming of problems, relevant for database and space sciences, with approximately 5-10x more variables with respect to the published approaches. The method is efficient in the sense that a valid embedding can be computed at run-time in polynomial time. The discussed methods can inform the design of next-generation of quantum annealers.

  7. Nonlocal transformation of the internal quantum particle structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey Yu. Samarin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the integral wave equation, having path integral kernel, has resulted, that collapse phenomenon is based on the nonlocal transformation of the internal structure of a quantum particle, considering in the form of the matter fields collection. This nonlocality allows to escape the contradiction between the reduction quantum mechanics postulate and special relativity. It is shown, that the wave function transformation, corresponding to von Neumann's reduction, has the deterministic nature and the quantum mechanics stochasticity is a consequence of a macroscopic measurer presence in the measuring process. Besides it is demonstrated, that the decogerence phenomenon has the same mechanism of the wave function transformation. EPR-type experiment is described in detail and the possibility of the faster-then light communication is proved, as well the possible rules of thumb of this communication are proposed.

  8. Calorimetric Measurement for Internal Conversion Efficiency of Photovoltaic Cells/Modules Based on Electrical Substitution Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Terubumi; Tatsuta, Muneaki; Abe, Yamato; Takesawa, Minato

    2018-02-01

    We have succeeded in the direct measurement for solar cell/module internal conversion efficiency based on a calorimetric method or electrical substitution method by which the absorbed radiant power is determined by replacing the heat absorbed in the cell/module with the electrical power. The technique is advantageous in that the reflectance and transmittance measurements, which are required in the conventional methods, are not necessary. Also, the internal quantum efficiency can be derived from conversion efficiencies by using the average photon energy. Agreements of the measured data with the values estimated from the nominal values support the validity of this technique.

  9. Improving the efficiency of quantum hash function by dense coding of coin operators in discrete-time quantum walk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, YuGuang; Zhang, YuChen; Xu, Gang; Chen, XiuBo; Zhou, Yi-Hua; Shi, WeiMin

    2018-03-01

    Li et al. first proposed a quantum hash function (QHF) in a quantum-walk architecture. In their scheme, two two-particle interactions, i.e., I interaction and π-phase interaction are introduced and the choice of I or π-phase interactions at each iteration depends on a message bit. In this paper, we propose an efficient QHF by dense coding of coin operators in discrete-time quantum walk. Compared with existing QHFs, our protocol has the following advantages: the efficiency of the QHF can be doubled and even more; only one particle is enough and two-particle interactions are unnecessary so that quantum resources are saved. It is a clue to apply the dense coding technique to quantum cryptographic protocols, especially to the applications with restricted quantum resources.

  10. Efficient generation of photonic entanglement and multiparty quantum communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trojek, Pavel

    2007-09-01

    This thesis deals largely with the problem of efficient generation of photonic entanglement with the principal aim of developing a bright source of polarization-entangled photon pairs, which meets the requirements for reliable and economic operation of quantum communication prototypes and demonstrators. Our approach uses a cor-related photon-pair emission in nonlinear process of spontaneous parametric downconversion pumped by light coming from a compact and cheap blue laser diode. Two alternative source configurations are examined within the thesis. The first makes use of a well established concept of degenerate non-collinear emission from a single type-II nonlinear crystal and the second relies on a novel method where the emissions from two adjacent type-I phase-matched nonlinear crystals operated in collinear non-degenerate regime are coherently overlapped. The latter approach showed to be more effective, yielding a total detected rate of almost 10 6 pairs/s at >98% quantum interference visibility of polarization correlations. The second issue addressed within the thesis is the simplification and practical implementation of quantum-assisted solutions to multiparty communication tasks. We show that entanglement is not the only non-classical resource endowing the quantum multiparty information processing its power. Instead, only the sequential communication and transformation of a single qubit can be sufficient to accomplish certain tasks. This we prove for two distinct communication tasks, secret sharing and communication complexity. Whereas the goal of the first is to split a cryptographic key among several parties in a way that its reconstruction requires their collaboration, the latter aims at reducing the amount of communication during distributed computational tasks. Importantly, our qubitassisted solutions to the problems are feasible with state-of-the-art technology. This we clearly demonstrate in the laboratory implementation for 6 and 5 parties

  11. Efficient generation of photonic entanglement and multiparty quantum communication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trojek, Pavel

    2007-09-15

    This thesis deals largely with the problem of efficient generation of photonic entanglement with the principal aim of developing a bright source of polarization-entangled photon pairs, which meets the requirements for reliable and economic operation of quantum communication prototypes and demonstrators. Our approach uses a cor-related photon-pair emission in nonlinear process of spontaneous parametric downconversion pumped by light coming from a compact and cheap blue laser diode. Two alternative source configurations are examined within the thesis. The first makes use of a well established concept of degenerate non-collinear emission from a single type-II nonlinear crystal and the second relies on a novel method where the emissions from two adjacent type-I phase-matched nonlinear crystals operated in collinear non-degenerate regime are coherently overlapped. The latter approach showed to be more effective, yielding a total detected rate of almost 10{sup 6} pairs/s at >98% quantum interference visibility of polarization correlations. The second issue addressed within the thesis is the simplification and practical implementation of quantum-assisted solutions to multiparty communication tasks. We show that entanglement is not the only non-classical resource endowing the quantum multiparty information processing its power. Instead, only the sequential communication and transformation of a single qubit can be sufficient to accomplish certain tasks. This we prove for two distinct communication tasks, secret sharing and communication complexity. Whereas the goal of the first is to split a cryptographic key among several parties in a way that its reconstruction requires their collaboration, the latter aims at reducing the amount of communication during distributed computational tasks. Importantly, our qubitassisted solutions to the problems are feasible with state-of-the-art technology. This we clearly demonstrate in the laboratory implementation for 6 and 5 parties

  12. Modeling high-efficiency quantum dot sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Pedro, Victoria; Xu, Xueqing; Mora-Seró, Iván; Bisquert, Juan

    2010-10-26

    With energy conversion efficiencies in continuous growth, quantum dot sensitized solar cells (QDSCs) are currently under an increasing interest, but there is an absence of a complete model for these devices. Here, we compile the latest developments in this kind of cells in order to attain high efficiency QDSCs, modeling the performance. CdSe QDs have been grown directly on a TiO(2) surface by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction to ensure high QD loading. ZnS coating and previous growth of CdS were analyzed. Polysulfide electrolyte and Cu(2)S counterelectrodes were used to provide higher photocurrents and fill factors, FF. Incident photon-to-current efficiency peaks as high as 82%, under full 1 sun illumination, were obtained, which practically overcomes the photocurrent limitation commonly observed in QDSCs. High power conversion efficiency of up to 3.84% under full 1 sun illumination (V(oc) = 0.538 V, j(sc) = 13.9 mA/cm(2), FF = 0.51) and the characterization and modeling carried out indicate that recombination has to be overcome for further improvement of QDSC.

  13. Improved quantum efficiency models of CZTSe: GE nanolayer solar cells with a linear electric field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sanghyun; Price, Kent J; Saucedo, Edgardo; Giraldo, Sergio

    2018-02-08

    We fabricated and characterized CZTSe:Ge nanolayer (quantum efficiency for Ge doped CZTSe devices. The linear electric field model is developed with the incomplete gamma function of the quantum efficiency as compared to the empirical data at forward bias conditions. This model is characterized with a consistent set of parameters from a series of measurements and the literature. Using the analytical modelling method, the carrier collection profile in the absorber is calculated and closely fitted by the developed mathematical expressions to identify the carrier dynamics during the quantum efficiency measurement of the device. The analytical calculation is compared with the measured quantum efficiency data at various bias conditions.

  14. Equivalent Method of Solving Quantum Efficiency of Reflection-Mode Exponential Doping GaAs Photocathode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jun, Niu; Zhi, Yang; Ben-Kang, Chang

    2009-01-01

    The mathematical expression of the electron diffusion and drift length L DE of exponential doping photocathode is deduced. In the quantum efficiency equation of the reffection-mode uniform doping cathode, substituting L DE for L D , the equivalent quantum efficiency equation of the reffection-mode exponential doping cathode is obtained. By using the equivalent equation, theoretical simulation and experimental analysis shows that the equivalent index formula and formula-doped cathode quantum efficiency results in line. The equivalent equation avoids complicated calculation, thereby simplifies the process of solving the quantum efficiency of exponential doping photocathode

  15. Pseudospectral Gaussian quantum dynamics: Efficient sampling of potential energy surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaps, Charles W; Mazziotti, David A

    2016-04-28

    Trajectory-based Gaussian basis sets have been tremendously successful in describing high-dimensional quantum molecular dynamics. In this paper, we introduce a pseudospectral Gaussian-based method that achieves accurate quantum dynamics using efficient, real-space sampling of the time-dependent basis set. As in other Gaussian basis methods, we begin with a basis set expansion using time-dependent Gaussian basis functions guided by classical mechanics. Unlike other Gaussian methods but characteristic of the pseudospectral and collocation methods, the basis set is tested with N Dirac delta functions, where N is the number of basis functions, rather than using the basis function as test functions. As a result, the integration for matrix elements is reduced to function evaluation. Pseudospectral Gaussian dynamics only requires O(N) potential energy calculations, in contrast to O(N(2)) evaluations in a variational calculation. The classical trajectories allow small basis sets to sample high-dimensional potentials. Applications are made to diatomic oscillations in a Morse potential and a generalized version of the Henon-Heiles potential in two, four, and six dimensions. Comparisons are drawn to full analytical evaluation of potential energy integrals (variational) and the bra-ket averaged Taylor (BAT) expansion, an O(N) approximation used in Gaussian-based dynamics. In all cases, the pseudospectral Gaussian method is competitive with full variational calculations that require a global, analytical, and integrable potential energy surface. Additionally, the BAT breaks down when quantum mechanical coherence is particularly strong (i.e., barrier reflection in the Morse oscillator). The ability to obtain variational accuracy using only the potential energy at discrete points makes the pseudospectral Gaussian method a promising avenue for on-the-fly dynamics, where electronic structure calculations become computationally significant.

  16. A highly efficient single-photon source based on a quantum dot in a photonic nanowire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Claudon, Julien; Bleuse, Joel; Malik, Nitin Singh

    2010-01-01

    –4 or a semiconductor quantum dot5–7. Achieving a high extraction efficiency has long been recognized as a major issue, and both classical solutions8 and cavity quantum electrodynamics effects have been applied1,9–12. We adopt a different approach, based on an InAs quantum dot embedded in a GaAs photonic nanowire...

  17. Toward optimum efficiency in a quantum receiver for coded ppm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boroson, D. M.

    2017-09-01

    Communications systems builders continue to search for signal formats and receiver architectures that can provide the most efficient utilization of their subsystems, which include power amplifiers as well as transmit and receive apertures. Receivers requiring very small amounts of received power are of particular interest in communications links where transmission distances are very long and losses are large, such as from Deep Space. Helstrom and others ([1],[2],[3]) initiated the study of optimum signal reception using quantum mechanical signal models. They derived the mathematical description and predicted performance of receivers that optimize certain criteria, such as Minimum Probability of Error (MPE). Unfortunately, practical implementation of their proposed receivers has still not been achieved. In parallel, technology has advanced to where noiseless photon counters can be used to achieve quite good performance ([4]). We show here that, when an end-to-end error correction code is added, in fact such a system can out-perform the "optimum" MPE system at low signal powers. In this report, we derive the formulation of a quantum receiver that is shown to be uniformly better than either the MPE or photon-counting receiver.

  18. Efficient eco-friendly inverted quantum dot sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jinhyung; Sajjad, Muhammad T; Jouneau, Pierre-Henri; Ruseckas, Arvydas; Faure-Vincent, Jérôme; Samuel, Ifor D W; Reiss, Peter; Aldakov, Dmitry

    2016-01-21

    Recent progress in quantum dot (QD) sensitized solar cells has demonstrated the possibility of low-cost and efficient photovoltaics. However, the standard device structure based on n-type materials often suffers from slow hole injection rate, which may lead to unbalanced charge transport. We have fabricated efficient p-type (inverted) QD sensitized cells, which combine the advantages of conventional QD cells with p-type dye sensitized configurations. Moreover, p-type QD sensitized cells can be used in highly promising tandem configurations with n-type ones. QDs without toxic Cd and Pb elements and with improved absorption and stability were successfully deposited onto mesoporous NiO electrode showing good coverage and penetration according to morphological analysis. Detailed photophysical charge transfer studies showed that high hole injection rates (10 8 s -1 ) observed in such systems are comparable with electron injection in conventional n-type QD assemblies. Inverted solar cells fabricated with various QDs demonstrate excellent power conversion efficiencies of up to 1.25%, which is 4 times higher than the best values for previous inverted QD sensitized cells. Attempts to passivate the surface of the QDs show that traditional methods of reduction of recombination in the QD sensitized cells are not applicable to the inverted architectures.

  19. Efficient quantum calculation of the vibrational states of acetylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhijun; Li Bin; Shen Zhitao; Ren Yinghui; Bian Wensheng

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Full-dimensional calculations of vibrational states of acetylene are performed. ► The calculation scheme is accurate and efficient. ► Nearly ideal scaling with respect to increasing energy is achieved. ► The normal-to-local mode transition observed experimentally is confirmed. - Abstract: We present full-dimensional quantum mechanical calculations of the vibrational states of acetylene. The calculation scheme is a combination of several methods. The molecular Hamiltonian is represented in CH–CH diatom–diatom Jacobi coordinates. Phase space optimized discrete variable representation is used to construct effective one-dimensional basis functions for radial coordinates, and a basis contraction strategy is applied to angular coordinates. Parity and diatom–diatom permutation symmetry are exploited. The final Hamiltonian matrix is sparse, and an iterative technique combined with an efficient preconditioner is employed to calculate the eigenvalues within desired spectral windows. It is shown that our computation is efficient and accurate, and nearly ideal scaling with respect to increasing energy is achieved.

  20. High Efficiency Quantum Dot Sensitized Solar Cells Based on Direct Adsorption of Quantum Dots on Photoanodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenran; Jiang, Guocan; Yu, Juan; Wang, Wei; Pan, Zhenxiao; Nakazawa, Naoki; Shen, Qing; Zhong, Xinhua

    2017-07-12

    Unambiguously direct adsorption (DA) of initial oil-soluble quantum dots (QDs) on TiO 2 film electrode is a convenient and simple approach in the construction of quantum dot sensitized solar cells (QDSCs). Regrettably, low QD loading amount and poor reproducibility shadow the advantages of DA route and constrain its practical application. Herein, the influence of experimental variables in DA process on QD loading amount as well as on the photovoltaic performance of the resultant QDSCs was investigated and optimized systematically, including the choice of solvent, purification of QDs, and sensitization time, as well as QD concentration. Experimental results demonstrated that it is essential to choose appropriate solvent as well as control purification cycles of original QD suspensions so as to realize satisfactory QD loading amount and ensure the high reproducibility. In addition, DA mode renders efficient electron injection from QD to TiO 2 , yet low QD loading amount and adverse QD agglomeration in comparison with the well-developed capping ligand induced self-assembly (CLIS) deposition approach. Mg 2+ treatment on TiO 2 photoanodes can promote the QD loading amount in DA mode. The optimized QDSCs based on DA mode exhibited efficiencies of 6.90% and 9.02% for CdSe and Zn-Cu-In-Se QDSCs, respectively, which were comparable to the best results based on CLIS mode (6.88% and 9.56%, respectively).

  1. Nd sup(3+): YLF luminescence quantum efficiency determination using photoacoustic spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieira, M.M.F.; Franca, E.J.; Bandochi, S.L.; Morato, S.P.

    1990-01-01

    The optical properties of Nd sup(3+):LiYF sub(4) crystals were studied using absorption, emission, excitation and photoacoustic spectroscopies. A new method based on parameters from these spectra was used to determine the luminescence quantum efficiency. This method was applied to four bands centered on 517, 577, 743 and 792 nm. The luminescence quantum efficiency values obtained are presented. (author)

  2. Origin of low quantum efficiency of photoluminescence of InP/ZnS nanocrystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shirazi, Roza; Kovacs, Andras; Corell, Dennis Dan

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we study the origin of a strong wavelength dependence of the quantum efficiency of InP/ZnS nanocrystals. We find that while the average size of the nanocrystals increased by 50%, resulting in longer emission wavelength, the quantum efficiency drops more than one order of magnitude...

  3. High power-efficiency terahertz quantum cascade laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuan-Yuan; Liu, Jun-Qi; Liu, Feng-Qi; Zhang, Jin-Chuan; Zhai, Shen-Qiang; Zhuo, Ning; Wang, Li-Jun; Liu, Shu-Man; Wang, Zhan-Guo

    2016-08-01

    We demonstrate continuous-wave (CW) high power-efficiency terahertz quantum cascade laser based on semi-insulating surface-plasmon waveguide with epitaxial-side down (Epi-down) mounting process. The performance of the device is analyzed in detail. The laser emits at a frequency of ˜ 3.27 THz and has a maximum CW operating temperature of ˜ 70 K. The peak output powers are 177 mW in pulsed mode and 149 mW in CW mode at 10 K for 130-μm-wide Epi-down mounted lasers. The record wall-plug efficiencies in direct measurement are 2.26% and 2.05% in pulsed and CW mode, respectively. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant Nos. 2014CB339803 and 2013CB632801), the Special-funded Program on National Key Scientific Instruments and Equipment Development, China (Grant No. 2011YQ13001802-04), and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61376051).

  4. Efficient quantum key distribution based on pulse-position modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yequn; Djordjevic, Ivan B.; Neifeld, Mark A.

    2014-10-01

    Pulse-position modulation (PPM) is a promising technique that can be used to improve the efficiency of quantum key distribution (QKD) based on a Poisson photon source. In this paper, we first investigate a simple entanglement-and- PPM-based QKD protocol and demonstrate the improvement in secret key rate. However, such a PPM-based QKD protocol that utilizes only frames with a single click is still inefficient because it ignores frames with two and more clicks. For this reason we propose to use such multi-click frames to further improve the efficiency of PPM-based QKD by employing a better sifting strategy. Specifically, we focus on using the frames with two clicks in addition to those with a single click. Finally, we analyze the secret key rate under various noise levels in the scenario of high channel loss, which has been faced by most QKD applications. With the analytical results, we show the advantage of the proposed PPM-based QKD.

  5. Flexible deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes for significant improvement of quantum efficiencies by external bending

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shervin, Shahab; Oh, Seung Kyu; Park, Hyun Jung; Lee, Keon-Hwa; Asadirad, Mojtaba; Kim, Seung-Hwan; Kim, Jeomoh; Pouladi, Sara; Lee, Sung-Nam; Li, Xiaohang; Kwak, Joon Seop; Ryou, Jae-Hyun

    2018-03-01

    We report a new route to improve quantum efficiencies of AlGaN-based deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (DUV LEDs) using mechanical flexibility of recently developed bendable thin-film structures. Numerical studies show that electronic band structures of AlGaN heterostructures and resulting optical and electrical characteristics of the devices can be significantly modified by external bending through active control of piezoelectric polarization. Internal quantum efficiency is enhanced higher than three times, when the DUV LEDs are moderately bent with concave curvatures. Furthermore, an efficiency droop at high injection currents is mitigated and turn-on voltage of diodes decreases with the same bending condition. The concept of bendable DUV LEDs with a controlled external strain can provide a new path for high-output-power and high-efficiency devices.

  6. Democracy of internal symmetries in supersymmetrical quantum field theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopuszanski, J.T.

    1981-12-01

    The freedom of choice of some discrete and internal symmetries in the supersymmetric, massive, interacting quantum field theory is discussed. It is shown that the discrete symmetry consisting of changing the sign of some (not all) scalar fields is incompatible with the supersymmetric structure of the theory. It is further demonstrated that an internal symmetry which transforms only some of the fields of fixed spin leaving the other fields invariant and which acts nontrivially on the supercharges can not be admitted as a symmetry; although it can be a good internal symmetry in absence of supersymmetric covariance. Moreover, in case of a model consisting of scalar, spinor and vector fields even a symmetry which transforms all of the scalar (vector) fields leaving spinor and vector (scalar) fields unaffected is ruled out provided it acts nontrivially on some of the supercharges.

  7. Toward efficient fiber-based quantum interface (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soshenko, Vladimir; Vorobyov, Vadim V.; Bolshedvorsky, Stepan; Lebedev, Nikolay; Akimov, Alexey V.; Sorokin, Vadim; Smolyaninov, Andrey

    2016-04-01

    NV center in diamond is attracting a lot of attention in quantum information processing community [1]. Been spin system in clean and well-controlled environment of diamond it shows outstanding performance as quantum memory even at room temperature, spin control with single shot optical readout and possibility to build up quantum registers even on single NV center. Moreover, NV centers could be used as high-resolution sensitive elements of detectors of magnetic or electric field, temperature, tension, force or rotation. For all of these applications collection of the light emitted by NV center is crucial point. There were number of approaches suggested to address this issue, proposing use of surface plasmoms [2], manufacturing structures in diamond [3] etc. One of the key feature of any practically important interface is compatibility with the fiber technology. Several groups attacking this problem using various approaches. One of them is placing of nanodiamonds in the holes of photonic crystal fiber [4], another is utilization of AFM to pick and place nanodiamond on the tapered fiber[5]. We have developed a novel technique of placing a nanodiamond with single NV center on the tapered fiber by controlled transfer of a nanodiamond from one "donor" tapered fiber to the "target" clean tapered fiber. We verify our ability to transfer only single color centers by means of measurement of second order correlation function. With this technique, we were able to double collection efficiency of confocal microscope. The majority of the factors limiting the collection of photons via optical fiber are technical and may be removed allowing order of magnitude improved in collection. We also discuss number of extensions of this technique to all fiber excitation and integration with nanostructures. References: [1] Marcus W. Doherty, Neil B. Manson, Paul Delaney, Fedor Jelezko, Jörg Wrachtrup, Lloyd C.L. Hollenberg , " The nitrogen-vacancy colour centre in diamond," Physics Reports

  8. Optimizing resource consumption, operation complexity and efficiency in quantum-state sharing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Hao; Zhang Wen; Zhang Zhanjun; Liu Yimin

    2008-01-01

    An original idea is proposed for constructing optimal schemes of quantum-state sharing with respect to resource consumption, operation complexity and efficiency. To elucidate it, a specific tripartite scheme for securely sharing an arbitrary two-qubit quantum information (i.e., a quantum state) is shown. Compared with the three schemes proposed recently (Deng et al 2005 Phys. Rev. A 72 044301, 2006 Eur. Phys. J. D 39 459), the optimal scheme has the distinct advantages of consuming fewer quantum and classical resources, lessening the difficulty and intensity of necessary operations, and having higher intrinsic efficiency

  9. Highly-efficient quantum memory for polarization qubits in a spatially-multiplexed cold atomic ensemble.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernaz-Gris, Pierre; Huang, Kun; Cao, Mingtao; Sheremet, Alexandra S; Laurat, Julien

    2018-01-25

    Quantum memory for flying optical qubits is a key enabler for a wide range of applications in quantum information. A critical figure of merit is the overall storage and retrieval efficiency. So far, despite the recent achievements of efficient memories for light pulses, the storage of qubits has suffered from limited efficiency. Here we report on a quantum memory for polarization qubits that combines an average conditional fidelity above 99% and efficiency around 68%, thereby demonstrating a reversible qubit mapping where more information is retrieved than lost. The qubits are encoded with weak coherent states at the single-photon level and the memory is based on electromagnetically-induced transparency in an elongated laser-cooled ensemble of cesium atoms, spatially multiplexed for dual-rail storage. This implementation preserves high optical depth on both rails, without compromise between multiplexing and storage efficiency. Our work provides an efficient node for future tests of quantum network functionalities and advanced photonic circuits.

  10. Size-dependent oscillator strength and quantum efficiency of CdSe quantum dots controlled via the local density of states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leistikow, M.D.; Johansen, Jeppe; Kettelarij, A.J.

    2009-01-01

    , allowing us to determine the size-dependent quantum efficiency and oscillator strength. We find that the quantum efficiency decreases with increasing emission energy mostly due to an increase in nonradiative decay. We manage to obtain the oscillator strength of the important class of CdSe quantum dots...

  11. High Efficiency Quantum Dot Solar Cells Based on Multiple Exciton Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breeze, Alison [Solexant Corp., San Jose, CA (United States)

    2011-04-15

    The objective of this project was to demonstrate that efficient multiple exciton generation observed in quantum dot materials could be harvested in nanostructured solar cells to dramatically improve the maximum power efficiency obtainable in photovoltaic modules. This proposal aimed to develop a high efficiency solar cell through a combination of quantum dot materials, nanostructured surfaces and atomic layer deposition for fabricating conformal and ultrathin films.

  12. Photo-acoustic spectroscopy and quantum efficiency of Yb{sup 3+} doped alumino silicate glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhn, Stefan, E-mail: stefan.kuhn84@googlemail.com; Tiegel, Mirko; Herrmann, Andreas; Rüssel, Christian [Otto-Schott-Institute of Materials Research, Jena University, Fraunhoferstr. 6, 07743 Jena (Germany); Engel, Sebastian; Wenisch, Christoph; Gräf, Stephan; Müller, Frank A. [Otto-Schott-Institute of Materials Research, Jena University, Löbdergraben 32, 07743 Jena (Germany); Körner, Jörg; Seifert, Reinhard; Yue, Fangxin; Klöpfel, Diethardt [Institute of Optics and Quantum Electronics, Jena University, Max-Wien-Platz 1, 07743 Jena (Germany); Hein, Joachim; Kaluza, Malte C. [Institute of Optics and Quantum Electronics, Jena University, Max-Wien-Platz 1, 07743 Jena (Germany); Helmholtz-Institute Jena, Fröbelstieg 3, 07743 Jena (Germany)

    2015-09-14

    In this contribution, we analyze the effect of several preparation methods of Yb{sup 3+} doped alumino silicate glasses on their quantum efficiency by using photo-acoustic measurements in comparison to standard measurement methods including the determination via the fluorescence lifetime and an integrating sphere setup. The preparation methods focused on decreasing the OH concentration by means of fluorine-substitution and/or applying dry melting atmospheres, which led to an increase in the measured fluorescence lifetime. However, it was found that the influence of these methods on radiative properties such as the measured fluorescence lifetime alone does not per se give exact information about the actual quantum efficiency of the sample. The determination of the quantum efficiency by means of fluorescence lifetime shows inaccuracies when refractive index changing elements such as fluorine are incorporated into the glass. Since fluorine not only eliminates OH from the glass but also increases the “intrinsic” radiative fluorescence lifetime, which is needed to calculate the quantum efficiency, it is difficult to separate lifetime quenching from purely radiative effects. The approach used in this contribution offers a possibility to disentangle radiative from non-radiative properties which is not possible by using fluorescence lifetime measurements alone and allows an accurate determination of the quantum efficiency of a given sample. The comparative determination by an integrating sphere setup leads to the well-known problem of reabsorption which embodies itself in the measurement of too low quantum efficiencies, especially for samples with small quantum efficiencies.

  13. Proceedings of the international colloquium on modern quantum field theory II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, S.R.; Mandal, G.; Mukhi, S.; Wadia, S.R.

    1995-01-01

    In the second International Colloquium on Modern Quantum Field Theory an attempt was made to cover a broad spectrum of topics in theoretical physics that included string theory, quantum gravity, statistical mechanics, condensed matter theory, complexity, lattice gauge theory and epistemological aspects of quantum mechanics. Papers relevant to INIS in the published proceedings are indexed separately

  14. Efficient amplification of photonic qubits by optimal quantum cloning

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bartkiewicz, K.; Černoch, A.; Lemr, K.; Soubusta, Jan; Stobińska, M.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 89, č. 6 (2014), "062322-1"-"062322-10" ISSN 1050-2947 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : optimal quantum cloning * cryptography * qubit * phase-independent quantum amplifier Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 2.808, year: 2014

  15. Enhanced efficiency of internal combustion engines by employing spinning gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geyko, V I; Fisch, N J

    2014-08-01

    The efficiency of the internal combustion engine might be enhanced by employing spinning gas. A gas spinning at near sonic velocities has an effectively higher heat capacity, which allows practical fuel cycles, which are far from the Carnot efficiency, to approach more closely the Carnot efficiency. A remarkable gain in fuel efficiency is shown to be theoretically possible for the Otto and Diesel cycles. The use of a flywheel, in principle, could produce even greater increases in efficiency.

  16. School Related Factors as Predictors of Internal Efficiency of Public ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nneka Umera-Okeke

    constructed questionnaire tagged 'School Related Factors and Internal Efficiency. Questionnaire' (SRFIEQ) was ... related factors (students/teacher, curriculum deficiency and school organizational climate) and internal efficiency .... universities are not relevant to the needs of the labour market. He stressed that the lecturers ...

  17. Influences of international airliner overflights on Japanese airspace efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-25

    overflights on Japanese airspace efficiency Tomoyuki Kozuka 1 and Miyazawa Yoshikazu 1 1 Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Graduate...from 2005 to 2027 [1] . If air traffic continues to grow at its current pace, new problems will arise and Japanese airspace efficiency will be...indicate international flights originating from Japanese airports. International departures regulate their passing time through ADNAP based on the

  18. Highly Efficient Perovskite-Quantum-Dot Light-Emitting Diodes by Surface Engineering

    KAUST Repository

    Pan, Jun

    2016-08-16

    A two-step ligand-exchange strategy is developed, in which the long-carbon-chain ligands on all-inorganic perovskite (CsPbX3, X = Br, Cl) quantum dots (QDs) are replaced with halide-ion-pair ligands. Green and blue light-emitting diodes made from the halide-ion-paircapped quantum dots exhibit high external quantum efficiencies compared with the untreated QDs.

  19. A Biomimetic-Computational Approach to Optimizing the Quantum Efficiency of Photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Lisa M.; Holzenburg, Andreas

    The most advanced low-cost organic photovoltaic cells have a quantum efficiency of 10%. This is in stark contrast to plant/bacterial light-harvesting systems which offer quantum efficiencies close to unity. Of particular interest is the highly effective quantum coherence-enabled energy transfer (Fig. 1). Noting that quantum coherence is promoted by charged residues and local dielectrics, classical atomistic simulations and time-dependent density functional theory (DFT) are used to identify charge/dielectric patterns and electronic coupling at exactly defined energy transfer interfaces. The calculations make use of structural information obtained on photosynthetic protein-pigment complexes while still in the native membrane making it possible to establish a link between supramolecular organization and quantum coherence in terms of what length scales enable fast energy transport and prevent quenching. Calculating energy transfer efficiencies between components based on different proximities will permit the search for patterns that enable defining material properties suitable for advanced photovoltaics.

  20. Efficient Computation of Transition State Resonances and Reaction Rates from a Quantum Normal Form

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schubert, Roman; Waalkens, Holger; Wiggins, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    A quantum version of a recent formulation of transition state theory in phase space is presented. The theory developed provides an algorithm to compute quantum reaction rates and the associated Gamov-Siegert resonances with very high accuracy. The algorithm is especially efficient for

  1. Modeling of detective quantum efficiency considering scatter-reduction devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Ji Woong; Kim, Dong Woon; Kim, Ho Kyung [Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The reduction of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) cannot be restored and thus has become a severe issue in digital mammography.1 Therefore, antiscatter grids are typically used in mammography. Scatter-cleanup performance of various scatter-reduction devices, such as air gaps,2 linear (1D) or cellular (2D) grids,3, 4 and slot-scanning devices,5 has been extensively investigated by many research groups. In the present time, a digital mammography system with the slotscanning geometry is also commercially available.6 In this study, we theoretically investigate the effect of scattered photons on the detective quantum efficiency (DQE) performance of digital mammography detectors by using the cascaded-systems analysis (CSA) approach. We show a simple DQE formalism describing digital mammography detector systems equipped with scatter reduction devices by regarding the scattered photons as additive noise sources. The LFD increased with increasing PMMA thickness, and the amounts of LFD indicated the corresponding SF. The estimated SFs were 0.13, 0.21, and 0.29 for PMMA thicknesses of 10, 20, and 30 mm, respectively. While the solid line describing the measured MTF for PMMA with 0 mm was the result of least-squares of regression fit using Eq. (14), the other lines were simply resulted from the multiplication of the fit result (for PMMA with 0 mm) with the (1-SF) estimated from the LFDs in the measured MTFs. Spectral noise-power densities over the entire frequency range were not much changed with increasing scatter. On the other hand, the calculation results showed that the spectral noise-power densities increased with increasing scatter. This discrepancy may be explained by that the model developed in this study does not account for the changes in x-ray interaction parameters for varying spectral shapes due to beam hardening with increasing PMMA thicknesses.

  2. High Efficiency Quantum Well Waveguide Solar Cells, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The long-term objective of this program is to develop flexible, lightweight, single-junction solar cells using quantum structured designs that can achieve ultra-high...

  3. Efficient Quantum Information Transfer Through a Uniform Channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Verrucchi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Effective quantum-state and entanglement transfer can be obtained by inducing a coherent dynamics in quantum wires with homogeneous intrawire interactions. This goal is accomplished by optimally tuning the coupling between the wire endpoints and the two qubits there attached. A general procedure to determine such value is devised, and scaling laws between the optimal coupling and the length of the wire are found. The procedure is implemented in the case of a wire consisting of a spin-1/2 XY chain: results for the time dependence of the quantities which characterize quantum-state and entanglement transfer are found of extremely good quality also for very long wires. The present approach does not require engineered intrawire interactions nor a specific initial pulse shaping, and can be applied to a vast class of quantum channels.

  4. Entangling efficiency of linear-optical quantum gates

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lemr, Karel; Černoch, Antonín; Soubusta, Jan; Dušek, M.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 86, č. 3 (2012), "032321-1"-"032321-5" ISSN 1050-2947 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP205/12/0382 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100522 Keywords : linear-optical quantum gates * quantum physics Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 3.042, year: 2012 http://pra.aps.org/pdf/PRA/v86/i3/e032321

  5. High Quantum Efficiency 1024x1024 Longwave Infrared SLS FPA and Camera, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose a high quantum efficiency (QE) 1024x1024 longwave infrared focal plane array (LWIR FPA) and CAMERA with ~ 12 micron cutoff wavelength made from...

  6. High Quantum Efficiency Type II SLS FPAs for Space-Based Applications Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Phase I SBIR proposes to develop high quantum efficiency (QE) and low dark current infrared epitaxy materials based on Type II Strained Layer Superlattice (SLS)...

  7. High Efficiency Quantum Dot III-V Multijunction Solar Cell for Space Power, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We are proposing to utilize quantum dots to develop a super high-efficiency multijunction III-V solar cell for space. In metamorphic triple junction space solar...

  8. High Quantum Efficiency Type II SLS FPAs for Space-Based Applications Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Phase II SBIR proposes to develop high quantum efficiency (QE) and low dark current infrared epitaxy materials based on Type II Strained Layer Superlattice...

  9. Quantum efficiency of double activated Tb 3Al 5O 12:Ce 3+, Eu 3+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazarov, Mihail; Young Noh, Do; Sohn, Jongrak; Yoon, Chulsoo

    2007-09-01

    The quantum efficiency and luminescence properties of double activated terbium aluminum garnet samples were investigated in the present study. A mathematical procedure and PL measurement system are developed for express analysis of quantum efficiency of luminescent materials. The energy-level diagram was proposed to explain the luminescence mechanism. Application of TAG:Ce,Eu with improved CIE and CRI in LED device is demonstrated.

  10. Towards Realising Secure and Efficient Image and Video Processing Applications on Quantum Computers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah M. Iliyasu

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Exploiting the promise of security and efficiency that quantum computing offers, the basic foundations leading to commercial applications for quantum image processing are proposed. Two mathematical frameworks and algorithms to accomplish the watermarking of quantum images, authentication of ownership of already watermarked images and recovery of their unmarked versions on quantum computers are proposed. Encoding the images as 2n-sized normalised Flexible Representation of Quantum Images (FRQI states, with n-qubits and 1-qubit dedicated to capturing the respective information about the colour and position of every pixel in the image respectively, the proposed algorithms utilise the flexibility inherent to the FRQI representation, in order to confine the transformations on an image to any predetermined chromatic or spatial (or a combination of both content of the image as dictated by the watermark embedding, authentication or recovery circuits. Furthermore, by adopting an apt generalisation of the criteria required to realise physical quantum computing hardware, three standalone components that make up the framework to prepare, manipulate and recover the various contents required to represent and produce movies on quantum computers are also proposed. Each of the algorithms and the mathematical foundations for their execution were simulated using classical (i.e., conventional or non-quantum computing resources, and their results were analysed alongside other longstanding classical computing equivalents. The work presented here, combined together with the extensions suggested, provide the basic foundations towards effectuating secure and efficient classical-like image and video processing applications on the quantum-computing framework.

  11. Efficient quantum computation in a network with probabilistic gates and logical encoding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borregaard, J.; Sørensen, A. S.; Cirac, J. I.

    2017-01-01

    An approach to efficient quantum computation with probabilistic gates is proposed and analyzed in both a local and nonlocal setting. It combines heralded gates previously studied for atom or atomlike qubits with logical encoding from linear optical quantum computation in order to perform high......-fidelity quantum gates across a quantum network. The error-detecting properties of the heralded operations ensure high fidelity while the encoding makes it possible to correct for failed attempts such that deterministic and high-quality gates can be achieved. Importantly, this is robust to photon loss, which...... is typically the main obstacle to photonic-based quantum information processing. Overall this approach opens a path toward quantum networks with atomic nodes and photonic links....

  12. Multipulse addressing of a Raman quantum memory: configurable beam splitting and efficient readout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reim, K F; Nunn, J; Jin, X-M; Michelberger, P S; Champion, T F M; England, D G; Lee, K C; Kolthammer, W S; Langford, N K; Walmsley, I A

    2012-06-29

    Quantum memories are vital to the scalability of photonic quantum information processing (PQIP), since the storage of photons enables repeat-until-success strategies. On the other hand, the key element of all PQIP architectures is the beam splitter, which allows us to coherently couple optical modes. Here, we show how to combine these crucial functionalities by addressing a Raman quantum memory with multiple control pulses. The result is a coherent optical storage device with an extremely large time bandwidth product, that functions as an array of dynamically configurable beam splitters, and that can be read out with arbitrarily high efficiency. Networks of such devices would allow fully scalable PQIP, with applications in quantum computation, long distance quantum communications and quantum metrology.

  13. Efficiency droop suppression of distance-engineered surface plasmon-coupled photoluminescence in GaN-based quantum well LEDs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yufeng Li

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Ag coated microgroove with extreme large aspect-ratio of 500:1 was fabricated on p-GaN capping layer to investigate the coupling behavior between quantum wells and surface plasmon in highly spatial resolution. Significant photoluminescence enhancement was observed when the distance between Ag film and QWs was reduced from 220 nm to about 20 nm. A maximum enhancement ratio of 18-fold was achieved at the groove bottom where the surface plasmonic coupling was considered the strongest. Such enhancement ratio was found highly affected by the excitation power density. It also shows high correlation to the internal quantum efficiency as a function of coupling effect and a maximum Purcell Factor of 1.75 was estimated at maximum coupling effect, which matches number calculated independently from the time-resolved photoluminescence measurement. With such Purcell Factor, the efficiency was greatly enhanced and the droop was significantly suppressed.

  14. Efficient Climate Policy with Internationally Mobile Firms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maestad, O.

    2001-01-01

    A major concern in the design of an incomplete climate agreement is that firms that use fossil fuels intensively may respond to emission regulations by relocating their plants from cooperating to non-cooperating countries. This paper analyses how the cooperating countries might deal with the issue of firm delocation through emission taxes, trade provisions and a localisation subsidy to mobile firms. It is shown that firms should not be induced to stay in the cooperating countries by lowering emission taxes below the Pigouvian tax rate. Incentives to stay should be given partly through trade provisions and partly through a localisation subsidy. A second best solution without localisation subsidies is also discussed. In that case, the efficient emission tax is lower than the Pigouvian tax rate. Finally, the paper discusses the implications of the first best and the second best policy regimes for the pattern of firm localisation. 19 refs

  15. Terahertz Quantum Cascade Laser With Efficient Coupling and Beam Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, Goutam; Kawamura, Jonathan H.; Lin, Robert H.; Williams, Benjamin

    2012-01-01

    Quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) are unipolar semiconductor lasers, where the wavelength of emitted radiation is determined by the engineering of quantum states within the conduction band in coupled multiple-quantum-well heterostructures to have the desired energy separation. The recent development of terahertz QCLs has provided a new generation of solid-state sources for radiation in the terahertz frequency range. Terahertz QCLs have been demonstrated from 0.84 to 5.0 THz both in pulsed mode and continuous wave mode (CW mode). The approach employs a resonant-phonon depopulation concept. The metal-metal (MM) waveguide fabrication is performed using Cu-Cu thermo-compression bonding to bond the GaAs/AlGaAs epitaxial layer to a GaAs receptor wafer.

  16. Quantum Computing and the Limits of the Efficiently Computable

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    I'll discuss how computational complexity---the study of what can and can't be feasibly computed---has been interacting with physics in interesting and unexpected ways. I'll first give a crash course about computer science's P vs. NP problem, as well as about the capabilities and limits of quantum computers. I'll then touch on speculative models of computation that would go even beyond quantum computers, using (for example) hypothetical nonlinearities in the Schrodinger equation. Finally, I'll discuss BosonSampling ---a proposal for a simple form of quantum computing, which nevertheless seems intractable to simulate using a classical computer---as well as the role of computational complexity in the black hole information puzzle.

  17. Comparative Study of Internal Efficiency in Private and Public ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The education sector has been undergoing regular reviews so that to improve efficiency and cost effectiveness in resource utilization. This study was designed to make a comparative study of internal efficiency in both private and public primary schools of Manga Division, Nyamira District, Kenya. Specifically, the study not ...

  18. Origin of low quantum efficiency of photoluminescence of InP/ZnS nanocrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirazi, Roza; Kovacs, Andras; Dan Corell, Dennis; Gritti, Claudia; Thorseth, Anders; Dam-Hansen, Carsten; Michael Petersen, Paul; Kardynal, Beata

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we study the origin of a strong wavelength dependence of the quantum efficiency of InP/ZnS nanocrystals. We find that while the average size of the nanocrystals increased by 50%, resulting in longer emission wavelength, the quantum efficiency drops more than one order of magnitude compared to the quantum efficiency of the small nanocrystals. By correlating this result with the time-resolved photoluminescence we find that the reduced photoluminescence efficiency is caused by a fast growing fraction of non-emissive nanocrystals while the quality of the nanocrystals that emit light is similar for all samples. Transmission electron microscopy reveals the polycrystalline nature of many of the large nanocrystals, pointing to the grain boundaries as one possible site for the photoluminescence quenching defects. -- Highlights: • We investigate drop of quantum efficiency of InP/ZnS nanocrystals emitting at longer wavelengths. • We correlate quantum efficiency measurements with time-resolved carrier dynamics. • We find that only a small fraction of larger nanocrystals is optically active

  19. The Influences of Quantum Coherence on the Positive Work and the Efficiency of Quantum Heat Engine with Working Substance of Two-Qubit Heisenberg XXX Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Hu-Ping; Fang, Mao-Fa; Yu, Min; Zou, Hong-Mei

    2018-03-01

    We study the influences of quantum coherence on the positive work and the efficiency of quantum heat engine (QHE) based on working substance of two-qubit Heisenberg model under a constant external magnetic field. By using analytical and numerical solution, we give the relation expressions for both the positive work and the efficiency with quantum coherence, and in detail discuss the effects of the quantum coherence on the positive work and the efficiency of QHE in the absence or presence of external magnetic field, respectively.

  20. Proceedings of Waseda international symposium on fundamental physics. New perspectives in quantum physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohba, Ichiro; Aizawa, Yoji; Daishido, Tsuneaki; Kurihara, Susumu; Maeda, Kei-ichi; Nakazato, Hiromichi; Tasaki, Shuichi; Yuasa, Kazuya

    2003-11-01

    Waseda International Symposium on Fundamental Physics - New Perspectives in Quantum Physics - was held on November 12-15, 2002 at International Conference Hall (IBUKA HALL), Waseda University, Tokyo, Japan. This symposium was organized to provide an opportunity to verify fundamental physics attainments and to discuss new prospectives in quantum physics in the 21st century. These themes of the symposium were reexamined from all aspects in terms of important key words of the symposium, fundamental quantum theory, quantum coherence and decoherence, quantum chaos, time symmetry breaking, Bose-Einstein condensation and quantum information and computation. Separate abstracts were presented for 12 of the papers in this report. The remaining 40 were considered outside the subject scope of INIS. (J.P.N.)

  1. High heralding-efficiency of near-IR fiber coupled photon pairs for quantum technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixon, P. Ben [Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT); Murphy, Ryan [Lincoln Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT); Rosenberg, Danna [Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT); Grein, Matthew E. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT); Stelmakh, Veronika [Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT); Bennink, Ryan S [ORNL; Wong, Franco N. C. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

    2015-01-01

    We report on the development and use of a high heralding-efficiency, single-mode-fiber coupled telecom-band source of entangled photons for quantum technology applications. The source development efforts consisted of theoretical and experimental efforts and we demonstrated a correlated-mode coupling efficiency of 97% 2%, the highest efficiency yet achieved for this type of system. We then incorporated these beneficial source development techniques in a Sagnac configured telecom-band entangled photon source that generates photon pairs entangled in both time/energy and polarization degrees of freedom. We made use of these highly desirable entangled states to investigate several promising quantum technologies.

  2. Quantum efficiency bound for continuous heat engines coupled to noncanonical reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwalla, Bijay Kumar; Jiang, Jian-Hua; Segal, Dvira

    2017-09-01

    We derive an efficiency bound for continuous quantum heat engines absorbing heat from squeezed thermal reservoirs. Our approach relies on a full-counting statistics description of nonequilibrium transport and it is not limited to the framework of irreversible thermodynamics. Our result, a generalized Carnot efficiency bound, is valid beyond the small-squeezing and high-temperature limit. Our findings are embodied in a prototype three-terminal quantum photoelectric engine where a qubit converts heat absorbed from a squeezed thermal reservoir into electrical power. We demonstrate that in the quantum regime, the efficiency can be greatly amplified by squeezing. From the fluctuation relation, we further receive other operational measures in linear response, for example, the universal maximum power efficiency bound.

  3. Impact of light polarization on photoluminescence intensity and quantum efficiency in AlGaN and AlInGaN layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netzel, C.; Knauer, A.; Weyers, M.

    2012-12-01

    We analyzed emission intensity, quantum efficiency, and emitted light polarization of c-plane AlGaN and AlInGaN layers (λ = 320-350 nm) by temperature dependent photoluminescence. Low indium content in AlInGaN structures causes a significant intensity increase by change of the polarization of the emitted light. Polarization changes from E ⊥ c to E ‖ c with increasing aluminum content. It switches back to E ⊥ c with the incorporation of indium. The polarization degree decreases with temperature. This temperature dependence can corrupt internal quantum efficiency determination by temperature dependent photoluminescence.

  4. Sexithiophenes as efficient luminescence quenchers of quantum dots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher R. Mason

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Sexithiophenes 1a and 1b, in which a 4-(dimethylaminophenyl unit is incorporated as an end-capping group, were synthesised and characterised by cyclic voltammetry, absorption spectroscopy and UV–vis spectroelectrochemistry. Additionally, their ability to function as effective luminescence quenchers for quantum dot emission was studied by photoluminescence spectroscopy and compared with the performance of alkyl end-capped sexithiophenes 2a and 2b.

  5. Efficient spray-coated colloidal quantum dot solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Kramer, Illan J.

    2014-11-10

    (Figure Presented). A colloidal quantum dot solar cell is fabricated by spray-coating under ambient conditions. By developing a room-temperature spray-coating technique and implementing a fully automated process with near monolayer control - an approach termed as sprayLD - an electronic defect is eliminated resulting in solar cell performance and statistical distribution superior to prior batch-processed methods along with a hero performance of 8.1%.

  6. Highly efficient photonic nanowire single-photon sources for quantum information applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Niels; Claudon, J.; Munsch, M.

    2013-01-01

    must feature near-unity efficiency, where the efficiency is defined as the number of detected photons per trigger, the probability g(2)(τ=0) of multi-photon emission events should be 0 and the emitted photons are required to be indistinguishable. An optically or electrically triggered quantum light......Within the emerging field of optical quantum information processing, the current challenge is to construct the basic building blocks for the quantum computing and communication systems. A key component is the singlephoton source (SPS) capable of emitting single photons on demand. Ideally, the SPS...... emitter, e.g. a nitrogen-vacancy center or a semiconductor quantum dot (QD), embedded in a solid-state semiconductor host material appears as an attractive platform for generating such single photons. However, for a QD in bulk material, the large index contrast at the semiconductor-air interface leads...

  7. An Efficient Modeling and Simulation of Quantum Key Distribution Protocols Using OptiSystem™

    OpenAIRE

    Abudhahir Buhari,; Zuriati Ahmad Zukarnain; Shamla K. Subramaniam,; Hishamuddin Zainuddin; Suhairi Saharudin

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a modeling and simulation framework for quantum key distribution protocols using commercial photonic simulator OptiSystem™. This simulation framework emphasize on experimental components of quantum key distribution. We simulate BB84 operation with several security attacks scenario and noise immune key distribution in this work. We also investigate the efficiency of simulator’s in-built photonic components in terms of experimental configuration. This simulation provid...

  8. Efficiency dip observed with InGaN-based multiple quantum well solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Lai, Kunyu

    2014-01-01

    The dip of external quantum efficiency (EQE) is observed on In0.15Ga0.85N/GaN multiple quantum well (MQW) solar cells upon the increase of incident optical power density. With indium composition increased to 25%, the EQE dip becomes much less noticeable. The composition dependence of EQE dip is ascribed to the competition between radiative recombination and photocurrent generation in the active region, which are dictated by quantum-confined Stark effect (QCSE) and composition fluctuation in the MQWs.

  9. Enhancing the photon-extraction efficiency of site-controlled quantum dots by deterministically fabricated microlenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaganskiy, Arsenty; Fischbach, Sarah; Strittmatter, André; Rodt, Sven; Heindel, Tobias; Reitzenstein, Stephan

    2018-04-01

    We report on the realization of scalable single-photon sources (SPSs) based on single site-controlled quantum dots (SCQDs) and deterministically fabricated microlenses. The fabrication process comprises the buried-stressor growth technique complemented with low-temperature in-situ electron-beam lithography for the integration of SCQDs into microlens structures with high yield and high alignment accuracy. The microlens-approach leads to a broadband enhancement of the photon-extraction efficiency of up to (21 ± 2)% and a high suppression of multi-photon events with g (2)(τ = 0) SPSs which, can be applied in photonic quantum circuits and advanced quantum computation schemes.

  10. Final Report for DE-FG36-08GO18007 "All-Inorganic, Efficient Photovoltaic Solid State Devices Utilizing Semiconducting Colloidal Nanocrystal Quantum Dots"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vladimir Bulovic and Moungi Bawendi

    2011-09-30

    We demonstrated robust colloidal quantum dot (QD) photovoltaics with high internal quantum efficiencies. In our structures, device durability is derived from use of all-inorganic atmospherically-stable semiconducting metal-oxide films together with QD photoreceptors. We have shown that both QD and metal-oxide semiconducting films and contacts are amenable to room temperature processing under minimal vacuum conditions, enabling large area processing of PV structures of high internal efficiency. We generated the state of the art devices with power conversion efficiency of more than 4%, and have shown that efficiencies as high as 9% are achievable in the near-term, and as high as 17% in the long-term.

  11. DTU International Energy Report 2012: Energy efficiency improvements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Increased energy efficiency can reduce global CO2 emissions over the period to 2050 with up to 25%. On the top of that large profits can be gained for very little investment. Energy efficiency improvements can save investment in new energy infrastructure, cut fuel costs, increase competitiveness...... and increase consumer welfare. Thus, it is natural for DTU International Energy Report 2012 to take up this issue and analyze the global, regional and national challenges in exploiting energy efficiency and promote research and development in energy efficiency....

  12. Magnetically-Driven Quantum Heat Engines: The Quasi-Static Limit of Their Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Muñoz

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The concept of a quantum heat engine (QHEN has been discussed in the literature, not only due to its intrinsic scientific interest, but also as an alternative to efficiently recover, on a nanoscale device, thermal energy in the form of useful work. The quantum character of a QHEN relies, for instance, on the fact that any of its intermediate states is determined by a density matrix operator. In particular, this matrix can represent a mixed state. For a classical heat engine, a theoretical upper bound for its efficiency is obtained by analyzing its quasi-static operation along a cycle drawn by a sequence of quasi-equilibrium states. A similar analysis can be carried out for a quantum engine, where quasi-static processes are driven by the evolution of ensemble-averaged observables, via variation of the corresponding operators or of the density matrix itself on a tunable physical parameter. We recently proposed two new conceptual designs for a magnetically-driven quantum engine, where the tunable parameter is the intensity of an external magnetic field. Along this article, we shall present the general quantum thermodynamics formalism developed in order to analyze this type of QHEN, and moreover, we shall apply it to describe the theoretical efficiency of two different practical implementations of this concept: an array of semiconductor quantum dots and an ensemble of graphene flakes submitted to mechanical tension.

  13. ZnSe Light Emitting Diode Quantum Efficiency and Emission Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahbudin U.K.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ZnSe has demonstrated as a potential candidate in realizing advance LED in some appications for current and future works that utilize a cheaper preparation technique. Blue and white LEDs have been shown to spread across compound semiconductors. This II-VI compound semiconductor with a direct and wide band gap is used in the study which focused on a preparation and its characterization. The device is developed using a circular chip of ZnSe but only part of the active region is designed to allow shorter computation time. Analyses of the proposed LED are performed in an environment that allows optical transition and nonradiative recombination mechanisms. Voltage variation from 0 V to 1.5 V is maintained throughout the observation. The curent-voltage plot shows the p-n junction or diode behavior with central emissive layer. The two dimensions surface emission rate obtained indicates that voltage increment causes the emission concentration to become higher near the central pcontact. The LED efficiency is assessed in terms of internal quantum efficiency and emitting rate.

  14. Photovoltaic conversion efficiency of InN/InxGa1-xN quantum dot intermediate band solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Afkir, N.; Feddi, E.; Dujardin, F.; Zazoui, M.; Meziane, J.

    2018-04-01

    The behavior of InN/InxGa1-xN spherical quantum dots solar cell is investigated, considering the internal electric field induced by the polarization of the junction. In order to determine the position of the intermediate band (IB), we present an efficient numerical technique based on difference finite method to solve the 3D time-independent Schrödinger's equation in spherical coordinates. The resultant n × n Hamiltonian matrix when considering n discrete points in spatial direction is diagonalized in order to calculate energy levels. Thus, the interband and intersubband transitions are determined, taking into consideration the effect of the internal electric field, size dots, interdot distances, and indium content on the energy levels, optical transition, photo-generated current density, open-circuit voltage and power conversion efficiency of the QD-IBSCs.

  15. Quantum field theory and the internal states of elementary particles

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Greben, JM

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available satisfying coupled quantum field equations, all expressed at the same space-time coordinate. Quantization is realized by expanding the quantum fields in terms of fermionic creation and annihilation operators. This approach is applied in a QCD description...

  16. Electrostatics and quantum efficiency simulations of asymmetrically contacted carbon nanotube photodetector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Guo

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Electrostatic properties of asymmetrically contacted carbon nanotube barrier-free bipolar diode photodetector are studied by solving the Poisson equation self-consistently with equilibrium carrier statistics. For electric field parallel to tube’s axis, the maximum electric field occurs near contact but decays rapidly in a few nanometers, followed by a slowly increasing trend when it extends to the center of channel. By considering the field ionization and the diffusion effect of exciton, a model of estimation on quantum efficiency for the device is made. We find that the quantum efficiency increases with increasing exciton lifetime, decreasing diffusion constant and channel length. For devices with a channel length shorter than 50 nm, the contribution of field ionization to the quantum efficiency can reach 60%.

  17. Temperature dependence of quantum efficiency of Schottky diodes based on 4H-SiC

    CERN Document Server

    Blank, T V; Kalinina, E V; Konstantinov, O V; Konstantinov, A O; Hallen, A

    2001-01-01

    The metal-semiconductor structures, which made it possible to create the photoreceivers of the Cr-4H-SiC ultraviolet radiation with the photosensitivity maximum by 4.9 eV and quantum efficiency up to 0.3 were manufactured on the basis of the n-4H-SiC pure epitaxial layer. The experimental study on the temperature dependence of the quantum efficiency of the photoelectric transformation showed, that by the photons energy of 3.4-4.7 eV and the temperatures above 300 K there takes place fast growth of the quantum efficiency with growth of temperatures, which is conditioned by participation of the phonons in the indirect interzonal transitions

  18. Scales of Time Where the Quantum Discord Allows an Efficient Execution of the DQC1 Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ávila

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The power of one qubit deterministic quantum processor (DQC1 (Knill and Laflamme (1998 generates a nonclassical correlation known as quantum discord. The DQC1 algorithm executes in an efficient way with a characteristic time given by τ=Tr[Un]/2n, where Un is an n qubit unitary gate. For pure states, quantum discord means entanglement while for mixed states such a quantity is more than entanglement. Quantum discord can be thought of as the mutual information between two systems. Within the quantum discord approach the role of time in an efficient evaluation of τ is discussed. It is found that the smaller the value of t/T is, where t is the time of execution of the DQC1 algorithm and T is the scale of time where the nonclassical correlations prevail, the more efficient the calculation of τ is. A Mösbauer nucleus might be a good processor of the DQC1 algorithm while a nuclear spin chain would not be efficient for the calculation of τ.

  19. Efficient wave-function matching approach for quantum transport calculations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Hans Henrik Brandenborg; Hansen, Per Christian; Petersen, Dan Erik

    2009-01-01

    . This approach makes it feasible to apply iterative techniques to efficiently determine the few required bulk modes, which allows for a significant reduction of the computational expense of the WFM method. We illustrate the efficiency of the method on a carbon nanotube field-effect-transistor device displaying...... band-to-band tunneling and modeled within the semiempirical extended Hückel theory framework....

  20. OP09O-OP404-9 Wide Field Camera 3 CCD Quantum Efficiency Hysteresis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Nick

    2009-01-01

    The HST/Wide Field Camera (WFC) 3 UV/visible channel CCD detectors have exhibited an unanticipated quantum efficiency hysteresis (QEH) behavior. At the nominal operating temperature of -83C, the QEH feature contrast was typically 0.1-0.2% or less. The behavior was replicated using flight spare detectors. A visible light flat-field (540nm) with a several times full-well signal level can pin the detectors at both optical (600nm) and near-UV (230nm) wavelengths, suppressing the QEH behavior. We are characterizing the timescale for the detectors to become unpinned and developing a protocol for flashing the WFC3 CCDs with the instrument's internal calibration system in flight. The HST/Wide Field Camera 3 UV/visible channel CCD detectors have exhibited an unanticipated quantum efficiency hysteresis (QEH) behavior. The first observed manifestation of QEH was the presence in a small percentage of flat-field images of a bowtie-shaped contrast that spanned the width of each chip. At the nominal operating temperature of -83C, the contrast observed for this feature was typically 0.1-0.2% or less, though at warmer temperatures contrasts up to 5% (at -50C) have been observed. The bowtie morphology was replicated using flight spare detectors in tests at the GSFC Detector Characterization Laboratory by power cycling the detector while cold. Continued investigation revealed that a clearly-related global QE suppression at the approximately 5% level can be produced by cooling the detector in the dark; subsequent flat-field exposures at a constant illumination show asymptotically increasing response. This QE "pinning" can be achieved with a single high signal flat-field or a series of lower signal flats; a visible light (500-580nm) flat-field with a signal level of several hundred thousand electrons per pixel is sufficient for QE pinning at both optical (600nm) and near-UV (230nm) wavelengths. We are characterizing the timescale for the detectors to become unpinned and developing a

  1. An automated system to measure the quantum efficiency of CCDs for astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coles, R.; Chiang, J.; Cinabro, D.; Haupt, J.; Neal, H.; Nomerotski, A.; Takacs, P.

    2017-04-01

    We describe a system to measure the Quantum Efficiency in the wavelength range of 300 nm to 1100 nm of 40 × 40 mm n-channel CCD sensors for the construction of the 3.2 gigapixel LSST focal plane. The technique uses a series of instrument to create a very uniform flux of photons of controllable intensity in the wavelength range of interest across the face the sensor. This allows the absolute Quantum Efficiency to be measured with an accuracy in the 1% range. This system will be part of a production facility at Brookhaven National Lab for the basic component of the LSST camera.

  2. Efficient interfacing of light and surface plasmon polaritons for quantum optics applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eran, Kot

    oscillations propagating on the surface of metals have been shown to be useful in coupling to quantum dots, nanodiamond NV-centers defects and other quantum emitters. However, being lossy these modes too need to be efficiently coupled out to photons in order to facilitate experimental control of the system...... in a proximity to a metallic interface. Concentric grating rings then couple light propagating normal to the surface to a inward propagating plasmons, showing coupling efficiencies of 70% and enhancement of the emitters decay rate by up to 45 times that of the isolated emitter’s decay rate. Finally, we explore...

  3. High Performance PbS Quantum Dot/Graphene Hybrid Solar Cell with Efficient Charge Extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Byung-Sung; Neo, Darren C J; Hou, Bo; Park, Jong Bae; Cho, Yuljae; Zhang, Nanlin; Hong, John; Pak, Sangyeon; Lee, Sanghyo; Sohn, Jung Inn; Assender, Hazel E; Watt, Andrew A R; Cha, SeungNam; Kim, Jong Min

    2016-06-08

    Hybrid colloidal quantum dot (CQD) solar cells are fabricated from multilayer stacks of lead sulfide (PbS) CQD and single layer graphene (SG). The inclusion of graphene interlayers is shown to increase power conversion efficiency by 9.18%. It is shown that the inclusion of conductive graphene enhances charge extraction in devices. Photoluminescence shows that graphene quenches emission from the quantum dot suggesting spontaneous charge transfer to graphene. CQD photodetectors exhibit increased photoresponse and improved transport properties. We propose that the CQD/SG hybrid structure is a route to make CQD thin films with improved charge extraction, therefore resulting in improved solar cell efficiency.

  4. Measurement of the quantum efficiency of TMAE and TEA from threshold to 120 nm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holroyd, R.A.; Preses, J.M.; Woody, C.L.; Johnson, R.A.

    1986-01-01

    Several existing and planned high energy physics experiments incorporate detectors which use either TMAE (tetrakis-dimethylaminoethylene) or TEA (triethylamine) as their photosensitive agent. Understanding the operation of these devices requires knowledge of the absolute photoionization quantum efficiencies and absorption lengths of TMAE and TEA. In an experiment performed at the National Synchrotron Light source at Brookhaven National Laboratory, we have measured these parameters from 120 nm to 280 nm. The quantum efficiencies were normalized to the known photoionization yields of benzene and cis-2-butene. The results of these measurements and details of the experiment are presented in this paper

  5. Quantum efficiency measurement system for large area CsI photodetectors

    CERN Document Server

    Cusanno, F; Colilli, S; Crateri, R; Fratoni, R; Frullani, S; Garibaldi, F; Giuliani, F; Gricia, M; Lucentini, M; Mostarda, A; Santavenere, F; Veneroni, P; Breuer, H; Iodice, M; Urciuoli, G M; De Cataldo, G; De Leo, R; Lagamba, L; Braem, André

    2003-01-01

    A proximity focusing freon/CsI RICH detector has been built for kaon physics at Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF or Jefferson Lab), Hall A. The Cherenkov photons are detected by a UV photosensitive CsI film which has been obtained by vacuum evaporation. A dedicated evaporation facility for large area photocathodes has been built for this task. A measuring system has been built to allow the evaluation of the absolute quantum efficiency (QE) just after the evaporation. The evaporation facility is described here, as well as the quantum efficiency measurement device. Results of the QE on-line measurements, for the first time on large area photocathodes, are reported.

  6. 15th International Conference on Non-Hermitian Hamiltonians in Quantum Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Passante, Roberto; Trapani, Camillo

    2016-01-01

    This book presents the Proceedings of the 15th International Conference on Non-Hermitian Hamiltonians in Quantum Physics, held in Palermo, Italy, from 18 to 23 May 2015. Non-Hermitian operators, and non-Hermitian Hamiltonians in particular, have recently received considerable attention from both the mathematics and physics communities. There has been a growing interest in non-Hermitian Hamiltonians in quantum physics since the discovery that PT-symmetric Hamiltonians can have a real spectrum and thus a physical relevance. The main subjects considered in this book include: PT-symmetry in quantum physics, PT-optics, Spectral singularities and spectral techniques, Indefinite-metric theories, Open quantum systems, Krein space methods, and Biorthogonal systems and applications. The book also provides a summary of recent advances in pseudo-Hermitian Hamiltonians and PT-symmetric Hamiltonians, as well as their applications in quantum physics and in the theory of open quantum systems.

  7. Step-by-step magic state encoding for efficient fault-tolerant quantum computation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Hayato

    2014-12-16

    Quantum error correction allows one to make quantum computers fault-tolerant against unavoidable errors due to decoherence and imperfect physical gate operations. However, the fault-tolerant quantum computation requires impractically large computational resources for useful applications. This is a current major obstacle to the realization of a quantum computer. In particular, magic state distillation, which is a standard approach to universality, consumes the most resources in fault-tolerant quantum computation. For the resource problem, here we propose step-by-step magic state encoding for concatenated quantum codes, where magic states are encoded step by step from the physical level to the logical one. To manage errors during the encoding, we carefully use error detection. Since the sizes of intermediate codes are small, it is expected that the resource overheads will become lower than previous approaches based on the distillation at the logical level. Our simulation results suggest that the resource requirements for a logical magic state will become comparable to those for a single logical controlled-NOT gate. Thus, the present method opens a new possibility for efficient fault-tolerant quantum computation.

  8. Step-by-step magic state encoding for efficient fault-tolerant quantum computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Hayato

    2014-01-01

    Quantum error correction allows one to make quantum computers fault-tolerant against unavoidable errors due to decoherence and imperfect physical gate operations. However, the fault-tolerant quantum computation requires impractically large computational resources for useful applications. This is a current major obstacle to the realization of a quantum computer. In particular, magic state distillation, which is a standard approach to universality, consumes the most resources in fault-tolerant quantum computation. For the resource problem, here we propose step-by-step magic state encoding for concatenated quantum codes, where magic states are encoded step by step from the physical level to the logical one. To manage errors during the encoding, we carefully use error detection. Since the sizes of intermediate codes are small, it is expected that the resource overheads will become lower than previous approaches based on the distillation at the logical level. Our simulation results suggest that the resource requirements for a logical magic state will become comparable to those for a single logical controlled-NOT gate. Thus, the present method opens a new possibility for efficient fault-tolerant quantum computation. PMID:25511387

  9. A Novel Implementation of Efficient Algorithms for Quantum Circuit Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeller, Luke

    In this project, we design and develop a computer program to effectively approximate arbitrary quantum gates using the discrete set of Clifford Gates together with the T gate (π/8 gate). Employing recent results from Mosca et. al. and Giles and Selinger, we implement a decomposition scheme that outputs a sequence of Clifford, T, and Tt gates that approximate the input to within a specified error range ɛ. Specifically, the given gate is first rounded to an element of Z[1/2, i] with a precision determined by ɛ, and then exact synthesis is employed to produce the resulting gate. It is known that this procedure is optimal in approximating an arbitrary single qubit gate. Our program, written in Matlab and Python, can complete both approximate and exact synthesis of qubits. It can be used to assist in the experimental implementation of an arbitrary fault-tolerant single qubit gate, for which direct implementation isn't feasible.

  10. Efficient spin filter using multi-terminal quantum dot with spin-orbit interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yokoyama Tomohiro

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We propose a multi-terminal spin filter using a quantum dot with spin-orbit interaction. First, we formulate the spin Hall effect (SHE in a quantum dot connected to three leads. We show that the SHE is significantly enhanced by the resonant tunneling if the level spacing in the quantum dot is smaller than the level broadening. We stress that the SHE is tunable by changing the tunnel coupling to the third lead. Next, we perform a numerical simulation for a multi-terminal spin filter using a quantum dot fabricated on semiconductor heterostructures. The spin filter shows an efficiency of more than 50% when the conditions for the enhanced SHE are satisfied. PACS numbers: 72.25.Dc,71.70.Ej,73.63.Kv,85.75.-d

  11. Flexible deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes for significant improvement of quantum efficiencies by external bending

    KAUST Repository

    Shervin, Shahab

    2018-01-26

    Deep ultraviolet (DUV) light at the wavelength range of 250‒280 nm (UVC spectrum) is essential for numerous applications such as sterilization, purification, sensing, and communication. III-nitride-based DUV light-emitting diodes (DUV LEDs), like other solid-state lighting sources, offer a great potential to replace the conventional gas-discharged lamps with short lifetimes and toxic-element-bearing nature. However, unlike visible LEDs, the DUV LEDs are still suffering from low quantum efficiencies (QEs) and low optical output powers. In this work, reported is a new route to improve QEs of AlGaN-based DUV LEDs using mechanical flexibility of recently developed bendable thin-film structures. Numerical studies show that electronic band structures of AlGaN heterostructures and resulting optical and electrical characteristics of the devices can be significantly modified by external bending through active control of piezoelectric polarization. Internal quantum efficiency (IQE) is enhanced higher than three times, when the DUV LEDs are moderately bent to induce in-plane compressive strain in the heterostructure. Furthermore, efficiency droop at high injection currents is mitigated and turn-on voltage of diodes decreases with the same bending condition. The concept of bendable DUV LEDs with a controlled external strain can provide a new path for high-output-power and high-efficiency devices.

  12. Improving quantum efficiency and spectral resolution of a CCD through direct manipulation of the depletion region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Craig; Ambrosi, Richard M.; Abbey, Tony; Godet, Olivier; O'Brien, R.; Turner, M. J. L.; Holland, Andrew; Pool, Peter J.; Burt, David; Vernon, David

    2008-07-01

    Future generations of X-ray astronomy instruments will require position sensitive detectors in the form of charge-coupled devices (CCDs) for X-ray spectroscopy and imaging with the ability to probe the X-ray universe with greater efficiency. This will require the development of CCDs with structures that will improve their quantum efficiency over the current state of the art. The quantum efficiency improvements would have to span a broad energy range (0.2 keV to >15 keV). These devices will also have to be designed to withstand the harsh radiation environments associated with orbits that extend beyond the Earth's magnetosphere. This study outlines the most recent work carried out at the University of Leicester focused on improving the quantum efficiency of an X-ray sensitive CCD through direct manipulation of the device depletion region. It is also shown that increased spectral resolution is achieved using this method due to a decrease in the number of multi-pixel events. A Monte Carlo and analytical models of the CCD have been developed and used to determine the depletion depths achieved through variation of the device substrate voltage, Vss. The models are also used to investigate multi-pixel event distributions and quantum efficiency as a function of depletion depth.

  13. Enhanced carrier collection efficiency and reduced quantum state absorption by electron doping in self-assembled quantum dot solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Tian, E-mail: tianlee@umd.edu, E-mail: dage@ece.umd.edu; Dagenais, Mario, E-mail: tianlee@umd.edu, E-mail: dage@ece.umd.edu [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States); Lu, Haofeng; Fu, Lan; Tan, Hark Hoe; Jagadish, Chennupati [Department of Electronic Materials Engineering, Research School of Physics and Engineering, The Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia)

    2015-02-02

    Reduced quantum dot (QD) absorption due to state filling effects and enhanced electron transport in doped QDs are demonstrated to play a key role in solar energy conversion. Reduced QD state absorption with increased n-doping is observed in the self-assembled In{sub 0.5}Ga{sub 0.5}As/GaAs QDs from high resolution below-bandgap external quantum efficiency (EQE) measurement, which is a direct consequence of the Pauli exclusion principle. We also show that besides partial filling of the quantum states, electron-doping produces negatively charged QDs that exert a repulsive Coulomb force on the mobile electrons, thus altering the electron trajectory and reducing the probability of electron capture, leading to an improved collection efficiency of photo-generated carriers, as indicated by an absolute above-bandgap EQE measurement. The resulting redistribution of the mobile electron in the planar direction is further validated by the observed photoluminescence intensity dependence on doping.

  14. Soil and environmental factors affecting internal N efficiency of maize

    Science.gov (United States)

    The inverse of internal N efficiency (IE), N needed per quantity of grain produced, is used in yield-goal based N recommendations to determine the target quantity of N needed to attain a chosen maize yield. Often the value of IE is considered static, irrespective of environment. Evaluation of 47 sit...

  15. Predictable quantum efficient detector based on n-type silicon photodiodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dönsberg, Timo; Manoocheri, Farshid; Sildoja, Meelis; Juntunen, Mikko; Savin, Hele; Tuovinen, Esa; Ronkainen, Hannu; Prunnila, Mika; Merimaa, Mikko; Tang, Chi Kwong; Gran, Jarle; Müller, Ingmar; Werner, Lutz; Rougié, Bernard; Pons, Alicia; Smîd, Marek; Gál, Péter; Lolli, Lapo; Brida, Giorgio; Rastello, Maria Luisa; Ikonen, Erkki

    2017-12-01

    The predictable quantum efficient detector (PQED) consists of two custom-made induced junction photodiodes that are mounted in a wedged trap configuration for the reduction of reflectance losses. Until now, all manufactured PQED photodiodes have been based on a structure where a SiO2 layer is thermally grown on top of p-type silicon substrate. In this paper, we present the design, manufacturing, modelling and characterization of a new type of PQED, where the photodiodes have an Al2O3 layer on top of n-type silicon substrate. Atomic layer deposition is used to deposit the layer to the desired thickness. Two sets of photodiodes with varying oxide thicknesses and substrate doping concentrations were fabricated. In order to predict recombination losses of charge carriers, a 3D model of the photodiode was built into Cogenda Genius semiconductor simulation software. It is important to note that a novel experimental method was developed to obtain values for the 3D model parameters. This makes the prediction of the PQED responsivity a completely autonomous process. Detectors were characterized for temperature dependence of dark current, spatial uniformity of responsivity, reflectance, linearity and absolute responsivity at the wavelengths of 488 nm and 532 nm. For both sets of photodiodes, the modelled and measured responsivities were generally in agreement within the measurement and modelling uncertainties of around 100 parts per million (ppm). There is, however, an indication that the modelled internal quantum deficiency may be underestimated by a similar amount. Moreover, the responsivities of the detectors were spatially uniform within 30 ppm peak-to-peak variation. The results obtained in this research indicate that the n-type induced junction photodiode is a very promising alternative to the existing p-type detectors, and thus give additional credibility to the concept of modelled quantum detector serving as a primary standard. Furthermore, the manufacturing of

  16. Calibrating and Controlling the Quantum Efficiency Distribution of Inhomogeneously Broadened Quantum Rods by Using a Mirror Ball

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Per Lunnemann; Rabouw, Freddy T.; van Dijk-Moes, Relinde J. A.

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate that a simple silver coated ball lens can be used to accurately measure the entire distribution of radiative transition rates of quantum dot nanocrystals. This simple and cost-effective implementation of Drexhage’s method that uses nanometer-controlled optical mode density variations......-in-rod emitters. The emitters are of large current interest due to their improved stability and reduced blinking. We retrieve a room-temperature ensemble average quantum efficiency of 0.87 ± 0.08 at a mean lifetime around 20 ns. We confirm a log-normal distribution of decay rates as often assumed in literature...... near a mirror, not only allows an extraction of calibrated ensemble-averaged rates, but for the first time also to quantify the full inhomogeneous dispersion of radiative and non radiative decay rates across thousands of nanocrystals. We apply the technique to novel ultrastable CdSe/CdS dot...

  17. Internal rulers to assess fluorescent protein photoactivation efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renz, Malte; Wunder, Christian

    2017-12-29

    Photoactivatable fluorescent proteins (PA-FPs) have been widely used to assess the dynamics of cell biological processes. In addition, PA-FPs enabled single-molecule based super-resolution imaging (photoactivated localization microscopy) and thereby provided unprecedented structural insight. For the lack of tools, however, the fraction of PA-FPs that is, actually being switched on to fluoresce, that is, the photoactivation efficiency, has been difficult to assess. Uncertainty about photoactivation efficiency has hampered an understanding of the absolute amount of PA-FPs, that is, being examined. Here, we present internal rulers to assess photoactivation efficiencies of photoactivatable proteins. These internal rulers comprise a PA-FP that is genetically directly coupled to a spectrally distinct always-on fluorescent protein. Thus, these fluorescent proteins will be expressed in the bacterial and mammalian cell in a one-to-one ratio. With these tools, we describe photoactivation efficiencies of PA-GFP and PA-Cherry in intensity-based ratiometric ensemble studies and on the single-molecule level. In ratiometric ensemble studies, we show that photoactivation efficiency depends on how the PA-FPs are exposed to 405 nm light. Using a laser-scanning microscope, hundreds of iterative low-level exposures are up to four times more efficient than a short high-power exposure. Using wide-field illumination, photoactivation was similarly efficient and instantaneous. These findings suggest that the repetitive or stochastic exposure to photons of 405 nm light results in more efficient photoactivation than a continuous flow of photons. Because of the differential photoactivation efficiency, it is crucial to assess photoactivation efficiency for any given experimental set-up. The tools we provide can be applied to any genetically encoded photoactivatable protein. Determination of photoactivation efficiency is essential for an understanding of absolute molecule numbers in ensemble

  18. Simple and efficient absorption filter for single photons from a cold atom quantum memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stack, Daniel T; Lee, Patricia J; Quraishi, Qudsia

    2015-03-09

    The ability to filter unwanted light signals is critical to the operation of quantum memories based on neutral atom ensembles. Here we demonstrate an efficient frequency filter which uses a vapor cell filled with (85)Rb and a buffer gas to attenuate both residual laser light and noise photons by nearly two orders of magnitude with little loss to the single photons associated with our cold (87)Rb quantum memory. This simple, passive filter provides an additional 18 dB attenuation of our pump laser and erroneous spontaneous emissions for every 1 dB loss of the single photon signal. We show that the addition of a frequency filter increases the non-classical correlations and the retrieval efficiency of our quantum memory by ≈ 35%.

  19. International energy efficiency and renewable energy resources on the Internet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, M.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Meyer, R.D. [USDOE, Washington, DC (United States)

    1996-10-01

    A variety of sources of information on energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies are available on the Internet`s World Wide Web. These resources are sponsored and maintained by a myriad of organizations across the country and world. One expeditious way to access these resources is by using the U.S. Department of Energy`s Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Network (EREN). This network is a user-friendly computer link to Internet based information on energy conservation and renewable energy technologies and techniques. Numerous international sources of information can be accessed through EREN including the International Energy Agency`s Centre for the Analysis and Dissemination of Demonstrated Energy Technologies (CADDET) and the Greenhouse Gas Technology Information Exchange (GREENTIE). CADDET`s Register of demonstrated energy technologies provides an extensive guide to energy efficient and renewable energy technologies, and GREENTIE`s Directory of supplier information helps users access technology providers and experts.

  20. Efficient implementation of the continuous-time hybridization expansion quantum impurity solver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafermann, Hartmut; Werner, Philipp; Gull, Emanuel

    2013-04-01

    Strongly correlated quantum impurity problems appear in a wide variety of contexts ranging from nanoscience and surface physics to material science and the theory of strongly correlated lattice models, where they appear as auxiliary systems within dynamical mean-field theory. Accurate and unbiased solutions must usually be obtained numerically, and continuous-time quantum Monte Carlo algorithms, a family of algorithms based on the stochastic sampling of partition function expansions, perform well for such systems. With the present paper we provide an efficient and generic implementation of the hybridization expansion quantum impurity solver, based on the segment representation. We provide a complete implementation featuring most of the recently developed extensions and optimizations. Our implementation allows one to treat retarded interactions and provides generalized measurement routines based on improved estimators for the self-energy and for vertex functions. The solver is embedded in the ALPS-DMFT application package. Catalogue identifier: AEOL_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEOL_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen’s University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Use of the hybridization expansion impurity solvers requires citation of this paper. Use of any ALPS program requires citation of the ALPS [1] paper. No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 650044 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 20553265 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C++/Python. Computer: Desktop PC, high-performance computers. Operating system: Unix, Linux, OSX, Windows. Has the code been vectorized or parallelized?: Yes, MPI parallelized. RAM: 1 GB Classification: 7.3. External routines: ALPS [1, 2, 3], BLAS [4, 5], LAPACK [6], HDF5 [7] Nature of problem: Quantum impurity models were originally introduced to describe a magnetic transition metal ion in a non

  1. ESTIMATION OF EFFICIENCY OF INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC RELATIONS IN INTERNATIONAL CARGO TRANSPORTATION BY ROAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Kosovsky

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes methodology for estimating efficiency international economic relations in the sphere international cargo transportation by road for the national economy on the basis of relationship between advantages and costs of sub-systems of the unified system for automotive export services.

  2. Efficient Modeling of Coulomb Interaction Effect on Exciton in Crystal-Phase Nanowire Quantum Dot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taherkhani, Masoomeh; Gregersen, Niels; Mørk, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    The binding energy and oscillation strength of the ground-state exciton in type-II quantum dot (QD) is calculated by using a post Hartree-Fock method known as the configuration interaction (CI) method which is significantly more efficient than conventional methods like ab initio method. We show...

  3. The effect of nonadiabaticity on the efficiency of quantum memory based on an optical cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veselkova, N. G.; Sokolov, I. V.

    2017-07-01

    Quantum efficiency is an important characteristic of quantum memory devices that are aimed at recording the quantum state of light signals and its storing and reading. In the case of memory based on an ensemble of cold atoms placed in an optical cavity, the efficiency is restricted, in particular, by relaxation processes in the system of active atomic levels. We show how the effect of the relaxation on the quantum efficiency can be determined in a regime of the memory usage in which the evolution of signals in time is not arbitrarily slow on the scale of the field lifetime in the cavity and when the frequently used approximation of the adiabatic elimination of the quantized cavity mode field cannot be applied. Taking into account the effect of the nonadiabaticity on the memory quality is of interest in view of the fact that, in order to increase the field-medium coupling parameter, a higher cavity quality factor is required, whereas storing and processing of sequences of many signals in the memory implies that their duration is reduced. We consider the applicability of the well-known efficiency estimates via the system cooperativity parameter and estimate a more general form. In connection with the theoretical description of the memory of the given type, we also discuss qualitative differences in the behavior of a random source introduced into the Heisenberg-Langevin equations for atomic variables in the cases of a large and a small number of atoms.

  4. Simple formalism for efficient derivatives and multi-determinant expansions in quantum Monte Carlo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Filippi, Claudia; Assaraf, R.; Moroni, S.

    2016-01-01

    We present a simple and general formalism to compute efficiently the derivatives of a multi-determinant Jastrow-Slater wave function, the local energy, the interatomic forces, and similar quantities needed in quantum Monte Carlo. Through a straightforward manipulation of matrices evaluated on the

  5. PREFACE: International Conference on Quantum Simulators and Design, Hiroshima, Japan, 3 6 December 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akai, Hisazumi; Oguchi, Tamio

    2007-09-01

    This special issue of Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter comprises selected papers from the 1st International Conference on Quantum Simulators and Design (QSD2006) held in Hiroshima, Japan, 3-6 December 2006. This conference was organized under the auspices of the Development of New Quantum Simulators and Quantum Design Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research on Priority Areas, Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan (MEXT), and Hiroshima University Quantum design is a computational approach to the development of new materials with specified properties and functionalities. The basic ingredient is the use of quantum simulations to design a material that meets a given specification of properties and functionalities. For this to be successful, the quantum simulation should be highly reliable and be applicable to systems of realistic size. A central interest is, therefore, the development of new methods of quantum simulation and quantum design. This includes methods beyond the local density approximation of density functional theory (LDA), order-N methods, methods dealing with excitations and reactions, and so on, as well as the application of these methods to the design of new materials and devices. The field of quantum design has developed rapidly in the past few years and this conference provides an international forum for experimental and theoretical researchers to exchange ideas. A total of 183 delegates from 8 countries participated in the conference. There were 18 invited talks, 16 oral presentations and 100 posters. There were many new ideas and we foresee dramatic progress in the coming years. The 2nd International Conference on Quantum Simulators and Design will be held in Tokyo, Japan, 31 May-3 June 2008.

  6. Mn-doped quantum dot sensitized solar cells: a strategy to boost efficiency over 5%.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santra, Pralay K; Kamat, Prashant V

    2012-02-08

    To make Quantum Dot Sensitized Solar Cells (QDSC) competitive, it is necessary to achieve power conversion efficiencies comparable to other emerging solar cell technologies. By employing Mn(2+) doping of CdS, we have now succeeded in significantly improving QDSC performance. QDSC constructed with Mn-doped-CdS/CdSe deposited on mesoscopic TiO(2) film as photoanode, Cu(2)S/Graphene Oxide composite electrode, and sulfide/polysulfide electrolyte deliver power conversion efficiency of 5.4%.

  7. Functional Basis for Efficient Physical Layer Classical Control in Quantum Processors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Harrison; Nguyen, Trung; Leong, Philip H. W.; Biercuk, Michael J.

    2016-12-01

    The rapid progress seen in the development of quantum-coherent devices for information processing has motivated serious consideration of quantum computer architecture and organization. One topic which remains open for investigation and optimization relates to the design of the classical-quantum interface, where control operations on individual qubits are applied according to higher-level algorithms; accommodating competing demands on performance and scalability remains a major outstanding challenge. In this work, we present a resource-efficient, scalable framework for the implementation of embedded physical layer classical controllers for quantum-information systems. Design drivers and key functionalities are introduced, leading to the selection of Walsh functions as an effective functional basis for both programing and controller hardware implementation. This approach leverages the simplicity of real-time Walsh-function generation in classical digital hardware, and the fact that a wide variety of physical layer controls, such as dynamic error suppression, are known to fall within the Walsh family. We experimentally implement a real-time field-programmable-gate-array-based Walsh controller producing Walsh timing signals and Walsh-synthesized analog waveforms appropriate for critical tasks in error-resistant quantum control and noise characterization. These demonstrations represent the first step towards a unified framework for the realization of physical layer controls compatible with large-scale quantum-information processing.

  8. Development of an International Electric Cooperative Initiative on Energy Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul Clark; David South

    2004-05-01

    NRECA conceived of the International Electric Cooperative Initiative on Energy Efficiency (IECIEE) in order to provide an ongoing means of contributing voluntary actions on greenhouse gas emissions mitigation as an integral component of its international programs and projects. This required designing the IECIEE to be integrated directly with the core interests and attributes of participating cooperatives in the U.S. and Latin America, which was the initial focus area selected for the IECIEE. In the case of NRECA International, the core interests related to promoting and strengthening the electric cooperative model, which has proved highly successful in maximizing operational efficiencies in electric power generation, distribution and retailing, as compared to government-owned entities. The approach involved three basic components: (i) establishing the IECIEE mechanism, which involved setting up a functioning organizational vehicle providing for investment, management, and emissions credit accounting; (ii) developing a portfolio of projects in countries where NRECA International could effectively implement the broader mandate of cooperative development as energy efficient suppliers and distributors of electrical energy; and (iii) conducting outreach to obtain the commitment of participants and resources from U.S. and Latin American cooperatives and partnering agencies in the development financing community.

  9. An Efficient and Secure Arbitrary N-Party Quantum Key Agreement Protocol Using Bell States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wen-Jie; Xu, Yong; Yang, Ching-Nung; Gao, Pei-Pei; Yu, Wen-Bin

    2018-01-01

    Two quantum key agreement protocols using Bell states and Bell measurement were recently proposed by Shukla et al. (Quantum Inf. Process. 13(11), 2391-2405, 2014). However, Zhu et al. pointed out that there are some security flaws and proposed an improved version (Quantum Inf. Process. 14(11), 4245-4254, 2015). In this study, we will show Zhu et al.'s improvement still exists some security problems, and its efficiency is not high enough. For solving these problems, we utilize four Pauli operations { I, Z, X, Y} to encode two bits instead of the original two operations { I, X} to encode one bit, and then propose an efficient and secure arbitrary N-party quantum key agreement protocol. In the protocol, the channel checking with decoy single photons is introduced to avoid the eavesdropper's flip attack, and a post-measurement mechanism is used to prevent against the collusion attack. The security analysis shows the present protocol can guarantee the correctness, security, privacy and fairness of quantum key agreement.

  10. Area laws and efficient descriptions of quantum many-body states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Yimin; Eisert, Jens

    2016-08-01

    It is commonly believed that area laws for entanglement entropies imply that a quantum many-body state can be faithfully represented by efficient tensor network states—a conjecture frequently stated in the context of numerical simulations and analytical considerations. In this work, we show that this is in general not the case, except in one-dimension. We prove that the set of quantum many-body states that satisfy an area law for all Renyi entropies contains a subspace of exponential dimension. We then show that there are states satisfying area laws for all Renyi entropies but cannot be approximated by states with a classical description of small Kolmogorov complexity, including polynomial projected entangled pair states or states of multi-scale entanglement renormalisation. Not even a quantum computer with post-selection can efficiently prepare all quantum states fulfilling an area law, and we show that not all area law states can be eigenstates of local Hamiltonians. We also prove translationally and rotationally invariant instances of these results, and show a variation with decaying correlations using quantum error-correcting codes.

  11. Heterostructures for Increased Quantum Efficiency in Nitride LEDs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Robert F. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2010-09-30

    Task 1. Development of an advanced LED simulator useful for the design of efficient nitride-based devices. Simulator will contain graphical interface software that can be used to specify the device structure, the material parameters, the operating conditions and the desired output results. Task 2. Theoretical and experimental investigations regarding the influence on the microstructure, defect concentration, mechanical stress and strain and IQE of controlled changes in the chemistry and process route of deposition of the buffer layer underlying the active region of nitride-based blue- and greenemitting LEDs. Task 3. Theoretical and experimental investigations regarding the influence on the physical properties including polarization and IQE of controlled changes in the geometry, chemistry, defect density, and microstructure of components in the active region of nitride-based blue- and green-emitting LEDs. Task 4. Theoretical and experimental investigations regarding the influence on IQE of novel heterostructure designs to funnel carriers into the active region for enhanced recombination efficiency and elimination of diffusion beyond this region. Task 5. Theoretical and experimental investigations regarding the influence of enhanced p-type doping on the chemical, electrical, and microstructural characteristics of the acceptor-doped layers, the hole injection levels at Ohmic contacts, the specific contact resistivity and the IQE of nitride-based blue- and green-emitting LEDs. Development and optical and electrical characterization of reflective Ohmic contacts to n- and p-type GaN films.

  12. Characterization of a high efficiency optical memory for the storage of quantum light states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupchak, Connor; Thomas, Ryan; Lvovsky, Alex

    2012-06-01

    We have developed a coherent optical storage device based on a Gradient Echo Memory scheme showing efficiencies of above 65%. The memory is realized in a warm vapor of ^87Rb atoms utilizing a λ-type energy level scheme. We use a co-propagating, co-rotating circular polarized pump beam coupled with pulsed coherent states to create an off-resonant Raman absorption line suitable for storage. Through sufficient filtration of the strong pump field, the stored light pulse is retrieved after a desired time and subjected to time-domain homodyne tomography. By repeating this sequence on an ensemble of 50 000 identical coherent states we gain enough information to completely reconstruct the quantum state of light retrieved from the memory. Furthermore, by repeating this characterization for a set of coherent states with at sufficient range of amplitudes we can completely characterize the memory process itself. This is possible by implementing a method devised by our group called coherent state Quantum Process Tomography which also has the capability to predict how well the memory will perform on any arbitrary quantum input state. We show our current storage efficiencies and what needs to be further done to demonstrate a true high efficiency, quantum optical memory.

  13. On the efficiency of climate policies international coordination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalil, Helioui

    2006-01-01

    This article analyses the economic efficiency of climate policies international coordination acknowledging long term perspectives and political constraints. It questions the economic and political viability of emission trading with respect to market power and dynamic distortions. The latter proves more worrying. While one may reasonably expect national positions being decentralized, the Climate Convention cannot commit on long term emission objectives. As a consequence, there is room for strategic behaviour by governments. Structural public programs, crucial to curb long term emissions, are likely to be scaled down because governments expect post-2012 quotas to be revised according to observed trends. This might jeopardize the climate action and further weaken the political consensus it requires. Are carbon taxes a better policy option? It might be the case provided the tax is levied at the international level, but this option faces political obstacles. A hybrid scheme should realize a good compromise between economic efficiency and political acceptability. (author)

  14. Nanocrystal Size-Dependent Efficiency of Quantum Dot Sensitized Solar Cells in the Strongly Coupled CdSe Nanocrystals/TiO2 System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Hyeong Jin; Paik, Taejong; Diroll, Benjamin; Edley, Michael E; Baxter, Jason B; Murray, Christopher B

    2016-06-15

    Light absorption and electron injection are important criteria determining solar energy conversion efficiency. In this research, monodisperse CdSe quantum dots (QDs) are synthesized with five different diameters, and the size-dependent solar energy conversion efficiency of CdSe quantum dot sensitized solar cell (QDSSCs) is investigated by employing the atomic inorganic ligand, S(2-). Absorbance measurements and transmission electron microscopy show that the diameters of the uniform CdSe QDs are 2.5, 3.2, 4.2, 6.4, and 7.8 nm. Larger CdSe QDs generate a larger amount of charge under the irradiation of long wavelength photons, as verified by the absorbance results and the measurements of the external quantum efficiencies. However, the smaller QDs exhibit faster electron injection kinetics from CdSe QDs to TiO2 because of the high energy level of CBCdSe, as verified by time-resolved photoluminescence and internal quantum efficiency results. Importantly, the S(2-) ligand significantly enhances the electronic coupling between the CdSe QDs and TiO2, yielding an enhancement of the charge transfer rate at the interfacial region. As a result, the S(2-) ligand helps improve the new size-dependent solar energy conversion efficiency, showing best performance with 4.2-nm CdSe QDs, whereas conventional ligand, mercaptopropionic acid, does not show any differences in efficiency according to the size of the CdSe QDs. The findings reported herein suggest that the atomic inorganic ligand reinforces the influence of quantum confinement on the solar energy conversion efficiency of QDSSCs.

  15. Molecular quantum mechanical gradients within the polarizable embedding approach—Application to the internal vibrational Stark shift of acetophenone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    List, Nanna Holmgaard; Beerepoot, Maarten; Olsen, Jógvan Magnus Haugaard

    2015-01-01

    We present an implementation of analytical quantum mechanical molecular gradients within the polarizable embedding (PE) model to allow for efficient geometry optimizations and vibrational analysis of molecules embedded in large, geometrically frozen environments. We consider a variational ansatz...... for the quantum region, covering (multiconfigurational) self-consistent-field and Kohn–Sham density functional theory. As the first application of the implementation, we consider the internal vibrational Stark effect of the C=O group of acetophenone in different solvents and derive its vibrational linear Stark...... and water is essential in order to capture the structural modifications and the associated frequency shifts observed in water. For more apolar solvents, a proper description of dispersion and exchange–repulsion becomes increasingly important, and the quality of the optimized structures relies to a larger...

  16. Efficient quantum entanglement distribution over an arbitrary collective-noise channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Yu-Bo; Deng, Fu-Guo

    2010-04-01

    We present an efficient quantum entanglement distribution over an arbitrary collective-noise channel. The basic idea in the present scheme is that two parties in quantum communication first transmit the entangled states in the frequency degree of freedom which suffers little from the noise in an optical fiber. After the two parties share the photon pairs, they add some operations and equipments to transfer the frequency entanglement of pairs into the polarization entanglement with the success probability of 100%. Finally, they can get maximally entangled polarization states with polarization independent wavelength division multiplexers and quantum frequency up-conversion which can erase distinguishability for frequency. Compared with conventional entanglement purification protocols, the present scheme works in a deterministic way in principle. Surprisingly, the collective noise leads to an additional advantage.

  17. Limits to solar power conversion efficiency with applications to quantum and thermal systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byvik, C. E.; Buoncristiani, A. M.; Smith, B. T.

    1983-01-01

    An analytical framework is presented that permits examination of the limit to the efficiency of various solar power conversion devices. Thermodynamic limits to solar power efficiency are determined for both quantum and thermal systems, and the results are applied to a variety of devices currently considered for use in space systems. The power conversion efficiency for single-threshold energy quantum systems receiving unconcentrated air mass zero solar radiation is limited to 31 percent. This limit applies to photovoltaic cells directly converting solar radiation, or indirectly, as in the case of a thermophotovoltaic system. Photoelectrochemical cells rely on an additional chemical reaction at the semiconductor-electrolyte interface, which introduces additional second-law demands and a reduction of the solar conversion efficiency. Photochemical systems exhibit even lower possible efficiencies because of their relatively narrow absorption bands. Solar-powered thermal engines in contact with an ambient reservoir at 300 K and operating at maximum power have a peak conversion efficiency of 64 percent, and this occurs for a thermal reservoir at a temperature of 2900 K. The power conversion efficiency of a solar-powered liquid metal magnetohydrodydnamic generator, a solar-powered steam turbine electric generator, and an alkali metal thermoelectric converter is discussed.

  18. Efficient experimental design of high-fidelity three-qubit quantum gates via genetic programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devra, Amit; Prabhu, Prithviraj; Singh, Harpreet; Arvind; Dorai, Kavita

    2018-03-01

    We have designed efficient quantum circuits for the three-qubit Toffoli (controlled-controlled-NOT) and the Fredkin (controlled-SWAP) gate, optimized via genetic programming methods. The gates thus obtained were experimentally implemented on a three-qubit NMR quantum information processor, with a high fidelity. Toffoli and Fredkin gates in conjunction with the single-qubit Hadamard gates form a universal gate set for quantum computing and are an essential component of several quantum algorithms. Genetic algorithms are stochastic search algorithms based on the logic of natural selection and biological genetics and have been widely used for quantum information processing applications. We devised a new selection mechanism within the genetic algorithm framework to select individuals from a population. We call this mechanism the "Luck-Choose" mechanism and were able to achieve faster convergence to a solution using this mechanism, as compared to existing selection mechanisms. The optimization was performed under the constraint that the experimentally implemented pulses are of short duration and can be implemented with high fidelity. We demonstrate the advantage of our pulse sequences by comparing our results with existing experimental schemes and other numerical optimization methods.

  19. Quantum efficiency harmonic analysis of exciton annihilation in organic light emitting diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, J. S.; Giebink, N. C., E-mail: ncg2@psu.edu [Department of Electrical Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States)

    2015-06-29

    Various exciton annihilation processes are known to impact the efficiency roll-off of organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs); however, isolating and quantifying their contribution in the presence of other factors such as changing charge balance continue to be a challenge for routine device characterization. Here, we analyze OLED electroluminescence resulting from a sinusoidal dither superimposed on the device bias and show that nonlinearity between recombination current and light output arising from annihilation mixes the quantum efficiency measured at different dither harmonics in a manner that depends uniquely on the type and magnitude of the annihilation process. We derive a series of analytical relations involving the DC and first harmonic external quantum efficiency that enable annihilation rates to be quantified through linear regression independent of changing charge balance and evaluate them for prototypical fluorescent and phosphorescent OLEDs based on the emitters 4-(dicyanomethylene)-2-methyl-6-(4-dimethylaminostyryl)-4H-pyran and platinum octaethylporphyrin, respectively. We go on to show that, in most cases, it is sufficient to calculate the needed quantum efficiency harmonics directly from derivatives of the DC light versus current curve, thus enabling this analysis to be conducted solely from standard light-current-voltage measurement data.

  20. Highly Efficient Light-Emitting Diodes of Colloidal Metal-Halide Perovskite Nanocrystals beyond Quantum Size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Hoon; Wolf, Christoph; Kim, Young-Tae; Cho, Himchan; Kwon, Woosung; Do, Sungan; Sadhanala, Aditya; Park, Chan Gyung; Rhee, Shi-Woo; Im, Sang Hyuk; Friend, Richard H; Lee, Tae-Woo

    2017-07-25

    Colloidal metal-halide perovskite quantum dots (QDs) with a dimension less than the exciton Bohr diameter D B (quantum size regime) emerged as promising light emitters due to their spectrally narrow light, facile color tuning, and high photoluminescence quantum efficiency (PLQE). However, their size-sensitive emission wavelength and color purity and low electroluminescence efficiency are still challenging aspects. Here, we demonstrate highly efficient light-emitting diodes (LEDs) based on the colloidal perovskite nanocrystals (NCs) in a dimension > D B (regime beyond quantum size) by using a multifunctional buffer hole injection layer (Buf-HIL). The perovskite NCs with a dimension greater than D B show a size-irrespective high color purity and PLQE by managing the recombination of excitons occurring at surface traps and inside the NCs. The Buf-HIL composed of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)/poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) and perfluorinated ionomer induces uniform perovskite particle films with complete film coverage and prevents exciton quenching at the PEDOT:PSS/perovskite particle film interface. With these strategies, we achieved a very high PLQE (∼60.5%) in compact perovskite particle films without any complex post-treatments and multilayers and a high current efficiency of 15.5 cd/A in the LEDs of colloidal perovskite NCs, even in a simplified structure, which is the highest efficiency to date in green LEDs that use colloidal organic-inorganic metal-halide perovskite nanoparticles including perovskite QDs and NCs. These results can help to guide development of various light-emitting optoelectronic applications based on perovskite NCs.

  1. On the effect of ballistic overflow on the temperature dependence of the quantum efficiency of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prudaev, I. A., E-mail: funcelab@gmail.com; Kopyev, V. V.; Romanov, I. S.; Oleynik, V. L. [National Research Tomsk State University (Russian Federation)

    2017-02-15

    The dependences of the quantum efficiency of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes on the temperature and excitation level are studied. The experiment is performed for two luminescence excitation modes. A comparison of the results obtained during photo- and electroluminescence shows an additional (to the loss associated with Auger recombination) low-temperature loss in the high-density current region. This causes inversion of the temperature dependence of the quantum efficiency at temperatures lower than 220–300 K. Analysis shows that the loss is associated with electron leakage from the light-emitting-diode active region. The experimental data are explained using the ballistic-overflow model. The simulation results are in qualitative agreement with the experimental dependences of the quantum efficiency on temperature and current density.

  2. The fluorescence decay times and quantum efficiencies of 1,4,5,8-naphthalisoimides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazurak, Zbigniew, E-mail: zbigniew.mazurak@cmpw-pan.edu.pl [Center of Polymer and Carbon Materials of Polish Academy of Sciences, M. Skłodowskiej-Curie 34, 41-819 Zabrze (Poland); Wanic, Andrzej [Center of Polymer and Carbon Materials of Polish Academy of Sciences, M. Skłodowskiej-Curie 34, 41-819 Zabrze (Poland); Karolczak, Jerzy [Department of Physics and Center for Ultrafast Laser Spectroscopy, Adam Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 85, 61-614 Poznań (Poland); Czaja, Maria [University of Silesia, Department of Earth Sciences, Będzińska 60, 41-200 Sosnowiec (Poland)

    2015-02-15

    Presented herein are the luminescence properties of several 1,4,5,8- polinahthalisoimides. The luminescence decay curves after deconvolution exhibit three decay times: τ{sub 1}, τ{sub 2}, and τ{sub 3}.The luminescence lifetimes change along with the growth of excitation energy, as well as the contribution of each luminescence decay mechanism (A{sub 1}, A{sub 2}, and A{sub 3}). The manner of change is distinct for one sample, namely, the pure E-isomer, in comparison to the others. The radiative deexcitation coupled with radiationless vibrational energy transfer to other luminescence centers, mainly other isomer units, is discussed as a possible deexcitation mechanism of fluorescence. The Kasha–Vavilov empirical rule is not fulfilled for the studied samples, as the luminescence quantum efficiency (Φ{sub F}) distinctly depends on the excitation wavelength (λ{sub exc}). The quantum yield of one sample (about 63% of Z-isomer) is quite high, at 1%. - Highlights: • The fluorescence decay curves and quantum yields of naphthalimides are presented for the first time. • Luminescence decay curves (3 compounds) and deexcitation processes are discussed. • Fluorescence quantum efficiency measurements did not confirmed Kasha-Vavilov rule. • Large Stokes shift is regard as the main cause of the characteristics of the studied samples.

  3. An efficient numerical progressive diagonalization scheme for the quantum Rabi model revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, Feng; Bao, Lina; Dai, Lianrong; Draayer, Jerry P

    2017-01-01

    An efficient numerical progressive diagonalization scheme for the quantum Rabi model is revisited. The advantage of the scheme lies in the fact that the quantum Rabi model can be solved almost exactly by using the scheme that only involves a finite set of one variable polynomial equations. The scheme is especially efficient for a specified eigenstate of the model, for example, the ground state. Some low-lying level energies of the model for several sets of parameters are calculated, of which one set of the results is compared to that obtained from the Braak’s exact solution proposed recently. It is shown that the derivative of the entanglement measure defined in terms of the reduced von Neumann entropy with respect to the coupling parameter does reach the maximum near the critical point deduced from the classical limit of the Dicke model, which may provide a probe of the critical point of the crossover in finite quantum many-body systems, such as that in the quantum Rabi model. (paper)

  4. Quantum efficiency measurements of windowless electro multipliers to heavy high energy particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Z.H.; Singh, M.; Mohabbatizadeh, A.; Sackerlotzky, O.H.; Amore, L.

    1974-01-01

    Measurements of quantum efficiency to heavy charged particles, in particular to the proton, in the range of 5 to 2 MeV were made with windowless electron multipliers on cathodes of beryllium oxide and aluminum oxide. The effects of oxide thickness on quantum efficiency were determined and some qualitative explanations have been made based on the simple ionization process and escape probability of produced electrons. Using a Van de Graaff accelerator at beam currents of .1 nA to .5 nA, precisions of measurement of better than 10 percent were obtainable with six different cathodes: three different thicknesses of BeO and three of Al 2 O 3 respectively

  5. Quantum efficiencies of near-infrared emission from Ni2+-doped glass-ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Takenobu; Arai, Yusuke; Ohishi, Yasutake

    2008-01-01

    A systematic method to evaluate potentials of Ni 2+ -doped transparent glass-ceramics as a new broadband optical gain media is presented. At first, near-infrared emission of various ceramics were investigated to explore the suitable crystalline phase to be grown in the glass-ceramics. The quantum efficiency of Ni 2+ near-infrared emission estimated by the Struck-Fonger analysis was higher than 95% for spinel-type structure gallate crystals MgGa 2 O 4 and LiGa 5 O 8 at room temperature. Transparent glass-ceramics containing Ni 2+ :LiGa 5 O 8 could be prepared and the quantum efficiency for the glass-ceramics was measured to be about 10%. This value shows a potential of Ni-doped transparent glass-ceramics as a broadband gain media

  6. Enhanced quantum efficiency for CsI grown on a graphite-based substrate coating

    CERN Document Server

    Friese, J; Homolka, J; Kastenmüller, A; Maier-Komor, P; Peter, M; Zeitelhack, K; Kienle, P; Körner, H J

    1999-01-01

    Quantum efficiencies (QE) in the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) wavelength region have been measured for solid CsI layers on various substrates. The CsI films were deposited applying electron beam evaporation. The QE measurements were performed utilizing synchrotron radiation as well as light from a deuterium lamp. A GaAsP diode with a sensitivity calibration traceable to a primary radiation standard was used for normalization. For CsI layers grown on resin-stabilized graphite films a significant enhancement of QE was observed. Substrates suitable for gas detector applications and aging properties were investigated. The procedures to prepare and reproduce high quantum efficient CsI layers are described.

  7. Investigating the temperature dependence of photomultiplier quantum efficiency when operating in the visible spectrum

    CERN Document Server

    Clawson, Savannah Ellen

    2017-01-01

    The quantum efficiency of a Burle 8850 photomultiplier tube with a potassium-caesium-antimony (bialkali) photocathode was determined by attenuating a 1 mW HeNe laser emitting at 633 nm and measuring the signal frequency when the laser was incident on the photomultiplier. A temperature range of 5 $^{\\circ}$C $-$ 20 $^{\\circ}$C was investigated and it was found that the quantum efficiency decreases with temperature, with the signal frequency decreasing at a faster rate than the dark current frequency. Therefore, it was concluded that it would not be beneficial to cool photomultiplier tubes operating in the visible spectrum for use in collinear laser spectroscopy due to a decreasing signal-to-noise ratio. The signal pulse height distribution was also analysed and found to be independent of temperature within the range investigated.

  8. Efficiency analysis of energy networks. An international survey of regulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haney, Aoife Brophy [ESRC Electricity Policy Research Group and Faculty of Economics, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 9DD (United Kingdom); Pollitt, Michael G. [ESRC Electricity Policy Research Group and Judge Business School, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 1AG (United Kingdom)

    2009-12-15

    Incentive regulation for networks has been an important part of the reform agenda in a number of countries. As part of this regulatory process, incentives are put in place to improve the cost efficiency of network companies by rewarding good performance relative to a pre-defined benchmark. The techniques used to establish benchmarks are central to the efficiency improvements that are ultimately achieved. Much experience has been gained internationally in the application of benchmarking techniques and we now have a solid understanding of the main indicators of best practice. What we are lacking is a more complete understanding of the factors that influence choice of methods by regulators. In this paper, we present the results of an international survey of energy regulators in 40 countries conducted electronically between June and October 2008. Regulators from European, Australasian and Latin American countries are represented in the survey. Our results show that benchmarking techniques are now widespread in the regulation of gas and electricity networks. Best practice, however, is limited to a small number of regulators. We conclude by summarising existing trends and offering some recommendations on overcoming barriers to best practice efficiency analysis. (author)

  9. Efficiency analysis of energy networks: An international survey of regulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haney, Aoife Brophy, E-mail: ab748@cam.ac.u [ESRC Electricity Policy Research Group and Faculty of Economics, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 9DD (United Kingdom); Pollitt, Michael G. [ESRC Electricity Policy Research Group and Judge Business School, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 1AG (United Kingdom)

    2009-12-15

    Incentive regulation for networks has been an important part of the reform agenda in a number of countries. As part of this regulatory process, incentives are put in place to improve the cost efficiency of network companies by rewarding good performance relative to a pre-defined benchmark. The techniques used to establish benchmarks are central to the efficiency improvements that are ultimately achieved. Much experience has been gained internationally in the application of benchmarking techniques and we now have a solid understanding of the main indicators of best practice. What we are lacking is a more complete understanding of the factors that influence choice of methods by regulators. In this paper, we present the results of an international survey of energy regulators in 40 countries conducted electronically between June and October 2008. Regulators from European, Australasian and Latin American countries are represented in the survey. Our results show that benchmarking techniques are now widespread in the regulation of gas and electricity networks. Best practice, however, is limited to a small number of regulators. We conclude by summarising existing trends and offering some recommendations on overcoming barriers to best practice efficiency analysis.

  10. Efficiency analysis of energy networks: An international survey of regulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haney, Aoife Brophy; Pollitt, Michael G.

    2009-01-01

    Incentive regulation for networks has been an important part of the reform agenda in a number of countries. As part of this regulatory process, incentives are put in place to improve the cost efficiency of network companies by rewarding good performance relative to a pre-defined benchmark. The techniques used to establish benchmarks are central to the efficiency improvements that are ultimately achieved. Much experience has been gained internationally in the application of benchmarking techniques and we now have a solid understanding of the main indicators of best practice. What we are lacking is a more complete understanding of the factors that influence choice of methods by regulators. In this paper, we present the results of an international survey of energy regulators in 40 countries conducted electronically between June and October 2008. Regulators from European, Australasian and Latin American countries are represented in the survey. Our results show that benchmarking techniques are now widespread in the regulation of gas and electricity networks. Best practice, however, is limited to a small number of regulators. We conclude by summarising existing trends and offering some recommendations on overcoming barriers to best practice efficiency analysis.

  11. Efficiency enhancement of solid-state PbS quantum dot-sensitized solar cells with Al2O3 barrier layer

    KAUST Repository

    Brennan, Thomas P.

    2013-01-01

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) was used to grow both PbS quantum dots and Al2O3 barrier layers in a solid-state quantum dot-sensitized solar cell (QDSSC). Barrier layers grown prior to quantum dots resulted in a near-doubling of device efficiency (0.30% to 0.57%) whereas barrier layers grown after quantum dots did not improve efficiency, indicating the importance of quantum dots in recombination processes. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  12. Labeling efficiency and toxicity evaluation of CdSe/ZnS quantum dots on Escherichia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jin-Yun; Jia, Li-Min; Song, Wu-Qi; Zhang, Wen-Li; Fu, Ying-Mei; Zhang, Ying; Cao, Wen-Wu; Sun, Ye; Zheng, Jin-Hua; Zhang, Feng-Min

    2014-06-01

    In comparison with conventional organic dyes, quantum dots (QDs) have unique optical and electronic properties, which provide QDs with a wide scope of prospective application in biology and biomedicine. However, the toxicity of QDs and the fluorescence intensity of labeled bacteria must precede their application in bacterial imaging and tracing in vivo. Here, we show that treatment with CaCl2 significantly improved bacterial labeling efficiency of CdSe/ZnS QDs with the CdSe core size of 3.1 nm (relative fluorescence unit (RFU) value and ratio of fluorescent E. coli) with rising CdSe/ZnS QDs concentration in a concentration-dependent manner. At 12.5 nmol/L CdSe/ZnS QDs concentration, labeled Escherichia coli ( E. coli) DH5 α appeared as short rod-shaped and luminescent with normal size, and the survival rate and ultrastructure did not change in comparison to the control. But the ratio of fluorescent bacteria and RFU were very low. However, the survival rate of transformed E. coli was significantly inhibited by high CdSe/ZnS QDs concentrations (≥25 nmol/L). Moreover, internalization of CdSe/ZnS QDs resulted in ultrastructure damage of transformed E. coli in a concentration-dependent manner (≥25 nmol/L). Therefore, CdSe/ZnS QDs may not suitable for tracing of bacteria in vivo. Moreover, our study also revealed that colony-forming capability assay and transmission electron microscopy could be used to comprehensively evaluate the toxicity of QDs on labeled bacteria. Our findings do provide a new direction toward the improvement and modification of QDs for use in imaging and tracing studies in vivo.

  13. Enhanced quantum efficiency of photoelectron emission, through surface textured metal electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander, Anna; Bandaru, Prabhakar R., E-mail: pbandaru@ucsd.edu [Program in Materials Science, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California, 92130 (United States); Moody, Nathan A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

    2016-03-15

    It is predicted that the quantum efficiency (QE) of photoelectron emission from metals may be enhanced, possibly by an order of magnitude, through optimized surface texture. Through extensive computational simulations, it is shown that the absorption enhancement in select surface groove geometries may be a dominant contributor to enhanced QE and corresponds to localized Fabry–Perot resonances. The inadequacy of extant analytical models in predicting the QE increase, and suggestions for further improvement, are discussed.

  14. Ultra-broad band, low power, highly efficient coherent wavelength conversion in quantum dot SOA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contestabile, G; Yoshida, Y; Maruta, A; Kitayama, K

    2012-12-03

    We report broadband, all-optical wavelength conversion over 100 nm span, in full S- and C-band, with positive conversion efficiency with low optical input power exploiting dual pump Four-Wave-Mixing in a Quantum Dot Semiconductor Optical Amplifier (QD-SOA). We also demonstrate by Error Vector Magnitude analysis the full transparency of the conversion scheme for coherent modulation formats (QPSK, 8-PSK, 16-QAM, OFDM-16QAM) in the whole C-band.

  15. Role of the substrate reflectance and surface-bulk treatments in CsI quantum efficiency

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, B K; Nitti, M A; Valentini, A

    2003-01-01

    We have experimentally investigated the following aspects related to the quantum efficiency of CsI photocathodes: the type of substrate, the film thickness and the effect of a 'bulk treatment' during the film growth. We discovered that, using a high reflectivity aluminium substrate, the photoemission of very thin CsI film is enhanced. Our study also revealed that photocathodes become less sensitive to moisture when a negative bias voltage is applied to the substrate during the film deposition process.

  16. International Workshop on "Intersubband Transitions in Quantum Wells : Physics and Applications"

    CERN Document Server

    Su, Yan-Kuin

    1998-01-01

    The International Workshop on "Intersubband Transitions in Quantum Wells:: Physics and Applications," was held at National Cheng Kung University, in Tainan, Taiwan, December 15-18, 1997. The objective of the Workshop is to facilitate the presentation and discussion of the recent results in theoretical, experimental, and applied aspects of intersubband transitions in quantum wells and dots. The program followed the tradition initiated at the 1991 conference in Cargese-France, the 1993 conference in Whistler, B. C. Canada, and the 1995 conference in Kibbutz Ginosar, Israel. Intersubband transitions in quantum wells and quantum dots have attracted considerable attention in recent years, mainly due to the promise of various applications in the mid- and far-infrared regions (2-30 J. lm). Over 40 invited and contributed papers were presented in this four-day workshop, with topics covered most aspects of the intersubband transition phenomena including: the basic intersubband transition processes, multiquantum well i...

  17. An energy and cost efficient majority-based RAM cell in quantum-dot cellular automata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milad Bagherian Khosroshahy

    Full Text Available Nanotechnologies, notably quantum-dot cellular automata, have achieved major attentions for their prominent features as compared to the conventional CMOS circuitry. Quantum-dot cellular automata, particularly owning to its considerable reduction in size, high switching speed and ultra-low energy consumption, is considered as a potential alternative for the CMOS technology. As the memory unit is one of the most essential components in a digital system, designing a well-optimized QCA random access memory (RAM cell is an important area of research. In this paper, a new five-input majority gate is presented which is suitable for implementing efficient single-layer QCA circuits. In addition, a new RAM cell with set and reset capabilities is designed based on the proposed majority gate, which has an efficient and low-energy structure. The functionality, performance and energy consumption of the proposed designs are evaluated based on the QCADesigner and QCAPro tools. According to the simulation results, the proposed RAM design leads to on average 38% lower total energy dissipation, 25% smaller area, 20% lower cell count, 28% lower delay and 60% lower QCA cost as compared to its previous counterparts. Keywords: Quantum-dot cellular automata (QCA, Majority gate, Random access memory (RAM, Energy efficiency

  18. Highly Efficient Quantum Sieving in Porous Graphene-like Carbon Nitride for Light Isotopes Separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Yuanyuan; Li, Feng; Zhou, Hongcai; Zhao, Mingwen

    2016-01-27

    Light isotopes separation, such as (3)He/(4)He, H2/D2, H2/T2, etc., is crucial for various advanced technologies including isotope labeling, nuclear weapons, cryogenics and power generation. However, their nearly identical chemical properties made the separation challenging. The low productivity of the present isotopes separation approaches hinders the relevant applications. An efficient membrane with high performance for isotopes separation is quite appealing. Based on first-principles calculations, we theoretically demonstrated that highly efficient light isotopes separation, such as (3)He/(4)He, can be reached in a porous graphene-like carbon nitride material via quantum sieving effect. Under moderate tensile strain, the quantum sieving of the carbon nitride membrane can be effectively tuned in a continuous way, leading to a temperature window with high (3)He/(4)He selectivity and permeance acceptable for efficient isotopes harvest in industrial application. This mechanism also holds for separation of other light isotopes, such as H2/D2, H2/T2. Such tunable quantum sieving opens a promising avenue for light isotopes separation for industrial application.

  19. Highly Efficient Quantum Sieving in Porous Graphene-like Carbon Nitride for Light Isotopes Separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Yuanyuan; Li, Feng; Zhou, Hongcai; Zhao, Mingwen

    2016-01-01

    Light isotopes separation, such as 3He/4He, H2/D2, H2/T2, etc., is crucial for various advanced technologies including isotope labeling, nuclear weapons, cryogenics and power generation. However, their nearly identical chemical properties made the separation challenging. The low productivity of the present isotopes separation approaches hinders the relevant applications. An efficient membrane with high performance for isotopes separation is quite appealing. Based on first-principles calculations, we theoretically demonstrated that highly efficient light isotopes separation, such as 3He/4He, can be reached in a porous graphene-like carbon nitride material via quantum sieving effect. Under moderate tensile strain, the quantum sieving of the carbon nitride membrane can be effectively tuned in a continuous way, leading to a temperature window with high 3He/4He selectivity and permeance acceptable for efficient isotopes harvest in industrial application. This mechanism also holds for separation of other light isotopes, such as H2/D2, H2/T2. Such tunable quantum sieving opens a promising avenue for light isotopes separation for industrial application.

  20. Highly Efficient Quantum Sieving in Porous Graphene-like Carbon Nitride for Light Isotopes Separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Yuanyuan; Li, Feng; Zhou, Hongcai; Zhao, Mingwen

    2016-01-01

    Light isotopes separation, such as 3He/4He, H2/D2, H2/T2, etc., is crucial for various advanced technologies including isotope labeling, nuclear weapons, cryogenics and power generation. However, their nearly identical chemical properties made the separation challenging. The low productivity of the present isotopes separation approaches hinders the relevant applications. An efficient membrane with high performance for isotopes separation is quite appealing. Based on first-principles calculations, we theoretically demonstrated that highly efficient light isotopes separation, such as 3He/4He, can be reached in a porous graphene-like carbon nitride material via quantum sieving effect. Under moderate tensile strain, the quantum sieving of the carbon nitride membrane can be effectively tuned in a continuous way, leading to a temperature window with high 3He/4He selectivity and permeance acceptable for efficient isotopes harvest in industrial application. This mechanism also holds for separation of other light isotopes, such as H2/D2, H2/T2. Such tunable quantum sieving opens a promising avenue for light isotopes separation for industrial application. PMID:26813491

  1. Fluorescence quantum efficiency of CdSe/ZnS quantum dots functionalized with amine or carboxyl groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilla, Viviane; Munin, Egberto

    2012-01-01

    The thermo-optical parameters of cadmium selenide/zinc sulfide (CdSe/ZnS) core–shell quantum dots (QDs) suspended in aqueous solutions were measured using a Thermal Lens (TL) technique. TL transient measurements were performed using the mode-mismatched dual-beam (excitation and probe) configuration. A He–Ne laser at λ p = 632.8 nm was used as the probe beam, and an Ar + laser (at λ e = 514.5 nm) was used as the excitation beam to study the effect of the core sizes (2–4 nm) of CdSe/ZnS nanocrystals functionalized with amine (R–NH 2 ) or carboxyl (R–COOH) groups. The average values of the thermal diffusivity D = (1.48 ± 0.06) × 10 −3 cm 2 /s obtained for QDs samples are in good agreement with the pure water solvent result. The fraction thermal load (φ) and radiative quantum efficiencies (η) of the functionalized CdSe/ZnS QDs were determined and compared with non-functionalized CdSe/ZnS QDs. The obtained η values for non-functionalized CdSe/ZnS are slightly higher than those for the QDs functionalized with amine or carboxyl groups.

  2. International Congress on Energy Efficiency and Energy Related Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Bahsi, Zehra; Ozer, Mehmet; ENEFM2013

    2014-01-01

    The International Congress on Energy Efficiency and Energy Related Materials (ENEFM2013) was held on 9-12 October, 2013. This three-day congress focused on the latest developments of sustainable energy technologies, materials for sustainable energy applications and environmental & economic perspectives of energy. These proceedings include 63 peer reviewed technical papers, submitted from leading academic and research institutions from over 23 countries, representing some of the most cutting edge research available. The papers included were presented at the congress in the following sessions: General Issues Wind Energy Solar Energy Nuclear Energy Biofuels and Bioenergy Energy Storage Energy Conservation and Efficiency Energy in Buildings   Economical and Environmental Issues Environment Energy Requirements Economic Development   Materials for Sustainable Energy Hydrogen Production and Storage Photovoltaic Cells Thermionic Converters Batteries and Superconductors Phase Change Materials Fuel Cells Supercon...

  3. An efficient single-step scheme for manipulating quantum information of two trapped ions beyond the Lamb-Dicke limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, L.F.; Nori, Franco

    2003-01-01

    Based on the exact conditional quantum dynamics for a two-ion system, we propose an efficient single-step scheme for coherently manipulating quantum information of two trapped cold ions by using a pair of synchronous laser pulses. Neither the auxiliary atomic level nor the Lamb-Dicke approximation are needed

  4. Measuring efficiency of international crude oil markets: A multifractality approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niere, H. M.

    2015-01-01

    The three major international crude oil markets are treated as complex systems and their multifractal properties are explored. The study covers daily prices of Brent crude, OPEC reference basket and West Texas Intermediate (WTI) crude from January 2, 2003 to January 2, 2014. A multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MFDFA) is employed to extract the generalized Hurst exponents in each of the time series. The generalized Hurst exponent is used to measure the degree of multifractality which in turn is used to quantify the efficiency of the three international crude oil markets. To identify whether the source of multifractality is long-range correlations or broad fat-tail distributions, shuffled data and surrogated data corresponding to each of the time series are generated. Shuffled data are obtained by randomizing the order of the price returns data. This will destroy any long-range correlation of the time series. Surrogated data is produced using the Fourier-Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (F-DFA). This is done by randomizing the phases of the price returns data in Fourier space. This will normalize the distribution of the time series. The study found that for the three crude oil markets, there is a strong dependence of the generalized Hurst exponents with respect to the order of fluctuations. This shows that the daily price time series of the markets under study have signs of multifractality. Using the degree of multifractality as a measure of efficiency, the results show that WTI is the most efficient while OPEC is the least efficient market. This implies that OPEC has the highest likelihood to be manipulated among the three markets. This reflects the fact that Brent and WTI is a very competitive market hence, it has a higher level of complexity compared against OPEC, which has a large monopoly power. Comparing with shuffled data and surrogated data, the findings suggest that for all the three crude oil markets, the multifractality is mainly due to long

  5. Minimum detection efficiency for the loophole-free confirmation of quantum contextuality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiang Yang; Hong Fang-Yu

    2013-01-01

    Klyachko—Can—Binicioğlu—Shumovsky (KCBS) inequality is a Bell-like inequality, the violation of which can be used to confirm the existence of quantum contextuality. However, the imperfection of detection efficiency may cause the so-called loophole in actual KCBS's experiments. We derive an alternative KCBS inequality to deal with the loophole in actual KCBS's experiments. We prove that if the experimental data violate this KCBS inequality, the loophole-free violation of the original KCBS inequality will occur. We show that the minimum detection efficiency needed for a loophole-free violation of the KCBS inequality is about 0.9738

  6. Efficiency of free-energy calculations of spin lattices by spectral quantum algorithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Master, Cyrus P.; Yamaguchi, Fumiko; Yamamoto, Yoshihisa

    2003-01-01

    Ensemble quantum algorithms are well suited to calculate estimates of the energy spectra for spin-lattice systems. Based on the phase estimation algorithm, these algorithms efficiently estimate discrete Fourier coefficients of the density of states. Their efficiency in calculating the free energy per spin of general spin lattices to bounded error is examined. We find that the number of Fourier components required to bound the error in the free energy due to the broadening of the density of states scales polynomially with the number of spins in the lattice. However, the precision with which the Fourier components must be calculated is found to be an exponential function of the system size

  7. Internalization of targeted quantum dots by brain capillary endothelial cells in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris-Robidas, Sarah; Brouard, Danny; Emond, Vincent; Parent, Martin; Calon, Frédéric

    2016-04-01

    Receptors located on brain capillary endothelial cells forming the blood-brain barrier are the target of most brain drug delivery approaches. Yet, direct subcellular evidence of vectorized transport of nanoformulations into the brain is lacking. To resolve this question, quantum dots were conjugated to monoclonal antibodies (Ri7) targeting the murine transferrin receptor. Specific transferrin receptor-mediated endocytosis of Ri7-quantum dots was first confirmed in N2A and bEnd5 cells. After intravenous injection in mice, Ri7-quantum dots exhibited a fourfold higher volume of distribution in brain tissues, compared to controls. Immunofluorescence analysis showed that Ri7-quantum dots were sequestered throughout the cerebral vasculature 30 min, 1 h, and 4 h post injection, with a decline of signal intensity after 24 h. Transmission electron microscopic studies confirmed that Ri7-quantum dots were massively internalized by brain capillary endothelial cells, averaging 37 ± 4 Ri7-quantum dots/cell 1 h after injection. Most quantum dots within brain capillary endothelial cells were observed in small vesicles (58%), with a smaller proportion detected in tubular structures or in multivesicular bodies. Parenchymal penetration of Ri7-quantum dots was extremely low and comparable to control IgG. Our results show that systemically administered Ri7-quantum dots complexes undergo extensive endocytosis by brain capillary endothelial cells and open the door for novel therapeutic approaches based on brain endothelial cell drug delivery. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. High Quantum Efficiency AlGaN/InGaN Photodetectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckley, James H. [Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States). Physics Dept.; Leopold, Daniel [Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States). Physics Dept.

    2009-11-24

    High efficiency photon counting detectors in use today for high energy particle detection applications have a significant spectral mismatch with typical sources and have a number of practical problems compared with conventional bialkali photomultiplier tubes. Numerous high energy physics experiments that employ scintillation light detectors or Cherenkov detectors would benefit greatly from photomultipliers with higher quantum efficiencies. The need for extending the sensitivity of photon detectors to the blue and UV wavebands comes from the fact that both Cherenkov light and some scintillators have an emission spectrum which is peaked at short wavelengths. This research involves the development of high quantum efficiency, high gain, UV/blue photon counting detectors based on AlGaN/InGaN photocathode heterostructures grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). The work could eventually lead to nearly ideal light detectors with a number of distinct advantages over existing technologies for numerous applications in high-energy physics and particle astrophysics. Potential advantages include much lower noise detection, better stability and radiation resistance than other cathode structures, very low radioactive background levels for deep underground experiments and high detection efficiency of individual UV-visible photons. We are also working on the development of photocathodes with intrinsic gain, initially improving the detection efficiency of hybrid semiconductor-vacuum tube devices, and eventually leading to an all-solid-state photomultiplier device.

  9. 3D study of a bi facial polycrystalline photovoltaic cell under constant magnetic field and determination of the parameters of recombination from internal quantum yield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ZOUMA Bernard

    2010-01-01

    The work presented in this thesis deals with the problem of the quality of polycrystalline silicon solar cells. This work has been done on square surface columnar grains of the bi facial solar cell. This study ends in the determination of the quality of bi facial solar cells from their recombination parameters. We propose an useful technique to determine these recombination parameters from the algorithm calculation that is based on the internal quantum efficiency. A set of dimensional approach like the three-dimensional model of the solar cell that allows taking into account the grain size and grain boundaries recombination velocity. The emitter contribution and the terrestrial magnetic field influence are taken into account too. While lighted, the emitter region becomes a recombination zone of the electron from the base region. We have obtained a new exhaustive analytical expression of the internal quantum efficiency. This theoretical efficiency is a function of the recombination parameters and it is used to fit the experimental curves of the internal quantum efficiency versus the wavelength. The results are in a good agreement with the experimental values.(Author) [fr

  10. Rb based alkali antimonide high quantum efficiency photocathodes for bright electron beam sources and photon detection applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cultrera, L.; Gulliford, C.; Bartnik, A.; Lee, H.; Bazarov, I.

    2017-02-01

    High quantum efficiency alkali antimonide photocathodes have been grown over both stainless steel and glass substrates using sequential evaporation of Sb, K, Rb, and Cs. Quantum efficiencies well above 25% have been measured at 400 nm. A bi-alkali Rb-K-Sb photocathode grown on a stainless steel substrate has been installed in a high voltage DC gun at Cornell University and the intrinsic electron beam emittance was measured at different photon energies.

  11. The International Database of Efficient Appliances (IDEA): A New Resource for Global Efficiency Policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerke, Brian F; McNeil, Michael A; Tu, Thomas; Xu, Feiyang

    2017-09-06

    A major barrier to effective appliance efficiency program design and evaluation is a lack of data for determination of market baselines and cost-effective energy savings potential. The data gap is particularly acute in developing countries, which may have the greatest savings potential per unit GDP. To address this need, we are developing the International Database of Efficient Appliances (IDEA), which automatically compiles data from a wide variety of online sources to create a unified repository of information on efficiency, price, and features for a wide range of energy-consuming products across global markets. This paper summarizes the database framework and demonstrates the power of IDEA as a resource for appliance efficiency research and policy development. Using IDEA data for refrigerators in China and India, we develop robust cost-effectiveness indicators that allow rapid determination of savings potential within each market, as well as comparison of that potential across markets and appliance types. We discuss implications for future energy efficiency policy development.

  12. Higher values of spectral response, absorption coefficient and external quantum efficiency of solar cell in the form of pyramids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamel, A.

    2017-05-01

    This paper presents a study on spectral response, absorption coefficient and external quantum efficiency of solar cell in the form of pyramid [1, 2]. We investigate to what extent and under what conditions we want to take advantage of ray incidence Seven times [3, 4]. It is found that these analyses can be used to determine the optimal surface texture which provides the best light trapping for solar cells in terms of the total internal reflection occurring in the high-index medium at incidence angles larger than the nominal critical angle [3-9]. One of the main contributions of this paper is the analysis and quantification of the influence of the opening between the heads of the two closest pyramids in textured surface for solar cells and its application on the photovoltaic parameters. In this model we show that the material can have seven successive incident ray absorptions instead of five currently, where we changed the direction of the reflected ray, by identifying and install the angle between the two neighbouring pyramids, the incidence angle, the opening between the heads of the two closest pyramids and their height. Thus, with an angle between the two neighbouring pyramid fixed at 12° and for angle of incidence fixed at 84°. For these values of the angle between the two neighbouring pyramids and incidence angle, the opening between the heads of the two closest pyramids fixed at 2.10 μm for a pyramid height of 10 μm. This leads to the largest possible increase in optical efficiency, such as spectral response, Absorption Coefficient and External Quantum Efficiency. The results are in good agreement with the available literature.

  13. Efficient method for computing the maximum-likelihood quantum state from measurements with additive Gaussian noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolin, John A; Gambetta, Jay M; Smith, Graeme

    2012-02-17

    We provide an efficient method for computing the maximum-likelihood mixed quantum state (with density matrix ρ) given a set of measurement outcomes in a complete orthonormal operator basis subject to Gaussian noise. Our method works by first changing basis yielding a candidate density matrix μ which may have nonphysical (negative) eigenvalues, and then finding the nearest physical state under the 2-norm. Our algorithm takes at worst O(d(4)) for the basis change plus O(d(3)) for finding ρ where d is the dimension of the quantum state. In the special case where the measurement basis is strings of Pauli operators, the basis change takes only O(d(3)) as well. The workhorse of the algorithm is a new linear-time method for finding the closest probability distribution (in Euclidean distance) to a set of real numbers summing to one.

  14. Enhanced quantum efficiency in blue-emitting polymer/dielectric nanolayer nanocomposite light-emitting devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jong Hyeok; Lim, Yong Taik; Park, O Ok; Yu, Jae-Woong; Kim, Jai Kyeong; Kim, Young Chul

    2004-01-01

    Light-emitting devices based on environmentally stable, blue-emitting polymer/dielectric nanolayer nanocomposites were fabricated by blending poly(di-octylfluorene) (PDOF) with organo-clay. By reducing the excimer formation that leads to long wavelength tails, the photoluminescence (PL) and electroluminescence (EL) color purity of the device was enhanced. When a conjugated polymer/dielectric nanolayer nanocomposite is applied to an EL device, we expect an electronic structure similar to the well-known quantum well in small nanodomains. The ratio of PDOF/organo-clay was regulated from 2:1 to 0.5:1 (w/w). The light-emitting device of 0.5:1 (w/w) blend demonstrated the highest quantum efficiency (QE), 0.72% (ph/el), which is ∼500 times higher value compared with that of the pure PDOF layer device. However, the driving voltage of the nanocomposite devices tended to increase with increasing organo-clay content

  15. Quantum Coherent Three-Terminal Thermoelectrics: Maximum Efficiency at Given Power Output

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert S. Whitney

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This work considers the nonlinear scattering theory for three-terminal thermoelectric devices used for power generation or refrigeration. Such systems are quantum phase-coherent versions of a thermocouple, and the theory applies to systems in which interactions can be treated at a mean-field level. It considers an arbitrary three-terminal system in any external magnetic field, including systems with broken time-reversal symmetry, such as chiral thermoelectrics, as well as systems in which the magnetic field plays no role. It is shown that the upper bound on efficiency at given power output is of quantum origin and is stricter than Carnot’s bound. The bound is exactly the same as previously found for two-terminal devices and can be achieved by three-terminal systems with or without broken time-reversal symmetry, i.e., chiral and non-chiral thermoelectrics.

  16. Quantum efficiency of silica-coated rare-earth doped yttrium silicate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cervantes-Vásquez, D., E-mail: dcervant@cnyn.unam.mx [Centro de Investigación Científica y de Educación Superior de Ensenada, Carretera Ensenada-Tijuana No. 3918, Zona Playitas, C.P. 22860 Ensenada, B.C., México (Mexico); Contreras, O.E.; Hirata, G.A. [Centro de Nanociencias y Nanotecnología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Km. 107 Carretera Tijuana-Ensenada, C.P. 22800 Ensenada, B.C., México (Mexico)

    2013-11-15

    The photoluminescent properties of rare earth-activated white-emitting Y{sub 2}SiO{sub 5}:Ce,Tb nanocrystalline phosphor prepared by two different methods, pressure-assisted combustion synthesis and sol–gel, were studied. The synthesized phosphor samples were post-annealed at 1373 K and 1623 K in order to obtain the X1-Y{sub 2}SiO{sub 5} and X2-Y{sub 2}SiO{sub 5} phases, respectively, which were confirmed by X-ray diffraction measurements. Photoluminescence analysis showed the contribution of two blue-emission bands within the 380–450 nm region originating from 5d–4f transitions in Ce{sup 3+} ions and a well-defined green emission of Tb{sup 3+} ions located at 545 nm corresponding to {sup 5}D{sub 4}→{sup 7}F{sub 5} electronic transitions. Thereafter, Y{sub 2}SiO{sub 5}:Ce,Tb powders were coated with colloidal silica in order to investigate the effect of silica coatings on their luminescent properties. Absolute fluorescence quantum efficiency measurements were carefully performed, which revealed an increase of 12% of efficiency in coated compared with bare-Y{sub 2}SiO{sub 5}:Ce,Tb phosphor. -- Highlights: • Y{sub 2}SiO{sub 5}:Ce,Tb phosphor powders were successfully coated with colloidal silica. • Post-annealing treatments improved the quantum efficiency of silica-coated Y{sub 2}SiO{sub 5}:Ce,Tb phosphors. • Absolute fluorescence quantum efficiency measurements showed an increase of 12%.

  17. PREFACE: International Symposium "Nanoscience and Quantum Physics 2011" (nanoPHYS'11)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Susumu; Tanaka, Hidekazu; Nakamura, Takashi; Nakamura, Masaaki

    2011-07-01

    Quantum physics has developed modern views of nature for more than a century. In addition to this traditional role, quantum physics has acquired new significance in the 21st century as the field responsible for driving and supporting nanoscience research, which will have even greater importance in the future because nanoscience will be the academic foundation for new technologies. The Department of Physics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, are now conducting a "Nanoscience and Quantum Physics" project (Physics G-COE project) supported by the Global Center of Excellence Program of the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan (MEXT) in order to promote research and education in these important academic fields. The International Symposium on Nanoscience and Quantum Physics, held in Tokyo, Japan, 26-28 January 2011 (nanoPHYS'11) was organized by the Physics G-COE project of the Tokyo Institute of Technology to provide an international forum for the open exchange of topical information and for stimulating discussion on novel concepts and future prospects of nanoscience and quantum physics. There were a total of 118 papers including 34 invited papers. This nanoPHYS'11 is the fourth symposium of this kind organized by the Tokyo Institute of Technology. Topics focused on in the symposium included: Category 1: Novel nanostructure (Nanowires, Nanotubes, Spin-related structure, etc) Category 2: Novel transport and electronic properties (Graphene, Topological insulators, Coherent control, etc) Category 3: Electronic and optical properties of nanostructure Category 4: Fundamental physics and new concept in quantum physics Category 5: Quantum Physics - Quantum information Category 6: Quantum Physics - Nuclear and Hadron Physics Category 7: Quantum Physics - Astrophysics, etc All the papers submitted to this issue have been reviewed under a stringent refereeing process, according to the normal rules of this Journal. The editors are grateful to all the

  18. Efficiency Enhancement of Silicon Heterojunction Solar Cells via Photon Management Using Graphene Quantum Dot as Downconverters

    KAUST Repository

    Tsai, Meng-Lin

    2015-12-16

    By employing graphene quantum dots (GQDs), we have achieved a high efficiency of 16.55% in n-type Si heterojunction solar cells. The efficiency enhancement is based on the photon downconversion phenomenon of GQDs to make more photons absorbed in the depletion region for effective carrier separation, leading to the enhanced photovoltaic effect. The short circuit current and the fill factor are increased from 35.31 to 37.47 mA/cm2 and 70.29% to 72.51%, respectively. The work demonstrated here holds the promise for incorporating graphene-based materials in commercially available solar devices for developing ultra-high efficiency photovoltaic cells in the future.

  19. Efficiency Enhancement of Silicon Heterojunction Solar Cells via Photon Management Using Graphene Quantum Dot as Downconverters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Meng-Lin; Tu, Wei-Chen; Tang, Libin; Wei, Tzu-Chiao; Wei, Wan-Rou; Lau, Shu Ping; Chen, Lih-Juann; He, Jr-Hau

    2016-01-13

    By employing graphene quantum dots (GQDs), we have achieved a high efficiency of 16.55% in n-type Si heterojunction solar cells. The efficiency enhancement is based on the photon downconversion phenomenon of GQDs to make more photons absorbed in the depletion region for effective carrier separation, leading to the enhanced photovoltaic effect. The short circuit current and the fill factor are increased from 35.31 to 37.47 mA/cm(2) and 70.29% to 72.51%, respectively. The work demonstrated here holds the promise for incorporating graphene-based materials in commercially available solar devices for developing ultrahigh efficiency photovoltaic cells in the future.

  20. Achieving the classical Carnot efficiency in a strongly coupled quantum heat engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Y. Y.; Chen, B.; Liu, J.

    2018-02-01

    Generally, the efficiency of a heat engine strongly coupled with a heat bath is less than the classical Carnot efficiency. Through a model-independent method, we show that the classical Carnot efficiency is achieved in a strongly coupled quantum heat engine. First, we present the first law of quantum thermodynamics in strong coupling. Then, we show how to achieve the Carnot cycle and the classical Carnot efficiency at strong coupling. We find that this classical Carnot efficiency stems from the fact that the heat released in a nonequilibrium process is balanced by the absorbed heat. We also analyze the restrictions in the achievement of the Carnot cycle. The first restriction is that there must be two corresponding intervals of the controllable parameter in which the corresponding entropies of the work substance at the hot and cold temperatures are equal, and the second is that the entropy of the initial and final states in a nonequilibrium process must be equal. Through these restrictions, we obtain the positive work conditions, including the usual one in which the hot temperature should be higher than the cold, and a new one in which there must be an entropy interval at the hot temperature overlapping that at the cold. We demonstrate our result through a paradigmatic model—a two-level system in which a work substance strongly interacts with a heat bath. In this model, we find that the efficiency may abruptly decrease to zero due to the first restriction, and that the second restriction results in the control scheme becoming complex.

  1. Development of III-Sb Quantum Dot Systems for High Efficiency Intermediate Band Solar Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huffaker, Diana [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Hubbard, Seth [Rochester Inst. of Technology, NY (United States); Norman, Andrew [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-07-31

    This project aimed to develop solar cells that can help reduce cost per watt. This work focused on developing solar cells that utilize quantum dot (QD) nanomaterials to provide multijunction solar cell efficiency at the cost of single junction solar cell. We focused on a novel concept known as intermediate band solar cells (IBSC) where an additional energy band is inserted in a single solar cell to accommodate sub-bandgap photons absorption which otherwise are lost through transmission. The additional energy band can be achieved by growing QDs within a solar cell p-n junction. Though numerous studies have been conducted to develop such QD systems, very small improvements in solar energy conversion efficiency have been reported. This is mainly due to non-optimal material parameters such as band gap, band offset etc. In this work, we identified and developed a novel QD material system that meets the requirements of IBSC more closely than the current state-of-the-art technology. To achieve these goals, we focused on three important areas of solar cell design: band structure calculations of new materials, efficient device design for high efficiency, and development of new semiconductor materials. In this project, we focused on III-Sb materials as they possess a wide range of energy bandgaps from 0.2 eV to 2eV. Despite the difficulty involved in realizing these materials, we were successfully developed these materials through a systematic approach. Materials studied in this work are AlAsSb (Aluminum Arsenide Antimonide), InAlAs (Indium Aluminum Arsenide) and InAs (Indium Arsenide). InAs was used to develop QD layers within AlAsSb and InAlAs p-n junctions. As the QDs have very small volume, up to 30 QD layers been inserted into the p-n junction to enhance light absorption. These QD multi-stack devices helped in understanding the challenges associated with the development of quantum dot solar cells. The results from this work show that the quantum dot solar cells indeed

  2. High-Efficiency Colloidal Quantum Dot Photovoltaics via Robust Self-Assembled Monolayers

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Gi-Hwan

    2015-11-11

    © 2015 American Chemical Society. The optoelectronic tunability offered by colloidal quantum dots (CQDs) is attractive for photovoltaic applications but demands proper band alignment at electrodes for efficient charge extraction at minimal cost to voltage. With this goal in mind, self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) can be used to modify interface energy levels locally. However, to be effective SAMs must be made robust to treatment using the various solvents and ligands required for to fabricate high quality CQD solids. We report robust self-assembled monolayers (R-SAMs) that enable us to increase the efficiency of CQD photovoltaics. Only by developing a process for secure anchoring of aromatic SAMs, aided by deposition of the SAMs in a water-free deposition environment, were we able to provide an interface modification that was robust against the ensuing chemical treatments needed in the fabrication of CQD solids. The energy alignment at the rectifying interface was tailored by tuning the R-SAM for optimal alignment relative to the CQD quantum-confined electron energy levels. This resulted in a CQD PV record power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 10.7% with enhanced reproducibility relative to controls.

  3. Layer-by-layer assembly of multicolored semiconductor quantum dots towards efficient blue, green, red and full color optical films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jun; Li Qian; Di Xiaowei; Liu Zhiliang; Xu Gang

    2008-01-01

    Multicolored semiconductor quantum dots have shown great promise for construction of miniaturized light-emitting diodes with compact size, low weight and cost, and high luminescent efficiency. The unique size-dependent luminescent property of quantum dots offers the feasibility of constructing single-color or full-color output light-emitting diodes with one type of material. In this paper, we have demonstrated the facile fabrication of blue-, green-, red- and full-color-emitting semiconductor quantum dot optical films via a layer-by-layer assembly technique. The optical films were constructed by alternative deposition of different colored quantum dots with a series of oppositely charged species, in particular, the new use of cationic starch on glass substrates. Semiconductor ZnSe quantum dots exhibiting blue emission were deposited for fabrication of blue-emitting optical films, while semiconductor CdTe quantum dots with green and red emission were utilized for construction of green- and red-emitting optical films. The assembly of integrated blue, green and red semiconductor quantum dots resulted in full-color-emitting optical films. The luminescent optical films showed very bright emitting colors under UV irradiation, and displayed dense, smooth and efficient luminous features, showing brighter luminescence in comparison with their corresponding quantum dot aqueous colloid solutions. The assembled optical films provide the prospect of miniaturized light-emitting-diode applications.

  4. Hardware-efficient bosonic quantum error-correcting codes based on symmetry operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Murphy Yuezhen; Chuang, Isaac L.; Shapiro, Jeffrey H.

    2018-03-01

    We establish a symmetry-operator framework for designing quantum error-correcting (QEC) codes based on fundamental properties of the underlying system dynamics. Based on this framework, we propose three hardware-efficient bosonic QEC codes that are suitable for χ(2 )-interaction based quantum computation in multimode Fock bases: the χ(2 ) parity-check code, the χ(2 ) embedded error-correcting code, and the χ(2 ) binomial code. All of these QEC codes detect photon-loss or photon-gain errors by means of photon-number parity measurements, and then correct them via χ(2 ) Hamiltonian evolutions and linear-optics transformations. Our symmetry-operator framework provides a systematic procedure for finding QEC codes that are not stabilizer codes, and it enables convenient extension of a given encoding to higher-dimensional qudit bases. The χ(2 ) binomial code is of special interest because, with m ≤N identified from channel monitoring, it can correct m -photon-loss errors, or m -photon-gain errors, or (m -1 )th -order dephasing errors using logical qudits that are encoded in O (N ) photons. In comparison, other bosonic QEC codes require O (N2) photons to correct the same degree of bosonic errors. Such improved photon efficiency underscores the additional error-correction power that can be provided by channel monitoring. We develop quantum Hamming bounds for photon-loss errors in the code subspaces associated with the χ(2 ) parity-check code and the χ(2 ) embedded error-correcting code, and we prove that these codes saturate their respective bounds. Our χ(2 ) QEC codes exhibit hardware efficiency in that they address the principal error mechanisms and exploit the available physical interactions of the underlying hardware, thus reducing the physical resources required for implementing their encoding, decoding, and error-correction operations, and their universal encoded-basis gate sets.

  5. Quantum efficiency test set up performances for NIR detector characterization at ESTEC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouzet, P.-E.; Duvet, L.; De Wit, F.; Beaufort, T.; Blommaert, S.; Butler, B.; Van Duinkerken, G.; ter Haar, J.; Heijnen, J.; van der Luijt, K.; Smit, H.; Viale, T.

    2014-07-01

    The Payload Technology Validation Section (Future mission preparation Office) at ESTEC is in charge of specific mission oriented validation activities, for science and robotic exploration missions, aiming at reducing development risks in the implementation phase. These activities take place during the early mission phases or during the implementation itself. In this framework, a test set up to characterize the quantum efficiency of near infrared detectors has been developed. The first detector to be tested will an HAWAII-2RG detector with a 2.5μm cut off, it will be used as commissioning device in preparation to the tests of prototypes European detectors developed under ESA funding. The capability to compare on the same setup detectors from different manufacturers will be a unique asset for the future mission preparation office. This publication presents the performances of the quantum efficiency test bench to prepare measurements on the HAWAII-2RG detector. A SOFRADIR Saturn detector has been used as a preliminary test vehicle for the bench. A test set up with a lamp, chopper, monochromator, pinhole and off axis mirrors allows to create a spot of 1mm diameter between 700nm and 2.5μm.The shape of the beam has been measured to match the rms voltage read by the Merlin Lock -in amplifier and the amplitude of the incoming signal. The reference detectors have been inter-calibrated with an uncertainty up to 3 %. For the measurement with HAWAII-2RG detector, the existing cryostat [1] has been modified to adapt cold black baffling, a cold filter wheel and a sapphire window. An statistic uncertainty of +/-2.6% on the quantum efficiency on the detector under test measurement is expected.

  6. PREFACE: XXIII International Conference on Integrable Systems and Quantum Symmetries (ISQS-23)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdík, Čestmír; Navrátil, Ondřej; Pošta, Severin

    2016-01-01

    The XXIII International Conference on Integrable Systems and Quantum Symmetries (ISQS-23), organized by the Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Nuclear Sciences and Physical Engineering, Czech Technical University Prague and the Bogoliubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics of the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, belongs to the successful series of conferences held at the Czech Technical University which began in 1992 and is devoted to problems of mathematical physics related to the theory of integrable systems, quantum groups and quantum symmetries. During the last 20 years, each of the conferences gathered around 60 scientists from all over the world. 56 papers of plenary lectures and contributions presented at ISQS-23 are published in the present issue of Journal of Physics: Conference Series.

  7. FOREWORD: XXIst International Conference on Integrable Systems and Quantum Symmetries (ISQS21)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdik, Cestmir; Navratil, Ondrej; Posta, Severin

    2013-11-01

    The XXIst International Conference on Integrable Systems and Quantum symmetries (ISQS-21), organized by the Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Nuclear Sciences and Physical Engineering, Czech Technical University Prague and the Bogoliubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics of the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, belongs to the successful series of conferences held at the Czech Technical University which began in 1992 and is devoted to problems of mathematical physics related to the theory of integrable systems, quantum groups and quantum symmetries. During the last 20 years, each of the conferences gathered around 60 scientists from all over the world. 36 of plenary lectures and contributions presented at ISQS-21 are published in this volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series. Cestmir Burdik, Ondrej Navratil, Severin Posta Editors

  8. XXIV International Conference on Integrable Systems and Quantum symmetries (ISQS-24)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdík, Čestmír; Navrátil, Ondřej; Posta, Severin

    2017-01-01

    The XXIV International Conference on Integrable Systems and Quantum Symmetries (ISQS-24), organized by the Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Nuclear Sciences and Physical Engineering, Czech Technical University Prague and the Bogoliubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics of the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, belongs to the successful series of conferences held at the Czech Technical University which began in 1992 and is devoted to problems of mathematical physics related to the theory of integrable systems, quantum groups and quantum symmetries. During the last 5 years, each of the conferences gathered around 110 scientists from all over the world. 43 papers of plenary lectures and contributions presented at ISQS-24 are published in the present issue of Journal of Physics: Conference Series.

  9. FOREWORD: XXth International Conference on Integrable Systems and Quantum Symmetries (ISQS-20)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdík, Čestmír; Navrátil, Ondřej; Pošta, Severin

    2013-01-01

    The XXth International Conference on Integrable Systems and Quantum Symmetries (ISQS-20), organized by the Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Nuclear Sciences and Physical Engineering, Czech Technical University, Prague, and the Bogoliubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics of the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, is part of the successful series of conferences held at the Czech Technical University which began in 1992, and is devoted to problems of mathematical physics related to the theory of integrable systems, quantum groups and quantum symmetries. During the last 20 years each of these conferences has gathered around 60 scientists from all over the world. 31 plenary lectures and contributions presented at ISQS-20 are published in this volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series. Guest Editors Čestmír Burdík, Ondřej Navrátil and Severin Pošta

  10. PREFACE: XXII International Conference on Integrable Systems and Quantum Symmetries (ISQS-22)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    The XXII International Conference on Integrable Systems and Quantum symmetries (ISQS-22), organized by the Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Nuclear Sciences and Physical Engineering, Czech Technical University Prague and the Bogoliubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics of the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, belongs to the successful series of conferences held at the Czech Technical University which began in 1992 and is devoted to problems of mathematical physics related to the theory of integrable systems, quantum groups and quantum symmetries. During the last 20 years, each of the conferences gathered around 60 scientists from all over the world. 33 papers of plenary lectures and contributions presented at ISQS-22 are published in the present issue of Journal of Physics: Conference Series. Čestmír Burdík, Ondřej Navrátil, Severin Pošta Editors

  11. Microwave-Assisted Ignition for Improved Internal Combustion Engine Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFilippo, Anthony Cesar

    The ever-present need for reducing greenhouse gas emissions associated with transportation motivates this investigation of a novel ignition technology for internal combustion engine applications. Advanced engines can achieve higher efficiencies and reduced emissions by operating in regimes with diluted fuel-air mixtures and higher compression ratios, but the range of stable engine operation is constrained by combustion initiation and flame propagation when dilution levels are high. An advanced ignition technology that reliably extends the operating range of internal combustion engines will aid practical implementation of the next generation of high-efficiency engines. This dissertation contributes to next-generation ignition technology advancement by experimentally analyzing a prototype technology as well as developing a numerical model for the chemical processes governing microwave-assisted ignition. The microwave-assisted spark plug under development by Imagineering, Inc. of Japan has previously been shown to expand the stable operating range of gasoline-fueled engines through plasma-assisted combustion, but the factors limiting its operation were not well characterized. The present experimental study has two main goals. The first goal is to investigate the capability of the microwave-assisted spark plug towards expanding the stable operating range of wet-ethanol-fueled engines. The stability range is investigated by examining the coefficient of variation of indicated mean effective pressure as a metric for instability, and indicated specific ethanol consumption as a metric for efficiency. The second goal is to examine the factors affecting the extent to which microwaves enhance ignition processes. The factors impacting microwave enhancement of ignition processes are individually examined, using flame development behavior as a key metric in determining microwave effectiveness. Further development of practical combustion applications implementing microwave

  12. Efficient quantum secret sharing scheme with two-particle entangled states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Zhen-Chao; Fu An-Min; Zhang Yu-Qing

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes a protocol for multi-party quantum secret sharing utilizing four non-orthogonal two-particle entangled states following some ideas in the schemes proposed by Liu et al. (2006 Chin. Phys. Lett. 23 3148) and Zhang et al. (2009 Chin. Phys. B 18 2149) respectively. The theoretical efficiency for qubits of the new protocol is improved from 50% to approaching 100%. All the entangled states can be used for generating the private key except those used for the eavesdropping check. The validity of a probable attack called opaque cheat attack to this kind of protocols is considered in the paper for the first time. (general)

  13. Practical expressions describing detective quantum efficiency in flat-panel detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H. K.

    2011-11-01

    In radiology, image quality excellence is a balance between system performance and patient dose, hence x-ray systems must be designed to ensure the maximum image quality is obtained for the lowest consistent dose. The concept of detective quantum efficiency (DQE) is widely used to quantify, understand, measure, and predict the performance of x-ray detectors and imaging systems. Cascaded linear-systems theory can be used to estimate DQE based on the system design parameters and this theoretical DQE can be utilized for determining the impact of various physical processes, such as secondary quantum sinks, noise aliasing, reabsorption noise, and others. However, the prediction of DQE usually requires tremendous efforts to determine each parameter consisting of the cascaded linear-systems model. In this paper, practical DQE formalisms assessing both the photoconductor- and scintillator-based flat-panel detectors under quantum-noise-limited operation are described. The developed formalisms are experimentally validated and discussed for their limits. The formalisms described in this paper would be helpful for the rapid prediction of the DQE performances of developing systems as well as the optimal design of systems.

  14. Quantum Dots in Two-Dimensional Perovskite Matrices for Efficient Near-Infrared Light Emission

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Zhenyu

    2017-03-13

    Quantum-dot-in-perovskite solids are excellent candidates for infrared light-emitting applications. The first generation of dot-in-perovskite light-emitting diodes (LEDs) has shown bright infrared electroluminescence with tunable emission wavelength; however, their performance has been limited by degradation of the active layer at practical operating voltages. This arises from the instability of the three-dimensional (3D) organolead halide perovskite matrix. Herein we report the first dot-in-perovskite solids that employ two-dimensional (2D) perovskites as the matrix. 2D perovskite passivation is achieved via an in situ alkylammonium/alkylamine substitution carried out during the quantum dot (QD) ligand exchange process. This single-step film preparation process enables deposition of the QD/perovskite active layers with thicknesses of 40 nm, over seven times thinner than the first-generation dot-in-perovskite thin films that relied on a multistep synthesis. The dot-in-perovskite film roughness improved from 31 nm for the first-generation films to 3 nm for films as a result of this new approach. The best devices exhibit external quantum efficiency peaks exceeding 2% and radiances of ∼1 W sr–1 m–2, with an improved breakdown voltage up to 7.5 V. Compared to first-generation dot-in-perovskites, this new process reduces materials consumptions 10-fold and represents a promising step toward manufacturable devices.

  15. Highly efficient luminescent solar concentrators based on earth-abundant indirect-bandgap silicon quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinardi, Francesco; Ehrenberg, Samantha; Dhamo, Lorena; Carulli, Francesco; Mauri, Michele; Bruni, Francesco; Simonutti, Roberto; Kortshagen, Uwe; Brovelli, Sergio

    2017-02-01

    Building-integrated photovoltaics is gaining consensus as a renewable energy technology for producing electricity at the point of use. Luminescent solar concentrators (LSCs) could extend architectural integration to the urban environment by realizing electrode-less photovoltaic windows. Crucial for large-area LSCs is the suppression of reabsorption losses, which requires emitters with negligible overlap between their absorption and emission spectra. Here, we demonstrate the use of indirect-bandgap semiconductor nanostructures such as highly emissive silicon quantum dots. Silicon is non-toxic, low-cost and ultra-earth-abundant, which avoids the limitations to the industrial scaling of quantum dots composed of low-abundance elements. Suppressed reabsorption and scattering losses lead to nearly ideal LSCs with an optical efficiency of η = 2.85%, matching state-of-the-art semi-transparent LSCs. Monte Carlo simulations indicate that optimized silicon quantum dot LSCs have a clear path to η > 5% for 1 m2 devices. We are finally able to realize flexible LSCs with performances comparable to those of flat concentrators, which opens the way to a new design freedom for building-integrated photovoltaics elements.

  16. The role of Internal electric fields in III-N quantum structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perlin, P.; Lepkowski, S.P.; Teisseyre, H.; Suski, T.

    2001-01-01

    Binary nitrides: of wurtzite GaN, AlN, InN, and their solid solutions represent family of semiconductors of crucial importance for modern optoelectronics. Strained quantum wells, like GaN/AlGaN and specially InGaN/GaN, from active layers of the light emitters working in green-UV part of spectrum. The operation of these devices strongly depends on the emission spectra of considered quantum structures which are greatly influenced by the presence of built-in electric fields. The electric field acting via quantum confined Stark effect in the mentioned structures changes the energies and intensity of the emitted light. The effect can lead to the spectral shift of a photo- and electroluminescence by many hundreds of MeV. In this review we will briefly cover the influence of internal electric fields on both optical and electrical properties of nitride based heterostructures and quantum wells. We would like to draw reader's attention to the usefulness of high-pressure investigation in the study of electric fields in nitrides and to show the interpretation of these experiments influences the way we calculate the electric fields in the quantum structures. (author)

  17. Improving the optical efficiency and concentration of a single-plate quantum dot solar concentrator using near infra-red emitting quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, M.; McCormack, S.J.; Doran, J.; Norton, B. [Dublin Energy Lab., Dublin Institute of Technology, Focas Institute, DIT - Kevin Street, Dublin 8, Dublin (Ireland)

    2009-07-15

    Low luminescent quantum yields and large overlap between quantum dot (QD) emission and absorption spectra of present commercially-available visible-emitting QDs have led to low optical efficiencies for single-plate quantum dot solar concentrators (QDSCs). It is shown that using near infra-red (NIR) emitting QDs, re-absorption of QD emitted photons can be reduced greatly, thereby diminishing escape cone losses thus improving optical efficiencies and concentration ratios. Using Monte-Carlo ray-trace modelling, escape cone losses are quantified for different types of QD. A minimum 25% escape cone loss would be expected for a plate with refractive index of 1.5 containing QDs with no spectral overlap. It is shown that escape cone losses account for {proportional_to}57% of incident photons absorbed in QDSCs containing commercially-available visible-emitting QDs. (author)

  18. Combining neural networks and signed particles to simulate quantum systems more efficiently

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellier, Jean Michel

    2018-04-01

    Recently a new formulation of quantum mechanics has been suggested which describes systems by means of ensembles of classical particles provided with a sign. This novel approach mainly consists of two steps: the computation of the Wigner kernel, a multi-dimensional function describing the effects of the potential over the system, and the field-less evolution of the particles which eventually create new signed particles in the process. Although this method has proved to be extremely advantageous in terms of computational resources - as a matter of fact it is able to simulate in a time-dependent fashion many-body systems on relatively small machines - the Wigner kernel can represent the bottleneck of simulations of certain systems. Moreover, storing the kernel can be another issue as the amount of memory needed is cursed by the dimensionality of the system. In this work, we introduce a new technique which drastically reduces the computation time and memory requirement to simulate time-dependent quantum systems which is based on the use of an appropriately tailored neural network combined with the signed particle formalism. In particular, the suggested neural network is able to compute efficiently and reliably the Wigner kernel without any training as its entire set of weights and biases is specified by analytical formulas. As a consequence, the amount of memory for quantum simulations radically drops since the kernel does not need to be stored anymore as it is now computed by the neural network itself, only on the cells of the (discretized) phase-space which are occupied by particles. As its is clearly shown in the final part of this paper, not only this novel approach drastically reduces the computational time, it also remains accurate. The author believes this work opens the way towards effective design of quantum devices, with incredible practical implications.

  19. Efficient and bright colloidal quantum dot light-emitting diodes via controlling the shell thickness of quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Huaibin; Lin, Qinli; Wang, Hongzhe; Qian, Lei; Yang, Yixing; Titov, Alexandre; Hyvonen, Jake; Zheng, Ying; Li, Lin Song

    2013-11-27

    In this paper, we use a simple device architecture based on solution-processed ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) as the electron injection/transport layer and bilayer structure of poly(ethylenedioxythiophene):polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS)/poly[9,9-dioctylfluorene-co-N-[4-(3-methylpropyl)]-diphenylamine] (TFB) as the hole injection/transport layer to assess the effect of shell thickness on the properties of quantum-dot-based light emitting diodes (QD-LEDs), comprising CdSe/CdS/ZnS core-shell QDs as the emitting layer. QDs with varying shell thickness were assessed to determine the best option of shell thickness, and the best improvement in device performance was observed when the shell thickness was 2.1 nm. Thereafter, different emissions of QDs, but with optimized same shell thickness (∼2.1 nm), were selected as emitters to be fabricated into same structured QD-LEDs. Highly bright orange-red and green QD-LEDs with peak luminances up to ∼30 000 and ∼52 000 cd m(-2), and power efficiencies of 16 and 19.7 lm W(-1), respectively, were demonstrated successfully. These results may demonstrate a striking basic prototype for the commercialization of QD-based displays and solid-state lightings.

  20. Quantum dots in photocatalytic applications: efficiently enhancing visible light photocatalytic activity by integrating CdO quantum dots as sensitizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reshak, A H

    2017-09-20

    The amalgamation of a wide optical band gap photocatalyst with visible-light-active CdO quantum dots (QDs) as sensitizers is one of the most efficient ways to improve photocatalytic performance under visible light irradiation. The photocatalytic performance of cadmium benzoate ((Cd(C 7 H 5 O 2 ) 2 ) 3 (CH 3 CN) 1 ) is comprehensively investigated. The estimated optical band gap of cadmium benzoate is 2.64 eV and the EPc and EPv are about -0.09 V (vs. NHE) and +2.55 V (vs. NHE), respectively, which implies that cadmium benzoate possesses a high negative reduction potential of excited electrons due to its higher conduction band position, and hence, the locations of the conduction band minimum and the valence band maximum meet the redox capacity. Thus, this composite photocatalyst exhibits superior activity in visible-light-driven photocatalytic H 2 evolution. We found that introducing the QDs enhance the photocatalytic performance towards the visible light region. The electronic band structure shows high k-dispersion bands around the Fermi level, which implies low effective masses, and hence, the high mobility carriers favor the enhancement of the charge transfer process. The mobility of the photogenerated carriers significantly influences the photocatalytic efficiency and the higher photogenerated carriers' mobility enhances the photocatalytic performance. Moreover, the result shows a great effective mass difference between electrons (e - ) and holes (h + ), which can facilitate the e - and h + migration and separation, and finally improve the photocatalytic performance. The large mobility difference is useful for the separation of e - and h + , the reduction of the e - and h + recombination rate, and the improvement of the photocatalytic activity. Thus, cadmium benzoate exhibits rapid generation of e - -h + pairs with photoexcitation and a high negative reduction potential of excited electrons due to its higher CB position. Based on these results one can conclude

  1. Quantum

    CERN Document Server

    Al-Khalili, Jim

    2003-01-01

    In this lively look at quantum science, a physicist takes you on an entertaining and enlightening journey through the basics of subatomic physics. Along the way, he examines the paradox of quantum mechanics--beautifully mathematical in theory but confoundingly unpredictable in the real world. Marvel at the Dual Slit experiment as a tiny atom passes through two separate openings at the same time. Ponder the peculiar communication of quantum particles, which can remain in touch no matter how far apart. Join the genius jewel thief as he carries out a quantum measurement on a diamond without ever touching the object in question. Baffle yourself with the bizzareness of quantum tunneling, the equivalent of traveling partway up a hill, only to disappear then reappear traveling down the opposite side. With its clean, colorful layout and conversational tone, this text will hook you into the conundrum that is quantum mechanics.

  2. High-Efficiency InGaN/GaN Quantum Well-Based Vertical Light-Emitting Diodes Fabricated on β-Ga2O3 Substrate

    KAUST Repository

    Muhammed, Mufasila

    2017-09-11

    We demonstrate a state-of-the-art high-efficiency GaN-based vertical light-emitting diode (VLED) grown on a transparent and conductive (-201)-oriented (β-Ga2O3) substrate, obtained using a straightforward growth process that does not require a high cost lift-off technique or complex fabrication process. The high-resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) images confirm that we produced high quality upper layers, including a multi-quantum well (MQW) grown on the masked β-Ga2O3 substrate. STEM imaging also shows a well-defined MQW without InN diffusion into the barrier. Electroluminescence (EL) measurements at room temperature indicate that we achieved a very high internal quantum efficiency (IQE) of 78%; at lower temperatures, IQE reaches ~ 86%. The photoluminescence (PL) and time-resolved PL analysis indicate that, at a high carrier injection density, the emission is dominated by radiative recombination with a negligible Auger effect; no quantum-confined Stark effect is observed. At low temperatures, no efficiency droop is observed at a high carrier injection density, indicating the superior VLED structure obtained without lift-off processing, which is cost-effective for large-scale devices.

  3. Efficient quantum-classical method for computing thermal rate constant of recombination: application to ozone formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Mikhail V; Babikov, Dmitri

    2012-05-14

    Efficient method is proposed for computing thermal rate constant of recombination reaction that proceeds according to the energy transfer mechanism, when an energized molecule is formed from reactants first, and is stabilized later by collision with quencher. The mixed quantum-classical theory for the collisional energy transfer and the ro-vibrational energy flow [M. Ivanov and D. Babikov, J. Chem. Phys. 134, 144107 (2011)] is employed to treat the dynamics of molecule + quencher collision. Efficiency is achieved by sampling simultaneously (i) the thermal collision energy, (ii) the impact parameter, and (iii) the incident direction of quencher, as well as (iv) the rotational state of energized molecule. This approach is applied to calculate third-order rate constant of the recombination reaction that forms the (16)O(18)O(16)O isotopomer of ozone. Comparison of the predicted rate vs. experimental result is presented.

  4. Simple formalism for efficient derivatives and multi-determinant expansions in quantum Monte Carlo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filippi, Claudia, E-mail: c.filippi@utwente.nl [MESA+ Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands); Assaraf, Roland, E-mail: assaraf@lct.jussieu.fr [Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, CNRS, Laboratoire de Chimie Théorique CC 137-4, place Jussieu F-75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Moroni, Saverio, E-mail: moroni@democritos.it [CNR-IOM DEMOCRITOS, Istituto Officina dei Materiali, and SISSA Scuola Internazionale Superiore di Studi Avanzati, Via Bonomea 265, I-34136 Trieste (Italy)

    2016-05-21

    We present a simple and general formalism to compute efficiently the derivatives of a multi-determinant Jastrow-Slater wave function, the local energy, the interatomic forces, and similar quantities needed in quantum Monte Carlo. Through a straightforward manipulation of matrices evaluated on the occupied and virtual orbitals, we obtain an efficiency equivalent to algorithmic differentiation in the computation of the interatomic forces and the optimization of the orbital parameters. Furthermore, for a large multi-determinant expansion, the significant computational gain afforded by a recently introduced table method is here extended to the local value of any one-body operator and to its derivatives, in both all-electron and pseudopotential calculations.

  5. Efficient dipolar double quantum filtering under magic angle spinning without a (1)H decoupling field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtney, Joseph M; Rienstra, Chad M

    2016-08-01

    We present a systematic study of dipolar double quantum (DQ) filtering in (13)C-labeled organic solids over a range of magic-angle spinning rates, using the SPC-n recoupling sequence element with a range of n symmetry values from 3 to 11. We find that efficient recoupling can be achieved for values n⩾7, provided that the (13)C nutation frequency is on the order of 100kHz or greater. The decoupling-field dependence was investigated and explicit heteronuclear decoupling interference conditions identified. The major determinant of DQ filtering efficiency is the decoupling interference between (13)C and (1)H fields. For (13)C nutation frequencies greater than 75kHz, optimal performance is observed without an applied (1)H field. At spinning rates exceeding 20kHz, symmetry conditions as low as n=3 were found to perform adequately. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Simple formalism for efficient derivatives and multi-determinant expansions in quantum Monte Carlo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippi, Claudia; Assaraf, Roland; Moroni, Saverio

    2016-05-21

    We present a simple and general formalism to compute efficiently the derivatives of a multi-determinant Jastrow-Slater wave function, the local energy, the interatomic forces, and similar quantities needed in quantum Monte Carlo. Through a straightforward manipulation of matrices evaluated on the occupied and virtual orbitals, we obtain an efficiency equivalent to algorithmic differentiation in the computation of the interatomic forces and the optimization of the orbital parameters. Furthermore, for a large multi-determinant expansion, the significant computational gain afforded by a recently introduced table method is here extended to the local value of any one-body operator and to its derivatives, in both all-electron and pseudopotential calculations.

  7. An energy and cost efficient majority-based RAM cell in quantum-dot cellular automata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosroshahy, Milad Bagherian; Moaiyeri, Mohammad Hossein; Navi, Keivan; Bagherzadeh, Nader

    Nanotechnologies, notably quantum-dot cellular automata, have achieved major attentions for their prominent features as compared to the conventional CMOS circuitry. Quantum-dot cellular automata, particularly owning to its considerable reduction in size, high switching speed and ultra-low energy consumption, is considered as a potential alternative for the CMOS technology. As the memory unit is one of the most essential components in a digital system, designing a well-optimized QCA random access memory (RAM) cell is an important area of research. In this paper, a new five-input majority gate is presented which is suitable for implementing efficient single-layer QCA circuits. In addition, a new RAM cell with set and reset capabilities is designed based on the proposed majority gate, which has an efficient and low-energy structure. The functionality, performance and energy consumption of the proposed designs are evaluated based on the QCADesigner and QCAPro tools. According to the simulation results, the proposed RAM design leads to on average 38% lower total energy dissipation, 25% smaller area, 20% lower cell count, 28% lower delay and 60% lower QCA cost as compared to its previous counterparts.

  8. Enhanced and tunable optical quantum efficiencies from plasmon bandwidth engineering in bimetallic CoAg nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Malasi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Plasmonic nanoparticles are amongst the most effective ways to resonantly couple optical energy into and out of nanometer sized volumes. However, controlling and/or tuning the transfer of this incident energy to the surrounding near and far field is one of the most interesting challenges in this area. Due to the dielectric properties of metallic silver (Ag, its nanoparticles have amongst the highest radiative quantum efficiencies (η, i.e., the ability to radiatively transfer the incident energy to the surrounding. Here we report the discovery that bimetallic nanoparticles of Ag made with immiscible and plasmonically weak Co metal can show comparable and/or even higher η values. The enhancement is a result of the narrowing of the plasmon bandwidth from these bimetal systems. The phenomenological explanation of this effect based on the dipolar approximation points to the reduction in radiative losses within the Ag nanoparticles when in contact with cobalt. This is also supported by a model of coupling between poor and good conductors based on the surface to volume ratio. This study presents a new type of bandwidth engineering, one based on using bimetal nanostructures, to tune and/or enhance the quality factor and quantum efficiency for near and far-field plasmonic applications.

  9. Exterior gauging of an internal supersymmetry and SU(2/1) quantum asthenodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thierry-Mieg, J; Ne'eman, Y

    1982-11-01

    A formally unitary Lagrangian model gauging an internal supersymmetry is proposed. The even subalgebra is gauged as a Yang-Mills theory, while the odd generators are gauged-according to Freedman's method-by skew tensor fields, equivalent dynamically to scalar Higgs fields. Chiral fermions are incorporated by following Townsend's construction and form irreducible supermultiplets graded by their helicity. The application to quantum asthenodynamics is discussed.

  10. Quantum Theory for a Total System with One Internal Measuring Apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wen-Ge

    2011-03-01

    We propose a quantum theory for a total system including one internal measuring apparatus. The theory is based on three basic assumptions and a principle termed the principle of compatible description (PCD). The assumptions are: (i) Physical states of the total system can be associated with vectors in the Hilbert space. (ii) Dynamical evolution of a state vector obeys Schrö dinger equation. (iii) For a physical state of the total system described by a pure vector, in which a subsystem may play the role of an internal measuring apparatus, when certain stable condition is satisfied, the pure-vector description may be given a Born-type ensemble interpretation. The PCD states that different descriptions for the same state of the total system must give consistent predictions for results of measurements performed by the internal measuring apparatus. The proposed theory lies at a meeting point of Copenhagen, Everett's relative-state, and consistent-histories interpretations of quantum mechanics. While, it provides something new: For example, the PCD imposes a restriction to vectors that can be associated with physical states, which may effectively break the time-reversal symmetry of Schrödinger equation. As an application of the theory, we derive a condition under which a two-level quantum system may have definite properties, such that it may play the essential role of a measuring apparatus.

  11. Uptake, retention and internalization of quantum dots in Daphnia is influenced by particle surface functionalization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feswick, A., E-mail: afeswick@yahoo.ca [Center for Environmental and Human Toxicology, University of Florida, PO Box 110885, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Canadian Rivers Institute, University of New Brunswick, PO Box 5050, Saint John NB, CA (United States); Griffitt, R.J., E-mail: joe.griffitt@usm.edu [Department of Coastal Sciences, University of Southern Mississippi, 703 East Beach Drive, Ocean Springs, MS 39564 (United States); Siebein, K., E-mail: kerry.siebein@nist.gov [Major Analytical Instrumentation Center, University of Florida, PO Box 116400, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Barber, D.S., E-mail: barberd@vetmed.ufl.edu [Center for Environmental and Human Toxicology, University of Florida, PO Box 110885, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States)

    2013-04-15

    Highlights: ► Daphnia underwent a waterborne exposure of PEG, NH{sub 2} and COOH functionalized quantum dot nanoparticles. ► There was preferential retention of COOH nanoparticles. ► TEM demonstrated that NH{sub 2} and COOH nanoparticles were internalized in cells adjacent to the GI tract. ► This cellular internalization was confirmed using energy dispersive spectroscopy. -- Abstract: Nanomaterials are a diverse group of compounds whose inevitable release into the environment warrants study of the fundamental processes that govern the ingestion, uptake and accumulation in aquatic organisms. Nanomaterials have the ability to transfer to higher trophic levels in aquatic ecosystems, and recent evidence suggests that the surface chemistry of both the nanoparticle and biological membrane can influence uptake kinetics. Therefore, our study investigates the effect of surface functionalization on uptake, internalization and depuration in Daphnia spp. Uncharged (polyethylene glycol; PEG), positively charged (amino-terminated: NH{sub 2}) and negatively charged (carboxyl-modified; COOH) cadmium selenide/zinc sulfide quantum dots were used to monitor ingestion, uptake and depuration of nanometals in Daphnia magna and Ceriodaphnia dubia over 24 h of exposure. These studies demonstrated that particles with higher negative charge (COOH quantum dots) were taken up to a greater extent by Daphnia (259.17 ± 17.70 RFU/20 Daphnia) than either the NH{sub 2} (150.01 ± 18.91) or PEG quantum dots (95.17 ± 9.78), however this is likely related to the functional groups attached to the nanoparticles as there were no real differences in zeta potential. Whole body fluorescence associates well with fluorescent microscopic images obtained at the 24 h timepoint. Confocal and electron microscopic analysis clearly demonstrated that all three types of quantum dots could cross the intestinal epithelial barrier and be translocated to other cells. Upon cessation of exposure, elimination of

  12. Two-step quantum cutting efficiency in Pr3+-Yb3+ codoped KY3F10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, D.; Braud, A.; Doualan, J. L.; Bolaños, W.; Moncorgé, R.; Camy, P.

    2013-11-01

    The efficiency of a two-step quantum cutting (QC) mechanism for solar downconversion via two consecutive energy transfers from Pr3+ to Yb3+ is investigated in Pr3+-Yb3+ codoped KY3F10 crystals. The efficiency of the QC second energy transfer involving the Pr3+ (1G4) and Yb3+ (2F5/2) levels is particularly difficult to determine in a precise manner since these two levels are coupled by reciprocal energy transfer. We present a specific rate equation modeling that accurately describes Pr3+ and Yb3+ dynamics and intensity ratios measured as a function of the Yb3+ concentration. The modeling enables to calculate energy transfer rates for all the processes and shows the competition between the two-step QC mechanism and parasitic processes. The first-step of the QC mechanism is, as expected, particularly efficient reaching 96.9% and is not challenged by competing processes. The second step of the QC, while reaching an intrinsic efficiency of 75.9%, is plagued by backtransfers from Yb3+ (2F5/2) to Pr3+ (1G4) along with efficient concentration quenching mechanisms draining the Yb3+ excited-state. In addition, the investigation of intensity ratios with the Yb3+ concentration shows the importance of energy migration among Yb3+ ions that further enhances the detrimental effect of the Yb3+ quenching processes. As a result, the intrinsic QC efficiency (QCE) of the QC first and second energy transfers increases with the Yb3+ doping level up to 173% in KY3F10: 0.5%Pr3+-20%Yb3+, while the real QCE reduced by migration-assisted quenching processes is only 6.2% in this sample. These results clarify apparently conflicting reports found in the literature showing, on one hand, very high QCEs derived from spectroscopic experiments and, on the other hand, very low efficiency values obtained from integrating sphere measurements.

  13. Efficient-phase-encoding protocols for continuous-variable quantum key distribution using coherent states and postselection

    OpenAIRE

    Namiki, Ryo; Hirano, Takuya

    2006-01-01

    We propose efficient-phase-encoding protocols for continuous-variable quantum key distribution using coherent states and postselection. By these phase encodings, the probability of basis mismatch is reduced and total efficiency is increased. We also propose mixed-state protocols by omitting a part of classical communication steps in the efficient-phase-encoding protocols. The omission implies a reduction of information to an eavesdropper and possibly enhances the security of the protocols. We...

  14. The quantum efficiency and stability of UV and soft x-ray photocathodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremsin, Anton S.; Siegmund, Oswald H. W.

    2005-08-01

    The sensitivity of many detection devices is established by the use photocathodes for the conversion of incoming photons into photoelectrons. The choice of photocathode material is determined by the spectral range where the sensitivity of the device is most important. Alkali halides are very efficient photocathodes in the ultraviolet and soft X-ray wavelength ranges and are widely used in many scientific applications. Although they are relatively stable under short exposure to atmosphere, which substantially simplifies production and handling of detection devices, it was found that their sensitivity can be substantially reduced by intense UV or X-ray irradiation (photocathode's ageing). A detailed study of alkali halide photocathodes efficiency and their ageing under intense UV and X-ray irradiation as well as some methods of increasing the stability are presented. The quantum efficiency of amorphous diamond films were shown to be slightly lower than the efficiency of some alkali halide films, but the chemical and mechanical stability and yet to be confirmed radiation hardness of diamond photocathodes make them very attractive for many UV and soft X-ray applications. Multialkalis and new materials such as GaN, AlGaN, GaAs could be used to extend the sensitivity to longer wavelengths, but require in situ processing in very high vacuum.

  15. Quantum Monte Carlo for large chemical systems: implementing efficient strategies for peta scale platforms and beyond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scemama, Anthony; Caffarel, Michel; Oseret, Emmanuel; Jalby, William

    2013-01-01

    Various strategies to implement efficiently quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) simulations for large chemical systems are presented. These include: (i) the introduction of an efficient algorithm to calculate the computationally expensive Slater matrices. This novel scheme is based on the use of the highly localized character of atomic Gaussian basis functions (not the molecular orbitals as usually done), (ii) the possibility of keeping the memory footprint minimal, (iii) the important enhancement of single-core performance when efficient optimization tools are used, and (iv) the definition of a universal, dynamic, fault-tolerant, and load-balanced framework adapted to all kinds of computational platforms (massively parallel machines, clusters, or distributed grids). These strategies have been implemented in the QMC-Chem code developed at Toulouse and illustrated with numerical applications on small peptides of increasing sizes (158, 434, 1056, and 1731 electrons). Using 10-80 k computing cores of the Curie machine (GENCI-TGCC-CEA, France), QMC-Chem has been shown to be capable of running at the peta scale level, thus demonstrating that for this machine a large part of the peak performance can be achieved. Implementation of large-scale QMC simulations for future exa scale platforms with a comparable level of efficiency is expected to be feasible. (authors)

  16. Utilizing fast multipole expansions for efficient and accurate quantum-classical molecular dynamics simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwörer, Magnus; Lorenzen, Konstantin; Mathias, Gerald; Tavan, Paul, E-mail: paul.tavan@physik.uni-muenchen.de [Lehrstuhl für BioMolekulare Optik, Ludwig–Maximilians Universität München, Oettingenstr. 67, 80538 München (Germany)

    2015-03-14

    Recently, a novel approach to hybrid quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) molecular dynamics (MD) simulations has been suggested [Schwörer et al., J. Chem. Phys. 138, 244103 (2013)]. Here, the forces acting on the atoms are calculated by grid-based density functional theory (DFT) for a solute molecule and by a polarizable molecular mechanics (PMM) force field for a large solvent environment composed of several 10{sup 3}-10{sup 5} molecules as negative gradients of a DFT/PMM hybrid Hamiltonian. The electrostatic interactions are efficiently described by a hierarchical fast multipole method (FMM). Adopting recent progress of this FMM technique [Lorenzen et al., J. Chem. Theory Comput. 10, 3244 (2014)], which particularly entails a strictly linear scaling of the computational effort with the system size, and adapting this revised FMM approach to the computation of the interactions between the DFT and PMM fragments of a simulation system, here, we show how one can further enhance the efficiency and accuracy of such DFT/PMM-MD simulations. The resulting gain of total performance, as measured for alanine dipeptide (DFT) embedded in water (PMM) by the product of the gains in efficiency and accuracy, amounts to about one order of magnitude. We also demonstrate that the jointly parallelized implementation of the DFT and PMM-MD parts of the computation enables the efficient use of high-performance computing systems. The associated software is available online.

  17. Intrinsic retrieval efficiency for quantum memories: A three-dimensional theory of light interaction with an atomic ensemble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gujarati, Tanvi P.; Wu, Yukai; Duan, Luming

    2018-03-01

    Duan-Lukin-Cirac-Zoller quantum repeater protocol, which was proposed to realize long distance quantum communication, requires usage of quantum memories. Atomic ensembles interacting with optical beams based on off-resonant Raman scattering serve as convenient on-demand quantum memories. Here, a complete free space, three-dimensional theory of the associated read and write process for this quantum memory is worked out with the aim of understanding intrinsic retrieval efficiency. We develop a formalism to calculate the transverse mode structure for the signal and the idler photons and use the formalism to study the intrinsic retrieval efficiency under various configurations. The effects of atomic density fluctuations and atomic motion are incorporated by numerically simulating this system for a range of realistic experimental parameters. We obtain results that describe the variation in the intrinsic retrieval efficiency as a function of the memory storage time for skewed beam configuration at a finite temperature, which provides valuable information for optimization of the retrieval efficiency in experiments.

  18. Relativistic coupling of internal and centre of mass dynamics in classical and simple bound quantum mechanical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    E Krause, Dennis; Lee, Inbum

    2017-07-01

    Although special relativity and quantum mechanics revolutionised physics in the early 20th century, the consequences of combining these two theories are still being explored a hundred years later, usually using the formidable theoretical machinery of quantum field theory. However, a formalism accessible to undergraduates has been recently developed which shows how the centre of mass and internal dynamics of classical and quantum systems is relativistically coupled with interesting consequences. Here we explore some of the implications of this coupling, first classically, where we find that the dynamics of the system is time dilated when moving relative to another inertial frame. We then apply the dynamics to a quantum 2-level atom bound in a one-dimensional infinite potential well, and show that the coupling produces collapses and revivals in quantum interference. This example provides an illustration of how the combination of special relativity and quantum mechanics can be studied in situations familiar to most undergraduates.

  19. Fractal stock markets: International evidence of dynamical (in)efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Sergio; Frezza, Massimiliano

    2017-07-01

    The last systemic financial crisis has reawakened the debate on the efficient nature of financial markets, traditionally described as semimartingales. The standard approaches to endow the general notion of efficiency of an empirical content turned out to be somewhat inconclusive and misleading. We propose a topological-based approach to quantify the informational efficiency of a financial time series. The idea is to measure the efficiency by means of the pointwise regularity of a (stochastic) function, given that the signature of a martingale is that its pointwise regularity equals 12. We provide estimates for real financial time series and investigate their (in)efficient behavior by comparing three main stock indexes.

  20. Fractal stock markets: International evidence of dynamical (in)efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Sergio; Frezza, Massimiliano

    2017-07-01

    The last systemic financial crisis has reawakened the debate on the efficient nature of financial markets, traditionally described as semimartingales. The standard approaches to endow the general notion of efficiency of an empirical content turned out to be somewhat inconclusive and misleading. We propose a topological-based approach to quantify the informational efficiency of a financial time series. The idea is to measure the efficiency by means of the pointwise regularity of a (stochastic) function, given that the signature of a martingale is that its pointwise regularity equals 1/2 . We provide estimates for real financial time series and investigate their (in)efficient behavior by comparing three main stock indexes.

  1. PREFACE: Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Quantum Simulators and Design (Tokyo, Japan, 31 May-3 June 2008) Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Quantum Simulators and Design (Tokyo, Japan, 31 May-3 June 2008)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akai, Hisazumi; Tsuneyuki, Shinji

    2009-02-01

    This special issue of Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter comprises selected papers from the proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Quantum Simulators and Design (QSD2008) held in Tokyo, Japan, between 31 May and 3 June 2008. This conference was organized under the auspices of the Development of New Quantum Simulators and Quantum Design Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research on Priority Areas, Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan (MEXT). The conference focused on the development of first principles electronic structure calculations and their applications. The aim was to provide an opportunity for discussion on the progress in computational materials design and, in particular, the development of quantum simulators and quantum design. Computational materials design is a computational approach to the development of new materials. The essential ingredient is the use of quantum simulators to design a material that meets a given specification of properties and functionalities. For this to be successful, the quantum simulator should be very reliable and be applicable to systems of realistic size. During the conference, new methods of quantum simulation and quantum design were discussed including methods beyond the local density approximation of density functional theory, order-N methods, methods dealing with excitations and reactions, and the application of these methods to the design of novel materials, devices and systems. The conference provided an international forum for experimental and theoretical researchers to exchange ideas. A total of 220 delegates from eight countries participated in the conference. There were 13 invited talks, ten oral presentations and 120 posters. The 3rd International Conference on Quantum Simulators and Design will be held in Germany in the autumn of 2011.

  2. Influence of wet chemical cleaning on quantum efficiency of GaN photocathode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Hui; Gao, Pin; Wang, Hong-Gang; Li, Biao; Chang, Ben-Kang

    2013-02-01

    GaN samples 1-3 are cleaned by a 2:2:1 solution of sulfuric acid (98%) to hydrogen peroxide (30%) to de-ionized water; hydrochloric acid (37%); or a 4:1 solution of sulfuric acid (98%) to hydrogen peroxide (30%). The samples are activated by Cs/O after the same annealing process. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy after the different ways of wet chemical cleaning shows: sample 1 has the largest proportion of Ga, N, and O among the three samples, while its C content is the lowest. After activation the quantum efficiency curves show sample 1 has the best photocathode performance. We think the wet chemical cleaning method is a process which will mainly remove C contamination.

  3. Influence of wet chemical cleaning on quantum efficiency of GaN photocathode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiao-Hui; Gao Pin; Wang Hong-Gang; Li Biao; Chang Ben-Kang

    2013-01-01

    GaN samples 1–3 are cleaned by a 2:2:1 solution of sulfuric acid (98%) to hydrogen peroxide (30%) to de-ionized water; hydrochloric acid (37%); or a 4:1 solution of sulfuric acid (98%) to hydrogen peroxide (30%). The samples are activated by Cs/O after the same annealing process. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy after the different ways of wet chemical cleaning shows: sample 1 has the largest proportion of Ga, N, and O among the three samples, while its C content is the lowest. After activation the quantum efficiency curves show sample 1 has the best photocathode performance. We think the wet chemical cleaning method is a process which will mainly remove C contamination. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  4. High quantum efficiency of depth grade doping negative-electron-affinity GaN photocathode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiangyang; Wang, Xiaohui; Chang, Benkang; Zhang, Yijun; Gao, Pin

    2010-08-01

    A depth grade doping sample gallium nitride (GaN) photocathode was designed to obtain an extremely high quantum efficiency (QE). Two other uniform doping samples were prepared in the same procedure as contrast. The calibrated QE curves were achieved; by comparing theoretical calculated values with the experimental QE plots, the escape probability and diffusion length were fitted. The QE value of gradient doping sample is as high as 68.7% at 5.17 eV; the diffusion length of gradient doping sample is fitted to be 250 nm which is much higher than uniform doping samples. That explains why depth-grade-doping can improve the QE of GaN photocathode significantly.

  5. High-resolution mapping of quantum efficiency of silicon photodiode via optical-feedback laser microthermography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cemine, Vernon Julius; Blanca, Carlo Mar; Saloma, Caesar

    2006-01-01

    We map the external quantum efficiency (QE) distribution of a silicon photodiode (PD) sample via a thermographic imaging technique based on optical-feedback laser confocal microscopy. An image pair consisting of the confocal reflectance image and the 2D photocurrent map is simultaneously acquired to delineate the following regions of interest on the sample: the substrate, the n-type region, the pn overlay, and the bonding pad. The 2D QE distribution is derived from the photocurrent map to quantify the optical performance of these sites. The thermal integrity of the sample is then evaluated by deriving the rate of change of QE with temperature T at each point on the silicon PD. These gradient maps function not only as stringent measures of local thermal QE activity but they also expose probable defect locations on the sample at high spatial resolution - a capability that is not feasible with existing bulk measurement techniques

  6. Efficient bit sifting scheme of post-processing in quantum key distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiong; Le, Dan; Wu, Xianyan; Niu, Xiamu; Guo, Hong

    2015-10-01

    Bit sifting is an important step in the post-processing of quantum key distribution (QKD). Its function is to sift out the undetected original keys. The communication traffic of bit sifting has essential impact on the net secure key rate of a practical QKD system. In this paper, an efficient bit sifting scheme is presented, of which the core is a lossless source coding algorithm. Both theoretical analysis and experimental results demonstrate that the performance of the scheme is approaching the Shannon limit. The proposed scheme can greatly decrease the communication traffic of the post-processing of a QKD system, which means the proposed scheme can decrease the secure key consumption for classical channel authentication and increase the net secure key rate of the QKD system, as demonstrated by analyzing the improvement on the net secure key rate. Meanwhile, some recommendations on the application of the proposed scheme to some representative practical QKD systems are also provided.

  7. Graphene quantum dot hybrids as efficient metal-free electrocatalyst for the oxygen reduction reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yong; Wu, Peiyi

    2013-04-24

    The doping of heteroatoms into graphene quantum dot nanostructures provides an efficient way to tune the electronic structures and make more active sites for electro-catalysis, photovoltaic, or light emitting applications. Other than the modification of chemical composition, novel architecture is very desirable to enrich the research area and provides a wide range of choices for the diverse applications. Herein, we show a novel lotus seedpod surface-like pattern of zero-dimension (0D) seed-like N-GODs of ca.3 nm embedded on the surface of a two-dimension (2D) N-GQD sheet of ca.35 nm. It is demonstrated that different photoluminescence (PL) could be tuned easily, and the novel multidimensional structure displays excellent performance toward oxygen reduction reaction in alkaline solutions. Thus, the fabricated N-GQD hybrids show bright perspective in biomedical imaging, biosensors, and conversion and storage of energy.

  8. Sandwiched confinement of quantum dots in graphene matrix for efficient electron transfer and photocurrent production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Nan; Zheng, Kaibo; J. Karki, Khadga

    2015-01-01

    Quantum dots (QDs) and graphene are both promising materials for the development of new-generation optoelectronic devices. Towards this end, synergic assembly of these two building blocks is a key step but remains a challenge. Here, we show a one-step strategy for organizing QDs in a graphene...... interlink QDs and significantly improve electronic coupling, resulting in fast electron transfer from photoexcited QDs to graphene with a rate constant of 1.3 × 109 s−1. Efficient electron transfer dramatically enhances photocurrent generation in a liquid-junction QD-sensitized solar cell where the hybrid...... matrix via interfacial self-assembly, leading to the formation of sandwiched hybrid QD-graphene nanofilms. We have explored structural features, electron transfer kinetics and photocurrent generation capacity of such hybrid nanofilms using a wide variety of advanced techniques. Graphene nanosheets...

  9. Efficient Implementation of Many-body Quantum Chemical Methods on the Intel Xeon Phi Coprocessor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apra, Edoardo; Klemm, Michael; Kowalski, Karol

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents the implementation and performance of the highly accurate CCSD(T) quantum chemistry method on the Intel Xeon Phi coprocessor within the context of the NWChem computational chemistry package. The widespread use of highly correlated methods in electronic structure calculations is contingent upon the interplay between advances in theory and the possibility of utilizing the ever-growing computer power of emerging heterogeneous architectures. We discuss the design decisions of our implementation as well as the optimizations applied to the compute kernels and data transfers between host and coprocessor. We show the feasibility of adopting the Intel Many Integrated Core Architecture and the Intel Xeon Phi coprocessor for developing efficient computational chemistry modeling tools. Remarkable scalability is demonstrated by benchmarks. Our solution scales up to a total of 62560 cores with the concurrent utilization of Intel Xeon processors and Intel Xeon Phi coprocessors.

  10. Spontaneous emission modulation of colloidal quantum dots via efficient coupling with hybrid plasmonic photonic crystal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, X W; Shi, L; Wang, Qi; Chen, C Q; Liu, X H; Sun, L X; Zhang, Bo; Zi, J; Lu, Wei

    2014-09-22

    The spontaneous emission of colloidal CdSe/ZnS quantum dots (CQDs) modified by the hybrid plasmonic-photonic crystal is reported in this paper. By using a spin coater, the spatial overlap between CQDs and the surface resonance modes in this quasi-2D crystal slab is achieved. In this case, the coupling efficiency of them is enhanced greatly and most excited CQDs radiate through the surface modes. Consequently, despite the low refractive index contrast of our hybrid structure, the directionality of spontaneous emission, increased radiative probability and narrowed full width at half maximum of emission peak are all clearly observed by our home-made microscopic angle-resolved spectroscopy and time-resolved photoluminescence system. Our results manifest that the quasi-2D hybrid plasmonic-photonic crystal is an ideal candidate to tailor the radiative properties of CdSe/ZnS CQDs, which might be significant for the applications of light emitting devices.

  11. Preparation optimization and spectral properties of BCNO phosphors with high quantum efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, Chunrong; Zhang, Xinghua, E-mail: xinghua146@126.com; Zhou, Liyu; Lu, Zunming; Lin, Jing; Xu, Xuewen; Li, Lanlan; Zhang, Xiao; Xue, Yanming; Meng, Fanbin; Zhao, Jianling; Tang, Chengchun, E-mail: tangcc@hebut.edu.cn

    2014-09-15

    BCNO phosphors with high quantum efficiency (QE) were synthesized using trimethyl borate, melamine and urotropine as raw materials. The effects of urotropine, starting materials ratio, sintering time and temperature on luminescence properties were systematically investigated and the preparation conditions were optimized. The BCNO phosphor has turbostratic boron nitride structure and its size in the range of several millimeters. The emission peak position was not influenced by the content of urotropine. However, the emission peak blue can be tuned from 475 nm to 535 nm with increasing B/N source ratios (R{sub B/N}=2–6), while the QE decreased from 65.2% to 15.8%. The emission peaks of BCNO phosphor with R{sub B/N}=4 were in the range of green light (495–540 nm) with high QE (20.8–51.4%) as sintering time increased (4–20 h). In addition, the emission peaks of BCNO phosphor with R{sub B/N}=4 blue-shifted from 525 nm to 460 nm and increased QE (16.1–56.7%) with increasing sintering temperature (650–750 °C). The formation mechanism of BCNO phosphors was investigated by means of ultraviolet visible absorption spectra and infrared spectra. The tunable emission spectra and high QE corresponded to the chemical composition, carbon concentration and crystallinity of BCNO phosphors. - Highlights: • We prepared BCNO phosphors with high quantum efficiency (65.2%). • The effects of raw materials, sintering condition on spectral properties were investigated. • The formation and luminescence mechanism of BCNO phosphors were investigated.

  12. Go Pink! The Effect of Secondary Quanta on Detective Quantum Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, Scott [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-09-05

    Photons are never directly observable. Consequently, we often use photoelectric detectors (eg CCDs) to record associated photoelectrons statistically. Nonetheless, it is an implicit goal of radiographic detector designers to achieve the maximum possible detector efficiency1. In part the desire for ever higher efficiency has been due to the fact that detectors are far less expensive than associated accelerator facilities (e.g. DARHT and PHERMEX2). In addition, higher efficiency detectors often have better spatial resolution. Consequently, the optimization of the detector, not the accelerator, is the system component with the highest leverage per dollar. In recent years, imaging scientists have adopted the so-called Detective Quantum Efficiency, or DQE as a summary measure of detector performance. Unfortunately, owing to the complex nature of the trade-space associated with detector components, and the natural desire for simplicity and low(er) cost, there has been a recent trend in Los Alamos to focus only on the zerofrequency efficiency, or DQE(0), when designing such systems. This narrow focus leads to system designs that neglect or even ignore the importance of high-spatial-frequency image components. In this paper we demonstrate the significant negative impact of these design choices on the Noise Power Spectrum1 (NPS) and recommend a more holistic approach to detector design. Here we present a statistical argument which indicates that a very large number (>20) of secondary quanta (typically visible light and/or recorded photo-electrons) are needed to take maximum advantage of the primary quanta (typically x-rays or protons) which are available to form an image. Since secondary particles come in bursts, they are not independent. In short, we want to maximize the pink nature of detector noise at DARHT.

  13. Efficient charge carrier injection into sub-250 nm AlGaN multiple quantum well light emitting diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehnke, Frank; Kuhn, Christian; Guttmann, Martin; Reich, Christoph; Kolbe, Tim; Rass, Jens; Wernicke, Tim; Kueller, Viola; Knauer, Arne; Lapeyrade, Mickael; Einfeldt, Sven; Weyers, Markus; Kneissl, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The design and Mg-doping profile of AlN/Al 0.7 Ga 0.3 N electron blocking heterostructures (EBH) for AlGaN multiple quantum well (MQW) light emitting diodes (LEDs) emitting below 250 nm was investigated. By inserting an AlN electron blocking layer (EBL) into the EBH, we were able to increase the quantum well emission power and significantly reduce long wavelength parasitic luminescence. Furthermore, electron leakage was suppressed by optimizing the thickness of the AlN EBL while still maintaining sufficient hole injection. Ultraviolet (UV)-C LEDs with very low parasitic luminescence (7% of total emission power) and external quantum efficiencies of 0.19% at 246 nm have been realized. This concept was applied to AlGaN MQW LEDs emitting between 235 nm and 263 nm with external quantum efficiencies ranging from 0.002% to 0.93%. After processing, we were able to demonstrate an UV-C LED emitting at 234 nm with 14.5 μW integrated optical output power and an external quantum efficiency of 0.012% at 18.2 A/cm 2

  14. Two Quantum Polytropic Cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias-Hernández, L. A.; Morales-Serrano, A. F.

    2002-11-01

    In this work we follow the Bender et al paper [1] to study the quantum analogues of the Stirling and Ericsson polytropic cycles. In the context of the classical thermodynamics, the Stirling and Ericsson cycles correspond to reversible heat engines with two isothermal processes joined by two polytropic branches which occur in a device called regenerator. If this device is an ideal one, the efficiency of these cycles is the Carnot efficiency. Here, we introduce the quantum analogues of the Stirling and Ericsson cycles, the first one based on a double square potential well with a finite potential barrier, since in this system the tunnel effect could be the analogue to the regeneration classical process, therefore the isochoric quantum branches would really correspond to an internal energy storage, and the last one with an unknown system where the isobaric quantum processes don't induce changes in its quantum state. With these systems the quantum engines have cycles consisting of polytropic and isothermal quantum processes analogues to the corresponding classical processes. We show that in both cases the quantum cycles have an efficiency given by ηCQM = 1 - EC/EH, which is the same expression for the quantum analogue of the Carnot cycle studied by Bender.

  15. Analysis of efficiency of the Brazilian international airports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Rodriguez Brochado

    2008-07-01

    Brazil. Analysis of correlations was used to select the 0 variable most representative of this system and after that, it was calculated efficiency of the system for classic and inverted the borders by means of model BCC guided for output. Finally, it was possible to identify which improvements are necessary for the inefficient airports, in way to identify which improvements are necessary to operational level to reach the efficiency. Key-words: Data Envelopment Analysis, Efficiency, Airports.

  16. Alternative Forms of International Cooperation: Comparing Their Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinbergen, Jan

    1978-01-01

    The author, an economist, discusses nine forms of international cooperation according to their strengths, and invites representatives of other disciplines to comment on international cooperation. Discusses relevant concepts and the estimation of optimal procedures for cooperation. Available from: Unipub, Box 433, Murray Hill Station, New York, New…

  17. Modulation transfer function and detective quantum efficiency of electron bombarded charge coupled device detector for low energy electrons

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Horáček, Miroslav

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 76, č. 9 (2005), 093704:1-6 ISSN 0034-6748 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA202/03/1575 Keywords : electron bombarded CCD * modulation transfer function * detective quantum efficiency Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 1.235, year: 2005

  18. Extending quantum efficiency roll-over threshold with compositionally graded InGaN/GaN LED

    KAUST Repository

    Mishra, Pawan

    2014-12-01

    We report a significant improvement in the electrical characteristic of compositionally graded InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-well (MQWs) micro-LED. The efficiency droop in this device occurred at ∼20 times higher injection levels (∼275 A/cm2) compared to a conventional step-MQWs microLED (∼14 A/cm2).

  19. Better Solar Cells and Manufacturing Processes Using NREL's Ultrafast Quantum Efficiency Method (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-08-01

    Fact sheet on the FlashQE system, a 2011 R&D 100 Award winner. A solid-state optical system by NREL and Tau Science measures solar cell quantum efficiency in less than a second, enabling a suite of new capabilities for solar cell manufacturers.

  20. Success factors and limitations of efficient internal communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariusz Tworzydło

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article covers the key issues of internal communication within an organization. It highlights the benefits of implementation of transparent communication principles for a company. It identifies objectives and presents selected communication tools. In the article, also guidelines for carrying out research in the context of development of an internal communication strategy can be found. Selected research areas of the process of planning and implementation of strategic assumptions have been presented. Factors limiting effective implementation of an internal communication strategy have been discussed.

  1. Efficient and robust quantum random number generation by photon number detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Applegate, M. J.; Thomas, O.; Dynes, J. F.; Yuan, Z. L.; Shields, A. J.; Ritchie, D. A.

    2015-01-01

    We present an efficient and robust quantum random number generator based upon high-rate room temperature photon number detection. We employ an electric field-modulated silicon avalanche photodiode, a type of device particularly suited to high-rate photon number detection with excellent photon number resolution to detect, without an applied dead-time, up to 4 photons from the optical pulses emitted by a laser. By both measuring and modeling the response of the detector to the incident photons, we are able to determine the illumination conditions that achieve an optimal bit rate that we show is robust against variation in the photon flux. We extract random bits from the detected photon numbers with an efficiency of 99% corresponding to 1.97 bits per detected photon number yielding a bit rate of 143 Mbit/s, and verify that the extracted bits pass stringent statistical tests for randomness. Our scheme is highly scalable and has the potential of multi-Gbit/s bit rates

  2. Review of International Policies for Vehicle Fuel Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    This paper reviews past and current voluntary and regulatory fuel efficiency programs and then assesses the effectiveness of these policies from the viewpoints of enforcement, standard design, standard stringency and standard related policies.

  3. Success factors and limitations of efficient internal communication

    OpenAIRE

    Dariusz Tworzydło

    2015-01-01

    The article covers the key issues of internal communication within an organization. It highlights the benefits of implementation of transparent communication principles for a company. It identifies objectives and presents selected communication tools. In the article, also guidelines for carrying out research in the context of development of an internal communication strategy can be found. Selected research areas of the process of planning and implementation of strategic assumptions have been ...

  4. Efficient quantum repeater with respect to both entanglement-concentration rate and complexity of local operations and classical communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Zhaofeng; Guan, Ji; Li, Lvzhou

    2018-01-01

    Quantum entanglement is an indispensable resource for many significant quantum information processing tasks. However, in practice, it is difficult to distribute quantum entanglement over a long distance, due to the absorption and noise in quantum channels. A solution to this challenge is a quantum repeater, which can extend the distance of entanglement distribution. In this scheme, the time consumption of classical communication and local operations takes an important place with respect to time efficiency. Motivated by this observation, we consider a basic quantum repeater scheme that focuses on not only the optimal rate of entanglement concentration but also the complexity of local operations and classical communication. First, we consider the case where two different two-qubit pure states are initially distributed in the scenario. We construct a protocol with the optimal entanglement-concentration rate and less consumption of local operations and classical communication. We also find a criterion for the projective measurements to achieve the optimal probability of creating a maximally entangled state between the two ends. Second, we consider the case in which two general pure states are prepared and general measurements are allowed. We get an upper bound on the probability for a successful measurement operation to produce a maximally entangled state without any further local operations.

  5. International comparison of energy efficiency of fossil power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graus, W.H.J.; Voogt, M.; Worrell, E.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the energy efficiency of fossil-fired power generation for Australia, China, France, Germany, India, Japan, Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Sweden and Norway aggregated), South Korea, United Kingdom and Ireland, and United States. Together these countries generate 65% of worldwide fossil power generation. Separate benchmark indicators are calculated for the energy efficiency of natural gas, oil and coal-fired power generation, based on weighted-average energy efficiencies. These indicators are aggregated to an overall benchmark for fossil-fired power generation. The weighted average efficiencies are 35% for coal, 45% for natural gas and 38% for oil-fired power generation. The Nordic countries, Japan and United Kingdom and Ireland are found to perform best in terms of fossil power generating efficiency and are, respectively 8%, 8% and 7% above average in 2003. South Korea and Germany are, respectively 6% and 4% above average and the United States and France are, respectively 2% and 4% below average. Australia, China and India perform 7%, 9% and 13%, respectively below average. The energy savings potential and CO 2 emission reduction potential if all countries produce electricity at the highest efficiencies observed (42% for coal, 52% for natural gas and 45% for oil-fired power generation), corresponds to 10 EJ and 860 Mtonne CO 2 , respectively

  6. Efficient two-step photocarrier generation in bias-controlled InAs/GaAs quantum dot superlattice intermediate-band solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kada, T; Asahi, S; Kaizu, T; Harada, Y; Tamaki, R; Okada, Y; Kita, T

    2017-07-19

    We studied the effects of the internal electric field on two-step photocarrier generation in InAs/GaAs quantum dot superlattice (QDSL) intermediate-band solar cells (IBSCs). The external quantum efficiency of QDSL-IBSCs was measured as a function of the internal electric field intensity, and compared with theoretical calculations accounting for interband and intersubband photoexcitations. The extra photocurrent caused by the two-step photoexcitation was maximal for a reversely biased electric field, while the current generated by the interband photoexcitation increased monotonically with increasing electric field intensity. The internal electric field in solar cells separated photogenerated electrons and holes in the superlattice (SL) miniband that played the role of an intermediate band, and the electron lifetime was extended to the microsecond scale, which improved the intersubband transition strength, therefore increasing the two-step photocurrent. There was a trade-off relation between the carrier separation enhancing the two-step photoexcitation and the electric-field-induced carrier escape from QDSLs. These results validate that long-lifetime electrons are key to maximising the two-step photocarrier generation in QDSL-IBSCs.

  7. High-Efficiency InGaN/GaN Quantum Well-Based Vertical Light-Emitting Diodes Fabricated on β-Ga2O3 Substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammed, Mufasila M; Alwadai, Norah; Lopatin, Sergei; Kuramata, Akito; Roqan, Iman S

    2017-10-04

    We demonstrate a state-of-the-art high-efficiency GaN-based vertical light-emitting diode (VLED) grown on a transparent and conductive (-201)-oriented (β-Ga 2 O 3 ) substrate, obtained using a straightforward growth process that does not require a high-cost lift-off technique or complex fabrication process. The high-resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) images confirm that we produced high quality upper layers, including a multiquantum well (MQW) grown on the masked β-Ga 2 O 3 substrate. STEM imaging also shows a well-defined MQW without InN diffusion into the barrier. Electroluminescence (EL) measurements at room temperature indicate that we achieved a very high internal quantum efficiency (IQE) of 78%; at lower temperatures, IQE reaches ∼86%. The photoluminescence (PL) and time-resolved PL analysis indicate that, at a high carrier injection density, the emission is dominated by radiative recombination with a negligible Auger effect; no quantum-confined Stark effect is observed. At low temperatures, no efficiency droop is observed at a high carrier injection density, indicating the superior VLED structure obtained without lift-off processing, which is cost-effective for large-scale devices.

  8. Deep Blue Phosphorescent Organic Light-Emitting Diodes with CIEy Value of 0.11 and External Quantum Efficiency up to 22.5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoyue; Zhang, Juanye; Zhao, Zifeng; Wang, Liding; Yang, Hannan; Chang, Qiaowen; Jiang, Nan; Liu, Zhiwei; Bian, Zuqiang; Liu, Weiping; Lu, Zhenghong; Huang, Chunhui

    2018-03-01

    Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) based on red and green phosphorescent iridium complexes are successfully commercialized in displays and solid-state lighting. However, blue ones still remain a challenge on account of their relatively dissatisfactory Commission International de L'Eclairage (CIE) coordinates and low efficiency. After analyzing the reported blue iridium complexes in the literature, a new deep-blue-emitting iridium complex with improved photoluminescence quantum yield is designed and synthesized. By rational screening host materials showing high triplet energy level in neat film as well as the OLED architecture to balance electron and hole recombination, highly efficient deep-blue-emission OLEDs with a CIE at (0.15, 0.11) and maximum external quantum efficiency (EQE) up to 22.5% are demonstrated. Based on the transition dipole moment vector measurement with a variable-angle spectroscopic ellipsometry method, the ultrahigh EQE is assigned to a preferred horizontal dipole orientation of the iridium complex in doped film, which is beneficial for light extraction from the OLEDs. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Efficient fiber-coupled single-photon sources based on quantum dots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daveau, Raphaël Sura

    This thesis presents the study of solid-state quantum emitters in two dierent forms. The rst part of the thesis deals with quantum dot based single-photon sources with an emphasis on ecient photon extraction into an optical ber. The second part of the thesis covers a theoretical study of optical...... refrigeration with coupled quantum wells. Many photonic quantum information processing applications would benet from a highbrightness, ber-coupled source of triggered single photons. This thesis presents a study of such sources based on quantum dots coupled to unidirectional photonic-crystal waveguide devices...... the characterization of single quantum dots. The second method, evanescent coupling from a tapered waveguide to a microber, demonstrates a chip-to-ber coupling eciency exceeding 80 % in passive re- ection measurements. The characterization of quantum dots from this device establishes a ber-coupled source eciency of 15...

  10. Intense Visible Luminescence in CdSe Quantum Dots by Efficiency Surface Passivation with H2O Molecules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeoung Woo Park

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated the effect of water (H2O cooling and heat treatment on the luminescence efficiency of core CdSe quantum dots (QDs. The photoluminescence (PL quantum yield of the CdSe QDs was enhanced up to ~85%, and some periodic bright points were observed in wide color ranges during the heat treatment of QDs mixed with H2O. The PL enhancement of QDs could be attributed to the recovery of QDs surface traps by unreacted ligands confined within the hydrophilic H2O molecule containers.

  11. Biomass Gasification for Power Generation Internal Combustion Engines. Process Efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lesme-Jaén, René; Garcia-Faure, Luis; Oliva-Ruiz, Luis; Pajarín-Rodríguez, Juan; Revilla-Suarez, Dennis

    2016-01-01

    Biomass is a renewable energy sources worldwide greater prospects for its potential and its lower environmental impact compared to fossil fuels. By different processes and energy conversion technologies is possible to obtain solid, liquid and gaseous fuels from any biomass.In this paper the evaluation of thermal and overall efficiency of the gasification of Integral Forestry Company Santiago de Cuba is presented, designed to electricity generation from waste forest industry. The gasifier is a downdraft reactor, COMBO-80 model of Indian manufacturing and motor (diesel) model Leyland modified to work with producer gas. The evaluation was conducted at different loads (electric power generated) of the motor from experimental measurements of flow and composition of gas supplied to the engine. The results show that the motor operates with a thermal efficiency in the range of 20-32% with an overall efficiency between 12-25 %. (author)

  12. ZnSe passivation layer for the efficiency enhancement of CuInS2 quantum dots sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, Zhuoyin; Liu, Yueli; Zhao, Yinghan; Chen, Keqiang; Cheng, Yuqing; Kovalev, Valery; Chen, Wen

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • ZnSe is employed as passivation layer in CuInS 2 quantum dots sensitized solar cells. • Slight red-shift has been occurred in UV–vis absorption spectra with ZnSe coating. • CuInS 2 based solar cells coated by ZnSe have better efficiency than that of ZnS. • Higher rate of charge transport can be produced after coating with ZnSe. -- Abstract: The effect of ZnSe passivation layer is investigated in the CuInS 2 quantum dot sensitized solar cells, which is used to improve the photovoltaic performance. The CuInS 2 quantum dot sensitized TiO 2 photo-anodes are prepared by assembly linking technique, and then deposited by the ZnSe passivation layer using the successive ionic layer absorption and reaction technique. The optical absorption edge and photoluminescence peak have slightly red-shifted after the passivation layer coating. Under solar light illumination, the ZnSe passivation layer based CuInS 2 quantum dot sensitized solar cells have the higher photovoltaic efficiency of 0.95% and incident photon conversion efficiency response than that of pure CuInS 2 based solar cells and ZnS passivation layer based solar cells, as the electron injection rate becomes faster after coating with ZnSe passivation layer

  13. Internal force corrections with machine learning for quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jingheng; Shen, Lin; Yang, Weitao

    2017-10-01

    Ab initio quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) molecular dynamics simulation is a useful tool to calculate thermodynamic properties such as potential of mean force for chemical reactions but intensely time consuming. In this paper, we developed a new method using the internal force correction for low-level semiempirical QM/MM molecular dynamics samplings with a predefined reaction coordinate. As a correction term, the internal force was predicted with a machine learning scheme, which provides a sophisticated force field, and added to the atomic forces on the reaction coordinate related atoms at each integration step. We applied this method to two reactions in aqueous solution and reproduced potentials of mean force at the ab initio QM/MM level. The saving in computational cost is about 2 orders of magnitude. The present work reveals great potentials for machine learning in QM/MM simulations to study complex chemical processes.

  14. Internal force corrections with machine learning for quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jingheng; Shen, Lin; Yang, Weitao

    2017-10-28

    Ab initio quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) molecular dynamics simulation is a useful tool to calculate thermodynamic properties such as potential of mean force for chemical reactions but intensely time consuming. In this paper, we developed a new method using the internal force correction for low-level semiempirical QM/MM molecular dynamics samplings with a predefined reaction coordinate. As a correction term, the internal force was predicted with a machine learning scheme, which provides a sophisticated force field, and added to the atomic forces on the reaction coordinate related atoms at each integration step. We applied this method to two reactions in aqueous solution and reproduced potentials of mean force at the ab initio QM/MM level. The saving in computational cost is about 2 orders of magnitude. The present work reveals great potentials for machine learning in QM/MM simulations to study complex chemical processes.

  15. Estimation of the quantum efficiency of the photodissociation of HbO2 and HbCO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gisbrecht, A. I.; Mamilov, S. A.; Esman, S. S.; Asimov, M. M.

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents our results on the study of the efficiency of inter-fractional changes in hemoglobin molecules depending on the laser radiation parameters. The evaluation of the quantum efficiency of light interaction in vivo with oxyhemoglobin (HbO2) and carboxyhemoglobin (HbCO) in the blood at wavelengths for 525 and 605 nm is presented. The photodissociation yield of 11% for HbO2 and 79% for HbCO are measured at the wavelength of 525 nm and 10 % for HbO2 and 76 % for HbCO at a wavelength of 605 nm. Thus, the quantum yield of photodissociation of the HbCO is considerably higher, which ensures high efficiency of photodecomposition of the HbCO in the blood. The obtained results can be used in the clinical phototherapy practice for effective treatment of CO poisoning.

  16. High quantum efficiency in solution processed blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes based on an asymmetric benzothienopyridine host

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yook, Kyoung Soo; Lee, Jun Yeob, E-mail: leej17@dankook.ac.kr

    2014-09-15

    Highly efficient blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes were developed using a benzothienopyridine based host material with an asymmetric molecular structure. 3-(3-(9H-carbazol-9-yl)phenyl)benzothieno[2,3-b]pyridine (BTP1) was used as the asymmetric host material for the solution processed blue devices. The BTP1 host showed a smooth morphology with a surface roughness of 0.30 nm and high quantum efficiency of 14.5% in blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes. - Highlights: • High quantum efficiency in solution processed blue devices. • Smooth film morphology with a low surface roughness. • Benzothienopyridine based asymmetric host material for solution process.

  17. High external quantum efficiency in deep blue phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes using a simple device structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Chang Woo; Lee, Jun Yeob, E-mail: leej17@dankook.ac.kr

    2012-09-30

    Simple high efficiency deep blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes were developed using a mixed host of high triplet energy host materials. A hole transport type host was used both as the hole transport layer and host in the mixed host emitting layer and an electron transport type host was mixed with the hole transport type host in the emitting layer. A three organic layer device structure of the hole transport layer/emitting layer/electron transport layer gave high external quantum efficiency of 26.4% with a color coordinate of (0.14, 0.19). - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A simple three organic layer device structure in deep blue device. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High external quantum efficiency of 26.4% in deep blue device. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A mixed host emitting structure of high triplet energy host materials.

  18. A comparison of digital radiography systems in terms of effective detective quantum efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertolini, Marco; Nitrosi, Andrea; Rivetti, Stefano; Lanconelli, Nico; Pattacini, Pierpaolo; Ginocchi, Vladimiro; Iori, Mauro [Department of Advanced Technology, Medical Physics Unit, Azienda Ospedaliera ASMN, Istituto di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico, Reggio Emilia 42123 (Italy); Fisica Medica, Ospedale di Sassuolo S.p.A., Modena 41049 (Italy); Alma Mater Studiorum, Physics Department, University of Bologna, Bologna 40127 (Italy); Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Radiology Unit, Azienda Ospedaliera ASMN, Istituto di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico, Reggio Emilia 42123 (Italy); Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Radiology Unit, Azienda USL, Reggio Emilia 42122 (Italy); Department of Advanced Technology, Medical Physics Unit, Azienda Ospedaliera ASMN, Istituto di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico, Reggio Emilia 42123 (Italy)

    2012-05-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to compare digital radiography systems using the metric effective detective quantum efficiency (eDQE), which better reflects digital radiography imaging system performance under clinical operating conditions, in comparison with conventional metrics such as modulation transfer function (MTF), normalized noise power spectra (NNPS), and detective quantum efficiency (DQE). Methods: The eDQE was computed by the calculation of the MTF, the NNPS, the phantom attenuation and scatter, and estimation of x-ray flux. The physical characterization of the systems was obtained with the standard beam conditions RQA5 and RQA9, using the PA Chest phantom proposed by AAPM Report no. 31 simulating the attenuation and scatter characteristics of the adult human thorax. The MTF (eMTF) was measured by using an edge test placed at the frontal surface of the phantom, the NNPS (eNNPS) was calculated from images of the phantom acquired at three different exposure levels covering the operating range of the system (E{sub 0}, which is the exposure at which a system is normally operated, 1/3 E{sub 0}, and 3 E0), and scatter measurements were assessed by using a beam-stop technique. The integral of DQE (IDQE) and eDQE (IeDQE) was calculated over the whole spatial frequency range. Results: The eMTF results demonstrate degradation due to magnification and the presence of scattered radiation. The eNNPS was influenced by the grid presence, and in some systems, it contained structured noise. At typical clinical exposure levels, the magnitude of eDQE(0) with respect to DQE(0) at RQA9 beam conditions was 13%, 17%, 16%, 36%, and 24%, respectively, for Carestream DRX-1, Carestream DRX-1C, Carestream Direct View CR975, Philips Digital Diagnost VM, and GE Revolution XR/d. These results were confirmed by the ratio of IeDQE and IDQE in the same conditions. Conclusions: The authors confirm the robustness and reproducibility of the eDQE method. As expected, the DR systems

  19. A comparison of digital radiography systems in terms of effective detective quantum efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertolini, Marco; Nitrosi, Andrea; Rivetti, Stefano; Lanconelli, Nico; Pattacini, Pierpaolo; Ginocchi, Vladimiro; Iori, Mauro

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to compare digital radiography systems using the metric effective detective quantum efficiency (eDQE), which better reflects digital radiography imaging system performance under clinical operating conditions, in comparison with conventional metrics such as modulation transfer function (MTF), normalized noise power spectra (NNPS), and detective quantum efficiency (DQE). Methods: The eDQE was computed by the calculation of the MTF, the NNPS, the phantom attenuation and scatter, and estimation of x-ray flux. The physical characterization of the systems was obtained with the standard beam conditions RQA5 and RQA9, using the PA Chest phantom proposed by AAPM Report no. 31 simulating the attenuation and scatter characteristics of the adult human thorax. The MTF (eMTF) was measured by using an edge test placed at the frontal surface of the phantom, the NNPS (eNNPS) was calculated from images of the phantom acquired at three different exposure levels covering the operating range of the system (E 0 , which is the exposure at which a system is normally operated, 1/3 E 0 , and 3 E0), and scatter measurements were assessed by using a beam-stop technique. The integral of DQE (IDQE) and eDQE (IeDQE) was calculated over the whole spatial frequency range. Results: The eMTF results demonstrate degradation due to magnification and the presence of scattered radiation. The eNNPS was influenced by the grid presence, and in some systems, it contained structured noise. At typical clinical exposure levels, the magnitude of eDQE(0) with respect to DQE(0) at RQA9 beam conditions was 13%, 17%, 16%, 36%, and 24%, respectively, for Carestream DRX-1, Carestream DRX-1C, Carestream Direct View CR975, Philips Digital Diagnost VM, and GE Revolution XR/d. These results were confirmed by the ratio of IeDQE and IDQE in the same conditions. Conclusions: The authors confirm the robustness and reproducibility of the eDQE method. As expected, the DR systems performed

  20. Spectra and quantum efficiency of light-emitting diodes based on GaN heterostructures with quantum wells and their dependence on current and voltage

    CERN Document Server

    Kudryashov, V E; Turkin, A N; Yunovich, A E; Kovalev, A N; Manyakhin, F I

    2001-01-01

    Spectra and quantum efficiency of light-emitted diodes based on heterostructures InGaN/AlGaN/GaN with multiple quantum wells have been studied at currents J = 10 sup - sup 6 -10 sup - sup 1 A. Minor differences in quantum efficiency (of +- 10% at J approx = 10 mA) are caused by sufficiently different distribution of effective charges in the space charge region as well as by different role of the tunnel component of current at low voltages. The main peak in spectra near of 2.35-2.36 eV at small current (0.05-0.5 mA) does not depend on the voltage and is explained by radiative transitions in localized states. At J > 1 mA the spectral band 2.36-2.52 eV shifts with gamma current. The band form is described in the 4-parameter model of tail population of two-dimensional energy-level density

  1. Enhanced life time and suppressed efficiency roll-off in phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes with multiple quantum well structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ja-Ryong Koo

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate red phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs with multiple quantum well structures which confine triplet exciton inside an emitting layer (EML region. Five types of OLEDs, from a single to five quantum wells, are fabricated with charge control layers to produce high efficiencies, and the performance of the devices is investigated. The improved quantum efficiency and lifetime of the OLED with four quantum wells, and its suppressed quantum efficiency roll-off of 17.6%, can be described by the increased electron–hole charge balance owing to the bipolar property as well as the efficient triplet exciton confinement within each EML, and by prevention of serious triplet–triplet and/or triplet–polaron annihilation as well as the Förster self-quenching due to charge control layers.

  2. Efficient bounds on quantum-communication rates via their reduced variants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowakowski, Marcin L.; Horodecki, Pawel

    2010-01-01

    We investigate one-way communication scenarios where Bob operating on his component can transfer some subsystem to the environment. We define reduced versions of quantum-communication rates and, further, prove upper bounds on a one-way quantum secret key, distillable entanglement, and quantum-channel capacity by means of their reduced versions. It is shown that in some cases they drastically improve their estimation.

  3. Experimental realization of highly efficient broadband coupling of single quantum dots to a photonic crystal waveguide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund-Hansen, Toke; Stobbe, Søren; Julsgaard, Brian

    2008-01-01

    We present time-resolved spontaneous emission measurements of single quantum dots embedded in photonic crystal waveguides. Quantum dots that couple to a photonic crystal waveguide are found to decay up to 27 times faster than uncoupled quantum dots. From these measurements -factors of up to 0.89 ...... taking into account that the light-matter coupling is strongly enhanced due to the significant slow-down of light in the photonic crystal waveguides....

  4. Methods for Efficiently and Accurately Computing Quantum Mechanical Free Energies for Enzyme Catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearns, F L; Hudson, P S; Boresch, S; Woodcock, H L

    2016-01-01

    Enzyme activity is inherently linked to free energies of transition states, ligand binding, protonation/deprotonation, etc.; these free energies, and thus enzyme function, can be affected by residue mutations, allosterically induced conformational changes, and much more. Therefore, being able to predict free energies associated with enzymatic processes is critical to understanding and predicting their function. Free energy simulation (FES) has historically been a computational challenge as it requires both the accurate description of inter- and intramolecular interactions and adequate sampling of all relevant conformational degrees of freedom. The hybrid quantum mechanical molecular mechanical (QM/MM) framework is the current tool of choice when accurate computations of macromolecular systems are essential. Unfortunately, robust and efficient approaches that employ the high levels of computational theory needed to accurately describe many reactive processes (ie, ab initio, DFT), while also including explicit solvation effects and accounting for extensive conformational sampling are essentially nonexistent. In this chapter, we will give a brief overview of two recently developed methods that mitigate several major challenges associated with QM/MM FES: the QM non-Boltzmann Bennett's acceptance ratio method and the QM nonequilibrium work method. We will also describe usage of these methods to calculate free energies associated with (1) relative properties and (2) along reaction paths, using simple test cases with relevance to enzymes examples. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Cadmium sulfide quantum dots sensitized tin dioxide-titanium dioxide heterojunction for efficient photoelectrochemical hydrogen production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaodong; Zhang, Zemin; Chen, Lulu; Liu, Zhongping; Cheng, Jianli; Ni, Wei; Xie, Erqing; Wang, Bin

    2014-12-01

    CdS quantum dots (QDs)-sensitized branched TiO2/SnO2 heterojunction (B-SnO2 NF-CdS) with suitable combination of band gap and band alignment constitutes a promising architecture for photoanode for H2 generation. This novel structure combines the conflicting advantageous features of slow interfacial electron recombination, long electron life time, fast electron transport and visible light absorption. Remarkable photocurrent density of 3.40 mA cm-2 at zero bias (vs. standard calomel electrode) has been obtained in a three electrode configuration, more than two times as large as that of TiO2-CdS photoanode. The B-SnO2 NF-CdS yields a high maximum applied bias photon-to-current efficiency (ABPE) of 2.18% at an applied bias of ∼0.316 V vs. reversible hydrogen electrode (RHE), indicating excellent hydrogen generation performance at low bias. Moreover, on the basis of experimental results, we ascribe the remarkable "dark current/voltage" to the effect of primary cell. The influence of the primary cell on PEC hydrogen production is discussed.

  6. Sandwiched confinement of quantum dots in graphene matrix for efficient electron transfer and photocurrent production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Nan; Zheng, Kaibo; Karki, Khadga J.; Abdellah, Mohamed; Zhu, Qiushi; Carlson, Stefan; Haase, Dörthe; Žídek, Karel; Ulstrup, Jens; Canton, Sophie E.; Pullerits, Tõnu; Chi, Qijin

    2015-05-01

    Quantum dots (QDs) and graphene are both promising materials for the development of new-generation optoelectronic devices. Towards this end, synergic assembly of these two building blocks is a key step but remains a challenge. Here, we show a one-step strategy for organizing QDs in a graphene matrix via interfacial self-assembly, leading to the formation of sandwiched hybrid QD-graphene nanofilms. We have explored structural features, electron transfer kinetics and photocurrent generation capacity of such hybrid nanofilms using a wide variety of advanced techniques. Graphene nanosheets interlink QDs and significantly improve electronic coupling, resulting in fast electron transfer from photoexcited QDs to graphene with a rate constant of 1.3 × 109 s-1. Efficient electron transfer dramatically enhances photocurrent generation in a liquid-junction QD-sensitized solar cell where the hybrid nanofilm acts as a photoanode. We thereby demonstrate a cost-effective method to construct large-area QD-graphene hybrid nanofilms with straightforward scale-up potential for optoelectronic applications.

  7. The X-ray quantum efficiency measurement of high resistivity CCDs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, Neil J. [Imaging for Space and Terrestrial Applications, School of Engineering and Design, Brunel University, Uxbridge, UB8 3PH (United Kingdom); e2v centre for electronic imaging, Planetary and Space Sciences Research Institute, The Open University, Milton Keynes, MK7 6AA (United Kingdom)], E-mail: n.j.murray@open.ac.uk; Holland, Andrew D. [e2v centre for electronic imaging, Planetary and Space Sciences Research Institute, The Open University, Milton Keynes, MK7 6AA (United Kingdom); Smith, David R.; Gow, Jason P. [Imaging for Space and Terrestrial Applications, School of Engineering and Design, Brunel University, Uxbridge, UB8 3PH (United Kingdom); Pool, Peter J.; Burt, David J. [e2v technologies plc, 106 Waterhouse Lane, Chelmsford, CM1 2QU (United Kingdom)

    2009-06-01

    The CCD247 is the second generation of high-resistivity device to be manufactured in e2v technologies plc development programme. Intended for infrared astronomy, the latest devices are fabricated on high resistivity ({approx}8 k{omega} cm) bulk silicon, allowing for a greater device thickness whilst maintaining full depletion when 'thinned' to a thickness of 150 {mu}m. In the case of the front illuminated variant, depletion of up to 300 {mu}m is achievable by applying a gate to substrate potential of up to 120 V, whilst retaining adequate spectral performance. The increased depletion depth of high-resistivity CCDs greatly improves the quantum efficiency (QE) for incident X-ray photons of energies above 5 keV, making such a device beneficial in future X-ray astronomy missions and other applications. Here we describe the experimental setup and present results of X-ray QE measurements taken in the energy range 2-20 keV for a front illuminated CCD247, showing QE in excess of 80% at 10 keV. Results for the first generation CCD217 and swept-charge device (1500 {omega} cm epitaxial silicon) are also presented.

  8. Nitride based quantum well light-emitting devices having improved current injection efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tansu, Nelson; Zhao, Hongping; Liu, Guangyu; Arif, Ronald

    2014-12-09

    A III-nitride based device provides improved current injection efficiency by reducing thermionic carrier escape at high current density. The device includes a quantum well active layer and a pair of multi-layer barrier layers arranged symmetrically about the active layer. Each multi-layer barrier layer includes an inner layer abutting the active layer; and an outer layer abutting the inner layer. The inner barrier layer has a bandgap greater than that of the outer barrier layer. Both the inner and the outer barrier layer have bandgaps greater than that of the active layer. InGaN may be employed in the active layer, AlInN, AlInGaN or AlGaN may be employed in the inner barrier layer, and GaN may be employed in the outer barrier layer. Preferably, the inner layer is thin relative to the other layers. In one embodiment the inner barrier and active layers are 15 .ANG. and 24 .ANG. thick, respectively.

  9. Performance of SEM scintillation detector evaluated by modulation transfer function and detective quantum efficiency function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bok, Jan; Schauer, Petr

    2014-01-01

    In the paper, the SEM detector is evaluated by the modulation transfer function (MTF) which expresses the detector's influence on the SEM image contrast. This is a novel approach, since the MTF was used previously to describe only the area imaging detectors, or whole imaging systems. The measurement technique and calculation of the MTF for the SEM detector are presented. In addition, the measurement and calculation of the detective quantum efficiency (DQE) as a function of the spatial frequency for the SEM detector are described. In this technique, the time modulated e-beam is used in order to create well-defined input signal for the detector. The MTF and DQE measurements are demonstrated on the Everhart-Thornley scintillation detector. This detector was alternated using the YAG:Ce, YAP:Ce, and CRY18 single-crystal scintillators. The presented MTF and DQE characteristics show good imaging properties of the detectors with the YAP:Ce or CRY18 scintillator, especially for a specific type of the e-beam scan. The results demonstrate the great benefit of the description of SEM detectors using the MTF and DQE. In addition, point-by-point and continual-sweep e-beam scans in SEM were discussed and their influence on the image quality was revealed using the MTF. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Biochemical factors affecting the quantum efficiency of hydrogen production by membranes of green photosynthetic bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernstein, J.D.; Olson, J.M.

    1981-01-01

    Photohydrogen production, 200-700 ..mu..mol H/sub 2/ h/sup -1/ (mg bacteriochlorophyll a)/sup -1/ has been obtained in a system containing unit membrane vesicles (Complex I) from the green photosynthetic bacterium Chlorobium limicola f. thiosulfatophilum, ascorbate, N,N,N',N'-tetramethyl-p-phenylenediamine, dithioerythritol, an oxygen scavenging mixture, either methyl viologen (MV) or clostridial ferredoxin (CPS Fd) as electron carrier, and either CPS hydrogenase or platinum asbestos as catalyst. All components are necessary for maximum activity, and spinach Fd cannot be substituted for CPS Fd. Higher rates of photohydrogen production are obtained using MV or CPS Fd with hydrogenase than with MV and Pt asbestos. The highest quantum efficiencies (7-10% at 0.2-0.9 mW absorbed light and over 20% at lower light) were obtained with CPS Fd, hydrogenase and non-saturating 812 nm light. With saturating white light, however, rates of photohydrogen production varied relatively little among the various combinations of electron carrier and catalyst tested. The reaction rate is unaffected by 0.03% Triton X-100, and is insensitive to treatment with antimycin a or m-chloro-carbonyl cyanide phenylhydrazone.This indicates that neither electron flow through an endogenous cyclic chain, nor maintenance of a proton gradient are involved in this process.

  11. Highly efficient photocatalytic activity of CuO quantum dot decorated rGO nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutta, Shibsankar; De, Sukanta; Das, Kajari; Jana, D; Chakrabarti, Kaushik; De, S K

    2016-01-01

    CuO quantum dots (QD) of size 4.5 nm decorated on a rGO sheet to form nanocomposites with different weight percentages via a simple soft chemical route was reported here. Tuning of CuO QD absorption towards the visible region from the UV region in the presence of rGO was also observed. The luminescence of rGO was found to be quenched in rGO–CuO nanocomposites due to charge transfer from the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital of the rGO layer to the conduction band of CuO. Systematic and concise studies of photocatalytic performance towards degradation of methylene blue (MB) dye by CuO QD along with rGO–CuO nanocomposites were presented in this work. A nanocomposite with an equal weight percentage of rGO and CuO degrades almost 99% of MB under irradiation of visible light for 50 min, showing maximum degradation efficiency. (paper)

  12. Quantum efficiency investigations of type-II InAs/GaSb midwave infrared superlattice photodetectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giard, E., E-mail: edouard.giard@onera.fr; Ribet-Mohamed, I.; Jaeck, J.; Viale, T.; Haïdar, R. [ONERA, DOTA, Chemin de la Hunière, 91761 Palaiseau Cedex (France); Taalat, R.; Delmas, M.; Rodriguez, J.-B.; Christol, P. [Institut d' Electronique du Sud, UMR-CNRS 5214, Université Montpellier 2, Place Eugène Bataillon, 34095 Montpellier Cedex 5 (France); Steveler, E.; Bardou, N. [Laboratoire de Photonique et de Nanostructures (LPN-CNRS), Route de Nozay, 91460 Marcoussis (France); Boulard, F. [CEA, LETI, MINATEC Campus, 17 Avenue des martyrs, 38054 Grenoble (France)

    2014-07-28

    We present in this paper a comparison between different type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice (T2SL) photodiodes and focal plane array (FPA) in the mid-wavelength infrared domain to understand which phenomenon drives the performances of the T2SL structure in terms of quantum efficiency (QE). Our measurements on test photodiodes suggest low minority carrier diffusion length in the “InAs-rich” design, which penalizes carriers' collection in this structure for low bias voltage and front side illumination. This analysis is completed by a comparison of the experimental data with a fully analytic model, which allows to infer a hole diffusion length shorter than 100 nm. In addition, measurements on a FPA with backside illumination are finally presented. Results show an average QE in the 3–4.7 μm window equal to 42% for U{sub bias} = −0.1 V, 77 K operating temperature and no anti-reflection coating. These measurements, completed by modulation transfer function and noise measurements, reveal that the InAs-rich design, despite a low hole diffusion length, is promising for high performance infrared imaging applications.

  13. Observation of Significant Quantum Efficiency Enhancement from a Polarized Photocathode with Distributed Bragg Reflector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Shukui [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Poelker, Matthew [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Stutzman, Marcy L. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Chen, Yiqiao [SVT Associates, Inc., Eden Prairie, MN (United States); Moy, Aaron [SVT Associates, Inc., Eden Prairie, MN (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Polarized photocathodes with higher Quantum efficiency (QE) would help to reduce the technological challenge associated with producing polarized beams at milliampere levels, because less laser light would be required, which simplifies photocathode cooling requirements. And for a given amount of available laser power, higher QE would extend the photogun operating lifetime. The distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) concept was proposed to enhance the QE of strained-superlattice photocathodes by increasing the absorption of the incident photons using a Fabry-Perot cavity formed between the front surface of the photocathode and the substrate that includes a DBR, without compromising electron polarization. Here we present recent results showing QE enhancement of a GaAs/GaAsP strained-superlattice photocathode made with a DBR structure. Typically, a GaAs/GaAsP strained-superlattice photocathode without DBR provides a QE of 1%, at a laser wavelength corresponding to peak polarization. In comparison, the GaAs/GaAsP strained-superlattice photocathodes with DBR exhibited an enhancement of over 2 when the incident laser wavelength was tuned to meet the resonant condition for the Fabry-Perot resonator.

  14. Efficient colorimetric pH sensor based on responsive polymer-quantum dot integrated graphene oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paek, Kwanyeol; Yang, Hyunseung; Lee, Junhyuk; Park, Junwoo; Kim, Bumjoon J

    2014-03-25

    In this paper, we report the development of a versatile platform for a highly efficient and stable graphene oxide (GO)-based optical sensor that exhibits distinctive ratiometric color responses. To demonstrate the applicability of the platform, we fabricated a colorimetric, GO-based pH sensor that responds to a wide range of pH changes. Our sensing system is based on responsive polymer and quantum dot (QD) hybrids integrated on a single GO sheet (MQD-GO), with the GO providing an excellent signal-to-noise ratio and high dispersion stability in water. The photoluminescence emissions of the blue and orange color-emitting QDs (BQDs and OQDs) in MQD-GO can be controlled independently by different pH-responsive linkers of poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) (pKa=4.5) and poly(2-vinylpyridine) (P2VP) (pKa=3.0) that can tune the efficiencies of Förster resonance energy transfer from the BQDs to the GO and from the OQDs to the GO, respectively. As a result, the color of MQD-GO changes from orange to near-white to blue over a wide range of pH values. The detailed mechanism of the pH-dependent response of the MQD-GO sensor was elucidated by measurements of time-resolved fluorescence and dynamic light scattering. Furthermore, the MQD-GO sensor showed excellent reversibility and high dispersion stability in pure water, indicating that our system is an ideal platform for biological and environmental applications. Our colorimetric GO-based optical sensor can be expanded easily to various other multifunctional, GO-based sensors by using alternate stimuli-responsive polymers.

  15. PREFACE: The 5th International Symposium in Quantum Theory and Symmetries (QTS5)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arratia, O.; Calzada, J. A.; Gómez-Cubillo, F.; Negro, J.; del Olmo, M. A.

    2008-02-01

    This volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series contains the Proceedings of the 5th International Symposium in Quantum Theory and Symmetries (QTS5), held in Valladolid, Spain, 22-28 July 2007. This is the fifth of a series of conferences previously held in Goslar (Germany) 1999, QTS1; Cracow (Poland) 2001, QTS2; Cincinnati (USA) 2003, QTS3, and Varna (Bulgaria) 2005, QTS4. The QTS5 symposium gathered 181 participants from 39 countries working in different fields on Theoretical Physics. The spirit of the QTS conference series is to join researchers in a wide variety of topics in Theoretical Physics, as a way to make accessible recent results and the new lines of different fields. The QTS5 conference offered the following list of topics: Symmetries in String Theory, Quantum Gravity and related Symmetries in Quantum Field Theories, Conformal and Related Field Theories, Lattice and Noncommutative Theories, Gauge Theories Quantum Computing, Information and Control Foundations of Quantum Theory Quantum Optics, Coherent States, Wigner Functions Dynamical and Integrable Systems Symmetries in Condensed Matter and Statistical Physics Symmetries in Particle Physics, Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Nonlinear Quantum Mechanics Time Asymmetric Quantum Mechanics SUSY Quantum Mechanics, PT symmetries and pseudo-Hamiltonians Mathematical Methods for Symmetries and Quantum Theories Symmetries in Chemistry Biology and other Sciences Papers accepted for publication in the present issue are based on the contributions from the participants in the QTS5 conference after a peer review process. In addition, a special issue of Journal Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical contains contributions from plenary speakers, some participants as well as contributions from other authors whose works fit into the topics of the conference. The organization of the conference had the following pattern. In the morning there were five plenary or general sessions for all the participants, which aimed to

  16. Graphene quantum dots with nitrogen-doped content dependence for highly efficient dual-modality photodynamic antimicrobial therapy and bioimaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Wen-Shuo; Chen, Hua-Han; Chen, Shih-Yao; Chang, Chia-Yuan; Chen, Pei-Chi; Hou, Yung-I; Shao, Yu-Ting; Kao, Hui-Fang; Lilian Hsu, Chih-Li; Chen, Yi-Chun; Chen, Shean-Jen; Wu, Shang-Rung; Wang, Jiu-Yao

    2017-03-01

    Reactive oxygen species is the main contributor to photodynamic therapy. The results of this study show that a nitrogen-doped graphene quantum dot, serving as a photosensitizer, was capable of generating a higher amount of reactive oxygen species than a nitrogen-free graphene quantum dot in photodynamic therapy when photoexcited for only 3 min of 670 nm laser exposure (0.1 W cm -2 ), indicating highly improved antimicrobial effects. In addition, we found that higher nitrogen-bonding compositions of graphene quantum dots more efficiently performed photodynamic therapy actions than did the lower compositions that underwent identical treatments. Furthermore, the intrinsically emitted luminescence from nitrogen-doped graphene quantum dots and high photostability simultaneously enabled it to act as a promising contrast probe for tracking and localizing bacteria in biomedical imaging. Thus, the dual modality of nitrogen-doped graphene quantum dots presents possibilities for future clinical applications, and in particular multidrug resistant bacteria. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Improved efficiencies in organic light emitting diodes made with CdSe/ZnS quantum dots and a semiconducting polymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chih-Wen; Yang, Sheng-Hsiung; Hsu, Chain-Shu; Meng, Hsin-Fei

    2009-03-01

    In this study, we report the fabrication and characterization of organic/inorganic hybrid polymer light emitting diodes (PLEDs) made with ZnS-capped CdSe core/shell type nanocrystals and a light-emitting polymer poly[2-phenyl-3-(9,9-dihexylfluoren-2-yl)-1,4-phenylene vinylene]-co-[2-methoxy-5-(2'-ethylhexyloxy)-1,4-phenylene vinylene]. The device using pristine polymer as active layer emitted yellow light with a maximum brightness of 3949 cd/m2 and maximum external quantum efficiency of 0.27 cd/A at 10 V. After blending with the CdSe/ZnS quantum dots (QDs), the device showed a much higher brightness of 8192 cd/m2 and external quantum efficiency of 1.27 cd/A at 7 V, while the driving voltage was lowered. The experimental results revealed that CdSe/ZnS QDs act as a hole-blocker in the devices. More efficient electron-hole recombination process inside polymer layer results in large improvement in luminescence and efficiency.

  18. High Quantum Efficiency Photon-Counting Imaging Detector Development for UV (50-320 nm) Astronomical Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Timothy; Joseph, C.; Woodgate, B. E.; Stock, J.; Hilton, G. M.; Bertness, K.

    2011-01-01

    We are currently developing a high-quantum efficiency > 70% (peak), opaque photocathode-based, 2K x 2K pixel, zero-read-noise photon-counting detector system with the goal of enabling the highest possible sensitivity for space-based observations of ultra-faint astronomical targets in the UV.Current missions in the UV, eg HST (COS, STIS), GALEX etc although highly successful, exhibit relatively low quantum efficiency, photocathodes using cesiated p-doped GaN, by GSFC and others have obtained QEs of up to 70% at 121 nm and 50% at 180 nm, (a factor 3 - 5 better than the traditional CsI and CsTe based systems) and so are the best hope for sensitivity improvements over most of the FUV and NUV spectral range for new medium and long term missions. However, these QEs are obtained on opaque planar and nanowire photocathodes, and have not been demonstrated in microchannel plate based detectors. The only known way to use these improved photocathodes while maintaining the high QE is to use them in electron-bombarded CCD or CMOS configurations.The detector concept under investigation is based on an opaque (GaN, KBr) photocathode, magnetically focused to a back-thinned CMOS readout stage.We are currently incorporating a QE optimized KBr photocathode deposited on a stainless steel substrate with an Intevac Inc, ISIE11 EBCMOS sensor into a demountable, magnetically focused detector system, designed and built at Rutgers University, NJ in order to demonstrate high quantum efficiency photon-counting imaging performance in the FUV region. We report here progress on integration and evaluate of the system for quantum efficiency, imaging performance, photo-electron counting efficiency and dark count.

  19. Generating free charges by carrier multiplication in quantum dots for highly efficient photovoltaics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ten Cate, Sybren; Sandeep, C S Suchand; Liu, Yao; Law, Matt; Kinge, Sachin; Houtepen, Arjan J; Schins, Juleon M; Siebbeles, Laurens D A

    2015-02-17

    CONSPECTUS: In a conventional photovoltaic device (solar cell or photodiode) photons are absorbed in a bulk semiconductor layer, leading to excitation of an electron from a valence band to a conduction band. Directly after photoexcitation, the hole in the valence band and the electron in the conduction band have excess energy given by the difference between the photon energy and the semiconductor band gap. In a bulk semiconductor, the initially hot charges rapidly lose their excess energy as heat. This heat loss is the main reason that the theoretical efficiency of a conventional solar cell is limited to the Shockley-Queisser limit of ∼33%. The efficiency of a photovoltaic device can be increased if the excess energy is utilized to excite additional electrons across the band gap. A sufficiently hot charge can produce an electron-hole pair by Coulomb scattering on a valence electron. This process of carrier multiplication (CM) leads to formation of two or more electron-hole pairs for the absorption of one photon. In bulk semiconductors such as silicon, the energetic threshold for CM is too high to be of practical use. However, CM in nanometer sized semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) offers prospects for exploitation in photovoltaics. CM leads to formation of two or more electron-hole pairs that are initially in close proximity. For photovoltaic applications, these charges must escape from recombination. This Account outlines our recent progress in the generation of free mobile charges that result from CM in QDs. Studies of charge carrier photogeneration and mobility were carried out using (ultrafast) time-resolved laser techniques with optical or ac conductivity detection. We found that charges can be extracted from photoexcited PbS QDs by bringing them into contact with organic electron and hole accepting materials. However, charge localization on the QD produces a strong Coulomb attraction to its counter charge in the organic material. This limits the production

  20. Structural Investigation of Cesium Lead Halide Perovskites for High-Efficiency Quantum Dot Light-Emitting Diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le, Quyet Van [School; Kim, Jong Beom [Department; Kim, Soo Young [School; Lee, Byeongdu [X-ray; Lee, Dong Ryeol [Department

    2017-08-15

    We have investigated the effect of reaction temperature of hot-injection method on the structural properties of CsPbX3 (X: Br, I, Cl) perovskite nanocrystals (NCs) using the small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering. It is confirmed that the size of the NCs decreased as the reaction temperature decreased, resulting stronger quantum confinement. The cubic-phase perovskite NCs were formed despite the reaction temperatures increased from 140 to 180 °C. However, monodispersive NC cubes which are required for densely packing self-assembly film were only formed at lower temperatures. From the X-ray scattering measurements, the spin-coated film from more monodispersive perovskite nanocubes synthesized at lower temperatures resulted in more preferred orientation. This dense-packing perovskite film with preferred orientation yielded efficient light-emitting diode (LED) performance. Thus, the dense-packing structure of NC assemblies formed after spin-coating should be considered for high-efficient LEDs based on perovskite quantum dots in addition to quantum confinement effect of the quantum dots.

  1. A quantum-chemical perspective into low optical-gap polymers for highly-efficient organic solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Risko, Chad

    2011-03-15

    The recent and rapid enhancement in power conversion efficiencies of organic-based, bulk heterojunction solar cells has been a consequence of both improved materials design and better understanding of the underlying physical processes involved in photocurrent generation. In this Perspective, we first present an overview of the application of quantum-chemical techniques to study the intrinsic material properties and molecular- and nano-scale processes involved in device operation. In the second part, these quantum-chemical tools are applied to an oligomer-based study on a collection of donor-acceptor copolymers that have been used in the highest-efficiency solar cell devices reported to date. The quantum-chemical results are found to be in good agreement with the empirical data related to the electronic and optical properties. In particular, they provide insight into the natures of the electronic excitations responsible for the near-infrared/visible absorption profiles, as well as into the energetics of the low-lying singlet and triplet states. These results lead to a better understanding of the inherent differences among the materials, and highlight the usefulness of quantum chemistry as an instrument for material design. Importantly, the results also point to the need to continue the development of integrated, multi scale modeling approaches to provide a thorough understanding of the materials properties. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2011.

  2. Effective detective quantum efficiency for two mammography systems: Measurement and comparison against established metrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salvagnini, Elena [UZ Gasthuisberg, Medical Imaging Research Center and Department of Radiology, Herestraat 49, B-3000 Leuven, Belgium and SCK-CEN, Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol (Belgium); Bosmans, Hilde; Marshall, Nicholas W. [UZ Gasthuisberg, Medical Imaging Research Center and Department of Radiology, Herestraat 49, B-3000 Leuven (Belgium); Struelens, Lara [SCK-CEN, Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol (Belgium)

    2013-10-15

    Purpose: The aim of this paper was to illustrate the value of the new metric effective detective quantum efficiency (eDQE) in relation to more established measures in the optimization process of two digital mammography systems. The following metrics were included for comparison against eDQE: detective quantum efficiency (DQE) of the detector, signal difference to noise ratio (SdNR), and detectability index (d′) calculated using a standard nonprewhitened observer with eye filter.Methods: The two systems investigated were the Siemens MAMMOMAT Inspiration and the Hologic Selenia Dimensions. The presampling modulation transfer function (MTF) required for the eDQE was measured using two geometries: a geometry containing scattered radiation and a low scatter geometry. The eDQE, SdNR, and d′ were measured for poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) thicknesses of 20, 40, 60, and 70 mm, with and without the antiscatter grid and for a selection of clinically relevant target/filter (T/F) combinations. Figures of merit (FOMs) were then formed from SdNR and d′ using the mean glandular dose as the factor to express detriment. Detector DQE was measured at energies covering the range of typical clinically used spectra.Results: The MTF measured in the presence of scattered radiation showed a large drop at low spatial frequency compared to the low scatter method and led to a corresponding reduction in eDQE. The eDQE for the Siemens system at 1 mm{sup −1} ranged between 0.15 and 0.27, depending on T/F and grid setting. For the Hologic system, eDQE at 1 mm{sup −1} varied from 0.15 to 0.32, again depending on T/F and grid setting. The eDQE results for both systems showed that the grid increased the system efficiency for PMMA thicknesses of 40 mm and above but showed only small sensitivity to T/F setting. While results of the SdNR and d′ based FOMs confirmed the eDQE grid position results, they were also more specific in terms of T/F selection. For the Siemens system at 20 mm PMMA

  3. Effective detective quantum efficiency for two mammography systems: measurement and comparison against established metrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvagnini, Elena; Bosmans, Hilde; Struelens, Lara; Marshall, Nicholas W

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this paper was to illustrate the value of the new metric effective detective quantum efficiency (eDQE) in relation to more established measures in the optimization process of two digital mammography systems. The following metrics were included for comparison against eDQE: detective quantum efficiency (DQE) of the detector, signal difference to noise ratio (SdNR), and detectability index (d') calculated using a standard nonprewhitened observer with eye filter. The two systems investigated were the Siemens MAMMOMAT Inspiration and the Hologic Selenia Dimensions. The presampling modulation transfer function (MTF) required for the eDQE was measured using two geometries: a geometry containing scattered radiation and a low scatter geometry. The eDQE, SdNR, and d' were measured for poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) thicknesses of 20, 40, 60, and 70 mm, with and without the antiscatter grid and for a selection of clinically relevant target/filter (T/F) combinations. Figures of merit (FOMs) were then formed from SdNR and d' using the mean glandular dose as the factor to express detriment. Detector DQE was measured at energies covering the range of typical clinically used spectra. The MTF measured in the presence of scattered radiation showed a large drop at low spatial frequency compared to the low scatter method and led to a corresponding reduction in eDQE. The eDQE for the Siemens system at 1 mm(-1) ranged between 0.15 and 0.27, depending on T/F and grid setting. For the Hologic system, eDQE at 1 mm(-1) varied from 0.15 to 0.32, again depending on T/F and grid setting. The eDQE results for both systems showed that the grid increased the system efficiency for PMMA thicknesses of 40 mm and above but showed only small sensitivity to T/F setting. While results of the SdNR and d' based FOMs confirmed the eDQE grid position results, they were also more specific in terms of T/F selection. For the Siemens system at 20 mm PMMA, the FOMs indicated Mo/Mo (grid out) as

  4. Effect of AlSb quantum dots on efficiency of GaAs solar cell (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansoori, Ahmad; Addamane, Sadhvikas J.; Renteria, Emma J.; Shima, Darryl M.; Hains, Christopher P.; Balakrishnan, Ganesh

    2016-09-01

    Quantum Dots (QDs) have a broad applications in science and specifically in solar cell. Many research groups show that by adding QDs with lower bandgap respect to host material, the overall absorption of sun spectrum coverage will increase. Here, we propose using QDs with higher band gap respect to host material to improve efficiency of solar cell by improving quantum efficiency. GaAs solar cells have the highest efficiency in single junction solar cells. However, the absorption of GaAs is not good enough in wavelength lower than 550nm. AlSb can absorb shorter wavelength with higher absorption coefficient and also recombination rate should be lower because of higher bandgap of AlSb respect to GaAs. We embed AlSb QDs in GaAs solar cells and results show slight improvement in quantum efficiency and also in overall efficiency. Coverage of AlSb QDs has a direct impact on quality of AlSb QDs and efficiency of cell. In the higher coverage, intermixing between GaAs and AlSb causes to shift bandgap to lower value (having AlGaSb QDs instead of pure AlSb QDs). This intermixing decrease the Voc and overall efficiency of cell. In lower coverage, AlSb can survive from intermixing and overall performance of cell improves. Optimizing growth condition of AlSb QDs is a key point for this work. By using AlSb QDs, we can decrease the thickness of active layer of GaAs solar cells and have a thinner solar cell.

  5. PREFACE: 6th International Workshop on Pseudo-Hermitian Hamiltonians in Quantum Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fring, Andreas; Jones, Hugh; Znojil, Miloslav

    2008-06-01

    Attempts to understand the quantum mechanics of non-Hermitian Hamiltonian systems can be traced back to the early days, one example being Heisenberg's endeavour to formulate a consistent model involving an indefinite metric. Over the years non-Hermitian Hamiltonians whose spectra were believed to be real have appeared from time to time in the literature, for instance in the study of strong interactions at high energies via Regge models, in condensed matter physics in the context of the XXZ-spin chain, in interacting boson models in nuclear physics, in integrable quantum field theories as Toda field theories with complex coupling constants, and also very recently in a field theoretical scenario in the quantization procedure of strings on an AdS5 x S5 background. Concrete experimental realizations of these types of systems in the form of optical lattices have been proposed in 2007. In the area of mathematical physics similar non-systematic results appeared sporadically over the years. However, intensive and more systematic investigation of these types of non- Hermitian Hamiltonians with real eigenvalue spectra only began about ten years ago, when the surprising discovery was made that a large class of one-particle systems perturbed by a simple non-Hermitian potential term possesses a real energy spectrum. Since then regular international workshops devoted to this theme have taken place. This special issue is centred around the 6th International Workshop on Pseudo-Hermitian Hamiltonians in Quantum Physics held in July 2007 at City University London. All the contributions contain significant new results or alternatively provide a survey of the state of the art of the subject or a critical assessment of the present understanding of the topic and a discussion of open problems. Original contributions from non-participants were also invited. Meanwhile many interesting results have been obtained and consensus has been reached on various central conceptual issues in the

  6. A comparative study of efficiency droop and internal electric field for InGaN blue lighting-emitting diodes on silicon and sapphire substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, H Y; Jeon, K S; Kang, M G; Yuh, H K; Choi, Y H; Lee, J S

    2017-04-12

    We investigated the efficiency droop and polarization-induced internal electric field of InGaN blue light-emitting diodes (LEDs) grown on silicon(111) and c-plane sapphire substrates. The efficiency droop of the LED sample grown on silicon substrates was considerably lower than that of the identically fabricated LED sample grown on sapphire substrates. Consequently, the LED on silicon showed higher efficiency at a sufficiently high injection current despite the lower peak efficiency caused by the poorer crystal quality. The reduced efficiency droop for the LED on silicon was attributed to its lower internal electric field, which was confirmed by reverse-bias electro-reflectance measurements and numerical simulations. The internal electric field of the multiple quantum wells (MQWs) on silicon was found to be reduced by more than 40% compared to that of the MQWs on sapphire, which resulted in a more homogenous carrier distribution in InGaN MQWs, lower Auger recombination rates, and consequently reduced efficiency droop for the LEDs grown on the silicon substrates. Owing to its greatly reduced efficiency droop, the InGaN blue LED on silicon substrates is expected to be a good cost effective solution for future lighting technology.

  7. A comparative study of efficiency droop and internal electric field for InGaN blue lighting-emitting diodes on silicon and sapphire substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, H. Y.; Jeon, K. S.; Kang, M. G.; Yuh, H. K.; Choi, Y. H.; Lee, J. S.

    2017-04-01

    We investigated the efficiency droop and polarization-induced internal electric field of InGaN blue light-emitting diodes (LEDs) grown on silicon(111) and c-plane sapphire substrates. The efficiency droop of the LED sample grown on silicon substrates was considerably lower than that of the identically fabricated LED sample grown on sapphire substrates. Consequently, the LED on silicon showed higher efficiency at a sufficiently high injection current despite the lower peak efficiency caused by the poorer crystal quality. The reduced efficiency droop for the LED on silicon was attributed to its lower internal electric field, which was confirmed by reverse-bias electro-reflectance measurements and numerical simulations. The internal electric field of the multiple quantum wells (MQWs) on silicon was found to be reduced by more than 40% compared to that of the MQWs on sapphire, which resulted in a more homogenous carrier distribution in InGaN MQWs, lower Auger recombination rates, and consequently reduced efficiency droop for the LEDs grown on the silicon substrates. Owing to its greatly reduced efficiency droop, the InGaN blue LED on silicon substrates is expected to be a good cost effective solution for future lighting technology.

  8. The Colloidal Stabilization of Quantum Dots: Towards Manufacturable, Efficient Solution-Processed Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollny, Lisa

    Understanding colloidal stabilization can influence the design of optoelectronic devices and enable improvements to their performance and stability. For photovoltaics, important characteristics of the active layer material are high conductivity along with a minimum of recombination centers. In order to capitalize on the benefits of solution-processed materials, it is important to minimize the number of processing steps: ideally, to achieve a low-cost solution, materials would be deposited using a single process step compatible with roll-to-roll manufacturing. Prior to this work, the highest-performing colloidal quantum dots (CQD) solar cells have relied on several deposition steps that are repeated in a layer-by-layer (LBL) fashion. The purpose of these process steps has been to remove the long insulating ligands used in synthesis and replace them with short ligands that allow electrical conduction. The large number of steps combined, typically implemented via spin coating, leads to inefficient materials utilization and fails to show a path to a manufacturable solution. In this work, the first CQD solar cells were designed, built, and characterized combining state-of-art performance with scalable manufacture. Firstly, I report the first automated CQD synthesis to result in CQDs that form high-performance CQD solar cells. I analyze the CQD synthesis and by separating it into two phases---nucleation and growth phase---my insights are used to create higher-quality CQDs exhibiting enhanced monodispersity. I then proceed to develop a CQD ink: a CQD solution ready for direct deposition to form a semiconducting film exhibiting low trap state density. In early trials the CQD ink showed only limited power conversion efficiencies of 2%. I designed a new ink strategy, which I term cleavable hemiketal ligands. This novel two-component ligand strategy enables the combination of colloidal stabilization (via this longer two-component ligand) and cleavability (enabling excellent

  9. Energy resolution measurements of LaBr3:Ce scintillating crystals with an ultra-high quantum efficiency photomultiplier tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pani, R.; Cinti, M.N.; Scafe, R.; Pellegrini, R.; Vittorini, F.; Bennati, P.; Ridolfi, S.; Lo Meo, S.; Mattioli, M.; Baldazzi, G.; Pisacane, F.; Navarria, F.; Moschini, G.; Boccaccio, P.; Orsolini Cencelli, V.; Sacco, D.

    2009-01-01

    The performance of the new prototype of high quantum efficiency PMT (43% at 380 nm), Hamamatsu R7600U-200, was studied coupled to a LaBr 3 :Ce crystal with the size of o12.5 mmx12.5 mm. The energy resolution results were compared with ones from two PMTs, Hamamatsu R7600U and R6231MOD, with 22% and 30% quantum efficiency (QE), respectively. Moreover, the photodetectors were equipped with tapered and un-tapered voltage dividers to study the non-linearity effects on pulse height distribution, due to very high peak currents induced in the PMT by the fast and intense light pulse of LaBr 3 :Ce. The results show an energy resolution improvement with UBA PMT of about 20%, in the energy range of 80-662 keV, with respect to the BA one.

  10. An Experimental Study of the Quantum Efficiency and Topology of Copper Photocathode Due to Plasma Cleaning and Etching

    CERN Document Server

    Palmer, Denni T; Kirby, Robert

    2005-01-01

    We have developed an experimental research program to the study of the photoemission properties of copper photocathodes as a function of various plasma cleaning/etching parameters. The quantum efficiency, QE, and topology, Ra and Rpp, of Copper Photocathodes, , will be monitored while undergoing plasma cleaning/etching process. We will monitor the QE as a function of time for the various test coupons while we optimize the various plasma processing parameters. In addition, surface topology, will be studied to determine the suitability of the cleaning/etching process to produce an acceptable photoemitter. We propose to use two metrics in the evaluation of the plasma cleaning process as an acceptable cleaning method for metallic photocathodes, Quantum Efficiency versus Wavelength and Surface roughness: Ra and Rpp represent the Average Roughness and Peak to Peak Roughness parameters, respectively.

  11. Measurement of the tradeoff between intrinsic emittance and quantum efficiency from a NaKSb photocathode near threshold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maxson, Jared, E-mail: jmm586@cornell.edu; Cultrera, Luca; Gulliford, Colwyn; Bazarov, Ivan [Cornell Laboratory for Accelerator-Based Sciences and Education, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States)

    2015-06-08

    We measure the tradeoff between the quantum efficiency and intrinsic emittance from a NaKSb photocathode at three increasing wavelengths (635, 650, and 690 nm) at or below the energy of the bandgap plus the electron affinity, hν≤E{sub g}+E{sub a}. These measurements were performed using a high voltage dc gun for varied photocathode surface fields of 1.4−4.4 MV/m. Measurements of intrinsic emittance are performed using two different methods and were found to agree. At the longest wavelength available, 690 nm, the intrinsic emittance was 0.26 μm/mm-rms with a quantum efficiency of ∼10{sup −4}. The suitability of NaKSb emitting at threshold for various low emittance applications is discussed.

  12. Measurement of the tradeoff between intrinsic emittance and quantum efficiency from a NaKSb photocathode near threshold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxson, Jared; Cultrera, Luca; Gulliford, Colwyn; Bazarov, Ivan

    2015-06-01

    We measure the tradeoff between the quantum efficiency and intrinsic emittance from a NaKSb photocathode at three increasing wavelengths (635, 650, and 690 nm) at or below the energy of the bandgap plus the electron affinity, h ν≤Eg+Ea . These measurements were performed using a high voltage dc gun for varied photocathode surface fields of 1.4 -4.4 MV/m. Measurements of intrinsic emittance are performed using two different methods and were found to agree. At the longest wavelength available, 690 nm, the intrinsic emittance was 0.26 μm/mm-rms with a quantum efficiency of ˜10-4 . The suitability of NaKSb emitting at threshold for various low emittance applications is discussed.

  13. Enhancement of recombination process using silver and graphene quantum dot embedded intermediate layer for efficient organic tandem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Nhu Thuy; Tien, Huynh Ngoc; Jang, Se-Joeng; Senthilkumar, Velusamy; Park, Yun Chang; Cho, Shinuk; Kim, Yong Soo

    2016-07-25

    High performance of organic tandem solar cell is largely dependent on transparent and conductive intermediate layer (IML). The current work reports the design and fabrication of an IML using a simple solution process. The efficiency of a homo-tandem device with poly(3-hexylthiophene):phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester as an active layer and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate)/poly(ethylenimine) as an IML was initially found to be 3.40%. Further enhancement of the cell efficiency was achieved using silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) of different sizes and graphene quantum dot embedded IML. A maximum efficiency of 4.03% was achieved using 7 nm Ag-NPs that contribute to a better recombination process. Also, the performance of the tandem cell was solely based on the electrical improvements indicated by the current - voltage measurements, external quantum efficiency and impedance analysis. The use of Ag-NPs in the IML has been shown to lengthen the life time of electron-hole pairs in the device. This study thus paves way to develop such efficient IMLs for more efficient tandem solar cells.

  14. Enhancement of recombination process using silver and graphene quantum dot embedded intermediate layer for efficient organic tandem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Nhu Thuy; Tien, Huynh Ngoc; Jang, Se-Joeng; Senthilkumar, Velusamy; Park, Yun Chang; Cho, Shinuk; Kim, Yong Soo

    2016-07-01

    High performance of organic tandem solar cell is largely dependent on transparent and conductive intermediate layer (IML). The current work reports the design and fabrication of an IML using a simple solution process. The efficiency of a homo-tandem device with poly(3-hexylthiophene):phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester as an active layer and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate)/poly(ethylenimine) as an IML was initially found to be 3.40%. Further enhancement of the cell efficiency was achieved using silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) of different sizes and graphene quantum dot embedded IML. A maximum efficiency of 4.03% was achieved using 7 nm Ag-NPs that contribute to a better recombination process. Also, the performance of the tandem cell was solely based on the electrical improvements indicated by the current - voltage measurements, external quantum efficiency and impedance analysis. The use of Ag-NPs in the IML has been shown to lengthen the life time of electron-hole pairs in the device. This study thus paves way to develop such efficient IMLs for more efficient tandem solar cells.

  15. Refractory oxide hosts for a high power, broadly tunable laser with high quantum efficiency and method of making same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yok; Gonzalez, R.

    1985-07-03

    Refractory oxide crystals having high-quantum efficiency and high thermal stability for use as broadly tunable laser host materials. The crystals are formed by removing hydrogen from a single crystal of the oxide material to a level below about 10/sup 12/ protons per cm/sup 3/ and subsequently thermochemically reducing the oxygen content of the crystal to form sufficient oxygen anion vacancies so that short-lived F/sup +/ luminescence is produced when the crystal is optically excited.

  16. International Standards to Develop and Promote Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    International Standards are a powerful tool for disseminating new technologies and good practices, developing global markets and supporting the harmonization of government policies on energy efficiency and renewable sources on a global scale.

  17. PREFACE: 7th International Conference on Quantum Theory and Symmetries (QTS7)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdík, Čestmír; Navrátil, Ondřej; Pošta, Severin; Schnabl, Martin; Šnobl, Libor

    2012-02-01

    The Seventh International Conference Quantum Theory and Symmetries (QTS7), organized by the Departments of Mathematics and Physics, Faculty of Nuclear Sciences and Physical Engineering at the Czech Technical University in Prague, the Bogoliubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics of the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research and the Institute of Physics at the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, belongs to a successful series of conferences which began at Goslar, Germany in 1999. More recent QTS conferences were held in Poland, Bulgaria, USA and Spain. QTS7 gathered around 300 scientists from all over the world. 136 of the plenary lectures and contributions presented at QTS7 are published in this issue of Journal of Physics: Conference Series. We acknowledge support from the Commission for co-operation with JINR Dubna and grant LA-08002 from the Ministry of Education of the Czech Republic. Čestmír Burdík Chairman Local Organizing Committee

  18. State-to-State Internal Energy Relaxation Following the Quantum-Kinetic Model in DSMC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liechty, Derek S.

    2014-01-01

    A new model for chemical reactions, the Quantum-Kinetic (Q-K) model of Bird, has recently been introduced that does not depend on macroscopic rate equations or values of local flow field data. Subsequently, the Q-K model has been extended to include reactions involving charged species and electronic energy level transitions. Although this is a phenomenological model, it has been shown to accurately reproduce both equilibrium and non-equilibrium reaction rates. The usefulness of this model becomes clear as local flow conditions either exceed the conditions used to build previous models or when they depart from an equilibrium distribution. Presently, the applicability of the relaxation technique is investigated for the vibrational internal energy mode. The Forced Harmonic Oscillator (FHO) theory for vibrational energy level transitions is combined with the Q-K energy level transition model to accurately reproduce energy level transitions at a reduced computational cost compared to the older FHO models.

  19. Adaptation to high CO2 concentration in an optimal environment: radiation capture, canopy quantum yield and carbon use efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monje, O.; Bugbee, B.

    1998-01-01

    The effect of elevated [CO2] on wheat (Triticum aestivum L. Veery 10) productivity was examined by analysing radiation capture, canopy quantum yield, canopy carbon use efficiency, harvest index and daily C gain. Canopies were grown at either 330 or 1200 micromoles mol-1 [CO2] in controlled environments, where root and shoot C fluxes were monitored continuously from emergence to harvest. A rapidly circulating hydroponic solution supplied nutrients, water and root zone oxygen. At harvest, dry mass predicted from gas exchange data was 102.8 +/- 4.7% of the observed dry mass in six trials. Neither radiation capture efficiency nor carbon use efficiency were affected by elevated [CO2], but yield increased by 13% due to a sustained increase in canopy quantum yield. CO2 enrichment increased root mass, tiller number and seed mass. Harvest index and chlorophyll concentration were unchanged, but CO2 enrichment increased average life cycle net photosynthesis (13%, P < 0.05) and root respiration (24%, P < 0.05). These data indicate that plant communities adapt to CO2 enrichment through changes in C allocation. Elevated [CO2] increases sink strength in optimal environments, resulting in sustained increases in photosynthetic capacity, canopy quantum yield and daily C gain throughout the life cycle.

  20. Spectrometric performances of high quantum efficiency multi and single anode PMTs coupled to LaBr3(Ce) crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cinti, Maria Nerina, E-mail: marianerina.cinti@uniroma1.it [Department of Molecular Medicine, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome 00161 (Italy); INFN Rome 1 Section, Rome (Italy); Pani, Roberto; Pellegrini, Rosanna [Department of Molecular Medicine, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome 00161 (Italy); INFN Rome 1 Section, Rome (Italy); Bennati, Paolo [Department of Molecular Medicine, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome 00161 (Italy); Orlandi, Chiara [Medical Physics Post Graduate School, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome 00161 (Italy); Fabbri, Andrea [Department of Physics, Roma Tre University, Rome (Italy); INFN Rome 3 Section, Rome (Italy); Ridolfi, Stefano; Scafè, Raffaele [Department of Molecular Medicine, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome 00161 (Italy)

    2013-10-01

    High quantum efficiency semiconductor photodetectors have recently drawn the attention of the scientific community for their potential in the realization of a new class of scintillation imagers with very high energy and spatial resolution performance. However, this goal does not seem within easy reach, due to various technological issues such as, for example, the difficulty to scale the characteristics of a single detector to an imager with suitable dimensions. Lately a definite technical improvement in increasing quantum efficiency up to 42% for position sensitive photomultipliers was achieved. The aim of this work is thus to test this new technological progress and to study the possible implications in imaging applications. Four Hamamatsu PMTs were tested: two multi anode photomultipliers, one with a bialkali (27% quantum efficiency) and the other one with a super-bialkali photocathode (38% quantum efficiency), and two 1×1 in. PMTs, both equipped with an ultra bialkali photocathode (42% quantum efficiency). In particular one of the ultra bialkali PMT has also an increased efficiency of first dynode charge collection. The results were compared with the ones obtained with a reference PMT (Hamamatsu R6231), mainly used in spectroscopy. The PMTs were coupled to LaBr3(Ce), NaI(Tl) and LSO(Ce) continuous scintillation crystals. The tests were done using two independent electronic chains: one dedicated for spectroscopic application and a second one, using a multi wire 64 channel readout, for imaging applications. The super-bialkali MA-PMTs have shown high energy resolution, both with spectroscopic and imaging setup, highlighting the appropriateness of these devices for the development of imaging devices with high spectroscopic performance. -- Highlights: • A study of energy resolution results coming from position sensitive photomultipliers are proposed. • The study is also extended on mono- anode photomultiplier. • The selected scintillation crystal is LeBr3(Ce

  1. Efficiency, equity or disagreement? The economics of international carbon abatement negotiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mabey, N.; Smith, C.

    1995-01-01

    The current international effort to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, as embodied in the Framework Convention on Climate Change, is often criticized as inefficient by economists because it uses uniform targets instead of more theoretically efficient instruments such as international taxes. However, the effectiveness of any international treaty in producing environmental benefits is not wholly dependent on its economic efficiency but also on its political stability and the ability to accurately monitor and enforce its conditions. Stability depends on the magnitude and distribution of costs and benefits between countries which have heterogeneous economies, environmental damages, trading partners and abatement costs. The distribution of costs between countries will also depend on the type of policy instrument used to coordinate international abatement efforts. This paper analyses trade-offs that must be made when negotiating international agreements in order to balance the need for administrative convenience and economic efficiency with the realization that any agreement is better than no agreement

  2. Enhanced protein internalization and efficient endosomal escape using polyampholyte-modified liposomes and freeze concentration

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Sana; Fujita, Satoshi; Matsumura, Kazuaki

    2016-01-01

    Here we show a new strategy for efficient freeze concentration-mediated cytoplasmic delivery of proteins, obtained via the endosomal escape property of polyampholyte-modified liposomes. The freeze concentration method successfully induces the efficient internalization of proteins simply by freezing cells with protein and nanocarrier complexes. However, the mechanism of protein internalization remains unclear. Here, we designed a novel protein delivery carrier by modifying liposomes through in...

  3. Novel cobalt quantum dot/graphene nanocomposites as highly efficient electrocatalysts for water splitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindhan, Maduraiveeran; Mao, Brennan; Chen, Aicheng

    2016-01-01

    A cost-effective, non-noble metal based high-performance electrocatalyst for the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) is critical to energy conversion and storage processes. Here, we report on a facile and effective in situ strategy for the synthesis of an advanced nanocomposite material that is comprised of cobalt quantum dots (Co QDs, ~3.2 nm), uniformly dispersed on reduced graphene oxide (rGO) as a highly efficient OER electrocatalyst platform. This nanocomposite electrocatalyst afforded a mass activity of 1250 A g-1 at a low overpotential (η) of 0.37 V, a small Tafel slope of ~37 mV dec-1 and a turnover frequency (TOF) of 0.188 s-1 in 0.1 M KOH, comparing favorably with state-of-the-art RuO2, IrO2 and Pt/C catalysts. The synergy between abundant catalytically active sites through the fine dispersion of Co QDs, and enhanced electron transfer generated from the graphene resulted in first-rate electrocatalytic properties toward the OER. These merits coupled with the higher stability of the nanocomposite hold great promise for triggering breakthroughs in electrocatalysis for water splitting.A cost-effective, non-noble metal based high-performance electrocatalyst for the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) is critical to energy conversion and storage processes. Here, we report on a facile and effective in situ strategy for the synthesis of an advanced nanocomposite material that is comprised of cobalt quantum dots (Co QDs, ~3.2 nm), uniformly dispersed on reduced graphene oxide (rGO) as a highly efficient OER electrocatalyst platform. This nanocomposite electrocatalyst afforded a mass activity of 1250 A g-1 at a low overpotential (η) of 0.37 V, a small Tafel slope of ~37 mV dec-1 and a turnover frequency (TOF) of 0.188 s-1 in 0.1 M KOH, comparing favorably with state-of-the-art RuO2, IrO2 and Pt/C catalysts. The synergy between abundant catalytically active sites through the fine dispersion of Co QDs, and enhanced electron transfer generated from the graphene resulted in

  4. Bitcoin as an Efficient Method for the International Contract Settlement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diachek Olga Yu.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed to study the functioning of Bitcoin in today’s world. The issue of the nature of Bitcoin and tendencies in its development have been considered. Given the growing spread of Bitcoin, the number of transactions and the size of the blocks in the system will but increase. In order to maintain correct work, according to progressive growth, consideration is given to the dynamics of the increasing role of the virtual currency, the payment channels through digital coins, and the importance of assimilating such platforms. An analysis of the methods for international contract settlements was carried out. The relevance of implementation of cryptocurrency has been substantiated. The features of functioning of Bitcoin compared to the world currencies were considered. The economic properties of the block chain were studied. In turn, cryptocurrency suggests that the true value of technology lies in its growing potential. In order to develop a complete picture of the effect and scope of Bitcoin, stages of its development and the current status both in Ukraine and the world as a whole were examined. Accordingly, recommendations have been made to improve the status of Bitcoin in Ukraine

  5. An Efficient Algorithm for Simulating the Real-Time Quantum Dynamics of a Single Spin-1/2 Coupled to Specific Spin-1/2 Baths

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Novotny, M.A.; Guerra, M.; Raedt, H. De; Michielsen, K.; Jin, F.

    2012-01-01

    An efficient algorithm for the computation of the real-time dependence of a single quantum spin-1/2 coupled to a specific set of quantum spin-1/2 baths is presented. The specific spin baths have couplings only with the spin operators Sx between bath spins and the central spin. We calculate spin

  6. Particles and nuclei, letters; Proceedings of the international workshop 'Quantum Physics and Communication'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, V.V.

    2003-01-01

    The present collection of letters from JINR, Dubna, contains ten separate records on the microscopic entropy and nonlocality, conditional density matrix: systems and subsystems in quantum mechanics, physics of quantum computation, flipping qubits, quantum zeno effect for N-level Friedrichs model, universal hybrid quantum processors, formation of the SU(3)-polarization states in atom-quantum electromagnetic field system under condition of the Bose-Einstein condensate existence, periodical sequences (trajectories) of outcomes of atomic state measurement on exit from the micromaser cavity, an algebraic method to solve the Tavis-Cummings problem, quantum teleportation of nuclear matter and its investigation

  7. PREFACE: The 5th International Symposium on Quantum Theory and Symmetries (QTS5)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadella, M.; Izquierdo, J. M.; Kuru, S.; Negro, J.; del Olmo, M. A.

    2008-08-01

    This special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical appears on the occasion of the 5th International Symposium on Quantum Theory and Symmetries (QTS5), held in Valladolid, Spain, from 22-28 July 2007. This is the fith in a series of conferences previously held in Goslar (Germany) 1999, QTS1; Cracow (Poland) 2001, QTS2; Cincinnati (USA) 2003, QTS3; and Varna (Bulgaria) 2005, QTS4. The QTS5 symposium gathered 181 participants from 39 countries working in different fields of theoretical physics. The spirit of the QTS conference series is to join researchers in a wide variety of topics in theoretical physics, as a way of making accessible recent results and the new lines of different fields. This is based on the feeling that it is good for a physicist to have a general overview as well as expertise in his/her own field. There are many other conferences devoted to specific topics, which are of interest to gain deeper insight in many technical aspects and that are quite suitable for discussions due to their small size. However, we believe that general conferences like this are interesting and worth keeping. We like the talks, in both plenary and parallel sessions, which are devoted to specific topics, to be prepared so as to be accessible to any researcher in any branch of theoretical physics. We think that this objective is compatible with rigour and high standards. As is well known, similar methods and techniques can be useful for many problems in different fields. We hope that this has been appreciated during the sessions of the QTS5 conference. The QTS5 conference offered the following list of topics: 1. Symmetries in string theory, quantum gravity and related topics 2. Symmetries in quantum field theories, conformal and related field theories, lattice and noncommutative theories, gauge theories 3.Quantum computing, information and control 4. Foundations of quantum theory 5. Quantum optics, coherent states, Wigner functions 6. Dynamical and

  8. Non-Covalent Interactions and Internal Dynamics in Pyridine-Ammonia a Combined Quantum-Chemical and Microwave Spectroscopy Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spada, Lorenzo; Tasinato, Nicola; Vazart, Fanny; Barone, Vincenzo; Caminati, Walther; Puzzarini, Cristina

    2017-06-01

    The 1:1 complex of ammonia with pyridine has been characterized by using state-of-the-art quantum-chemical computations combined with pulsed-jet Fourier-Transform microwave spectroscopy. The computed potential energy landscape pointed out the formation of a stable σ-type complex, which has been confirmed experimentally: the analysis of the rotational spectrum showed the presence of only one 1:1 pyridine - ammonia adduct. Each rotational transition is split into several components due to the internal rotation of NH_3 around its C_3 axis and to the hyperfine structure of both ^{14}N quadrupolar nuclei, thus providing the unequivocal proof that the two molecules form a σ-type complex involving both a N-H\\cdotsN and a C-H\\cdotsN hydrogen bond. The dissociation energy (BSSE and ZPE corrected) has been estimated to be 11.5 kJ\\cdotmol^{-1}. This work represents the first application of an accurate, yet efficient computational scheme, designed for the investigation of small biomolecules, to a molecular cluster.

  9. Quantum efficiency as a device-physics interpretation tool for thin-film solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagle, Timothy J.

    2007-12-01

    Thin-film solar cells made from CdTe and CIGS p-type absorbers are promising candidates for generating pollution-free electricity. The challenge faced by the thin-film photovoltaics (PV) community is to improve the electrical properties of devices, without straying from low-cost, industry-friendly techniques. This dissertation will focus on the use of quantum-efficiency (QE) measurements to deduce the device physics of thin-film devices, in the hope of improving electrical properties and efficiencies of PV materials. Photons which are absorbed, but not converted into electrical energy can modify the energy bands in the solar cell. Under illumination, photoconductivity in the CdS window layer can result in bands different from those in the dark. QE data presented here was taken under a variety of light-bias conditions. These results suggest that 0.10 sun of white-light bias incident on the CdS layer is usually sufficient to achieve accurate QE results. QE results are described by models based on carrier collection by drift and diffusion, and photon absorption. These models are sensitive to parameters such as carrier mobility and lifetime. Comparing calculated QE curves with experiments, it was determined that electron lifetimes in CdTe are less than 0.1 ns. Lifetime determinations also suggest that copper serves as a recombination center in CdTe. The spatial uniformity of QE results has been investigated with the LBIC apparatus, and several experiments are described which investigate cell uniformity. Electrical variations that occur in solar cells often occur in a nonuniform fashion, and can be detected with the LBIC apparatus. Studies discussed here include investigation of patterned deposition of Cu in back-contacts, the use of high-resistivity TCO layers to mitigate nonuniformity, optical effects, and local shunts. CdTe devices with transparent back contacts were also studied with LBIC, including those that received a strong bromine/dichrol/hydrazine (BDH) etch

  10. Photovoltaic efficiency of intermediate band solar cells based on CdTe/CdMnTe coupled quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, Silvio J.; Marques, Gilmar E.; Alcalde, Augusto M.

    2017-11-01

    In this work we show the calculation of optimized efficiencies of intermediate band solar cells (IBSCs) based on Mn-doped II-VI CdTe/CdMnTe coupled quantum dot (QD) structures. We focus our attention on the combined effects of geometrical and Mn-doping parameters on optical properties and solar cell efficiency. In the framework of {k \\cdot p} theory, we accomplish detailed calculations of electronic structure, transition energies, optical selection rules and their corresponding intra- and interband oscillator strengths. With these results and by following the intermediate band model, we have developed a strategy which allows us to find optimal photovoltaic efficiency values. We also show that the effects of band admixture which can lead to degradation of optical transitions and reduction of efficiency can be partly minimized by a careful selection of the structural parameters and Mn-concentration. Thus, the improvement of band engineering is mandatory for any practical implementation of QD systems as IBSC hardware. Finally, our calculations show that it is possible to reach significant efficiency, up to  ∼26%, by selecting a restricted space of parameters such as quantum dot size and shape and Mn-concentration effects, to improve the modulation of optical absorption in the structures.

  11. Implementation of energy efficiency programs using cogeneration based on internal combustion engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minciuc Eduard

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an analysis of implementation of CHP plants based on internal combustion engines at different industrial companies. The authors have presented general aspects regarding utilization of internal combustion engines for cogeneration. There have been presented different possibilities of classification of internal combustion engines. Further on authors have presented different possibilities for increasing the efficiency of internal combustion engines, including: supercharging compression ratio increase, advanced heat recuperation for combined production of heat and power. There have also been presented different measures for increasing energy efficiency on site, including measures for CHP plant and internal combustion engines and measures for other auxiliary equipment and measures for technological equipment. In the second part of the paper authors have presented three case studies of utilization of internal combustion engines at a cogeneration plant for different industrial companies: cogeneration plant at a company from pharmaceutical sector, cogeneration plant at a beer production company and cogeneration plant at a company of electrical insulation materials. The results of the analysis led to following conclusions: implementation of cogeneration solutions based on internal combustion engines lead to significant financial savings, implementation of cogeneration solutions based on internal combustion engines can also lead to reducing environmental impact, it ensures higher global energy production efficiency and higher power efficiency compared to National Power System and to separate power and heat generation, it can lead to increased safety in energy supply of the company, it can also increase the reliability of power supply in cases of National Power Grid faults.

  12. Broadband Epsilon-near-Zero Reflectors Enhance the Quantum Efficiency of Thin Solar Cells at Visible and Infrared Wavelengths

    KAUST Repository

    Labelle, A. J.

    2017-02-03

    The engineering of broadband absorbers to harvest white light in thin-film semiconductors is a major challenge in developing renewable materials for energy harvesting. Many solution-processed materials with high manufacturability and low cost, such as semiconductor quantum dots, require the use of film structures with thicknesses on the order of 1 μm to absorb incoming photons completely. The electron transport lengths in these media, however, are 1 order of magnitude smaller than this length, hampering further progress with this platform. Herein, we show that, by engineering suitably disordered nanoplasmonic structures, we have created a new class of dispersionless epsilon-near-zero composite materials that efficiently harness white light. Our nanostructures localize light in the dielectric region outside the epsilon-near-zero material with characteristic lengths of 10-100 nm, resulting in an efficient system for harvesting broadband light when a thin absorptive film is deposited on top of the structure. By using a combination of theory and experiments, we demonstrate that ultrathin layers down to 50 nm of colloidal quantum dots deposited atop the epsilon-near-zero material show an increase in broadband absorption ranging from 200% to 500% compared to a planar structure of the same colloidal quantum-dot-absorber average thickness. When the epsilon-near-zero nanostructures were used in an energy-harvesting module, we observed a spectrally averaged 170% broadband increase in the external quantum efficiency of the device, measured at wavelengths between 400 and 1200 nm. Atomic force microscopy and photoluminescence excitation measurements demonstrate that the properties of these epsilon-near-zero structures apply to general metals and could be used to enhance the near-field absorption of semiconductor structures more widely. We have developed an inexpensive electrochemical deposition process that enables scaled-up production of this nanomaterial for large

  13. High Efficiency Quantum Dot III-V Multijunction Solar Cell for Space Power, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Quantum dots are nanoscale materials that have already improved the performance of optical sensors, lasers, and light emitting diodes. The unique properties of these...

  14. High Efficiency Quantum Dot III-V Thermophotovoltaic Cell for Space Power, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Quantum dots are nanoscale materials that have already improved the performance of optical sensors, lasers, light emitting diodes and solar cells. The unique...

  15. Superior memory efficiency of quantum devices for the simulation of continuous-time stochastic processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Thomas J.; Gu, Mile

    2018-03-01

    Continuous-time stochastic processes pervade everyday experience, and the simulation of models of these processes is of great utility. Classical models of systems operating in continuous-time must typically track an unbounded amount of information about past behaviour, even for relatively simple models, enforcing limits on precision due to the finite memory of the machine. However, quantum machines can require less information about the past than even their optimal classical counterparts to simulate the future of discrete-time processes, and we demonstrate that this advantage extends to the continuous-time regime. Moreover, we show that this reduction in the memory requirement can be unboundedly large, allowing for arbitrary precision even with a finite quantum memory. We provide a systematic method for finding superior quantum constructions, and a protocol for analogue simulation of continuous-time renewal processes with a quantum machine.

  16. Colored ultra-thin hybrid photovoltaics with high quantum efficiency for decorative PV applications (Presentation Recording)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, L. Jay

    2015-10-01

    adopted by other material systems as well. Based on these understandings, we have also developed colored perovskite PV by integrating an optical cavity with the perovskite semiconductors [4]. The principle and experimental results will be presented. 1. J. Y. Lee, K. T. Lee, S.Y. Seo, L. J. Guo, "Decorative power generating panels creating angle insensitive transmissive colors," Sci. Rep. 4, 4192, 2014. 2. K. T. Lee, J.Y. Lee, S.-Y. Seo, and L. J. Guo, "Colored ultra-thin hybrid photovoltaics with high quantum efficiency," Light: Science and Applications, 3, e215, 2014. 3. K. T. Lee, S.-Y. Seo, J.Y. Lee, and L. J. Guo, "Ultrathin metal-semiconductor-metal resonator for angle invariant visible band transmission filters," Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 231112, (2014); and "Strong resonance effect in a lossy medium-based optical cavity for angle robust spectrum filters," Adv. Mater, 26, 6324-6328, 2014. 4. K. T. Lee, M. Fukuda, L. J. Guo, "Colored, see-through perovskite solar cells employing an optical cavity," Submitted, 2015

  17. Synthesis of highly efficient azure-to-blue-emitting Zn-Cu-Ga-S quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bu-Yong; Kim, Jong-Hoon; Lee, Ki-Heon; Jang, Eun-Pyo; Han, Chang-Yeol; Jo, Jung-Ho; Jang, Ho Seong; Yang, Heesun

    2017-04-06

    To realize blue emission-capable non-Cd I-III-VI quantum dots (QDs), we explore the synthesis of ternary Cu-Ga-S (CGS) QDs and subsequent quaternary Zn-Cu-Ga-S (ZCGS) via Zn alloying into a CGS host. The resulting ZCGS/ZnS core/shell QDs possess not only Zn content-dependent tunable emissions in the azure-to-blue range but also exceptional quantum yields of 78-83%.

  18. Regression relation for pure quantum states and its implications for efficient computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsayed, Tarek A; Fine, Boris V

    2013-02-15

    We obtain a modified version of the Onsager regression relation for the expectation values of quantum-mechanical operators in pure quantum states of isolated many-body quantum systems. We use the insights gained from this relation to show that high-temperature time correlation functions in many-body quantum systems can be controllably computed without complete diagonalization of the Hamiltonians, using instead the direct integration of the Schrödinger equation for randomly sampled pure states. This method is also applicable to quantum quenches and other situations describable by time-dependent many-body Hamiltonians. The method implies exponential reduction of the computer memory requirement in comparison with the complete diagonalization. We illustrate the method by numerically computing infinite-temperature correlation functions for translationally invariant Heisenberg chains of up to 29 spins 1/2. Thereby, we also test the spin diffusion hypothesis and find it in a satisfactory agreement with the numerical results. Both the derivation of the modified regression relation and the justification of the computational method are based on the notion of quantum typicality.

  19. Proceedings of quantum field theory, quantum mechanics, and quantum optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodonov, V.V.; Man; ko, V.I.

    1991-01-01

    This book contains papers presented at the XVIII International Colloquium on Group Theoretical Methods in Physics held in Moscow on June 4-9, 1990. Topics covered include; applications of algebraic methods in quantum field theory, quantum mechanics, quantum optics, spectrum generating groups, quantum algebras, symmetries of equations, quantum physics, coherent states, group representations and space groups

  20. Non-transboundary pollution and the efficiency of international environmental co-operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kox, H.L.M.; Van der Tak, C.M.

    1995-10-01

    The increased awareness of the transboundary pollution problems resulted in a number of international treaties, such as the Montreal protocol on ozone-depleting substances (1987), and the Basel Convention on hazardous waste (1989). Most authors writing on efficient environmental instruments make a sharp distinction between domestic and transboundary environmental problems. While the former should be abated by domestic environmental instruments, an efficient treatment of the latter requires international instruments. The underlying logic is that in case of non-transboundary pollution both the costs and benefits of environmental policies are strictly domestic, the trade-off between benefits and costs of abatement should also be a strictly domestic issue. In contrast, with transboundary pollution the trade-off between abatement costs and benefits becomes an international issue. In this paper we analyse four cases where international environmental co-ordination is required to achieve an efficient outcome, even though the environmental externality is non-transboundary in nature. Section two sketches the standard view on efficient intervention levels with regard to transborder and non-transborder pollution. In the third section we deal with cases where environmental policy is used in a trade-strategic way. The section pays attention to the motives for using domestic environmental policy as a disguise for trade policies. It will be argued that the resulting allocative efficiency can be improved upon by international co-operation. Sections 4-6 analyse three cases where international co-operation may improve the international outcome on the basis of non-coordinated domestic allocation decisions. These cases refer in particular to the situation of developing countries, when there is a high export dependency on the polluting good in combination with the existence of discrete technologies, set-up costs of environment-friendly technologies, and the existence of increasing

  1. Pulsed voltage deposited lead selenide thin film as efficient counter electrode for quantum-dot-sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Bin Bin; Wang, Ye Feng; Wang, Xue Qing; Zeng, Jing Hui

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • PbSe thin film is deposited on FTO glass by a pulse voltage electrodeposition method. • The thin film is used as counter electrode (CE) in quantum dot-sensitized solar cell. • Superior electrocatalytic activity and stability in the polysulfide electrolyte is received. • The narrow band gap characteristics and p-type conductivity enhances the cell efficiency. • An efficiency of 4.67% is received for the CdS/CdSe co-sensitized solar cells. - Abstract: Lead selenide (PbSe) thin films were deposited on fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) glass by a facile one-step pulse voltage electrodeposition method, and used as counter electrode (CE) in CdS/CdSe quantum dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs). A power conversion efficiency of 4.67% is received for the CdS/CdSe co-sensitized solar cells, which is much better than that of 2.39% received using Pt CEs. The enhanced performance is attributed to the extended absorption in the near infrared region, superior electrocatalytic activity and p-type conductivity with a reflection of the incident light at the back electrode in addition. The physical and chemical properties were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), reflectance spectra, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and Tafel polarization measurements. The present work provides a facile pathway to an efficient CE in the QDSSCs.

  2. Enhancement of the thermoelectric efficiency in a T-shaped quantum dot system in the linear and nonlinear regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Silva, G.; Orellana, P. A.; Anda, E. V.

    2018-02-01

    In the present work, we investigate the thermoelectric properties of a T-shaped double quantum dot system coupled to two metallic leads incorporating the intra-dot Coulomb interaction. We explore the role of the interference effects and Coulomb blockade on the thermoelectric efficiency of the system in the linear and nonlinear regimes. We studied as well the effect of a Van-Hove singularity of the leads density of states (DOS) at the neighborhood of the Fermi energy, a situation that can be obtained using a carbon nanotube, a graphene nano-ribbon or other contacts with one-dimensional properties. The system is studied above the Kondo temperature. The Coulomb blockade of the electronic charges is studied using the Hubbard III approximation, which properly describes the transport properties of this regime. In the linear response, our results show an enhancement of the thermopower and the figure of merit of the system. For a nonlinear situation, we calculate the thermoelectric efficiency and power output, concluding that the T-shaped double quantum dot is an efficient thermoelectric device. Moreover, we demonstrate the great importance of the DOS Van-Hove singularity at the neighborhood of the Fermi energy to obtain a very significant increase in the thermoelectric efficiency of the system.

  3. One-Pot Large-Scale Synthesis of Carbon Quantum Dots: Efficient Cathode Interlayers for Polymer Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuzhao; Lin, Xiaofeng; Li, Wenlang; Ou, Jiemei; Yuan, Zhongke; Xie, Fangyan; Hong, Wei; Yu, Dingshan; Ma, Yuguang; Chi, Zhenguo; Chen, Xudong

    2017-05-03

    Cathode interlayers (CILs) with low-cost, low-toxicity, and excellent cathode modification ability are necessary for the large-scale industrialization of polymer solar cells (PSCs). In this contribution, we demonstrated one-pot synthesized carbon quantum dots (C-dots) with high production to serve as efficient CIL for inverted PSCs. The C-dots were synthesized by a facile, economical microwave pyrolysis in a household microwave oven within 7 min. Ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS) studies showed that the C-dots possessed the ability to form a dipole at the interface, resulting in the decrease of the work function (WF) of cathode. External quantum efficiency (EQE) measurements and 2D excitation-emission topographical maps revealed that the C-dots down-shifted the high energy near-ultraviolet light to low energy visible light to generate more photocurrent. Remarkably improvement of power conversion efficiency (PCE) was attained by incorporation of C-dots as CIL. The PCE was boosted up from 4.14% to 8.13% with C-dots as CIL, which is one of the best efficiency for i-PSCs used carbon based materials as interlayers. These results demonstrated that C-dots can be a potential candidate for future low cost and large area PSCs producing.

  4. Efficient and Adaptive Methods for Computing Accurate Potential Surfaces for Quantum Nuclear Effects: Applications to Hydrogen-Transfer Reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGregorio, Nicole; Iyengar, Srinivasan S

    2018-01-09

    We present two sampling measures to gauge critical regions of potential energy surfaces. These sampling measures employ (a) the instantaneous quantum wavepacket density, an approximation to the (b) potential surface, its (c) gradients, and (d) a Shannon information theory based expression that estimates the local entropy associated with the quantum wavepacket. These four criteria together enable a directed sampling of potential surfaces that appears to correctly describe the local oscillation frequencies, or the local Nyquist frequency, of a potential surface. The sampling functions are then utilized to derive a tessellation scheme that discretizes the multidimensional space to enable efficient sampling of potential surfaces. The sampled potential surface is then combined with four different interpolation procedures, namely, (a) local Hermite curve interpolation, (b) low-pass filtered Lagrange interpolation, (c) the monomial symmetrization approximation (MSA) developed by Bowman and co-workers, and (d) a modified Shepard algorithm. The sampling procedure and the fitting schemes are used to compute (a) potential surfaces in highly anharmonic hydrogen-bonded systems and (b) study hydrogen-transfer reactions in biogenic volatile organic compounds (isoprene) where the transferring hydrogen atom is found to demonstrate critical quantum nuclear effects. In the case of isoprene, the algorithm discussed here is used to derive multidimensional potential surfaces along a hydrogen-transfer reaction path to gauge the effect of quantum-nuclear degrees of freedom on the hydrogen-transfer process. Based on the decreased computational effort, facilitated by the optimal sampling of the potential surfaces through the use of sampling functions discussed here, and the accuracy of the associated potential surfaces, we believe the method will find great utility in the study of quantum nuclear dynamics problems, of which application to hydrogen-transfer reactions and hydrogen

  5. Emulsion Synthesis of Size-Tunable CH3NH3PbBr3 Quantum Dots: An Alternative Route toward Efficient Light-Emitting Diodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hailong; Zhao, Fangchao; Liu, Lige; Zhang, Feng; Wu, Xian-gang; Shi, Lijie; Zou, Bingsuo; Pei, Qibing; Zhong, Haizheng

    2015-12-30

    We report a facile nonaqueous emulsion synthesis of colloidal halide perovskite quantum dots by controlled addition of a demulsifier into an emulsion of precursors. The size of resulting CH3NH3PbBr3 quantum dots can be tuned from 2 to 8 nm by varying the amount of demulsifier. Moreover, this emulsion synthesis also allows the purification of these quantum dots by precipitation from the colloidal solution and obtains solid-state powder which can be redissolved for thin film coating and device fabrication. The photoluminescence quantum yields of the quantum dots is generally in the range of 80-92%, and can be well-preserved after purification (∼80%). Green light-emitting diodes fabricated comprising a spin-cast layer of the colloidal CH3NH3PbBr3 quantum dots exhibited maximum current efficiency of 4.5 cd/A, power efficiency of 3.5 lm/W, and external quantum efficiency of 1.1%. This provides an alternative route toward high efficient solution-processed perovskite-based light-emitting diodes. In addition, the emulsion synthesis is versatile and can be extended for the fabrication of inorganic halide perovskite colloidal CsPbBr3 nanocrystals.

  6. Quantum efficiency temporal response and lifetime of a GaAs cathode in SRF electron gun

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, E.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Kewisch, J.; Burrill, A.; Rao, T.; Wu, Q.; Holmes, D.

    2010-05-23

    RF electron guns with a strained super lattice GaAs cathode can generate polarized electron beam of higher brightness and lower emittance than do DC guns, due to their higher field gradient at the cathode's surface. In a normal conducting RF gun, the extremely high vaccum required by these cathodes can not be met. We report on an experiment with a superconducting SRF gun, which can maintain a vacuum of nearly 10-12 torr because of cryo-pumping at the temperature of 4.2K. With conventional activation, we obtained a QE of 3% at 532 nm, with lifetime of nearly 3 days in the preparation chamber. We plan to use this cathode in a 1.3 GHz 1/2 cell SRF gun to study its performance. In addition, we studied the multipacting at the location of cathode. A new model based on the Forkker-Planck equation which can estimate the bunch length of the electron beam is discussed in this paper. Future particle accelerators such as eRHIC and ILC require high brightness, high current polarized electrons Recently, using a superlattice crystal, the maximum polarization of 95% was reached. Activation with Cs,O lowers the electron affinity and makes it energetically possible for all the electrons excited in to the conduction band and reach the surface to escape into the vacuum. Presently the polarized electron sources are based on DC gun, such as that at the CEBAF at Jlab. In these devices, the life time of the cathode is extended due to the reduced back bombardment in their UHV conditions. However, the low accelerating gradient of the DC guns lead to poor longitudinal emittance. The higher accelerating gradient of the RF gun generates low emittance beams. Superconducting RF guns combine the excellent vacuum conditions of the DC guns with the higher accelerating gradients of the RF guns and provide potentially a long lived cathode with very low transverse and longitudinal emittance. In our work at BNL, we successfully activated the GaAs. The quantum efficient is 3% at 532 nm and is

  7. Quantum efficiency temporal response and lifetime of a GaAs cathode in SRF electron gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, E.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Kewisch, J.; Burrill, A.; Rao, T.; Wu, Q.; Holmes, D.

    2010-01-01

    RF electron guns with a strained super lattice GaAs cathode can generate polarized electron beam of higher brightness and lower emittance than do DC guns, due to their higher field gradient at the cathode's surface. In a normal conducting RF gun, the extremely high vaccum required by these cathodes can not be met. We report on an experiment with a superconducting SRF gun, which can maintain a vacuum of nearly 10-12 torr because of cryo-pumping at the temperature of 4.2K. With conventional activation, we obtained a QE of 3% at 532 nm, with lifetime of nearly 3 days in the preparation chamber. We plan to use this cathode in a 1.3 GHz 1/2 cell SRF gun to study its performance. In addition, we studied the multipacting at the location of cathode. A new model based on the Forkker-Planck equation which can estimate the bunch length of the electron beam is discussed in this paper. Future particle accelerators such as eRHIC and ILC require high brightness, high current polarized electrons Recently, using a superlattice crystal, the maximum polarization of 95% was reached. Activation with Cs,O lowers the electron affinity and makes it energetically possible for all the electrons excited in to the conduction band and reach the surface to escape into the vacuum. Presently the polarized electron sources are based on DC gun, such as that at the CEBAF at Jlab. In these devices, the life time of the cathode is extended due to the reduced back bombardment in their UHV conditions. However, the low accelerating gradient of the DC guns lead to poor longitudinal emittance. The higher accelerating gradient of the RF gun generates low emittance beams. Superconducting RF guns combine the excellent vacuum conditions of the DC guns with the higher accelerating gradients of the RF guns and provide potentially a long lived cathode with very low transverse and longitudinal emittance. In our work at BNL, we successfully activated the GaAs. The quantum efficient is 3% at 532 nm and is expected

  8. Quantum Computing

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    It was suggested that the dynamics of quantum systems could be used to perform computation in a much more efficient way. After this initial excitement, things slowed down for some time till 1994 when Peter Shor announced his polynomial time factorization algorithm 1 which uses quantum dynamics. The study of quantum ...

  9. Efficient First-Principles Calculation of the Quantum Kinetic Energy and Momentum Distribution of Nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceriotti, Michele; Manolopoulos, David E.

    2012-09-01

    Light nuclei at room temperature and below exhibit a kinetic energy which significantly deviates from the predictions of classical statistical mechanics. This quantum kinetic energy is responsible for a wide variety of isotope effects of interest in fields ranging from chemistry to climatology. It also furnishes the second moment of the nuclear momentum distribution, which contains subtle information about the chemical environment and has recently become accessible to deep inelastic neutron scattering experiments. Here, we show how, by combining imaginary time path integral dynamics with a carefully designed generalized Langevin equation, it is possible to dramatically reduce the expense of computing the quantum kinetic energy. We also introduce a transient anisotropic Gaussian approximation to the nuclear momentum distribution which can be calculated with negligible additional effort. As an example, we evaluate the structural properties, the quantum kinetic energy, and the nuclear momentum distribution for a first-principles simulation of liquid water.

  10. Si Hybrid Solar Cells with 13% Efficiency via Concurrent Improvement in Optical and Electrical Properties by Employing Graphene Quantum Dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Meng-Lin; Wei, Wan-Rou; Tang, Libin; Chang, Hung-Chih; Tai, Shih-Hsiang; Yang, Po-Kang; Lau, Shu Ping; Chen, Lih-Juann; He, Jr-Hau

    2016-01-26

    By employing graphene quantum dots (GQDs) in PSS, we have achieved an efficiency of 13.22% in Si/ PSS hybrid solar cells. The efficiency enhancement is based on concurrent improvement in optical and electrical properties by the photon downconversion process and the improved conductivity of PSS via appropriate incorporation of GQDs. After introducing GQDs into PSS, the short circuit current and the fill factor of rear-contact optimized hybrid cells are increased from 32.11 to 36.26 mA/cm(2) and 62.85% to 63.87%, respectively. The organic-inorganic hybrid solar cell obtained herein holds the promise for developing photon-managing, low-cost, and highly efficient photovoltaic devices.

  11. Multifunctional graphene incorporated polyacrylamide conducting gel electrolytes for efficient quasi-solid-state quantum dot-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Jialong; Tang, Qunwei; Li, Ru; He, Benlin; Yu, Liangmin; Yang, Peizhi

    2015-06-01

    Pursuit of a high efficiency and stability has been a persistent objective for quantum dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSCs). Here we launch a strategy of synthesizing graphene implanted polyacrylamide (PAAm-G) conducting gel electrolytes for quasi-solid-state QDSCs. With an aim of elevating the dosage of S2-/Sx2- redox couples and therefore charge-transfer ability, both osmotic press across the PAAm-G and capillary force within the three-dimensional micropores are utilized as driving forces. A promising power conversion efficiency of 2.34% is recorded for the QDSCs by optimizing graphene dosage in the conducting gel electrolyte. The enhanced conversion efficiency of solar cell is attributed to the expanded catalytic area from counter electrolyte/electrolyte interface to both interface and the conducting gel electrolyte.

  12. Si Hybrid Solar Cells with 13% Efficiency via Concurrent Improvement in Optical and Electrical Properties by Employing Graphene Quantum Dots

    KAUST Repository

    Tsai, Meng Lin

    2015-12-18

    By employing graphene quantum dots (GQDs) in PEDOT:PSS, we have achieved an efficiency of 13.22% in Si/PEDOT:PSS hybrid solar cells. The efficiency enhancement is based on concurrent improvement in optical and electrical properties by the photon downconversion process and the improved conductivity of PEDOT:PSS via appropriate incorporation of GQDs. After introducing GQDs into PEDOT:PSS, the short circuit current and the fill factor of rear-contact optimized hybrid cells are increased from 32.11 to 36.26 mA/cm and 62.85% to 63.87%, respectively. The organic-inorganic hybrid solar cell obtained herein holds the promise for developing photon-managing, low-cost, and highly efficient photovoltaic devices.

  13. Efficient Manufacturing of Therapeutic Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Using the Quantum Cell Expansion System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, Patrick J.; Mei, Zhuyong; Durett, April G.; Cabreira-Harrison, Marie da Graca; Klis, Mariola; Li, Wei; Zhao, Yali; Yang, Bing; Parsha, Kaushik; Mir, Osman; Vahidy, Farhaan; Bloom, Debra; Rice, R. Brent; Hematti, Peiman; Savitz, Sean I; Gee, Adrian P.

    2014-01-01

    Background The use of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) as a cellular therapy for various diseases, such as graft-versus-host-disease, diabetes, ischemic cardiomyopathy, and Crohn's disease has produced promising results in early-phase clinical trials. However, for widespread application and use in later phase studies, manufacture of these cells needs to be cost effective, safe, and reproducible. Current methods of manufacturing in flasks or cell factories are labor-intensive, involve a large number of open procedures, and require prolonged culture times. Methods We evaluated the Quantum Cell Expansion system for the expansion of large numbers of MSCs from unprocessed bone marrow in a functionally closed system and compared the results to a flask-based method currently in clinical trials. Results After only two passages, we were able to expand a mean of 6.6×108 MSCs from 25 mL of bone marrow reproducibly. The mean expansion time was 21 days, and cells obtained were able to differentiate into all three lineages: chondrocytes, osteoblasts, and adipocytes. The Quantum was able to generate the target cell number of 2.0×108 cells in an average of 9-fewer days and in half the number of passages required during flask-based expansion. We estimated the Quantum would involve 133 open procedures versus 54,400 in flasks when manufacturing for a clinical trial. Quantum-expanded MSCs infused into an ischemic stroke rat model were therapeutically active. Discussion The Quantum is a novel method of generating high numbers of MSCs in less time and at lower passages when compared to flasks. In the Quantum, the risk of contamination is substantially reduced due to the substantial decrease in open procedures. PMID:24726657

  14. Strongly coupled CdS/graphene quantum dots nanohybrids for highly efficient photocatalytic hydrogen evolution: unraveling the essential roles of graphene quantum dots

    KAUST Repository

    Lei, Yonggang

    2017-05-23

    It have been recognized that the coupling of graphene quantum dots (GQDs) with semiconductor photocatalysts endow the resulting nanocomposites with enhanced photocatalytic performances, however, the essential roles of GQDs have not been clearly revealed yet. Herein, we report that a high efficiency of the photocatalytic H2 evolution was achieved using strongly coupled nanohybrids of CdS with GQDs (CdS/GQDs) as visible-light-driven photocatalysts. CdS/GQDs nanohybrids were synthesized by a facile hydrothermal method in which the crystallization of CdS precursor and coupling of GQDs could be accomplished in one-step. GQDs are firmly decorated on the surface of CdS nanoparticles, forming “dot-on-particle” heterodimer structures. GQDs have no significant influence on the crystallite structure of CdS but render the nanohybrids with strong light absorption at the wavelength beyond the band edge of CdS. Under visible light irradiation (≥420nm), CdS/GQDs nanohybrids reach the highest H2 production rate of 95.4μmol·h−1, about 2.7 times higher than that of pure CdS nanoparticles, at GQDs content of 1.0wt %, and the apparent quantum efficiency (AQE) was determined to be 4.2% at 420nm. Incident light-wavelength dependent experiments reveal that the light absorption of CdS dominated the performance of nanohybrids, and the excess light absorption coming from GQDs hardly contributes to the observed higher activity. Photocurrent response, steady-state and time-resolved PL, and EIS measurements suggest that the high activity of CdS/GQDs is attributed predominantly to the graphene-like nature of GQDs, which can act as an efficient electron acceptor to induce an efficient charge separation. This work clearly reveals that GQDs mainly played a role of electron acceptor instead of a photosensitizer in enhancing the photocatalytic H2 evolution performances of CdS/GQDs nanohybrids, which offers a new insight to understand the essential roles of GQDs in semiconductor

  15. Quantum Efficiency and Bandgap Analysis for Combinatorial Photovoltaics: Sorting Activity of Cu–O Compounds in All-Oxide Device Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    All-oxide-based photovoltaics (PVs) encompass the potential for extremely low cost solar cells, provided they can obtain an order of magnitude improvement in their power conversion efficiencies. To achieve this goal, we perform a combinatorial materials study of metal oxide based light absorbers, charge transporters, junctions between them, and PV devices. Here we report the development of a combinatorial internal quantum efficiency (IQE) method. IQE measures the efficiency associated with the charge separation and collection processes, and thus is a proxy for PV activity of materials once placed into devices, discarding optical properties that cause uncontrolled light harvesting. The IQE is supported by high-throughput techniques for bandgap fitting, composition analysis, and thickness mapping, which are also crucial parameters for the combinatorial investigation cycle of photovoltaics. As a model system we use a library of 169 solar cells with a varying thickness of sprayed titanium dioxide (TiO2) as the window layer, and covarying thickness and composition of binary compounds of copper oxides (Cu–O) as the light absorber, fabricated by Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD). The analysis on the combinatorial devices shows the correlation between compositions and bandgap, and their effect on PV activity within several device configurations. The analysis suggests that the presence of Cu4O3 plays a significant role in the PV activity of binary Cu–O compounds. PMID:24410367

  16. An efficient two-party quantum private comparison protocol with decoy photons and two-photon entanglement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Yuguang; Wen Qiaoyan

    2009-01-01

    Following some ideas of the quantum secret sharing (QSS) protocol (2008, Phys. Lett. A 372, 1957), we propose an efficient quantum private comparison (QPC) protocol for comparing information of equality with the help of a third party (TP). The protocol can ensure fairness, efficiency and security. The protocol is fair, which means that one party knows the sound result of the comparison if and only if the other one knows the result. The protocol is efficient with the help of the TP for calculating. However, the TP cannot learn any information about the players' respective private inputs and even about the comparison result and cannot collude with any player. The protocol is secure for the two players, that is, any information about their respective secret inputs will not leak except the final computation result. A precise proof of security of the protocol is presented. Applications of this protocol may include private bidding and auctions, secret ballot elections, commercial business, identification in a number of scenarios and so on

  17. Giersch International Symposion 2016 : Week 1 : Experimental Search for Quantum Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Experimental Search for Quantum Gravity

    2018-01-01

    This book summarizes recent developments in the research area of quantum gravity phenomenology. A series of short and nontechnical essays lays out the prospects of various experimental possibilities and their current status. Finding observational evidence for the quantization of space-time was long thought impossible. In the last decade however, new experimental design and technological advances have changed the research landscape and opened new perspectives on quantum gravity. Formerly dominated by purely theoretical constructions, quantum gravity now has a lively phenomenology to offer. From high precision measurements using macroscopic quantum oscillators to new analysis methods of the cosmic microwave background, no stone is being left unturned in the experimental search for quantum gravity. This book sheds new light on the connection of astroparticle physics with the quantum gravity problem. Gravitational waves and their detection are covered. It illustrates findings from the interconnection between gene...

  18. Front-illuminated full-frame charge-coupled-device image sensor achieves 85% peak quantum efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciccarelli, Antonio S.; Davis, William V.; Des Jardin, William; Doan, Hung; Meisenzahl, Eric J.; Pace, Laurel J.; Putnam, Gloria G.; Shepherd, Joseph E.; Stevens, Eric G.; Summa, Joseph R.; Wetzel, Keith

    2002-04-01

    A high sensitivity front-illuminated charge-coupled device (CCD) technology has been developed by combining the transparent gate technology introduced by Kodak in 1999 with the microlens technology usually employed on interline CCDs. In this new architecture, the microlens is used to focus the incoming light onto the more transparent of the two electrodes. The new sensors offer significant increases in quantum efficiency while maintaining the performance advantages of front-illuminated full-frame CCDs including 3 pA/cm2 typical dark current at 25 degree(s)C, and 55 ke full well in a 6.8 micrometers pixel.

  19. Efficient Multiple Exciton Generation Observed in Colloidal PbSe Quantum Dots with Temporally and Spectrally Resolved Intraband Excitation

    KAUST Repository

    Ji, Minbiao

    2009-03-11

    We have spectrally resolved the intraband transient absorption of photogenerated excitons to quantify the exciton population dynamics in colloidal PbSe quantum dots (QDs). These measurements demonstrate that the spectral distribution, as well as the amplitude, of the transient spectrum depends on the number of excitons excited in a QD. To accurately quantify the average number of excitons per QD, the transient spectrum must be spectrally integrated. With spectral integration, we observe efficient multiple exciton generation In colloidal PbSe QDs. © 2009 American Chemical Society.

  20. Efficient fiber-coupled single-photon source based on quantum dots in a photonic-crystal waveguide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daveau, Raphaël S.; Balram, Krishna C.; Pregnolato, Tommaso

    2017-01-01

    Many photonic quantum information processing applications would benefit from a high brightness, fiber-coupled source of triggered single photons. Here, we present a fiber-coupled photonic-crystal waveguide (PCWG) singlephoton source relying on evanescent coupling of the light field from a tapered...... transfer it to the fiber. The applied outcoupling method is robust, stable over time, and broadband over several tens of nanometers, which makes it a highly promising pathway to increase the efficiency and reliability of planar chip-based single-photon sources....

  1. Why can’t I measure the external quantum efficiency of the Ge subcell of my multijunction solar cell?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrigón, Enrique, E-mail: enrique.barrigon@ies-def.upm.es; Espinet-González, Pilar; Contreras, Yedileth; Rey-Stolle, Ignacio [Instituto de Energía Solar, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid ETSI de Telecomunicación, Avd. Complutense 30, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2015-09-28

    The measurement of the external quantum efficiency (EQE) of low bandgap subcells in a multijunction solar cell can be sometimes problematic. In particular, this paper describes a set of cases where the EQE of a Ge subcell in a conventional GaInP/GaInAs/Ge triple-junction solar cell cannot be fully measured. We describe the way to identify each case by tracing the I-V curve under the same light-bias conditions applied for the EQE measurement, together with the strategies that could be implemented to attain the best possible measurement of the EQE of the Ge subcell.

  2. Efficient, air-stable colloidal quantum dot solar cells encapsulated using atomic layer deposition of a nanolaminate barrier

    KAUST Repository

    Ip, Alexander H.

    2013-12-23

    Atomic layer deposition was used to encapsulate colloidal quantum dot solar cells. A nanolaminate layer consisting of alternating alumina and zirconia films provided a robust gas permeation barrier which prevented device performance degradation over a period of multiple weeks. Unencapsulated cells stored in ambient and nitrogen environments demonstrated significant performance losses over the same period. The encapsulated cell also exhibited stable performance under constant simulated solar illumination without filtration of harsh ultraviolet photons. This monolithically integrated thin film encapsulation method is promising for roll-to-roll processed high efficiency nanocrystal solar cells. © 2013 AIP Publishing LLC.

  3. Differentiation, international equity and efficiency in the fight against the global climatic change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanchard, O.; Criqui, P.; Viguier, L.; Trommetter, M.

    1998-05-01

    The first difficulty to get over in the international negotiation on the climatic change, has been and still remain the distribution of the efforts and the research of the equity in the objective determination. This paper analyzes the possible consequences of the negotiable emission licenses in terms of efficiency and equity. The first part is a review of the different charts of the objectives differentiation discussed or proposed in the international negotiation process on the greenhouse effect. It aims to find a bond between the the charts and the equity. The second part deals with the programs cost and their relative efficiency, taking into account the marginal cost curves. (A.L.B.)

  4. Highly Efficient Flexible Quantum Dot Solar Cells with Improved Electron Extraction Using MgZnO Nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoliang; Santra, Pralay Kanti; Tian, Lei; Johansson, Malin B; Rensmo, Håkan; Johansson, Erik M J

    2017-08-22

    Colloidal quantum dot (CQD) solar cells have high potential for realizing an efficient and lightweight energy supply for flexible or wearable electronic devices. To achieve highly efficient and flexible CQD solar cells, the electron transport layer (ETL), extracting electrons from the CQD solid layer, needs to be processed at a low-temperature and should also suppress interfacial recombination. Herein, a highly stable MgZnO nanocrystal (MZO-NC) layer is reported for efficient flexible PbS CQD solar cells. Solar cells fabricated with MZO-NC ETL give a high power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 10.4% and 9.4%, on glass and flexible plastic substrates, respectively. The reported flexible CQD solar cell has the record efficiency to date of flexible CQD solar cells. Detailed theoretical simulations and extensive characterizations reveal that the MZO-NCs significantly enhance charge extraction from CQD solids and diminish the charge accumulation at the ETL/CQD interface, suppressing charge interfacial recombination. These important results suggest that the low-temperature processed MZO-NCs are very promising for use in efficient flexible solar cells or other flexible optoelectronic devices.

  5. Resonant quantum efficiency enhancement of midwave infrared nBn photodetectors using one-dimensional plasmonic gratings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nolde, Jill A.; Kim, Chul Soo; Jackson, Eric M.; Ellis, Chase T.; Abell, Joshua; Glembocki, Orest J.; Canedy, Chadwick L.; Tischler, Joseph G.; Vurgaftman, Igor; Meyer, Jerry R.; Aifer, Edward H.; Kim, Mijin

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate up to 39% resonant enhancement of the quantum efficiency (QE) of a low dark current nBn midwave infrared photodetector with a 0.5 μm InAsSb absorber layer. The enhancement was achieved by using a 1D plasmonic grating to couple incident light into plasmon modes propagating in the plane of the device. The plasmonic grating is composed of stripes of deposited amorphous germanium overlaid with gold. Devices with and without gratings were processed side-by-side for comparison of their QEs and dark currents. The peak external QE for a grating device was 29% compared to 22% for a mirror device when the illumination was polarized perpendicularly to the grating lines. Additional experiments determined the grating coupling efficiency by measuring the reflectance of analogous gratings deposited on bare GaSb substrates

  6. Efficiency improvement for InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-well solar cells with vertical configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Z. W.; Lai, M. H.; Ying, L. Y.; Zhang, B. P.

    2016-10-01

    We demonstrated InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-well solar cells with enhanced photovoltaic characteristics using vertical configuration. As compared to the conventional solar cell device, the vertical device with a bottom Al reflector and a top textured surface exhibits much improved performances, including a short-circuit current density of 1.2 mA/cm2, an open-circuit voltage of 1.9 V, a fill factor of 57.6 % and a conversion efficiency of 1.3 %. The bottom Al reflector could reflect a large amount of photons back into the absorption layer, which led to the improvement of light absorption. In addition, due to the top surface texturing, reflection is reduced that further improved the absorption. The combination of a bottom Al reflector and a top textured surface, which yields much higher conversion efficiency than a conventional device, shows great promise for future photovoltaic applications.

  7. On the front and back side quantum efficiency differences in semi-transparent organic solar cells and photodiodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouthinon, B.; Clerc, R.; Verilhac, J. M.; Racine, B.; De Girolamo, J.; Jacob, S.; Lienhard, P.; Joimel, J.; Dhez, O.; Revaux, A.

    2018-03-01

    The External Quantum Efficiency (EQE) of semi-transparent Bulk Hetero-Junction (BHJ) organic photodiodes processed in air shows significant differences when measured from the front or back side contacts. This difference was found significantly reduced when decreasing the active layer thickness or by applying a negative bias. This work brings new elements to help understanding this effect, providing a large set of experiments featuring different applied voltages, active layers, process conditions, and electron and hole layers. By means of detailed electrical simulations, all these measurements have been found consistent with the mechanisms of irreversible photo-oxidation, modeled as deep trap states (and not as p-type doping). The EQE measurement from front and back sides is thus a simple and efficient way of monitoring the presence and amplitude of oxygen contamination in BHJ organic solar cells and photodiodes.

  8. High efficiency spin-valve and spin-filter in a doped rhombic graphene quantum dot device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, P. V.; Saraiva-Souza, A.; Maia, D. W.; Souza, F. M.; Filho, A. G. Souza; Meunier, V.; Girão, E. C.

    2018-04-01

    Spin-polarized transport through a rhombic graphene quantum dot (rGQD) attached to armchair graphene nanoribbon (AGNR) electrodes is investigated by means of the Green's function technique combined with single-band tight-binding (TB) approach including a Hubbard-like term. The Hubbard repulsion was included within the mean-field approximation. Compared to anti-ferromagnetic (AFM), we show that the ferromagnetic (FM) ordering of the rGQD corresponds to a smaller bandgap, thus resulting in an efficient spin injector. As a consequence, the electron transport spectrum reveals a spin valve effect, which is controlled by doping with B/N atoms creating a p-n-type junction. The calculations point out that such systems can be used as spin-filter devices with efficiency close to a 100 % .

  9. Efficient first-principles calculation of the quantum kinetic energy and momentum distribution of nuclei

    OpenAIRE

    Ceriotti, Michele; Manolopoulos, David E.

    2014-01-01

    Light nuclei at room temperature and below exhibit a kinetic energy which significantly deviates from the predictions of classical statistical mechanics. This quantum kinetic energy is responsible for a wide variety of isotope effects of interest in fields ranging from chemistry to climatology. It also furnishes the second moment of the nuclear momentum distribution, which contains subtle information about the chemical environment and has recently become accessible to deep inelastic neutron s...

  10. Transport efficiency in open quantum systems with static and dynamical disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yang; Celardo, G. Luca; Borgonovi, Fausto; Kaplan, Lev

    2017-12-01

    We study, under very general conditions and in a variety of geometries, quantum enhancement of transport in open systems. Both static disorder and dephasing associated with dynamical disorder (or finite temperature) are fully included in the analysis. We show that quantum coherence effects may significantly enhance transport in open quantum systems even in the semiclassical regime (where the decoherence rate is greater than the inter-site hopping amplitude), as long as the static disorder is sufficiently strong. When the strengths of static and dynamical disorder are fixed, there is an optimal opening strength at which the coherent transport enhancement is optimized. Analytic results are obtained in two simple paradigmatic tight-binding models of large systems: the linear chain and the fully connected network. The physical behavior is also reflected, for example, in the FMO photosynthetic complex, which may be viewed as being intermediate between these paradigmatic models. We furthermore show that a nonzero dephasing rate assists transport in an open linear chain when the disorder strength exceeds a critical value, and obtain this critical disorder strength as a function of the degree of opening.

  11. Zn-Cu-In-Se Quantum Dot Solar Cells with a Certified Power Conversion Efficiency of 11.6%.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Jun; Du, Zhonglin; Hu, Jin-Song; Pan, Zhenxiao; Shen, Qing; Sun, Jiankun; Long, Donghui; Dong, Hui; Sun, Litao; Zhong, Xinhua; Wan, Li-Jun

    2016-03-30

    The enhancement of power conversion efficiency (PCE) and the development of toxic Cd-, Pb-free quantum dots (QDs) are critical for the prosperity of QD-based solar cells. It is known that the properties (such as light harvesting range, band gap alignment, density of trap state defects, etc.) of QD light harvesters play a crucial effect on the photovoltaic performance of QD based solar cells. Herein, high quality ∼4 nm Cd-, Pb-free Zn-Cu-In-Se alloyed QDs with an absorption onset extending to ∼1000 nm were developed as effective light harvesters to construct quantum dot sensitized solar cells (QDSCs). Due to the small particle size, the developed QD sensitizer can be efficiently immobilized on TiO2 film electrode in less than 0.5 h. An average PCE of 11.66% and a certified PCE of 11.61% have been demonstrated in the QDSCs based on these Zn-Cu-In-Se QDs. The remarkably improved photovoltaic performance for Zn-Cu-In-Se QDSCs vs Cu-In-Se QDSCs (11.66% vs 9.54% in PCE) is mainly derived from the higher conduction band edge, which favors the photogenerated electron extraction and results in higher photocurrent, and the alloyed structure of Zn-Cu-In-Se QD light harvester, which benefits the suppression of charge recombination at photoanode/electrolyte interfaces and thus improves the photovoltage.

  12. Enhanced power conversion efficiency in InGaN-based solar cells via graded composition multiple quantum wells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Yu-Lin; Wang, Sheng-Wen; Huang, Jhih-Kai; Hsu, Lung-Hsing; Chiu, Ching-Hsueh; Lee, Po-Tsung; Yu, Peichen; Lin, Chien-Chung; Kuo, Hao-Chung

    2015-11-30

    This work demonstrates the enhanced power conversion efficiency (PCE) in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well (MQWs) solar cells with gradually decreasing indium composition in quantum wells (GQWs) toward p-GaN as absorber. The GQW can improve the fill factor from 42% to 62% and enhance the short current density from 0.8 mA/cm2 to 0.92 mA/cm2, as compares to the typical MQW solar cells. As a result, the PCE is boosted from 0.63% to 1.11% under AM1.5G illumination. Based on simulation and experimental results, the enhanced PCE can be attributed to the improved carrier collection in GQW caused by the reduction of potential barriers and piezoelectric polarization induced fields near the p-GaN layer. The presented concept paves a way toward highly efficient InGaN-based solar cells and other GaN-related MQW devices.

  13. Inventory of U.S.-led International Activities on Building Energy Efficiency Initial Findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delgado, Alison; Evans, Meredydd

    2010-04-01

    Several U.S. Government agencies promote energy efficiency in buildings internationally. The types and scope of activities vary by agency. Those with the largest role include the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID), the U.S. Department of State and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Both USAID and the Department of State have a substantial presence overseas, which may present some complementarities with the Department of Energy’s efforts to reach out to other countries. Generally speaking, USAID focuses on capacity building and policy issues; the Department of State focuses on broad diplomatic efforts and some targeted grants in support of these efforts, and EPA has more targeted roles linked to ENERGY STAR appliances and a few other activities. Several additional agencies are also involved in trade-related efforts to promote energy efficiency in buildings. These include the Department of Commerce, the Export-Import Bank, the Overseas Private Investment Corporation and the Trade and Development Agency (TDA). This initial synthesis report is designed to summarize broad trends and activities relating to international cooperation on energy efficiency in buildings, which can help the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) in developing its own strategy in this area. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory will develop a more complete synthesis report later in 2010 as it populates a database on international projects on building energy efficiency.

  14. Efficient perovskite/organic integrated solar cells with extended photoresponse to 930 nm and enhanced near-infrared external quantum efficiency of over 50.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qiang; Liu, Hao; Shi, Zhenzhen; Wang, Fuzhi; Zhou, Erjun; Bian, Xingming; Zhang, Bing; Alsaedi, Ahmed; Hayat, Tasawar; Tan, Zhan'ao

    2018-02-15

    Enhancing the light-harvesting activity is an effective way to improve the power conversion efficiency of solar cells. Although rapid enhancement in the PCE up to a value of 22.1% has been achieved for perovskite solar cells, only part of the sunlight, i.e., with wavelengths below 800-850 nm is utilized due to the limited bandgap of the perovskite materials, resulting in most of the near infrared light being wasted. To broaden the photoresponse of perovskite solar cells, we demonstrate an efficient perovskite/organic integrated solar cell containing both CH 3 NH 3 PbI 3 perovskite and PBDTTT-E-T:IEICO organic photoactive layers. By integrating a low band gap PBDTTT-E-T:IEICO active layer on a perovskite layer, the maximum wavelength for light harvesting of the ISC increased to 930 nm, sharply increasing the utilization of near infrared radiation. In addition, the external quantum efficiency of the integrated device exceeded 50% in the near infrared range. The MAPbI 3 /PBDTTT-E-T:IEICO ISCs show an enhanced short-circuit current density of over 24 mA cm -2 , which is the highest existing value among perovskite/organic integrated solar cells and much higher than the traditional MAPbI 3 based perovskite solar cells. The results reveal that a perovskite/organic integrated structure is a promising strategy to extend and enhance sunlight utilization for perovskite solar cells.

  15. Proceedings of the 9th International Symposium on Foundations of Quantum Mechanics in the Light of New Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishioka, Sachio; Fujikawa, Kazuo

    2009-06-01

    detection / T. Tanamoto, Y. Nishi, S. Fujita. Geometric universal single qubit operation of cold two-level atoms / H. Imai, A. Morinaga. Entanglement dynamics in quantum Brownian motion / K. Shiokawa. Coupling superconducting flux qubits using AC magnetic flxues / Y. Liu, F. Nori. Entanglement purification using natural spin chain dynamics and single spin measurements / K. Maruyama, F. Nori. Experimental analysis of spatial qutrit entanglement of down-converted photon pairs / G. Taguchi ... [et al.]. On the phase sensitivity of two path interferometry using path-symmetric N-photon states / H. F. Hofmann. Control of multi-photon coherence using the mixing ratio of down-converted photons and weak coherent light / T. Ono, H. F. Hofmann -- Mechanical properties of confined geometry. Rattling as a novel anharmonic vibration in a solid / Z. Hiroi, J. Yamaura. Micro/nanomechanical systems for information processing / H. Yamaguchi, I. Mahboob -- Precise measurements. Electron phase microscopy for observing superconductivity and magnetism / A. Tonomura. Ratio of the Al[symbol] and Hg[symbol] optical clock frequencies to 17 decimal places / W. M. Itano ... [et al.]. STM and STS observation on titanium-carbide metallofullerenes: [symbol] / N. Fukui ... [et al.]. Single shot measurement of a silicon single electron transistor / T. Ferrus ... [et al.]. Derivation of sensitivity of a Geiger mode APDs detector from a given efficiency to estimate total photon counts / K. Hammura, D. A. Williams -- Novel properties in nano-systems. First principles study of electroluminescence in ultra-thin silicon film / Y. Suwa, S. Saito. First principles nonlinear optical spectroscopy / T. Hamada, T. Ohno. Field-induced disorder and carrier localization in molecular organic transistors / M. Ando ... [et al.]. Switching dynamics in strongly coupled Josephson junctions / H. Kashiwaya ... [et al.]. Towards quantum simulation with planar coulomb crystals / I. M. Buluta, S. Hasegawa -- Fundamental problems in

  16. The effects of fabrication temperature on current-voltage characteristics and energy efficiencies of quantum dot sensitized ZnOH-GO hybrid solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, S. M. Z.; Gayen, Taposh; Tint, Naing; Shi, Lingyan; Seredych, Mykola; Bandosz, Teresa J.; Alfano, Robert

    2014-11-01

    The effects of fabrication temperature are investigated on the performance of CdSe quantum dot (QD)-sensitized hybrid solar cells of the composite material of zinc (hydr)oxide (ZnOH-GO)with 2 wt. % graphite oxide. The current-voltage (I-V) and photo-current measurements show that higher fabrication temperatures yield greater photovoltaic power conversion efficiencies that essentially indicate more efficient solar cells. Two Photon Fluorescence images show the effects of temperature on the internal morphologies of the solar devices based on such materials. The CdSe-QD sensitized ZnOH-GO hybrid solar cells fabricated at 450 °C showing conversion of ˜10.60% under a tungsten lamp (12.1 mW/cm2) are reported here, while using potassium iodide as an electrolyte. The output photocurrent, I (μA) with input power, P (mW/cm2) is found to be superlinear, showing a relation of I = Pn, where n = 1.4.

  17. Quantum teleportation for continuous variables and related quantum information processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furusawa, Akira; Takei, Nobuyuki

    2007-01-01

    Quantum teleportation is one of the most important subjects in quantum information science. This is because quantum teleportation can be regarded as not only quantum information transfer but also a building block for universal quantum information processing. Furthermore, deterministic quantum information processing is very important for efficient processing and it can be realized with continuous-variable quantum information processing. In this review, quantum teleportation for continuous variables and related quantum information processing are reviewed from these points of view

  18. Perturbed path integrals in imaginary time: Efficiently modeling nuclear quantum effects in molecules and materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poltavsky, Igor; DiStasio, Robert A.; Tkatchenko, Alexandre

    2018-03-01

    Nuclear quantum effects (NQE), which include both zero-point motion and tunneling, exhibit quite an impressive range of influence over the equilibrium and dynamical properties of molecules and materials. In this work, we extend our recently proposed perturbed path-integral (PPI) approach for modeling NQE in molecular systems [I. Poltavsky and A. Tkatchenko, Chem. Sci. 7, 1368 (2016)], which successfully combines the advantages of thermodynamic perturbation theory with path-integral molecular dynamics (PIMD), in a number of important directions. First, we demonstrate the accuracy, performance, and general applicability of the PPI approach to both molecules and extended (condensed-phase) materials. Second, we derive a series of estimators within the PPI approach to enable calculations of structural properties such as radial distribution functions (RDFs) that exhibit rapid convergence with respect to the number of beads in the PIMD simulation. Finally, we introduce an effective nuclear temperature formalism within the framework of the PPI approach and demonstrate that such effective temperatures can be an extremely useful tool in quantitatively estimating the "quantumness" associated with different degrees of freedom in the system as well as providing a reliable quantitative assessment of the convergence of PIMD simulations. Since the PPI approach only requires the use of standard second-order imaginary-time PIMD simulations, these developments enable one to include a treatment of NQE in equilibrium thermodynamic properties (such as energies, heat capacities, and RDFs) with the accuracy of higher-order methods but at a fraction of the computational cost, thereby enabling first-principles modeling that simultaneously accounts for the quantum mechanical nature of both electrons and nuclei in large-scale molecules and materials.

  19. Understanding and improving the efficiency of full configuration interaction quantum Monte Carlo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigor, W A; Spencer, J S; Bearpark, M J; Thom, A J W

    2016-03-07

    Within full configuration interaction quantum Monte Carlo, we investigate how the statistical error behaves as a function of the parameters which control the stochastic sampling. We define the inefficiency as a measure of the statistical error per particle sampling the space and per time step and show there is a sizeable parameter regime where this is minimised. We find that this inefficiency increases sublinearly with Hilbert space size and can be reduced by localising the canonical Hartree-Fock molecular orbitals, suggesting that the choice of basis impacts the method beyond that of the sign problem.

  20. Understanding and improving the efficiency of full configuration interaction quantum Monte Carlo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vigor, W. A.; Bearpark, M. J. [Department of Chemistry, Imperial College London, Exhibition Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Spencer, J. S. [Department of Physics, Imperial College London, Exhibition Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Department of Materials, Imperial College London, Exhibition Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Thom, A. J. W. [Department of Chemistry, Imperial College London, Exhibition Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); University Chemical Laboratory, Lensfield Road, Cambridge CB2 1EW (United Kingdom)

    2016-03-07

    Within full configuration interaction quantum Monte Carlo, we investigate how the statistical error behaves as a function of the parameters which control the stochastic sampling. We define the inefficiency as a measure of the statistical error per particle sampling the space and per time step and show there is a sizeable parameter regime where this is minimised. We find that this inefficiency increases sublinearly with Hilbert space size and can be reduced by localising the canonical Hartree–Fock molecular orbitals, suggesting that the choice of basis impacts the method beyond that of the sign problem.

  1. Hierarchical structures consisting of SiO2 nanorods and p-GaN microdomes for efficiently harvesting solar energy for InGaN quantum well photovoltaic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Cheng-Han; Lien, Der-Hsien; Chang, Hung-Chih; Lin, Chin-An; Kang, Chen-Fang; Hsing, Meng-Kai; Lai, Kun-Yu; He, Jr-Hau

    2012-12-07

    We experimentally and theoretically demonstrated the hierarchical structure of SiO(2) nanorod arrays/p-GaN microdomes as a light harvesting scheme for InGaN-based multiple quantum well solar cells. The combination of nano- and micro-structures leads to increased internal multiple reflection and provides an intermediate refractive index between air and GaN. Cells with the hierarchical structure exhibit improved short-circuit current densities and fill factors, rendering a 1.47 fold efficiency enhancement as compared to planar cells.

  2. On-Demand Single Photons with High Extraction Efficiency and Near-Unity Indistinguishability from a Resonantly Driven Quantum Dot in a Micropillar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Xing; He, Yu; Duan, Z.-C.

    2016-01-01

    Scalable photonic quantum technologies require on-demand single-photon sources with simultaneously high levels of purity, indistinguishability, and efficiency. These key features, however, have only been demonstrated separately in previous experiments. Here, by s-shell pulsed resonant excitation...... of a Purcellenhanced quantum dot-micropillar system, we deterministically generate resonance fluorescence single photons which, at π pulse excitation, have an extraction efficiency of 66%, single-photon purity of 99.1%, and photon indistinguishability of 98.5%. Such a single-photon source for the first time combines...... the features of high efficiency and near-perfect levels of purity and indistinguishabilty, and thus opens the way to multiphoton experiments with semiconductor quantum dots....

  3. International Conference on Quantum Mathematical Physics : a Bridge between Mathematics and Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Kleiner, Johannes; Röken, Christian; Tolksdorf, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    Quantum physics has been highly successful for more than 90 years. Nevertheless, a rigorous construction of interacting quantum field theory is still missing. Moreover, it is still unclear how to combine quantum physics and general relativity in a unified physical theory. Attacking these challenging problems of contemporary physics requires highly advanced mathematical methods as well as radically new physical concepts. This book presents different physical ideas and mathematical approaches in this direction. It contains a carefully selected cross-section of lectures which took place in autumn 2014 at the sixth conference ``Quantum Mathematical Physics - A Bridge between Mathematics and Physics'' in Regensburg, Germany. In the tradition of the other proceedings covering this series of conferences, a special feature of this book is the exposition of a wide variety of approaches, with the intention to facilitate a comparison. The book is mainly addressed to mathematicians and physicists who are interested in fu...

  4. Mesa-height Dependent Quantum Efficiency Characteristics of InGaN Micro-LEDs

    KAUST Repository

    Shen, Chao

    2013-01-01

    The mechanisms of mesa-height dependent efficiency and efficiency droop of blue InGaN/GaN micro-LED is presented. Device with a large etch-depth (> 1.3 µm) shows significant strain relief with aggravated current crowding.

  5. How noise affects quantum detector tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Q., E-mail: wang@physics.leidenuniv.nl; Renema, J. J.; Exter, M. P.van; Dood, M. J. A. de [Huygens Kamerlingh-Onnes Laboratory, Leiden University, Niels Bohrweg 2, 2333 CA Leiden (Netherlands); Gaggero, A.; Mattioli, F.; Leoni, R. [Istituto di Fotonica e Nanotecnologie (IFN), CNR, via Cineto Romano 42, 00156 Roma (Italy)

    2015-10-07

    We determine the full photon number response of a NbN superconducting nanowire single photon detector via quantum detector tomography, and the results show the separation of linear, effective absorption efficiency from the internal detection efficiencies. In addition, we demonstrate an error budget for the complete quantum characterization of the detector. We find that for short times, the dominant noise source is shot noise, while laser power fluctuations limit the accuracy for longer timescales. The combined standard uncertainty of the internal detection efficiency derived from our measurements is about 2%.

  6. Quantum communication and information processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beals, Travis Roland

    Quantum computers enable dramatically more efficient algorithms for solving certain classes of computational problems, but, in doing so, they create new problems. In particular, Shor's Algorithm allows for efficient cryptanalysis of many public-key cryptosystems. As public key cryptography is a critical component of present-day electronic commerce, it is crucial that a working, secure replacement be found. Quantum key distribution (QKD), first developed by C.H. Bennett and G. Brassard, offers a partial solution, but many challenges remain, both in terms of hardware limitations and in designing cryptographic protocols for a viable large-scale quantum communication infrastructure. In Part I, I investigate optical lattice-based approaches to quantum information processing. I look at details of a proposal for an optical lattice-based quantum computer, which could potentially be used for both quantum communications and for more sophisticated quantum information processing. In Part III, I propose a method for converting and storing photonic quantum bits in the internal state of periodically-spaced neutral atoms by generating and manipulating a photonic band gap and associated defect states. In Part II, I present a cryptographic protocol which allows for the extension of present-day QKD networks over much longer distances without the development of new hardware. I also present a second, related protocol which effectively solves the authentication problem faced by a large QKD network, thus making QKD a viable, information-theoretic secure replacement for public key cryptosystems.

  7. Do External or Internal Technology Spillovers Have a Stronger Influence on Innovation Efficiency in China?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xionghe Qin

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we bridge an important gap in the literature by comparing the extent to which external technology spillovers, as indicated by foreign direct investment (FDI, and internal technology spillovers, as indicated by university-institute-industry cooperation (UIC, influence innovation efficiency in China. We divide the innovation process into two sequential stages, namely the knowledge creation and technology commercialization stages, and employ a network data envelopment analysis approach to measure innovation efficiency at each stage. The spatial analysis of the distribution of knowledge creation efficiency and technology commercialization efficiency reveals the heterogeneity of innovation efficiency at the provincial level. Then, a panel data regression is used to analyze the effect of FDI and UIC on innovation efficiency at each stage, using data from 2009 to 2015 for 30 provinces in China. By comparing FDI with UIC, we find that FDI has a higher coefficient and stronger significance level at the knowledge creation stage, while only industry-institute linkages exhibit a stronger association with innovation efficiency at the technology commercialization stage.

  8. Turbocharged molecular discovery of OLED emitters: from high-throughput quantum simulation to highly efficient TADF devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Bombarelli, Rafael; Aguilera-Iparraguirre, Jorge; Hirzel, Timothy D.; Ha, Dong-Gwang; Einzinger, Markus; Wu, Tony; Baldo, Marc A.; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán.

    2016-09-01

    Discovering new OLED emitters requires many experiments to synthesize candidates and test performance in devices. Large scale computer simulation can greatly speed this search process but the problem remains challenging enough that brute force application of massive computing power is not enough to successfully identify novel structures. We report a successful High Throughput Virtual Screening study that leveraged a range of methods to optimize the search process. The generation of candidate structures was constrained to contain combinatorial explosion. Simulations were tuned to the specific problem and calibrated with experimental results. Experimentalists and theorists actively collaborated such that experimental feedback was regularly utilized to update and shape the computational search. Supervised machine learning methods prioritized candidate structures prior to quantum chemistry simulation to prevent wasting compute on likely poor performers. With this combination of techniques, each multiplying the strength of the search, this effort managed to navigate an area of molecular space and identify hundreds of promising OLED candidate structures. An experimentally validated selection of this set shows emitters with external quantum efficiencies as high as 22%.

  9. Amine-Free Synthesis of Cesium Lead Halide Perovskite Quantum Dots for Efficient Light-Emitting Diodes

    KAUST Repository

    Yassitepe, Emre

    2016-10-31

    Cesium lead halide perovskite quantum dots (PQDs) have attracted significant interest for optoelectronic applications in view of their high brightness and narrow emission linewidth at visible wavelengths. A remaining challenge is the degradation of PQDs during purification from the synthesis solution. This is attributed to proton transfer between oleic acid and oleylamine surface capping agents that leads to facile ligand loss. Here, a new synthetic method is reported that enhances the colloidal stability of PQDs by capping them solely using oleic acid (OA). Quaternary alkylammonium halides are used as precursors, eliminating the need for oleylamine. This strategy enhances the colloidal stability of OA capped PQDs during purification, allowing us to remove excess organic content in thin films. Inverted red, green, and blue PQD light-emitting diodes (LED) are fabricated for the first time with solution-processed polymer-based hole transport layers due to higher robustness of OA capped PQDs to solution processing. The blue and green LEDs exhibit threefold and tenfold improved external quantum efficiency (EQE), respectively, compared to prior related reports for amine/ammonium capped cross-linked PQDs. The brightest blue LED based on all inorganic CsPb(Br1- xClx)3 PQDs is also reported. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Comment on ``Efficient high-fidelity quantum computation using matter qubits and linear optics''

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, Simon Charles

    2005-11-01

    Recently Barrett and Kok proposed an elegant method for entangling separated matter qubits. They outlined a strategy for using their entangling operation (EO) to build graph states, the resource for one-way quantum computing. Here I argue that their strategy considerably underrates the power and utility of their EO. By viewing their EO as a graph fusion event, one perceives that each successful event introduces an ideal redundant graph edge, which growth strategies should exploit. For example, if each EO succeeds with probability p≳0.4 then a highly connected graph can be formed with an overhead of only about ten EO attempts per graph edge. The Barrett and Kok (BK) scheme then becomes competitive with the more elaborate entanglement procedures designed to permit p to approach unity [Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 030505 (2005)].

  11. Highly Efficient Moisture-Triggered Nanogenerator Based on Graphene Quantum Dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yaxin; Cheng, Huhu; Shi, Gaoquan; Qu, Liangti

    2017-11-08

    A high-performance moisture triggered nanogenerator is fabricated by using graphene quantum dots (GQDs) as the active material. GQDs are prepared by direct oxidation and etching of natural graphite powder, which have small sizes of 2-5 nm and abundant oxygen-containing functional groups. After the treatment by electrochemical polarization, the GQDs-based moisture triggered nanogenerator can deliver a high voltage up to 0.27 V under 70% relative humidity variation, and a power density of 1.86 mW cm -2 with an optimized load resistor. The latter value is much higher than the moisture-electric power generators reported previously. The GQD moisture triggered nanogenerator is promising for self-power electronics and miniature sensors.

  12. Efficient interfacing of light and surface plasmon polaritons for quantum optics applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eran, Kot

    light and quantum emitters proves a difficult task. Current days solutions range from cavities, atomic ensembles, photonic band gaps structures, ion traps and optical latices are all being improved and studied but none has yet to emerge as superior. Recently, another proposal for such a strong coupling......The research of light and matter interactions is the most fascinating and powerful tool in advancing our understanding of both atomic and light physics. From the pioneering work of Niels Bohr in devising a model for the atom to recent research in manipulation of single atoms, light matter...... system has been put forward. By exploiting the strong confinement of light in a surface plasmon mode, a cavity-free, broadband tool can be designed to engineer the light-emitter interaction in the vicinity of metallic nano-structures. These surface plasmons, hybrid waves of light and electronic...

  13. Magnetically tuned, robust and efficient filtering system for spatially multimode quantum memory in warm atomic vapors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dąbrowski, M; Chrapkiewicz, R; Wasilewski, W

    2016-11-12

    Warm atomic vapor quantum memories are simple and robust, yet suffer from a number of parasitic processes which produce excess noise. For operating in a single-photon regime precise filtering of the output light is essential. Here, we report a combination of magnetically tuned absorption and Faraday filters, both light-direction insensitive, which stop the driving lasers and attenuate spurious fluorescence and four-wave mixing while transmitting narrowband Stokes and anti-Stokes photons generated in write-in and readout processes. We characterize both filters with respect to adjustable working parameters. We demonstrate a significant increase in the signal-to-noise ratio upon applying the filters seen qualitatively in measurements of correlation between the Raman scattered photons.

  14. Efficient optical trapping of CdTe quantum dots by femtosecond laser pulses

    KAUST Repository

    Chiang, Weiyi

    2014-12-11

    The development in optical trapping and manipulation has been showing rapid progress, most of it is in the small particle sizes in nanometer scales, substituting the conventional continuous-wave lasers with high-repetition-rate ultrashort laser pulse train and nonlinear optical effects. Here, we evaluate two-photon absorption in optical trapping of 2.7 nm-sized CdTe quantum dots (QDs) with high-repetition-rate femtosecond pulse train by probing laser intensity dependence of both Rayleigh scattering image and the two-photon-induced luminescence spectrum of the optically trapped QDs. The Rayleigh scattering imaging indicates that the two-photon absorption (TPA) process enhances trapping ability of the QDs. Similarly, a nonlinear increase of the two-photon-induced luminescence with the incident laser intensity fairly indicates the existence of the TPA process.

  15. Laser characteristics of an injection microdisk with quantum dots and its free-space outcoupling efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zubov, F. I.; Kryzhanovskaya, N. V.; Moiseev, E. I.; Polubavkina, Yu. S.; Simchuk, O. I. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Saint Petersburg National Research Academic University (Russian Federation); Kulagina, M. M.; Zadiranov, Yu. M.; Troshkov, S. I. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physical–Technical Institute (Russian Federation); Lipovskii, A. A.; Maximov, M. V.; Zhukov, A. E., E-mail: zhukale@gmail.com [Russian Academy of Sciences, Saint Petersburg National Research Academic University (Russian Federation)

    2016-10-15

    The spectral, threshold, and power characteristics of a microdisk laser 31 μm in diameter with an active region based on InAs/InGaAs quantum dots, operating in the continuous-wave (cw) mode at room temperature are studied. The minimum threshold current density is 0.58 kA/cm{sup 2}, the subthreshold linewidth of the whispering-gallery mode is 50 pm at a wavelength lying in the range of 1.26–1.27 μm. The total power emitted into free space reaches ~0.1 mW in the cw mode, whereas the radiation power of the whispering-gallery modes is ~2.8%.

  16. High quantum efficiency N-structure type-II superlattice mid-wavelength infrared detector with resonant cavity enhanced design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Haoyue; Xu, Yun; Li, Jian; Jiang, Yu; Bai, Lin; Yu, Hailong; Fu, Dong; Zhu, Haijun; Song, Guofeng

    2017-05-01

    We propose a resonant cavity enhanced (RCE) N-structure type-II superlattice (T2SL) mid-wavelength infrared (MWIR) photodetector which can be used for the detection of methane gas at 3.3 μm. The theoretical analysis of quantum efficiency (QE) shows that the peak QE can be enhanced from 0.45 to 0.80 at 3.3 μm after 12 period AlAs0.09Sb0.91/GaSb DBR is introduced to the N-structure T2SL detector and QE exhibits the narrow bandwidth characteristic near the target wavelength. By analyzing the refractive indices of different materials and the reflectance of different DBRs, we also discuss how to determine the component materials of quarter-wavelength DBR reflectors.

  17. High Momentum Particle Identification Detector The Study of Cesium Iodide Quantum Efficiency Dependency on Substrate Material, Temperature and Quartz Window

    CERN Document Server

    Wisna, Gde Bimananda M

    2014-01-01

    The Cesium Iodide (CsI) is used as a material for detecting Cherenkov radiation produced by high momentum particle in High Momentum Particle Identification Detector (HMPID) at ALICE Experiment at CERN. This work provides investigation and analysis of The Quantum Efficiency (QE) result of CsI which is deposited on five samples substrates such as copper passivated red, copper passivated yellow, aluminium, copper coated with nickel and copper coated with nickel then coated with gold. The measurement of five samples is held under temperature $60^{0}$ C and $25^{0}$ C (room temperature) and also with optical quartz window which can be adjusted to limit the wavelength range which reach the CsI. The result shows there are dependency of substrate, temperature due to enhancement effect and also quartz windows usage on QE of CsI. The results of five samples is then compared and analyzed.

  18. Boron- and nitrogen-doped graphene quantum dots/graphene hybrid nanoplatelets as efficient electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, Huilong; Ye, Ruquan; Ye, Gonglan; Gong, Yongji; Peng, Zhiwei; Fan, Xiujun; Samuel, Errol L G; Ajayan, Pulickel M; Tour, James M

    2014-10-28

    The scarcity and high cost of platinum-based electrocatalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) has limited the commercial and scalable use of fuel cells. Heteroatom-doped nanocarbon materials have been demonstrated to be efficient alternative catalysts for ORR. Here, graphene quantum dots, synthesized from inexpensive and earth-abundant anthracite coal, were self-assembled on graphene by hydrothermal treatment to form hybrid nanoplatelets that were then codoped with nitrogen and boron by high-temperature annealing. This hybrid material combined the advantages of both components, such as abundant edges and doping sites, high electrical conductivity, and high surface area, which makes the resulting materials excellent oxygen reduction electrocatalysts with activity even higher than that of commercial Pt/C in alkaline media.

  19. Significant increase of light emission efficiency by in situ site-selective etching of InGaN quantum wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Zhilai

    2009-07-01

    An indium post-treatment of the InGaN epilayers was employed for InGaN-to-GaN interface modification. We find that the treatment could lead to selective etching of the InGaN epilayers around threading dislocations (TDs) due to preferential etching of the chemically active step-correlated TDs and formation of indium-rich InGaN nanostructures on the smooth InGaN surface. The intentionally formed V-shaped pits by site-selective etching of the InGaN epilayers resulted in an increased surface potential barrier at the pit sidewalls due to the relatively thin InGaN single quantum well. The increased energy bandgap of the InGaN active layers around the TDs cores caused the lateral carrier confinement away from nonradiative recombination at the defects and thus significantly enhanced the light emission efficiency.

  20. Quantum efficiency of cesium iodide photocathodes in the 120-220 nm spectral range traceable to a primary detector standard

    CERN Document Server

    Rabus, H; Richter, M; Ulm, G; Friese, J; Gernhäuser, R; Kastenmüller, A; Maier-Komor, P; Zeitelhack, K

    1999-01-01

    Differently prepared CsI samples have been investigated in the 120-220 nm spectral range for their quantum efficiency, spatial uniformity and the effect of radiation aging. The experiments were performed at the PTB radiometry laboratory at the Berlin synchrotron radiation facility BESSY. A calibrated GaAsP Schottky photodiode was used as transfer detector standard to establish traceability to the primary detector standard, because this type of photodiode - unlike silicon p-on-n photodiodes - proved to be of sufficiently stable response when exposed to vacuum ultraviolet radiation. The paper reviews the experimental procedures that were employed to characterize and calibrate the GaAsP photodiode and reports the results that were obtained on the investigated CsI photocathodes.

  1. Dye decorated ZnO-NWs /CdS-NPs heterostructures for efficiency improvement of quantum dots sensitized solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayeri, Fatemeh Dehghan; Akbarnejad, Elaheh; Ghoranneviss, Mahmood; Soleimani, Ebrahim Asl; Hashemizadeh, S. A.

    2016-03-01

    High density vertically aligned ZnO nanowire was coated with CdS nanocrystals of different thicknesses by the RF magnetron sputtering process and applied as photoanode in CdS quantum dot sensitized solar cells. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), photoluminescence, and X-Ray diffraction (XRD) were utilized to characterize the samples and study their properties. Results demonstrated that, after dye decoration co-sensitized process, the ZnO/CdS heterostructures showed an overall power conversion efficiency of 2.68%, which is 76.3% improvement over that of pristine ZnO/CdS-QDSSC. Thereby, the QDSSC was assembled with modified ZnO/CdS heterostructures by Dye exhibited high performance.

  2. Room temperature continuous wave, monolithic tunable THz sources based on highly efficient mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Quanyong; Wu, Donghai; Sengupta, Saumya; Slivken, Steven; Razeghi, Manijeh

    2016-01-01

    A compact, high power, room temperature continuous wave terahertz source emitting in a wide frequency range (ν ~ 1–5 THz) is of great importance to terahertz system development for applications in spectroscopy, communication, sensing, and imaging. Here, we present a strong-coupled strain-balanced quantum cascade laser design for efficient THz generation based on intracavity difference frequency generation. Room temperature continuous wave emission at 3.41 THz with a side-mode suppression ratio of 30 dB and output power up to 14 μW is achieved with a wall-plug efficiency about one order of magnitude higher than previous demonstrations. With this highly efficient design, continuous wave, single mode THz emissions with a wide frequency tuning range of 2.06–4.35 THz and an output power up to 4.2 μW are demonstrated at room temperature from two monolithic three-section sampled grating distributed feedback-distributed Bragg reflector lasers. PMID:27009375

  3. High-Efficiency Photovoltaic Devices using Trap-Controlled Quantum-Dot Ink prepared via Phase-Transfer Exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aqoma, Havid; Al Mubarok, Muhibullah; Hadmojo, Wisnu Tantyo; Lee, Eun-Hye; Kim, Tae-Wook; Ahn, Tae Kyu; Oh, Seung-Hwan; Jang, Sung-Yeon

    2017-05-01

    Colloidal-quantum-dot (CQD) photovoltaic devices are promising candidates for low-cost power sources owing to their low-temperature solution processability and bandgap tunability. A power conversion efficiency (PCE) of >10% is achieved for these devices; however, there are several remaining obstacles to their commercialization, including their high energy loss due to surface trap states and the complexity of the multiple-step CQD-layer-deposition process. Herein, high-efficiency photovoltaic devices prepared with CQD-ink using a phase-transfer-exchange (PTE) method are reported. Using CQD-ink, the fabrication of active layers by single-step coating and the suppression of surface trap states are achieved simultaneously. The CQD-ink photovoltaic devices achieve much higher PCEs (10.15% with a certified PCE of 9.61%) than the control devices (7.85%) owing to improved charge drift and diffusion. Notably, the CQD-ink devices show much lower energy loss than other reported high-efficiency CQD devices. This result reveals that the PTE method is an effective strategy for controlling trap states in CQDs. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Distinguishing crystallization stages and their influence on quantum efficiency during perovskite solar cell formation in real-time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Lukas; Mundt, Laura E; Mathiazhagan, Gayathri; Mundus, Markus; Schubert, Martin C; Mastroianni, Simone; Würfel, Uli; Hinsch, Andreas; Glunz, Stefan W

    2017-11-02

    Relating crystallization of the absorber layer in a perovskite solar cell (PSC) to the device performance is a key challenge for the process development and in-depth understanding of these types of high efficient solar cells. A novel approach that enables real-time photo-physical and electrical characterization using a graphite-based PSC is introduced in this work. In our graphite-based PSC, the device architecture of porous monolithic contact layers creates the possibility to perform photovoltaic measurements while the perovskite crystallizes within this scaffold. The kinetics of crystallization in a solution based 2-step formation process has been analyzed by real-time measurement of the external photon to electron quantum efficiency as well as the photoluminescence emission spectra of the solar cell. With this method it was in particular possible to identify a previously overlooked crystallization stage during the formation of the perovskite absorber layer. This stage has significant influence on the development of the photocurrent, which is attributed to the formation of electrical pathways between the electron and hole contact, enabling efficient charge carrier extraction. We observe that in contrast to previously suggested models, the perovskite layer formation is indeed not complete with the end of crystal growth.

  5. Deep-blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting diode with external quantum efficiency over 30% using novel Ir complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Hideko; Yamada, Yui; Ohsawa, Nobuharu; Seo, Satoshi; Hosoumi, Shunsuke; Watabe, Takeyoshi; Mitsumori, Satomi; Kido, Hiromitsu

    2016-09-01

    We report a newly developed deep-blue phosphorescent iridium complex exhibiting a narrow emission spectrum. The use of this complex resulted in a deep-blue organic light-emitting diode (OLED) with an external quantum efficiency (EQE) exceeding 30%. Two iridium complexes with a 4H-1,2,4-triazole ligand which has an adamantyl group at the 4-position were synthesized, with the resulting effects of the adamantyl group on photoluminescence (PL) behavior investigated. [Ir(Adm1)3] having a 1-adamantyl group did not exhibit any emissions at room temperature, whereas [Ir(Adm2)3] having a 2-adamantyl group exhibited a blue emission with a peak wavelength of 459 nm and a high PL quantum yield of 0.94. Structural transformations between the ground state and excited state were estimated by molecular orbital calculations, which suggests that [Ir(Adm1)3] undergoes a considerably more extensive change than [Ir(Adm2)3]. It is therefore probable that [Ir(Adm1)3] ultimately experiences thermal deactivation owing to structural relaxation. Furthermore, an OLED was fabricated using [Ir(Adm2)3] as a dopant. The associated electroluminescence spectrum had an emission peak at 457 nm and a relatively small shoulder peak at 485 nm, which are consistent with the PL spectrum. A narrowed emission spectrum with a full width at half maximum of 58 nm was obtained, leading to a deep-blue emission with high color purity (CIE, x = 0.15, y = 0.22). This device ultimately exhibited an extremely high EQE of 32% at 2 mA/cm2, which was likely attributable to an increase in outcoupling efficiency via molecular orientation.

  6. Improving the quantum efficiency of the CLAS12 LTCC PMTs with a p-Terphenyl wavelength shifter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joosten, Sylvester; Meziani, Zein-Eddine; Sparveris, Nikolaos; Paolone, Michael; Kaczanowicz, Edward

    2014-09-01

    An improved version of the CLAS Cherenkov detector will be used as the Low-Threshold Cherenkov Counter (LTCC) for the CLAS12 spectrometer at JLAB. The original detector used 216 UV-glass PMTs, which have a poor quantum-efficiency (QE) below 300 nm due to the UV-glass transparency. The application of a p-Terphenyl wavelength shifter to the face of these PMTs dramatically improves the QE for short wavelengths, rivaling that of a much more expensive quartz PMT. This translates into an improved detector performance for the LTCC, especially in the higher-energetic regimes in the CLAS12 spectrometer. We will discuss the coating process as well as the performance testing taking place at Temple University. Furthermore, we will present the results of a study of the wavelength dependence of the gain in QE performed at JLAB. An improved version of the CLAS Cherenkov detector will be used as the Low-Threshold Cherenkov Counter (LTCC) for the CLAS12 spectrometer at JLAB. The original detector used 216 UV-glass PMTs, which have a poor quantum-efficiency (QE) below 300 nm due to the UV-glass transparency. The application of a p-Terphenyl wavelength shifter to the face of these PMTs dramatically improves the QE for short wavelengths, rivaling that of a much more expensive quartz PMT. This translates into an improved detector performance for the LTCC, especially in the higher-energetic regimes in the CLAS12 spectrometer. We will discuss the coating process as well as the performance testing taking place at Temple University. Furthermore, we will present the results of a study of the wavelength dependence of the gain in QE performed at JLAB. Work supported by the US Department of Energy.

  7. Design of China Leading Energy Efficiency Program (LEP) for equipment and appliances and comparative study of international experience on super-efficient products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xiuying; Zhu, Chunyan

    2017-11-01

    With rising global emphasizes on climate change and sustainable development, how to accelerate the transformation of energy efficiency has become an important question. Designing and implementing energy-efficiency policies for super-efficient products represents an important direction to achieve breakthroughs in the field of energy conservation. On December 31, 2014, China’s National Development and Reform Commission (NDRC) jointly six other ministerial agencies launched China Leading Energy Efficiency Program (LEP), which identifies top efficiency models for selected product categories. LEP sets the highest energy efficiency benchmark. Design of LEP took into consideration of how to best motivate manufacturers to accelerate technical innovation, promote high efficiency products. This paper explains core elements of LEP, such as objectives, selection criteria, implementation method and supportive policies. It also proposes recommendations to further improve LEP through international policy comparison with Japan’s Top Runner Program, U.S. Energy Star Most Efficient, and SEAD Global Efficiency Medal.

  8. Quantum memory Quantum memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Gouët, Jean-Louis; Moiseev, Sergey

    2012-06-01

    quest for higher efficiency, better fidelity, broader bandwidth, multimode capacity and longer storage lifetime is pursued in all those approaches, as shown in this special issue. The improvement of quantum memory operation specifically requires in-depth study and control of numerous physical processes leading to atomic decoherence. The present issue reflects the development of rare earth ion doped matrices offering long lifetime superposition states, either as bulk crystals or as optical waveguides. The need for quantum sources and high efficiency detectors at the single photon level is also illustrated. Several papers address the networking of quantum memories either in long-haul cryptography or in the prospect of quantum processing. In this context, much attention has been paid recently to interfacing quantum light with superconducting qubits and with nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond. Finally, the quantum interfacing of light with matter raises questions on entanglement. The last two papers are devoted to the generation of entanglement by dissipative processes. It is shown that long lifetime entanglement may be built in this way. We hope this special issue will help readers to become familiar with the exciting field of ensemble-based quantum memories and will stimulate them to bring deeper insights and new ideas to this area.

  9. Framing energy efficiency and renewable energy policies: An international comparison between Mexico and China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valenzuela, Jose Maria; Qi, Ye

    2012-01-01

    This essay compares national strategies on mitigation of GHG emissions for Mexico and China. This state-centered analysis stresses the importance of the interaction between international commitments, the disposition of internal interest of economy-wide actors, and the legacies of policy making and institutions, particularly in relation to economic development and central–local government relations. This research does not attempt to classify institutions according to their effectives to foster climate change policies, but rather explores specific circumstances for climate change policy making on developing countries. Contrary to international proposal to find a generic optimal policy choice, the research explored the relevance of certain political and economic institutions that can be present in other national cases. It shows that the legacies on liberalization and state retreat undermine the state ability to effectively engage with the economic actors on decisions and management. Likewise regular engagement with them undermines the state affinity towards pursuing economic efficient solutions. The relevance of adequate system of incentives for local government to engage in an agenda that is, by nature, adopted by the central government. - Highlights: ► We compared China and Mexico CO 2 emissions potentials and strategies on energy. ► Cost abatement curves were used to induce societal interest. ► Policies on management decision are effective but not clearly efficient. ► Policies that stress efficiency face serious limitations of scope. ► Centrally provided incentives are highly required for local governments action.

  10. Tax and Fiscal Policies for Promotion of Industrial EnergyEfficiency: A Survey of International Experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, Lynn; Galitsky, Christina; Sinton, Jonathan; Worrell,Ernst; Graus, Wina

    2005-09-15

    The Energy Foundation's China Sustainable Energy Program (CSEP) has undertaken a major project investigating fiscal and tax policy options for stimulating energy efficiency and renewable energy development in China. This report, which is part of the sectoral sub-project studies on energy efficiency in industry, surveys international experience with tax and fiscal policies directed toward increasing investments in energy efficiency in the industrial sector. The report begins with an overview of tax and fiscal policies, including descriptions and evaluations of programs that use energy or energy-related carbon dioxide (CO2) taxes, pollution levies, public benefit charges, grants or subsidies, subsidized audits, loans, tax relief for specific technologies, and tax relief as part of an energy or greenhouse gas (GHG) emission tax or agreement scheme. Following the discussion of these individual policies, the report reviews experience with integrated programs found in two countries as well as with GHG emissions trading programs. The report concludes with a discussion of the best practices related to international experience with tax and fiscal policies to encourage investment in energy efficiency in industry.

  11. Efficiency of LH current drive in tokamaks featuring an internal transport barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, C I de; Ziebell, L F; Rosa, P R da S

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we study the effects of the occurrence of radial transport of particles in a tokamak on the efficiency of the current drive by lower hybrid (LH) waves, in the presence of an internal transport barrier. The results are obtained by numerical solution of the Fokker-Planck equation which rules the evolution of the electron distribution function. We assume that the radial transport of particles can be due to magnetic or electrostatic fluctuations. In both cases the efficiency of the current drive is shown to increase with the increase of the fluctuations that originate the transport. The dependence of the current drive efficiency on the depth and position of the barrier is also investigated

  12. Dextran based highly conductive hydrogel polysulfide electrolyte for efficient quasi-solid-state quantum dot-sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Hong-Yan; Lin, Ling; Yu, Xiao-Yun; Qiu, Kang-Qiang; Lü, Xian-Yong; Kuang, Dai-Bin; Su, Cheng-Yong

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Dextran based hydrogel is first used to prepare quasi-solid-state polysulfide electrolyte for quantum dot-sensitized solar cells. ► The ion conductivity of hydrogel electrolyte shows almost the same value as the liquid electrolyte. ► The liquid state at elevated temperature of hydrogel electrolyte allows for a good contact between electrolyte and CdS/CdSe co-sensitized TiO 2 photoanode. ► The hydrogel electrolyte based cell exhibits slightly lower power conversion efficiency than that of liquid electrolyte based cell. ► The dynamic electron transfer mechanism in hydrogel electrolyte based cell is examined in detail by EIS and CIMPS/IMVS. -- Abstract: Highly conductive hydrogel polysulfide electrolyte is first fabricated using dextran as gelator and used as quasi-solid-state electrolyte for quantum dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs). The hydrogel electrolyte with gelator concentration of 15 wt% shows almost the same conductivity as the liquid one. Moreover, its liquid state at elevated temperature allow for the well penetration into the pores in electrodeposited CdS/CdSe co-sensitized TiO 2 photoanode. This gel electrolyte based QDSSC exhibits power conversion efficiency (η) of 3.23% under AG 1.5 G one sun (100 mW cm −2 ) illumination, slightly lower than that of liquid electrolyte based cell (3.69%). The dynamic electron transfer mechanism of the gel and liquid electrolyte based QDSSC are examined by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and controlled intensity modulated photocurrent/photovoltage spectroscopy (CIMPS/IMVS). It is found that the electron transport in gel electrolyte based cell is much faster than the liquid electrolyte based cell but it tends to recombine more easily than the latter. However, these differences fade away with increasing the light intensity, showing declining electron collection efficiency at higher light intensity illumination. As a result, a conversion efficiency of 4.58% is obtained for the gel

  13. Science-based design of stable quantum dots for energy-efficient lighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, James E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Rohwer, Lauren E. S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); van Swol, Frank B. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Zhou, Xiaowang [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lu, Ping [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-09-01

    II-VI quantum dots, such as CdSe and CdTe, are attractive as downconversion materials for solid-state lighting, because of their narrow linewidth, tunable emission. However, for these materials to have acceptable quantum yields (QYs) requires that they be coated with a II-VI shell material whose valence band offset serves to confine the hole to the core. Confinement prevents the hole from accessing surface traps that lead to nonradiative decay of the exciton. Examples of such hole-confined core/shell QDs include CdTe/CdSe and CdSe/CdS. Unfortunately, the shell can also cause problems due to lattice mismatch, which ranges from 4-6% for systems of interest. This lattice mismatch can create significant interface energies at the heterojunction and places the core under radial compression and the shell under tangential tension. At elevated temperatures (~240°C) interfacial diffusion can relax these stresses, as can surface reconstruction, which can expose the core, creating hole traps. But such high temperatures favor the hexagonal Wurtzite structure, which has lower QY than the cubic zinc blende structure, which can be synthesized at lower temperatures, ~140°C. In the absence of alloying the core/shell structure can become metastable, or even unstable, if the shell is too thick. This can cause result in an irregular shell or even island growth. But if the shell is too thin thermallyactivated transport of the hole to surface traps can occur. In our LDRD we have developed a fundamental atomistic modeling capability, based on Stillinger-Weber and Bond-Order potentials we developed for the entire II-VI class. These pseudo-potentials have enabled us to conduct large-scale atomistic simulations that have led to the computation of phase diagrams of II-VI QDs. These phase diagrams demonstrate that at elevated temperatures the zinc blende phase of CdTe with CdSe grown on it epitaxially becomes thermodynamically unstable due to alloying. This is accompanied by a loss of hole

  14. NATO Advanced Study Institute on International Summer School on Chaotic Dynamics and Transport in Classical and Quantum Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Collet, P; Métens, S; Neishtadt, A; Zaslavsky, G; Chaotic Dynamics and Transport in Classical and Quantum Systems

    2005-01-01

    This book offers a modern updated review on the most important activities in today dynamical systems and statistical mechanics by some of the best experts in the domain. It gives a contemporary and pedagogical view on theories of classical and quantum chaos and complexity in hamiltonian and ergodic systems and their applications to anomalous transport in fluids, plasmas, oceans and atom-optic devices and to control of chaotic transport. The book is issued from lecture notes of the International Summer School on "Chaotic Dynamics and Transport in Classical and Quantum Systems" held in Cargèse (Corsica) 18th to the 30th August 2003. It reflects the spirit of the School to provide lectures at the post-doctoral level on basic concepts and tools. The first part concerns ergodicity and mixing, complexity and entropy functions, SRB measures, fractal dimensions and bifurcations in hamiltonian systems. Then, models of dynamical evolutions of transport processes in classical and quantum systems have been largely expla...

  15. Quantum key distribution with an efficient countermeasure against correlated intensity fluctuations in optical pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshino, Ken-ichiro; Fujiwara, Mikio; Nakata, Kensuke; Sumiya, Tatsuya; Sasaki, Toshihiko; Takeoka, Masahiro; Sasaki, Masahide; Tajima, Akio; Koashi, Masato; Tomita, Akihisa

    2018-03-01

    Quantum key distribution (QKD) allows two distant parties to share secret keys with the proven security even in the presence of an eavesdropper with unbounded computational power. Recently, GHz-clock decoy QKD systems have been realized by employing ultrafast optical communication devices. However, security loopholes of high-speed systems have not been fully explored yet. Here we point out a security loophole at the transmitter of the GHz-clock QKD, which is a common problem in high-speed QKD systems using practical band-width limited devices. We experimentally observe the inter-pulse intensity correlation and modulation pattern-dependent intensity deviation in a practical high-speed QKD system. Such correlation violates the assumption of most security theories. We also provide its countermeasure which does not require significant changes of hardware and can generate keys secure over 100 km fiber transmission. Our countermeasure is simple, effective and applicable to wide range of high-speed QKD systems, and thus paves the way to realize ultrafast and security-certified commercial QKD systems.

  16. Tin oxide quantum dots embedded iron oxide composite as efficient lead sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Dipa; Bahadur, Dhirendra

    2018-04-01

    SnO2 quantum dots (QDs) embedded iron oxide (IO) nanocomposite is fabricated and explored as a capable sensor for lead detection. Square wave anodic stripping voltammetry (SWASV) and amperometry have been used to explore the proposed sensor's response towards lead detection. The modified electrode shows linear current response for concentration of lead ranging from 99 nM to 6.6 µM with limit of detection 0.42 µM (34 ppb). Amperometry shows a detection limit as low as 0.18 nM (0.015 ppb); which is far below the permissible limit of lead in drinking water by World Health Organization. This proposed sensor shows linear current response (R2 = 0.98) for the lead concentration ranging from 133 × 10-9 to 4.4 × 10-6M. It also exhibits rapid response time of 12 sec with an ultra high sensitivity of 5.5 µA/nM. These detection properties promise the use of SnO2 QDs -IO composite for detection of lead in environmental sample with great ease.

  17. A universal host material for high external quantum efficiency close to 25% and long lifetime in green fluorescent and phosphorescent OLEDs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Yong Joo; Yook, Kyoung Soo; Lee, Jun Yeob

    2014-06-25

    High quantum efficiency close to 25% and long lifetime in green thermally activated delayed fluorescent and phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes are achieved using universal 3',5'-di(carbazol-9-yl)-[1,1'-biphenyl]-3,5-dicarbonitrile host material. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Long-term stable stacked CsPbBr3 quantum dot films for highly efficient white light generation in LEDs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Young Hyun; Yoo, Jin Sun; Kang, Bong Kyun; Choi, Seung Hee; Ji, Eun Kyung; Jung, Hyun Suk; Yoon, Dae Ho

    2016-12-01

    We report highly efficient ethyl cellulose with CsPbBr 3 perovskite QD films for white light generation in LED application. Ethyl cellulose with CsPbBr 3 quantum dots is applied with Sr 2 Si 5 N 8  : Eu 2+ red phosphor on an InGaN blue chip, achieving a highly efficient luminous efficacy of 67.93 lm W -1 under 20 mA current.

  19. An International Survey of Electric Storage Tank Water Heater Efficiency and Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Alissa; Lutz, James; McNeil, Michael A.; Covary, Theo

    2013-11-13

    Water heating is a main consumer of energy in households, especially in temperate and cold climates. In South Africa, where hot water is typically provided by electric resistance storage tank water heaters (geysers), water heating energy consumption exceeds cooking, refrigeration, and lighting to be the most consumptive single electric appliance in the home. A recent analysis for the Department of Trade and Industry (DTI) performed by the authors estimated that standing losses from electric geysers contributed over 1,000 kWh to the annual electricity bill for South African households that used them. In order to reduce this burden, the South African government is currently pursuing a programme of Energy Efficiency Standards and Labelling (EES&L) for electric appliances, including geysers. In addition, Eskom has a history of promoting heat pump water heaters (HPWH) through incentive programs, which can further reduce energy consumption. This paper provides a survey of international electric storage water heater test procedures and efficiency metrics which can serve as a reference for comparison with proposed geyser standards and ratings in South Africa. Additionally it provides a sample of efficiency technologies employed to improve the efficiency of electric storage water heaters, and outlines programs to promote adoption of improved efficiency. Finally, it surveys current programs used to promote HPWH and considers the potential for this technology to address peak demand more effectively than reduction of standby losses alone

  20. Infrared Solution-Processed Quantum Dot Solar Cells Reaching External Quantum Efficiency of 80% at 1.35 µm and Jscin Excess of 34 mA cm-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Yu; Pradhan, Santanu; Gupta, Shuchi; Akgul, Mehmet Zafer; Stavrinadis, Alexandros; Konstantatos, Gerasimos

    2018-02-01

    Developing low-cost photovoltaic absorbers that can harvest the short-wave infrared (SWIR) part of the solar spectrum, which remains unharnessed by current Si-based and perovskite photovoltaic technologies, is a prerequisite for making high-efficiency, low-cost tandem solar cells. Here, infrared PbS colloidal quantum dot (CQD) solar cells employing a hybrid inorganic-organic ligand exchange process that results in an external quantum efficiency of 80% at 1.35 µm are reported, leading to a short-circuit current density of 34 mA cm -2 and a power conversion efficiency (PCE) up to 7.9%, which is a current record for SWIR CQD solar cells. When this cell is placed at the back of an MAPbI 3 perovskite film, it delivers an extra 3.3% PCE by harnessing light beyond 750 nm. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Suppression of external quantum efficiency roll-off of nanopatterned organic-light emitting diodes at high current densities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuwae, Hiroyuki; Kasahara, Takashi [Nano-Science and Nano-Engineering, Waseda University, 3-4-1 Okubo, Shinjuku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); JST, ERATO, Adachi Molecular Exciton Engineering Project, Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Nishi, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Nitta, Atsushi; Yoshida, Kou; Inoue, Munetomo [Center for Organic Photonics and Electronics Research (OPERA), Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Nishi, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Matsushima, Toshinori; Adachi, Chihaya, E-mail: adachi@cstf.kyushu-u.ac.jp [JST, ERATO, Adachi Molecular Exciton Engineering Project, Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Nishi, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Center for Organic Photonics and Electronics Research (OPERA), Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Nishi, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Shoji, Shuichi [Nano-Science and Nano-Engineering, Waseda University, 3-4-1 Okubo, Shinjuku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Mizuno, Jun [JST, ERATO, Adachi Molecular Exciton Engineering Project, Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Nishi, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Research Organization for Nano and Life Innovation, Waseda University, 513 Waseda Tsurumaki-cho, Shinjuku, Tokyo 162-0041 (Japan)

    2015-10-21

    We developed organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) with nanopatterned current flow regions using electron-beam lithography with the aim of suppressing singlet–polaron annihilation (SPA). Nanopatterns composed of lines and circles were used in the current flow regions of nano-line and nano-dot OLEDs, respectively. Excitons partially escape from the current flow regions where SPA takes place. As such, current densities where external quantum efficiencies were half of their initial values (J{sub 0}) increased as line width and circle diameter were decreased to close to the exciton diffusion length. Circles were more efficient at enhancing exciton escape and increasing J{sub 0} than lines. The J{sub 0} increase in the nano-dot OLEDs containing nanopatterned circles with a diameter of 50 nm was approximately 41-fold that of a conventional OLED with a current flow region of 4 mm{sup 2}. The dependence of J{sub 0} on the size and shape of the nanopatterns was well explained by an SPA model that considered exciton diffusion. Nanopatterning of OLEDs is a feasible method of obtaining large J{sub 0}.

  2. Evaluation of the effective detective quantum efficiency for various tube voltages with digital radiography for chest imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Hyo-Min; Kim, Hee-Joung; Park, Hye-Suk; Kim, Dae-Hong; Lee, Chang-Lae; Choi, Yu-Na; Lee, Seung-Wan

    2011-01-01

    The concept of effective detective quantum efficiency (eDQE) has recently been developed and introduced. The purpose of this study was to use the eDQE to evaluate the effect of tube voltage and grid for chest imaging with a direct flat-panel-based digital radiographic system. The exposure factors that we considered were the tube potential and an anti-scatter moving grid. The incident air kerma was adjusted for each tube potential to yield an effective dose of 34 μSv. The scatter fraction (SF), transmission fraction (TF), effective modulation transfer function (eMTF), and effective normalized noise power spectrum (eNNPS) were measured using a phantom that simulate the attenuation and scatter properties of the human chest. Our results showed that the resolution properties measured by using eMTFs were independent of the tube potential regardless of whether or not a grid was used. The noise properties through the phantom were greater with the use of an anti-scatter grid than without while the eDQE was largest at a lower tube potential, which we tested without a grid. In conclusion, we measured a high efficiency at a low tube potential without an anti-scatter grid for digital radiography (DR) in chest imaging. The eDQE reflected the real exam environment better than the general DQE because it better reflected the effect of the total X-ray system.

  3. Accounting for the decrease of photosystem photochemical efficiency with increasing irradiance to estimate quantum yield of leaf photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Xinyou; Belay, Daniel W; van der Putten, Peter E L; Struik, Paul C

    2014-12-01

    Maximum quantum yield for leaf CO2 assimilation under limiting light conditions (Φ CO2LL) is commonly estimated as the slope of the linear regression of net photosynthetic rate against absorbed irradiance over a range of low-irradiance conditions. Methodological errors associated with this estimation have often been attributed either to light absorptance by non-photosynthetic pigments or to some data points being beyond the linear range of the irradiance response, both causing an underestimation of Φ CO2LL. We demonstrate here that a decrease in photosystem (PS) photochemical efficiency with increasing irradiance, even at very low levels, is another source of error that causes a systematic underestimation of Φ CO2LL. A model method accounting for this error was developed, and was used to estimate Φ CO2LL from simultaneous measurements of gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence on leaves using various combinations of species, CO2, O2, or leaf temperature levels. The conventional linear regression method under-estimated Φ CO2LL by ca. 10-15%. Differences in the estimated Φ CO2LL among measurement conditions were generally accounted for by different levels of photorespiration as described by the Farquhar-von Caemmerer-Berry model. However, our data revealed that the temperature dependence of PSII photochemical efficiency under low light was an additional factor that should be accounted for in the model.

  4. Enhanced Optoelectronic Conversion Efficiency of CdSe/ZnS Quantum Dot/Graphene/Silver Nanowire Hybrid Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bo-Tau; Wu, Kuan-Han; Lee, Rong-Ho

    2016-09-01

    In this study, we prepared the reduced graphene oxide (rGO)-CdSe/ZnS quantum dots (QDs) hybrid films on a three-layer scaffold that the QD layer was sandwiched between the two rGO layers. The photocurrent was induced by virtue of the facts that the rGO quenched the photoluminescence of QDs and transferred the excited energy. The quenching mechanism was attributed to the surface energy transfer, supported in our experimental results. We found that the optoelectronic conversion efficiency of the hybrid films can be significantly improved by incorporating the silver nanowires (AgNWs) into the QD layer. Upon increasing AgNW content, the photocurrent density increased from 22.1 to 80.3 μA cm-2, reaching a near 3.6-fold enhancement compared to the pristine rGO-QD hybrid films. According to the analyses of photoluminescence spectra, shape effect, and electrochemical impedance spectra, the enhancement on the optoelectronic conversion efficiency arise mainly from the strong quenching ability of silver and the rapid electron transfer of AgNWs.

  5. Toward Efficient Design of Reversible Logic Gates in Quantum-Dot Cellular Automata with Power Dissipation Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasamal, Trailokya Nath; Singh, Ashutosh Kumar; Ghanekar, Umesh

    2018-04-01

    Nanotechnologies, remarkably Quantum-dot Cellular Automata (QCA), offer an attractive perspective for future computing technologies. In this paper, QCA is investigated as an implementation method for designing area and power efficient reversible logic gates. The proposed designs achieve superior performance by incorporating a compact 2-input XOR gate. The proposed design for Feynman, Toffoli, and Fredkin gates demonstrates 28.12, 24.4, and 7% reduction in cell count and utilizes 46, 24.4, and 7.6% less area, respectively over previous best designs. Regarding the cell count (area cover) that of the proposed Peres gate and Double Feynman gate are 44.32% (21.5%) and 12% (25%), respectively less than the most compact previous designs. Further, the delay of Fredkin and Toffoli gates is 0.75 clock cycles, which is equal to the delay of the previous best designs. While the Feynman and Double Feynman gates achieve a delay of 0.5 clock cycles, equal to the least delay previous one. Energy analysis confirms that the average energy dissipation of the developed Feynman, Toffoli, and Fredkin gates is 30.80, 18.08, and 4.3% (for 1.0 E k energy level), respectively less compared to best reported designs. This emphasizes the beneficial role of using proposed reversible gates to design complex and power efficient QCA circuits. The QCADesigner tool is used to validate the layout of the proposed designs, and the QCAPro tool is used to evaluate the energy dissipation.

  6. Graphene quantum dots as a highly efficient solution-processed charge trapping medium for organic nano-floating gate memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Yongsung; Kim, Juhan; Cha, An-Na; Lee, Sang-A; Lee, Myung Woo; Suh, Jung Sang; Bae, Sukang; Moon, Byung Joon; Lee, Sang Hyun; Lee, Dong Su; Wang, Gunuk; Kim, Tae-Wook

    2016-04-08

    A highly efficient solution-processible charge trapping medium is a prerequisite to developing high-performance organic nano-floating gate memory (NFGM) devices. Although several candidates for the charge trapping layer have been proposed for organic memory, a method for significantly increasing the density of stored charges in nanoscale layers remains a considerable challenge. Here, solution-processible graphene quantum dots (GQDs) were prepared by a modified thermal plasma jet method; the GQDs were mostly composed of carbon without any serious oxidation, which was confirmed by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. These GQDs have multiple energy levels because of their size distribution, and they can be effectively utilized as charge trapping media for organic NFGM applications. The NFGM device exhibited excellent reversible switching characteristics, with an on/off current ratio greater than 10(6), a stable retention time of 10(4) s and reliable cycling endurance over 100 cycles. In particular, we estimated that the GQDs layer trapped ∼7.2 × 10(12) cm(-2) charges per unit area, which is a much higher density than those of other solution-processible nanomaterials, suggesting that the GQDs layer holds promise as a highly efficient nanoscale charge trapping material.

  7. Methotrexate-loaded nitrogen-doped graphene quantum dots nanocarriers as an efficient anticancer drug delivery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodadadei, Fatemeh; Safarian, Shahrokh; Ghanbari, Narges

    2017-10-01

    Graphene quantum dots (GQDs) are new efficient nanomaterials used in therapeutic applications. In this study, blue fluorescent nitrogen-doped GQDs (N-GQDs) were synthesized by a hydrothermal method via pyrolisis of citric acid as the carbon source and urea as the nitrogen source. The existence of doped nitrogen in GQDs was confirmed by FTIR characterization. Here, for the first time, the N-GQDs were loaded with the anticancer drug, methotrexate (MTX), to prepare MTX-(N-GQDs) as an efficient drug delivery system. The establishment of the strong π-π stacking interaction between MTX and N-GQDs was confirmed by FTIR and UV-vis spectroscopies indicating successful loading of MTX to N-GQDs. The in-vitro cytotoxicity of MTX-(N-GQDs) on human breast cancer cells investigated through MTT assay suggested that the drug-free N-GQDs nanocarriers are highly biocompatible, whereas the MTX-loaded ones are more cytotoxic than the free MTX. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Quantitative determination of optical and recombination losses in thin-film photovoltaic devices based on external quantum efficiency analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakane, Akihiro; Tamakoshi, Masato; Fujimoto, Shohei; Fujiwara, Hiroyuki, E-mail: fujiwara@gifu-u.ac.jp [Department of Electrical, Electronic and Computer Engineering, Gifu University, 1-1 Yanagido, Gifu 501-1193 (Japan); Tampo, Hitoshi; Kim, Kang Min; Kim, Shinho; Shibata, Hajime; Niki, Shigeru [Research Center for Photovoltaics, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Central 2, 1-1-1 Umezono, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan)

    2016-08-14

    In developing photovoltaic devices with high efficiencies, quantitative determination of the carrier loss is crucial. In conventional solar-cell characterization techniques, however, photocurrent reduction originating from parasitic light absorption and carrier recombination within the light absorber cannot be assessed easily. Here, we develop a general analysis scheme in which the optical and recombination losses in submicron-textured solar cells are evaluated systematically from external quantum efficiency (EQE) spectra. In this method, the optical absorption in solar cells is first deduced by imposing the anti-reflection condition in the calculation of the absorptance spectrum, and the carrier extraction from the light absorber layer is then modeled by considering a carrier collection length from the absorber interface. Our analysis method is appropriate for a wide variety of photovoltaic devices, including kesterite solar cells [Cu{sub 2}ZnSnSe{sub 4}, Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4}, and Cu{sub 2}ZnSn(S,Se){sub 4}], zincblende CdTe solar cells, and hybrid perovskite (CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}PbI{sub 3}) solar cells, and provides excellent fitting to numerous EQE spectra reported earlier. Based on the results obtained from our EQE analyses, we discuss the effects of parasitic absorption and carrier recombination in different types of solar cells.

  9. International comparisons of energy and environmental efficiency in the road transport sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben Abdallah, Khaled; Belloumi, Mounir; De Wolf, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The present work provides an international comparison of the energy intensity and the carbon dioxide intensity in road transport for a group of 90 countries over the period 1980–2012. This paper attempts to perform a comparative analysis to find the most appropriate mapping of the energy performance in road transport taking into account the three dimensions of sustainable energy development, namely road transport-related energy consumption, economic growth and carbon dioxide emissions. An important result of the study is the inverse relationship between energy efficiency and environmental efficiency. Through the calculated Theil coefficient, our empirical findings highlight the existence of spatial and temporal disparities between countries. In 2012, Tunisia occupies the 48th and the 38th rank respectively in terms of energy and environmental efficiency. Based on a general index of energy performance in the road transport sector, it is deemed to have a medium–high energy performance by occupying the 34th rank. The study shows the importance of enhancing a number of policies for the road transport system through the joint improvement of the fuel price policy, of the road infrastructure policy and of the fuel-efficient road vehicles policy, in order to maintain sustainable energy road transport. - Highlights: • The paper presents an international comparative analysis of the energy performance. • The road transport is analyzed for a group of 90 countries over the period 1980–2012. • There is no convergence between energy and environmental efficiencies. • Tunisia has a medium-high energy performance by occupying the 34th rank in 2012. • The findings show the importance of enhancing some policies for the road transport.

  10. Quantum channel construction with circuit quantum electrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Chao; Noh, Kyungjoo; Albert, Victor V.; Krastanov, Stefan; Devoret, M. H.; Schoelkopf, R. J.; Girvin, S. M.; Jiang, Liang

    2017-04-01

    Quantum channels can describe all transformations allowed by quantum mechanics. We adapt two existing works [S. Lloyd and L. Viola, Phys. Rev. A 65, 010101 (2001), 10.1103/PhysRevA.65.010101 and E. Andersson and D. K. L. Oi, Phys. Rev. A 77, 052104 (2008), 10.1103/PhysRevA.77.052104] to superconducting circuits, featuring a single qubit ancilla with quantum nondemolition readout and adaptive control. This construction is efficient in both ancilla dimension and circuit depth. We point out various applications of quantum channel construction, including system stabilization and quantum error correction, Markovian and exotic channel simulation, implementation of generalized quantum measurements, and more general quantum instruments. Efficient construction of arbitrary quantum channels opens up exciting new possibilities for quantum control, quantum sensing, and information processing tasks.

  11. Highly Efficient Quantum Sieving in Porous Graphene-like Carbon Nitride for Light Isotopes Separation

    OpenAIRE

    Yuanyuan Qu; Feng Li; Hongcai Zhou; Mingwen Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Light isotopes separation, such as 3He/4He, H2/D2, H2/T2, etc., is crucial for various advanced technologies including isotope labeling, nuclear weapons, cryogenics and power generation. However, their nearly identical chemical properties made the separation challenging. The low productivity of the present isotopes separation approaches hinders the relevant applications. An efficient membrane with high performance for isotopes separation is quite appealing. Based on first-principles calculati...

  12. Dark states and delocalization: Competing effects of quantum coherence on the efficiency of light harvesting systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zixuan; Engel, Gregory S.; Alharbi, Fahhad H.; Kais, Sabre

    2018-02-01

    Natural light harvesting systems exploit electronic coupling of identical chromophores to generate efficient and robust excitation transfer and conversion. Dark states created by strong coupling between chromophores in the antenna structure can significantly reduce radiative recombination and enhance energy conversion efficiency. Increasing the number of the chromophores increases the number of dark states and the associated enhanced energy conversion efficiency yet also delocalizes excitations away from the trapping center and reduces the energy conversion rate. Therefore, a competition between dark state protection and delocalization must be considered when designing the optimal size of a light harvesting system. In this study, we explore the two competing mechanisms in a chain-structured antenna and show that dark state protection is the dominant mechanism, with an intriguing dependence on the parity of the number of chromophores. This dependence is linked to the exciton distribution among eigenstates, which is strongly affected by the coupling strength between chromophores and the temperature. Combining these findings, we propose that increasing the coupling strength between the chromophores can significantly increase the power output of the light harvesting system.

  13. Virtual water trade: an assessment of water use efficiency in the international food trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Yang

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Amid an increasing water scarcity in many parts of the world, virtual water trade as both a policy instrument and practical means to balance the local, national and global water budget has received much attention in recent years. Building upon the knowledge of virtual water accounting in the literature, this study assesses the efficiency of water use embodied in the international food trade from the perspectives of exporting and importing countries and at the global and country levels. The investigation reveals that the virtual water flows primarily from countries of high crop water productivity to countries of low crop water productivity, generating a global saving in water use. Meanwhile, the total virtual water trade is dominated by green virtual water, which constitutes a low opportunity cost of water use as opposed to blue virtual water. A sensitivity analysis, however, suggests high uncertainties in the virtual water accounting and the estimation of the scale of water saving. The study also raises awareness of the limited effect of water scarcity on the global virtual water trade and the negative implications of the global water saving for the water use efficiency and food security in importing countries and the environment in exporting countries. The analysis shows the complexity in evaluating the efficiency gains in the international virtual water trade. The findings of the study, nevertheless, call for a greater emphasis on rainfed agriculture to improve the global food security and environmental sustainability.

  14. Do international rotations make surgical residents more resource-efficient? A preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliphant, Jason L; Ruhlandt, Ronell R; Sherman, Stanley R; Schlatter, Marc G; Green, Joel A

    2012-01-01

    Interest in international surgery among general surgery residents in the United States has been shown in several publications. Several general surgery residency programs have reported their experiences with international surgery rotations (ISRs). Learning to use limited resources more efficiently is often cited as a benefit of such rotations. We hypothesized that general surgery residents become more resource efficient after they have completed an ISR. Laboratory, radiologic, and diagnostic studies ordered on 2900 patients by 21 general surgery residents over 65 months at a single institution were analyzed retrospectively. The patient populations they wrote orders on were assessed for similarity in age, gender, and diagnoses. The outcomes in those patient populations were assessed by duration of stay and in-hospital mortality. Six (29%) of these residents (ISR residents) completed a 1-month ISR during their third year of residency. Their orders were compared with their classmates who did not participate in an ISR (NISR residents). The results were compared between the 2 cohorts from both before and after their international rotations. An analysis focused on comparing the changes from pre-ISR to post-ISR. A survey was also sent after objective data were collected to all residents and alumni involved in the study to assess their subjective perception of changes in their resource efficiency and to characterize their ISRs. Patient populations were similar in terms of demographics and diagnoses. ISR residents generated an average of $122 less in orders per patient per month after their ISR compared with before. NISR residents generated an average of $338 more in orders per patient per month after the ISRs compared with before (p = 0.04). Pre-ISR order charges were statistically similar. Similar results were observed when radiologic/diagnostic study orders were analyzed independently. Differences in outcomes were statistically insignificant. The survey revealed that most

  15. Fluctuations of Internal Transmittance in Security of Measurement-Device-Independent Quantum Key Distribution with an Untrusted Source*

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yang; Bao Wan-Su; Chen Rui-Ke; Zhou Chun; Jiang Mu-Sheng; Li Hong-Wei

    2017-01-01

    Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution (MDI-QKD) is immune to detector side channel attacks, which is a crucial security loophole problem in traditional QKD. In order to relax a key assumption that the sources are trusted in MDI-QKD, an MDI-QKD protocol with an untrusted source has been proposed. For the security of MDI-QKD with an untrusted source, imperfections in the practical experiment should also be taken into account. In this paper, we analyze the effects of fluctuations of internal transmittance on the security of a decoy-state MDI-QKD protocol with an untrusted source. Our numerical results show that both the secret key rate and the maximum secure transmission distance decrease when taken fluctuations of internal transmittance into consideration. Especially, they are more sensitive when Charlie’s mean photon number per pulse is smaller. Our results emphasize that the stability of correlative optical devices is important for practical implementations . (paper)

  16. Nuclear and perinuclear targeting efficiency of quantum dots depends on density of peptidic targeting residues on their surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maity, Amit Ranjan; Stepensky, David

    2017-07-10

    Targeted delivery to the cell nucleus can enhance the efficiency of drugs with nuclear site of action (some anti-cancer agents, DNA drugs, etc.), and can reduce their toxicity. Such targeting can be attained using nano-drug delivery systems (nano-DDSs) decorated with nuclear targeting sequences (such as nuclear localization sequence peptides, NLS). Several types of nano-DDSs decorated with NLS peptides were designed, but their investigation usually did not include quantitate analysis of the decoration efficiency and its correlation with the nano-DDSs intracellular localization. Thus, the major mechanisms and limiting factors of the nano-DDSs nuclear targeting are largely unknown yet. In this study, we report quantitative data for specific nano-formulation (CdSe-ZnS quantum dots) that include the efficiencies of its decoration with NLS residues and of its nuclear and perinuclear targeting, and demonstrate correlation between these parameters. For instance, QDs decorated with 83, 246, and 265 NLS peptides accumulated efficiently in the nucleus of HeLa cells or its vicinity (an average of 30.4%, 43.3%, and 49.0% of the intracellular QDs, respectively). On the other hand, QDs decorated with 63, 231, and 308 scrambled peptides accumulated in the nucleus of HeLa cells or its vicinity to a much lower extent (an average of 17.3%, 21.1%, and 25.5% of the intracellular QDs, respectively). Thus, results of our study provide important insights into the structure-activity correlations (i.e., the relationships between the formulation properties and the intracellular fate of nano-DDSs) of nuclear-targeted drug delivery. We plan to apply the research tools that were developed in the course of this and our previous studies to investigate the nuclear and perinuclear targeting activities of different NLS sequences, and to investigate the effects of nano-DDSs size, charge, shape, decoration efficiency with nuclear targeting sequences, and other structural factors on nuclear and

  17. Enhancement of cell internalization and photostability of red and green emitter quantum dots upon entrapment in novel cationic nanoliposomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samadikhah, Hamid Reza; Nikkhah, Maryam; Hosseinkhani, Saman

    2017-06-01

    Two quantum dots (QDs), a green emitter, CdSe and a red emitter, CdSe with ZnS shell are encapsulated into novel liposomes in two different formulations including cationic liposomes. Quantum dots have proven themselves as powerful inorganic fluorescent probes, especially for long-term, multiplexed imaging and detection. Upon delivery into a cell, in endocytic vesicles such as endosomes, their fluorescence is quenched. We have investigated the potential toxic effects, photophysical properties and cell internalization of QDs in new formulation of liposomes as an in vitro vesicle model. Entrapment of QDs into liposomes is brought about with a decrease in their intrinsic fluorescence and toxicities and an increase in their photostability and lifetime. The biomimetic lipid bilayer of liposomes provides high biocompatibility, thereby enhancing the effectiveness of fluorescent nanoparticles for biological recognition in vitro and in vivo. The prepared lipodots could effectively prevent QDs from photo-oxidation during storage and when exposed to ultraviolet (UV) light. Moreover, the flow cytometry of HEK 293 T cells showed that the cell internalization of encapsulated QDs in (DSPC/CHO/DOPE/DOAB) liposome is enhanced 10 times compared with non-encapsulated QD (bare QDs). Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Degradation and recovery of the external quantum efficiency of organic photovoltaic structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazarev, V. V., E-mail: lbf@ns.crys.ras.ru; Blinov, L. M.; Yudin, S. G.; Palto, S. P. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography, Federal Scientific Research Centre “Crystallography and Photonics” (Russian Federation)

    2017-03-15

    The photosensitivity of a mixed composition of donor CuPc and acceptor C{sub 60}, its degradation in time (for 16 months), and partial recovery (issues that were out of consideration previously) have been investigated. The sample is a simple nanostructure without encapsulation (quartz–SnO{sub 2}–CuPc:C{sub 60}–Al), the degradation of which is easier to analyze. It is shown that the process under study involves two mechanisms: slow (because of the decrease in the carrier lifetime) and relatively fast (because of the decrease in the internal field) degradations of the sample photosensitivity.

  19. Photon detectors with high quantum efficiency at NUV range using a confinement of wavelength-shifted signals and optical couplers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Y.; Hadaway, J.; Pakhomov, A.; Takizawa, Y.

    Near-UV wavelengths 300 - 400 nm have been in a death-valley for photon detectors due to very low quantum efficiencies QE in this range Conventional bi-alkali photocathodes of PMTs do not have QE better than 20-26 Much better photo-cathodes like GaAsP GaN and similar give better efficiencies but only at wavelengths 400nm and are severely plagued by very short lifetimes Avalanche Photo-diodes perform better at low temperatures but no better than 35 QE in the NUV region Silicon Photo-multipliers at Geiger mode SiPM with micro-pixels have high QEs 90 like CCD and CMOS as bare silicon but are severely plagued by very poor geometrical fill-factors 30 and their overallQMis limited to no better than 20 at NUV regime An optical interference-filter works as a half-mirror passing more than 90 of NUV lights 300-400 nm and reflect more than 90 of longer wavelength lights 400 nm UV photons after converted into blue-green lights by wavelength-shifter are reflected back and confined without much loss back into space A specific dichroic interference mirror with WLS was made by RIKEN Japan H Shimizu Y Takahashi Y Takizawa Patent pending 2000-399940 for this optical principle It also allows a better use of limited photo-sensitive micro-cells of SiPM overcoming the past serious problem of its very poor fill-factor As a result Half-mirror SiPM yields high final efficiency for NUV photons This new detector TRAPPER with optical couplers for SiPM or by GaAsP PMTs could be used for photon-hungry space experiments at NUV range TRAPPER

  20. Retinal and post-retinal contributions to the Quantum efficiency of the human eye revealed by electrical neuroimaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gibran eManasseh

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The retina is one of the best known quantum detectors with rods able to reliably respond to single photons. However, estimates on the number of photons eliciting conscious perception, based on signal detection theory, are systematically above these values after discounting by retinal losses. One possibility is that there is a trade-off between the limited motor resources available to living systems and the excellent reliability of the visual photoreceptors. On this view, the limits to sensory thresholds are not set by the individual reliability of the receptors within each sensory modality (as often assumed but rather by the limited central processing and motor resources available to process the constant inflow of sensory information. To investigate this issue, we reproduced the classical experiment from Hetch aimed to determine the sensory threshold in human vision. We combined a careful physical control of the stimulus parameters with high temporal/spatial resolution recordings of EEG signals and behavioral variables over a relatively large sample of subjects (12. Contrarily to the idea that the limits to visual sensitivity are fully set by the statistical fluctuations in photon absorption on retinal photoreceptors we observed that the state of ongoing neural oscillations before any photon impinges the retina helps to determine if the responses of photoreceptors have access to central conscious processing. Our results suggest that motivational and attentional off-retinal mechanisms play a major role in reducing the QE efficiency of the human visual system when compared to the efficiency of isolated retinal photoreceptors. Yet, this mechanism might subserve adaptive behavior by enhancing the overall multisensory efficiency of the whole system composed by diverse reliable sensory modalities.

  1. Internal photoemission for photovoltaic using p-type Schottky barrier: Band structure dependence and theoretical efficiency limits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Ko-Han; Chang, Yin-Jung

    2018-01-01

    Solar energy conversion via internal photoemission (IPE) across a planar p-type Schottky junction is quantified for aluminum (Al) and copper (Cu) in the framework of direct transitions with non-constant matrix elements. Transition probabilities and k-resolved group velocities are obtained based on pseudo-wavefunction expansions and realistic band structures using the pseudopotential method. The k-resolved number of direct transitions, hole photocurrent density, quantum yield (QY), and the power conversion efficiency (PCE) under AM1.5G solar irradiance are subsequently calculated and analyzed. For Al, the parabolic and "parallel-band" effect along the U-W-K path significantly enhances the transition rate with final energies of holes mainly within 1.41 eV below the Fermi energy. For Cu, d-state hot holes mostly generated near the upper edge of 3d bands dominate the hole photocurrent and are weekly (strongly) dependent on the barrier height (metal film thickness). Hot holes produced in the 4s band behave just oppositely to their d-state counterparts. Non-constant matrix elements are shown to be necessary for calculations of transitions due to time-harmonic perturbation in Cu. Compared with Cu, Al-based IPE in p-type Schottky shows the highest PCE (QY) up to about 0.2673% (5.2410%) at ΦB = 0.95 eV (0.5 eV) and a film thickness of 11 nm (20 nm). It is predicted that metals with relatively dispersionless d bands (such as Cu) in most cases do not outperform metals with photon-accessible parallel bands (such as Al) in photon energy conversion using a planar p-type Schottky junction.

  2. STUDENT SERVICES EFFICIENCY PROBLEMS IN UKRAINE: EXPERIENCE OF INTERNATIONAL TEMPUS IMPRESS PROJECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Chernyak

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the analysis of the implementation of the international project Tempus “IMPRESS” – “improving the efficiency of student services. The main aim of the project is to create modern Centers of student support services at the leading classical universities of Ukraine. One of the outcomes was the creation of the latest training course “Soft Skills” developed up to the modern international academic standards. In its framework, students will gain knowledge and skills that will facilitate their full adaptation to study at the University, and to the future professional activity. The course is designed to provide students with additional preference in employment, promote in their self-presentation skills, effective team work and decision making, enhance reflection ability and develop critical thinking.

  3. International experience in addressing combined exposures: Increasing the efficiency of assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meek, M.E.

    2013-01-01

    More efficient methodology for assessing the impact of combined exposures to multiple chemicals has been considered in a project of the World Health Organization (WHO) International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS). Recommendations regarding terminology and the status of development of the framework, its content, review and application are described. Evolving experience in its application is illustrated by example (polybrominated diphenyls) with special emphasis on the critical content of problem formulation, the role of predictive tools in grouping of chemicals for consideration and the importance of explicit delineation of relative uncertainty and sensitivity for tiered assessment. Priorities in increasing the efficiency of risk assessment not only for combined exposures, but more generally based on experience acquired in developing the framework and its application in case studies are identified and recommendations included

  4. g-force induced giant efficiency of nanoparticles internalization into living cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocampo, Sandra M.; Rodriguez, Vanessa; de La Cueva, Leonor; Salas, Gorka; Carrascosa, Jose. L.; Josefa Rodríguez, María; García-Romero, Noemí; Luis, Jose; Cuñado, F.; Camarero, Julio; Miranda, Rodolfo; Belda-Iniesta, Cristobal; Ayuso-Sacido, Angel

    2015-10-01

    Nanotechnology plays an increasingly important role in the biomedical arena. Iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs)-labelled cells is one of the most promising approaches for a fast and reliable evaluation of grafted cells in both preclinical studies and clinical trials. Current procedures to label living cells with IONPs are based on direct incubation or physical approaches based on magnetic or electrical fields, which always display very low cellular uptake efficiencies. Here we show that centrifugation-mediated internalization (CMI) promotes a high uptake of IONPs in glioblastoma tumour cells, just in a few minutes, and via clathrin-independent endocytosis pathway. CMI results in controllable cellular uptake efficiencies at least three orders of magnitude larger than current procedures. Similar trends are found in human mesenchymal stem cells, thereby demonstrating the general feasibility of the methodology, which is easily transferable to any laboratory with great potential for the development of improved biomedical applications.

  5. Efficiency Limits of Solar Energy Harvesting via Internal Photoemission in Carbon Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana V. Boriskina

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available We describe strategies to estimate the upper limits of the efficiency of photon energy harvesting via hot electron extraction from gapless absorbers. Gapless materials such as noble metals can be used for harvesting the whole solar spectrum, including visible and near-infrared light. The energy of photo-generated non-equilibrium or ‘hot’ charge carriers can be harvested before they thermalize with the crystal lattice via the process of their internal photo-emission (IPE through the rectifying Schottky junction with a semiconductor. However, the low efficiency and the high cost of noble metals necessitates the search for cheaper abundant alternative materials, and we show here that carbon can serve as a promising IPE material candidate. We compare the upper limits of performance of IPE photon energy-harvesting platforms, which incorporate either gold or carbon as the photoactive material where hot electrons are generated. Through a combination of density functional theory, joint electron density of states calculations, and Schottky diode efficiency modeling, we show that the material electron band structure imposes a strict upper limit on the achievable efficiency of the IPE devices. Our calculations reveal that graphite is a good material candidate for the IPE absorber for harvesting visible and near-infrared photons. Graphite electron density of states yields a sizeable population of hot electrons with energies high enough to be collected across the potential barrier. We also discuss the mechanisms that prevent the IPE device efficiency from reaching the upper limits imposed by their material electron band structures. The proposed approach is general and allows for efficient pre-screening of materials for their potential use in IPE energy converters and photodetectors within application-specific spectral windows.

  6. Direct Correlation of Excitonics with Efficiency in a Core-Shell Quantum Dot Solar Cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dana, Jayanta; Maiti, Sourav; Tripathi, Vaidehi S; Ghosh, Hirendra N

    2018-02-16

    Shell thickness dependent band-gap engineering of quasi type II core-shell material with higher carrier cooling time, lower interfacial defect states, and longer charge carrier recombination time can be a promising candidate for both photocatalysis and solar cell. In the present investigation, colloidal CdSe@CdS core-shells with different shell thickness (2, 4 and 6 monolayer CdS) were synthesized through hot injection method and have been characterized by high resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) followed by steady state absorption and luminescence techniques. Ultrafast transient absorption (TA) studies suggest longer carrier cooling, lower interfacial surface states, and slower carrier recombination time in CdSe@CdS core-shell with increasing shell thickness. By TA spectroscopy, the role of CdS shell in power conversion efficiency (PCE) has been explained in detail. The measured PCE was found to initially increase and then decrease with increasing shell thickness. Shell thickness has been optimized to maximize the efficiency after correlating the shell controlled carrier cooling and recombination with PCE values and a maximum PCE of 3.88 % was obtained with 4 monolayers of CdS shell, which is found to be 57 % higher than compared to bare CdSe QDs. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. ZnSe passivation layer for the efficiency enhancement of CuInS{sub 2} quantum dots sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, Zhuoyin; Liu, Yueli; Zhao, Yinghan; Chen, Keqiang; Cheng, Yuqing [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Materials Synthesis and Processing, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China); Kovalev, Valery [Department of Mechanics and Mathematics, Moscow State University named after M.V. Lomonosov, Leninskie Gory 1, 119992 Moscow (Russian Federation); Chen, Wen, E-mail: chenw@whut.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Materials Synthesis and Processing, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China)

    2014-02-25

    Highlights: • ZnSe is employed as passivation layer in CuInS{sub 2} quantum dots sensitized solar cells. • Slight red-shift has been occurred in UV–vis absorption spectra with ZnSe coating. • CuInS{sub 2} based solar cells coated by ZnSe have better efficiency than that of ZnS. • Higher rate of charge transport can be produced after coating with ZnSe. -- Abstract: The effect of ZnSe passivation layer is investigated in the CuInS{sub 2} quantum dot sensitized solar cells, which is used to improve the photovoltaic performance. The CuInS{sub 2} quantum dot sensitized TiO{sub 2} photo-anodes are prepared by assembly linking technique, and then deposited by the ZnSe passivation layer using the successive ionic layer absorption and reaction technique. The optical absorption edge and photoluminescence peak have slightly red-shifted after the passivation layer coating. Under solar light illumination, the ZnSe passivation layer based CuInS{sub 2} quantum dot sensitized solar cells have the higher photovoltaic efficiency of 0.95% and incident photon conversion efficiency response than that of pure CuInS{sub 2} based solar cells and ZnS passivation layer based solar cells, as the electron injection rate becomes faster after coating with ZnSe passivation layer.

  8. International spillover and rebound effects from increased energy efficiency in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koesler, Simon; Swales, Kim; Turner, Karen

    2016-01-01

    The pollution/energy leakage literature raises the concern that policies implemented in one country, such as a carbon tax or tight energy restrictions, might simply result in the reallocation of energy use to other countries. This paper addresses these concerns in the context of policies to increase energy efficiency, rather than direct action to reduce energy use. Using a global CGE simulation model, we extend the analyses of ‘economy-wide’ rebound from the national focus of previous studies to incorporate international spill-over effects from trade in goods and services. Our focus is to investigate whether these effects have the potential to increase or reduce the overall (global) rebound of local energy efficiency improvements. In the case we consider, increased energy efficiency in German production generates changes in comparative advantage that produce negative leakage effects, thereby actually rendering global rebound less than national rebound. - Highlights: • Offers first CGE analysis of full global spill-over effects of energy efficiency • Derives rebound definitions at sector, all industry, economy-wide and global levels • Extends understanding of how rebound extends from industry to global economy levels • Shows that changes in comparative advantage may constrain global rebound effects

  9. Public Internal Performance Contracting - Managing and financing energy-efficiency measures in public administrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irrek, Wolfgang; Thomas, Stefan; Attali, Sophie; Benke, Georg; Borg, Nils; Figorski, Arkadiusz; Filipowicz, Mariusz; Labanca, Nicola; Pindar, Andrew; Ochoa, Amalia

    2005-01-01

    Public Internal Performance Contracting (PICO) is a type of in-house 'third-party' financing or energy performance contracting scheme. In theory, once triggered, PICO provides a 'perpetual motion' finance mechanism for public authorities by which energy efficiency savings fund new investments in an upward virtuous cycle. One unit of the public authority, e.g. the technical department, delivers the financial and technical energy efficiency service to another unit of the same public administration. Remuneration takes place through cross payments between these units, according savings made in energy costs. The initial investments require 'seed funds' to kick start the process, after which the cross payments provide sufficient means to fund further measures. How can the PICO mechanism be initiated in times of tight public budgets? What difficulties are faced during the implementation process and how can these be overcome? What kind of energy-efficiency measures is PICO best suited to? And what role can national and European policy play to facilitate implementation? These are the key questions that the EU-funded PICOLight project aimed to tackle. This was done through testing and disseminating the PICO schemes, first used in Germany, in six European countries, developing these further and making the necessary adaptations. PICO schemes were piloted in seven public administrations with the technical focus on energy-efficient lighting retrofits. The experiences gathered in these pilot projects should help to introduce PICO schemes on a larger scale in public administrations in Europe. The paper presents the preliminary results from these pilot projects

  10. Biomass gasification for electricity generation with internal combustion engines. Process efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lesme-Jaén, René; Garcia Faure, Luis; Recio Recio, Angel; Oliva Ruiz, Luis; Pajarín Rodríguez, Juan; Revilla Suarez, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    Biomass is a renewable source of energy worldwide increased prospects for its potential and its lower environmental impact compared to fossil fuels. By processes and energy conversion technologies it is possible to obtain fuels in solid, liquid and gaseous form from any biomass. The biomass gasification is the thermal conversion thereof into a gas, which can be used for electricity production with the use of internal combustion engines with a certain level of efficiency, which depends on the characteristics of biomass and engines used. In this work the evaluation of thermal and overall efficiency of the gasification in Integrated Forestry Enterprise of Santiago de Cuba, designed to generate electricity from waste from the forest industry is presented. Is a downdraft gasifier reactor, COMBO-80 model and engine manufacturing Hindu (diesel) model Leyland modified to work with producer gas. The evaluation was carried out for different loads (electric power generated) engine from experimental measurements of flow and composition of the gas supplied to the engine. The results show that the motor operates with a thermal efficiency in the range of 20-32% with an overall efficiency between 12-25%. (full text)

  11. Combination of short-length TiO2 nanorod arrays and compact PbS quantum-dot thin films for efficient solid-state quantum-dot-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhengguo; Shi, Chengwu; Chen, Junjun; Xiao, Guannan; Li, Long

    2017-07-01

    Considering the balance of the hole diffusion length and the loading quantity of quantum-dots, the rutile TiO2 nanorod array with the length of 600 nm, the diameter of 20 nm, and the areal density of 500 μm-2 is successfully prepared by the hydrothermal method using the aqueous grown solution of 38 mM titanium isopropoxide and 6 M hydrochloric acid at 170 °C for 105 min. The compact PbS quantum-dot thin film on the TiO2 nanorod array is firstly obtained by the spin-coating-assisted successive ionic layer absorption and reaction with using 1,2-ethanedithiol (EDT). The result reveals that the strong interaction between lead and EDT is very important to control the crystallite size of PbS quantum-dots and obtain the compact PbS quantum-dot thin film on the TiO2 nanorod array. The all solid-state sensitized solar cell with the combination of the short-length, high-density TiO2 nanorod array and the compact PbS quantum-dot thin film achieves the photoelectric conversion efficiency of 4.10%, along with an open-circuit voltage of 0.52 V, a short-circuit photocurrent density of 13.56 mA cm-2 and a fill factor of 0.58.

  12. Modified Dirac Hamiltonian for efficient quantum mechanical simulations of micron sized devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habib, K. M. Masum; Ghosh, Avik W.; Sajjad, Redwan N.

    2016-01-01

    Representing massless Dirac fermions on a spatial lattice poses a potential challenge known as the Fermion Doubling problem. Addition of a quadratic term to the Dirac Hamiltonian provides a possible way to circumvent this problem. We show that the modified Hamiltonian with the additional term results in a very small Hamiltonian matrix when discretized on a real space square lattice. The resulting Hamiltonian matrix is considerably more efficient for numerical simulations without sacrificing on accuracy and is several orders of magnitude faster than the atomistic tight binding model. Using this Hamiltonian and the non-equilibrium Green's function formalism, we show several transport phenomena in graphene, such as magnetic focusing, chiral tunneling in the ballistic limit, and conductivity in the diffusive limit in micron sized graphene devices. The modified Hamiltonian can be used for any system with massless Dirac fermions such as Topological Insulators, opening up a simulation domain that is not readily accessible otherwise.

  13. Modified Dirac Hamiltonian for efficient quantum mechanical simulations of micron sized devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habib, K. M. Masum, E-mail: masum.habib@virginia.edu; Ghosh, Avik W. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22904 (United States); Sajjad, Redwan N. [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

    2016-03-14

    Representing massless Dirac fermions on a spatial lattice poses a potential challenge known as the Fermion Doubling problem. Addition of a quadratic term to the Dirac Hamiltonian provides a possible way to circumvent this problem. We show that the modified Hamiltonian with the additional term results in a very small Hamiltonian matrix when discretized on a real space square lattice. The resulting Hamiltonian matrix is considerably more efficient for numerical simulations without sacrificing on accuracy and is several orders of magnitude faster than the atomistic tight binding model. Using this Hamiltonian and the non-equilibrium Green's function formalism, we show several transport phenomena in graphene, such as magnetic focusing, chiral tunneling in the ballistic limit, and conductivity in the diffusive limit in micron sized graphene devices. The modified Hamiltonian can be used for any system with massless Dirac fermions such as Topological Insulators, opening up a simulation domain that is not readily accessible otherwise.

  14. Numerical multistep methods for the efficient solution of quantum mechanics and related problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anastassi, Z.A.; Simos, T.E.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we present the recent development in the numerical integration of the Schroedinger equation and related systems of ordinary differential equations with oscillatory solutions, such as the N-body problem. We examine several types of multistep methods (explicit, implicit, predictor-corrector, hybrid) and several properties (P-stability, trigonometric fitting of various orders, phase fitting, high phase-lag order, algebraic order). We analyze the local truncation error and the stability of the methods. The error for the Schroedinger equation is also presented, which reveals the relation of the error to the energy. The efficiency of the methods is evaluated through the integration of five problems. Figures are presented and analyzed and some general conclusions are made. Code written in Maple is given for the development of all methods analyzed in this paper. Also the subroutines written in Matlab, that concern the integration of the methods, are presented.

  15. Expected number of quantum channels in quantum networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi; Wang, He-Ming; Ji, Dan-Tong; Mu, Liang-Zhu; Fan, Heng

    2015-07-01

    Quantum communication between nodes in quantum networks plays an important role in quantum information processing. Here, we proposed the use of the expected number of quantum channels as a measure of the efficiency of quantum communication for quantum networks. This measure quantified the amount of quantum information that can be teleported between nodes in a quantum network, which differs from classical case in that the quantum channels will be consumed if teleportation is performed. We further demonstrated that the expected number of quantum channels represents local correlations depicted by effective circles. Significantly, capacity of quantum communication of quantum networks quantified by ENQC is independent of distance for the communicating nodes, if the effective circles of communication nodes are not overlapped. The expected number of quantum channels can be enhanced through transformations of the lattice configurations of quantum networks via entanglement swapping. Our results can shed lights on the study of quantum communication in quantum networks.

  16. Effects of atmospheric turbulence on the single-photon receiving efficiency and the performance of quantum channel with the modified approximate elliptic-beam model assumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-yang; Zhao, Nan; Chen, Nan; Zhu, Chang-hua; Pei, Chang-xing

    2018-01-01

    In free space quantum channel, with the introduction and implementation of the satellite-ground link transmission, the researches of single-photon transmission have attracted great interest. We propose a single-photon receiving model and analyze the influence of the atmospheric turbulence on the single-photon transmission. We obtain the relationship between single-photon receiving efficiency and atmospheric turbulence, and analyze the influence of the atmospheric turbulence on the quantum channel performance by the single-photon counting. Finally, we present a reasonable simulation analysis. Simulation results show that as the strength of the atmospheric fluctuations increases, the counting distribution gradually broadens, and the utilization of quantum channel drops. Furthermore, the key generation rate and transmission distance decreases sharply in the case of strong turbulence.

  17. Internalizing and externalizing traits predict changes in sleep efficiency in emerging adulthood: An actigraphy study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley eYaugher

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Research on psychopathology and experimental studies of sleep restriction support a relationship between sleep disruption and both internalizing and externalizing disorders. The objective of the current study was to extend this research by examining sleep, impulsivity, antisocial personality traits, and internalizing traits in a university sample. Three hundred and eighty six individuals (161 males between the ages of 18 and 27 years (M = 18.59, SD = 0.98 wore actigraphs for 7 days and completed established measures of disorder-linked personality traits and sleep quality (i.e., Personality Assessment Inventory, Triarchic Psychopathy Measure, Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11, and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. As expected, sleep measures and questionnaire scores fell within the normal range of values and sex differences in sleep and personality were consistent with previous research results. Similar to findings in predominantly male forensic psychiatric settings, higher levels of impulsivity predicted poorer subjective sleep quality in both women and men. Consistent with well-established associations between depression and sleep, higher levels of depression in both sexes predicted poorer subjective sleep quality. Bidirectional analyses showed that better sleep efficiency decreases depression. Finally, moderation analyses showed that gender does have a primary role in sleep efficiency and marginal effects were found. The observed relations between sleep and personality traits in a typical university sample add to converging evidence of the relationship between sleep and psychopathology and may inform our understanding of the development of psychopathology in young adulthood.

  18. Internalizing and externalizing traits predict changes in sleep efficiency in emerging adulthood: an actigraphy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaugher, Ashley C; Alexander, Gerianne M

    2015-01-01

    Research on psychopathology and experimental studies of sleep restriction support a relationship between sleep disruption and both internalizing and externalizing disorders. The objective of the current study was to extend this research by examining sleep, impulsivity, antisocial personality traits, and internalizing traits in a university sample. Three hundred and eighty six individuals (161 males) between the ages of 18 and 27 years (M = 18.59, SD = 0.98) wore actigraphs for 7 days and completed established measures of disorder-linked personality traits and sleep quality (i.e., Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI), Triarchic Psychopathy Measure, Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11, and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index). As expected, sleep measures and questionnaire scores fell within the normal range of values and sex differences in sleep and personality were consistent with previous research results. Similar to findings in predominantly male forensic psychiatric settings, higher levels of impulsivity predicted poorer subjective sleep quality in both women and men. Consistent with well-established associations between depression and sleep, higher levels of depression in both sexes predicted poorer subjective sleep quality. Bidirectional analyses showed that better sleep efficiency decreases depression. Finally, moderation analyses showed that gender does have a primary role in sleep efficiency and marginal effects were found. The observed relations between sleep and personality traits in a typical university sample add to converging evidence of the relationship between sleep and psychopathology and may inform our understanding of the development of psychopathology in young adulthood.

  19. Combination of short-length TiO{sub 2} nanorod arrays and compact PbS quantum-dot thin films for efficient solid-state quantum-dot-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Zhengguo [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230009 (China); School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Beifang University of Nationalities, Yinchuan 750021 (China); Shi, Chengwu, E-mail: shicw506@foxmail.com [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230009 (China); Chen, Junjun; Xiao, Guannan; Li, Long [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230009 (China)

    2017-07-15

    Graphical abstract: The TiO{sub 2} nanorod array with the length of 600 nm, the diameter of 20 nm, the areal density of 500 μm{sup −2} was successfully prepared. The compact PbS quantum-dot thin film was firstly obtained on the TiO{sub 2} nanorod array by spin-coating-assisted successive ionic layer absorption and reaction with using 1,2-ethanedithiol. The photoelectric conversion efficiency (PCE) of the compact PbS quantum-dot thin film sensitized solar cells achieved 4.10% using spiro-OMeTAD as a hole transporting layer, while the PCE of the PbS quantum-dot sensitized solar cells was only 0.54%. - Highlights: • Preparation of TiO{sub 2} nanorod arrays with the length of 600 nm, diameter of 20 nm. • The compact PbS QD thin film and short-length TiO{sub 2} nanorod array were combined. • EDT addition improved PbS nanoparticle coverage and photovoltaic performance. • The compact PbS QD thin film sensitized solar cell achieved the PCE of 4.10%. - Abstract: Considering the balance of the hole diffusion length and the loading quantity of quantum-dots, the rutile TiO{sub 2} nanorod array with the length of 600 nm, the diameter of 20 nm, and the areal density of 500 μm{sup −2} is successfully prepared by the hydrothermal method using the aqueous grown solution of 38 mM titanium isopropoxide and 6 M hydrochloric acid at 170 °C for 105 min. The compact PbS quantum-dot thin film on the TiO{sub 2} nanorod array is firstly obtained by the spin-coating-assisted successive ionic layer absorption and reaction with using 1,2-ethanedithiol (EDT). The result reveals that the strong interaction between lead and EDT is very important to control the crystallite size of PbS quantum-dots and obtain the compact PbS quantum-dot thin film on the TiO{sub 2} nanorod array. The all solid-state sensitized solar cell with the combination of the short-length, high-density TiO{sub 2} nanorod array and the compact PbS quantum-dot thin film achieves the photoelectric conversion

  20. Soft X-ray and extreme utraviolet quantum detection efficiency of potassium chloride photocathode layers on microchannel plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegmund, Oswald H. W.; Everman, Elaine; Hull, Jeff; Vallerga, John V.; Lampton, Michael

    1988-01-01

    The quantum detection efficiency (QDE) of KCl photocathodes in the 44-1460 A range was investigated. An opaque layer of KCl, about 15,000-A-thick, was evaporated and applied the surface of a microchannel plate (MCP), and the contribution of the photocathode material in the channels (and on the interchannel web) to the QDE was measured using a Z stack MCP detector. It is shown that KCl is a relatively stable photocathode material, with the QDE equal to 30-40 percent in the EUV. At wavelengths above 200 A, the QDE is slightly better than the QDE of CsI, as reported by Siegmund et al. (1986). While the shape of the QDE curve as a function of wavelength is similar to those reported for CsI and KBr, KCl was found to lack the high QDE peak found in the curves of CsI and KBr at about 100 A. A simple QDE model is described, the predictions of which were found to agree with the measurements on the KCl photocathode.