WorldWideScience

Sample records for internal physiological state

  1. On-call duty effects on sleep-state physiological stability in male medical interns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Hsuan Lin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: On-call duty among medical interns is characterized by sleep deprivation and stressful working conditions, both of which alter cardiac autonomic modulation. We hypothesized that sleep stability decreased in medical interns during on-call duty. We used cardiopulmonary-coupling (CPC analysis to test our hypothesis. METHODS: We used electrocardiogram (ECG-based CPC analysis to quantify physiological parameters of sleep stability in 13 medical interns during on-call and on-call duty-free periods. There were ten 33.5-h on-call duty shifts per month for interns, each followed by 2 on-call duty-free days, over 3 months. Measurements during sleep were collected before, during, and after an on-call shift. Measurements were repeated 3 months later during an on-call duty-free period. RESULTS: The medical interns had significantly reduced stable sleep, and displayed increased latency to the first epoch of stable sleep during the on-call night shift, compared to the pre-call and on-call duty-free nights. Interns also had significantly increased rapid-eye-movement (REM sleep during the on-call night shift, compared to the pre-call and on-call duty-free nights. CONCLUSION: Medical interns suffer disrupted sleep stability and continuity during on-call night shifts. The ECG-based CPC analysis provides a straightforward means to quantify sleep quality and stability in medical staff performing shift work under stressful conditions.

  2. International differences in the links between obesity and physiological dysregulation: the United States, England, and Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasunilashorn, Sarinnapha; Kim, Jung Ki; Crimmins, Eileen M

    2013-01-01

    Excess weight has generally been associated with adverse health outcomes; however, the link between overweight and health outcomes may vary with socioeconomic, cultural, and epidemiological conditions. We examine associations of weight with indicators of biological risk in three nationally representative populations: the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing, and the Social Environment and Biomarkers of Aging Study in Taiwan. Indicators of biological risk were compared for obese (defined using body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference) and normal weight individuals aged 54+. Generally, obesity in England was associated with elevated risk for more markers examined; obese Americans also had elevated risks except that they did not have elevated blood pressure (BP). Including waist circumference in our consideration of BMI indicated different links between obesity and waist size across countries; we found higher physiological dysregulation among those with high waist but normal BMI compared to those with normal waist and normal BMI. Americans had the highest levels of biological risk in all weight/waist groups. Cross-country variation in biological risk associated with obesity may reflect differences in health behaviors, lifestyle, medication use, and culture.

  3. International Differences in the Links between Obesity and Physiological Dysregulation: The United States, England, and Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarinnapha Vasunilashorn

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Excess weight has generally been associated with adverse health outcomes; however, the link between overweight and health outcomes may vary with socioeconomic, cultural, and epidemiological conditions. We examine associations of weight with indicators of biological risk in three nationally representative populations: the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing, and the Social Environment and Biomarkers of Aging Study in Taiwan. Indicators of biological risk were compared for obese (defined using body mass index (BMI and waist circumference and normal weight individuals aged 54+. Generally, obesity in England was associated with elevated risk for more markers examined; obese Americans also had elevated risks except that they did not have elevated blood pressure (BP. Including waist circumference in our consideration of BMI indicated different links between obesity and waist size across countries; we found higher physiological dysregulation among those with high waist but normal BMI compared to those with normal waist and normal BMI. Americans had the highest levels of biological risk in all weight/waist groups. Cross-country variation in biological risk associated with obesity may reflect differences in health behaviors, lifestyle, medication use, and culture.

  4. The XIIIth International Physiological Congress in Boston in 1929: American physiology comes of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rall, Jack A

    2016-03-01

    In the 19th century, the concept of experimental physiology originated in France with Claude Bernard, evolved in Germany stimulated by the teaching of Carl Ludwig, and later spread to Britain and then to the United States. The goal was to develop a physicochemical understanding of physiological phenomena. The first International Physiological Congress occurred in 1889 in Switzerland with an emphasis on experimental demonstrations. The XIIIth Congress, the first to be held outside of Europe, took place in Boston, MA, in 1929. It was a watershed meeting and indicated that American physiology had come of age. Meticulously organized, it was the largest congress to date, with over 1,200 participants from more than 40 countries. Getting to the congress was a cultural adventure, especially for the 400 scientists and their families from over 20 European countries, who sailed for 10 days on the S.S. Minnekahda. Many of the great physiologists of the world were in attendance, including 22 scientists who were either or would become Nobel Laureates. There were hundreds of platform presentations and many experimental demonstrations. The meeting was not without controversy as a conflict, still not completely settled, arose over the discovery of ATP. After the meeting, hundreds of participants made a memorable trip to the Marine Biological Laboratory at Woods Hole, MA, which culminated in a "good old fashioned Cape Cod Clambake." Although not as spectacular as the 1929 congress, the physiological congresses have continued with goals similar to those established more than a century ago. Copyright © 2016 The American Physiological Society.

  5. Physiological profile of senior and junior England international amateur boxers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Marcus S

    2006-01-01

    Despite worldwide popularity of amateur boxing, research focussed on the physiological demands of the sport is limited. The physiological profile of Senior and Junior England international amateur boxers is presented. A gradual (8 to 21-days) and rapid (0 to 7-days) phase of body weight reduction was evident with 2.2 ± 0.3 % of the 7.0 ± 0. 8 % weight loss occurring over the final 24-hours. An increase in body weight >4% was observed following a recovery period. High urine osmolality values (> 1000 mOsm·kg(-1)) were recorded during training and competition. High post-competition blood lactate values (>13.5 mmol·l(-1)) highlighted the need for a well-developed anaerobic capacity and the importance of not entering the ring in a glycogen depleted state. The aerobic challenge of competition was demonstrated by maximum heart rate values being recorded during 'Open' sparring. Mean body fat values of 9-10% were similar to those reported for other weight classified athletes. Normal resting values were reported for hematocrit (Senior 48 ± 2 % and Junior 45 ± 2 %), haemoglobin (Senior 14.7 ± 1.0 g·dl(-1) and Junior 14.5 ± 0.8 g·dl(-1)), bilirubin (Senior 15.3 ± 6.2 µmol·l-1(-1)) and ferritin (Senior 63.3 ± 45.7 ng·ml(-1)). No symptoms associated with asthma or exercise-induced asthma was evident. A well- developed aerobic capacity was reflected in the Senior VO2max value of 63.8 ± 4.8 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1). Senior lead hand straight punching force (head 1722 ± 700 N and body 1682 ± 636 N) was lower than the straight rear hand (head 2643 ± 1273 N and body 2646 ± 1083 N), lead hook (head 2412 ± 813 N and body 2414 ± 718 N) and rear hook (head 2588 ± 1040 N and body 2555 ± 926 N). It was concluded that amateur boxing performance is dependent on the interplay between anaerobic and aerobic energy systems. Current weight making methods may lead to impaired substrate availability, leading to reduced competitive performance and an increased risk to a boxers

  6. Causation and International State Responsibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castellanos-Jankiewicz, L.

    2012-01-01

    This work studies causation in the law of international State responsibility. It is submitted that the absence of causation as an element of the internationally wrongful act owes more to the structure of international law, than to the inadequateness of causation as a conceptual and legal construct

  7. PHYSIOLOGICAL PROFILE OF SENIOR AND JUNIOR ENGLAND INTERNATIONAL AMATEUR BOXERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus S. Smith

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Despite worldwide popularity of amateur boxing, research focussed on the physiological demands of the sport is limited. The physiological profile of Senior and Junior England international amateur boxers is presented. A gradual (8 to 21-days and rapid (0 to 7-days phase of body weight reduction was evident with 2.2 ± 0.3 % of the 7.0 ± 0. 8 % weight loss occurring over the final 24-hours. An increase in body weight >4% was observed following a recovery period. High urine osmolality values (> 1000 mOsm·kg-1 were recorded during training and competition. High post-competition blood lactate values (>13.5 mmol·l-1 highlighted the need for a well-developed anaerobic capacity and the importance of not entering the ring in a glycogen depleted state. The aerobic challenge of competition was demonstrated by maximum heart rate values being recorded during 'Open' sparring. Mean body fat values of 9-10% were similar to those reported for other weight classified athletes. Normal resting values were reported for hematocrit (Senior 48 ± 2 % and Junior 45 ± 2 %, haemoglobin (Senior 14.7 ± 1.0 g·dl-1 and Junior 14.5 ± 0.8 g·dl-1, bilirubin (Senior 15.3 ± 6.2 µmol·l-1-1 and ferritin (Senior 63.3 ± 45.7 ng·ml-1. No symptoms associated with asthma or exercise-induced asthma was evident. A well- developed aerobic capacity was reflected in the Senior VO2max value of 63.8 ± 4.8 ml·kg-1·min-1. Senior lead hand straight punching force (head 1722 ± 700 N and body 1682 ± 636 N was lower than the straight rear hand (head 2643 ± 1273 N and body 2646 ± 1083 N, lead hook (head 2412 ± 813 N and body 2414 ± 718 N and rear hook (head 2588 ± 1040 N and body 2555 ± 926 N. It was concluded that amateur boxing performance is dependent on the interplay between anaerobic and aerobic energy systems. Current weight making methods may lead to impaired substrate availability, leading to reduced competitive performance and an increased risk to a boxers health

  8. International Union of Physiological Sciences Physiology Teaching Workshop, March 31-April 1, 2012, Arabian Gulf University, Kingdom of Bahrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subhan, M. M. F.

    2013-01-01

    Since 2009, the Department of Physiology had planned an International Union of Physiological Sciences Physiology Teaching Workshop at Arabian Gulf University. The date was set for March 5-6, 2011; however, due to civil unrest, the workshop was postponed to March 31-April 1, 2012. The workshop was a success, bringing together 92 speakers and…

  9. Pregnancy: Comparison among Physiological and Pathological States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Lucariello

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The WFS1 gene, encoding a transmembrane glycoprotein of the endoplasmic reticulum called wolframin, is mutated in Wolfram syndrome, an autosomal recessive disorder defined by the association of diabetes mellitus, optic atrophy, and further organ abnormalities. Disruption of the WFS1 gene in mice causes progressive β-cell loss in the pancreas and impaired stimulus-secretion coupling in insulin secretion. However, little is known about the physiological functions of this protein. We investigated the immunohistochemical expression of wolframin in human placenta throughout pregnancy in normal women and diabetic pregnant women. In normal placenta, there was a modulation of wolframin throughout pregnancy with a strong level of expression during the first trimester and a moderate level in the third trimester of gestation. In diabetic women, wolframin expression was strongly reduced in the third trimester of gestation. The pattern of expression of wolframin in normal placenta suggests that this protein may be required to sustain normal rates of cytotrophoblast cell proliferation during the first trimester of gestation. The decrease in wolframin expression in diabetic placenta suggests that this protein may participate in maintaining the physiologic glucose homeostasis in this organ.

  10. International Companies in Fragile States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patey, Luke; Kragelund, Peter

    Denmark must not fail to promote corporate social responsibility in fragile states. International companies remain active in these environments, and often worsen rather than alleviate poor governance. Financial transparency and human rights initiatives offer the first step in ensuring...

  11. Using measures of single-cell physiology and physiological state to understand organismic aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendenhall, Alexander; Driscoll, Monica; Brent, Roger

    2016-02-01

    Genetically identical organisms in homogeneous environments have different lifespans and healthspans. These differences are often attributed to stochastic events, such as mutations and 'epimutations', changes in DNA methylation and chromatin that change gene function and expression. But work in the last 10 years has revealed differences in lifespan- and health-related phenotypes that are not caused by lasting changes in DNA or identified by modifications to DNA or chromatin. This work has demonstrated persistent differences in single-cell and whole-organism physiological states operationally defined by values of reporter gene signals in living cells. While some single-cell states, for example, responses to oxygen deprivation, were defined previously, others, such as a generally heightened ability to make proteins, were, revealed by direct experiment only recently, and are not well understood. Here, we review technical progress that promises to greatly increase the number of these measurable single-cell physiological variables and measureable states. We discuss concepts that facilitate use of single-cell measurements to provide insight into physiological states and state transitions. We assert that researchers will use this information to relate cell level physiological readouts to whole-organism outcomes, to stratify aging populations into groups based on different physiologies, to define biomarkers predictive of outcomes, and to shed light on the molecular processes that bring about different individual physiologies. For these reasons, quantitative study of single-cell physiological variables and state transitions should provide a valuable complement to genetic and molecular explanations of how organisms age. © 2015 The Authors. Aging Cell published by the Anatomical Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Physiology of excitable membranes: proceedings of the 28th International Congress of Physiological Sciences, Budapest, 1980

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Salánki, J; Meves, H

    1981-01-01

    ... - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Regulatory Functions of the CNS. Principles of Motion and Organization Regulatory Functions of the CNS. Subsystems Physiology of Non-excitable Cells Physiology...

  13. Conservation physiology of marine fishes: state of the art and prospects for policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mckenzie, David J.; Axelsson, Michael; Chabot, Denis; Claireaux, Guy; Cooke, Steven J.; Corner, Richard A.; Boeck, De Gudrun; Domenici, Paolo; Guerreiro, Pedro M.; Hamer, Bojan; Jørgensen, Christian; Killen, Shaun S.; Lefevre, Sjannie; Marras, Stefano; Michaelidis, Basile; Nilsson, Göran E.; Peck, Myron A.; Perez-Ruzafa, Angel; Rijnsdorp, Adriaan D.; Shiels, Holly A.; Steffensen, John F.; Svendsen, Jon C.; Svendsen, Morten B.S.; Teal, Lorna R.; Meer, Van Der Jaap; Wang, Tobias; Wilson, Jonathan M.; Wilson, Rod W.; Metcalfe, Julian D.

    2016-01-01

    The state of the art of research on the environmental physiology of marine fishes is reviewed from the perspective of how it can contribute to conservation of knowledge for conservation of marine fishes is the limited knowledge base; international collaboration is needed to study the environmental

  14. Successful implantation of physiologically functional bioengineered mouse internal anal sphincter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghavan, Shreya; Miyasaka, Eiichi A; Hashish, Mohamed; Somara, Sita; Gilmont, Robert R; Teitelbaum, Daniel H; Bitar, Khalil N

    2010-08-01

    We have previously developed bioengineered three-dimensional internal anal sphincter (IAS) rings from circular smooth muscle cells isolated from rabbit and human IAS. We provide proof of concept that bioengineered mouse IAS rings are neovascularized upon implantation into mice of the same strain and maintain concentric smooth muscle alignment, phenotype, and IAS functionality. Rings were bioengineered by using smooth muscle cells from the IAS of C57BL/6J mice. Bioengineered mouse IAS rings were implanted subcutaneously on the dorsum of C57BL/6J mice along with a microosmotic pump delivering fibroblast growth factor-2. The mice remained healthy during the period of implantation, showing no external signs of rejection. Mice were killed 28 days postsurgery and implanted IAS rings were harvested. IAS rings showed muscle attachment, neovascularization, healthy color, and no external signs of infection or inflammation. Assessment of force generation on harvested IAS rings showed the following: 1) spontaneous basal tone was generated in the absence of external stimulation; 2) basal tone was relaxed by vasoactive intestinal peptide, nitric oxide donor, and nifedipine; 3) acetylcholine and phorbol dibutyrate elicited rapid-rising, dose-dependent, sustained contractions repeatedly over 30 min without signs of muscle fatigue; and 4) magnitudes of potassium chloride-induced contractions were 100% of peak maximal agonist-induced contractions. Our preliminary results confirm the proof of concept that bioengineered rings are neovascularized upon implantation. Harvested rings maintain smooth muscle alignment and phenotype. Our physiological studies confirm that implanted rings maintain 1) overall IAS physiology and develop basal tone, 2) integrity of membrane ionic characteristics, and 3) integrity of membrane associated intracellular signaling transduction pathways for contraction and relaxation by responding to cholinergic, nitrergic, and VIP-ergic stimulation. IAS smooth muscle

  15. Toward physiological indices of emotional state driving future ebook interactivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erp, J.B.F. van; Hogervorst, M.A.; Werf, Y.D. van der

    2016-01-01

    Ebooks of the future may respond to the emotional experience of the reader. (Neuro-) physiological measures could capture a reader's emotional state and use this to enhance the reading experience by adding matching sounds or to change the storyline therewith creating a hybrid art form in between

  16. Toward physiological indices of emotional state driving future ebook interactivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Erp, Johannes Bernardus Fransiscus; Hogervorst, Maarten A.; van der Werf, Ysbrand D.

    2016-01-01

    Ebooks of the future may respond to the emotional experience of the reader. (Neuro-) physiological measures could capture a reader’s emotional state and use this to enhance the reading experience by adding matching sounds or to change the storyline therewith creating a hybrid art form in between

  17. PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSES AND MOOD STATES AFTER DAILY REPEATED PROLONGED EXERCISE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilkka Väänänen

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to describe the physiological responses to daily repeated acute but non-competitive prolonged exercise during a 4-day march and a 2-day cross-country ski event to the cardiorespiratory, autonomic nervous, musculoskeletal and endocrine systems. Mood states were also evaluated after these repeated exercises. The data of these short-term follow-up (reversal field trials was collected from healthy, 23 to 48 year old Finnish male soldiers in 1993 (n=6 and 1994 (n=15 during the "International Four-Day Long-Distance March" in Nijmegen, The Netherlands, and from ten healthy, 22 to 48 year old Finnish male participants in 1995 during a 2-day Finlandia Ski Race in Lahti, Finland. Acute cardiovascular responses were estimated by measuring the heart rate during exercise. The responses of the autonomic nervous system were estimated by measuring the heart rates during the orthostatic test. The musculoskeletal responses were estimated by measuring the perceived pains, flexibility, functional strength, use of elastic energy and oedemic changes of the lower extremities. Hormonal responses were estimated from the urinary excretion of catecholamines, and the concentrations of serum cortisol, testosterone, luteinizing (LH and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH. Mood states were assessed with the Profile of Mood States (POMS questionnaire. Daily walking time was 7-10 hours while the skiing time was 3 hours. Average heart rate during walking was 59% and skiing 87% of maximum heart rate. Morning heart rate in the supine position increased progressively through the marching period but not through the skiing experiment. After the first day, perceived pain increased significantly and remained at a similarly increased level until the end of the exercise period. Leg measurements showed no signs of oedema, decreases in flexibility, or functional strength. Catecholamine excretion rates during marches indicated cumulatively increased

  18. Knowledge about plant is basis for successful cultivation : new international standard handbook on plant physiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Esch, van H.; Heuvelink, E.; Kierkels, T.

    2015-01-01

    ‘Plant physiology in Greenhouses’ is the new international standard handbook on plant knowledge for the commercial greenhouse grower. It relates the functioning of the plant to the rapid developments in greenhouse cultivation. It is based on a continuing series of plant physiology articles published

  19. STATE NETWORK INTERNATIONAL POLITICAL INTERACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. Feldman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The processes of fragmentation (regionalization and localization and globalization turn the state as the basic system forming element of the state-centric world political system into the component of the world political network. The political relations between actors of the world political network are ruled by the effectiveness and not by legitimacy (“victory rules”, what is different from the participatory principles of interstate relations (“participation rules” accepted by the Westphalian state system. The article argues that the post-Westphalian world political system will witness the clashes between victory rules and participation rules and their eventual coexistence since the very nature of the victory rules hinders its institutionalization, consolidation and legitimation. The article suggests that the new system of state relations regardless of the name will be not less Westphalian than the preceding one thus new participation rules will have to be formulated and codified.

  20. Toward physiological indices of emotional state driving future ebook interactivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan B.F. van Erp

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Ebooks of the future may respond to the emotional experience of the reader. (Neuro- physiological measures could capture a reader’s emotional state and use this to enhance the reading experience by adding matching sounds or to change the storyline therewith creating a hybrid art form in between literature and gaming. We describe the theoretical foundation of the emotional and creative brain and review the neurophysiological indices that can be used to drive future ebook interactivity in a real life situation. As a case study, we report the neurophysiological measurements of a bestselling author during nine days of writing which can potentially be used later to compare them to those of the readers. In designated calibration blocks, the artist wrote emotional paragraphs for emotional (IAPS pictures. Analyses showed that we can reliably distinguish writing blocks from resting but we found no reliable differences related to the emotional content of the writing. The study shows that measurements of EEG, heart rate (variability, skin conductance, facial expression and subjective ratings can be done over several hours a day and for several days in a row. In follow-up phases, we will measure 300 readers with a similar setup.

  1. An Asymmetrical Network: National and International Dimensions of the Development of Mexican Physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cueto, Marcos

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the history of Mexican physiology during the period 1910-60 when two noted investigators, José J. Izquierdo, first, and Arturo Rosenblueth, second, inscribed their work into an international network of medical research. The network had at its center the laboratory of Walter B. Cannon at Harvard University. The Rockefeller Foundation was its main supporter. Rosenblueth was quite familiar with the network because he worked with Cannon at Harvard for over ten years before returning to Mexico in the early 1940s. Izquierdo and Rosenblueth developed different strategies to face adverse conditions such as insufficient laboratory equipment, inadequate library resources, a small scientific community, and ephemeral political support. Both acquired local influence and international prestige, but the sources of financial and academic power remained in the United States. This case study provides insight into the circulation of scientific ideas and practices in an important Latin American country and suggests that the world's circulation of science among industrial and developing nations during the mid-twentieth century was intrinsically asymmetric but opened temporary opportunities for talented individuals and groups of researchers. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Characterization of Esophageal Physiology Using Mechanical State Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leibbrandt, Richard E; Dinning, Phil G; Costa, Marcello; Cock, Charles; Wiklendt, Lukasz; Wang, Guangsong; Tack, Jan; van Beckevoort, Dirk; Rommel, Nathalie; Omari, Taher I

    2016-01-01

    The esophagus functions to transport swallowed fluids and food from the pharynx to the stomach. The esophageal muscles governing bolus transport comprise circular striated muscle of the proximal esophagus and circular smooth muscle of the distal esophagus. Longitudinal smooth muscle contraction provides a mechanical advantage to bolus transit during circular smooth muscle contraction. Esophageal striated muscle is directly controlled by neural circuits originating in the central nervous system, resulting in coordinated contractions. In contrast, the esophageal smooth muscle is controlled by enteric circuits modulated by extrinsic central neural connections resulting in neural relaxation and contraction. The esophageal muscles are modulated by sensory information arising from within the lumen. Contraction or relaxation, which changes the diameter of the lumen, alters the intraluminal pressure and ultimately inhibits or promotes flow of content. This relationship that exists between the changes in diameter and concurrent changes in intraluminal pressure has been used previously to identify the "mechanical states" of the circular muscle; that is when the muscles are passively or actively, relaxing or contracting. Detecting these changes in the mechanical state of the muscle has been difficult and as the current interpretation of esophageal motility is based largely upon pressure measurement (manometry), subtle changes in the muscle function during peristalsis can be missed. We hypothesized that quantification of mechanical states of the esophageal circular muscles and the pressure-diameter properties that define them, would allow objective characterization of the mechanisms that govern esophageal peristalsis. To achieve this we analyzed barium swallows captured by simultaneous videofluoroscopy and pressure with impedance recording. From these data we demonstrated that intraluminal impedance measurements could be used to determine changes in the internal diameter of

  3. Identities of states in international organizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wessel, Ramses A.; Dekker, I.F.; Dekker, Ige F.

    2015-01-01

    In academic debates on the responsibility of international organizations and their member States the different identities of States play a crucial role. However, apart from the difficulty to clearly separate ‘State’ and ‘member State’ identities, it is even more complex to distinguish between the

  4. Characterization of esophageal physiology using mechanical state analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Eduard Leibbrandt

    2016-02-01

    internal diameter of the lumen comparable with measurements from videofluoroscopy. Our data indicated that identification of mechanical state of esophageal muscle was simple to apply and revealed patterns consistent with the known neural inputs activating the different muscles during swallowing.

  5. International student exchange and the medical curriculum: evaluation of a medical sciences translational physiology course in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Mariana; Jones, T David; Rocha, Maria Jose Alves; Fazan, Rubens; Chapleau, Mark W; Salgado, Helio C; Johnson, Alan Kim; Irigoyen, Maria Claudia; Michelini, Lisete C; Goldstein, David L

    2006-09-01

    The objective of the present study was to conduct a short-term international course on translational physiology for medical students from Wright State University and the University of Iowa. The goals were to 1) provide students with an exposure to the academic, cultural, and medical environments in Brazil; 2) promote awareness of the global medical community; and 3) provide an academic course focused on translational physiology. An evaluation of the students was conducted to determine whether such a short-term course might be useful in the medical curriculum. The 2-wk course was held in the summer of 2005 at the University of São Paulo School of Medicine in Ribeirão Preto, Brazil, for 23 American students. The program included presentations of basic and clinical topics, meetings with medical students, and clinical presentations. The program finished with student attendance at a scientific meeting sponsored by the Brazilian Society of Hypertension. Student surveys evaluated issues related to perceived treatment, Brazilian medical school environment, culture and personal attributes, and career aspirations. The international Medical Sciences Translational Physiology course for medical students provided a brief, but intense, experience. It gave students a picture of the medical environment in Brazil and an appreciation for the differences and similarities in cultures. Most students reported that it was a positive experience that would be beneficial to their careers. In conclusion, a short-term international course provides an efficient means for medical students to experience aspects of global medical science.

  6. Young Children's Reasoning about the Effects of Emotional and Physiological States on Academic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amsterlaw, Jennifer; Lagattuta, Kristin Hansen; Meltzoff, Andrew N.

    2009-01-01

    This study assessed young children's understanding of the effects of emotional and physiological states on cognitive performance. Five, 6-, 7-year-olds, and adults (N = 96) predicted and explained how children experiencing a variety of physiological and emotional states would perform on academic tasks. Scenarios included: (a) negative and positive…

  7. Physiological-Social Scores in Predicting Outcomes of Prehospital Internal Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbasali Ebrahimian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The physiological-social modified early warning score system is a newly developed instrument for the identification of patients at risk. The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of using the physiological-social modified early warning score system for the identification of patients that needed prehospital emergency care. This prospective cohort study was conducted with 2157 patients. This instrument was used as a measure to detect critical illness in patients hospitalised in internal wards. Judgment by an emergency medicine specialist was used as a measure of standard. Data were analyzed by using receiver operating characteristics curves and the area under the curve with 95% confidence interval. The mean score of the physiological-social modified early warning score system was 2.71 ± 3.55. Moreover, 97.6% patients with the score ≥ 4 needed prehospital emergency services. The area under receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.738 (95% CI = 0.708–0.767. Emergency medical staffs can use PMEWS ≥ 4 to identify those patients hospitalised in the internal ward as at risk patients. The physiological-social modified early warning score system is suggested to be used for decision-making of emergency staff about internal patients’ wards in EMS situations.

  8. Geo-Effective Heliophysical Variations and Human Physiological State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrova, S.

    2006-03-01

    A group of 86 volunteers was examined on each working day in autumn 2001 and in spring 2002. These periods were chosen because of maximal expected geomagnetic activity. There were 26 persons in the group on a drug treatment, mainly because of hypertension. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure and heart rate were registered. Pulse pressure was calculated. Data about subjective psycho-physiological complaints of the persons examined were also gathered. Altogether 2799 recordings were obtained and analyzed. MANOVA was employed to check the significance of the influence of three factors on the physiological parameters under consideration. The factors were as follows: 1) geomagnetic activity estimated by H-component of the local geomagnetic field and divided into five levels; 2) gender - males and females; 3) presence of medication. Post hoc analysis was performed to elicit the significance of differences in the factors' levels. The average arterial blood pressure, pulse pressure and the percentage of the persons in the group with subjective psycho-physiological complaints were found to increase significantly with the increase of geomagnetic activity. The maximal increment of systolic and diastolic blood pressure was 10-11% and for pulse pressure 13.6%. Analyses revealed that females and persons on a medication were more sensitive to the increase of geomagnetic activity than respectively males and persons with no medication.

  9. Effect of altitude on physiological performance: a statistical analysis using results of international football games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSharry, Patrick E

    2007-12-22

    To assess the effect of altitude on match results and physiological performance of a large and diverse population of professional athletes. Statistical analysis of international football (soccer) scores and results. FIFA extensive database of 1460 football matches in 10 countries spanning over 100 years. Altitude had a significant (Pnegative impact on physiological performance as revealed through the overall underperformance of low altitude teams when playing against high altitude teams in South America. High altitude teams score more and concede fewer goals with increasing altitude difference. Each additional 1000 m of altitude difference increases the goal difference by about half of a goal. The probability of the home team winning for two teams from the same altitude is 0.537, whereas this rises to 0.825 for a home team with an altitude difference of 3695 m (such as Bolivia v Brazil) and falls to 0.213 when the altitude difference is -3695 m (such as Brazil v Bolivia). Altitude provides a significant advantage for high altitude teams when playing international football games at both low and high altitudes. Lowland teams are unable to acclimatise to high altitude, reducing physiological performance. As physiological performance does not protect against the effect of altitude, better predictors of individual susceptibility to altitude illness would facilitate team selection.

  10. Conservation physiology of marine fishes: state of the art and prospects for policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McKenzie, David J.; Axelsson, Michael; Chabot, Denis

    2016-01-01

    The state of the art of research on the environmental physiology of marine fishes is reviewed from the perspective of how it can contribute to conservation of biodiversity and fishery resources. A major constraint to application of physiological knowledge for conservation of marine fishes is the ...

  11. International consensus and States non-Parties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kellman, B.

    1996-01-01

    It is significant to recognize the contribution that international law can make to the promotion of consensus for arms control. Issues surface with a constancy that demand consistent, codified responses. International law should be more powerful, especially in addressing non-members and non-complying states. Successful negotiation of a multilateral treaty is not an end but a means to establish a law enforcement system capable of promoting important global interests. Accordingly arms control should generate the development of authoritative legal doctrines and institutions that can meet the challenge

  12. Internalization of G-protein-coupled receptors: Implication in receptor function, physiology and diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calebiro, Davide; Godbole, Amod

    2018-04-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are the largest family of membrane receptors and mediate the effects of numerous hormones and neurotransmitters. The nearly 1000 GPCRs encoded by the human genome regulate virtually all physiological functions and are implicated in the pathogenesis of prevalent human diseases such as thyroid disorders, hypertension or Parkinson's disease. As a result, 30-50% of all currently prescribed drugs are targeting these receptors. Once activated, GPCRs induce signals at the cell surface. This is often followed by internalization, a process that results in the transfer of receptors from the plasma membrane to membranes of the endosomal compartment. Internalization was initially thought to be mainly implicated in signal desensitization, a mechanism of adaptation to prolonged receptor stimulation. However, several unexpected functions have subsequently emerged. Most notably, accumulating evidence indicates that internalization can induce prolonged receptor signaling on intracellular membranes, which is apparently required for at least some biological effects of hormones like TSH, LH and adrenaline. These findings reveal an even stronger connection between receptor internalization and signaling than previously thought. Whereas new studies are just beginning to reveal an important physiological role for GPCR signaling after internalization and ways to exploit it for therapeutic purposes, future investigations will be required to explore its involvement in human disease. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Physiologic Responses to Motorized and Non-Motorized Locomotion Utilizing the International Space Station Treadmill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Cassie; Lee, Stuart MC; Laughlin, Mitzi; Loehr, James; Norcross, Jason; DeWitt, John; Hagan, R. D.

    2006-01-01

    Treadmill locomotion is used onboard the International Space Station (ISS) as a countermeasure to the effects of prolonged weightlessness. The treadmill operates in two modes: motorized (T-M) and non-motorized (T-NM). Little is known about the potential physiologic differences between modes which may affect countermeasure exercise prescription. PURPOSE: To quantify heart rate (HR), oxygen consumption (VO2), perceived exertion (RPE), and blood lactate (BLa) during T-M and T-NM locomotion at 2 and 4 mph in normal ambulatory subjects. METHODS: Twenty subjects (10 men, 10 women; 31+/-5 yr, 172+/-10 cm, 68+/-13 kg, mean SD) with a treadmill peakVO2 of 45.5+/-5.4 ml/kg/min (mean+/-SD) exercised on the ground-based ISS treadmill. Following a familiarization session in each mode, subjects completed two data collection sessions, T-M and T-NM in random order, at 2 and 4 mph. Subjects attempted to complete 5 min of exercise at each speed; if they could not maintain the speed, the trial was discontinued. At least 5 minutes of rest separated each speed trial, and at least 48 hrs separated each session. VO2 was measured continuously (metabolic gas analysis), while HR (HR monitor) and RPE (Borg Chart, 6-20 scale) were recorded each min. Not all subjects completed 5 min during each condition, therefore the mean of the min 3 and 4 was taken as representative of steady-state. BLa was measured (finger stick) within 2 min post-exercise. Paired t-tests were used to test for differences (p<0.05) between treadmill modes within the same speed. RESULTS: All twenty subjects completed at least 4 min of exercise during all conditions, except T-NM 4 mph when only 11 subjects completed the minimum exercise duration. VO2, HR, RPE and BLa were significantly higher during T-NM locomotion at both speeds.

  14. Innate immune system still works at diapause, a physiological state of dormancy in insects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Akihiro; Miyado, Kenji; Takezawa, Youki; Ohnami, Naoko; Sato, Masahiro; Ono, Chihiro; Harada, Yuichirou; Yoshida, Keiichi; Kawano, Natsuko; Kanai, Seiya; Miyado, Mami; Umezawa, Akihiro

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Two major types of cells are present in the body fluid isolated from the thoracic region of a diapausing pupa. → Phagocytosis and encapsulation by these cells were observed when latex beads as foreign targets were microinjected into a pupa. → Such behavior by these cells was still observed even when pupae were continuously chilled at 4 o C. → Innate cellular reactions can work in diapausing insects in a dormant state. -- Abstract: Diapause is most often observed in insects and is a physiologically dormant state different from other types of dormancy, such as hibernation. It allows insects to survive in harsh environments or extend longevity. In general, larval, pupal, or adult non-diapausing insects possess an innate immune system preventing the invasion of microorganisms into their bodies; however, it is unclear whether this system works under the dormant condition of diapause. We here report the occurrence of innate cellular reactions during diapause using pupae of a giant silkmoth, Samia cynthia pryeri. Scanning electron microscopic analysis demonstrated the presence of two major types of cells in the body fluid isolated from the thoracic region of a pupa. Phagocytosis and encapsulation, characteristics of innate cellular reactions, by these cells were observed when latex beads as foreign targets were microinjected into the internal portion of a pupa. Such behavior by these cells was still observed even when pupae were continuously chilled at 4 o C. Our results indicate that innate cellular reactions can work in diapausing insects in a dormant state.

  15. Innate immune system still works at diapause, a physiological state of dormancy in insects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, Akihiro [Department of Reproductive Biology, National Center for Child Health and Development, 2-10-1 Okura, Setagaya, Tokyo 157-8535 (Japan); Miyado, Kenji, E-mail: kmiyado@nch.go.jp [Department of Reproductive Biology, National Center for Child Health and Development, 2-10-1 Okura, Setagaya, Tokyo 157-8535 (Japan); Takezawa, Youki; Ohnami, Naoko [Department of Reproductive Biology, National Center for Child Health and Development, 2-10-1 Okura, Setagaya, Tokyo 157-8535 (Japan); Sato, Masahiro [Section of Gene Expression Regulation, Frontier Science Research Center, Kagoshima University, 1-21-20 Korimoto, Kagoshima 890-0065 (Japan); Ono, Chihiro; Harada, Yuichirou; Yoshida, Keiichi; Kawano, Natsuko; Kanai, Seiya; Miyado, Mami; Umezawa, Akihiro [Department of Reproductive Biology, National Center for Child Health and Development, 2-10-1 Okura, Setagaya, Tokyo 157-8535 (Japan)

    2011-07-01

    Highlights: {yields} Two major types of cells are present in the body fluid isolated from the thoracic region of a diapausing pupa. {yields} Phagocytosis and encapsulation by these cells were observed when latex beads as foreign targets were microinjected into a pupa. {yields} Such behavior by these cells was still observed even when pupae were continuously chilled at 4 {sup o}C. {yields} Innate cellular reactions can work in diapausing insects in a dormant state. -- Abstract: Diapause is most often observed in insects and is a physiologically dormant state different from other types of dormancy, such as hibernation. It allows insects to survive in harsh environments or extend longevity. In general, larval, pupal, or adult non-diapausing insects possess an innate immune system preventing the invasion of microorganisms into their bodies; however, it is unclear whether this system works under the dormant condition of diapause. We here report the occurrence of innate cellular reactions during diapause using pupae of a giant silkmoth, Samia cynthia pryeri. Scanning electron microscopic analysis demonstrated the presence of two major types of cells in the body fluid isolated from the thoracic region of a pupa. Phagocytosis and encapsulation, characteristics of innate cellular reactions, by these cells were observed when latex beads as foreign targets were microinjected into the internal portion of a pupa. Such behavior by these cells was still observed even when pupae were continuously chilled at 4 {sup o}C. Our results indicate that innate cellular reactions can work in diapausing insects in a dormant state.

  16. Brief Report: Evidence for Normative Resting-State Physiology in Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuske, Heather J.; Vivanti, Giacomo; Dissanayake, Cheryl

    2014-01-01

    Although the conception of autism as a disorder of abnormal resting-state physiology has a long history, the evidence remains mixed. Using state-of-the-art eye-tracking pupillometry, resting-state (tonic) pupil size was measured in children with and without autism. No group differences in tonic pupil size were found, and tonic pupil size was not…

  17. Use of the International Space Station as an Exercise Physiology Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploutz-Snyder, Lori

    2013-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is now in its prime utilization phase with great opportunity to use the ISS as a lab. With respect to exercise physiology there is considerable research opportunity. Crew members exercise for up to 2 hours per day using a cycle ergometer, treadmill, and advanced resistive exercise device (ARED). There are several ongoing exercise research studies by NASA, ESA and CSA. These include studies related to evaluation of new exercise prescriptions (SPRINT), evaluation of aerobic capacity (VO2max), biomechanics (Treadmill Kinematics), energy expenditure during spaceflight (Energy), evaluation of cartilage (Cartilage), and evaluation of cardiovascular health (Vascular). Examples of how ISS is used for exercise physiology research will be presented.

  18. Motivational systems or motivational states : Behavioural and physiological evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koolhaas, J.M.; de Boer, S.F.; Bohus, B.G J

    This paper will critically discuss the available behavioural and neurobiological evidence for the existence of motivational systems and motivational states on the basis of our studies on aggressive behaviour in male rats and mice. Three types of evidence will be discussed. First, some behavioural

  19. The unitary space of particle internal states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perjes, Z.

    1978-09-01

    A relativistic theory of particle internal properties has been developed. Suppressing space-time information, internal wave functions and -observables are constructed in a 3-complex-dimensional space. The quantum numbers of a spinning point particle in this unitary space correspond with those of a low-mass hadron. Unitary space physics is linked with space-time notions via the Penrose theory of twistors, where new flavors may be represented by many-twistor systems. It is shown here that a four-twistor particle fits into the unitary space picture as a system of two points with equal masses and oppositely pointing unitary spins. Quantum states fall into the ISU(3) irreducible representations discovered by Sparling and the author. Full details of the computation involving SU(3) recoupling techniques are given. (author)

  20. Conservation physiology of marine fishes: state of the art and prospects for policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McKenzie, David J.; Axelsson, Michael; Chabot, Denis

    2016-01-01

    The state of the art of research on the environmental physiology of marine fishes is reviewed from the perspective of how it can contribute to conservation of biodiversity and fishery resources. A major constraint to application of physiological knowledge for conservation of marine fishes...... broad applications for conservation physiology research if it provides a universal mechanism to link physiological function with ecological performance and population dynamics of fishes, through effects of abiotic conditions on aerobic metabolic scope. The available data indicate, however......, that the paradigm is not universal, so further research is required on a wide diversity of species. Fish physiologists should interact closely with researchers developing ecological models, in order to investigate how integrating physiological information improves confidence in projecting effects of global change...

  1. A survey of the health experiences of international business travelers. Part One--Physiological aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, H Lynn; Reilly, Sandra M

    2002-10-01

    Occupational health professionals need to know more about the health, worklife, and family life of international business travelers (IBTs). This descriptive correlational study, in two parts, examines the physiological and psychosocial experiences associated with business travel for a sample of 140 employees from western Canada's oil and gas industry. Results for Part One show that 76% of IBTs report travel related health problems, 74% have jet lag, 45% have travelers' diarrhea and gastrointestinal complaints, 12% to 16% have climate adaptation problems, and 2% report accidents and minor injuries. High risk behaviors include not carrying a first aid travel kit (54%); drinking more alcohol than ordinarily (21%); and neglecting food, water, and antimalarial precautions (6% to 14%). Other risk factors include age, length of stay, destination, pre-travel medical examinations, pre-travel advice, and eating and accommodation facilities. Findings show that IBTs are at risk for travel related physiological health problems. Implications for practitioners call for increased occupational health expertise in pre-travel preparation, follow up post-travel and regular health surveillance for employees who travel on international business.

  2. Pre-performance Physiological State: Heart Rate Variability as a Predictor of Shooting Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, E; Wang, C J K

    2018-03-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV) is commonly used in sport science for monitoring the physiology of athletes but not as an indicator of physiological state from a psychological perspective. Since HRV is established to be an indicator of emotional responding, it could be an objective means of quantifying an athlete's subjective physiological state before competition. A total of 61 sport shooters participated in this study, of which 21 were novice shooters, 19 were intermediate shooters, and 21 were advanced level shooters. HRV, self-efficacy, and use of mental skills were assessed before they completed a standard shooting performance task of 40 shots, as in a competition qualifying round. The results showed that HRV was significantly positively correlated with self-efficacy and performance and was a significant predictor of shooting performance. In addition, advanced shooters were found to have significantly lower average heart rate before shooting and used more self-talk, relaxation, imagery, and automaticity compared to novice and intermediate shooters. HRV was found to be useful in identifying the physiological state of an athlete before competing, and as such, coaches and athletes can adopt practical strategies to improve the pre-performance physiological state as a means to optimize performance.

  3. Physiological regulation through learnt control of appetites by contingencies among signals from external and internal environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, David A

    2008-11-01

    As reviewed by [Cooper, S. J. (2008). From Claude Bernard to Walter Cannon: emergence of the concept of homeostasis. Appetite 51, 419-27.] Claude Bernard's idea of stabilisation of bodily states, as realised in Walter B. Cannon's conception of homeostasis, took mathematical form during the 1940s in the principle that externally originating disturbance of a physiological parameter can feed an informative signal around the brain to trigger counteractive processes--a corrective mechanism known as negative feedback, in practice reliant on feedforward. Three decades later, enough was known of the physiology and psychology of eating and drinking for calculations to show how experimentally demonstrated mechanisms of feedforward that had been learnt from negative feedback combine to regulate exchanges of water and energy between the body and the surroundings. Subsequent systemic physiology, molecular neuroscience and experimental psychology, however, have been traduced by a misconception that learnt controls of intake are 'non-homeostatic', the myth of biological 'set points' and an historic failure to address evidence for the ingestion-adapting information-processing mechanisms on which an operationally integrative theory of eating and drinking relies.

  4. Smart sensor: a platform for an interactive human physiological state recognition study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Gorochovik

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a concept of making interactive human state recognition systems based on smart sensor design. The token measures on proper ADC signal processing had significantly lowered the interference level. A more reliable way of measuring human skin temperature was offered by using Maxim DS18B20 digital thermometers. They introduced a more sensible response to temperature changes compared to previously used analog LM35 thermometers. An adaptive HR measuring algorithm was introduced to suppress incorrect ECG signal readings caused by human muscular activities. User friendly interactive interface for touch sensitive GLCD screen was developed to present real time physiological data readings both in numerals and graphics. User was granted an ability to dynamically customize data processing methods according to his needs. Specific procedures were developed to simplify physiological state recording for further analysis. The introduced physiological data sampling and preprocessing platform was optimized to be compatible with “ATmega Oscilloscope” PC data collecting and visualizing software.

  5. Effect of diet anil physiological state on recycling of urea in Merino ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The recycling of urea to the rumen was studied in Merino ewes during different physiological states using radioactive tracers. The results showed that although the proportion of urea recycled differed, similar amounts were recycled in dry and pregnant sheep over a wide range of N intake. Urea recycling increased ...

  6. Convincing State-Builders? Disaggregating Internal Legitimacy in Abkhazia

    OpenAIRE

    Bakke, K. M.; O Loughlin, J.; Toal, G.; Ward, M. D.

    2013-01-01

    De facto states, functional on the ground but unrecognized by most states, have long been black boxes for systematic empirical research. This study investigates de facto states’ internal legitimacy—people's confidence in the entity itself, the regime, and institutions. While internal legitimacy is important for any state, it is particularly important for de facto states, whose lack of external legitimacy has made internal legitimacy integral to their quest for recognition. We propose that the...

  7. International Boundary United States Mexico Minute 315

    Data.gov (United States)

    International Boundary & Water Commission — This dataset was created to provide resource managers, public officials, researchers, and the general public with ready access to the location of the international...

  8. States' criminal jurisdiction under International Law: fostering a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Over the past few years, the extent to which international law allows States to exercise their jurisdiction in criminal matters has been a subject of diplomatic tensions between States. The purpose of this paper is to shed some light, on the question as to what extent a State, powerful or weak, has a right under international law ...

  9. On-line estimation of physiological states for monitoring and control of bioprocesses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velislava N Lyubenova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An approach for monitoring of main physiological states of a class processes is proposed. This class is characterized by production and consumption of intermediate metabolite related to target product. The balance between these two phenomena is considered as key parameter for recognizing the process physiological states. A general structure of cascade software sensor of the key parameter is derived and applied for process monitoring and control. Two type processes are considered as case study. The first one is mono culture for simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of starch to ethanol by Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the second one is mixed culture for biopolymer production by L. delbrulckii and R. Eutropha. The good properties of the proposed monitoring and control schemes are demonstrated by simulation investigations.

  10. The Obligations of States towards Refugees under International Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skordas, Achilles

    The main purpose of the current study is to discuss the obligations of States towards refugees under international law, and to argue that States have obligations towards refugees regardless of the ratification of the Geneva Convention....

  11. Prolactin effect on the insulin content of albino rats in different physiological states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Megahed, Y.M.; Abdel-Wahab, M.F.; El-Mougi, S.M.; El-Sayed, F.B.; Kuwait Univ.)

    1980-01-01

    The metabolic action of prolactin on insulin levels in plasma and pancreas has been studied. Prolactin was injected in a single dose or single daily doses on 4 successive days into albino rats in six different physiological states. Insulin was determined by radioimmunoassay using 125 I insulin. From the results it is concluded that prolactin injected i.p. influences the output of insulin and stimulates the pancreas to secrete insulin into the plasma. (author)

  12. From Physiological data to Emotional States: Conducting a User Study and Comparing Machine Learning Classifiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mehmood KHAN

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Recognizing emotional states is becoming a major part of a user's context for wearable computing applications. The system should be able to acquire a user's emotional states by using physiological sensors. We want to develop a personal emotional states recognition system that is practical, reliable, and can be used for health-care related applications. We propose to use the eHealth platform 1 which is a ready-made, light weight, small and easy to use device for recognizing a few emotional states like ‘Sad’, ‘Dislike’, ‘Joy’, ‘Stress’, ‘Normal’, ‘No-Idea’, ‘Positive’ and ‘Negative’ using decision tree (J48 and k-Nearest Neighbors (IBK classifiers. In this paper, we present an approach to build a system that exhibits this property and provides evidence based on data for 8 different emotional states collected from 24 different subjects. Our results indicate that the system has an accuracy rate of approximately 98 %. In our work, we used four physiological sensors i.e. ‘Blood Volume Pulse’ (BVP, ‘Electromyogram’ (EMG, ‘Galvanic Skin Response’ (GSR, and ‘Skin Temperature’ in order to recognize emotional states (i.e. Stress, Joy/Happy, Sad, Normal/Neutral, Dislike, No-idea, Positive and Negative.

  13. [The physiological classification of human thermal states under high environmental temperatures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobrov, A F; Kuznets, E I

    1995-01-01

    The paper deals with the physiological classification of human thermal states in a hot environment. A review of the basic systems of classifications of thermal states is given, their main drawbacks are discussed. On the basis of human functional state research in a broad range of environmental temperatures the system of evaluation and classification of human thermal states is proposed. New integral one-dimensional multi-parametric criteria for evaluation are used. For the development of these criteria methods of factor, cluster and canonical correlation analyses are applied. Stochastic nomograms capable of identification of human thermal state for different intensity of influence are given. In this case evaluation of intensity is estimated according to one-dimensional criteria taking into account environmental temperature, physical load and time of man's staying in overheating conditions.

  14. International medical cooperation project for State of Libya using international medical tourism system in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    奥寺, 敬; 坂本, 美重

    2013-01-01

    International medical cooperation project for State of Libya is reported. The concept of this project is to treat Libyan injured people using international medical tourism system in Thailand. Management of patient, including evaluation, domestic and international transportation arrangement of hospital, is supported by Normeca International Co., Ltd, (Pattaya, Thailand). Treatment of Libyan patient in two international hospitals (Bangpakok 9 Hospital and Navamin 9 Hopsital) in Bangkok was succ...

  15. Jurisdiction in international law : United States and European perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Ryngaert, Cedric

    2007-01-01

    This study starts with a quote by Professor Meessen: “The function of scholars of international law offers less opportunity for creative thinking [compared to scholars of conflict of laws]: they may compile and analyze state practice, but they cannot replace it with their own concepts.”[1] This study, which primarily looks at the phenomenon of jurisdiction through a (public) international law lens, rejects that limiting claim. While the current state of the international law of jurisdiction ...

  16. Misconceptions Highlighted among Medical Students in the Annual International Intermedical School Physiology Quiz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hwee-Ming; Durairajanayagam, Damayanthi

    2012-01-01

    The annual Intermedical School Physiology Quiz (IMSPQ), initiated in 2003, is now an event that attracts a unique, large gathering of selected medical students from medical schools across the globe. The 8th IMSPQ, in 2010, hosted by the Department of Physiology, University of Malaya, in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, had 200 students representing 41…

  17. Physiological responses to incremental exercise in the heat following internal and external precooling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, C A; Richardson, A J; Watt, P W; Gibson, O R; Maxwell, N S

    2015-06-01

    Twelve males completed three incremental, discontinuous treadmill tests in the heat [31.9(1.0) °C, 61.9(8.9)%] to determine speed at two fixed blood lactate concentrations (2 and 3.5 mmol/L), running economy (RE), and maximum oxygen uptake ( V ˙ O 2 m a x ). Trials involved 20 min of either internal cooling (ICE, 7.5 g/kg ice slurry ingestion) or mixed-methods external cooling (EXT, cold towels, forearm immersion, ice vest, and cooling shorts), alongside no intervention (CON). Following precooling, participants ran 0.3 km/h faster at 2 mmol/L and 0.2 km/h faster at 3.5 mmol/L (P = 0.04, partial η(2)  = 0.27). Statistical differences were observed vs CON for ICE (P = 0.03, d = 0.15), but not EXT (P = 0.12, d = 0.15). There was no effect of cooling on RE (P = 0.81, partial η(2)  = 0.02), nor on V ˙ O 2 m a x (P = 0.69, partial η(2)  = 0.04). An effect for cooling on physiological strain index was observed (P cooling groups (P cooling. Precooling appears to reduce blood lactate accumulation and reduce thermoregulatory and perceptual strain during incremental exercise. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. A system to analyze the complex physiological states of coal solubilizing fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoelker, U.; Moenkemann, H.; Hoefer, M. [Universitaet Bonn, Bonn (Germany). Botanisches Institut

    1997-11-01

    The mechanism by which some microorganisms solubilize brown coal is still unknown. The paper discusses the deuteromycetes Fusarium oxysporum and Trichoderma atroviride as a suitable test system to analyse the complex fungal physiology relating to coal solubilization. The two fungi can occur in two different growth substrate-controlled physiological states: a coal-solubilizing one, when cells are grown on glutamate or gluconate as substrate and a non-solubilizing one, when grown on carbohydrates. When grown on carbohydrates, F.oxysporum produces the pigment bikaverein. Purified bikaverein inhibits also coal solubilization by T. atroviride. The ability to solubilize coal is constitutive in F. oxysporum, while in T. atroviride, it has to be induced. 10 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. International strategies in fragile states : expanding the toolbox?

    OpenAIRE

    Klotzle, Kurt

    2006-01-01

    "In recent years, international actors have taken significant strides in attempting to develop strategies and instruments that effectively address the problem of weak and failing states. On the one hand, the intensified focus on state failure has to do with general, fundamental shifts in the international security environment since the end of the Cold War. On the other hand, however, the sharpened concern with fragile states arises from the specific challenges, experiences, and interests of k...

  20. Toward the Computational Representation of Individual Cultural, Cognitive, and Physiological State: The Sensor Shooter Simulation; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RAYBOURN, ELAINE M.; FORSYTHE, JAMES C.

    2001-01-01

    This report documents an exploratory FY 00 LDRD project that sought to demonstrate the first steps toward a realistic computational representation of the variability encountered in individual human behavior. Realism, as conceptualized in this project, required that the human representation address the underlying psychological, cultural, physiological, and environmental stressors. The present report outlines the researchers' approach to representing cognitive, cultural, and physiological variability of an individual in an ambiguous situation while faced with a high-consequence decision that would greatly impact subsequent events. The present project was framed around a sensor-shooter scenario as a soldier interacts with an unexpected target (two young Iraqi girls). A software model of the ''Sensor Shooter'' scenario from Desert Storm was developed in which the framework consisted of a computational instantiation of Recognition Primed Decision Making in the context of a Naturalistic Decision Making model[1]. Recognition Primed Decision Making was augmented with an underlying foundation based on our current understanding of human neurophysiology and its relationship to human cognitive processes. While the Gulf War scenario that constitutes the framework for the Sensor Shooter prototype is highly specific, the human decision architecture and the subsequent simulation are applicable to other problems similar in concept, intensity, and degree of uncertainty. The goal was to provide initial steps toward a computational representation of human variability in cultural, cognitive, and physiological state in order to attain a better understanding of the full depth of human decision-making processes in the context of ambiguity, novelty, and heightened arousal

  1. The Effect of Density and Floor Types on Performance, Physiological State and Immune Response of Broilers

    OpenAIRE

    Sunarti, D; Haryono, H; Soedarsono, S

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to study the effect of density and floor types on performance,physiological state and immune response of broilers. The research involved 368 male broilers of theNew Lohman strain aged 8 days which were raised up to 35 days at different densities and floor types.Floor types consisted of rice hull litter and bamboo slat were used as the main plot; while densities of 7,10, 13 and 16 birds/m2 applied as the sub-plot. The results showed that the final body weight g...

  2. The degenerate-internal-states approximation for cold collisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maan, A.C.; Tiesinga, E.; Stoof, H.T.C.; Verhaar, B.J.

    1990-01-01

    The Degenerate-Internal-States approximation as well as its first-order correction are shown to provide a convenient method for calculating elastic and inelastic collision amplitudes for low temperature atomic scattering.

  3. Needs Assessment of International Students at Eastern Oregon State College.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eid, Mamoud Taha; Jordan-Domschot, Theresa

    The purpose of the research project was to assess the needs, satisfaction, and concerns of international students attending Eastern Oregon State College. The international student population consisted of students from Micronesia, Netherlands, Somalia, Saudi Arabia, Jordan, Iran, Japan, Thailand, Zimbabwe, Belgium, Canada, Nigeria, China,…

  4. International survey on solid state nuclear track detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azimi-Garakani, D.; Wernli, C.

    1992-04-01

    The results of the 1990 international survey on solid state nuclear track detection are presented. The survey was performed in collaboration with the International Nuclear Track Society (INTS). These results include the data on principal investigator(s), collaborator(s), institution, field of application(s), material(s), and method(s) of track observation from 28 countries. (author)

  5. Resting state functional connectivity: its physiological basis and application in neuropharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hanbing; Stein, Elliot A

    2014-09-01

    Brain structures do not work in isolation; they work in concert to produce sensory perception, motivation and behavior. Systems-level network activity can be investigated by resting state magnetic resonance imaging (rsMRI), an emerging neuroimaging technique that assesses the synchrony of the brain's ongoing spontaneous activity. Converging evidence reveals that rsMRI is able to consistently identify distinct spatiotemporal patterns of large-scale brain networks. Dysregulation within and between these networks has been implicated in a number of neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric disorders, including Alzheimer's disease and drug addiction. Despite wide application of this approach in systems neuroscience, the physiological basis of these fluctuations remains incompletely understood. Here we review physiological studies in electrical, metabolic and hemodynamic fluctuations that are most pertinent to the rsMRI signal. We also review recent applications to neuropharmacology - specifically drug effects on resting state fluctuations. We speculate that the mechanisms governing spontaneous fluctuations in regional oxygenation availability likely give rise to the observed rsMRI signal. We conclude by identifying several open questions surrounding this technique. This article is part of the Special Issue Section entitled 'Neuroimaging in Neuropharmacology'. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. [State of internal communication in primary care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballvé Moreno, José Luis; Pujol Ribó, Gloria; Romaguera Lliso, Amparo; Bonet Esteve, Anna; Rafecas Ruiz, Montserrat; Zarza Carretero, Elvira

    2008-08-01

    To study internal communication between primary care health professionals Cross-sectional, descriptive. Catalan Health Institute Costa de Ponent Primary Care Area, Spain. All workers in the area (n=3565). Three part questionnaire: a) sociodemographic questions; b) questions scoring from 0 to 10 the current importance and operation of certain aspects; and c) questions on new communication tools. Of those sent a questionnaire, 39% (n=1388) responded, with a mean age of 43.2 years (95% CI, 42.75- 43.65), 28.9% being male. The major differences between importance and current events were said to be "to be informed of projects before they appear in the communication media," "by official routes and not by rumour," and "to be aware of projects of other teams." The least communicated within teams. The doctors considered upward communication to be more important. Doctors are those who appreciate communication within teams better and the professionals of the users services unit (UAU) less so. Doctors are the ones who give more importance to being informed of projects at the time. 55% do not use the intranet, mainly due to lack of time. The second reason is that they find it difficult. Sixty-two per cent read e-mail >2-3 times per week. Eighty-nine per cent want an electronic bulletin. The older workers use new technologies less. Downward, upward, and sideways communication needs to be improved, particularly upwards by doctors, and that of the teams for the UAU professionals. Intranet tools must be provided that make the work easier and training in handling new technologies must be offered.

  7. The Second International Workshop on Squeezed States and Uncertainty Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, D. (Editor); Kim, Y. S.; Manko, V. I.

    1993-01-01

    This conference publication contains the proceedings of the Second International Workshop on Squeezed States and Uncertainty Relations held in Moscow, Russia, on 25-29 May 1992. The purpose of this workshop was to study possible applications of squeezed states of light. The Workshop brought together many active researchers in squeezed states of light and those who may find the concept of squeezed states useful in their research, particularly in understanding the uncertainty relations. It was found at this workshop that the squeezed state has a much broader implication than the two-photon coherent states in quantum optics, since the squeeze transformation is one of the most fundamental transformations in physics.

  8. Pulse Packet Stochastic Model for Gastric Emptying in the Fasted State: A Physiological Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talattof, Arjang; Amidon, Gordon L

    2018-03-05

    Fasted-state gastrointestinal (GI) fluid transit is typically represented as a first-order, deterministic process (averaged and viewed as a continuous approximation). It is, however, most likely a discrete process involving fluid packets interrupted by variable time periods of little to no fluid emptying. In this report we present a physiologically based pulsed-packet gastric fluid emptying model and evaluate it with respect to recent gastrointestinal fluid volume emptying results, published gastric emptying of various dosage forms, and gastric fluid emptying as a function of GI motility. We develop the mathematical model for gastric emptying of discrete volumes emptied during intermittent pulse times of variable lengths, defined as a function of gastric motility utilizing a Poisson point process with motility-dependent intensity. We compare the simulations with observed gastric emptying results. The discrete pulse-packet gastric volumetric emptying model is a more physiologically realistic mathematical model for gastric emptying and it accounts well for the average observed emptying rates and, importantly, encompasses the variability of of observed volume and dosage form emptying rates.

  9. Preschoolers’ Genetic, Physiological, and Behavioral Sensitivity Factors Moderate Links Between Parenting Stress and Child Internalizing, Externalizing, and Sleep Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Molly; Thomassin, Kristel; Bilms, Joanie; Suveg, Cynthia; Shaffer, Anne; Beach, Steven R. H.

    2017-01-01

    This study examined three potential moderators of the relations between maternal parenting stress and preschoolers’ adjustment problems: a genetic polymorphism - the short allele of the serotonin transporter (5-HTTLPR, ss/sl allele) gene, a physiological indicator - children’s baseline respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), and a behavioral indicator - mothers’ reports of children’s negative emotionality. A total of 108 mothers (Mage = 30.68 years, SDage = 6.06) reported on their parenting stress as well as their preschoolers’ (Mage = 3.50 years, SDage = .51, 61% boys) negative emotionality and internalizing, externalizing, and sleep problems. Results indicated that the genetic sensitivity variable functioned according to a differential susceptibility model; however, the results involving physiological and behavioral sensitivity factors were most consistent with a diathesis-stress framework. Implications for prevention and intervention efforts to counter the effects of parenting stress are discussed. PMID:28295263

  10. The state of internal audit’s regulatory mandate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christo Ackermann

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The importance of an effective internal audit function in South African municipalities have been recognised insofar as internal audit functions are legally mandated to exist within municipalities. This also means that legally, internal audit has certain mandates which must be fulfilled in order to add value to management and audit committees, and ultimately, to the board of directors. Even though internal audit is sanctioned by this important legal mandate, evidence shows that internal audit does not always fulfil this mandate. This state of affairs has prompted a detailed review of the relevant laws and regulations governing the work of internal audit in South African municipalities in order to determine the extent to which key stakeholders find the regulatory work of internal audit useful in discharging their (stakeholders’ oversight responsibilities. Questionnaires were administered to audit committees. The results summarise the extent to which internal audit’s work assists audit committees in their oversight responsibilities as this ultimately affects the ability of audit committees to fulfil these responsibilities to the board of directors. The results indicate that audit committees are greatly dependent on internal audit as a provider of assurance on a variety of legally mandated variables. The results of this study can be used as a measure of best practice of the legally mandated duties performed by internal audit. It can also be used by other researchers in comparative studies and by practitioners to benchmark their work in order to better serve audit committees and ultimately, the board of directors

  11. [Effect of mechanical grinding of Sphagnum on the structure and physiological state of bacterial communities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrovol'skaya, T G; Golovchenko, A V; Yakushev, A V; Manucharova, N A; Yurchenko, E N

    2014-01-01

    The microcosm method was used to demonstrate an increase in bacterial numbers and drastic changes in the taxonomic structure of saprotrophic bacteria as a result of mechanical grinding of Sphagnum moss. Ekkrisotrophic agrobacteria predominant in untreated moss were replaced by hydrolytic bacteria. Molecular biological approaches revealed such specific hydrolytic bacteria as Janthinobacterium agaricum and Streptomyces purpurascens among the dominant taxa. The application of kinetic technique for determination of the physiological state of bacteria in situ revealed higher functional diversity of hydrolytic bacteria in ground moss than in untreated samples. A considerable decrease of the C/N ratio in ground samples of living Sphagnum incubated using the microcosm technique indicated decomposition of this substrate.

  12. State of the interface between conservation and physiology: a bibliometric analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennox, Robert; Cooke, Steven J.

    2014-01-01

    Contemporary conservation science benefits from the perspectives of a variety of different disciplines, including a recent synergy with physiology, an interface known as ‘conservation physiology’. To evaluate the degree of interaction between conservation and animal/plant physiology, we conducted three bibliometric analyses. We first pursued the use of the term ‘conservation physiology’ since its first definition in 2006 to determine how frequently it has been used and in which publications. Secondly, we evaluated the occurrence of conservation terms in animal and plant physiology journals, physiological terms in conservation journals, and a combination of terms in ecology journals. Thirdly, we explored trends in a subset of conservation physiology articles published between 2006 and 2012. We identified a surge in the use of the term ‘conservation physiology’ in 2012, after only a slow increase in usage between 2006 and 2011. Conservation journals tend to have been significantly more active in publishing conservation physiology than animal physiology, plant physiology or ecology journals. However, we found evidence that ecology and animal physiology journals began to incorporate more conservation physiology after 2006, while conservation- and plant physiology-themed journals did not. Among 299 conservation physiology articles that we identified, vertebrate taxa have been over-represented in conservation physiology compared with their relative taxonomic abundance, invertebrate taxa have been under-represented, and plants have been represented in proportion to their relative taxonomic abundance; however, those findings are reasonably consistent with publication trends in conservation biology. Diffuse distribution of conservation physiology papers throughout the literature may have been a barrier to the growth of the subdiscipline when the interface was emerging. The introduction of the focused journal Conservation Physiology in 2013 may address that

  13. International thermodynamic tables of the fluid state propylene (propene)

    CERN Document Server

    Angus, S; De Reuck, K M

    2013-01-01

    International Thermodynamic Tables of the Fluid State - 7 Propylene (Propene) is a compilation of internationally agreed values of the equilibrium thermodynamic properties of propylene. This book is composed of three chapters, and begins with the presentation of experimental result of thermodynamic studies compared with the equations used to generate the tables. The succeeding chapter deals with correlating equations for thermodynamic property determination of propylene. The last chapter provides the tabulations of the propylene's thermodynamic properties and constants. This book will prove

  14. The content of lexical stimuli and self-reported physiological state modulate error-related negativity amplitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benau, Erik M; Moelter, Stephen T

    2016-09-01

    The Error-Related Negativity (ERN) and Correct-Response Negativity (CRN) are brief event-related potential (ERP) components-elicited after the commission of a response-associated with motivation, emotion, and affect. The Error Positivity (Pe) typically appears after the ERN, and corresponds to awareness of having committed an error. Although motivation has long been established as an important factor in the expression and morphology of the ERN, physiological state has rarely been explored as a variable in these investigations. In the present study, we investigated whether self-reported physiological state (SRPS; wakefulness, hunger, or thirst) corresponds with ERN amplitude and type of lexical stimuli. Participants completed a SRPS questionnaire and then completed a speeded Lexical Decision Task with words and pseudowords that were either food-related or neutral. Though similar in frequency and length, food-related stimuli elicited increased accuracy, faster errors, and generated a larger ERN and smaller CRN than neutral words. Self-reported thirst correlated with improved accuracy and smaller ERN and CRN amplitudes. The Pe and Pc (correct positivity) were not impacted by physiological state or by stimulus content. The results indicate that physiological state and manipulations of lexical content may serve as important avenues for future research. Future studies that apply more sensitive measures of physiological and motivational state (e.g., biomarkers for satiety) or direct manipulations of satiety may be a useful technique for future research into response monitoring. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Rogue States as the Stigmatized Members of International Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gleb V. Kotsur

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available At the turn of the century, the rogue state concept has become an integral part of the theory of international relations. However, even contemporary approaches lack the appropriate academic tools to reach a comprehensive understanding of the international community’s role in determining the normative frameworks of the proper behavior of the states as the main actors of international system, leaving the relations between global community and the rogues almost an uncharted territory on the international stage. The article considers the category of rogue states as “excluded” members of the international community through the sociological lens of “stigma” (E. Goffman and “labelling theory” (H. Becker and E. Lemert. Engaging an empirical case of Iraqi foreign policy during and after the Gulf War 1991, the author demonstrates two thresholds of the labelling state as the rogue: public initiation of the offender and self-fulfilling prophecy. It is possible to define some specific features of the outsider’s behavior on the international stage: the high level of cooperation among the representatives of the same category, “unsustainable bravado” as the set of fluid and inconsistent actions of the rogue state in foreign policy, finally, the tendency toward obtaining the “secondary gains”. Contrariwise, global community tends to pay greater attention to rogue states and exercise some discrimination practices on the ground of their outcast position in the world normative structure with the category of “wise” actors, for example China, being an exception from the common mainstream and maintaining close cooperation ties with rogues.

  16. Human Diversity : Design for life: 9th International Congress of Physiological Anthropology: Proceedings, Delft, The Netherlands, 22-26 August 2008

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louts, T.; Reitenbach, M.E.F.R.; Molenbroek, J.F.M.

    2009-01-01

    This book of full papers contains the proceedings of the ICPA (International Congress of Physiological Anthropology) conference, held at the faculty of Industrial Design Engineering, TU Delft, from 22-26 August 2008.

  17. A physiological counterpoint to mechanistic estimates of "internal power" during cycling at different pedal rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst Albin; Jørgensen, Lars Vincents; Sjøgaard, Gisela

    2004-01-01

    metabolic variables and to perform a physiological evaluation of five different kinematic models for calculating IP in cycling. Results showed that IP was statistically different between the kinematic models applied. IP based on metabolic variables (IP(met)) was 15, 41, and 91 W at 61, 88, and 115 rpm...... significantly with pedal rate - leg movements accounting for the largest fraction. Further, external power (EP) affected IP significantly such that IP was larger at moderate than at low EP at the majority of the pedal rates applied but on average this difference was only 8%....

  18. But science is international! Finding time and space to encourage intercultural learning in a content-driven physiology unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etherington, Sarah J

    2014-06-01

    Internationalization of the curriculum is central to the strategic direction of many modern universities and has widespread benefits for student learning. However, these clear aspirations for internationalization of the curriculum have not been widely translated into more internationalized course content and teaching methods in the classroom, particularly in scientific disciplines. This study addressed one major challenge to promoting intercultural competence among undergraduate science students: finding time to scaffold such learning within the context of content-heavy, time-poor units. Small changes to enhance global and intercultural awareness were incorporated into existing assessments and teaching activities within a second-year biomedical physiology unit. Interventions were designed to start a conversation about global and intercultural perspectives on physiology, to embed the development of global awareness into the assessment and to promote cultural exchanges through peer interactions. In student surveys, 40% of domestic and 60% of international student respondents articulated specific learning about interactions in cross-cultural groups resulting from unit activities. Many students also identified specific examples of how cultural beliefs would impact on the place of biomedical physiology within the global community. In addition, staff observed more widespread benefits for student engagement and learning. It is concluded that a significant development of intercultural awareness and a more global perspective on scientific understanding can be supported among undergraduates with relatively modest, easy to implement adaptations to course content.

  19. Physiological and Selective Attention Demands during an International Rally Motor Sport Event

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony P. Turner

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To monitor physiological and attention responses of drivers and codrivers during a World Rally Championship (WRC event. Methods. Observational data were collected from ten male drivers/codrivers on heart rate (HR, core body (Tcore and skin temperature (Tsk, hydration status (urine osmolality, fluid intake (self-report, and visual and auditory selective attention (performance tests. Measures were taken pre-, mid-, and postcompetition day and also during the precompetition reconnaissance. Results. In ambient temperatures of 20.1°C (in-car peak 33.9°C mean (SD peak HR and Tcore were significantly elevated (P<0.05 during rally compared to reconnaissance (166 (17 versus 111 (16 beats·min−1 and 38.5 (0.4 versus 37.6 (0.2°C, resp.. Values during competitive stages were substantially higher in drivers. High urine osmolality was indicated in some drivers within competition. Attention was maintained during the event but was significantly lower prerally, though with considerable individual variation. Conclusions. Environmental and physical demands during rally competition produced significant physiological responses. Challenges to thermoregulation, hydration status, and cognitive function need to be addressed to minimise potentially negative effects on performance and safety.

  20. Effect of substrate intake and physiological state on background 13CO2 enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfe, R.R.; Shaw, J.H.F.; Nadel, E.R.; Wolfe, M.H.

    1984-01-01

    The natural enrichment of 13 C in energy substrates varies, and this variation must be taken into account when stable isotopic tracers are used in metabolic studies. This is conventionally accomplished by measuring background samples taken before the tracer infusion begins and subtracting these values from postinfusion values. Whereas this approach is satisfactory if no perturbation occurs between the collection of the background samples and the collection of postinfusion sample, the data presented in this paper show that any change in the metabolic state can significantly alter the background enrichment of expired CO 2 . This study not only confirmed that the introduction of natural energy sources may alter the background enrichment of CO 2 , but we also found that changes in substrate oxidation induced by different physiological states, such as exercise, can cause significant changes in expired CO 2 enrichments. Conclusions from studies in which oxidation of substrates were measured by means of a 13 C tracer but potential changes in background enrichments were not accounted for must, therefore, be reassessed

  1. Attachment states of mind among internationally adoptive and foster parents

    OpenAIRE

    RABY, K. LEE; YARGER, HEATHER A.; LIND, TERESA; FRALEY, R. CHRIS; LEERKES, ESTHER; DOZIER, MARY

    2017-01-01

    The first aim of the current study was to examine the latent structure of attachment states of mind as assessed by the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) among three groups of parents of children at risk for insecure attachments: parents who adopted internationally (N = 147), foster parents (N = 300), and parents living in poverty and involved with Child Protective Services (CPS; N = 284). Confirmatory factor analysis indicated the state of mind rating scales loaded on two factors reflecting ad...

  2. North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the United States, and International Legitimacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-22

    compared to other Allied 17Walter McDougall , Promised Land, Crusader State: The American Encounter with the World Since 1776 (Boston: Mariner Books, 1998...Russia–Georgia War was carried out largely under EU, Organization for Security and Cooperation, and United States leadership. Bush assisted...Operation Unified Protector provided a means for the international community to carry out R2P in order to protect the Libyan population from the

  3. International migration: The state-sovereignty-migration nexus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Chigudu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Commonly, international human migration is blamed for corroding states sovereignty, especially stemming from policy circles, academic literature and citizens of the host countries. This has attracted the attention of the media highlighting hazards of being a migrant, with some countries viewing migrants as enemies; and, Cuba provides a vivid case. Yet in other countries, migrants are viewed as important contributors to social and economic development, with Mexico, the Dominican Republic and India serving as examples. This article locates migrants in the framework of human rights as guided by international law without prejudice to the demands of state sovereignty, but linking the two in the context of developing international standards. Migration is seen as a feature of human history dating back to primordial time. Nothing appears surprising in the movement of people across borders, defining a migrant through emigration and immigration while giving due respect to the sovereignty of states, both sending and receiving. The article discusses the nexus between migrants and state sovereignty in order to highlight the mutual benefit grounded in international law. It attempts to portray a more positive image of the migrant person in light of the global world, socio-economic development and human rights fundamentals. The main challenge remains that of implementing human rights, which appear to be at the crossroads of individual rights and state sovereignty. The paper reveals how the challenge can be overcome while maintaining the structure of rights and freedoms without infringement on states’ sovereignty. It concludes that migrants remain on the periphery of effective protection from the vagaries of the citizens, partly because the state has a tendency to confine certain rights to its citizenry. States possess discretionary authority to control the ingress of foreign nationals into their territories though sometimes they fail to do that as evidenced

  4. International News in United States Media: Myths, Stereotypes and Realities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lent, John A.

    Research conducted during the past 20 years reveals that, except for the "New York Times,""Christian Science Monitor," and "Wall Street Journal," United States daily newspapers are not known for outstanding international news coverage; that European, English, Canadian, Latin American, and Asian newspapers use…

  5. Facial Expression Recognition of Various Internal States via Manifold Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Young-Suk Shin

    2009-01-01

    Emotions are becoming increasingly important in human-centered interaction architectures. Recognition of facial expressions, which are central to human-computer interactions, seems natural and desirable. However, facial expressions include mixed emotions, continuous rather than discrete, which vary from moment to moment. This paper represents a novel method of recognizing facial expressions of various internal states via manifold learning, to achieve the aim of humancentered interaction studies. A critical review of widely used emotion models is described, then, facial expression features of various internal states via the locally linear embedding (LLE) are extracted. The recognition of facial expressions is created with the pleasure-displeasure and arousal-sleep dimensions in a two-dimensional model of emotion. The recognition result of various internal state expressions that mapped to the embedding space via the LLE algorithm can effectively represent the structural nature of the two-dimensional model of emotion. Therefore our research has established that the relationship between facial expressions of various internal states can be elaborated in the two-dimensional model of emotion, via the locally linear embedding algorithm.

  6. Fifth International Conference on Squeezed States and Uncertainty Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, D. (Editor); Janszky, J. (Editor); Kim, Y. S. (Editor); Man'ko, V. I. (Editor)

    1998-01-01

    The Fifth International Conference on Squeezed States and Uncertainty Relations was held at Balatonfured, Hungary, on 27-31 May 1997. This series was initiated in 1991 at the College Park Campus of the University of Maryland as the Workshop on Squeezed States and Uncertainty Relations. The scientific purpose of this series was to discuss squeezed states of light, but in recent years the scope is becoming broad enough to include studies of uncertainty relations and squeeze transformations in all branches of physics including quantum optics and foundations of quantum mechanics. Quantum optics will continue playing the pivotal role in the future, but the future meetings will include all branches of physics where squeeze transformations are basic. As the meeting attracted more participants and started covering more diversified subjects, the fourth meeting was called an international conference. The Fourth International Conference on Squeezed States and Uncertainty Relations was held in 1995 was hosted by Shanxi University in Taiyuan, China. The fifth meeting of this series, which was held at Balatonfured, Hungary, was also supported by the IUPAP. In 1999, the Sixth International Conference will be hosted by the University of Naples in 1999. The meeting will take place in Ravello near Naples.

  7. The United States initiative for international radioactive source management (ISRM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naraine, N.; Karhnak, J.

    1999-01-01

    The United States takes seriously the potential problems from uncontrolled radioactive sources. To address these problems, the United States Department of State is leading the development of an initiative for International Radioactive Source Management (ISRM). The Department of State, through a number of Federal and state agencies, regulatory bodies and private industry, will endeavor to provide coordinated support to the international community, particularly through IAEA, to assist in the development and implementation of risk-based clearance levels to support import/export of radioactive contaminated metals and the tracking, management, identification, remediation, and disposition of 'lost sources' entering nation states and targeted industries. The United States believes that the international control of radioactive sources is critical in avoiding wide-spread contamination of the world metal supply. Thus the initiative has four objectives: (1) Protect sources from becoming lost (Tracking management); (2) Identify primary locations where sources have been lost (Stop future losses); (3) Locate lost sources (monitor and retrieve); and (4) Educate and train (deploy knowledge and technology). A number of efforts already underway in the United States support the overall initiative. The EPA has provided a grant to the Conference of Radiation Program Control Directors (CRCPD) to develop a nation-wide program for the disposition of orphaned radioactive sources. This program now has internet visibility and a toll-free telephone number to call for assistance in the disposal of sources. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), the Department of Energy (DOE), and other government agencies as well as private companies are assisting CRCPD in this program. The NRC has begun a program to improve control of radioactive sources in the United States, and also intends to promulgate a regulation defining conditions for the release of materials from licensed facilities. The DOE is

  8. THE EFFECT OF DENSITY AND FLOOR TYPES ON PERFORMANCE, PHYSIOLOGICAL STATE AND IMMUNE RESPONSE OF BROILERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Sunarti

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to study the effect of density and floor types on performance,physiological state and immune response of broilers. The research involved 368 male broilers of theNew Lohman strain aged 8 days which were raised up to 35 days at different densities and floor types.Floor types consisted of rice hull litter and bamboo slat were used as the main plot; while densities of 7,10, 13 and 16 birds/m2 applied as the sub-plot. The results showed that the final body weight gain of the35-day Lohmann broilers at densities of 7, 10 and 13 birds/m2 were 28.22, 24.43 and 19.27 kgrespectively, compared to 16 birds/m2 at 13.53 kg (P>0.05. Broilers in the bamboo slats floor hadlymph weight at 3.73 g compared to the litter floor at 2.55 g (P<0.05. Also, broilers in the bambooslats had average RHL (0.65 lower than broilers in the litter floor (0.79. It could be concluded thatbamboo slats best being used for broilers up to a density of 13 broilers/m2.

  9. Physiological Measures of Emotion from a Developmental Perspective: State of the Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Tracy A.; Buss, Kristin A.; Hastings, Paul D.; Bell, Martha Ann; Diaz, Anjolii; Adam, Emma K.; Miskovic, Vladimir; Schmidt, Louis A.; Feldman, Ruth; Katz, Lynn Fainsilber; Rigterink, Tami; Strang, Nicole M.; Hanson, Jamie L.; Pollak, Seth D.; Dahl, Ronald E.; Silk, Jennifer S.; Siegle, Greg J.; Beauchaine, Theodore P.; Cicchetti, Dante; Rogosch, Fred A.; Fox, Nathan A.; Kirwan, Michael; Reeb-Sutherland, Bethany; Gunnar, Megan R.; Obradovic, Jelena; Boyce, W. Thomas; Molenaar, Peter C. M.; Gates, Kathleen M.

    2012-01-01

    In the past decade, there has been a dramatic growth in research examining the development of emotion from a physiological perspective. However, this widespread use of physiological measures to study emotional development coexists with relatively few guiding principles, thus reducing opportunities to move the field forward in innovative ways. The…

  10. 76 FR 28954 - International Conservation and Management Measures Recognized by the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-19

    ... International Conservation and Management Measures Recognized by the United States AGENCY: National Marine... international conservation and management measures recognized by the United States. To fulfill this requirement, a list of agreements resulting in international conservation and management measures was first...

  11. Preschoolers' genetic, physiological, and behavioral sensitivity factors moderate links between parenting stress and child internalizing, externalizing, and sleep problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Molly; Thomassin, Kristel; Bilms, Joanie; Suveg, Cynthia; Shaffer, Anne; Beach, Steven R H

    2017-05-01

    This study examined three potential moderators of the relations between maternal parenting stress and preschoolers' adjustment problems: a genetic polymorphism-the short allele of the serotonin transporter (5-HTTLPR, ss/sl allele) gene, a physiological indicator-children's baseline respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), and a behavioral indicator-mothers' reports of children's negative emotionality. A total of 108 mothers (M age  = 30.68 years, SD age  = 6.06) reported on their parenting stress as well as their preschoolers' (M age  = 3.50 years, SD age  = 0.51, 61% boys) negative emotionality and internalizing, externalizing, and sleep problems. Results indicated that the genetic sensitivity variable functioned according to a differential susceptibility model; however, the results involving physiological and behavioral sensitivity factors were most consistent with a diathesis-stress framework. Implications for prevention and intervention efforts to counter the effects of parenting stress are discussed. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. The Rise of the Welfare State in International Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schouenborg, Laust

    2015-01-01

    In this article I seek to develop a case for viewing the welfare state as a primary institution in international society. This is with particular reference to Norden (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden), where in the course of the 1930s, and particularly in the post-1945 era, the welfare...... state was elevated to a core principle of legitimacy, largely defining the idea of nationhood for these countries. Furthermore, I will attempt to show how the adoption of this principle of legitimacy conditioned the Nordic countries’ interpretation of a number of other primary institutions...... in international society such as diplomacy, war and trade. A key contribution of this approach is that it aspires not only to examine the evolution of one institution in isolation, as has often been attempted in English School scholarship, but to actively explore how institutions interact with each other....

  13. International Disease Surveillance: United States Government Goals and Paths Forward

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    legal framework for improving global public health—were revised to require states parties to build and maintain the capacity to detect and respond to...threats. In 2005, the International Health Regulations (IHRs)—a legal framework for improving global public health—were revised to require that...mil $68.3 mil $55.0 mil $186.3 mil DoD Total $234.7 mil $201.6 mil $239.7 mil $676.0 mil State/ USAID Biosecurity Engagement Program ( BEP )5 $27.0

  14. The international state of affairs in marine safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benkert, W.M.

    1978-01-01

    The three-fold objective of marine safety is examined with emphasis on international cooperation as a means of achievement. In this respect, the recent and present activities of the Intergovernmental Maritime Consultative organization are reviewed by looking at the accomplishments and goals of several subcommittees of the Maritime Safety Committee. The United States program for commercial vessel safety is briefly discussed along with a comment on the recent Tanker Safety initiatives

  15. Internal transport barrier physics for steady state operation in tokamaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakatani, Masahiro [Kyoto Univ., Graduate School of Engineering, Uji, Kyoto (Japan); Fukuda, Takeshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment; Connor, Jack W. [Culham Science Centre, EURATOM/UKAEA Association (United Kingdom); Garbet, Xavier [Culham Science Centre, EFDA-JET CSU (United Kingdom); Gormezano, Claude [Associazone EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione C.R. Frascati (Italy); Mukhovatov, Vladimir [ITER Naka Joint Work Site, ITER Physics Unit, Naka, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2003-07-01

    Experimental results for the ITB (Internal Transport Barrier) formation and sustainment are compiled in a unified manner to find common features of ITBs in tokamaks. Global scaling laws for threshold power to obtain the ITBs are discussed. Theoretical models for plasmas with ITBs are summarized from stability and transport point of view. Finally possibility to obtain steady-state ITBs will be discussed in addition to extrapolation to ITER. (author)

  16. Prosecuting Crimes of International Concern: Islamic State at the ICC?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cóman Kenny

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The rise of Islamic State (IS has fundamentally altered the conception of terrorism, a development which international criminal law is arguably unprepared for. Given the scale and gravity of the group’s crimes, questions abound as to how those responsible will be held accountable. In the absence of significant domestic prosecutions and short of the establishment of a dedicated accountability mechanism, the International Criminal Court (ICC stands as the forum of last resort in which IS members could stand trial. Such a proposition is not without significant challenges, however. This article addresses some key issues facing any potential prosecutions from the perspective of: (i jurisdiction; (ii applicable crimes; and (iii modes of liability. First, as Syria, Iraq, and Libya are not States Parties to the Rome Statute, the available avenues for asserting jurisdiction will be assessed, namely: a Security Council referral; jurisdiction over so called ‘foreign fighters’ who are State Party nationals; and jurisdiction over attacks on the territory of a State Party and whether they could be considered part of a broader series of criminal acts in IS held territory. Second, as there is no crime of terrorism in the Rome Statute, the question of prosecuting acts encapsulated in a systematic campaign of terror through existing provisions will be assessed. Third, the regime of accountability at the ICC will be analysed in light of IS’s purported structure and the crimes with which it stands accused. Focus will be directed to those responsible for the propagation of genocidal propaganda and individuals who provide aid or assistance to IS which contributes to its crimes. These questions are far from theoretical. The UN has designated IS a threat to international peace and security. There follows an expectation that international criminal law should play a role in tackling one of the major criminal concerns of our time and ensure that impunity for those

  17. Third International Workshop on Squeezed States and Uncertainty Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, D. (Editor); Kim, Y. S. (Editor); Rubin, Morton H. (Editor); Shih, Yan-Hua (Editor); Zachary, Woodford W. (Editor)

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of these workshops is to bring together an international selection of scientists to discuss the latest developments in Squeezed States in various branches of physics, and in the understanding of the foundations of quantum mechanics. At the third workshop, special attention was given to the influence that quantum optics is having on our understanding of quantum measurement theory. The fourth meeting in this series will be held in the People's Republic of China.

  18. New United States policies regarding international nuclear cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, H.R. Jr.

    1981-10-01

    This paper discusses the United States policy on international nuclear power development in the light of the priorities established by President Reagan in the guidelines for his Administration's nuclear co-operation policy. The aim is to establish a framework allowing for co-operation in peaceful nuclear development while remaining committed to the objective of preventing the further spread of nuclear weapons, in particular by supporting the Non-Proliferation Treaty, the IAEA Safeguards System and the Tlatelolco Treaty (NEA) [fr

  19. Interaction between physiological and subjective states predicts the effect of a judging panel on the postures of cellists in performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi eEndo

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of a panel of judges on the movements and postures of cellists in performance. 24 expert cellists played a short piece of music, to a metronome beat, in the presence and absence of the panel. Kinematic analyses showed that in the presence of the panel the temporal execution of left arm shifting movements became less variable and closer to the metronome beat. In contrast, the panel's presence had no reliable effect on their spatial accuracy. A detailed postural analysis indicated that left elbow angle during execution of a given high note was correlated with level of heart rate, though the nature of this correlation was systematically affected by the relevant participant's subjective state: if anxious, a higher heart rate correlated with a more flexed elbow, if not anxious then with a more extended elbow. Our results suggest a change in physiological state alone does not reliably predict a change in behaviour in performing cellists, which instead depends on the interaction between physiological state and subjective experience of anxiety. This highlights a need to distinguish performance anxiety from physiological arousal, to which end we advocate currency for the specific term performance arousal to describe heightened physiological activity in a performer.

  20. PHYSIOLOGICAL REGULATION OF PROTEASE AND ANTIBIOTICS IN PENICILLIUM SP. USING SUBMERGED AND SOLID STATE FERMENTATION TECHNIQUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HAIDER M. HAMZAH

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available A fungal strain belonging to the genus Penicillium was isolated from soil sample and has been diagnosed as Penicillium sp. according to its morphological characteristics of the colonies on solid media and also microscopical examination of the fungal parts. Antibiotics, protease activity and pH values were determined after cultivation of the fungus using submerged fermentation (SF and solid state fermentation (SSF. The two different patterns of fermentation processes seem to influence the physiological behavior of the fungus differently. Experiments were made using nutrient broth medium (N.B for SF and wheat bran in SSF. The pH values were adjacent to 5.5. Wheat bran was enriched with fish scales and egg shale in a ratio of (1:2:0.005 w/w and the mixture was moistened by adding (30 ml whey solution. After 7 days of incubation, the pH value of SF was increased to 8.0 at 30ºC. The SF was appeared efficient for antibiotics production. Using well diffusion technique the extracted antibiotics solution was active against some pathogenic bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus, E. coli, Proteus sp., Salmonella sp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Streptococcus sp. In SSF relative proteases concentrations were found to be highly reactive than SF. This was proved by the appearance of the zone (20 mm and 32 mm due to the hydrolysis of milk and blood proteins respectively using pH 5.5 at 30ºC for 24 hrs. The activity of proteases was (10.4 U/ml.

  1. The United States and international climate cooperation: International 'pull' versus domestic 'push'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bang, Guri; Froyn, Camilla Bretteville; Hovi, Jon; Menz, Fredric C.

    2007-01-01

    The US government is being pressured by both international and domestic influences to re-engage in international climate control. This paper considers whether the international 'pull' and the domestic 'push' will be strong enough to accomplish this. First, we discuss whether changes in the architecture of the current climate regime might induce the United States to re-engage at the international level. We argue that the United States is unlikely to rejoin any global climate regime that is based on the Kyoto architecture, even if Kyoto were to be 'reformed'. Second, we discuss whether domestic political developments might eventually cause the United States to re-engage. We conclude that US re-engagement is likely to require the emergence of a new climate regime that basically extends US regulation to other countries. However, the forging of a unified US climate policy is still in the making. Furthermore, a new regime can gain widespread participation only if the Kyoto countries accept the idea of replacing Kyoto with some alternative architecture, which seems unlikely in the near future

  2. The United States and international climate cooperation: international ''pull'' versus domestic ''push''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bang, G.; Froyn, C.B.; Hovi, J.; Menz, F.C.; Clarkson University, Potsdam, NY

    2007-01-01

    The US government is being pressured by both international and domestic influences to re-engage in international climate control. This paper considers whether the international ''pull'' and the domestic ''push'' will be strong enough to accomplish this. First, we discuss whether changes in the architecture of the current climate regime might induce the United States to re-engage at the international level. We argue that the United States is unlikely to rejoin any global climate regime that is based on the Kyoto architecture, even if Kyoto were to be ''reformed''. Second, we discuss whether domestic political developments might eventually cause the United States to re-engage. We conclude that US re-engagement is likely to require the emergence of a new climate regime that basically extends US regulation to other countries. However, the forging of a unified US climate policy is still in the making. Furthermore, a new regime can gain widespread participation only if the Kyoto countries accept the idea of replacing Kyoto with some alternative architecture, which seems unlikely in the near future. (author)

  3. Hospital nurses' individual priorities, internal psychological states and work motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toode, K; Routasalo, P; Helminen, M; Suominen, T

    2014-09-01

    This study looks to describe the relationships between hospital nurses' individual priorities, internal psychological states and their work motivation. Connections between hospital nurses' work-related needs, values and work motivation are essential for providing safe and high quality health care. However, there is insufficient empirical knowledge concerning these connections for the practice development. A cross-sectional empirical research study was undertaken. A total of 201 registered nurses from all types of Estonian hospitals filled out an electronic self-reported questionnaire. Descriptive statistics, Mann-Whitney, Kruskal-Wallis and Spearman's correlation were used for data analysis. In individual priorities, higher order needs strength were negatively correlated with age and duration of service. Regarding nurses' internal psychological states, central hospital nurses had less sense of meaningfulness of work. Nurses' individual priorities (i.e. their higher order needs strength and shared values with the organization) correlated with their work motivation. Their internal psychological states (i.e. their experienced meaningfulness of work, experienced responsibility for work outcomes and their knowledge of results) correlated with intrinsic work motivation. Nurses who prioritize their higher order needs are more motivated to work. The more their own values are compatible with those of the organization, the more intrinsically motivated they are likely to be. Nurses' individual achievements, autonomy and training are key factors which influence their motivation to work. The small sample size and low response rate of the study limit the direct transferability of the findings to the wider nurse population, so further research is needed. This study highlights the need and importance to support nurses' professional development and self-determination, in order to develop and retain motivated nurses. It also indicates a need to value both nurses and nursing in

  4. Variation in esophageal physiology testing in clinical practice: Results from an international survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweis, R; Heinrich, H; Fox, M

    2018-03-01

    Advances in clinical measurement of esophageal motility and function have improved the assessment of swallowing disorders and reflux symptoms. Variation in data acquisition, analysis, and reporting exists and impacts on diagnosis and management. This study examined variation in esophageal manometry methodology between institutions to establish the status in current practice. A structured survey was distributed through international NGM societies using an Internet-based platform. Questions explored infrastructure, technology, analysis, and reporting. Responses were received from 91 centers from 29 countries. Eighteen (20%) centers used "conventional" manometry, 75 (82%) high-resolution manometry, and 53 (58%) HR impedance manometry. All centers documented motility for single water swallows. The Chicago Classification was applied by 65 (71.4%) centers. In contrast, analysis of EGJ morphology varied widely. Adjunctive testing was often applied: multiple rapid swallows (77%), rapid drink challenge (77%), single solid swallows (63%), and a standard test meal (18%). Of 86 (94.5%) units that offered pH impedance (pH-Z) studies, approximately half (53.5%) performed tests on acid-suppressant medication in patients with a high pretest probability (eg, erosive esophagitis). Most (75.6%) centers manually reviewed every reflux event. Others examined pH-Z data only prior to symptoms. To assess symptom association with reflux events, 73.6% centers analyzed each symptom separately, whereas 29.7% centers pooled symptoms. There is marked variation in the data acquisition, analysis, and reporting of esophageal manometry studies. Further efforts to improve quality and uniformity in testing and reporting are required. This survey provides information upon which best-practice guidelines can be developed. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. ATTRIBUTION OF CONDUCT TO A STATE-THE SUBJECTIVE ELEMENT OF THE INTERNATIONAL RESPONSIBILITY OT THE STATE FOR INTERNATIONALLY WRONGFUL ACTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FELICIA MAXIM

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to establish responsibility of states for internationally wrongful act, two elements are identified. First, the conduct in question must be attributable to the State under international law. Secondly, for responsibility to attach to the act of the State, the conduct must constitute a breach of an international legal obligation in force for that State at that time. For particular conduct to be characterized as an internationally wrongful act, it must first be attributable to the State. The State is a real organized entity, a legal person with full authority to act under international law. But to recognize this is not to deny the elementary fact that the State cannot act of itself. States can act only by and through their agents and representatives. In determining what constitutes an organ of a State for the purposes of responsibility, the internal law and practice of each State are of prime importance. The structure of the State and the functions of its organs are not, in general, governed by international law. It is a matter for each State to decide how its administration is to be structured and which functions are to be assumed by government. But while the State remains free to determine its internal structure and functions through its own law and practice, international law has a distinct role. Conduct is thereby attributed to the State as a subject of international law and not as a subject of internal law. The State as a subject of international law is held responsible for the conduct of all the organs, instrumentalities and officials which form part of its organization and act in that capacity, whether or not they have separate legal personality under its internal law.

  6. Pilot Study of A Novel Biobehavioral Intervention’s Effect on Physiologic State, Perceived Stress and Affect: An Investigation of the Health Benefits of Laughter Yoga Participational

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-25

    Intervention’s Effect on Physiologic State, Perceived Stress and Affect: An Investigation of the Health Benefits of Laughter Yoga Participation presented at...Pilot Study of a Novel Biobehavioral lntervention’s Effect on Physiologic State, Perceived Stress and Affect: An Investigation of Laughter Yoga MHSRS...was to explore the practice of the evidence-based biobehavioral interv~ntion, laughter yoga, as a means to lessen the physiologic and psychological

  7. INNOVATIVE ASPECTS OF DEVELOPMENT OF STATE INTERNAL FINANCIAL CONTROL AND INTERNAL FINANCIAL AUDIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. P. Voronchenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the innovative aspects of development of state internal fi nancial control and internal fi nancial audit in terms of the budgeting focused on result. A mechanism for implementing the functions of the Supervisory bodies in order to ensure the effi cient use of budgetary funds and eff ectiveness of budget expenditures. The main purpose of the article is justifi cation of implementing systems of internal fi nancial control and internal fi nancial audit in the structures of the major administrators and recipients of budgetary funds, with the allocation of the basic tools that ensure the functioning of the control mechanism, the combination of control procedures and sequence of their implementation. Methodological base of research is the generalization of domestic and foreign experience of internal fi nancial control and internal fi nancial audit, refl ecting an objective law and the necessity of development of state fi nancial control system in the conditions of innovative economy. The result of the implementation of the proposed mechanism and instruments for its implementation in key spending units and recipients of budget funds should be to ensure the eff ectiveness of the implementation of government programmes and projects. Signifi cance of the research contained in the article problems and their solutions is to ensure the effectiveness of the regulatory authorities at all stages of movement of budgetary funds and effective implementation of their Manager and recipient assigned to them socio-economic functions.

  8. Crosslinguistic Developmental Consistency in the Composition of Toddlers’ Internal State Vocabulary: Evidence from Four Languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Kristen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mental state language, emerging in the second and third years of life in typically developing children, is one of the first signs of an explicit psychological understanding. While mental state vocabulary may serve a variety of conversational functions in discourse and thus might not always indicate psychological comprehension, there is evidence for genuine references to mental states (desires, knowledge, beliefs, and emotions early in development across languages. This present study presents parental questionnaire data on the composition of 297 toddler-aged (30-to 32-month-olds children’s internal state vocabulary in four languages: Italian, German, English, and French. The results demonstrated that across languages expressions for physiological states (e.g., hungry and tired were among the most varied, while children’s vocabulary for cognitive entities (e.g., know and think proved to be least varied. Further, consistent with studies on children’s comprehension of these concepts, across languages children’s mastery of volition terms (e.g., like to do and want preceded their mastery of cognition terms. These findings confirm the cross-linguistic consistency of children’s emerging expression of abstract psychological concepts.

  9. Different geomagnetic indices as an indicator for geo-effective solar storms and human physiological state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrova, Svetla

    2008-02-01

    A group of 86 healthy volunteers were examined on each working day during periods of high solar activity. Data about systolic and diastolic blood pressure, pulse pressure, heart rate and subjective psycho-physiological complaints were gathered. MANOVA was employed to check the significance of the influence of three factors on the physiological parameters. The factors were as follows: (1) geomagnetic activity estimated by daily amplitude of H-component of the local geomagnetic field, Ap- and Dst-index; (2) gender; and (3) the presence of medication. Average values of systolic, diastolic blood pressure, pulse pressure and subjective complaints of the group were found to increase significantly with geomagnetic activity increment.

  10. International thermodynamic tables of the fluid state helium-4

    CERN Document Server

    de Reuck, K M; McCarty, R D

    2013-01-01

    International Thermodynamic Tables of the Fluid State Helium-4 presents the IUPAC Thermodynamic Tables for the thermodynamic properties of helium. The IUPAC Thermodynamic Tables Project has therefore encouraged the critical analysis of the available thermodynamic measurements for helium and their synthesis into tables. This book is divided into three chapters. The first chapter discusses the experimental results and compares with the equations used to generate the tables. These equations are supplemented by a vapor pressure equation, which represents the 1958 He-4 scale of temperature that is

  11. Chlorine international thermodynamic tables of the fluid state

    CERN Document Server

    Angus, S; de Reuck, K M

    1985-01-01

    Chlorine: International Thermodynamic Tables of the Fluid State-8 is a four-chapter book that covers available and estimated data on chlorine; estimation of the element's properties; the correlating equations for the element; and how the tabulated properties are calculated from chosen equation. The tables in this book give the volume, entropy, enthalpy, isobaric heat capacity, compression factor, fugacity/pressure ratio, Joule-Thomson coefficient, ratio of the heat capacities, and speed of sound as a function of pressure and temperature. Given in the tables as well are the pressure, entropy, i

  12. China's international trade and air pollution in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jintai; Pan, Da; Davis, Steven J; Zhang, Qiang; He, Kebin; Wang, Can; Streets, David G; Wuebbles, Donald J; Guan, Dabo

    2014-02-04

    China is the world's largest emitter of anthropogenic air pollutants, and measurable amounts of Chinese pollution are transported via the atmosphere to other countries, including the United States. However, a large fraction of Chinese emissions is due to manufacture of goods for foreign consumption. Here, we analyze the impacts of trade-related Chinese air pollutant emissions on the global atmospheric environment, linking an economic-emission analysis and atmospheric chemical transport modeling. We find that in 2006, 36% of anthropogenic sulfur dioxide, 27% of nitrogen oxides, 22% of carbon monoxide, and 17% of black carbon emitted in China were associated with production of goods for export. For each of these pollutants, about 21% of export-related Chinese emissions were attributed to China-to-US export. Atmospheric modeling shows that transport of the export-related Chinese pollution contributed 3-10% of annual mean surface sulfate concentrations and 0.5-1.5% of ozone over the western United States in 2006. This Chinese pollution also resulted in one extra day or more of noncompliance with the US ozone standard in 2006 over the Los Angeles area and many regions in the eastern United States. On a daily basis, the export-related Chinese pollution contributed, at a maximum, 12-24% of sulfate concentrations over the western United States. As the United States outsourced manufacturing to China, sulfate pollution in 2006 increased in the western United States but decreased in the eastern United States, reflecting the competing effect between enhanced transport of Chinese pollution and reduced US emissions. Our findings are relevant to international efforts to reduce transboundary air pollution.

  13. Time scaling internal state predictive control of a solar plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, R.N. [DEE-FCT/UNL, Caparica (Portugal); Rato, L.M. [INESC-ID/University, Evora (Portugal); Lemos, J.M. [INESC-ID/IST, Lisboa (Portugal)

    2003-12-01

    The control of a distributed collector solar field is addressed in this work, exploiting the plant's transport characteristic. The plant is modeled by a hyperbolic type partial differential equation (PDE) where the transport speed is the manipulated flow, i.e. the controller output. The model has an external distributed source, which is the solar radiation captured along the collector, approximated to depend only of time. From the solution of the PDE, a linear discrete state space model is obtained by using time-scaling and the redefinition of the control input. This method allows overcoming the dependency of the time constants with the operating point. A model-based predictive adaptive controller is derived with the internal temperature distribution estimated with a state observer. Experimental results at the solar power plant are presented, illustrating the advantages of the approach under consideration. (author)

  14. Wearable physiological sensors reflect mental stress state in office-like situations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijsman, J.L.P; Grundlehner, Bernard; Liu, Hao; Penders, Julien; Hermens, Hermanus J.

    Timely mental stress detection can help to prevent stress-related health problems. The aim of this study was to identify those physiological signals and features suitable for detecting mental stress in office-like situations. Electrocardiogram (ECG), respiration, skin conductance and surface

  15. Application of meta-transcriptomics and –proteomics to analysis of in situ physiological state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan eKonopka

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of the growth-limiting factor or environmental stressors affecting microbes in situ is of fundamental importance but analytically difficult. Microbes can reduce in situ limiting nutrient concentrations to sub-micromolar levels, and contaminated ecosystems may contain multiple stressors. The patterns of gene or protein expression by microbes in nature can be used to infer growth limitations, because they are regulated in response to environmental conditions. Experimental studies under controlled conditions in the laboratory provide the physiological underpinnings for developing these physiological indicators. Although regulatory networks may differ among specific microbes, there are some broad principles that can be applied, related to limiting nutrient acquisition, resource allocation, and stress responses. As technologies for transcriptomics and proteomics mature, the capacity to apply these approaches to complex microbial communities will accelerate. In particular, global proteomics reflect expressed catalytic activities. Furthermore, the high mass accuracy of some proteomic approaches allows mapping back to specific microbial strains. For example, at the Rifle IFRC field site in Western Colorado, the physiological status of Fe(III-reducing populations has been tracked over time. Members of a subsurface clade within the Geobacter predominated during carbon amendment to the subsurface environment. At the functional level, proteomic identifications produced inferences regarding (i temporal changes in anabolism and catabolism of acetate, (ii the onset of N2 fixation when N became limiting, and (iii expression of phosphate transporters during periods of intense growth. The application of these approaches in situ can lead to discovery of novel physiological adaptations.

  16. International Thermal Physiology Symposium

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Taylor, Nigel

    2001-01-01

    Partial Contents: THE EFFECT OF SLEEP DEPRIVATION UNDER BRIGHT LIGHT CONDITION ON THERMOREGURATOLY RESPONSES TO HYPERTHERMIA, ADENOSINE AND DOPAMINE AS NEUROMODULATORS IN HYPOXIC HYPOTHERMIA IN CONSCIOUS RATS, ROLE...

  17. The Concept of State Capacity: Comparative International Ratings against State Legitimacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Gennadievich Ivanov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the given article, the author analyzes the concept of state capacity, widely popular among political scientists and international relations specialists. The author proves that the evaluations of the level of state capacity of the developing and postcommunist countries based on popular comparative ratings are generally biased because of methodological defects and discrepancy of the whole theory as well as politicization and indoctrination of the given ratings. The negative evaluations of the quality of the government and state capacity of a country could be used to discredit and delegitimize the political regime as well as substantiation of mass protests and color revolutions and a tool of information war. The author concludes that numerous comparative international ratings are often used as a tool of political influence.

  18. Physiological parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natera, E.S.

    1998-01-01

    The physiological characteristics of man depend on the intake, metabolism and excretion of stable elements from food, water, and air. The physiological behavior of natural radionuclides and radionuclides from nuclear weapons testing and from the utilization of nuclear energy is believed to follow the pattern of stable elements. Hence information on the normal physiological processes occurring in the human body plays an important role in the assessment of the radiation dose received by man. Two important physiological parameters needed for internal dose determination are the pulmonary function and the water balance. In the Coordinated Research Programme on the characterization of Asian population, five participants submitted data on these physiological characteristics - China, India, Japan, Philippines and Viet Nam. During the CRP, data on other pertinent characteristics such as physical and dietary were simultaneously being collected. Hence, the information on the physiological characteristics alone, coming from the five participants were not complete and are probably not sufficient to establish standard values for the Reference Asian Man. Nonetheless, the data collected is a valuable contribution to this research programme

  19. Dual regression physiological modeling of resting-state EPI power spectra: Effects of healthy aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viessmann, Olivia; Möller, Harald E; Jezzard, Peter

    2018-02-02

    Aging and disease-related changes in the arteriovasculature have been linked to elevated levels of cardiac cycle-induced pulsatility in the cerebral microcirculation. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), acquired fast enough to unalias the cardiac frequency contributions, can be used to study these physiological signals in the brain. Here, we propose an iterative dual regression analysis in the frequency domain to model single voxel power spectra of echo planar imaging (EPI) data using external recordings of the cardiac and respiratory cycles as input. We further show that a data-driven variant, without external physiological traces, produces comparable results. We use this framework to map and quantify cardiac and respiratory contributions in healthy aging. We found a significant increase in the spatial extent of cardiac modulated white matter voxels with age, whereas the overall strength of cardiac-related EPI power did not show an age effect. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Resveratrol production in bioreactor: Assessment of cell physiological states and plasmid segregational stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarida S. Afonso

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Resveratrol is a plant secondary metabolite commonly found in peanuts and grapevines with significant health benefits. Recombinant organisms can produce large amounts of resveratrol and, in this work, Escherichia coli BW27784 was used to produce resveratrol in bioreactors while monitoring cell physiology and plasmid stability through flow cytometry and real-time qPCR, respectively. Initially, the influence of culture conditions and precursor addition was evaluated in screening assays and the data gathered was used to perform the bioreactor assays, allowing the production of 160 μg/mL of resveratrol. Cellular physiology and plasmid instability affected the final resveratrol production, with lower viability and plasmid copy numbers associated with lower yields. In sum, this study describes new tools to monitor the bioprocess, evaluating the effect of culture conditions, and its correlation with cell physiology and plasmid segregational stability, in order to define a viable and scalable bioprocess to fulfill the need for larger quantities of resveratrol.

  1. Fourth International Conference on Squeezed States and Uncertainty Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, D. (Editor); Peng, Kunchi (Editor); Kim, Y. S. (Editor); Manko, V. I. (Editor)

    1996-01-01

    The fourth International Conference on Squeezed States and Uncertainty Relations was held at Shanxi University, Taiyuan, Shanxi, China, on June 5 - 9, 1995. This conference was jointly organized by Shanxi University, the University of Maryland (U.S.A.), and the Lebedev Physical Institute (Russia). The first meeting of this series was called the Workshop on Squeezed States and Uncertainty Relations, and was held in 1991 at College Park, Maryland. The second and third meetings in this series were hosted in 1992 by the Lebedev Institute in Moscow, and in 1993 by the University of Maryland Baltimore County, respectively. The scientific purpose of this series was initially to discuss squeezed states of light, but in recent years, the scope is becoming broad enough to include studies of uncertainty relations and squeeze transformations in all branches of physics, including, of course, quantum optics and foundations of quantum mechanics. Quantum optics will continue playing the pivotal role in the future, but the future meetings will include all branches of physics where squeeze transformations are basic transformation. This transition took place at the fourth meeting of this series held at Shanxi University in 1995. The fifth meeting in this series will be held in Budapest (Hungary) in 1997, and the principal organizer will be Jozsef Janszky of the Laboratory of Crystal Physics, P.O. Box 132, H-1052. Budapest, Hungary.

  2. PHYSIOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT OF THE FUNCTIONAL STATE OF ORGANISM OF WORKERS OF THE ROLLING PRODUCTION IN THE COURSE OF EMPLOYMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Тулеген Нургалиевич Хамитов

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the work – the work is devoted to the physiological assessment of the functional state of organism of workers of the rolling production in the course of employment, depending on occupational category. Methods. Objects of research: performance of rolling production of JSC «Arcelor Mittal – Temirtau». Research methods: physiological and statistical. Results. The results of the study allowed to conclude that the negative effects of rolling operations on the body of the workers, thus, despite indications of adaptation of the organism to the production activity, the individual functional systems, a decrease in reserve capacity. The severity level of functional tension of organism depends on the duration of contact with harmful factors and the degree of direct participation in the management and maintenance of the main technological process of the rolling production.

  3. The effectiveness of international regimes in states with low internal capacity : a study of international refugee regime in Afghanistan, Iraq and Sudan

    OpenAIRE

    Güler, Arzu

    2013-01-01

    Ankara : The Department of International Relations, İhsan Doğramacı Bilkent University, 2013. Thesis (Ph. D.) -- Bilkent University, 2013. Includes bibliographical references. Nearly one out of the six states in the world is regarded with low internal capacity by the Failed State Index 2012. However, having a priori assumption on states’ internal capacity to take decisions and implement them within their own states, scholarly attention has been given to the factors that shap...

  4. National states and international science: A comparative history of international science congresses in Hitler's Germany, Stalin's Russia, and cold war United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doel, Ronald E; Hoffmann, Dieter; Krementsov, Nikolai

    2005-01-01

    Prior studies of modern scientific internationalism have been written primarily from the point of view of scientists, with little regard to the influence of the state. This study examines the state's role in international scientific relations. States sometimes encouraged scientific internationalism; in the mid-twentieth century, they often sought to restrict it. The present study examines state involvement in international scientific congresses, the primary intersection between the national and international dimensions of scientists' activities. Here we examine three comparative instances in which such restrictions affected scientific internationalism: an attempt to bring an international aerodynamics congress to Nazi Germany in the late 1930s, unsuccessful efforts by Soviet geneticists to host the Seventh International Genetics Congress in Moscow in 1937, and efforts by U.S. scientists to host international meetings in 1950s cold war America. These case studies challenge the classical ideology of scientific internationalism, wherein participation by a nation in a scientist's fame spares the scientist conflict between advancing his science and advancing the interests of his nation. In the cases we consider, scientists found it difficult to simultaneously support scientific universalism and elitist practices. Interest in these congresses reached the top levels of the state, and access to patronage beyond state control helped determine their outcomes.

  5. Physiological monitoring and control in hemodialysis: state of the art and outlook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, Matthias

    2006-09-01

    Medical devices for monitoring and feedback control of physiological parameters of the dialysis patient were introduced in the early 1990s. They have a wide range of applications, aiming at increasing the safety and ensuring the efficiency of the treatment, and at an improved restoration of physiological conditions, leading to an overall reduction in morbidity and mortality. Such devices include sensors for the measurement of temperature, optical parameters and sound speed in blood, and electrical characteristics of the human body, and other parameters. Essential for the development of these devices is a detailed understanding of the pathophysiological background of a therapeutical problem. There is still a large potential to introduce new devices for further therapy improvement and automation. Also, the size of the hemodialysis market appears attractive; however, a new product has to meet several specific requirements in order to also become commercially successful. This review describes the therapeutic and technical principles of several available devices, reports on concepts for possible future devices, and presents a short overview on the market environment.

  6. Selenium-75 and technetium-95m biokinetics in rats at different physiological states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Archimbaud, Yves; Grillon, Gerard; Poncy, Jean-Luc; Masse, Roland

    1992-06-01

    Selenium 79 ( 79 Se) and technetium ( 99 Tc), beta emitters, components of nuclear wastes, may increase the dose equivalent to members of the public. Data used by ICRP show that there is relatively little information on Te and Se biokinetics at different physiologic stages. Retention was almost equivalent for young, male adult and pregnant rat. Selenium was concentrated in the testis, the kidneys, the liver and the spleen as technetium was in the skin, the thyroid and the kidneys. The biological half-time for Se and Te was respectively 20 and 41 days for pregnant rats, 33 and 15 days for young rats. Placental transfer per one fetus was 0.56% of the initial activity for Te and 1.27% for Se. These data point out the eventually high doses delivered to the skin for Te and to the testis for Se. They may be taken into consideration in estimating risk by humans at different stages of life [fr

  7. Physiological pseudomyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, R

    1990-08-01

    Objective refraction through plus fogging lenses and base-in prisms revealed that normally accommodation is not completely relaxed when the stimulus to accommodation is zero. The myopic shift in the refractive error due to this focus error of accommodation was defined as physiological pseudomyopia. Two previously established features of accommodation are responsible for this behavior: (1) accommodation acts as a proportional control system for steady-state responses; and (2) the rest focus of accommodation is nonzero. It is proposed that the hyperopic shift in refraction observed in cycloplegia is the result of elimination of physiological pseudomyopia.

  8. [Variability patterns of nest construction, physiological state, and morphometric traits in honey bee].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Es'kov, E K; Es'kova, M D

    2014-01-01

    High variability of cells size is used selectively for reproduction of working bees and drones. A decrease in both distance between cells and cells size themselves causes similar effects to body mass and morphometric traits of developing individuals. Adaptation of honey bees to living in shelters has led to their becoming tolerant to hypoxia. Improvement of ethological and physiological mechanisms of thermal regulation is associated with limitation of ecological valence and acquiring of stenothermic features by breed. Optimal thermal conditions for breed are limited by the interval 33-34.5 degrees C. Deviations of temperature by 3-4 degrees C beyond this range have minimum lethal effect at embryonic stage of development and medium effect at the stage of pre-pupa and pupa. Developing at the low bound of the vital range leads to increasing, while developing at the upper bound--to decreasing of body mass, mandibular and hypopharyngeal glands, as well as other organs, which, later, affects the variability of these traits during the adult stage of development. Eliminative and teratogenic efficiency of ecological factors that affect a breed is most often manifested in underdevelopment of wings. However, their size (in case of wing laminas formation). is characterized by relatively low variability and size-dependent asymmetry. Asymmetry variability of wings and other pair organs is expressed through realignment of size excess from right- to left-side one with respect to their increase. Selective elimination by those traits whose emerging probability increases as developmental conditions deviate from the optimal ones promotes restrictions on individual variability. Physiological mechanisms that facilitate adaptability enhancement under conditions of increasing anthropogenic contamination of eivironment and trophic substrates consumed by honey bees, arrear to be toxicants accumulation in rectum and crops' ability to absorb contaminants from nectar in course of its

  9. Plant Physiology in Greenhouses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvelink, E.; Kierkels, T.

    2015-01-01

    Since 2004 Ep Heuvelink and Tijs Kierkels have been writing a continuing series of plant physiology articles for the Dutch horticultural journal Onder Glas and the international edition In Greenhouses. The book Plant Physiology in Greenhouses consists of 50 of their plant physiology articles. The

  10. Sixth International Conference on Squeezed States and Uncertainty Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, D. (Editor); Kim, Y. S. (Editor); Solimento, S. (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    These proceedings contain contributions from about 200 participants to the 6th International Conference on Squeezed States and Uncertainty Relations (ICSSUR'99) held in Naples May 24-29, 1999, and organized jointly by the University of Naples "Federico II," the University of Maryland at College Park, and the Lebedev Institute, Moscow. This was the sixth of a series of very successful meetings started in 1990 at the College Park Campus of the University of Maryland. The other meetings in the series were held in Moscow (1992), Baltimore (1993), Taiyuan P.R.C. (1995) and Balatonfuered, Hungary (1997). The present one was held at the campus Monte Sant'Angelo of the University "Federico II" of Naples. The meeting sought to provide a forum for updating and reviewing a wide range of quantum optics disciplines, including device developments and applications, and related areas of quantum measurements and quantum noise. Over the years, the ICSSUR Conference evolved from a meeting on quantum measurement sector of quantum optics, to a wide range of quantum optics themes, including multifacet aspects of generation, measurement, and applications of nonclassical light (squeezed and Schrodinger cat radiation fields, etc.), and encompassing several related areas, ranging from quantum measurement to quantum noise. ICSSUR'99 brought together about 250 people active in the field of quantum optics, with special emphasis on nonclassical light sources and related areas. The Conference was organized in 8 Sections: Squeezed states and uncertainty relations; Harmonic oscillators and squeeze transformations; Methods of quantum interference and correlations; Quantum measurements; Generation and characterisation of non-classical light; Quantum noise; Quantum communication and information; and Quantum-like systems.

  11. Expressing our internal states and understanding those of others.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Cesare, Giuseppe; Di Dio, Cinzia; Marchi, Massimo; Rizzolatti, Giacomo

    2015-08-18

    Vitality form is a term that describes the style with which motor actions are performed (e.g., rude, gentle, etc.). They represent one characterizing element of conscious and unconscious bodily communication. Despite their importance in interpersonal behavior, vitality forms have been, until now, virtually neglected in neuroscience. Here, using the functional MRI (fMRI) technique, we investigated the neural correlates of vitality forms in three different tasks: action observation, imagination, and execution. Conjunction analysis showed that, in all three tasks, there is a common, consistent activation of the dorsocentral sector of the insula. In addition, a common activation of the parietofrontal network, typically active during arm movements production, planning, and observation, was also found. We conclude that the dorsocentral part of the insula is a key element of the system that modulates the cortical motor activity, allowing individuals to express their internal states through action vitality forms. Recent monkey anatomical data show that the dorsocentral sector of the insula is, indeed, connected with the cortical circuit involved in the control of arm movements.

  12. State-wide performance criteria for international safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budlong-Sylvester, K.W.; Pilat, Joseph F.; Stanbro, W.D.

    2001-01-01

    Traditionally, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has relied upon prescriptive criteria to guide safeguards implementation. The prospect of replacing prescriptive safeguards criteria with more flexible performance criteria would constitute a structural change in safeguards and raises several important questions. Performance criteria imply that while safeguards goals will be fixed, the means of attaining those goals will not be explicitly prescribed. What would the performance objectives be under such a system? How would they be formulated? How would performance be linked to higher level safeguards objectives? How would safeguards performance be measured State-wide? The implementation of safeguards under performance criteria would also signal a dramatic change in the manner the Agency does business. A higher degree of flexibility could, in principle, produce greater effectiveness and efficiency, but would come with a need for increased Agency responsibility in practice. To the extent that reliance on prescriptive criteria decreases, the burden of justifying actions and ensuring their transparency will rise. Would there need to be limits to safeguards implementation? What would be the basis for setting such limits? This paper addresses these and other issues and questions relating to both the formulation and the implementation of performance-based criteria.

  13. Long-Range Goals in International Telecommunications and Information: An Outline for United States Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation.

    This report presents a comprehensive delineation of the principal issues in the field of international telecommunications and information, as well as an overview of United States policy in this area. The first part discusses international trends in protectionism and the politicization of international forums; it also outlines United States goals,…

  14. Correlation of United States Medical Licensing Examination and Internal Medicine In-Training Examination Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Jose A., Jr.; Greer, Sharon

    2009-01-01

    The Internal Medicine In-Training Examination (ITE) is administered during residency training in the United States as a self-assessment and program assessment tool. Performance on this exam correlates with outcome on the American Board of Internal Medicine Certifying examination. Internal Medicine Program Directors use the United States Medical…

  15. The United States: A Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court Non-Participant

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-03-19

    database on-line]; available from Questia; accessed 30 December 2003. 16 Paul C. Szasz , “The United States Should Join the International...Objections to the International Criminal Court” Szasz , Paul C. “The United States Should Join the International Criminal Court.” Database on

  16. INTERNATIONAL SCIENTIFIC CONFERENCE «PLANT PHYSIOLOGY AND GENETICS – SUCCESSES AND CHALLENGES», 24\\26 SEPTEMBER 2014, SOFIA, REPUBLIC OF BULGARIA

    OpenAIRE

    F. B. Musayev; E. G. Kozar

    2014-01-01

    24-26 September 2014 in the Republic of Bulgaria the International scientific and practical conference entitled «Plant Physiology and Genetics – Achievements and Challenges» was hold. The forum discussed the biotechnology and genetic approaches for environmental and sustainable agriculture; genetic resources and biodiversity; efficient use of plant nutrition and symbiotic interaction; regulation of plant growth and development; photosynthesis under stress conditions.

  17. The Aging Lung: Clinical and Imaging Findings and the Fringe of Physiological State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, T H; Storbeck, B; Rabe, K F; Weber, C

    2015-06-01

    Since aspects of demographic transition have become an essential part of socioeconomic, medical and health-care research in the last decades, it is vital for the radiologist to discriminate between normal ageing related effects and abnormal imaging findings in the elderly. This article reviews functional and structural aspects of the ageing lung and focuses on typical ageing related radiological patterns. • The physiological aging process of the thoracic organs shows typical structural and functional aspects.• Mild interstitial fibrosis and focal parenchymal abnormalities like septal thickening can be diagnosed frequently - whereas a clinical correlate is often lacking.• With increasing patient age, the influence by various intrinsic and extrinsic factors (including comorbidities of the patient, and drug inhalation toxicants) also increases.• A growing spectrum of imaging techniques (including functional cardiopulmonary MRI, MRI spectroscopy, hybrid-techniques) is confronted by rare empiric data in the very old people (aging 80 years and older). © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  18. Homologous radioimmunoassay for canine prolactin and its application in various physiological states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graef, K.-J.; Friedreich, E.; Matthes, S.; Hasan, S.H.

    1977-01-01

    The purification of canine prolactin and the development of an homologous radioimmunoassay including several physiological studies in the Beagle dog are described. The assay measured immunoreactive canine prolactin with a sensitivity limit of 0.6 ng/ml. Purified canine luteinizing hormone gave no significant inhibition in the assay whereas purified canine growth hormone inhibited the binding of 125 I-labelled canine prolactin to antiserum only at very high dose levels. In Beagle dogs, basal serum prolactin concentrations were in the range 1 to 2 ng/ml in normal male, normal female (metoestrus and anoestrus) and oophorectomized-hysterectomized female dogs. The prolactin concentration in one sample of amniotic fluid was in the same range, while in hypophysectomized make dogs no serum prolactin could be detected by the assay system. Serum prolactin concentrations tended to increase during late pregnancy and parturition, remaining high during the first 9 days of lactation. In consequence, a negative correlation was suggested between serum prolactin and serum progesterone concentrations. (author)

  19. A Look into International Graduate Students' Experience in the United States: A Grounded Theory Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujisaki, Shuko

    2013-01-01

    The number of international students in the United States has been increasing each year, but little is known about their experience. There are recent studies on international students, however, only a few research has focused on international students studying at graduate level. To best study international graduate students' experience, a…

  20. [Office employees physiological and psychological state effects of workplace peculiarities comprehensive analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Consumer goods company clerkship working condition hygienic evaluation, psychological state and cardio-vascular system analyses have shown that work tension is governing factor for organism functional strain development in comparison with occupational environment factors. Received data confirm determined before indices comprehension as specific for psychological and cardio-vascular system state reserves decrease degree under mental work tension elevation. For purpose of functional strain and overstrain manifestation before occupational disease incipient character forming early warning "Methodical recommendation on occupational stress under office employees arduous mental work evaluation" was developed.

  1. The Face of Physiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul White

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the relationship between the physiology of the emotions and the display of character in Victorian Britain. Charles Bell and others had begun to link certain physiological functions, such as respiration, with the expression of feelings such as fear, regarding the heart and other internal organs as instruments by which the emotions were made visible. But a purely functional account of the emotions, which emerged through the development of reflex physiology during the second half of the century, would dramatically alter the nature of feelings and the means of observing them. At the same time, instinctual or acquired sympathy, which had long underpinned the accurate reading of expressions, became a problem to be surmounted by new 'objectively'. Graphic recording instruments measuring a variety of physiological functions and used with increasing frequency in clinical diagnostics became of fundamental importance for tracing the movement of feelings during the period prior to the development of cinematography. They remained, in the form of devices such as the polygraph, a crucial and controversial means of measuring affective states, beneath the potentially deceptive surface of the body.

  2. Enabling International Safeguards Research and Development in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dwight, John E.; Schanfein, Mark J.; Bjornard, Trond A.

    2009-01-01

    Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is the lead laboratory in nuclear energy research and development within the U.S. Department of Energy national laboratory complex. INL is tasked with the advancement of nuclear energy research and development, and leadership in the renaissance of nuclear power globally. INL scientists have been central to the assessment of needs and the integration of technical programs aimed at the world-wide growth of nuclear power. One of the grand challenges of the nuclear energy resurgence is nuclear nonproliferation. Nonproliferation technology development is key to meeting this challenge. The needed advances in nonproliferation technologies are being made more difficult by the growing gap between increasing demands for nuclear materials to support technology development, and reduced availability of these materials. The gap is caused by the reduction, consolidation and more stringent lockdown of nuclear materials, made necessary by heightened and evolving security concerns, in the face of increased demand for materials to support technology development. Ironically, the increased demand for materials for technology development is made necessary by these same security concerns. The situation will continue to worsen if safeguards and security budgets remain limited for the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and many member states, while growth in global nuclear energy becomes a reality. Effective U.S. leadership in the closing of this gap is vital to homeland security and global stability. INL has taken positive steps, described in this paper, to close this gap by reestablishing a viable base for the development, testing and demonstration of safeguards and security technologies. Key attributes of this technology development base are (1) the availability of a wide variety of special nuclear materials in forms that allow for enhanced accessibility; (2) ease of access by U.S. government, national laboratory, industry and academic institution

  3. Non-state actors in control of territory as 'actors of protection' in international refugee law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karavias, M.

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the concept of non-state ‘actors of protection’ in international refugee law. This concept breaks with traditional State-centric readings of international law, as it connotes that a non-state actor may offer ‘protection’ against persecution, comparable to that normally offered

  4. 37 CFR 1.416 - The United States International Preliminary Examining Authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES International Processing Provisions General Information § 1.416 The United States International Preliminary... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false The United States...

  5. 37 CFR 1.413 - The United States International Searching Authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Processing Provisions General Information § 1.413 The United States International Searching Authority. (a... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false The United States International Searching Authority. 1.413 Section 1.413 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT...

  6. [Physiology and cybernetics: the history of mutual penetration of ideas, modern state and perspectives. To a 60-th anniversary of a writing the book "Cybernetics"by N. Wiener].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorov, V I

    2007-01-01

    Description of the history of cybernetics origin and physiology influence on it is given. Role of Russian and foreign physiologists in becoming and development of cybernetics and contribution of cybernetic theorists (N. Wiener and A.A. Lyapunov) to physiology are shown. Becoming and a modern state of various sections of cybernetic physiology and perspective of connection of cybernetics with integrative physiology are considered.

  7. PHYSIOLOGICAL REGULATION OF PROTEASE AND ANTIBIOTICS IN PENICILLIUM SP. USING SUBMERGED AND SOLID STATE FERMENTATION TECHNIQUES

    OpenAIRE

    HAIDER M. HAMZAH; ANWAR H.L. Ali; HAMID G. HASSAN

    2009-01-01

    A fungal strain belonging to the genus Penicillium was isolated from soil sample and has been diagnosed as Penicillium sp. according to its morphological characteristics of the colonies on solid media and also microscopical examination of the fungal parts. Antibiotics, protease activity and pH values were determined after cultivation of the fungus using submerged fermentation (SF) and solid state fermentation (SSF). The two different patterns of fermentation processes seem to influence the ph...

  8. Advancing Direct Corporate Accountability in International Human Rights Law: The Role of State-Owned Enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Xili

    2017-01-01

    Resorting to the immensely State-centric international legal system to regulate corporate human rights abuses is often viewed as inadequate. Among many proposals aiming at filling the international regulatory gaps, imposing international human rights obligations directly on corporations is a bold one, which, due to profound doctrinal and practical challenges, has yet to be agreed upon or established. However, State-Owned Enterprises (SOEs), given its prima facie “State-Business nexus” that bl...

  9. Brain physiological state evaluated by real-time multiparametric tissue spectroscopy in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayevsky, Avraham; Barbiro-Michaely, Efrat; Kutai-Asis, Hofit; Deutsch, Assaf; Jaronkin, Alex

    2004-07-01

    The significance of normal mitochondrial function in cellular energy homeostasis as well as its involvement in acute and chronic neurodegenerative disease was reviewed recently (Nicholls & Budd. Physiol Rev. 80: 315-360, 2000). Nevertheless, monitoring of mitochondrial function in vivo and real time mode was not used by many investigators and is very rare in clinical practice. The main principle tool available for the evaluation of mitochondrial function is the monitoring of NADH fluorescence. In order to interpret correctly the changes in NADH redox state in vivo, it is necessary to correlate this signal to other parameters, reflecting O2 supply to the brain. Therefore, we have developed and applied a multiparametric optical monitoring system, by which microcirculatory blood flow and hemoglobin oxygenation is measured, together with mitochondrial NADH fluorescence. Since the calibration of these signals is not in absolute units, the simultaneous monitoring provide a practical tool for the interpretation of brain functional state under various pathophysiological conditions. The monitoring system combines a time-sharing fluorometer-reflectometer for the measurement of NADH fluorescence and hemoglobin oxygenation as well as a laser Doppler flowmeter for the recording of microcirculatory blood flow. A combined fiber optic probe was located on the surface of the brain using a skull cemented cannula. Rats and gerbils were exposed to anoxia, ischemia and spreading depression and the functional state of the brain was evaluated. The results showed a clear correlation between O2 supply/demand as well as, energy balance under the various pathophysiological conditions. This monitoring approach could be adapted to clinical monitoring of tissue vitality.

  10. Effects of single moor baths on physiological stress response and psychological state: a pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stier-Jarmer, M.; Frisch, D.; Oberhauser, C.; Immich, G.; Kirschneck, M.; Schuh, A.

    2017-11-01

    Moor mud applications in the form of packs and baths are widely used therapeutically as part of balneotherapy. They are commonly given as therapy for musculoskeletal disorders, with their thermo-physical effects being furthest studied. Moor baths are one of the key therapeutic elements in our recently developed and evaluated 3-week prevention program for subjects with high stress level and increased risk of developing a burnout syndrome. An embedded pilot study add-on to this core project was carried out to assess the relaxing effect of a single moor bath. During the prevention program, 78 participants received a total of seven moor applications, each consisting of a moor bath (42 °C, 20 min, given between 02:30 and 05:20 p.m.) followed by resting period (20 min). Before and after the first moor application in week 1, and the penultimate moor application in week 3, salivary cortisol was collected, blood pressure and heart rate were measured, and mood state (Multidimensional Mood State Questionnaire) was assessed. A Friedman test of differences among repeated measures was conducted. Post hoc analyses were performed using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. A significant decrease in salivary cortisol concentration was seen between pre- and post-moor bath in week 1 ( Z = -3.355, p = 0.0008). A non-significant decrease was seen between pre- and post-moor bath in week 3. Mood state improved significantly after both moor baths. This pilot study has provided initial evidence on the stress-relieving effects of single moor baths, which can be a sensible and recommendable therapeutic element of multimodal stress-reducing prevention programs. The full potential of moor baths still needs to be validated. A randomized controlled trial should be conducted comparing this balneo-therapeutic approach against other types of stress reduction interventions.

  11. State of the Art of International Public Relations Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakefield, Gay; And Others

    To examine aspects of the political/economic/social/cultural environments (PESCE) affecting international public relations and their significance to the future of public relations practitioners, this paper reviews the 1980s literature regarding the current and projected trends in international public relations practice and their implications for…

  12. Ecological physiological characteristic of some species of natural vegetation in the Poles'e State Radiation Ecological Reservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kravchenko, V.A.; Gaponenko, V.I.; Matsko, V.P.; Grushevskaya, O.M.; Bondar', Yu.I.; Evsievich, K.M.; Akadehmiya Navuk Belarusi, Minsk

    1996-01-01

    Influence of radiation on important ecological and physiological characteristics of Pinus silvestris L., Phleum pratense L. and Dactylis glomerata L. growing on territory of the Poles'e State Radiation Ecological Reservation has been investigated in 1992-1994. Significant changes in species and quantitative formation of natural vegetation growing on territory contaminated by the Chernobyl accident release were not observed. Positive correlation between the content of protein in needles of Pinus silvestris L., leaves of Agropyron repens L. and specific radioactivity of photosystem was established. Positive correlation between specific radioactivity of overground photosystem and quantity of nucleic acids (DNA+RNA) is leaves of Dactylis glomerata was found. 8 refs., 2 tabs., 2 figs

  13. Theoretical grounds of internal audit in the system of state financial control in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dikan Larysa V.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The article considers modern directions of reformation of the system of state financial control connected with introduction of the state internal financial control. It considers economic essence of the state internal financial control in the context of its components. It justifies the place of the internal audit in the system of the state internal financial control in Ukraine. It considers existing definitions of internal audit in legislative acts. It generalises views of scientists on interpretation of the “internal audit” notion. It provides definitions united in approaches. It conducts a critical analysis of generalised approaches. It offers the authors’ view on the essence of internal audit in budget institutions, which has certain positive features compared to existing ones.

  14. Stress and food deprivation: linking physiological state to migration success in a teleost fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Midwood, J.D.; Larsen, Martin Hage; Aarestrup, Kim

    2016-01-01

    for the cortisol treatment. Food availability and individual energetic state appear to dictate the future life-history strategy (migrate or remain resident) of juvenile salmonids while experimental elevation of the stress hormone cortisol caused impaired growth and reduced survival of both resident and migratory......Food deprivation (FD) is a naturally occurring stressor that is thought to influence the ultimate life-history strategy of individuals. Little is known about how FD interacts with other stressors to influence migration success. European populations of brown trout (Salmo trutta) exhibit partial...... of the glucocorticoid stress response in determining life-history strategy and survival of a migratory species. Using an experimental approach, the relative influences of short-term FD and experimental cortisol elevation (i.e., intra-coelomic injection of cortisol suspended in cocoa butter) on migratory status...

  15. Stress and food deprivation: linking physiological state to migration success in a teleost fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midwood, Jonathan D; Larsen, Martin H; Aarestrup, Kim; Cooke, Steven J

    2016-12-01

    Food deprivation is a naturally occurring stressor that is thought to influence the ultimate life-history strategy of individuals. Little is known about how food deprivation interacts with other stressors to influence migration success. European populations of brown trout (Salmo trutta) exhibit partial migration, whereby a portion of the population smoltifies and migrates to the ocean, and the rest remain in their natal stream. This distinct, natural dichotomy of life-history strategies provides an excellent opportunity to explore the roles of energetic state (as affected by food deprivation) and activation of the glucocorticoid stress response in determining life-history strategy and survival of a migratory species. Using an experimental approach, the relative influences of short-term food deprivation and experimental cortisol elevation (i.e. intra-coelomic injection of cortisol suspended in cocoa butter) on migratory status, survival and growth of juvenile brown trout relative to a control were evaluated. Fewer fish migrated in both the food deprivation and cortisol treatments; however, migration of fish in cortisol and control treatments occurred at the same time while that of fish in the food deprivation treatment was delayed for approximately 1 week. A significantly greater proportion of trout in the food deprivation treatment remained in their natal stream, but unlike the cortisol treatment, there were no long-term negative effects of food deprivation on growth, relative to the control. Overall survival rates were comparable between the food deprivation and control treatments, but significantly lower for fish in the cortisol treatment. Food availability and individual energetic state appear to dictate the future life-history strategy (migrate or remain resident) of juvenile salmonids while experimental elevation of the stress hormone cortisol causes impaired growth and reduced survival of both resident and migratory individuals. © 2016. Published by The

  16. Quantum field theory and the internal states of elementary particles

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Greben, JM

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A new application of quantum field theory is developed that gives a description of the internal dynamics of dressed elementary particles and predicts their masses. The fermionic and bosonic quantum fields are treated as interdependent fields...

  17. An integrated telemedicine platform for the assessment of affective physiological states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganiatsas George

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract AUBADE is an integrated platform built for the affective assessment of individuals. The system performs evaluation of the emotional state by classifying vectors of features extracted from: facial Electromyogram, Respiration, Electrodermal Activity and Electrocardiogram. The AUBADE system consists of: (a a multisensorial wearable, (b a data acquisition and wireless communication module, (c a feature extraction module, (d a 3D facial animation module which is used for the projection of the obtained data through a generic 3D face model; whereas the end-user will be able to view the facial expression of the subject in real time, (e an intelligent emotion recognition module, and (f the AUBADE databases where the acquired signals along with the subject's animation videos are saved. The system is designed to be applied to human subjects operating under extreme stress conditions, in particular car racing drivers, and also to patients suffering from neurological and psychological disorders. AUBADE's classification accuracy into five predefined emotional classes (high stress, low stress, disappointment, euphoria and neutral face is 86.0%. The pilot system applications and components are being tested and evaluated on Maserati's car. racing drivers.

  18. Member States and International Legal Responsibility : Developments of the Institutional Veil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brölmann, C.

    2015-01-01

    The ‘institutional veil’ of international organizations is the linchpin for legal analysis and appraisal of the role and interrelation of international organizations, member States and organs. Through this lens the article examines in semi-broad strokes the position of international organizations’

  19. Words without Grammar: Linguists and the International Auxiliary Language Movements in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, Julia S.

    1995-01-01

    Discusses movements in the United States during the first half of the 20th century to develop an international language, focusing on proponents of the reestablishment of Latin as an international language and the work of the International Auxiliary Language Association to develop an entirely new language. (72 references) (MDM)

  20. 76 FR 10082 - Office of International Trade; State Trade and Export Promotion (STEP) Grant Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-23

    ... translation fees, The design of international marketing products or campaigns, An export trade show exhibit... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Office of International Trade; State Trade and Export Promotion... Administrator of the Office of International Trade (OIT) that does not duplicate the services of other SBA...

  1. 3 CFR - Designation of Officers of the United States Section, International Boundary and Water Commission...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Designation of Officers of the United States Section, International Boundary and Water Commission, United States and Mexico To Act as the Commissioner of the United... States and Mexico To Act as the Commissioner of the United States Section Memorandum for the Commissioner...

  2. A New Typology for State-Sponsored International Terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    tolerated the stacks of books with “ scary people” on the covers. xiv THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK 1 I. INTRODUCTION State sponsorship of...sponsors of terrorism list in August of 1993.133 The explanation of the State Department’s update to the list stated that despite warnings , “the... warning signs, Qaddafi directed his associates to attempt to re- establish communications with the U.S in 1992. At that point, however, the U.S. was not

  3. Respiration-to-DNA ratio reflects physiological state of microorganisms in root-free and rhizosphere soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blagodatskaya, E.; Blagodatsky, S.; Kuzyakov, Y.

    2009-04-01

    The double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) content in soil can serve as a measure of microbial biomass under near steady-state conditions and quantitatively reflect the exponential microbial growth initiated by substrate addition. The yield of respired CO2 per microbial biomass unit (expressed as DNA content) could be a valuable physiological indicator reflecting state of soil microbial community. Therefore, investigations combining both analyses of DNA content and respiration of soil microorganisms under steady-state and during periods of rapid growth are needed. We studied the relationship between CO2 evolution and microbial dsDNA content in native and glucose-amended samples of root-free and rhizosphere soil under Beta vulgaris (Cambisol, loamy sand from the field experiment of the Institute of Agroecology FAL, Braunschweig, Germany). Quantity of dsDNA was determined by direct DNA isolation from soil with mechanic and enzymatic disruption of microbial cell walls with following spectrofluorimetric detection with PicoGreen (Blagodatskaya et al., 2003). Microbial biomass and the kinetic parameters of microbial growth were estimated by dynamics of the CO2 emission from soil amended with glucose and nutrients (Blagodatsky et al., 2000). The CO2 production rate was measured hourly at 22оС using an automated infrared-gas analyzer system. The overall increase in microbial biomass, DNA content, maximal specific growth rate and therefore, in the fraction of microorganisms with r-strategy were observed in rhizosphere as compared to bulk soil. The rhizosphere effect for microbial respiration, biomass and specific growth rate was more pronounced for plots with half-rate of N fertilizer compared to full N addition. The DNA content was significantly lower in bulk compared to rhizosphere soil both before and during microbial growth initiated by glucose amendment. Addition of glucose to the soil strongly increased the amount of CO2 respired per DNA unit. Without substrate addition the

  4. 77 FR 65928 - The Secretary of State's International Council on Women's Business Leadership; Notice of Open...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-31

    ... Business Leadership; Notice of Open Meeting The Secretary of State's International Council on Women's... Secretary of State's International Council on Women's Business Leadership by C.O.B. November 20, 2012, by... Council on Women's Business Leadership at [email protected] ; send paper statements via facsimile to...

  5. 76 FR 81005 - The Secretary of State's International Council on Women's Business Leadership; Notice of Open...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-27

    ... Business Leadership; Notice of Open Meeting The Secretary of State's International Council on Women's... State's International Council on Women's Business Leadership by C.O.B. January 17, 2012, by either of... Women's Business Leadership at [email protected] ; send paper statements via facsimile to (202) 632...

  6. The immunity of states and their officials in international criminal law and international human rights law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Alebeek, R.

    2008-01-01

    * Provides an in-depth analysis of case law such as the Pinochet, Jones, Al-Adsani, the Arrest Warrant, and Taylor cases. * The first comprehensive treatment of the subject for both civil and criminal proceedings The development of international human rights law and international criminal law has

  7. Hormonal profiles, physiological parameters, and productive and reproductive performances of Girolando cows in the state of Ceará-Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa, Antônio Nélson Lima; Feitosa, José Valmir; Júnior, Péricles Afonso Montezuma; de Souza, Priscila Teixeira; de Araújo, Airton Alencar

    2015-02-01

    This study compared two breed groups of Girolando (½ Holstein ½ Gyr vs. ¾ Holstein ¼ Gyr) through analysis of physiological, productive, and reproductive parameters to determine the group best suited to rearing in a semiarid tropical climate. The experiment was conducted at the Companhia de Alimentos do Nordeste (CIALNE) farm, in the municipality of Umirim, State of Ceará, Brazil. Eighty cows were used in a 2 × 2 factorial study; 40 of each breed group were kept under an extensive system during the wet season and an intensive system during the dry season. The collection of physiological data and blood samples were obtained in the afternoon after milking. Rectal temperature (RT), surface temperature (ST), and respiratory rate (RR) were obtained for each cow after milking. Blood samples were obtained by tail vein puncture and were determined triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) and cortisol. The environmental parameters obtained were relative humidity (RH) and air temperature (AT), and from these, a temperature and humidity index (THI) was calculated. Pregnancy diagnosis (PD) was determined by ultrasonography 30 days after artificial insemination (AI). The milk production of each cow was recorded with automated milkings in the farm. The variables were expressed as mean and standard error, evaluated by ANOVA at 5 % probability using the Proc GLM of SAS. Chi-square test at 5 % probability was applied to data of pregnancy rate (PR) and the number of AI's to obtain pregnancy. It can be concluded that the breed group ½ Holstein ½ Gyr is most suited for farming under conditions of thermal stress.

  8. Syria's predicament : state (de-) formation and international rivalries

    OpenAIRE

    Saouli, Adham

    2014-01-01

    Syria’s war raises important questions about the interaction between the domestic and external dimensions of the conflict. What are the main areas of contention, and how do they relate to regional and international dynamics? Why has the conflict developed into a regional and international battle, and who are the main actors in this rivalry? And, finally, what are the realistic options for ending the Syrian war? The aim of this paper is to answer these questions. In the first, the author exami...

  9. Physiologic Functional Evaluation of Left Internal Mammary Artery Graft to Left Anterior Descending Coronary Artery Steal due to Unligated First Thoracic Branch in a Case of Refractory Angina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadi J. Sawaya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Unligated side branches of the left internal mammary artery (LIMA have been described in the literature as a cause of coronary steal resulting in angina. Despite a number of studies reporting successful side branch embolization to relieve symptoms, this phenomenon remains controversial. Hemodynamic evidence of coronary steal using angiographic and intravascular Doppler techniques has been supported by some and rejected by others. In this case study using an intracoronary Doppler wire with adenosine, we demonstrate that a trial occlusion of the LIMA thoracic side branch with selective balloon inflation can confirm physiologic significant steal and whether coil embolization of the side branch is indicated.

  10. The Role of the State | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2013-03-01

    Mar 1, 2013 ... The Role of the State analyzes the relationship between the state and the development of the national system of innovation. Combining original data and expert analysis, the book presents experience and knowledge that may impact how we understand the theory of innovation systems, and implement ...

  11. Norms and Politics of State Formation in the International System ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The emergence of state system in the history of mankind brought alongside issues that border on the modalities for its existence. There has actually not been any known rigid formula for its emergence. This has been eliciting excitement and, on many occasions, conflicts among proponents and opponents of rigid state ...

  12. STEM and Technology Education: International State-of-the-Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritz, John M.; Fan, Szu-Chun

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports the perceptions of 20 international technology education scholars on their country's involvement in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education. Survey research was used to obtain data. It was found that the concept of STEM education is being discussed differently by nations. Some consider STEM education…

  13. A multi-methodological MR resting state network analysis to assess the changes in brain physiology of children with ADHD.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benito de Celis Alonso

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to highlight the neurological differences between the MR resting state networks of a group of children with ADHD (pre-treatment and an age-matched healthy group. Results were obtained using different image analysis techniques. A sample of n = 46 children with ages between 6 and 12 years were included in this study (23 per cohort. Resting state image analysis was performed using ReHo, ALFF and ICA techniques. ReHo and ICA represent connectivity analyses calculated with different mathematical approaches. ALFF represents an indirect measurement of brain activity. The ReHo and ICA analyses suggested differences between the two groups, while the ALFF analysis did not. The ReHo and ALFF analyses presented differences with respect to the results previously reported in the literature. ICA analysis showed that the same resting state networks that appear in healthy volunteers of adult age were obtained for both groups. In contrast, these networks were not identical when comparing the healthy and ADHD groups. These differences affected areas for all the networks except the Right Memory Function network. All techniques employed in this study were used to monitor different cerebral regions which participate in the phenomenological characterization of ADHD patients when compared to healthy controls. Results from our three analyses indicated that the cerebellum and mid-frontal lobe bilaterally for ReHo, the executive function regions in ICA, and the precuneus, cuneus and the clacarine fissure for ALFF, were the "hubs" in which the main inter-group differences were found. These results do not just help to explain the physiology underlying the disorder but open the door to future uses of these methodologies to monitor and evaluate patients with ADHD.

  14. Immigration impacts on internal migration of the poor: 1990 census evidence for U.S. states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, W H

    1995-09-01

    "This article presents newly-available migration data from the 1990 U.S. census to assess immigration and internal migration components as they affect state poverty populations. New immigrant waves are heavily focused on only a few 'port-of-entry' states. It is suggested that these immigrants have begun to impact upon internal migration into and out of these 'high immigration states', and have also altered the national system of internal migration patterns. This article addresses three questions: How do the magnitudes of poverty population out-migration from high immigration states compare with those of other states? Is this out-migration selective on particular social and demographic groups? Is immigration a significant determinant of internal migration of the poor population? The results of this analysis are consistent with the view that recent, focused immigration is associated with out-migration among a state's poor longer-term residents." excerpt

  15. World of Warcraft™ and the State of Territory in International Relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strandsbjerg, Jeppe

    According to conventional knowledge, the realist tradition in International Relations has maintained the world of International Politics in a perpetual state of ‘warcraft’ between sovereign territorial states. Since the early 1990s arguments associated with Historical Sociology have sought...... and transformative effect on the political role of territory. This is key to understand to spatial nature of the modern state and thus, also, the transformative possibilities within international relations...... to counter such a timeless image of states and politics. Yet, while this has done much to historicise state institutions and the international system, one of the fundamental features of the modern state remains poorly understood: that of territory. This is because, I argue, that the concept of space remains...

  16. Nasal Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Caregivers Contact ARS HOME ANATOMY Nasal Anatomy Sinus Anatomy Nasal Physiology Nasal Endoscopy Skull Base Anatomy Virtual Anatomy Disclosure ... Patient Education About this Website Font Size + - Home > ANATOMY > Nasal Physiology Nasal Anatomy Sinus Anatomy Nasal Physiology Nasal Endoscopy ...

  17. The State of Evaluation in Internal Medicine Residency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmboe, Eric; Beasley, Brent W.

    2008-01-01

    Background There are no nationwide data on the methods residency programs are using to assess trainee competence. The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) has recommended tools that programs can use to evaluate their trainees. It is unknown if programs are adhering to these recommendations. Objective To describe evaluation methods used by our nation’s internal medicine residency programs and assess adherence to ACGME methodological recommendations for evaluation. Design Nationwide survey. Participants All internal medicine programs registered with the Association of Program Directors of Internal Medicine (APDIM). Measurements Descriptive statistics of programs and tools used to evaluate competence; compliance with ACGME recommended evaluative methods. Results The response rate was 70%. Programs were using an average of 4.2–6.0 tools to evaluate their trainees with heavy reliance on rating forms. Direct observation and practice and data-based tools were used much less frequently. Most programs were using at least 1 of the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME)’s “most desirable” methods of evaluation for all 6 measures of trainee competence. These programs had higher support staff to resident ratios than programs using less desirable evaluative methods. Conclusions Residency programs are using a large number and variety of tools for evaluating the competence of their trainees. Most are complying with ACGME recommended methods of evaluation especially if the support staff to resident ratio is high. PMID:18612734

  18. Manifest Destiny: The Relationship between the United States and the International Criminal Court in a Time of International Upheaval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sabharwal, Prashant

    2012-01-01

    Ever since the negotiations that culminated in the signing of the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court ("ICC" or "the Court"), the approach taken by various Administrations in the United States has been a reflection of domestic politics and a skeptical foreign policy establishment. In

  19. The Current State of the International Security System

    OpenAIRE

    Ивашов, Леонид Григорьевич

    2013-01-01

    The author examines the modern geopolitical world and assesses the threats to Russia’s security. These threats are demonstrated to be hitched to the goals of the US National Strategy and, in particular, to the US plans on deployment of anti-ballistic missile system. The author argues that in this situation the mainstay of Russia’s foreign policy should become “security through cooperation.”Key words: international security, anti-ballistic missile, preemptive war, geopolitical centers, UN Secu...

  20. Internal Environmental Displacement: A Growing Challenge to the United States Welfare State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle A. Meyer

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available While the greatest potential for environmental displacement occurs in poorer nations, internal displacement has resulted from environmental change and disasters in the United States; and climate change will likely amplify this movement. I describe how environmental displacement is a policy drift that reduces the effectiveness of current welfare state policies to protect US populations from the risk of impoverishment. Evidence from previous disasters indicates environmental displacees have particular assistance needs. I identify the four main assistance needs in my Environmental Displacement and Resilience Model then use this model to evaluate whether current policies address housing, finances, health, and discrimination needs of those displaced. My analysis highlights a gap between the country’s response to disasters and the current welfare state social safety nets. Without disaster and welfare policy changes environmental displacement will continue to be a policy drift that leave displacees vulnerable to social and economic marginalization. Mientras que el mayor potencial de desplazamientos por causas medioambientales se da en los países más pobres, en los Estados Unidos se ha producido un desplazamiento interno como resultado de cambios ambientales y desastres; y es probable que el cambio climático aumente estos movimientos. Se describe cómo los desplazamientos por causas ambientales suponen un fallo político que reduce la eficacia de las actuales políticas del estado de bienestar que se deben desarrollar para proteger a la población de Estados Unidos contra el riesgo de empobrecimiento. Evidencias de desastres anteriores indican que los desplazados por causas medioambientales tienen necesidades de asistencia especiales. Se identifican las cuatro necesidades de asistencia principales que recoge Modelo de Desplazamiento Medioambiental y Resiliciencia de la autora, para después usar este modelo para evaluar si las políticas actuales

  1. 75 FR 82424 - The Secretary of State's International Council on Women's Business Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-30

    ... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice: 7237] The Secretary of State's International Council on Women's Business Leadership AGENCY: Department of State. ACTION: Notice of intent to establish an advisory... Business Leadership, in accordance with the Federal Advisory Committee Act. Nature and Purpose: The Council...

  2. Collusion in International Organizations: How States Benefit from the Authority of Secretariats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Hylke

    2017-01-01

    In the theoretical literature on the authority of international secretariats, academics often dichotomise between states and secretariats. Even when they account for the fact that states are often divided, they normally adopt a two-step approach: states first resolve their own differences before

  3. Humans on the International Space Station-How Research, Operations, and International Collaboration are Leading to New Understanding of Human Physiology and Performance in Microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronbinson, Julie A.; Harm, Deborah L.

    2009-01-01

    As the International Space Station (ISS) nears completion, and full international utilization is achieved, we are at a scientific crossroads. ISS is the premier location for research aimed at understanding the effects of microgravity on the human body. For applications to future human exploration, it is key for validation, quantification, and mitigation of a wide variety of spaceflight risks to health and human performance. Understanding and mitigating these risks is the focus of NASA s Human Research Program. However, NASA s approach to defining human research objectives is only one of many approaches within the ISS international partnership (including Roscosmos, the European Space Agency, the Canadian Space Agency, and the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency). Each of these agencies selects and implements their own ISS research, with independent but related objectives for human and life sciences research. Because the science itself is also international and collaborative, investigations that are led by one ISS partner also often include cooperative scientists from around the world. The operation of the ISS generates significant additional data that is not directly linked to specific investigations. Such data comes from medical monitoring of crew members, life support and radiation monitoring, and from the systems that have been implemented to protect the health of the crew (such as exercise hardware). We provide examples of these international synergies in human research on ISS and highlight key early accomplishments that derive from these broad interfaces. Taken as a whole, the combination of diverse research objectives, operational data, international sharing of research resources on ISS, and scientific collaboration provide a robust research approach and capability that no one partner could achieve alone.

  4. The Role of the State | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    1 mars 2013 ... Voici le premier ouvrage d'une collection qui en comptera cinq et qui colligera les résultats de recherches intensives sur les systèmes d'innovation nationaux dans les pays BRICS : le Brésil, la Russie, l'Inde, la Chine et l'Afrique du Sud. The Role of the State analyse le rôle de l'État dans le déploiement de ...

  5. 20th International Conference on Solid State Ionics (SSI 20)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-20

    Italy; 2CNST @PoliMI, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia , Milano, Italy; 3Physical Chemistry of Solids, Max Planck Institute for Solid State Research...Coughlin5; 1Chemical Sciences, University of Padova, Padova, Italy; 2Consorzio Interuniversitario Nazionale per la Scienza e la Tecnologia dei Materiali...Germany; 2Instituto de Tecnologia Quimica , Valencia, Spain; 3Ernst Ruska Center, Jülich, Germany. 4:50 PM J5.05 Hydrogen Permeation through CO2-Stable

  6. International Conference on Extreme States in Nuclear Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arlt, R.; Kuehn, B.

    1979-12-01

    The abstracts of contributed papers are arranged under the following headings: (1) nuclear matter, incl. elementary interactions, phase transitions, compression of nuclear matter; (2) heavy ion reactions, incl. nucleus-nucleus potential, mechanism of heavy ion reactions, role of non-equilibrium processes, nuclear quasimolecules, superheavy nuclei; (3) high spin states and nuclear structure; and (4) relativistic nuclear physics, incl. heavy ion reactions, particle production, role of nucleon associations. (author)

  7. Quality assessment of state land internal audit agency of Ukraine based on risk-oriented approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.G. Vugovska

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article stipulates that in modern conditions of development and reform of the national system of state financial control to the fore the issue of quality, which is an integral part of - or the provision of a service or product produced. In the context of our study on the evaluation of the quality of the internal audit system of the State Land Agency, is the efficiency of its operation. The authors have developed scientific and methodical approach to assessing the quality of the internal audit system of the State Land Agency of Ukraine by specifying the list of evaluation criteria and the implementation of risk-based model selection controlled entities, which allowed to determine the potential risk of financial irregularities and frequency of inspections by the State Financial Inspection. Determined that the planned inspections of the state Land Agency should be not less than once every two years. Applying the above approach will reduce the number of violations in budgetary institutions, improve the quality control organization by the internal audit work, increase the responsibility of the head of an effective, legitimate and proper use of funds. The authors were asked to form a report on the results of the internal audit quality in budgetary institutions and determined that for the cooperation of internal audit bodies of the State financial inspection need to be able to use the latest internal audit report to provide recommendations to improve the functioning of the internal control systems in controlled entities.

  8. Ascertaining the international state of the art of PSA methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linden, J. von

    1998-01-01

    Plant-specific PSAs, to be performed within the framework of the Periodic Safety Review of German Nuclear Power Plants require further development of the methodology. For that purpose foreign PSA-guidelines and PSA-reviewes as well as relevant literature are examined and appropriate insights are adopted within task A.2 of project SR 2096. The main goal of these activities is to achieve a comparison of the state of the art of PSA-methodologies applied abroad and in Germany. The German state of the art refers to the extent as is documented in the German PSA Guide (Leitfaden Probabilistische Sicherheitsanalyse /PSUe97/) which has to be used for the Periodic Safety Review of German Nuclear Power Plants. The structure for the evaluation is based on the working steps of a PSA. In total, according to the objectives of the Periodic Safety Review the German approach for plant-specific PSAs based on the German PSA Guide is conform to the state of the art abroad. Identified deviations in some details are evaluated reflecting the view of GRS. Particular aspects resulting from the evaluation should be considered for further development of the German PSA Guide. (orig.) [de

  9. International portfolio diversification: United States and south Asian equity markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mushtaq Rizwan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the dynamic liaison between US and three developing South Asian equity markets in short and long term. To gauge the long-term relationship, we applied Johansen co-integration procedure as all the representative indices are found to be non-stationary at level. The findings illustrate that the US equity market index exhibits a reasonably different movement over time in contrast to the three developing equity markets under consideration. However, the Granger-causality test divulge that the direction of causality scamper from US equity market to the three South Asian markets. It further indicates that within the three developing equity markets the direction of causality emanates from Bombay stock market to Karachi and Colombo. Overall, the results of the study suggest that the American investors can get higher returns through international diversification into developing equity markets, while the US stock market would also be a gainful upshot for South Asian investors.

  10. The United States and international climate cooperation: International 'pull' versus domestic 'push'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bang, Guri [Center for International Climate and Environmental Research, Oslo (Norway); Froyn, Camilla Bretteville [Center for International Climate and Environmental Research, Oslo (Norway); Hovi, Jon [Center for International Climate and Environmental Research, Oslo (Norway) and Department of Political Science, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1097, 0317 Oslo (Norway)]. E-mail: jon.hovi@stv.uio.no; Menz, Fredric C. [Center for International Climate and Environmental Research, Oslo (Norway); School of Business, Clarkson University, Potsdam, NY 13699 (United States)

    2007-02-15

    The US government is being pressured by both international and domestic influences to re-engage in international climate control. This paper considers whether the international 'pull' and the domestic 'push' will be strong enough to accomplish this. First, we discuss whether changes in the architecture of the current climate regime might induce the United States to re-engage at the international level. We argue that the United States is unlikely to rejoin any global climate regime that is based on the Kyoto architecture, even if Kyoto were to be 'reformed'. Second, we discuss whether domestic political developments might eventually cause the United States to re-engage. We conclude that US re-engagement is likely to require the emergence of a new climate regime that basically extends US regulation to other countries. However, the forging of a unified US climate policy is still in the making. Furthermore, a new regime can gain widespread participation only if the Kyoto countries accept the idea of replacing Kyoto with some alternative architecture, which seems unlikely in the near future.

  11. Internal state distributions of molecules scattering and desorbing from surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auerbach, D.J.

    1983-01-01

    Attempts are made to interpret scattering experiments of NO molecules on Ag(111) where a (rotational) state-specific detector has been used. A model using an anisotropic potential is proposed to explain the observed incoming energy- and angle dependence. The so-called rotational rainbows are explained. It is concluded, that in this way information on intermolecular potentials and the transfer of translational to rotational energy in the dynamics of trapping and sticking of molecules on surfaces can be extracted. (G.Q.)

  12. United States Commercial Shipbuilding Productivity: An International View

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-12-01

    produced, U.S. shipbuilders would have ranked 36th. The U.S. output is just above Malaysia (2758 GT), Peru (3136 GT) and Chile (3372 GT), but below...2 6,172 0.05 35 GREECE 4 5,219 0.04 36 UNITED STATES 10 4,078 0.03 37 CHILE 8 3,372 0.03 38 PERU 7 3,136 0.02 39 MALAYSIA 2 2,758 0.02 40 THAILAND 2...Korean shipbuilders’ rank second behind Japan in total GT produced. Collectively, the three major yards, Hyundai Heavy Industries (HH I), Samsung , and

  13. Case Study: Incorporating International Themes into the Business Curriculum at Missouri Southern State University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzzard, Janet; Block, Beverly

    2007-01-01

    Higher education is charged with preparing graduates to be successful in an international society. This paper will examine Missouri Southern State University's approach to internationalizing their campus and curriculum.

  14. The United States' Rejection of the International Criminal Court: A Strategic Error

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Watson, Rickey

    2008-01-01

    .... The United States was a major part of these negotiations but did not accept the result. The Bush administration and Congress have pursued a markedly hostile attitude towards the International Criminal Court (ICC...

  15. State Estimation of International Space Station Centrifuge Rotor With Incomplete Knowledge of Disturbance Inputs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sullivan, Michael J

    2005-01-01

    This thesis develops a state estimation algorithm for the Centrifuge Rotor (CR) system where only relative measurements are available with limited knowledge of both rotor imbalance disturbances and International Space Station (ISS...

  16. Theoretical expression of the internal conversion coefficient of a M1 transition between two atomic states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attallah, F.; Chemin, J.F.; Scheurer, J.N.; Karpeshin, F.; Harston, M.

    1997-01-01

    We have established a general relation for the expression of the internal conversion of an M 1 transition a 1s electronic state to an empty ns electronic bound state. Under the hypothesis that the density of the electron level ρ n satisfies the condition ρ n Γ >> 1 (where Γ is the total width of the excited atomic state) a calculation in the first order gives a relation for the internal conversion coefficient.This relation shows that the internal conversion coefficient takes a resonant character when the nuclear energy transition is smaller than the binding energy of the 1s electron. An application of this relation to an M 1 transition in the case of the ion 125 T e with a charge state Q = 45 and an 1s electron binding energy E B 45 = 35.581 KeV gives the value for the internal conversion coefficient R = 5.7

  17. Voluntary league of peoples vs. coercive world federative state (Völkerstaat/Staatenverein of peoples as states: Kant's and Rawls' considerations concerning international relations: Similarities and

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stupar Milorad J.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Although similar in some respects, Rawls' and Kant' visions of world order fall apart on the question of sovereignty. Rawls never advocates of an international single state with international authority. Kant, on the other hand, inspired by the project of Enlightenment, as a final form of international sovereignty sees federative state of states as a provider for eternal peace among peoples.

  18. Formation of UAE State and Factors for Development of International Relations between UAE and African Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A K Voronkov

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on analyses of formation of UAE state and features formation of international relations between UAE and African countries including low level of political and economic ties between UAE and African countries and dominant role of economic and humanitarian assistance in their relations provided both through international organizations and on bilateral basis by Abu Dhabi Fund for Development. Islam and traditional values of Arab culture are considered defining factors for formation of such structure of international relations.

  19. The state of art of internal fire PSA in nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Xinli; Zhao Bo; Zheng Xiangyang

    2010-01-01

    The operational experiences of nuclear power plants (NPPs) show that the internal fires challenge effectively the nuclear safety of NPPs. Thus, the authorities having jurisdiction in the world have enhanced the supervision on fire safety in NPPs, asking the licensees to perform fire hazard analysis and evaluate the fire risk. This article mainly describes the state of art of internal fire probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) in the world, and compares the main methods and standards for internal fire PSA. (authors)

  20. International Tax Evasion, State Purchases of Confidential Bank Data and Voluntary Disclosures

    OpenAIRE

    Bethmann, Dirk; Kvasnicka, Michael

    2017-01-01

    State purchases of bank data on suspected tax evaders from international tax havens constitute a potential tool to combat international tax evasion. Using self-compiled data for North-Rhine Westphalia on the timing and content of such data acquisitions from whistleblowers and on monthly voluntary disclosures of international tax evasion involving Swiss banks, we show that purchases of data by tax authorities on potential tax evaders have a positive and sizeable effect on voluntary disclosures.

  1. Developments in Education and International Migrations in New Member States of the EU

    OpenAIRE

    Kultalahti, Olli

    2013-01-01

    The paper examines the development of education systems and international migrations in selected new Member States. The countries are Estonia, the Czech Republic and Slovakia. The paper focuses on various elements in the development of education systems making people able to cope with competition on global labour markets. The outcomes of these developments largely regulate the supply of labour and consequently its international demand. Some statistics on international migration and integratio...

  2. Domains of State-Owned, Privately Held, and Publicly Traded Firms in International Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascarenhas, Briance

    1989-01-01

    Hypotheses relating ownership to domain differences among state-owned, publicly traded, and privately held firms in international competition were examined in a controlled field study of the offshore drilling industry. Ownership explained selected differences in domestic market dominance, international presence, and customer orientation, even…

  3. The Factors That Influence Dietary Habits among International Students in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alakaam, Amir A.; Castellanos, Diana C.; Bodzio, Jessica; Harrison, Lee

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the dietary intake changes and factors related to dietary acculturation in international students attending an urban university in the United States. The researchers administered seven focus groups of college-age international students (n = 32) between June and August 2012. The participants were enrolled in Northeastern and…

  4. 40 CFR Appendix A to Subpart A of... - State Regulation of Nonroad Internal Combustion Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State Regulation of Nonroad Internal Combustion Engines A Appendix A to Subpart A of Part 89 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Nonroad Internal Combustion Engines This appendix sets forth the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's...

  5. Prebiotic effect of fructo–oligosaccharides on growth and physiological state of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Řehulka

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Rainbow trout at an average weight of 240 g were examined for the effect of dietary fructo–oligosaccharides in the diet on their growth and physiological state through selected biochemical parameters of the blood plasma. The prebiotic product Profeed® (experimental group, EG was administered on a continuous basis at a rate of g kg−1 of pellets for 105 days. The best growth performance for the EG was found in 42 days (363 ± 34.7 g vs. 340 ± 36.7 g, P = 0.003 and in 63 days (387 ± 35.6 g vs. 364 ± 42.3 g, P = 0.011. SGR of the fish from the EG was 0.69% and from the control group (CG was 0.70%. The feed conversion level was 0.82 in the EG and 0.86 in the CG. Survival rate was 99% (EG and 98% (CG. The results of the biochemical examination indicate significant differences in the creatinine (28 ± 5.5 vs. 22 ± 3.05 µmol L−1 and the sodium cation (157.9 1.66 vs. 155.7 ± 1.49 mmol L−1 level and in the catalytic concentration of alkaline phosphatase (5.18 ± 1.57 vs. 3.43 ± 0.78 µkat L−1. The positive results of the growth and biochemical tests as well as the favourable feed conversion suggest that it would be worthwhile to test higher concentrations of the Profeed® prebiotic product.

  6. Differential mechanism of Escherichia coli Inactivation by (+)-limonene as a function of cell physiological state and drug's concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chueca, Beatriz; Pagán, Rafael; García-Gonzalo, Diego

    2014-01-01

    (+)-limonene is a lipophilic antimicrobial compound, extracted from citrus fruits' essential oils, that is used as a flavouring agent and organic solvent by the food industry. A recent study has proposed a common and controversial mechanism of cell death for bactericidal antibiotics, in which hydroxyl radicals ultimately inactivated cells. Our objective was to determine whether the mechanism of Escherichia coli MG1655 inactivation by (+)-limonene follows that of bactericidal antibiotics. A treatment with 2,000 μL/L (+)-limonene inactivated 4 log10 cycles of exponentially growing E. coli cells in 3 hours. On one hand, an increase of cell survival in the ΔacnB mutant (deficient in a TCA cycle enzyme), or in the presence of 2,2'-dipyridyl (inhibitor of Fenton reaction by iron chelation), thiourea, or cysteamine (hydroxyl radical scavengers) was observed. Moreover, the ΔrecA mutant (deficient in an enzyme involved in SOS response to DNA damage) was more sensitive to (+)-limonene. Thus, this indirect evidence indicates that the mechanism of exponentially growing E. coli cells inactivation by 2,000 μL/L (+)-limonene is due to the TCA cycle and Fenton-mediated hydroxyl radical formation that caused oxidative DNA damage, as observed for bactericidal drugs. However, several differences have been observed between the proposed mechanism for bactericidal drugs and for (+)-limonene. In this regard, our results demonstrated that E. coli inactivation was influenced by its physiological state and the drug's concentration: experiments with stationary-phase cells or 4,000 μL/L (+)-limonene uncovered a different mechanism of cell death, likely unrelated to hydroxyl radicals. Our research has also shown that drug's concentration is an important factor influencing the mechanism of bacterial inactivation by antibiotics, such as kanamycin. These results might help in improving and spreading the use of (+)-limonene as an antimicrobial compound, and in clarifying the controversy about

  7. The Current State of Rural Neurosurgical Practice: An International Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyayula, Pavan S; Yue, John K; Yang, Jason; Birk, Harjus S; Ciacci, Joseph D

    2018-01-01

    Rural and low-resource areas have diminished capacity to care for neurosurgical patients due to lack of infrastructure, healthcare investment, and training programs. This review summarizes the range of rural neurosurgical procedures, novel mechanisms for delivering care, rapid training programs, and outcome differences across international rural neurosurgical practice. A comprehensive literature search was performed for English language manuscripts with keywords "rural" and "neurosurgery" using the National Library of Medicine PubMed database (01/1971-06/2017). Twenty-four articles focusing on rural non-neurosurgical practice were included. Time to care and/or surgery and shortage of trained personnel remain the strongest risk factors for mortality and poor outcome. Telemedicine consults to regional centers with neurosurgery housestaff have potential for increased timeliness of diagnosis/triage, improved time to surgery, and reductions in unnecessary transfers in remote areas. Mobile neurosurgery teams have been deployed with success in nations with large transport distances precluding initial transfers. Common neurosurgical procedures involve trauma mechanisms; accordingly, training programs for nonneurosurgery medical personnel on basic assessment and operative techniques have been successful in resource-deficient settings where neurosurgeons are unavailable. Protracted transport times, lack of resources/training, and difficulty retaining specialists are barriers to successful outcomes. Advances in telemedicine, mobile neurosurgery, and training programs for urgent operative techniques have been implemented efficaciously. Development of guidelines for paired partnerships between rural centers and academic hospitals, supplying surplus technology to rural areas, and rapid training of qualified local surgical personnel can create sustainable feed-forward programs for trainees and infrastructural solutions to address challenges in rural neurosurgery.

  8. The current state of rural neurosurgical practice: An international perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavan S Upadhyayula

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Rural and low-resource areas have diminished capacity to care for neurosurgical patients due to lack of infrastructure, healthcare investment, and training programs. This review summarizes the range of rural neurosurgical procedures, novel mechanisms for delivering care, rapid training programs, and outcome differences across international rural neurosurgical practice. Methods: A comprehensive literature search was performed for English language manuscripts with keywords “rural” and “neurosurgery” using the National Library of Medicine PubMed database (01/1971–06/2017. Twenty-four articles focusing on rural non-neurosurgical practice were included. Results: Time to care and/or surgery and shortage of trained personnel remain the strongest risk factors for mortality and poor outcome. Telemedicine consults to regional centers with neurosurgery housestaff have potential for increased timeliness of diagnosis/triage, improved time to surgery, and reductions in unnecessary transfers in remote areas. Mobile neurosurgery teams have been deployed with success in nations with large transport distances precluding initial transfers. Common neurosurgical procedures involve trauma mechanisms; accordingly, training programs for nonneurosurgery medical personnel on basic assessment and operative techniques have been successful in resource-deficient settings where neurosurgeons are unavailable. Conclusions: Protracted transport times, lack of resources/training, and difficulty retaining specialists are barriers to successful outcomes. Advances in telemedicine, mobile neurosurgery, and training programs for urgent operative techniques have been implemented efficaciously. Development of guidelines for paired partnerships between rural centers and academic hospitals, supplying surplus technology to rural areas, and rapid training of qualified local surgical personnel can create sustainable feed-forward programs for trainees and

  9. The Current State of Rural Neurosurgical Practice: An International Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyayula, Pavan S.; Yue, John K.; Yang, Jason; Birk, Harjus S.; Ciacci, Joseph D.

    2018-01-01

    Introduction: Rural and low-resource areas have diminished capacity to care for neurosurgical patients due to lack of infrastructure, healthcare investment, and training programs. This review summarizes the range of rural neurosurgical procedures, novel mechanisms for delivering care, rapid training programs, and outcome differences across international rural neurosurgical practice. Methods: A comprehensive literature search was performed for English language manuscripts with keywords “rural” and “neurosurgery” using the National Library of Medicine PubMed database (01/1971–06/2017). Twenty-four articles focusing on rural non-neurosurgical practice were included. Results: Time to care and/or surgery and shortage of trained personnel remain the strongest risk factors for mortality and poor outcome. Telemedicine consults to regional centers with neurosurgery housestaff have potential for increased timeliness of diagnosis/triage, improved time to surgery, and reductions in unnecessary transfers in remote areas. Mobile neurosurgery teams have been deployed with success in nations with large transport distances precluding initial transfers. Common neurosurgical procedures involve trauma mechanisms; accordingly, training programs for nonneurosurgery medical personnel on basic assessment and operative techniques have been successful in resource-deficient settings where neurosurgeons are unavailable. Conclusions: Protracted transport times, lack of resources/training, and difficulty retaining specialists are barriers to successful outcomes. Advances in telemedicine, mobile neurosurgery, and training programs for urgent operative techniques have been implemented efficaciously. Development of guidelines for paired partnerships between rural centers and academic hospitals, supplying surplus technology to rural areas, and rapid training of qualified local surgical personnel can create sustainable feed-forward programs for trainees and infrastructural solutions to

  10. Internal migration, center-state grants, and economic growth in the states of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cashin, P; Sahay, R

    1996-03-01

    "This paper examines the growth experience of 20 states of India during 1961-91, using cross-sectional estimation and the analytical framework of the Solow-Swan neoclassical growth model. We find evidence of absolute convergence--initially poor states grew faster than their initially rich counterparts. Also, the dispersion of real per capita state incomes widened over the period 1961-91. However, relatively more grants were transferred from the central government to the poor states than to their rich counterparts. Significant barriers to population flows also exist, as net migration from poor to rich states responded only weakly to cross-state income differentials." excerpt

  11. The Golden Horde State in the System of International Relations »

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.М. Mirgaleev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present article examines the place of the Golden Horde in the system of international relations of the 13th–14th centuries as well as directions of its foreign policy. To determine the place of the ulus of Jochi in the international system the author suggests to disclose the subject through illumination of such important issues as: – the Mongol conquests and creation of the Chingisid state entities, the establishment of a new international order. – formation of the ulus of Jochi as an independent State and its role in the Chingisid States’ relations, the kurultai of 1269. – international activities of the Golden Horde State during the period of its might. – interstate coalitions in the global geopolitics and national interests of the ulus of Jochi in international systems. – The role and place of the Golden Horde in the international life of the second half of the 14th – early 15th centuries. The program activity of the Jochids in a new geopolitical situation of the late 14th – early 15th centuries. The author believes that the establishment of the Golden Horde State occurred in three phases (1207–1241, 1242–1259, 1260–1269. The Jochids’ policy towards their neighbors and other Chingisid states formed during this time. Both the Distemper of the 1360–70’s in the ulus of Jochi and destruction of all other Chingisid States resulted in the Golden Horde’s loss of its place in the system of international relations. Therefore, the program activity of the Jochids in a new geopolitical situation of the late 14th – early 15th centuries, was aimed at restoring the international authority of the State. The author considers the directions of the Golden Horde foreign policy, which were laid down during the reign of Berke khan and remained a priority until the end of the 14th century.

  12. International cooperation workshop on CTBTO international cooperation and national implementation for states from East and Southern Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-09-01

    In pursuant to its 2002 programme of work, the Provisional Technical Secretariat (PTS) of the Preparatory Commission of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization organized a workshop on CTBTO international cooperation and national implementation for states from East and Southern Africa in Nairobi, Kenya, from 18 to 20 June 2002. The summary report on the workshop has been provided, covering ways and means of promoting regional cooperation. The list of participants and the programme outline are annexed thereto

  13. International cooperation workshop on CTBTO international cooperation and national implementation for states from East and Southern Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-09-01

    In pursuant to its 2002 programme of work, the Provisional Technical Secretariat (PTS) of the Preparatory Commission of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization organized a workshop on CTBTO international cooperation and national implementation for states from East and Southern Africa in Nairobi, Kenya, from 18 to 20 June 2002. The summary report on the workshop has been provided, covering ways and means of promoting regional cooperation. The list of participants and the programme outline are annexed thereto.

  14. Slurry dispersion state as a parameter to control internal structure of alumina green compact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, M.; Shui, A.; Tanaka, S.; Uchida, N.; Uematsu, K. [Nagaoka Univ. of Technology, Niigata (Japan)

    2002-07-01

    The dispersion state of slurry must be controlled to produce granules with appropriated properties for pressing. In this study dispersion state of alumina slurry is changed to form granules with different morphology, deformation property and packing density, and the influence on the internal structure of green compact are presented. Novel methods applying liquid immersion technique coupled with different type of microscopy were used to characterize the internal structures of green compacts. Two types of granules were obtained: dimpled, hard and dense granule, and spherical, soft and loose granule. The respective internal structures of green compacts were totally different. (orig.)

  15. Predicting biological system objectives de novo from internal state measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maranas Costas D

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Optimization theory has been applied to complex biological systems to interrogate network properties and develop and refine metabolic engineering strategies. For example, methods are emerging to engineer cells to optimally produce byproducts of commercial value, such as bioethanol, as well as molecular compounds for disease therapy. Flux balance analysis (FBA is an optimization framework that aids in this interrogation by generating predictions of optimal flux distributions in cellular networks. Critical features of FBA are the definition of a biologically relevant objective function (e.g., maximizing the rate of synthesis of biomass, a unit of measurement of cellular growth and the subsequent application of linear programming (LP to identify fluxes through a reaction network. Despite the success of FBA, a central remaining challenge is the definition of a network objective with biological meaning. Results We present a novel method called Biological Objective Solution Search (BOSS for the inference of an objective function of a biological system from its underlying network stoichiometry as well as experimentally-measured state variables. Specifically, BOSS identifies a system objective by defining a putative stoichiometric "objective reaction," adding this reaction to the existing set of stoichiometric constraints arising from known interactions within a network, and maximizing the putative objective reaction via LP, all the while minimizing the difference between the resultant in silico flux distribution and available experimental (e.g., isotopomer flux data. This new approach allows for discovery of objectives with previously unknown stoichiometry, thus extending the biological relevance from earlier methods. We verify our approach on the well-characterized central metabolic network of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Conclusion We illustrate how BOSS offers insight into the functional organization of biochemical networks

  16. 75 FR 504 - U.S. Department of State Advisory Committee on Private International Law: Organization of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-05

    ... on consumer rights as part of its program on private international law. Three proposals have been put... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice 6255] U.S. Department of State Advisory Committee on Private International Law: Organization of American States (OAS) Specialized Conference on Private International Law...

  17. Cigarette Smoking among Korean International College Students in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sa, Jaesin; Seo, Dong-Chul; Nelson, Toben F.; Lohrmann, David K.

    2013-01-01

    Objective and Participants: This study explored (1) the prevalence of cigarette smoking among South Korean international college students in the United States, (2) differences in smoking between on- and off-campus living arrangements, and (3) predictors of an increase in smoking over time in the United States Methods: An online survey was…

  18. Internal-state analysis in layered artificial neural network trained to categorize lung sounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oud, M

    2002-01-01

    In regular use of artificial neural networks, only input and output states of the network are known to the user. Weight and bias values can be extracted but are difficult to interpret. We analyzed internal states of networks trained to map asthmatic lung sound spectra onto lung function parameters.

  19. High-resolution internal state control of ultracold 23Na87Rb molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Mingyang; Ye, Xin; He, Junyu; Quéméner, Goulven; Wang, Dajun

    2018-02-01

    We report the full internal state control of ultracold 23Na87Rb molecules, including vibrational, rotational, and hyperfine degrees of freedom. Starting from a sample of weakly bound Feshbach molecules, we realize the creation of molecules in single hyperfine levels of both the rovibrational ground and excited states with a high-efficiency and high-resolution stimulated Raman adiabatic passage. This capability brings broad possibilities for investigating ultracold polar molecules with different chemical reactivities and interactions with a single molecular species. Moreover, starting from the rovibrational and hyperfine ground state, we achieve rotational and hyperfine control with one- and two-photon microwave spectroscopy to reach levels not accessible by the stimulated Raman transfer. The combination of these two techniques results in complete control over the internal state of ultracold polar molecules, which paves the way to study state-dependent molecular collisions and state-controlled chemical reactions.

  20. Phun Week: Understanding Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limson, Mel; Matyas, Marsha Lakes

    2009-01-01

    Topics such as sports, exercise, health, and nutrition can make the science of physiology relevant and engaging for students. In addition, many lessons on these topics, such as those on the cardiovascular, respiratory, and digestive systems, align with national and state life science education standards. Physiology Understanding Week (PhUn…

  1. The effects of parity, litter size, physiological state, and milking frequency on the metabolic profile of Lacaune dairy ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-García, E; Tesniere, A; Camous, S; Bocquier, F; Barillet, F; Hassoun, P

    2015-01-01

    , physiological states, and FREQ on metabolic profiles were found because of differences in nutrient partitioning when combining these experimental factors. Without considering FREQ, changes in metabolic measures in milking period were marginal compared with the periparturient adjustments performed until weaning to compensate energy deficiencies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Internal mammary chain irradiation in breast cancer: State of the art

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auberdiac, P.; Cartier, L.; Hau Desbat, N.H.; De Laroche, G.; Magne, N.; Chargari, C.; Zioueche, A.; Melis, A.; Kirova, Y.M.

    2011-01-01

    Radiation therapy has a major role in the management of infiltrative breast cancers. However, there is no consensus for the prophylactic treatment of the internal mammary chain (IMC), with strategies that show strong differences according to centers and physicians. Indications for internal mammary chain radiotherapy are debated, since this treatment significantly increases the dose delivered to the heart and leads to potential technical difficulties. Important prospective data recently suggested that internal mammary chain radiotherapy would not be necessary, even in cases of internal or central tumor locations, or in patients with positive axillary lymph nodes. Although these data warrant confirmation by two other prospective trials, there is evidence that the indications for internal mammary chain radiotherapy should be careful and that high quality techniques should be used for decreasing the dose delivered to the heart. This review of literature presents the state of art on the radiotherapy of internal mammary chain, with special focus on the indications, techniques, and potential toxicity. (authors)

  3. Rice Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    P.A. Counce; Davidi R. Gealy; Shi-Jean Susana Sung

    2002-01-01

    Physiology occurs tn physical space through chemical reactions constrained by anatomy and morphology, yet guided by genetics. Physiology has been called the logic of life. Genes encode structural and fimcdonal proteins. These proteins are subsequently processed to produce enzymes that direct and govern the biomechanical processes involved in the physiology of the...

  4. Physiological and Growth Characteristics of Brassica rapa 'Tokyo Bekana' Grown within the International Space Station Crop Production System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgner, Samuel Edward

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) as well as many other space research organizations across the globe have advanced the idea of using plants as a method of bioregenerative life support for decades. Currently, the International Space Station (ISS) houses a small vegetable-production system named "Veggie." Veggie is equipped with a light-emitting diode (LED) cap, a reservoir that provides water to the root zone through capillary action, and adjustable bellows that enclose the growing environment allowing for controlled air circulation. However, Veggie draws air from the cabin space and ISS environmental conditions are controlled for human comfort and function as opposed to optimal plant growth conditions. During the first experiment within Veggie aboard the ISS, temperature averaged 22 ºC (+/- 0.25), relative humidity was 43.9% (+/- 3.7), and CO2 fluctuated around 2,800 ppm (+/- 678). Preliminary trials selected Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa 'Tokyo Bekana') as the most suitable cultivar for production within Veggie based on its horticultural, organoleptic, and nutritional characteristics. Introducing this cultivar into ISS conditions (mimicked in a growth chamber) led to extensive chlorosis, necrosis, and growth inhibition. Attempts to ameliorate this observed stress by changing light spectrum, slow-release fertilizer composition, and growth substrate were unsuccessful suggesting that this issue could be attributed to environmental conditions. Analyzing effects of CO2 at 450, 900 and 1350 ppm on growth, photosynthesis, and stomatal conductance in this cultivar revealed a poor ability to acclimate to this environmental variable. In order to develop an efficient system of plant production aboard the ISS or other potential spacecraft, a more efficient CO2 regulation system must be implemented within the cabin space or within a defined plant production area and species should be screened based on their ability to thrive in such an environment.

  5. International safeguards in nuclear weapon states - Status and look into the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jorant, C.

    2013-01-01

    This paper shall recall the framework for the application of international safeguards in the 5 Nuclear Weapons States (USA, Russia, China, United-Kingdom and France) and give an overview on their implementation. It shall then discuss some reasons for an evolution of those States and IAEA's commitments to apply its safeguards and suggests ideas for an increased but efficient involvement of IAEA in those States fully taking into account the specificities of those States within the State Level Approach.The paper is followed by the slides of the presentation. (author)

  6. International Cooperation Among States in Globalized Era: The Decline of State Sovereignty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    - Koesrianti

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the national sovereignty and regionalism in the context of the membership of a state into regional economic organisations. It concludes that in nowadays-shrinking world the traditional concept of sovereignty is less relevant since states have suffered a loss in their sovereignty. It found that member states of regional economic organisations have to cede a degree of sovereignty, such as in the EU. This phenomenon however is not the case for NAFTA and AFTA.

  7. State and multilateralism, a theoretical approach. Transformations in a globalized international society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paloma González del Miño

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The State, classical international actor, has had to readaption to the new dynamics in the International Society and has given prominence to other actors. In this logic, it´s relevant to analyze the role in the international system after the Cold War to evaluare whether it is still an actor capable of responding to the functional needs of the society. For this, reaffirms its commitment to multilateralism as a response to the main issue on the international agenda. Namely, is reactivated as an ideal tool to manage structural changes, despite the different interpretations of United States, the European Union or the BRICS. The object of this analysis contribute to the academic debate and focuses on studying the transformations of the State in the globalized international society where multilateralism has become a concept discussed and a common practice in the international discourse, despite its complexity and the different visions and interpretations by different actors. Multilateralism granted the State a path of cooperation and understanding as a guiding principle and foreign policy legitimizing discourse.

  8. Fermentation pH influences the physiological-state dynamics of Lactobacillus bulgaricus CFL1 during pH-controlled culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rault, Aline; Bouix, Marielle; Béal, Catherine

    2009-07-01

    This study aims at better understanding the effects of fermentation pH and harvesting time on Lactobacillus bulgaricus CFL1 cellular state in order to improve knowledge of the dynamics of the physiological state and to better manage starter production. The Cinac system and multiparametric flow cytometry were used to characterize and compare the progress of the physiological events that occurred during pH 6 and pH 5 controlled cultures. Acidification activity, membrane damage, enzymatic activity, cellular depolarization, intracellular pH, and pH gradient were determined and compared during growing conditions. Strong differences in the time course of viability, membrane integrity, and acidification activity were displayed between pH 6 and pH 5 cultures. As a main result, the pH 5 control during fermentation allowed the cells to maintain a more robust physiological state, with high viability and stable acidification activity throughout growth, in opposition to a viability decrease and fluctuation of activity at pH 6. This result was mainly explained by differences in lactate concentration in the culture medium and in pH gradient value. The elevated content of the ionic lactate form at high pH values damaged membrane integrity that led to a viability decrease. In contrast, the high pH gradient observed throughout pH 5 cultures was associated with an increased energetic level that helped the cells maintain their physiological state. Such results may benefit industrial starter producers and fermented-product manufacturers by allowing them to better control the quality of their starters, before freezing or before using them for food fermentation.

  9. The surface properties of nanoparticles determine the agglomeration state and the size of the particles under physiological conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bantz, C.; Koshkina, O.; Lang, T.; Galla, H.J.; Kirkpatrick, C.J.; Stauber, R.H.; Maskos, M.

    2014-01-01

    Due to the recent widespread application of nanomaterials to biological systems, a careful consideration of their physiological impact is required. This demands an understanding of the complex processes at the bio-nano interface. Therefore, a comprehensive and accurate characterization of the

  10. Investigating the state of physiologically based kinetic modelling practices and challenges associated with gaining regulatory acceptance of model applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Physiologically based kinetic (PBK) models are used widely throughout a number of working sectors, including academia and industry, to provide insight into the dosimetry related to observed adverse health effects in humans and other species. Use of these models has increased over...

  11. Third Level of International Relations: Characteristics of Sub-State Actors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey P. Arteev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is in the genre of the review for textbook O. V. Plotnikova and O. Y. Dubrovina International relations of the regions States: characteristics and features (Moscow: Norma; INFRA-M, 2016. 192 p.. Textbook on international activities of sub-state/subnational actors in international relations. Under the sub-state/subnational actors refers to the regions of the States. The authors propose an along with interstate relations (first level and supranational organizations (second level to distinguish a third level of international relations - international relations of the regions in Federal and unitary States. The topic is very relevant due to the ongoing restructuring of the architecture of international relations and world politics. In addition, these processes lead to involvement in international relations new actors. The resulting configuration and the role of traditional players. In addition to long-term evolutionary processes, we should not forget about the position of Russia in the last few years. It is obvious that the current tensions around the Russian Federation may not be fully resolved with the old methods. At the same time, sub-state/ subnational actors as subjects of a combined nature, the role played by regions of the Russian Federation, able to combine harmoniously in its international activities as the techniques characteristic of the traditional actors - States and developments in the tools of non-traditional actors - international non-governmental and non-profit organizations etc. As a result of positive results can be achieved faster and at the interstate level. The review considers the subject and the relevance of the topic, presents the analysis of the content of the work. Marked strengths of the textbook, including those associated with the consideration of the diagonal ties and the political components in the international activities of the regions. In addition to the advantages, attention is paid to the analysis of

  12. Challenges of the International Criminal Court in the cooperation with the States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Anello

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available International cooperation is one of the main pillars on which the performance of the International Criminal Court is based. The experience, in particular, in the situ- ations referred by the Security Council of the United Nations, allows seeing the dif- ficulties derivates from the denial of States to cooperate with the Court. This paper analyzes the causes for which this breach occurs and what measures are proposed to strengthen cooperation with the Court as a precondition for effective action.

  13. Successful global assessments and monitoring: The roles of the international community and the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund, H.G.

    1991-01-01

    Successful global assessments and monitoring of natural resources requires teamwork between participating nations and the international communities charged with the responsibility for collecting and disseminating information. In an attempt to identify emerging information needs and to promote coordination, the International Union of Forestry Research Organizations (IUFRO) and other national and international groups held a major conference and workshop in Venice, Italy, on global monitoring last September. The results of the meeting and subsequent events in Montreal indicated a need for more aggressive leadership at the international level and more cooperation at the national level. This paper reports on the outcome of the Venice conference and list some things that the international community and the United States must do to make global assessments and monitoring a reality

  14. International issues: Obtaining an adult neurology residency position in the United States: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Justin T; Sellner, Johann; Struhal, Walter; Schneider, Logan; Mayans, David

    2014-04-08

    Around the world, there are marked differences in neurology training, including training duration and degree of specialization. In the United States, adult neurology residency is composed of 1 year of internal medicine training (preliminary year) and 3 years of neurology-specific training. Child neurology, which is not the focus of this article, is 2 years of pediatrics and 3 years of neurology training. The route to adult neurology residency training in the United States is standardized and is similar to most other US specialties. Whereas US medical graduates often receive stepwise guidance from their medical school regarding application for residency training, international graduates often enter this complex process with little or no such assistance. Despite this discrepancy, about 10%-15% of residency positions in the United States are filled by international medical graduates.(1,2) In adult neurology specifically, 35% of matched positions were filled by international graduates in 2013, 75% of whom were not US citizens.(1) In an effort to provide a preliminary understanding of the application process and related terminology (table 1) and thereby encourage international residency applicants, we describe the steps necessary to apply for neurology residency in the United States.

  15. Concepts in context: Processing mental state concepts with internal or external focus involves different neural systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosterwijk, Suzanne; Mackey, Scott; Wilson-Mendenhall, Christine; Winkielman, Piotr; Paulus, Martin P.

    2015-01-01

    According to embodied cognition theories concepts are contextually-situated and grounded in neural systems that produce experiential states. This view predicts that processing mental state concepts recruits neural regions associated with different aspects of experience depending on the context in which people understand a concept. This neuroimaging study tested this prediction using a set of sentences that described emotional (e.g., fear, joy) and non-emotional (e.g., thinking, hunger) mental states with internal focus (i.e. focusing on bodily sensations and introspection) or external focus (i.e. focusing on expression and action). Consistent with our predictions, data suggested that the inferior frontal gyrus, a region associated with action representation, was engaged more by external than internal sentences. By contrast, the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, a region associated with the generation of internal states, was engaged more by internal emotion sentences than external sentence categories. Similar patterns emerged when we examined the relationship between neural activity and independent ratings of sentence focus. Furthermore, ratings of emotion were associated with activation in the medial prefrontal cortex, whereas ratings of activity were associated with activation in the inferior frontal gyrus. These results suggest that mental state concepts are represented in a dynamic way, using context-relevant interoceptive and sensorimotor resources. PMID:25748274

  16. International Students: A Comparison of Health Status and Physical Health before and after Coming to the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Msengi, Clementine M.; Msengi, Israel G.; Harris, Sandra; Hopson, Michael

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the health status and physical health of international students at five American universities. International students in the United States were asked to compare the status of their health before and after coming to the United States. Findings suggested that health status of international students declined…

  17. Radiological and physiological studies on the role of some therapeutic agents used for internal decontamination of radionuclides from male albino rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mangood, S.A.

    2008-01-01

    With the earths increasing nuclear arsenal and the growing use of nuclear energy, the possibility of radiological accidents involving release of radioactive materials, internal contamination may consequently occurs via inhalation, ingestion or absorption of radioisotopes.Therefore, the present work was oriented to deal with four topics related to the internal decontamination of two of the most widely used isotopes, namely 134 Cs and 60 Co from contaminated rats:-In vitro study aimed to select agents that can strongly bind the two metal ions and elucidate the best conditions and the factors affecting this binding. The tested agents were bentonite, vermiculite and Prussian blue (PB). The sorption capacity of PB and vermiculite for both metal ions was high and equivalent to more than 10 11 Bq 137 Cs or 60 Co per gram sorbent. As bentonite has lower capacity to both isotopes, further in vivo experiments were performed with PB and vermiculite.-In vivo studies, via 5 groups of rats, devoted to investigate the kinetics of excretion of 134 Cs and/or 60 Co from contaminated rats. The biological half lives of excretion, excretion stages for both isotopes and the effect of route of entry on the excretion were estimated.-In vivo studies aimed to investigate the effectiveness of PB + vermiculite and CaDTPA as therapeutic agents for accelerating the elimination of 134 Cs and/or 60 Co from contaminated rats. The study was performed via 6 groups of rats given different regimes of therapy. The results showed the high efficiency of PB + vermiculite for accelerating elimination of 134 Cs and orally administrated 60 Co while CaDTPA succeeded in accelerating intraperitoneally administrated 60 Co. The study proved that oral administration of PB + vermiculite and injection with CaDTPA at the same time is very effective in accelerating elimination of both contaminants simultaneously.-The physiological studies aimed to evaluate the hazardous effects of 134 Cs and/or 60 Co incorporation and

  18. Poly-lactic acid nanoparticles (PLA-NP) promote physiological modifications in lung epithelial cells and are internalized by clathrin-coated pits and lipid rafts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Luz, Camila Macedo; Boyles, Matthew Samuel Powys; Falagan-Lotsch, Priscila; Pereira, Mariana Rodrigues; Tutumi, Henrique Rudolf; de Oliveira Santos, Eidy; Martins, Nathalia Balthazar; Himly, Martin; Sommer, Aniela; Foissner, Ilse; Duschl, Albert; Granjeiro, José Mauro; Leite, Paulo Emílio Corrêa

    2017-01-31

    Poly-lactic acid nanoparticles (PLA-NP) are a type of polymeric NP, frequently used as nanomedicines, which have advantages over metallic NP such as the ability to maintain therapeutic drug levels for sustained periods of time. Despite PLA-NP being considered biocompatible, data concerning alterations in cellular physiology are scarce. We conducted an extensive evaluation of PLA-NP biocompatibility in human lung epithelial A549 cells using high throughput screening and more complex methodologies. These included measurements of cytotoxicity, cell viability, immunomodulatory potential, and effects upon the cells' proteome. We used non- and green-fluorescent PLA-NP with 63 and 66 nm diameters, respectively. Cells were exposed with concentrations of 2, 20, 100 and 200 µg/mL, for 24, 48 and 72 h, in most experiments. Moreover, possible endocytic mechanisms of internalization of PLA-NP were investigated, such as those involving caveolae, lipid rafts, macropinocytosis and clathrin-coated pits. Cell viability and proliferation were not altered in response to PLA-NP. Multiplex analysis of secreted mediators revealed a low-level reduction of IL-12p70 and vascular epidermal growth factor (VEGF) in response to PLA-NP, while all other mediators assessed were unaffected. However, changes to the cells' proteome were observed in response to PLA-NP, and, additionally, the cellular stress marker miR155 was found to reduce. In dual exposures of staurosporine (STS) with PLA-NP, PLA-NP enhanced susceptibility to STS-induced cell death. Finally, PLA-NP were rapidly internalized in association with clathrin-coated pits, and, to a lesser extent, with lipid rafts. These data demonstrate that PLA-NP are internalized and, in general, tolerated by A549 cells, with no cytotoxicity and no secretion of pro-inflammatory mediators. However, PLA-NP exposure may induce modification of biological functions of A549 cells, which should be considered when designing drug delivery systems. Moreover

  19. Internal structures of self-organized relaxed states and self-similar decay phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondoh, Yoshiomi

    1992-03-01

    A thought analysis on relaxation due to nonlinear processes is presented to lead to a set of general thoughts applicable to general nonlinear dynamical systems for finding out internal structures of the self-organized relaxed state without using 'invariant'. Three applications of the set of general thoughts to energy relaxations in resistive MHD plasmas, incompressible viscous fluids, and incompressible viscous MHD fluids are shown to lead to the internal structures of the self-organized relaxed states. It is shown that all of the relaxed states in these three dynamical systems are followed by self-similar decay phase without significant change of the spatial structure. The well known relaxed state of ∇ x B = ±λ B is shown to be derived generally in the low β plasma limit. (author)

  20. 77 FR 52784 - U.S. Department of State Advisory Committee on Private International Law: Notice of Annual Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-30

    ... Choice of Court Agreements; international contract law; developments in major PIL organizations... International Law: Notice of Annual Meeting The Department of State's Advisory Committee on Private International Law (ACPIL) will hold its annual meeting on developments in private international law on Thursday...

  1. Problems of introduction of international standards of conscientious state financial management in Ukrainian practice

    OpenAIRE

    Anhelina, I.

    2014-01-01

    The m aintenance of the INTOSAI GOV standardssystem, which show by itself guidance from a conscientious state financial management in the field of internal control and standards of record-keeping, is generalized. The directions of the use of risk and control model COSO are determinated for the financial management of state sector in part of authentication of sources of risk, aims and duties of organization. The measures are worked out on introduction of standards of INTOSAI GOVand models of C...

  2. International Cooperation of Izmail State University for Humanities in 2015-2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mykola Kapliienko

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the state and perspectives of international cooperation of Izmail State University for Humanities with academic partners abroad. Special attention is given to the participation of the University in European research networks for educational and curricula quality promotion, as well as to improvement of academic staff professional qualification in view of social and regional needs for sustainable economic and social development.

  3. Influence of physiologically active complex isolated from human amnion on lipid peroxide oxidation state and antioxidant activity of blood in rats after irradiation in different doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borshchevs'ka, M.Yi.; Popov, V.V.; Abramova, L.P.; Kuz'myinova, Yi.A.

    1995-01-01

    The authors have studied the influence of physiologically active complex isolated from human amnion on the state of lipid peroxide oxidation according to diene conjugate and malonic dialdehyde amount and antioxidant enzyme activity (catalase and glutationperoxidase) in the blood of the rats exposed to single total irradiation in different doses (4 and 6 Gy) was studied. Definite changes of peroxide process intensity and reduction of the enzymes activity were shown to be observed in the blood of experimental animals even at long terms after the radiation exposure. Under the background of radiation exposure, administration of physiologically active complex isolated from human amnion produced protective effect on antioxidant enzyme activity which promoted normalization of peroxidation processes within the post-radiation period

  4. The Design and Implementation of a Peer Mentoring Program for International Students at Morehead State University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Donell Cochran

    2017-01-01

    Peer mentoring is a way to help guide and form valuable relationships between two or more students and plays an important role in the success, both academically and socially, of students. At Morehead State University (MSU), the International Peer Mentoring Program (IPMP) was designed and implemented in the Fall of 2016 to assist in the academic…

  5. International Benchmarking and Determinants of Mathematics Achievement in Two Indian States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Kin Bing; Goldschmidt, Pete; Boscardin, Christy Kim; Sankar, Deepa

    2009-01-01

    Evidence from cross-country studies suggests that the sustainability of India's rapid economic growth will be conditioned by the quality of its education. This paper analyzed a 2005 World Bank-sponsored survey of Grade Nine students in the states of Rajasthan and Orissa. The survey used internationally comparable items from the 1999 Trends of…

  6. Narrative Competence and "Internal State Language" of Children with Asperger Syndrome and ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumpf, Anna-Lena; Kamp-Becker, Inge; Becker, Katja; Kauschke, Christina

    2012-01-01

    The central question of the present study was whether there are differences between children with Asperger Syndrome (AS), children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and healthy controls (HC) with respect to the organization of narratives and their verbalization of internal states. Oral narrations of a wordless picture book…

  7. The current state of international cooperation in case of a nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupuy, R. J.

    1988-01-01

    The state where the accident occurs is responsible for taking defence measures against the damaging effects of ionizing radiation inside and outside its frontiers. Since Chernobyl accident, the international Atomic Energy Agency has completed the rule specifying that the country responsible of the accident should notify all other countries susceptible to be affected by the consequences, with two conventions. (author)

  8. The Impact of International Financial Reporting Standards on Accounting Curriculum in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yallapragada, RamMohan R.; Toma, Alfred G.; Roe, C. William

    2011-01-01

    According to the time line presently specified by the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC), business firms in the United States (US) should switch from the existing US accounting reporting guidelines of the Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP) to International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) by the year 2014. The US business…

  9. Predicting a State’s Foreign Policy: State Preferences between Domestic and International Constraints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alons, G.C.

    2007-01-01

    In order to understand a state’s foreign policy preferences, we need to take both its domestic and international considerations into account. This article aims to contribute to the analysis of foreign policy by exploring the conditions under which states will either give precedence to domestic or

  10. United States Energy Association Final Report International Partnership for the Hydrogen Economy Ministerial Conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William L. Polen

    2006-04-05

    This report summarizes the activities of the United States Energy Association as it conducted the initial Ministerial Meeting of the International Partnership for the Hydrogen Economy in Washington, DC on November 18-21, 2003. The report summarizes the results of the meeting and subsequent support to the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy in its role as IPHE Secretariat.

  11. Applicable law in investor-state arbitration: the interplay between national and international law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kjos, H.E.

    2013-01-01

    This book examines the law, national and/or international, that arbitral tribunals apply on the merits to settle disputes between foreign investors and host states. In light of the freedom that the disputing parties and the arbitrators have when designating the applicable law, and because of the

  12. International responsability of state by the deleterius effects of ionising radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faria, N.M. de.

    1988-01-01

    International Responsability of State, considering the deleterius effects of ionising radiation on the human being, property, territory and environment which are under other jurisdiction, is focused. Conventional rules, costumary rules, the evolution of ''opinion juris'' as well as the decisions of tribunals related to the subject are analysed. (author) [pt

  13. International Trends in Health Science Librarianship Part 19: The Balkan States (Bulgaria and Croatia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirilova, Savina; Skoric, Lea

    2016-09-01

    This is the 19th in a series of articles exploring international trends in health science librarianship in the 21st century. The focus of the present issue is the Balkan Region (Bulgaria and Croatia). The next regular feature column will investigate two other Balkan states - Serbia and Slovenia. JM. © 2016 Health Libraries Group.

  14. Reforming Investor–State Dispute Settlement: A (Comparative and International) Constitutional Law Framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schill, S.W.

    As a result of the steep increase in investment arbitrations, and the problems this has brought to the fore, many reform efforts in international investment law focus on changes to investor–state dispute settlement (ISDS). Reform proposals, however, diverge widely (ranging from exiting the system

  15. Analysis of actual state on enterprise competitive intelligence at internal and abroad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Nansheng

    2010-01-01

    Based on the actual state of the enterprise competitive intelligence at internal and abroad and on the point of view of practice and theory, it sets forth the character of ci and the influence on the enterprise, analyzes objectivity the questions and the challenges in using CI in our country, brings up the methods and channels in setting up the CIS. (author)

  16. A Comparative Analysis of Internal Communication and Public Relations Audits. State of the Art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dozier, David M.; Hellweg, Susan A.

    A review of current literature regarding the state of the art in the conduct of internal communication and public relations audits by public relations practitioners reveals that these two related measurement activities are of considerable importance to the practice of public relations. Public relations audits are concerned with exploratory…

  17. Neural Correlates of Visual Aesthetics - Beauty as the Coalescence of Stimulus and Internal State

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, Richard H. A. H.; Renken, Remco; Cornelissen, Frans W.

    2012-01-01

    How do external stimuli and our internal state coalesce to create the distinctive aesthetic pleasures that give vibrance to human experience? Neuroaesthetics has so far focused on the neural correlates of observing beautiful stimuli compared to neutral or ugly stimuli, or on neural correlates of

  18. Analysis Ability Professional Internal Auditor In The Three State-Owned Company In Bandung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Ait Novatiani

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to analysis professional skills of internal auditors in the three state-owned companies in Bandung. The research method used descriptive method the sampling technique used in this research is non probability sampling that the saturation sampling data collection techniques used primary data and secondary data. Based on the research results it can be concluded that the ability of professional internal auditors in the three companies in Bandung good meaning that the company State Owned Enterprises SOEs already meet the ability components of professional internal auditors that their conformity with the standards of the profession knowledge and skills human relations and communication continuing education and professional rigor.

  19. International legal problem in combating 'Islamic State' terrorist group in Syria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevanović Miroslav

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available 'Islamic State of Iraq and Syria' (ISIS has occupied parts of internationally recognized states and exerts further territorial pretensions. ISIS, also, implements a repressive rule, through violations of human rights and humanitarian law, which may constitute international crimes. In facing the threat od ISIS, the perception of international terrorism is important since this group has the features of a territorial entity. So far, facing with the threat of ISIS has been reduced to a model that is adopted by the UN Security Council against the terrorist network Al-Qaida. An international coalition of states, led by the United States, has undertaken air strikes on positions ISIS, on several grounds: the responsibility to protect, the protection of national security, and at the request of Iraq. At the same time, the strikes are applied in Syria, which can not be accountable for the actions of ISIS and has not requested international assistance. International law does not allow actions which would aim to destroy or jeopardize the territorial integrity or political independence of any sovereign and independent state, which is acting in accordance with the principle of equal rights and self-determination of peoples, and is hence governed by a representative government. The UNSC resolution 2249 remains short of recommending international armed action under the aegis of UNSC, but represents a step forward in recognizing the responsibility of this body in facing ISIS, at least as far as the 'destruction of refuge' is concerned. The use of force in the territory of Syria, without the express authorization of the UNSC is illegal, because terrorism does not constitute grounds for the use of force against countries. But, it opens broader issues of responsibility for the development of ISIS and the humanitarian crisis in the Middle East, as well as the functioning of the system of collective security. Overcoming the current crisis UNSC implies not just a

  20. Exogenous Antioxidants—Double-Edged Swords in Cellular Redox State: Health Beneficial Effects at Physiologic Doses versus Deleterious Effects at High Doses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaouad Bouayed

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The balance between oxidation and antioxidation is believed to be critical in maintaining healthy biological systems. Under physiological conditions, the human antioxidative defense system including e.g., superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, glutathione (GSH and others, allows the elimination of excess reactive oxygen species (ROS including, among others superoxide anions (O2.-, hydroxyl radicals (OH., alkoxyl radicals (RO. and peroxyradicals (ROO.. However, our endogenous antioxidant defense systems are incomplete without exogenous originating reducing compounds such as vitamin C, vitamin E, carotenoids and polyphenols, playing an essential role in many antioxidant mechanisms in living organisms. Therefore, there is continuous demand for exogenous antioxidants in order to prevent oxidative stress, representing a disequilibrium redox state in favor of oxidation. However, high doses of isolated compounds may be toxic, owing to prooxidative effects at high concentrations or their potential to react with beneficial concentrations of ROS normally present at physiological conditions that are required for optimal cellular functioning. This review aims to examine the double-edged effects of dietary originating antioxidants with a focus on the most abundant compounds, especially polyphenols, vitamin C, vitamin E and carotenoids. Different approaches to enrich our body with exogenous antioxidants such as via synthetic antioxidants, diets rich in fruits and vegetables and taking supplements will be reviewed and experimental and epidemiological evidences discussed, highlighting that antioxidants at physiological doses are generally safe, exhibiting interesting health beneficial effects.

  1. The Effect of Interacting with Two Devices when Creating the Illusion of Internal State in Tangible Widgets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Christoffer; Bork, Andreas Heldbjerg; Memborg, Jakob Birch

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates whether the illusion of internal state in passive tangible widgets is stronger when using one touchscreen device or two devices. Passive tangible widgets are an increasingly popular way to interact with tablet games. Since the production of passive widgets is usually cheaper...... than the production of widgets with internal state, it is much more cost-efficient to induce the illusion of internal state in passive widgets than to use tangible widgets with an actual internal state. An experiment was conducted where the participants’ belief in the illusion was determined by means...

  2. Policy and technical issues for international safeguards in nuclear weapons states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markin, J.T.; Stanbro, W.D.

    1994-01-01

    Expansion of international safeguards into the military and commercial fuel cycles of the nuclear weapons states (NWS) -- the subject of previous proposals in international safeguards discussions and of studies in the safeguards literature -- has been given impetus by recent US government initiatives for safeguards on excess weapons materials and a verified fissile materials production cutoff. These proposals, if implemented, would have implications on the safeguards objectives, approaches, and technologies that are traditionally employed in international safeguards. This paper examines the modifications and innovations that might be required to the current international safeguards regime in meeting these proposed new roles. Although the examples given are in the context of the US materials and facilities, many of the conclusions are valid for other NWS. None of the statements in this paper represent official US position on policy for international safeguards in weapons states. Instead, the purpose is to identify policy and technical issues and to offer, where possible, options for their resolution. This paper limits consideration to the potential role of the IAEA in verifying these proposed initiatives for declared facilities, recognizing that there may also be a role for bilateral, multilateral, or regional verification regimes. Indeed, in some cases verification of weapons materials may be more appropriate for a bilateral arrangement. Because traditional IAEA safeguards may not be admissible for weapons materials, the concept of ''transparency'' is suggested as a less intrusive alternative providing some confidence that materials are as declared

  3. Coherent Motion Reveals Non‐Ergodic Nature of Internal Conversion between Excited States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhlman, Thomas Scheby; Sølling, Theis I.; Møller, Klaus Braagaard

    2012-01-01

    for smaller molecules. Specifically, we focus on the S2→S1 internal conversion in cyclobutanone, cyclopentanone, and cyclohexanone. By means of time‐resolved mass spectrometry and photoelectron spectroscopy the relative rate of this transition is determined to be 13:2:1. Remarkably, we observe coherent......We found that specific nuclear motion along low‐frequency modes is effective in coupling electronic states and that this motion prevail in some small molecules. Thus, in direct contradiction to what is expected based on the standard models, the internal conversion process can proceed faster...

  4. Presidential elections in the United States: implications for international and European security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. S. Vonsovych

    2016-10-01

    In conclusion it should be noted that the full implementation of D. Trump’s plans for international and European security will depend on how the declared initiatives will correspond to his real actions. Perhaps this would require more than a year, but now the world and the European community must be ready for serious structural and geopolitical changes. The presence of a number of acute problems makes the role of the United States in the process of ensuring international and European security hardly predictable.

  5. Internal States and Behavioral Decision-Making: Toward an Integration of Emotion and Cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Ann; Asahina, Kenta; Hoopfer, Eric; Inagaki, Hidehiko; Jung, Yonil; Lee, Hyosang; Remedios, Ryan; Anderson, David J

    2014-01-01

    Social interactions, such as an aggressive encounter between two conspecific males or a mating encounter between a male and a female, typically progress from an initial appetitive or motivational phase, to a final consummatory phase. This progression involves both changes in the intensity of the animals' internal state of arousal or motivation and sequential changes in their behavior. How are these internal states, and their escalating intensity, encoded in the brain? Does this escalation drive the progression from the appetitive/motivational to the consummatory phase of a social interaction and, if so, how are appropriate behaviors chosen during this progression? Recent work on social behaviors in flies and mice suggests possible ways in which changes in internal state intensity during a social encounter may be encoded and coupled to appropriate behavioral decisions at appropriate phases of the interaction. These studies may have relevance to understanding how emotion states influence cognitive behavioral decisions at higher levels of brain function. Copyright © 2014 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  6. Climate policy in India: what shapes international, national and state policy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atteridge, Aaron; Shrivastava, Manish Kumar; Pahuja, Neha; Upadhyay, Himani

    2012-01-01

    At the international level, India is emerging as a key actor in climate negotiations, while at the national and sub-national levels, the climate policy landscape is becoming more active and more ambitious. It is essential to unravel this complex landscape if we are to understand why policy looks the way it does, and the extent to which India might contribute to a future international framework for tackling climate change as well as how international parties might cooperate with and support India's domestic efforts. Drawing on both primary and secondary data, this paper analyzes the material and ideational drivers that are most strongly influencing policy choices at different levels, from international negotiations down to individual states. We argue that at each level of decision making in India, climate policy is embedded in wider policy concerns. In the international realm, it is being woven into broader foreign policy strategy, while domestically, it is being shaped to serve national and sub-national development interests. While our analysis highlights some common drivers at all levels, it also finds that their influences over policy are not uniform across the different arenas, and in some cases, they work in different ways at different levels of policy. We also indicate what this may mean for the likely acceptability within India of various climate policies being pushed at the international level.

  7. Experiences of internationally educated nurses holding management positions in the United States: Descriptive phenomenological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Lilian A

    2018-02-12

    The purpose of this study was to explore the experiences of internationally educated nurses in management positions in United States health care organisations to understand the obstacles and support these individuals' experience when pursuing and working in managerial roles. Although internationally educated nurses are an integral part of the US health care industry, few work in managerial roles. Little is known about the experiences of internationally educated nurses who do obtain management positions. In this qualitative, phenomenological study, seven internationally educated nurses who were managers in Chicago, Illinois, responded to open-ended interview questions. Supervisors contributed to the participants' acceptance of management positions. The participants experienced challenges such as cultural differences, language, and communication. Despite these challenges, the participants had positive working relationships with staff and supervisors. Further, the participants had opportunities for education and professional growth. Internationally educated nurses benefit from participating in organisational committees. They face challenges related to work responsibilities, cultural differences and communication but can succeed in management roles through developing strategies to overcome the challenges and through receiving support from staff, colleagues and supervisors. More internationally educated nurses may obtain managerial positions if supervisors provide encouragement and support. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. DDR and the Internal Organization of Non-State Armed Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian McQuinn

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues that demobilization, disarmament and reintegration (DDR trajectories of non-state armed groups are shaped by a group’s internal organization. Extensive research by political scientists has demonstrated a correlation between internal features of armed groups and their behaviour (e.g. extent of violence used against local communities. I extend this analysis to DDR outcomes by illustrating how two features of an armed group’s internal organization – command profile and financing architecture – influence post-conflict DDR trajectories. To substantiate the theory, four case studies from Colombia, Nepal and Libya are reviewed. The article concludes with the limitations and opportunities of this approach, including the potential of predicting DDR challenges.

  9. Fast nuclear reactors. Associated international projects. State of the art and assessment of the concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azpitarte, O.; Ramilo, L.

    2013-01-01

    The recognition of the strategic importance of nuclear energy as a source of sustainable energy may be perceived in the continuous development, in many countries, of the technology of fast nuclear reactors with an associated closed fuel cycle, assuming that these Generation IV innovative systems will be required in the future. These reactors fulfill international requirements for safety and reliability, economic competitiveness, sustainability and proliferation resistance. They have the potential of using more efficiently the natural resources of Uranium and of reducing the volume and radiotoxicity of the nuclear waste by partitioning and transmutation of Minor Actinides. The national and international programs being carried out today are concentrated in the following concepts: Sodium Fast Reactor (SFR), Lead Fast Reactor (LFR), Gas Fast Reactor (GFR), Super Critical Water Reactor (SCWR) and Molten Salt Reactor (MSR). This article presents a short review of the technology of the mentioned concepts and details the current state of the main national and international related projects. (author)

  10. The state of the international organ trade: a provisional picture based on integration of available information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimazono, Yosuke

    2007-12-01

    Organ transplantation is widely practised worldwide. The expansion of organ transplantation has led to a critical shortage of organs and the development of the organ trade. Many patients travel to areas where organs are obtainable through commercial transactions. Although the international organ trade is regarded as an important health policy issue, its current state remains obscure because of scarce data and the lack of efforts to synthesize available data. This paper is an attempt to integrate information about the current international organ trade and create a tentative global picture based on a systematic review of 309 media reports, journal articles and other documents. The international organ trade is described in terms of its forms, the organ-exporting countries, the organ-importing countries and its outcomes and consequences.

  11. Legal protection of private persons in the case of acts of foreign states contrary to international law - with special reference to international environmental law

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwarze, J

    1986-01-01

    The author describes the basis for claims following to international law for a case like Chernobyl. He examines possibilities of enforcement of private claims, regarding legal protection in courts of the state where the incident occurred, and of the state where the damage was suffered, of the International Court of Justice, and by way of diplomatic protection. Individual guarantees of procedure still can be improved at present.

  12. Legal protection of private persons in the case of acts of foreign states contrary to international law - with special reference to international environmental law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarze, J.

    1986-01-01

    The author describes the basis for claims following to international law for a case like Chernobyl. He examines possibilities of enforcement of private claims, regarding legal protection in courts of the state where the incident occurred, and of the state where the damage was suffered, of the International Court of Justice, and by way of diplomatic protection. Individual guarantees of procedure still can be improved at present. (CW) [de

  13. NATION-STATE COMING BACK ON THE SCENE OF INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Moisoiu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper is trying to present the hypothesis of nation-state’s return as a relevant actor in foreign relations. Globalization, together with pax Americana, as a main nuclei of globalization, have extrapolated the idea of natural order and market economy, as it seemed that any discussion related to the role of state becomes obsolete. The recent events, with political and economic resonance, the market failures and instability, which required interventionist measures of the state for recovery and stability, major changes and trends of political spectrum, especially in the Western world have contradicted the prospect of natural order. Nevertheless, the discussion surrounding the role of state in economy, the invigoration of nation-state in international relations with possible future implications is regaining momentum.

  14. Benzothiazole-Based AIEgen with Tunable Excited-State Intramolecular Proton Transfer and Restricted Intramolecular Rotation Processes for Highly Sensitive Physiological pH Sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kai; Feng, Qi; Niu, Guangle; Zhang, Weijie; Li, Yuanyuan; Kang, Miaomiao; Xu, Kui; He, Juan; Hou, Hongwei; Tang, Ben Zhong

    2018-04-23

    In this work, a benzothiazole-based aggregation-induced emission luminogen (AIEgen) of 2-(5-(4-carboxyphenyl)-2-hydroxyphenyl)benzothiazole (3) was designed and synthesized, which exhibited multifluorescence emissions in different dispersed or aggregated states based on tunable excited-state intramolecular proton transfer (ESIPT) and restricted intramolecular rotation (RIR) processes. 3 was successfully used as a ratiometric fluorescent chemosensor for the detection of pH, which exhibited reversible acid/base-switched yellow/cyan emission transition. More importantly, the pH jump of 3 was very precipitous from 7.0 to 8.0 with a midpoint of 7.5, which was well matched with the physiological pH. This feature makes 3 very suitable for the highly sensitive detection of pH fluctuation in biosamples and neutral water samples. 3 was also successfully used as a ratiometric fluorescence chemosensor for the detection of acidic and basic organic vapors in test papers.

  15. The international right to health: state obligations and private actors in the health care system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Paula

    2013-09-01

    Most health systems have historically used a mix of public and private actors for financing and delivering care. But the last 30 years have seen many rich and middle-income countries moving to privatise parts of their health care systems. This phenomenon has generated concerns, especially about equitable access to health care. This article examines what the international right to the highest attainable standard of health in Art 12 of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights says about the obligations of states which use private actors in health care. The article involves a close study of the primary documents of the key institutions responsible for interpreting and promoting Art 12. From this study, the article concludes that in mixed public-private health care systems, states not only retain primary responsibility for fulfilling the right to health but are subject to a range of additional specific responsibilities.

  16. Comparative Study Between Internal Ohmic Resistance and Capacity for Battery State of Health Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Nisvo Ramadan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to avoid battery failure, a battery management system (BMS is necessary. Battery state of charge (SOC and state of health (SOH are part of information provided by a BMS. This research analyzes methods to estimate SOH based lithium polymer battery on change of its internal resistance and its capacity. Recursive least square (RLS algorithm was used to estimate internal ohmic resistance while coloumb counting was used to predict the change in the battery capacity. For the estimation algorithm, the battery terminal voltage and current are set as the input variables. Some tests including static capacity test, pulse test, pulse variation test and before charge-discharge test have been conducted to obtain the required data. After comparing the two methods, the obtained results show that SOH estimation based on coloumb counting provides better accuracy than SOH estimation based on internal ohmic resistance. However, the SOH estimation based on internal ohmic resistance is faster and more reliable for real application

  17. 77 FR 530 - Department of State Advisory Committee on Private International Law: Notice of Renewal of Charter

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-05

    ... transactions; online dispute resolution; international leasing and franchising; and other topics of current... International Law: Notice of Renewal of Charter The Charter of the Department of State's Advisory Committee on Private International Law has been renewed, effective for a two-year period. Pursuant to the Federal...

  18. 76 FR 6171 - U.S. Department of State Advisory Committee on Private International Law (ACPIL): Public Meeting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-03

    ... International Law (ACPIL): Public Meeting on Family Law The Department of State, Office of Legal Adviser, Office of Private International Law would like to give notice of a public meeting to discuss preparations for the upcoming Special Commission of the Hague Conference on Private International Law on the 1980...

  19. 25 CFR 542.4 - How do these regulations affect minimum internal control standards established in a Tribal-State...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How do these regulations affect minimum internal control... COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS § 542.4 How do these regulations affect minimum internal control standards established in a Tribal-State compact? (a) If there is a...

  20. 75 FR 32834 - U.S. Department of State Advisory Committee on Private International Law Study Group Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice 7041] U.S. Department of State Advisory Committee on Private International Law Study Group Notice of Meeting on the United Nations Commission on International Trade Law (UNCITRAL) Draft Legislative Guide on Secured Transactions and Its Treatment of Security Rights in...

  1. The Development of Internal State Language during the Third Year of Life: A Longitudinal Parent Report Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristen, Susanne; Sodian, Beate; Licata, Maria; Thoermer, Claudia; Poulin-Dubois, Diane

    2012-01-01

    Children's talk about the mind has been scarcely studied in non-English speakers. For this reason, this longitudinal study documents age-related changes in German-speaking children's internal state language. At 24, 30 and 36?months, children were administered general language tests and their internal state vocabulary levels were obtained via…

  2. Performance during internal medicine residency training and subsequent disciplinary action by state licensing boards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadakis, Maxine A; Arnold, Gerald K; Blank, Linda L; Holmboe, Eric S; Lipner, Rebecca S

    2008-06-03

    Physicians who are disciplined by state licensing boards are more likely to have demonstrated unprofessional behavior in medical school. Information is limited on whether similar performance measures taken during residency can predict performance as practicing physicians. To determine whether performance measures during residency predict the likelihood of future disciplinary actions against practicing internists. Retrospective cohort study. State licensing board disciplinary actions against physicians from 1990 to 2006. 66,171 physicians who entered internal medicine residency training in the United States from 1990 to 2000 and became diplomates. Predictor variables included components of the Residents' Annual Evaluation Summary ratings and American Board of Internal Medicine (ABIM) certification examination scores. 2 performance measures independently predicted disciplinary action. A low professionalism rating on the Residents' Annual Evaluation Summary predicted increased risk for disciplinary action (hazard ratio, 1.7 [95% CI, 1.3 to 2.2]), and high performance on the ABIM certification examination predicted decreased risk for disciplinary action (hazard ratio, 0.7 [CI, 0.60 to 0.70] for American or Canadian medical school graduates and 0.9 [CI, 0.80 to 1.0] for international medical school graduates). Progressively better professionalism ratings and ABIM certification examination scores were associated with less risk for subsequent disciplinary actions; the risk ranged from 4.0% for the lowest professionalism rating to 0.5% for the highest and from 2.5% for the lowest examination scores to 0.0% for the highest. The study was retrospective. Some diplomates may have practiced outside of the United States. Nondiplomates were excluded. Poor performance on behavioral and cognitive measures during residency are associated with greater risk for state licensing board actions against practicing physicians at every point on a performance continuum. These findings support

  3. Internal models of limb dynamics and the encoding of limb state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Eun Jung; Shadmehr, Reza

    2005-09-01

    Studies of reaching suggest that humans adapt to novel arm dynamics by building internal models that transform planned sensory states of the limb, e.g., desired limb position and its derivatives, into motor commands, e.g., joint torques. Earlier work modeled this computation via a population of basis elements and used system identification techniques to estimate the tuning properties of the bases from the patterns of generalization. Here we hypothesized that the neural representation of planned sensory states in the internal model might resemble the signals from the peripheral sensors. These sensors normally encode the limb's actual sensory state in which movement errors occurred. We developed a set of equations based on properties of muscle spindles that estimated spindle discharge as a function of the limb's state during reaching and drawing of circles. We then implemented a simulation of a two-link arm that learned to move in various force fields using these spindle-like bases. The system produced a pattern of adaptation and generalization that accounted for a wide range of previously reported behavioral results. In particular, the bases showed gain-field interactions between encoding of limb position and velocity, very similar to the gain fields inferred from behavioral studies. The poor sensitivity of the bases to limb acceleration predicted behavioral results that were confirmed by experiment. We suggest that the internal model of limb dynamics is computed by the brain with neurons that encode the state of the limb in a manner similar to that expected of muscle spindle afferents.

  4. Study of the collagen structure in the superficial zone and physiological state of articular cartilage using a 3D confocal imaging technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Ming H

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The collagen structure in the superficial zone of articular cartilage is critical to the tissue's durability. Early osteoarthritis is often characterized with fissures on the articular surface. This is closely related to the disruption of the collagen network. However, the traditional histology can not offer visualization of the collagen structure in articular cartilage because it uses conventional optical microscopy that does not have insufficient imaging resolution to resolve collagen from proteoglycans in hyaline articular cartilage. This study examines the 3D collagen network of articular cartilage scored from 0 to 2 in the scoring system of International Cartilage Repair Society, and aims to develop a 3D histology for assessing early osteoarthritis. Methods Articular cartilage was visually classified into five physiological groups: normal cartilage, aged cartilage, cartilage with artificial and natural surface disruption, and fibrillated. The 3D collagen matrix of the cartilage was acquired using a 3D imaging technique developed previously. Traditional histology was followed to grade the physiological status of the cartilage in the scoring system of International Cartilage Repair Society. Results Normal articular cartilage contains interwoven collagen bundles near the articular surface, approximately within the lamina splendens. However, its collagen fibres in the superficial zone orient predominantly in a direction spatially oblique to the articular surface. With age and disruption of the articular surface, the interwoven collagen bundles are gradually disappeared, and obliquely oriented collagen fibres change to align predominantly in a direction spatially perpendicular to the articular surface. Disruption of the articular surface is well related to the disappearance of the interwoven collagen bundles. Conclusion A 3D histology has been developed to supplement the traditional histology and study the subtle changes in

  5. Cosmic ray variations of solar origin in relation to human physiological state during the December 2006 solar extreme events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papailiou, M.; Mavromichalaki, H.; Vassilaki, A.; Kelesidis, K. M.; Mertzanos, G. A.; Petropoulos, B.

    2009-02-01

    There is an increasing amount of evidence linking biological effects to solar and geomagnetic disturbances. A series of studies is published referring to the changes in human physiological responses at different levels of geomagnetic activity. In this study, the possible relation between the daily variations of cosmic ray intensity, measured by the Neutron Monitor at the Cosmic Ray Station of the University of Athens (http://cosray.phys.uoa.gr) and the average daily and hourly heart rate variations of persons, with no symptoms or hospital admission, monitored by Holter electrocardiogram, is considered. This work refers to a group of persons admitted to the cardiological clinic of the KAT Hospital in Athens during the time period from 4th to 24th December 2006 that is characterized by extreme solar and geomagnetic activity. A series of Forbush decreases started on 6th December and lasted until the end of the month and a great solar proton event causing a Ground Level Enhancement (GLE) of the cosmic ray intensity on 13th December occurred. A sudden decrease of the cosmic ray intensity on 15th December, when a geomagnetic storm was registered, was also recorded in Athens Neutron Monitor station (cut-off rigidity 8.53 GV) with amplitude of 4%. It is noticed that during geomagnetically quiet days the heart rate and the cosmic ray intensity variations are positively correlated. When intense cosmic ray variations, like Forbush decreases and relativistic proton events produced by strong solar phenomena occur, cosmic ray intensity and heart rate get minimum values and their variations, also, coincide. During these events the correlation coefficient of these two parameters changes and follows the behavior of the cosmic ray intensity variations. This is only a small part of an extended investigation, which has begun using data from the year 2002 and is still in progress.

  6. Effects of various mouthpieces on respiratory physiology during steady-state exercise in college-aged subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, Dena P

    2015-01-01

    Protective mouthpieces have been used in a variety of sports to decrease the risk of orofacial injury. There are limited data to suggest that mouthpiece use during exercise may also provide an ergogenic effect. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of 3 different mouthpiece designs-boil-and-bite (BB) mouthpiece, ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) custom mandibular mouthpiece, and polypropylene (Poly) custom mandibular mouthpiece-on respiratory physiology parameters and compare them with results of a no-mouthpiece (NM) condition. Sixteen college-aged, recreationally fit subjects ran for 10 minutes in 4 separate trials; mouthpiece conditions were randomly assigned to each trial for all subjects. Respiratory and cardiorespiratory measures, including oxygen uptake, carbon dioxide exhalation, ventilation, heart rate, tidal volume, and respiratory rate (RR), were assessed throughout testing. A repeated-measures analysis of variance indicated that RR was significantly lower (P = 0.04) in the BB mouthpiece condition (27.92 breaths per minute [BPM]) than in the NM condition (30.63 BPM). In paired t tests between conditions, the RR demonstrated in the BB condition (27.92 BPM) was significantly lower (P = 0.04) than that of each other condition (NM, 30.63 BPM; EVA, 29.92 BPM; and Poly, 29.92 BPM). The outcomes of the present study demonstrate that the use of the BB mouthpiece decreased RR during exercise. The differences cited between conditions may be attributed to the design of the mouthpiece and its mandibular placement as well as the activity of the genioglossus muscle. However, future studies should assess these parameters to determine the plausibility of these theories.

  7. Heterogeneity of equilibrium molten globule state of cytochrome c induced by weak salt denaturants under physiological condition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamidur Rahaman

    Full Text Available While many proteins are recognized to undergo folding via intermediate(s, the heterogeneity of equilibrium folding intermediate(s along the folding pathway is less understood. In our present study, FTIR spectroscopy, far- and near-UV circular dichroism (CD, ANS and tryptophan fluorescence, near IR absorbance spectroscopy and dynamic light scattering (DLS were used to study the structural and thermodynamic characteristics of the native (N, denatured (D and intermediate state (X of goat cytochorme c (cyt-c induced by weak salt denaturants (LiBr, LiCl and LiClO4 at pH 6.0 and 25°C. The LiBr-induced denaturation of cyt-c measured by Soret absorption (Δε400 and CD ([θ]409, is a three-step process, N ↔ X ↔ D. It is observed that the X state obtained along the denaturation pathway of cyt-c possesses common structural and thermodynamic characteristics of the molten globule (MG state. The MG state of cyt-c induced by LiBr is compared for its structural and thermodynamic parameters with those found in other solvent conditions such as LiCl, LiClO4 and acidic pH. Our observations suggest: (1 that the LiBr-induced MG state of cyt-c retains the native Met80-Fe(III axial bond and Trp59-propionate interactions; (2 that LiBr-induced MG state of cyt-c is more compact retaining the hydrophobic interactions in comparison to the MG states induced by LiCl, LiClO4 and 0.5 M NaCl at pH 2.0; and (3 that there exists heterogeneity of equilibrium intermediates along the unfolding pathway of cyt-c as highly ordered (X1, classical (X2 and disordered (X3, i.e., D ↔ X3 ↔ X2 ↔ X1 ↔ N.

  8. Statement at NRC International Regulators Conference on Nuclear Security, 4 December 2012, Washington, United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amano, Y.

    2012-01-01

    I would like to begin by thanking NRC Chairman Allison Macfarlane for hosting this first regulatory Conference on nuclear security involving regulators, law enforcement agencies and the IAEA. The United States has been a very important partner in the IAEA's nuclear security activities right from the start. It is by far the largest donor to our Nuclear Security Fund. It has actively supported our programmes and has been generous in providing funding, equipment and training to other Member States. When President Obama hosted the first Nuclear Security Summit in April 2010, he said it was important that that event should be part of a ''serious and sustained effort'' to improve nuclear security throughout the world. Since then, a growing number of governments have given high-level attention to this vitally important issue. This is very encouraging. Today, I am especially pleased to see regulators coming together to focus on this subject. I am confident that your meeting will make a valuable contribution to strengthening global nuclear security. I would like to share with you some important recent milestones in the IAEA's nuclear security work. As you know, primary responsibility for ensuring nuclear security lies with national governments. However, governments have recognized that international cooperation is vital. Terrorists and other criminals do not respect international borders and no country can respond effectively on its own to the threat which they pose. In September, our Member States - there are now 158 - reaffirmed the central role of the IAEA in e nsuring coordination of international activities in the field of nuclear security, while avoiding duplication and overlap . Our central role reflects the Agency's extensive membership, our mandate, our unique expertise and our long experience of providing technical assistance and specialist, practical guidance to countries. To put it simply, our work focuses on helping to minimize the risk of nuclear and other

  9. Regulatory Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Helen W.; Whitson, Peggy A.; Putcha, Lakshmi; Baker, Ellen; Smith, Scott M.; Stewart, Karen; Gretebeck, Randall; Nimmagudda, R. R.; Schoeller, Dale A.; Davis-Street, Janis

    1999-01-01

    As noted elsewhere in this report, a central goal of the Extended Duration Orbiter Medical Project (EDOMP) was to ensure that cardiovascular and muscle function were adequate to perform an emergency egress after 16 days of spaceflight. The goals of the Regulatory Physiology component of the EDOMP were to identify and subsequently ameliorate those biochemical and nutritional factors that deplete physiological reserves or increase risk for disease, and to facilitate the development of effective muscle, exercise, and cardiovascular countermeasures. The component investigations designed to meet these goals focused on biochemical and physiological aspects of nutrition and metabolism, the risk of renal (kidney) stone formation, gastrointestinal function, and sleep in space. Investigations involved both ground-based protocols to validate proposed methods and flight studies to test those methods. Two hardware tests were also completed.

  10. Mathematical physiology

    CERN Document Server

    Sneyd, James

    2009-01-01

    There has been a long history of interaction between mathematics and physiology. This book looks in detail at a wide selection of mathematical models in physiology, showing how physiological problems can be formulated and studied mathematically, and how such models give rise to interesting and challenging mathematical questions. With its coverage of many recent models it gives an overview of the field, while many older models are also discussed, to put the modern work in context. In this second edition the coverage of basic principles has been expanded to include such topics as stochastic differential equations, Markov models and Gibbs free energy, and the selection of models has also been expanded to include some of the basic models of fluid transport, respiration/perfusion, blood diseases, molecular motors, smooth muscle, neuroendrocine cells, the baroreceptor loop, turboglomerular oscillations, blood clotting and the retina. Owing to this extensive coverage, the second edition is published in two volumes. ...

  11. Towards a global system of compensation for transboundary nuclear damage: reflexions on the interrelationship of civil and international state liability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Handl, G.

    1993-01-01

    International state liability is an essential complementary element of any global and comprehensive nuclear compensation system. Civil liability alone will not be able to fully compensate victims of a nuclear accident and will therefore not fully internalize the costs of nuclear activities. To make it effective and politically acceptable, state liability must be fully integrated procedurally with any civil liability system as a last tier of compensation following a simple process for handling together both civil and state liability claims at the international level, with individuals being able to sue Installation States. 69 refs

  12. The State Supervision (Control in the Sphere of Economic Activity: International Experience Relevant for Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vdovychenko Larysa Yu.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The attempts in the process of decentralization in Ukraine to implement the best international practices of the State supervision (control in the sphere of economic activity, in the process which depends on the status of deregulation and development of entrepreneurship, have caused the topicality of the problem set. The article is aimed at analyzing the international experience of application of the State supervision (control instruments in the sphere of economic activity and determination of the directions of their use in Ukraine. The stages of reforms of the control and supervision activity both in foreign countries and in Ukraine were considered. The directions and measures on creation of effective system of the State supervision (control in the sphere of economic activity, applied in the world countries, were systematized. Both the positive and the negative aspects of use of foreign instruments of the State supervision (control in the sphere of economic activity in Ukraine have been defined. Recommendations on formation of the national complex system of functioning of control-supervision activity have been given.

  13. Correlation of United States Medical Licensing Examination and Internal Medicine In-Training Examination performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Jose A; Greer, Sharon

    2009-12-01

    The Internal Medicine In-Training Examination (ITE) is administered during residency training in the United States as a self-assessment and program assessment tool. Performance on this exam correlates with outcome on the American Board of Internal Medicine Certifying examination. Internal Medicine Program Directors use the United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) to make decisions in recruitment of potential applicants. This study was done to determine a correlation of USMLE Steps 1, 2 and 3 results with ITE scores in each level of Internal Medicine training. A retrospective review of all residents graduating from an Internal Medicine program from 1999 to 2006 was done. Subjects included had data for all USMLE Steps and ITE during all years of training. Thirty-one subjects were included in the study. Correlations of USMLE Steps 1, 2 and 3 were done with ITE scores (percent correct) in each year of training. Pearson's correlation coefficient (r) was determined for each pairing and a t test to determine statistical significance of the correlation was done. Statistical significance was defined as P value ITE percent correct in PGY I, II and III were 0.46, 0.55 and 0.51 respectively. Corresponding r values for USMLE Step 2 and ITE percent correct were 0.79, 0.70 and 0.72; for USMLE Step 3 these values were 0.51, 0.37 and 0.51 respectively for each training year. USMLE scores are correlated with ITE scores. This correlation was strongest for USMLE Step 2.

  14. Mental states inside out: switching costs for emotional and nonemotional sentences that differ in internal and external focus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosterwijk, Suzanne; Winkielman, Piotr; Pecher, Diane; Zeelenberg, René; Rotteveel, Mark; Fischer, Agneta H

    2012-01-01

    Mental states-such as thinking, remembering, or feeling angry, happy, or dizzy-have a clear internal component. We feel a certain way when we are in these states. These internal experiences may be simulated when people understand conceptual references to mental states. However, mental states can also be described from an "external" perspective, for example when referring to "smiling." In those cases, simulation of visible outside features may be more relevant for understanding. In a switching costs paradigm, we presented semantically unrelated sentences describing emotional and nonemotional mental states while manipulating their internal or external focus. The results show that switching costs occur when participants shift between sentences with an internal and an external focus. This suggests that different forms of simulation underlie understanding these sentences. In addition, these effects occurred for emotional and nonemotional mental states, suggesting that they are grounded in a similar way-through the process of simulation.

  15. State Estimation of International Space Station Centrifuge Rotor With Incomplete Knowledge of Disturbance Inputs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Michael J.

    2005-01-01

    This thesis develops a state estimation algorithm for the Centrifuge Rotor (CR) system where only relative measurements are available with limited knowledge of both rotor imbalance disturbances and International Space Station (ISS) thruster disturbances. A Kalman filter is applied to a plant model augmented with sinusoidal disturbance states used to model both the effect of the rotor imbalance and the 155 thrusters on the CR relative motion measurement. The sinusoidal disturbance states compensate for the lack of the availability of plant inputs for use in the Kalman filter. Testing confirms that complete disturbance modeling is necessary to ensure reliable estimation. Further testing goes on to show that increased estimator operational bandwidth can be achieved through the expansion of the disturbance model within the filter dynamics. In addition, Monte Carlo analysis shows the varying levels of robustness against defined plant/filter uncertainty variations.

  16. Development of a high-resolution apparatus to monitor physiological state of a person undergoing extreme conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kodermyatov Radik

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present research has shown that ECG recordings and parameters of the body functional state are crucial for all kinds of the astronaut pre-flight preparations (centrifuge, thermal chamber, pressure chamber, pressure chamber with special equipment. It is, therefore, important to develop methods and tools for early detection of the preclinical forms of the functional state disorders in patients undergoing high-intensity loads of mixed character. The method based on the hardware-software compleх (HSC with nanosensors of high resolution has been proposed to measure the electrophysiological characteristics and bioelectrical impedance of the body tissues directly exposed to loading. The hardware-software compleх is subjected to clinical trials in Tomsk Research Institute for Cardiology. The obtained results show that the use of nanosensors of high resolution in the HSC without standard filters allows elimination of the power-line interference in ECG recordings. Monitoring of the tissue bioimpedance parameters under test loads enables the detection of preclinical (latent forms of various diseases. After clinical trials in Tomsk Institute for Cardiology the developed apparatus will be proposed for in-depth study of the cardiovascular system and the functional state of the body of astronauts and other persons exposed to extreme loads.

  17. External incentives and internal states guide goal-directed behavior via the differential recruitment of the nucleus accumbens and the medial prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moscarello, J M; Ben-Shahar, O; Ettenberg, A

    2010-10-13

    Goal-directed behavior is governed by internal physiological states and external incentives present in the environment (e.g. hunger and food). While the role of the mesocorticolimbic dopamine (DA) system in behavior guided by environmental incentives has been well studied, the effect of relevant physiological states on the function of this system is less understood. The current study examined the role of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) in the kind of food-reinforced behaviors known to be sensitive to the internal state produced by food deprivation conditions. Operant lever-press reinforced on fixed ratio 1 (FR1) and progressive ratio (PR) schedules was tested after temporary inactivation of, or DA receptor blockade in, the prelimbic mPFC or NAcc core of rats with differing levels of food deprivation (0, 12 and 36-h). Food deprivation increased PR breakpoints, as well as the number of lever-presses emitted on the FR1 schedule. Both temporary inactivation and DA blockade of NAcc reduced breakpoints across deprivation conditions, while temporary inactivation and DA blockade of mPFC reduced breakpoints only in food-deprived rats. Neither manipulation of mPFC and NAcc had any effect on behavior reinforced on the FR1 schedule. Thus, mPFC and NAcc were differentially relevant to the behaviors tested-NAcc was recruited when the behavioral cost per reinforcer was rising or high regardless of food deprivation conditions, while mPFC was recruited when food-deprived animals behaved through periods of sparse reinforcement density in order to maximize available gain. Copyright 2010 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Internal mammary chain irradiation in breast cancer: State of the art; Radiotherapie de la chaine mammaire interne dans les cancers du sein: etat des lieux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auberdiac, P.; Cartier, L.; Hau Desbat, N.H.; De Laroche, G.; Magne, N. [Unite de curietherapie, departement de radiotherapie, institut de cancerologie de la Loire, 108 bis, avenue Albert-Raimond, BP 60008, 42271 Saint-Priest-en-Jarez cedex (France); Chargari, C. [Service d' oncologie radiotherapie, hopital d' instruction des armees du Val-de-Grace, 74, boulevard Port-Royal, 75230 Paris cedex 5 (France); Zioueche, A. [Service de radiotherapie, CHU Dupuytren, 2, avenue Martin-Luther-King, 87000 Limoges (France); Melis, A. [Departement d' oncologie medicale, institut de cancerologie de la Loire, 108 bis, avenue Albert-Raimond, 42271 Saint-Priest-en-Jarez cedex (France); Kirova, Y.M. [Service de radiotherapie oncologique, institut Curie, 26, rue d' Ulm, 75005 Paris (France)

    2011-04-15

    Radiation therapy has a major role in the management of infiltrative breast cancers. However, there is no consensus for the prophylactic treatment of the internal mammary chain (IMC), with strategies that show strong differences according to centers and physicians. Indications for internal mammary chain radiotherapy are debated, since this treatment significantly increases the dose delivered to the heart and leads to potential technical difficulties. Important prospective data recently suggested that internal mammary chain radiotherapy would not be necessary, even in cases of internal or central tumor locations, or in patients with positive axillary lymph nodes. Although these data warrant confirmation by two other prospective trials, there is evidence that the indications for internal mammary chain radiotherapy should be careful and that high quality techniques should be used for decreasing the dose delivered to the heart. This review of literature presents the state of art on the radiotherapy of internal mammary chain, with special focus on the indications, techniques, and potential toxicity. (authors)

  19. Advanced international training course on state systems of accounting for and control of nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-10-01

    This report incorporates all lectures and presentations at the Advanced International Training Course on State Systems of Accounting for and Control of Nuclear Material held April 27 through May 12, 1981 at Santa Fe and Los Alamos, New Mexico, and Richland, Washington, USA. Authorized by the US Nuclear Non-Proliferation Act and sponsored by the US Department of Energy in cooperation with the International Atomic Energy Agency, the course was developed to provide practical training in the design, implementation, and operation of a state system of nuclear materials accountability and control that satisfies both national and international safeguards. Major emphasis for the 1981 course was placed on safeguards methods used at bulk-handling facilities, particularly low-enriched uranium conversion and fuel fabrication plants. The course was conducted by the University of California's Los Alamos National Laboratory, the Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratory, and Exxon Nuclear Company, Inc. Tours and demonstrations were arranged at both the Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico, and the Exxon Nuclear fuel fabrication plant, Richland, Washington

  20. Advanced international training course on state systems of accounting for and control of nuclear materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-10-01

    This report incorporates all lectures and presentations at the Advanced International Training Course on State Systems of Accounting for and Control of Nuclear Material held April 27 through May 12, 1981 at Santa Fe and Los Alamos, New Mexico, and Richland, Washington, USA. Authorized by the US Nuclear Non-Proliferation Act and sponsored by the US Department of Energy in cooperation with the International Atomic Energy Agency, the course was developed to provide practical training in the design, implementation, and operation of a state system of nuclear materials accountability and control that satisfies both national and international safeguards. Major emphasis for the 1981 course was placed on safeguards methods used at bulk-handling facilities, particularly low-enriched uranium conversion and fuel fabrication plants. The course was conducted by the University of California's Los Alamos National Laboratory, the Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratory, and Exxon Nuclear Company, Inc. Tours and demonstrations were arranged at both the Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico, and the Exxon Nuclear fuel fabrication plant, Richland, Washington.

  1. Analysis of internal stress and anelasticity in the shock-compressed state from unloading wave data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, J.N.; Lomdahl, P.S.; Wills, J.M.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on time resolved shock-wave measurements have often been used to infer microstructural behavior in crystalline solids. The authors apply this approach to an interpretation of the release-wave response of an aluminum alloy (6061-T6) as it is dynamically unloaded from a shock-compressed state of 20.7 GPa. The anelastic behavior in the initial portion of the unloading wave is attributed to the accumulation of internal stresses created by the shock process. Specific internal-stress models which are investigated are the double pile-up, the single pile-up, and single dislocation loops between pinning points. It is found that the essential characteristics of double and single pile-ups can be represented by a single dislocation between two pinned dislocations of like sing. Calculations of anelastic wave speeds at constant unloading strain rate are then compared with experimental data. The results suggest that the residual internal stress is due to pinned loops of density 10 15 M - 2 , and the viscous drag coefficient in the shock-compressed state is on the order of 10 - 7 MPa s (approximately two orders of magnitude greater than expected under ambient conditions)

  2. Variation in Emergency Department vs Internal Medicine Excess Charges in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tim; Park, Angela; Bai, Ge; Joo, Sarah; Hutfless, Susan M; Mehta, Ambar; Anderson, Gerard F; Makary, Martin A

    2017-08-01

    Uninsured and insured but out-of-network emergency department (ED) patients are often billed hospital chargemaster prices, which exceed amounts typically paid by insurers. To examine the variation in excess charges for services provided by emergency medicine and internal medicine physicians. Retrospective analysis was conducted of professional fee payment claims made by the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services for all services provided to Medicare Part B fee-for-service beneficiaries in calendar year 2013. Data analysis was conducted from January 1 to July 31, 2016. Markup ratios for ED and internal medicine professional services, defined as the charges submitted by the hospital divided by the Medicare allowable amount. Our analysis included 12 337 emergency medicine physicians from 2707 hospitals and 57 607 internal medicine physicians from 3669 hospitals in all 50 states. Services provided by emergency medicine physicians had an overall markup ratio of 4.4 (340% excess charges), which was greater than the markup ratio of 2.1 (110% excess charges) for all services performed by internal medicine physicians. Markup ratios for all ED services ranged by hospital from 1.0 to 12.6 (median, 4.2; interquartile range [IQR], 3.3-5.8); markup ratios for all internal medicine services ranged by hospital from 1.0 to 14.1 (median, 2.0; IQR, 1.7-2.5). The median markup ratio by hospital for ED evaluation and management procedure codes varied between 4.0 and 5.0. Among the most common ED services, laceration repair had the highest median markup ratio (7.0); emergency medicine physician review of a head computed tomographic scan had the greatest interhospital variation (range, 1.6-27.7). Across hospitals, markups in the ED were often substantially higher than those in the internal medicine department for the same services. Higher ED markup ratios were associated with hospital for-profit ownership (median, 5.7; IQR, 4.0-7.1), a greater percentage of uninsured patients seen

  3. Exercise physiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiens, Bente; Richter, Erik; Wojtaszewski, Jørgen

    2014-01-01

    The passing of Professor Bengt Saltin on September 12, 2014 truly marks the end of an era. As editor of the Journal of Applied Physiology and one of Bengt’s many collaborators and colleagues, I wanted the Journal to celebrate his many seminal contributions by means of an Editorial. Professor Bent...

  4. English Name Transition from Taiwan to the United States: A Case Study of Taiwanese International Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-An Jason Chen

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The way in which Taiwanese students use English names to construct their identities in a new sociocultural setting has received minimal scholarly attention. Drawing on semi-structured interviews with 10 Taiwanese international students, I focused on how the use of ethnic names and English names is structured through social interaction and cultural context at an American university. The results suggest that the acquisition of an English name is not a personal choice, but an authoritative order that originates from private English education in Taiwan. Even though the choice of ethnic and English names in the United States is often constrained by linguistic factors, the use of English names by Taiwanese international students not only discloses their attitudes toward English name adoption, but also greatly influences their identity and acculturation.

  5. Internal migration effectiveness and income effectiveness in the most populous cities in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambinakudige, Shrinidhi; Parisi, Domenico

    2010-01-01

    In this study, migration data compiled by the Internal Revenue Serve (IRS) and the US Census Bureau for 2006-07 were used to analyse internal migration patterns using migration and income effectiveness for the counties containing the 25 most populous cities in the United States. The results indicated that both large metropolitan and rural counties have lost population and income due to migration. Small metropolitan and non-metropolitan counties closer to cities gained population and income. Counties in South Florida attracted a large number of higher-income migrants from the largest cities in the US. In the last 13 years, New York, Los Angeles and Chicago, the three most populous cities in the US, had negative migration effectiveness. Suburban areas and second-tier cities continued to attract people from large metropolitan areas.

  6. International comparison of radon measurement using solid state nuclear track detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Dan; Yang Weigen; Song Jianfeng

    2011-01-01

    It introduces the radon measurements international comparison using solid state track detectors among Zhejiang Environmental Radiation Monitoring Center (RMTC), Japan Chemical Analysis Center (JCAC) and National Institute for Radiological Protection of China CDC (NIRP). The results of the international comparison show that: Compared to the reference values, the measurements' relative deviations of detectors from 3 labs were 2%∼22%, which were exposed in radon chambers with different radon concentration, while the measurements' relative deviations were 0.5%∼13% when exposed in the environment. The measurement's relative deviations of RMTC were 5%∼3% in radon chambers and 0.5%∼9% in the environment, the results met requirements of the relative standards both at home and abroad. (authors)

  7. Improved spin squeezing of an atomic ensemble through internal state control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmer, Daniel; Montano, Enrique; Deutsch, Ivan; Jessen, Poul

    2016-05-01

    Squeezing of collective atomic spins is typically generated by quantum backaction from a QND measurement of the relevant spin component. In this scenario the degree of squeezing is determined by the measurement resolution relative to the quantum projection noise (QPN) of a spin coherent state (SCS). Greater squeezing can be achieved through optimization of the 3D geometry of probe and atom cloud, or by placing the atoms in an optical cavity. We explore here a complementary strategy that relies on quantum control of the large internal spin available in alkali atoms such as Cs. Using a combination of rf and uw magnetic fields, we coherently map the internal spins in our ensemble from the SCS (| f = 4, m = 4>) to a ``cat'' state which is an equal superposition of | f = 4, m = 4>and | f = 4, m = -4>. This increases QPN by a factor of 2 f = 8 relative to the SCS, and therefore the amount of backaction and spin-spin entanglement produced by our QND measurement. In a final step, squeezing generated in the cat state basis can be mapped back to the SCS basis, where it corresponds to increased squeezing of the physical spin. Our experiments suggest that up to 8dB of metrologically useful squeezing can be generated in this way, compared to ~ 3 dB in an otherwise identical experiment starting from a SCS.

  8. The emergence of Applied Physiology within the discipline of Physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tipton, Charles M

    2016-08-01

    Despite the availability and utilization of the physiology textbooks authored by Albrecht von Haller during the 18th century that heralded the modern age of physiology, not all physicians or physiologists were satisfied with its presentation, contents, or application to medicine. Initial reasons were fundamental disagreements between the "mechanists," represented by Boerhaave, Robinson, and von Haller, and the "vitalists," represented by the faculty and graduates of the Montpellier School of Medicine in France, notably, Bordeu and Barthez. Subsequently, objections originated from Europe, United Kingdom, and the United States in publications that focused not only on the teaching of physiology to medical and secondary students, but on the specific applications of the content of physiology to medicine, health, hygiene, pathology, and chronic diseases. At the turn of the 20th century, texts began to appear with applied physiology in their titles and in 1926, physician Samson Wright published a textbook entitled Applied Physiology that was intended for both medical students and the medical profession. Eleven years later, physicians Best and Taylor published The Physiological Basis of Medical Practice: A University of Toronto Texbook in Applied Physiology Although both sets of authors defined the connection between applied physiology and physiology, they failed to define the areas of physiology that were included within applied physiology. This was accomplished by the American Physiological Society (APS) Publications Committee in 1948 with the publication of the Journal of Appplied Physiology, that stated the word "applied" would broadly denote human physiology whereas the terms stress and environment would broadly include work, exercise, plus industrial, climatic and social factors. NIH established a study section (SS) devoted to applied physiology in 1964 which remained active until 2001 when it became amalgamated into other SSs. Before the end of the 20th century when

  9. State of Global Pediatric Neurosurgery Outreach: Survey by the International Education Subcommittee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Matthew C.; Rocque, Brandon G.; Singhal, Ash; Ridder, Tom; Pattisapu, Jogi V.; Johnston, James M.

    2017-01-01

    Object Neurosurgical services are increasingly recognized as essential components of surgical care worldwide. Degree of interest among neurosurgeons regarding international work, and barriers to involvement in global neurosurgical outreach, are largely unexplored. We distributed a survey to members of the AANS/CNS Joint Section on Pediatric Neurosurgery to assess the state of global outreach among its members and identify barriers to involvement. Methods An internet-based questionnaire was developed by the International Education Subcommittee of the AANS/CNS Joint Section on Pediatric Neurosurgery, and distributed to pediatric neurosurgeons via the AANS/CNS Joint Section email contact list. Participants were surveyed on involvement in global neurosurgical outreach, geographic location, nature of participation, and barriers to further involvement. Results A 35.3% response rate was obtained, with 116 respondents completed the survey. 61% performed or taught neurosurgery in a developing country, 49% traveling at least annually. Africa was the most common region (54%), followed by South America (30%), through 29 separate organizing entities. Hydrocephalus was the most commonly treated condition (88%), followed by spinal dysraphism (74%) and tumor (68%). Most respondents obtained follow-up through communication from local surgeons (77%). 71% believed the international experience improved their practice, and 74% were very or extremely interested in working elsewhere. Interference with current practice (61%), cost (44%), and difficulty identifying international partners (43%) were the most commonly cited barriers to participation. Conclusion Any coordinated effort to expand global neurosurgical capacity begins with appreciation for the current state of outreach efforts. Increasing participation in global outreach will require addressing both real and perceived barriers to involvement. Creation and curation of a centralized online database of ongoing projects to facilitate

  10. [International legal aspects of responsibility of states and international organizations for the spread of epidemics, pandemics and mass disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kholikov, I V; Sazonova, K L

    2015-08-01

    The present article deals with international legal issues that arise in case when various mass diseases go beyond any national jurisdiction. The emphasis is made on the problem of international responsibility, which different actors have to bear in such cases. The authors also examine the implementation of responsibility mechanism, including the indentication of the relevant international court, authorized to establish such liability and identify the specific forms of its realization.

  11. Concluding remarks of international symposium on highly excited states in nuclear reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernstein, A. M.; Ikegami, H.; Muraoka, M. [eds.

    1980-01-01

    This is the concluding remarks in the international symposium on highly excited states in nuclear reactions. The remarks concentrate on the giant quadrupole states. In the framework of the distorted wave Born approximation (DWB), the differential cross section can be deduced. The relevant transition matrix elements are defined, and the quantities which are measured in inelastic hadron (h, h') reactions are shown. These are used to obtain both neutron and proton transition multipole matrix elements. This is equivalent to make the isospin decomposition of the electromagnetic transition matrix elements. The ratios of the transition matrix elements of neutrons and protons of the lowest 2/sup +/ states in even-even single closed shell nuclei are evaluated and compared with experimental results. For each nucleus, the consistency between various measurements is generally good. The effect of the virtual excitation of giant 2/sup +/ states into the ground and first excited states of even-even nuclei is discussed. The accuracy of (h, h') results can be tested.

  12. International conference. Mental health consequences of the Chernobyl disaster: current state and future prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyagu, A.I.

    1995-01-01

    Proceedings of the International Conference on the mental health consequences of the Chernobyl disaster: current state and future prospects was introduced.The questions connected with: 1. Mental health disorders biological basis after ionizing radiation influence; 2. Psychiatric aspects of the Chernobyl disaster; 3. Social stress following contradictory information: ways for its overcoming; 4. Rehabilitation and prophylactic measures for mental and nervous disorders. Psycho social rehabilitation of survivors; 5. Psychosomatic effects and somato-neurological consequences of the Chernobyl disaster; 6. Psychosomatic health of children and adolescents survivors of the Chernobyl disaster; 7. Brain damage as result of prenatal irradiation

  13. China’s international trade and air pollution in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jintai; Pan, Da; Davis, Steven J.; Zhang, Qiang; He, Kebin; Wang, Can; Streets, David G.; Wuebbles, Donald J.; Guan, Dabo

    2014-01-01

    China is the world’s largest emitter of anthropogenic air pollutants, and measurable amounts of Chinese pollution are transported via the atmosphere to other countries, including the United States. However, a large fraction of Chinese emissions is due to manufacture of goods for foreign consumption. Here, we analyze the impacts of trade-related Chinese air pollutant emissions on the global atmospheric environment, linking an economic-emission analysis and atmospheric chemical transport modeling. We find that in 2006, 36% of anthropogenic sulfur dioxide, 27% of nitrogen oxides, 22% of carbon monoxide, and 17% of black carbon emitted in China were associated with production of goods for export. For each of these pollutants, about 21% of export-related Chinese emissions were attributed to China-to-US export. Atmospheric modeling shows that transport of the export-related Chinese pollution contributed 3–10% of annual mean surface sulfate concentrations and 0.5–1.5% of ozone over the western United States in 2006. This Chinese pollution also resulted in one extra day or more of noncompliance with the US ozone standard in 2006 over the Los Angeles area and many regions in the eastern United States. On a daily basis, the export-related Chinese pollution contributed, at a maximum, 12–24% of sulfate concentrations over the western United States. As the United States outsourced manufacturing to China, sulfate pollution in 2006 increased in the western United States but decreased in the eastern United States, reflecting the competing effect between enhanced transport of Chinese pollution and reduced US emissions. Our findings are relevant to international efforts to reduce transboundary air pollution. PMID:24449863

  14. Neuronal responses to physiological stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kagias, Konstantinos; Nehammer, Camilla; Pocock, Roger David John

    2012-01-01

    damage during aging that results in decline and eventual death. Studies have shown that the nervous system plays a pivotal role in responding to stress. Neurons not only receive and process information from the environment but also actively respond to various stresses to promote survival. These responses......Physiological stress can be defined as any external or internal condition that challenges the homeostasis of a cell or an organism. It can be divided into three different aspects: environmental stress, intrinsic developmental stress, and aging. Throughout life all living organisms are challenged...... by changes in the environment. Fluctuations in oxygen levels, temperature, and redox state for example, trigger molecular events that enable an organism to adapt, survive, and reproduce. In addition to external stressors, organisms experience stress associated with morphogenesis and changes in inner...

  15. Application of Physiological Self-Regulation and Adaptive Task Allocation Techniques for Controlling Operator Hazardous States of Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; Pope, Alan T.; Freeman, Frederick G.

    2001-01-01

    Prinzel, Hadley, Freeman, and Mikulka found that adaptive task allocation significantly enhanced performance only when used at the endpoints of the task workload continuum (i.e., very low or high workload), but that the technique degraded performance if invoked during other levels of task demand. These researchers suggested that other techniques should be used in conjunction with adaptive automation to help minimize the onset of hazardous states of awareness (HSA) and keep the operator 'in-the-loop.' The paper reports on such a technique that uses psychophysiological self-regulation to modulate the level of task engagement. Eighteen participants were assigned to three groups (self-regulation, false feedback, and control) and performed a compensatory tracking task that was cycled between three levels of task difficulty on the basis of the electroencephalogram (EEG) record. Those participants who had received self-regulation training performed significantly better and reported lower NASA-TLX scores than participants in the false feedback and control groups. Furthermore, the false feedback and control groups had significantly more task allocations resulting in return-to-manual performance decrements and higher EEG difference scores. Theoretical and practical implications of these results for adaptive automation are discussed.

  16. Environmental physiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    Summaries of research projects conducted during 1978 and 1979 are presented. Subject areas include: the effects of environmental pollutants on homeostasis of the hematopoietic system; pollutant effects on steroid metabolism; pollutant effects on pulmonary macrophages; effects of toxic gases on lung cells; the development of immunological methods for assessing lung damage at the cellular level; the response of erythropoietin concentration to various physiological changes; and the study of actinide metabolism in monkey skeletons

  17. Experiences of Nigerian Internationally Educated Nurses Transitioning to United States Health Care Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iheduru-Anderson, Kechinyere C; Wahi, Monika M

    2018-04-01

    Successful transition to practice of internationally educated nurses (IENs) can critically affect quality of care. The aim of this study was to characterize the facilitators and barriers to transition of Nigerian IENs (NIENs) to the United States health care setting. Using a descriptive phenomenology approach, 6 NIENs were interviewed about their transitional experiences in the United States. Thematic methods were used for data analysis. The three major themes identified from the participants' stories were "fear/anger and disappointment" (FAD), "road/journey to success/overcoming challenges" (RJO), and "moving forward" (MF). The FAD theme predominated, including experiences of racism, bullying, and inequality. The RJO theme included resilience, and the MF theme encompassed personal growth. NIENs face personal and organizational barriers to adaptation, especially fear, anger and disappointment. Future research should seek to develop a model for optimal adaptation that focuses on improving both personal and organizational facilitators and decreasing barriers.

  18. Common body of knowledge in internal auditing : A state of the art in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allegrini, M.; Paape, L.; D'Onza, G.; Melville, L.; Sarens, R.

    2008-01-01

    Based on a global research program about internal auditing in practice this research report delivers valuable insights into current and future trends in internal auditing. You will gain benchmarking information on organizational characteristics, internal audit function and staffing, internal

  19. Whither the Pulmonary Ward Attending? Preserving Subspecialty Exposure in United States Internal Medicine Residency Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhosh, Lekshmi; Babik, Jennifer; Looney, Mark R; Hollander, Harry

    2017-04-01

    Twenty years ago, the term "hospitalist" was coined at the University of California-San Francisco (San Francisco, CA), heralding a new specialty focused on the care of inpatients. There are now more than 50,000 hospitalists practicing in the United States. At many academic medical centers, hospitalists are largely replacing subspecialists as attendings on the inpatient medicine wards. At University of California-San Francisco, this has been accompanied by declining percentages of residency graduates who enter subspecialty training in internal medicine. The decline in subspecialty medicine interest can be attributed to many factors, including differences in compensation, decreased subspecialist exposure, and a changing research funding landscape. Although there has not been systematic documentation of this trend in pulmonary and critical care medicine, we have noted previously pulmonary and critical care-bound trainees switching to hospital medicine instead. With our broad, multiorgan system perspective, pulmonary and critical care faculty should embrace teaching general medicine. Residency programs have instituted creative solutions to encourage more internal medicine residents to pursue careers in subspecialty medicine. Some solutions include creating rotations that promote more contact with subspecialists and physician-scientists, creating clinician-educator tracks within fellowship programs, and appointing subspecialists to internal medicine residency leadership positions. We need more rigorous research to track the trends and implications of the generalist-specialist balance of inpatient ward teams on resident career choices, and learn what interventions affect those choices.

  20. Outside the Continental United States International Travel and Contagion Impact Quick Look Tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corley, Courtney D.; Lancaster, Mary J.; Brigantic, Robert T.; Kunkel, Brenda M.; Muller, George; McKenzie, Taylor K.

    2012-11-09

    ABSTRACT This paper describes a tool that will allow public health analysts to estimate infectious disease risk at the country level as a function of different international transportation modes. The prototype focuses on a cholera epidemic originating within Latin America or the Caribbean, but it can be expanded to consider other pathogens as well. This effort leverages previous work in collaboration with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to develop the International Travel to Community Impact (IT-CI) model, which analyzes and assesses potential international disease outbreaks then estimates the associated impacts to U.S. communities and the nation as a whole and orient it for use Outside the Continental United States (OCONUS). For brevity, we refer to this refined model as OIT-CI. First, we developed an operationalized meta-population spatial cholera model for Latin America and the Caribbean at the secondary administrative-level boundary. Secondly, we developed a robust function of human airline critical to approximating mixing patterns in the meta- population model. In the prototype version currently presented here, OIT-CI models a cholera epidemic originating in a Latin American or Caribbean country and spreading via airline transportation routes. Disease spread is modeled at the country level using a patch model with a connectivity function based on demographic, geospatial, and human transportation data. We have also identified data to estimate the water and health-related infrastructure capabilities of each country to include this potential impact on disease transmission.

  1. The International Experience of the State Support for Creating the Transport and Logistics Centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zharska Iryna O.

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at analysis and synthesis of the international experience as to the State support for creating the transport and logistics centers (TLCs. The causes for emergence of the first TLCs in Europe (60-80-ies of XX century were considered. Values of the LPI index for the countries occupying the first 40 positions of the ranking as of 2014 and of 2016 have been provided, and the major changes during this time have been analyzed. The ranking position of Ukraine is displayed separately. Features of the logistics infrastructure of nine countries with a high value of the LPI index have been considered, degree of the State involvement in the formation of the TLC network has been analyzed. It has been substantiated that creation of the transport and logistics centers allows to reduce the logistics costs of individual producers and contributes to enhancing the efficiency of operation of the national economy in general by attracting investments in the infrastructure development, increasing the number of jobs and tax revenues. The basic motifs that determine the interest of the State authorities in providing support for creating the transportation and logistics centers have been defined. Prospect for further research in this direction will be determining the efficiency of using the different models of the State support for creation and development of TLCs

  2. P1 interneurons promote a persistent internal state that enhances inter-male aggression in Drosophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoopfer, Eric D; Jung, Yonil; Inagaki, Hidehiko K; Rubin, Gerald M; Anderson, David J

    2015-01-01

    How brains are hardwired to produce aggressive behavior, and how aggression circuits are related to those that mediate courtship, is not well understood. A large-scale screen for aggression-promoting neurons in Drosophila identified several independent hits that enhanced both inter-male aggression and courtship. Genetic intersections revealed that 8-10 P1 interneurons, previously thought to exclusively control male courtship, were sufficient to promote fighting. Optogenetic experiments indicated that P1 activation could promote aggression at a threshold below that required for wing extension. P1 activation in the absence of wing extension triggered persistent aggression via an internal state that could endure for minutes. High-frequency P1 activation promoted wing extension and suppressed aggression during photostimulation, whereas aggression resumed and wing extension was inhibited following photostimulation offset. Thus, P1 neuron activation promotes a latent, internal state that facilitates aggression and courtship, and controls the overt expression of these social behaviors in a threshold-dependent, inverse manner. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.11346.001 PMID:26714106

  3. A state-of-the-art report on international nuclear information system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sung Ho; Keum, Jong Yong

    1997-02-01

    INIS (International Nuclear Information System) established in 1969 by IAEA, is the world's leading information system for the peaceful uses of nuclear energy in collaboration with its 98 member states and 17 international organizations. As a member state, Korea has participated in the INIS activities from the beginning of INIS establishment. The technical information department of KAERI plays the role of the National Center of the Republic of Korea. The purpose of this study is to prepare the method for the activation of domestic INIS operation. To accomplish the purpose, we investigated and analyzed the status of INIS, domestic INIS activities, and the recent INIS projects. Especially some projects are expected to influence domestic INIS activities deeply in the near future. The analyzed results show that for better INIS activities in Korea, we need to review politically and technically on the methods to amplify the rate of the INIS input, to construct and manage the INIS local host, and to use the source documents on CD-ROMs. (author). 24 refs., 6 tabs., 6 figs

  4. Deconstructing Civil Society Actors and Functions: On the Limitations of International Frameworks for Fragile States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Datzberger

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Over the past three decades, there has been a steady increase of funds by the international community to support civil society organizations (CSOs in fragile states. Surprisingly, this growing attention has not strengthened local civil society landscapes in a way that it would lead to processes of social transformation. On the contrary, civic freedom and space is shrinking around the globe. In analyzing prominent international aid-effectiveness frameworks and donor strategies towards civil society, this paper will put forward one central argument. The way in which civil society actors and functions are currently appropriated threatens deep-rooted social transformation thereby impeding processes of structural and political change—necessary for the transition from conflict to sustainable peace. In delineating, how actors and functional approaches informed peacebuilding and development policy and practice, their strengths and limitations will be examined. Doing so, we draw on different case studies and examples from the literature. We find that existing frameworks for fragile states operate on a presumed model of a public sphere and civil society that may or may not exist. Such an approach disregards an organic formation of a civil society landscape thereby impeding processes of structural, social, and political change in times of fragility.

  5. At loggerheads or in dovetails? The individual and the State from early modern jurisprudence to contemporary international jurisprudence.

    OpenAIRE

    De Lucca, Jean-Paul; Works in Progress Seminars Series

    2012-01-01

    A Works in Progress Seminars Series lecture entitled: At Loggerheads or in dovetails? The individual and the State from early modern jurisprudence to contemporary international jurisprudence. This talk is delivered by Dr Jean Paul De Lucca.

  6. Fairness reactions to personnel selection methods: An international comparison between the Netherlands, the United States, France, Spain, Portugal, and Singapore

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anderson, N.; Witvliet, C.

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports reactions to employee selection methods in the Netherlands and compares these findings internationally against six other previously published samples covering the United States, France, Spain, Portugal, and Singapore. A sample of 167 participants rated 10 popular assessment

  7. Workplace Performance of Hotel and Restaurant Management Interns of West Visayas State University, Calinog Iloilo, Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymund B. Moreno, Ma. Nellie L. Mapa

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to examine the workplace performance of Hotel and Restaurant Management practicum students of West Visayas State University – Calinog Campus as perceived by the interns’ themselves and the supervisors in different hospitality establishments in Iloilo City where students were deployed for on-the-job training in relation to industry-site internship / practicum program for academic year 2013-2014.The result of the study serves as the basis for designing a proposed education or training program in enhancing the workplace performance of Hotel and Restaurant Management Students. The study surveyed 35 practicum students and 23 supervisors in different hospitality establishments in Iloilo City using survey questionnaire based from Competency Standards for hospitality related courses of the Commission on Higher Education (CHED Memorandum Order No.30 series of 2006. Findings revealed that both supervisor and student respondents agreed on the satisfactory performance of the interns in terms of Higher Order Thinking Skills and very satisfactory rating on Personal Qualities . With regard to the Basic Skills (e.g., numerical computation, oral and written communications, the students rated themselves Very Satisfactory while supervisors gave a Satisfactory rating. The same Very Satisfactory performance rating was achieved on Professional Competencies by both respondents. Of the five common competencies, Interpersonal and Technological skills of the interns were rated very satisfactory by both respondents on Interpersonal Skills and on Technological Skills. Also the same satisfactory rating was given on Information skills by both the supervisor and interns. Whereas for the Resources Skills, the interns rated themselves Very Satisfactory rating while the supervisors rated them Satisfactory. It is recommended to continue the review and upgrade industry training in the curriculum and consistently redefine the curricular focus to meet the

  8. A Qualitative Investigation of the Factors Affecting Arab International Students' Persistence in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabia, Hazza Abu

    2017-01-01

    This qualitative study explored the factors that enhance Arab international students' persistence and facilitate their academic and cultural adjustment at postsecondary institutions in the United States. The sample for this study consisted of Arab international students from Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Oman, Syria, UAE, Iraq, and Jordan. In-depth…

  9. 76 FR 56865 - U.S. Department of State Advisory Committee on Private International Law (ACPIL): Public Meeting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-14

    ... International Law (ACPIL): Public Meeting on Electronic Commerce The Department of State, Office of Legal... future work of Working Group IV (international electronic commerce) of the United Nations Commission on... electronic commerce. The report of the Forty-fourth session of UNCITRAL describes the future work of Group IV...

  10. 76 FR 77584 - U.S. Department of State Advisory Committee on Private International Law (ACPIL): Public Meeting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-13

    ... International Law (ACPIL): Public Meeting on Electronic Commerce The Department of State, Office of Legal... electronic transferable records. Working Group IV (international electronic commerce) of the United Nations... electronic transferable records. A report from that meeting, once it is published, should be available at...

  11. 77 FR 23318 - U.S. Department of State Advisory Committee on Private International Law (ACPIL); Online Dispute...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-18

    ... International Law (ACPIL); Online Dispute Resolution (ODR) Study Group Meeting The Office of Private International Law, Office of the Legal Adviser, Department of State hereby gives notice that the ACPIL Online... charged with the development of legal instruments for resolving both business to business and business to...

  12. 76 FR 65318 - U.S. Department of State Advisory Committee on Private International Law (ACPIL)-Online Dispute...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-20

    ... International Law (ACPIL)--Online Dispute Resolution Study Group Meeting (ODR) The Department of State, Office of Legal Adviser, Office of Private International Law ACPIL online dispute resolution (ODR) study... development of legal instruments for resolving both business to business and business to consumer cross-border...

  13. Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the United States of America and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in the United States of America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The text of the Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the United States of America and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in the United States of America is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Board of Governors approved the Additional Protocol on 11 June 1998. It was signed in Vienna on 12 June 1998

  14. Quantum-dynamical Modeling of the Rydberg to Valence Excited-State Internal Conversion in Cyclobutanone and Cyclopentanone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Møller K. B.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present 4-state, 5-dimensional Vibronic Coupling Hamiltonians for cyclobutanone and cyclopentanone. Wave packet calculations using these Hamiltonians reveal that for cyclobutanone the (n,3s to (n,π* internal conversion involves direct motion in nuclear modes coupling the two states leading to fast population transfer. For cyclopentanone, internal vibrational energy redistribution is a bottleneck for activating reactive nuclear modes leading to slower population transfer.

  15. Quantum-dynamical Modeling of the Rydberg to Valence Excited-State Internal Conversion in Cyclobutanone and Cyclopentanone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhlman, T. S.; Sauer, Stephan P. A.; Solling, T. I.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we present 4-state, 5-dimensional Vibronic Coupling Hamiltonians for cyclobutanone and cyclopentanone. Wave packet calculations using these Hamiltonians reveal that for cyclobutanone the (n,3s) to (n,π*) internal conversion involves direct motion in nuclear modes coupling the two st...... states leading to fast population transfer. For cyclopentanone, internal vibrational energy redistribution is a bottleneck for activating reactive nuclear modes leading to slower population transfer....

  16. Occupational physiology

    CERN Document Server

    Toomingas, Allan; Tornqvist, Ewa Wigaeus

    2011-01-01

    In a clear and accessible presentation, Occupational Physiology focuses on important issues in the modern working world. Exploring major public health problems-such as musculoskeletal disorders and stress-this book explains connections between work, well-being, and health based on up-to-date research in the field. It provides useful methods for risk assessment and guidelines on arranging a good working life from the perspective of the working individual, the company, and society as a whole.The book focuses on common, stressful situations in different professions. Reviewing bodily demands and r

  17. Physiological control of behaviour in tephritid fruit flies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Eric B.

    2000-01-01

    Studies on the behaviour of tephritid fruit flies have historically focused on the interaction of external stimuli such as temperature, semiochemicals, seasonality, etc., or the interactions of flies between and among species for a number of observed behaviours such as mating, pheromone calling and oviposition. While descriptive behaviour represent much of what we know about these pest species, less is known about the underlying physiological mechanisms which function in priming or modulation of the observed behaviour. Central to our understanding of tephritid behaviour are the multiple and often complex internal factors which are involved, and the path/mechanisms by which external stimuli result in observed behaviour. Tephritid fruit fly physiology is a vastly understudied research area which may provide important information on how peripheral receptors receive information, the transduction and coding of information centrally and how behaviour is regulated biochemically. The integration of physiology disciplines to help explain behaviour is central to the goal of developing new technology which may be useful in fruit fly control. In our laboratory, we have been studying the mechanisms of chemoreception and its link to behaviour in tephritids in such areas as olfaction, feeding, mating and oviposition. Our approach has been that tephritid behaviour can be largely influenced by their peripheral receptors which are responsible for receiving olfactory, gustatory, visual and tactile information inputs and their physiological state which controls internal modulation of behaviour. Thus, differences in behaviour between species might be explained on the basis of differences in their peripheral receptors, and the plasticity in which observed behaviour vary between the same species could very well be attributed to changes in their physiological state that are not readily apparent merely from visual observation. The importance of the physiological state in behavioural

  18. Predictable Internal Brain Dynamics in EEG and Its Relation to Conscious States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaewook eYoo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Consciousness is a complex and multi-faceted phenomenon defying scientific explanation. Part of the reason why this is the case is due to its subjective nature. In our previous computational experiments, to avoid such a subjective trap, we took a strategy to investigate objective necessary conditions of consciousness. Our basic hypothesis was that predictive internal dynamics serves as such a condition. This is in line with theories of consciousness that treat retention (memory, protention (anticipation, and primary impression as the tripartite temporal structure of consciousness. To test our hypothesis, we analyzed publicly available sleep and awake electroencephalogram (EEG data. Our results show that EEG signals from awake or rapid eye movement (REM sleep states have more predictable dynamics compared to those from slow-wave sleep (SWS. Since awakeness and REM sleep are associated with conscious states and SWS with unconscious or less consciousness states, these results support our hypothesis. The results suggest an intricate relationship among prediction, consciousness, and time, with potential applications to time perception and neurorobotics.

  19. Effects of Relaxing and Arousing Music during Imagery Training on Dart-Throwing Performance, Physiological Arousal Indices, and Competitive State Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuan, Garry; Morris, Tony; Kueh, Yee Cheng; Terry, Peter C

    2018-01-01

    Music that is carefully selected to match the requirements of activities and the characteristics of individuals has been shown to produce significant impacts on performance enhancement (Priest et al., 2004). There is also evidence that music can enhance imagery (Grocke and Wigram, 2007), although few studies have investigated the effects of music on imagery in the context of sport skills. In the present study, the effects of relaxing and arousing music during imagery on dart-throwing performance, physiological arousal indices, and competitive state anxiety, were investigated among 63 novice dart throwers. Participants had moderate-to-high imagery ability and were randomly assigned to unfamiliar relaxing music (URM), unfamiliar arousing music (UAM), or no music (NM) groups. Performance was assessed by 40 dart throws at a concentric circles dartboard before and after 12 imagery sessions over 4 weeks. Measures of galvanic skin response (GSR), peripheral temperature (PT), and heart rate (HR) were taken during imagery sessions 1 and 12, and the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 Revised (CSAI-2R) was administered prior to the pre- and post-intervention performance task. Dart-throwing gain scores were significantly higher for URM than for UAM and NM, with no significant difference between UAM and NM (URM = 37.24 ± 5.66, UAM = 17.57 ± 5.30, and NM = 13.19 ± 6.14, F 2,62 = 5.03, p = 0.01, η 2 = 0.14). GSR, PT, and HR reflected lower arousal for URM than for UAM or NM. Significant decreases in somatic anxiety were evident for URM and UAM but not NM. Significant decreases in cognitive anxiety were evident for URM and NM but not UAM. Significant increases in self-confidence were evident for URM but not UAM or NM. Performance improved in all three conditions but URM was associated with the largest performance gain, the lowest physiological indices of arousal, and the most positive CSAI-2R profiles. Listening to relaxing music during imagery may have benefits for

  20. Effects of Relaxing and Arousing Music during Imagery Training on Dart-Throwing Performance, Physiological Arousal Indices, and Competitive State Anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garry Kuan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Music that is carefully selected to match the requirements of activities and the characteristics of individuals has been shown to produce significant impacts on performance enhancement (Priest et al., 2004. There is also evidence that music can enhance imagery (Grocke and Wigram, 2007, although few studies have investigated the effects of music on imagery in the context of sport skills. In the present study, the effects of relaxing and arousing music during imagery on dart-throwing performance, physiological arousal indices, and competitive state anxiety, were investigated among 63 novice dart throwers. Participants had moderate-to-high imagery ability and were randomly assigned to unfamiliar relaxing music (URM, unfamiliar arousing music (UAM, or no music (NM groups. Performance was assessed by 40 dart throws at a concentric circles dartboard before and after 12 imagery sessions over 4 weeks. Measures of galvanic skin response (GSR, peripheral temperature (PT, and heart rate (HR were taken during imagery sessions 1 and 12, and the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 Revised (CSAI-2R was administered prior to the pre- and post-intervention performance task. Dart-throwing gain scores were significantly higher for URM than for UAM and NM, with no significant difference between UAM and NM (URM = 37.24 ± 5.66, UAM = 17.57 ± 5.30, and NM = 13.19 ± 6.14, F2,62 = 5.03, p = 0.01, η2 = 0.14. GSR, PT, and HR reflected lower arousal for URM than for UAM or NM. Significant decreases in somatic anxiety were evident for URM and UAM but not NM. Significant decreases in cognitive anxiety were evident for URM and NM but not UAM. Significant increases in self-confidence were evident for URM but not UAM or NM. Performance improved in all three conditions but URM was associated with the largest performance gain, the lowest physiological indices of arousal, and the most positive CSAI-2R profiles. Listening to relaxing music during imagery may have benefits for

  1. International contracts - private autonomy and State law: consideration of recent trends with particular attention to their effect on nuclear contracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbone, Sergio

    1981-01-01

    This paper provides a description of several types of international contracts and their clauses, in particular in relation to their limitations which are partly due to compliance with the law of the countries concerned. The actions of private business concerns are increasingly conditioned by the position taken at government level, while States in turn are governed by commitments under Treaties they have concluded, e.g. the International Monetary Fund Treaty and the 1980 Rome Convention relating to contractual obligations. The author also deals with private autonomy and international contracts in the context of the development of international economic relationships. (NEA) [fr

  2. A Strategy to Increase the International Visibility and Participation of a State University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Stephen R.; Miles, Benton E.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a strategy for expanding a university's international participation. An effort to correct international exchange imbalances evolved into a unique international program and partnership with Walt Disney World.

  3. Upgrade of internal events PSA model using the AESJ level-1 PSA standard for operating state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Teruyoshi; Yoneyama, Mitsuru; Hirokawa, Naoki; Sato, Chikahiro; Sato, Eisuke; Tomizawa, Shigeatsu

    2009-01-01

    In 2003, the Atomic Energy Society of Japan (AESJ) started to develop the Level-1 Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) standard of internal events for operating state (AESJ standard). The AESJ standard has been finished to be asked for public comment. Using the AESJ standard (draft version), the authors have upgraded the PSA model for Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO) BWR-5 plant not only to reflect latest knowledge but also to ensure high quality of PSA model (not yet peer-reviewed) for the purpose of better operation and maintenance management of TEPCO BWR plants. For example, the categorization of structures, systems and components (SSCs) will be performed to improve nuclear reactor safety using information of risk importance. (author)

  4. International performance-oriented packaging standards adopted in the united states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCall, D.L.

    1993-01-01

    On January 1, 1991, the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) initiated a transition to adopting a modified version of current international standards for packaging and transporting hazardous materials and hazardous wastes. This transition permits a 5-year phase-in period that will impact all phases of hazardous material transportation including material classification and description, packaging for shipment, and hazard communication standards. These changes are being enacted through the DOT Federal Docket HM-181, 'Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards.' These regulatory standards will have dramatic impact on nearly 5 billion tons of hazardous materials transported within the United States each year. This paper summarizes the principal elements of the new DOT regulations, the latest implementation schedule and impacts on U.S. shipping activities, and discusses outstanding issues that remain to be solved through the next 5 years. (author)

  5. 76 FR 81984 - Bureau of International Labor Affairs; Office of Trade and Labor Affairs; Bahrain-United States...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-29

    ... and Labor Affairs; Bahrain--United States Free Trade Agreement; Notice of Extension of the Period of...) of the Bahrain--United States Free Trade Agreement (FTA). The submission was received on April 21... of Inquiry and the proposal of the Government of Bahrain to the Governing Body of the International...

  6. 75 FR 66420 - U.S. Department of State Advisory Committee on Private International Law (ACPIL): Online Dispute...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-28

    ... B2C e-commerce contract disputes on the basis of a state-sponsored cooperative framework and model... International Law (ACPIL): Online Dispute Resolution (ODR) Study Group The Department of State, Office of Legal... upcoming work in UNCITRAL on the development of legal instruments regarding online dispute resolution for...

  7. Audit of United States portion of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Worldwide efforts in fusion energy research are designed to develop fusion power as a safe, environmentally sound, and economically competitive source of energy. The International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) project is a worldwide effort to demonstrate the scientific and technological feasibility of fusion power. The European Community, Japan, the Russian Federation, and the United States are collaborating on ITER, with each of the four parties expected to equally share costs and benefits. Shared costs for the current engineering design phase of the project are estimated at $1 billion in 1989 dollars, excluding certain management and support costs to be absorbed by each partner, with an early estimate of $6 billion, also in 1989 dollars, for construction of the reactor. Engineering design formally began in July 1992, and this phase is in its formative stages. The US had already spent about $100 million since 1987 on ITER conceptual design activities and other preparatory activities in advance of the engineering design phase. Because of its cost significance, the importance of ITER to the US fusion energy program, and the project's unique aspects which may provide a framework for future international endeavors, we initiated an audit of the ITER project. The purpose of the audit was to evaluate management controls over the US portion of the ITER project. Our objectives was to determine whether key front-end controls were in place to ensure that the project could be managed in an efficient and effective manner

  8. ELiXIR—Solid-State Luminaire With Enhanced Light Extraction by Internal Reflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Steven C.; Steckl, Andrew J.

    2007-06-01

    A phosphor-converted light-emitting diode (pcLED) luminaire featuring enhanced light extraction by internal reflection (ELiXIR) with efficacy of 60 lm/W producing 18 lumens of yellowish green light at 100 mA is presented. The luminaire consists of a commercial blue high power LED, a polymer hemispherical shell lens with interior phosphor coating, and planar aluminized reflector. High extraction efficiency of the phosphor-converted light is achieved by separating the phosphor from the LED and using internal reflection to steer the light away from lossy reflectors and the LED package and out of the device. At 10 and 500 mA, the luminaire produces 2.1 and 66 lumens with efficacies of 80 and 37 lm/W, respectively. Technological improvements over existing commercial LEDs, such as more efficient pcLED packages or, alternatively, higher efficiency green or yellow for color mixing, will be essential to achieving 150 200 lm/W solid-state lighting. Advances in both areas are demonstrated.

  9. Neural Correlates of Visual Aesthetics – Beauty as the Coalescence of Stimulus and Internal State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Richard H. A. H.; Renken, Remco; Cornelissen, Frans W.

    2012-01-01

    How do external stimuli and our internal state coalesce to create the distinctive aesthetic pleasures that give vibrance to human experience? Neuroaesthetics has so far focused on the neural correlates of observing beautiful stimuli compared to neutral or ugly stimuli, or on neural correlates of judging for beauty as opposed to other judgments. Our group questioned whether this approach is sufficient. In our view, a brain region that assesses beauty should show beauty-level-dependent activation during the beauty judgment task, but not during other, unrelated tasks. We therefore performed an fMRI experiment in which subjects judged visual textures for beauty, naturalness and roughness. Our focus was on finding brain activation related to the rated beauty level of the stimuli, which would take place exclusively during the beauty judgment. An initial whole-brain analysis did not reveal such interactions, yet a number of the regions showing main effects of the judgment task or the beauty level of stimuli were selectively sensitive to beauty level during the beauty task. Of the regions that were more active during beauty judgments than roughness judgments, the frontomedian cortex and the amygdala demonstrated the hypothesized interaction effect, while the posterior cingulate cortex did not. The latter region, which only showed a task effect, may play a supporting role in beauty assessments, such as attending to one's internal state rather than the external world. Most of the regions showing interaction effects of judgment and beauty level correspond to regions that have previously been implicated in aesthetics using different stimulus classes, but based on either task or beauty effects alone. The fact that we have now shown that task-stimulus interactions are also present during the aesthetic judgment of visual textures implies that these areas form a network that is specifically devoted to aesthetic assessment, irrespective of the stimulus type. PMID:22384006

  10. Neural correlates of visual aesthetics--beauty as the coalescence of stimulus and internal state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Richard H A H; Renken, Remco; Cornelissen, Frans W

    2012-01-01

    How do external stimuli and our internal state coalesce to create the distinctive aesthetic pleasures that give vibrance to human experience? Neuroaesthetics has so far focused on the neural correlates of observing beautiful stimuli compared to neutral or ugly stimuli, or on neural correlates of judging for beauty as opposed to other judgments. Our group questioned whether this approach is sufficient. In our view, a brain region that assesses beauty should show beauty-level-dependent activation during the beauty judgment task, but not during other, unrelated tasks. We therefore performed an fMRI experiment in which subjects judged visual textures for beauty, naturalness and roughness. Our focus was on finding brain activation related to the rated beauty level of the stimuli, which would take place exclusively during the beauty judgment. An initial whole-brain analysis did not reveal such interactions, yet a number of the regions showing main effects of the judgment task or the beauty level of stimuli were selectively sensitive to beauty level during the beauty task. Of the regions that were more active during beauty judgments than roughness judgments, the frontomedian cortex and the amygdala demonstrated the hypothesized interaction effect, while the posterior cingulate cortex did not. The latter region, which only showed a task effect, may play a supporting role in beauty assessments, such as attending to one's internal state rather than the external world. Most of the regions showing interaction effects of judgment and beauty level correspond to regions that have previously been implicated in aesthetics using different stimulus classes, but based on either task or beauty effects alone. The fact that we have now shown that task-stimulus interactions are also present during the aesthetic judgment of visual textures implies that these areas form a network that is specifically devoted to aesthetic assessment, irrespective of the stimulus type.

  11. Physiological Acoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Eric D.

    The analysis of physiological sound in the peripheral auditory system solves three important problems. First, sound energy impinging on the head must be captured and presented to the transduction apparatus in the ear as a suitable mechanical signal; second, this mechanical signal needs to be transduced into a neural representation that can be used by the brain; third, the resulting neural representation needs to be analyzed by central neurons to extract information useful to the animal. This chapter provides an overview of some aspects of the first two of these processes. The description is entirely focused on the mammalian auditory system, primarily on human hearing and on the hearing of a few commonly used laboratory animals (mainly rodents and carnivores). Useful summaries of non-mammalian hearing are available [1]. Because of the large size of the literature, review papers are referenced wherever possible.

  12. Reproduction-related sound production of grasshoppers regulated by internal state and actual sensory environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf eHeinrich

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The interplay of neural and hormonal mechanisms activated by entero- and exteroreceptors biases the selection of actions by decision making neuronal circuits. The reproductive behaviour of acoustically communicating grasshoppers, which is regulated by short-term neural and longer-term hormonal mechanisms, has frequently been used to study the cellular and physiological processes that select particular actions from the species-specific repertoire of behaviours. Various grasshoppers communicate with species- and situation-specific songs in order to attract and court mating partners, to signal reproductive readiness or to fend off competitors. Selection and coordination of type, intensity and timing of sound signals is mediated by the central complex, a highly structured brain neuropil known to integrate multimodal pre-processed sensory information by a large number of chemical messengers. In addition, reproductive activity including sound production critically depends on maturation, previous mating experience and oviposition cycles. In this regard, juvenile hormone released from the corpora allata has been identified as a decisive hormonal signal necessary to establish reproductive motivation in grasshopper females. Both regulatory systems, the central complex mediating short-term regulation and the corpora allata mediating longer-term regulation of reproduction related sound production mutually influence each other’s activity in order to generate a coherent state of excitation that promotes or suppresses reproductive behaviour in respective appropriate or inappropriate situations.This review summarizes our current knowledge about extrinsic and intrinsic factors that influence grasshopper reproductive motivation, their representation in the nervous system and their integrative processing that mediates the initiation or suppression of reproductive behaviors.

  13. Reproduction-Related Sound Production of Grasshoppers Regulated by Internal State and Actual Sensory Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich, Ralf; Kunst, Michael; Wirmer, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    The interplay of neural and hormonal mechanisms activated by entero- and extero-receptors biases the selection of actions by decision making neuronal circuits. The reproductive behavior of acoustically communicating grasshoppers, which is regulated by short-term neural and longer-term hormonal mechanisms, has frequently been used to study the cellular and physiological processes that select particular actions from the species-specific repertoire of behaviors. Various grasshoppers communicate with species- and situation-specific songs in order to attract and court mating partners, to signal reproductive readiness, or to fend off competitors. Selection and coordination of type, intensity, and timing of sound signals is mediated by the central complex, a highly structured brain neuropil known to integrate multimodal pre-processed sensory information by a large number of chemical messengers. In addition, reproductive activity including sound production critically depends on maturation, previous mating experience, and oviposition cycles. In this regard, juvenile hormone released from the corpora allata has been identified as a decisive hormonal signal necessary to establish reproductive motivation in grasshopper females. Both regulatory systems, the central complex mediating short-term regulation and the corpora allata mediating longer-term regulation of reproduction-related sound production mutually influence each other’s activity in order to generate a coherent state of excitation that promotes or suppresses reproductive behavior in respective appropriate or inappropriate situations. This review summarizes our current knowledge about extrinsic and intrinsic factors that influence grasshopper reproductive motivation, their representation in the nervous system and their integrative processing that mediates the initiation or suppression of reproductive behaviors. PMID:22737107

  14. TAI CHI CHUAN: STATE OF THE ART IN INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH: VOL 52 (MEDICINE & SPORT SCIENCE)

    OpenAIRE

    Youlian Hong

    2008-01-01

    DESCRIPTION This collection on the latest and practical research data about the characteristics and beneficial effects of Tai Chi Chuan on various physiological and pathological matters is published as the 52nd volume of Medicine and Sport Science Journal. PURPOSE To address the effects of Tai Chi Chuan in the fields of biomechanics and physiology, sensory motor control and fall prevention, psychology and social aspects, as well as various clinical applications. FEATURES The book is organised...

  15. Progress towards steady-state operation and real time control of internal transport barriers in JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litaudon, X.

    2002-01-01

    In JET advanced tokamak research mainly focuses on plasmas with internal transport barriers (ITBs), generated by modifications of the current profile. The formerly developed optimised shear regime with low magnetic shear in the plasma center has been extended to deeply reversed magnetic shear configurations. ITBs occur at much lower access powers. The achievement of high fusion performance is reported in deeply reversed magnetic shear configuration. The generation of plasmas with wide ITBs in this configuration has allowed an extension of the accessible normalised toroidal beta at high magnetic field. We report on the successful sustainment and control of the electron and ion ITB in full current drive operation with a large fraction of bootstrap current. Progress towards the steady state capability of ITB plasmas includes techniques to avoid strong ELM activity and the newly developed real time control of the local ITB strength. Thanks to the real time control of the ITB characteristics the improved confinement state is maintained in a more reproducible and stable manner in quasi-stationary conditions. (author)

  16. Interpretive sociology of foreign policy: “agent” model of state behavior on the international arena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Nikolaevich Timofeev

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article revisits the utility of sociological theories for the students of international relations. The failure of IR scholars to predict Ukrainian crisis revealed the limits of realism, which still remains most influential IR theory. These limits make rethink the prospects of convergence of IR and sociological theories. Pros and cons of holistic constructivist theory are examined. The article results in making an “agent-focused” model composed of the concepts of Max Weber’s interpretive sociology, Graham Allison’s typology of models of decision making and Mark Haas’s model of ideological origins of great powers’ politics. In doing so, it also revisits the concept of identity as a mean to understand “social facts” and their influence on foreign policy. The emphasis on the “agent” though not the “structure” is approached as an alternative to holistic constructivism of Alexander Wendt and his epigones. The “agent” model is supposed to be more capable for studies of great powers’, which play an active role in setting up the “structure’s” parameters. Three different approaches to “agent” are considered - “agent” as a state, as a bureaucratic body or structure within the state and as decision-makers and their staff. The model is designed for further empirical research of the Russian foreign policy.

  17. International

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    This rubric reports on 10 short notes about international economical facts about nuclear power: Electricite de France (EdF) and its assistance and management contracts with Eastern Europe countries (Poland, Hungary, Bulgaria); Transnuclear Inc. company (a 100% Cogema daughter company) acquired the US Vectra Technologies company; the construction of the Khumo nuclear power plant in Northern Korea plays in favour of the reconciliation between Northern and Southern Korea; the delivery of two VVER 1000 Russian reactors to China; the enforcement of the cooperation agreement between Euratom and Argentina; Japan requested for the financing of a Russian fast breeder reactor; Russia has planned to sell a floating barge-type nuclear power plant to Indonesia; the control of the Swedish reactor vessels of Sydkraft AB company committed to Tractebel (Belgium); the renewal of the nuclear cooperation agreement between Swiss and USA; the call for bids from the Turkish TEAS electric power company for the building of the Akkuyu nuclear power plant answered by three candidates: Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL), Westinghouse (US) and the French-German NPI company. (J.S.)

  18. International migration patterns of physicians to the United States: a cross-national panel analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussey, Peter S

    2007-12-01

    To analyze the dynamics of physician international migration patterns and identify the countries deviating most from expected migration rates. A negative binomial log-linear model of physician migration to the United States from every other country was constructed using a panel of country-level data for years 1994-2000. The model was used to identify factors associated with physician migration and to identify countries with higher or lower rates of physician migration than expected. Physician migration varied with a country's GDP per capita in an inverse-U pattern, with highest migration rates from middle-income countries. The absence of medical schools, immigrant networks in the United States, medical instruction in English, proximity to the United States, and the lack of political and civil liberties were also associated with higher migration rates. Countries with higher-than-predicted migration rates included Iceland, Albania, Armenia, Dominica, Lebanon, Syria, the United Arab Emirates, and Bulgaria. Countries with lower-than-predicted migration rates included Mexico, Japan, Brazil, Zimbabwe, Mauritania, Portugal, Senegal, and France. This analysis shows that many of the most powerful factors associated with physician migration are difficult or impossible for countries to change through public policy. GDP per capita and proximity to the U.S. are two of the most powerful predictors of physician migration. Networks of immigrants in the U.S. and fewer political and civil liberties also put countries at higher risk for physician emigration. Several other factors that were associated with physician migration might be more easily amenable to policy intervention. These factors include the absence of a medical school and medical instruction in English. Policies addressing these factors would involve making several difficult tradeoffs, however. Other examples of policies that are effective in minimizing physician migration might be found by examining countries with lower

  19. Internal State Dependent Odor Processing and Perception—The Role of Neuromodulation in the Fly Olfactory System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sercan Sayin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Animals rely heavily on their sense of olfaction to perform various vital interactions with an ever-in-flux environment. The turbulent and combinatorial nature of air-borne odorant cues demands the employment of various coding strategies, which allow the animal to attune to its internal needs and past or present experiences. Furthermore, these internal needs can be dependent on internal states such as hunger, reproductive state and sickness. Neuromodulation is a key component providing flexibility under such conditions. Understanding the contributions of neuromodulation, such as sensory neuron sensitization and choice bias requires manipulation of neuronal activity on a local and global scale. With Drosophila's genetic toolset, these manipulations are feasible and even allow a detailed look on the functional role of classical neuromodulators such as dopamine, octopamine and neuropeptides. The past years unraveled various mechanisms adapting chemosensory processing and perception to internal states such as hunger and reproductive state. However, future research should also investigate the mechanisms underlying other internal states including the modulatory influence of endogenous microbiota on Drosophila behavior. Furthermore, sickness induced by pathogenic infection could lead to novel insights as to the neuromodulators of circuits that integrate such a negative postingestive signal within the circuits governing olfactory behavior and learning. The enriched emporium of tools Drosophila provides will help to build a concrete picture of the influence of neuromodulation on olfaction and metabolism, adaptive behavior and our overall understanding of how a brain works.

  20. Space Physiology within an Exercise Physiology Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Jason R.; West, John B.

    2013-01-01

    Compare and contrast strategies remain common pedagogical practices within physiological education. With the support of an American Physiological Society Teaching Career Enhancement Award, we have developed a junior- or senior-level undergraduate curriculum for exercise physiology that compares and contrasts the physiological adaptations of…

  1. International stem cell collaboration: how disparate policies between the United States and the United Kingdom impact research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jingyuan; Flynn, Jesse M; Solnick, Rachel E; Ecklund, Elaine Howard; Matthews, Kirstin R W

    2011-03-08

    As the scientific community globalizes, it is increasingly important to understand the effects of international collaboration on the quality and quantity of research produced. While it is generally assumed that international collaboration enhances the quality of research, this phenomenon is not well examined. Stem cell research is unique in that it is both politically charged and a research area that often generates international collaborations, making it an ideal case through which to examine international collaborations. Furthermore, with promising medical applications, the research area is dynamic and responsive to a globalizing science environment. Thus, studying international collaborations in stem cell research elucidates the role of existing international networks in promoting quality research, as well as the effects that disparate national policies might have on research. This study examined the impact of collaboration on publication significance in the United States and the United Kingdom, world leaders in stem cell research with disparate policies. We reviewed publications by US and UK authors from 2008, along with their citation rates and the political factors that may have contributed to the number of international collaborations. The data demonstrated that international collaborations significantly increased an article's impact for UK and US investigators. While this applied to UK authors whether they were corresponding or secondary, this effect was most significant for US authors who were corresponding authors. While the UK exhibited a higher proportion of international publications than the US, this difference was consistent with overall trends in international scientific collaboration. The findings suggested that national stem cell policy differences and regulatory mechanisms driving international stem cell research in the US and UK did not affect the frequency of international collaborations, or even the countries with which the US and UK most

  2. National Trends and Geographic Variation in Bilateral Internal Mammary Artery Use in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iribarne, Alexander; Goodney, Philip P; Flores, Alyssa M; DeSimone, Joseph; DiScipio, Anthony W; Austin, Andrea; McCullough, Jock N

    2017-12-01

    The goal of this study was to characterize the adoption rate and regional variation in bilateral internal mammary artery (BIMA) use during coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) in the United States. Observational study of 100% sample of fee-for-service Medicare beneficiaries aged 65 years or older, continuously enrolled in Parts A and B from 2009 to 2014 (n = 162,860,439). Rates of beneficiaries receiving a BIMA versus single internal mammary artery (SIMA) during CABG are expressed per 1,000 beneficiaries and aggregated by Hospital Referral Region (HRR). An HRR is a validated unit for quantifying regional variation in health care. The absolute national rate of BIMA use declined during the study period from 0.21 claims per 1,000 beneficiaries in 2009 to 0.13 in 2014 (p < 0.001). When indexed to overall CABG volume, no change was seen in the frequency of BIMA use over time (p = 0.883). SIMA use ranged from 1.3 to 8.5 claims per 1,000 Medicare beneficiaries, whereas BIMA use ranged from 0 to 1.5 (p < 0.001). A significant correlation was found between regional volume of SIMA use and likelihood of BIMA use (correlation coefficient 0.673, p < 0.001). Although both SIMA and BIMA use correlated with regional volume of diagnostic cardiac catheterization, the correlation was stronger for SIMA use (correlation coefficient 0.962 versus 0.682, p < 0.001). Over the past 5 years, no growth was seen in BIMA use among Medicare beneficiaries, and the frequency of BIMA use during CABG remained low. There was significant regional variation in BIMA use, however, which demonstrates opportunity for continued growth of BIMA grafting. Copyright © 2017 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Retrospective Correction of Physiological Noise: Impact on Sensitivity, Specificity, and Reproducibility of Resting-State Functional Connectivity in a Reading Network Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamurthy, Venkatagiri; Krishnamurthy, Lisa C; Schwam, Dina M; Ealey, Ashley; Shin, Jaemin; Greenberg, Daphne; Morris, Robin D

    2018-03-01

    It is well accepted that physiological noise (PN) obscures the detection of neural fluctuations in resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) magnetic resonance imaging. However, a clear consensus for an optimal PN correction (PNC) methodology and how it can impact the rsFC signal characteristics is still lacking. In this study, we probe the impact of three PNC methods: RETROICOR: (Glover et al., 2000 ), ANATICOR: (Jo et al., 2010 ), and RVTMBPM: (Bianciardi et al., 2009 ). Using a reading network model, we systematically explore the effects of PNC optimization on sensitivity, specificity, and reproducibility of rsFC signals. In terms of specificity, ANATICOR was found to be effective in removing local white matter (WM) fluctuations and also resulted in aggressive removal of expected cortical-to-subcortical functional connections. The ability of RETROICOR to remove PN was equivalent to removal of simulated random PN such that it artificially inflated the connection strength, thereby decreasing sensitivity. RVTMBPM maintained specificity and sensitivity by balanced removal of vasodilatory PN and local WM nuisance edges. Another aspect of this work was exploring the effects of PNC on identifying reading group differences. Most PNC methods accounted for between-subject PN variability resulting in reduced intersession reproducibility. This effect facilitated the detection of the most consistent group differences. RVTMBPM was most effective in detecting significant group differences due to its inherent sensitivity to removing spatially structured and temporally repeating PN arising from dense vasculature. Finally, results suggest that combining all three PNC resulted in "overcorrection" by removing signal along with noise.

  4. Thermal state of permafrost in North America: A contribution to the international polar year

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, S.L.; Romanovsky, V.E.; Lewkowicz, A.G.; Burn, C.R.; Allard, M.; Clow, G.D.; Yoshikawa, K.; Throop, J.

    2010-01-01

    A snapshot of the thermal state of permafrost in northern North America during the International Polar Year (IPY) was developed using ground temperature data collected from 350 boreholes. More than half these were established during IPY to enhance the network in sparsely monitored regions. The measurement sites span a diverse range of ecoclimatic and geological conditions across the continent and are at various elevations within the Cordillera. The ground temperatures within the discontinuous permafrost zone are generally above -3°C, and range down to -15°C in the continuous zone. Ground temperature envelopes vary according to substrate, with shallow depths of zero annual amplitude for peat and mineral soils, and much greater depths for bedrock. New monitoring sites in the mountains of southern and central Yukon suggest that permafrost may be limited in extent. In concert with regional air temperatures, permafrost has generally been warming across North America for the past several decades, as indicated by measurements from the western Arctic since the 1970s and from parts of eastern Canada since the early 1990s. The rates of ground warming have been variable, but are generally greater north of the treeline. Latent heat effects in the southern discontinuous zone dominate the permafrost thermal regime close to 0°C and allow permafrost to persist under a warming climate. Consequently, the spatial diversity of permafrost thermal conditions is decreasing over time.

  5. Neurotization indicators and state of mental desadaptation in personnel of internal affairs organs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vyshnichenko S.I.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the data of psychological testing of personnel of internal affairs organs, using LNP test: levels of neuroticism and psychopathsation, prevalence of levels of neuroticism among the personnel, the relationship between neuroticism level and clinical groups (mentally healthy, with burnout syndrome and with non-psychotic mental disorders. Level of neuroticism reflects both dynamic and static (states and properties personality characteristics, i.e. neuroticism is elective personality variable. The clinical picture is characterized by manifestations of asthenonevurotic and psycho-vegetative syndromes. More often among those with non-psychotic mental disorders a high (100% level of neuroticism, increased (87.5% and in the zone of uncertain diagnosis (50% occur, than among those with burnout syndrome, and lower than normal (36.36% and low (19.08% neuroticism level – more often among with burnout syndrome, than in those with non-psychotic mental disorders. Level of neuroticism on the verge of normal and pathological conditions occurs mostly in people with burnout syndrome (50% and non-psychotic mental disorders (50%.

  6. Immigration policy and internationally educated nurses in the United States: A brief history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masselink, Leah E; Jones, Cheryl B

    2014-01-01

    Since the 1980s, U.S. policy makers have used immigration policy to influence the supply of nurses by allowing or restricting the entry of internationally educated nurses (IENs) into the U.S. workforce. The methods pursued have shifted over time from temporary visa categories in the 1980s and 1990s to permanent immigrant visas in the 2000s. The impact of policy measures adopted during nursing shortages has often been blunted by political and economic events, but the number and representation of IENs in the U.S. nursing workforce has increased substantially since the 1980s. Even as the United States seeks to increase domestic production of nurses, it remains a desirable destination for IENs and a target market for nurse-producing source countries. Hiring organizations and nurse leaders play a critical role in ensuring that the hiring and integration of IENs into U.S. health care organizations is constructive for nurses, source countries, and the U.S. health care system. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Economic impacts on the United States of siting decisions for the international thermonuclear experimental reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peerenboom, J.P.; Hanson, M.E.; Huddleston, J.R.

    1996-08-01

    This report presents the results of a study that examines and compares the probable short-term economic impacts of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) on the United States (U.S.) if (1) ITER were to be sited in the U.S., or (2) ITER were to be sited in one of the other countries that, along with the U.S., is currently participating in the ITER program. Life-cycle costs associated with ITER construction, operation, and decommissioning are analyzed to assess their economic impact. A number of possible U.S. host and U.S. non-host technology and cost-sharing arrangements with the other ITER Parties are examined, although cost-sharing arrangements and the process by which the Parties will select a host country and an ITER site remain open issues. Both national and local/regional economic impacts, as measured by gross domestic product, regional output, employment, net exports, and income, are considered. These impacts represent a portion of the complex, interrelated set of economic considerations that characterize U.S. host and U.S. non-host participation in ITER. A number of other potentially important economic and noneconomic considerations are discussed qualitatively

  8. Economic impacts on the United States of siting decisions for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peerenboom, J.P.; Wolsko, T.D.; Hanson, M.E.

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a study that examines and compares the probable short-term economic impacts of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) on the United States (U.S.) if (1) ITER were to be sited in the U.S., or (2) ITER were to be sited in one of the other countries that along with the U.S., is currently participating in the ITER program. Life-cycle costs associated with ITER construction, operation, and decommissioning are analyzed to assess their economic impact. A number of possible U.S. host and U.S. non-host technology and cost-sharing arrangements with the other ITER Parties are examined, although cost-sharing arrangements and the process by which the Parties will select a host country and an ITER site remain open issues. Both national and local/regional economic impacts, as measured by gross domestic product, regional output, employment, net exports, and income, are considered. These impacts represent a portion of the complex, interrelated set of economic considerations that characterize U.S. host and U.S. non-host participation in ITER. A number of other potentially important economic and noneconomic considerations are discussed qualitatively

  9. Talking About the Non-Literal: Internal States and Explanations in Child-Constructed Narratives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veneziano Edy

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Non-literal language most often permeates interesting and informative narratives. These are the non-perceptible, inferential aspects of a story, such as the explanation of events, the attribution of internal, particularly mental, states to the characters of the story, or the evaluation of events by the participants and/or the narrator. The main aim of this paper is to examine whether non-literal uses can be promoted in 7-year-old French-speaking children’s narratives through the use of a short conversational intervention (SCI which focuses the children’s attention on the causes of events. The results show that, after the SCI, the expression of non-literal aspects, even higher-order ones, may make their appearance or significantly increase in children’s stories. The reasons for the effectiveness of the SCI in the promotion of non-literal uses of language and narrative skills in general, as well as the importance of using the SCI as an evaluative instrument, are discussed.

  10. Economic impacts on the United States of siting decisions for the international thermonuclear experimental reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peerenboom, J.P.; Hanson, M.E.; Huddleston, J.R. [and others

    1996-08-01

    This report presents the results of a study that examines and compares the probable short-term economic impacts of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) on the United States (U.S.) if (1) ITER were to be sited in the U.S., or (2) ITER were to be sited in one of the other countries that, along with the U.S., is currently participating in the ITER program. Life-cycle costs associated with ITER construction, operation, and decommissioning are analyzed to assess their economic impact. A number of possible U.S. host and U.S. non-host technology and cost-sharing arrangements with the other ITER Parties are examined, although cost-sharing arrangements and the process by which the Parties will select a host country and an ITER site remain open issues. Both national and local/regional economic impacts, as measured by gross domestic product, regional output, employment, net exports, and income, are considered. These impacts represent a portion of the complex, interrelated set of economic considerations that characterize U.S. host and U.S. non-host participation in ITER. A number of other potentially important economic and noneconomic considerations are discussed qualitatively.

  11. Asylum vs sovereignty in the 21st century: How nation-state's breach international law to block access to asylum.

    OpenAIRE

    Campbell, John

    2015-01-01

    Asylum was created by the international community in the 20th century to provide legal protection to individuals fleeing persecution by nation states; but the ability to secure asylum has been fundamentally reshaped by sovereign national interests in the 21st century. This paper has two objectives. First it explores the various ways in which nation-states have adopted policies and pursued agendas which prevent asylum seekers from gaining access to countries of asylum, which criminalize many w...

  12. Emergency medicine and internal medicine trainees’ smartphone use in clinical settings in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja E. Raaum

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Smartphone technology offers a multitude of applications (apps that provide a wide range of functions for healthcare professionals. Medical trainees are early adopters of this technology, but how they use smartphones in clinical care remains unclear. Our objective was to further characterize smartphone use by medical trainees at two United States academic institutions, as well as their prior training in the clinical use of smartphones. Methods: In 2014, we surveyed 347 internal medicine and emergency medicine resident physicians at the University of Utah and Brigham and Women’s Hospital about their smartphone use and prior training experiences. Scores (0%–100% were calculated to assess the frequency of their use of general features (email, text and patient-specific apps, and the results were compared according to resident level and program using the Mann-Whitney U-test. Results: A total of 184 residents responded (response rate, 53.0%. The average score for using general features, 14.4/20 (72.2% was significantly higher than the average score for using patient-specific features and apps, 14.1/44 (33.0%, P<0.001. The average scores for the use of general features, were significantly higher for year 3–4 residents, 15.0/20 (75.1% than year 1–2 residents, 14.1/20 (70.5%, P=0.035, and for internal medicine residents, 14.9/20 (74.6% in comparison to emergency medicine residents, 12.9/20 (64.3%, P= 0.001. The average score reflecting the use of patient-specific apps was significantly higher for year 3–4 residents, 16.1/44 (36.5% than for year 1–2 residents, 13.7/44 (31.1%; P=0.044. Only 21.7% of respondents had received prior training in clinical smartphone use. Conclusion: Residents used smartphones for general features more frequently than for patient-specific features, but patient-specific use increased with training. Few residents have received prior training in the clinical use of smartphones.

  13. The influence of international and domestic events in the evolution of forest inventory and reporting consistency in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. Brad Smith

    2009-01-01

    This article takes a brief chronological look at resource inventory and reporting and links to international influences. It explores events as drivers of more consistent data within the United States and highlights key dates and events in the evolution of inventory policy and practice. From King George to L?Ecole nationale forestiere to the Food and Agriculture...

  14. Narratives of Girls and Boys with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Gender Differences in Narrative Competence and Internal State Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauschke, Christina; van der Beek, Bettina; Kamp-Becker, Inge

    2016-01-01

    Since gender differences in the symptomatology of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are not well understood, the current study examines the communicative skills of males and females with ASD. Narrative competence and internal state language (ISL) was investigated using narrations elicited by a wordless picture book. 11 girls and 11 boys with ASD and…

  15. 75 FR 52378 - International Product Change-United States Postal Service Inbound Market-Dominant Multi-Service...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-25

    ... POSTAL SERVICE International Product Change--United States Postal Service Inbound Market-Dominant... Inbound Market-Dominant Multi- Service Agreements to the Market-Dominant Products List pursuant to 39 U.S... the Postal Regulatory Commission to Add Market-Dominant Multi-Service Agreements with Foreign Postal...

  16. Small island developing states and international climate change negotiations: the power of moral ‘‘leadership’’

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Águeda Corneloup, de I.; Mol, A.P.J.

    2014-01-01

    Being at the frontline of climate change, small island developing states (SIDS) hold a serious stake in climate negotiations. However, these countries usually are marginalized in the international political arena, due to their lack of structural power. This paper explores the strategic influence of

  17. South Ural State University Campus: Architectural Development Concept in Accordance with International Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabiev, S. G.

    2017-11-01

    The article deals with the vital problem of the implementation of the Program to enhance the competitiveness of the South Ural State University (SUSU) among other scientific and educational centers, which defines the main objective - to form a world-class university. According to the set objective, the most important task is to build a landscaped campus, which can be efficiently solved by the architectural means. The solution of this task is based on the scientific methods of the territorial and architectural improvement of the main university building complex development in the northern academic area and the architectural and aesthetic improvement of the space structural arrangement of the buildings. The author analyzes the global practice of modern campuses in Russia and abroad based on the Internet resources. The author carried out some additional on-site surveys of foreign campuses in Australia, Canada and China. The essence of the architectural concept of the first university campus development stage lies in the science-based achievement of a harmonious architectural and space unity of solid and plane elements of the site development, landscape arrangement of the main building’s courtyard and the adjacent territories with an efficient use of the relief, water areas and planting, allotment of additional spaces for landscaped areas due to a split-level arrangement, including a landscaped platform, increase of the underground space utilization share with the arrangement of an underground car parking and an underground walkway considering the environmental requirements. Further, it is planned to use the author’s methodological approach for the southern academic and the northern residential university areas, which will allow to create a duly completed landscaped SUSU campus with a developed infrastructure according to the international standards.

  18. Study on Investor-State Dispute Settlement (‘ISDS’) and Alternatives of Dispute Resolution in International Investment Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hindelang, Steffen

    aken the public concerns about current developments in the area of the European International Investment Policy, the European Parliament’s INTA Committee launched a study on Investor-State Dispute Settlement and Possible Alternatives of Dispute Resolution in International Investment Law....... In a nutshell, the study suggests that ISDS is a useful means of enforcing substantive investment protection standards contained in international investment agreements. The mechanism should therefore continue to form part of European international investment policy. However, the EU has to address four major...... challenges tied to this dispute settlement tool, i.e. (1) mitigating inconsistency, (2) securing the right balance between private and public interests, (3) establishing integrity of arbitral proceedings and (4) preventing misuse, allowing for error-correction and managing financial risk associated with ISDS...

  19. Individuals with high obsessive-compulsive tendencies or undermined confidence rely more on external proxies to access their internal states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhongming; Wang, Mengyun; Miao, Xiaocui; Li, Yijuan; Hitchman, Glenn; Yuan, Zhen

    2017-03-01

    The Seeking Proxies for Internal States (SPIS) hypothesis predicts that obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is associated with a deficit in subjective convictions, which may lead to a reliance on external substitutes for the perceptions of an individual's internal states. Two well-designed studies were performed for the present work that adopted a false bio-feedback procedure in a muscle tension task to examine the SPIS hypothesis. The false bio-feedback paradigm was used to investigate our hypothesis. NeXus-10 Mark II hardware and V2011 BioTrace + software (Mind Media B.V., Herten, Netherlands) were utilized to measure the muscle tension of the flexor carpiulnaris muscle, which characterized the target's internal state. In addition, false EMG changes were recorded and displayed on a computer monitor and were considered external proxies. Study 1 demonstrated that the participants with high obsessive-compulsive (OC) tendencies were more affected by the false bio-feedback and exhibited lower confidence in their judgments regarding their muscle tension compared with the participants with low OC tendencies. These findings indicate that subjects with high OC tendencies were more influenced by self-perception effects. In contrast, the subjects in the undermined confidence group in Study 2 were more easily influenced by the false bio-feedback compared with the control group, which suggests that the subjects in the undermined confidence group were more affected by self-perception effects. We did not combine the undermined confidence with OC tendencies or OCD symptoms in our paradigm to investigate their joint effects on self-perception. Our findings provide further evidence that supports the SPIS hypothesis, which indicates that OC tendencies and the confidence in an individual's recognition of internal states appear to have similar effects on the assessment of internal states and reliance on proxies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. International Experience of the Development of Corporate Social Responsibility: Comparative Analysis of the Influence of the State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Rybalko

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to provide analysis of the international experience of the development of corporate social responsibility (CSR and to provide stimulation methods used by the state to develop CSR in Russia. The study is based on the identification of characteristics of CSR development in Russia; it subsequently concludes the most appropriate methods for the Russian state and business interaction in this sphere. Determination of the level and stage of the development of CSR in Russia is carried out by multivariate statistical (cluster analysis. The results of the study of international experience in the development of corporate responsibility and the results of the cluster analysis were used for the further improvement of the state policy in this field in Russia. This paper proposes a number of measures aimed both at improving conditions for socially responsible companies and at increasing the disclosure of information in the field of CSR and improvement of its quality.

  1. Sources of Social Support among International College Students in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhochhibhoya, Amir; Dong, Yue; Branscum, Paul

    2017-01-01

    International students are challenged due to the abrupt change in social support. The purpose of this study was to operationalize different sources of social support and evaluate determinants of mental health among international students (n = 328). An instrument was developed to measure four distinct sources of social support. Repeated measures…

  2. The State of refugees and internally displaced persons in Nigeria: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These persons who are in either situations refugees or internally displaced persons (IDPs) are vulnerable economically, socially, psychologically and politically. The national and international communities are confronted with the monumental task of ensuring protection for these groups of persons. The question has been ...

  3. Linked migration systems: immigration and internal labor flows in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Walker; M. Ellis; R. Barff

    1992-01-01

    We investigate the relationship between immigration and internal labor movements in the US. Wedding the literatures on immigration and internal migration, we develop a mobility model linking these various flows on the basis of occupational status of worker, producction and institutional relations in the economy, and economic restructuring.

  4. Growth and physiology of loblolly pine in response to long-term resource management: defining growth potential in the southern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisa J. Samuelson; John Butnor; Chris Maier; Tom A. Stokes; Kurt Johnsen; Michael Kane

    2008-01-01

    Leaf physiology and stem growth were assessed in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) in response to 10 to 11 years of treatment with weed control (W), weed control plus irrigation (WI), weed control plus irrigation and fertigation (WIF), or weed control plus irrigation, fertigation, and pest control (WIFP) to determine whether increased resource...

  5. Temporal pattern of feeding activity in the firebug Pyrrhocoris apterus and its relation to sex, wing dimorphism and physiological state of adults

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Socha, Radomír; Zemek, Rostislav

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 32, č. 1 (2007), s. 16-25 ISSN 0307-6962 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/03/0016 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : feeding pattern * females * males Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 1.410, year: 2007

  6. Network Physiology: How Organ Systems Dynamically Interact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartsch, Ronny P; Liu, Kang K L; Bashan, Amir; Ivanov, Plamen Ch

    2015-01-01

    We systematically study how diverse physiologic systems in the human organism dynamically interact and collectively behave to produce distinct physiologic states and functions. This is a fundamental question in the new interdisciplinary field of Network Physiology, and has not been previously explored. Introducing the novel concept of Time Delay Stability (TDS), we develop a computational approach to identify and quantify networks of physiologic interactions from long-term continuous, multi-channel physiological recordings. We also develop a physiologically-motivated visualization framework to map networks of dynamical organ interactions to graphical objects encoded with information about the coupling strength of network links quantified using the TDS measure. Applying a system-wide integrative approach, we identify distinct patterns in the network structure of organ interactions, as well as the frequency bands through which these interactions are mediated. We establish first maps representing physiologic organ network interactions and discover basic rules underlying the complex hierarchical reorganization in physiologic networks with transitions across physiologic states. Our findings demonstrate a direct association between network topology and physiologic function, and provide new insights into understanding how health and distinct physiologic states emerge from networked interactions among nonlinear multi-component complex systems. The presented here investigations are initial steps in building a first atlas of dynamic interactions among organ systems.

  7. Network Physiology: How Organ Systems Dynamically Interact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartsch, Ronny P.; Liu, Kang K. L.; Bashan, Amir; Ivanov, Plamen Ch.

    2015-01-01

    We systematically study how diverse physiologic systems in the human organism dynamically interact and collectively behave to produce distinct physiologic states and functions. This is a fundamental question in the new interdisciplinary field of Network Physiology, and has not been previously explored. Introducing the novel concept of Time Delay Stability (TDS), we develop a computational approach to identify and quantify networks of physiologic interactions from long-term continuous, multi-channel physiological recordings. We also develop a physiologically-motivated visualization framework to map networks of dynamical organ interactions to graphical objects encoded with information about the coupling strength of network links quantified using the TDS measure. Applying a system-wide integrative approach, we identify distinct patterns in the network structure of organ interactions, as well as the frequency bands through which these interactions are mediated. We establish first maps representing physiologic organ network interactions and discover basic rules underlying the complex hierarchical reorganization in physiologic networks with transitions across physiologic states. Our findings demonstrate a direct association between network topology and physiologic function, and provide new insights into understanding how health and distinct physiologic states emerge from networked interactions among nonlinear multi-component complex systems. The presented here investigations are initial steps in building a first atlas of dynamic interactions among organ systems. PMID:26555073

  8. Assessing interventions available to internally displaced persons in Abia state, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enwereji, Ee

    2009-03-01

    Internally displaced persons are faced with several problems, such as sexual violence, and deserve appropriate intervention, especially in view of the increasing prevalence of HIV/AIDS and other infections in Nigeria. This study attempts to assess interventions offered by governmental authorities and organizations to internally displaced persons and to identify gaps in services as well as to identify what needs to be strengthened. The author reviewed relevant published and unpublished documents and collected data by interviews with semi-structured questions. Twenty-five organizations and government and police departments and 55 internally displaced persons were interviewed. None of the organizations, including governmental institutions, provided social services or assistance in prevention of HIV/AIDS to internally displaced persons. The main services provided by 17 (68%) organizations to 43 (78.2%) of internally displaced persons were provision of food, clothing and money, but these were provided on an ad hoc basis. Only 3 organizations (12%) included spiritual counseling and resolution of communal conflicts in their services. The fact that most organizations, including the government, do not have services for internally displaced persons indicates lack of support for internally displaced persons. The government should be urged to include these people in most prevention services, including HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment. This should help reduce the national prevalence of HIV/AIDS.

  9. Climate change adaptation and mitigation : state transportation, regional, and international strategies: synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-24

    This synthesis and literature review requested by Seth Start, Sustainable Transportation Manager, Washington State Department of Transportation, provides information on strategies other state DOTs countries, and local agencies are using to prepare...

  10. TAI CHI CHUAN: STATE OF THE ART IN INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH: VOL 52 (MEDICINE & SPORT SCIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youlian Hong

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available DESCRIPTION This collection on the latest and practical research data about the characteristics and beneficial effects of Tai Chi Chuan on various physiological and pathological matters is published as the 52nd volume of Medicine and Sport Science Journal. PURPOSE To address the effects of Tai Chi Chuan in the fields of biomechanics and physiology, sensory motor control and fall prevention, psychology and social aspects, as well as various clinical applications. FEATURES The book is organised into four sections, each containing four to seven chapters: the first section focuses on biomechanical and physiological aspects of Tai Chi in seven chapters, the second section addresses the benefits of the sport in terms of sensory motor control and fall prevention in five chapters, the third section highlights the psychological and social aspects in four chapters, and in the last section the application of Tai Chi in clinical intervention such as in Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's diseases, coronary heart disease, chronic heart failure, breast cancer, rheumatoid arthritis and diabetes is demonstrated in six chapters. AUDIENCE This is a thorough reference book for students, researchers, teachers and healthcare professionals in exercise science and medicine. In fact, anyone already practicing Tai Chi Chuan or considering it up would benefit from this book. ASSESSMENT This 52nd volume of Medicine and Sport Science Journal on Tai Chi Chuan is a valuable and essential source of information brought together by recognized researchers around the Globe. The book is for everybody who is interested in understanding the effects and application of this fascinating form of exercise which has been developed as a form of martial arts and used for health exercise for centuries in China.

  11. State of the art of toshiba maintenance techniques for reactor internals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maekawa, Osamu; Hattori, Yasuhiro; Sudo, Akira

    2002-01-01

    As the number of aged plants increases, maintaining the integrity of the reactor pressure vessel and reactor internals in aged plants has become an essential issue to ensure continued stable operation and achieve higher plant operability. A major issue with regard to reactor internals is stress corrosion cracks (SCCs). Laser-applying techniques have many features suitable for preventive maintenance work on reactor internals. Toshiba has developed various laser-applying preventive maintenance techniques and accumulated considerable field experience utilizing these techniques in various aged plants. Moreover, in view of the importance of confirming the soundness of reactor internals in aged plants, Toshiba has developed and applied sophisticated nondestructive testing techniques for this purpose. (author)

  12. The United States: A Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court Non-Participant

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hopkins, J

    2004-01-01

    .... As of 1 July 2002, the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court is a reality. It will try individuals such as the Khmer Rouge, Slobodan Milosevic, and General Juvenal Habyarimana for crimes against humanity, genocide, and war crimes...

  13. The State of refugees and internally displaced persons in Nigeria: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nnamdi Azikiwe University Journal of International Law and Jurisprudence. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 3 (2012) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  14. International adoption among families in the United States: considerations of social justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollingsworth, Leslie Doty

    2003-04-01

    The practice of international adoption of children is critiqued, using Rawls' egalitarian concept of a distributive method of social justice. From this perspective, international adoption may be perceived as contradictory to principles of social justice by ignoring the social context within which it occurs. Social contexts that frequently surround international adoption are severe poverty and the disenfranchisement of the adopted child's biological family; the disenfranchisement of certain children because of their lower social status; gender oppression and discrimination against female children; risk to children's rights to the knowledge of their birth history and parentage; risk to children's rights to identification with their ethnic, cultural, and national group; and practices that may involve abduction, deceit, and trafficking in children. The article presents alternate views, including libertarian and utilitarian perspectives. Solutions from two international conventions are critiqued and implications are discussed for social work policy advocacy, practice, and research.

  15. Towards nuclear disarmament: State of affairs in the international legal framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fanielle, Sylvain

    2016-01-01

    Since the dawn of the nuclear era, nuclear disarmament has been one of the highest priorities of the international community in ensuring global peace and security. Accordingly, numerous multilateral and bilateral political initiatives have been launched to fulfil this objective in a comprehensive manner. Many of these political efforts have resulted in the negotiation and adoption of legal instruments, which currently comprise the international legal framework on nuclear disarmament. Despite numerous achievements, this framework appears to be at a turning point. As a matter of fact, recent political and diplomatic tensions have reminded the international community that the far-reaching objective of global nuclear disarmament is under continuous pressure. In this context, is the international legal framework on nuclear disarmament effective? This article addresses both development and effectiveness of the international legal framework on nuclear disarmament. It first describes the position of nuclear disarmament within the United Nations (UN) machinery and the related political challenges. It then focuses on the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT),1 with a particular focus on the interpretation and legal requirements associated with Article VI. Finally, it provides an overview of the Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zones (NWFZs) and their role in the international denuclearization dynamics. (author)

  16. International student mobility and highly skilled migration: a comparative study of Canada, the United States, and the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    She, Qianru; Wotherspoon, Terry

    2013-12-01

    Against the backdrop of demographic change and economic reconfiguration, recruiting international students, especially those at tertiary level, has drawn growing attention from advanced economies as part of a broad strategy to manage highly skilled migration. This comparative study focuses on three English speaking countries receiving international students: Canada, the United States, and the United Kingdom. International student policies, in particular entry and immigration regulations, and the trends in student mobility since the late 1990s are examined drawing on secondary data. By exploring the issue from the political economy perspectives, this study identifies distinct national strategies for managing student mobility, determines key factors shaping the environment of student migration in each nation, and addresses the deficiency of human capital theory in the analysis of global competition for high skills.

  17. Internalizing social costs in power plant siting: some examples for coal and nuclear plants in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peelle, E.

    1976-01-01

    Selected aspects of the United States experience in one particular type of energy development project, the siting of nuclear and fossil fueled power generating facilities, are examined in terms of how well community-level impacts are internalized. New institutional arrangements being devised and new requirements being made at local, state, regional, and federal levels in response to these dissociations of cost and benefits from large energy development projects are discussed. Selected examples of these new institutional responses are analyzed for adequacy and significance

  18. The American Board of Internal Medicine Maintenance of Certification Examination and State Medical Board Disciplinary Actions: a Population Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Furman S; Duhigg, Lauren M; Arnold, Gerald K; Hafer, Ruth M; Lipner, Rebecca S

    2018-03-07

    Some have questioned whether successful performance in the American Board of Internal Medicine (ABIM) Maintenance of Certification (MOC) program is meaningful. The association of the ABIM Internal Medicine (IM) MOC examination with state medical board disciplinary actions is unknown. To assess risk of disciplinary actions among general internists who did and did not pass the MOC examination within 10 years of initial certification. Historical population cohort study. The population of internists certified in internal medicine, but not a subspecialty, from 1990 through 2003 (n = 47,971). ABIM IM MOC examination. General internal medicine in the USA. The primary outcome measure was time to disciplinary action assessed in association with whether the physician passed the ABIM IM MOC examination within 10 years of initial certification, adjusted for training, certification, demographic, and regulatory variables including state medical board Continuing Medical Education (CME) requirements. The risk for discipline among physicians who did not pass the IM MOC examination within the 10 year requirement window was more than double than that of those who did pass the examination (adjusted HR 2.09; 95% CI, 1.83 to 2.39). Disciplinary actions did not vary by state CME requirements (adjusted HR 1.02; 95% CI, 0.94 to 1.16), but declined with increasing MOC examination scores (Kendall's tau-b coefficient = - 0.98 for trend, p actions were less severe among those passing the IM MOC examination within the 10-year requirement window than among those who did not pass the examination. Passing a periodic assessment of medical knowledge is associated with decreased state medical board disciplinary actions, an important quality outcome of relevance to patients and the profession.

  19. Discourse of political archetypes in international relations of the post soviet states of the Central Asia (statement of the problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Алексей Алексеевич Клинцов

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In the given article the author considers the problem of discourse of political archetypes in international relations of the post Soviet states of the Central Asia. In author's opinion, political archetypes as historically developed fundamental bases of ethnic consciousness render essential influence on modern diplomacy of the countries of the given region. That is why they require serious and profound studying by domestic and foreign political science.

  20. 8th International Conference on Solid State Physics (SSP 2004), Workshop “Mössbauer Spectroscopy of Locally Heterogeneous Systems”

    CERN Document Server

    Kadyrzhanov, K. K; SSP 2004

    2006-01-01

    This volume contains papers presented at the 8th International Conference on Solid State Physics (SSP 2004), Workshop "Mössbauer Spectroscopy of Locally Heterogeneous Systems", held in Almaty, Kazakhstan, 23–26 August 2004. It should be of interest to researchers and PhD students working or interested in recent results in the locally inhomogeneous system investigations by Mössbauer Spectroscopy and the new concepts of data evaluation of complex Mössbauer spectra.

  1. Discrimination against international medical graduates in the United States residency program selection process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desbiens, Norman A; Vidaillet, Humberto J

    2010-01-25

    Available evidence suggests that international medical graduates have improved the availability of U.S. health care while maintaining academic standards. We wondered whether studies had been conducted to address how international graduates were treated in the post-graduate selection process compared to U.S. graduates. We conducted a Medline search for research on the selection process. Two studies provide strong evidence that psychiatry and family practice programs respond to identical requests for applications at least 80% more often for U.S. medical graduates than for international graduates. In a third study, a survey of surgical program directors, over 70% perceived that there was discrimination against international graduates in the selection process. There is sufficient evidence to support action against discrimination in the selection process. Medical organizations should publish explicit proscriptions of discrimination against international medical graduates (as the American Psychiatric Association has done) and promote them in diversity statements. They should develop uniform and transparent policies for program directors to use to select applicants that minimize the possibility of non-academic discrimination, and the accreditation organization should monitor whether it is occurring. Whether there should be protectionism for U.S. graduates or whether post-graduate medical education should be an unfettered meritocracy needs to be openly discussed by medicine and society.

  2. INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION AND TECHNOLOGICAL MANAGEMENT IN COFFEE PRODUCTION IN TWO COMMUNITIES IN THE CENTRAL AREA OF VERACRUZ STATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Elena Nava-Tablada

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Veracruz comes third in terms of national coffee production; however this sector is facing a crisis because of the fall in prices in the international market which has resulted amongst other things in increased emigration to the United States. The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between migration and the level of technology employed in coffee production in two communities in the central area of Veracruz State: Capulapa and Zapoapan. Information was obtained through observation and by interviewing the members of 46 family production units (FPU. In Zapoapan, the FPUs which presented the highest level of technological management in their coffee plantations were those with greatest access to capital, as they are more extensive, produce other crops than coffee, have more family members in the United States and receive greater remittances; investing 14% more in agriculture. In the case of the FPUs in Capulapa, no relationship was observed between the number of international emigrants, the amount of remittances received and the level of technological management. This may be because 83% of the FPUs cultivate solely coffee and are beholden to the ups and downs of the international market, thus their socio-economic situation is more precarious and 86% of remittances are directed towards family sustenance; with only 7% directed towards agricultural investment.

  3. "I Wish My People Can Be Like the Ducks": Children's References to Internal States with Siblings and Friends from Early to Middle Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, Jamie; Howe, Nina; DeHart, Ganie

    2017-01-01

    The present study investigated children's internal state language during play with their sibling and friend across early and middle childhood. Specifically, the category type of internal state language (e.g., cognitions and goals), referent (e.g., own and other), and associations with children's birth order were examined. A total of 65 (T1: Time…

  4. The International Obligations of the European Union and its Member States with regard to Economic Relations with Israeli Settlements, CNCD, FIDH, 71 p.

    OpenAIRE

    Dubuisson, François

    2014-01-01

    The report will demonstrate that under existing international law the EU and its member states have the obligation to refrain from any form of trade or economic relations with Israeli companies established or conducting activities in Palestinian territories. This obligation arises from customary principles that govern States’ international responsibilities and set out the consequences, for third States, of serious breaches of peremptory norms of international law. We will first describe how t...

  5. DREISS: Using State-Space Models to Infer the Dynamics of Gene Expression Driven by External and Internal Regulatory Networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daifeng Wang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Gene expression is controlled by the combinatorial effects of regulatory factors from different biological subsystems such as general transcription factors (TFs, cellular growth factors and microRNAs. A subsystem's gene expression may be controlled by its internal regulatory factors, exclusively, or by external subsystems, or by both. It is thus useful to distinguish the degree to which a subsystem is regulated internally or externally-e.g., how non-conserved, species-specific TFs affect the expression of conserved, cross-species genes during evolution. We developed a computational method (DREISS, dreiss.gerteinlab.org for analyzing the Dynamics of gene expression driven by Regulatory networks, both External and Internal based on State Space models. Given a subsystem, the "state" and "control" in the model refer to its own (internal and another subsystem's (external gene expression levels. The state at a given time is determined by the state and control at a previous time. Because typical time-series data do not have enough samples to fully estimate the model's parameters, DREISS uses dimensionality reduction, and identifies canonical temporal expression trajectories (e.g., degradation, growth and oscillation representing the regulatory effects emanating from various subsystems. To demonstrate capabilities of DREISS, we study the regulatory effects of evolutionarily conserved vs. divergent TFs across distant species. In particular, we applied DREISS to the time-series gene expression datasets of C. elegans and D. melanogaster during their embryonic development. We analyzed the expression dynamics of the conserved, orthologous genes (orthologs, seeing the degree to which these can be accounted for by orthologous (internal versus species-specific (external TFs. We found that between two species, the orthologs have matched, internally driven expression patterns but very different externally driven ones. This is particularly true for genes with

  6. Proceedings of the 7th International Workshop on Verification of Infinite-State Systems (INFINITY'05)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the workshop is, to provide a forum for researchers interested in the development of mathematical techniques for the analysis and verification of systems with infinitely many states. Topics: Techniques for modeling and analysis of infinite-state systems; Equivalence-checking and model-...

  7. Styles of International Mediation in Peace Processes Between States and Terrorist Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA THESIS Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited STYLES OF...Office of Management and Budget, Paperwork Reduction Project (0704-0188) Washington, DC 20503. 1. AGENCY USE ONLY (Leave blank) 2. REPORT DATE...June 2016 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE STYLES OF INTERNATIONAL MEDIATION IN PEACE PROCESSES BETWEEN

  8. Perceived Support as a Predictor of Acculturative Stress among International Students in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Jieru

    2016-01-01

    A quantitative study was conducted to measure the acculturative stress of international students and investigate the predictors of acculturative stress. A total of 186 students participated in the survey. Results showed that 22.4% of the students in this study exceeded the normal stress level and might need counseling or psychological…

  9. User's Guide to Biome Information from the United States International Biological Program (IBP). First Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinckley, A. Dexter; Haug, Peter T.

    This publication is a guide to the biome research conducted under the International Biological Program. The guide lists biome researchers by interest and by biome as well as a central list. A site list, map, information sources section reporting abstracts, bibliographies, journals, books, evaluations, and data books are also included. Three…

  10. Putting price tags on international trade use of state infrastructure : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    As a major gateway to the entire U.S. for international trade both through seaports and land ports of entry, Texas pays the bills for the construction and maintenance of the infrastructure required to move the freight which benefits other parts of th...

  11. The linkages between cultural differences, psychological states, and performance in international mergers and acquisitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weber, Yaakov; Drori, Israel

    2008-01-01

    A model focusing on the role of the individual in national and corporate culture clash situations, during post-merger integration, is presented. The theory of psychological contract is adapted to explain different individual expectations in domestic versus international mergers and acquisitions

  12. Context Matters in Educational Research and International Development: Learning from the Small States Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossley, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The article argues that greater attention should be paid to contextual factors in educational research and international development cooperation. The analysis draws upon principles that underpin socio-cultural approaches to comparative education, a critical analysis of the political economy of contemporary educational research, and recent research…

  13. On the derivation of thermodynamic restrictions for materials with internal state variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malmberg, T.

    1987-07-01

    Thermodynamic restrictions for the constitutive relations of an internal variable model are derived by evaluating the Clausius-Duhem entropy inequality with two different approaches. The classical Coleman-Noll argumentation of Rational Thermodynamics applied by Coleman and Gurtin to an internal variable model is summarized. This approach requires an arbitrary modulation of body forces and heat supply in the interior of the body which is subject to criticism. The second approach applied in this presentation is patterned after a concept of Mueller and Liu, originally developed within the context of a different entropy inequality and different classes of constitutive models. For the internal variable model the second approach requires only the modulation of initial values on the boundary of the body. In the course of the development of the second approach certain differences to the argumentation of Mueller and Liu become evident and are pointed out. Finally, the results demonstrate that the first and second approach give the same thermodynamic restrictions for the internal variable model. The derived residual entropy inequality requires further analysis. (orig.) [de

  14. International Trends in Health Science Librarianship Part 20: The Balkan States (Serbia and Slovenia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivkovic, Ana; Rožić, Anamarija; Turk, Nana

    2016-12-01

    This is the 20th in a series of articles exploring international trends in health science librarianship in the 21st century. The focus of the present issue is the Balkan region (Serbia and Slovenia). The next regular feature will look at Russia and the Ukraine. JM. © 2016 Health Libraries Group.

  15. State and regional systems of accounting for and control of nuclear materials cooperation between international, regional and states safeguards organizations: An evolving issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernández Moreno, Sonia

    2011-01-01

    Cooperation between the IAEA, States and regional organizations is increasingly important to ensure effective accountancy and control of nuclear material in peaceful uses. The IAEA, SAGSI2 and institutions such INMM3 and ESARDA4 have recognized the relevance and the evolving role that SSAC5 and regional organizations play to this aim. In this context, it is important to take steps to ensure the effectiveness of the system and the optimal level of relationship between these organizations so as to maximize the benefits for each party, particularly in those cases where well developed systems exist. Moreover, expansion of nuclear energy requires concerted efforts towards building competence in safeguards in all relevant States. This is also important with respect to other aspects of nonproliferation. In this scenario there is agreement on the need to have effective state organizations that fulfill international safeguards and other security obligations. However, the roles and duties of SSAC and the possible scope of cooperation between the IAEA and SSAC are still under evolution. This paper discusses possible ways and means to build competence in safeguards and how the international community could be more proactive in establishing a framework including the various dimensions of the cooperation in safeguards and other security matters between all parties concerned. The establishment of a forum and a network of interested parties under the auspice of interested organizations could be one mechanism to exchange best practices and experiences. (authors)

  16. "Physiology in the News": Using Press Releases to Enhance Lay Communication and Introduce Current Physiology Research to Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Kevin L.; Poteracki, James M.; Steury, Michael D.; Wehrwein, Erica A.

    2015-01-01

    Michigan State University's senior-level undergraduate physiology capstone laboratory uses a simple exercise termed "Physiology in the News," to help students explore the current research within the field of physiology while also learning to communicate science in lay terms. "Physiology in the News" is an activity that charges…

  17. [Functional state of various physiological systems of the human body during respiration of neon-oxygen mixture at depth up to 400 meters].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poleshuk, I P; Genin, A M; Unku, R D; Mikhnenko, A E; Sementsov, V N; Suvorov, A V

    1991-01-01

    Hyperbaric neon-oxygen mixture has been studied for the effect of its high density under pressure of 41 ata on basic physiological functions of human organism. Typical changes of the cardiorespiratory system and tissue respiration parameters are revealed. Changes in physical working capacity are shown. Exposure to gaseous medium of high pressure and density is accompanied by the development of some compensatory-adaptive reactions. The possibility to perform mid-hard physical work is attained with overstrain of respiration and circulation function.

  18. The Second International Conference on Nutrition, as Seen by a Member State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiden, Hanns-Christoph; Welte, Simone

    2016-01-01

    For years now, providing people with food and balanced diets has been a problem unsolved by the world community. Despite numerous initiatives, the great breakthrough has still not happened, not least because the issue is so complex. Hunger and undernourishment must be fought as much as hidden hunger, overweight and obesity. Increasingly, several forms of malnutrition have been occurring simultaneously. The so-called double burden of malnutrition has become the new normal. The follow-up process of the Second International Conference on Nutrition assumes a vital role in that context. The Rome Declaration and the Framework for Action commit the international community, international organizations and civil society to undertake joint efforts across and beyond sectorial policies. Both documents also indicate numerous starting points for actions that consider individual national examples. Germany has been actively engaged at both the national and the international levels. Since its inception in 2008, the National Action Plan 'IN FORM' has taken up a number of suggestions made by the Second International Conference on Nutrition. While IN FORM is further developed, the ideas given in the Framework for Action shall provide a fresh impetus. Within its development cooperation, Germany is increasingly focusing on improving the nutritional situation, such as through its One World, No Hunger initiative. In the follow-up process, all stakeholders, including the Food and Agriculture Organization and the World Health Organization, will have to offer platforms to promote exchange among all parties involved and to initiate coherent actions that also reach beyond national borders. Only then can the improvement of the nutritional situation really be seen as a truly global challenge. Given the issue's complexity, it is equally important to establish priorities in each case in order for progress not to be thwarted by lengthy decision-making processes. Improving the situation of

  19. Starting physiology: bioelectrogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptista, Vander

    2015-12-01

    From a Cartesian perspective of rational analysis, the electric potential difference across the cell membrane is one of the fundamental concepts for the study of physiology. Unfortunately, undergraduate students often struggle to understand the genesis of this energy gradient, which makes the teaching activity a hard task for the instructor. The topic of bioelectrogenesis encompasses multidisciplinary concepts, involves several mechanisms, and is a dynamic process, i.e., it never turns off during the lifetime of the cell. Therefore, to improve the transmission and acquisition of knowledge in this field, I present an alternative didactic model. The design of the model assumes that it is possible to build, in a series of sequential steps, an assembly of proteins within the membrane of an isolated cell in a simulated electrophysiology experiment. Initially, no proteins are inserted in the membrane and the cell is at a baseline energy state; the extracellular and intracellular fluids are at thermodynamic equilibrium. Students are guided through a sequence of four steps that add key membrane transport proteins to the model cell. The model is simple at the start and becomes progressively more complex, finally producing transmembrane chemical and electrical gradients. I believe that this didactic approach helps instructors with a more efficient tool for the teaching of the mechanisms of resting membrane potential while helping students avoid common difficulties that may be encountered when learning this topic. Copyright © 2015 The American Physiological Society.

  20. 2. International workshop Solid state nuclear track detectors and their applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perelygin, V.P.

    1992-01-01

    The 2. Workshop on Solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD) held in Dubna, 24-26 Mar 1992. Possibilities of SSNTD applications in the fields of high and low energy physics, dosimetry and radioecology were discussed

  1. Collisional quenching at ultralow energies: controlling efficiency with internal state selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovino, S; Bodo, E; Gianturco, F A

    2007-12-14

    Calculations have been carried out for the vibrational quenching of excited H(2) molecules which collide with Li(+) ions at ultralow energies. The dynamics has been treated exactly using the well-known quantum coupled-channel expansions over different initial vibrational levels. The overall interaction potential has been obtained from the calculations carried out earlier by our group using highly correlated ab initio methods. The results indicate that specific features of the scattering observables, e.g., the appearance of Ramsauer-Townsend minima in elastic channel cross sections and the marked increase of the cooling rates from specific initial states, can be linked to potential properties at vanishing energies (sign and size of scattering lengths) and to the presence of either virtual states or bound states. The suggestion is made such that by selecting the initial state preparation of the molecular partners, the ionic interactions would be amenable to controlling quenching efficiency at ultralow energies.

  2. Vital Interests, Virtual Threats: Reconciling International Law with Information Warfare and United States Security

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shawhan, Karl

    2001-01-01

    .... Nontraditional threats, however, pose asymmetric dilemmas for the United States. The increased U.S. military and economic reliance on information systems introduces new vulnerabilities not adequately protected by traditional kinetic force arms...

  3. From Physiology to Prevention: Further remarks on a physiological imperative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Jouanjean

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Physiology, is the fundamental and functional expression of life. It is the study of all the representative functions of Man in all his capacities, and in particular, his capacity to work. It is very possible to establish a link between a physiological and physiopathological state, the capacity of work and the economy, which can be understood as the articulation between the physiological capacities of Man and the production of work. If these functions are innately acquired by Man they are likewise maintained by regulatory functions throughout life. The stability of these regulatory mechanisms represent the state of good health. The management of this state, constitutes Primary Prevention where both chronic and acute physiopathology defines an alteration in these regulatory mechanisms. We deduce from this reasoning that a tripartite management adapted to the physiological situation is viable and that by choosing parameters specific to individual and collective behavior, it is possible to inject, and combine, at each level and to each demand in order to budget a healthcare system in a more balanced and equitable way. 

  4. Long-Term Comparative Advantages of the Eurasian Economic Union Member States in International Trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Falkowski Krzysztof

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available On 1st January 2015 the Eurasian Economic Union (EAEU - a new integration block comprising initially Belarus, Kazakhstan, and Russia, and later that year also Armenia and Kyrgyzstan - appeared on the world map. This paper endeavors to identify the EAEU countries’ long-term international comparative advantages within four basic groups of goods according to the OECD classification of manufacturing industries based on technology intensity. The analysis, using B. Balassa’s RCA methodology and covering the years 2000-2014, indicates that these countries lack competitiveness, with none of them possessing any RCAs in the high-technology category whereas in the medium-hightechnology category - only Belarus. In contrast, all the EAEU countries fared the best in the medium-low-technology category, which is mostly attributable to the resources-based character of their economies. Surprisingly, dramatically low international competitiveness was recorded by Kazakhstan and Russia.

  5. International standards for optical wireless communications: state-of-the-art and future directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marciniak, Marian

    2017-10-01

    As the number of active OWC installations is growing fast, the standards for compatibility of co-existing neighbouring systems are being developed. The paper addresses the Laser Safety (IEC standards), ITU-T Study Group 15 standards (G.640 Co-location longitudinally compatible interfaces for free space optical systems), ITU-Radiocommunication Sector standards (P.1817-1 Propagation data required for the design of terrestrial free-space optical links), and the IEEE Work in Progress - standardization activity on Visible Light Communications. International standards of FSO communications have been reviewed and discussed. ITU, IEC, and IEEE International standards for Free-Space Optical links have been reviewed. The system reliability and availability as well as security issues will be addressed as well in the talk.

  6. DREISS: Using State-Space Models to Infer the Dynamics of Gene Expression Driven by External and Internal Regulatory Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerstein, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Gene expression is controlled by the combinatorial effects of regulatory factors from different biological subsystems such as general transcription factors (TFs), cellular growth factors and microRNAs. A subsystem’s gene expression may be controlled by its internal regulatory factors, exclusively, or by external subsystems, or by both. It is thus useful to distinguish the degree to which a subsystem is regulated internally or externally–e.g., how non-conserved, species-specific TFs affect the expression of conserved, cross-species genes during evolution. We developed a computational method (DREISS, dreiss.gerteinlab.org) for analyzing the Dynamics of gene expression driven by Regulatory networks, both External and Internal based on State Space models. Given a subsystem, the “state” and “control” in the model refer to its own (internal) and another subsystem’s (external) gene expression levels. The state at a given time is determined by the state and control at a previous time. Because typical time-series data do not have enough samples to fully estimate the model’s parameters, DREISS uses dimensionality reduction, and identifies canonical temporal expression trajectories (e.g., degradation, growth and oscillation) representing the regulatory effects emanating from various subsystems. To demonstrate capabilities of DREISS, we study the regulatory effects of evolutionarily conserved vs. divergent TFs across distant species. In particular, we applied DREISS to the time-series gene expression datasets of C. elegans and D. melanogaster during their embryonic development. We analyzed the expression dynamics of the conserved, orthologous genes (orthologs), seeing the degree to which these can be accounted for by orthologous (internal) versus species-specific (external) TFs. We found that between two species, the orthologs have matched, internally driven expression patterns but very different externally driven ones. This is particularly true for genes with

  7. The modulation of EEG variability between internally- and externally-driven cognitive states varies with maturation and task performance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessie M H Szostakiwskyj

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence suggests that brain signal variability is an important measure of brain function reflecting information processing capacity and functional integrity. In this study, we examined how maturation from childhood to adulthood affects the magnitude and spatial extent of state-to-state transitions in brain signal variability, and how this relates to cognitive performance. We looked at variability changes between resting-state and task (a symbol-matching task with three levels of difficulty, and within trial (fixation, post-stimulus, and post-response. We calculated variability with multiscale entropy (MSE, and additionally examined spectral power density (SPD from electroencephalography (EEG in children aged 8-14, and in adults aged 18-33. Our results suggest that maturation is characterized by increased local information processing (higher MSE at fine temporal scales and decreased long-range interactions with other neural populations (lower MSE at coarse temporal scales. Children show MSE changes that are similar in magnitude, but greater in spatial extent when transitioning between internally- and externally-driven brain states. Additionally, we found that in children, greater changes in task difficulty were associated with greater magnitude of modulation in MSE. Our results suggest that the interplay between maturational and state-to-state changes in brain signal variability manifest across different spatial and temporal scales, and influence information processing capacity in the brain.

  8. English Name Transition from Taiwan to the United States: A Case Study of Taiwanese International Students

    OpenAIRE

    Yi-An Jason Chen

    2016-01-01

    The way in which Taiwanese students use English names to construct their identities in a new sociocultural setting has received minimal scholarly attention. Drawing on semi-structured interviews with 10 Taiwanese international students, I focused on how the use of ethnic names and English names is structured through social interaction and cultural context at an American university. The results suggest that the acquisition of an English name is not a personal choice, but an authoritative order...

  9. International training course on implementation of state systems of accounting for and control of nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-12-01

    The course was developed to provide practical training in the implementation and operation of a national system of nuclear materials accountability and control that satisfies both national and international safeguards requirements. Major emphasis for the 1982 course was placed on methods for safeguarding reactor facilities - both research reactors and power reactors plus their associated spent-fuel fuel storage. Separate abstracts have been prepared for 23 of the sessions; one of the remaining sessions had been previously abstracted

  10. The experiences of internationally educated nurses in the southeastern United States of America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, R M; Foster, J W; Hepburn, K W

    2013-09-01

    US healthcare facilities have addressed nursing shortages in part by recruiting internationally educated nurses (IENs), and studies suggest IENs may make up a significant percentage of the nursing workforce in urban hospitals. Despite the economic recession of 2008-2012, international nurse migration is expected to continue. Little is known about IENs in the southeastern USA, and no studies have compared their perspectives to those of their US counterparts. The purpose of this study was to gain a deeper understanding about the experiences of IENs compared to those of US registered nurses (RNs) practising in two urban hospitals in southeastern USA. This study involved two rounds of semi-structured interviews of 82 IENs and US RNs. Interviews focused on themes relating to education, barriers to practice, intent to stay in nursing and IENs' migration experiences. Most IENs interviewed migrated to the USA after 1990 to join their family and do not plan to return to their home countries to practise. Most IENs initially received their Associate Degree in Nursing; many have obtained their Bachelor of Science in Nursing degree. IENs and newly licensed US RNs faced similar barriers when they began practising in the USA, but IENs faced additional challenges adjusting to the attitudes of US patients, the perceived lack of respect for nurses and delivering total patient care. IENs would benefit from orientation regarding the cultural differences in the USA. In other ways, their challenges are similar to those of US RNs; policies regarding education, recruitment and retention could target both groups together. © 2013 The Authors. International Nursing Review © 2013 International Council of Nurses.

  11. An Analysis of International Air Freight Forwarding Support for the United States Navy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-06-01

    2. The Role of IATA in Ratemaking ... ...... 23 3. Current Environment ..... ........... 24 III. BURLINGTON-NORTHERN AIR FREIGHT, INCORPORATED . . 28...carrier is permitted access [Ref. 16]. 2. The Role of IATA in Ratemaking Factors other than shipper demand and carrier costs affect international freight...capability of the Air Force and Navy into one transport organization called the Military Air Transport Service (MATS). The mission of MATS was basically that

  12. Legitimate Use of Military Force Against State-Sponsored International Terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-07-01

    principal. American international law professor and theorist Hans Kelsen writes, There are a number of ways in which force may be used indirectly by a...excluding anticipatory self-defense. Brownlie, Boyle, Jessup, Kelsen , Kunz, Sorensen, and Q. Wright, among others, assert that �there is no right of...law on self-defense. The most articulate writer in this regard is Hans Kelsen , who argues: All sides in this controversy over the scope of the

  13. International training course on implementation of state systems of accounting for and control of nuclear materials: proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-06-01

    This report incorporates all lectures and presentations at the International Training Course on Implementation of State Systems of Accounting for and Control of Nuclear Materials held June 3 through June 21, 1985, at Santa Fe and Los Alamos, New Mexico, and San Clemente, California. Authorized by the US Nuclear Non-Proliferation Act and sponsored by the US Department of Energy in cooperation with the International Atomic Energy Agency, the Course was developed to provide practical training in the design, implementation, and operation of a state system of nuclear materials accountability and control that satisfies both national and international safeguards requirements. Major emphasis for the 1985 course was placed on safeguards methods used at item-control facilities, particularly nuclear power generating stations and test reactors. An introduction to safeguards methods used at bulk handling facilities, particularly low-enriched uranium conversion and fuel fabrication plants, was also included. The course was conducted by the University of California's Los Alamos National Laboratory and the Southern California Edison Company. Tours and demonstrations were arranged at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico, and the San Onofre Nuclear Generating Station, San Clemente, California

  14. International training course on implementation of state systems of accounting for and control of nuclear materials: proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-06-01

    This report incorporates all lectures and presentations at the International Training Course on Implementation of State Systems of Accounting for and Control of Nuclear Materials held October 17 through November 4, 1983, at Santa Fe and Los Alamos, New Mexico and Richland, Washington, USA. Authorized by the US Nuclear Non-Proliferation Act and sponsored by the US Department of Energy in cooperation with the International Atomic Energy Agency, the course was developed to provide practical training in the design, implementation, and operation of a State system of nuclear materials accountability and control that satisfies both national and international safeguards requirements. Major emphasis for the 1983 course was placed on safeguards methods used at bulk-handling facilities, particularly low-enriched uranium conversion and fuel fabrication plants. The course was conducted by the University of California's Los Alamos National Laboratory and Exxon Nuclear Company, Inc. Tours and demonstrations were arranged at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico, and the Exxon Nuclear fuel fabrication plant, the Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Westinghouse Fast Flux Test Facility Visitor Center, and Washington Public Power System nuclear reactor facilities in Richland, Washington. Individual presentations were indexed for inclusion in the Energy Data Base

  15. International training course on implementation of state systems of accounting for and control of nuclear materials: proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-06-01

    This report incorporates all lectures and presentations at the International Training Course on Implementation of State Systems of Accounting for and Control of Nuclear Materials held October 17 through November 4, 1983, at Santa Fe and Los Alamos, New Mexico and Richland, Washington, USA. Authorized by the US Nuclear Non-Proliferation Act and sponsored by the US Department of Energy in cooperation with the International Atomic Energy Agency, the course was developed to provide practical training in the design, implementation, and operation of a State system of nuclear materials accountability and control that satisfies both national and international safeguards requirements. Major emphasis for the 1983 course was placed on safeguards methods used at bulk-handling facilities, particularly low-enriched uranium conversion and fuel fabrication plants. The course was conducted by the University of California's Los Alamos National Laboratory and Exxon Nuclear Company, Inc. Tours and demonstrations were arranged at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico, and the Exxon Nuclear fuel fabrication plant, the Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Westinghouse Fast Flux Test Facility Visitor Center, and Washington Public Power System nuclear reactor facilities in Richland, Washington. Individual presentations were indexed for inclusion in the Energy Data Base.

  16. International training course on implementation of state systems of accounting for and control of nuclear materials: proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-06-01

    This report incorporates all lectures and presentations at the International Training Course on Implementation of State Systems of Accounting for and Control of Nuclear Materials held June 3 through June 21, 1985, at Santa Fe and Los Alamos, New Mexico, and San Clemente, California. Authorized by the US Nuclear Non-Proliferation Act and sponsored by the US Department of Energy in cooperation with the International Atomic Energy Agency, the Course was developed to provide practical training in the design, implementation, and operation of a state system of nuclear materials accountability and control that satisfies both national and international safeguards requirements. Major emphasis for the 1985 course was placed on safeguards methods used at item-control facilities, particularly nuclear power generating stations and test reactors. An introduction to safeguards methods used at bulk handling facilities, particularly low-enriched uranium conversion and fuel fabrication plants, was also included. The course was conducted by the University of California's Los Alamos National Laboratory and the Southern California Edison Company. Tours and demonstrations were arranged at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico, and the San Onofre Nuclear Generating Station, San Clemente, California.

  17. Gestational age specific neonatal survival in the State of Qatar (2003-2008) - a comparative study with international benchmarks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Sajjad; Salameh, Khalil; Al-Rifai, Hilal; Masoud, Ahmed; Lutfi, Samawal; Salama, Husam; Abdoh, Ghassan; Omar, Fahmi; Bener, Abdulbari

    2011-09-01

    To analyze and compare the current gestational age specific neonatal survival rates between Qatar and international benchmarks. An analytical comparative study. Women's Hospital, Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, Qatar, from 2003-2008. Six year's (2003-2008) gestational age specific neonatal mortality data was stratified for each completed week of gestation at birth from 24 weeks till term. The data from World Health Statistics by WHO (2010), Vermont Oxford Network (VON, 2007) and National Statistics United Kingdom (2006) were used as international benchmarks for comparative analysis. A total of 82,002 babies were born during the study period. Qatar's neonatal mortality rate (NMR) dropped from 6/1000 in 2003 to 4.3/1000 in 2008 (p Qatar were comparable with international benchmarks. The survival of Qatar (p=0.01 and p 32 weeks babies was better in UK (p=0.01) as compared to Qatar. The relative risk (RR) of death decreased with increasing gestational age (p Qatar. The current total and gestational age specific neonatal survival rates in the State of Qatar are comparable with international benchmarks. In Qatar, persistently high rates of low birth weight and lethal chromosomal and congenital anomalies significantly contribute towards neonatal mortality.

  18. NATO Advanced Study Institute International Advanced Course on The Liquid State and Its Electrical Properties

    CERN Document Server

    Christophorou, L; Luessen, L

    1988-01-01

    As the various disciplines of science advance, they proliferate and tend to become more esoteric. Barriers of specialized terminologies form, which cause scientists to lose contact with their colleagues, and differences in points-of-view emerge which hinder the unification of knowledge among the various disciplines, and even within a given discipline. As a result, the scientist, and especially the student, is in many instances offered fragmented glimpses of subjects that are funda­ mentally synthetic and that should be treated in their own right. Such seems to be the case of the liquid state. Unlike the other states of matter -- gases, solids, and plasmas -- the liquid state has not yet received unified treatment, probably because it has been the least explored and remains the least understood state of matter. Occasionally, events occur which help remove some of the barriers that separate scientists and disciplines alike. Such an event was the ASI on The Liquid State held this past July at the lovely Hotel T...

  19. United States of America activities relative to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) initiative: Records management for deep geologic repositories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warner, P.J.

    1997-03-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has conducted consultant and advisory meetings to prepare a Technical Document which is intended to provide guidance to all IAEA Member States (otherwise known as countries) that are currently planning, designing, constructing or operating a deep or near surface geological repository for the storage and protection of vitrified high-level radioactive waste, spent fuel waste and TRU-waste (transuranic). Eleven countries of the international community are presently in various stages of siting, designing, or constructing deep geologic repositories. Member States of the IAEA have determined that the principle safety of such completed and operation sites must not rely solely on long term institutional arrangements for the retention of information. It is believed that repository siting, design, operation and postoperation information should be gathered, managed and retained in a manner that will provide information to future societies over a very long period of time. The radionuclide life is 10,000 years thus the retention of information must outlive current societies, languages, and be continually migrated to new technology to assure retrieval. This presentation will provide an overview of the status of consideration and implementation of these issues within the United States efforts relative to deep geologic repository projects.

  20. United States of America activities relative to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) initiative: Records management for deep geologic repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warner, P.J.

    1997-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has conducted consultant and advisory meetings to prepare a Technical Document which is intended to provide guidance to all IAEA Member States (otherwise known as countries) that are currently planning, designing, constructing or operating a deep or near surface geological repository for the storage and protection of vitrified high-level radioactive waste, spent fuel waste and TRU-waste (transuranic). Eleven countries of the international community are presently in various stages of siting, designing, or constructing deep geologic repositories. Member States of the IAEA have determined that the principle safety of such completed and operation sites must not rely solely on long term institutional arrangements for the retention of information. It is believed that repository siting, design, operation and postoperation information should be gathered, managed and retained in a manner that will provide information to future societies over a very long period of time. The radionuclide life is 10,000 years thus the retention of information must outlive current societies, languages, and be continually migrated to new technology to assure retrieval. This presentation will provide an overview of the status of consideration and implementation of these issues within the United States efforts relative to deep geologic repository projects

  1. The precariousness of the franchise state: Voluntary sector health services and international NGOs in Tanzania, 1960s - mid-1980s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Michael

    2015-09-01

    This paper challenges conventional narratives on the role of international non-governmental organisations (INGOs) in the delivery of health services in Tanzania. Adopting an historical gaze which focuses on the 1960s to mid-1980s the paper argues that the 'franchise state' in the Tanzanian health system was not created by collusion between international donors and INGOs, underpinned by a set of health sector reforms that advocated the use of non-state actors; but was rather the legacy of the colonial health system bequeathed to the post-independence state. It was a system in which voluntary non-state actors (but, importantly, not INGOs) were already entrenched as key providers; and in which many of the features of the franchise state - fragmentation, structural weaknesses, lack of accountability to users - were already long established. But if INGOs did not create these features, as their critics attest, they did contribute to the maintenance and extension of these features. The short-term perspectives of NGOs, their small-scale piecemeal engagement, and the extra demands they placed upon their voluntary actor partners, left little scope for the development of sustainable, national and accountable solutions to the health needs of the country. In exploring these ideas, the paper contributes to a more nuanced understanding of the path dependency that created Tanzania's health system. The analysis also contributes to a deepening of the understanding of the make-up of the voluntary sector beyond a narrow gaze on the institution of the INGO. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The significance of neuroendocrine system state in estimation of nonstochastic effects of small doses of internal irradiation. (An experimental study)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dedov, V.I.; Norets, T.A.; Stepanenko, V.F.; Dedenkov, A.N.

    1987-01-01

    Data on long-term complex investigations of nonstochastic effects of low doses of internal irradiation on the level of a whole organism are presented. Experiments have been carried out with mongrel rats of both sexes and different ages up to the moment of introduction of radioactive compounds. Action of relatively and uniformly distributing in the organism radiactive compounds of selenium - 75 and sulfur - 35, which were introduced once intravenously in quantities forming absorbed doses in average on the whole body and ovaries (0.5 Gy), on endocrine glands and critical organs (up to 1.0 Gy) has been used as models of internal radiation. Data, testifying to the fact that the neuroendocrinal system, despite the existing opinion, is sensitive to action of low doses of internal irradiation compared with the recommended one as an ultimate permissible one for nonstochastic effects ( 0.5 Sv), that permits to suggest for using factors of the functional state of the neuroendocrine system as an informative and sensitive criterium of estimation of biological action of low doses of internal radiation, have been obtained. These factors along with doses on critical organs permit to estimate the degree of dangerous action of different radionuclides on the organism level. Dynamic studying of activity factors of the neuroendocrine system with simultaneous analysis of the state of harmonically dependent processes permits to estimate functional possibilities of irradiated organism, its viability, especially under conditions requiring increased stress, as well as to take into account such factors modifying a biological effect as age, animal sex, the character of absorbed dose distribution

  3. Research at United States Antarctic stations during the International Magnetosphere Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenberg, T.J.

    1982-01-01

    During the International Magnetospheric Study (IMS) the U.S. operated programs at McMurdo, Siple, South Pole, and Palmer stations and at the Soviet Vostok station. Details concerning measurement locations are considered, and program summaries are provided. The programs are related to the study of geomagnetic variations, magnetic pulsations in the polar cap, cosmic noise absorption, VLF radio waves, auroral photometry, the morphology and dynamics of visible auroral forms, cosmic ray intensity variations, and auroral infrasonic waves. One program is based on the utilization of VHF Doppler auroral radar

  4. Analytical traceability of melon (Cucumis melo var reticulatus): proximate composition, bioactive compounds, and antioxidant capacity in relation to cultivar, plant physiology state, and seasonal variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maietti, Annalisa; Tedeschi, Paola; Stagno, Caterina; Bordiga, Matteo; Travaglia, Fabiano; Locatelli, Monica; Arlorio, Marco; Brandolini, Vincenzo

    2012-06-01

    Two morphologically different cultivars of Italian melons (Baggio and Giusto) were characterized considering samples harvested in different times, at the beginning (BPP) and at the end of the physiological plant production period (EPP). Proximate composition, protein, minerals, pH, phenolic content, antioxidant capacity, ascorbic acid, carotenoids, condensed tannins, and flavonoids were measured, showing a significant decrease in EPP samples (phenolics, antioxidant capacity, condensed tannins, and flavonoids); ascorbic acid decreased in Giusto cv, carotenoids in Baggio cv. Mineral content increased in either the cultivars (EPP samples). Year-to-year difference was significantly highlighted; the plant growing cycle significantly affected the chemotype. Despite these effects, the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) permitted the discrimination of Baggio from Giusto cv, and the discrimination of BPP from EPP samples as well. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  5. Physiological Bases of Bulimia, and Antidepressant Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getzfeld, Andrew R.

    This paper reviews the literature on the physiological causes of bulimia and investigates the rationale behind the usage of antidepressant medication in the treatment of bulimia nervosa. No definite conclusions can be stated regarding the physiology of bulimia, but a number of hypotheses are suggested. It appears that the hypothalamus is involved…

  6. Beyond the Border: Mexico’s Internal Conflict Is the United States’ Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-23

    Modus Operandi NAFTA North American Free Trade Agreement NCTC United States National Counterterrorism Center NDCS National Drug Control Strategy...especially since their economic relationship has grown more interdependent over recent years. The North American Free Trade Agreement ( NAFTA ...against all threats foreign and domestic.131 Hamilton wrote that the solution to the threat centers on the development of a “ constitution [that] prevents

  7. An Internationally Intelligible Principle: Comparing the Nondelegation Doctrine in the United States and European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grodin Edward

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the degree of convergence between the United States and the European Union regarding the structural role of administrative agencies. As will be argued, the United States and European Union have arrived at the same broad conclusion about a “nondelegation doctrine”: delegations to administrative agencies should be permitted so long as some limiting principle governs the exercise of that power and allows for sufficient judicial review. However, the Supreme Court has taken a more permissive approach than the Court of Justice in defining the limiting principle. The United States has loosened the reins for the sake of modern administration while the European Union has maintained a firmer grip to keep better control over the Europeanization project. Stated another way, the nondelegation doctrine is simply a reflection of the systems’ relative levels of integration. Thus, the nondelegation doctrine will be stretched in Europe as functional regulatory demands arise from wider and deeper integration. At the same time, the focus will be redirected from substantive limits to procedural controls; accordingly, this Note advocates for a European Administrative Procedure Act.

  8. International Comparisons of Infant Mortality and Related Factors : United States and Europe, 2010

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MacDorman, M.F.; Mathews, T.J.; Mohangoo, A.D.; Zeitlin, J.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This report investigates the reasons for the United States' high infant mortality rate when compared with European countries. Specifically, the report measures the impact on infant mortality differences of two major factors: the percentage of preterm births and gestational age-specific

  9. Communication of 14 March 2000 received from the Permanent Mission of the United States of America to the International Atomic Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The document reproduces the text of the communication of 14 March 2000 received from the Permanent Mission of the United States of America to the International Atomic Energy Agency including two statements of the President and the Secretary of State of the United States of America regarding the Nuclear Non-proliferation Treaty

  10. Chewing Over Physiology Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulkader, Fernando; Azevedo-Martins, Anna Karenina; de Arcisio Miranda, Manoel; Brunaldi, Kellen

    2005-01-01

    An important challenge for both students and teachers of physiology is to integrate the differentareas in which physiological knowledge is didactically divided. In developing countries, such an issue is even more demanding, because budget restrictions often affect the physiology program with laboratory classes being the first on the list when it…

  11. Predictors of academic performance for applicants to an international dental studies program in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitigoi-Aron, Gabriela; King, Patricia A; Chambers, David W

    2011-12-01

    The number of U.S. and Canadian dental schools offering programs for dentists with degrees from other countries leading to the D.D.S. or D.M.D. degree has increased recently. This fact, along with the diversity of educational systems represented by candidates for these programs, increases the importance of identifying valid admissions predictors of success in international dental student programs. Data from 148 students accepted into the international dental studies program at the University of the Pacific from 1994 through 2004 were analyzed. Dependent variables were comprehensive cumulative GPA at the end of both the first and second years of the two-year program. The Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL) and both Parts I and II of the National Board Dental Examination (NBDE) were significant positive predictors of success. Performance on laboratory tests of clinical skill in operative dentistry and in fixed prosthodontics and ratings from interviewers were not predictive of overall success in the program. Although this study confirms the predictive value of written tests such as the TOEFL and NBDE, it also contributes to the literature documenting inconsistent results regarding other types of predictors. It may be the case that characteristics of individual programs or features of the applicant pools for each may require use of admissions predictors that are unique to schools.

  12. Electromagnetic field standards in Central and Eastern European countries: current state and stipulations for international harmonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajsek, P; Pakhomov, A G; Klauenberg, B J

    2002-04-01

    Electromagnetic field standards in the West are based on well-established acute biological effects that could be considered as signaling a potentially adverse health effect. The specific absorption rate, which is proportional to the tissue heating (thermal effects), represents the basic restriction of exposure to Radio-Frequency (RF) fields. On the other hand, Eastern European standards are designed to protect from potential non-thermal effects that might be caused by chronic exposure to very low intensities, where a so-called "power load" (a product of field intensity and duration of exposure) represents the basic limitation. Thus, electromagnetic field standards in Eastern European countries differ considerably from those which are proposed by the International Commission of Non-ionizing Radiation Protection and the Standards Coordinating Committee 28 of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc. In the present paper, the strategies for development of exposure limit values in electromagnetic fields standards currently in force in Eastern and Central European countries are discussed. Some differences as well as similarities of the national health and safety standards and the main obstacles to harmonization of these standards with those being established by Western national and international organizations and agencies are presented.

  13. International Space Station United States Laboratory Module Water Recovery Management Subsystem Verification from Flight 5A to Stage ULF2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David E.; Labuda, Laura

    2009-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system comprises of seven subsystems: Atmosphere Control and Supply (ACS), Atmosphere Revitalization (AR), Fire Detection and Suppression (FDS), Temperature and Humidity Control (THC), Vacuum System (VS), Water Recovery and Management (WRM), and Waste Management (WM). This paper provides a summary of the nominal operation of the United States (U.S.) Laboratory Module WRM design and detailed element methodologies utilized during the Qualification phase of the U.S. Laboratory Module prior to launch and the Qualification of all of the modification kits added to it from Flight 5A up and including Stage ULF2.

  14. Incorporating the International Polar Year Into Introductory Geology Laboratories at Ohio State University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judge, S. A.; Wilson, T. J.

    2005-12-01

    The International Polar Year (IPY) provides an excellent opportunity for highlighting polar research in education. The ultimate goal of our outreach and education program is to develop a series of modules that are focused on societally-relevant topics being investigated in Antarctic earth science, while teaching basic geologic concepts that are standard elements of school curricula. For example, we envision a university-level, undergraduate, introductory earth science class with the entire semester/quarter laboratory program focused on polar earth science research during the period of the International Polar Year. To attain this goal, a series of modules will be developed, including inquiry-based exercises founded on imagery (video, digital photos, digital core scans), GIS data layers, maps, and data sets available from OSU research groups. Modules that highlight polar research are also suitable for the K-12 audience. Scaleable/grade appropriate modules that use some of the same data sets as the undergraduate modules can be outlined for elementary through high school earth science classes. An initial module is being developed that focuses on paleoclimate data. The module provides a hands-on investigation of the climate history archived in both ice cores and sedimentary rock cores in order to understand time scales, drivers, and processes of global climate change. The paleoclimate module also demonstrates the types of polar research that are ongoing at OSU, allowing students to observe what research the faculty are undertaking in their respective fields. This will link faculty research with student education in the classroom, enhancing learning outcomes. Finally, this module will provide a direct link to U.S. Antarctic Program research related to the International Polar Year, when new ice and sedimentary rock cores will be obtained and analyzed. As a result of this laboratory exercise, the students will be able to: (1) Define an ice core and a sedimentary rock core

  15. NASA Ames DEVELOP Interns: Helping the Western United States Manage Natural Resources One Project at a Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justice, Erin; Newcomer, Michelle

    2010-01-01

    The western half of the United States is made up of a number of diverse ecosystems ranging from arid desert to coastal wetlands and rugged forests. Every summer for the past 7 years students ranging from high school to graduate level gather at NASA Ames Research Center (ARC) as part of the DEVELOP Internship Program. Under the guidance of Jay Skiles [Ames Research Center (ARC) - Ames DEVELOP Manager] and Cindy Schmidt [ARC/San Jose State University Ames DEVELOP Coordinator] they work as a team on projects exploring topics including: invasive species, carbon flux, wetland restoration, air quality monitoring, storm visualizations, and forest fires. The study areas for these projects have been in Washington, Utah, Oregon, Nevada, Hawaii, Alaska and California. Interns combine data from NASA and partner satellites with models and in situ measurements to complete prototype projects demonstrating how NASA data and resources can help communities tackle their Earth Science related problems.

  16. Participating in Politics Resembles Physical Activity: General Action Patterns in International Archives, United States Archives, and Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguchi, Kenji; Handley, Ian M.; Albarracín, Dolores

    2016-01-01

    A series of studies examined whether political participation can emerge from general patterns of indiscriminate activity. In the first two studies, general action tendencies were measured by combining national and state-level indicators of high activity (e.g., impulsiveness, pace of life, and physical activity) from international and U.S. data. This action-tendency index positively correlated with a measure of political participation that consisted of voting behaviors and participation in political demonstrations. The following two experimental studies indicated that participants exposed to action words (e.g., go, move) had stronger intentions to vote in an upcoming election and volunteered more time to make phone calls on behalf of a university policy than participants exposed to inaction words did (e.g., relax, stop). These studies suggest that political participation can be predicted from general tendencies toward activity present at the national and state levels, as well as from verbal prompts suggestive of activity. PMID:21177515

  17. The Thermal State of Permafrost in the Nordic Area during the International Polar Year 2007-2009

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, H. H.; Etzelmuller, B.; Isaksen, K.

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides a snapshot of the permafrost thermal state in the Nordic area obtained during the International Polar Year (IPY) 2007-2009. Several intensive research campaigns were undertaken within a variety of projects in the Nordic countries to obtain this snapshot. We demonstrate...... for Scandinavia that both lowland permafrost in palsas and peat plateaus, and large areas of permafrost in the mountains are at temperatures close to 0 degrees C, which makes them sensitive to climatic changes. In Svalbard and northeast Greenland, and also in the highest parts of the mountains in the rest...... affect the permafrost thermal state in the Nordic area. Time series of active-layer thickness and permafrost temperature conditions in the Nordic area, which are generally only 10 years in length, show generally increasing active-layer depths and risings permafrost temperatures....

  18. An iso-erodent map Imo state of Nigeria | Madubuike | International ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Among inputs/resources often needed for erosion risk assessment of a region is the iso-erodent map of the region. This is a map showing areas of equal erosion potentials in the region. As Imo and Abia states of Nigeria lie in a high erosion region of the country, it was decided in this work to produce an iso-erodent map of ...

  19. Nuclear non-proliferation states urged to conclude Safeguards Agreement with International Atomic Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The document contains a brief presentation of the annual report of the IAEA, the statement of the Director General of the IAEA at the General Assembly Plenary with emphasis on Agency's actions to strengthen safeguards, and statements made by the representatives of Brazil, Finland, Mexico, United States, Lithuania, Cuba, Czech Republic, Japan, Egypt, Ukraine, South Africa, India, Myanmar, and the Russian Federation at the 46th Meeting, on 4 November 1999

  20. UNITED STATES NAVAL STRATEGY IN THE SOUTH CHINA SEA TO ENSURE INTERNATIONAL FREEDOM OF NAVIGATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-12

    Europe (FOB-E) Detachment Naples, as well as assignments on the Joint Staff as well as the OPNAV Staff in Washington DC. His hobbies include hiking ...defense, control of maritime trade, defending the regime against domestic threats, and ensuring economic benefit to the state.”9 Additionally, the...million in 7 maritime aid to its Southeast Asian allies -- including a warship for the Philippines.”33 This closer relationship could benefit not

  1. THE CURRENT STATE OF APPLICATION OF INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL REPORTING STANDARDS IN UKRAINE.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Zasadnyi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzed the process of reforming the system of accounting and reporting in Ukraine in accordance with International Financial Reporting Standards. The main results of the tasks of the Strategy of application IFRS in Ukraine approved by the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine in 2007 are identified. The results of analysis showed that only 1% of the total number of enterprises form the financial statements in accordance with IFRS, the others apply national standards of accounting. The proportion of small enterprises is 95% that do not have the financial capacity, qualified staff and the necessary motivation for the formation of financial statements in accordance with IFRS. As a result, one of the main objectives of the reform of the accounting and reporting is to improve the legislation on accounting for small enterprises and develop national accounting standards of the simplified procedure for accounting of assets, liabilities, equity and financial results of the calculation for small enterprises.

  2. Relative deprivation and internal migration in the United States: A comparison of black and white men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flippen, Chenoa

    2013-01-01

    While the link between geographic and social mobility has long been a cornerstone of sociological approaches to migration, recent research has cast doubt on the economic returns to internal U.S. migration. Moreover, important racial disparities in migration patterns remain poorly understood. Drawing on data from the 2000 census, I reappraise the link between migration and social mobility by taking relative deprivation into consideration. I examine the association between migration, disaggregated by region of origin and destination, and absolute and relative earnings and occupational prestige, separately by race. Findings lend new insight into the theoretical and stratification implications of growing racial disparities in migration patterns; while both blacks and whites who move north-south generally average lower absolute incomes than their stationary northern peers, they enjoy significantly higher relative social position. Moreover, the relative “gains” to migration are substantially larger for blacks than whites. The opposite patterns obtain for south-north migration. PMID:24391221

  3. International congress on forest decline research: State of knowledge and perspectives. Vol. 1. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulrich, B.

    1989-01-01

    In the two lecture volumes of the Proceedings of the International Congress on Forest Decline Research the papers are presented according to the topics of the plenary and poster sessions. The sessions had been devoted to the damage symptoms in forest decline, to the main stressors (atmosphere, climate, soil, biota), to the effects of the stressors (on rhizosphere, on decomposers, and on plants) (see vol. 1), to case studies (in Germany and abroad), to regional comparisons, to critical loads, and to silvicultural measures (see vol. 2). Additionally personal impressions about the forest decline phenomen in Germany and its causes and opinions about the perspective in regard to research needs, to silvicultural practices and to emission control are given. (orig./vhe)

  4. International congress on forest decline research: State of knowledge and perspectives. Vol. 2. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulrich, B.

    1989-01-01

    In the two lecture volumes of the Proceedings of the International Congress on Forest Decline Research the papers are presented according to the topics of the plenary and poster sessions. The sessions had been devoted to the damage symptoms in forest decline, to the main stressors (atmosphere, climate, soil, biota), to the effects of the stressors (on rhizosphere, on decomposers, and on plants) (see vol. 1), to case studies (in Germany and abroad), to regional comparisons, to critical loads, and to silvicultural measures (see vol. 2). Additionally personal impressions about the forest decline phenomen in Germany and its causes and opinions about the perspective in regard to research needs, to silvicultural practices and to emission control are given. (orig./vhe)

  5. Probabilistic Nowcasting of Low-Visibility Procedure States at Vienna International Airport During Cold Season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneringer, Philipp; Dietz, Sebastian J.; Mayr, Georg J.; Zeileis, Achim

    2018-04-01

    Airport operations are sensitive to visibility conditions. Low-visibility events may lead to capacity reduction, delays and economic losses. Different levels of low-visibility procedures (lvp) are enacted to ensure aviation safety. A nowcast of the probabilities for each of the lvp categories helps decision makers to optimally schedule their operations. An ordered logistic regression (OLR) model is used to forecast these probabilities directly. It is applied to cold season forecasts at Vienna International Airport for lead times of 30-min out to 2 h. Model inputs are standard meteorological measurements. The skill of the forecasts is accessed by the ranked probability score. OLR outperforms persistence, which is a strong contender at the shortest lead times. The ranked probability score of the OLR is even better than the one of nowcasts from human forecasters. The OLR-based nowcasting system is computationally fast and can be updated instantaneously when new data become available.

  6. Doppler radar physiological sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Lubecke, Victor M; Droitcour, Amy D; Park, Byung-Kwon; Singh, Aditya

    2016-01-01

    Presents a comprehensive description of the theory and practical implementation of Doppler radar-based physiological monitoring. This book includes an overview of current physiological monitoring techniques and explains the fundamental technology used in remote non-contact monitoring methods. Basic radio wave propagation and radar principles are introduced along with the fundamentals of physiological motion and measurement. Specific design and implementation considerations for physiological monitoring radar systems are then discussed in detail. The authors address current research and commercial development of Doppler radar based physiological monitoring for healthcare and other applications.

  7. INTERNATIONAL ASPECTS OF STATE REGULATION OF SOCIO-ECONOMIC RESPONSIBILITY OF ENTREPRENEURSHIP: EXPERIENCE FOR UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmila Batchenko

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The subject of the study is the socio-economic aspects of the social responsibility of business (CSR in 4 countries. The purpose of the article is to study the experience in regulating the socio-economic responsibility of entrepreneurship in the United States, Sweden, India, and China to determine the direction of formation of the state mechanism of socio-economic responsibility of entrepreneurship (SERE in Ukraine. The methodology of the article became theoretical researches of foreign scientists, their synthesis, systematization, and analysis for the development of the application of experience in Ukrainian realities. The analysis showed how different states of CSR policy differ in each of these countries and made it possible to draw conclusions about the application in Ukraine. So, the experience of Sweden is useful in reviewing the social reporting obligation, as well as the experience of China. In the case of the USA, the role of the state in regulating CSRs in enterprises should be noted but, at the same time, the significant social consciousness of American entrepreneurs as recognized philanthropists, who are actively introducing ethical codes and key stewards from the implementation of CSR, are seen by society and aimed at improving the well-being of society. In China, the government plays an important role in the implementation of CSR for state-owned enterprises. In addition, laws are adopted to improve the rights of employees, to equalize gender differences, to increase the level of production, quality of products, which leads to an improvement in the quality of life of the country’s population. All this becomes relevant for Ukraine and can be used in our country as well. Indian experience draws attention through the adoption of a unique decision on the indifference of charity activities by Indian companies with a certain level of profit and the adoption of them by the rules of corporate social responsibility. In entrepreneurship

  8. Chronobiology --2017 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Li; Li, Yi-Rou; Xu, Xiao-Dong

    2018-01-20

    Chronobiology is a field of biology that examines the generation of biological rhythms in various creatures and in many parts of body, and their adaptive fitness to solar- and lunar-related periodic phenomena. The synchronization of internal circadian clocks with external timing signals confers accurate phase response and tissue homeostasis. Herein we state a series of studies on circadian rhythms and introduce the brief history of chronobiology. We also present a detailed timeline of the discoveries on molecular mechanisms controlling circadian rhythm in Drosophila, which was awarded the 2017 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. The latest findings and new perspectives are further summarized to indicate the significance of circadian research.

  9. Intragroup emotions: physiological linkage and social presence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simo eJärvelä

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We investigated how technologically mediating two different components of emotion – communicative expression and physiological state – to group members affects physiological linkage and self-reported feelings in a small group during video viewing. In different conditions the availability of second screen text chat (communicative expression and visualization of group level physiological heart rates and their dyadic linkage (physiology was varied. Within this four person group two participants formed a physically co-located dyad and the other two were individually situated in two separate rooms. We found that text chat always increased heart rate synchrony but HR visualization only with non-co-located dyads. We also found that physiological linkage was strongly connected to self-reported social presence. The results encourage further exploration of the possibilities of sharing group member’s physiological components of emotion by technological means to enhance mediated communication and strengthen social presence.

  10. Intragroup Emotions: Physiological Linkage and Social Presence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Järvelä, Simo; Kätsyri, Jari; Ravaja, Niklas; Chanel, Guillaume; Henttonen, Pentti

    2016-01-01

    We investigated how technologically mediating two different components of emotion-communicative expression and physiological state-to group members affects physiological linkage and self-reported feelings in a small group during video viewing. In different conditions the availability of second screen text chat (communicative expression) and visualization of group level physiological heart rates and their dyadic linkage (physiology) was varied. Within this four person group two participants formed a physically co-located dyad and the other two were individually situated in two separate rooms. We found that text chat always increased heart rate synchrony but HR visualization only with non-co-located dyads. We also found that physiological linkage was strongly connected to self-reported social presence. The results encourage further exploration of the possibilities of sharing group member's physiological components of emotion by technological means to enhance mediated communication and strengthen social presence.

  11. Internal states of model isotropic granular packings. I. Assembling process, geometry, and contact networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnolin, Ivana; Roux, Jean-Noël

    2007-12-01

    This is the first paper of a series of three, in which we report on numerical simulation studies of geometric and mechanical properties of static assemblies of spherical beads under an isotropic pressure. The influence of various assembling processes on packing microstructures is investigated. It is accurately checked that frictionless systems assemble in the unique random close packing (RCP) state in the low pressure limit if the compression process is fast enough, higher solid fractions corresponding to more ordered configurations with traces of crystallization. Specific properties directly related to isostaticity of the force-carrying structure in the rigid limit are discussed. With frictional grains, different preparation procedures result in quite different inner structures that cannot be classified by the sole density. If partly or completely lubricated they will assemble like frictionless ones, approaching the RCP solid fraction Phi_{RCP} approximately 0.639 with a high coordination number: z* approximately =6 on the force-carrying backbone. If compressed with a realistic coefficient of friction mu=0.3 packings stabilize in a loose state with Phi approximately 0.593 and z* approximately =4.5 . And, more surprisingly, an idealized "vibration" procedure, which maintains an agitated, collisional regime up to high densities results in equally small values of z* while Phi is close to the maximum value Phi_{RCP}. Low coordination packings have a large proportion (>10%) of rattlers--grains carrying no force--the effect of which should be accounted for on studying position correlations, and also contain a small proportion of localized "floppy modes" associated with divalent grains. Low-pressure states of frictional packings retain a finite level of force indeterminacy even when assembled with the slowest compression rates simulated, except in the case when the friction coefficient tends to infinity. Different microstructures are characterized in terms of near

  12. Geothermal Exploration Policy Mechanisms: Lessons for the United States from International Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Speer, Bethany [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Economy, Ryan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lowder, Travis [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Schwabe, Paul [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Regenthal, Scott [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2014-05-01

    This report focuses on five of the policy types that are most relevant to the U.S. market and political context for the exploration and confirmation of conventional hydrothermal (geothermal) resources in the United States: (1) drilling failure insurance, (2) loan guarantees, (3) subsidized loans, (4) capital subsidies, and (5) government-led exploration. It describes each policy type and its application in other countries and regions. It offers policymakers a guide for drafting future geothermal support mechanisms for the exploration-drilling phase of geothermal development.

  13. Financing the international oil industry - problems and risks in the Commonwealth of Independent States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kingston, M.L.

    1995-01-01

    For many, the former Soviet Union represents the best example of an oil and gas market. Its natural resource base, its geographical location, highly skilled workforce and its potential to raise significant amounts of capital all point to its future position. However, it is a market which is bedevilled with problems and uncertainties. Whether it be Russian Federation, or some of the key Central Asian states such as Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan or Azerbaijan in the Trans-Caucasus, a lack of stable government, an absence of a regulatory framework, a relative immaturity of domestic financial markets and overarching idealogical views which may not be consistent with market economies, all complicate prospects. (author)

  14. The application of an internal state variable model to the viscoplastic behavior of irradiated ASTM 304L stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McAnulty, Michael J., E-mail: mcanulmj@id.doe.gov [Department of Energy, 1955 Fremont Avenue, Idaho Falls, ID 83402 (United States); Potirniche, Gabriel P. [Mechanical Engineering Department, University of Idaho, Moscow, ID 83844 (United States); Tokuhiro, Akira [Mechanical Engineering Department, University of Idaho, Idaho Falls, ID 83402 (United States)

    2012-09-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An internal state variable approach is used to predict the plastic behavior of irradiated metals. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The model predicts uniaxial tensile test data for irradiated 304L stainless steel. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The model is implemented as a user-defined material subroutine in the finite element code ABAQUS. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Results are compared for the unirradiated and irradiated specimens loaded in uniaxial tension. - Abstract: Neutron irradiation of metals results in decreased fracture toughness, decreased ductility, increased yield strength and increased ductile-to-brittle transition temperature. Designers use the most limiting material properties throughout the reactor vessel lifetime to determine acceptable safety margins. To reduce analysis conservatism, a new model is proposed based on an internal state variable approach for the plastic behavior of unirradiated ductile materials to support its use for analyzing irradiated materials. The proposed modeling addresses low temperature irradiation of 304L stainless steel, and predicts uniaxial tensile test data of irradiated experimental specimens. The model was implemented as a user-defined material subroutine (UMAT) in the finite element software ABAQUS. Results are compared between the unirradiated and irradiated specimens subjected to tension tests.

  15. First evidence of a prospective relation between avoidance of internal states and borderline personality disorder features in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Carla; Kalpakci, Allison; Mellick, William; Venta, Amanda; Temple, Jeff R

    2015-03-01

    At least two leading developmental models of borderline personality disorder (BPD) emphasize the role of accurate reflection and understanding of internal states as significant to the development of BPD features (Fonagy, Int J Psycho-Anal 72:639-656, 1991; Linehan, Cognitive-behavioral treatment of borderline personality disorder, 1993). The current study used the construct of experiential avoidance (EA) to operationalize avoidance of internal states and sought to examine (1) the concurrent relations between EA and borderline features in a large and diverse community sample; and (2) the prospective relation between EA and borderline features over a 1-year follow-up, controlling for baseline levels of borderline features. N = 881 adolescents recruited from public schools in a large metropolitan area participated in baseline assessments and N = 730 completed follow-up assessments. Two main findings were reported. First, EA was associated with borderline features, depressive, and anxiety symptoms at the bivariate level, but when all variables were considered together, depression and anxiety no longer remained significantly associated with borderline features, suggesting that the relations among these symptom clusters may be accounted for by EA as a cross-cutting underlying psychological process. Second, EA predicted levels of borderline symptoms at 1-year follow-up, controlling for baseline levels of borderline symptoms, and symptoms of anxiety and depression. Results are interpreted against the background of developmental theories of borderline personality disorder.

  16. EXPERIENCE OF IMPLEMENTATION OF THE LABOR PROTECTION CONTROL SYSTEM AT RUP «BMZ» IN ACCORDANCE WITH INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS OHSAS 180001 AND STATE STANDARD STB 18001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. N. Zhuk

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Experience of introduction of the control system by labour protection at RUP «BMZ» in accordance with international standard OHSAS 18001 and State standard STB 18001 is described.

  17. 12''th International Conference on Solid State Dosimetry Casa del Cordon. Conference Center (Caja de Burgos), July 5''th-10''th, 1998, Burgos Spain: Programme and Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The 12 International Conference on Solid State Dosimetry celebrate in Burgos (Spain) during July on 1998. 1.- Basic Physical Processes 2.- Materials characteristics 3.- Instrumentation 4.- Personal Dosimetry 5.- Clinical Dosimetry 6.- Environmental Dosimetry 7.- Dating retrospective dosimetry 8.- Miscellaneous

  18. Detection of urea-induced internal denaturation of dsDNA using solid-state nanopores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Alon; Kuhn, Heiko; Frank-Kamenetskii, Maxim; Meller, Amit

    2010-11-17

    The ability to detect and measure dsDNA thermal fluctuations is of immense importance in understanding the underlying mechanisms responsible for transcription and replication regulation. We describe here the ability of solid-state nanopores to detect sub-nanometer changes in DNA structure as a result of chemically enhanced thermal fluctuations. In this study, we investigate the subtle changes in the mean effective diameter of a dsDNA molecule with 3-5 nm solid-state nanopores as a function of urea concentration and the DNA's AT content. Our studies reveal an increase in the mean effective diameter of a DNA molecule of approximately 0.6 nm at 8.7 M urea. In agreement with the mechanism of DNA local denaturation, we observe a sigmoid dependence of these effects on urea concentration. We find that the translocation times in urea are markedly slower than would be expected if the dynamics were governed primarily by viscous effects. Furthermore, we find that the sensitivity of the nanopore is sufficient to statistically differentiate between DNA molecules of nearly identical lengths differing only in sequence and AT content when placed in 3.5 M urea. Our results demonstrate that nanopores can detect subtle structural changes and are thus a valuable tool for detecting differences in biomolecules' environment.

  19. Detection of urea-induced internal denaturation of dsDNA using solid-state nanopores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singer, Alon; Kuhn, Heiko; Frank-Kamenetskii, Maxim; Meller, Amit

    2010-01-01

    The ability to detect and measure dsDNA thermal fluctuations is of immense importance in understanding the underlying mechanisms responsible for transcription and replication regulation. We describe here the ability of solid-state nanopores to detect sub-nanometer changes in DNA structure as a result of chemically enhanced thermal fluctuations. In this study, we investigate the subtle changes in the mean effective diameter of a dsDNA molecule with 3-5 nm solid-state nanopores as a function of urea concentration and the DNA's AT content. Our studies reveal an increase in the mean effective diameter of a DNA molecule of approximately 0.6 nm at 8.7 M urea. In agreement with the mechanism of DNA local denaturation, we observe a sigmoid dependence of these effects on urea concentration. We find that the translocation times in urea are markedly slower than would be expected if the dynamics were governed primarily by viscous effects. Furthermore, we find that the sensitivity of the nanopore is sufficient to statistically differentiate between DNA molecules of nearly identical lengths differing only in sequence and AT content when placed in 3.5 M urea. Our results demonstrate that nanopores can detect subtle structural changes and are thus a valuable tool for detecting differences in biomolecules' environment.

  20. [International migration, health, and work: an analysis of Haitians in Mato Grosso State, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leão, Luís Henrique da Costa; Muraro, Ana Paula; Palos, Cássia Carraco; Martins, Maria Angela C; Borges, Fabiano Tonaco

    2017-07-27

    This article addresses the relations between immigration, health, and work in Haitian immigrants in Cuiabá and Várzea Grande, Mato Grosso State, Brazil, emphasizing their work conditions. This was an exploratory study based on primary data collected through a survey of the Haitian population in Cuiabá in 2014-2015. A total of 452 Haitians were interviewed, living in Cuiabá and Várzea Grande (373 men and 79 women), and the findings point to the precarious social situation of Haitian immigrants in Mato Grosso State, marked by high unemployment. Of the immigrants interviewed, 52.7% were currently working and 26.5% reported a workweek greater than 48 hours. The two main occupations for Haitian immigrants in Cuiabá were construction and services, and most were working below their original level of training, skills sets, and job experience in Haiti. The main risks identified in these two sectors were physical (53.2% and 63.4%, respectively) and accidents (23.4% and 17.1%, respectively), in addition to reports of physical and psychosocial distress. The study points to the precarious social, economic, and labor conditions of the Haitian population in the capital of Mato Grosso.

  1. Design of the ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) neutral beam system beamline, United States concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purgalis, P.; Anderson, O.A.; Cooper, W.S.; DeVries, G.E.; Lietzke, A.F.; Kunkel, W.B.; Kwan, J.W.; Matuk, C.A.; Nakai, T.; Stearns, J.W.; Soroka, L.; Wells, R.P.; Lindquist, W.B.; Neef, W.S.; Reginato, L.L.; Sedgley, D.W.; Brook, J.W.; Luzzi, T.E.; Myers, T.J.

    1989-01-01

    Design of a neutral beamline for ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) is described. The design incorporates a barium surface conversion D - source feeding a linear array of accelerator channels. The system uses a dc accelerator with electrostatic quadrupoles for strong focusing. A high voltage power supply that is integrated with the accelerator is presented as an attractive option. A gas neutralizer is used and residual ions exiting the neutralizer are deflected to watercooled dumps. Cryopanels are located at the accelerator exit to pump excess gas from the source and the neutralizer, and in the ion dump cavity to pump re-neutralized ions and neutralizer gas. All the above components are packaged in compact identical, independent modules that can be removed for remote maintenance. The neutral beam system delivers 75 MW of D degree into three ports with a total of nine modules arranged in stacks of three modules per port. To increase reliability each module is designed to deliver up to 10 MW at 1.3 MeV; this allows eight modules operating at partial capacity to deliver the required power in the event one module is removed from service. Radiation protection is provided by shielding and by locating critical components in the source and accelerator 35 m from the port into the torus. Neutron shielding in the drift duct provides the added feature of limiting conductance and thus reducing gas flow to and from the torus. Alternative component choices are also discussed for the evolving design. 8 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  2. International and Domestic Sustainable Forest Management Policies: Distributive Effects on Power among State Agencies in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukas Giessen

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The last two decades of forest policy discussions have been dominated by calls for sustainable management of forest resources. Consequently, multiple international and domestic policies, supporting sustainable forest management (SFM, have evolved in numerous jurisdictions. Policies in developing countries often rely on foreign donors’ projects, which supplement domestic SFM policy. These policies assign various policy tasks to specific public bureaucracies, who then compete for these very tasks, as well as the related staff and budgets. Therefore, project and policy task assignment greatly influences bureaucratic power. This article analyzes the distributive effects of SFM policy on power (in terms of coercion, incentives and dominant information among relevant domestic and foreign donor bureaucracies in Bangladesh. Concepts from power theory, bureaucratic politics theory, and concepts of policy and policy process were combined to analyze 121 Bangladeshi SFM policies from 1992–2013, which assign a total of 1012 policy tasks to specific public bureaucracies. Using qualitative content analysis, inferences about power were assigned to specific competing bureaucracies by the totality of SFM policies made. Results identify domestic and foreign bureaucracies whose power distribution benefit most from the SFM policies viz. their competitors. It is concluded that bureaucracies gaining the most power set the limits and directions in designing, implementing and evaluating various elements of any national SFM policies.

  3. Progress towards steady-state operation and real time control of internal transport barriers in JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litaudon, X.; Becoulet, A.; Crisanti, F.

    2003-01-01

    In JET advanced tokamak research mainly focuses on plasmas with internal transport barriers (ITBs), generated by modifications of the current profile. The formerly developed optimised shear regime with low magnetic shear in the plasma center has been extended to deeply reversed magnetic shear configurations. High fusion performance with wide ITBs has been obtained transiently in deeply reversed magnetic shear configuration: H IPB98(y,2) ∼1.9, β N =2.4 at I p =2.5MA. At somewhat reduced performance electron and ion ITBs have been sustained in full current drive operation with 1MA of bootstrap current: H IPB98(y,2) ∼1, β N =1.7 at I p =2.0MA. The ITBs have been maintained up to 11s. This duration, much larger than the energy confinement time (37 times larger), is already approaching a current resistive time. New real-time measurements and feedback control algorithms have been developed and implemented in JET for successfully controlling the ITB dynamics and the current density profile in the highly non-inductive regime. (author)

  4. Identifying and categorizing cobenefits in state-supported Australian indigenous environmental management programs: international research implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Barber

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Significant natural resource management investment is flowing to bioculturally diverse areas occupied by indigenous and other socioeconomically and politically marginalized groups. Such investment focuses on environmental benefit but may also generate ancillary economic, social, and other cobenefits. Increased investor interest in such cobenefits is driving the emerging research literature on cobenefit identification, categorization, and assessment. For local people undertaking community-based natural resource management, this emerging cobenefit discourse creates opportunities for more holistic program assessments that better reflect local perspectives, but it also contains risks of increased reporting burdens and institutional capture. Here, we synthesize and critically review the cobenefit literature arising from Australian indigenous cultural and natural resource management programs, a context in which there is a strong investor interest in cobenefits, particularly from government. We identify a wide suite of cobenefits in the existing literature and highlight previously unrecognized conceptual gaps and elisions in cobenefit categorization, including inconsistencies in category definition, the underanalysis of key categories, and a lack of systematic attention to beneficiaries as well as benefits. We propose a clarified and expanded conceptual framework to identify consistently the full suite of benefits, thereby enabling further assessment, valuation, and development of incentive mechanisms, standards, and guidelines. Our analysis has implications for community-based natural resource management assessment in a wide range of international contexts.

  5. Motivating Teachers towards Expertise Development: A Mixed-Methods Study of the Relationships between School Culture, Internal Factors, and State of Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayeaux, Amanda Shuford

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this sequential mixed-methods research was to discover the impact school culture, internal factors, and the state of flow has upon motivating a teacher to develop teaching expertise. This research was designed to find answers concerning why and how individual teachers can nurture their existing internal factors to increase their…

  6. Internal and External Barriers Impacting Non-Food Cellulosic Biofuel Projects in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy Withers

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Escalating demand, along with EPAct 2005, has led the United States government to assume a twofold leadership approach of energy security and environmental practices. This has initiated several important issues pertaining to cellulosic biofuel production. However, little is known about what is needed for the U.S. to lead long-term renewable energy security, how the US will develop and implement leading environmental energy practices, what supply capabilities and refining technologies are available to produce renewable fuels, and how funding can be used to adopt available technologies. This article examines geographical aspects, operational status, and barriers tending to prevent the successful commercialization of non-food cellulosic ethanol projects in the U.S. from secondary sources. Outcomes of this research can be used to further understand inhibitors that impact the production and commercialization of ethanol from non-food cellulosic sources.

  7. Internal Variations in Health-care Federalism in Canada and the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandna Bhatia

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Federal systems are prone to dividing health benefits inconsistently across subnational jurisdictions. In this article, we examine how federalism intersects with economic and social factors, particularly gender and immigration status, to create structural barriers to accessing and receiving necessary healthcare. Drawing on insights from the historical institutionalist literature and the experiences of immigrant women in the Canadian and American health systems, we find significant subnational variations in access to health services and insurance coverage. Gaps in service – which are filled (if at all by costly, inaccessible private provision – are the product of piecemeal policymaking, as new programs and services are layered onto existing systems which are themselves outdated and anachronistic. Our analysis demonstrates the need to move beyond analyses of federal state architectures to an intersectional approach to better understand the differential negative impact of subnational variations on equity between social groups and their ability to access to basic health services.

  8. International migration and educational assortative mating in Mexico and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kate H; Mare, Robert D

    2012-05-01

    This paper examines the relationship between migration and marriage by describing how the distributions of marital statuses and assortative mating patterns vary by individual and community experiences of migration. In Mexico, migrants and those living in areas with high levels of out-migration are more likely to be in heterogamous unions. This is because migration increases the relative attractiveness of single return migrants while disproportionately reducing the number of marriageable men in local marriage markets. In the United States, the odds of homogamy are lower for migrants compared with nonmigrants; however, they do not vary depending on the volume of migration in communities. Migrants are more likely than nonmigrants to "marry up" educationally because the relatively small size of this group compels them to expand their pool of potential spouses to include nonmigrants, who tend to be better educated than they are. Among migrants, the odds of marrying outside of one's education group increase the most among the least educated. In Mexican communities with high rates of out-migration, the odds of marrying outside of one's education group are highest among those with the highest level of education. These findings suggest that migration disrupts preferences and opportunities for homogamy by changing social arrangements and normative climates.

  9. Nanophotonic Optical Isolator Controlled by the Internal State of Cold Atoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clément Sayrin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The realization of nanophotonic optical isolators with high optical isolation even at ultralow light levels and low optical losses is an open problem. Here, we employ the link between the local polarization of strongly confined light and its direction of propagation to realize low-loss nonreciprocal transmission through a silica nanofiber at the single-photon level. The direction of the resulting optical isolator is controlled by the spin state of cold atoms. We perform our experiment in two qualitatively different regimes, i.e., with an ensemble of cold atoms where each atom is weakly coupled to the waveguide and with a single atom strongly coupled to the waveguide mode. In both cases, we observe simultaneously high isolation and high forward transmission. The isolator concept constitutes a nanoscale quantum optical analog of microwave ferrite resonance isolators, can be implemented with all kinds of optical waveguides and emitters, and might enable novel integrated optical devices for fiber-based classical and quantum networks.

  10. Analysis of Maize versus Ethanol Production in Nebraska, United States and International Agricultural Droughts: Lessons for Global Food Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boken, V.; Tenkorang, F.

    2012-04-01

    Nebraska is one of the eight main corn (maize) belt states of the United States. Maize is the major crop of Nebraska with an average annual production of about 38 million tons (about 12% of U.S. production), which contributes billions of dollars to the state's economy. The yield of maize has increased significantly over the past century - from 1.6 t/ha in 1900 to 10.4 t/ha in 2010. While the majority of maize (about 40%) is currently used for animal feed and ethanol production, only about six percent is exported. It is estimated that about one billion people accounting for about 15% population of the world live in chronic hunger because of low agricultural productivity and drought. Most of these people depend on the U.S. for grains including maize. If a greater quantity of maize is diverted to ethanol production, considerably less quantity of maize would be available for export to developing countries where it could be used for human consumption and to mitigate hunger and improve food security. This paper presents analysis of maize production in Nebraska for the past three decades and examines how its commercialization for ethanol production has affected its exports in the face of drought at an international level.

  11. Institut Pasteur v. United States: the AIDS patent dispute, the Contract Disputes Act and the international exchange of scientific data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, H L

    1989-01-01

    In the case of Institut Pasteur v. United States, the Institut Pasteur (Pasteur) claimed that the National Cancer Institute (NCI) had breached express and implied contracts to share research on AIDS virus samples provided to NCI by Pasteur. NCI scientists allegedly used the samples to acquire information which allowed NCI to file patent applications for an AIDS blood test kit. The United States Claims Court dismissed the complaint by holding that the Institut Pasteur had not complied with certain administrative procedures required by the Contract Disputes Act before bringing its suit. The United States Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit reversed the decision of the Claims Court by holding that the disputed contracts did not fit within the scope of the Contract Disputes Act. Soon after the Court of Appeals decision, President Reagan and Prime Minister Chirac announced a settlement agreement whereby the lawsuit was to be dropped, American and French scientists were to share credit for having discovered the AIDS virus, and both parties to the suit were to share the patent rights for the AIDS blood test kit. This settlement suggest that international legal disputes involving urgent scientific and medical matters may require dispute resolution techniques that serve as alternatives to national courts.

  12. [Influence of delta-sleep inducing peptide on the state of lysosomal membranes and intensity of lysosomal proteolysis in different rat tissues during physiological aging of the organism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutilin, D S; Bondarenko, T I; Mikhaleva, I I

    2014-01-01

    It is shown that subcutaneous injection of exogenous delta-sleep inducing peptide (DSIP) to rats aged 2-24 months in a dose of 100 μg/kg animal body weight by courses of 5 consecutive days per month has a stabilizing effect on the state of lysosomal membranes in rat tissues (brain, heart muscle and liver) at different ontogenetic stages, and this effect is accompanied by increasing intensity of lysosomal proteolysis in these tissues.

  13. Effect of Storage Methods and Period on the Physiological and Nutrient Components of Livingstone Potato (Plectranthus esculentus in Abia State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezeocha Chinelo Vanessa

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Livingstone potato production in Nigeria is faced with the challenge of high postharvest losses. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of some storage methods on the physiological and nutritional quality of livingstone potato. Potatoes were separated and stored using eight different methods: potatoes stored in3x3x3 ft pits and covered with sand under the shade (T1, potatoes stored in3x3x3 ft pits and covered with ash under the shade (T2, potatoes stored in3x3x3 ft pits and covered with rice husk under the shade (T3, potatoes stored in3x3x3 ft pits and covered with a wood shavings under the shade (T4, potatoes spread on a bamboo platform under the shade(T5, potatoes spread on a raffia palm platform under the shade(T6, potatoes spread on concrete pavement inside the barn (T7, potatoes spread on the ground under the shade(T8, potatoes buried under the ground (T9. T8 was used as the control treatment. Temperature and relative humidity of the environment was monitored, the roots were weighed monthly to access the weight loss, sprouting and rot were observed visually and proximate composition of the stored roots were evaluated using standard methods. The lowest percentage weight loss was observed in samples stored in a pit covered with wood ash and those covered with river sand. Samples stored in pits and covered with wood shavings, wood ash and river sand had the lowest percentage of sprouting (1.63%, 3.45% and 6.06% respectively. The dry matter content increased with storage period in all the storage methods. The starch yield varied in the different storage methods with the samplescovered with river sand (13.45% and the samples buried underground in the field(10.53% giving the highest starch yield at the end of the storage period. Samples stored under rice husk had the highest ash content (4.77% while the crude fibre and crude protein contents were highest in the samples spread on raffia palm. The results showed that spreading on the floor

  14. Analysis of International Commodity Shipping Data and the Shipment of NORM to the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baciak, James E.; Ely, James H.; Schweppe, John E.; Sandness, Gerald A.; Robinson, Sean M.

    2011-10-01

    As part of the Spreader Bar Radiation Detector project, PNNL analyzed US import data shipped through US ports collected over the 12 months of 2006 (over 4.5 million containers). Using these data, we extracted a variety of distributions that are of interest to modelers and developers of active and passive detection systems used to 'scan' IMCCs for potential contraband. This report expands on some of the analysis presented in an earlier report from LLNL, by investigation the foreign port distribution of commodities shipped to the US. The majority of containers shipped to the United States are 40 ft containers ({approx}70%); about 25% are 20 ft; and about 3.6% are 45 ft containers. A small fraction (<1%) of containers are of other more specialized sizes, and very few ports actually ship these unique size containers (a full distribution for all foreign ports is shown in Appendix A below). The primary foreign ports that ship the largest fraction of each container are shown in the table below. Given that 45 ft containers comprise 1 of out every 27 containers shipped to the US, and given the foreign ports from which they are shipped, they should not be ignored in screening; further testing and analysis of radiation measurements for national security with this size container is warranted. While a large amount of NORM is shipped in IMCCs, only a few specific commodities are shipped with enough frequency to present potential issues in screening IMCCs at ports. The majority of containers with NORM will contain fertilizers (5,700 containers), granite (59,000 containers), or ceramic (225,000 containers) materials. Fertilizers were generally shipping in either 20- or 40 ft containers with equal frequency. While granite is mostly shipped in 20 ft containers, ceramic materials can be shipped in either 20- or 40 ft containers. The size of container depended on the specific use of the ceramic or porcelain material. General construction ceramics (such as floor and roofing

  15. Analysis of International Commodity Shipping Data and the Shipment of NORM to the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baciak, James E.; Ely, James H.; Schweppe, John E.; Sandness, Gerald A.; Robinson, Sean M.

    2011-01-01

    As part of the Spreader Bar Radiation Detector project, PNNL analyzed US import data shipped through US ports collected over the 12 months of 2006 (over 4.5 million containers). Using these data, we extracted a variety of distributions that are of interest to modelers and developers of active and passive detection systems used to 'scan' IMCCs for potential contraband. This report expands on some of the analysis presented in an earlier report from LLNL, by investigation the foreign port distribution of commodities shipped to the US. The majority of containers shipped to the United States are 40 ft containers (∼70%); about 25% are 20 ft; and about 3.6% are 45 ft containers. A small fraction (<1%) of containers are of other more specialized sizes, and very few ports actually ship these unique size containers (a full distribution for all foreign ports is shown in Appendix A below). The primary foreign ports that ship the largest fraction of each container are shown in the table below. Given that 45 ft containers comprise 1 of out every 27 containers shipped to the US, and given the foreign ports from which they are shipped, they should not be ignored in screening; further testing and analysis of radiation measurements for national security with this size container is warranted. While a large amount of NORM is shipped in IMCCs, only a few specific commodities are shipped with enough frequency to present potential issues in screening IMCCs at ports. The majority of containers with NORM will contain fertilizers (5,700 containers), granite (59,000 containers), or ceramic (225,000 containers) materials. Fertilizers were generally shipping in either 20- or 40 ft containers with equal frequency. While granite is mostly shipped in 20 ft containers, ceramic materials can be shipped in either 20- or 40 ft containers. The size of container depended on the specific use of the ceramic or porcelain material. General construction ceramics (such as floor and roofing tiles) tend to

  16. SOVEREIGNTY, DIPLOMACY AND DEMOCRACY: THE CHANGING CHARACTER OF “INTERNATIONAL REPRESENTATION” — FROM STATE TO SELF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan K. Henrikson

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Addressing (the question of a new diplomacy for the 21st century, Alan Henrikson reflects philosophically and historically upon a shift that may be occurring from the sovereign State, with ambassadors serving as formal representatives of entire nations, to the autonomous Self, with individual persons, employing social media, being able to represent themselves, and their group concerns, to the world. Will the Leviathan of Thomas Hobbes be replaced by the Facebook social graph as the pattern for the next world order? The traditional institutions of diplomacy—and professional diplomats—are being challenged, are now adapting, and are still vital to the making and carrying out of the international agreements needed if global issues are to be resolved.

  17. A comparison study of instruction between international school and state school of middle school level in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamelasari, S. D.; Nurkhalisa, S.; Laksmana, S. I.

    2018-03-01

    This paper presents a comparison between the instruction in international school and state school in the middle level in Indonesia to find out the strength and weakness of each school in order to identify some professional development needs. The observation and interview were conducted to see the instruction of each school. Some pedagogy aspects consisting of attitude, strategy, and practice were observed to get the overview of instruction. Through this study, it has been found that the teachers apply an active learning approach that created an enthusiastic atmosphere of students’ participation. However, the different circumstance found is in the aspect of the number of students, the language of instruction and students’ characteristics between those schools.

  18. Effect of Material Parameters on Steady State Creep in a Thick Composite Cylinder Subjected to Internal Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tejeet Singh

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The steady state creep in Al- SiCP composite cylinder subjected to internal pressure was investigated. The creep behavior of the material were described by threshold stress based creep law by assuming a stress exponent of 5. The effect of size and content of the reinforcement (SiCP , and operating temperature on the stresses and strain rates in the composite cylinder were investigated. The stresses in the cylinder did not have significant variation with varying size and content of the reinforcement, and operating temperature. However, the tangential as well as radial strain rates in the cylinder could be reduced to a significant extent by decreasing size of SiCP, increasing the content of SiCP and decreasing operating temperature.

  19. The Integration of International Agricultural Concepts into Agricultural Science Programs in the North Central Region of the United States. Summary of Research 78.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibezim, Don O.; McCracken, J. David

    A study examined the extent to which international agricultural dimensions were taught in secondary agricultural programs and factors associated with the extent of integration. A systematic sampling technique was used to select a random sample of 332 of the 2,612 secondary agricultural teachers in 12 states of the North Central United States. Of…

  20. International trade and air pollution: estimating the economic costs of air emissions from waterborne commerce vessels in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Kevin P

    2005-10-01

    Although there is a burgeoning literature on the effects of international trade on the environment, relatively little work has been done on where trade most directly effects the environment: the transportation sector. This article shows how international trade is affecting air pollution emissions in the United States' shipping sector. Recent work has shown that cargo ships have been long overlooked regarding their contribution to air pollution. Indeed, ship emissions have recently been deemed "the last unregulated source of traditional air pollutants". Air pollution from ships has a number of significant local, national, and global environmental effects. Building on past studies, we examine the economic costs of this increasing and unregulated form of environmental damage. We find that total emissions from ships are largely increasing due to the increase in foreign commerce (or international trade). The economic costs of SO2 pollution range from dollars 697 million to dollars 3.9 billion during the period examined, or dollars 77 to dollars 435 million on an annual basis. The bulk of the cost is from foreign commerce, where the annual costs average to dollars 42 to dollars 241 million. For NOx emissions the costs are dollars 3.7 billion over the entire period or dollars 412 million per year. Because foreign trade is driving the growth in US shipping, we also estimate the effect of the Uruguay Round on emissions. Separating out the effects of global trade agreements reveals that the trade agreement-led emissions amounted to dollars 96 to dollars 542 million for SO2 between 1993 and 2001, or dollars 10 to dollars 60 million per year. For NOx they were dollars 745 million for the whole period or dollars 82 million per year. Without adequate policy responses, we predict that these trends and costs will continue into the future.