WorldWideScience

Sample records for internal phosphorus supplies

  1. Influence of integrated phosphorus supply and plant growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To guarantee a sufficient phosphorus supply for plants, a rapid and permanent mobilization of phosphorus from the labile phosphorus fractions is necessary, because phosphorus concentrations in soil solution are generally low. Several plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) have shown potential to enhance ...

  2. The main microelements and phosphorus content of sediments formed in a drinking water supply system

    OpenAIRE

    Marina Valentukeviciene; Ramune Zurauskiene; Jonas Satkunas

    2016-01-01

    Groundwater is the only source for drinking water supply in Lithuania. Twenty water intakes exploiting Quaternary aquifers are operating in Vilnius City. The main aim of this study was to characterize the heavy metal content of internal pipeline sediments in the water supply network. It also provides a new insight into the accumulation of phosphorus and its variation in pipeline sediments in the study area. The results of this research reflect the level of heavy metals that accumulated during...

  3. The main microelements and phosphorus content of sediments formed in a drinking water supply system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Valentukeviciene

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater is the only source for drinking water supply in Lithuania. Twenty water intakes exploiting Quaternary aquifers are operating in Vilnius City. The main aim of this study was to characterize the heavy metal content of internal pipeline sediments in the water supply network. It also provides a new insight into the accumulation of phosphorus and its variation in pipeline sediments in the study area. The results of this research reflect the level of heavy metals that accumulated during the water supply process. The main microelements detected were lead, nickel, zinc and copper. The research results will be useful for conducting preliminary evaluations of possible microelement accumulation in other similar water supply systems. The evaluation of water supply sediments is considered as one of the most important activities associated with a water safety approach. The results of this research indicate the dependence between phosphorus accumulation and Pb, Cr, Zn, Ni and Cu quantities in the internal sediments of water supply pipelines.

  4. International Oil Supplies and Demands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-09-01

    The eleventh Energy Modeling Forum (EMF) working group met four times over the 1989--90 period to compare alternative perspectives on international oil supplies and demands through 2010 and to discuss how alternative supply and demand trends influence the world's dependence upon Middle Eastern oil. Proprietors of eleven economic models of the world oil market used their respective models to simulate a dozen scenarios using standardized assumptions. From its inception, the study was not designed to focus on the short-run impacts of disruptions on oil markets. Nor did the working group attempt to provide a forecast or just a single view of the likely future path for oil prices. The model results guided the group's thinking about many important longer-run market relationships and helped to identify differences of opinion about future oil supplies, demands, and dependence.

  5. International Oil Supplies and Demands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-09-01

    The eleventh Energy Modeling Forum (EMF) working group met four times over the 1989--90 period to compare alternative perspectives on international oil supplies and demands through 2010 and to discuss how alternative supply and demand trends influence the world's dependence upon Middle Eastern oil. Proprietors of eleven economic models of the world oil market used their respective models to simulate a dozen scenarios using standardized assumptions. From its inception, the study was not designed to focus on the short-run impacts of disruptions on oil markets. Nor did the working group attempt to provide a forecast or just a single view of the likely future path for oil prices. The model results guided the group's thinking about many important longer-run market relationships and helped to identify differences of opinion about future oil supplies, demands, and dependence

  6. International Oil Supplies and Demands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-04-01

    The eleventh Energy Modeling Forum (EMF) working group met four times over the 1989--1990 period to compare alternative perspectives on international oil supplies and demands through 2010 and to discuss how alternative supply and demand trends influence the world's dependence upon Middle Eastern oil. Proprietors of eleven economic models of the world oil market used their respective models to simulate a dozen scenarios using standardized assumptions. From its inception, the study was not designed to focus on the short-run impacts of disruptions on oil markets. Nor did the working group attempt to provide a forecast or just a single view of the likely future path for oil prices. The model results guided the group's thinking about many important longer-run market relationships and helped to identify differences of opinion about future oil supplies, demands, and dependence

  7. International Oil Supplies and Demands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-04-01

    The eleventh Energy Modeling Forum (EMF) working group met four times over the 1989--1990 period to compare alternative perspectives on international oil supplies and demands through 2010 and to discuss how alternative supply and demand trends influence the world's dependence upon Middle Eastern oil. Proprietors of eleven economic models of the world oil market used their respective models to simulate a dozen scenarios using standardized assumptions. From its inception, the study was not designed to focus on the short-run impacts of disruptions on oil markets. Nor did the working group attempt to provide a forecast or just a single view of the likely future path for oil prices. The model results guided the group's thinking about many important longer-run market relationships and helped to identify differences of opinion about future oil supplies, demands, and dependence.

  8. Simultaneous effects of light intensity and phosphorus supply on the sterol content of phytoplankton.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maike Piepho

    Full Text Available Sterol profiles of microalgae and their change with environmental conditions are of great interest in ecological food web research and taxonomic studies alike. Here, we investigated effects of light intensity and phosphorus supply on the sterol content of phytoplankton and assessed potential interactive effects of these important environmental factors on the sterol composition of algae. We identified sterol contents of four common phytoplankton genera, Scenedesmus, Chlamydomonas, Cryptomonas and Cyclotella, and analysed the change in sterol content with varying light intensities in both a high-phosphorus and a low-phosphorus approach. Sterol contents increased significantly with increasing light in three out of four species. Phosphorus-limitation reversed the change of sterol content with light intensity, i.e., sterol content decreased with increasing light at low phosphorus supply. Generally sterol contents were lower in low-phosphorus cultures. In conclusion, both light and phosphorus conditions strongly affect the sterol composition of algae and hence should be considered in ecological and taxonomic studies investigating the biochemical composition of algae. Data suggest a possible sterol limitation of growth and reproduction of herbivorous crustacean zooplankton during summer when high light intensities and low phosphorus supply decrease sterol contents of algae.

  9. Prevalence of Phosphorus-Based Additives in the Australian Food Supply: A Challenge for Dietary Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCutcheon, Jemma; Campbell, Katrina; Ferguson, Maree; Day, Sarah; Rossi, Megan

    2015-09-01

    Phosphorus-based food additives may pose a significant risk in chronic kidney disease given the link between hyperphosphatemia and cardiovascular disease. The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence of phosphorus-based food additives in best-selling processed grocery products and to establish how they were reported on food labels. A data set of 3000 best-selling grocery items in Australia across 15 food and beverage categories was obtained for the 12 months ending December 2013 produced by the Nielsen Company's Homescan database. The nutrition labels of the products were reviewed in store for phosphorus additives. The type of additive, total number of additives, and method of reporting (written out in words or as an E number) were recorded. Presence of phosphorus-based food additives, number of phosphorus-based food additives per product, and the reporting method of additives on product ingredient lists. Phosphorus-based additives were identified in 44% of food and beverages reviewed. Additives were particularly common in the categories of small goods (96%), bakery goods (93%), frozen meals (75%), prepared foods (70%), and biscuits (65%). A total of 19 different phosphorus additives were identified across the reviewed products. From the items containing phosphorus additives, there was a median (minimum-maximum) of 2 (1-7) additives per product. Additives by E number (81%) was the most common method of reporting. Phosphorus-based food additives are common in the Australian food supply. This suggests that prioritizing phosphorus additive education may be an important strategy in the dietary management of hyperphosphatemia. Further research to establish a database of food items containing phosphorus-based additives is warranted. Copyright © 2015 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Symbiotic responses to insoluble phosphorus supply in common ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to study the effect of insoluble phosphorus (IP) in hydroponic culture, two common bean varieties, that is, WAFA and REBIA were inoculated separately with three rhizobia strains (P.Tb.09, CIAT899 and P.OM.09) and were grown under mineral P (250 ìmol P (KH2PO4)) versus IP (250 ìmol P (Ca2HPO4)). Results ...

  11. Strategy to Enhance International Supply Chain Security

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2007-01-01

    .... at 1901, 1903, October 13, 2006) which require the development of a strategic plan to enhance the security of the international supply chain, including protocols for the expeditious resumption of the flow of trade following...

  12. International performance indicators: gas supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-12-01

    This study evaluates the performance of Australian's natural gas utilities against world best practice. In particular, it examines whether Australia's traded goods sector is disadvantaged by the performance of domestic infrastructure service industries. It reports on the operating efficiency of the natural gas industry using Data Envelopment Analysis. It concludes that the Australian gas industry as a whole is performing relatively well in term of operating efficiency and that its prices are comparable with prices in North America, once differences in consumption per customer are taken into consideration. Appendixes 1 and 2 provide a summary of the structure and regulation of the gas supply industry in Australia and selected overseas countries, while the Appendix 3 gives an econometric analysis of the relationships between consumption per customer and residential price-cost margins. refs., tabs., figs

  13. An Analysis of Total Phosphorus Dispersion in Lake Used As a Municipal Water Supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Rômulo C; Mesquita, André L A; Blanco, Claudio J C; Santos, Maria de Lourdes S; Secretan, Yves

    2015-09-01

    In Belém city is located the potable water supply system of its metropolitan area, which includes, in addition to this city, four more municipalities. In this water supply complex is the Água Preta lake, which serves as a reservoir for the water pumped from the Guamá river. Due to the great importance of this lake for this system, several works have been devoted to its study, from the monitoring of the quality of its waters to its hydrodynamic modeling. This paper presents the results obtained by computer simulation of the phosphorus dispersion within this reservoir by the numerical solution of two-dimensional equation of advection-diffusion-reaction by the method θ/SUPG. Comparing these results with data concentration of total phosphorus collected from November 2008 to October 2009 and from satellite photos show that the biggest polluters of the water of this lake are the domestic sewage dumps from the population living in its vicinity. The results obtained indicate the need for more information for more precise quantitative analysis. However, they show that the phosphorus brought by the Guamá river water is consumed in an area adjacent to the canal that carries this water into the lake. Phosphorus deposits in the lake bottom should be monitored to verify their behavior, thus preventing the quality of water maintained therein.

  14. Phosphorus Supply Chain—Scientific, Technical, and Economic Foundations: A Transdisciplinary Orientation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael C. Mew

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Natural mineral resources, such as phosphates, represent global assets of tremendous economic value to stakeholders. Given its special characteristics and its essentiality for all life on Earth, phosphorus (P bears additional value to society as it is both indispensable and not substitutable. Most peers in the field, as well as those coming to phosphorus research, are aware of the complex underlying system dynamics of the P supply chain. In view of the manifold problems involved, scientists from various disciplines as well as practice need to find (new ways to generate, utilize, transfer, and integrate knowledge. This manuscript serves as a best-practice example as it originates from a long-lasting science/practice collaboration and is the result of a mutual learning process. As a cornerstone of the special issue on “Phosphorus Circular Economy: Closing Loops through Sustainable Innovation” we provide state-of-the-art scientific knowledge as well as practical expert insights from the perspectives of geology, technology, economics, and policy making. This manuscript shall help scientific peers, the public, respective companies, and policymakers to address the issue of sustainable phosphorus management.

  15. International Conference SES 2006. Secure Energy Supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The International Conference SES 2006 (Secure Energy Supply, Bezpecna dodavka energie) was realised in Bratislava, during September 26 - 29, 2006 in the hotel Crowne Plaza and deals with most important problems of world and Slovak energetics. In work of Conference took part 108 slovak and 33 foreign participant from 11 countries of the world. Negotiations were realised in five sessions. First two days were devoted to lectures and second two days were visits of selected slovak energetic equipment. On the Conference has resounded matter of fact, that secure energy supply is extremely important subject for economy, but also for population

  16. Internal loading of phosphorus in western Lake Erie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matisoff, Gerald; Kaltenberg, Eliza M.; Steely, Rebecca L.; Hummel, Stephanie K.; Seo, Jinyu; Gibbons, Kenneth J.; Bridgeman, Thomas B.; Seo, Youngwoo; Behbahani, Mohsen; James, William F.; Johnson, Laura; Doan, Phuong; Dittrich, Maria; Evans, Mary Anne; Chaffin, Justin D.

    2016-01-01

    This study applied eight techniques to obtain estimates of the diffusive flux of phosphorus (P) from bottom sediments throughout the western basin of Lake Erie. The flux was quantified from both aerobic and anaerobic incubations of whole cores; by monitoring the water encapsulated in bottom chambers; from pore water concentration profiles measured with a phosphate microelectrode, a diffusive equilibrium in thin films (DET) hydrogel, and expressed pore waters; and from mass balance and biogeochemical diagenetic models. Fluxes under aerobic conditions at summertime temperatures averaged 1.35 mg P/m2/day and displayed spatial variability on scales as small as a centimeter. Using two different temperature correction factors, the flux was adjusted to mean annual temperature yielding average annual fluxes of 0.43–0.91 mg P/m2/day and a western basin-wide total of 378–808 Mg P/year as the diffusive flux from sediments. This is 3–7% of the 11,000 Mg P/year International Joint Commission (IJC) target load for phosphorus delivery to Lake Erie from external sources. Using these average aerobic fluxes, the sediment contributes 3.0–6.3 μg P/L as a background internal contribution that represents 20–42% of the IJC Target Concentration of 15 μg P/L for the western basin. The implication is that this internal diffusive recycling of P is unlikely to trigger cyanobacterial blooms by itself but is sufficiently large to cause blooms when combined with external loads. This background flux may be also responsible for delayed response of the lake to any decrease in the external loading.

  17. International Oil Supplies and Demands. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-09-01

    The eleventh Energy Modeling Forum (EMF) working group met four times over the 1989--90 period to compare alternative perspectives on international oil supplies and demands through 2010 and to discuss how alternative supply and demand trends influence the world`s dependence upon Middle Eastern oil. Proprietors of eleven economic models of the world oil market used their respective models to simulate a dozen scenarios using standardized assumptions. From its inception, the study was not designed to focus on the short-run impacts of disruptions on oil markets. Nor did the working group attempt to provide a forecast or just a single view of the likely future path for oil prices. The model results guided the group`s thinking about many important longer-run market relationships and helped to identify differences of opinion about future oil supplies, demands, and dependence.

  18. International Oil Supplies and Demands. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-04-01

    The eleventh Energy Modeling Forum (EMF) working group met four times over the 1989--1990 period to compare alternative perspectives on international oil supplies and demands through 2010 and to discuss how alternative supply and demand trends influence the world`s dependence upon Middle Eastern oil. Proprietors of eleven economic models of the world oil market used their respective models to simulate a dozen scenarios using standardized assumptions. From its inception, the study was not designed to focus on the short-run impacts of disruptions on oil markets. Nor did the working group attempt to provide a forecast or just a single view of the likely future path for oil prices. The model results guided the group`s thinking about many important longer-run market relationships and helped to identify differences of opinion about future oil supplies, demands, and dependence.

  19. Update on international uranium and enrichment supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cleveland, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    Commercial nuclear power generation came upon us in the late 1950s and should have been relatively uneventful due to its similarities to fossil-powered electrical generation. Procurement of nuclear fuel appears to have been treated totally different from the procurement of fossil fuel, however, and only recently have these practices started to change. The degree of utility reliance on US-mined uranium and US Dept. of Energy (DOE)-produced enrichment services has changed since the 1970s as federal government uncertainty, international fuel market opportunity, and public service commission scrutiny has increased. Accordingly, the uranium and enrichment market has recognized that it is international just like the fossil fuel market. There is now oversupply-driven competition in the international nuclear fuel market. Competition is increasing daily, as third-world countries develop their own nuclear resources. American utilities are now diversifying their fuel supply arrangements, as they do with their oil, coal, and gas supply. The degree of foreign fuel arrangements depends on each utility's risk posture and commitment to long-term contracts. In an era of rising capital, retrofit, operating, and maintenance costs, economical nuclear fuel supply is even more important. This economic advantage, however, may be nullified by congressional and judicial actions limiting uranium importation and access to foreign enrichment. Such artificial trade barriers will only defeat US nuclear generation and the US nuclear fuel industry in the long term

  20. Sustainability clauses in international supply chain contracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peterkova, Katerina

    2014-01-01

    Our current society is not successful in mitigation of global social and environmental challenges. States lack legal tools, and sometimes also the will, to secure social and environmental interests transnationally and the existing soft and private regulation is criticized for its weak legitimacy...... but also to do business exclusively with socially responsible partners. Unawareness, either intentional or negligent, of unethical behaviour within a company’s supply chain may lead to an assumption that the company is complicit in such a conduct. The paper discusses a hypothesis that sustainability...... contractual clauses (SCCs) in international supply chain agreements may help to overcome the regulatory gap in relation to global sustainability while concurrently protect companies against potential social, economic and legal risks threatening in connection to unethical behaviour of their suppliers. As parts...

  1. The Internal Recycle Reactor Enhances Porous Calcium Silicate Hydrates to Recover Phosphorus from Aqueous Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Guan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this experiment, the porous calcium silicate hydrates (P-CSHs were prepared via a hydrothermal method and then modified by polyethylene glycol (PEG. The modified P-CSHs combined with an internal recycle reactor could successfully recover the phosphorus from electroplating wastewater. The modified P-CSHs were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR. After compared with different samples, the modified P-CSHs-PEG2000 sample had larger specific surface area of 87.48 m2/g and higher pore volume of 0.33 cm3/g, indicating a high capacity for phosphorus recovery. In the process of phosphorus recovery, the pH value of solution was increased to 9.5, which would enhance the recovery efficiency of phosphorus. The dissolution rate of Ca2+ from P-CSH-PEG2000 was fast, which was favorable for phosphorus precipitation and phosphorus recovery. The effects of initial concentration of phosphorus, P-CSHs-PEG2000 dosage, and stirring speed on phosphorus recovery were analyzed, so the optimal operation conditions for phosphorus recovery were obtained. The deposition was analyzed by XRD, N2 adsorption-desorption, and SEM techniques; it was indicated that the pore volume and surface area of the P-CSHs-PEG2000 were significantly reduced, and the deposition on the surface of P-CSHs-PEG2000 was hydroxyapatite.

  2. Does assimilate supply limit expansion in wheat grown in the field under low phosphorus availability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodriguez, D.; Andrade, F.H.; Goudriaan, J.

    2000-01-01

    Under conditions of phosphorus deficiency, reductions in plant leaf area have been attributed to both direct effects of phosphorus (P) on the individual leaf expansion rate and a reduced availability of assimilates for leaf growth. Simulation techniques have been used to test the hypothesis of a

  3. Environmental Phosphorus Recovery Based on Molecular Bioscavengers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gruber, Mathias Felix

    Phosphorus is a ubiquitous element of all known life and as such it is found throughout numerous key molecules related to various cellular functions. The supply of phosphorus is tightly linked to global food security, since phosphorus is used to produce agricultural fertilizers, without which...... it would not be possible to feed the world population. Sadly, the current supply of phosphorus is based on the gradual depletion of limited fossil reserves, and some estimates predict that within 15-25 years we will consume more phosphorus than we can produce. There is therefore a strong international...... pressure to develop sustainable phosphorus practices as well as new technologies for phosphorus recovery. Nature has spent billions of years refining proteins that interact with phosphates. This has inspired the present work where the overall ambitions are: to facilitate the development of a recovery...

  4. Exudation of organic acids by Lupinus albus and Lupinus angustifolius as affected by phosphorus supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hentschel, Werner; Wiche, Oliver

    2016-04-01

    In phytomining and phytoremediation research mixed cultures of bioenergy crops with legumes hold promise to enhance availability of trace metals and metalloids in the soil plant system. This is due to the ability of certain legumes to mobilize trace elements during acquisition of nutrients making these elements available for co-cultured species. The legumes achieve this element mobilization by exudating carboxylates and enzymes as well as by lowering the pH value in the rhizosphere. The aim of our research was to determine characteristics and differences in the exudation of Lupinus albus and Lupinus angustifolius regarding to quantitative as to qualitative aspects. Especially the affection by phosphorus (P) supply was a point of interest. Thus we conducted laboratory batch experiments, wherein the plants were grown over four weeks under controlled light, moisture and nutritional conditions on sand as substrate. Half of the plants were supplied with 12 mg P per kg substrate, the other half were cultivated under a total lack of P. After cultivation the plants were transferred from the cultivation substrate into a 0,05 mmolṡL-1 CaCl2 solution. After two hours the plants were removed, moist and dry mass off shoots and roots were measured together with the root length (Tennants' method). Concentrations of exudated carboxylates in the CaCl2 solution were determined via IC (column: Metrosept OrganicAcids, eluent 0.5 molṡL-1 H2SO4 + 15% acetone, pH=3; 0.5 mLṡmin-1). As a result four different organic acids were identified (citric acid, fumaric acid, tartaric acid, malic acid) in concentration ranges of 0.15 mgṡL-1 (fumaric acid) to 9.21 mgṡL-1 (citric acid). Lupinus angustifolius showed a higher exudation rate (in nmol per cm root length per hour) than Lupinus albus in the presence of phosphorus (e.g. regarding citric acid: 1.99 vs 0.64 nmolṡ(gṡh)-1). However, as the root complexity and length of L. albus were far higher than of L. angustifolius, the total

  5. Growth and nutrient efficiency of Betula alnoides clones in response to phosphorus supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Chen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available As phosphorus deficiency limits the productivity of many plantation forests in Asia, there is considerable interest in developing phosphorus-efficient clones for the region through targeted breeding programs. Therefore, we determined growth, nutrient concentrations and nutrient absorption and utility efficiencies of four Betula alnoides clones (C5, C6, 1-202 and BY1 in response to six phosphorus levels of 0, 17, 52, 70, 140 and 209 mg P plant-1 coded as P1 to P6, respectively. Maximum growth occurred in the P4, P5 and P6 plants since they had the largest height, biomass, leaf area and branch number. Phosphorus application increased the phosphorus concentrations of all clones. Nutrient loading was achieved with the P6 treatment because growth and biomass were not significantly higher, but root, stem and leaf phosphorus concentrations were approximately twice those of P4 plants. Clone BY1 had the highest phosphorus-efficiency, and is recommended for field application due to its maximum root collar diameter, biomass, root/shoot ratio, leaf area, nutrient absorption and utility efficiency among the four clones. The findings will help to improve the nutrient efficiency of this species in plantation forestry in Asia.

  6. International Conference SES 2009: Secure Energy Supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The Conference included the following sessions: Opening addresses; (I) Energy policy; (II) Environment, Renewable sources and NPPs; (III) Secure energy supply - New nuclear units. Verbal 21 presentations have been inputted into INIS, all in the form of the full authors' presentations.

  7. International uranium supply to the US market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonny, J.

    1987-01-01

    The 1980s have seen a major redistribution of global uranium production. Since 1984, the first full year of production from the Key Lake Mine, Canada has displaced the US as the world's largest uranium producer. Uranium production in the US has stabilized in the range of 10 to 15 million lb U 3 O 8 per year, having declined from a peak of over 43 million lb in 1980. Production from Africa and Europe has declined slightly, and Australia, with the startup of Ranger Mine, has emerged as a significant producer. The main factors that have affected the distribution of production aside from price and demand are ore grades and production costs, currency exchange rates, long-term contracts, and tied supply. It is interesting to examine uranium supply and demand for the North American continent. In 1980 and 1981, North American production was more than twice reactor requirements. By 1985, however, requirements were only slightly lower than production, a situation that has persisted into 1987. Indeed, given the export commitments by Canadian and US producers to Europe and Asia, it is apparent that the US must import uranium from other countries. The relative balance in North American supply and demand suggests that free trade between Canada and the US for both uranium and conversion services would be beneficial to both countries

  8. 19 CFR 123.11 - Supplies on international trains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... international trains. (a) Articles acquired abroad. Articles subject to internal revenue tax and other... boundary line, for which the train crew elects not to file an inventory as provided for in paragraph (b) of... at the final port of exit. (b) Inventory procedure. Supplies acquired abroad for which internal...

  9. Temporal and spatial patterns of internal phosphorus recycling in a South Florida (USA) stormwater treatment area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Large constructed wetlands, known as stormwater treatment areas (STAs), have been deployed to remove phosphorus (P) in drainage waters before discharge into the Everglades in South Florida, USA. Their P removal performance depends on internal P cycling under typically hydrated, b...

  10. Price regulation and international resource supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siebert, H

    1982-03-01

    Price regulation is an instrument between two diverging aims: The demand for low resource prices motivated by the principle of equal distribution in our day, and the desire for economical management of resources as a responsibility we have to future generations. The present publication investigates how price regulation influences intertemporal supply of resources. For the assumed cases constant resource price, constant admissible increase in resource price, expected release of resource price and deregulation of a price held constant for a period of time mathematical models are developmed.

  11. International experiences with power supply crises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    Many so-called deregulated power markets experience a hardened energy and power balance and some have had supply crises. This report discusses the crises, their impacts and their causes as well as the measures taken by the authorities to solve the crises. It also considers the similarities or dissimilarities with respect to the situation in Norway the winter 2002/2003. Like Norway, many of the countries have a considerable share of hydroelectric power. It is found, however, that the dependence on water of its own is not the reason for the crises, but that the inflow conditions give the market greater challenges. Furthermore, the Norwegian market has greater flexibility in the consumption, greater import capacity, better price security possibilities and less problems with market power than most of the countries here considered. Various factors influence a country's power consumption and production capacity. Economic growth and the availability of inexpensive power contribute to accelerate the consumption, while predictable external conditions and sufficient expected investment earnings are necessary to achieve an increase of the capacity - both through new investments and attendance to existing capacity. In a smooth power market there must be a certain correspondence between consumption and installed capacity, and the capacity must be such that it can cover the continuous demand for power and at the same time be flexible enough to deliver power at peak loads. This is also true of the transmission capacity. In addition, some extra capacity must be available for unexpected events. The basic problem is, in any power market, that the consumption may rise fast, while the investments in new capacity typically occurs in leaps, with long and costly construction phases. Many countries have lately experienced a hardening of the balance between consumption and capacity and so have been vulnerable to unexpected increases in consumption or resource failure. This was also the

  12. The Impact of Phosphorus Supply on Selenium Uptake During Hydroponics Experiment of Winter Wheat (Triticum aestivum) in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongen; Shi, Zhiwei; Li, Jinfeng; Zhao, Peng; Qin, Shiyu; Nie, Zhaojun

    2018-01-01

    Selenium (Se) is a necessary trace element for humans and animals, and Se fertilization is an efficient way to increase Se concentration in the edible parts of crops, thus enhance the beneficiary effects of Se in human and animal health. Due to the similarity of physical and chemical properties between phosphate () and selenite (), phosphorus (P) supply often significantly impacts the absorption of Se in plants, but little is known about how P supply influences the subcellular distribution and chemical forms of Se. In this study, the effects of P supply on subcellular distribution and chemical forms of Se in winter wheat were investigated in a hydroponic trial with medium Se level (0.1 mg Se L -1 ). P was applied with three concentrations (0.31, 3.1, and 31 mg P L -1 ) in the experiment. The results showed that increasing P supply significantly decreased the concentration and accumulation of Se in the roots, stems, and leaves of winter wheat. An increase in P supply significantly inhibited Se accumulation in the root cell wall, but enhanced Se distribution in the organelles and soluble fraction of root cells. These findings suggest that increased P supply inhibited the root-to-shoot transport of Se. An increase in P supply enhanced Se accumulation in the cell wall of plant stems (both apical and axillary stem) and cell organelles of plants leaves, but inhibited Se distribution in the soluble fraction of stems and leaves. This suggests that P supply enhances Se transportation across the cell membrane in shoots of winter wheat. In addition, increased P supply also altered the chemical forms of Se in tissues of winter wheat. These findings will help in understanding of the regulation grain Se accumulation and provide a practical way to enhance Se intake for humans inform Se-enriched grains.

  13. Future supply of phosphorus in agriculture and the need to maximise efficiency of use and reuse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosemarin, A.; Schroder, J.J.; Dagerskog, L.; Cordell, D.; Smit, A.L.

    2011-01-01

    Commercially viable reserves of rock phosphate are limited and only a few countries are significant producers. China and the US will play a much smaller role within 50 years time and the bulk of the world's mined phosphorus will come from Morocco. A conservative estimate of longevity of the resource

  14. Multiple fuel supply system for an internal combustion engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crothers, William T.

    1977-01-01

    A multiple fuel supply or an internal combustion engine wherein phase separation of components is deliberately induced. The resulting separation permits the use of a single fuel tank to supply components of either or both phases to the engine. Specifically, phase separation of a gasoline/methanol blend is induced by the addition of a minor amount of water sufficient to guarantee separation into an upper gasoline phase and a lower methanol/water phase. A single fuel tank holds the two-phase liquid with separate fuel pickups and separate level indicators for each phase. Either gasoline or methanol, or both, can be supplied to the engine as required by predetermined parameters. A fuel supply system for a phase-separated multiple fuel supply contained in a single fuel tank is described.

  15. Trade and compliance cost model in the international supply chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arsyida, Tuty; van Delft, Selma; Rukanova, B.D.; Tan, Y.

    2017-01-01

    Trade costs for international supply chain are huge, even in the absence of formal barriers. It is necessary for all the stakeholders, both private and public organizations, to support an effective and efficient border compliance process. Very little trade cost model research has been done at the

  16. Effect of decreasing dietary phosphorus supply on net recycling of inorganic phosphate in lactating dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puggaard, Liselotte; Kristensen, Niels Bastian; Sehested, Jens Jakob

    2011-01-01

    (LP; 2.4 g of P/kg of DM) and high P (HP; 3.4 g of P/kg of DM). The dietary total P (tP) concentrations were obtained by replacing 0.50% calcium carbonate in the LP diet with 0.50% monocalcium phosphate in the HP diet. Diets were fed for 14 d and cows were sampled on d 14 in each period. Cows were fed...... restrictively, resulting in equal dry matter intakes as well as milk, fat, and protein yields between treatments. Net Pi recycling (primarily salivary) was estimated as the difference between net portal plasma flux (net absorption of Pi) and apparently digested tP (feed – fecal tP difference). Phosphorus intake...

  17. Leaks in the internal water supply piping systems

    OpenAIRE

    Orlov Evgeniy Vladimirovich; Komarov Anatoliy Sergeevich; Mel’nikov Fedor Alekseevich; Serov Aleksandr Evgen’evich

    2015-01-01

    Great water losses in the internal plumbing of a building lead to the waste of money for a fence, purification and supply of water volumes in excess. This does not support the concept of water conservation and resource saving lying today in the basis of any building’s construction having plumbing. Leakage means unplanned of water losses systems in domestic water supply systems (hot or cold) as a result of impaired integrity, complicating the operation of a system and leading to high costs of ...

  18. Klystron switching power supplies for the Internation Linear Collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraioli, Andrea; /Cassino U. /INFN, Pisa

    2009-12-01

    The International Linear Collider is a majestic High Energy Physics particle accelerator that will give physicists a new cosmic doorway to explore energy regimes beyond the reach of today's accelerators. ILC will complement the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), a proton-proton collider at the European Center for Nuclear Research (CERN) in Geneva, Switzerland, by producing electron-positron collisions at center of mass energy of about 500 GeV. In particular, the subject of this dissertation is the R&D for a solid state Marx Modulator and relative switching power supply for the International Linear Collider Main LINAC Radio Frequency stations.

  19. Long-term fertilisation causes excess supply and loss of phosphorus in purple paddy soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yue-Qiang; Wen, Ming-Xia; Li, Xue-Ping; Shi, Xiao-Jun

    2014-04-01

    Phosphorus (P) loss from cropland is accelerating the eutrophication of waters around the world such as the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) in China. We investigated whether purple paddy soil under long-term P applications was a major source of P efflux to the TGR. Substantial surplus P in the plough layer (0-20 cm) was evident after 15-year P applications. Available P (Olsen-P) in the plough layer ranged from 1.9 to 42.4 mg kg(-1) and some of which will exceed the threshold of 30 mg kg(-1) for environmental concern within 7 years of P application (inorganic NPK with or without organic fertiliser). Between 30 and 70% of Olsen-P was leached out of the 0-30 cm soil layer. Surplus P resulted in high P concentrations in the surface water during the rice cropping season, and these concentrations exceeded those in most waters of the TGR and exceeded the critical level for eutrophication (0.1 mg L(-1)) during the first 10 days after rice planting. Furthermore, total P in run-off due to rainfall events exceeded the level for eutrophication, with a total loss of 43.2-147.9 g P ha(-1) depending on the fertilisation. Current agronomic P management in purple paddy soil is environmentally unsustainable in terms of the adverse impact on surface water quality. Integrated P management practices are urgently required to optimise crop yield while minimising P loss in order to protect surface water quality in the TGR region. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Effect of decreasing dietary phosphorus supply on net recycling of inorganic phosphate in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puggaard, L; Kristensen, N B; Sehested, J

    2011-03-01

    Five ruminally cannulated lactating Holstein cows, fitted with permanent indwelling catheters in the mesenteric vein, hepatic vein, portal vein, and an artery were used to study intestinal absorption and net recycling of inorganic phosphate (P(i)) to the gastrointestinal tract. Treatments were low P (LP; 2.4 g of P/kg of DM) and high P (HP; 3.4 g of P/kg of DM). The dietary total P (tP) concentrations were obtained by replacing 0.50% calcium carbonate in the LP diet with 0.50% monocalcium phosphate in the HP diet. Diets were fed for 14 d and cows were sampled on d 14 in each period. Cows were fed restrictively, resulting in equal dry matter intakes as well as milk, fat, and protein yields between treatments. Net P(i) recycling (primarily salivary) was estimated as the difference between net portal plasma flux (net absorption of P(i)) and apparently digested tP (feed - fecal tP difference). Phosphorus intake, apparently digested tP, and fecal tP excretion decreased with LP. An effect of decreased tP intake on net portal plasma flux of P(i) could not be detected. However, despite numerically minute net fluxes across the liver, the net splanchnic flux of P(i) was less in LP compared with that in HP. Though arterial plasma P(i) concentration decreased, net P(i) recycling was not decreased when tP intake was decreased, and recycling of P(i) was maintained at the expense of deposition of P(i) in bones. Data are not consistent with salivary P(i) secretion being the primary regulator of P(i) homeostasis at low tP intakes. On the contrary, maintaining salivary P(i) recycling at low tP intakes indicates that rumen function was prioritized at the expense of bone P reserves. Copyright © 2011 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. High dietary zinc supply reduces the digestibility of phosphorus in pig diets1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Hanne Damgaard; Blaabjerg, Karoline; Sørensen, Kristina Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    . However, divalent metal ions may bind phytate, leaving phytate less accessible to phytase-induced hydrolysis. The objective was to examine the effects of increased Zn supply on the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of P in pig diets supplemented with microbial phytase. A wheat, barley, and soy–based...... diet (4.3 g P/kg DM, 3.1 g phytate P/kg DM, and no feed phosphate) were heat treated at 81°C (plant phytase diet was divided into 3 batches that were supplemented with 0, 100 or 2,500 mg...... a significant (P diet decreased the ATTD of plant P by about 16% in microbial phytase–supplemented diets....

  2. An analysis of international nuclear fuel supply options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, J'tia Patrice

    As the global demand for energy grows, many nations are considering developing or increasing nuclear capacity as a viable, long-term power source. To assess the possible expansion of nuclear power and the intricate relationships---which cover the range of economics, security, and material supply and demand---between established and aspirant nuclear generating entities requires models and system analysis tools that integrate all aspects of the nuclear enterprise. Computational tools and methods now exist across diverse research areas, such as operations research and nuclear engineering, to develop such a tool. This dissertation aims to develop methodologies and employ and expand on existing sources to develop a multipurpose tool to analyze international nuclear fuel supply options. The dissertation is comprised of two distinct components: the development of the Material, Economics, and Proliferation Assessment Tool (MEPAT), and analysis of fuel cycle scenarios using the tool. Development of MEPAT is aimed for unrestricted distribution and therefore uses publicly available and open-source codes in its development when possible. MEPAT is built using the Powersim Studio platform that is widely used in systems analysis. MEPAT development is divided into three modules focusing on: material movement; nonproliferation; and economics. The material movement module tracks material quantity in each process of the fuel cycle and in each nuclear program with respect to ownership, location and composition. The material movement module builds on techniques employed by fuel cycle models such as the Verifiable Fuel Cycle Simulation (VISION) code developed at the Idaho National Laboratory under the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) for the analysis of domestic fuel cycle. Material movement parameters such as lending and reactor preference, as well as fuel cycle parameters such as process times and material factors are user-specified through a Microsoft Excel(c) data spreadsheet

  3. Genotypic Variation in Yield, Yield Components, Root Morphology and Architecture, in Soybean in Relation to Water and Phosphorus Supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jin; Jin, Yi; Du, Yan-Lei; Wang, Tao; Turner, Neil C.; Yang, Ru-Ping; Siddique, Kadambot H. M.; Li, Feng-Min

    2017-01-01

    Water shortage and low phosphorus (P) availability limit yields in soybean. Roots play important roles in water-limited and P-deficient environment, but the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. In this study we determined the responses of four soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] genotypes [Huandsedadou (HD), Bailudou (BLD), Jindou 21 (J21), and Zhonghuang 30 (ZH)] to three P levels [applied 0 (P0), 60 (P60), and 120 (P120) mg P kg-1 dry soil to the upper 0.4 m of the soil profile] and two water treatment [well-watered (WW) and water-stressed (WS)] with special reference to root morphology and architecture, we compared yield and its components, root morphology and root architecture to find out which variety and/or what kind of root architecture had high grain yield under P and drought stress. The results showed that water stress and low P, respectively, significantly reduced grain yield by 60 and 40%, daily water use by 66 and 31%, P accumulation by 40 and 80%, and N accumulation by 39 and 65%. The cultivar ZH with the lowest daily water use had the highest grain yield at P60 and P120 under drought. Increased root length was positively associated with N and P accumulation in both the WW and WS treatments, but not with grain yield under water and P deficits. However, in the WS treatment, high adventitious and lateral root densities were associated with high N and P uptake per unit root length which in turn was significantly and positively associated with grain yield. Our results suggest that (1) genetic variation of grain yield, daily water use, P and N accumulation, and root morphology and architecture were observed among the soybean cultivars and ZH had the best yield performance under P and water limited conditions; (2) water has a major influence on nutrient uptake and grain yield, while additional P supply can modestly increase yields under drought in some soybean genotypes; (3) while conserved water use plays an important role in grain yield under drought

  4. Leaks in the internal water supply piping systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlov Evgeniy Vladimirovich

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Great water losses in the internal plumbing of a building lead to the waste of money for a fence, purification and supply of water volumes in excess. This does not support the concept of water conservation and resource saving lying today in the basis of any building’s construction having plumbing. Leakage means unplanned of water losses systems in domestic water supply systems (hot or cold as a result of impaired integrity, complicating the operation of a system and leading to high costs of repair and equipment restoration. A large number of leaks occur in old buildings, where the regulatory service life of pipelines has come to an end, and the scheduled repair for some reason has not been conducted. Steel pipelines are used in the systems without any protection from corrosion and they get out of order. Leakages in new houses are also not uncommon. They usually occur as a result of low-quality adjustment of the system by workers. It also important to note the absence of certain skills of plumbers, who don’t conduct the inspections of in-house systems in time. Sometimes also the residents themselves forget to keep their pipeline systems and water fittings in their apartment in good condition. Plumbers are not systematically invited for preventive examinations to detect possible leaks in the domestic plumbing. The amount of unproductive losses increases while simultaneous use of valve tenants, and at the increase of the number of residents in the building. Water leaks in the system depend on the amount of water system piping damages, and damages of other elements, for example, water valves, connections, etc. The pressure in the leak area also plays an important role.

  5. SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT OF INDIAN ENTERPRISE IN INTERNATIONAL OPERATIONS: TYPE OF MODERN LITERARY CRITIQUE

    OpenAIRE

    Deepak Hajoary

    2017-01-01

    This paper aims to explore supply chain management challenges and prospects in the international scenario. Globalization has delivered a platform for local companies to think at international level. The paper will highlights different critical scenarios of supply chain management. The study will identify key strategies that can be constructed at global supply chain. Issues of supply chain design, tools and sourcing strategy will be studied in the paper.

  6. III. Quantitative aspects of phosphorus excretionin ruminants

    OpenAIRE

    Bravo , David; Sauvant , Daniel; Bogaert , Catherine; Meschy , François

    2003-01-01

    International audience; Ruminant phosphorus excretion and metabolism were studied through a database. Faecal endogenous phosphorus is the main pathway of phosphorus excretion and averages 0.85 of total faecal phosphorus. The remaining 0.15 is unabsorbed dietary phosphorus. Faecal endogenous phosphorus is mainly unabsorbed phosphorus, with saliva being the major source, and is correlated to factors influencing saliva secretion (DM intake, physical dietary characteristics and dietary phosphorus...

  7. Scope of Internal Supply Chain Management Benchmarking in Indian Manufacturing Industries

    OpenAIRE

    Kailash; Rajeev Kumar Saha; Sanjeev Goyal

    2017-01-01

    Internal supply chain management benchmarking practice is necessary to overcome manufacturing industrial performance gap. The main purpose of this research work is to combine the benchmarking and internal supply chain practices to improve the performance of Indian manufacturing industries. In this paper, the main aim is to discuss the components of internal supply chain between suppliers and customers after that explain the scope of ISCM benchmarking in manufacturing industries.

  8. An economic model of international wood supply, forest stock and forest area change

    Science.gov (United States)

    James A. Turner; Joseph Buongiorno; Shushuai Zhu

    2006-01-01

    Wood supply, the link between roundwood removals and forest resources, is an important component of forest sector models. This paper develops a model of international wood supply within the structure of the spatial equilibrium Global Forest Products Model. The wood supply model determines, for each country, the annual forest harvest, the annual change of forest stock...

  9. Internal loading of phosphorus in a sedimentation pond of a treatment wetland: effect of a phytoplankton crash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer-Felgate, Elizabeth J; Mortimer, Robert J G; Krom, Michael D; Jarvie, Helen P; Williams, Richard J; Spraggs, Rachael E; Stratford, Charlie J

    2011-05-01

    Sedimentation ponds are widely believed to act as a primary removal process for phosphorus (P) in nutrient treatment wetlands. High frequency in-situ P, ammonium (NH(4)(+)) and dissolved oxygen measurements, alongside occasional water quality measurements, assessed changes in nutrient concentrations and productivity in the sedimentation pond of a treatment wetland between March and June. Diffusive equilibrium in thin films (DET) probes were used to measure in-situ nutrient and chemistry pore-water profiles. Diffusive fluxes across the sediment-water interface were calculated from the pore-water profiles, and dissolved oxygen was used to calculate rates of primary productivity and respiration. The sedimentation pond was a net sink for total P (TP), soluble reactive P (SRP) and NH(4)(+) in March, but became subject to a net internal loading of TP, SRP and NH(4)(+) in May, with SRP concentrations increasing by up to 41μM (1300μl(-1)). Reductions in chlorophyll a and dissolved oxygen concentrations also occurred at this time. The sediment changed from a small net sink of SRP in March (average diffusive flux: -8.2μmolm(-2)day(-1)) to a net source of SRP in June (average diffusive flux: +1324μmolm(-2)day(-1)). A diurnal pattern in water column P concentrations, with maxima in the early hours of the morning, and minima in the afternoon, occurred during May. The diurnal pattern and release of SRP from the sediment were attributed to microbial degradation of diatom biomass, causing reduction of the dissolved oxygen concentration and leading to redox-dependent release of P from the sediment. In June, 2.7mol-Pday(-1) were removed by photosynthesis and 23mol-Pday(-1) were supplied by respiration in the lake volume. SRP was also released through microbial respiration within the water column, including the decomposition of algal matter. It is imperative that consideration to internal recycling is given when maintaining sedimentation ponds, and before the installation of new

  10. Simulation modeling of domestic and international intermodal supply paths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    supply of material to a manufacturing facility obviously has a major impact on enterprise : performance, whether measured in terms of cost, timeliness, quality, etc. Most material that is : input to a manufacturing process is transported to the manuf...

  11. The security of supply and the international political problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petit, A.

    1981-01-01

    The paper deals with the problem of security of supply of electronuclear programs, especially under their political aspects. After a brief summary of the main historical events related to the subject: post-war position, Non Proliferation Treaty signature, London guidelines etc., the author underlines the fact that up to now, four countries only have been completely independent for their supplies. The elements of such independence are recalled as well as the special viewpoints of developing countries on the one hand, industrialized countries on the other hand. The final part analyses the means of reestablishing or reinforcing this security of supply. The classical commercial aspects such as preference for domestic producers, diversification of supplies and stockpiling are dealt with as well as with aspects more specific to nuclear energy, a technical one such as the possibility of developing breeders, and political ones, such as freedom to reexport, freedom to use imported materials in the frame of peaceful uses. (AF)

  12. Overview of soil phosphorus data from a large international soil database

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Batjes, N.H.

    2014-01-01

    An overiew of extractable soil phosphorus (P-Bray, P-Olsen, P-Mehlich and P-water) and P-retention data held in a large profile database is presented. The primary aim is to assess whether representative P-values, by broad soil group (FAO system), can be determined for each of these analytical

  13. Estimates of Future Supply of International Greenhouse Gas Offsets: A Critical Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erickson, Peter; Lazarus, Michael (Stockholm Environment Inst. (United States)), e-mail: mlaz@sei-us.org; Kelly, Alexia (World Resources Inst., (United States))

    2010-07-01

    This report reviews estimates of the projected availability (i.e., supply) of international offsets, evaluates the various methods used and outlines factors that should be incorporated into future analyses of international offset supply and quality. U.S. policymakers have relied on offsets from developing countries as a primary form of cost containment in proposed cap-and-trade legislation. These legislative proposals allow for emitters to use up to 1.5 billion tons CO{sub 2}e of offsets from developing countries to meet their annual compliance obligations. In this paper, we review estimates of the projected availability (i.e., supply) of international offsets, and evaluate the various methods used. We find that: (1) Estimates of supply of international offsets to global markets vary widely, with estimates differing by billions of tons CO{sub 2}e annually in 2020; (2) Despite the variation, existing studies suggest that by 2020 gross international offset supply will likely exceed U.S. demand for international offsets under current Congressional cap-and-trade designs; (3) Competition with governments and entities with emission reduction obligations (e.g. the EU), as well as with policies and measures undertaken by developing countries as part of their own mitigation contributions, could reduce the net offset supply available to U.S. entities; and (4) Several important offset program design and market factors that are central to future offset markets and credit issuance (e.g., sources of offset supply, program stringency and crediting methods, establishment of international governance and market structures) have yet to be systematically considered in offset supply assessments. This paper outlines factors that should be incorporated into future analyses of international offset supply and quality. 7 Such analyses could prove particularly germane as policy makers continue to deliberate on the role of international offsets, including whether and how to recognize credits

  14. Phosphorus supply, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal species, and plant genotype impact on the protective efficacy of mycorrhizal inoculation against wheat powdery mildew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafa, G; Randoux, B; Tisserant, B; Fontaine, J; Magnin-Robert, M; Lounès-Hadj Sahraoui, A; Reignault, Ph

    2016-10-01

    A potential alternative strategy to chemical control of plant diseases could be the stimulation of plant defense by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). In the present study, the influence of three parameters (phosphorus supply, mycorrhizal inoculation, and wheat cultivar) on AMF protective efficiency against Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici, responsible for powdery mildew, was investigated under controlled conditions. A 5-fold reduction (P/5) in the level of phosphorus supply commonly recommended for wheat in France improved Funneliformis mosseae colonization and promoted protection against B. graminis f. sp. tritici in a more susceptible wheat cultivar. However, a further decrease in P affected plant growth, even under mycorrhizal conditions. Two commercially available AMF inocula (F. mosseae, Solrize®) and one laboratory inoculum (Rhizophagus irregularis) were tested for mycorrhizal development and protection against B. graminis f. sp. tritici of two moderately susceptible and resistant wheat cultivars at P/5. Mycorrhizal levels were the highest with F. mosseae (38 %), followed by R. irregularis (19 %) and Solrize® (SZE, 8 %). On the other hand, the highest protection level against B. graminis f. sp. tritici was obtained with F. mosseae (74 %), followed by SZE (58 %) and R. irregularis (34 %), suggesting that inoculum type rather than mycorrhizal levels determines the protection level of wheat against B. graminis f. sp. tritici. The mycorrhizal protective effect was associated with a reduction in the number of conidia with haustorium and with an accumulation of polyphenolic compounds at B. graminis f. sp. tritici infection sites. Both the moderately susceptible and the most resistant wheat cultivar were protected against B. graminis f. sp. tritici infection by F. mosseae inoculation at P/5, although the underlying mechanisms appear rather different between the two cultivars. This study emphasizes the importance of taking into account the considered

  15. Improving the Management of International Supply Chains on the Basis of Logistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pysmak Viktoriia O.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The theoretical bases of supply chain management with the use of the logistics conception are considered. A separate emphasis is given to exploring the essence of the concept of «supply chain management», a semantic analysis of the concept is provided. The conceptual difference between the concepts of «logistics» and of «supply chain management» is substantiated. The specificity of supply chain management at the international level is researched. The basic models of supply chain management are considered, their main advantages and disadvantages are allocated. A scheme of the organization and management of supply chains is presented, which allows to integrate the main business processes and improve the quality of the logistics chain course. The implementation of logistics management of supply chains with the use of the category management methods is proposed. The problems above the marked subjects, requiring theoretical and methodical decision, are allocated.

  16. Fault detection and diagnosis for compliance monitoring in international supply chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Yuxin; Tian, Yifu; Teixeira, André; Hulstijn, Joris; Tan, Yao-Hua

    Currently international supply chains are facing risks concerning faults in compliance, such as altering shipping documentations, fictitious inventory, and inter-company manipulations. In this paper a method to detect and diagnose fault scenarios regarding customs compliance in supply chains is

  17. German natural gas market and the international supply situation. Pt. 1. Supply market for natural gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dolinski, U [Deutsches Inst. fuer Wirtschaftsforschung, Berlin (Germany, F.R.). Abt. Bergbau und Energie

    1978-01-01

    Since the oil crisis the buyers's market started to change to a seller's market as a result of the worldwide rising demand for natural gas. This development will be amplified with the increasing significance and volume of LNG trade. This depends upon the availability of handling and tanker capacities. It is considered that technical solutions are available. The internationalisation of the world natural gas market imposes changes in terms of trade for the Federal Republic of Germany. In the sixties, terms of trade made under sales considerations presented no problems. But gas buyers today are forced to accept sellers' terms looking for the buyer offering the highest prices and other sales advantages. The world gas market has assumed the features of a polypolistic market. The security of supply is not a matter of adequate reserves, but almost entirely that of terms of contract on which the natural gas supply can be ensured. It is thereby decisive, whether it will be possible in future to procure the required amount of gas at such terms that it can be sold on the German energy market at competetive rates.

  18. Energy supply, nuclear power, and the international energy situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierer, H. von

    1991-01-01

    The Chernobyl accident has greatly intensified the readiness for international cooperation on problems of reactor safety and for exchanges of operating experience. That accident was more than a regional event. If all psychological and political consequences are taken into account, its international significance is apparent. In principle, it demonstrated not the lack of safety of nuclear power plants generally, but rather that of the Soviet RBMK reactor line, which would not have been licensed in any Western country because of its inherent unsafety. In the long run, the worldwide acceptance of nuclear power can be regained and stabilized only by an open dialog and by international exchanges of experience. The pronounced growth of the world's population requires energy policy to think beyond national frontiers. The rising energy requirement permits of no other decision than to exploit all technically feasible and economically viable as well as ecologically tolerable sources of energy. This includes nuclear power as well as solar energy. (orig.) [de

  19. Non-protein nitrogen and reduced phosphorus supply to sheep. 1. Phosphorus, volatile fatty acids, NH3 and pH of rumen liquid and daily fluid and phosphorus outflow from the rumen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoeller, H.; Breves, G.; Martens, H.

    1983-01-01

    Sheep were fitted with cannulas in the rumen and in the abomasum and fed a straw/pellet diet providing 29% of total N as urea-N. The diet was deficient in P, and daily P intake during P depletion was about 1.3g. Phosphorus repletion was obtained in the same sheep by daily infusion of 2.85gP as phosphoric acid into the abomasum. During experimental periods, Cr-EDTA and 15 N-urea were continuously infused into the rumen for five days. During the last two days, blood samples and a total of ten samples from both rumen and abomasum were taken. Three depletion and three repletion experiments were performed. The following significant changes were noted in the P-deficient state (means): blood plasma inorganic P fell from 2.38 to 0.67mmol/L and rumen liquid total P from 5.65 to 1.71mmol/L, i.e. both levels decreased by approximately 70%. Fluid outflow from the rumen was raised by about 10% but P outflow decreased by about 68%. NH 3 concentrations in rumen fluid increased from 3.60 to 7.51mmol/L whereas total VFA concentration was reduced from 125 to 100mmol/L. Average pH values changed from 6.06 to 6.56. It is suggested that P depletion led to reduced microbial growth and activity in the rumen although data on microbial protein outflow from the rumen are not yet available. (author)

  20. Understanding the nature of atmospheric acid processing of mineral dusts in supplying bioavailable phosphorus to the oceans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockdale, Anthony; Krom, Michael D; Mortimer, Robert J G; Benning, Liane G; Carslaw, Kenneth S; Herbert, Ross J; Shi, Zongbo; Myriokefalitakis, Stelios; Kanakidou, Maria; Nenes, Athanasios

    2016-12-20

    Acidification of airborne dust particles can dramatically increase the amount of bioavailable phosphorus (P) deposited on the surface ocean. Experiments were conducted to simulate atmospheric processes and determine the dissolution behavior of P compounds in dust and dust precursor soils. Acid dissolution occurs rapidly (seconds to minutes) and is controlled by the amount of H + ions present. For H + 10 -4 mol/g of dust, the amount of P (and calcium) released has a direct proportionality to the amount of H + consumed until all inorganic P minerals are exhausted and the final pH remains acidic. Once dissolved, P will stay in solution due to slow precipitation kinetics. Dissolution of apatite-P (Ap-P), the major mineral phase in dust (79-96%), occurs whether calcium carbonate (calcite) is present or not, although the increase in dissolved P is greater if calcite is absent or if the particles are externally mixed. The system was modeled adequately as a simple mixture of Ap-P and calcite. P dissolves readily by acid processes in the atmosphere in contrast to iron, which dissolves more slowly and is subject to reprecipitation at cloud water pH. We show that acidification can increase bioavailable P deposition over large areas of the globe, and may explain much of the previously observed patterns of variability in leachable P in oceanic areas where primary productivity is limited by this nutrient (e.g., Mediterranean).

  1. Distillate Fuel Trends: International Supply Variations and Alternate Fuel Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-31

    fuel in NATO countries will have some amount of FAME present. There is some work being done on hydrocarbon alternatives but the regulatory structure ... synthesis or hydrotreatment – Requirements and test methods.” According to the specification, paraffinic diesel fuel does not meet the current requirements...or international specification for triglyceride based fuel oils (straight vegetable oil / raw vegetable oil). The same holds true for alcohol-based

  2. Applying the International Medical Graduate Program Model to Alleviate the Supply Shortage of Accounting Doctoral Faculty

    Science.gov (United States)

    HassabElnaby, Hassan R.; Dobrzykowski, David D.; Tran, Oanh Thikie

    2012-01-01

    Accounting has been faced with a severe shortage in the supply of qualified doctoral faculty. Drawing upon the international mobility of foreign scholars and the spirit of the international medical graduate program, this article suggests a model to fill the demand in accounting doctoral faculty. The underlying assumption of the suggested model is…

  3. Effects of internal phosphorus loadings and food-web structure on the recovery of a deep lake from eutrophication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepori, Fabio; Roberts, James J.

    2017-01-01

    We used monitoring data from Lake Lugano (Switzerland and Italy) to assess key ecosystem responses to three decades of nutrient management (1983–2014). We investigated whether reductions in external phosphorus loadings (Lext) caused declines in lake phosphorus concentrations (P) and phytoplankton biomass (Chl a), as assumed by the predictive models that underpinned the management plan. Additionally, we examined the hypothesis that deep lakes respond quickly to Lext reductions. During the study period, nutrient management reduced Lext by approximately a half. However, the effects of such reduction on P and Chl a were complex. Far from the scenarios predicted by classic nutrient-management approaches, the responses of P and Chl a did not only reflect changes in Lext, but also variation in internal P loadings (Lint) and food-web structure. In turn, Lint varied depending on basin morphometry and climatic effects, whereas food-web structure varied due to apparently stochastic events of colonization and near-extinction of key species. Our results highlight the complexity of the trajectory of deep-lake ecosystems undergoing nutrient management. From an applied standpoint, they also suggest that [i] the recovery of warm monomictic lakes may be slower than expected due to the development of Lint, and that [ii] classic P and Chl a models based on Lext may be useful in nutrient management programs only if their predictions are used as starting points within adaptive frameworks.

  4. Canopy reflectance indices and its relationship with yield in common bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) with phosphorus supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, M.G.; Escalante-Estrada, J.A.; Gonzalez, M.T.R.; Reynolds, M.P.

    2006-01-01

    Common bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) were grown under three phosphorous levels (0,100 & 200 kg ha-1) and under rain fed conditions with the objective to examine the association between vegetative indices (NDVI, normalized difference vegetation index; and GNDVI, green normalized difference vegetation index) and intercepted radiation, leaf area index, biomass and yield during the growing season. The maximum intercepted radiation, leaf area index (LAI) and biomass were reached during the pod filling stage {80 days after sowing (DAS)}, and the P treatment of 200 kg ha-1 showed the highest values. The high intercepted radiation was derived from an increase in LAI inducing a major biomass accumulation. Near to physiological maturity LAI decreased as a result of leaf abscission. NDVI and GNDVI were higher with P supply than without P at anthesis and pod filling stage (50 - 80 DAS). Near to physiological maturity, NDVI and GNDVI decreased in all the treatments . When the maximum intercepted radiation, LAI, and biomass production were reached during anthesis and pod filling stage, NDVI and GNDVI also had the highest values. The association between the vegetative indices and seed yield during the pod filling stage showed a linear relationship by the P supply. The relationship between GNDVI and seed yield was higher (r2 = 0.77) than the relationship between NDVI and seed yield (r2 = 0.61)

  5. Internal logistics as a part of supply chain : case : Nokia-China, Dongguang Branch

    OpenAIRE

    Tian, Ran

    2009-01-01

    Internal logistics is one of the most important sections within enterprises, especially in the large manufacturing companies. It manages, arranges, plans and delivers the finished products. It is an indispensable part of the supply chain, as well as reflects the result of implementation company strategy. This study focuses on finding the possible ways to improve the operation process of Nokia-China internal logistics by looking into Nokia-China’s internal logistics in Dongguan Branch- Su...

  6. Ninth international conference on metering and tariffs for energy supply. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Contributions to the ninth international conference on Metering and Tariffs for Energy Supply are presented. Topics reviewed include legal metrology, regulation and the commercial framework (3 papers); metering in a competitive supply (7 papers); interactive papers (13 papers); standardisation (5 papers); equipment design (5 papers); equipment manufacture and testing (5 papers); data collection and processing (6 papers); securing and enhancing revenue (5 papers); prepayment systems (5 papers); and metering as a business (4 papers). (UK)

  7. Processes Affecting Phosphorus and Copper Concentrations and Their Relation to Algal Growth in Two Supply Reservoirs in the Lower Coastal Plain of Virginia, 2002-2003, and Implications for Alternative Management Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speiran, Gary K.; Simon, Nancy S.; Mood-Brown, Maria L.

    2007-01-01

    Elevated phosphorus concentrations commonly promote excessive growth of algae in waters nationwide. When such waters are used for public supply, the algae can plug filters during treatment and impart tastes and odors to the finished water. This increases treatment costs and results in finished water that may not be of the quality desired for public supply. Consequently, copper sulfate is routinely applied to many reservoirs to control algal growth but only is a 'temporary fix' and must be reapplied at intervals that can range from more than 30 days in the winter to less than 7 days in the summer. Because copper has a maximum allowable concentration in public drinking water and can be toxic to aquatic life, water suppliers commonly seek to develop alternative, long-term strategies for managing reservoirs. Because these are nationwide issues and part of the mission of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is to define and protect the quality of the Nation's water resources and better understand the physical, chemical, and biological processes in wetlands, lakes, reservoirs, and estuaries, investigations into these issues are important to the fulfillment of the mission of the USGS. The City of Newport News, Virginia, provides 50 million gallons per day of treated water for public supply from Lee Hall and Harwoods Mill Reservoirs (terminal reservoirs) to communities on the lower York-James Peninsula. About 3,500 pounds of copper sulfate are applied to each reservoir at 3- to 99-day intervals to control algal growth. Consequently, the USGS, in cooperation with the City of Newport News, investigated the effects of management practices and natural processes on phosphorus (the apparent growth-limiting nutrient), copper, and algal concentrations in the terminal reservoirs to provide information that can be used to develop alternative management strategies for the terminal reservoirs. Initial parts of the research evaluated circulation and stratification in the reservoirs

  8. QTL meta-analysis of root traits in Brassica napus under contrasting phosphorus supply in two growth systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Thomas, Catherine L; Xiang, Jinxia; Long, Yan; Wang, Xiaohua; Zou, Jun; Luo, Ziliang; Ding, Guangda; Cai, Hongmei; Graham, Neil S; Hammond, John P; King, Graham J; White, Philip J; Xu, Fangsen; Broadley, Martin R; Shi, Lei; Meng, Jinling

    2016-09-14

    A high-density SNP-based genetic linkage map was constructed and integrated with a previous map in the Tapidor x Ningyou7 (TNDH) Brassica napus population, giving a new map with a total of 2041 molecular markers and an average marker density which increased from 0.39 to 0.97 (0.82 SNP bin) per cM. Root and shoot traits were screened under low and 'normal' phosphate (Pi) supply using a 'pouch and wick' system, and had been screened previously in an agar based system. The P-efficient parent Ningyou7 had a shorter primary root length (PRL), greater lateral root density (LRD) and a greater shoot biomass than the P-inefficient parent Tapidor under both treatments and growth systems. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis identified a total of 131 QTL, and QTL meta-analysis found four integrated QTL across the growth systems. Integration reduced the confidence interval by ~41%. QTL for root and shoot biomass were co-located on chromosome A3 and for lateral root emergence were co-located on chromosomes A4/C4 and C8/C9. There was a major QTL for LRD on chromosome C9 explaining ~18% of the phenotypic variation. QTL underlying an increased LRD may be a useful breeding target for P uptake efficiency in Brassica.

  9. Variability of root traits in common bean genotypes at different levels of phosphorus supply and ontogenetic stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto dos Santos Trindade

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Selection of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cultivars with enhanced root growth would be a strategy for increasing P uptake and grain yield in tropical soils, but the strong plasticity of root traits may compromise their inclusion in breeding programs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the magnitude of the genotypic variability of root traits in common bean plants at two ontogenetic stages and two soil P levels. Twenty-four common bean genotypes, comprising the four growth habits that exist in the species and two wild genotypes, were grown in 4 kg pots at two levels of applied P (20 and 80 mg kg-1 and harvested at the stages of pod setting and early pod filling. Root area and root length were measured by digital image analysis. Significant genotype × P level and genotype × harvest interactions in analysis of variance indicate that the genotypic variation of root traits depended on soil nutrient availability and the stage at which evaluation was made. Genotypes differed for taproot mass, basal and lateral root mass, root area and root length at both P levels and growth stages; differences in specific root area and length were small. Genotypes with growth habits II (upright indeterminate and III (prostrate indeterminate showed better adaptation to limited P supply than genotypes of groups I (determinate and IV (indeterminate climbing. Between the two harvests, genotypes of groups II and III increased the mass of basal and lateral roots by 40 and 50 %, respectively, whereas genotypes of groups I and IV by only 7 and 19 %. Values of the genotypic coefficient of determination, which estimates the proportion of phenotypic variance resulting from genetic effects, were higher at early pod filling than at pod setting. Correlations between shoot mass and root mass, which could indicate indirect selection of root systems via aboveground biomass, were higher at early pod filling than at pod setting. The results indicate that selection for root

  10. Tinjauan Konseptual: Criteria Suplier-Selection, Integrasi Internal dan Eksternal Supply Chain terhadap Kinerja Perusahaan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endar Pituringsih

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Performance measurement reflects the company capability to prepare for the customer desired standard while it considers lower production and maintenance costs, higher product quality, reduced stock in process, deprived material processing cost, and shorter delivery deadline. Meanwhile, Supply Chain Management (SCM has important meaning to empower consumer in maximizing customer value. Supply Chain Management (SCM requires: internal integration (intra-organization and external integration (inter-organization. Primary key of Supply Chain Management (SCM will be having supplier as partner in the company strategy and satisfying the always changing market demand. Therefore, a selection among company strategy options in the global competition really produces a model of dominant integration, coordination, and cooperation in controlling global market, precisely through supply chain as important element to contribute to company performance improvement.

  11. Risks and governance modes in offshoring decisions : Linking supply chain management and international business perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patrucco, A.S.; Scalera, V.G.; Luzzini, D.

    2016-01-01

    Governing offshoring has become a major challenge for firms that run operations outside the home country. International business (IB) and supply chain management (SCM) literature offer different insights on the topic, focusing especially on possible governance modes and the drivers of this choice,

  12. Three protocols for securing the data pipeline of the international supply chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pruksasri, P.; Van den Berg, J.; Hofman, W.

    2012-01-01

    In order to make the international supply chain system highly efficient in worldwide transportation of goods, its business processes should be supported by high quality information systems that, “24x7”, provide the right data, at the right time, at the right place, to the right person. To do so, the

  13. Multi-level access control in the data pipeline of the international supply chain system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pruksasri, P.; Berg, J. van den; Hofman, W.; Daskapan, S.

    2013-01-01

    The Seamless Integrated Data Pipeline system was proposed to the European Union in order to overcome the information quality shortcomings of the current international supply chain information exchange systems. Next to identification and authorization of stakeholders, secure access control needs to

  14. Political and legal problems of international nuclear supply agreements: the Euratom experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, D.W.

    1983-01-01

    This paper analyses the Chapters in the Euratom Treaty which are relevant to uranium supply agreements and the European Community's powers in international relations as conferred by the Treaty. It also examines the agreements concluded by Euratom with the US, Canada and Australia respectively with emphasis on their nuclear non-proliferation aspects. (NEA) [fr

  15. Results of an international phosphorus digestibility ring test with broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodehutscord, M; Adeola, O; Angel, R; Bikker, P; Delezie, E; Dozier, W A; Umar Faruk, M; Francesch, M; Kwakernaak, C; Narcy, A; Nyachoti, C M; Olukosi, O A; Preynat, A; Renouf, B; Saiz Del Barrio, A; Schedle, K; Siegert, W; Steenfeldt, S; van Krimpen, M M; Waititu, S M; Witzig, M

    2017-06-01

    The objective of this ring test was to investigate the prececal phosphorus (P) digestibility of soybean meal (SBM) in broiler chickens using the trial protocol proposed by the World's Poultry Science Association. It was hypothesized that prececal P digestibility of SBM determined in the collaborating stations is similar. Three diets with different inclusion levels of SBM were mixed in a feed mill specialized in experimental diets and transported to 17 collaborating stations. Broiler chicks were raised on commercial starter diets according to station-specific management routine. Then they were fed the experimental diets for a minimum of 5 d before content of the posterior half of the ileum was collected. A minimum of 6 experimental replicates per diet was used in each station. All diets and digesta samples were analyzed in the same laboratory. Diet, station, and their interaction significantly affected (P digestibility values of P and calcium of the diets. The prececal P digestibility of SBM was determined by linear regression and varied among stations from 19 to 51%, with significant differences among stations. In a subset of 4 stations, the prececal disappearance of myo-inositol 1,2,3,4,5,6-hexakis (dihydrogen phosphate)-P; InsP6-P) also was studied. The prececal InsP6-P disappearance correlated well with the prececal P digestibility. We hypothesized that factors influencing InsP6 hydrolysis were main contributors to the variation in prececal P digestibility among stations. These factors were probably related to the feeding and housing conditions (floor pens or cages) of the birds in the pre-experimental phase. Therefore, we suggest that the World's Poultry Science Association protocol for the determination of digestible P be should extended to the standardization of the pre-experimental period. We also suggest that comparisons of P digestibility measurements among studies are made only with great caution until the protocol is more refined. © 2016 Poultry Science

  16. Controlling internal phosphorus loading in lakes by physical methods to reduce cyanobacterial blooms: a review

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bormans, M.; Maršálek, Blahoslav; Jančula, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 3 (2016), s. 407-422 ISSN 1386-2588 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : internal P loading * cyanobacterial control * physical in-lake restoration methods * adverse impacts on biota Subject RIV: DJ - Water Pollution ; Quality Impact factor: 1.500, year: 2016

  17. Redundancy of Supply in the International Nuclear Fuel Fabrication Market: Are Fabrication Services Assured?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seward, Amy M.; Toomey, Christopher; Ford, Benjamin E.; Wood, Thomas W.; Perkins, Casey J.

    2011-01-01

    For several years, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been assessing the reliability of nuclear fuel supply in support of the U.S. Department of Energy/National Nuclear Security Administration. Three international low enriched uranium reserves, which are intended back up the existing and well-functioning nuclear fuel market, are currently moving toward implementation. These backup reserves are intended to provide countries credible assurance that of the uninterrupted supply of nuclear fuel to operate their nuclear power reactors in the event that their primary fuel supply is disrupted, whether for political or other reasons. The efficacy of these backup reserves, however, may be constrained without redundant fabrication services. This report presents the findings of a recent PNNL study that simulated outages of varying durations at specific nuclear fuel fabrication plants. The modeling specifically enabled prediction and visualization of the reactors affected and the degree of fuel delivery delay. The results thus provide insight on the extent of vulnerability to nuclear fuel supply disruption at the level of individual fabrication plants, reactors, and countries. The simulation studies demonstrate that, when a reasonable set of qualification criteria are applied, existing fabrication plants are technically qualified to provide backup fabrication services to the majority of the world's power reactors. The report concludes with an assessment of the redundancy of fuel supply in the nuclear fuel market, and a description of potential extra-market mechanisms to enhance the security of fuel supply in cases where it may be warranted. This report is an assessment of the ability of the existing market to respond to supply disruptions that occur for technical reasons. A forthcoming report will address political disruption scenarios.

  18. Evaluation of internal loading and water level changes: implications for phosphorus, algal production, and nuisance blooms in Kabetogama Lake, Voyageurs National Park, Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Victoria G.; Maki, Ryan P.; Kiesling, Richard L.

    2013-01-01

    Hydrologic manipulations have the potential to exacerbate or remediate eutrophication in productive reservoirs. Dam operations at Kabetogama Lake, Minnesota, were modified in 2000 to restore a more natural water regime and improve water quality. The US Geological Survey and National Park Service evaluated nutrient, algae, and nuisance bloom data in relation to changes in Kabetogama Lake water levels. Comparison of the results of this study to previous studies indicates that chlorophyll a concentrations have decreased, whereas total phosphorus (TP) concentrations have not changed significantly since 2000. Water and sediment quality data were collected at Voyageurs National Park during 2008–2009 to assess internal phosphorus loading and determine whether loading is a factor affecting TP concentrations and algal productivity. Kabetogama Lake often was mixed vertically, except for occasional stratification measured in certain areas, including Lost Bay in the northeastern part of Kabetogama Lake. Stratification, higher bottom water and sediment nutrient concentrations than in other parts of the lake, and phosphorus release rates estimated from sediment core incubations indicated that Lost Bay is one of several areas that may be contributing to internal loading. Internal loading of TP is a concern because increased TP may cause excessive algal growth including potentially toxic cyanobacteria.

  19. On understanding of external and internal integration in supply chains : Challenges and evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    HULTHÉN, HANA

    2016-01-01

    Benefits of implementing Supply Chain Integration (SCI) are acknowledged in existing integration literature. Integration extending beyond functional silos and firm boundaries is expected to provide value for customers in terms of higher quality, improved service level, and reduced costs. In addition, internal integration allows business functions to align around a single company goal. This type of integration promotes value creation while decreasing redundancies and costs. Yet, regardless of ...

  20. Localizing by autoradiography at -195 deg radioactive areas in rats exposed to a high flux of thermal neutrons, importance of phosphorus 32 in consecutive internal irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chanteur, J.; Pellerin, P.

    1961-01-01

    Rats weighing 25 g were exposed for 5 mn to a flux of 6.10 12 thermal neutrons/cm 2 /s. Anatomical autoradiography at -195 deg. C has enabled the radioactive organs to be easily localised, to follow in course of time the decrease of radioactivity, and from it to deduce the probable nature of the numerous emitters in question. In particular, the phosphorus 32 has thus appeared to be one of those responsible for internal irradiation, general, on the one hand, by activating cellular phosphorus, local, on the other, by activating bony phosphates. Owing to this, an accidental irradiation by neutrons might have consequences that are both somatic (elective irradiation of the bone marrow) and genetic (activation of nucleic acids). The gamma spectrometry has confirmed the nature of certain other emitters. (author) [fr

  1. Supply chain process collaboration and Internet utilization: an international perspective of business to business relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Paulo Valadares de Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper compiles the findings of an international study which primary objective was to investigate the relationships between Internet utilization in business-to-business relationships, collaborative efforts and their impact over supplier and customer-oriented processes performance. It highlights the Internet as an important enhancer of collaboration in supply chains and addresses the effects of such efforts on companies’ overall performance. As a conclusive-descriptive and quantitative study, data from a survey of 788 companies from the USA, China, Canada, United Kingdom, and Brazil were analyzed with the use of descriptive statistics, reliability evaluation of the research model’s internal scales, path analysis and structural equation modeling to evaluate supply chain processes collaboration, both up- and down-stream. Internet utilization in supplier and customer-oriented processes was found positively related to collaborative practices in business-to-business relationships. Collaborative practices in supplier and customer-oriented processes, in turn, showed potential effects on performance. Also, supplier-oriented processes performance was found positively associated with customer-oriented process performance. Both internet use and collaborative practices are even more important in a high-context country like Brazil. The paper helps clarify the impact of internet use on business-to-business collaborative relationships. In this sense, practitioners can take this impact to redraw the organizational landscape and business processes amongst supply chain participants.

  2. The international trade of nuclear power plants: the supply side - 5006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leveque, F.

    2015-01-01

    The international trade of nuclear power plants is usually studied from a demand perspective. Which new countries are willing to access to this technology? How the Fukushima Daiichi catastrophe has changed the market forecasts? What risks of proliferation new entrants entail? This paper takes an opposite direction. It looks at the structure and the organising of the supply side. Which countries are the major exporters? How their ranking has changed? Is the nuclear export industry becoming a global industry? Part 1 provides a short description of the worldwide market. Surprisingly, its size is modest and the US only plays a minor role. This part also provides a view on the relationship between domestic and export markets. Part 2 discusses the industrial organization of the nuclear industry. It compares the nuclear industry with the armament industry and the oil and gas supplies and services. Part 3 concludes in analysing the conditions nuclear industry could become a global industry. (author)

  3. International ETG Congress 2013. Energy supply en route to 2050. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The present publication documents the contributions to the 2013 International Congress of the Energy Technology Society within the VDE from 5 to 6 November 2013 in Berlin. The congress was organised in six symposia dedicated respectively to ''Security in Critical Infrastructures Today'', ''System Design of Transmission Grids and Distribution Grids in the Context of the Energy Transition'', ''Power Electronics in Power Supply Systems'', ''New Applications and Development Trends in Contactless Energy Transmission'' and ''Research and Development for Electromobility'', all with a focus on the period up to the year 2050 and a programme taking due account of interactions between electricity supply systems and other energy infrastructures.

  4. Arterial blood supply to midbrain, thalamus and internal capsule on CT, 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeshita, Gen; Ottomo, Michinori; Sasaki, Taisuke; Fukuda, Eiko.

    1984-01-01

    The selective injection of dye into the anterior choroidal artery (blue), the medial posterior choroidal artery (green), and the lateral posterior choroidal artery (red), using seven post-mortem brains, was performed. After fixation, sections parallel with the orbito-meatal line were obtained. The distribution of the anterior choroidal artery was visualized in the uncal region of the temporal lobe and the cerebral peduncle below the slice of the third ventricle. On the slice of the third ventricle, the lateral part of the geniculate region, the globus pallidus, and the posterior limb of the internal capsule were supplied by the anterior choroidal artery. The blood supply of the posterior limb of the internal capsule was also demonstrated on the slice of the anterior horn and on the body of the lateral ventricle. The distribution of the medial posterior choroidal artery was visualized in the tegmentum of the midbrain below the slice of the third ventricle, and on the slice of the anterior horn, the pineal body and the posterior part of the thalamus were also supplied. The distribution of the lateral posterior choroidal artery was visualized in the lateral part of the midbrain, around the red nucleus, below the slice of the third ventricle, and on the slice of the third ventricle, the upper part of the cerebral peduncle, the posterior part of the hypothalamus, and the medial part of the geniculate region were also supplied. Also, distribution to the medial and posterior parts of the thalamus was noted on the slice of the anterior horn. It was quite useful to identify the distribution of each choroidal artery on CT sections for the CT diagnosis of cerebrovascular disorders. (author)

  5. The temporal relationship between drug supply indicators: an audit of international government surveillance systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werb, Dan; Kerr, Thomas; Nosyk, Bohdan; Strathdee, Steffanie; Montaner, Julio; Wood, Evan

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Illegal drug use continues to be a major threat to community health and safety. We used international drug surveillance databases to assess the relationship between multiple long-term estimates of illegal drug price and purity. Design We systematically searched for longitudinal measures of illegal drug supply indicators to assess the long-term impact of enforcement-based supply reduction interventions. Setting Data from identified illegal drug surveillance systems were analysed using an a priori defined protocol in which we sought to present annual estimates beginning in 1990. Data were then subjected to trend analyses. Main outcome measures Data were obtained from government surveillance systems assessing price, purity and/or seizure quantities of illegal drugs; systems with at least 10 years of longitudinal data assessing price, purity/potency or seizures were included. Results We identified seven regional/international metasurveillance systems with longitudinal measures of price or purity/potency that met eligibility criteria. In the USA, the average inflation-adjusted and purity-adjusted prices of heroin, cocaine and cannabis decreased by 81%, 80% and 86%, respectively, between 1990 and 2007, whereas average purity increased by 60%, 11% and 161%, respectively. Similar trends were observed in Europe, where during the same period the average inflation-adjusted price of opiates and cocaine decreased by 74% and 51%, respectively. In Australia, the average inflation-adjusted price of cocaine decreased 14%, while the inflation-adjusted price of heroin and cannabis both decreased 49% between 2000 and 2010. During this time, seizures of these drugs in major production regions and major domestic markets generally increased. Conclusions With few exceptions and despite increasing investments in enforcement-based supply reduction efforts aimed at disrupting global drug supply, illegal drug prices have generally decreased while drug purity has generally

  6. The temporal relationship between drug supply indicators: an audit of international government surveillance systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werb, Dan; Kerr, Thomas; Nosyk, Bohdan; Strathdee, Steffanie; Montaner, Julio; Wood, Evan

    2013-09-30

    Illegal drug use continues to be a major threat to community health and safety. We used international drug surveillance databases to assess the relationship between multiple long-term estimates of illegal drug price and purity. We systematically searched for longitudinal measures of illegal drug supply indicators to assess the long-term impact of enforcement-based supply reduction interventions. Data from identified illegal drug surveillance systems were analysed using an a priori defined protocol in which we sought to present annual estimates beginning in 1990. Data were then subjected to trend analyses. Data were obtained from government surveillance systems assessing price, purity and/or seizure quantities of illegal drugs; systems with at least 10 years of longitudinal data assessing price, purity/potency or seizures were included. We identified seven regional/international metasurveillance systems with longitudinal measures of price or purity/potency that met eligibility criteria. In the USA, the average inflation-adjusted and purity-adjusted prices of heroin, cocaine and cannabis decreased by 81%, 80% and 86%, respectively, between 1990 and 2007, whereas average purity increased by 60%, 11% and 161%, respectively. Similar trends were observed in Europe, where during the same period the average inflation-adjusted price of opiates and cocaine decreased by 74% and 51%, respectively. In Australia, the average inflation-adjusted price of cocaine decreased 14%, while the inflation-adjusted price of heroin and cannabis both decreased 49% between 2000 and 2010. During this time, seizures of these drugs in major production regions and major domestic markets generally increased. With few exceptions and despite increasing investments in enforcement-based supply reduction efforts aimed at disrupting global drug supply, illegal drug prices have generally decreased while drug purity has generally increased since 1990. These findings suggest that expanding efforts at

  7. International symposium concluded that uranium supply for nuclear power is secure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The document informs that stable uranium supply to fuel nuclear power plants will continue to be available according to the conclusion reached at the International Symposium on the Uranium Production Cycle and the Environment held from 2 to 6 October 2000 at the IAEA in Vienna. The meeting included specialists from about 40 countries, in addition to the Arab Atomic Energy Agency, European Commission, OECD/Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA), Office of Supervising Scientist (OSS)/Environment Australia, United Nations, Uranium Institute, World Bank, the World Energy Council and the Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI)

  8. International phosphorus workshop

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kronvang, Brian; Rubæk, Gitte Holton; Heckrath, Goswin

    2009-01-01

    Received for publication February 9, 2009. Agriculture is a major source of P to the aquatic environment in many countries. Although efforts have been made to improve the P utilization in agricultural production, which is reflected in modestly declining P surpluses in many countries, increasing a...

  9. Sustainable Phosphorus Measures: Strategies and Technologies for Achieving Phosphorus Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart White

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Phosphorus underpins the world’s food systems by ensuring soil fertility, maximising crop yields, supporting farmer livelihoods and ultimately food security. Yet increasing concerns around long-term availability and accessibility of the world’s main source of phosphorus—phosphate rock, means there is a need to investigate sustainable measures to buffer the world’s food systems against the long and short-term impacts of global phosphorus scarcity. While the timeline of phosphorus scarcity is contested, there is consensus that more efficient use and recycling of phosphorus is required. While the agricultural sector will be crucial in achieving this, sustainable phosphorus measures in sectors upstream and downstream of agriculture from mine to fork will also need to be addressed. This paper presents a comprehensive classification of all potential phosphorus supply- and demand-side measures to meet long-term phosphorus needs for food production. Examples range from increasing efficiency in the agricultural and mining sector, to technologies for recovering phosphorus from urine and food waste. Such measures are often undertaken in isolation from one another rather than linked in an integrated strategy. This integrated approach will enable scientists and policy-makers to take a systematic approach when identifying potential sustainable phosphorus measures. If a systematic approach is not taken, there is a risk of inappropriate investment in research and implementation of technologies and that will not ultimately ensure sufficient access to phosphorus to produce food in the future. The paper concludes by introducing a framework to assess and compare sustainable phosphorus measures and to determine the least cost options in a given context.

  10. Internalizing the external costs of biogas supply chains in the Italian energy sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patrizio, P.; Leduc, S.; Chinese, D.; Kraxner, F.

    2017-01-01

    In Italy biogas support schemes are being revised to include subsidies for the production of biomethane. Energy policies should foster environmentally optimal solutions, especially because social acceptance issues often arise in the case of biogas. In this paper we use the external cost methodology to quantify the environmental impact of airborne emissions associated with biogas-based energy vectors and their corresponding fossil substitutes These are evaluated at supply chain level and incorporated in a spatially explicit optimization model. The method is applied to northern Italy to compare the potential impact of alternative policy options. It is found that, while the external costs of biogas-based pathways are always lower than corresponding fossil fuel based pathways, the differences are generally so small that policies based on internalization of external costs alone would not lead to further development of biogas-based technologies. For all utilization pathways, consideration of local externalities leads to a less favourable evaluation of biogas-based technologies, which results in external costs even higher than the substituted fossil fuel if biogas is allocated to local heating. - Highlights: • A MILP model has been developed to optimize the economic and environmental performance of the biogas supply chain. • The external costs methodology has been included in the optimization process. • The emissions of the most relevant pollutants generated along the supply chain have been included in the assessment. • Different biogas utilization pathways have been considered.

  11. Features of internal water supply and water disposal of shopping centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlov Evgeniy Vladimirovich

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pipeline from an external system should be inlet in the part of the building where a large number of water folding devices will be concentrated. As a rule, for shopping centers with a lot of water consumers it is necessary to make not less than three inputs, each of them should be connected to different areas of an external ring water supply system in order to make the work of the system more reliable.The places for water folding fittings in shopping centers are the following. The water folding devices: mixers are placed in sanitary cabins of shopping centers. Usually, for for water saving in buildings with a big pass-through capacity per hour it is reasonable to use contactless mixers, which are turned on upon raising a hand with a help of motion sensor or light sensor. Another important argument in favor of such mixers is prevention of infections spread for the reason that the consumer doesn't touch the device, so, the risk of bacteria transmission via the device decreases. Such mixer supplies water with a demanded expense and temperature. As a rule, water for such mixers moves from the centralized internal water supply system of hot water, mixing up with cold water. If there is no centralized hot water supply system, it is possible to use hot water storage heaters in case of a small number of visitors or to reject mixers at all in favor of the cranes giving water of only one temperature (cold, which is also practiced.For the branch of economic and household the water receivers are used, which are present in sanitary cabins in most cases by toilet bowls, wash basins, urinals.

  12. U.S. International Agricultural Trade Policy: Interests, Institutions and Information in the Corn Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laís Forti Thomaz

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to analyze the U.S. international agricultural trade policy by focusing on instruments and institutional arrangements. Policy decision-making is analyzed by means of three variables: 1 how interests are mobilized; 2 how information is disseminated; and 3 how spaces are occupied in deliberation arenas. The study refers to the corn sector and observes how the National Corn Growers Association operated to ensure subsidies and incentives for this supply chain along the elaboration of the 2002 and 2008 Farm Bills, as well as from other laws pertaining to agricultural and energy incentives. This paper provides evidences in favor of four arguments: first, empirical studies on the formulation and implementation of foreign trade policy, especially when it comes to agricultural issues, would greatly benefit with a greater attention on understanding the role domestic actors play in the decision-making processes; second, interest groups play a key role in this decision-making process; third, they provide the rationale for the formulation and implementation of the U.S. international agricultural trade policy; and, fourth, when the economic sector coordinates complex and relevant supply chains in the U.S. economy, it is hardly possible to revert the U.S. protectionist position in the Legislative branch.

  13. International co-operation in the supply of nuclear fuel and fuel cycle services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sievering, N.F. Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Recent changes in the United States' nuclear policy, in recognition of the increased proliferation risk, have raised questions of US intentions in international nuclear fuel and fuel-cycle service co-operation. This paper details those intentions in relation to the key elements of the new policy. In the past, the USA has been a world leader in peaceful nuclear co-operation with other nations and, mindful of the relationships between civilian nuclear technology and nuclear weapon proliferation, remains strongly committed to the Non-Proliferation Treaty, IAEA safeguards and other elements concerned with international nuclear affairs. Now, in implementing President Carter's nuclear initiatives, the USA will continue its leading role in nuclear fuel and fuel-cycle co-operation in two ways, (1) by increasing its enrichment capacity for providing international LWR fuel supplies and (2) by taking the lead in solving the problems of near and long-term spent fuel storage and disposal. Beyond these specific steps, the USA feels that the international community's past efforts in controlling the proliferation risks of nuclear power are necessary but inadequate for the future. Accordingly, the USA urges other similarly concerned nations to pause with present developments and to join in a programme of international co-operation and participation in a re-assessment of future plans which would include: (1) Mutual assessments of fuel cycles alternative to the current uranium/plutonium cycle for LWRs and breeders, seeking to lessen proliferation risks; (2) co-operative mechanisms for ensuring the ''front-end'' fuel supply including uranium resource exploration, adequate enrichment capacity, and institutional arrangements; (3) means of dealing with short-, medium- and long-term spent fuel storage needs by means of technical co-operation and assistance and possibly establishment of international storage or repository facilities; and (4) for reprocessing plants, and related fuel

  14. Relação entre adubação fosfatada e deficiência hídrica em soja Relationship between phosphorus supplying and water deficit in soybean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rérold Samuel Firmano

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo verificar os efeitos do fósforo sobre a fotossíntese e o crescimento de Glycine max (L. Merr. da cultivar 'Embrapa 48' sob deficiência hídrica controlada, em condições de casa de vegetação, considerando a hipótese de que suplementações de fósforo poderiam aumentar a tolerância das plantas ao déficit hídrico. Após a formação do primeiro par de folhas totalmente expandidas, foi iniciado o processo de indução de deficiência hídrica, utilizando dois regimes de irrigação, com 100% e 25% de reposição da evapotranspiração. A deficiência hídrica causou reduções significativas no acúmulo de massa seca, no potencial de água foliar, na condutância estomática e na assimilação líquida de CO2 em todos os tratamentos. Os resultados das trocas gasosas indicaram que a suplementação de P, na adubação de G. max da cultivar 'Embrapa 48', resultou em uma redução parcial dos efeitos da deficiência hídrica como suposto inicialmente. Porém, apenas em relação à biomassa do sistema radicular detectou-se algum efeito mitigador do P nas plantas sob deficiência hídrica.The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of phosphorus supplying on growth and photosynthesis of Glycine max (L. Merr. cv. 'Embrapa 48', cultivated under water deficit in greenhouse conditions, taking into account the hypothesis that phosphorus suply could improve plant tolerance to drough. After the development of the first pair of totally expanded leaves, it was initiate the process of induction of water deficit, using two irrigation levels, 100% and 25% of evapotranspiration replacement Water deficit reduced dry mass, leaf water potential, stomatal conduction, and net CO2 assimilation regardless P supply. The results of the photosynthetic analysis indicated that phosphorus supply was just partially effective to reduce water deficit effects on G. max cv. 'Embrapa 48'. However, additional P supply influenced

  15. [Effects of phosphorus sources on phosphorus fractions in rhizosphere soil of wild barley genotypes with high phosphorus utilization efficiency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Qiu-Yan; Zhang, Xi-Zhou; Li, Ting-Xuan; Chen, Guang-Deng

    2014-11-01

    High P-efficiency (IS-22-30, IS-22-25) and low P-efficiency (IS-07-07) wild barley cultivars were chosen to evaluate characteristics of phosphorus uptake and utilization, and properties of phosphorus fractions in rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere in a pot experiment with 0 (CK) and 30 mg P · kg(-1) supplied as only Pi (KH2PO4), only Po (phytate) or Pi + Po (KH2PO4+ phytate). The results showed that dry matter and phosphorus accumulation of wild barley in the different treatments was ranked as Pi > Pi + Po > Po > CK. In addition, dry matter yield and phosphorus uptake of wild barley with high P-efficiency exhibited significantly greater than that with low P-efficiency. The concentration of soil available phosphorus was significantly different after application of different phosphorus sources, which was presented as Pi > Pi + Po > Po. The concentration of soil available phosphorus in high P-efficiency wild barley was significantly higher than that of low P-efficiency in the rhizosphere soil. There was a deficit in rhizosphere available phosphorus of high P-efficiency wild barley, especially in Pi and Pi+Po treatments. The inorganic phosphorus fractions increased with the increasing Pi treatment, and the concentrations of inorganic phosphorus fractions in soil were sorted as follows: Ca10-P > O-P > Fe-P > Al-P > Ca2-P > Ca8-P. The contents of Ca2-P and Ca8-P for high P-efficiency wild barley showed deficits in rhizosphere soil under each phosphorus source treatment. In addition, enrichment of Al-P and Fe-P was observed in Pi treatment in rhizosphere soil. The concentrations of organic phosphorus fractions in soil were sorted as follows: moderate labile organic phosphorus > moderate resistant, resistant organic phosphorus > labile organic phosphorus. The labile and moderate labile organic phosphorus enriched in rhizosphere soil and the greatest enrichment appeared in Pi treatment. Furthermore, the concentrations of moderate resistant organic phosphorus and resistant

  16. Understanding international postgraduate studies. Drivers from the supply and the demand side.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Serrano, M M; Gomez-Bruque, J L; Ambrosio-Albala, M J; Llamas-Moreno, B

    2010-01-01

    Changes in the global political and socioeconomic scenario are fostering the internationalization of master and doctoral programme as one of the current priorities for Universities. Changes in European higher education such as those stimulated by the Bologna process and the introduction of double, multiple or joint Master degree programmes together with the Erasmus Mundus programme are enhancing the competition of European universities in the global education market place. Universities compete to attract the best students, both national and international, to their postgraduate programmes. However, the design and launch of international masters or doctorates imply working with a different logic to the one used in national programmes. Complexity, diversity and differentiation are drivers of international education and as happens in complex systems the properties and features of the final products are different from the existing in the individual components. The aim of this paper is to understand international studies as complex systems and to analyze and identify factors affecting to the different components involved in the implementation of these programmes. The new approaches and the interrelations in aspects such as academic, administrative or economic management, quality assurance and marketing issues are examined and drivers, challenges and good practices where possible are identified. The analysis has been carried out considering the point of view of both Universities (supply-led approach) and students and employers (demand-led approach). From the analysis have emerged important questions that show the interrelation pattern and that can be useful when designing and implementing international postgraduate studies. Universities and students tend to agree about many issues however, some divergences have also been identified which make the results of the research more valuable.

  17. International risk factors affecting Finnish energy supplies. Suomen energiahuollon kansainvaeliset uhkatekijaet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasanen, P.; Koponen, M.; Kaekoenen, J. (Oulu Univ., Oulu (Finland). Dept. of Geography)

    1989-01-01

    An examination is made of the structure and development of Finnish fuel imports, world fuel market trends and prospects, and the impact of global environmental concerns on Finnish energy supplies. Attention is focused on the political and economic developments to be expected in the major fuel producing or consuming countries. The aim is to look for factors that could treaten the functioning of Finnish fuel supplies and to suggest ways to avoid or overcome these threats. The research is based on Finnish and international energy statistics, published forecasts for the development of the fuel trade and fuel resources and the latest literature on energy economics and political science. Finland is heavily dependent on foreign fuels, over two thirds of her fuels supply being imported. By far the most important source of imports is the Soviet Union, although Poland is a major supplier of coal. The increase in domestic demands for fuels in these countries, will make it necessary for Finland to diversify the sources of her fuel imports. The suggestions made here include the following: Saudi-Arabia and Kuwait should be considered as possible new sources of oil. Coal could be imported from South Africa, provided that the apartheid policy is discontinued. Norway could provide some natural gas, although a Nordic pipeline system would be needed for this to be possible. Finland should invest in fuel resource exploration and development and in building the necessary infrastructure in the producing countries in order to improve the possibilities for reaching long-term agreements on fuel imports. Imporovements in the effiency of the end users of energy and an increase in the proportion of renewable sources of energy would not only be steps towards a sustainable fuel economy, but would also reduce the country's dependence on imported fuels.

  18. Performance management in the internal supply chain of an industry of equipment for refrigeration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emílio Della Bruna Junior

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Supply chains are complex, conflicting and uncertain management environments, where the best alternatives are usually not previously know, they need to be built based on the managers objectives. For this reason, its decision-makers have been looking for management tools that expand their understanding in order to identify which objectives best represent their values regarding the decision context. With this in mind, this paper aims to develop a Performance Evaluation Model for the operations of the internal supply chain of an organization of the refrigeration equipment sector. The study adopts a mixture of qualitative and quantitative approaches and applies them through a case study. The data collection was conducted through unstructured interviews with the decision-maker as well as specialists appointed by him and supplemented by documentary research. The applied intervention instrument is the Multricriteria Decision Aid – Constructivist (MCDA-C due to its capacity of expanding the knowledge in the decision-maker about the consequences of his decisions on the criteria that he deems critical to the success of the company. One of the results of this research was the identification of the objectives that, according to the decision-maker perception, should drive the alternative definition process, as well as their organization, ordinal and cardinal measurement and integration. In addition, it can be highlighted the current situation diagnosis and elaboration of improvement actions, where the implementation effects of the Lean Philosophy and an Advanced Planning System are evaluated. The main contributions made by the article resides in the proposal of solutions for fulfilling gaps identified within the Supply Chain Performance Evaluation area and in the application of the MCDA-C to a real case.

  19. International Standardization in the Design of "Shore to Ship" - Power Supply Systems of Ships in Port

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarnapowicz, Dariusz; German-Galkin, Sergiej

    2018-03-01

    The decisive source of air pollution emissions in ports is the berthed ships. This is primarily caused by the work of ship's autonomous generator sets. One way of reducing the air pollution emissions in ports is the supply of ships from electricity inland system. The main problem connected with the power connection of ships to the inland network is caused by different values of levels and frequencies of voltages in these networks (in various countries) in relation to different values of levels and frequencies of voltages present in the ship's network. It is also important that the source power can range from a few hundred kW up to several MW. In order to realize a universal „Shore to Ship" system that allows the connection of ships to the electricity inland network, the international standardization is necessary. This article presents the current recommendations, standards and regulations for the design of „Shore to Ship" systems.

  20. Macro-Logistics Decision Factors and Information Measures for Scanning Global (Supply Chain) Environments in International Location Choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kinra, Aseem

    2012-01-01

    and strategic forecasting needs in relation to international risks. This may be done within the context of decision support systems that aid in global site location and other supply chain design problems. In contrast to solely utilizing widely-accepted environmental scanning indexes, managers may......value chains and supply chain management. This scope is usually accompanied by uncertainty to organisations, especially for the cross-border value chain with geographically dispersed operations and activities, and poses environmental complexity in the form of risks and costs that organisations need...... that pose constraints to international supply chain flows, and describe international uncertainty for firms. A catalogue of 187 information measures that aid in decisions on each relevant factor is also identified. The findings may be used by managers in different industry contexts for their scanning...

  1. Fungos micorrízicos arbusculares e adubação fosfatada em mudas de mangabeira Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and phosphorus supply on seedlings of mangabeira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Maria Carneiro Costa

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares (FMA e da adubação fosfatada em mudas de mangabeira (Hancornia speciosa Gomes. O experimento, em casa de vegetação, utilizou delineamento inteiramente casualizado em fatorial com dois tratamentos de solo nativo oriundo de pomar com mangabeiras, desinfestado com brometo de metila e não-desinfestado, seis doses de P (3*, 3, 48, 93, 138 e 183 mg dm-3 e três tratamentos de inoculação, Gigaspora albida Schenck & Smith, Glomus etunicatum Becker & Gerdemann e controle sem inoculação, com quatro repetições. O tratamento 3* não recebeu solução nutritiva e os demais receberam solução nutritiva de Hoagland sem fósforo por ocasião da inoculação. Após 150 dias, observou-se aumento na altura, biomassa e área foliar nos tratamentos com G. albida, em solo desinfestado. Respostas à inoculação ocorreram nas mudas cultivadas com a menor dose de P, nos dois tratamentos de solo. A mangabeira mostrou-se dependente da micorrização apenas na menor dose de P em solo desinfestado. Nos demais níveis de P, a dependência variou em função do FMA e da condição do solo. A associação com G. albida proporcionou melhor desenvolvimento das mudas de mangabeira.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of the association of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF and phosphorus fertilization on seedlings of "mangaba" (Hancornia speciosa. The experiment, at a greenhouse, was in a completely randomized factorial design with two treatments of the native soil from an H. speciosa orchard, fumigated with methyl bromite and non-fumigated, six doses of P (3*, 3, 48, 93, 138 and 183 mg dm-3 and three inoculation treatments, Gigaspora albida Schenck & Smith, Glomus etunicatum Becker & Gerdemann and an uninoculated control, with four replicates. The treatment 3* did not receive nutrient solution and the others received Hoagland nutrient solution without phosphorus

  2. Efficiency of microbial phytase supplementation in diets formulated with different calcium:phosphorus ratios, supplied to broilers from 22 to 33 days old.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naves, L de P; Rodrigues, P B; Teixeira, L do V; de Oliveira, E C; Saldanha, M M; Alvarenga, R R; Corrêa, A D; Lima, R R

    2015-02-01

    An experiment was conducted with broilers from 22 to 33 days of age to evaluate the efficiency of six microbial phytases supplemented in diets (1500 FTU/kg) that were formulated with three different calcium:available phosphorus (Ca:P(avail)) ratios (4.5:1.0, 6.0:1.0 and 7.5:1.0). A positive control diet without phytase was formulated with a Ca:P(avail) ratio of 7.5:3.4 to meet the nutritional requirements of the broilers. The P and ash contents of the tibia, magnesium in the plasma, performance, balance and retention of phytate phosphorus (P(phyt)), intake of total P and nitrogen (N), nitrogen-corrected apparent metabolizable energy and apparent digestibility of dry matter of the diets were not influenced (p > 0.05) by the type of phytase or the dietary Ca:P(avail) ratio. However, there was an interaction (p phytase type and the Ca:P(avail) ratio for the retention coefficients of total P, Ca and N. Phytase B resulted in the highest Ca deposition in the tibia (p Phytases D, E and F reduced the Ca concentrations in the tibia (p Phytase D increased the P level in the plasma and decreased the total P excretion (p Phytases E and F increased Ca excretion, while phytase A reduced it (p phytase type, increasing the dietary Ca:P(avail) ratio reduced (p phytase A, C, D or E/kg. This diet allows the maintenance of performance and adequate bone mineralization, and it improves the Ca, total P and P(phyt) utilization in addition to reducing the excretion of N and P into the environment. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  3. EXPERIMENTAL INSTALLATION FOR AN ASSESSMENT OF METHODS OF WATER SUPPLY IN AN INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Bizhaev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The water additive to fuel became one of effective ways of the solution of the main problems of the piston internal combustion engines (ICE as it reduces thermal factor of the engine, toxic emissions of exhaust products, and also increases efficiency by some operating modes. The way of fuel and air mix with water feeding in the combustion chamber has a great influence on process of combustion. Experimental installation for obtaining comparative characteristics of the main methods of water supply in the ICE combustion chamber was created. It was defined that there are two ways of water supply in the combustion chamber. At the first way water feed is carried out in the form of a water fuel emulsion which moves to the combustion chamber through a nozzle by means of the fuel pump with a high pressure. At the second way water arrives with air through the spraying element - the carburetor or a nozzle. This way is very simple in difference of emulsion feeding. The easiest way is nozzles application. It was established that the emulsion as the non-uniform highly dispersed fluid can be divide into components. Therefore it is necessary to use during the feeding system operation special emulsifiers with air for the uniformity water getting to the cylinder. The system for each nozzle opening at some point was offered. System of feedback with sensors of exhaust gases temperature in a final collector for adjustment of duration of injection was worked out. It was showed that at the developed experimental stand it is possible to carry out tests at various power modes. As result it will be possible to estimate both ways of fuel and air mix with water feeding.

  4. Different Phosphorus Supplies Altered the Accumulations and Quantitative Distributions of Phytic Acid, Zinc, and Iron in Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Da; Zhou, Lujian; Zhao, Qian; Pan, Gang; Cheng, Fangmin

    2018-02-21

    Development of rice cultivars with low phytic acid (lpa) is considered as a primary strategy for biofortification of zinc (Zn) and iron (Fe). Here, two rice genotypes (XS110 and its lpa mutant) were used to investigate the effect of P supplies on accumulations and distributions of PA, Zn, and Fe in rice grains by using hydroponics and detached panicle culture system. Results showed that higher P level increased grain PA concentration on dry matter basis (g/kg), but it markedly decreased PA accumulation on per grain basis (mg/grain). Meanwhile, more P supply reduced the amounts and bioavailabilities of Zn and Fe both in milled grains and in brown grains. Comparatively, lpa mutant was more susceptive to exogenous P supply than its wild type. Hence, the appropriate P fertilizer application should be highlighted in order to increase grain microelement (Zn and Fe) contents and improve nutritional quality in rice grains.

  5. Phosphorus requirement in laying hens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lambert, W.; Krimpen, van M.M.; Star, L.

    2014-01-01

    It was hypothesized that P supply by feed in alternative housing systems can be lowered without negative effects on bone quality and production performance. Therefore, the objectives of the current study were 1) to update the retainable phosphorus (rP) needs of two modern laying hen breeds from 36

  6. Data quality assurance in international supply chains : An application of the value cycle approach to customs reporting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Yuxin; Hulstijn, Joris; Tan, Yao-Hua

    2016-01-01

    With increasing international trade and growing emphasis on security and efficiency, enhanced information and data-sharing between different stakeholders in global supply chains is required. Currently, data quality is not only problematic for traders, but also for various government agencies that

  7. Berlin Brandenburg International (BER: planning and implementation of a concrete supply chain for the airport construction site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Riedel

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: With the decision to extend the airport Berlin-Schönefeld to the new airport Berlin Brandenburg International (BER in 2006, a construction of superlatives has emerged. One of the biggest challenges was the supply of around 2.5 million cubic meters of high quality concrete that had to be produced for the construction of the airport. Due to the scale of this enterprise as well as its environment, the logistic solution of raw material supply has to be found.       Method: The planning of the concrete supply chain for the airport construction site BER had to be carried out with two major goals: the stability of the supply chain to assure that the demands of the construction site are met and delays are prevented, as well as assurance of the high quality standards of the concrete production and to avoid an alkali silica reaction and the resulting unavoidable disaggregation of the concrete. External effects, such as the carbon dioxide emission and the effect of the supply chain on adjoining residents were key factors that had to be integrated in a holistic supply chain concept.  The principle underlying method is an analysis of limiting conditions for two approaches: a centralized supply chain with on-site concrete factory and upstream transport of raw materials versus a decentralized supply chain with off-site factories and downstream transport of ready-mixed concrete. Results: The analysis of constraints and the effects on key requirements of the concrete supply chain for the BER airport construction site lead to the installation of the most modern concrete plant in Europe. The benefits of a centralized supply chain are significant. On one hand, the high quality standards can be met with the on-site mixture of the concrete and centralized quality assurance, on the other hand, the majority of the supply traffic for the construction site was moved from the road to train-bound logistics, meeting the emission requirements of the

  8. How to apply academic supply chain management: The case of an international university

    OpenAIRE

    G. Gopalakrishnan

    2015-01-01

    Supply chain management concepts and models are not just confined to improving business operations in the manufacturing sector. They can also be developed and applied in the service industry by focusing on the service based supply chain. This paper will explore the application of academic supply chain management at an educational institution namely, RMIT University Vietnam. This paper will first identify the upstream and downstream activities at RMIT University Vietnam with reference to the I...

  9. The International Drinking Water Supply and Sanitation Decade in South-East Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    The International Drinking Water Supply and Sanitation Decade, 1981-90, which has a diversity of objectives, takes a different form in each country. What makes this decade different from previous actions for water and sanitation is the way in which the programs, projects, and servces are to be conceived, planned, implemented, managed, operated, and maintained. The urban population to be covered by water and sanitation services, in the developing nations that have prepared plans for the Decade, is roughly between 280-290 million people. In rural areas, some 750 million people are to be provided with drinking water and around 300 million with sanitation facilities. The initial goal of 100% of the population to be provided with water and sanitation by 1990 is proving difficult to realize. Only a small proportion of developing nations have even planned for 100% coverage by 1990. The initial optimism arising from the declaration of the Decade and the expectations of increased aid has given way to realism in the face of the global recession and the scarcity of development capital. The Southeast Asia Region of the World Health Organization (WHO) covers 11 member countries with a combined population of over 1000 million people. Among the countries in Southeast Asia that have prepared Decade plans, the following populations are to be covered by 1990: urban water supply, 126 million; urban sanitation, 156 million; rural water supply, 585 million; and rural sanitation, 212 million. Such a challenge calls for a stock taking of the real issues in order to identify what action can be taken. The lack of up-to-date and comprehensive databases is a serious problem. The information system for the Decade should be and integral part of it, be timed to keep pace with it, and be developed from the lowest level. The annual investment needed during the Decade is estimated at over 4 times that prior to the Decade. The accepted strategy is to meet the minimum needs of the largest number of

  10. Phosphorus and Nutrition in Chronic Kidney Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio González-Parra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with renal impairment progressively lose the ability to excrete phosphorus. Decreased glomerular filtration of phosphorus is initially compensated by decreased tubular reabsorption, regulated by PTH and FGF23, maintaining normal serum phosphorus concentrations. There is a close relationship between protein and phosphorus intake. In chronic renal disease, a low dietary protein content slows the progression of kidney disease, especially in patients with proteinuria and decreases the supply of phosphorus, which has been directly related with progression of kidney disease and with patient survival. However, not all animal proteins and vegetables have the same proportion of phosphorus in their composition. Adequate labeling of food requires showing the phosphorus-to-protein ratio. The diet in patients with advanced-stage CKD has been controversial, because a diet with too low protein content can favor malnutrition and increase morbidity and mortality. Phosphorus binders lower serum phosphorus and also FGF23 levels, without decreasing diet protein content. But the interaction between intestinal dysbacteriosis in dialysis patients, phosphate binder efficacy, and patient tolerance to the binder could reduce their efficiency.

  11. International Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System Acceptance Testing for Node 1 Atmosphere Control and Supply Subsystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David E.

    2009-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Node 1 Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) System is comprised of five subsystems: Atmosphere Control and Supply (ACS), Atmosphere Revitalization (AR), Fire Detection and Suppression (FDS), Temperature and Humidity Control (THC), and Water Recovery and Management (WRM). This paper provides a summary of the Node 1 ECLS ACS subsystem design and a detailed discussion of the ISS ECLS Acceptance Testing methodology utilized for that subsystem.

  12. International Space Station Atmosphere Control and Supply, Atmosphere Revitalization, and Water Recovery and Management Subsystem - Verification for Node 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David E.

    2007-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Node 1 Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) System is comprised of five subsystems: Atmosphere Control and Supply (ACS), Atmosphere Revitalization (AR), Fire Detection and Suppression (FDS), Temperature and Humidity Control (THC), and Water Recovery and Management (WRM). This paper provides a summary of the nominal operation of the Node 1 ACS, AR, and WRM design and detailed Element Verification methodologies utilized during the Qualification phase for Node 1.

  13. Regulation of phosphorus uptake and utilization: transitioning from current knowledge to practical strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Hasan, Md. Mahmudul; Hasan, Md. Mainul; Teixeira da Silva, Jaime A.; Li, Xuexian

    2016-01-01

    Phosphorus is a poorly bioavailable macronutrient that is essential for crop growth and yield. Overuse of phosphorus fertilizers results in low phosphorus use efficiency (PUE), has serious environmental consequences and accelerates the depletion of phosphorus mineral reserves. It has become extremely challenging to improve PUE while preserving global food supplies and maintaining environmental sustainability. Molecular and genetic analyses have revealed the primary mechanisms of phosphorus up...

  14. Micro perspectives for decentralized energy supply. Proceedings of the international conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaefer, Martina; Kebir, Noara; Philipp, Daniel (eds.)

    2011-07-01

    Within the proceedings of the international conference at the Technical University Berlin (Berlin, Federal Republic of Germany) between 7th and 8th April, 2011 the following scientific papers were presented: (1) Renewables in residential development: An integrated GIS-based multicriteria approach for decentralized micro renewable energy production in new settlement development (C. Palmas); (2) Optimisation of off-grid-energy systems by combined use of renewable energy and storage devices (F. Huneke); (3) Decentralized electricity production from renewable sources as a chance for local economic development? Qualitative study of two pioneer regions in Germany (B. Klagge); (4) An analytical model for small-scale rural bioenergy systems (M. Gaul); (5) Reality check: Biomass as a fuel for small-scale electricity supply in developing countries (E. Dimpl v.L.); (6) Influential factors for the implementation of biogas plants in rural areas of Burkina Faso (A. Aschaber); (7) Policy and regulatory framework conditions for small hydro power in sub-saharian Africa (F. Koelling); (8) Current status of village level hydropower in eastern and southern Africa (W. Janker-Klunne), (9) Water desalination in micro grids based on renewable energies (K. Bognar); (10) The internal sphere of influence of peasant family farms in using biogas plants as part of sustainable development in rural areas of Germany (A. Bischoff); (11) A basic design for a multicriteria approach to efficient bioenergy production at regional level (Z. Hagen); (12) Ecological and economical evaluation of biogas feedstock from intercrops (N. Niemitz); (13) Energy recovery from sisal residues: A sustainable option for Tanzania? (J.C. Pfaff); (14) Opportunities and challenges for solar home systems in Tanzania for rural electrification (P.J. John); (15) The contribution of microenergy systems towards poverty reduction: Case study of an implementation strategy for solar home systems in Sri Lanka (D. Laufer); (16) Multi

  15. Selected Chemical Properties of Soybean Rhizosphere Soil as Influenced by Cropping Systems, Rhizobium Inoculation, and the Supply of Phosphorus and Potassium after Two Consecutive Cropping Seasons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Nyoki

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The field experiment was carried out in northern Tanzania to assess the effects of intercropping systems, Rhizobium inoculation, and fertilization with P and K on chemical properties of soybean rhizosphere soil. The experiment was laid out in split-split plot design with 2 × 4 × 7 factorial arrangement replicated thrice. The main plots had two inoculation treatments and the subplots were comprised of four cropping systems which were sole maize, sole soybean, and two intercropping at different soybean spacing (75 × 20 and 75 × 40 cm. The fertilizer levels (kg/ha control (0 kg/ha; 20 K; 40 K; 26 P; 52 P; 26 P + 20 K; and 52 P + 40 K were assigned to sub-subplots. Statistical analysis was performed using ANOVA. Least Significant Difference was used to compare treatment means at p=0.05 significance level. The results indicated that rhizosphere soil chemical properties such as pH, organic carbon (OC, and macro- and micronutrients (N, P, Ca, Mg, and Na and Fe, Cu, Mn, and Zn, resp. were significantly increased in the Rhizobium inoculated soybean over the control. The supply of P and K fertilizers significantly increased the rhizosphere content of macronutrients (P, K, Ca, and Mg and also they altered the pH and EC of the rhizosphere soil relative to control.

  16. The importance of excretion by Chironomus larvae on the internal loads of nitrogen and phosphorus in a small eutrophic urban reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Henry

    Full Text Available Measurements of ammonium and phosphate excretion by the Chironomus larvae were conducted in order to evaluate the importance of these chironomids for the internal loads of a small eutrophic urban reservoir. Ammonium and phosphate excretion rates by Chironomus larvae of small size (6-10 mm total length were significantly higher than those of the Chironomids having medium (9-11 mm and large (11-16 mm sizes. A dependence in relation to temperature was recorded for the ammonium and phosphate excretions that was significantly higher at 25 °C than at 20 and 15 °C. Through a linear relation between biomass (dry weight and total length and, between excretion and biomass and, data on chironomids densities, after an intense sampling in 33 sites distributed all along the reservoir bottom, the mean phosphate and ammonium excretion rates corresponded to 2,014 ± 5,134 µg.m-2/day and 1,643 ± 3,974 µg.m-2/day, respectively. Considering the mean biomass (34 mg.m-2 of Chironomus, the lake area (88,156 m² and the mean excretion rates, the contribution of benthic chironomids to the internal loads would be 181 KgP and 147 KgN. for the sampling months (October-November 1998. These values showed that the internal loads by excretion from Chironomus larvae correspond to approximately 33% of the external loads of phosphorus in the lake and, in the case of nitrogen, to only 5%.

  17. Acid dissociation constants of uridine-5 Prime -diphosphate compounds determined by {sup 31}phosphorus nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and internal pH referencing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jancan, Igor [Louisiana State University, Department of Chemistry, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); Macnaughtan, Megan A., E-mail: macnau@lsu.edu [Louisiana State University, Department of Chemistry, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States)

    2012-10-24

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The first reported phosphate and imide pK{sub a} values of UDP-GlcNAc and UDP-S-GlcNAc. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer New role for the monosaccharide in the imide pK{sub a} of uridine-5 Prime -phosphate compounds. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer UDP-S-GlcNAc and UDP-GlcNAc have the same phosphate pK{sub a}, unlike thioyl analogs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The {sup 31}P chemical shift of inorganic phosphate is a viable internal pH reference. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Stability of the external {sup 31}P chemical shift reference is essential. - Abstract: The acid dissociation constant (pK{sub a}) of small, biological molecules is an important physical property used for investigating enzyme mechanisms and inhibitor design. For phosphorus-containing molecules, the {sup 31}P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) chemical shift is sensitive to the local chemical environment, particularly to changes in the electronic state of the molecule. Taking advantage of this property, we present a {sup 31}P NMR approach that uses inorganic phosphate buffer as an internal pH reference to determine the pK{sub a} values of the imide and second diphosphate of uridine-5 Prime -diphosphate compounds, including the first reported values for UDP-GlcNAc and UDP-S-GlcNAc. New methods for using inorganic phosphate buffer as an internal pH reference, involving mathematical correction factors and careful control of the chemical shift reference sample, are illustrated. A comparison of the newly determined imide and diphosphate pK{sub a} values of UDP, UDP-GlcNAc, and UDP-S-GlcNAc with other nucleotide phosphate and thio-analogs reveals the significance of the monosaccharide and sulfur position on the pK{sub a} values.

  18. Analysis of environmental and economic aspects of international pellet supply chains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehrig, Rita

    2014-01-17

    Biomass plays a key role to achieve the EU's 20-20-20 energy and climate targets. Because of rising European demand and limited domestic resources, the EU relies on worldwide imports. Given this framework, the present thesis explores the influences on wood pellet supply chains considering different environmental policies, price risks and the effect of torrefaction pretreatment. The examinations refer to three real case studies for pellet trade from Australia, Canada, and Russia to Europe. In the first investigation, the efficiency of co-firing imported wood pellets in terms of CO{sub 2} savings and related subsidy schemes is analysed. Scenarios show that co-firing biomass is efficient to contribute to the EU energy targets. Though, policy makers could use these instruments more effective when directing sourcing decision towards options with even less environmental impacts. The second analysis explores the influence of statistically derived price risks on total supply chain economics. It is shown that price risks can effect strong fluctuations in the short term, which seriously affect the profitability of individual trade routes. Securing the supply chain is mainly based on individual producer-buyer agreements, personal branch experiences and fast reactions on the subsidy system. Systematic evaluation of supply chains could contribute to a more reliable market and thus foster investment decisions. In the last investigation, the economic and environmental performance of potential torrefaction-based supply chains is assessed. As a result, torrefaction-based supply chains turn out to be a certain alternative to conventional ones. Though, still huge research efforts and industrial demonstration are required to make torrefied biomass a real alternative on the market.

  19. Analysis of environmental and economic aspects of international pellet supply chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehrig, Rita

    2014-01-01

    Biomass plays a key role to achieve the EU's 20-20-20 energy and climate targets. Because of rising European demand and limited domestic resources, the EU relies on worldwide imports. Given this framework, the present thesis explores the influences on wood pellet supply chains considering different environmental policies, price risks and the effect of torrefaction pretreatment. The examinations refer to three real case studies for pellet trade from Australia, Canada, and Russia to Europe. In the first investigation, the efficiency of co-firing imported wood pellets in terms of CO 2 savings and related subsidy schemes is analysed. Scenarios show that co-firing biomass is efficient to contribute to the EU energy targets. Though, policy makers could use these instruments more effective when directing sourcing decision towards options with even less environmental impacts. The second analysis explores the influence of statistically derived price risks on total supply chain economics. It is shown that price risks can effect strong fluctuations in the short term, which seriously affect the profitability of individual trade routes. Securing the supply chain is mainly based on individual producer-buyer agreements, personal branch experiences and fast reactions on the subsidy system. Systematic evaluation of supply chains could contribute to a more reliable market and thus foster investment decisions. In the last investigation, the economic and environmental performance of potential torrefaction-based supply chains is assessed. As a result, torrefaction-based supply chains turn out to be a certain alternative to conventional ones. Though, still huge research efforts and industrial demonstration are required to make torrefied biomass a real alternative on the market.

  20. Bridging the Operational Divide: An Information-Processing Model of Internal Supply Chain Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosado Feger, Ana L.

    2009-01-01

    Supply Chain Management, the coordination of upstream and downstream flows of product, services, finances, and information from a source to a customer, has risen in prominence over the past fifteen years. The delivery of a product to the consumer is a complex process requiring action from several independent entities. An individual firm consists…

  1. International collaboration and partnering in the supply chain as business opportunities for architectural firms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos-de Vos, M.; Lieftink, B.; Volker, L.; Wamelink, J.W.F.

    2014-01-01

    Due to a shift towards market driven concepts, a risk allocation from the demand side to the supply side and the increasing competition with other skilled actors in the value chain, architectural firms have to adapt quickly to stay competitive. They need to innovate not only their products and

  2. International Supply Chain Management Courses: Semester-Long versus Study-Abroad Formats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Matthew J.; Luchs, Ryan J.; Mawhinney, John R.

    2015-01-01

    Short-term study-abroad programs are gaining in popularity at business schools around the United States. We discuss the innovative 4-week program we have developed at Duquesne University where we offer two three-credit, required business core courses. In particular, we focus on the structure of a 2-week core supply chain management course. By…

  3. Modeling food logistics networks with emission considerations: the case of an international beef supply chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soysal, M.; Bloemhof, J.M.; Vorst, van der J.G.A.J.

    2014-01-01

    Intrinsic characteristics of food products and processes along with growing sustainability concerns lead to the need for decision support tools that can integrate economic considerations with quality preservation and environmental protection in food supply chains. In this study, we develop a

  4. International wind power development. The 2012 supply chain assessment. Forecast 2012-2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-11-15

    The entire wind power supply chain is under pressure. Fierce competition among turbine OEMs (Original Equipment Manufactures), particularly in China, has decreased turbine prices to the extent that turbine OEMs and sub-suppliers are no longer realizing a profit. This is the first time in Chinese wind power history that many sub-suppliers have had to reduce their production capacity; even a large component supplier recently went bankrupt. The wind industry has entered a stage where strategic decision making is needed. How can the suppliers of components and materials survive this new reality? What are the latest supply chain management strategies of the world's top 10 turbine OEMs as a response to slumping demand? This 200+ page supply chain assessment, with the updated status of supply chain activities as of November 2011, addresses these questions. The report assesses more than 300 suppliers of eight key components (blades, gearboxes, electric generators, bearings, power converters, transformers, towers, pitch systems and balance of plant - offshore) and more than 200 suppliers of five groups of key materials (castings, forgings, reinforcement fibers, resins and rare earth materials). (LN)

  5. Sustainable use of phosphorus: a finite resource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, Roland W; Ulrich, Andrea E; Eilittä, Marjatta; Roy, Amit

    2013-09-01

    Phosphorus is an essential element of life and of the modern agricultural system. Today, science, policy, agro-industry and other stakeholder groups are increasingly concerned about the sustainable use of this resource, given the dissipative nature of phosphorus and difficulties in assessing, evaluating, and coping with phosphorus pollution in aquatic and terrestrial systems. We argue that predictions about a forthcoming peak, followed by a quick reduction (i.e., physical phosphate rock scarcity) are unreasoned and stress that access to phosphorus (economic scarcity) is already, and may increasingly become critical, in particular for smallholders farmers in different parts of the world. The paper elaborates on the design, development, goals and cutting-edge contributions of a global transdisciplinary process (i.e. mutual learning between science and society including multiple stakeholders) on the understanding of potential contributions and risks related to the current mode of using phosphorus on multiple scales (Global TraPs). While taking a global and comprehensive view on the whole phosphorus-supply chain, Global TraPs organizes and integrates multiple transdisciplinary case studies to better answer questions which inform sustainable future phosphorus use. Its major goals are to contribute to four issues central to sustainable resource management: i) long-term management of biogeochemical cycles, in particular the challenge of closing the phosphorus cycle, ii) achieving food security, iii) avoiding environmental pollution and iv) sustainability learning on a global level by transdisciplinary processes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Remediation of internal phosphorus loads with modified clays, influence of fluvial suspended particulate matter and response of the benthic macroinvertebrate community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Hongbin; Douglas, Grant B; Cai, Yongjiu; Liu, Cheng; Copetti, Diego

    2018-01-01

    Clay-based phosphorus (P) sorbents have been increasingly used as geoengineering materials for the management sediment-derived internal P loading in eutrophic lakes. However, the long-term behavior of these sorbents has remained elusive along with their response to burial under suspended particulate matter (SPM), and their effect on macroinvertebrate communities occupying dynamic regions at the sediment-water interface of shallow and turbid lakes. In this study, field mesocosm experiments were undertaken in Lake Chaohu, China, to study the effects of the application of lanthanum-modified bentonite (LMB) and thermally-modified calcium-rich attapulgite (TCAP) on sediment internal P loading and to assess their influence on macroinvertebrate community structure. A complementary laboratory core incubation study was also undertaken to investigate the effects of SPM deposition on LMB and TCAP performance. In the field, both LMB and TCAP effectively intercepted P released from sediment for up to five months. A P fractionation analysis indicated that LMB and TCAP application results in a substantial increase in inert P fractions in sediment. Laboratory studies indicated that deposition of SPM may increase in mobile P both in the upper sediment and across the new post-SPM deposition sediment-water interface. Importantly, a comparison of sediment chemical extractions and estimated P fluxes suggests that chemically-defined forms of P in the sediment may be used as a proxy to estimate the net sediment P flux. Significantly, the surficial application of either LMB or TCAP did not cause negative effects on macroinvertebrate communities. This study indicates that to sustain a low P flux across the sediment-water interface in shallow, turbid lakes, repeat dosing of geoengineering materials, temporally aligned to the deposition of fluvial SPM, may be required. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Control of highly vertically unstable plasmas in TCV with internal coils and fast power supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Favre, A.; Moret, J.M.; Chavan, R.; Fasel, D.; Hofmann, F.; Lister, J.B.; Mayor, J.M.; Perez, A.; Elkjaer, A.

    1996-01-01

    The goal of TCV (Tokamak a Configuration Variable) is to investigate effects of plasma shape, in particular high elongation (up to 3), on tokamak physics. Such elongated configurations (I p ≅1 MA) are highly vertically unstable with growth rates up to γ=4000 s -1 . Control of the vertical position using the poloidal coils located outside the vessel is limited to γ≤1000 s -1 because of the shielding effect of the conductive vessel and because of the relative slow time response of their power supplies (0.8 ms thyristor 12 pulse switching at 120 Hz). This dictated the necessity to install a coil set inside the vacuum vessel fed with a Fast Power Supply (FPS). The choice and design of the system with a special attention to the mechanical and electrical constraints in TCV tokamak, as the results and real performances, will be presented. (author) 3 figs., 2 tabs., 2 refs

  8. Rational designing of the internal water supply system in reconstructed residential buildings of mass standard series

    OpenAIRE

    Orlov Evgeny

    2018-01-01

    The issues of water supply system reconstruction in mass series buildings are reviewed with consideration of water- and resource saving. Principal points for location of plumbing cells in apartments, arrangement of water devices and wastewater receivers, selection of pipelines for reconstructed water line are described. Comparative analysis of design variants of inner water line before and following reconstruction are given. It was found that applying the developed system design approaches th...

  9. Future oil supply: The changing stance of the International Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, Richard G.

    2011-01-01

    The IEA was established in 1974 with a mandate to promote energy security amongst its members, namely the states of the OECD, and to advise those members on sound energy policy. Its recent forecasts of the medium and long term prospects for oil supply, however, have wavered, alternating from optimistic to pessimistic and back again. For policy-makers, such inconsistency is difficult to deal with. Firstly we examine whether the changing outlooks seen in IEA forecasts made between 2007 and 2010 truly reflect a demonstrable, underlying change in the known facts, and we can find no such factual changes reported by the IEA. Secondly we examine whether the serious criticisms of the forecast made by other analysts have yet been addressed, and we conclude that they have not. Thirdly we consider the possible effects of the current economic downturn upon the IEA's assumptions and upon future oil supply. We conclude that all the forecasts made by the IEA appear to be too optimistic throughout this period. - Research highlights: → IEA forecasts of oil supply have changed from optimistic to pessimistic and back. → The reasons for the changes are listed, examined and found wanting. → The most appropriate IEA forecast is nevertheless the most pessimistic one. → Some criticisms of the forecast methodology and assumptions are described.

  10. Optimal trade-offs between energy efficiency improvements and additional renewable energy supply: A review of international experiences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baldini, Mattia; Klinge Jacobsen, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    the improvements made in the energy saving field. Indeed, little attention has been paid to implement energy efficiency measures, which has resulted in scenarios where expedients for a wise use of energy (e.g. energy savings and renewables share) are unbalanced. The aim of this paper is to review and evaluate...... international experiences on finding the optimal trade-off between efficiency improvements and additional renewable energy supply. A critical review of each technique, focusing on purposes, methodology and outcomes, is provided along with a review of tools adopted for the analyses. The models are categorized...... trade-off between renewables and energy efficiency measures in energy-systems under different objectives....

  11. International co-operation in the supply of nuclear fuel cycle services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allday, C.

    1977-01-01

    The paper draws on British Nuclear Fuels' (BNFL) wide experience of international collaboration in nuclear fuel process activities to examine the pros and cons of international agreements. Initially, the factors that influence the need to co-operate, the extent of possible co-operation and the alternative types of agreement, are reviewed. Next, the benefits, problems and risks associated with each function, such as management, financial R and D, marketing and operations that could be covered within the scope of an international agreement, are examined in detail. The paper continues by calling upon specific experience obtained by BNFL in the co-operation with other organizations over several years in both major and much smaller agreements, illustrating the rationale behind the co-operation, the resolution of 'teething' troubles and the present status of these organizations. In conclusion, the paper comments upon the effectiveness of collaboration agreements and identifies several requirements for international co-operation to succeed. (author)

  12. International power supply policy and the globalisation of research: the example of fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bechmann, G.; Gloede, F.; Lessmann, E.

    2001-01-01

    At the present state of our information, we can affirm that fusion research, as far as the necessary financial expenditures and their political justification are concerned, is a matter of politically controversial debate. In the political arenas, projects like controlled nuclear fusion are discussed primarily with regard to the controllability of complex technical systems and the sustainability of our future supply of electric power. The attempt to discuss this problem will have to consider: (i) on the one hand, already established concepts of sustainability; (ii) and on the other, the - according to the present state of our knowledge - foreseeable characteristics of a system of power generation and supply based on fusion reactors. Not only do the goals of global technology projects have to be embedded in patterns of universally accepted legitimisation (sustainability), but the organisation of research and development is also changing into networks acting globally. In this sense, globalisation means not only the worldwide linking of financial markets and the permanent availability of information and communication networks, but above all the creation of global organisations of research and innovation processes. The globalisation of research and development of technology has several dimensions: (i) the recognition and treatment of global problems; (ii) the transformation and evolution of new forms of organisation and cooperation in a global community of researchers; (iii) the constitution of Global Change Research. Fusion is playing a 'pathfinder role' for these processes and is at the same time itself an expression of the globalisation of the production of technology

  13. Substoichiometric extraction of phosphorus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shigematsu, T.; Kudo, K.

    1981-01-01

    A study of the substoichiometric extraction of phosphorus is described. Phosphorus was extracted in the form of ternary compounds such as ammonium phosphomolybdate, 8-hydroxyquinolinium phosphomolybdate, tetraphenylarsonium phosphomolybdate and tri-n-octylamine phosphomolybdate. Consequently, phosphorus was extracted substoichiometrically by the addition of a substoichiometric amount of molybdenum for the four phosphomolybdate compounds. On the other hand, phosphorus could be separated substoichiometrically with a substoichiometric amount of tetraphenylarsonium chloride or tri-n-octylamine. Stoichiometric ratios of these ternary compounds obtained substoichiometrically were 1:12:3 for phosphorus, molybdenum and organic reagent. The applicability of these compounds to phosphorus determination is also discussed. (author)

  14. "International Division of Labour and Migration as a Global Labour Supply---A Theoretical Perspective to Study International Migration---"

    OpenAIRE

    Masaki Takenouchi

    2001-01-01

    Why did not mass migration from the Third World to the highly-developed countries occur before the Second World War? This is a simple but important question, since the preponderance of the migration from the "South" to the "North" is a main characteristic of the contemporary international migration. The orthodox explanations of migration based on the concept of the national economy as a unit of analysis do not give us clues to answer this question. Neither do these by the world-system approac...

  15. The surprisingly small but increasing role of international agricultural trade on the European Union’s dependence on mineral phosphorus fertiliser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesme, Thomas; Roques, Solène; Metson, Geneviève S.; Bennett, Elena M.

    2016-02-01

    Phosphorus (P) is subject to global management challenges due to its importance to both food security and water quality. The European Union (EU) has promoted policies to limit fertiliser over-application and protect water quality for more than 20 years, helping to reduce European P use. Over this time period, the EU has, however, become more reliant on imported agricultural products. These imported products require fertiliser to be used in distant countries to grow crops that will ultimately feed European people and livestock. As such, these imports represent a displacement of European P demand, possibly allowing Europe to decrease its apparent P footprint by moving P use to locations outside the EU. We investigated the effect of EU imports on the European P fertiliser footprint to better understand whether the EU’s decrease in fertiliser use over time resulted from P demand being ‘outsourced’ to other countries or whether it truly represented a decline in P demand. To do this, we quantified the ‘virtual P flow’ defined as the amount of mineral P fertiliser applied to agricultural soils in non-EU countries to support agricultural product imports to the EU. We found that the EU imported a virtual P flow of 0.55 Tg P/yr in 1995 that, surprisingly, decreased to 0.50 Tg P/yr in 2009. These results were contrary to our hypothesis that trade increases would be used to help the EU reduce its domestic P fertiliser use by outsourcing its P footprint abroad. Still, the contribution of virtual P flows to the total P footprint of the EU has increased by 40% from 1995 to 2009 due to a dramatic decrease in domestic P fertiliser use in Europe: in 1995, virtual P was equivalent to 32% of the P used as fertiliser domestically to support domestic consumption but jumped to 53% in 2009. Soybean and palm tree products from South America and South East Asia contributed most to the virtual P flow. These results demonstrate that, although policies in the EU have successfully

  16. Can origin labels re-shape relationships along international supply chains? – The case of Café de Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiomara F. Quiñones-Ruiz

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Origin labels, more specifically Geographical Indications (GIs, allow organised producers to define quality standards and defend their food products’ reputation while highlighting their geographical origin and value to consumers. Café de Colombia was the first non-European food product registered as Protected Geographical Indication (PGI under EU legislation (510/2006, followed by 1151/2012. This paper aims to identify the dynamics of collective efforts and the rules of the game developed by coffee growers to protect the collective intellectual property right. Our guiding research questions are: i to what extent can the Ostrom’s design principles explain effective collective action for GI registration and implementation? and ii can collective action for GIs re-shape relations between supply chain actors and support producers in gaining control over origin products? We collected data using semi-structured interviews and document analysis, which we then processed in a qualitative text analysis. Results show that the principles are very helpful for understanding the internal collective action of coffee growers and also clearly show the challenges in the interaction with industrial coffee processors (e.g. international roasters, brand owners. A pure focus on the producers’ collective action for establishing and managing the origin protection does not give a full picture, since green coffee beans are roasted and commercialised abroad. The GI has already re-shaped the relationships along the supply chains, as international roasters sign the producers’ rules governing the PGI use. The commercial GI impact however, will depend on consumers’ willingness to appreciate and pay extra for high quality origin coffee as well as the readiness of international roasters or brand owners to emphasise on origin coffee, in addition to their brands of blended coffee.

  17. Revisiting local TOC measures in an internal supply chain: a note

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gupta, M.; Andersen, S.

    2012-01-01

    While the global theory of constraints (TOC)-based measures of throughput, inventory and operating expense are well known, the literature on local measures of throughput dollar-days and inventory dollar-days (TDDs/IDDs) is sparse and inconclusive. This paper shows how adherence to these measures...... naturally puts a non-TOC company on a continuous improvement path by assisting in identification of the constraint and implementation of a drum-buffer-rope (DBR)-like system. Thus, by simulating a small company, this note highlights the relationship between TDD/IDD measures and a DBR system, which further...... promotes TOC principles. Ultimately, we provide future research avenues into the role these measures can play in the development of a holistic incentive system and the implementation of a DBR-like system across the supply chain network....

  18. International co-operation in the supply of nuclear fuel cycle services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allday, C.

    1977-01-01

    The paper draws on B.N.F.L.'s wide experience of international collaboration in nuclear fuel process activities to examine the pros and cons of international agreements. Initially, the factors that influence the need to co-operate, the extent of possible co-operation and the alternative types of agreement are reviewed. Next, the benefits, problems and risks associated with each function, such as managmenet, financial, R and D, marketing and operations that could be covered within the scope of an international agreement, are examined in detail. The paper continues by calling upon specific experience obtained by B.N.F.L. in co-operation with other organisations over several years in operating both major and much smaller agreements illustrating the rationale behind the co-operation, the resolution of 'teething' troubles and the current status of these organisations. In conclusion, the paper comments upon the effectiveness of collaboration agreements and identifies several requirements for internation co-operation to succeed

  19. Phosphorus in the feeding of pigs : effect of diet on the absorption and retention of phosphorus by growing pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongbloed, A.W.

    1987-01-01

    An extensive review is given of the literature concerning phosphorus feeding of pigs. Subjects dealt with are: 1. physiological background, regulation and effect of diet composition and nutrient supply on phosphorus absorption and retention; 2. estimation of the amount of P present in the

  20. Phosphorus blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003478.htm Phosphorus blood test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The phosphorus blood test measures the amount of phosphate in the blood. ...

  1. American Security and the International Energy Situation. Volume 2. World Energy and the Security of Supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-04-15

    opposition to nuclear power plants Is growing quite strong, as exemplified by the history of Japan’s first nuclear -powered ship , the Mutsu . After...leakage. The adverse implications of the Mutsu fiasco for Japan’s ^" Nuclear Vessel Drifts Off Japan," The New York Times. September 23. 197J...companies, shipping concerns, international organizations, and other actors on the nlobai scene, the system did not exist in a poli- tical vacuum

  2. Visualizing alternative phosphorus scenarios for future food security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina-Simone Neset

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The impact of global phosphorus scarcity on food security has increasingly been the focus of scientific studies over the past decade. However, systematic analyses of alternative futures for phosphorus supply and demand throughout the food system are still rare and provide limited inclusion of key stakeholders. Addressing global phosphorus scarcity requires an integrated approach exploring potential demand reduction as well as recycling opportunities. This implies recovering phosphorus from multiple sources, such as food waste, manure and excreta, as well as exploring novel opportunities to reduce the long-term demand for phosphorus in food production such as changing diets. Presently, there is a lack of stakeholder and scientific consensus around priority measures. To therefore enable exploration of multiple pathways and facilitate a stakeholder dialogue on the technical, behavioral and institutional changes required to meet long-term future phosphorus demand, this paper introduces an interactive web-based tool, designed for visualizing global phosphorus scenarios in real-time. The interactive global phosphorus scenario tool builds on several demand and supply side measures that can be selected and manipulated interactively by the user. It provides a platform to facilitate stakeholder dialogue to plan for a soft landing and identify a suite of concrete priority options, such as investing in agricultural phosphorus use efficiency, or renewable fertilizers derived from phosphorus recovered from wastewater and food waste, to determine how phosphorus demand to meet future food security could be attained on a global scale in 2040 and 2070. This paper presents four example scenarios, including (1 the potential of full recovery of human excreta, (2 the challenge of a potential increase in non-food phosphorus demand, (3 the potential of a decreased animal product consumption, and (4 the potential decrease in phosphorus demand from increased efficiency

  3. Visualizing Alternative Phosphorus Scenarios for Future Food Security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neset, Tina-Simone; Cordell, Dana; Mohr, Steve; VanRiper, Froggi; White, Stuart

    2016-01-01

    The impact of global phosphorus scarcity on food security has increasingly been the focus of scientific studies over the past decade. However, systematic analyses of alternative futures for phosphorus supply and demand throughout the food system are still rare and provide limited inclusion of key stakeholders. Addressing global phosphorus scarcity requires an integrated approach exploring potential demand reduction as well as recycling opportunities. This implies recovering phosphorus from multiple sources, such as food waste, manure, and excreta, as well as exploring novel opportunities to reduce the long-term demand for phosphorus in food production such as changing diets. Presently, there is a lack of stakeholder and scientific consensus around priority measures. To therefore enable exploration of multiple pathways and facilitate a stakeholder dialog on the technical, behavioral, and institutional changes required to meet long-term future phosphorus demand, this paper introduces an interactive web-based tool, designed for visualizing global phosphorus scenarios in real time. The interactive global phosphorus scenario tool builds on several demand and supply side measures that can be selected and manipulated interactively by the user. It provides a platform to facilitate stakeholder dialog to plan for a soft landing and identify a suite of concrete priority options, such as investing in agricultural phosphorus use efficiency, or renewable fertilizers derived from phosphorus recovered from wastewater and food waste, to determine how phosphorus demand to meet future food security could be attained on a global scale in 2040 and 2070. This paper presents four example scenarios, including (1) the potential of full recovery of human excreta, (2) the challenge of a potential increase in non-food phosphorus demand, (3) the potential of decreased animal product consumption, and (4) the potential decrease in phosphorus demand from increased efficiency and yield gains in

  4. Quantification Of 15N Internal Transformation To Assess Nitrogen Supply Capacity In Deforested Soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Handayani, I.P.; Prawito, P.; Sisworo, E.L.

    2002-01-01

    Quantification of deforested soil's capacity to supply available N via mineralization and immobilization using 15N pool dilution is crucial to make fertilizer recommendation. The objective of this research was to measure the soil's capacity to minemlize and ilmnobilize N, so that the actual value of available N released by soil can be predicted. The results showed that Imperata grassland released the highest available N (amonium + nitrate) about 33.93 mg/kg/d and can immobilize 11.68 mg/kg/d of N. On the other hand, agriculture lields had the lowest inorganic N by nearly 23.15 mg/kg/d, and no immobilization occurred. The implication is that agriculture fields have a very low labile and stabile pool N (nearly 0), while Imperata grassland have capacity to store more pool N into labile or stabil pool (about 34%). In conclusion, dynamics of N cycling in ecosystem are dependent upon the content of pool C-N utilized by microorganisms and plants

  5. Trade-offs between Energy Efficiency improvements and additional Renewable Energy supply: A review of international experiences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baldini, Mattia; Klinge Jacobsen, Henrik

    improvements made in the energy saving field. Indeed, less attention has been paid to implement energy efficiency measures in energy systems modeling, which has resulted in scenarios where expedients for a wise use of energy (e.g. energy savings and renewables’ share) are unbalanced and cost......-savings opportunities are missed. The aim of this paper is to review and evaluate international experiences on finding the optimal trade-off between efficiency improvements and additional renewable energy supply. A critical review of each technique, focusing on purposes, methodology and outcomes, is provided along......-makers, informations useful for identify a suitable analysis for investigate on the optimal trade-off between renewables and energy efficiency measures in energy-systems under different objectives....

  6. Proceedings of SES International Conference on Can Slovakia secure energy supply and sustainable development without nuclear? Go Nuke Slovakia!

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The Conference proceedings included 28 papers. The Conference included the following sessions: (I): International views; (II): National views; (III): Industry views. Focused in its objective, the is aimed to send a clear, hard-hitting message to decision-makers. This is that: Slovakia cannot secure future energy supply, if it does not complete its partially built reactors and if it closes its safe and effective ones. Nuclear has to remain an indispensable part of the country's future energy mix. The event was opened with invited presentations by officials at the highest level of organisations such as the IAEA, the IEA, OECD/NEA, the NEI, the WNA and WANO, as well as the European Commission and Parliament. This line-up was followed by a host of speakers from the political and nuclear industrial arenas in Slovakia, the Czech Republic, Finland, Hungary and the Russian Federation

  7. International cooperation in supply of nuclear fuel and fuel cycle services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sievering, N.F. Jr.

    1977-01-01

    In the face of costlier, decreasingly available oil and a desire to achieve a higher degree of self-sufficiency, nuclear power has become an increasingly important ingredient in the mix of energy options looked to by a growing number of industrialized and developing states. One of the central concerns of states that are placing greater reliance on nuclear energy is the assurance that adequate nuclear fuels will be available on a timely basis and on economically acceptable terms. Greater emphasis on nuclear energy and on self-sufficiency entails greater potential risks as sensitive facilities and technologies associated with the nuclear fuel cycle threaten to proliferate. This paper explores the juxtaposition of the spread of nuclear technology and facilities in support of legitimate desires to achieve greater energy self-sufficiency and economic and social progress, on the one hand, and the implications of widely disseminated nuclear fuel cycle capacity for the objective of non-proliferation, on the other hand. It examines the recent evolution of nuclear fuel cycle activities including the scope of cooperation both among nuclear supplier states and between supplier and non-supplier states; explores the arenas in which common efforts are, can and should be undertaken (e.g., in terms of the nuclear resource base, the provision of essential services such as enrichment, and the management of nuclear waste), and identifies means by which national aspirations and international security concerns can be effectively accommodated. Particular attention is given to the methods by which the dissemination of sensitive technologies at facilities can be controlled without sacrificing the legitimate interests of any state, as well as to methods by which controls over potentially dangerous materials such as plutonium can be strengthened. The paper concludes that there are significant opportunities to achieve a high degree of international cooperation in the arena of fuel cycle

  8. International symposium on uranium production and raw materials for the nuclear fuel cycle - Supply and demand, economics, the environment and energy security. Extended synopses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    The IAEA periodically organizes nical meetings and international symposia on all areas of the uranium production cycle. This publication contains 160 extended synopses related to the 2005 international symposium on 'Uranium Production and Raw Materials for the Nuclear Fuel Cycle - Supply and Demand, Economics, the Environment and Energy Security'. They cover all areas of natural uranium resources and production cycle including uranium supply and demand; uranium geology and deposit; uranium exploration; uranium mining and milling; waste management; and environment and regulation. Each synopsis was indexed individually.

  9. Analysis of the Marine Corps Supply Management Unit’s Internal Operations and Effect on the Warfighter

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    centered on the Marine Corps’ forward deployed supply chain management for expeditionary logistics . He used a fictitious case study to stress the...also maintenance, maintenance management , and logistics chain management at the retail supply level and maintenance activities at all levels. (DON...11 Figure 2. United States Marine Corps Supply Management Unit Global Locations

  10. Phosphorus poisoning in waterfowl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coburn, D.R.; DeWitt, J.B.; Derby, J.V.; Ediger, E.

    1950-01-01

    Black ducks and mallards were found to be highly susceptible to phosphorus poisoning. 3 mg. of white phosphorus per kg. of body weight given in a single dose resulted in death of a black duck in 6 hours. Pathologic changes in both acute and chronic poisoning were studied. Data are presented showing that diagnosis can be made accurately by chemical analysis of stored tissues in cases of phosphorus poisoning.

  11. Identification of cowpea cultivars for low phosphorus soils of Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afolabi, N.O.; Ogunbodede, B.A.; Adediran, J.A.

    1996-01-01

    Twenty cultivars of cowpea, Vigna unguiculata, adapted to the Nigerian ecologies were screened to identify cultivars which can give high and sustainable yields when grown on soils with low available phosphorus in a sub-humid climate. Some cultivars including TVX3236, AFB1757, Ogunfowokan and K-28 gave three to four times higher grain yields than the other cultivars at zero phosphorus supply. While phosphorus application reduced grain yield in most of the cultivars with marked reduction in the higher yielding cultivars, low yielding cultivars tended to show some yield increase. Phosphorus use efficiency of the roots, stem or leaves was not significantly correlated with grain yield when 60 KgP/ha was applied. Reduction in yield due to phosphorus application might be due to induced Zn deficiency as Zn supply in these soils has been found to be inherently low. High grain yielding capacity without fertilizer phosphorus application was generally positively correlated with high vegetative shoot dry matter production. However, no clear relationship could be found between grain yield and root dry matter at maturity. It is concluded that selection for phosphorus efficiency in cowpea can substantially contribute to higher cowpea productivity and the farmers income on soils low in available phosphorus in the sub-humid areas of Nigeria. (author). 5 refs, 2 figs, 2 tabs

  12. Identification of cowpea cultivars for low phosphorus soils of Nigeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afolabi, N O; Ogunbodede, B A; Adediran, J A [Obafemi Awolowo Univ., Ibadan (Nigeria). Inst. of Agricultural Research and Training

    1996-07-01

    Twenty cultivars of cowpea, Vigna unguiculata, adapted to the Nigerian ecologies were screened to identify cultivars which can give high and sustainable yields when grown on soils with low available phosphorus in a sub-humid climate. Some cultivars including TVX3236, AFB1757, Ogunfowokan and K-28 gave three to four times higher grain yields than the other cultivars at zero phosphorus supply. While phosphorus application reduced grain yield in most of the cultivars with marked reduction in the higher yielding cultivars, low yielding cultivars tended to show some yield increase. Phosphorus use efficiency of the roots, stem or leaves was not significantly correlated with grain yield when 60 KgP/ha was applied. Reduction in yield due to phosphorus application might be due to induced Zn deficiency as Zn supply in these soils has been found to be inherently low. High grain yielding capacity without fertilizer phosphorus application was generally positively correlated with high vegetative shoot dry matter production. However, no clear relationship could be found between grain yield and root dry matter at maturity. It is concluded that selection for phosphorus efficiency in cowpea can substantially contribute to higher cowpea productivity and the farmers income on soils low in available phosphorus in the sub-humid areas of Nigeria. (author). 5 refs, 2 figs, 2 tabs.

  13. Contributions to total phosphorus intake: all sources considered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, Mona S; Uribarri, Jaime

    2013-01-01

    High serum phosphorus is linked to poor health outcome and mortality in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients before or after the initiation of dialysis. Dietary intake of phosphorus, a major determinant of serum phosphorus, seems to be systematically underestimated using the available software tools and generalized nutrient content databases. Several sources of dietary phosphorus including the addition of phosphorus ingredients in food processing, and phosphorus content of vitamin and mineral supplements and commonly used over-the-counter or prescription medications are not fully accounted for by the nutrient content databases and software programs in current clinical use or used in large population studies. In this review, we explore the many unknown sources of phosphorus in the food supply to identify all possible contributors to total phosphorus intake of Americans that have escaped inclusion in past intake estimates. Our goal is to help delineate areas for future interventions that will enable tighter control of dietary phosphorus intake, a critical factor to maintaining health and quality of life in CKD and dialysis patients. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. The release of dissolved phosphorus from lake sediments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boers, P.C.M.

    1991-01-01

    Chapter 1. Introduction: Eutrophication is one of the world's major water quality problems. Attempts to alleviate eutrophication of lakes have involved the control of phosphorus loadings. In such cases, an internal loading of phosphorus from the sediments may

  15. The burgeoning recognition and accommodation of the social supply of drugs in international criminal justice systems: An eleven-nation comparative overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coomber, Ross; Moyle, Leah; Belackova, Vendula; Decorte, Tom; Hakkarainen, Pekka; Hathaway, Andrew; Laidler, Karen Joe; Lenton, Simon; Murphy, Sheigla; Scott, John; Stefunkova, Michaela; van de Ven, Katinka; Vlaemynck, Marieke; Werse, Bernd

    2018-06-08

    It is now commonly accepted that there exists a form of drug supply, that involves the non-commercial supply of drugs to friends and acquaintances for little or no profit, which is qualitatively different from profit motivated 'drug dealing proper'. 'Social supply', as it has become known, has a strong conceptual footprint in the United Kingdom, shaped by empirical research, policy discussion and its accommodation in legal frameworks. Though scholarship has emerged in a number of contexts outside the UK, the extent to which social supply has developed as an internationally recognised concept in criminal justice contexts is still unclear. Drawing on an established international social supply research network across eleven nations, this paper provides the first assessment of social supply as an internationally relevant concept. Data derives from individual and team research stemming from Australia, Belgium, Canada, Czech Republic, Finland, Germany, Hong Kong, the Netherlands, England and Wales, and the United States, supported by expert reflection on research evidence and analysis of sentencing and media reporting in each context. In situ social supply experts addressed a common set of questions regarding the nature of social supply for their particular context including: an overview of social supply research activity, reflection on the extent that differentiation is accommodated in drug supply sentencing frameworks; evaluating the extent to which social supply is recognised in legal discourse and in sentencing practices and more broadly by e.g. criminal justice professionals in the public sphere. A thematic analysis of these scripts was undertaken and emergent themes were developed. Whilst having an absence of local research, New Zealand is also included in the analysis as there exists a genuine discursive presence of social supply in the drug control and sentencing policy contexts in that country. Findings suggest that while social supply has been found to exist as

  16. Statement of participants at the International Conference on Can Slovakia secure energy supply and sustainable development without nuclear?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikus, T.; Suchomel, J.

    2004-01-01

    The participants at the Conference called on decision makers both in the European Union (EU) and in Slovakia to provide fair treatment to nuclear power compared with other energy sources, especially with renewable, without prejudice to nuclear safety. This implies ensuring equality in terms of economics, tax, and accounting for externalities. The participants called on the Slovak government to initiate studies that compare the full life-cycle costs, impacts and risks, across the spectrum of energy sources and uses. They should also internalize the external costs. The participants called for a debate on the Slovak energy needs, taking into account the environmental impact of all potential sources of energy and the costs of providing electricity from those sources, and in addition a rational and objective analysis of the security of supply of those sources. It is necessary to have a range of sources for electricity generation that are cost effective and reliable, and respect the environment. The Slovak economy cannot withstand a sudden loss of its guaranteed energy supply. The participants believe that the major government role is setting overall policy for the economy, energy and the environment, with an adequate base in legislation and institutional competence. The Slovak government should have clear strategies for achieving self-sufficient energy-policy goals with reserve power and for meeting climate-change and air-quality goals. The Conference concluded that the nuclear option should remain open in Slovakia, as part of a balanced energy mix, in line with developments abroad and the EU Green Paper from 2000; the alternative is Slovak's failure to secure an affordable energy supply for its citizens. The participants supported the completion of Mochovce 3, 4, complying with enhanced safety requirements, as the most effective option. In Slovenske elektrarne, a.s. (SE) privatization, the government should insist on as large an involvement of Slovak firms in the

  17. The Importance of Authorized Economic Operator Institution for the Security of Supply Chain in the International Goods Turnover of Polish Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslawa Laszuk

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Together with the growth of international exchange of goods also the number of threats increases that potentially may influence the security of functioning international supply chains. Currently, there is a need of developing solutions which aim at facilitating flow of goods, simultaneously ensuring security against the increasing number of threats related to e.g. terrorist attacks, illegal smuggling, thefts and tax frauds. The article presents institution of an authorized operator – Authorized Economic Operator (AEO, introduced on the territory of the European Union in 2008. The discourse demonstrates influence of functioning AEO certificates on security of international supply chains with the particular attention drawn on the importance of AEO institution for Polish operators.

  18. Nerve supply to the internal anal sphincter differs from that to the distal rectum: an immunohistochemical study of cadavers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinugasa, Yusuke; Arakawa, Takashi; Murakami, Gen; Fujimiya, Mineko; Sugihara, Kenichi

    2014-04-01

    Fecal incontinence is a common problem after anal sphincter-preserving operations. The intersphincteric autonomic nerves supplying the internal anal sphincter (IAS) are formed by the union of: (1) nerve fibers from Auerbach's nerve plexus of the most distal part of the rectum and (2) the inferior rectal branches of the pelvic plexus (IRB-PX) running along the conjoint longitudinal muscle coat. The aim of the present study is to identify the detailed morphology of nerves to the IAS. The study comprised histological and immunohistochemical evaluations of paraffin-embedded sections from a large block of anal canal from the preserved 10 cadavers. The IRB-PX came from the superior aspect of the levator ani and ran into the anal canal on the anterolateral side. These nerves contained both sympathetic and parasympathetic fibers, but the sympathetic content was much higher than in nerves from the distal rectum. All intramural ganglion cells in the distal rectum were neuronal nitric oxide synthase-positive and tyrosine hydroxylase-negative and were restricted to above the squamous-columnar epithelial junction. Parasympathetic nerves formed a lattice-like plexus in the circular smooth muscles of the distal rectum, whereas the IAS contained short, longitudinally running sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves, although sympathetic nerves were dominant. The major autonomic nerve input to the IAS seemed not to originate from the distal rectum but from the IRB-PX. Injury to the IRB-PX during surgery seemed to result in loss of innervation to the major part of the IAS.

  19. Phosphorus dendrimers for nanomedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caminade, Anne-Marie

    2017-08-31

    From biomaterials to imaging, and from drug delivery to drugs by themselves, phosphorus-containing dendrimers offer a large palette of biological properties, depending essentially on their types of terminal functions. The most salient examples of phosphorus dendrimers used for the elaboration of bio-chips and of supports for cell cultures, for imaging biological events, and for carrying and delivering drugs or biomacromolecules are presented in this feature article. Several phosphorus dendrimers can be considered also as drugs per se (by themselves) in particular to fight against cancers, neurodegenerative diseases, and inflammation, both in vitro and in vivo. Toxicity assays are also reported.

  20. Isotopically exchangeable phosphorus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbaro, N.O.

    1984-01-01

    A critique revision of isotope dilution is presented. The concepts and use of exchangeable phosphorus, the phosphate adsorption, the kinetics of isotopic exchange and the equilibrium time in soils are discussed. (M.A.C.) [pt

  1. IEA Bioenergy Task 40Sustainable International Bioenergy Trade:Securing Supply and Demand Country Report 2014—United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hess, J. Richard [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Lamers, Patrick [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Roni, Mohammad S. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Jacobson, Jacob J. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Heath, Brendi [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Logistical barrier are tied to feedstock harvesting, collection, storage and distribution. Current crop harvesting machinery is unable to selectively harvest preferred components of cellulosic biomass while maintaining acceptable levels of soil carbon and minimizing erosion. Actively managing biomass variability imposes additional functional requirements on biomass harvesting equipment. A physiological variation in biomass arises from differences in genetics, degree of crop maturity, geographical location, climatic events, and harvest methods. This variability presents significant cost and performance risks for bioenergy systems. Currently, processing standards and specifications for cellulosic feedstocks are not as well-developed as for mature commodities. Biomass that is stored with high moisture content or exposed to moisture during storage is susceptible to spoilage, rotting, spontaneous combustion, and odor problems. Appropriate storage methods and strategies are needed to better define storage requirements to preserve the volume and quality of harvested biomass over time and maintain its conversion yield. Raw herbaceous biomass is costly to collect, handle, and transport because of its low density and fibrous nature. Existing conventional, bale-based handling equipment and facilities cannot cost-effectively deliver and store high volumes of biomass, even with improved handling techniques. Current handling and transportation systems designed for moving woodchips can be inefficient for bioenergy processes due to the costs and challenges of transporting, storing, and drying high-moisture biomass. The infrastructure for feedstock logistics has not been defined for the potential variety of locations, climates, feedstocks, storage methods, processing alternatives, etc., which will occur at a national scale. When setting up biomass fuel supply chains, for large-scale biomass systems, logistics are a pivotal part in the system. Various studies have shown that long

  2. Energy supply. Energieversorgung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eickhof, N.

    1983-01-01

    This anthology presents nine papers dealing with the following subjects: 1) international and national aspects of energy supply, 2) regional and local energy supply concepts, and 3) issues of district-heat supply. Each of the nine papers was entered separately.

  3. Comparison of Test Procedures and Energy Efficiency Criteria in Selected International Standards & Labeling Programs for Copy Machines, External Power Supplies, LED Displays, Residential Gas Cooktops and Televisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Nina [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Zhou, Nan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fridley, David [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-03-01

    This report presents a technical review of international minimum energy performance standards (MEPS), voluntary and mandatory energy efficiency labels and test procedures for five products being considered for new or revised MEPS in China: copy machines, external power supply, LED displays, residential gas cooktops and flat-screen televisions. For each product, an overview of the scope of existing international standards and labeling programs, energy values and energy performance metrics and description and detailed summary table of criteria and procedures in major test standards are presented.

  4. Relationships in international supply chain of a multinational: the case Marfrig in their units in Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Troczinski Storti

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Studies aimed at understanding the characteristics of relationships that occur between companies involved in the supply chain are timely when the growing role of overseas companies. This article aims to understand and compare the presence and alignment of information on criteria analysis cooperation, involvement, trust, communication and coordination in supply chain relationships in Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay, of a multinational based in Brazil. It was developed an analytical model and, through interviews with members of these chains, it was found results with low presence and misalignment of information, which may prejudice new strategies in the perspective of SCM.

  5. The role of phosphorus sources in the growth of lowland rice plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sisworo, Widjang Herry

    1975-01-01

    The role of phosphorus sources in the growth of lowland rice plant was studied using P 32 -labelled superphosphate. The experiment was carried out in the glass house. Three high yielding rice varieties used in the experiment were PB 5, IR 22 and Pelita I/1. Results obtained from the experiment showed that, during early growth, seedlings in the nursery did not require any phosphorus from outside. The phosphorus needed was apparently supplied by the seeds themselves. After 10 days seedlings started using phosphorus from outside the plants. Phosphorus in the plants derived from fertilizer reached 5-12% at 16 days old and 25-40% at transplanting time depending on the varieties. Higher response to phosphorus application in the nursery was given by Pelita I/1, the phosphorus in the plants derived from fertilizer was 40% at transplanting time. The phosphorus requirement was mostly supplied by the application of phosphorus fertilizer till 20 days after transplanting but after 40 days soil-phosphorus became the main source for the plants. (author)

  6. Energy the security of supply in question. Combating global warming: what role for nuclear power. Warning issued by the International Energy Agency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montbrial, T. de [Areva, Paris (France); Moore, P. [Greenspirit Strategies Ltd, Vancouver (Canada); Cambell, N. [Greenpeace (Canada)

    2007-07-01

    This issue of Alternatives newsletter put the question of energy supplies security. The unequal distribution of the world's energy resources raises the problem of energy independence and the security of supply. This question is particularly pertinent for Europe which, along with the Far East, possesses only a meager share of the planet's store of fossil fuels. Europe must learn how to live with its energy dependency, knowing that independence is an unrealistic objective in a world built on the interdependence of trade. The world's energy system is vulnerable to disruptions in supply and to geopolitical tensions. Given this context of instability, how can the security of supply and energy independence be increased? The challenge for western countries with few fossil fuel resources is to secure reliable supply while reducing energy dependency. One solution consists in diversifying power generation sources to lower dependency on oil and gas. The nuclear question is analyzed through the different point of views of Greenpeace and Greenspirit Strategies. Greenpeace refuses even the slightest involvement of nuclear power and considers that energy efficiency and renewable technologies are the only solution to both global warming and energy questions. On the other hand, Greenspirit Strategies sees nuclear power, combined with increased efforts to develop renewable energies, playing an essential role in the sustainable production of electricity. A last article devoted to the World Energy Outlook 2006 - the report published by the International Energy Agency - presents the hypotheses advanced by the Agency regarding future energy supply and its recommendations for counteracting a scenario for 2030 that is, to say the least, very alarming.

  7. Energy the security of supply in question. Combating global warming: what role for nuclear power. Warning issued by the International Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montbrial, T. de; Moore, P.; Cambell, N.

    2007-01-01

    This issue of Alternatives newsletter put the question of energy supplies security. The unequal distribution of the world's energy resources raises the problem of energy independence and the security of supply. This question is particularly pertinent for Europe which, along with the Far East, possesses only a meager share of the planet's store of fossil fuels. Europe must learn how to live with its energy dependency, knowing that independence is an unrealistic objective in a world built on the interdependence of trade. The world's energy system is vulnerable to disruptions in supply and to geopolitical tensions. Given this context of instability, how can the security of supply and energy independence be increased? The challenge for western countries with few fossil fuel resources is to secure reliable supply while reducing energy dependency. One solution consists in diversifying power generation sources to lower dependency on oil and gas. The nuclear question is analyzed through the different point of views of Greenpeace and Greenspirit Strategies. Greenpeace refuses even the slightest involvement of nuclear power and considers that energy efficiency and renewable technologies are the only solution to both global warming and energy questions. On the other hand, Greenspirit Strategies sees nuclear power, combined with increased efforts to develop renewable energies, playing an essential role in the sustainable production of electricity. A last article devoted to the World Energy Outlook 2006 - the report published by the International Energy Agency - presents the hypotheses advanced by the Agency regarding future energy supply and its recommendations for counteracting a scenario for 2030 that is, to say the least, very alarming

  8. Organic chemistry of elemental phosphorus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milyukov, V A; Budnikova, Yulia H; Sinyashin, Oleg G

    2005-01-01

    The principal achievements and the modern trends in the development of the chemistry of elemental phosphorus are analysed, described systematically and generalised. The possibilities and advantages of the preparation of organophosphorus compounds directly from white phosphorus are demonstrated. Attention is focused on the activation and transformation of elemental phosphorus in the coordination sphere of transition metal complexes. The mechanisms of the reactions of white phosphorus with nucleophilic and electrophilic reagents are discussed. Electrochemical approaches to the synthesis of organic phosphorus derivatives based on white phosphorus are considered.

  9. Phosphorus and Nitrogen Regulate Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Symbiosis in Petunia hybrida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouri, Eva; Breuillin-Sessoms, Florence; Feller, Urs; Reinhardt, Didier

    2014-01-01

    Phosphorus and nitrogen are essential nutrient elements that are needed by plants in large amounts. The arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis between plants and soil fungi improves phosphorus and nitrogen acquisition under limiting conditions. On the other hand, these nutrients influence root colonization by mycorrhizal fungi and symbiotic functioning. This represents a feedback mechanism that allows plants to control the fungal symbiont depending on nutrient requirements and supply. Elevated phosphorus supply has previously been shown to exert strong inhibition of arbuscular mycorrhizal development. Here, we address to what extent inhibition by phosphorus is influenced by other nutritional pathways in the interaction between Petunia hybrida and R. irregularis. We show that phosphorus and nitrogen are the major nutritional determinants of the interaction. Interestingly, the symbiosis-promoting effect of nitrogen starvation dominantly overruled the suppressive effect of high phosphorus nutrition onto arbuscular mycorrhiza, suggesting that plants promote the symbiosis as long as they are limited by one of the two major nutrients. Our results also show that in a given pair of symbiotic partners (Petunia hybrida and R. irregularis), the entire range from mutually symbiotic to parasitic can be observed depending on the nutritional conditions. Taken together, these results reveal complex nutritional feedback mechanisms in the control of root colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. PMID:24608923

  10. Phosphorus and nitrogen regulate arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis in Petunia hybrida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouri, Eva; Breuillin-Sessoms, Florence; Feller, Urs; Reinhardt, Didier

    2014-01-01

    Phosphorus and nitrogen are essential nutrient elements that are needed by plants in large amounts. The arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis between plants and soil fungi improves phosphorus and nitrogen acquisition under limiting conditions. On the other hand, these nutrients influence root colonization by mycorrhizal fungi and symbiotic functioning. This represents a feedback mechanism that allows plants to control the fungal symbiont depending on nutrient requirements and supply. Elevated phosphorus supply has previously been shown to exert strong inhibition of arbuscular mycorrhizal development. Here, we address to what extent inhibition by phosphorus is influenced by other nutritional pathways in the interaction between Petunia hybrida and R. irregularis. We show that phosphorus and nitrogen are the major nutritional determinants of the interaction. Interestingly, the symbiosis-promoting effect of nitrogen starvation dominantly overruled the suppressive effect of high phosphorus nutrition onto arbuscular mycorrhiza, suggesting that plants promote the symbiosis as long as they are limited by one of the two major nutrients. Our results also show that in a given pair of symbiotic partners (Petunia hybrida and R. irregularis), the entire range from mutually symbiotic to parasitic can be observed depending on the nutritional conditions. Taken together, these results reveal complex nutritional feedback mechanisms in the control of root colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi.

  11. phosphorus sorption capacity as a guide for phosphorus availability

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    drained, light yellowish brown, loamy sand ... Dongola 2 Akked series: Deep, dark grayish brown, clay ... energy. Statistical analysis. Data collected were statistically analysed using ANOVA of MStatc ... phosphorus sorbed versus phosphorus.

  12. Preparation of phosphorus targets using the compound phosphorus nitride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maier-Komor, P.

    1987-01-01

    Commercially available phosphorus nitride (P 3 N 5 ) shows a high oxygen content. Nevertheless, this material is attractive for use as phosphorus targets in experiments where red phosphorus would disappear due to its high vapor pressure and where a metal partner in the phosphide must be excluded due to its high atomic number. Methods are described to produce phosphorus nitride targets by vacuum evaporation condensation. (orig.)

  13. Traps for phosphorus adsorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montoya, Nawer D; Villegas, Wilson E; Rodriguez, Lino M; Taborda, Nelson; Montes de C, Consuelo

    2001-01-01

    Several AL 2 O 3 supported oxides such as: NiO, CuO, Co 2 O 3 BaO, CeO 2 and ZnO were investigated for phosphorus adsorption. Zno/y-Al 2 O 3 exhibited the highest phosphorus adsorption capacity. However, since it diminishes the activity of to the reaction mixture it should be located upstream of the NoX catalyst, i.e. 0,3% Pd-H-MOR, in order to protect it against p poisoning. The treatment procedure with citric acid was effective for the removal of more than 70% phosphorus from the adsorbent, ZnO/y-Al 2 O 3

  14. Chromatography of phosphorus oxoacids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohashi, S.

    1975-01-01

    The present state of studies on the chromatographic separation of phosphorus oxoacids is surveyed. In this paper, chromatographic techniques are divided into four groups, i.e. paper and thin-layer chromatography, paper electrophoresis, ion-exchange chromatography, and gel chromatography. The separation mechanisms and characteristics for these chromatographic methods are discussed and some examples for the separation of phosphorus oxoacids are described. As examples of the application of ion-exchange and gel chromatography, studies on the hot atom chemistry of 32 P in solid inorganic phosphates and those on the substitution reactions between diphosphonate (diphosphite) and polyphosphates are reported. (author)

  15. The IBNET Water Supply and Sanitation Blue Book 2014 : The International Benchmarking Network for Water and Sanitation Utilities Databook

    OpenAIRE

    Danilenko, Alexander; van den Berg, Caroline; Macheve, Berta; Moffitt, L. Joe

    2014-01-01

    Well-run water utilities play an important role in ending poverty and boosting shared prosperity. Consumers need reliable access to high quality and affordable water and sanitation services. To deliver these basic services efficiently and effectively requires high-performing utilities that are able to respond to urban growth, to connect with the poor, and to improve wastewater disposal practices. The IBNET Water Supply and Sanitation Blue Book 2014 summarizes the water sector status from 2006...

  16. Female sex work and international sport events - no major changes in demand or supply of paid sex during the 2010 Soccer World Cup: a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Important unanswered questions remain on the impact of international sporting events on the sex industry. Speculation about increased demand and supply of sex work often generates significant attention, but also additional funding for HIV programmes. This study assessed whether changes occurred in the demand and supply of paid sex during the 2010 Soccer World Cup in South Africa. Methods Trained sex worker interviewers conducted face-to-face semi-structured interviews among consenting female sex workers during May-September 2010. Using bivariate analyses we compared supply, demand, sexual risk-taking, and police and health services contact pre-World Cup, to levels during the World Cup and after the event. Results No increases were detected in indicators of sex work supply, including the proportion of sex workers newly arrived in the city ( 92.4% in all phases). Health-care utilisation decreased non-significantly from the pre- to during World Cup period (62.4% to 57.0%; P = 0.075). Across all periods, about thirty percent of participants had interacted with police in the preceding month, two thirds of whom had negative interactions. Conclusions Contrary to public opinion, no major increases were detected in the demand or supply of paid sex during the World Cup. Although the study design employed was unable to select population-based samples, these findings do not support the public concern and media speculation prior to the event, but rather signal a missed opportunity for public health action. Given the media attention on sex work, future sporting events offer strategic opportunities to implement services for sex workers and their clients, especially as health service utilisation might decrease in this period. PMID:22967260

  17. Economic Evaluation of Improved Irrigated Bread Wheat Varieties with National and International Origins and Its Impacts on Transfer of Supply Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    hormoz asadi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Agricultural research is important and one of the determinant factors of development of technologies in agricultural sector. Among agricultural research disciplines, breeding programs, especially, wheat breeding programs are one of the applied approaches in improving of production and food security. Based on a study by Byerlee & Traxler (1995, economic benefits and Internal Rate of Return (IRR for Impact of International Wheat Improvement (for all breeding programs were estimated US$3.0 billion per year with internal rate of 53%, and economic benefits for Impact of International Wheat Improvement (Attributed to IWIN was estimated US$1.5 billion per year during 1966-90. Materials and methods The main objectives of this research were to determine shift of supply function of variety and impacts of breeding wheat varieties on reduction costs, and determination of economic return of released irrigated bread wheat in breeding program for the period of 1991-2000. Wheat varieties included; 23 varieties of released irrigated bread wheat by wheat breeding program of Seed and Plant Improvement Institute (SPII and Provincial Agricultural Research Centers. Ex-ante and Ex-post methods were used in this study. Measuring criteria for these methods were; quantity of shift in supply function, cost-benefit analysis and internal rate of return of varieties. For estimation of reduction costs and shift of supply function of varieties in breeding program were calculated following Brennan et al. (2002: Where: Cvb: Cost reduction due to breeding program, TCh: Cost production per ha, Yv (without: yield of check variety in breeding plots, Yv (with: yield of new variety in breeding plots, PSS: % supply shift in breeding program and Pw: price of wheat grain per kg For assessing economic criteria, Net Present Value (NPV, Cost-Benefit Analysis and Internal Rate of Return (IRR were used: Following Brennan et al (2002, gross benefit of irrigated bread wheat

  18. Phosphorus in Agriculture : 100 % Zero

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schnug, Ewald; De Kok, Luit J.

    2016-01-01

    Phosphorus is essential for all living organisms, reserves in geogenic deposits are finite, and phosphorus nutrient mining and oversupply are common phenomenons on agricultural soils. Only if the agricultural phosphorus cycle can be closed and the fertilized nutrient been utilized completely,

  19. A representation of the phosphorus cycle for ORCHIDEE (revision 4520)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goll, Daniel S.; Vuichard, Nicolas; Maignan, Fabienne; Jornet-Puig, Albert; Sardans, Jordi; Violette, Aurelie; Peng, Shushi; Sun, Yan; Kvakic, Marko; Guimberteau, Matthieu; Guenet, Bertrand; Zaehle, Soenke; Penuelas, Josep; Janssens, Ivan; Ciais, Philippe

    2017-10-01

    Land surface models rarely incorporate the terrestrial phosphorus cycle and its interactions with the carbon cycle, despite the extensive scientific debate about the importance of nitrogen and phosphorus supply for future land carbon uptake. We describe a representation of the terrestrial phosphorus cycle for the ORCHIDEE land surface model, and evaluate it with data from nutrient manipulation experiments along a soil formation chronosequence in Hawaii. ORCHIDEE accounts for the influence of the nutritional state of vegetation on tissue nutrient concentrations, photosynthesis, plant growth, biomass allocation, biochemical (phosphatase-mediated) mineralization, and biological nitrogen fixation. Changes in the nutrient content (quality) of litter affect the carbon use efficiency of decomposition and in return the nutrient availability to vegetation. The model explicitly accounts for root zone depletion of phosphorus as a function of root phosphorus uptake and phosphorus transport from the soil to the root surface. The model captures the observed differences in the foliage stoichiometry of vegetation between an early (300-year) and a late (4.1 Myr) stage of soil development. The contrasting sensitivities of net primary productivity to the addition of either nitrogen, phosphorus, or both among sites are in general reproduced by the model. As observed, the model simulates a preferential stimulation of leaf level productivity when nitrogen stress is alleviated, while leaf level productivity and leaf area index are stimulated equally when phosphorus stress is alleviated. The nutrient use efficiencies in the model are lower than observed primarily due to biases in the nutrient content and turnover of woody biomass. We conclude that ORCHIDEE is able to reproduce the shift from nitrogen to phosphorus limited net primary productivity along the soil development chronosequence, as well as the contrasting responses of net primary productivity to nutrient addition.

  20. Effect of nitrogen and phosphorus supply on growth, chlorophyll content and tissue composition of the macroalga Chaetomorpha linum (O.F. Müll, Kütz, in a Mediterranean Coastal Lagoon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Menéndez

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of dissolved nutrients on growth, nutrient content and uptake rates of Chaetomorpha linum in a Mediterranean coastal lagoon (Tancada, Ebro delta, NE Spain was studied in laboratory experiments. Water was enriched with distinct forms of nitrogen, such as nitrate or ammonium and phosphorus. Enrichment with N, P or with both nutrients resulted in a significant increase in the tissue content of these nutrients. N-enrichment was followed by an increase in chlorophyll content after 4 days of treatment, although the difference was only significant when nitrate was added without P. P-enrichment had no significant effect on chlorophyll content. In all the treatments an increase in biomass was obseved after 10 days. This increase was higher in the N+P treatments. In all the treatments the uptake rate was significantly higher when nutrients were added than in control jars. The uptake rate of N, as ammonium, and P were significantly higher when they were added alone while that of N as nitrate was higher in the N+P treatment. In the P-enriched cultures, the final P-content of macroalgal tissues was ten-fold that of the initial tissue concentrations, thereby indicating luxury P-uptake. Moreover, at the end of the incubation the N:P ratio increased to 80, showing that P rather than N was the limiting factor for C. linum in the Tancada lagoon. The relatively high availability of N is related to the N inputs from rice fields that surround the lagoon and to P binding in sediments.

  1. Phosphorus in agricultural soils:

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ringeval, Bruno; Augusto, Laurent; Monod, Hervé; Apeldoorn, van D.F.; Bouwman, A.F.; Yang, X.; Achat, D.L.; Chini, L.P.; Oost, van K.; Guenet, Bertrand; Wang, R.; Decharme, B.; Nesme, T.; Pellerin, S.

    2017-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) availability in soils limits crop yields in many regions of the World, while excess of soil P triggers aquatic eutrophication in other regions. Numerous processes drive the global spatial distribution of P in agricultural soils, but their relative roles remain unclear. Here, we

  2. Effect of phosphorus limiting on phytase activity, proton efflux and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This work intended to measure the nodulated-roots oxygen consumption, proton efflux and phytase activity in 2 lines of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) (115, 147) at 2 levels of P supply. Rooted seedlings were inoculated with Rhizobium tropici CIAT 899 in hydroaeroponic cultivation under glasshouse. Phosphorus was ...

  3. Early postnatal calcium and phosphorus metabolism in preterm infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Christmann, Viola; de Grauw, Anne M.; Visser, Reina; Matthijsse, René P.; van Goudoever, Johannes B.; van Heijst, Arno F. J.

    2014-01-01

    Bone mineralisation in preterm infants is related to the supply of calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P). We increased the amount of minerals in parenteral nutrition (PN) for preterm infants and evaluated postnatal Ca and P metabolism in relation to mineral and vitamin D (vitD) intake. Preterm infants,

  4. Early postnatal calcium and phosphorus metabolism in preterm infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Christmann, V.; Grauw, A.M. de; Visser, R.; Matthijsse, R.P.; Goudoever, J.B. van; Heijst, A.F.J. van

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Bone mineralisation in preterm infants is related to the supply of calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P). We increased the amount of minerals in parenteral nutrition (PN) for preterm infants and evaluated postnatal Ca and P metabolism in relation to mineral and vitamin D (vitD) intake.

  5. Closed-Loop Supply Chain Planning Model for a Photovoltaic System Manufacturer with Internal and External Recycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songi Kim

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The photovoltaic (PV generation system has been widely used since the late 1990s. Considering its lifespan of 20 to 30 years, many end-of-life systems will emerge in the near future. This is why recycling PV systems will be beneficial (and may even be detrimental to both the environment and the economy. Through the recycling process, hazardous by-product substances such as cadmium and lead can be treated properly. Moreover, valuable materials including indium, gallium, and tellurium can be extracted and reused for manufacturing purposes. Even though many studies have dealt with issues related to the PV system and its recycling policy, they lack significant factors regarding the recycling policy. This study analyzes and compares three real cases of manufacturer’s recycling policy, including Deutsche Solar, First Solar, and PV Cycle, from the perspective of a closed-loop supply chain. Two mathematical models are developed to help PV system manufacturers establish supply chain planning and choose suitable recycling policies in consideration of different circumstances. Furthermore, an experimental example of these models will be used to validate and conclude the significance of the models. The results from this study will show that recycling CdTe PV systems is much more efficient than recycling c-Si PV systems and that, in the case of c-Si, it is better to outsource recycling end-of-life systems and dispose of all manufacturing scrap.

  6. Relay power supplies for the system of proton beam slow guidance onto internal targets of the Serpukhov synchrotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belov, S.A.; Kardash, A.A.; Medvedev, V.A.; Perebejnos, V.K.; Shirokov, V.G.

    1979-01-01

    A static supply system for slow beam guiding on targets used in the IHEP synchrotron is discussed. As a regulating element use is made of a module-type gate bridge circuit. The power unit rated at an operating current of up to 200 A at a supply voltage of up to 200 V consists of 12 paralleled modules. Every module contains four transistors, four diodes and a part of a storage capacitor (200 μF). One module is rated at a current of 16 A. The regulator has been investigated in the pulse-width modulation mode and in the mode of relay control with normal and leading hysteresis loops. The minimum modulation of the secondary-particle beam density has been obtained when using leading hysteresis loops for regulation. In addition to the main task of guiding on targets the system provides shaping trapezoidal current pulses in the current range from 10 to 200 A at a current plateau stability of 0.5% and better

  7. Atmospheric acidification of mineral aerosols: a source of bioavailable phosphorus for the oceans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Nenes

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Primary productivity of continental and marine ecosystems is often limited or co-limited by phosphorus. Deposition of atmospheric aerosols provides the major external source of phosphorus to marine surface waters. However, only a fraction of deposited aerosol phosphorus is water soluble and available for uptake by phytoplankton. We propose that atmospheric acidification of aerosols is a prime mechanism producing soluble phosphorus from soil-derived minerals. Acid mobilization is expected to be pronounced where polluted and dust-laden air masses mix. Our hypothesis is supported by the soluble compositions and reconstructed pH values for atmospheric particulate matter samples collected over a 5-yr period at Finokalia, Crete. In addition, at least tenfold increase in soluble phosphorus was observed when Saharan soil and dust were acidified in laboratory experiments which simulate atmospheric conditions. Aerosol acidification links bioavailable phosphorus supply to anthropogenic and natural acidic gas emissions, and may be a key regulator of ocean biogeochemistry.

  8. The legal regime of nuclear materials supply and international safeguards laid down in the EURATOM treaty, and how it has been modified by subsequent practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manig, W.

    1993-01-01

    Practice deviating from the authentic text of the EURATOM treaty is lawful only when based on official and accepted interpretation of the EURATOM treaty, or on amendment by accepted practice. According to Art. 204 of the Constituent Act, amendments require governmental consent and ratification. The chapters of the EURATOM treaty dealing with nuclear materials supply and nuclear safeguards have been made subject to simplified procedures of revision. The procedures of revision stipulated in the treaty do not altogether rule out amendment based on principles other than those stipulated. The European Communities do not have the status of a federation, so that Member States have a vital say in procedures for revision of the Communities' constituent acts. They have the right to initiate and adopt amendments by procedures not mentioned in the treaty. Constituent acts of international organisations, particularly of those endowed with supranational authority, like EURATOM, may only be modified if the interests of the organisation, normally safeguarded by its bodies, are left untouched. Amendments must not be put down in writing. There is the possibility of tacit amendment, if the common practice reflects a consensus among all parties concerned about the particular amendment. Such amendment by continuous, common practice is subject to the general constraints governing amendment of the constituent acts of the three European Communities (participation of the bodies of the organisation, acquis communautaire). The amendments relating to nuclear materials supply and the international safeguards which have been created by practice are in line with these provisions, as the Commission, the Council, Member States and the supply agency are practising the amended procedures, so that the amendments of chapters VI and VII of the Constituent Act of EURATOM, as expressed in practice, are legally effective. (orig./HP) [de

  9. Regulation of phosphorus uptake and utilization: transitioning from current knowledge to practical strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Md Mahmudul; Hasan, Md Mainul; Teixeira da Silva, Jaime A; Li, Xuexian

    2016-01-01

    Phosphorus is a poorly bioavailable macronutrient that is essential for crop growth and yield. Overuse of phosphorus fertilizers results in low phosphorus use efficiency (PUE), has serious environmental consequences and accelerates the depletion of phosphorus mineral reserves. It has become extremely challenging to improve PUE while preserving global food supplies and maintaining environmental sustainability. Molecular and genetic analyses have revealed the primary mechanisms of phosphorus uptake and utilization and their relationships to phosphorus transporters, regulators, root architecture, metabolic adaptations, quantitative trait loci, hormonal signaling and microRNA. The ability to improve PUE requires a transition from this knowledge of molecular mechanisms and plant architecture to practical strategies. These could include: i) the use of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal symbioses for efficient phosphorus mining and uptake; ii) intercropping with suitable crop species to achieve phosphorus activation and mobilization in the soil; and iii) tissue-specific overexpression of homologous genes with advantageous agronomic properties for higher PUE along with breeding for phosphorus-efficient varieties and introgression of key quantitative trait loci. More effort is required to further dissect the mechanisms controlling phosphorus uptake and utilization within plants and provide new insight into the means to efficiently improve PUE.

  10. Human virus and microbial indicator occurrence in public-supply groundwater systems: meta-analysis of 12 international studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groundwater quality is often evaluated using microbial indicators. This study examines data from 12 international groundwater studies (conducted 1992–2013). Sites were chosen from 718 public drinking-water systems with a range of hydrogeological conditions. Focus was on testing the value of indicato...

  11. Competition between Free-Floating Plants Is Strongly Driven by Previously Experienced Phosphorus Concentrations in the Water Column.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin T H M Peeters

    Full Text Available Nutrients can determine the outcome of the competition between different floating plant species. The response of floating plants to current phosphorus levels may be affected by previously experienced phosphorus concentrations because some species have the ability to store excess phosphorus for later use. This might have an impact on their competition. Here, we investigate the effect of previous and actual phosphorus concentrations on the growth rate of free-floating plant species (Azolla filiculoides, Lemna minor/gibba and Ricciocarpus natansand the effect of phosphorus history on the competition between L. minor/gibba and A. filiculoides and between L. minor/gibba and R. natans. As expected, plant growth was lower when previously kept at low instead of high phosphorus concentrations. Growth of L. minor/gibba and A. filiculoides with a phosphorus rich history was comparable for low and high actual phosphorus concentrations, however, internal phosphorus concentrations were significantly lower with low actual phosphorus concentration. This indicates that both species perform luxury phosphorus uptake. Furthermore, internal P concentration in Azolla and Lemna increased within two weeks after a period of P deficit without a strong increase in growth. A. filiculoides in a mixture with L. minor/gibba grew faster than its monoculture. Morphological differences may explain why A. filiculoides outcompeted L. minor/gibba and these differences may be induced by phosphorus concentrations in the past. Growth of L. minor/gibba was only reduced by the presence of A. filiculoides with a high phosphorus history. Growth of L. minor/gibba and R. natans in mixtures was positively affected only when they had a high phosphorus history themselves and their competitor a low phosphorus history. These observations clearly indicate that phosphorus history of competing plants is important for understanding the outcome of the competition. Therefore, actual and previously

  12. Competition between Free-Floating Plants Is Strongly Driven by Previously Experienced Phosphorus Concentrations in the Water Column

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeters, Edwin T. H. M.; Neefjes, Rozemarijn E. M.; van Zuidam, Bastiaan G.

    2016-01-01

    Nutrients can determine the outcome of the competition between different floating plant species. The response of floating plants to current phosphorus levels may be affected by previously experienced phosphorus concentrations because some species have the ability to store excess phosphorus for later use. This might have an impact on their competition. Here, we investigate the effect of previous and actual phosphorus concentrations on the growth rate of free-floating plant species (Azolla filiculoides, Lemna minor/gibba and Ricciocarpus natans)and the effect of phosphorus history on the competition between L. minor/gibba and A. filiculoides and between L. minor/gibba and R. natans. As expected, plant growth was lower when previously kept at low instead of high phosphorus concentrations. Growth of L. minor/gibba and A. filiculoides with a phosphorus rich history was comparable for low and high actual phosphorus concentrations, however, internal phosphorus concentrations were significantly lower with low actual phosphorus concentration. This indicates that both species perform luxury phosphorus uptake. Furthermore, internal P concentration in Azolla and Lemna increased within two weeks after a period of P deficit without a strong increase in growth. A. filiculoides in a mixture with L. minor/gibba grew faster than its monoculture. Morphological differences may explain why A. filiculoides outcompeted L. minor/gibba and these differences may be induced by phosphorus concentrations in the past. Growth of L. minor/gibba was only reduced by the presence of A. filiculoides with a high phosphorus history. Growth of L. minor/gibba and R. natans in mixtures was positively affected only when they had a high phosphorus history themselves and their competitor a low phosphorus history. These observations clearly indicate that phosphorus history of competing plants is important for understanding the outcome of the competition. Therefore, actual and previously experienced phosphorus

  13. Competition between Free-Floating Plants Is Strongly Driven by Previously Experienced Phosphorus Concentrations in the Water Column.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeters, Edwin T H M; Neefjes, Rozemarijn E M; Zuidam, Bastiaan G van

    2016-01-01

    Nutrients can determine the outcome of the competition between different floating plant species. The response of floating plants to current phosphorus levels may be affected by previously experienced phosphorus concentrations because some species have the ability to store excess phosphorus for later use. This might have an impact on their competition. Here, we investigate the effect of previous and actual phosphorus concentrations on the growth rate of free-floating plant species (Azolla filiculoides, Lemna minor/gibba and Ricciocarpus natans)and the effect of phosphorus history on the competition between L. minor/gibba and A. filiculoides and between L. minor/gibba and R. natans. As expected, plant growth was lower when previously kept at low instead of high phosphorus concentrations. Growth of L. minor/gibba and A. filiculoides with a phosphorus rich history was comparable for low and high actual phosphorus concentrations, however, internal phosphorus concentrations were significantly lower with low actual phosphorus concentration. This indicates that both species perform luxury phosphorus uptake. Furthermore, internal P concentration in Azolla and Lemna increased within two weeks after a period of P deficit without a strong increase in growth. A. filiculoides in a mixture with L. minor/gibba grew faster than its monoculture. Morphological differences may explain why A. filiculoides outcompeted L. minor/gibba and these differences may be induced by phosphorus concentrations in the past. Growth of L. minor/gibba was only reduced by the presence of A. filiculoides with a high phosphorus history. Growth of L. minor/gibba and R. natans in mixtures was positively affected only when they had a high phosphorus history themselves and their competitor a low phosphorus history. These observations clearly indicate that phosphorus history of competing plants is important for understanding the outcome of the competition. Therefore, actual and previously experienced phosphorus

  14. Substoichiometric determination of phosphorus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shigematsu, T.; Kudo, K.

    1981-01-01

    Phosphorus in orchard leaves (NBS SRM-1571) and spinach (SRM-1570) was determined by various substoichiometric analytical methods such as the direct method, Gravshchenko's method and the method of carrier amount variation. All samples were labelled with 32 P radioisotope. The data obtained by the method of carrier amount variation were also treated by the method of least squares instead of De Voe's method. Phosphorus concentration in orchard leaves was 0.206+-0.011% by the direct method, 0.219+-0.011% by Gravshchenko's method, 0.211+-0.011% by the method of carrier amount variation and 0.207+-0.007% by the method of least squares, respectively. These values agree with the value reported by NBS (0.21+-0.01%). Furthermore, these concentrations obtained by various substoichiometric methods were compared with those by radioactivation reported in a previous paper. (author)

  15. Phosphorus Transport in Rivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-11-01

    be attributed to excessive nutrient inputs to the lake. These nutrients sti- mulate the phytoplankton (algae) growth which yields excess growth. The...phosphorus in relation to the restoration of Lake Erie. The various computational techniques presented herein aid in the understanding of total...as caused by the absorption on clay materials and by assimilation by periphyton . Other investigators have found correlations between flow and other

  16. Effects of serum phosphorus on vascular calcification in a healthy, adult population: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheridan, Kristin; Logomarsino, John V

    2017-09-01

    Cardiovascular disease has been associated with elevated serum phosphorus levels, which have been associated with cardiovascular mortality. This is commonly seen in the chronic kidney disease (CKD) population where studies have shown that high phosphorus levels cause coronary artery calcification. Although studies have independently associated vascular stiffness and serum phosphorus in those with and without CKD, there are fewer data in individuals without CKD. Therefore, the aim of this systematic review was to analyze whether serum phosphorus levels are associated with cardiovascular calcification in healthy individuals. A systematic review of the literature that was conducted revealed 10 articles, all cross-sectional studies, that met eligibility criteria. These criteria were peer-reviewed studies on a healthy, adult population written in the English language. Studies lacking data on serum phosphorus and measured to assess its association with vascular calcification were excluded. Studies on subjects with CKD, other chronic diseases, or on children were also excluded. Of the 10 studies located, 8 indicated an association between serum phosphorus and vascular calcification. One study did not indicate an association. One study indicated a statistically significant association between serum phosphorus and vascular calcification prevalence, but not incidence. Studies were limited since no randomized controlled trials were available. This systematic review generates gaps in research. Due to considerable amounts of phosphorus additives in the food supply, there may be a connection to dietary phosphorus and vascular calcification. Additionally, phosphorus binders may assist in the prevention of vascular calcification but have not been studied in a healthy population. Further study on both dietary phosphorus restriction and phosphorus binders is needed. While 8 out of 10 cross-sectional studies found an association in this systematic review, the topic of vascular

  17. Structural insights into the bacterial carbon - phosphorus lyase machinery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seweryn, Paulina; Van, Lan Bich; Kjeldgaard, Morten

    2015-01-01

    Phosphorus is required for all life and microorganisms can extract it from their environment through several metabolic pathways. When phosphate is in limited supply, some bacteria are able to use phosphonate compounds, which require specialized enzymatic machinery to break the stable carbon......–phosphorus (C–P) bond. Despite its importance, the details of how this machinery catabolizes phosphonates remain unknown. Here we determine the crystal structure of the 240-kilodalton Escherichia coli C–P lyase core complex (PhnG–PhnH–PhnI–PhnJ; PhnGHIJ), and show that it is a two-fold symmetric hetero...

  18. Localizing by autoradiography at -195 deg radioactive areas in rats exposed to a high flux of thermal neutrons, importance of phosphorus 32 in consecutive internal irradiation; Localisation par autoradiographie a -195 deg des zones radioactives chez le rat expose a un haut flux de neutrons thermiques, importance du phosphore 32 dans l'irradiation interne consecutive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chanteur, J; Pellerin, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-07-01

    Rats weighing 25 g were exposed for 5 mn to a flux of 6.10{sup 12} thermal neutrons/cm{sup 2}/s. Anatomical autoradiography at -195 deg. C has enabled the radioactive organs to be easily localised, to follow in course of time the decrease of radioactivity, and from it to deduce the probable nature of the numerous emitters in question. In particular, the phosphorus 32 has thus appeared to be one of those responsible for internal irradiation, general, on the one hand, by activating cellular phosphorus, local, on the other, by activating bony phosphates. Owing to this, an accidental irradiation by neutrons might have consequences that are both somatic (elective irradiation of the bone marrow) and genetic (activation of nucleic acids). The gamma spectrometry has confirmed the nature of certain other emitters. (author) [French] Des rats de 25 g ont ete exposes pendant 5 mn a un flux de 6.10{sup 12} neutrons thermiques/cm{sup 2}/s. L'autoradiographie anatomique a -195 deg. C a permis de localiser facilement les organes radioactifs, de suivre dans le temps la decroissance de la radioactivite, et d'en deduire la nature probable des nombreux emetteurs en cause. En particulier, le phosphore 32 est ainsi apparu comme l'un des responsables de l'irradiation interne, d'une part generale par activation du phosphore cellulaire, d'autre part locale par activation des phosphates osseux. Une irradiations accidentelle par neutrons aurait, de ce fait, des consequences a la fois somatiques (irradiation elective de la moelle osseuse) et genetiques (activation des acides nucleiques). La spectrometrie gamma a confirme la nature de certains autres emetteurs. (auteur)

  19. THE USE OF STABILIZED LIQUIDE CHLORINE DIOXIDE (ClO2 FOR INTERNAL WATER SUPPLY SYSTEM SANITATION OF FARM WITH LAYING FLOCK AFFECTED BY COLISEPTICEMIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulah Gagić

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A successful and harmless method for rehabilitation of hygienic status of water and its supply system using a stabilized liquid chlorine dioxide solution on a farm of the laying hens affected by severe colisepticemia is described. Source of infection was drinking water contaminated by slurry from two pig facilities located above the water tank. The contaminated water caused the emergence of biofilm consisting mainly of coliform bacteria on the interior surfaces of the plastic pipes. Through drinking the contaminated water the infection of the laying flocks occurred. With the aim of improving the flocks’ health status, a programme of sanitary treatment of external and internal water supply system and water was created and implemented. In order to prevent biofilm formation and improve sanitation prescribed was the use of stabilized liquid chlorine dioxide (ClO2 in the 4‰ concentration for so-called night "shock" treatments, and 2‰ concentration for prophylactic daily disinfection of drinking water. With the improvement of the flocks’ health status, the "shock" treatments with ClO2 were repeated in the upcoming months. As an add-on therapy, 40 mg per bird of vitamin C through drinking water for three days was prescribed. The use of non-resorptive antibiotics, AD3E vitamins and amino acid supplements was excluded because they had failed to improve the flocks’ health status in the acute phase. Therefore, the sanitation programme based on the use of stabilized liquid ClO2 in the water supply system of the laying flocks affected by severe colisepticemia resulted in radical decrease of mortality during the next three months. Key words: chlorine dioxide, biofilm, sanitation, disinfection, colisepticemia

  20. Phosphorus containing sintered alloys (review)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muchnik, S.V.

    1984-01-01

    Phosphorus additives are considered for their effect on the properties of sintered alloys of different applications: structural, antifriction, friction, magnetic, hard, superhard, heavy etc. Data are presented on compositions and properties of phosphorus-containing materials produced by the powder metallurgy method. Phosphorus is shown to be an effective activator of sintering in some cases. When its concentration in the material is optimal it imparts the material such properties as strength, viscosity, hardness, wear resistance. Problems concerning powder metallurgy of amorphous phosphorus-containing alloys are reported

  1. Phosphorus and the dairy cow

    OpenAIRE

    Ekelund, Adrienne

    2003-01-01

    The general aim of the present work was to investigate phosphorus balance in the dairy cow, with reference to the amount and source of phosphorus. Furthermore, biochemical bone markers were used to study the bone turnover during the lactation and dry period. Phosphorus is located in every cell of the body and has more known functions than any other mineral element in the animal body. Phosphorus is also an important constituent of milk, and is therefore required in large amounts in a high yiel...

  2. The Potential Phosphorus Crisis: Resource Conservation and Possible Escape Technologies: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saba Daneshgar

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Phosphorus is an essential nutrient for every organism on the Earth, yet it is also a potential environmental pollutant, which may cause eutrophication of water bodies. Wastewater treatment plants worldwide are struggling to eliminate phosphorus from effluents, at great cost, yet current research suggests that the world may deplete the more available phosphorus reserves by around 2300. This, in addition to environmental concerns, evokes the need for new phosphorus recovery techniques to be developed, to meet future generations needs for renewable phosphorus supply. Many studies have been, and are, carried out on phosphorus recovery from wastewater and its sludge, due to their high phosphorus content. Chemical precipitation is the main process for achieving a phosphorus-containing mineral suitable for reuse as a fertilizer, such as struvite. This paper reviews the current status and future trends of phosphorus production and consumption, and summarizes current recovery technologies, discussing their possible integration into wastewater treatment processes, according to a more sustainable water-energy-nutrient nexus.

  3. Editorial: Supply Chain Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios Aidonis

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This special issue has followed up the 3rd Olympus International Conference on Supply Chains held on Athens Metropolitan Expo, November 7 & 8 2015, Greece. The Conference was organized by the Department of Logistics Technological Educational Institute of Central Macedonia, in collaboration with the: a Laboratory of Quantitative Analysis, Logistics and Supply Chain Management of the Department of Mechanical Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (AUTH, b Greek Association of Supply Chain Management (EEL of Northern Greece and the c Supply Chain & Logistics Journal. During the 2-Days Conference more than 60 research papers were presented covering the following thematic areas: (i Transportation, (ii Best Practices in Logistics, (iii Information and Communication Technologies in Supply Chain Management, (iv Food Logistics, (v New Trends in Business Logistics, and (vi Green Supply Chain Management. Three keynote invited speakers addressed interesting issues for the Operational Research, the Opportunities and Prospects of Greek Ports chaired Round Tables with other Greek and Foreign Scientists and Specialists.

  4. Phosphorus, sulfur and pyridine

    OpenAIRE

    Schönberger, Stefanie

    2013-01-01

    The synthesis of distinct neutral or anionic P,S compounds in solution provides a great challenge for chemists. Due to the similarity in the energies of the P–P, P–S and S–S bonds nearly solely a mixture of compounds with different composition and charge is obtained. Our interest focuses on the system consisting of phosphorus, sulfur and pyridine, with the aim of a greater selectivity of P,S compounds in solution. The combination of these three components offers the opportunity...

  5. Phosphorus acquisition and internal utilization efficiency in tropical maize genotypes Eficiência de aquisição e utilização interna de fósforo em genótipos tropicais de milho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidney Netto Parentoni

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to determine the relative importance of phosphorus acquisition efficiency (PAE - plant P uptake per soil available P, and phosphorus internal utilization efficiency (PUTIL - grain yield per P uptake in the P use efficiency (PUE - grain yield per soil available P, on 28 tropical maize genotypes evaluated at three low P and two high P environments. PAE was almost two times more important than PUTIL to explain the variability observed in PUE, at low P environments, and three times more important at high P environments. These results indicate that maize breeding programs, to increase PUE in these environments, should use selection index with higher weights for PAE than for PUTIL. The correlation between these two traits showed no significance at low or at high P environments, which indicates that selection in one of these traits would not affect the other. The main component of PUTIL was P quotient of utilization (grain yield per grain P and not the P harvest index (grain P per P uptake. Selection to reduce grain P concentration should increase the quotient of utilization and consequently increase PUTIL.O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar a importância relativa da eficiência de aquisição (EAP - P absorvido por unidade de P no solo e de utilização interna de fósforo (EUIP - produção de grãos por unidade de P absorvido, sobre a eficiência de uso desse nutriente (EUP - produção de grãos por unidade de P no solo, em 28 genótipos tropicais de milho, avaliados em três ambientes com baixa e dois com alta disponibilidade de P. A eficiência de aquisição de P foi quase duas vezes mais importante que a EUIP, na variabilidade observada em EUP, nos ambientes com baixa disponibilidade de P, e três vezes mais importante naqueles com alta disponibilidade. Programas de melhoramento de milho devem utilizar índices de seleção com peso maior para EAP do que para EUIP, para aumento na EUP. A correlação entre

  6. Effects of Laparascopic Hernia Repair by PIRS (Percutan Internal Ring Suturing) Technique on Testicular Artery Blood Supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oral, Akgun; Karaca, Leyla; Ahiskalioglu, Ali; Yildiz, Abdullah; Yigiter, Murat; Celikkaya, Mehmet Emin; Chyndolotov, Temirlan; Salman, Ahmet Bedii

    2018-02-02

    Percutaneous internal ring suturing technique (PIRS) is a minimally invasive technique in pediatric inguinal hernia repair. In the present study, a negative effect on testicular blood flow using PIRS technique has been investigated. Forty male patients were included in the study prospectively. Two groups were formed as conventional open surgery (Group I) and PIRS technique (Group II). The resistive index (RI) value of the testicular artery was measured prospectively by using SMI (superb micro-vascular imaging) software with the color doppler ultrasound technique preoperatively and postoperatively at the first month. Inguinal hernia was present on the left in 35% (n = 14) of the patients and on the right in 65% (n = 26) of the patients. There was no statistically significant difference (p = 0.727) between Group I and II with regard to preoperative RI value (0.66 ± 0.07 vs. 0.66 ± 0.45, respectively). Similarly, there was no statistically significant difference (p = 0.220) between Group I and II with regard to the RI values measured at the postoperative first month (0.58 ± 0.04 vs. 0.60 ± 0.04, respectively). Although the postoperative RI values decreased compared to the preoperative values in both groups, this difference was not statistically significant. (p = 0.447 in Group I, and p = 0.175 in Group II for intragroup comparison). Besides PIRS technique has the advantages provided by all other laparoscopic techniques defined for inguinal hernia repair, there is no significant difference between this technique and conventional open surgery with regard to testicular blood flow. It is an innovative candidate technique instead of the open surgery method besides its additional advantages.

  7. Human virus and microbial indicator occurrence in public-supply groundwater systems: meta-analysis of 12 international studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fout, G. Shay; Borchardt, Mark A.; Kieke, Burney A.; Karim, Mohammad R.

    2017-06-01

    Groundwater quality is often evaluated using microbial indicators. This study examines data from 12 international groundwater studies (conducted 1992-2013) of 718 public drinking-water systems located in a range of hydrogeological settings. Focus was on testing the value of indicator organisms for identifying virus-contaminated wells. One or more indicators and viruses were present in 37 and 15% of 2,273 samples and 44 and 27% of 746 wells, respectively. Escherichia coli ( E. coli) and somatic coliphage are 7-9 times more likely to be associated with culturable virus-positive samples when the indicator is present versus when it is absent, while F-specific and somatic coliphages are 8-9 times more likely to be associated with culturable virus-positive wells. However, single indicators are only marginally associated with viruses detected by molecular methods, and all microbial indicators have low sensitivity and positive predictive values for virus occurrence, whether by culturable or molecular assays, i.e., indicators are often absent when viruses are present and the indicators have a high false-positive rate. Wells were divided into three susceptibility subsets based on presence of (1) total coliform bacteria or (2) multiple indicators, or (3) location of wells in karst, fractured bedrock, or gravel/cobble settings. Better associations of some indicators with viruses were observed for (1) and (3). Findings indicate the best indicators are E. coli or somatic coliphage, although both indicators may underestimate virus occurrence. Repeat sampling for indicators improves evaluation of the potential for viral contamination in a well.

  8. Supply chain reliability modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugen Zaitsev

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Today it is virtually impossible to operate alone on the international level in the logistics business. This promotes the establishment and development of new integrated business entities - logistic operators. However, such cooperation within a supply chain creates also many problems related to the supply chain reliability as well as the optimization of the supplies planning. The aim of this paper was to develop and formulate the mathematical model and algorithms to find the optimum plan of supplies by using economic criterion and the model for the probability evaluating of non-failure operation of supply chain. Methods: The mathematical model and algorithms to find the optimum plan of supplies were developed and formulated by using economic criterion and the model for the probability evaluating of non-failure operation of supply chain. Results and conclusions: The problem of ensuring failure-free performance of goods supply channel analyzed in the paper is characteristic of distributed network systems that make active use of business process outsourcing technologies. The complex planning problem occurring in such systems that requires taking into account the consumer's requirements for failure-free performance in terms of supply volumes and correctness can be reduced to a relatively simple linear programming problem through logical analysis of the structures. The sequence of the operations, which should be taken into account during the process of the supply planning with the supplier's functional reliability, was presented.

  9. Relationship among Phosphorus Circulation Activity, Bacterial Biomass, pH, and Mineral Concentration in Agricultural Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Adhikari

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Improvement of phosphorus circulation in the soil is necessary to enhance phosphorus availability to plants. Phosphorus circulation activity is an index of soil’s ability to supply soluble phosphorus from organic phosphorus in the soil solution. To understand the relationship among phosphorus circulation activity; bacterial biomass; pH; and Fe, Al, and Ca concentrations (described as mineral concentration in this paper in agricultural soil, 232 soil samples from various agricultural fields were collected and analyzed. A weak relationship between phosphorus circulation activity and bacterial biomass was observed in all soil samples (R2 = 0.25, and this relationship became significantly stronger at near-neutral pH (6.0–7.3; R2 = 0.67. No relationship between phosphorus circulation activity and bacterial biomass was observed at acidic (pH < 6.0 or alkaline (pH > 7.3 pH. A negative correlation between Fe and Al concentrations and phosphorus circulation activity was observed at acidic pH (R2 = 0.72 and 0.73, respectively, as well as for Ca at alkaline pH (R2 = 0.64. Therefore, bacterial biomass, pH, and mineral concentration should be considered together for activation of phosphorus circulation activity in the soil. A relationship model was proposed based on the effects of bacterial biomass and mineral concentration on phosphorus circulation activity. The suitable conditions of bacterial biomass, pH, and mineral concentration for phosphorus circulation activity could be estimated from the relationship model.

  10. Towards a closed phosphorus cycle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keyzer, M.A.

    2010-01-01

    Summary: This paper stresses the need to address upcoming scarcity of phosphorus, a mineral nutrient that is essential for all life on Earth. Agricultural crops obtain phosphorus from the pool in the soil that can be replenished by recycling of organic material, or by application of inorganic

  11. Phosphorus Dynamics along River Continuum during Typhoon Storm Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Fai Chow

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Information on riverine phosphorus (P dynamics during typhoon storm events remains scarce in subtropical regions. Thus, this study investigates the spatial and temporal dynamics of riverine phosphorus in a headwater catchment during three typhoon events. Continuous sampling (3 h intervals of stormwater samples and discharge data were conducted at five locations, which represent the upstream, transitional zone, and downstream areas of the main inflow river. The results revealed that the average event mean concentrations (EMCs for total dissolved phosphorus (TDP and particulate phosphorus (PP in the upstream catchment of Fei-Tsui reservoir were 15.66 μg/L and 11.94 μg/L, respectively. There was at least a 1.3-fold increase in flow-weighted concentrations of TDP and PP from the upper to lower reaches of the main stream. PP and TDP were transported either in clockwise or anticlockwise directions, depending on storm intensity and source. The transport of TDP was primarily regulated by the subsurface flow during the storm event. Soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP contributes more than 50% of the TDP load in moderate storms, while extreme storms supply a greater dissolved organic phosphorus (DOP load into the stream. TDP accounted for approximately 50% of TP load during typhoon storms. Mobilization of all P forms was observed from upstream to downstream of the river, except for DOP. A decrease of DOP load on passing downstream may reflect the change in phosphorus form along the river continuum. Peak discharge and antecedent dry days are correlated positively with P fluxes, indicating that river bank erosion and re-suspension of within-channel sediment are the dominant pathways of P during typhoon storm periods.

  12. Phosphorus effect on the uptake, translocation and accumulation of the 14C-urea in orchard grass (Dactylis glomerata L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panak, H.; Nowak, G.; Nowak, J.; Akademia Rolniczo-Technicza, Olsztyn

    1981-01-01

    The effect of different phosphorus supplies on the uptake, translocation and accumulation of 14 C-urea by orchard grass was investigated. Phosphorus starvation inhibits the uptake, translocation and accumulation of the carbon of urea similarly to the nitrogen of urea. As compared with the uptake process the reduction of the accumulation is much more effected by the inhibition of the carbon translocation from roots to the aboveground parts. Lack of phosphorus also decreases the incorporation of the 14 C of urea into high-molecular compounds. The effect of phosphorus deficit on the accumulation of 14 C-urea increases with time of starvation. (orig.)

  13. International symposium on uranium raw material for the nuclear fuel cycle: Exploration, mining, production, supply and demand, economics and environmental issues (URAM-2009). Book of abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The International Symposium on Uranium Raw Material for the Nuclear Fuel Cycle: Exploration, Mining, Production, Supply and Demand, Economics and Environmental Issues (URAM-2009) addressed all aspects of the uranium fuel cycle, from the availability of raw materials to the long-term sustainability of nuclear power. The revival of the uranium industry in recent years has caused a dramatic increase in uranium exploration and mining activities in several countries. URAM-2009 was intended to bring together scientists, exploration and mining geologists, engineers, operators, regulators and fuel cycle specialists to exchange information and discuss updated research and current issues in uranium geology and deposits, exploration, mining and processing, production economics, and environmental and legal issues. Contributed papers covered uranium markets and economics (including supply and demand); social licensing in the uranium production cycle; uranium exploration (including uranium geology and deposits); uranium mining and processing; environmental and regulatory issues; human resources development. There was a poster session throughout the symposium, as well as an exhibition of topical photographs. A workshop on recent developments in Technical Cooperation Projects relevant to the Uranium Production Cycle area was also organized. On the last day of the symposium, there was an experts' Panel Discussion. The presentations and discussions at URAM-2009 (a) led to a better understanding of the adequacy of uranium sources (both primary and secondary) to meet future demand, (b) provided information on new exploration concepts, knowledge and technologies that will potentially lead to the discovery and development of new uranium resources, (c) described new production technology having the potential to more efficiently and economically exploit new uranium resources; (d) documented the environmental compatibility of uranium production and the overall effectiveness of the final

  14. Quality-intensity relationships of phosphorus in some soils from NW India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vig, A.C.; Dev, G.

    1975-01-01

    In a laboratory investigation, Q/I relationship of soil phosphorus in soils derived from four different agroclimatic regions of N.W. India have been worked out on the basis of adsorption studies, involving the use of radioactive phosphorus. These two parameters are related to each other by a Langmuir-like equation. The results indicate that for supply of P, the soils fall in the decreasing order of: Dalhousie, Ludhiana, Gurudaspur, Palampur. (author)

  15. Global Phosphorus Fertilizer Market and National Policies: A Case Study Revisiting the 2008 Price Peak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay Khabarov

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The commodity market super-cycle and food price crisis have been associated with rampant food insecurity and the Arab spring. A multitude of factors were identified as culprits for excessive volatility on the commodity markets. However, as it regards fertilizers, a clear attribution of market drivers explaining the emergence of extreme price events is still missing. In this paper, we provide a quantitative assessment of the price spike of the global phosphorus fertilizer market in 2008 focusing on diammonium phosphate (DAP. We find that fertilizer market policies in India, the largest global importer of phosphorus fertilizers and phosphate rock, turned out to be a major contributor to the global price spike. India doubled its import of P-fertilizer in 2008 at a time when prices doubled. The analysis of a wide set of factors pertinent to the 2008 price spike in phosphorus fertilizer market leads us to the discovery of a price spike magnification and triggering mechanisms. We find that the price spike was magnified on the one hand by protective trade measures of fertilizer suppliers leading to a 19% drop in global phosphate fertilizer export. On the other hand, the Indian fertilizer subsidy scheme led to farmers not adjusting their demand for fertilizer. The triggering mechanism appeared to be the Indian production outage of P-fertilizer resulting in the additional import demand for DAP in size of about 20% of annual global supply. The main conclusion is that these three factors have jointly caused the spike, underscoring the need for ex ante improvements in fertilizer market regulation on both national and international levels.

  16. Effect of phosphorus on biodiesel production from Scenedesmus obliquus under nitrogen-deficiency stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Fei-Fei; Chu, Pei-Na; Shen, Xiao-Fei; Lam, Paul K S; Zeng, Raymond J

    2014-01-01

    In order to study the effect of phosphorus on biodiesel production from Scenedesmus obliquus especially under nitrogen deficiency conditions, six types of media with combinations of nitrogen repletion/depletion and phosphorus repletion/limitation/depletion were investigated in this study. It was found that nitrogen starvation compared to nitrogen repletion enhanced biodiesel productivity. Moreover, biodiesel productivity was further strengthened by varying the supply level of phosphorus from depletion, limitation, through to repletion. The maximum FAMEs productivity of 24.2 mg/L/day was obtained in nitrogen depletion with phosphorus repletion, which was two times higher than that in nutrient complete medium. More phosphorus was accumulated in cells under the nitrogen starvation with sufficient phosphorus condition, but no polyphosphate was formed. This study indicated that nitrogen starvation plus sufficient P supply might be the real "lipid trigger". Furthermore, results of the current study suggest a potential application for utilizing microalgae to combine phosphorus removal from wastewater with biodiesel production. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Supply chain risk management

    OpenAIRE

    Christian Hollstein; Frank Himpel

    2013-01-01

    Background: Supply chain risk management increasingly gains prominence in many international industries. In order to strengthen supply chain structures, processes, and networks, adequate potentials for risk management need to be built (focus on effective logistics) and to be utilized (focus on efficient logistics). Natural-based disasters, such as the case of Fukushima, illustrate how crucial risk management is. Method: By aligning a theoretical-conceptual framework with empirical-induct...

  18. Uptake of phosphorus from feed by carps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kellermann, H.J.; Buehringer, H.

    1993-01-01

    One of the aims of the International Conference for the Protection of the North Sea is to reduce the input of nutrients by 50% within the period of 1985 -1995. This is only possible by reducing the riverine input of phosphorus into the North Sea. For the regulated shortlived isotope of this element the bioconcentration factor to fishmeat is determined by the phosporus concentration in the water on the one hand and by the biological turn over rate in tissue on the other hand. Aquaria studies of the turn over rate of carps at different feed applications reveal that the recommended bioconcentration factor does not yield the desired conservative assessment. (orig.) [de

  19. Smal-Scale Spatial Differences in Supply-Side Ecology of Barnacle Larvae Involves a Complex Suite of Factors (Including Surface Tide, Internal Tides And Surface Winds) in Baja California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valencia, A.; Ladah, L. B.

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to quantify and compare the daily settlement rate of barnacle larvae of Chthamalus spp. at small spatial scales ( 1 km) at three sites with unique geomorphology. Simultaneously, water-column temperature, currents, and coastal winds were measured to detect potential physical transport mechanisms responsible for supply of planktonic larvae to the coast. Autocorrelation artifacts in the environmental and settlement time series were removed with the Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) and their residuals were used to perform a Principal Component Analysis (PCA). This analysis was carried out to determine the independent modes of variability in the environmental forcing mechanisms that may explain the settlement patterns. We found synchronous settlement pulses occurring throughout the study. Settlement at the wave exposed site was only associated to the wind-forcing mode and not to internal waves, which had not been detected previously and was surprising, considering the strong semidiurnal internal tide at this site. Settlement at both the reef-bounded site and the inside-bay site associated to vertical isotherm displacements, thereby suggesting the importance of internal waves for supply-side ecology at these more southern sites. Our results suggest that a complex suite of factors may interact to result in larval supply at the same site, and that larval supply at nearby sites may be forced by different factors due to differences in geomorphology and/or bathymetry, explaining spatial heterogeneity often detected in larval supply and settlement.

  20. Pre-treatment technologies, and their effect on international bioenergy supply chain logistics. Techno-economic evaluation of torrefaction, fast pyrolysis and pelletisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uslu, Ayla; Faaij, Andre P.C.; Bergman, P.C.A.

    2008-01-01

    The pre-treatment step has a significant influence on the performance of bioenergy chains, especially on logistics. Torrefaction, pelletisation and pyrolysis technologies can convert biomass at modest scales into dense energy carriers that ease transportation and handling. Torrefaction is a very promising technology due to its high process efficiency (94%) compared to pelletisation (84%) and pyrolysis (64%). When torrefaction is combined with pelletisation, the product (TOP) energy content is as high as 20.4-22.7 GJ/ton. The primary energy requirement for TOP delivery from Latin America to Rotterdam harbour can be as low as 0.05 GJ/GJ, in contrast to 0.12 GJ/GJ for pellets and 0.08 GJ/GJ HHV for pyrolysis oil. TOP can be delivered to Europe at over 74 EUR/ton (3.3 EUR/GJ) and electricity could be produced as cheap as 4.4 EURcent/kWh e from an existing co-firing plant. Fisher Tropisch fuel costs 6 EUR/GJ HHV for TOP, 7 EUR/GJ for conventional pellets and 9.5 EUR/GJ HHV for pyrolysis oil. Consequently, fuel production from TOP and conventional pellets is comparable to the current gasoline production cost ranging from 3 to 7 EUR/GJ HHV and diesel from 2 to 7 EUR/GJ HHV , depending on the oil market. Thus, well designed supply chains make international trade of biomass feasible from energy efficiency and economic perspective. (author)

  1. A study on the international cooperation in the nuclear liability system related to the supply of nuclear power plants to North Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ham, Chul Hoon.; Kim, Tae Myeong [The Catholic University, Seoul (Korea)

    2001-12-01

    System of nuclear damage compensation was prepares to protect the interested parties in the implementation of nuclearenterprise and conciliate the conflicts of interests of them. The Light-water Reactor (LWR) Project to supply two units of light-water reactors to North Korea faced difficulties concerning nuclear damage compensation system due to decline of the international reliability and aggravation of economic condition of North Korea. It is necessary to study the special nuclear damage compensation system of the LWR Project to promote the Project and peaceful uses of atomic energy in northeast Asia. The contents and scope of the study is composed as follows; 1. Background of the LWR Project . the pending issues of them and the necessary of the special nuclear damage compensation system 2. Investigation of nuclear damage compensation system of United States, Japan, German, France and Korea 3. Account of conventions on liability for nuclear damage, especially Vienna Convention and its Protocols 4. Searching for issues of the nuclear damage compensation system of the LWR Project and its resolution 5. Comprehensive arrangement on the main issues through the study. 4 tabs. (Author)

  2. Total Phosphorus in Surface Water

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Excess phosphorus in surface water can result in eutrophication. TOTALP is reported in kilograms/hectare/year. More information about these resources, including the...

  3. Phosphorus chemistry in everyday living

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Toy, Arthur D. F

    1976-01-01

    The author has drawn on his 35 years of experience as a research scientist in phosphorus chemistry to produce a book that is not only readable to the non-chemist but sophisticated enough to interest...

  4. Activity measurement of phosphorus-32 in the presence of pure beta-emitting impurities

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Simpson, B

    2006-02-27

    Full Text Available Activity measurements undertaken at the CSIR's National Metrology Laboratory (NML) on a solution of the pure beta-emitting radionuclide phosphorus-32, which formed part of an international key comparison, are described. Since exploratory source...

  5. phosphorus retention data and metadata

    Science.gov (United States)

    phosphorus retention in wetlands data and metadataThis dataset is associated with the following publication:Lane , C., and B. Autrey. Phosphorus retention of forested and emergent marsh depressional wetlands in differing land uses in Florida, USA. Wetlands Ecology and Management. Springer Science and Business Media B.V;Formerly Kluwer Academic Publishers B.V., GERMANY, 24(1): 45-60, (2016).

  6. Sustentabilidade e cadeia de suprimentos: uma perspectiva comparada de publicações nacionais e internacionais Sustainability in supply chains: a comparative perspective in domestic and international journals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylmara Lopes Francelino Gonçalves Dias

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do artigo é apresentar um quadro de referência de conceitos da Gestão da Sustentabilidade na Cadeia de Suprimentos (GSCS para auxiliar pesquisas futuras na tentativa de integração intra e interorganizacional fundamentada em aspectos da sustentabilidade. Trata-se de um artigo teórico, cujo procedimento metodológico adotado foi o desk research em periódicos da área de gestão e operações, realizado em duas etapas. Na primeira, buscou-se visualizar os estudos da temática em seis importantes periódicos internacionais da área, totalizando 53 artigos entre 1954 e 2009. Esta etapa gerou uma evolução da temática, contribuindo para apontar tendências. Na segunda, foram revisados seis periódicos nacionais da área de administração. Selecionaram-se 11 artigos, publicados entre 1961 e 2009, resultando em um panorama da temática no contexto acadêmico brasileiro. O conceito de GSCS apareceu apenas em 2007, o que mostra a atualidade do tema, embora este seja a junção de temáticas anteriormente estudadas.This article provides a reference frame of concepts in Supply Chain Sustainability Management (SCSM, helping future research in the attempt to integrate intra and interorganizational choices based on the aspects of sustainability in supply chains. It is a theoretical study and the methodological procedure adopted was the desk research, organized in two steps. Firstly, the theme study was analyzed in six international journals, totaling 53 articles between 1954 and 2009. This step generated an evolution of the area, helping to pinpoint trends. Secondly, six domestic journals were reviewed and 11 articles were selected between 1961 and 2009, resulting in an overview of the theme in the Brazilian academic context. The concept of GSCS appeared only in 2007, which shows the relevance of the topic; although this is a gathering of topics previously studied separately.

  7. [Studies on nitrogen, phosphorus and organic matter in ponds around Chaohu Lake].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qing-ye; Ma, Xiu-ling; Yang, Gui-de; Chen, Zheng; Wu, Hong-lin; Xuan, Huai-xiang

    2010-07-01

    There are a lot of ponds around Chaohu Lake. According to location and runoff supply of ponds, the ponds are divided into three types: ponds inner vellage (PIV), ponds adjacent vellage (PAV) and ponds outer vellage (POV). The samples of water and sediment were collected from 136 ponds around Chaohu Lake and the contents of nitrogen, phosphorus and organic matter in water and sediments were analyzed in this study. The results showed that mean contents of total nitrogen (TN), NH4+ -N, NO3- -N, NO2- -N, total phosphorus (TP), soluble PO4(3-) -P and COD were 2.53, 0.65, 0.18, 0.02, 0.97, 0.38 and 51.58 mg x L(-1) in pond water, respectively; and mean contents of TN, NH4+ -N, NO3- -N, NO2- -N, TP, inorganic phosphorus (IP), organic phosphorus (OP) and loss of ignition (LOI) in pond sediment were 1575.36, 35.73, 13.30, 2.88, 933.19, 490.14, 414.75 mg x kg(-1) and 5.44%, respectively. The ponds of more than 90% presented eutrophication in the contents of total nitrogen and phosphorus in water. The contents of TN and NH4+ -N in water and sediment of PIV were significantly higher than that of POV. And the contents of inorganic nitrogen in pond water and sediment displayed a following order: NH4+ -N > NO3- -N > NO2- -N. Data analysis indicated that there was a significantly positive correlation between organic matter and total nitrogen and phosphorus in water and sediment. The nitrogen, phosphorus and organic matter in ponds mainly sourced farmlands and village land surface. The contents of nitrogen, phosphorus and organic matter in ponds were affected by location and runoff supply of ponds. By retaining nitrogen, phosphorus and organic matter in runoff, the ponds can effectively decrease nutrient content into Chaohu Lake.

  8. The Designing and Development of a "Balanced Scorecard" for the International Procurement Department of the Procurement Directorate in the Hellenic Navy Supply Center

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Polymenidis, Ilias

    2003-01-01

    ...) in the Hellenic Navy Supply Center, Initially, the study analyzed the IPD's environment, mission, strategy, desired outcomes, critical processes, and key success factors, After clarifying strategy...

  9. Response of carbon assimilation and chlorophyll fluorescence to soybean leaf phosphorus across CO2: Alternative electron sink, nutrient efficiency and critical phosphorus concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    To evaluate the response of CO2 assimilation (PN) and various chlorophyll fluorescence (CF) parameters to phosphorus (P) nutrition soybean plants were grown in controlled environment growth chambers with sufficient (0.50 mM) and deficient (0.10 and 0.01 mM) P supply under ambient and elevated CO2 (a...

  10. International effects on safety and performance improvement for increasing the share of nuclear power in supply of the world energy demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rouhanifard, A.; Hosseini Toudeshki, S.

    2008-01-01

    Perhaps the biggest challenge in launching atomic energy projects will be common public perception that it is a dangerous energy source. In fact, there have only ever been two nuclear accidents - one was Chernobyl (Ukraine) and the other was Three Mile Island (US) where there was an encased explosion and no one was hurt. Undoubtedly, and for good reason, it has had a lasting negative effect on public opinion over the safety of nuclear energy. However, the technology behind nuclear energy has improved in recent years. People have to be aware that new nuclear is not old nuclear. Nuclear is a safe technology and plants are much safer now. In terms of air pollution, developing a nuclear power program can actually have a positive effect on the environment. So today, two thirds of the world's population live in an environment where nuclear power plants are an essential part of energy production and industrial infrastructure. World countries are moving steadily forward with plans for much expanded role of nuclear energy. Efficiency of nuclear generation has increased dramatically over thc last decades. Lessons learned from accidents, advances in nuclear technology and implementation of projects for design of future safer and more economical nuclear reactors, will lead to grow of installed global nuclear capacity from about 369 G We net at the beginning of 2005 to about 553 G We net by 2025. In this paper, we present the results of a study on international efforts to improve safety of nuclear power plants. We focus on the current state of technology and the technology which will be employed for future built reactors to strengthen the role of nuclear power plants for supply of electrical energy in next decades. Finally, based on our studies on past, present and future of the world nuclear technology, we mention the issues to be taken into consideration while preparing the program for development of nuclear power plants in Iran

  11. Uranium Raw Material for the Nuclear Fuel Cycle: Exploration, Mining, Production, Supply and Demand, Economics and Environmental Issues (URAM-2009). Proceedings of an International Symposium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-05-01

    This IAEA symposium is a third in a series which began in 2000 to discuss issues related to uranium raw materials. The symposia covered all areas of the uranium production cycle — including uranium geology, exploration, mining; milling and refining of uranium concentrates; and safety, environmental, social, training and regulatory issues — and reported on uranium supply and demand, and market scenarios. The first symposium was held in October 2000 — a time of extremely depressed market prices for uranium and of mines being closed — and primarily addressed environmental and safety issues in the uranium production cycle. By the time the second symposium was held in June 2005, the uranium market had started to improve after nearly two decades of depressed activity because of increased demand due to rising expectations for nuclear power expansion. Since then, there has been a dramatic rise in the uranium spot price, which in turn has promoted a significant increase in uranium exploration activities all over the world. The international symposium on Uranium Raw Material for the Nuclear Fuel Cycle (URAM-2009) was held at the IAEA, Vienna, 22–26 June 2009, at a time when nuclear energy was emerging as a viable alternative to meet the ever increasing demand of electricity in a sustainable manner, without degrading the environment. However, the global recession and credit crunch could impact the growth of the uranium industry. Since 2000, the identified uranium resource base has grown by more than 75%, exploration efforts have continued to increase in greenfield as well as brownfield sites, annual uranium production has risen, and the issue of social licensing and uranium stewardship has become increasingly important for public acceptance of the uranium industry. Some 210 delegates from 33 States and four international organizations participated in the symposium. In total, 120 technical papers were presented in the oral and poster sessions, and an exhibition on

  12. Uranium Raw Material for the Nuclear Fuel Cycle: Exploration, Mining, Production, Supply and Demand, Economics and Environmental Issues (URAM-2009). Proceedings of an International Symposium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-05-15

    This IAEA symposium is a third in a series which began in 2000 to discuss issues related to uranium raw materials. The symposia covered all areas of the uranium production cycle — including uranium geology, exploration, mining; milling and refining of uranium concentrates; and safety, environmental, social, training and regulatory issues — and reported on uranium supply and demand, and market scenarios. The first symposium was held in October 2000 — a time of extremely depressed market prices for uranium and of mines being closed — and primarily addressed environmental and safety issues in the uranium production cycle. By the time the second symposium was held in June 2005, the uranium market had started to improve after nearly two decades of depressed activity because of increased demand due to rising expectations for nuclear power expansion. Since then, there has been a dramatic rise in the uranium spot price, which in turn has promoted a significant increase in uranium exploration activities all over the world. The international symposium on Uranium Raw Material for the Nuclear Fuel Cycle (URAM-2009) was held at the IAEA, Vienna, 22–26 June 2009, at a time when nuclear energy was emerging as a viable alternative to meet the ever increasing demand of electricity in a sustainable manner, without degrading the environment. However, the global recession and credit crunch could impact the growth of the uranium industry. Since 2000, the identified uranium resource base has grown by more than 75%, exploration efforts have continued to increase in greenfield as well as brownfield sites, annual uranium production has risen, and the issue of social licensing and uranium stewardship has become increasingly important for public acceptance of the uranium industry. Some 210 delegates from 33 States and four international organizations participated in the symposium. In total, 120 technical papers were presented in the oral and poster sessions, and an exhibition on

  13. Uranium Raw Material for the Nuclear Fuel Cycle: Exploration, Mining, Production, Supply and Demand, Economics and Environmental Issues (URAM-2009). Proceedings of an International Symposium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-06-01

    This IAEA symposium is a third in a series which began in 2000 to discuss issues related to uranium raw materials. The symposia covered all areas of the uranium production cycle — including uranium geology, exploration, mining; milling and refining of uranium concentrates; and safety, environmental, social, training and regulatory issues — and reported on uranium supply and demand, and market scenarios. The first symposium was held in October 2000 — a time of extremely depressed market prices for uranium and of mines being closed — and primarily addressed environmental and safety issues in the uranium production cycle. By the time the second symposium was held in June 2005, the uranium market had started to improve after nearly two decades of depressed activity because of increased demand due to rising expectations for nuclear power expansion. Since then, there has been a dramatic rise in the uranium spot price, which in turn has promoted a significant increase in uranium exploration activities all over the world. The international symposium on Uranium Raw Material for the Nuclear Fuel Cycle (URAM-2009) was held at the IAEA, Vienna, 22–26 June 2009, at a time when nuclear energy was emerging as a viable alternative to meet the ever increasing demand of electricity in a sustainable manner, without degrading the environment. However, the global recession and credit crunch could impact the growth of the uranium industry. Since 2000, the identified uranium resource base has grown by more than 75%, exploration efforts have continued to increase in greenfield as well as brownfield sites, annual uranium production has risen, and the issue of social licensing and uranium stewardship has become increasingly important for public acceptance of the uranium industry. Some 210 delegates from 33 States and four international organizations participated in the symposium. In total, 120 technical papers were presented in the oral and poster sessions, and an exhibition on

  14. Editorial: Supply Chain Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aidonis, D.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This special issue has followed up the 2nd Olympus International Conference on Supply Chains held on October 5-6, 2012, in Katerini, Greece. The Conference was organized by the Department of Logistics of Alexander Technological Educational Institution (ATEI of Thessaloniki, in collaboration with the Laboratory of Quantitative Analysis, Logistics and Supply Chain Management of the Department of Mechanical Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (AUTH. During the 2-Days Conference more than 50 research papers were presented covering the following thematic areas: (i Business Logistics, (ii Transportation, Telematics and Distribution Networks, (iii Green Logistics, (iv Information and Communication Technologies in Supply Chain Management, and (v Services and Quality. Three keynote invited speakers addressed interesting issues for the Humanitarian Logistics, Green Supply Chains of the Agrifood Sector and the Opportunities and Prospects of Greek Ports chaired Round Tables with other Greek and Foreign Scientists and Specialists.

  15. Supply chain planning classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hvolby, Hans-Henrik; Trienekens, Jacques; Bonde, Hans

    2001-10-01

    Industry experience a need to shift in focus from internal production planning towards planning in the supply network. In this respect customer oriented thinking becomes almost a common good amongst companies in the supply network. An increase in the use of information technology is needed to enable companies to better tune their production planning with customers and suppliers. Information technology opportunities and supply chain planning systems facilitate companies to monitor and control their supplier network. In spite if these developments, most links in today's supply chains make individual plans, because the real demand information is not available throughout the chain. The current systems and processes of the supply chains are not designed to meet the requirements now placed upon them. For long term relationships with suppliers and customers, an integrated decision-making process is needed in order to obtain a satisfactory result for all parties. Especially when customized production and short lead-time is in focus. An effective value chain makes inventory available and visible among the value chain members, minimizes response time and optimizes total inventory value held throughout the chain. In this paper a supply chain planning classification grid is presented based current manufacturing classifications and supply chain planning initiatives.

  16. 10 CFR 218.11 - Supply orders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Supply orders. 218.11 Section 218.11 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OIL STANDBY MANDATORY INTERNATIONAL OIL ALLOCATION Supply Orders § 218.11 Supply orders. (a) A supply order shall require that the firm to which it is issued take actions specified therein relating to...

  17. Strategic Supply

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Alexander, Kelly; Cole, Heather; Cural, Ahmet; Daugherty, Darryl; Howard, Russell; Keane, Thomas; Louie, K. Y; McNeely, Rosa; Mordente, Patrick; Petrillo, Robert

    2006-01-01

    ...; but rather, as an enabler across all industries. Therefore, this industry study looked at Strategic Supply as an integrated process performed by industries to obtain comparative and competitive advantage in the global marketplace...

  18. Strategic Supply

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Alexander, Kelly; Cole, Heather; Cural, Ahmet; Daugherty, Darryl; Howard, Russell; Keane, Thomas; Louie, K. Y; McNeely, Rosa; Mordente, Patrick; Petrillo, Robert

    2006-01-01

    .... The Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals (CSCMP) has defined SCM as,"...encompassing the planning and management of all activities involved in sourcing and procurement, conversion, and all Logistics Management activities...

  19. Phosphorus oxide gate dielectric for black phosphorus field effect transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickerson, W.; Tayari, V.; Fakih, I.; Korinek, A.; Caporali, M.; Serrano-Ruiz, M.; Peruzzini, M.; Heun, S.; Botton, G. A.; Szkopek, T.

    2018-04-01

    The environmental stability of the layered semiconductor black phosphorus (bP) remains a challenge. Passivation of the bP surface with phosphorus oxide, POx, grown by a reactive ion etch with oxygen plasma is known to improve photoluminescence efficiency of exfoliated bP flakes. We apply phosphorus oxide passivation in the fabrication of bP field effect transistors using a gate stack consisting of a POx layer grown by reactive ion etching followed by atomic layer deposition of Al2O3. We observe room temperature top-gate mobilities of 115 cm2 V-1 s-1 in ambient conditions, which we attribute to the low defect density of the bP/POx interface.

  20. Water supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, F.L.

    1986-01-01

    Options and methodologies for the development of fresh water supplies on Bikini Atoll are much the same as those practiced in the rest of the Marshall Islands and for that matter, most atolls in the central Pacific Ocean Basin. That is, rainfall distribution on Bikini produces a distinct wet season, lasting from about May through November, with the remaining months being generally dry. As a result, fresh water from surface catchments tends to be plentiful during the wet season? but is usually scarce during the dry months, and alternative sources such as groundwater must be utilized during this time. On Bikini the problems of fresh water supply are somewhat more difficult than for most Marshall Island atolls because rainfall is only about half the Marshall Island's average. Tus water supply is a critical factor limiting the carrying capacity of Bikini Atoll. To address this problem BARC has undertaken a study of the Bikini Atoll water supply. Te primary objectives of this work are to determine: (1) alternatives available for fresh water supply, 2 the amounts, location and quality of available supplies and 3 optimal development methods. The study planned for one's year duration, has been underway only since the summer of 1985 and is thus not yet fully completed. However, work done to date, which is presented in this report of preliminary findings, provides a reasonably accurate picture of Bikini's fresh water supplies and the various options available for their development. The work remaining to be completed will mainly add refinements to the water supply picture presented in the sections to follow

  1. Effect of phosphorus deficiency in photoassimilated /sup 14/C metabolism in sunflower

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanev, V.; Angelov, M.; Popov, G. (Bylgarska Akademiya na Naukite, Sofia. Inst. po Fiziologiya na Rasteniyata)

    1981-01-01

    Phosphorus deficiency in photoassimilated /sup 14/C metabolism in plants is a controversial problem. The effect of the total removal of phosphorus from the nutrient medium is investigated. The experiments are carried out with sunflower of the Peredovic variety, grown as hydroponics with Hellriegel's nutrient solution. The investigations are performed after a 19-day removal of phosphorus from the nutrient medium. An enhanced labelling of aspartate and malate, products of the carboxylation of phosphoenolpyruvate is observed, which indicates that the flow of the newly assimilated /sup 14/C is directed to a higher degree towards the reaction of carboxylation of phosphoenolpyruvate and its compounds (malate and aspartate). Possibly on disturbing the initial CO/sub 2/ assimilation by ribulosediphosphate, phosphorus deficiency induces a stronger CO/sub 2/ fixation through the C/sub 4/ pathway in order to compensate to a certain extent the strongly decreased supply of carbon skeletons for metabolism in plants.

  2. Electric Conductivity of Phosphorus Nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jing-Xiang, Zhang; Hui, Li; Xue-Qing, Zhang; Kim-Meow, Liew

    2009-01-01

    We present the structures and electrical transport properties of nanowires made from different strands of phosphorus chains encapsulated in carbon nanotubes. Optimized by density function theory, our results indicate that the conductance spectra reveal an oscillation dependence on the size of wires. It can be seen from the density of states and current-voltage curves that the structure of nanowires affects their properties greatly. Among them, the DNA-like double-helical phosphorus nanowire exhibits the distinct characteristic of an approximately linear I – V relationship and has a higher conductance than others. The transport properties of phosphorus nanowires are highly correlated with their microstructures. (condensed matter: structure, mechanical and thermal properties)

  3. Rapid Production Ramp-up for International Collaborative Supply Network in Electronics Goods Industry (X-Box, PS II, I-Pod, Etc) A Review of Existing Practices, Issues, and Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Ning

    2006-01-01

    The fierce competition of international consumer electronics market has brought more pressures on the manufacturing section especially in the context of globalization. The global producers have to find effective solution to cope with the challenges such as shorter and shorter product life, less and less customer loyalty and resources limitation. The fact that rapid production ramp up and supply network collaboration could benefit their performance has been recognized by many business giants s...

  4. Communication of 10 June 2009 received from the Permanent Mission of the United Kingdom with regard to the International Nuclear Fuel Supply Conference: Securing safe access to peaceful power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The Secretariat has received a communication dated 10 June 2009 from the Permanent Mission of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, attaching a note from the United Kingdom and the final remarks of the Chairman of the International Nuclear Fuel Supply Conference: Securing safe access to peaceful power, held in London on 17 and 18 March 2009. As requested in that communication, the note and final remarks are herewith circulated for the information of Member States

  5. Understanding the supply chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aćimović Slobodan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Supply chain management represents new business philosophy and includes strategically positioned and much wider scope of activity in comparison with its "older brother" - management of logistics. Philosophy of the concept of supply chain is directed to more coordination of key business functions of every link in distribution chain in the process of organization of the flow of both goods and information, while logistic managing instruments are focused on internal optimum of flows of goods and information within one company. Applying the concept of integrated supply chain among several companies makes the importance of operative logistics activity even greater on the level of one company, thus advancing processes of optimum and coordination within and between different companies and confirms the importance of logistics performances for the company’s profitability. Besides the fact that the borders between companies are being deleted, this concept of supply chain in one distribution channel influences increasing of importance of functional, i.e. traditional business managing approaches but instead it points out the importance of process managing approaches. Although the author is aware that "there is nothing harder, more dangerous and with uncertain success, but to find a way for introducing some novelties (Machiavelli, it would be even his additional stimulation for trying to bring closer the concept and goals of supply chain implementation that are identified in key, relevant, modern, theoretical and consulting approaches in order to achieve better understanding of the subject and faster implementation of the concept of supply chain management by domestic companies.

  6. Guiding phosphorus stewardship for multiple ecosystem services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phosphorus is vital to agricultural production and water quality regulation. While the role of phosphorus in agriculture and water quality has been studied for decades, the benefits of sustainable phosphorus use and management for society due to its downstream impacts on multiple ecosystem services...

  7. Supply Chain Shipment Pricing Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — This data set provides supply chain health commodity shipment and pricing data. Specifically, the data set identifies Antiretroviral (ARV) and HIV lab shipments to...

  8. Modern slavery challenges to supply chain management

    OpenAIRE

    Gold, Stefan; Trautrims, Alexander; Trodd, Zoe

    2015-01-01

    Purpose\\ud – This paper aims to draw attention to the challenges modern slavery poses to supply chain management. Although many international supply chains are (most often unknowingly) connected to slave labour activities, supply chain managers and researchers have so far neglected the issue. This will most likely change as soon as civil society lobbying and new legislation impose increasing litigation and reputational risks on companies operating international supply chains. \\ud \\ud Design/m...

  9. A representation of the phosphorus cycle for ORCHIDEE (revision 4520

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. S. Goll

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Land surface models rarely incorporate the terrestrial phosphorus cycle and its interactions with the carbon cycle, despite the extensive scientific debate about the importance of nitrogen and phosphorus supply for future land carbon uptake. We describe a representation of the terrestrial phosphorus cycle for the ORCHIDEE land surface model, and evaluate it with data from nutrient manipulation experiments along a soil formation chronosequence in Hawaii. ORCHIDEE accounts for the influence of the nutritional state of vegetation on tissue nutrient concentrations, photosynthesis, plant growth, biomass allocation, biochemical (phosphatase-mediated mineralization, and biological nitrogen fixation. Changes in the nutrient content (quality of litter affect the carbon use efficiency of decomposition and in return the nutrient availability to vegetation. The model explicitly accounts for root zone depletion of phosphorus as a function of root phosphorus uptake and phosphorus transport from the soil to the root surface. The model captures the observed differences in the foliage stoichiometry of vegetation between an early (300-year and a late (4.1 Myr stage of soil development. The contrasting sensitivities of net primary productivity to the addition of either nitrogen, phosphorus, or both among sites are in general reproduced by the model. As observed, the model simulates a preferential stimulation of leaf level productivity when nitrogen stress is alleviated, while leaf level productivity and leaf area index are stimulated equally when phosphorus stress is alleviated. The nutrient use efficiencies in the model are lower than observed primarily due to biases in the nutrient content and turnover of woody biomass. We conclude that ORCHIDEE is able to reproduce the shift from nitrogen to phosphorus limited net primary productivity along the soil development chronosequence, as well as the contrasting responses of net primary productivity to nutrient

  10. Greening the global phosphorus cycle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Withers, Paul J.A.; Elser, James J.; Hilton, Julian; Ohtake, Hisao; Schipper, Willem J.; Dijk, Van Kimo C.

    2015-01-01

    The sustainability of global phosphorus (P) use is emerging as a major societal goal to secure future food, energy, and water security for a growing population. Phosphate rock (PR) is a critical raw material whose inefficiency of use is leading to widespread eutrophication and uncertainties about

  11. Anthropogenic phosphorus flows in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klinglmair, Manfred

    Phosphorus (P) is an essential plant nutrient mined from the earth’s crust as phosphate rock. It cannot be substituted, making it a crucial resource for food production. For the EU, future phosphate scarcity is a potential geopolitical and strategic threat. An increasing worldwide phosphate demand...

  12. Differential access to phosphorus pools of an Oxisol by mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal maize

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cardoso, I.M.; Boddington, C.L.; Janssen, B.H.; Oenema, O.; Kuyper, T.W.

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated whether arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) could take up phosphorus (P) from pools that are normally considered unavailable to plants. An aluminum (Al) resistant maize variety, inoculated with three species of Glomus or uninoculated, supplied with nutrient solution without P,

  13. Few-layer black phosphorus nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofer, Zdenek; Bouša, Daniel; Luxa, Jan; Mazanek, Vlastimil; Pumera, Martin

    2016-01-28

    Herein, black phosphorus quantum dots and nanoparticles of a few layer thickness were prepared and characterized using STEM, AFM, dynamic light scattering, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy and photoluminescence. Impact electrochemistry of the induvidual black phosphorus nanoparticles allows their size determination. The centrifugation of colloidal black phosphorus nanoparticles allowed separation of quantum dots with sizes up to 15 nm. These black phosphorus nanoparticles exhibit a large band gap and are expected to find a wide range of applications from semiconductors to biomolecule tags. The use of black phosphorus nanoparticles for vapour sensing was successfully demonstrated.

  14. SEQUENTIAL ELECTRODIALYTIC EXTRACTION OF PHOSPHORUS COMPOUNDS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    The present invention relates to an apparatus for electrodialytic extraction of phosphorus from a particulate material in suspension and to a method for electrodialytic phosphorus recovery, which uses the apparatus. The method may be applied for wastewater treatment, and/or treatment of particulate...... material rich in phosphorus. The present invention provides an apparatus for electrodialytic extraction of phosphorus from a particulate material comprising acidic and/or alkaline soluble phosphorus compounds, in suspension, comprising: • a first electrodialytic cell comprising a first anolyte compartment...

  15. Effect of four acidifying materials added to a calcareous soil on the availability of phosphorus to ryegrass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sen Gupta, M B; Cornfield, A H

    1964-12-01

    Ryegrass was grown in a pot test using a calcareous soil (0.36% calcium carbonate) treated with sulfur, ammonium sulfate, ferrous sulfate, and aluminium sulfate at 0.1% sulfur-equivalent, with potassium nitrate added where necessary, including the control, to equalize nitrogen supply. The sulfur treatment was the only one which significantly increased dry matter yields, total phosphorus uptake and top/root ratios in dry matter yields and total phosphorus. The ammonium sulfate, ferrous sulfate, and aluminium sulfate treatments significantly reduced top/root ratios in dry-matter yields and total phosphorus. 6 references, 1 table.

  16. Instrumental neutron activation analysis of phosphorus in biological materials by Bremsstrahlung measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bajo, S.; Wyttenbach, A.

    1986-12-01

    The determination of phosphorus in biological materials by instrumental neutron activation via the reaction 31 P (n,γ) 32 P is described. The Bremsstrahlung produced by 32 P is measured in a well-type NaI(Tl) detector. The samples are measured within the polyethylene irradiation container with no changes between irradiation and measurement. The sources of error were studied and the proposed method was applied to the determination of phosphorus in ten internationally certified materials. (author)

  17. Characterization of phosphorus interaction with sediments affected by acid mine drainage - relation with the sediment composition

    OpenAIRE

    Boukemara , Lamia; Boukhalfa , Chahrazed; Azzouz , Sarah; Reinert , Laurence; Duclaux , Laurent; Amrane , Abdeltif; Szymczyk , Anthony

    2017-01-01

    International audience; Phosphorus sorption capacity was investigated in surface sediments derived from an abandoned zinc-lead mine area located in northeastern Algeria. The forms and the distribution of phosphorus in the raw sediment were identified using the sequential chemical extractions method. Batch experiments were done to study the adsorption kinetics and isotherms. The pH effect was evaluated by macroscopic and infrared analyses. In raw sediment, speciation results show that phosphor...

  18. Spatial evolution of phosphorus fractionation in the sediments of Rhumel River in the northeast Algeria

    OpenAIRE

    Azzouz , Sarah; Chellat , Smaine; Boukhalfa , Chahrazed; Amrane , Abdeltif

    2014-01-01

    International audience; The objective of the present study is the characterization of the spatial evolution of phosphorus forms in sediments of Rhumel River located in northeast Algeria during winter conditions. Sediments samples were collected along the river in Constantine city during the year 2012. The samples were subjected to physicochemical characterization and metals analysis. Phosphorus was fractionated by sequential extractions procedure in exchangeable, oxyhydroxides bound; calcium ...

  19. Intelligent power supply controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rumrill, R.S.; Reinagel, D.J.

    1991-01-01

    The authors have developed a new power supply controller which would combine 20-bit precision, simple interfacing, and versatile software control. It performs many tasks internal to the power supply and also communicates with an external host computer. Parameters can be entered and/or read over a serial link using one of the 82 command words. In addition, an optional remote control panel can be located up to thousands of feet away. This new controller will reduce the software development time normally spent by the user, while increasing the reliability of the system. The cost is less than buying the equivalent separate CAMAC system. Nonvolatile memory remembers all configuration data; one generic controller can thus be programmed to use anywhere from the smallest power supply to the largest. The controllers will be used at the Clinton P. Anderson Meson Facility at Los Alamos

  20. Genetic variations in phosphorus utilization in rice investigation by tracer technique using Phosphorus-32

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanjivkumar, V.; Malarvizhi, P.; Meena, S.; Latha, K.R.

    2012-01-01

    In most soils, soil and fertilizer P are easily bound by either soil organic matter or chemicals and thus are unavailable to plants unless hydrolyzed to release inorganic phosphate. Therefore, the development of P-efficient rice varieties that can grow and yield better with low P supply is a key to improve crop production. P efficient plants play a major role in increasing crop yields due to shortage of inorganic P fertilizer resources, limited land and water resources and increasing environmental concerns. Based on the P uptake efficiency, four rice genotypes were selected from the field experiment and used in pot culture experiment with three levels of P using radio isotope technique to quantify the P acquisition efficiency (PAE) and P use efficiency (PUE) and also to determine the native P supplying power of the soils using 32 P in low P soils. Growth and yield parameters, grain and straw yield and major nutrients uptake of rice genotypes were increased with enhanced level of phosphorus application. Among the four genotypes, TNRH 180 recorded the highest grain yield and uptake. Increasing the P application rate from 25 to 50 kg P 2 O 5 ha -1 increased the %Pdff in grain and straw for all the genotypes. The mean per cent phosphorus utilization (PPU) ranged between 18.74 and 23.72. The PPU of the genotypes followed the order TNRH 180 (23.72 %) > CO08504 (23.36 %) > CO06732 (20.54%) > ADT 47 (18.74%) . The PPU values were higher at lower level of P application (25 kg P 2 O 5 ha -1 ) for the genotypes TNRH 180, CB08504 and CB06732. (author)

  1. Supply of nuclear materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1959-07-15

    Any large-scale atomic energy programme is inherently dependent on the availability of materials that can be used as fuel in reactors, and the International Atomic Energy Agency, at its inception, was intended to act as a bank for the flow of materials between Member States. According to its Statute, one of its primary functions is to provide materials 'to meet the needs of research on, and development and practical application of, atomic energy for peaceful purposes, including the production of electric power, with due consideration for the needs of the under-developed areas of the world'. If the Agency is to fulfil its Statutory function, it would be essential for it to have not only some ready sources of supply, but also an established framework of general terms and conditions on which it could secure the supplies. The latter would eliminate the need for going through elaborate procedural formalities whenever the Agency receives a new request for materials. Such a framework has now been established with the signing of broad agreements with three countries which had offered to supply various quantities of special fissionable materials to the Agency. These agreements, signed in Vienna on 11 May 1959, with the USSR, the UK and the USA, lay down the basic terms and conditions on which these three countries will make nuclear materials available when needed by the Agency. The USSR has agreed to make available to the Agency 50 kg of uranium-235, the UK 20 kg and the USA 5 000 kg. The material will be supplied in the form of enriched uranium in any concentration up to 20 per cent; the amounts mentioned relate to the 235-isotope content of the materials. The UK and the USA have agreed that the parties to a particular supply agreement may decide on higher enrichment of uranium to be used for research reactors, material testing reactors or for other research purposes. The USA has also agreed to make available to the Agency such additional supplies as would match in amount

  2. Secure Energy Supply 2009. Welcome address

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slugen, V.

    2009-01-01

    In this invitation lecture professor Slugen (President of Slovak Nuclear Society and President of European Nuclear Society) invited the participants of the International Conference: Secure Energy Supply 2009.

  3. Strategic Supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    leaders as Sears, Limited Brands, DHL, Circuit City, Cingular, Nestle and IKEA (Manugistics, 2006). The Strategic Supply Chain Industry Study Group...inventory turns have increased. Other global customers have also reaped the benefits of the Manugistics software. IKEA , Sweden’s retail icon...turned to Manugistics after a mid-1990s ERP implementation failed to fix their forecasting problems, which gave way to fluctuating inventory levels. IKEA

  4. True absorption of phosphorus from di calcium phosphate, mono ammonium phosphate, triple superphosphate and urea-phosphate in bovine by the radio phosphorus dilution technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva Filho, J.C. da.

    1990-01-01

    With the aim to study the utilization of alternative sources of phosphorus by ruminants. Twenty four males steers, with 250 Kg live weight and 18 months of age, were allocated in four groups of six animals each. The animals were housed in individual pens and received a diet containing chopped hay, corn and soybean meal, urea and mineral mixtures. The phosphate sources were added to supply 10 g of phosphorus per animal daily. The animals were injected intravenously and individually with 37 MBq of P-32 (N A 2 H P O 4 ) at the 20 th day of the experimental trial into the jugular vein. Blood and faces were collected and sampled at 24 hours intervals, for 8 days. Based on the specific activities in plasma and faces, the fecal endogenous loss and true phosphorus absorption were determined. (author)

  5. Effect of Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium on the Dynamics of Synthesis of Nucleic Acids and Proteins in the Different Phases of Wheat Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinovic, B.; Grujic-Injac, B.; Jelenic, Dj. [Institute for the Application of Nuclear Energy in Agriculture, Veterinary Medicine and Forestry, Belgrade (Yugoslavia)

    1968-07-01

    The influence of different nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium levels on the dynamics of RNA synthesis and raw proteins, as well as the uptake of phosphorus in the different phases of wheat development, were studied by applying radioactive phosphorus {sup 32}P . The rate of the uptake of phosphorus is proportional to its concentration in the nutrient supply in all phases of wheat development, in spite of the fact that the uptake of phosphorus during vegetation decreases with the plant's maturity. The influence of nitrogen on the uptake of phosphorus is inversely proportional to the concentration of nitrogen in the nutrient, while the influence of potassium depends on the relation of the amounts of nitrogen and phosphorus. The increased levels of nitrogen and phosphorus are directly proportional to the increase of RNA synthesis, and conversely the decrease of these levels decreases the RNA synthesis. The RNA synthesis decreases with the wheat's maturity during vegetation and is considerably greater in the first phase than in the later phases of the plant's development. Nitrogen and phosphorus have the greatest influence on protein synthesis; potassium has far less influence. These investigations show that the synthesis of nucleic acids and the building up of phosphorus in the RNA-fraction is directly proportional to the concentration of nitrogen in the nutrient supply, even though the uptake of phosphorus by wheat is not proportional to the increased nitrogen levels. Investigations now being carried out provide further explanations concerning the mutual relationship of some forms of RNA of the cells and the amino acids in the synthesis of certain protein fractions of wheat under the influence of different levels of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. (author)

  6. Phosphorus conservation by evergreenness of mountain laurel. [Kalmia latifolia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, W A [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN; Grigal, D F

    1976-01-01

    Field studies and compartmental model analyses demonstrate that the evergreen nature of mountain laurel Kalmia latifolia L. helps conserve phosphorus on infertile sites. The perennial canopy continuously adds P to the forest floor through foliar leaching and year-round leaf fall. Slow mineralization of leaf litter provides a steady addition of available P. The evergreenness of Kalmia allows it to utilize increases in available P, thus keeping it in circulation through biological tissues. Retention of a sufficient P supply in this manner allows the site to respond when changes such as disturbance or succession occur in the system.

  7. ECONOMIC RETURNS FROM REDUCING POULTRY LITTER PHOSPHORUS WITH MICROBIAL PHYTASE

    OpenAIRE

    Bosch, Darrell J.; Zhu, Minkang; Kornegay, Ervin T.

    1997-01-01

    Requiring that crop applications of manure be based on phosphorus content (P-standard) could increase poultry litter disposal costs. Microbial phytase reduces litter P content and could reduce litter disposal costs under a P-standard. For a representative Virginia turkey farm, phytase costs $2,500 and could increase value of litter used for fertilizer on the turkey farm by $390 and reduce supplemental P feed costs by $1,431. Based on assumed litter demand and supply, estimated litter export p...

  8. Extracellular Secretion of Phytase from Transgenic Wheat Roots Allows Utilization of Phytate for Enhanced Phosphorus Uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohsin, Samreen; Maqbool, Asma; Ashraf, Mehwish; Malik, Kauser Abdulla

    2017-08-01

    A significant portion of organic phosphorus comprises of phytates which are not available to wheat for uptake. Hence for enabling wheat to utilize organic phosphorus in form of phytate, transgenic wheat expressing phytase from Aspergillus japonicus under barley root-specific promoter was developed. Transgenic events were initially screened via selection media containing BASTA, followed by PCR and BASTA leaf paint assay after hardening. Out of 138 successfully regenerated T o events, only 12 had complete constructs and thus further analyzed. Positive T1 transgenic plants, grown in sand, exhibited 0.08-1.77, 0.02-0.67 and 0.44-2.14 fold increase in phytase activity in root extracts, intact roots and external root solution, respectively, after 4 weeks of phosphorus stress. Based on these results, T2 generation of four best transgenic events was further analyzed which showed up to 1.32, 56.89, and 15.40 fold increase in phytase activity in root extracts, intact roots and external root solution, respectively, while in case of real-time PCR, maximum fold increase of 19.8 in gene expression was observed. Transgenic lines showed 0.01-1.18 fold increase in phosphorus efficiency along with higher phosphorus content when supplied phytate or inorganic phosphorus than control plants. Thus, this transgenic wheat may aid in reducing fertilizer utilization and enhancing wheat yield.

  9. Methanol production with elemental phosphorus byproduct gas: technical and economic feasibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyke, S.E.; Moore, R.H.

    1981-01-01

    The technical and economic feasibility of using a typical, elemental, phosphorus byproduct gas stream in methanol production is assessed. The purpose of the study is to explore the potential of a substitute for natural gas. The first part of the study establishes economic tradeoffs between several alternative methods of supplying the hydrogen which is needed in the methanol synthesis process to react with CO from the off gas. The preferred alternative is the Battelle Process, which uses natural gas in combination with the off gas in an economically sized methanol plant. The second part of the study presents a preliminary basic design of a plant to (1) clean and compress the off gas, (2) return recovered phosphorus to the phosphorus plant, and (3) produce methanol by the Battelle Process. Use of elemental phosphorus byproduct gas in methanol production appears to be technically feasible. The Battelle Process shows a definite but relatively small economic advantage over conventional methanol manufacture based on natural gas alone. The process would be economically feasible only where natural gas supply and methanol market conditions at a phosphorus plant are not significantly less favorable than at competing methanol plants. If off-gas streams from two or more phosphorus plants could be combined, production of methanol using only offgas might also be economically feasible. The North American methanol market, however, does not seem likely to require another new methanol project until after 1990. The off-gas cleanup, compression, and phosphorus-recovery system could be used to produce a CO-rich stream that could be economically attractive for production of several other chemicals besides methanol.

  10. Dietary phosphorus acutely impairs endothelial function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuto, Emi; Taketani, Yutaka; Tanaka, Rieko; Harada, Nagakatsu; Isshiki, Masashi; Sato, Minako; Nashiki, Kunitaka; Amo, Kikuko; Yamamoto, Hironori; Higashi, Yukihito; Nakaya, Yutaka; Takeda, Eiji

    2009-07-01

    Excessive dietary phosphorus may increase cardiovascular risk in healthy individuals as well as in patients with chronic kidney disease, but the mechanisms underlying this risk are not completely understood. To determine whether postprandial hyperphosphatemia may promote endothelial dysfunction, we investigated the acute effect of phosphorus loading on endothelial function in vitro and in vivo. Exposing bovine aortic endothelial cells to a phosphorus load increased production of reactive oxygen species, which depended on phosphorus influx via sodium-dependent phosphate transporters, and decreased nitric oxide production via inhibitory phosphorylation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase. Phosphorus loading inhibited endothelium-dependent vasodilation of rat aortic rings. In 11 healthy men, we alternately served meals containing 400 mg or 1200 mg of phosphorus in a double-blind crossover study and measured flow-mediated dilation of the brachial artery before and 2 h after the meals. The high dietary phosphorus load increased serum phosphorus at 2 h and significantly decreased flow-mediated dilation. Flow-mediated dilation correlated inversely with serum phosphorus. Taken together, these findings suggest that endothelial dysfunction mediated by acute postprandial hyperphosphatemia may contribute to the relationship between serum phosphorus level and the risk for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.

  11. Uranium supply and demand. Proceedings of an international symposium held by the Uranium Institute in London, June 15-17, 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spriggs, M J [ed.

    1976-01-01

    The symposium received and discussed papers on uranium production in South Africa, Australia, North America and other countries (excluding USSR, Eastern Europe and China) with substantial uranium resources, and on uranium demand. All aspects of the subject were covered, including the historical development of the uranium mining and production industry in the different countries, resources, forecasts of supply and demand, costs, prices, economics, and government policies in relation both to the control of production and to the development of nuclear power program.

  12. The Analysis of the Reaction of the Romanian Companies Supplying Electrical Energy to the Modification of the Geopolitical Context and of the Internal Legislative Frame

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile Robu

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Supplying services in the electrical energy domain that corresponds qualitatively, at acceptable prices, in the context of the respect of the environment preservation standards and of the security of the supply, in accordance with the demands of the economic growth, represents a main component of the lasting development. In the 9th chapter of the 21st Agenda is stated that “energy is essential to the economic and social development and to a better quality of life”. At global level, given the current technological conditions and the permanent growth of the quantity of resources used, a large part of the energy is produced and consumed in an unsustainable manner. The necessity of controlling the greenhouse gas emissions and of other polluting substances imposes the increase of the efficiency of production, transportation, distribution and consumption of the energy and the growth of the use of renewable energy sources. All energy sources must be used in a manner that permits the respect of the environment on the whole. The operational research executed let us state that the defining elements of the geopolitical context influence the behaviour of the companies supplying electrical energy, which has an effect in any branch of the national economy. Such an approach is useful in the determination of the impact of the increase of electrical energy prices on the vulnerable sectors of the national economy.

  13. Phytoextraction of excess soil phosphorus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Nilesh C.; Starnes, Daniel L.; Sahi, Shivendra V.

    2007-01-01

    In the search for a suitable plant to be used in P phytoremediation, several species belonging to legume, vegetable and herb crops were grown in P-enriched soils, and screened for P accumulation potentials. A large variation in P concentrations of different plant species was observed. Some vegetable species such as cucumber (Cucumis sativus) and yellow squash (Cucurbita pepo var. melopepo) were identified as potential P accumulators with >1% (dry weight) P in their shoots. These plants also displayed a satisfactory biomass accumulation while growing on a high concentration of soil P. The elevated activities of phosphomonoesterase and phytase were observed when plants were grown in P-enriched soils, this possibly contributing to high P acquisition in these species. Sunflower plants also demonstrated an increased shoot P accumulation. This study shows that the phytoextraction of phosphorus can be effective using appropriate plant species. - Crop plants such as cucumber, squash and sunflower accumulate phosphorus and thus can be used in the phytoextraction of excess phosphorus from soils

  14. Phytoextraction of excess soil phosphorus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Nilesh C. [Department of Biology, Western Kentucky University, 1906 College Heights Boulevard 11080, Bowling Green, KY 42101-1080 (United States); Starnes, Daniel L. [Department of Biology, Western Kentucky University, 1906 College Heights Boulevard 11080, Bowling Green, KY 42101-1080 (United States); Sahi, Shivendra V. [Department of Biology, Western Kentucky University, 1906 College Heights Boulevard 11080, Bowling Green, KY 42101-1080 (United States)]. E-mail: shiv.sahi@wku.edu

    2007-03-15

    In the search for a suitable plant to be used in P phytoremediation, several species belonging to legume, vegetable and herb crops were grown in P-enriched soils, and screened for P accumulation potentials. A large variation in P concentrations of different plant species was observed. Some vegetable species such as cucumber (Cucumis sativus) and yellow squash (Cucurbita pepo var. melopepo) were identified as potential P accumulators with >1% (dry weight) P in their shoots. These plants also displayed a satisfactory biomass accumulation while growing on a high concentration of soil P. The elevated activities of phosphomonoesterase and phytase were observed when plants were grown in P-enriched soils, this possibly contributing to high P acquisition in these species. Sunflower plants also demonstrated an increased shoot P accumulation. This study shows that the phytoextraction of phosphorus can be effective using appropriate plant species. - Crop plants such as cucumber, squash and sunflower accumulate phosphorus and thus can be used in the phytoextraction of excess phosphorus from soils.

  15. Electricity supply of Switzerland. Development and structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutzner, J.

    1995-01-01

    An overview of the history of the Swiss power supply since the founding of the Swiss Electricity Works Association in the year 1985 is provided. Power supply, requirements, linkage and exchange with other countries are dealt with. Further themes are the organizational structures, tariffs, power supply and energy policies, as well as national and international connections. 87 figs., 40 refs

  16. Phosphorus Characteristics with Controlled Nitrogen in Fertile Soils in Protected Vegetable Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Heng

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available There is an unreasonable phenomenon of fertilization in vegetable facility cultivation, with the serious imbalance of soil nutrient. In purpose of understanding the absorption characteristics of phosphorus from nitrogen-rich soil, a long-term nitrogen-controlled experiment was carried from the year 2004 to 2007, and a split plot experiment of leaching was carried in winter-spring season of 2007. The results showed that the content of phosphorus varied with different nitrogen control. The TP was decreased with nitrogen supply of none(NN 、organic manure(MN 、organic manure and straw(MN+S, and the decreased range was NN>MN>MN+S, meanwhile the increase range of TP was traditional-nitrogen(CN >traditional-nitrogen+straw(CN+S >optimized-nitrogen+straw(SN+S >optimized-nitrogen(SN. The available P with CN and CN+S reached to 213.7 mg· kg -1 、225.4 mg·kg -1, which increased by 17.1 percent and 23.5 percent, which declared the phosphorus was accumulated; The available P with other nitrogen controlled decreased with the range of NN>MN>MN+S>SN+S>SN跃CN>CN+S, which showed that the supply reduction of nitrogen could slowdown the phosphorus accumulated and promote the utilization ratio of phosphorus. The organophosphorus was increased except NN, with obvious increase with CN、CN+S(308.4 mg·kg -1 、331.4 mg·kg -1 by 28.5 percent and 38.2 percent. The absorption coefficient of phosphorus with SN+S(P 2 O 5,mg· 100 g -1 reached to 1 571, increased by 143.6 percent; Otherwise the absorption coefficient of phosphorus with CN、CN+S showed negative growth, the CN dipped to 416(P 2 O 5,mg·100 g -1 by 35.5 percent. Adding wheat straw could greatly improved the capacity of absorption of phosphorus and slow down the accumulation of available phosphorus to some extent. The concentrations of total phosphorus in the filtrate with SN+S were less than SN, contrary to the concentration of organophosphorus, thus the straw returning had a certain effect on

  17. Phosphorus: a limiting nutrient for humanity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elser, James J

    2012-12-01

    Phosphorus is a chemical element that is essential to life because of its role in numerous key molecules, including DNA and RNA; indeed, organisms require large amounts of P to grow rapidly. However, the supply of P from the environment is often limiting to production, including to crops. Thus, large amounts of P are mined annually to produce fertilizer that is applied in support of the 'Green Revolution.' However, much of this fertilizer eventually ends up in rivers, lakes and oceans where it causes costly eutrophication. Furthermore, given increasing human population, expanding meat consumption, and proliferating bioenergy pressures, concerns have recently been raised about the long-term geological, economic, and geopolitical viability of mined P for fertilizer production. Together, these issues highlight the non-sustainable nature of current human P use. To achieve P sustainability, farms need to become more efficient in how they use P while society as a whole must develop technologies and practices to recycle P from the food chain. Such large-scale changes will probably require a radical restructuring of the entire food system, highlighting the need for prompt but sustained action. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Potential Phosphorus Mobilisation in Peat Soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forsmann, Ditte M.; Kjærgaard, Charlotte

    2012-01-01

    Re-establishment of wetlands on peat soils containing phosphorus bound to iron(III)-oxides can lead to an undesirable phosphorus loss to the aquatic environment due to the reductive dissolution of iron(III)-oxides. Thus it is important to be able to assess the potential phosphorus mobilisation from...... peat soils before a re-establishment takes place. The potential phosphorus mobilisation from a peat soil depends not only on the geochemical characteristics but also on the redox conditions, the hydrological regime in the area as well as the hydro-physical properties of the soil. The hypothesis...... for this study is (i) the release of phosphorus in peat is controlled by the geochemistry; (ii) the mobilisation of phosphorus is controlled by both geochemistry and hydro-physics of the soil. For this study, 10 Danish riparian lowland areas with peat soil were selected based on their geochemical characteristics...

  19. Uranium bioprecipitation mediated by yeasts utilizing organic phosphorus substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xinjin; Csetenyi, Laszlo; Gadd, Geoffrey Michael

    2016-06-01

    In this research, we have demonstrated the ability of several yeast species to mediate U(VI) biomineralization through uranium phosphate biomineral formation when utilizing an organic source of phosphorus (glycerol 2-phosphate disodium salt hydrate (C3H7Na2O6P·xH2O (G2P)) or phytic acid sodium salt hydrate (C6H18O24P6·xNa(+)·yH2O (PyA))) in the presence of soluble UO2(NO3)2. The formation of meta-ankoleite (K2(UO2)2(PO4)2·6(H2O)), chernikovite ((H3O)2(UO2)2(PO4)2·6(H2O)), bassetite (Fe(++)(UO2)2(PO4)2·8(H2O)), and uramphite ((NH4)(UO2)(PO4)·3(H2O)) on cell surfaces was confirmed by X-ray diffraction in yeasts grown in a defined liquid medium amended with uranium and an organic phosphorus source, as well as in yeasts pre-grown in organic phosphorus-containing media and then subsequently exposed to UO2(NO3)2. The resulting minerals depended on the yeast species as well as physico-chemical conditions. The results obtained in this study demonstrate that phosphatase-mediated uranium biomineralization can occur in yeasts supplied with an organic phosphate substrate as sole source of phosphorus. Further understanding of yeast interactions with uranium may be relevant to development of potential treatment methods for uranium waste and utilization of organic phosphate sources and for prediction of microbial impacts on the fate of uranium in the environment.

  20. Agreement Between the International Atomic Energy Agency and the Government of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Supply of Two Nuclear Power Stations from the People's Republic of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    The text of the Agreement between the International Atomic Energy Agency and the Government of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Supply of two Nuclear Power Stations from the People's Republic of China is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Board of Governors approved the Agreement on 8 March 2011. It was signed on 15 April 2011 in Vienna, Austria. Pursuant to Section 30 of the Agreement, the Agreement entered into force on 15 April 2011, upon signature by the representatives of Pakistan and the Agency

  1. Agreement between the International Atomic Energy Agency and the Government of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan for the application of safeguards in connection with the supply of a nuclear power station from the People's Republic of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The text of the Agreement between the International Atomic Energy Agency and the Government of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Supply of a Nuclear Power Station from the People's Republic of China is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members of the Agency. The Board of Governors approved the Agreement on 23 November 2006. It was signed in Vienna on 22 February 2007. Pursuant to Section 30 of the Agreement, the Agreement entered into force on 22 February 2007, upon signature by the Director General of the Agency and by the authorised representative of Pakistan

  2. International

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    This rubric reports on 10 short notes about international economical facts about nuclear power: Electricite de France (EdF) and its assistance and management contracts with Eastern Europe countries (Poland, Hungary, Bulgaria); Transnuclear Inc. company (a 100% Cogema daughter company) acquired the US Vectra Technologies company; the construction of the Khumo nuclear power plant in Northern Korea plays in favour of the reconciliation between Northern and Southern Korea; the delivery of two VVER 1000 Russian reactors to China; the enforcement of the cooperation agreement between Euratom and Argentina; Japan requested for the financing of a Russian fast breeder reactor; Russia has planned to sell a floating barge-type nuclear power plant to Indonesia; the control of the Swedish reactor vessels of Sydkraft AB company committed to Tractebel (Belgium); the renewal of the nuclear cooperation agreement between Swiss and USA; the call for bids from the Turkish TEAS electric power company for the building of the Akkuyu nuclear power plant answered by three candidates: Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL), Westinghouse (US) and the French-German NPI company. (J.S.)

  3. An art report to analyze internal and external research status for the establishment of the safe supply system of the foods for military meal service using ionization energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byun, Myung Woo; Lee, Ju Woon; Kim, Jang Ho; Jo, Cheol Hun; Kim, Dong Ho; Lee, You Seok

    2003-09-01

    Since the risk of food-borne pathogenic diseases such as E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella always remains in the military meal service system, it is necessary to develop the method to eliminate this problem. According to the preference survey of military meals, it is shown that soldiers preferred the improvement in quality such as tastes and variety to the increase in quantity. For this reason, the supply of diverse foods, improvement of cooking methods, and the complement of meal service facilities are required. The developed countries such as the United States maintain the facilities to control the environmental factors such as temperature, moisture, and oxygen and they develop and use the rapid methods to test the storage times of each category of foods based on the theoretical studies of food storage/preservation/processing and their experimental data. Due to the ordinary sanitation methods are gradually limited all over the world, as new technology for prevention of food-borne diseases and establishment to manufacture wholesome food, a radiation technology is very effective to ensure safe food and preservation/distribution, improve the safety of processed food and its manufacturing processes. And, the military meal service including combat rations furnishes viability, energy, ability for duty, and mental rest to soldiers. Furthermore, it ensures combat capabilities, enhances mobility power of troops, improves combat efficiency, and establishes the military supply system. It is necessary to study irradiation technique in order to establish the safe food supply system for military meal service and eliminate contamination such as food-borne disease for combat crews as an essential element in military power

  4. Fertilizer phosphorus in some Finnish soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armi Kaila

    1961-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper it is tried to trace the fate of fertilizer phosphorus in soil by comparing the analyses of soils from treated and untreated plots of field trials. This indirect approach cannot be expected to provide exact values, but it is likely to give an approximate answer. The results reported above do not in any marked degree change our present conception of the forms in which fertilizer phosphorus accumulates in soils. In the acid soils studied (pH 4—6.4 in 0.02 N CaCl2 superphosphate tended to increase the fractions which were extracted by NH4F or NaOH. Hyperphosphate phosphorus was mostly found in the acid-soluble fraction. During a longer period of dressing with phosphate an increase in the organic phosphorus content of a peat soil could be detected. In the incubation experiments the mineralization of organic phosphorus occurred at a higher rate in the samples from the plots treated with superphosphate than in those from the untreated one. It might be supposed that the organic phosphorus mineralized mainly originated from the plant residues. It seems that the fractionation method developed by CHANG and JACKSON (4 for the estimation of discrete forms of soil phosphorus is not quite satisfactory for tracing the fertilizer phosphorus in soils recently dressed with phosphates. In particular, it may be fallacious to conclude that the fraction extracted by NH4F would only represent phosphorus bound to aluminium and its compounds. At least in the absence of soil, a large part of phosphorus in dicalcium phosphate dihydrate falls into this fraction, and also a small amount of hyperphosphate phosphorus may be found in it. The test values for »available» phosphorus showed the effect of fertilizers in accordance with previous observations (9, 13. Acetic acid soluble P revealed the treatment with hyperphosphate, but only slightly the application of superphosphate. The test value for the sorbed P of BRAY and KURTZ (2, or phosphorus

  5. Towards global phosphorus security: A systems framework for phosphorus recovery and reuse options

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cordell, D.; Rosemarin, A.; Schroder, J.J.; Smit, A.L.

    2011-01-01

    Human intervention in the global phosphorus cycle has mobilised nearly half a billion tonnes of the element from phosphate rock into the hydrosphere over the past half century. The resultant water pollution concerns have been the main driver for sustainable phosphorus use (including phosphorus

  6. Independent colimitation for carbon dioxide and inorganic phosphorus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elly Spijkerman

    Full Text Available Simultaneous limitation of plant growth by two or more nutrients is increasingly acknowledged as a common phenomenon in nature, but its cellular mechanisms are far from understood. We investigated the uptake kinetics of CO(2 and phosphorus of the algae Chlamydomonas acidophila in response to growth at limiting conditions of CO(2 and phosphorus. In addition, we fitted the data to four different Monod-type models: one assuming Liebigs Law of the minimum, one assuming that the affinity for the uptake of one nutrient is not influenced by the supply of the other (independent colimitation and two where the uptake affinity for one nutrient depends on the supply of the other (dependent colimitation. In addition we asked whether the physiological response under colimitation differs from that under single nutrient limitation.We found no negative correlation between the affinities for uptake of the two nutrients, thereby rejecting a dependent colimitation. Kinetic data were supported by a better model fit assuming independent uptake of colimiting nutrients than when assuming Liebigs Law of the minimum or a dependent colimitation. Results show that cell nutrient homeostasis regulated nutrient acquisition which resulted in a trade-off in the maximum uptake rates of CO(2 and phosphorus, possibly driven by space limitation on the cell membrane for porters for the different nutrients. Hence, the response to colimitation deviated from that to a single nutrient limitation. In conclusion, responses to single nutrient limitation cannot be extrapolated to situations where multiple nutrients are limiting, which calls for colimitation experiments and models to properly predict growth responses to a changing natural environment. These deviations from single nutrient limitation response under colimiting conditions and independent colimitation may also hold for other nutrients in algae and in higher plants.

  7. Independent Colimitation for Carbon Dioxide and Inorganic Phosphorus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spijkerman, Elly; de Castro, Francisco; Gaedke, Ursula

    2011-01-01

    Simultaneous limitation of plant growth by two or more nutrients is increasingly acknowledged as a common phenomenon in nature, but its cellular mechanisms are far from understood. We investigated the uptake kinetics of CO2 and phosphorus of the algae Chlamydomonas acidophila in response to growth at limiting conditions of CO2 and phosphorus. In addition, we fitted the data to four different Monod-type models: one assuming Liebigs Law of the minimum, one assuming that the affinity for the uptake of one nutrient is not influenced by the supply of the other (independent colimitation) and two where the uptake affinity for one nutrient depends on the supply of the other (dependent colimitation). In addition we asked whether the physiological response under colimitation differs from that under single nutrient limitation. We found no negative correlation between the affinities for uptake of the two nutrients, thereby rejecting a dependent colimitation. Kinetic data were supported by a better model fit assuming independent uptake of colimiting nutrients than when assuming Liebigs Law of the minimum or a dependent colimitation. Results show that cell nutrient homeostasis regulated nutrient acquisition which resulted in a trade-off in the maximum uptake rates of CO2 and phosphorus, possibly driven by space limitation on the cell membrane for porters for the different nutrients. Hence, the response to colimitation deviated from that to a single nutrient limitation. In conclusion, responses to single nutrient limitation cannot be extrapolated to situations where multiple nutrients are limiting, which calls for colimitation experiments and models to properly predict growth responses to a changing natural environment. These deviations from single nutrient limitation response under colimiting conditions and independent colimitation may also hold for other nutrients in algae and in higher plants. PMID:22145031

  8. Independent colimitation for carbon dioxide and inorganic phosphorus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spijkerman, Elly; de Castro, Francisco; Gaedke, Ursula

    2011-01-01

    Simultaneous limitation of plant growth by two or more nutrients is increasingly acknowledged as a common phenomenon in nature, but its cellular mechanisms are far from understood. We investigated the uptake kinetics of CO(2) and phosphorus of the algae Chlamydomonas acidophila in response to growth at limiting conditions of CO(2) and phosphorus. In addition, we fitted the data to four different Monod-type models: one assuming Liebigs Law of the minimum, one assuming that the affinity for the uptake of one nutrient is not influenced by the supply of the other (independent colimitation) and two where the uptake affinity for one nutrient depends on the supply of the other (dependent colimitation). In addition we asked whether the physiological response under colimitation differs from that under single nutrient limitation.We found no negative correlation between the affinities for uptake of the two nutrients, thereby rejecting a dependent colimitation. Kinetic data were supported by a better model fit assuming independent uptake of colimiting nutrients than when assuming Liebigs Law of the minimum or a dependent colimitation. Results show that cell nutrient homeostasis regulated nutrient acquisition which resulted in a trade-off in the maximum uptake rates of CO(2) and phosphorus, possibly driven by space limitation on the cell membrane for porters for the different nutrients. Hence, the response to colimitation deviated from that to a single nutrient limitation. In conclusion, responses to single nutrient limitation cannot be extrapolated to situations where multiple nutrients are limiting, which calls for colimitation experiments and models to properly predict growth responses to a changing natural environment. These deviations from single nutrient limitation response under colimiting conditions and independent colimitation may also hold for other nutrients in algae and in higher plants.

  9. Molybdenum-99 supply: a global issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cote, R.V.

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses the global supply of Molybdenum 99 used in nuclear medicine. Following a disruption in supplies of isotopes in the last few years, a Canadian expert panel assessed the most viable options for securing a sustainable supply of Technitium 99 over the medium to long term. The general recommendations were to strive for diversity and redundancy throughout the supply chain, leverage multi-use infrastructure, continue with international coordination and seek processing standardization within North America.

  10. Management of the blood supply for a Jk(a-b-) patient with an anti-Jk3 in preparation for an urgent heart transplant: An illustrative example of a successful international cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thonier, V; Cohen-Bacrie, S; Loussert, I; Thornton, N; Djoudi, R; Woimant, G; Boulat, C; Pirenne, F; Peyrard, T

    2018-05-22

    The Kidd blood group system currently comprises two polymorphic and antithetical antigens, Jk a and Jk b , and one high-prevalence antigen, Jk3. Jk null individuals do not express any of the Kidd antigens, and are at risk of developing an anti-Jk3 which is known to be dangerous and responsible for acute or delayed hemolytic transfusion reaction. We report a case of an immunized Jk null patient, who was scheduled to undergo a heart transplant. In order to organize his blood provision management, two conference calls were held between the clinical team and the different staff involved in this challenging blood supply. In light of the blood needs, the available resources, and the constraints, a mix of fresh and frozen units were used. As the supply from France was not sufficient, Finland and New Zealand provided the majority of the fresh units. We report here how this international supply chain was organized, including the difficulties that we encountered. Anticipation, communication and flexibility were essential in making this heart transplant possible without needing to transfuse incompatible units. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. On the history of a reoccurring concept: phosphorus scarcity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich, Andrea E; Frossard, Emmanuel

    2014-08-15

    Despite evidence against imminent global phosphate rock depletion, phosphorus (P) scarcity scenarios and the subsequent consequences for global food security continue to be a matter of controversy. We provide a historicizing account to evaluate the degree and relevance of past human experiences with P scarcity. Using more than 80 literature sources, we trace the origin of the P scarcity concept and the first accounts of concerns; we report on three cases of scarcity discourse in the U.S. and revisit the concept of future resources. In addition, we present past evaluations of phosphate rock reserves and lifetime estimates for the world, the U.S., Morocco, and the Western Sahara, as well as past attempts to model phosphorus supply or collect information on phosphate rock. Our results show that current concerns have a long legacy and knowledge base to draw from and that promulgating the notion of depletion is inconsistent with past findings. We find that past depletion concerns were refuted by means of new resource appraisals, indicating that the supply was substantially larger than previously thought. Moreover, recommendations for national P conservation policies and other practices seem to have found little implementation. We demonstrate the merit of historic literacy for social learning and the weakness of the current P sustainability debate because it does not include this past knowledge. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Problems created on delayed supply of feedstock for the HDPE plant of Jam Petrochemical Complex (JPC) in Iran : a case study[The 1. international construction specialty conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Etemadzadeh, S.; Mortaheb, M. [Sharif Univ. of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Civil Engineering; Beigi, H. [Jam Petrochemical Co., Assaluyeh, Bushehr (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2006-07-01

    The total loss incurred due to delays in supply of feedstock and utilities over the past 2 years during Iran's construction boom in petrochemical plants was evaluated. The problems associated with the delay of feedstock supply and its impact on the final stages of a petrochemical project were discussed and the factors that affect the financial viability of a project were identified. In particular, the paper reviewed issues regarding equipment warranty and their pre-mature expiration; unavoidable rework prior to pre-commissioning; preservation and maintenance cost of equipment in a humid and hot environment; changes in technology and market demands; and, additional fixed costs covering salaries and maintenance costs. Remedial action plans addressing these issues were proposed in order to reduce the costs and any further delays of a project. The importance of technical audits at the feasibility stage of a project was emphasized along with the need to verify the accuracy of initial data for proper design and completion of a project.

  13. Intermodal Supply Chain Risk Management

    OpenAIRE

    Maslarić, Marinko; Brnjac, Nikolina; Bago, Drago

    2016-01-01

    Efficient and secure global supply chains contribute to the Improvement of the competitiveness of the products traded on international markets by reducing their costs and delivery time while increasing the reliability and security. Global supply chains are unthinkable without transport integration, which is usually accomplished through the form of intermodal transport systems. Intermodal transport systems are much more complex than the unimodal ones due to the number of stakeholders, included...

  14. Fertilizer Effect of Phosphorus Recycling Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilhelm Römer

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Between 2004 and 2011 the German Government funded 17 different projects to develop techniques of phosphorus recycling from wastewater, sewage sludges, and sewage sludge ashes. Several procedures had been tested, such as precipitation, adsorption, crystallization, nano-filtration, electro-dialysis, wet oxidation, pyrolysis, ion exchange, or bioleaching. From these techniques, 32 recycling products were tested by five different institutes for their agronomic efficiency, that is, their plant availability, mainly in pot experiments. This manuscript summarizes and compares these results to evaluate the suitability of different technical approaches to recycle P from wastes into applicable fertilizers. In total, 17 products of recycled sewage sludge ashes (SSA, one meat and bone meal ash, one sinter product of meat and bone meal, one cupola furnace slag, nine Ca phosphates from crystallization or from precipitation, Seaborne-Ca-phosphates, Seaborne-Mg-phosphate, and 3 different struvites were tested in comparison to controls with water soluble P, that is, either single super phosphate (SSP or triple super phosphate (TSP. Sandy and loamy soils (pH: 4.7–6.8; CAL-P: 33–49 ppm were used. The dominant test plant was maize. Phosphorus uptake from fertilizer was calculated by the P content of fertilized plants minus P content of unfertilized plants. Calculated uptake from all products was set in relation to uptake from water soluble P fertilizers (SSP or TSP as a reference value (=100%. The following results were found: (1 plants took up less than 25% P in 65% of all SSA (15 products; (2 6 products (26% resulted in P uptake of 25 and 50% relatively to water soluble P. Only one Mg-P product resulted in an uptake of 67%. With cupola furnace slag, 24% P uptake was reached on sandy soil and nearly the same value as TSP on loamy soil. The uptake results of Ca phosphates were between 0 and 50%. Mg-P products from precipitation processes consistently showed a

  15. Environmental Retail Supply Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kotzab, Herbert; Munch, Hilde; de Faultrier, Birgitte

    2011-01-01

    which were grouped into eight categories; they refer to “fundamental environmental attitude”, “use of energy”, “use of input material”, “product”, “packaging”, “transport”, “consumption” and “waste”. The level of environmental supply chain management can be characterised as very operational and very...... short-term oriented (green operations). Long-term oriented green design initiatives were hardly observed. Furthermore, the specific environmental activities of three retailers from Denmark, France and the UK were compared. Research limitations/implications – The empirical study investigates supply chain...... operations of retailers and excludes other areas of retail management. The results are based on material that is published by the respective companies and thus do not include internal reports. Originality/value – The main contribution of this paper is to test the proposition that global retailers follow...

  16. The Supply Chain Risk Management

    OpenAIRE

    Skitsko Volodymyr I.; Voynikov Mykola Yu.

    2018-01-01

    The article considers current approaches of risk-management in supply chains, the main steps of the risk management process are analyzed and detailed both for a separate enterprise – participant of supply chain, for the supply chain in general, and for the Beer game, based on the international risk management standards. The article provides a way to assess the risks of the «producer» in the Beer game according to the three strategies of its behavior, which presumably can correspond to differe...

  17. Phosphorus-32: practical radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballance, P.E.; Morgan, J.

    1987-01-01

    This monograph offers practical advice to Radiation Protection Advisors, Radiation Protection Supervisors and Research Supervisors, together with research workers, particularly those in the field of molecular biological research. The subject is dealt with under the following headings: physical properties, radiation and measurement methods, radiation units, phosphorus metabolism and health risks, protection standards and practical radiation protection, administrative arrangements, accidents, decontamination, emergency procedures, a basic written system for radiochemical work, with specialised recommendations for 32 P, and guidance notes of accident situations involving 32 P. (U.K.)

  18. Global Fertilizer and Manure, Version 1: Phosphorus Fertilizer Application

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Phosphorus Fertilizer Application dataset of the Global Fertilizer and Manure, Version 1 Data Collection represents the amount of phosphorus fertilizer nutrients...

  19. NGLs supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richardson, I.

    1999-01-01

    This presentation dealt with the supply of natural gas liquids (NGLs) as a prelude to a review of the Alliance pipeline project. With all approvals having been received both in Canada and the United States, and complete financing secured, construction of the line will commence in the spring of 1999, with operation scheduled to begin Oct. 1, 2000. U.S. midwest and Alberta field gas prices, natural gas production in Alberta and British Columbia, current Alberta gas exports, the Aux Sable's NGL markets, market access for Western Canadian NGLs, historical disposition of Alberta ethane, propane and butyl ethane availability in Alberta, and historical and forecast NGL recovery in Alberta and British Columbia with and without the Alliance pipeline were reviewed. It was concluded that additional natural gas pipeline capacity is necessary to stimulate industry activity and monetize Western Canada Sedimentary Basin reserves. In turn, increased natural gas production will stimulate NGL exports. The Alliance Pipeline will provide additional NGL export capacity and potentially increase producer netbacks while minimizing capital expenditures. . 14 figs

  20. Determination of phosphorus using derivative neutron activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scindia, Y.M.; Nair, A.G.C.; Reddy, A.V.R.; Manohar, S.B.

    2002-01-01

    For the determination of phosphorus in different matrices, the derivative neutron activation analysis is especially applicable to aqueous samples, since the conventional neutron activation analysis is not useful for the determination of phosphorus. Phosphorus when reacted with ammonium molybdate 4 hydrate and ammonium metavanadate forms molybdo vanado phosphoric acid. This complex is preconcentrated by extracting into methyl isobutyl ketone. The organic phase containing the molybdo vanado phosphoric acid is neutron activated and the phosphorus is determined through the activation product of 52 V. Preparation of this complex, its stoichiometry, application to trace level determination of phosphorus and improved detection limit are discussed. This method was applied for the analysis of industrial effluent samples. (author)

  1. Adaptive Evolution of Phosphorus Metabolism in Prochlorococcus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casey, John R; Mardinoglu, Adil; Nielsen, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Inorganic phosphorus is scarce in the eastern Mediterranean Sea, where the high-light-adapted ecotype HLI of the marine picocyanobacterium Prochlorococcus marinus thrives. Physiological and regulatory control of phosphorus acquisition and partitioning has been observed in HLI both in culture...... and in the field; however, the optimization of phosphorus metabolism and associated gains for its phosphorus-limited-growth (PLG) phenotype have not been studied. Here, we reconstructed a genome-scale metabolic network of the HLI axenic strain MED4 (iJC568), consisting of 568 metabolic genes in relation to 794...... through drastic depletion of phosphorus-containing biomass components but also through network-wide reductions in phosphate-reaction participation and the loss of a key enzyme, succinate dehydrogenase. These alterations occur despite the stringency of having relatively few pathway redundancies...

  2. Mathematical Modeling of Nitrous Oxide Production during Denitrifying Phosphorus Removal Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yiwen; Peng, Lai; Chen, Xueming; Ni, Bing-Jie

    2015-07-21

    A denitrifying phosphorus removal process undergoes frequent alternating anaerobic/anoxic conditions to achieve phosphate release and uptake, during which microbial internal storage polymers (e.g., Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA)) could be produced and consumed dynamically. The PHA turnovers play important roles in nitrous oxide (N2O) accumulation during the denitrifying phosphorus removal process. In this work, a mathematical model is developed to describe N2O dynamics and the key role of PHA consumption on N2O accumulation during the denitrifying phosphorus removal process for the first time. In this model, the four-step anoxic storage of polyphosphate and four-step anoxic growth on PHA using nitrate, nitrite, nitric oxide (NO), and N2O consecutively by denitrifying polyphosphate accumulating organisms (DPAOs) are taken into account for describing all potential N2O accumulation steps in the denitrifying phosphorus removal process. The developed model is successfully applied to reproduce experimental data on N2O production obtained from four independent denitrifying phosphorus removal study reports with different experimental conditions. The model satisfactorily describes the N2O accumulation, nitrogen reduction, phosphate release and uptake, and PHA dynamics for all systems, suggesting the validity and applicability of the model. The results indicated a substantial role of PHA consumption in N2O accumulation due to the relatively low N2O reduction rate by using PHA during denitrifying phosphorus removal.

  3. Nuclear fuel supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1960-01-01

    When the International Atomic Energy Agency was set up nearly three years ago, it was widely believed that it would soon become a world bank or broker for the supply of nuclear fuel. Some observers now seem to feel that this promise has been rather slow to come to fruition. A little closer analysis would, however, show that the promise can be fulfilled only in a certain objective context, and to the extent that this context exists, the development of the Agency's role has been commensurate with the actual needs of the situation

  4. Prediction of the maximum dosage to man from the fallout of nuclear devices V. Estimation of the maximum dose from internal emitters in aquatic food supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamplin, A.R.; Fisher, H.L.; Chapman, W.H.

    1968-01-01

    A method is described for estimating the maximum internal dose that could result from the radionuclides released to an aquatic environment. By means of this analysis one can identify the nuclides that could contribute most to the internal dose, and determine the contribution of each nuclide to the total dose. The calculations required to estimate the maximum dose to an infant's bone subsequent to the construction of a sea-level canal are presented to illustrate the overall method. The results are shown to serve the basic aims of preshot rad-safe analysis and of guidance for postshot documentation. The usefulness of the analysis in providing guidance for device design is further pointed out. (author)

  5. Study on the placement of phosphorus fertilizer to improve fertilizer utilization by lowland rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sisworo, W.H.; Riswantoro; Mardjo, M.

    1976-01-01

    An experiment for studying the placement of phosphorus fertilizer was carried out in the glass house by using 32 P-labelled superphosphate. The specific activity of the labelled fertilizer used was 0,25 mCi/g P 2 O 5 . Three placement methods were studied: (1) Hill placement: Fertilizer was burried at a distance of 5cm from the plants at the depth of 5 cm, (2) Surface placement: Fertilizer was spread on the surface, and (3) Soil mixed application: Fertilizer was mixed with the soil at the depth of 5 cm. Superphosphate was applied at the rates of 0, 30, 60, 90, and 120 kg P 25 /ha. Results obtained from the experiment showed that the dry matter production was significantly affected by the methods of placement of phosphorus fertilizer. Soil mixed placement gave the lowest yield of dry plant material. It differed significantly from the two other methods of placement. However, there was no significant difference between hill and surface placement. The placement of phosphorus fertilizer significantly affected the total uptake of phosphorus nutrient, uptake fertilizer phosphorus, and the percentage of fertilizer utilization. Surface placement gave the highest utilization of fertilizer when supplied at rates higher than 60 kg P 2 O 5 /ha. At low rate applications, hill placement was the best, but, at rates higher than 60 kg P 2 O 5 /ha the percentage of fertilizer utilization decreased. Soil mixed application was the least efficient fertilizer utilization. (author)

  6. The designing and development of a "Balanced Scorecard" for the International Procurement Department of the Procurement Directorate in the Hellenic Navy Supply Center

    OpenAIRE

    Polymenidis, Ilias

    2003-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited The Balanced Scorecard (BSC) is a performance management model that has been successfully implemented both in the private and public sectors. It is a framework for translating an organization's mission into an integrated set of performance indicators. Kaplan and Norton (1996) developed a BSC model, which has four generic perspectives: Financial, Customer, Internal Processes, and Learning and Growth. The objective of this research is to...

  7. Phosphorus Regulation in Chronic Kidney Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suki, Wadi N; Moore, Linda W

    2016-01-01

    Serum phosphorus levels stay relatively constant through the influence of multiple factors-such as parathyroid hormone, fibroblast growth factor 23, and vitamin D-on the kidney, bone, and digestive system. Whereas normal serum phosphorus ranges between 3 mg/dL to 4.5 mg/dL, large cross-sectional studies have shown that even people with normal kidney function are sometimes found to have levels ranging between 1.6 mg/dL and 6.2 mg/dL. While this may partially be due to diet and the factors mentioned above, total understanding of these atypical ranges of serum phosphorus remains uncertain. Risks for bone disease are high in people aged 50 and older, and this group comprises a large proportion of people who also have chronic kidney disease. Consuming diets low in calcium and high in phosphorus, especially foods with phosphate additives, further exacerbates bone turnover. Existing bone disease increases the risk for high serum phosphorus, and higher serum phosphorus has been associated with increased adverse events and cardiovascular-related mortality both in people with chronic kidney disease and in those with no evidence of disease. Once kidney function has deteriorated to end-stage disease (Stage 5), maintaining normal serum phosphorus requires dietary restrictions, phosphate-binding medications, and dialysis. Even so, normal serum phosphorus remains elusive in many patients with Stage 5 kidney disease, and researchers are testing novel targets that may inhibit intestinal transport of phosphorus to achieve better phosphate control. Protecting and monitoring bone health should also aid in controlling serum phosphorus as kidney disease advances.

  8. Modeling continuous cultures of microalgae colimited by nitrogen and phosphorus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bougaran, Gaël; Bernard, Olivier; Sciandra, Antoine

    2010-08-07

    It is well documented that the combination of low nitrogen and phosphorus resources can lead to situations where colimitation of phytoplankton growth arises, yet the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. Here, we propose a Droop-based model built on the idea that colimitation by nitrogen and phosphorus arises from the uptake of nitrogen. Indeed, since N-porters are active systems, they require energy that could be related to the phosphorus status of the cell. Therefore, we assumed that N uptake is enhanced by the P quota. Our model also accounts for the biological observations that uptake of a nutrient can be down-regulated by its own internal quota, and succeeds in describing the strong contrast for the non-limiting quotas under N-limited and P-limited conditions that was observed on continuous cultures with Selenastrum minutum and with Isochrysis affinis galbana. Our analysis suggests that, regarding the colimitation concept, N and P would be better considered as biochemically dependent rather than biochemically independent nutrients. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. International Symposium on Uranium Raw Material for the Nuclear Fuel Cycle: Exploration, Mining, Production, Supply and Demand, Economics and Environmental Issues. Presentations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The long term sustainability of nuclear power will depend on, among several factors, an adequate supply of uranium resources that can be delivered to the marketplace at competitive prices. New exploration technologies and a better understanding of the genesis of uranium ores will be required to discover often deep-seated and increasingly hard to find uranium deposits. Exploration, mining and milling technologies should be environmentally benign, and site decommissioning plans should meet the requirements of increasingly stringent environmental regulations and societal expectations. The purpose of this symposium is to analyse uranium supply–demand scenarios and to present and discuss new developments in uranium geology, exploration, mining and processing, as well as in environmental requirements for uranium operations and site decommissioning. The presentations and discussions at URAM-2014 will: - Lead to a better understanding of the adequacy of uranium sources (both primary and secondary) to meet future demand; - Provide information on geological models, new exploration concepts, knowledge and technologies that will potentially lead to the discovery and development of new uranium resources; - Describe new production technologies that have the potential to more efficiently and sustainably develop new uranium resources; and - Document the environmental compatibility of uranium production and the overall effectiveness of progressive final decommissioning and, where required, remediation of production facilities.

  10. International Symposium on Uranium Raw Material for the Nuclear Fuel Cycle: Exploration, Mining, Production, Supply and Demand, Economics and Environmental Issues. Book of Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The long term sustainability of nuclear power will depend on, among several factors, an adequate supply of uranium resources that can be delivered to the marketplace at competitive prices. New exploration technologies and a better understanding of the genesis of uranium ores will be required to discover often deep-seated and increasingly hard to find uranium deposits. Exploration, mining and milling technologies should be environmentally benign, and site decommissioning plans should meet the requirements of increasingly stringent environmental regulations and societal expectations. The purpose of this symposium is to analyse uranium supply–demand scenarios and to present and discuss new developments in uranium geology, exploration, mining and processing, as well as in environmental requirements for uranium operations and site decommissioning. The presentations and discussions at URAM-2014 will: - Lead to a better understanding of the adequacy of uranium sources (both primary and secondary) to meet future demand; - Provide information on geological models, new exploration concepts, knowledge and technologies that will potentially lead to the discovery and development of new uranium resources; - Describe new production technologies that have the potential to more efficiently and sustainably develop new uranium resources; and - Document the environmental compatibility of uranium production and the overall effectiveness of progressive final decommissioning and, where required, remediation of production facilities.

  11. Bronx River bed sediments phosphorus pool and phosphorus compound identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J.; Pant, H. K.

    2008-12-01

    Phosphorus (P) transport in the Bronx River degraded water quality, decreased oxygen levels, and resulted in bioaccumulation in sediment potentially resulting in eutrophication, algal blooms and oxygen depletion under certain temperature and pH conditions. The anthropogenic P sources are storm water runoff, raw sewage discharge, fertilizer application in lawn, golf course and New York Botanical Garden; manure from the Bronx zoo; combined sewoverflows (CSO's) from parkway and Hunts Point sewage plant; pollutants from East River. This research was conducted in the urban river system in New York City area, in order to control P source, figure out P transport temporal and spatial variations and the impact on water quality; aimed to regulate P application, sharing data with Bronx River Alliance, EPA, DEP and DEC. The sediment characteristics influence the distribution and bioavailbility of P in the Bronx River. The P sequential extraction gave the quantitative analysis of the P pool, quantifying the inorganic and organic P from the sediments. There were different P pool patterns at the 15 sites, and the substantial amount of inorganic P pool indicated that a large amount P is bioavailable. The 31P- NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy) technology had been used to identify P species in the 15 sites of the Bronx River, which gave a qualitative analysis on phosphorus transport in the river. The P compounds in the Bronx River bed sediments are mostly glycerophophate (GlyP), nucleoside monophosphates (NMP), polynucleotides (PolyN), and few sites showed the small amount of glucose-6-phosphate (G6P), glycerophosphoethanoamine (GPEA), phosphoenopyruvates (PEP), and inosine monophosphate (IMP). The land use spatial and temporal variations influence local water P levels, P distributions, and P compositions.

  12. Phosphorus metabolism and estimation of phosphorus requirements for sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Louvandini, H.; Vitti, D.M.S.S.

    1996-01-01

    The main objective of the present work was to determine the effects of different dietary phosphorus (P) levels on endogenous faecal loss and to estimate the minimum daily requirement of P for sheep. The study was conducted with 24 Suffolk sheep which received a basic diet consisting of a hay-concentrate mixture. The treatment consisted of different amounts of bone meal, added to the basic diet, so as to obtain supplementary P levels of 0, 2 and 3 g/day. Twenty-one days after the introduction of the experimental diet, 7.4 MBq radioactive P ( 32 P) was injected in the left jugular vein of each sheep and blood, feces and urine were collected daily for 8 days at 24-hour intervals. The samples were analysed for inorganic P and for radioactive specific activities. Mean endogenous faecal losses of P were 10.00, 31.79, 39.35 and 38.06 mg/kg live weight (LW) per day in sheep supplemented with 0, 1, 2 and 3 g respectively. A positive linear relation ship was observed between endogenous faecal loss and consumed P, indicating that this loss was linked to dietary P. Total P excretion in the faeces, as well as P absorption, retention urinary excretion and salivary secretion were also directly related to P intake, as part of the mechanism of homeostatic control of organism animal. The minimum endogenous faecal loss for zero P intake, calculated by interpolation, was 8.27 mg/kg LW per day, and for zero balance, the calculated phosphorus consumption was 21.36 mg/kg LW per day. (author)

  13. Modelling of in-stream nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations using different sampling strategies for calibration data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jomaa, Seifeddine; Jiang, Sanyuan; Yang, Xiaoqiang; Rode, Michael

    2016-04-01

    It is known that a good evaluation and prediction of surface water pollution is mainly limited by the monitoring strategy and the capability of the hydrological water quality model to reproduce the internal processes. To this end, a compromise sampling frequency, which can reflect the dynamical behaviour of leached nutrient fluxes responding to changes in land use, agriculture practices and point sources, and appropriate process-based water quality model are required. The objective of this study was to test the identification of hydrological water quality model parameters (nitrogen and phosphorus) under two different monitoring strategies: (1) regular grab-sampling approach and (2) regular grab-sampling with additional monitoring during the hydrological events using automatic samplers. First, the semi-distributed hydrological water quality HYPE (Hydrological Predictions for the Environment) model was successfully calibrated (1994-1998) for discharge (NSE = 0.86), nitrate-N (lowest NSE for nitrate-N load = 0.69), particulate phosphorus and soluble phosphorus in the Selke catchment (463 km2, central Germany) for the period 1994-1998 using regular grab-sampling approach (biweekly to monthly for nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations). Second, the model was successfully validated during the period 1999-2010 for discharge, nitrate-N, particulate-phosphorus and soluble-phosphorus (lowest NSE for soluble phosphorus load = 0.54). Results, showed that when additional sampling during the events with random grab-sampling approach was used (period 2011-2013), the hydrological model could reproduce only the nitrate-N and soluble phosphorus concentrations reasonably well. However, when additional sampling during the hydrological events was considered, the HYPE model could not represent the measured particulate phosphorus. This reflects the importance of suspended sediment during the hydrological events increasing the concentrations of particulate phosphorus. The HYPE model could

  14. Bifunctional Phosphorus Dendrimers and Their Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caminade, Anne-Marie; Majoral, Jean-Pierre

    2016-04-23

    Dendrimers are hyperbranched and monodisperse macromolecules, generally considered as a special class of polymers, but synthesized step-by-step. Most dendrimers have a uniform structure, with a single type of terminal function. However, it is often desirable to have at least two different functional groups. This review will discuss the case of bifunctional phosphorus-containing dendrimers, and the consequences for their properties. Besides the terminal functions, dendritic structures may have also a function at the core, or linked off-center to the core, or at the core of dendrons (dendritic wedges). Association of two dendrons having different terminal functions leads to Janus dendrimers (two faces). The internal structure can also possess functional groups on one layer, or linked to one layer, or on several layers. Finally, there are several ways to have two types of terminal functions, besides the case of Janus dendrimers: either each terminal function bears two functions sequentially, or two different functions are linked to each terminal branching point. Examples of each type of structure will be given in this review, as well as practical uses of such sophisticated structures in the fields of fluorescence, catalysis, nanomaterials and biology.

  15. Estimation of the algal-available phosphorus pool in sediments of a large, shallow eutrophic lake (Taihu, China) using profiled SMT fractional analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Mengyuan; Zhu Guangwei; Li Wei; Zhang Yunlin; Zhao Linlin; Gu Zhao

    2013-01-01

    Because large, shallow lakes are heavily influenced by wind–wave disturbance, it is difficult to estimate internal phosphorus load using traditional methods. To estimate the potential contribution of phosphorus from sediment to overlying water in eutrophic Lake Taihu, phosphorus fractions of surface and deep layer sediments were quantified and analyzed for algal bloom potential using a Standard Measurements and Testing (SMT) sequential extraction method and incubation experiments. Phosphorus bound to Fe, Al and Mn oxides and hydroxides (Fe–P) and organic phosphorus (OP) were to be found bioactive. The difference in Fe–P and OP contents between surface and deep layers equates to the sediment pool of potentially algal-available phosphorus. This pool was estimated at 5168 tons for the entire lake and was closely related to pollution input and algal blooms. Profiled SMT fractionation analysis is thus a potentially useful tool for estimating internal phosphorus loading in large, shallow lakes. - Highlights: ► We used profiled sediment P activity by SMT fractionation to evaluate the P release potential in large and shallow lakes. ► We built the relationship between sediment SMT fractionations of P and the P release by algal bloom degradation process. ► We discussed the supporting mechanism of sediment P release to Microcystis algal bloom in a large and shallow lake. ► We discussed the nutrient control strategy of algal bloom in shallow lakes in highly human activities disturbance catchment. - Profiled SMT fractional analysis of internal phosphorus pool in large, shallow lake.

  16. Phosphorus determination by various substoichiometric methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shigematsu, Toshio; Kudo, Kiyoshi

    1981-01-01

    Various substoichiometric methods have been classified from a view point of the substoichiometric separation. Based upon the substoichiometric separation, phosphorus was determined substoichiometrically by a direct method, a method of carrier amount variation and a comparison method for the irradiated sample. The direct method was applied to the determination of phosphorus in orchard leaves (SRM-1571). The analytical value was 0.23 +- 0.01%. Phosphorus in orchard leaves and spinach (SRM-1570) was determined by an ordinary method which devided the sample into equal parts in the method of carrier amount variation. Analytical values of orchard leaves and spinach were 0.22 +- 0.02% and 0.56 +- 0.04%, respectively. Moreover, a new modification of the method of carrier amount variation was studied by the use of various standard samples such as red phosphorus, spinach and orchard leaves. These standard samples were also employed for the determination of phosphorus in orchard leaves and 0.21 +- 0.01% was obtained. All these results are in good agreement with the value reported by NBS. The comparison method was applied to the determination of phosphorus in a semiconductor silicon single crystal. As a result of the correction of 32 P activity induced by the secondary nuclear reaction of 30 Si, 7.9 ppb and 3.1 ppb were obtained for the phosphorus concentrations in the single crystal silicon. (author)

  17. Prevalence of phosphorus containing food additives in grocery stores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janeen B. Leon

    2012-06-01

    In conclusion, phosphorus additives are commonly present in groceries and contribute significantly to the phosphorus content of foods. Moreover, phosphorus additive foods are less costly than additive-free foods. As a result, phosphorus additives may be an important contributor to hyperphosphatemia among persons with chronic kidney disease

  18. Effect of Nitrogen and Phosphorus on Yield and Yield Components of Sesame (Sesamumindicum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Ibrahim; Manzoor Hussain; Ahmad Khan; Yousaf Jamal; Muhammad Ali; Muhammad Faisal Anwar Malik

    2014-01-01

    Nitrogen is a structural component of chlorophyll and protein therefore adequate supply of nitrogen is beneficial for both carbohydrates and protein metabolism as it promotes cell division and cell enlargement, resulting in more leaf area and thus ensuring good seed and dry matter yield. Theexperiment entitled effect of nitrogen and phosphorus on yield and yield components of sesame were conducted at New Developmental Farm of the University of Agriculture Peshawar during kharif 2013. Randomiz...

  19. Measurement of phosphorus in metals by RNAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul, R.L.

    2000-01-01

    An RNAA procedure has been developed for measurement of low-level phosphorus in metals. Samples are irradiated at a neutron flux of 2.7 x 10 13 n x cm -2 x s -1 then mixed with carrier and dissolved in acid. After chemical separation and purification of the phosphorus and gravimetric determination of carrier yield, 32 P is determined using a beta proportional counter. The detection limit for a 0.1 g sample irradiated for 30 minutes is 5 μg/kg. The method has been used to determine 6.4 ± 0.6 mg/kg phosphorus is SRM 2175 refractory alloy. (author)

  20. Radiochemical analysis of phosphorus in milk samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, R.M. de; Cunha, I.I.L.

    1991-01-01

    The determination of phosphorus in milk samples by thermal neutron activation analysis employing radiochemical separation is described. The radiochemical separation consists of the simultaneous irradiation of samples and standards, dissolution of the milk samples in a perchloric acid and nitric acid mixture, addition of zinc hold-back carrier, precipitation of phosphorus as ammonium phospho molybdate (A.M.P.) and sample counting in a Geiger-Mueller detector. The analysis sources of error were studied and the established method was applied to phosphorus analyses in commercial milk samples. (author)

  1. Effect of available phosphorus in paddy soils on phosphorus uptake of rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Delin; Zhu Zhaomin

    1996-01-01

    Relation between available phosphorus in 6 types of paddy soil in Hunan Province and its uptake by rices was studied by 32 P tracing. The result indicated that the P uptake by rices varied with available P content in the paddy soils. When the content was high, the rice absorbed more P nutrient from the soil and decreased the P uptake from the P fertilizer, which showed a poor contribution of the P fertilizer to the rice yield increase, and vice versa. The recovery of the P fertilizer varied with the soil types. Ranked the first was in paddy soils derived from lacustrine deposite but little rice yield increased. While in paddy soils derived from limestone, the yield greatly increased although the recovery of P fertilizer was the lowest. Rice absorbed P nutrient during its whole growth duration. No matter the different uptake amount due to the P supply by the different soils, rice plant generally had the greatest P nutrient uptake from tillering stage to elongation stage, and along with the rise of the rices dry matter, amount of P uptake was gradually increased but the P content in unit dry matter was tended to decrease. (author). 5 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs

  2. Use of Phosphorus Isotopes for Improving Phosphorus Management in Agricultural Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-10-01

    Phosphorus is an essential element in plant, human and animal nutrition. Soils with low levels of phosphorus are widespread in many regions of the world, and the deficiency limits plant growth and reduces crop production and food quality. This publication provides comprehensive and up to date information on several topics related to phosphorus in soil–plant systems, in agricultural systems and in the environment. It presents the theoretical background as well as practical information on how to use nuclear and radioisotope tracer techniques in both laboratory and greenhouse experiments to assess soil phosphorus forms and plant-available soil phosphorus pools, and to understand the cycling processes in soil–plant systems. The publication focuses on practical applications of radiotracer techniques and can serve as resource material for research projects on improving sustainable phosphorus management in agricultural systems and as practical guidance on the use of phosphate isotopes in soil–plant research

  3. Global and regional phosphorus budgets in agricultural systems and their implications for phosphorus-use efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Lun

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of phosphorus (P fertilizer to agricultural soils increased by 3.2 % annually from 2002 to 2010. We quantified in detail the P inputs and outputs of cropland and pasture and the P fluxes through human and livestock consumers of agricultural products on global, regional, and national scales from 2002 to 2010. Globally, half of the total P inputs into agricultural systems accumulated in agricultural soils during this period, with the rest lost to bodies of water through complex flows. Global P accumulation in agricultural soil increased from 2002 to 2010 despite decreases in 2008 and 2009, and the P accumulation occurred primarily in cropland. Despite the global increase in soil P, 32 % of the world's cropland and 43 % of the pasture had soil P deficits. Increasing soil P deficits were found for African cropland vs. increasing P accumulation in eastern Asia. European and North American pasture had a soil P deficit because the continuous removal of biomass P by grazing exceeded P inputs. International trade played a significant role in P redistribution among countries through the flows of P in fertilizer and food among countries. Based on country-scale budgets and trends we propose policy options to potentially mitigate regional P imbalances in agricultural soils, particularly by optimizing the use of phosphate fertilizer and the recycling of waste P. The trend of the increasing consumption of livestock products will require more P inputs to the agricultural system, implying a low P-use efficiency and aggravating P-stock scarcity in the future. The global and regional phosphorus budgets and their PUEs in agricultural systems are publicly available at https://doi.pangaea.de/10.1594/PANGAEA.875296.

  4. Global and regional phosphorus budgets in agricultural systems and their implications for phosphorus-use efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lun, Fei; Liu, Junguo; Ciais, Philippe; Nesme, Thomas; Chang, Jinfeng; Wang, Rong; Goll, Daniel; Sardans, Jordi; Peñuelas, Josep; Obersteiner, Michael

    2018-01-01

    The application of phosphorus (P) fertilizer to agricultural soils increased by 3.2 % annually from 2002 to 2010. We quantified in detail the P inputs and outputs of cropland and pasture and the P fluxes through human and livestock consumers of agricultural products on global, regional, and national scales from 2002 to 2010. Globally, half of the total P inputs into agricultural systems accumulated in agricultural soils during this period, with the rest lost to bodies of water through complex flows. Global P accumulation in agricultural soil increased from 2002 to 2010 despite decreases in 2008 and 2009, and the P accumulation occurred primarily in cropland. Despite the global increase in soil P, 32 % of the world's cropland and 43 % of the pasture had soil P deficits. Increasing soil P deficits were found for African cropland vs. increasing P accumulation in eastern Asia. European and North American pasture had a soil P deficit because the continuous removal of biomass P by grazing exceeded P inputs. International trade played a significant role in P redistribution among countries through the flows of P in fertilizer and food among countries. Based on country-scale budgets and trends we propose policy options to potentially mitigate regional P imbalances in agricultural soils, particularly by optimizing the use of phosphate fertilizer and the recycling of waste P. The trend of the increasing consumption of livestock products will require more P inputs to the agricultural system, implying a low P-use efficiency and aggravating P-stock scarcity in the future. The global and regional phosphorus budgets and their PUEs in agricultural systems are publicly available at https://doi.pangaea.de/10.1594/PANGAEA.875296.

  5. Assessing the Long Term Impact of Phosphorus Fertilization on Phosphorus Loadings Using AnnAGNPS

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan, Yongping; Bingner, Ronald L.; Locke, Martin A.; Stafford, Jim; Theurer, Fred D.

    2011-01-01

    High phosphorus (P) loss from agricultural fields has been an environmental concern because of potential water quality problems in streams and lakes. To better understand the process of P loss and evaluate the effects of different phosphorus fertilization rates on phosphorus losses, the USDA Annualized AGricultural Non-Point Source (AnnAGNPS) pollutant loading model was applied to the Ohio Upper Auglaize watershed, located in the southern portion of the Maumee River Basin. In this study, the ...

  6. Activity measurement of phosphorus-32 in the presence of pure beta-emitting impurities

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Simpson, BRS

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Authors describe the activity measurements undertaken at the CSIR’s National Metrology Laboratory on a solution of the pure beta emitting Radio nuclide phosphorus-32 that formed part of an international key comparison. Depending on the production...

  7. Phosphorus K4 Crystal: A New Stable Allotrope

    OpenAIRE

    Jie Liu; Shunhong Zhang; Yaguang Guo; Qian Wang

    2016-01-01

    The intriguing properties of phosphorene motivate scientists to further explore the structures and properties of phosphorus materials. Here, we report a new allotrope named K 4 phosphorus composed of three-coordinated phosphorus atoms in non-layered structure which is not only dynamically and mechanically stable, but also possesses thermal stability comparable to that of the orthorhombic black phosphorus (A17). Due to its unique configuration, K 4 phosphorus exhibits exceptional properties: i...

  8. Screening crops for efficient phosphorus acquisition in a low phosphorus soil using radiotracer technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meena, S.; Malarvizhi, P.; Rajeswari, R.

    2017-01-01

    Deficiency of phosphorus (P) is the major limitation to agricultural production. Identification of cultivars with greater capacity to grow in soils having low P availability (phosphorus efficiency) will help in P management in a sustainable way. Green house experiment with maize (CO 6) and cotton (MCU 13) as test crops with four levels of phosphorus (0, 3.75, 7.50 and 15 mg P kg -1 soil) was conducted in a P deficient soil (7.2 kg ha -1 ) to study the phosphorus acquisition characteristics and to select efficient crop using 32 P radiotracer technique. Carrier free 32 P obtained as orthophosphoric acid in dilute hydrochloric acid medium from the Board of Radiation and Isotope Technology, Mumbai was used for labeling the soil @ 3200 kBq pot -1 . After 60 days the crops were harvested and the radioactivity was measured in the plant samples using Liquid scintillation counter (PerkinElmer - Tricarb 2810 TR). Different values of specific radioactivity and Isotopically Exchangeable Phosphorus for maize and cotton indicated that chemically different pools of soil P were utilized and maize accessing a larger pool than cotton. Maize having recorded high Phosphorus Use Efficiency, Phosphorus Efficiency and low Phosphorus Stress Factor values, it is a better choice for P deficient soils. Higher Phosphorus Acquisition Efficiency of maize (59 %) than cotton (48%) can be related to the ability of maize to take up P from insoluble inorganic P forms. (author)

  9. Metabolic factors affecting enhanced phosphorus uptake by activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boughton, W H; Gottfried, R J; Sinclair, N A; Yall, I

    1971-10-01

    Activated sludges obtained from the Rilling Road plant located at San Antonio, Tex., and from the Hyperion treatment plant located at Los Angeles, Calif., have the ability to remove all of the orthophosphate normally present in Tucson sewage within 3 hr after being added to the waste water. Phosphorus removal was independent of externally supplied sources of energy and ions, since orthophosphate and (32)P radioactivity were readily removed from tap water, glass-distilled water, and deionized water. Phosphorus uptake by Rilling sludge in the laboratory appears to be wholly biological, as it has an optimum pH range (7.7 to 9.7) and an optimum temperature range (24 to 37 C). It was inhibited by HgCl(2), iodoacetic acid, p-chloromercuribenzoic acid, NaN(3), and 2, 4-dinitrophenol (compounds that affect bacterial membrane permeability, sulfhydryl enzymes, and adenosine triphosphate synthesis). Uptake was inhibited by 1% NaCl but was not affected by 10(-3)m ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid disodium salt (a chelating agent for many metallic ions).

  10. Phosphorus in antique iron music wire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodway, M

    1987-05-22

    Harpsichords and other wire-strung musical instruments were made with longer strings about the beginning of the 17th century. This change required stronger music wire. Although these changes coincided with the introduction of the first mass-produced steel (iron alloyed with carbon), carbon was not found in samples of antique iron harpsichord wire. The wire contained an amount of phosphorus sufficient to have impeded its conversion to steel, and may have been drawn from iron rejected for this purpose. The method used to select pig iron for wire drawing ensured the highest possible phosphorus content at a time when its presence in iron was unsuspected. Phosphorus as an alloying element has had the reputation for making steel brittle when worked cold. Nevertheless, in replicating the antique wire, it was found that lowcarbon iron that contained 0.16 percent phosphorus was easily drawn to appropriate gauges and strengths for restringing antique harpsichords.

  11. The phosphorus and the transition metals chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathey, F.

    1988-01-01

    The 1988 progress report, concerning the Polytechnic School unit (France), which studies the phosphorus and the transition metals chemistry, is presented. The laboratory activities are related to the following topics: the phosporus heterocyclic chemistry, the phosphorus-carbon double bonds chemistry, the new transition metals phosphorus compounds, the phosphonates and their uses. Some practical applications of homogeneous catalysis and new materials synthesis are investigated. The main results obtained are: the discovery of the tetra-phosphafulvalenes, the utilization of a new synthesis method of the phosphorus-carbon double bonds and the stabilization of the α-phosphonyled carbanions by the lithium diisopropylamidourea. The papers, the congress communications and the thesis are also shown [fr

  12. short communication synthesis of stabilized phosphorus ylides

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    made from phosphine and an alkyl halide [1], and they are also obtained by the Michael ... have established a convenient, one-pot method for preparing stabilized phosphorus ylides ... The ylides are converted to electron-poor alkenes via.

  13. Yellow phosphorus-induced Brugada phenocopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dharanipradab, Mayakrishnan; Viswanathan, Stalin; Kumar, Gokula Raman; Krishnamurthy, Vijayalatchumy; Stanley, Daphene Divya

    Metallic phosphides (of aluminum and phosphide) and yellow phosphorus are commonly used rodenticide compounds in developing countries. Toxicity of yellow phosphorus mostly pertains to the liver, kidney, heart, pancreas and the brain. Cardiotoxicity with associated Brugada ECG pattern has been reported only in poisoning with metallic phosphides. Brugada phenocopy and hepatic dysfunction were observed in a 29-year-old male following yellow phosphorus consumption. He had both type 1 (day1) and type 2 (day2) Brugada patterns in the electrocardiogram, which resolved spontaneously by the third day without hemodynamic compromise. Toxins such as aluminum and zinc phosphide have been reported to induce Brugada ECG patterns due to the generation of phosphine. We report the first case of yellow phosphorus-related Brugada phenocopy, without hemodynamic compromise or malignant arrhythmia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Electrical activation of phosphorus in silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goh, K.E.J.; Oberbeck, L.; Simmons, M.Y.; Clark, R.G.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: We present studies of phosphorus δ-doping in silicon with a view to determining the degree of electrical activation of the dopants. These results have a direct consequence for the use of phosphorus as a qubit in a silicon-based quantum computer such as that proposed by Kane. Room temperature and 4 K Hall effect measurements are presented for phosphorus δ-doped layers grown in n-type silicon using two different methods. In the first method, the δ-layer was deposited by a phosphorus effusion cell in an MBE chamber. In the second method, the Si surface was dosed with phosphine gas and then annealed to 550 deg C to incorporate P into the substrate. In both methods, the P δ-doped layer was subsequently encapsulated by ∼25 nm of Si grown epitaxially. We discuss the implications of our results on the fabrication of the Kane quantum computer

  15. Nanotubes based on monolayer blue phosphorus

    KAUST Repository

    Montes Muñ oz, Enrique; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate structural stability of monolayer zigzag and armchair blue phosphorus nanotubes by means of molecular dynamics simulations. The vibrational spectrum and electronic band structure are determined and analyzed as functions of the tube

  16. Water Quality Criteria for White Phosphorus

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-08-01

    the number of eggs produced per adult , Chronic tests using inidges exposed to elemental phosphorus through contaminated sediments were also performed by...hemoglobinemia, hemoglobinuria, hematuria, bilirubinemia, mild (Cases 2 and 3) to severe (Case 1) hypocalcemia , -61- r. ., TABLE 14. SUMMARY OF CASUALTIES...day yellow phosphorus in corn oil for 30 days or less, lost weight. Young adult rats injected with 0.5 mg/kg/day lost less weight than fully mature or

  17. Physicochemical properties of mixed phosphorus halides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sladkov, I.B.; Tugarinova, N.S.

    1996-01-01

    Certain physicochemical properties (thermodynamic characteristics at boiling point, critical constants, density of liquid on the saturation line) of mixed phosphorus halides (PI 3 , PI 2 F, PIF 2 , PI 2 Cl, PICl 2 , PI 1 Br, PIBr 2 , PIClF, PIBrCl, etc.) are determined by means of approximate methods. Reliability of the results obtained is confirmed by comparison of calculated and experimental data for phosphorus compounds of the same type. 7 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs

  18. Phosphorus and phytase levels for layer hens

    OpenAIRE

    Juliana Cristina Ramos Rezende; Antonio Carlos de Laurentiz; Rosemeire da Silva Filardi; Vitor Barbosa Fascina; Daniella Aparecida Berto; Sérgio Turra Sobrane Filho

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this research was to evaluate the performance and bone quality of laying hens after peak production fed diets containing phosphorus levels and phytase. An experiment was conducted with 384 Hy-line distributed in a completely randomized in a factorial 4 x 3 with 4 levels of available phosphorus and 3 levels of phytase. The experimental period was divided into four periods of 28 days, at the end of each cycle were determined experimental feed intake, egg production, egg weight,...

  19. Phosphorus Processing—Potentials for Higher Efficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Ludwig Hermann; Fabian Kraus; Ralf Hermann

    2018-01-01

    In the aftermath of the adoption of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and the Paris Agreement (COP21) by virtually all United Nations, producing more with less is imperative. In this context, phosphorus processing, despite its high efficiency compared to other steps in the value chain, needs to be revisited by science and industry. During processing, phosphorus is lost to phosphogypsum, disposed of in stacks globally piling up to 3–4 billion tons and growing by about 200 million ...

  20. SEASONAL CHANGES IN PHOSPHORUS LOAD FLOWING OUT OF SMALL AGRICULTURAL CATCHMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Pulikowski

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article distribution of monthly phosphorus loads flowing out of two agricultural catchments which are located in different physiographic conditions of Lower Silesia was analysed. Loads of phosphorus runoff from the catchment located in the piedmont part of Lower Silesia in each month rarely exceed 0.10 kg P ∙ ha-1. The size of annual load is determined by loads obtained in two months of early spring. Much lower loads obtained for lowland catchment, located near Wroclaw. Values ​​calculated for each month rarely exceed the value of 0.01 kg P ∙ ha-1. Culmination of loads bringing away is a bit more extended in a time compared to the catchment located on Sudety Mts. Foreland. Much higher loads are observed during the period from January to April – this period has a major impact on the size of phosphorus load that flows out from this catchment during whole hydrological year. The obtained results clearly indicate that the threat of watercourses and water reservoirs supply in phosphorus compounds from agricultural land is periodic and it is particularly high during early spring. Phosphorus load flowing out from the analyzed catchments is very diverse. From facility located on Sudety Foothill in hydrological year, during research period, flowed away average 0.81 kg P ∙ ha-1. Significantly lower values were obtained for second facility and it was average 0.15 kg P ∙ ha-1 during a year. The size of load discharged during a year is largely determined by amount of phosphorus load flowing out during winter half of the year (from XI to IV. In case of foothill catchment in this period flowed out average 0.56 kg P ∙ ha-1, which presents 69% of annual load and in lowland catchment this percentage was even slightly higher and was 73%.

  1. Dietary phosphorus depletion in sheep: Longterm effects on bone structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breves, G.; Prokop, M.

    1990-01-01

    Experiments were performed on 6 sheep from 8 months old to study effects of dietary phosphorus depletion on bone structure. Sheep were given a semisynthetic diet of chopped straw and pellets for 38 weeks. Mean daily P in the diet was 0.97 g and 3 sheep were given additional NaH2PO4.H2O, increasing daily P supply to 4.5 g (controls). Bone density was estimated photometrically within the laterodistal metaphysis of the foreleg and standardized by a copper step wedge. Metacarpal cortical thickness was also measured. Cortical thickness and bone density started to decrease about 4 weeks after start of P depletion. The trabecular structure of the distal radius was coarser and less dense with reduced cross-linking between trabeculae

  2. Putting Phosphorus First: The Need to Know and Right to Know Call for a Revised Hierarchy of Natural Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friedrich-W. Wellmer

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to develop two concepts regarding phosphorus that will serve as a contribution fulfilling the call for intergenerational equity: to improve knowledge of future resources and to develop a framework by setting priorities for maximizing availability with a hierarchy of natural resources. The increasing human demand for minerals and metals is causing persistent concern about long-term supply security. This holds true particularly for phosphorus. Phosphorus is bioessential; it cannot be substituted. There are no unlimited resources for phosphorus. The question of how large the reserves are and the potential for finding additional reserves and resources for a long-term supply are, therefore, of interest to numerous stakeholders, from governments to individuals. We examine governments’ needs and individuals’ rights to know private exploration data. Because of the essential nature of phosphorus, we emphasize the public’s special right to know as much as possible about phosphate reserves, resources and the geopotential for new discoveries, based upon the basic human right to feed oneself in dignity. To fulfill the call for intergenerational equity, however, knowledge alone is not enough; guidelines for management have to follow. This can be achieved by defining a hierarchy of natural resources for setting priorities. For humankind’s technological and cultural development, a sufficient supply of energy resources must be considered the key element; therefore, efforts to maximize information that will enable best decisions to be made have been the strongest. A hierarchy of natural resources with fossil and nuclear energies at the top was proposed. However, with the new development of renewable forms of energy and the decreasing role of fossil-fuel energy, the hierarchy of natural resources that defines priorities must be revised. We propose a hierarchy that replaces fossil-fuel energy at the top with phosphorus.

  3. Amendment in phosphorus levels moderate the chromium toxicity in Raphanus sativus L. as assayed by antioxidant enzymes activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayantan, D; Shardendu

    2013-09-01

    Chromium (Z=24), a d-block element, is a potent carcinogen, whereas phosphorus is an essential and limiting nutrient for the plant growth and development. This study undertakes the role of phosphorus in moderating the chromium toxicity in Raphanus sativus L., as both of them compete with each other during the uptake process. Two-factor complete randomized experiment (5 chromium × 5 phosphorus concentrations) was conducted for twenty eight days in green house. The individuals of R. sativus were grown in pots supplied with all essential nutrients. The toxic effects of chromium and the moderation of toxicity due to phosphorus amendment were determined as accumulation of chromium, nitrogen, phosphorus in root tissues and their effects were also examined in the changes in biomass, chlorophyll and antioxidant enzyme levels. Cr and N accumulation were almost doubled at the highest concentration of Cr supply, without any P amendment, whereas at the highest P concentration (125 mM), the accumulation was reduced to almost half. A significant reduction in toxic effects of Cr was determined as there was three-fold increase in total chlorophyll and biomass at the highest P amendment. Antioxidant enzymes like superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidase and lipid peroxidation were analyzed at various levels of Cr each amended with five levels of P. It was observed that at highest level of P amendment, the reduction percentage in toxicity was 33, 44, 39 and 44, correspondingly. Conclusively, the phosphorus amendment moderates the toxicity caused by the supplied chromium in R. sativus. This finding can be utilized to develop a novel technology for the amelioration of chromium stressed fields. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Recovery of phosphorus from sewerage treatment sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manuilova, Anastasia

    1999-07-01

    This thesis is a review of the current state of technologies for the removal of phosphorus from wastewater and sludge, and the recovery and re-use of phosphorus. It explains the need for phosphorus removal and describes the current removal processes. Focus is given to phosphorus crystallisation processes and to the processes which treat sewage treatment sludges into potential sources of phosphorus. An interesting possibility to recover phosphorus from sewage sludge by use of Psenner fractionation is also discussed. By this method, the following phosphate fractions of technological significance may be distinguished: (1) redox sensitive phosphates, mainly bound to Fe(OH){sub 3}; (2) phosphate adsorbed to surfaces (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}), exchangeable against OH{sup -}, and alkali-soluble phosphate; (3) phosphate bound to CaCO{sub 3}, MgCO{sub 3} and in apatite; and (4) organically bound phosphate. The basic removal mechanisms, process schemes and treatment results are described. Two experiments with three different types of sludges from Henriksdal wastewater treatment plant in Stockholm were performed in the laboratory. It was shown that the addition of sodium hydroxide or hydrochloric acid cause the significant release of phosphate (about 80%) for all types of sludges. If a whole Psenner fractionation was performed the phosphate release is approximately 100%.

  5. Effects of white phosphorus on mallard reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vann, S.I.; Sparling, D.W.; Ottinger, M.A.

    2000-01-01

    Extensive waterfowl mortality involving thousands of ducks, geese, and swans has occurred annually at Eagle River Flats, Alaska since at least 1982. The primary agent for this mortality has been identified as white phosphorus. Although acute and subacute lethality have been described, sublethal effects are less well known. This study reports on the effects of white phosphorus on reproductive function in the mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) in captivity. Fertility, hatching success, teratogenicity, and egg laying frequency were examined in 70 adult female mallards who received up to 7 daily doses of 0, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 mg/kg of white phosphorus. Measurements of fertility and hatchability were reduced by the white phosphorus. Teratogenic effects were observed in embryos from hens dosed at all treatment levels. Egg laying frequency was reduced even at the lowest treatment level; treated hens required a greater number of days to lay a clutch of 12 eggs than control hens. After two doses at 2.0 mg/kg, all females stopped laying completely for a minimum of 10 days and laying frequency was depressed for at least 45 days. Fertility of 10 adult male mallards dosed with 1.0 mg/kg of white phosphorus did not differ from 10 controls, but plasma testosterone levels were significantly (p free-ranging mallards may be impaired if they are exposed to white phosphorus at typical field levels.

  6. Dissolved oxygen and dietary phosphorus modulate utilization and effluent partitioning of phosphorus in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) aquaculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDaniel, Nichole K.; Sugiura, Shozo H.; Kehler, Thomas; Fletcher, John W.; Coloso, Relicardo M.; Weis, Peddrick; Ferraris, Ronaldo P.

    2005-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) is the limiting nutrient in freshwater primary production, and excessive levels cause premature eutrophication. P levels in aquaculture effluents are now tightly regulated. Increasing our understanding of waste P partitioning into soluble, particulate, and settleable fractions is important in the management of effluent P. When water supply is limited, dissolved oxygen concentration (DO) decreases below the optimum levels. Therefore, we studied effects of DO (6 and 10 mg/L) and dietary P (0.7 and 1.0% P) on rainbow trout growth, P utilization, and effluent P partitioning. Biomass increased by 40% after 3 weeks. DO at 10 mg/L significantly increased fish growth and feed efficiency, and increased the amount of P in the soluble fraction of the effluent. Soluble effluent P was greater in fish fed 1.0% P. DO increases fish growth and modulates P partitioning in aquaculture effluent. - Dissolved oxygen concentration not only influences fish growth rate, but also affects dietary phosphorus utilization by fish in intensive aquaculture

  7. Open innovation and supply chain management in food machinery ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Open innovation and supply chain management in food machinery supply chain: a ... This paradigm describes a new approach to internal R&D management, which ... a picture of the adoption of open innovation in the food machinery industry.

  8. Governance In Project Configured Supply Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Christian; Larsen, Casper Schultz; Gottlieb, Stefan Christoffer

    2006-01-01

    are integrated knowledge, material, workforce and management subsystem deliveries (the building core produced of pre-cast concrete, the elevator supply and the kitchen supply). Further 17 deliveries draws on more than 50 materials and component suppliers. The case project generated 160 failures over three months......This case study covers a Danish architectural, engineering and construction supply network for a specific building project. Failures in supply are used as indicators of the governance forms employed. The following governance forms are present; internal integration and hierarchy, SCM......-efforts, subsystem deliveries and contracting per project. The case exhibits a very uneven integration upstream: Three engineering design areas are integrated with production and the client function. Amongst supplies, the architectural design is the most 'clean-cut' knowledge supply, whereas the supplies...

  9. Challenging the planetary boundaries II: Assessing the sustainable global population and phosphate supply, using a systems dynamics assessment model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sverdrup, Harald U.; Ragnarsdottir, Kristin Vala

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Peak phosphorus supply behaviour. → Recycling essential for phosphorus supply. → Phosphorus supply is connected to food security. - Abstract: A systems dynamics model was developed to assess the planetary boundary for P supply in relation to use by human society. It is concluded that present day use rates and poor recycling rates of P are unsustainable at timescales beyond 100+ a. The predictions made suggest that P will become a scarce and expensive material in the future. The study shows clearly that market mechanisms alone will not be able to secure an efficient use before a large part of the resource will have been allowed to dissipate into the natural environment. It is suggested that population size management and effective recycling measures must be planned long term to avoid unpleasant consequences of hunger and necessary corrections imposed on society by mass balance and thermodynamics.

  10. Oil and gas. Gas supply under pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forbes, A.

    2008-01-01

    The latest review of natural gas markets from the International Energy Agency (IEA) paints a picture of growing demand in the face of rising prices, a strengthening link between gas and electricity markets, and a globalising influence from increasingly flexible LNG supplies. But there are growing signs that security of supply is under threat from underinvestment, delays and cost escalation

  11. Coal supply and transportation model (CSTM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-11-01

    The Coal Supply and Transportation Model (CSTM) forecasts annual coal supply and distribution to domestic and foreign markets. The model describes US coal production, national and international coal transportation industries. The objective of this work is to provide a technical description of the current version of the model

  12. Quantification Of {sup 1}5{sup N} Internal Transformation To Assess Nitrogen Supply Capacity In Deforested Soil; Kuantifikasi Transformasi Internal {sup 5N} ntuk Memprediksi Daya Suplai Nitrogen Pada Lahan Paska Deforestasi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Handayani, I P; Prawito, P [Bengkulu University, Bengkulu (Indonesia); Sisworo, E L [Center for Research and Development of Isotopes and Radiation Technology, National Nuclear Energy Agency, Jakarta (Indonesia)

    2002-07-01

    Quantification of deforested soil's capacity to supply available N via mineralization and immobilization using {sup 15N} pool dilution is crucial to make fertilizer recommendation. The objective of this research was to measure the soil's capacity to minemlize and ilmnobilize N, so that the actual value of available N released by soil can be predicted. The results showed that Imperata grassland released the highest available N (amonium + nitrate) about 33.93 mg/kg/d and can immobilize 11.68 mg/kg/d of N. On the other hand, agriculture lields had the lowest inorganic N by nearly 23.15 mg/kg/d, and no immobilization occurred. The implication is that agriculture fields have a very low labile and stabile pool N (nearly 0), while Imperata grassland have capacity to store more pool N into labile or stabil pool (about 34%). In conclusion, dynamics of N cycling in ecosystem are dependent upon the content of pool C-N utilized by microorganisms and plants.

  13. The renaissance of black phosphorus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Xi; Wang, Han; Huang, Shengxi; Xia, Fengnian; Dresselhaus, Mildred S

    2015-04-14

    One hundred years after its first successful synthesis in the bulk form in 1914, black phosphorus (black P) was recently rediscovered from the perspective of a 2D layered material, attracting tremendous interest from condensed matter physicists, chemists, semiconductor device engineers, and material scientists. Similar to graphite and transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), black P has a layered structure but with a unique puckered single-layer geometry. Because the direct electronic band gap of thin film black P can be varied from 0.3 eV to around 2 eV, depending on its film thickness, and because of its high carrier mobility and anisotropic in-plane properties, black P is promising for novel applications in nanoelectronics and nanophotonics different from graphene and TMDs. Black P as a nanomaterial has already attracted much attention from researchers within the past year. Here, we offer our opinions on this emerging material with the goal of motivating and inspiring fellow researchers in the 2D materials community and the broad readership of PNAS to discuss and contribute to this exciting new field. We also give our perspectives on future 2D and thin film black P research directions, aiming to assist researchers coming from a variety of disciplines who are desirous of working in this exciting research field.

  14. Total Value of Phosphorus Recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Brooke K; Baker, Lawrence A; Boyer, Treavor H; Drechsel, Pay; Gifford, Mac; Hanjra, Munir A; Parameswaran, Prathap; Stoltzfus, Jared; Westerhoff, Paul; Rittmann, Bruce E

    2016-07-05

    Phosphorus (P) is a critical, geographically concentrated, nonrenewable resource necessary to support global food production. In excess (e.g., due to runoff or wastewater discharges), P is also a primary cause of eutrophication. To reconcile the simultaneous shortage and overabundance of P, lost P flows must be recovered and reused, alongside improvements in P-use efficiency. While this motivation is increasingly being recognized, little P recovery is practiced today, as recovered P generally cannot compete with the relatively low cost of mined P. Therefore, P is often captured to prevent its release into the environment without beneficial recovery and reuse. However, additional incentives for P recovery emerge when accounting for the total value of P recovery. This article provides a comprehensive overview of the range of benefits of recovering P from waste streams, i.e., the total value of recovering P. This approach accounts for P products, as well as other assets that are associated with P and can be recovered in parallel, such as energy, nitrogen, metals and minerals, and water. Additionally, P recovery provides valuable services to society and the environment by protecting and improving environmental quality, enhancing efficiency of waste treatment facilities, and improving food security and social equity. The needs to make P recovery a reality are also discussed, including business models, bottlenecks, and policy and education strategies.

  15. THE CHEMICAL EVOLUTION OF PHOSPHORUS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobson, Heather R.; Thanathibodee, Thanawuth; Frebel, Anna; Roederer, Ian U.; Cescutti, Gabriele; Matteucci, Francesca

    2014-01-01

    Phosphorus is one of the few remaining light elements for which little is known about its nucleosynthetic origin and chemical evolution, given the lack of optical absorption lines in the spectra of long-lived FGK-type stars. We have identified a P I doublet in the near-ultraviolet (2135/2136 Å) that is measurable in stars of low metallicity. Using archival Hubble Space Telescope-Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph spectra, we have measured P abundances in 13 stars spanning –3.3 ≤ [Fe/H] ≤ -0.2, and obtained an upper limit for a star with [Fe/H] ∼ -3.8. Combined with the only other sample of P abundances in solar-type stars in the literature, which spans a range of –1 ≤ [Fe/H] ≤ +0.2, we compare the stellar data to chemical evolution models. Our results support previous indications that massive-star P yields may need to be increased by a factor of a few to match stellar data at all metallicities. Our results also show that hypernovae were important contributors to the P production in the early universe. As P is one of the key building blocks of life, we also discuss the chemical evolution of the important elements to life, C-N-O-P-S, together

  16. The Chemical Evolution of Phosphorus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Heather R.; Thanathibodee, Thanawuth; Frebel, Anna; Roederer, Ian U.; Cescutti, Gabriele; Matteucci, Francesca

    2014-12-01

    Phosphorus is one of the few remaining light elements for which little is known about its nucleosynthetic origin and chemical evolution, given the lack of optical absorption lines in the spectra of long-lived FGK-type stars. We have identified a P I doublet in the near-ultraviolet (2135/2136 Å) that is measurable in stars of low metallicity. Using archival Hubble Space Telescope-Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph spectra, we have measured P abundances in 13 stars spanning -3.3 production in the early universe. As P is one of the key building blocks of life, we also discuss the chemical evolution of the important elements to life, C-N-O-P-S, together. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. This work is supported through program AR-13246. Other portions of this work are based on data gathered with the 6.5 m Magellan Telescopes located at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile, and the McDonald Observatory of the University of Texas at Austin.

  17. Radiation load of the electro-thermal production of phosphorus. Part 1. The inhalation dose for operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erkens, W.H.H.

    2003-01-01

    The phosphate ore which is processed by Thermphos International in Vlissingen, Netherlands, to produce element phosphorus contains circa 1 Bq per gram uranium 238. As a result of this production process radionuclides are emitted and slags that contain natural radioisotopes are formed. The slags can be used as a building material for roads and water works. During the production of phosphorus the waste material calcinate is formed as well. Operators, working in the production process of phosphorus and laborers, working in road construction and hydraulic engineering inhale radioisotopes. In two articles attention will be paid to the inhalation doses, how the doses are measured, measures that were taken to reduce and control the doses, and the ALARA-principles. This article is focused on the inhalation doses for operators in the phosphorus production industry [nl

  18. Estimate of dietary phosphorus intake using 24-h urine collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimoto, Yuuka; Sakuma, Masae; Ohta, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Akitsu; Matsushita, Asami; Umeda, Minako; Ishikawa, Makoto; Taketani, Yutaka; Takeda, Eiji; Arai, Hidekazu

    2014-01-01

    Increases in serum phosphorus levels and dietary phosphorus intake induces vascular calcification, arterial sclerosis and cardiovascular diseases. Limiting phosphorus intake is advisable, however, no assessment methods are capable of estimating dietary phosphorus intake. We hypothesized that urinary phosphorus excretion can be translated into estimation of dietary phosphorus intake, and we evaluated whether a 24-h urine collection method could estimate dietary phosphorus intake. Thirty two healthy subjects were recruited for this study. Subjects collected urine samples over 24 h and weighed dietary records. We calculated dietary protein intake and phosphorus intake from dietary records and urine collection, and investigated associations between the two methods in estimating protein and phosphorus intake. Significant positive correlations were observed between dietary records and UC for protein and phosphorus intake. The average intakes determined from dietary records were significantly higher than from urine collection for both protein and phosphorus. There was a significant positive correlation between both the phosphorus and protein difference in dietary records and urine collection. The phosphorus-protein ratio in urine collection was significantly higher than in dietary records. Our data indicated that the 24-h urine collection method can estimate the amount of dietary phosphorus intake, and the results were superior to estimation by weighed dietary record. PMID:25120281

  19. Simulating soil phosphorus dynamics for a phosphorus loss quantification tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadas, Peter A; Joern, Brad C; Moore, Philip A

    2012-01-01

    Pollution of fresh waters by agricultural phosphorus (P) is a water quality concern. Because soils can contribute significantly to P loss in runoff, it is important to assess how management affects soil P status over time, which is often done with models. Our objective was to describe and validate soil P dynamics in the Annual P Loss Estimator (APLE) model. APLE is a user-friendly spreadsheet model that simulates P loss in runoff and soil P dynamics over 10 yr for a given set of runoff, erosion, and management conditions. For soil P dynamics, APLE simulates two layers in the topsoil, each with three inorganic P pools and one organic P pool. It simulates P additions to soil from manure and fertilizer, distribution among pools, mixing between layers due to tillage and bioturbation, leaching between and out of layers, crop P removal, and loss by surface runoff and erosion. We used soil P data from 25 published studies to validate APLE's soil P processes. Our results show that APLE reliably simulated soil P dynamics for a wide range of soil properties, soil depths, P application sources and rates, durations, soil P contents, and management practices. We validated APLE specifically for situations where soil P was increasing from excessive P inputs, where soil P was decreasing due to greater outputs than inputs, and where soil P stratification occurred in no-till and pasture soils. Successful simulations demonstrate APLE's potential to be applied to major management scenarios related to soil P loss in runoff and erosion. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  20. Sustainable Phosphorus Chemistry: A Silylphosphide Synthon for the Generation of Value-Added Phosphorus Chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slootweg, J Chris

    2018-05-07

    Avoiding white phosphorus: Cummins and Geeson have recently described the conversion of phosphoric acid into the novel bis(trichlorosilyl)phosphide anion, which serves as a key intermediate in the synthesis of organophosphines, hexafluorophosphate, and phosphine gas in a reaction sequence that does not rely on white phosphorus. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Phosphorus use efficiency of maize: an investigation using radiotracer phosphorus (32P)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meena, S.

    2017-01-01

    A better understanding on the nutrient uptake and utilization by plants is essential for developing better nutrient efficient cultivars suited for optimal production. Precise information on the PUE of crops and P dynamics can be obtained with the help of radiotracer technique. To study the phosphorus acquisition and phosphorus use efficiency of added sources in maize using 32 P, a pot culture experiment was conducted in a medium P soil (21.26 kg ha -1 ). The treatments were P as Single Superphosphate, Enriched FYM with Single Superphosphate (EFYM), DAP, Nutriseed pack (SSP), Nutriseed pack (DAP). The above treatments were applied along with phosphobacteria. Totally there were ten treatments replicated four times. Phosphorus sources were tagged with 32 P (obtained as 32 P in orthophosphoric medium from the Board of Radiation and Isotope Technology) and applied as per the treatments. Radioactive 32 P in the grain and stover sample was determined using Liquid Scintillation Counter (Perkin Elmer Tricarb 2810 R). Using the data, per cent phosphorus derived from fertilizer (%Pdff), per cent phosphorus derived from soil (%Pdfs), Phosphorus Use Efficiency (PUE) and A value were determined. Application of Phosphorus (SSP, DAP, enriched FYM with SSP, Nutriseed pack (SSP) and Nutriseed pack (DAP)) along with PB increased the per cent phosphorus derived from fertilizer (% Pdff), P uptake from fertilizer and PUE. The highest PUE of 25.38 was recorded in the treatment where enriched FYM with SSP was applied along with PB. (author)

  2. Estimation of phosphorus flux in rivers during flooding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yen-Chang; Liu, Jih-Hung; Kuo, Jan-Tai; Lin, Cheng-Fang

    2013-07-01

    Reservoirs in Taiwan are inundated with nutrients that result in algal growth, and thus also reservoir eutrophication. Controlling the phosphorus load has always been the most crucial issue for maintaining reservoir water quality. Numerous agricultural activities, especially the production of tea in riparian areas, are conducted in watersheds in Taiwan. Nutrients from such activities, including phosphorus, are typically flushed into rivers during flooding, when over 90% of the yearly total amount of phosphorous enters reservoirs. Excessive or enhanced soil erosion from rainstorms can dramatically increase the river sediment load and the amount of particulate phosphorus flushed into rivers. When flow rates are high, particulate phosphorus is the dominant form of phosphorus, but sediment and discharge measurements are difficult during flooding, which makes estimating phosphorus flux in rivers difficult. This study determines total amounts of phosphorus transport by measuring flood discharge and phosphorous levels during flooding. Changes in particulate phosphorus, dissolved phosphorus, and their adsorption behavior during a 24-h period are analyzed owing to the fact that the time for particulate phosphorus adsorption and desorption approaching equilibrium is about 16 h. Erosion of the reservoir watershed was caused by adsorption and desorption of suspended solids in the river, a process which can be summarily described using the Lagmuir isotherm. A method for estimating the phosphorus flux in the Daiyujay Creek during Typhoon Bilis in 2006 is presented in this study. Both sediment and phosphorus are affected by the drastic discharge during flooding. Water quality data were collected during two flood events, flood in June 9, 2006 and Typhoon Bilis, to show the concentrations of suspended solids and total phosphorus during floods are much higher than normal stages. Therefore, the drastic changes of total phosphorus, particulate phosphorus, and dissolved phosphorus in

  3. Peak Phosphorus: Clarifying the Key Issues of a Vigorous Debate about Long-Term Phosphorus Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart White

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the latest information and perspectives on global phosphorus scarcity. Phosphorus is essential for food production and modern agriculture currently sources phosphorus fertilizers from finite phosphate rock. The 2008 food and phosphate fertilizer price spikes triggered increased concerns regarding the depletion timeline of phosphate rock reserves. While estimates range from 30 to 300 years and are shrouded by lack of publicly available data and substantial uncertainty, there is a general consensus that the quality and accessibility of remaining reserves are decreasing and costs will increase. This paper clarifies common sources of misunderstandings about phosphorus scarcity and identifies areas of consensus. It then asks, despite some persistent uncertainty, what would it take to achieve global phosphorus security? What would a ‘hard-landing’ response look like and how could preferred ‘soft-landing’ responses be achieved?

  4. Phosphorus recovery as struvite from eutropic waters by XDA-7 resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huanwen; Ye, Zhiping; Lin, Ying; Wang, Fengying

    2012-01-01

    Phosphorus releases into aquatic environment and its subsequent contribution to eutrophication have resulted in a widespread global pollution issue. However, phosphorus is a non-renewable source. The potential supplies of phosphorus are decreasing worldwide. Therefore, removal and recovery of phosphorus from the eutropic waters is important, emergent and necessary. In this research, experiments for recovering phosphate from eutropic waters by anion exchange combined with struvite precipitation were conducted. The results indicated that the prepared XDA-7 resin was an effective adsorbent for phosphate. The adsorption isotherm of XDA-7 resin was found to be a modified Freundlich type. The maximum phosphate adsorption (20.9 mg/g) occurred in the pH range of 6.0-8.0. Phosphate adsorbed on the XDA-7 resin was effectively desorbed with 8% NaCl solution, and the resin was able to be regenerated with 3% NaClO and 4% NaOH solutions. Phosphate desorbed from the resin was recovered as magnesium ammonium phosphate (struvite). The obtained struvite was analyzed by acid dissolution method, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The struvite precipitate was found to be 75.8% in purity, a high-value fertilizer.

  5. Renewables in Global Energy Supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    Renewable energies are essential contributors to the energy supply portfolio as they contribute to world energy supply security, reducing dependency on fossil fuel resources, and provide opportunities for mitigating greenhouse gases. Differences in definition and lack of adequate data complicated the discussion between participants on these key issues. The International Energy Agency believes that this fact sheet can be of use to all to facilitate the debate on the past, current and future place and role of renewables in total energy supply. Our goal is to present as objectively as possible the main elements of the current renewables energy situation. The definitions and coverage of national statistics vary between countries and organisations. In this fact sheet, the renewables definition includes combustible renewables and waste (CRW), hydro, geothermal, solar, wind, tide and wave energy.

  6. The effect of problems on supply chain wide efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micheline J. Naude

    2011-11-01

    This article reports on an exploratory empirical study to illustrate the effect of problems at one party in the supply chain on the whole supply chain. The study was done at automotive component manufacturers. To determine how problems at one place permeate through the whole supply chain, correlation testing was done between supply-side, internal operations, and distribution or customer-side problems. The study found that problems experienced at one place in the supply chain had a negative impact throughout the supply chain. Automotive supply chains should therefore be managed more as a system, taking into consideration the effect of decision making and actions at one part of the supply chain on other parts of the supply chain. There should be a supply chain wide co-operative effort to find solutions to inefficiencies at all places in the supply chain.

  7. The influence of different phosphorus supply on phosphorus turnover in growing broiler chicks by means of 32P isotope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AL-Masri, M.R.; Guenther, K.D.

    1988-01-01

    In two experiments four diets were fed to male broiler chicks from day 10 to 29 of age ad libitum. The basal diet contained 0,32% P from inorganic origin (group IV). All other diets were supplemented up to 0,65% P with Monocalciumphosphate (MCP, group I), MCP + Na-phytate (group II) and Na-phytate (group III). By addition of CaCO 3 an equal Ca/P ratio of 1,6:1 was adjusted in the diets. At 14 days of age the chicks were injected with 32 P-NaPO 4 in the right leg (1,480 KBq). P retention was calculated following the comparative slaughter technique. Isotope dilution technique was used to determine endogenous fecal and renal P excretion. From retention and endogenous excretion P turnover within the animal was derived. The influence of feed P source on endogenous P excretion is higher than the influence of total P in the diet. Elevated inorganic P content of the diet effects increased P turnover and endogenous excretion. A comparison of relative P excretion and availability of feed P (group I = 100) in the four treatments resulted in: 100, 67, 35, 15 or 100, 72, 36, 59, respectively. 29%, 34%, 35% or 64% of available P were retained, respectively. The ratio of relative retention to relative endogenous excretion of absorbed P was 0,41, 0,52, 0,54, 1,78 in the four treatments. 20 refs., 3 figs., 8 tabs. (author)

  8. Secondary poisoning of kestrels by white phosphorus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparling, D.W.; Federoff, N.E.

    1997-01-01

    Since 1982, extensive waterfowl mortality due to white phosphorus (P4) has been observed at Eagle River Flats, a tidal marsh near Anchorage, Alaska. Ducks and swans that ingest P4 pellets become lethargic and may display severe convulsions. Intoxicated waterfowl attract raptors and gulls that feed on dead or dying birds. To determine if avian predators can be affected by secondary poisoning, we fed American kestrels (Falco sparverius) 10-day-old domestic chickens that had been dosed with white phosphorus. Eight of 15 kestrels fed intact chicks with a pellet of P4 implanted in their crops died within seven days. Three of 15 kestrels fed chicks that had their upper digestive tracts removed to eliminate any pellets of white phosphorus also died. Hematocrit and hemoglobin in kestrels decreased whereas lactate dehydrogenaseL, glucose, and alanine aminotransferase levels in plasma increased with exposure to contaminated chicks. Histological examination of liver and kidneys showed that the incidence and severity of lesions increased when kestrels were fed contaminated chicks. White phosphorus residues were measurable in 87% of the kestrels dying on study and 20% of the survivors. This study shows that raptors can become intoxicated either by ingesting portions of digestive tracts containing white phosphorus pellets or by consuming tissues of P4 contaminated prey.

  9. The Adequacy of Phosphorus Binder Prescriptions Among American Hemodialysis Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huml, Anne M.; Sullivan, Catherine M.; Leon, Janeen B.; Sehgal, Ashwini R.

    2013-01-01

    Because hemodialysis treatment has a limited ability to remove phosphorus, dialysis patients must restrict dietary phosphorus intake and use phosphorus binding medication. Among patients with restricted dietary phosphorus intake (1000 mg/d), phosphorus binders must bind about 250 mg of excess phosphorus per day and among patients with more typical phosphorus intake (1500 mg/d), binders must bind about 750 mg per day. To determine the phosphorus binding capacity of binder prescriptions among American hemodialysis patients, we undertook a cross-sectional study of a random sample of in-center chronic hemodialysis patients. We obtained data for one randomly selected patient from 244 facilities nationwide. About one-third of patients had hyperphosphatemia (serum phosphorus level > 5.5 mg/dL). Among the 224 patients prescribed binders, the mean phosphorus binding capacity was 256 mg/d (SD 143). 59% of prescriptions had insufficient binding capacity for restricted dietary phosphorus intake, and 100% had insufficient binding capacity for typical dietary phosphorus intake. Patients using two binders had a higher binding capacity than patients using one binder (451 vs. 236 mg/d, p phosphorus balance. Use of two binders results in higher binder capacity. Further work is needed to understand the impact of binder prescriptions on mineral balance and metabolism and to determine the value of substantially increasing binder prescriptions. PMID:23013171

  10. Microbiology of aquatic environments: Characterizations of the microbiotas of municipal water supplies, the International Space Station Internal Active Thermal Control System's heat transport fluid, and US Space Shuttle drinking water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardini, James Nicholas, III

    An understanding of the microbiota within life support systems is essential for the prolonged presence of humans in space. This is because microbes may cause disease or induce biofouling and/or corrosion within spacecraft water systems. It is imperative that we develop effective high-throughput technologies for characterizing microbial populations that can eventually be used in the space environment. This dissertation describes testing and development of such methodologies, targeting both bacteria and viruses in water, and examines the bacterial and viral diversity within two spacecraft life support systems. The bacterial community of the International Space Station Internal Active Thermal Control System (IATCS) was examined using conventional culture-based and advanced molecular techniques including adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and Limulus Amebocyte Lysate (LAL) assays, direct microscopic examination, and analyses of 16S rRNA gene libraries from the community metagenome. The cultivable heterotrophs of the IATCS fluids ranged from below detection limit to 1.1x10 5/100 ml, and viable cells, measured by ATP, ranged from 1.4x10 3/100 ml to 7.7x105/100 ml. DNA extraction, cloning, sequencing, and bioinformatic analysis of the clones from 16S RNA gene libraries showed members of the firmicutes, alpha, beta, and gamma-proteobacteria to be present in the fluids. This persistent microbial bioburden and the presence of probable metal reducers, biofilm formers, and opportunistic pathogens illustrate the need for better characterization of bacterial communities present within spacecraft fluids. A new methodology was developed for detection of viruses in water using microarrays. Samples were concentrated by lyophilization, resuspended and filtered (0.22microm). Viral nucleic acids were then extracted, amplified, fluorescently labeled and hybridized onto a custom microarray with probes for ˜1000 known viruses. Numerous virus signatures were observed. Human Adenovirus C and

  11. Genotypic differences in phosphorus use efficiency and yield of wetland rice of southern Viet Nam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bui Thi Hong Thanh; Le Dac Lieu; Luong Thu Tra; Mai Thanh Son; Nguyen Dang Nghia; Do Trung Binh

    1996-01-01

    This study was conducted during 1992 to 1994 with the objective of assessing genotypic differences in phosphorus use efficiency of wetland rice (Oriza sativa L.) and to select genotypes which grow well on soils low in available P or requiring only small amounts of added phosphorus fertilizer. In the first experiment, 24 genotypes of rice were screened under field conditions at low P (0 P added) and high P (90 kg P 2 O 5 /ha) on a gray soil of South Viet Nam. Significant genotypic differences were found in straw and grain yield, total P uptake, plant height and phosphorus use efficiency. Grain yield was highly correlated with phosphorus use efficiency. The effect of P supply was generally small. On average P supply decreased straw yield and increased grain yield. In the second experiment, four genotypes selected from the first experiment were grown under greenhouse conditions for four weeks supplied with 0, 30 and 90 ppm. Dry weight of shoots did not respond to P fertilization, but dry weight of roots increased with increasing P supply. The two efficient genotypes, G6 and G22, showed a higher root/shoot ratio than the two inefficient genotypes, G11 and G19. This indicates a higher potential for P acquisition of G6 and G22. In the third experiment, the same contrasting genotypes, and G18 with intermediate efficiency, were grown under field conditions at 0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 kg P 2 O 5 /ha. Of the two inefficient genotypes, G11 gave the highest grain yield at 60 and G19 at 90 kg P 2 O 5 /ha; G18 gave a clear response up to 60 kg P 2 O 5 /ha. Based on the information obtained in this study we conclude that G6 and G22 are efficiently and well adapted rice genotypes to gray soils of South Viet Nam, low in available P. At low P supply G6 may be slightly better than G22. Further, the 15 N tracer study showed that for G6, a small P supply (30 kg P 2 O 5 /ha) can increase the % N recover from urea applied at 120 kg N/ha. (author). 12 refs, 6 figs, 3 tabs

  12. Genotypic differences in phosphorus use efficiency and yield of wetland rice of southern Viet Nam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong Thanh, Bui Thi; Lieu, Le Dac; Tra, Luong Thu; Son, Mai Thanh [Center of Nuclear Techniques, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam); Nghia, Nguyen Dang; Binh, Do Trung [Agricultural Science Inst., Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam)

    1996-07-01

    This study was conducted during 1992 to 1994 with the objective of assessing genotypic differences in phosphorus use efficiency of wetland rice (Oriza sativa L.) and to select genotypes which grow well on soils low in available P or requiring only small amounts of added phosphorus fertilizer. In the first experiment, 24 genotypes of rice were screened under field conditions at low P (0 P added) and high P (90 kg P{sub 2}O{sub 5}/ha) on a gray soil of South Viet Nam. Significant genotypic differences were found in straw and grain yield, total P uptake, plant height and phosphorus use efficiency. Grain yield was highly correlated with phosphorus use efficiency. The effect of P supply was generally small. On average P supply decreased straw yield and increased grain yield. In the second experiment, four genotypes selected from the first experiment were grown under greenhouse conditions for four weeks supplied with 0, 30 and 90 ppm. Dry weight of shoots did not respond to P fertilization, but dry weight of roots increased with increasing P supply. The two efficient genotypes, G6 and G22, showed a higher root/shoot ratio than the two inefficient genotypes, G11 and G19. This indicates a higher potential for P acquisition of G6 and G22. In the third experiment, the same contrasting genotypes, and G18 with intermediate efficiency, were grown under field conditions at 0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 kg P{sub 2}O{sub 5}/ha. Of the two inefficient genotypes, G11 gave the highest grain yield at 60 and G19 at 90 kg P{sub 2}O{sub 5}/ha; G18 gave a clear response up to 60 kg P{sub 2}O{sub 5}/ha. Based on the information obtained in this study we conclude that G6 and G22 are efficiently and well adapted rice genotypes to gray soils of South Viet Nam, low in available P. At low P supply G6 may be slightly better than G22. Further, the {sup 15}N tracer study showed that for G6, a small P supply (30 kg P{sub 2}O{sub 5}/ha) can increase the % N recover from urea applied at 120 kg N/ha.

  13. Report on survey for environment harmonizing type energy community project for Chubu International Airport. District heat supply facilities using large-scale cogeneration systems; Chubu kokusai kuko kankyo chowagata energy community jigyo chosa hokokusho. Daikibo cogeneration chiiki netsu kyokyu shisetsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    The Chubu International Airport is positioned as a hub airport scheduled to start its use in the early part of the 21st century, to which introduction of large-scale cogeneration systems was discussed. Structuring an energy supply system conscious of the 21st century is intended, that is friendly to the environment, is attached with importance on the economy, and has high reliability and safety. The systems have cogeneration capacity from 4,500 to 6,000 kW, and utilize high-pressure waste heat from the cogeneration system as the heat source. The system uses the high pressure waste heat, stored heat, and gas at the same time to achieve high economic performance brought about by heat storage and the best energy source mix, while attempting cascade utilization of the heat. Considerations were given to suppress the environmental and energy load on the district as low as possible for the coexistence with the district, and to build framework and coordination to return the merits to the district. Subsidy introduction also has a great effect to assure the economic performance. The optimal specific construction of the system was found in combining the utilization of energy generated from temperature difference in sea water as a heat source system, the topping system utilizing the high pressure waste heat available in the system, high-efficiency heat pumps, and the heat storing system utilizing electric power available at late night. (NEDO)

  14. The Tax-Efficient Supply Chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Webber, Stuart

    2011-01-01

    Many multinational enterprises are restructuring supply chains to reduce their cost structures. As trade barriers fall and communications technologies improve, it has become easier and more cost-effective to manage business operations across international borders. This has motivated businesses...... practitioners in France, South Africa, Switzerland, Mexico, Argentina, and the United States. Companies are restructuring their supply chains and simultaneously reducing their income tax obligations. This article demonstrates that MNEs should link income tax and supply chain considerations when restructuring...... their supply chains, and they should endeavor to maximize net income when doing so. This recommendation differs from the great majority of supply chain literature, which has generally recommended that businesses seek to minimize pretax costs. One of the most important activities for both supply chain and tax...

  15. Agreement of 24 February 1993 between the International Atomic Energy Agency and the Government of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan for the application of safeguards in connection with the supply of a nuclear power station from the People's Republic of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-03-01

    The document reproduces the text of the Agreement from 24 February 1993 between the International Atomic Energy Agency and the Government of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan for the application of safeguards in connection with the supply of a nuclear power station from the People's Republic of China. The Agreement was approved by the Agency's Board of Governors on 19 June 1992

  16. Agreement of 27 February 1992 between the government of the People's Democratic Republic of Algeria and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the supply of a research reactor from the People's Republic of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-07-01

    The document informs that the Agreement between the Government of the People's Democratic Republic of Algeria and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in connection with the Supply of a Research Reactor from the People's Republic of China, which has been applied provisionally as from 27 February 1992, entered into force on 2 June 1992

  17. Genetics evaluation of phosphorus utilization in tropical cowpea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genetics evaluation of phosphorus utilization in tropical cowpea (Vigna ... that responds negatively to RP, using generation mean analysis of the parents, their ... was observed to be below the critical level, phosphorus uptake in the F1 and the ...

  18. Effect of phosphorus sources on phosphorus and nitrogen utilization by three sweet potato cultivars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montanez, A.; Zapata, F.; Kumarasinghe, K.S.

    1996-01-01

    A greenhouse experiment was conducted at the FAO/IAEA Agriculture and Biotechnology Laboratory in Seibersdorf, Austria using three sweet potato cultivars, TIS 2, TIS 3053 and TIS 1487. The three sweet potato cultivars were grown at two levels of phosphorus (0 kg P/kg soil and 60 kg P/kg soil). The fertilizer treatments consisted of two sources of phosphorus, Gafza rock Phosphate and triple super phosphate with 14.19 and 19.76% total phosphorus, respectively. 15 N labelled urea was used to study the nitrogen recovery in tubers from the applied nitrogen fertilizer. The results from these preliminary studies indicate that there is considerable genotypic variation among cultivars in the efficiency with which phosphorus and nitrogen are taken up and used to produce biomass. Their response to different sources of phosphorus are also variable. TIS-2 and TIS-1487 have a greater ability to absorb phosphorus from Gafza rock phosphate and produce higher tube yields indicating their greater potential for using alternative sources of natural phosphate fertilizers more effectively. Gafza rock phosphate also increased accumulation of nitrogen in TIS-1487, a characteristic which will place this cultivar at an advantage when growing in soils low in nitrogen. On an overall basis taking into account tuber yield, phosphorus use efficiency, and nitrogen use efficiency, TIS-2 may be considered the better candidate for introduction into soils poor in resources particularly phosphorus. This study was conducted with a limited number of cultivars due to limitation in the availability of germplasma. In spite of this, the differences in their abilities for phosphorus and nitrogen uptake and use are clearly visible which justifies large scale screening experiments using a broader germplasm base, in the future. (author). 14 refs, 1 fig., 3 tabs

  19. Sargasso Sea phosphorus biogeochemistry: an important role for dissolved organic phosphorus (DOP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. W. Lomas

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Inorganic phosphorus (SRP concentrations in the subtropical North Atlantic are some of the lowest in the global ocean and have been hypothesized to constrain primary production. Based upon data from several transect cruises in this region, it has been hypothesized that dissolved organic phosphorus (DOP supports a significant fraction of primary production in the subtropical North Atlantic. In this study, a time-series of phosphorus biogeochemistry is presented for the Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study site, including rates of phosphorus export. Most parameters have a seasonal pattern, although year-over-year variability in the seasonal pattern is substantial, likely due to differences in external forcing. Suspended particulate phosphorus exhibits a seasonal maximum during the spring bloom, despite the absence of a seasonal peak in SRP. However, DOP concentrations are at an annual maximum prior to the winter/spring bloom and decline over the course of the spring bloom while whole community alkaline phosphatase activities are highest. As a result of DOP bioavailability, the growth of particles during the spring bloom occurs in Redfield proportions, though particles exported from the euphotic zone show rapid and significant remineralization of phosphorus within the first 50 m below the euphotic zone. Based upon DOP data from transect cruises in this region, the southward cross gyral flux of DOP is estimated to support ~25% of annual primary production and ~100% of phosphorus export. These estimates are consistent with other research in the subtropical North Atlantic and reinforce the hypothesis that while the subtropics may be phosphorus stressed (a physiological response to low inorganic phosphorus, utilization of the DOP pool allows production and accumulation of microbial biomass at Redfield proportions.

  20. Effect of phosphorus sources on phosphorus and nitrogen utilization by three sweet potato cultivars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montanez, A; Zapata, F [FAO/IAEA Agriculture and Biotechnology Lab., Seibersdorf (Austria). Soils Science Unit; Kumarasinghe, K S [Joint FAO/IAEA Div. of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, Vienna (Austria). Soil Fertility, Irrigation and Crop Production Section

    1996-07-01

    A greenhouse experiment was conducted at the FAO/IAEA Agriculture and Biotechnology Laboratory in Seibersdorf, Austria using three sweet potato cultivars, TIS 2, TIS 3053 and TIS 1487. The three sweet potato cultivars were grown at two levels of phosphorus (0 kg P/kg soil and 60 kg P/kg soil). The fertilizer treatments consisted of two sources of phosphorus, Gafza rock Phosphate and triple super phosphate with 14.19 and 19.76% total phosphorus, respectively. {sup 15}N labelled urea was used to study the nitrogen recovery in tubers from the applied nitrogen fertilizer. The results from these preliminary studies indicate that there is considerable genotypic variation among cultivars in the efficiency with which phosphorus and nitrogen are taken up and used to produce biomass. Their response to different sources of phosphorus are also variable. TIS-2 and TIS-1487 have a greater ability to absorb phosphorus from Gafza rock phosphate and produce higher tube yields indicating their greater potential for using alternative sources of natural phosphate fertilizers more effectively. Gafza rock phosphate also increased accumulation of nitrogen in TIS-1487, a characteristic which will place this cultivar at an advantage when growing in soils low in nitrogen. On an overall basis taking into account tuber yield, phosphorus use efficiency, and nitrogen use efficiency, TIS-2 may be considered the better candidate for introduction into soils poor in resources particularly phosphorus. This study was conducted with a limited number of cultivars due to limitation in the availability of germplasma. In spite of this, the differences in their abilities for phosphorus and nitrogen uptake and use are clearly visible which justifies large scale screening experiments using a broader germplasm base, in the future. (author). 14 refs, 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  1. Factors affecting phosphorus transport at a conventionally-farmed site in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, 1992-95

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galeone, Daniel G.

    1996-01-01

    . Concentrations of total phosphorus on sand, silt, and clay particles from soil were 700, 1,000, and 3,400 parts per million, respectively. About 70 percent of the total mass of phosphorus in soil to a depth of 24 inches was associated with silt and clay particles.Soil-flask experiments indicated that soils from the study plots were not saturated with respect to phosphorus. Soils had the capacity to retain 694 to 1,160 milligrams of phosphorus per kilogram of soil. The measured retention capacity probably exceeded the actual retention capacity of soil because laboratory conditions optimized the contact time between soil and test solutions.Geochemical modeling indicated that the primary mineralogical controls on the concentration of dissolved phosphorus in surface runoff and subsurface flow were aluminum and iron oxides and strengite (if it exists). Aluminum and iron oxides bind phosphate in solution and strengite is an iron-phosphate mineral. The mineralization of organic phosphorus into dissolved inorganic forms could also supply phosphorus to surface runoff and subsurface flow.Phosphorus inputs to the plots during the study period were from precipitation and manure. Phosphorus inputs from precipitation were negligible. The loads of phosphorus to the plots from manure applications in May 1993 and May 1994 were 112 and 251 kilograms per acre for plots 2 and 3, respectively; about 60 percent of the load occurred in 1994.Phosphorus outputs in surface runoff differed between study plots. The cumulative yields of total phosphorus during the study period for plots 1, 2, and 3 were 1.12, 1.24, and 1.69 kilograms per acre, respectively. Differences between plots were primarily evident for dissolved yields of phosphorus. The percentage of the total phosphorus output in surface runoff that was in the dissolved phase varied from 6 percent for plot 1 to 26 percent for plot 3.The cumulative yields of dissolved phosphorus from plots 2 and 3 were 135 and 500 percent greater, respectively

  2. Regulating phosphorus from the agricultural sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Line Block; Hansen, Lars Gårn; Rubæk, Gitte Holton

    2010-01-01

      Loss of phosphorus (P) from agricultural areas is one of the main contributors to eutrophication of water systems in many European countries. Regulatory systems such as ambient taxes or discharge taxes which are suitable for regulation of N are insufficient for regulating P because these systems...... do not take into account the importance of P already stored in the soils. Phosphorus stored in the soils is the major source of P losses to surface waters, but at the same time crucial for the soils ability to sustain a viable crop production. Even if measures on P losses from agricultural areas...

  3. Determination of traces of phosphorus using isotope exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeman, A.; Kratzer, K.

    1976-01-01

    A simple and selective radioanalytical method for the determination of phosphorus (0.015 - 5 μg in a 5 ml sample), based on the heterogeneous isotope exchange, has been developed. The sample containing phosphorus is shaken in the presence of molybdate with a standard solution of tetraphenylarsonium molybdophosphate labelled with phosphorus-32 in 1-2 dicloroethan. From the distribution of the activity between the aqueous and organic phases the amount of phosphorus in the sample can be determined. (Authors)

  4. Phosphorus-containing macrocyclic compounds: synthesis and properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knyazeva, I R; Burilov, Alexander R; Pudovik, Michael A; Habicher, Wolf D

    2013-01-01

    Main trends in the development of methods for the synthesis of phosphorus-containing macrocyclic compounds in the past 15 years are considered. Emphasis is given to reactions producing macrocyclic structures with the participation of a phosphorus atom and other functional groups involved in organophosphorus molecules and to modifications of macrocycles by phosphorus compounds in different valence states. Possibilities of the practical application of phosphorus-containing macrocyclic compounds in difference areas of science and engineering are discussed. The bibliography includes 205 references.

  5. Production of carrier-free phosphorus-33 at MURR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia, W.; Ketring, A.R.; Schuh, J.; Lanigan, J.; Ma, D.; Manson, L.; Chanley, D.

    1996-01-01

    Phosphorus-33, a new radionuclide used in medical and biochemical research, is produced at the University of Missouri research reactor (MURR) in production quantities. Phosphorus-33 has a longer shelf life and lower dose rates than phosphorus-32. Recently, the MURR and New England Nuclear (NEN) jointly developed a method to recover carrier-free phosphorus-33 as well as the enriched sulfur target using a sublimation technique at reduced pressure

  6. Large Constructed Wetlands for Phosphorus Control: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert H. Kadlec

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews aspects of the performance of large (>40 ha constructed treatment wetlands intended for phosphorus control. Thirty-seven such wetlands have been built and have good data records, with a median size of 754 ha. All are successfully removing phosphorus from a variety of waters. Period of record median concentration reductions were 71%, load reductions 0.77 gP·m−2·year−1, and rate coefficients 12.5 m·year−1. Large wetlands have a narrower performance spectrum than the larger group of all sizes. Some systems display startup trends, ranging to several years, likely resulting from antecedent soil and vegetation conditions. There are internal longitudinal gradients in concentration, which vary with lateral position and flow conditions. Accretion in inlet zones may require attention. Concentrations are reduced to plateau values, in the range of about 10–50 mgP·m−3. Vegetation type has an effect upon performance measures, and its presence facilitates performance. Trends in the performance measures over the history of individual systems display only small changes, with both increases and decreases occurring. Such trends remove little of the variance in behavior. Seasonality is typically weak for steady flow systems, and most variability appears to be stochastic. Stormwater systems display differences between wet and dry season behavior, which appear to be flow-driven. Several models of system performance have been developed, both steady and dynamic.

  7. Levels & Barriers to Supply Chain Integration: A conceptual model of Supply Chain Performance

    OpenAIRE

    RajaIrfan Sabir; Muhammad Irfan

    2014-01-01

    In modern business scenario Supply chain has become the back bone for every business organization. All supply chain partners are joined together in value delivery network of company that no one can perform better without support of other. The ultimate objective of this cohesive relationship is to deliver value to customers and gets desired state of customer satisfaction & loyalty for the organization. For this purpose it is necessary to integrate the internal and external partners of Supply c...

  8. Phosphorus in virgin peat soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armi Kaila

    1956-01-01

    coefficient after the elimination of the effects of total P and N contents was only r = 0.136. No significant correlation existed between the organic P content and the N content, r = 0.184. The organic P content of the 217 samples expressed as a percentage of the total P content ranged from 55 to 95 per cent with an average of 78 ± 1 per cent. The proportion of organic P of total P was correlated with the degree of humification, the total correlation coefficient was r = 0.504***, the partial correlation coefficient after the elimination of the effect of the sampling depth was r = 0.427***. No correlation with the sampling depth existed after the elimination of the effect of the degree of humification: the partial correlation coefficient was r = 0.159, whereas the total correlation coefficient was r = 0.334***. A low correlation existed between the percentage of organic P of total P and the pH value even after the elimination of the effect of the degree of humification, r = 0.228*, but the connection with the total P content appeared to be only indirect and arised from the effect of the degree of humification, the total correlation coefficient was r = 0.222*, the partial correlation coefficient r = 0.076. The amount of organic P expressed as a percentage of the organic dry matter ranged from 0.01 to 0.25 per cent with an average of 0.07 ± 0.004. The ratio of N/org.P ranged from 12 to 133 with an average of 45 ± 3. Owing to the low P content of the BCp-group its mean ratio was significantly higher than that of the other groups. The degree of humification did not show any correlation with the ratio of N/org.P. The solubility of inorganic P in 0.5 N acetic acid and in 0.2 N sulphuric acid was highest in the Sp-group. On the average approximately from 15 to 30 per cent of total inorganic P was extracted by the latter solution. The acetic acid extracted only about 2 per cent of the inorganic P in the Cp-group but about 15 per cent in the Sp-group. The phosphorus conditions in

  9. Effect of phosphate solubilizing bacteria on the phosphorus availability and yield of cotton (gossypium)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhtar, N.; Iqbal, A.; Qureshi, M.A.; Khan, K.H

    2010-01-01

    Phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB) and plants have symbiotic relationship, as bacteria provide soluble phosphate for the plants and plants supply root borne carbon compounds which can be metabolized for bacterial growth. PSB solubilize the applied and fixed soil phosphorus resulting in higher crop yield. Intensive cropping has resulted in wide spread deficiency of Phosphorus in our soils and situation is becoming more serious because of a drastic increase in the cost of phosphatic fertilizers. Keeping in view the capabilities of microbes (Bacillus sp.), a field experiment was conducted on cotton at farmer field district Faisalabad in 2008. Effect of PSM (Bacillus spp.) was studied at three phosphorus levels i.e.20, 40 and 60 kg ha-l while N was applied at recommended dose (120 kg ha/sup -1/). Bacillus spp. was applied as seed coating to the cotton crop (Var. BT 121). Recommended plant protection measures were adopted. Results revealed that Bacillus spp. significantly increased the seed cotton yield; number of boll plant-I, boll weight, plant height, GOT (%), staple length, plant P and available P in the soil. Maximum seed cotton yield 4250 kg ha/sup -l/ was obtained with Bacillus inoculation along with 60 kg of P followed by 4162 kg ha/sup -1/ with Bacillus inoculation and 40 kg of P compared with their respective controls i.e.4093 and 3962 kg ha/sup -1/ respectively. Soil P was improved from 8.1 to 9.5 ppm by Bacillus inoculation. Phosphorus in plant matter was also higher (0.39%) as compare with control (0.36%). Rhizosphere soil pH was found slightly decreased (8.12 to 8.0) by Bacillus inoculation compare with control. It is concluded that PSB inoculation not only exerts beneficial effect on crop growth but also enhances the phosphorus concentration in the plant and soil. (author)

  10. Laser power supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernstein, D.

    1975-01-01

    The laser power supply includes a regulator which has a high voltage control loop based on a linear approximation of a laser tube negative resistance characteristic. The regulator has independent control loops for laser current and power supply high voltage

  11. Phosphorus analysis in milk samples by neutron activation analysis method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, R.M. de; Cunha, I.I.L.

    1991-01-01

    The determination of phosphorus in milk samples by instrumental thermal neutron activation analysis is described. The procedure involves a short irradiation in a nuclear reactor and measurement of the beta radiation emitted by phosphorus - 32 after a suitable decay period. The sources of error were studied and the established method was applied to standard reference materials of known phosphorus content. (author)

  12. Phosphorus Uptake and Partitioning in Maize as Affected by Tillage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Higher phosphorus concentrations were found in the ears than in the shoots and leaves at physiological maturity. Tillage x phospho-rus interactions influenced phosphorus partitioning in the ears and the leaves on the Dystric Cam-bisol but not on the Ferric Acrisol. PUE in the plant parts were significantly higher under ...

  13. Reaching ultra low phosphorus concentrations by filtration techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scherrenberg, S.M.

    2011-01-01

    This research deals with tertiary treatment techniques used for the removal of phosphorus from wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent. The main objective of this research is to obtain ultra low total phosphorus (<0.15 mg total phosphorus/L) concentrations by coagulation, flocculation and

  14. Benchmarking Combined Biological Phosphorus and Nitrogen Removal Wastewater Treatment Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gernaey, Krist; Jørgensen, Sten Bay

    2004-01-01

    , the second one for nitrate control in the anoxic zone using the internal recirculation flow rate as manipulated variable. Dynamic simulations for different dissolved oxygen set points illustrate the complex interactions in this plant, and the necessity for a continuous trade off between supplying sufficient...

  15. Supply Cain Risk Management

    OpenAIRE

    Goodwin, Les

    2011-01-01

    “The management of supply chain risk is crucial to any business, more so to Rolls Royce who face an almost doubling of load within the next 10 years. So what is supply chain risk management and how well is it deployed within an operational business of Rolls Royce? What are the tools and techniques available and what are the key issues around implementing world class supply chain risk management with a Supply Chain Unit within Rolls Royce?”

  16. Supply Chain Visibility with Linked Open Data for Supply Chain Risk Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofman, W.J.

    2011-01-01

    Current customs applications are declaration based to support the various customs procedures based on (inter)national laws and regulations. To be able to perform a proper supply chain risk analysis, customs requires to have all data in supply chains. The current declaration procedures are not

  17. Trim coil power supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haisler, R.; Peeler, H.; Zajicek, W.

    1985-01-01

    The 18 trim coil power supplies have been constructed and are now in place in the K500 pit and pit mezzanine. Final wiring of the primary power and control power is proceeding along with installation of cooling water supplies. The supplies are expected to be ready for final testing into resistive loads at the beginning of June, 1985

  18. Phosphorus vacancy cluster model for phosphorus diffusion gettering of metals in Si

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Renyu; Trzynadlowski, Bart; Dunham, Scott T. [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States)

    2014-02-07

    In this work, we develop models for the gettering of metals in silicon by high phosphorus concentration. We first performed ab initio calculations to determine favorable configurations of complexes involving phosphorus and transition metals (Fe, Cu, Cr, Ni, Ti, Mo, and W). Our ab initio calculations found that the P{sub 4}V cluster, a vacancy surrounded by 4 nearest-neighbor phosphorus atoms, which is the most favorable inactive P species in heavily doped Si, strongly binds metals such as Cu, Cr, Ni, and Fe. Based on the calculated binding energies, we build continuum models to describe the P deactivation and Fe gettering processes with model parameters calibrated against experimental data. In contrast to previous models assuming metal-P{sub 1}V or metal-P{sub 2}V as the gettered species, the binding of metals to P{sub 4}V satisfactorily explains the experimentally observed strong gettering behavior at high phosphorus concentrations.

  19. A review of phosphorus removal structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Penn, Chad; Chagas, Isis; Klimeski, Aleksandar

    2017-01-01

    Controlling dissolved phosphorus (P) losses to surface waters is challenging as most conservation practices are only effective at preventing particulate P losses. As a result, P removal structures were developed to filter dissolved P from drainage water before reaching a water body. While many P ...

  20. The future of phosphorus in our hands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shepherd, J.G.; Kleemann, Rosanna; Bahri-Esfahani, Jaleh; Hudek, Lee; Suriyagoda, Lalith; Vandamme, Elke; Dijk, van K.C.

    2016-01-01

    We live in a global phosphorus (P) system paradox. P access is becoming increasingly limiting, leading to food insecurity but at the same time an over-application or abundance of P in many agricultural and urban settings is causing environmental degradation. This has been recognised in the

  1. Stewardship to tackle global phosphorus inefficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Withers, P.J.A.; Dijk, van K.C.; Neset, T.S.S.; Nesme, Thomas; Oenema, Oene; Rubæk, G.H.; Schoumans, O.F.; Smit, Bert; Pellerin, Sylvain

    2015-01-01

    The inefficient use of phosphorus (P) in the food chain is a threat to the global aquatic environment and the health and well-being of citizens, and it is depleting an essential finite natural resource critical for future food security and ecosystem function. We outline a strategic framework of

  2. Process for uranium recovery in phosphorus compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demarthe, J.M.; Solar, Serge.

    1980-01-01

    Process for uranium recovery in phosphorus compounds with an organic phase containing a dialkylphosphoric acid. A solubilizing agent constituted of an heavy alcohol or a phosphoric acid ester or a tertiary phosphine oxide or octanol-2, is added to the organic phase for solubilization of the uranium and ammonium dialkyl pyrophosphate [fr

  3. Phosphate recycling in the phosphorus industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schipper, W.J.; Klapwijk, A.; Potjer, A.; Rulkens, W.H.; Temmink, B.G.; Kiestra, F.D.G.; Lijmbach, A.C.M.

    2001-01-01

    The feasibility of phosphate recycling in the white phosphorus production process is discussed. Several types of materials may be recycled, provided they are dry inorganic materials, low in iron, copper and zinc. Sewage sludge ash may be used if no iron is used for phosphate precipitation in the

  4. Estimating phosphorus intake by grazing sheep

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    phosphorus levels in various organs, tissues, bones, body fluids or excretory products of sheep reflected dietary ... did decrease bone mineral deposition slightly. Rumen fluid P and total daily urinary P levels did .... which were alike in composition except for their levels of. P and Ca. After 98 days rib biopsy specimens were.

  5. Flotation of uraniferous phosphorus ore from Itataia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aquino, J.A. de

    1984-01-01

    Flotation conditions, in laboratory and pilot scale, were established in a sample of Itataia uraniferous phosphorus ore which was basically constitute of apatite and calcite. The system of reagents-tall oil, collamil and sodium silicate-was studied in rougher, scavenger and cleaner stage. (M.A.C.) [pt

  6. Nanotubes based on monolayer blue phosphorus

    KAUST Repository

    Montes Muñoz, Enrique

    2016-07-08

    We demonstrate structural stability of monolayer zigzag and armchair blue phosphorus nanotubes by means of molecular dynamics simulations. The vibrational spectrum and electronic band structure are determined and analyzed as functions of the tube diameter and axial strain. The nanotubes are found to be semiconductors with a sensitive indirect band gap that allows flexible tuning.

  7. Phosphorus Processing—Potentials for Higher Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludwig Hermann

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In the aftermath of the adoption of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs and the Paris Agreement (COP21 by virtually all United Nations, producing more with less is imperative. In this context, phosphorus processing, despite its high efficiency compared to other steps in the value chain, needs to be revisited by science and industry. During processing, phosphorus is lost to phosphogypsum, disposed of in stacks globally piling up to 3–4 billion tons and growing by about 200 million tons per year, or directly discharged to the sea. Eutrophication, acidification, and long-term pollution are the environmental impacts of both practices. Economic and regulatory framework conditions determine whether the industry continues wasting phosphorus, pursues efficiency improvements or stops operations altogether. While reviewing current industrial practice and potentials for increasing processing efficiency with lower impact, the article addresses potentially conflicting goals of low energy and material use as well as Life Cycle Assessment (LCA as a tool for evaluating the relative impacts of improvement strategies. Finally, options by which corporations could pro-actively and credibly demonstrate phosphorus stewardship as well as options by which policy makers could enforce improvement without impairing business locations are discussed.

  8. interaction between phosphorus fertilizer and arbuscular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    userpc

    examine the interaction between Phosphorus (P) fertilizer and Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungal ... recorded 28% and 4% total plant dry yield increment respectively over control. This study shows that ... ratio 1:3 inoculant: water, application per ... Table 1: Effect of P and AMF on the dry yield components of cassava (t ha-1).

  9. Rapid thermal annealing of phosphorus implanted silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Y.H.; Pogany, A.; Harrison, H.B.; Williams, J.S.

    1985-01-01

    Rapid thermal annealing (RTA) of phosphorus-implanted silicon has been investigated by four point probe, Van der Pauw methods and transmission electron microscopy. The results have been compared to furnace annealing. Experiments show that RTA, even at temperatures as low as 605 deg C, results in good electrical properties with little remnant damage and compares favourably with furnace annealing

  10. Phosphate recycling in the phosphorus industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schipper, W.J.; Klapwijk, A.; Potjer, B.; Rulkens, W.H.; Temmink, B.G.; Kiestra, F.D.G.; Lijmbach, A.C.M.

    2004-01-01

    The article describes the potential and limitations for recovery of phosphate from secondary materials in the production process for white phosphorus. This thermal process involves the feeding of phosphate rock, cokes and pebbles to a furnace. The reducing conditions in the furnace promote the

  11. 28 PHOSPHORUS FORMS AND DISTRIBUTION IN SELECTED ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sys01

    Coleman and Thomas (1967). Total phosphorus in the soils was determined by perchloric acid digestion (Jackson, 1958) and organic P was estimated by the difference between 13 M HCL extractable inorganic P, before and after ignition, by the method of Leg and Black (1955). Inorganic P was fractionated by method of.

  12. Phosphorus and phytase levels for layer hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Cristina Ramos Rezende

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to evaluate the performance and bone quality of laying hens after peak production fed diets containing phosphorus levels and phytase. An experiment was conducted with 384 Hy-line distributed in a completely randomized in a factorial 4 x 3 with 4 levels of available phosphorus and 3 levels of phytase. The experimental period was divided into four periods of 28 days, at the end of each cycle were determined experimental feed intake, egg production, egg weight, feed conversion, mortality, and average egg weight, shell thickness, Haugh units and specific gravity. At the end of the experimental period were determined amounts of calcium and phosphorus excreted by the method of total excreta collection and a fowl per experimental unit was sacrificed for collection of bones and evaluation of width, length and level of robustness from femur and tibia. There was interaction between phosphorus levels and phytase on feed intake, feed conversion and percentage of posture. For inclusion levels of phytase all egg quality variables showed no significant differences. The treatments did not affect bone characteristics of laying hens.

  13. Risk assessment methodologies for predicting phosphorus losses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoumans, O.F.; Chardon, W.J.

    2003-01-01

    Risk assessment parameters are needed to assess the contribution of phosphorus (P) losses from soil to surface water, and the effectiveness of nutrient and land management strategies for the reduction of P loss. These parameters need to take into account the large temporal and spatial variation in P

  14. Stability of phosphorus species in seawater

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DileepKumar, M.; Somasundar, K.; Rajendran, A.

    Relative stabilities of various oxidation states, oxyacids and dissolved inorganic complexes of phosphorus in anoxic and oxic marine environments are elucidated. H sub(3) PO sub(2)/P super(0) and H sub(2) PO sub(2)/p super(0) are the strong reducing...

  15. Stewardship to tackle global phosphorus inefficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Withers, Paul J. A.; Dijk, Kimo van; Neset, Tina-Simone

    2015-01-01

    The inefficient use of phosphorus (P) in the food chain is a threat to the global aquatic environment and the health and well-being of citizens, and it is depleting an essential finite natural resource critical for future food security and ecosystem function. We outline a strategic framework of 5R...

  16. Phosphorus recovery from sewage sludge char ash

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atienza-Martinez, M.; Gea, G.; Arauzo, J.; Kersten, Sascha R.A.; Kootstra, A.M.J.

    2014-01-01

    Phosphorus was recovered from the ash obtained after combustion at different temperatures (600 °C, 750 °C and 900 °C) and after gasification (at 820 °C using a mixture of air and steam as fluidising agent) of char from sewage sludge fast pyrolysis carried out at 530 °C. Depending on the leaching

  17. Bacteria as transporters of phosphorus through soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glæsner, N.; Bælum, Jacob; Jacobsen, C. S.

    2016-01-01

    The transport of phosphorus (P) from agricultural land has led to the eutrophication of surface waters worldwide, especially in areas with intensive animal production. In this research, we investigated the role of bacteria in the leaching of P through three agricultural soils with different...

  18. Phosphorus supplementation of Karakul sheep grazing natural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The phosphorus (P) status of adult Karakul ewes grazing natural pasture was determined by measuring the P content of blood, saliva, faecal, and bone samples. The ewes were divided into four groups of 20 ewes each, viz. ewes supplemented with P+ and P- which lambed during May and October. All lambs born were ...

  19. Use of reactive materials to bind phosphorus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chardon, W.J.; Groenenberg, J.E.; Temminghoff, E.J.M.; Koopmans, G.F.

    2012-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) losses from agricultural soils have caused surface water quality impairment in many regions of the world, including The Netherlands. Due to the large amounts of P accumulated in Dutch soils, the generic fertilizer and manure policy will not be sufficient to reach in time the surface

  20. Leading a supply chain turnaround.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slone, Reuben E

    2004-10-01

    Just five years ago, salespeople at Whirlpool were in the habit of referring to their supply chain organization as the "sales disablers." Now the company excels at getting products to the right place at the right time--while managing to keep inventories low. How did that happen? In this first-person account, Reuben Slone, Whirlpool's vice president of Global Supply Chain, describes how he and his colleagues devised the right supply chain strategy, sold it internally, and implemented it. Slone insisted that the right focal point for the strategy was the satisfaction of consumers at the end of the supply chain. Most supply chain initiatives do the opposite: They start with the realities of a company's manufacturing base and proceed from there. Through a series of interviews with trade customers large and small, his team identified 27 different capabilities that drove industry perceptions of Whirlpool's performance. Knowing it was infeasible to aim for world-class performance across all of them, Slone weighed the costs of excelling at each and found the combination of initiatives that would provide overall competitive advantage. A highly disciplined project management office and broad training in project management were key to keeping work on budget and on benefit. Slone set an intense pace--three "releases" of new capabilities every month--that the group maintains to this day. Lest this seem like a technology story, however, Slone insists it is just as much a "talent renaissance." People are proud today to be part of Whirlpool's supply chain organization, and its new generation of talent will give the company a competitive advantage for years to come.

  1. Phosphorus effect on fracture properties of structural steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goritskij, V.M.; Guseva, I.A.

    1985-01-01

    Phosphorus content is studied for its effect on fracture peculiarities and fracture toughness. It is supposed that the phosphorus effect on ductile fractures is associated with phosphorus segregation on the ferrite-carbide interfaces. An increase of the phosphorus content in heat-treated 10KhSND steel from 0.020 up to 0.043 wt.% results in a decrease of the pore size and asub(p) value. Close linear correlation is established between critical temperature of embrittlement T 50 and √ asub(p) or √ KC values for a number of structural steels with different phosphorus content

  2. Biological phosphorus uptake under anoxic and aerobic conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kerrn-Jespersen, Jens Peter; Henze, Mogens

    1993-01-01

    Biological phosphorus removal was investigated under anoxic and aerobic conditions. Tests were made to establish whether phosphorus accumulating bacteria can take up phosphate under anoxic conditions and thus utilise nitrate as oxidant. Furthermore, it was tested how the amount of organic matter...... as oxidant. The phosphorus uptake was more rapid under aerobic conditions than under anoxic conditions. The explanation of this is that all phosphorus accumulating bacteria take up phosphate under aerobic conditions, whereas only part of the phosphorus accumulating bacteria take up phosphate under anoxic...

  3. Longitudinal variability of phosphorus fractions in sediments of a canyon reservoir due to cascade dam construction: a case study in Lancang River, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Liu

    Full Text Available Dam construction causes the accumulation of phosphorus in the sediments of reservoirs and increases the release rate of internal phosphorus (P loading. This study investigated the longitudinal variability of phosphorus fractions in sediments and the relationship between the contents of phosphorus fractions and its influencing factors of the Manwan Reservoir, Lancang River, Yunnan Province, China. Five sedimentary phosphorus fractions were quantified separately: loosely bound P (ex-P; reductant soluble P (BD-P; metal oxide-bound P (NaOH-P; calcium-bound P (HCl-P, and residual-P. The results showed that the total phosphorus contents ranged from 623 to 899 µg/g and were correlated positively with iron content in the sediments of the reservoir. The rank order of P fractions in sediments of the mainstream was HCl-P>NaOH-P>residual-P>BD-P>ex-P, while it was residual-P>HCl-P>NaOH-P>BD-P>ex-P in those of the tributaries. The contents of bio-available phosphorus in the tributaries, including ex-P, BD-P and NaOH-P, were significantly lower than those in the mainstream. The contents of ex-P, BD-P, NaOH-P showed a similar increasing trend from the tail to the head of the Manwan Reservoir, which contributed to the relatively higher content of bio-available phosphorus, and represents a high bio-available phosphorus releasing risk within a distance of 10 km from Manwan Dam. Correlation and redundancy analyses showed that distance to Manwan Dam and the silt/clay fraction of sediments were related closely to the spatial variation of bio-available phosphorus.

  4. International energy supply law. Report on the meeting of the Institut fuer Energierecht at Koeln University, October 27, 1988. Internationales Energiewirtschaftsrecht. Bericht ueber die Tagung des Instituts fuer Energierecht an der Universitaet zu Koeln am 27. Oktober 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baur, J F; Kaiser, B; Jonetzki, J; Piel, T; Riede, M

    1989-01-01

    So far, there is little experience on the consequences of a relaxation of supply territory protection. Most of the plans are still in the experimenting stage, e.g. in Great Britain, the Netherlands, and West Germany. The USA have a certain tradition of deregulation, but do little to enforce things, while France is secure in its state monopoly energy supply. (orig./HP).

  5. Supply regimes in fisheries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Max

    2006-01-01

    Supply in fisheries is traditionally known for its backward bending nature, owing to externalities in production. Such a supply regime, however, exist only for pure open access fisheries. Since most fisheries worldwide are neither pure open access, nor optimally managed, rather between the extremes......, the traditional understanding of supply regimes in fisheries needs modification. This paper identifies through a case study of the East Baltic cod fishery supply regimes in fisheries, taking alternative fisheries management schemes and mesh size limitations into account. An age-structured Beverton-Holt based bio......-economic supply model with mesh sizes is developed. It is found that in the presence of realistic management schemes, the supply curves are close to vertical in the relevant range. Also, the supply curve under open access with mesh size limitations is almost vertical in the relevant range, owing to constant...

  6. The composite supply chain efficiency model: A case study of the Sishen-Saldanha supply chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila L. Goedhals-Gerber

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As South Africa strives to be a major force in global markets, it is essential that South African supply chains achieve and maintain a competitive advantage. One approach to achieving this is to ensure that South African supply chains maximise their levels of efficiency. Consequently, the efficiency levels of South Africa’s supply chains must be evaluated. The objective of this article is to propose a model that can assist South African industries in becoming internationally competitive by providing them with a tool for evaluating their levels of efficiency both as individual firms and as a component in an overall supply chain. The Composite Supply Chain Efficiency Model (CSCEM was developed to measure supply chain efficiency across supply chains using variables identified as problem areas experienced by South African supply chains. The CSCEM is tested in this article using the Sishen-Saldanda iron ore supply chain as a case study. The results indicate that all three links or nodes along the Sishen-Saldanha iron ore supply chain performed well. The average efficiency of the rail leg was 97.34%, while the average efficiency of the mine and the port were 97% and 95.44%, respectively. The results also show that the CSCEM can be used by South African firms to measure their levels of supply chain efficiency. This article concludes with the benefits of the CSCEM.

  7. Nuclear Fuel Supply Arrangements through the IAEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phuong, Ha-Vinh

    1981-10-01

    By virtue of its statutory functions, the International Atomic Energy Agency may be the depositary and also the supplier of nuclear materials made available to it by Member States, and these may then be stored in facilities it has acquired or which it has established under its control. However, this possibility did not materialize, mainly because the supplying states -few in number- do not want an international organization to become directly involved in bilateral transactions in that field. This paper analyses in particular the provisions of supply agreements concluded with the United Kingdom, the USA and the USSR. The Annex contains a Table of Agreements on supply of nuclear fuel and equipment concluded between supplying and consumer states through the IAEA. (NEA) [fr

  8. Literature Review on Disruption Recovery in the Supply Chain

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanov , Dmitry; Dolgui , Alexandre; Sokolov , Boris; Ivanova , Marina

    2017-01-01

    International audience; Recent research underlines the crucial role of disruption events and recovery policies in supply chains. Despite a wealth of literature on supply chain design with disruption considerations, to the best of our knowledge there is no survey on supply chain with disruptions and recovery considerations. We analyse state-of-the-art research streams on supply chain design and planning with both disruptions and recovery considerations with the aim of relating the existing qua...

  9. Sewage-effluent phosphorus: A greater risk to river eutrophication than agricultural phosphorus?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarvie, Helen P.; Neal, Colin; Withers, Paul J.A.

    2006-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) concentrations from water quality monitoring at 54 UK river sites across seven major lowland catchment systems are examined in relation to eutrophication risk and to the relative importance of point and diffuse sources. The over-riding evidence indicates that point (effluent) rather than diffuse (agricultural) sources of phosphorus provide the most significant risk for river eutrophication, even in rural areas with high agricultural phosphorus losses. Traditionally, the relative importance of point and diffuse sources has been assessed from annual P flux budgets, which are often dominated by diffuse inputs in storm runoff from intensively managed agricultural land. However, the ecological risk associated with nuisance algal growth in rivers is largely linked to soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) concentrations during times of ecological sensitivity (spring/summer low-flow periods), when biological activity is at its highest. The relationships between SRP and total phosphorus (TP; total dissolved P + suspended particulate P) concentrations within UK rivers are evaluated in relation to flow and boron (B; a tracer of sewage effluent). SRP is the dominant P fraction (average 67% of TP) in all of the rivers monitored, with higher percentages at low flows. In most of the rivers the highest SRP concentrations occur under low-flow conditions and SRP concentrations are diluted as flows increase, which is indicative of point, rather than diffuse, sources. Strong positive correlations between SRP and B (also TP and B) across all the 54 river monitoring sites also confirm the primary importance of point source controls of phosphorus concentrations in these rivers, particularly during spring and summer low flows, which are times of greatest eutrophication risk. Particulate phosphorus (PP) may form a significant proportion of the phosphorus load to rivers, particularly during winter storm events, but this is of questionable relevance for river eutrophication

  10. LPG world supply and demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, Ch.

    2008-01-01

    Over the course of this decade, the global LPG market has moved from being tight, where supply barely exceeded non-price sensitive demand, to the current market situation where supply growth has outstripped demand growth to such an extent that current fundamentals suggest that considerable length will prevail in the market over the near term. As is the case for many other energy commodity markets, the LPG industry has experienced a considerable transformation over the last five years with many new LPG supply projects coming on-stream and demand growth in many developing markets slowing in response to higher energy prices. The near term challenge for LPG producers will be securing outlets for output as the market becomes increasingly oversupplied. With expanding LPG supply and a worldwide tightness in the naphtha market, it is expected that petrochemical consumers will favor relatively low priced LPG over naphtha and the resulting increase in LPG cracking rates will go some way to reducing the expected supply surplus. However, the timing of several new LPG supply projects and the start-up of LPG-based petrochemical plants in the Middle-East are expected to impact global LPG trade and pricing over the next few years. Thus, at this point in time, the global LPG market has a high degree of uncertainty with questions remaining over the impact of high energy (and LPG) prices on traditional and developing market demand, the timing of new supply projects and the combined effect of these two factors on international LPG prices. World LPG production has been rising in nearly every region of the world over the last few years and totaled about 229 million tons in 2007, which is some 30 million tons per year higher than in 2000. The exception is North America which accounts for the largest share of global LPG supply at about 24% but production there has remained relatively flat in recent years. Strong LPG production growth in the Middle-East which contributed to about 19% of

  11. Factors influencing release of phosphorus from sediments in a high productive polymictic lake system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solim, S U; Wanganeo, A

    2009-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) release rates from bottom sediments are high (20.6 mg/m(2)/day) in Dal Lake (India), a polymictic hyper-eutrophic lake. These gross release rates occur over a period of 72 days during summer only. Likewise, a net internal load of 11.3 tons was obtained from mass balance estimates. Significant proportion i.e. approximately 80% of 287.3 tons/yr of nitrate nitrogen (NO(3)-N) load is either eliminated by denitrification or gets entrapped for a short period in high macrophyte biomass of 3.2 kg/m(2) f.w., which eventually get decomposed and nitrogen (N) is released back. These processes result in low lake water NO(3)-N concentrations which potentially influence sediment phosphorus (P) release. Especially, nitrate nitrogen (NO(3)-N) 500 microg/L in the lake waters were associated with high P concentrations. Phosphorus was also observed to increase significantly in relation to temperature and pH, and it seems likely that release of phosphorus and ammonical nitrogen (NH(4)-N) depend on decomposition of rich reserves of organic matter (893 tons d.w. in superficial 10-cm bottom sediment layer). Lake P concentrations were significantly predicted by a multivariate regression model developed for the lake. This study describes significance of various lake water variables in relation to P-release from bottom sediments.

  12. Surface, core, and structure modifications of phosphorus-containing dendrimers. Influence on the thermal stability

    OpenAIRE

    Turrin , Cédric-Olivier; Maraval , Valérie; Leclaire , Julien; Dantras , Eric; Lacabanne , Colette; Caminade , Anne-Marie; Majoral , Jean-Pierre

    2003-01-01

    International audience; Three new series of phosphorus-containing dendrimers are described. Their solubility depends on the type of end groups they bear. Perfluoroalkyl chains give dendrimers soluble in chlorofluorocarbons, whereas guanidinium and pyridinium derivatives give watersoluble compounds. The thermal stability of these compounds, as well as of 19 other dendrimers of various generations, having various cores, or various end groups, or branching points is studied. The main feature of ...

  13. IEA Response System for Oil Supply Emergencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-12-15

    Emergency response to oil supply disruptions has remained a core mission of the International Energy Agency since its founding in 1974. This information pamphlet explains the decisionmaking process leading to an IEA collective action, the measures available -- focusing on stockdraw -- and finally, the historical background of major oil supply disruptions and the IEA response to them. It also demonstrates the continuing need for emergency preparedness, including the growing importance of engaging key transition and emerging economies in dialogue about energy security.

  14. Supply chain integration framework using literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Alfalla-Luque, Rafaela; Medina-Lopez, Carmen; Dey, Prasanta K.

    2013-01-01

    Definitions and measures of supply chain integration (SCI) are diverse. More empirical research, with clear definition and appropriate measures are needed. The purpose of this article is to identify dimensions and variables for SCI and develop an integrated framework to facilitate this. A literature review of the relevant academic papers in international journals in Logistics, Supply Chain Management and Operations Management for the period 1995-2009 has been undertaken. This study reveals th...

  15. Motivators to Adopt Green Supply Chain Initiatives

    OpenAIRE

    Amarpreet S. Kohli; Ellen Hawkins

    2015-01-01

    There are several factors that drive organizations to consider implementing green supply chain (GSC) initiatives. This paper refines an instrument to empirically test the significance of the following drivers for participation in GSC initiatives: Government Regulation, Buyer/Supply Chain Influence, Internal Readiness, Competitive Advantage, and Corporate Social Responsibility. Corporate Social Responsibility emerged as the most significant variable that effected the decision making of the org...

  16. IEA Response System for Oil Supply Emergencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-15

    Emergency response to oil supply disruptions has remained a core mission of the International Energy Agency since its founding in 1974. This information pamphlet explains the decisionmaking process leading to an IEA collective action, the measures available -- focusing on stockdraw -- and finally, the historical background of major oil supply disruptions and the IEA response to them. It also demonstrates the continuing need for emergency preparedness, including the growing importance of engaging key transition and emerging economies in dialogue about energy security.

  17. Phosphorus recycling from an unexplored source by polyphosphate accumulating microalgae and cyanobacteria – a step to phosphorus security in agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandan eMukherjee

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Phosphorus (P, an essential element required for crop growth has no substitute. The global food security depends on phosphorus availability in soil for crop production. World phosphorus reserves are fast depleting and with an annual increase of 2.3% in phosphorus demand, the current reserves will be exhausted in coming 50-100 years. India and other Western countries are forced to import phosphorus fertilizers at high costs to meet their agricultural demands due to uneven distribution of phosphate rocks on earth. The present study from India, aims to draw attention to an unnoticed source of phosphorus being wasted as parboiled rice mill effluent and subsequent bio-recovery of the valuable element from this unconventional source. The research was conducted in West Bengal, India, a state with the highest number of parboiled rice mills where its effluent carries on an average ~40 mg/L of soluble phosphorus. Technology to recover and recycle this wastewater P in India in a simple, inexpensive mode is yet to be optimized. Our strategy to use microalgae, Chlorella sp. and cyanobacteria, Cyanobacterium sp., Lyngbya sp. and Anabaena sp. to sequester the excess phosphorus from the effluent as polyphosphate inclusions and its subsequent recycling as slow and moderate release phosphorus biofertilizers to aid plant growth, preventing phosphorus loss and pollution, is a contemporary venture to meet the need of the hour. These polyphosphate accumulating microorganisms play a dual role of remediation and recovery of phosphorus, preliminarily validated in laboratory scale.

  18. Supply Chain Management og Supply Chain costing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Steen; Mortensen, Ole

    2002-01-01

    Formålet med denne artikel er at belyse de muligheder som ligger i at integrere virksomhedens økonomiske styring med begrebet Supply Chain Management (SCM). Dette søges belyst ved først at beskrive den teoretiske ramme, hvori SCM indgår. Herefter analyseres begrebet Supply Chain Costing (SCC) som...... Århus. Et resultat er, at via begrebet Supply Chain Costing skabes der mulighed for at måle logistikkædens aktiviteter i kr./øre. Anvendelsen af denne information har også strategisk betydning for at kunne vælge kunde og leverandør. Ved hjælp af integrationen skabes der også helt nye mulighed...

  19. Characterization of phosphorus forms in lake macrophytes and algae by solution 31P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquatic macrophytes and algae are important sources of phosphorus (P) in the lake environment that cause blooms of algae under certain biogeochemical conditions. However, the knowledge of forms of P in these plants and algae and their contribution to internal loads of lake P is very limited. Witho...

  20. The location and nature of accumulated phosphorus in seven sludges from activated sludge plants which exhibited enhanced phosphorus removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchan, L.

    1981-01-01

    Electron microscopy combined with the energy dispersive analysis of X-rays (EDX) has been used to examine the nature of the phosphorus accumulated in sludges from seven activated sludge plants exhibiting enhanced phosphorus removal. Large phosphorus accumulations were located in identical structures in the sludges examined. The phosphorus was located in large electron-dense bodies, within large bacterial cells which were characteristically grouped in clusters. The calcium:phosphorus ratio of these electron-dense bodies precluded them from being any form of calcium phosphate precipitate. Quantitative analysis indicated that the electron-dense bodies contained in excess of 30% phosphorus. The results obtained are supportive of a biological mechanism of enhanced phosphorus uptake in activated sludge

  1. Effect of phosphorus stress on Microcystis aeruginosa growth and phosphorus uptake.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajeela Ghaffar

    Full Text Available This study was designed to advance understanding of phosphorus regulation of Microcystis aeruginosa growth, phosphorus uptake and storage in changing phosphorus (P conditions as would occur in lakes. We hypothesized that Microcystis growth and nutrient uptake would fit classic models by Monod, Droop, and Michaelis-Menten in these changing conditions. Microcystis grown in luxury nutrient concentrations was transferred to treatments with phosphorus concentrations ranging from 0-256 μg P∙L-1 and luxury nitrogen. Dissolved phosphorus concentration, cell phosphorus quota, P uptake rate and cell densities were measured at day 3 and 6. Results showed little relationship to predicted models. Microcystis growth was asymptotically related to P treatment from day 0-3, fitting Monod model well, but negatively related to P treatment and cell quota from day 3-6. From day 0-3, cell quota was negatively related to P treatments at <2 μg∙L-1, but increased slightly at higher P. Cell quota decreased greatly in low P treatments from day 3-6, which may have enabled high growths in low P treatments. P uptake was positively and linearly related to P treatment during both periods. Negative uptake rates and increases in measured culture phosphorus concentrations to 5 μg∙L-1 in the lowest P treatments indicated P leaked from cells into culture medium. This leakage during early stages of the experiment may have been sufficient to stimulate metabolism and use of intracellular P stores in low P treatments for rapid growth. Our study shows P regulation of Microcystis growth can be complex as a result of changing P concentrations, and this complexity may be important for modeling Microcystis for nutrient and ecosystem management.

  2. Public water supply sources - the practical problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chambers, E.G.W.

    1990-01-01

    A complex system of reservoirs, streams, treatment works and pipe networks is used to provide the public water supply to consumers in Strathclyde. The manner in which a nuclear event would affect the quality of water available from this supply would depend on a wide variety of factors. The extent to which the quality from each source could be maintained or improved if found to be unsatisfactory would depend on the extent of contamination and the particular characteristics of each source. Development of contingency plans will incorporate monitoring of supplies and development of effective communications both internally and externally. (author)

  3. Sustainable Supply Chain Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bals, Lydia; Tate, Wendy

    A significant conceptual and practical challenge is how to integrate triple bottom line (TBL; including economic, social and environmental) sustainability into global supply chains. Although this integration is necessary to slow down global resource depletion, understanding is limited of how...... to implement TBL goals across the supply chain. In supply chain design, the classic economic perspective still dominates, although the idea of the TBL is more widely disseminated. The purpose of this research is to add to the sustainable supply chain management literature (SSCM) research agenda...... by incorporating the physical chain, and the (information and financial) support chains into supply chain design. This manuscript tackles issues of what the chains are designed for and how they are designed structurally. Four sustainable businesses are used as illustrative case examples of innovative supply chain...

  4. AC power supply systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Law, H.

    1987-01-01

    An ac power supply system includes a rectifier fed by a normal ac supply, and an inverter connected to the rectifier by a dc link, the inverter being effective to invert the dc output of the receiver at a required frequency to provide an ac output. A dc backup power supply of lower voltage than the normal dc output of the rectifier is connected across the dc link such that the ac output of the rectifier is derived from the backup supply if the voltage of the output of the inverter falls below that of the backup supply. The dc backup power may be derived from a backup ac supply. Use in pumping coolant in nuclear reactor is envisaged. (author)

  5. Switzerland's electricity supply industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inwyler, Ch.

    1980-01-01

    After a short description of Switzerland's electricity supply industry, the author comments on the production and consumption of electrical energy as well as on Switzerland's role within the European grid. A brief survey of electricity supply as a service is followed by a discussion of the political tools (such as e.g. the referendum, the hearing procedure etc.), which are an essential clue for understanding the position of the electricity supply industry in Switzerland. (Auth.)

  6. Perspectives of electricity supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The 7 papers read at the symposium discussed the following subjects: Effects of the CO 2 problems of fossil energy systems on the world climate; status and perspectives of the German electricity industry in terms of competitiveness; The European electricity market and the integrated power supply system; Power supply without nuclear power; Costs and rates for households and other customers; Renewable energy sources and their contribution to energy supply in the Federal Republic of Germany; Electricity utilities as service partners. (UA) [de

  7. Supply chain components

    OpenAIRE

    Vieraşu, T.; Bălăşescu, M.

    2011-01-01

    In this article I will go through three main logistics components, which are represented by: transportation, inventory and facilities, and the three secondary logistical components: information, production location, price and how they determine performance of any supply chain. I will discuss then how these components are used in the design, planning and operation of a supply chain. I will also talk about some obstacles a supply chain manager may encounter.

  8. Supply chain components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vieraşu, T.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article I will go through three main logistics components, which are represented by: transportation, inventory and facilities, and the three secondary logistical components: information, production location, price and how they determine performance of any supply chain. I will discuss then how these components are used in the design, planning and operation of a supply chain. I will also talk about some obstacles a supply chain manager may encounter.

  9. D. C. power supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohashi, N. Watanabe, Y.; Kitani, M

    1978-04-01

    DC power supplies are for ordinary and emergency use as power sources for various structures such as office buildings, department stores, hotels, and for facilities such as roads, tunnels, dams, power stations, etc. There is strong demand for these dc power supplies to be safe, automated, and maintenance free, and to have high reliability. A dc power supply which meets these demands is described; electric circuit construction is emphasized. (10 figures, 4 tables)

  10. Supply chain challenges. building relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beth, Scott; Burt, David N; Copacino, William; Gopal, Chris; Lee, Hau L; Lynch, Robert Porter; Morris, Sandra

    2003-07-01

    Supply chain management is all about software and systems, right? Put in the best technology, sit back, and watch as your processes run smoothly and the savings roll in? Apparently not. When HBR convened a panel of leading thinkers in the field of supply chain management, technology was not top of mind. People and relationships were the dominant issues of the day. The opportunities and problems created by globalization, for example, are requiring companies to establish relationships with new types of suppliers. The ever-present pressure for speed and cost containment is making it even more important to break down stubbornly high internal barriers and establish more effective cross-functional relationships. The costs of failure have never been higher. The leading supply chain performers are applying new technology, new innovations, and process thinking to far greater advantage than the laggards, reaping tremendous gains in all the variables that affect shareholder value: cost, customer service, asset productivity, and revenue generation. And the gap between the leaders and the losers is growing in almost every industry. This roundtable gathered many of the leading thinkers and doers in the field of supply chain management, including practitioners Scott Beth of Intuit, Sandra Morris of Intel, and Chris Gopal of Unisys. David Burt of the University of San Diego and Stanford's Hau Lee bring the latest research from academia. Accenture's William Copacino and the Warren Company's Robert Porter Lynch offer the consultant's perspectives. Together, they take a wide-ranging view of such topics as developing talent, the role of the chief executive, and the latest technologies, exploring both the tactical and the strategic in the current state of supply chain management.

  11. Performance of fertigation technique for phosphorus application in cotton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Aslam

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Low native soil phosphorus availability coupled with poor utilization of added phosphorus is one of the major constraints limiting the productivity of the crops. With a view of addressing this issue, field studies were conducted to compare the relative efficacy of broadcast and fertigation techniques for phosphorus application during 2005-2006 using cotton as a test crop. Two methods of phosphorus application i.e. broadcast and fertigation were evaluated using five levels of P2O5 (0, 30, 45, 60 and 75 kg P2O5 ha -1. Fertigation showed an edge over broadcast method at all levels of phosphorus application. The highest seed cotton yield was recorded with 75 kg P2O5 ha-1. Fertilizer phosphorus applied at the rate of 60 kg ha-1 through fertigation produced 3.4 tons ha-1 of seed cotton yield, which was statistically identical to 3.3 tons recorded with 75 kg ha-1 of broadcast phosphorus. Agronomic performance of phosphorus was influenced considerably by either method of fertilizer application. The seed cotton yield per kg of fertigation phosphorus was 48% higher than the corresponding broadcast application. The results of these studies showed that fertigation was the most efficient method of phosphorus application compared with the conventional broadcast application of fertilizers.

  12. [Research progress on phosphorus budgets and regulations in reservoirs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xiao; Li, Xu; Zhang, Wang-shou

    2014-12-01

    Phosphorus is an important limiting factor of water eutrophication. A clear understanding of its budget and regulated method is fundamental for reservoir ecological health. In order to pro- mote systematic research further and improve phosphorus regulation system, the budget balance of reservoir phosphorus and its influencing factors were concluded, as well as conventional regulation and control measures. In general, the main phosphorus sources of reservoirs include upstream input, overland runoff, industrial and domestic wastewater, aquaculture, atmospheric deposition and sediment release. Upstream input is the largest phosphorus source among them. The principal output path of phosphorus is the flood discharge, the emission load of which is mainly influenced by drainage patterns. In addition, biological harvest also can export a fraction of phosphorus. There are some factors affecting the reservoir phosphorus balance, including reservoirs' function, hydrological conditions, physical and chemical properties of water, etc. Therefore, the phosphorus budgets of different reservoirs vary greatly, according to different seasons and regions. In order to reduce the phosphorus loading in reservoirs, some methods are carried out, including constructed wetlands, prefix reservoir, sediment dredging, biomanipulation, etc. Different methods need to be chosen and combined according to different reservoirs' characteristics and water quality management goals. Thus, in the future research, it is reasonable to highlight reservoir ecological characteristics and proceed to a complete and systematic analysis of the inherent complexity of phosphorus budget and its impact factors for the reservoirs' management. Besides, the interaction between phosphorus budget and other nutrients in reservoirs also needs to be conducted. It is fundamental to reduce the reservoirs' phosphorus loading to establish a scientific and improved management system based on those researches.

  13. Gastrointestinal nitrogen turnover in sheep fed non-protein nitrogen and a phosphorus deficient diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breves, G.; Hoeller, H.

    1987-01-01

    Sheep were fitted with rumen cannulas and re-entrant duodenal and T-shaped ileal cannulas and adapted to a semisynthetic phosphorus deficient diet providing approximately 0.96 g P/d and 14 g N/d, about half of which was in the form of urea-N. Phosphorus repletion was achieved by daily intraduodenal infusion of phosphate, bringing up the daily P supply to about 4.2 g. In P depletion, as well as in P repletion, a series of infusion periods of six days each were established with continuous intraruminal infusion of Cr-ethylenediaminetetra acetic acid as a fluid marker and 15 NH 4 Cl as a marker of microbial N. Gastrointestinal phosphorus and nitrogen balances were established and the net yield of microbial N in the rumen and the flow of microbial N into the duodenum were calculated. The following significant findings were obtained in P depleted sheep. The concentrations of P in plasma and in rumen fluid and the flow of P to the small intestines fell by 60 to 90%; the P balances became negative. The gastrointestinal balance and the flow of N before the large intestines were not affected, but N digestibility in the large intestines was reduced. The daily net yield of microbial N in the rumen was reduced by 27% and the daily flow of microbial N into the duodenum was reduced by 26%. (author)

  14. Phosphorus kinetics in ovine fed with different phosphorus sources, using the isotopic dilution technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitti, D.M.S.S.; Abdalla, A.L.; Meirelles, C.F.

    1992-01-01

    Phosphorus kinetics in fluids and tissues of sheep was studied. Sixteen castrated sheep were kept in metabolism cages, receiving a semipuried diet containing as phosphorus sources dicalcium phosphate (BIC), monoammonium phosphate (MAP), superphosphate (SPT) and Tapita phosphate (TAP) 200 μCi P-32 was intravenously injected in each sheep and blood and feces were collected for eight days. From the specific activities in feces and plasma the endogenous phosphorus and the absorption coefficient were calculated. plasma P-32 half-life was determined. Nine days after injection the animals were killed and liver, kidney and muscle and bone samples were collected. P-32 retention and specific activities in tissues were determined. Endogenous phosphorus and absorption coefficient values were 54.44 ± 15.31 mh/kg live weight and 0.60; 47.98 ± 12.44 and 0.56; 39.70 ± 7.29 and 0.49; 59.11 ± 17.12 and 0.58 respectively bor BIC, MAP, TAP and SPT. P-32 retention by tissues was 0.29 ± 0.09; 0.27 ± 0.06; 0.16 ± 0.04 and 0.08 ± 0.03 dose/g fresh matter, respectively for bone, liver, kidney and muscle. It was concluded that animals which received TAP showed differences in absorption, distribution and P-32 retention by fluids and tissues. Phosphorus availability was lower for this source. (author)

  15. Nuclear power: energy security and supply assurances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogner, H.H.; McDonald, A.

    2008-01-01

    Expectations are high for nuclear power. This paper first summarizes recent global and regional projections for the medium-term, including the 2007 updates of IAEA projections plus International Energy Agency and World Energy Technology Outlook projections to 2030 and 2050. One driving force for nuclear power is concern about energy supply security. Two potential obstacles are concerns about increased nuclear weapon proliferation risks, and concerns by some countries about potential politically motivated nuclear fuel supply interruptions. Concerning supply security, the paper reviews different definitions, strategies and costs. Supply security is not free; nor does nuclear power categorically increase energy supply security in all situations. Concerning proliferation and nuclear fuel cut-off risks, the IAEA and others are exploring possible 'assurance of supply' mechanisms with 2 motivations. First, the possibility of a political fuel supply interruption is a non-market disincentive discouraging investment in nuclear power. Fuel supply assurance mechanisms could reduce this disincentive. Second, the risk of interruption creates an incentive for a country to insure against that risk by developing a national enrichment capability. Assurance mechanisms could reduce this incentive, thereby reducing the possible spread of new national enrichment capabilities and any associated weapon proliferation risks. (orig.)

  16. Pharmaceutical supply chain risks: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Supply of medicine as a strategic product in any health system is a top priority. Pharmaceutical companies, a major player of the drug supply chain, are subject to many risks. These risks disrupt the supply of medicine in many ways such as their quantity and quality and their delivery to the right place and customers and at the right time. Therefore risk identification in the supply process of pharmaceutical companies and mitigate them is highly recommended. Objective In this study it is attempted to investigate pharmaceutical supply chain risks with perspective of manufacturing companies. Methods Scopus, PubMed, Web of Science bibliographic databases and Google scholar scientific search engines were searched for pharmaceutical supply chain risk management studies with 6 different groups of keywords. All results found by keywords were reviewed and none-relevant articles were excluded by outcome of interests and researcher boundaries of study within 4 steps and through a systematic method. Results Nine articles were included in the systematic review and totally 50 main risks based on study outcome of interest extracted which classified in 7 categories. Most of reported risks were related to supply and supplier issues. Organization and strategy issues, financial, logistic, political, market and regulatory issues were in next level of importance. Conclusion It was shown that the majority of risks in pharmaceutical supply chain were internal risks due to processes, people and functions mismanagement which could be managed by suitable mitigation strategies. PMID:24355166

  17. THE COSTS OF ENERGY SUPPLY SECURITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogner, H.H.; Langlois, L.M.; McDonald, A.; Weisser, D.; Howells, M.

    2007-07-01

    In general, increasing a country's energy supply security does not come for free. It costs money to build up a strategic reserve, to increase supply diversity or even to accelerate energy efficiency improvements. Nor are all investments in increasing energy supply security cost effective, even if the shocks they are designed to insure against can be predicted with 100% accuracy. The first half of the paper surveys different definitions and strategies associated with the concept of energy supply security, and compares current initiatives to establish an 'assured supply of nuclear fuel' to the International Energy Agency's (IEA's) system of strategic national oil reserves. The second half of the paper presents results from several case studies of the costs and effectiveness of selected energy supply security policies. One case study examines alternative strategies for Lithuania following the scheduled closure of the Ignalina-2 nuclear reactor in 2009. The second case study examines, for countries with different energy resources and demand structures, the effectiveness of a policy to increase supply diversity by expanding renewable energy supplies. (auth)

  18. Pharmaceutical supply chain risks: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaberidoost, Mona; Nikfar, Shekoufeh; Abdollahiasl, Akbar; Dinarvand, Rassoul

    2013-12-19

    Supply of medicine as a strategic product in any health system is a top priority. Pharmaceutical companies, a major player of the drug supply chain, are subject to many risks. These risks disrupt the supply of medicine in many ways such as their quantity and quality and their delivery to the right place and customers and at the right time. Therefore risk identification in the supply process of pharmaceutical companies and mitigate them is highly recommended. In this study it is attempted to investigate pharmaceutical supply chain risks with perspective of manufacturing companies. Scopus, PubMed, Web of Science bibliographic databases and Google scholar scientific search engines were searched for pharmaceutical supply chain risk management studies with 6 different groups of keywords. All results found by keywords were reviewed and none-relevant articles were excluded by outcome of interests and researcher boundaries of study within 4 steps and through a systematic method. Nine articles were included in the systematic review and totally 50 main risks based on study outcome of interest extracted which classified in 7 categories. Most of reported risks were related to supply and supplier issues. Organization and strategy issues, financial, logistic, political, market and regulatory issues were in next level of importance. It was shown that the majority of risks in pharmaceutical supply chain were internal risks due to processes, people and functions mismanagement which could be managed by suitable mitigation strategies.

  19. Lamb shift measurement in hydrogenlike phosphorus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, D.; Gassen, J.; Kremer, L.

    1988-01-01

    In hydrogenlike phosphorus ions the 2S 1/2 -2P 1/2 energy splitting (Lamb shift) has been found to be E exp (LS)=0.08343(29) eV using laser spectroscopy. This result is to be compared with the most recent theoretical value E th (LS)=0.08376(4) eV by Mohr and Johnson and Soff

  20. Phosphorus introduction mechanism in electrodeposited cobalt films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kravtchenko, Jean-Francois

    1973-01-01

    The cathodic reduction of hypophosphite, phosphite and phosphate ions was studied using chrono-potentiometry and voltammetry. Then cobalt was deposited at constant current from a bath containing one of these three compounds. The current, while giving an electrodeposition of cobalt, also enhances at the same time a chemical deposition of cobalt. It is shown that high coercive forces in cobalt films are much more related to this chemical deposition than to the simple fact that the films contain some phosphorus. (author) [fr

  1. Supply chains in global production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatolii Mazaraki

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Analyzing the current processes of global sales and sales interaction over the past two decades shows that the world’s system of exchanges has undergone significant changes that have been caused by a multitude of factors. The formation of a complex model of global production, determined by the peculiarities of the transformation of individual economies’ growth models, the specifics of their industrialization and the forms of development of their national production business, its institutional and market-wise restructuring and the degree of inclusion in the system of international division of labor. The change in the level and depth of the specialization of individual countries in the field of production and sale of products, in turn, has accelerated the overcoming of economic distance (which is measured by the cost of transport and information services. Based on the above, namely, within the framework of forming a new model of global production, the issue of studying the role and value of supply chains in this model is made relevant. Aim and tasks. The purpose of the article is to study the modern transformation of supply chains within the global production system. The findings will allow to determine what exactly needs to be done in the direction of further redeveloping the regulatory tools of global supply chain management. Research results. The article presents the results of studying the transformation of supply chains’ role in global production. It is determined that taking into account the existing specificity of industrialization and fragmentation of national production, as well as the rapid spread of the results of scientific and technological progress in the world economy, there is a need for a more thorough study of this change. As a result of analyzing open source statistical data, a conclusion was reached regarding the transition from the competition of individual business entities to the competition of global

  2. Flow analysis techniques for phosphorus: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estela, José Manuel; Cerdà, Víctor

    2005-04-15

    A bibliographical review on the implementation and the results obtained in the use of different flow analytical techniques for the determination of phosphorus is carried out. The sources, occurrence and importance of phosphorus together with several aspects regarding the analysis and terminology used in the determination of this element are briefly described. A classification as well as a brief description of the basis, advantages and disadvantages of the different existing flow techniques, namely; segmented flow analysis (SFA), flow injection analysis (FIA), sequential injection analysis (SIA), all injection analysis (AIA), batch injection analysis (BIA), multicommutated FIA (MCFIA), multisyringe FIA (MSFIA) and multipumped FIA (MPFIA) is also carried out. The most relevant manuscripts regarding the analysis of phosphorus by means of flow techniques are herein classified according to the detection instrumental technique used with the aim to facilitate their study and obtain an overall scope. Finally, the analytical characteristics of numerous flow-methods reported in the literature are provided in the form of a table and their applicability to samples with different matrixes, namely water samples (marine, river, estuarine, waste, industrial, drinking, etc.), soils leachates, plant leaves, toothpaste, detergents, foodstuffs (wine, orange juice, milk), biological samples, sugars, fertilizer, hydroponic solutions, soils extracts and cyanobacterial biofilms are tabulated.

  3. Agreement of 10 September 1991 between the International Atomic Energy Agency and the Government of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan for the application of safeguards in connection with the supply of a miniature neutron source reactor from the People's Republic of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-10-01

    The document reproduces the text of the Agreement of 10 September 1991, between the Government of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the supply of a miniature neutron source reactor from the People's Republic of China. The Agreement was approved by the Agency's Board of Governors on 20 February 1990 and entered into force upon signature on 10 September 1991

  4. Supply Chain Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wieland, Andreas; Handfield, Robert B.

    Supply chain management has made great strides in becoming a discipline with a standalone body of theories. As part of this evolution, researchers have sought to embed and integrate observed supply chain management phenomena into theoretical statements. In our review, we explore where we have been...

  5. Uranium supply and demand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spriggs, M J

    1976-01-01

    Papers were presented on the pattern of uranium production in South Africa; Australian uranium--will it ever become available; North American uranium resources, policies, prospects, and pricing; economic and political environment of the uranium mining industry; alternative sources of uranium supply; whither North American demand for uranium; and uranium demand and security of supply--a consumer's point of view. (LK)

  6. Wood supply and demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter J. Ince; David B. McKeever

    2011-01-01

    At times in history, there have been concerns that demand for wood (timber) would be greater than the ability to supply it, but that concern has recently dissipated. The wood supply and demand situation has changed because of market transitions, economic downturns, and continued forest growth. This article provides a concise overview of this change as it relates to the...

  7. Total phosphorus, phytate phosphorus contents and the correlation of phytates with amylose in selected edible beans in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keerthana Sivakumaran

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Phytate a major anti nutritional factors in legumes and it accounts for larger portion of the total phosphorus, while limiting the bioavailablity of certain divalent cations to the human body. Legumes of eleven varieties cultivated in Sri Lanka, Mung bean (MI5, MI6, Cowpea (Waruni, MICP1, Bombay, Dhawala, ANKCP1, Soybean (MISB1, Pb1 and Horse gram (ANKBlack, ANKBrown were analyzed for phosphorus content and phytate content. Total phosphorus content was quantified by dry ashing followed by spectrophotometrical measurement of the blue colour intensity of acid soluble phosphate with sodium molybdate in the presence of ascorbic acid while phytate phosphorus using anion exchange chromatographic technique followed by spectrometrical measurement of the digested organic phosphorus and amylose content by Simple Iodine-Colourimetric method. Where the least value for phosphorus was observed 275.04 ±1.44 mg.100g-1 in ANKBlack (Horse gram and the highest in MISB1 (Soyabean with 654.94 ±0.05 mg.100g-1. The phytate phosphorus content (which is a ratio of phyate to total phosphorus was highest in Dhawala (Cowpea. The phytate phosphorus (which is a ratio of phyate to total phosphorus was highest in Dhawala with 67.42% and least in Bombay (Cowpea with 24.87%. The amylose content of the legumes was least in Pb1 with 8.71 ±0.13 mg.100mg-1 and the highest in MI6 22.58 ±0.71 mg.100mg-1. The correlation between phyate and total phosphorus was significant (p <0.05 and positive (r = 0.62. Similarly the correlation coefficient for phytate phosphorus and total phosphorus was significant (p <0.05 and positive (r = 0.63. Amylose content of legumes was significantly correlated negatively (p <0.05 with the total phytates content (r = -0.82.

  8. Radiation load of the electro-thermal production of phosphorus. Part 2. The inhalation dose in road construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erkens, W.H.H.; Hermans, P.M.J.A.; Timmermans, C.W.M.

    2003-01-01

    The phosphate ore which is processed by Thermphos International in Vlissingen, Netherlands, to produce element phosphorus contains circa 1 Bq per gram uranium 238. As a result of this production process radionuclides are emitted and slags that contain natural radioisotopes are formed. The slags can be used as a building material for roads and water works. During the production of phosphorus the waste material calcinate is formed as well. Operators, working in the production process of phosphorus and laborers, working in road construction and hydraulic engineering inhale radioisotopes. In two articles attention will be paid to the inhalation doses, how the doses are measured, measures that were taken to reduce and control the doses, and the ALARA-principles. This article is focused on the inhalation doses for road construction workers [nl

  9. Reverse osmosis brine for phosphorus recovery from source separated urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Xiujun; Wang, Guotian; Guan, Detian; Li, Jiuyi; Wang, Aimin; Li, Jin; Yu, Zhe; Chen, Yong; Zhang, Zhongguo

    2016-12-01

    Phosphorus (P) recovery from waste streams has recently been recognized as a key step in the sustainable supply of this indispensable and non-renewable resource. The feasibility of using brine from a reverse osmosis (RO) membrane unit treating cooling water as a precipitant for P recovery from source separated urine was evaluated in the present study. P removal efficiency, process parameters and precipitate properties were investigated in batch and continuous flow experiments. More than 90% of P removal was obtained from both undiluted fresh and hydrolyzed urines by mixing with RO brine (1:1, v/v) at a pH over 9.0. Around 2.58 and 1.24 Kg of precipitates could be recovered from 1 m 3 hydrolyzed and fresh urine, respectively, and the precipitated solids contain 8.1-19.0% of P, 10.3-15.2% of Ca, 3.7-5.0% of Mg and 0.1-3.5% of ammonium nitrogen. Satisfactory P removal performance was also achieved in a continuous flow precipitation reactor with a hydraulic retention time of 3-6 h. RO brine could be considered as urinal and toilet flush water despite of a marginally higher precipitation tendency than tap water. This study provides a widely available, low - cost and efficient precipitant for P recovery in urban areas, which will make P recovery from urine more economically attractive. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Transitions to sustainable management of phosphorus in Brazilian agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Withers, Paul J A; Rodrigues, Marcos; Soltangheisi, Amin; de Carvalho, Teotonio S; Guilherme, Luiz R G; Benites, Vinicius de M; Gatiboni, Luciano C; de Sousa, Djalma M G; Nunes, Rafael de S; Rosolem, Ciro A; Andreote, Fernando D; Oliveira, Adilson de; Coutinho, Edson L M; Pavinato, Paulo S

    2018-02-07

    Brazil's large land base is important for global food security but its high dependency on inorganic phosphorus (P) fertilizer for crop production (2.2 Tg rising up to 4.6 Tg in 2050) is not a sustainable use of a critical and price-volatile resource. A new strategic analysis of current and future P demand/supply concluded that the nation's secondary P resources which are produced annually (e.g. livestock manures, sugarcane processing residues) could potentially provide up to 20% of crop P demand by 2050 with further investment in P recovery technologies. However, the much larger legacy stores of secondary P in the soil (30 Tg in 2016 worth over $40 billion and rising to 105 Tg by 2050) could provide a more important buffer against future P scarcity or sudden P price fluctuations, and enable a transition to more sustainable P input strategies that could reduce current annual P surpluses by 65%. In the longer-term, farming systems in Brazil should be redesigned to operate profitably but more sustainably under lower soil P fertility thresholds.

  11. Radiation induced phosphorus segregation in austenitic and ferritic alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brimhall, J.L.; Baer, D.R.; Jones, R.H.

    1984-01-01

    The radiation induced surface segregation (RIS) of phosphorus in stainless steel attained a maximum at a dose of 0.8 dpa then decreased continually with dose. This decrease in the surface segregation of phosphorus at high dose levels has been attributed to removal of the phosphorus layer by ion sputtering. Phosphorus is not replenished since essentially all of the phosphorus within the irradiation zone has been segregated to the surface. Sputter removal can explain the previously reported absence of phosphorus segregation in ferritic alloys irradiated at high dosessup(1,2) (>1 dpa) since irradiation of ferritic alloys to low doses has shown measurable RIS. This sputtering phenomenon places an inherent limitation to the heavy ion irradiation technique for the study of surface segregation of impurity elements. The magnitude of the segregation in ferritics is still much less than in stainless steel which can be related to the low damage accumulation in these alloys. (orig.)

  12. Isotopic techniques to study phosphorus cycling in soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manjaiah, K.M.; Sreenivasa Chari, M.; Sachdev, P.; Sachdev, M.S.

    2008-01-01

    A sound understanding of phosphorus cycling in soil system is essential in order to manage this system in a sustainable manner. Phosphorus transformations are characterized by physico-chemical (sorption-desorption) and biological processes . The transformation rates need to be taken into account while developing nutrient management strategies for economical and sustainable production. One of the important tools and the method gaining popularity for determining the gross transformation rates of nutrients in the soil is the isotopic dilution technique. The major processes in the soil-plant system which determine the distribution and bioavailability of phosphorus in various inorganic and organic soil components consist of: (1) the dissolution of soil mineral phosphates, (2) retention of phosphorus by inorganic soil constituents, (3) decomposition of organic phosphorus contained in plant, animal and microbial detritus and (4) Immobilization of phosphorus via the soil microbial biomass and plan uptake

  13. Metabolism of nonparticulate phosphorus in an acid bog lake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koenings, J.P.

    1977-01-01

    In North Gate Lake, an acid bog lake located on the northern Michigan-Wisconsin border, U.S.A., the algal nutrient inorganic phosphate (FRP) is not detectable by chemical means. Organic phosphorus (FUP) represents 100% of the detectable filterable phosphorus. The availability and cycling of this organic fraction are of considerable interest in regard to the primary productivity of this system. To clarify these relationships, the cycling of nonparticulate forms of phosphorus found in the epilimnion of this lake was studied

  14. Metabolism of nonparticulate phosphorus in an acid bog lake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koenings, J. P.

    1977-01-01

    In North Gate Lake, an acid bog lake located on the northern Michigan-Wisconsin border, U.S.A., the algal nutrient inorganic phosphate (FRP) is not detectable by chemical means. Organic phosphorus (FUP) represents 100% of the detectable filterable phosphorus. The availability and cycling of this organic fraction are of considerable interest in regard to the primary productivity of this system. To clarify these relationships, the cycling of nonparticulate forms of phosphorus found in the epilimnion of this lake was studied.

  15. Availability for plants of phosphorus in some virgin peat samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armi Kaila

    1958-01-01

    Full Text Available The availability to plants of native peat phosphorus was studied by chemical methods and by a pot experiment in which three successive oat crops were grown with peat as the only source of phosphorus. The eight samples were collected from virgin peat lands. They were air-dried and ground. The samples were found to represent three different types of phosphorus condition: the first group contained relatively high amounts of inorganic phosphorus which was fairly easily available; the second group had a very high capacity to fix phosphorus which made its high quantity of inorganic phosphorus difficultly available; the third group was very poor in total and inorganic phosphorus but the latter was easily soluble and available to plants. On the basis of the capacity and intensity factors determined according to the method by Teräsvuori and also on the basis of inorganic phosphorus extractable by water fairly reliable predictions could be made of the mutual order of the samples as phosphorus supplyer to the plants in the pot experiment. In an incubation experiment at 27°C the amounts of organic phosphorus mineralized during the period of four months were in some of the samples quite marked, even 40 mg/l, and in most of the samples they corresponded to 5 to 15 per cent of the organic phosphorus. The amounts of phosphorus taken up by the oat crops under the favourable conditions of the pot experiment varied from 11 to 60 mg/l or from 20 to 120 kg/ha.

  16. ESR studies of high-energy phosphorus-ion implanted synthetic diamond crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isoya, J [University of Library and Information Science, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Kanda, H; Morita, Y; Ohshima, T

    1997-03-01

    Phosphorus is among potential n-type dopants in diamond. High pressure synthetic diamond crystals of type IIa implanted with high energy (9-18 MeV) phosphorus ions have been studied by using electron spin resonance (ESR) technique. The intensity and the linewidth of the ESR signal attributed to the dangling bond of the amorphous phase varied with the implantation dose, suggesting the nature of the amorphization varies with the dose. The ESR signals of point defects have been observed in the low dose as-implanted crystals and in the high dose crystals annealed at high temperature and at high pressure. (author)

  17. Effect of supplemented fungal phytase on performance and phosphorus availability by phosphorus-depleted juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), and on the magnitude and composition of phosphorus waste output

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Anne Johanne Tang; Schøn Ekmann, K.; Pedersen, Per Bovbjerg

    2009-01-01

    The effect of a supplemental fungal phytase on performance and phosphorus availability by juvenile rainbow trout fed diets with a high inclusion of plant based protein and on the magnitude and composition of the waste phosphorus production was tested in a 2 × 3 factorial design at a temperature....../suspended phosphorus waste output from fish fed the phytase supplemented diet containing 0.71% available phosphorus, suggesting that the phosphorus requirement was reached at this phosphorus level. Consistent with this, there was a substantial increase in the dissolved/suspended phosphorus waste output from fish fed...... the phytase supplemented diet containing 0.81% available phosphorus, suggesting that the phosphorus requirement was exceeded in this group. This study demonstrated that phytase supplementation will be advantageous to the fish and the environment if supplemented to low-phosphorus diets containing a large share...

  18. The Impact of Additives on the Phosphorus, Potassium, and Sodium Content of Commonly Consumed Meat, Poultry, and Fish Products Among Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parpia, Arti Sharma; L'Abbé, Mary; Goldstein, Marc; Arcand, Joanne; Magnuson, Bernadene; Darling, Pauline B

    2018-03-01

    Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are advised to limit their dietary intake of phosphorus and potassium as hyperphosphatemia and hyperkalemia are both associated with an increased risk of mortality. There is uncertainty concerning the actual content of these minerals in the Canadian food supply, as phosphorus and potassium are increasingly being used as food additives. This study aimed to determine the impact of food additives on the chemically analyzed content of phosphorus, potassium, sodium, and protein in commonly consumed meat, poultry, and fish products (MPFs). Foods representing commonly consumed MPF identified by a food frequency questionnaire in dialysis patients were purchased from three major grocery store chains in Canada. MPF with and without phosphorus and potassium additives listed on their ingredient list (n = 76) as well as reference MPF that was additive free (n = 15) were chemically analyzed for phosphorus, potassium, sodium, and protein content according to Association of Analytical Community official methods. Phosphorus, potassium, and sodium additives were present on the ingredient list in 37%, 9%, and 72% of MPF, respectively. Among MPF categories that contained a phosphorus additive, phosphorus content was significantly (P additives versus MPF without phosphorus additives and MPF reference foods (median [min, max]): (270 [140, 500] mg/100 g) versus (200 [130, 510] mg/100 g) versus (210 [100, 260] mg/100 g), respectively. Among MPF categories containing a potassium additive, foods listing a potassium additive had significantly more (P foods that did not list potassium additives and reference foods (900 [750, 1100] mg/100 g) versus (325 [260, 470] mg/100 g) versus (420 [270, 450] mg/100 g). The use of additives in packaged MPF products as indicated by the ingredient list can significantly contribute to the dietary phosphorus and potassium loads in patients with CKD. Patients with CKD should be educated to avoid MPF foods

  19. Critical Evaluation of the Implementation of Mitigation Options for Phosphorus from Field to Catchment Scales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O. Maguire, Rory; Rubæk, Gitte Holton; E. Haggard, Brian

    2009-01-01

    management practices are starting to have an effect on P losses from agriculture, but water quality has only improved slightly. Impairment to the supply of drinking water to the City of Tulsa Oklahoma led to a lawsuit that has greatly affected the management of poultry litter in the supplying watershed......Received for publication December 19, 2007. Nutrient regulations have been developed over the past decades to limit anthropogenic inputs of phosphorus (P) to surface waters. All of the regulations were promulgated in response to decreased water quality, which was at least partially associated...... with agricultural non-point source pollution. Improvements in water quality can take years, so the impacts of these regulations on water quality can not always be seen. Denmark has had nutrient management regulations aimed at achieving mass balance of P for 20 yr, and although great progress has been made...

  20. Evaluation of added phosphorus in six volcanic ash soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pino N, I.; Casas G, L.; Urbinsa P, M.C.

    1984-01-01

    The behaviour of added phosphorus in six volcanic ash soils (Andepts) was studied. Two phosphate retention solution were used; one of them labeled with 32 P carrier free. The phosphate retention solution (25 ml) was added to 5 gr of air dry soil. The remainder phosphorus in solution was measured through colorimetry and liquid scintillation. Over 85% phosphorus retention was measured in five soils. A phosphate retention solution labeled with 32 P carrier free proved to be efficient for the determination of phosphorus retention rates in the volcanic ash soils studied. (Author)

  1. A new model of anomalous phosphorus diffusion in silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budil, M.; Poetzl, H.; Stingeder, G.; Grasserbauer, M.

    1989-01-01

    A model is presented to describe the 'kink and tail' diffusion of phosphorus. The diffusion behaviour of phosphorus is expplained by the motion of phosphorus-interstitial and phosphorus-vacancy pairs in different charge states. The model yields the enhancement of diffusion in the tail region depending on surface concentration. Furthermore it yields the same selfdiffusion coefficient for interstitials as the gold diffusion experiments. A transformation of the diffusion equation was found to reduce the number of simulation equations. (author) 7 refs., 5 figs

  2. Arterial supply of the lower cranial nerves: a comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrix, Philipp; Griessenauer, Christoph J; Foreman, Paul; Loukas, Marios; Fisher, Winfield S; Rizk, Elias; Shoja, Mohammadali M; Tubbs, R Shane

    2014-01-01

    The lower cranial nerves receive their arterial supply from an intricate network of tributaries derived from the external carotid, internal carotid, and vertebrobasilar territories. A contemporary, comprehensive literature review of the vascular supply of the lower cranial nerves was performed. The vascular supply to the trigeminal, facial, vestibulocochlear, glossopharyngeal, vagus, spinal accessory, and hypoglossal nerves are illustrated with a special emphasis on clinical issues. Frequently the external carotid, internal carotid, and vertebrobasilar territories all contribute to the vascular supply of an individual cranial nerve along its course. Understanding of the vasculature of the lower cranial nerves is of great relevance for skull base surgery. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. The Functions of Sourcing Intermediaries in Global Supply Risk Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedel, Mette; Ellegaard, Chris

    The aim of this work-in-progress paper is to uncover the supply risk management functions performed by sourcing intermediaries. The purchasing and supply chain management literature, including the part of it concerned with supply risk, pays little attention to sourcing intermediaries....... But the fields of marketing and international business have investigated the intermediary including its high supply risk reducing potentials, suggesting that this supply chain entity may be highly relevant to supply risk management. In order to get a better understanding of the supply risk reducing properties...... of sourcing intermediaries, we perform a study of the Danish clothing industry. The study incorporate interviews across a range of functions and companies in this industry including retailers, producers, suppliers, and various types of intermediaries. We contribute by coupling the supply risk management...

  4. Relative efficiency of different methods of phosphorus (32P) application on fertilizer phosphorus uptake by maize (zea may L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhary, M.L.; Gupta, A.P.

    1975-01-01

    A green house study was conducted for comparing four methods of phosphorus application (broad cast, below the seed, one side and both sides of the seeds) at the rate of 60 ppm in sierozem soil of H issar (Haryana). Maize crop was planted in 50 cm. bottomless bitumin drums for 70 days i.e. upto tasseling stage. The plant samples were collected at jointing and tasseling stages of plant growth. The results revealed that the highest dry matter yield, total and fertilizer phosphorus uptake was observed when the phosphorus was applied below the seed, followed by both side application of phosphorus. The least yield, total and fertilizer phosphorus uptake were recorded when the phosphorus was broadcast at the time of sowing. (author)

  5. Integrated supply chain risk management

    OpenAIRE

    Riaan Bredell; Jackie Walters

    2007-01-01

    Integrated supply chain risk management (ISCRM) has become indispensable to the theory and practice of supply chain management. The economic and political realities of the modern world require not only a different approach to supply chain management, but also bold steps to secure supply chain performance and sustainable wealth creation. Integrated supply chain risk management provides supply chain organisations with a level of insight into their supply chains yet to be achieved. If correctly ...

  6. Control of supply temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madsen, H; Nielsen, T S; Soegaard, H T

    1996-09-01

    For many district heating systems, e.g. the system in Hoeje Taastrup, it is desirable to minimize the supply temperature from the heat production unit(s). Lower supply temperature implies lower costs in connection with the production and distribution of heat. Factors having impact on the heat demand are for instance solar radiation, wind speed, wind direction and a climate independent part, which is a function of the time of the day/week/year. By applying an optimization strategy, which minimizes the supply temperature, it is assumed that optimal economical operation can be obtained by minimizing the supply temperature and thereby the heat losses in the system. The models and methods described in this report take such aspects into account, and can therefore be used as elements in a more efficient minimization of the supply temperature. The theoretical part of this report describes models and methods for optimal on-line control of the supply temperature in district heating systems. Some of the models and methods have been implemented - or are going to be implemented - in the computer program PRESS which is a tool for optimal control of supply temperature and forecasting of heat demand in district heating systems. The principles for using transfer function models are briefly described. The ordinary generalized predictive control (OGPC) method is reviewed, and several extensions of this method are suggested. New controller, which is called the extended generalized predictive controller (XGPC), is described. (EG) 57 refs.

  7. Effect of phytase supplementation on apparent phosphorus digestibility and phosphorus output in broiler chicks fed low-phosphorus diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xian-Ren Jiang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of supplemental phytase in broiler chicks fed different low levels of total phosphorus (P on the apparent phosphorus digestibility (APD and phosphorus output (PO in the faeces and ileal digesta. After fed a standard broiler starter diet from day 0 to 14 post-hatch, a total of 144 male broiler chicks were allocated to 6 groups for a 7-d experiment with a 2 × 3 factorial design comparing phytase (supplemented without (CTR or with 400 FTU/kg phytase (PHY and total P levels (2.0, 2.5 and 3.0 g/kg. The faecal samples were collected from day 17 to 21 post-hatch. At 22 days of age, all the chicks were slaughtered and collected the ileal digesta. Phytase supplementation significantly (P < 0.01 increased APD and decreased PO in the faeces and ileal digesta in comparison with the CTR group. In addition, PO in the faeces expressed as g/kg DM diets and faeces (Diet × P level, P = 0.047 and < 0.01, respectively as well as PO in the ileal digesta expressed as g/kg DM digesta (Diet × P level, P = 0.04 were affected by diet and P level, which were due to the significant reduction (P < 0.01 by PHY supplementation to the diets with 3.0 g/kg total P. The results evidenced that supplemental phytase improved the APD and PO when chicks was fed 3.0 g/kg total P diet, while lower total P levels may limit exogenous phytase efficacy.

  8. Three-Dimensional Integration of Black Phosphorus Photodetector with Silicon Photonics and Nanoplasmonics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Che; Youngblood, Nathan; Peng, Ruoming; Yoo, Daehan; Mohr, Daniel A; Johnson, Timothy W; Oh, Sang-Hyun; Li, Mo

    2017-02-08

    We demonstrate the integration of a black phosphorus photodetector in a hybrid, three-dimensional architecture of silicon photonics and metallic nanoplasmonics structures. This integration approach combines the advantages of the low propagation loss of silicon waveguides, high-field confinement of a plasmonic nanogap, and the narrow bandgap of black phosphorus to achieve high responsivity for detection of telecom-band, near-infrared light. Benefiting from an ultrashort channel (∼60 nm) and near-field enhancement enabled by the nanogap structure, the photodetector shows an intrinsic responsivity as high as 10 A/W afforded by internal gain mechanisms, and a 3 dB roll-off frequency of 150 MHz. This device demonstrates a promising approach for on-chip integration of three distinctive photonic systems, which, as a generic platform, may lead to future nanophotonic applications for biosensing, nonlinear optics, and optical signal processing.

  9. Effect of solids retention time and wastewater characteristics on biological phosphorus removal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henze, Mogens; Aspegren, H.; Jansen, J.l.C.

    2002-01-01

    with time which has importance in relation to modelling. The overall conclusion of the comparison between the two plants is that the biological phosphorus removal efficiency under practical operating conditions is affected by the SRT in the plant and the wastewater composition. Thus great care should......The paper deals with the effect of wastewater, plant design and operation in relation to biological nitrogen and phosphorus removal and the possibilities to model the processes. Two Bio-P pilot plants were operated for 2.5 years in parallel receiving identical wastewater. The plants had SRT of 4...... and 21 days, the latter had nitrification and denitrification. The plant with 4 days SRT had much more variable biomass characteristics, than the one with the high SRT. The internal storage compounds, PHA, were affected significantly by the concentration of fatty acids or other easily degradable organics...

  10. Phosphorus analysis in milk by activation with fast neutrons using Van de Graaff accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berreta, Jose Roberto; Cunha, Ieda Irma Lamas

    1996-01-01

    Determination of phosphorus in milk by activation using 14 MeV neutrons generated by a Van de Graaff accelerator is related. Cyclic and conventional irradiations were performed. In both cases, the variation of the neutron flux was followed by a BF 3 detector, and mathematical equations were applied to the normalization of the counting rates. Results for phosphorus analysis in IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) reference material A-11 are (0.9 ± 0.1) % by conventional irradiation and (1.0±0.1) % by cyclic irradiation and the detection limits were of 0.12 mg and 0.04 mg, respectively, in 100 mg of sample. (author)

  11. Sediment supply to beaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Troels

    2014-01-01

    Many beaches have been built by an onshore supply of sand from the shoreface, and future long-term coastal evolution critically depends on cross-shore sediment exchange between the upper and the lower shorefaces. Even so, cross-shore sediment supply remains poorly known in quantitative terms...... and this reduces confidence in predictions of long-term shoreline change. In this paper, field measurements of suspended sediment load and cross-shore transport on the lower shoreface are used to derive a model for sediment supply from the lower to the upper shoreface at large spatial and temporal scales. Data...

  12. Ethane supply and demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamerson, J.B.

    1993-01-01

    Estimates are given for ethane production, chiefly from the Gulf Coast area. Increase in interregional transfers are predicted. Comparisons from 1992 through 1995 are made. The author concludes the following: ethane will be supply limited over the decade of the 90's; values will be over competing feedstocks; minimum practical demands will be close to available supply; regional relationships will reflect pipeline tariffs; purity ethane/EP spreads may narrow with new Mt. Belvieu fractionation capacity; new domestic supplies will back out imports; and Ethane's share of ethylene production may drop over the period

  13. Uranium supply and demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-05-01

    This report covers the period 1983 to 1995. It draws together the industry's latest views on future trends in supply and demand, and sets them in their historical context. It devotes less discussion than its predecessors to the technical influences underpinning the Institute's supply and demand forecasts, and more to the factors which influence the market behaviour of the industry's various participants. As the last decade has clearly shown, these latter influences can easily be overlooked when undue attention is given to physical imbalances between supply and demand. (author)

  14. WATER SUPPLY ANALYSIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, R.D.

    1996-01-01

    This analysis defines and evaluates the surface water supply system from the existing J-13 well to the North Portal. This system includes the pipe running from J-13 to a proposed Booster Pump Station at the intersection of H Road and the North Portal access road. Contained herein is an analysis of the proposed Booster Pump Station with a brief description of the system that could be installed to the South Portal and the optional shaft. The tanks that supply the water to the North Portal are sized, and the supply system to the North Portal facilities and up to Topopah Spring North Ramp is defined

  15. The future of medical radioisotope supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peykov, Pavel

    2014-01-01

    The NEA and its High-level Group on the Security of Supply of Medical Radioisotopes (HLG-MR) have been actively examining the causes of supply shortages of the most widely used isotope in medical diagnostic imaging, technetium-99m ( 99m Tc), and its parent isotope molybdenum-99 ( 99 Mo). As a result of this examination, the HLG-MR has developed a policy approach that includes principles and supporting recommendations to address the causes of these supply shortages. Six policy principles were agreed by the HLG-MR in March 2011. These are implementation of full-cost recovery and outage reserve capacity (ORC) for 99 Mo production, a government role in the market, conversion to low-enriched uranium targets, international collaboration and periodic reviews of the supply chain. This article describes progress made in the implementation of the six principles and examines the projected global capacity for medical radioisotope production in the near future. (author)

  16. Ethylene: a regulator of root architectural responses to soil phosphorus availability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borch, K.; Bouma, T.J.; Lynch, J.P.; Brown, K.M.

    1999-01-01

    The involvement of ethylene in root architectural responses to phosphorus availability was investigated in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L,) plants grown with sufficient and deficient phosphorus. Although phosphorus deficiency reduced root mass and lateral root number, main root length was

  17. MODERN METHODS OF REASONABLE PRODUCT SUPPLY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Kulik

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Thesis objective is to study modern methods of product supply with the purpose to determine optimal ways for their rationalization. Since the use of reasonable practices, taking into account external and internal factors under the specific conditions of product moving from the supplier to the buyer, makes the process of product supply economically viable, i.e., low costs for product transportation, ensures fast moving products, their safety and, ultimately, results in reduction of the costs of product disposal. Methodology. The study is based on theoretical methods to study this problem. System analysis method and simulation of the ways to improve were also used in the study. Results. Addressing these issues, the concept, form and stages of product supply process organization depending on the type of product have been studied; product supply management methods based on logistics concept of “demand response”. Practical significance. Optimization of the principles and methods of product supply, factors affecting its organization will, in practice, contribute to the development of reasonable product delivery systems featured with economic efficiency of advanced technologies of product supply. Value/ originality. The analyzed methods of product supply management based on logistics concept of “demand response” can ensure maximum reduction of response time to the changes in demand by rapid stocktaking at those points of the market where the demand is expected to increase, which will allow to reduce the costs of bringing the product to the consumer.

  18. Effect of mycorrhiza on growth criteria and phosphorus nutrition of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. under different phosphorus application rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Fatih Ergin

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, effect of mycorrhiza on growth criteria and phosphorus nutrition of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. under different phosphorus fertilization rates were investigated. Phosphorus were added into growing media as 0, 50, 100 and 200 mg P2O5/kg with and without mycorrhiza applications. Phosphorus applications significantly increased yield criteria of lettuce according to the control treatment statistically. Mycorrhiza application also significantly increased plant diameter, plant dry weight and phosphor uptake by plant. The highest phosphorus uptakes by plants were determined in 200 mg P2O5/kg treatments as 88.8 mg P/pot with mycorrhiza and 83.1 mg P/pot without mycorrhiza application. In the control at 0 doses of phosphorus with mycorrhiza treatment, phosphorus uptake (69.9 mg P/pot, edible weight (84.36 g, dry weight (8.64 g and leaf number (28 of lettuce were higher than that (47.7 mg P/pot, 59.33 g, 6.75 g and 20, respectively in the control without mycorrhiza application. It was determined that mycorrhiza had positive effect on growth criteria and phosphorus nutrition by lettuce plant, and this effect decreased at higher phosphorus application rates.

  19. Supply chain design approaches for supply chain resilience: A qualitative study of South African fast-moving consumer goods grocery manufacturers

    OpenAIRE

    Assilah Agigi; Wesley Niemann; Theuns Kotzé

    2016-01-01

    Orientation: In today’s globalised and complex business environment, firms are ever more vulnerable to supply chain disruptions, originating both internally and externally from the supply chain. Supply chain resilience minimises the impact of a disruption through design approaches, which allows the supply chain to respond appropriately to disruptive events. Research purpose: This article investigated the supply chain risks faced by grocery manufacturers in the South African fast-moving co...

  20. Quantitative Measures of Mineral Supply Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, K. R.

    2009-12-01

    Almost all metals and many non-metallic minerals are traded internationally. An advantage of global mineral markets is that minerals can be obtained from the globally lowest-cost source. For example, one rare-earth element (REE) mine in China, Bayan Obo, is able to supply most of world demand for rare earth elements at a cost significantly less than its main competitors. Concentration of global supplies at a single mine raises significant political risks, illustrated by China’s recent decision to prohibit the export of some REEs and severely limit the export of others. The expected loss of REE supplies will have a significant impact on the cost and production of important national defense technologies and on alternative energy programs. Hybrid vehicles and wind-turbine generators, for example, require REEs for magnets and batteries. Compact fluorescent light bulbs use REE-based phosphors. These recent events raise the general issue of how to measure the degree of supply risk for internationally sourced minerals. Two factors, concentration of supply and political risk, must first be addressed. Concentration of supply can be measured with standard economic tools for measuring industry concentration, using countries rather than firms as the unit of analysis. There are many measures of political risk available. That of the OECD is a measure of a country’s commitment to rule-of-law and enforcement of contracts, as well as political stability. Combining these measures provides a comparative view of mineral supply risk across commodities and identifies several minerals other than REEs that could suddenly become less available. Combined with an assessment of the impact of a reduction in supply, decision makers can use these measures to prioritize risk reduction efforts.